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Sample records for nonrigid motion analysis

  1. Artificial neural networks for 3-D motion analysis-Part II: Nonrigid motion.

    PubMed

    Chen, T; Lin, W C; Chen, C T

    1995-01-01

    For pt. I see ibid., p. 1386-93 (1995). An approach applying artificial neural net techniques to 3D nonrigid motion analysis is proposed. The 3D nonrigid motion of the left ventricle of a human heart is examined using biplanar cineangiography data, consisting of 3D coordinates of 30 coronary artery bifurcation points of the left ventricle and the correspondences of these points taken over 10 time instants during the heart cardiac cycle. The motion is decomposed into global rigid motion and a set of local nonrigid deformations which are coupled with the global motion. The global rigid motion can be estimated precisely as a translation vecto and a rotation matrix. Local nonrigid deformation estimation is discussed. A set of neural nets similar in structure and dynamics but different in physical size is proposed to tackle the problem of nonrigidity. These neural networks are interconnected through feedbacks. The activation function of the output layer is selected so that a feedback is involved in the output updating. The constraints are specified to ensure stable and globally consistent estimation. The objective is to find the optimal deformation matrices that satisfy the constraints for all coronary artery bifurcation points of the left ventricle. The proposed neural networks differ from other existing neural network models in their unique structure and dynamics.

  2. Dynamic analysis of a system of hinge-connected rigid bodies with nonrigid appendages. [equations of motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Likins, P. W.

    1974-01-01

    Equations of motion are derived for use in simulating a spacecraft or other complex electromechanical system amenable to idealization as a set of hinge-connected rigid bodies of tree topology, with rigid axisymmetric rotors and nonrigid appendages attached to each rigid body in the set. In conjunction with a previously published report on finite-element appendage vibration equations, this report provides a complete minimum-dimension formulation suitable for generic programming for digital computer numerical integration.

  3. Evaluation of skin and muscular deformations in a non-rigid motion analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goffredo, Michela; Carli, Marco; Conforto, Silvia; Bibbo, Daniele; Neri, Alessandro; D'Alessio, Tommaso

    2005-04-01

    During contraction and stretching, muscles change shape and size, and produce a deformation of skin tissues and a modification of the body segment shape. In human motion analysis, it is indispensable to take into account this phenomenon and thus approximating body limbs to rigid structures appears as restrictive. The present work aims at evaluating skin and muscular deformation, and at modeling body segment elastic behavior by analysing video sequences that capture a sport gesture. The soft tissue modeling is accomplished by using triangular meshes that automatically adapt to the body segment during the execution of a static muscle contraction. The adaptive triangular mesh is built on reference points whose motion is estimated by using the technique based on Gauss Laguerre Expansion. Promising results have been obtained by applying the proposed method to a video sequence, where an upper arm isometric contraction was present.

  4. Estimating nonrigid motion from inconsistent intensity with robust shape features

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenyang; Ruan, Dan

    2013-12-15

    qualitatively appealing results, demonstrating good feasibility and applicability of the proposed method. Conclusions: The authors have developed a novel method to estimate the nonrigid motion of GOIs in the presence of spatial intensity and contrast variations, taking advantage of robust shape features. Quantitative analysis and qualitative evaluation demonstrated good promise of the proposed method. Further clinical assessment and validation is being performed.

  5. Nonrigid 2D registration of fluoroscopic coronary artery image sequence with layered motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Taewoo; Jung, Hoyup; Yun, Il Dong

    2016-03-01

    We present a new method for nonrigid registration of coronary artery models with layered motion information. 2D nonrigid registration method is proposed that brings layered motion information into correspondence with fluoroscopic angiograms. The registered model is overlaid on top of interventional angiograms to provide surgical assistance during image-guided chronic total occlusion procedures. The proposed methodology is divided into two parts: layered structures alignments and local nonrigid registration. In the first part, inpainting method is used to estimate a layered rigid transformation that aligns layered motion information. In the second part, a nonrigid registration method is implemented and used to compensate for any local shape discrepancy. Experimental evaluation conducted on a set of 7 fluoroscopic angiograms results in a reduced target registration error, which showed the effectiveness of the proposed method over single layered approach.

  6. Nonrigid Autofocus Motion Correction for Coronary MR Angiography with a 3D Cones Trajectory

    PubMed Central

    Ingle, R. Reeve; Wu, Holden H.; Addy, Nii Okai; Cheng, Joseph Y.; Yang, Phillip C.; Hu, Bob S.; Nishimura, Dwight G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To implement a nonrigid autofocus motion correction technique to improve respiratory motion correction of free-breathing whole-heart coronary magnetic resonance angiography (CMRA) acquisitions using an image-navigated 3D cones sequence. Methods: 2D image navigators acquired every heartbeat are used to measure superior-inferior, anterior-posterior, and right-left translation of the heart during a free-breathing CMRA scan using a 3D cones readout trajectory. Various tidal respiratory motion patterns are modeled by independently scaling the three measured displacement trajectories. These scaled motion trajectories are used for 3D translational compensation of the acquired data, and a bank of motion-compensated images is reconstructed. From this bank, a gradient entropy focusing metric is used to generate a nonrigid motion-corrected image on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The performance of the autofocus motion correction technique is compared with rigid-body translational correction and no correction in phantom, volunteer, and patient studies. Results: Nonrigid autofocus motion correction yields improved image quality compared to rigid-body-corrected images and uncorrected images. Quantitative vessel sharpness measurements indicate superiority of the proposed technique in 14 out of 15 coronary segments from three patient and two volunteer studies. Conclusion: The proposed technique corrects nonrigid motion artifacts in free-breathing 3D cones acquisitions, improving image quality compared to rigid-body motion correction. PMID:24006292

  7. Sequential Non-Rigid Structure from Motion Using Physical Priors.

    PubMed

    Agudo, Antonio; Moreno-Noguer, Francesc; Calvo, Begona; Montiel, Jose M Martinez

    2016-05-01

    We propose a new approach to simultaneously recover camera pose and 3D shape of non-rigid and potentially extensible surfaces from a monocular image sequence. For this purpose, we make use of the Extended Kalman Filter based Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (EKF-SLAM) formulation, a Bayesian optimization framework traditionally used in mobile robotics for estimating camera pose and reconstructing rigid scenarios. In order to extend the problem to a deformable domain we represent the object's surface mechanics by means of Navier's equations, which are solved using a Finite Element Method (FEM). With these main ingredients, we can further model the material's stretching, allowing us to go a step further than most of current techniques, typically constrained to surfaces undergoing isometric deformations. We extensively validate our approach in both real and synthetic experiments, and demonstrate its advantages with respect to competing methods. More specifically, we show that besides simultaneously retrieving camera pose and non-rigid shape, our approach is adequate for both isometric and extensible surfaces, does not require neither batch processing all the frames nor tracking points over the whole sequence and runs at several frames per second.

  8. Sequential Non-Rigid Structure from Motion Using Physical Priors.

    PubMed

    Agudo, Antonio; Moreno-Noguer, Francesc; Calvo, Begona; Montiel, Jose M Martinez

    2016-05-01

    We propose a new approach to simultaneously recover camera pose and 3D shape of non-rigid and potentially extensible surfaces from a monocular image sequence. For this purpose, we make use of the Extended Kalman Filter based Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (EKF-SLAM) formulation, a Bayesian optimization framework traditionally used in mobile robotics for estimating camera pose and reconstructing rigid scenarios. In order to extend the problem to a deformable domain we represent the object's surface mechanics by means of Navier's equations, which are solved using a Finite Element Method (FEM). With these main ingredients, we can further model the material's stretching, allowing us to go a step further than most of current techniques, typically constrained to surfaces undergoing isometric deformations. We extensively validate our approach in both real and synthetic experiments, and demonstrate its advantages with respect to competing methods. More specifically, we show that besides simultaneously retrieving camera pose and non-rigid shape, our approach is adequate for both isometric and extensible surfaces, does not require neither batch processing all the frames nor tracking points over the whole sequence and runs at several frames per second. PMID:27046840

  9. Real-time motion compensated patient positioning and non-rigid deformation estimation using 4-D shape priors.

    PubMed

    Wasza, Jakob; Bauer, Sebastian; Hornegger, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Over the last years, range imaging (RI) techniques have been proposed for patient positioning and respiration analysis in motion compensation. Yet, current RI based approaches for patient positioning employ rigid-body transformations, thus neglecting free-form deformations induced by respiratory motion. Furthermore, RI based respiration analysis relies on non-rigid registration techniques with run-times of several seconds. In this paper we propose a real-time framework based on RI to perform respiratory motion compensated positioning and non-rigid surface deformation estimation in a joint manner. The core of our method are pre-procedurally obtained 4-D shape priors that drive the intra-procedural alignment of the patient to the reference state, simultaneously yielding a rigid-body table transformation and a free-form deformation accounting for respiratory motion. We show that our method outperforms conventional alignment strategies by a factor of 3.0 and 2.3 in the rotation and translation accuracy, respectively. Using a GPU based implementation, we achieve run-times of 40 ms. PMID:23286095

  10. Real-time motion compensated patient positioning and non-rigid deformation estimation using 4-D shape priors.

    PubMed

    Wasza, Jakob; Bauer, Sebastian; Hornegger, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Over the last years, range imaging (RI) techniques have been proposed for patient positioning and respiration analysis in motion compensation. Yet, current RI based approaches for patient positioning employ rigid-body transformations, thus neglecting free-form deformations induced by respiratory motion. Furthermore, RI based respiration analysis relies on non-rigid registration techniques with run-times of several seconds. In this paper we propose a real-time framework based on RI to perform respiratory motion compensated positioning and non-rigid surface deformation estimation in a joint manner. The core of our method are pre-procedurally obtained 4-D shape priors that drive the intra-procedural alignment of the patient to the reference state, simultaneously yielding a rigid-body table transformation and a free-form deformation accounting for respiratory motion. We show that our method outperforms conventional alignment strategies by a factor of 3.0 and 2.3 in the rotation and translation accuracy, respectively. Using a GPU based implementation, we achieve run-times of 40 ms.

  11. Digital Anthropomorphic Phantoms of Non-Rigid Human Respiratory and Voluntary Body Motion for Investigating Motion Correction in Emission Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Könik, Arda; Connolly, Caitlin M; Johnson, Karen L; Dasari, Paul; Segars, Paul W; Pretorius, P H; Lindsay, Clifford; Dey, Joyoni; King, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The development of methods for correcting patient motion in emission tomography has been receiving increased attention. Often performance of these methods is evaluated through simulations using digital anthropomorphic phantoms, such as the commonly used XCAT phantom, which models both respiratory and cardiac motion based on human studies. However, non-rigid body motion, which is frequently seen in clinical studies, is not present in the standard XCAT phantom. In addition, respiratory motion in the standard phantom is limited to a single generic trend. In this work, to obtain more realistic representation of motion, we developed a series of individual-specific XCAT phantoms modeling non-rigid respiratory and non-rigid body motions derived from the MRI acquisitions of volunteers. Acquisitions were performed in the sagittal orientation using the Navigator methodology. Baseline (no motion) acquisitions at end-expiration were obtained at the beginning of each imaging session for each volunteer. For the body motion studies, MRI was again acquired only at end-expiration for five body motion poses (shoulder stretch, shoulder twist, lateral bend, side roll, and axial slide). For the respiratory motion studies, MRI was acquired during free/regular breathing. The MR slices were then retrospectively sorted into 14 amplitude-binned respiratory states, end-expiration, end-inspiration, six intermediary states during inspiration, and six during expiration using the recorded Navigator signal. XCAT phantoms were then generated based on these MRI data by interactive alignment of the organ contours of the XCAT with the MRI slices using a GUI. Thus far we have created 5 body motion and 5 respiratory motion XCAT phantoms from MRI acquisitions of 6 healthy volunteers (3 males and 3 females). Non-rigid motion exhibited by the volunteers was reflected in both respiratory and body motion phantoms with a varying extent and character for each individual. In addition to these phantoms, we

  12. Spatiotemporal non-rigid image registration for 3D ultrasound cardiac motion estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeckx, D.; Ector, J.; Maes, F.; D'hooge, J.; Vandermeulen, D.; Voigt, J.-U.; Heidbüchel, H.; Suetens, P.

    2007-03-01

    We present a new method to evaluate 4D (3D + time) cardiac ultrasound data sets by nonrigid spatio-temporal image registration. First, a frame-to-frame registration is performed that yields a dense deformation field. The deformation field is used to calculate local spatiotemporal properties of the myocardium, such as the velocity, strain and strain rate. The field is also used to propagate particular points and surfaces, representing e.g. the endo-cardial surface over the different frames. As such, the 4D path of these point is obtained, which can be used to calculate the velocity by which the wall moves and the evolution of the local surface area over time. The wall velocity is not angle-dependent as in classical Doppler imaging, since the 4D data allows calculating the true 3D motion. Similarly, all 3D myocardium strain components can be estimated. Combined they result in local surface area or volume changes which van be color-coded as a measure of local contractability. A diagnostic method that strongly benefits from this technique is cardiac motion and deformation analysis, which is an important aid to quantify the mechanical properties of the myocardium.

  13. Correspondence estimation from non-rigid motion information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulff, Jonas; Lotz, Thomas; Stehle, Thomas; Aach, Til; Chase, J. Geoffrey

    2011-03-01

    The DIET (Digital Image Elasto Tomography) system is a novel approach to screen for breast cancer using only optical imaging information of the surface of a vibrating breast. 3D tracking of skin surface motion without the requirement of external markers is desirable. A novel approach to establish point correspondences using pure skin images is presented here. Instead of the intensity, motion is used as the primary feature, which can be extracted using optical flow algorithms. Taking sequences of multiple frames into account, this motion information alone is accurate and unambiguous enough to allow for a 3D reconstruction of the breast surface. Two approaches, direct and probabilistic, for this correspondence estimation are presented here, suitable for different levels of calibration information accuracy. Reconstructions show that the results obtained using these methods are comparable in accuracy to marker-based methods while considerably increasing resolution. The presented method has high potential in optical tissue deformation and motion sensing.

  14. Digital correction of motion artefacts in microscopy image sequences collected from living animals using rigid and nonrigid registration.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, K S; Salama, P; Dunn, K W; Delp, E J

    2012-02-01

    Digital image analysis is a fundamental component of quantitative microscopy. However, intravital microscopy presents many challenges for digital image analysis. In general, microscopy volumes are inherently anisotropic, suffer from decreasing contrast with tissue depth, lack object edge detail and characteristically have low signal levels. Intravital microscopy introduces the additional problem of motion artefacts, resulting from respiratory motion and heartbeat from specimens imaged in vivo. This paper describes an image registration technique for use with sequences of intravital microscopy images collected in time-series or in 3D volumes. Our registration method involves both rigid and nonrigid components. The rigid registration component corrects global image translations, whereas the nonrigid component manipulates a uniform grid of control points defined by B-splines. Each control point is optimized by minimizing a cost function consisting of two parts: a term to define image similarity, and a term to ensure deformation grid smoothness. Experimental results indicate that this approach is promising based on the analysis of several image volumes collected from the kidney, lung and salivary gland of living rodents. PMID:22092443

  15. Digital correction of motion artefacts in microscopy image sequences collected from living animals using rigid and nonrigid registration.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, K S; Salama, P; Dunn, K W; Delp, E J

    2012-02-01

    Digital image analysis is a fundamental component of quantitative microscopy. However, intravital microscopy presents many challenges for digital image analysis. In general, microscopy volumes are inherently anisotropic, suffer from decreasing contrast with tissue depth, lack object edge detail and characteristically have low signal levels. Intravital microscopy introduces the additional problem of motion artefacts, resulting from respiratory motion and heartbeat from specimens imaged in vivo. This paper describes an image registration technique for use with sequences of intravital microscopy images collected in time-series or in 3D volumes. Our registration method involves both rigid and nonrigid components. The rigid registration component corrects global image translations, whereas the nonrigid component manipulates a uniform grid of control points defined by B-splines. Each control point is optimized by minimizing a cost function consisting of two parts: a term to define image similarity, and a term to ensure deformation grid smoothness. Experimental results indicate that this approach is promising based on the analysis of several image volumes collected from the kidney, lung and salivary gland of living rodents.

  16. Quantifying Rigid and Nonrigid Motion of Liver Tumors During Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Qianyi; Hanna, George; Grimm, Jimm; Kubicek, Gregory; Pahlajani, Niraj; Asbell, Sucha; Fan, Jiajin; Chen, Yan; LaCouture, Tamara

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: To quantify rigid and nonrigid motion of liver tumors using reconstructed 3-dimensional (3D) fiducials from stereo imaging during CyberKnife-based stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Twenty-three liver patients treated with 3 fractions of SBRT were used in this study. After 2 orthogonal kilovoltage images were taken during treatment, the 3D locations of the fiducials were generated by the CyberKnife system and validated using geometric derivations. A total of 4824 pairs of kilovoltage images from start to end of treatment were analyzed. For rigid motion, the rotational angles and translational shifts were reported by aligning 3D fiducial groups from different image pairs, using least-squares fitting. For nonrigid motion, we quantified interfractional tumor volume variations by using the proportional volume derived from the fiducials, which correlates to the sum of interfiducial distances. The individual fiducial displacements were also reported (1) after rigid corrections and (2) without angle corrections. Results: The proportional volume derived by the fiducials demonstrated a volume-increasing trend in the second (101.9% ± 3.6%) and third (101.0 ± 5.9%) fractions among most patients, possibly due to radiation-induced edema. For all patients, the translational shifts in left-right, anteroposterior, and superoinferior directions were 2.1 ± 2.3 mm, 2.9 ± 2.8 mm, and 6.4 ± 5.5 mm, respectively. The greatest translational shifts occurred in the superoinferior direction, likely due to respiratory motion from the diaphragm. The rotational angles in roll, pitch, and yaw were 1.2° ± 1.8°, 1.8° ± 2.4°, and 1.7° ± 2.1°, respectively. The 3D individual fiducial displacements with rigid corrections were 0.2 ± 0.2 mm and increased to 0.5 ± 0.4 mm without rotational corrections. Conclusions: Accurate 3D locations of internal fiducials can be reconstructed from stereo imaging during treatment. As an

  17. Non-rigid, but not rigid, motion interferes with the processing of structural face information in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Maguinness, Corrina; Newell, Fiona N

    2015-04-01

    There is growing evidence to suggest that facial motion is an important cue for face recognition. However, it is poorly understood whether motion is integrated with facial form information or whether it provides an independent cue to identity. To provide further insight into this issue, we compared the effect of motion on face perception in two developmental prosopagnosics and age-matched controls. Participants first learned faces presented dynamically (video), or in a sequence of static images, in which rigid (viewpoint) or non-rigid (expression) changes occurred. Immediately following learning, participants were required to match a static face image to the learned face. Test face images varied by viewpoint (Experiment 1) or expression (Experiment 2) and were learned or novel face images. We found similar performance across prosopagnosics and controls in matching facial identity across changes in viewpoint when the learned face was shown moving in a rigid manner. However, non-rigid motion interfered with face matching across changes in expression in both individuals with prosopagnosia compared to the performance of control participants. In contrast, non-rigid motion did not differentially affect the matching of facial expressions across changes in identity for either prosopagnosics (Experiment 3). Our results suggest that whilst the processing of rigid motion information of a face may be preserved in developmental prosopagnosia, non-rigid motion can specifically interfere with the representation of structural face information. Taken together, these results suggest that both form and motion cues are important in face perception and that these cues are likely integrated in the representation of facial identity. PMID:25737056

  18. Non-rigid, but not rigid, motion interferes with the processing of structural face information in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Maguinness, Corrina; Newell, Fiona N

    2015-04-01

    There is growing evidence to suggest that facial motion is an important cue for face recognition. However, it is poorly understood whether motion is integrated with facial form information or whether it provides an independent cue to identity. To provide further insight into this issue, we compared the effect of motion on face perception in two developmental prosopagnosics and age-matched controls. Participants first learned faces presented dynamically (video), or in a sequence of static images, in which rigid (viewpoint) or non-rigid (expression) changes occurred. Immediately following learning, participants were required to match a static face image to the learned face. Test face images varied by viewpoint (Experiment 1) or expression (Experiment 2) and were learned or novel face images. We found similar performance across prosopagnosics and controls in matching facial identity across changes in viewpoint when the learned face was shown moving in a rigid manner. However, non-rigid motion interfered with face matching across changes in expression in both individuals with prosopagnosia compared to the performance of control participants. In contrast, non-rigid motion did not differentially affect the matching of facial expressions across changes in identity for either prosopagnosics (Experiment 3). Our results suggest that whilst the processing of rigid motion information of a face may be preserved in developmental prosopagnosia, non-rigid motion can specifically interfere with the representation of structural face information. Taken together, these results suggest that both form and motion cues are important in face perception and that these cues are likely integrated in the representation of facial identity.

  19. Polar motions equivalent to high frequency nutations for a nonrigid Earth with anelastic mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, P. M.; Bretagnon, P.

    2003-03-01

    The coefficients of polar motions of the rigid/nonrigid Earth in frequency bands other than the retrograde diurnal one are systematically computed using general expressions, derived here for the first time, for the prograde and retrograde torques exerted on the Earth by lunisolar potentials of arbitrary spherical harmonic type. Taken together with the already known coefficients of low frequency nutations and UT1 variations, they provide a complete characterization, with high precision, of the motions of the pole of the terrestrial reference frame in space; this is needed for high precision studies in astronomy and space geodesy. The inputs used for our computations are a table of tidal amplitudes, and values of the geopotential coefficients of degrees up to 4 and of other relevant basic Earth parameters. General relations which connect the coefficients of high frequency nutations to those of the equivalent polar motions are established and used for deducing the former. The Chandler resonance plays a significant role in low frequency polar motions. In this context, the role of mantle anelasticity and the nature of the Earth's deformational response to zero frequency forcing are given special consideration. The free core nutation (FCN) resonance of low frequency nutations is shown to affect the prograde semidiurnal nutations through the coupling produced between the nutations in the two frequency bands by triaxiality terms in the angular momenta of the whole Earth and of its fluid core. It is shown in a transparent fashion that the effect of the core triaxiality arises almost exclusively from the huge FCN-related resonance in the wobble of the core. The magnitude of the effect is found to be a few times smaller than reported in a recent paper; it is also found, unlike in that paper, that the changes in the eigenfrequencies due to trixiality are only of the second order in the triaxiality parameter. Numerical results for the polar motions of the nonrigid Earth in

  20. A 3D MR-acquisition scheme for nonrigid bulk motion correction in simultaneous PET-MR

    SciTech Connect

    Kolbitsch, Christoph Prieto, Claudia; Schaeffter, Tobias; Tsoumpas, Charalampos

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) is a highly sensitive medical imaging technique commonly used to detect and assess tumor lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides high resolution anatomical images with different contrasts and a range of additional information important for cancer diagnosis. Recently, simultaneous PET-MR systems have been released with the promise to provide complementary information from both modalities in a single examination. Due to long scan times, subject nonrigid bulk motion, i.e., changes of the patient's position on the scanner table leading to nonrigid changes of the patient's anatomy, during data acquisition can negatively impair image quality and tracer uptake quantification. A 3D MR-acquisition scheme is proposed to detect and correct for nonrigid bulk motion in simultaneously acquired PET-MR data. Methods: A respiratory navigated three dimensional (3D) MR-acquisition with Radial Phase Encoding (RPE) is used to obtain T1- and T2-weighted data with an isotropic resolution of 1.5 mm. Healthy volunteers are asked to move the abdomen two to three times during data acquisition resulting in overall 19 movements at arbitrary time points. The acquisition scheme is used to retrospectively reconstruct dynamic 3D MR images with different temporal resolutions. Nonrigid bulk motion is detected and corrected in this image data. A simultaneous PET acquisition is simulated and the effect of motion correction is assessed on image quality and standardized uptake values (SUV) for lesions with different diameters. Results: Six respiratory gated 3D data sets with T1- and T2-weighted contrast have been obtained in healthy volunteers. All bulk motion shifts have successfully been detected and motion fields describing the transformation between the different motion states could be obtained with an accuracy of 1.71 ± 0.29 mm. The PET simulation showed errors of up to 67% in measured SUV due to bulk motion which could be reduced to less than

  1. Nonrigid registration-based coronary artery motion correction for cardiac computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Bhagalia, Roshni; Pack, Jed D.; Miller, James V.; Iatrou, Maria

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: X-ray computed tomography angiography (CTA) is the modality of choice to noninvasively monitor and diagnose heart disease with coronary artery health and stenosis detection being of particular interest. Reliable, clinically relevant coronary artery imaging mandates high spatiotemporal resolution. However, advances in intrinsic scanner spatial resolution (CT scanners are available which combine nearly 900 detector columns with focal spot oversampling) can be tempered by motion blurring, particularly in patients with unstable heartbeats. As a result, recently numerous methods have been devised to improve coronary CTA imaging. Solutions involving hardware, multisector algorithms, or {beta}-blockers are limited by cost, oversimplifying assumptions about cardiac motion, and populations showing contraindications to drugs, respectively. This work introduces an inexpensive algorithmic solution that retrospectively improves the temporal resolution of coronary CTA without significantly affecting spatial resolution. Methods: Given the goal of ruling out coronary stenosis, the method focuses on 'deblurring' the coronary arteries. The approach makes no assumptions about cardiac motion, can be used on exams acquired at high heart rates (even over 75 beats/min), and draws on a fast and accurate three-dimensional (3D) nonrigid bidirectional labeled point matching approach to estimate the trajectories of the coronary arteries during image acquisition. Motion compensation is achieved by employing a 3D warping of a series of partial reconstructions based on the estimated motion fields. Each of these partial reconstructions is created from data acquired over a short time interval. For brevity, the algorithm 'Subphasic Warp and Add' (SWA) reconstruction. Results: The performance of the new motion estimation-compensation approach was evaluated by a systematic observer study conducted using nine human cardiac CTA exams acquired over a range of average heart rates between 68 and

  2. Comparing nonrigid registration techniques for motion corrected MR prostate diffusion imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Buerger, C. Sénégas, J.; Kabus, S.; Carolus, H.; Schulz, H.; Renisch, S.; Agarwal, H.; Turkbey, B.; Choyke, P. L.

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: T{sub 2}-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly used for anatomical visualization in the pelvis area, such as the prostate, with high soft-tissue contrast. MRI can also provide functional information such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) which depicts the molecular diffusion processes in biological tissues. The combination of anatomical and functional imaging techniques is widely used in oncology, e.g., for prostate cancer diagnosis and staging. However, acquisition-specific distortions as well as physiological motion lead to misalignments between T{sub 2} and DWI and consequently to a reduced diagnostic value. Image registration algorithms are commonly employed to correct for such misalignment. Methods: The authors compare the performance of five state-of-the-art nonrigid image registration techniques for accurate image fusion of DWI with T{sub 2}. Results: Image data of 20 prostate patients with cancerous lesions or cysts were acquired. All registration algorithms were validated using intensity-based as well as landmark-based techniques. Conclusions: The authors’ results show that the “fast elastic image registration” provides most accurate results with a target registration error of 1.07 ± 0.41 mm at minimum execution times of 11 ± 1 s.

  3. Motion tracking in the liver: Validation of a method based on 4D ultrasound using a nonrigid registration technique

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayan, Sinara; Klein, Stefan; Hofstad, Erlend Fagertun; Langø, Thomas; Lindseth, Frank; Ystgaard, Brynjulf

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Treatments like radiotherapy and focused ultrasound in the abdomen require accurate motion tracking, in order to optimize dosage delivery to the target and minimize damage to critical structures and healthy tissues around the target. 4D ultrasound is a promising modality for motion tracking during such treatments. In this study, the authors evaluate the accuracy of motion tracking in the liver based on deformable registration of 4D ultrasound images. Methods: The offline analysis was performed using a nonrigid registration algorithm that was specifically designed for motion estimation from dynamic imaging data. The method registers the entire 4D image data sequence in a groupwise optimization fashion, thus avoiding a bias toward a specifically chosen reference time point. Three healthy volunteers were scanned over several breathing cycles (12 s) from three different positions and angles on the abdomen; a total of nine 4D scans for the three volunteers. Well-defined anatomic landmarks were manually annotated in all 96 time frames for assessment of the automatic algorithm. The error of the automatic motion estimation method was compared with interobserver variability. The authors also performed experiments to investigate the influence of parameters defining the deformation field flexibility and evaluated how well the method performed with a lower temporal resolution in order to establish the minimum frame rate required for accurate motion estimation. Results: The registration method estimated liver motion with an error of 1 mm (75% percentile over all datasets), which was lower than the interobserver variability of 1.4 mm. The results were only slightly dependent on the degrees of freedom of the deformation model. The registration error increased to 2.8 mm with an eight times lower temporal resolution. Conclusions: The authors conclude that the methodology was able to accurately track the motion of the liver in the 4D ultrasound data. The authors believe

  4. Nonrigid motion compensation in B-mode and contrast enhanced ultrasound image sequences of the carotid artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Diego D. B.; Akkus, Zeynettin; Bosch, Johan G.; van den Oord, Stijn C. H.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Klein, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we investigate nonrigid motion compensation in simultaneously acquired (side-by-side) B-mode ultrasound (BMUS) and contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) image sequences of the carotid artery. These images are acquired to study the presence of intraplaque neovascularization (IPN), which is a marker of plaque vulnerability. IPN quantification is visualized by performing the maximum intensity projection (MIP) on the CEUS image sequence over time. As carotid images contain considerable motion, accurate global nonrigid motion compensation (GNMC) is required prior to the MIP. Moreover, we demonstrate that an improved lumen and plaque differentiation can be obtained by averaging the motion compensated BMUS images over time. We propose to use a previously published 2D+t nonrigid registration method, which is based on minimization of pixel intensity variance over time, using a spatially and temporally smooth B-spline deformation model. The validation compares displacements of plaque points with manual trackings by 3 experts in 11 carotids. The average (+/- standard deviation) root mean square error (RMSE) was 99+/-74μm for longitudinal and 47+/-18μm for radial displacements. These results were comparable with the interobserver variability, and with results of a local rigid registration technique based on speckle tracking, which estimates motion in a single point, whereas our approach applies motion compensation to the entire image. In conclusion, we evaluated that the GNMC technique produces reliable results. Since this technique tracks global deformations, it can aid in the quantification of IPN and the delineation of lumen and plaque contours.

  5. Non-rigid estimation of cell motion in calcium time-lapse images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachi, Siham; Lucumi Moreno, Edinson; Desmet, An-Sofie; Vanden Berghe, Pieter; Fleming, Ronan M. T.

    2016-03-01

    Calcium imaging is a widely used technique in neuroscience permitting the simultaneous monitoring of electro- physiological activity of hundreds of neurons at single cell resolution. Identification of neuronal activity requires rapid and reliable image analysis techniques, especially when neurons fire and move simultaneously over time. Traditionally, image segmentation is performed to extract individual neurons in the first frame of a calcium sequence. Thereafter, the mean intensity is calculated from the same region of interest in each frame to infer calcium signals. However, when cells move, deform and fire, this segmentation on its own generates artefacts and therefore biased neuronal activity. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop a more efficient cell tracking technique. We hereby present a novel vision-based cell tracking scheme using a thin-plate spline deformable model. The thin-plate spline warping is based on control points detected using the Fast from Accelerated Segment Test descriptor and tracked using the Lucas-Kanade optical flow. Our method is able to track neurons in calcium time-series, even when there are large changes in intensity, such as during a firing event. The robustness and efficiency of the proposed approach is validated on real calcium time-lapse images of a neuronal population.

  6. SU-E-J-225: Quantitative Evaluation of Rigid and Non-Rigid Motion of Liver Tumors Using Stereo Imaging During SBRT

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Q; Hanna, G; Kubicek, G; Asbell, S; Chen, Y; LaCouture, T; Grimm, J; Pahlajani, N; Fan, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate rigid and nonrigid motion of liver tumors based on fiducial tracking in 3D by stereo imaging during CyberKnife SBRT. Methods: Twenty-five liver patients previously treated with three-fractions of SBRT were retrospectively recruited in this study. During treatment, the 3D locations of fiducials were reported by the CyberKnife system after two orthogonal kV X-ray images were taken and further validated by geometry derivations. A total of 5004 pairs of X-ray images acquired during the course of treatment for all the patients, were analyzed. For rigid motion, the rotational angles and translational shifts by aligning 3D fiducial groups in different image pairs after least-square fitting were reported. For nonrigid motion, the relative interfractional tumor shape variations were reported and correlated to the sum of inter-fiducial distances. The individual fiducial displacements were also reported after rigid corrections and without angle corrections. Results: The relative tumor volume variation indicated by the inter-fiducial distances demonstrated an increasing trend in the second (101.6±3.4%) and third fraction (101.2±5.6%) among most patients. The cause could be possibly due to radiation-induced edema. For all the patients, the translational shift was 8.1±5.7 mm, with shifts in LR, AP and SI were 2.1±2.4 mm, 2.8±2.9 mm and 6.7±5.1 mm, respectively. The greatest translation shift occurred in SI, mainly due the breathing motion of diaphragm The rotational angles were 1.1±1.7°, 1.9±2.6° and 1.6±2.2°, in roll, pitch, and yaw, respectively. The 3D fiducial displacement with rigid corrections were 0.2±0.2 mm and increased to 0.6±0.3 mm without rotational corrections. Conclusion: The fiducial locations in 3D can be precisely reconstructed from CyberKnife stereo imaging system during treatment. The fiducials provide close estimation of both rigid and nonrigid motion of .liver tumors. The reported data could be further

  7. Creation of 3D digital anthropomorphic phantoms which model actual patient non-rigid body motion as determined from MRI and position tracking studies of volunteers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, C. M.; Konik, A.; Dasari, P. K. R.; Segars, P.; Zheng, S.; Johnson, K. L.; Dey, J.; King, M. A.

    2011-03-01

    Patient motion can cause artifacts, which can lead to difficulty in interpretation. The purpose of this study is to create 3D digital anthropomorphic phantoms which model the location of the structures of the chest and upper abdomen of human volunteers undergoing a series of clinically relevant motions. The 3D anatomy is modeled using the XCAT phantom and based on MRI studies. The NURBS surfaces of the XCAT are interactively adapted to fit the MRI studies. A detailed XCAT phantom is first developed from an EKG triggered Navigator acquisition composed of sagittal slices with a 3 x 3 x 3 mm voxel dimension. Rigid body motion states are then acquired at breath-hold as sagittal slices partially covering the thorax, centered on the heart, with 9 mm gaps between them. For non-rigid body motion requiring greater sampling, modified Navigator sequences covering the entire thorax with 3 mm gaps between slices are obtained. The structures of the initial XCAT are then adapted to fit these different motion states. Simultaneous to MRI imaging the positions of multiple reflective markers on stretchy bands about the volunteer's chest and abdomen are optically tracked in 3D via stereo imaging. These phantoms with combined position tracking will be used to investigate both imaging-data-driven and motion-tracking strategies to estimate and correct for patient motion. Our initial application will be to cardiacperfusion SPECT imaging where the XCAT phantoms will be used to create patient activity and attenuation distributions for each volunteer with corresponding motion tracking data from the markers on the body-surface. Monte Carlo methods will then be used to simulate SPECT acquisitions, which will be used to evaluate various motion estimation and correction strategies.

  8. Nonrigid registration algorithm for longitudinal breast MR images and the preliminary analysis of breast tumor response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xia; Dawant, Benoit M.; Welch, E. Brian; Chakravarthy, A. Bapsi; Freehardt, Darla; Mayer, Ingrid; Kelley, Mark; Meszoely, Ingrid; Gore, John C.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.

    2009-02-01

    Although useful for the detection of breast cancers, conventional imaging methods, including mammography and ultrasonography, do not provide adequate information regarding response to therapy. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) has emerged as a promising technique to provide relevant information on tumor status. Consequently, accurate longitudinal registration of breast MR images is critical for the comparison of changes induced by treatment at the voxel level. In this study, a nonrigid registration algorithm is proposed to allow for longitudinal registration of breast MR images obtained throughout the course of treatment. We accomplish this by modifying the adaptive bases algorithm (ABA) through adding a tumor volume preserving constraint in the cost function. The registration results demonstrate the proposed algorithm can successfully register the longitudinal breast MR images and permit analysis of the parameter maps. We also propose a novel validation method to evaluate the proposed registration algorithm quantitatively. These validations also demonstrate that the proposed algorithm constrains tumor deformation well and performs better than the unconstrained ABA algorithm.

  9. High-throughput mouse phenotyping using non-rigid registration and robust principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhongliu; Kitamoto, Asanobu; Tamura, Masaru; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Gillies, Duncan

    2016-03-01

    Intensive international efforts are underway towards phenotyping the mouse genome, by knocking out each of its ≍25,000 genes one-by-one for comparative study. With vast amounts of data to analyze, the traditional method using time-consuming histological examination is clearly impractical, leading to an overwhelming demand for some high-throughput phenotyping framework, especially with the employment of biomedical image informatics to efficiently identify phenotypes concerning morphological abnormality. Existing work has either excessively relied on volumetric analytics which is insensitive to phenotypes associated with no severe volume variations, or tailored for specific defects and thus fails to serve a general phenotyping purpose. Furthermore, the prevailing requirement of an atlas for image segmentation in contrast to its limited availability further complicates the issue in practice. In this paper we propose a high-throughput general-purpose phenotyping framework that is able to efficiently perform batch-wise anomaly detection without prior knowledge of the phenotype and the need for atlas-based segmentation. Anomaly detection is centered on the combined use of group-wise non-rigid image registration and robust principal component analysis (RPCA) for feature extraction and decomposition.

  10. Non-rigid dual respiratory and cardiac motion correction methods after, during, and before image reconstruction for 4D cardiac PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Tao; Wang, Jizhe; Fung, George; Tsui, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory motion (RM) and cardiac motion (CM) degrade the quality and resolution in cardiac PET scans. We have developed non-rigid motion estimation methods to estimate both RM and CM based on 4D cardiac gated PET data alone, and compensate the dual respiratory and cardiac (R&C) motions after (MCAR), during (MCDR), and before (MCBR) image reconstruction. In all three R&C motion correction methods, attenuation-activity mismatch effect was modeled by using transformed attenuation maps using the estimated RM. The difference of using activity preserving and non-activity preserving models in R&C correction was also studied. Realistic Monte Carlo simulated 4D cardiac PET data using the 4D XCAT phantom and accurate models of the scanner design parameters and performance characteristics at different noise levels were employed as the known truth and for method development and evaluation. Results from the simulation study suggested that all three dual R&C motion correction methods provide substantial improvement in the quality of 4D cardiac gated PET images as compared with no motion correction. Specifically, the MCDR method yields the best performance for all different noise levels compared with the MCAR and MCBR methods. While MCBR reduces computational time dramatically but the resultant 4D cardiac gated PET images has overall inferior image quality when compared to that from the MCAR and MCDR approaches in the ‘almost’ noise free case. Also, the MCBR method has better noise handling properties when compared with MCAR and provides better quantitative results in high noise cases. When the goal is to reduce scan time or patient radiation dose, MCDR and MCBR provide a good compromise between image quality and computational times.

  11. Non-rigid dual respiratory and cardiac motion correction methods after, during, and before image reconstruction for 4D cardiac PET.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tao; Wang, Jizhe; Fung, George; Tsui, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory motion (RM) and cardiac motion (CM) degrade the quality and resolution in cardiac PET scans. We have developed non-rigid motion estimation methods to estimate both RM and CM based on 4D cardiac gated PET data alone, and compensate the dual respiratory and cardiac (R&C) motions after (MCAR), during (MCDR), and before (MCBR) image reconstruction. In all three R&C motion correction methods, attenuation-activity mismatch effect was modeled by using transformed attenuation maps using the estimated RM. The difference of using activity preserving and non-activity preserving models in R&C correction was also studied. Realistic Monte Carlo simulated 4D cardiac PET data using the 4D XCAT phantom and accurate models of the scanner design parameters and performance characteristics at different noise levels were employed as the known truth and for method development and evaluation. Results from the simulation study suggested that all three dual R&C motion correction methods provide substantial improvement in the quality of 4D cardiac gated PET images as compared with no motion correction. Specifically, the MCDR method yields the best performance for all different noise levels compared with the MCAR and MCBR methods. While MCBR reduces computational time dramatically but the resultant 4D cardiac gated PET images has overall inferior image quality when compared to that from the MCAR and MCDR approaches in the 'almost' noise free case. Also, the MCBR method has better noise handling properties when compared with MCAR and provides better quantitative results in high noise cases. When the goal is to reduce scan time or patient radiation dose, MCDR and MCBR provide a good compromise between image quality and computational times.

  12. Motion sequence analysis in the presence of figural cues

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Pawan; Vaina, Lucia M.

    2015-01-01

    The perception of 3D structure in dynamic sequences is believed to be subserved primarily through the use of motion cues. However, real-world sequences contain many figural shape cues besides the dynamic ones. We hypothesize that if figural cues are perceptually significant during sequence analysis, then inconsistencies in these cues over time would lead to percepts of non-rigidity in sequences showing physically rigid objects in motion. We develop an experimental paradigm to test this hypothesis and present results with two patients with impairments in motion perception due to focal neurological damage, as well as two control subjects. Consistent with our hypothesis, the data suggest that figural cues strongly influence the perception of structure in motion sequences, even to the extent of inducing non-rigid percepts in sequences where motion information alone would yield rigid structures. Beyond helping to probe the issue of shape perception, our experimental paradigm might also serve as a possible perceptual assessment tool in a clinical setting. PMID:26028822

  13. Clinical Implementation of an Online Adaptive Plan-of-the-Day Protocol for Nonrigid Motion Management in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Heijkoop, Sabrina T. Langerak, Thomas R.; Quint, Sandra; Bondar, Luiza; Mens, Jan Willem M.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical implementation of an online adaptive plan-of-the-day protocol for nonrigid target motion management in locally advanced cervical cancer intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Each of the 64 patients had four markers implanted in the vaginal fornix to verify the position of the cervix during treatment. Full and empty bladder computed tomography (CT) scans were acquired prior to treatment to build a bladder volume-dependent cervix-uterus motion model for establishment of the plan library. In the first phase of clinical implementation, the library consisted of one IMRT plan based on a single model-predicted internal target volume (mpITV), covering the target for the whole pretreatment observed bladder volume range, and a 3D conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) motion-robust backup plan based on the same mpITV. The planning target volume (PTV) combined the ITV and nodal clinical target volume (CTV), expanded with a 1-cm margin. In the second phase, for patients showing >2.5-cm bladder-induced cervix-uterus motion during planning, two IMRT plans were constructed, based on mpITVs for empty-to-half-full and half-full-to-full bladder. In both phases, a daily cone beam CT (CBCT) scan was acquired to first position the patient based on bony anatomy and nodal targets and then select the appropriate plan. Daily post-treatment CBCT was used to verify plan selection. Results: Twenty-four and 40 patients were included in the first and second phase, respectively. In the second phase, 11 patients had two IMRT plans. Overall, an IMRT plan was used in 82.4% of fractions. The main reasons for selecting the motion-robust backup plan were uterus outside the PTV (27.5%) and markers outside their margin (21.3%). In patients with two IMRT plans, the half-full-to-full bladder plan was selected on average in 45% of the first 12 fractions, which was reduced to 35% in the last treatment fractions. Conclusions: The implemented

  14. Object motion analysis study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The use of optical data processing (ODP) techniques for motion analysis in two-dimensional imagery was studied. The basic feasibility of this approach was demonstrated, but inconsistent performance of the photoplastic used for recording spatial filters prevented totally automatic operation. Promising solutions to the problems encountered are discussed, and it is concluded that ODP techniques could be quite useful for motion analysis.

  15. A three-dimension finite element analysis to evaluate the stress distribution in tooth supported 5-unit intermediate abutment prosthesis with rigid and nonrigid connector

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Ritesh; Kohli, Shivani; Rajeshwari, K.; Bhatia, Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study is to evaluate the stress distribution in tooth supported 5-unit fixed partial denture (FPD) having tooth as pier abutment using rigid and nonrigid connectors respectively, under simultaneous and progressive loading. Material and Methods: The three-dimensional (3D) finite element program (ANSYS software) was used to construct the mathematical model. Two 5-unit FPD’S were simulated, one with rigid connector and another one with nonrigid connector. For analysis, each of these models were subjected to axial and oblique forces under progressive loading (180, 180, 120, 120, 80 N force on first and second molars, premolars and canine respectively) and simultaneous loading (100, 100, 100, 100, 100 N force on first and second molars, premolars and canine respectively). Results: The rigid and nonrigid connector design have effect on stress distribution in 5-unit FPDs with pier abutments. Conclusion: Oblique forces produce more stresses than vertical forces. Nonrigid connector resulted in decrease in stress at the level of prosthesis and increase in stress at the level of alveolar crest. PMID:26038660

  16. Analysis of swimming motions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallenstein, J.; Huston, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of swimming motion with specific attention given to the flutter kick, the breast-stroke kick, and the breast stroke. The analysis is completely theoretical. It employs a mathematical model of the human body consisting of frustrums of elliptical cones. Dynamical equations are written for this model including both viscous and inertia forces. These equations are then applied with approximated swimming strokes and solved numerically using a digital computer. The procedure is to specify the input of the swimming motion. The computer solution then provides the output displacement, velocity, and rotation or body roll of the swimmer.

  17. Sperm motion analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salari, Valiollah

    1991-07-01

    This paper presents a computerized technique for quantitative analysis of the movement characteristics of spermatozoa. Stored video images of spermatozoa are digitized at a fixed time interval. The digital images are stored as a sequence of frames in a microcomputer. The analysis of the sequence comprises two main tasks: finding the location of the centroid for each sperm and tracking them over the entire sequences. Information from the motion of each moving cell will be used for tracking. Experimental results are presented to show the merits of the proposed algorithm for tracking.

  18. Nonrigid registration and classification of the kidneys in 3D dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Ghafourian, Pegah; Sharma, Puneet; Salman, Khalil; Martin, Diego; Fei, Baowei

    2012-02-01

    We have applied image analysis methods in the assessment of human kidney perfusion based on 3D dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI data. This approach consists of 3D non-rigid image registration of the kidneys and fuzzy C-mean classification of kidney tissues. The proposed registration method reduced motion artifacts in the dynamic images and improved the analysis of kidney compartments (cortex, medulla, and cavities). The dynamic intensity curves show the successive transition of the contrast agent through kidney compartments. The proposed method for motion correction and kidney compartment classification may be used to improve the validity and usefulness of further model-based pharmacokinetic analysis of kidney function.

  19. Motion analysis report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badler, N. I.

    1985-01-01

    Human motion analysis is the task of converting actual human movements into computer readable data. Such movement information may be obtained though active or passive sensing methods. Active methods include physical measuring devices such as goniometers on joints of the body, force plates, and manually operated sensors such as a Cybex dynamometer. Passive sensing de-couples the position measuring device from actual human contact. Passive sensors include Selspot scanning systems (since there is no mechanical connection between the subject's attached LEDs and the infrared sensing cameras), sonic (spark-based) three-dimensional digitizers, Polhemus six-dimensional tracking systems, and image processing systems based on multiple views and photogrammetric calculations.

  20. Non-Fourier motion analysis.

    PubMed

    Chubb, C; McGowan, J; Sperling, G; Werkhoven, P

    1994-01-01

    It has been realized for some time that the visual system performs at least two general sorts of motion processing. First-order motion processing applies some variant of standard motion analysis (i.e. spatiotemporal Fourier energy analysis) directly to stimulus luminance, whereas second-order motion processing applies standard motion analysis to one or another grossly non-linear transformation of stimulus luminance. We have developed a method for disentangling the different sorts of mechanisms that may operate in human vision to detect second-order motion. This method hinges on an empirical condition called transition invariance that may or may not be satisfied by a family psi of textures. Any failure of this condition indicates that more than one mechanism is involved in detecting the motion of stimuli composed of the textures in psi. We have shown that the family of sinusoidal gratings oriented orthogonally to the direction of motion and varying in contrast and spatial frequency is transition invariant. We modelled the results in terms of a single-channel motion computation. We have new results indicating that a specific class of textures differing in texture element density and texture element contrast decisively fails the test of transition invariance. These findings suggest that in addition to the single second-order motion channel required by our earlier results there exists at least one other second-order motion channel. We argue that the preprocessing transformation used by this channel is a pointwise non-linearity that maps stimulus contrasts of absolute value less than some relatively high threshold tau onto 0, but increases with magnitude of c-tau for contrasts. c of absolute value greater than tau.

  1. Non-rigid summing of gated PET via optical flow

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, G.J.; Reutter, B.W.; Huesman, R.H. |

    1996-12-31

    A method for summing together datasets from gated cardiac PET acquisitions is described. Optical flow techniques are used to accurately model non-rigid motion present during the cardiac cycle so that a one-to-one mapping is found between each voxel of two gated volumes. Using this mapping, image summing can take place, producing a composite dataset with improved statistics and reduced motion-induced blur. Results using a data from a gated cardiac study on a dog are presented.

  2. Shrinking of the Cocos and Nazca Plates due to Horizontal Thermal Contraction and Implications for Plate Non-rigidity and the Non-closure of the Pacific-Cocos-Nazca Plate Motion Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, R. G.; Kreemer, C.

    2015-12-01

    Plate rigidity is the central tenet of plate tectonics. Mounting evidence suggests, however, that significant intraplate deformation occurs in oceanic lithosphere due to horizontal thermal contraction, the rate of which decreases as ≈ 1/age [Kumar & Gordon 2009]. Support for this hypothesis comes from the azimuths of submarine transform faults, which are fit significantly better assuming shrinking plates than by assuming rigid plates [Mishra & Gordon 2015]. Previously we estimated the intraplate velocity field of the Pacific plate accounting for horizontal thermal contraction. The ≈2 mm/yr southeastward motion predicted for the northeastern part of the plate relative to the Pacific-Antarctic Rise may contribute to the non-closure of the Pacific-North America plate motion circuit. In a reference frame in which fix the oldest portion of the Pacific plate, some sites on the plate move up to ≈2 mm/yr [Kreemer & Gordon 2014]. Here we present intraplate velocity fields of the Cocos and Nazca plates and discuss their implications for the non-rigidity of plates and the non-closure of the Pacific-Cocos-Nazca plate circuit, which fails closure by a stunning 14 ±5 mm/yr [DeMets et al. 2010]. If we fix the oldest part of the Cocos plate, intraplate velocities of up to ≈2 mm/yr are estimated, with the fastest motion occurring at the northern end of the plate. If we fix the oldest part of the Nazca plate, displacement rates up to 2 mm/yr are estimated, with the fastest motion occurring in the northeasternmost portion of the plate. In the velocity fields for both plates, the lithosphere adjacent to transform faults along the East Pacific Rise tends to move to the south, which would skew the azimuths of the transform faults clockwise of the values expected for rigid plates, which is the same as the sense of misfit between observed azimuths of transform faults and the azimuths calculated from the MORVEL global set of relative angular velocities [DeMets et al. 2010]. Direct

  3. Perioperative Brain Shift and Deep Brain Stimulating Electrode Deformation Analysis: Implications for rigid and non-rigid devices

    PubMed Central

    Sillay, Karl A.; Kumbier, L. M.; Ross, C.; Brady, M.; Alexander, A.; Gupta, A.; Adluru, N.; Miranpuri, G. S.; Williams, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) efficacy is related to optimal electrode placement. Several authors have quantified brain shift related to surgical targeting; yet, few reports document and discuss the effects of brain shift after insertion. Objective: To quantify brain shift and electrode displacement after device insertion. Twelve patients were retrospectively reviewed, and one post-operative MRI and one time-delayed CT were obtained for each patient and their implanted electrodes modeled in 3D. Two competing methods were employed to measure the electrode tip location and deviation from the prototypical linear implant after the resolution of acute surgical changes, such as brain shift and pneumocephalus. In the interim between surgery and a pneumocephalus free postoperative scan, electrode deviation was documented in all patients and all electrodes. Significant shift of the electrode tip was identified in rostral, anterior, and medial directions (p < 0.05). Shift was greatest in the rostral direction, measuring an average of 1.41 mm. Brain shift and subsequent electrode displacement occurs in patients after DBS surgery with the reversal of intraoperative brain shift. Rostral displacement is on the order of the height of one DBS contact. Further investigation into the time course of intraoperative brain shift and its potential effects on procedures performed with rigid and non-rigid devices in supine and semi-sitting surgical positions is needed. PMID:23010803

  4. Video Analysis of Muscle Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Boyd

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how video cameras can help students in physical education and sport science classes successfully learn and present anatomy and kinesiology content at levels. Video analysis of physical activity is an excellent way to expand student knowledge of muscle location and function, planes and axes of motion, and…

  5. Motion Analysis From Television Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silberberg, George G.; Keller, Patrick N.

    1982-02-01

    The Department of Defense ranges have relied on photographic instrumentation for gathering data of firings for all types of ordnance. A large inventory of cameras are available on the market that can be used for these tasks. A new set of optical instrumentation is beginning to appear which, in many cases, can directly replace photographic cameras for a great deal of the work being performed now. These are television cameras modified so they can stop motion, see in the dark, perform under hostile environments, and provide real time information. This paper discusses techniques for modifying television cameras so they can be used for motion analysis.

  6. Optimizing 4-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Sampling for Respiratory Motion Analysis of Pancreatic Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Stemkens, Bjorn; Tijssen, Rob H.N.; Senneville, Baudouin D. de

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To determine the optimum sampling strategy for retrospective reconstruction of 4-dimensional (4D) MR data for nonrigid motion characterization of tumor and organs at risk for radiation therapy purposes. Methods and Materials: For optimization, we compared 2 surrogate signals (external respiratory bellows and internal MRI navigators) and 2 MR sampling strategies (Cartesian and radial) in terms of image quality and robustness. Using the optimized protocol, 6 pancreatic cancer patients were scanned to calculate the 4D motion. Region of interest analysis was performed to characterize the respiratory-induced motion of the tumor and organs at risk simultaneously. Results: The MRI navigator was found to be a more reliable surrogate for pancreatic motion than the respiratory bellows signal. Radial sampling is most benign for undersampling artifacts and intraview motion. Motion characterization revealed interorgan and interpatient variation, as well as heterogeneity within the tumor. Conclusions: A robust 4D-MRI method, based on clinically available protocols, is presented and successfully applied to characterize the abdominal motion in a small number of pancreatic cancer patients.

  7. Automatic segmentation and identification of solitary pulmonary nodules on follow-up CT scans based on local intensity structure analysis and non-rigid image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Naito, Hideto; Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Rueckert, Daniel; Honma, Hirotoshi; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Natori, Hiroshi; Mori, Kensaku

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a novel method that can automatically segment solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) and match such segmented SPNs on follow-up thoracic CT scans. Due to the clinical importance, a physician needs to find SPNs on chest CT and observe its progress over time in order to diagnose whether it is benign or malignant, or to observe the effect of chemotherapy for malignant ones using follow-up data. However, the enormous amount of CT images makes large burden tasks to a physician. In order to lighten this burden, we developed a method for automatic segmentation and assisting observation of SPNs in follow-up CT scans. The SPNs on input 3D thoracic CT scan are segmented based on local intensity structure analysis and the information of pulmonary blood vessels. To compensate lung deformation, we co-register follow-up CT scans based on an affine and a non-rigid registration. Finally, the matches of detected nodules are found from registered CT scans based on a similarity measurement calculation. We applied these methods to three patients including 14 thoracic CT scans. Our segmentation method detected 96.7% of SPNs from the whole images, and the nodule matching method found 83.3% correspondences from segmented SPNs. The results also show our matching method is robust to the growth of SPN, including integration/separation and appearance/disappearance. These confirmed our method is feasible for segmenting and identifying SPNs on follow-up CT scans.

  8. Quantitative assessment of human motion using video motion analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Probe, John D.

    1990-01-01

    In the study of the dynamics and kinematics of the human body, a wide variety of technologies was developed. Photogrammetric techniques are well documented and are known to provide reliable positional data from recorded images. Often these techniques are used in conjunction with cinematography and videography for analysis of planar motion, and to a lesser degree three-dimensional motion. Cinematography has been the most widely used medium for movement analysis. Excessive operating costs and the lag time required for film development coupled with recent advances in video technology have allowed video based motion analysis systems to emerge as a cost effective method of collecting and analyzing human movement. The Anthropometric and Biomechanics Lab at Johnson Space Center utilizes the video based Ariel Performance Analysis System to develop data on shirt-sleeved and space-suited human performance in order to plan efficient on orbit intravehicular and extravehicular activities. The system is described.

  9. Isentropic Analysis of Convective Motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pauluis, Olivier M.; Mrowiec, Agnieszka A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the convective mass transport by sorting air parcels in terms of their equivalent potential temperature to determine an isentropic streamfunction. By averaging the vertical mass flux at a constant value of the equivalent potential temperature, one can compute an isentropic mass transport that filters out reversible oscillatory motions such as gravity waves. This novel approach emphasizes the fact that the vertical energy and entropy transports by convection are due to the combination of ascending air parcels with high energy and entropy and subsiding air parcels with lower energy and entropy. Such conditional averaging can be extended to other dynamic and thermodynamic variables such as vertical velocity, temperature, or relative humidity to obtain a comprehensive description of convective motions. It is also shown how this approach can be used to determine the mean diabatic tendencies from the three-dimensional dynamic and thermodynamic fields. A two-stream approximation that partitions the isentropic circulation into a mean updraft and a mean downdraft is also introduced. This offers a straightforward way to identify the mean properties of rising and subsiding air parcels. The results from the two-stream approximation are compared with two other definitions of the cloud mass flux. It is argued that the isentropic analysis offers a robust definition of the convective mass transport that is not tainted by the need to arbitrarily distinguish between convection and its environment, and that separates the irreversible convective overturning fromoscillations associated with gravity waves.

  10. Quantitative assessment of human motion using video motion analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Probe, John D.

    1993-01-01

    In the study of the dynamics and kinematics of the human body a wide variety of technologies has been developed. Photogrammetric techniques are well documented and are known to provide reliable positional data from recorded images. Often these techniques are used in conjunction with cinematography and videography for analysis of planar motion, and to a lesser degree three-dimensional motion. Cinematography has been the most widely used medium for movement analysis. Excessive operating costs and the lag time required for film development, coupled with recent advances in video technology, have allowed video based motion analysis systems to emerge as a cost effective method of collecting and analyzing human movement. The Anthropometric and Biomechanics Lab at Johnson Space Center utilizes the video based Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS) to develop data on shirtsleeved and space-suited human performance in order to plan efficient on-orbit intravehicular and extravehicular activities. APAS is a fully integrated system of hardware and software for biomechanics and the analysis of human performance and generalized motion measurement. Major components of the complete system include the video system, the AT compatible computer, and the proprietary software.

  11. Non-rigid registration and non-local principle component analysis to improve electron microscopy spectrum images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankovich, Andrew B.; Zhang, Chenyu; Oh, Albert; Slater, Thomas J. A.; Azough, Feridoon; Freer, Robert; Haigh, Sarah J.; Willett, Rebecca; Voyles, Paul M.

    2016-09-01

    Image registration and non-local Poisson principal component analysis (PCA) denoising improve the quality of characteristic x-ray (EDS) spectrum imaging of Ca-stabilized Nd2/3TiO3 acquired at atomic resolution in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Image registration based on the simultaneously acquired high angle annular dark field image significantly outperforms acquisition with a long pixel dwell time or drift correction using a reference image. Non-local Poisson PCA denoising reduces noise more strongly than conventional weighted PCA while preserving atomic structure more faithfully. The reliability of and optimal internal parameters for non-local Poisson PCA denoising of EDS spectrum images is assessed using tests on phantom data.

  12. Non-rigid target tracking in 2D ultrasound images using hierarchical grid interpolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Lucas; Babel, Marie; Krupa, Alexandre

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we present a new non-rigid target tracking method within 2D ultrasound (US) image sequence. Due to the poor quality of US images, the motion tracking of a tumor or cyst during needle insertion is considered as an open research issue. Our approach is based on well-known compression algorithm in order to make our method work in real-time which is a necessary condition for many clinical applications. Toward that end, we employed a dedicated hierarchical grid interpolation algorithm (HGI) which can represent a large variety of deformations compared to other motion estimation algorithms such as Overlapped Block Motion Compensation (OBMC), or Block Motion Algorithm (BMA). The sum of squared difference of image intensity is selected as similarity criterion because it provides a good trade-off between computation time and motion estimation quality. Contrary to the others methods proposed in the literature, our approach has the ability to distinguish both rigid and non-rigid motions which are observed in ultrasound image modality. Furthermore, this technique does not take into account any prior knowledge about the target, and limits the user interaction which usually complicates the medical validation process. Finally, a technique aiming at identifying the main phases of a periodic motion (e.g. breathing motion) is introduced. The new approach has been validated from 2D ultrasound images of real human tissues which undergo rigid and non-rigid deformations.

  13. Analysis of piston secondary motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yeow-Chong; Ripin, Zaidi Mohd

    2013-09-01

    A nonlinear model of the piston with reciprocating, lateral and rotational degree of freedom is developed to investigate the piston secondary motion and the induced vibration behavior of the engine block by the piston slap. The model parameters are obtained from mobility measurement. The gap between the piston skirt and the cylinder liner is modeled as a translational hard stop which is the nonlinear component in the model. The value of the friction coefficient between the piston ring and the cylinder liner is determined by correlating the experimental data with the friction force equation. During the piston slap on the cylinder liner, the high damping coefficient and stiffness of the translational hard stop are added to the equation for the piston secondary motion. The model is validated by experimental data obtained from three laser displacement sensors which capture the distinct modes of the piston secondary motion directly from the piston assembly under motorized conditions. The predicted trend of the piston secondary motion and the vibration response of cylinder block are appropriate and compare well with the measured results.

  14. Analysis of Piston Slap Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, S.

    2015-05-01

    Piston slap is the major force contibuting towards noise levels in combustion engines.This type of noise depends upon a number of factors such as the piston-liner gap, type of lubricant used, number of piston pins as well as geometry of the piston. In this work the lateral and rotary motion of the piston in the gap between the cylinder liner and piston has been analyzed. A model that can predict the forces and response of the engine block due to slap has been dicussed. The parameters such as mass, spring and damping constant have been predicted using a vibrational mobility model.

  15. Motion Analysis: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, J. K.

    The subject of motion has been the center of interdisciplinary studies since the time when Zeno posed his paradox circa 500BC. However, computer vision, the use of a camera and a computer to recognize objects, people and/or events automatically, is a relatively young field of research. Its development began in the early 1960s; however, it has matured fairly quickly. Today, it is contributing to the solutions of some of the most serious societal problems. Motion analysis of a sequence of images is an important part of computer vision. This chapter briefly presents the contributions to motion analysis from other fields followed by the computer vision-based analysis of motion from a sequence of images. Analysis and understanding of images based on both feature tracking and optical flow estimation are presented. Early works focused on the computation of structure from motion of objects from a sequence of images via point features. This was followed by the computation of optical flow to characterize motion. Applications today focus on the monitoring of traffic, providing guidance to a motorist in terms of his/her position relative to traffic lanes and traffic ahead, and inspection of complicated three-dimensional industrial parts, to mention a few. Research focus has shifted from inanimate objects to people, for example monitoring people and their activities in public places or monitoring activities from an unmanned aerial vehicle. These applications are dominating the research scene through the belief that computer vision/motion analysis can contribute to the solution of societal surveillance and biometric problems. The chapter ends with a discussion of the future directions of research in motion analysis and possible applications.

  16. A dynamic human motion: coordination analysis.

    PubMed

    Pchelkin, Stepan; Shiriaev, Anton S; Freidovich, Leonid B; Mettin, Uwe; Gusev, Sergei V; Kwon, Woong; Paramonov, Leonid

    2015-02-01

    This article is concerned with the generic structure of the motion coordination system resulting from the application of the method of virtual holonomic constraints (VHCs) to the problem of the generation and robust execution of a dynamic humanlike motion by a humanoid robot. The motion coordination developed using VHCs is based on a motion generator equation, which is a scalar nonlinear differential equation of second order. It can be considered equivalent in function to a central pattern generator in living organisms. The relative time evolution of the degrees of freedom of a humanoid robot during a typical motion are specified by a set of coordination functions that uniquely define the overall pattern of the motion. This is comparable to a hypothesis on the existence of motion patterns in biomechanics. A robust control is derived based on a transverse linearization along the configuration manifold defined by the coordination functions. It is shown that the derived coordination and control architecture possesses excellent robustness properties. The analysis is performed on an example of a real human motion recorded in test experiments.

  17. Analysis and visualization of heart motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chang W.; Huang, Thomas S.; Arrott, Matthew

    1991-07-01

    Inferring dynamic behavior of the heart from its image sequences is a very important research area in biomedical engineering. It provides an invaluable tool for noninvasive evaluation of myocardial functions. This paper presents estimation algorithms for the analysis of heart motion and deformation over a cardiac cycle, as well as the visualization techniques for the animation of moving heart evolution. The first part of the paper is devoted to the analysis of the heart motion and deformation. The research is based on the general belief that the human heart undergoes both global motion and local deformation, and is conducted on the angiographic data of the heart. The authors identify the global motion as the relative position and orientation change of the heart as a whole and estimate the motion parameters from the 3- D data of the bifurcation points. They also develop a recursive algorithm for estimating global motion and object shape in order to combat the biased distribution of the bifurcation points. Upon compensation for the global motion, a tensor analysis based approach is introduced to parameterize the deformation of localized region. The estimated stretch tensors give the directions and magnitudes of extreme deformation for each localized region. In the second part of the paper, several visualization techniques are presented to vividly examine the spatial and time varying nature of the heart. Animations of global motion compensation and local deformation evolution are generated using the original data and estimation results. Display showing the heart in slow motion is created by interpolating original and estimated data between image frames. Visualization operations such as camera and lighting manipulation, polygon outlining, color coding, and so on are applied to the data to reveal the complex nature of the beating heart.

  18. LCD motion blur: modeling, analysis, and algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chan, Stanley H; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2011-08-01

    Liquid crystal display (LCD) devices are well known for their slow responses due to the physical limitations of liquid crystals. Therefore, fast moving objects in a scene are often perceived as blurred. This effect is known as the LCD motion blur. In order to reduce LCD motion blur, an accurate LCD model and an efficient deblurring algorithm are needed. However, existing LCD motion blur models are insufficient to reflect the limitation of human-eye-tracking system. Also, the spatiotemporal equivalence in LCD motion blur models has not been proven directly in the discrete 2-D spatial domain, although it is widely used. There are three main contributions of this paper: modeling, analysis, and algorithm. First, a comprehensive LCD motion blur model is presented, in which human-eye-tracking limits are taken into consideration. Second, a complete analysis of spatiotemporal equivalence is provided and verified using real video sequences. Third, an LCD motion blur reduction algorithm is proposed. The proposed algorithm solves an l(1)-norm regularized least-squares minimization problem using a subgradient projection method. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm gives higher peak SNR, lower temporal error, and lower spatial error than motion-compensated inverse filtering and Lucy-Richardson deconvolution algorithm, which are two state-of-the-art LCD deblurring algorithms. PMID:21292596

  19. Contour propagation in MRI-guided radiotherapy treatment of cervical cancer: the accuracy of rigid, non-rigid and semi-automatic registrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Put, R. W.; Kerkhof, E. M.; Raaymakers, B. W.; Jürgenliemk-Schulz, I. M.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.

    2009-12-01

    External beam radiation treatment for patients with cervical cancer is hindered by the relatively large motion of the target volume. A hybrid MRI-accelerator system makes it possible to acquire online MR images during treatment in order to correct for motion and deformation. To fully benefit from such a system, online delineation of the target volumes is necessary. The aim of this study is to investigate the accuracy of rigid, non-rigid and semi-automatic registrations of MR images for interfractional contour propagation in patients with cervical cancer. Registration using mutual information was performed on both bony anatomy and soft tissue. A B-spline transform was used for the non-rigid method. Semi-automatic registration was implemented with a point set registration algorithm on a small set of manual landmarks. Online registration was simulated by application of each method to four weekly MRI scans for each of 33 cervical cancer patients. Evaluation was performed by distance analysis with respect to manual delineations. The results show that soft-tissue registration significantly (P < 0.001) improves the accuracy of contour propagation compared to registration based on bony anatomy. A combination of user-assisted and non-rigid registration provides the best results with a median error of 3.2 mm (1.4-9.9 mm) compared to 5.9 mm (1.7-19.7 mm) with bone registration (P < 0.001) and 3.4 mm (1.3-19.1 mm) with non-rigid registration (P = 0.01). In a clinical setting, the benefit may be further increased when outliers can be removed by visual inspection of the online images. We conclude that for external beam radiation treatment of cervical cancer, online MRI imaging will allow target localization based on soft tissue visualization, which provides a significantly higher accuracy than localization based on bony anatomy. The use of limited user input to guide the registration increases overall accuracy. Additional non-rigid registration further reduces the propagation

  20. Consistency-based rectification of nonrigid registrations

    PubMed Central

    Gass, Tobias; Székely, Gábor; Goksel, Orcun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. We present a technique to rectify nonrigid registrations by improving their group-wise consistency, which is a widely used unsupervised measure to assess pair-wise registration quality. While pair-wise registration methods cannot guarantee any group-wise consistency, group-wise approaches typically enforce perfect consistency by registering all images to a common reference. However, errors in individual registrations to the reference then propagate, distorting the mean and accumulating in the pair-wise registrations inferred via the reference. Furthermore, the assumption that perfect correspondences exist is not always true, e.g., for interpatient registration. The proposed consistency-based registration rectification (CBRR) method addresses these issues by minimizing the group-wise inconsistency of all pair-wise registrations using a regularized least-squares algorithm. The regularization controls the adherence to the original registration, which is additionally weighted by the local postregistration similarity. This allows CBRR to adaptively improve consistency while locally preserving accurate pair-wise registrations. We show that the resulting registrations are not only more consistent, but also have lower average transformation error when compared to known transformations in simulated data. On clinical data, we show improvements of up to 50% target registration error in breathing motion estimation from four-dimensional MRI and improvements in atlas-based segmentation quality of up to 65% in terms of mean surface distance in three-dimensional (3-D) CT. Such improvement was observed consistently using different registration algorithms, dimensionality (two-dimensional/3-D), and modalities (MRI/CT). PMID:26158083

  1. Analysis And Display Of Human Wrist Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Steven W.; Erdman, Arthur G.

    1983-07-01

    The three-dimensional kinematic analysis of the wrist is a complex problem. A method utilizing high speed stereocinematography has been developed to accurately measure the motion of the bones in the wrist. Both relative and absolute motions can be obtained using this system. The system has been shown to accurately locate a point to +/- 0.003 inch. The three-dimensional motion characteristics of the capitate in radial ulnar deviation were analyzed using this system, and the results are presented. A computer graphics program, developed by the authors, is used to display the motion characteristics of the carpal bones. In this program, the bone surface, defined using a special stereopointer and bicubic surface fitting algorithms, is displayed along with the kinematic data.

  2. Metrology of Non-Rigid Objects

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K L; Smith, D W; Claudet, A A; Kasper, E P; Patterson, S R

    2002-01-01

    Dimensional characterization of non-rigid parts presents many challenges. For example, when a non-rigid part is mounted in an inspection apparatus the effects of fixturing constraints cause significant deformation of the part. If the part is not used in normal service with the same load conditions as during inspection, the dimensional characteristics in service will deviate from the reported values during inspection. Further, the solution of designing specialized fixturing to duplicate ''as-installed'' conditions does not fully resolve the problem because each inspection requires its own methodology. The goal of this project is to formulate the research problem and propose a method of assessing the dimensional characteristics of non-rigid parts. The measured dimension of a rigid component is traceable at some level of confidence to a single source (NIST in the USA). Hence the measurement of one component of an assembly can be related to the measurement of another component of that assembly. There is no generalized analog to this pedigreed process for dimensionally characterizing non-rigid bodies. For example, a measurement made on a sheet-metal automobile fender is heavily influenced by how it is held during the measurement making it difficult to determine how well that fender will assemble to the rest of the (non-rigid) car body. This problem is often overcome for specific manufacturing problems by constructing rigid fixtures that over-constrain the non-rigid parts to be assembled and then performing the dimensional measurement of the contour of each component to check whether each meets specification. Note that such inspection measurements will yield only an approximation to the assembled shape, which is a function of both the geometry and the compliance of the component parts of the assembly. As a result, non-rigid components are more difficult to specify and inspect and therefore are more difficult to purchase from outside vendors compared to rigid components

  3. Statistical methods for analysis of coordination of chest wall motion using optical reflectance imaging of multiple markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyon, C. M.; Ghezzo, R. H.; Cala, S. J.; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Pedotti, Antonio; Macklem, P. T.; Rochester, D. F.

    1994-07-01

    To analyze coordination of chest wall motion we have used principle component analysis (PCA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA) with respect to spirometry on the displacements of 93 optical reflective markers placed upon the chest wall (CW). Each marker is tracked at 10 Hz with an accuracy of 0.2 mm in each spatial dimension using the ELITE system (IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 11:943-949, 1985). PCA enables the degree of linear coordination between all of the markers to be assessed using the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the covariance of the matrix of marker displacements in each dimension against time. Thus the number of linear degrees of freedom (DOF) which contribute more than a particular amount to the total variance can be determined and analyzed. MRA with respect to spirometrically measured lung volume changes enables identification of the CW points whose movement correlates best with lung volume. We have used this analysis to compare a quiet breathing sequence with one where tidal volume was increased fourfold involuntarily and show that the number of DOF with eigenvalues accounting for >5% of the covariance increased from 2 to 3. Also the point whose movement correlated best with lung volume changed from halfway down the lower costal margin to a more lateral point at the level of the bottom of the sternum. This quantification of CW coordination may be useful in analysis and staging of many respiratory disorders and is applicable to any nonrigid body motion where points can be tracked.

  4. Non-rigid molecular group theory and its applications

    SciTech Connect

    Balasubramanian, K.

    1982-06-01

    The use of generalized wreath product groups as representations of symmetry groups of nonrigid molecules is considered. Generating function techniques are outlined for nuclear spin statistics and character tables of the symmetry groups of nonrigid molecules. Several applications of nonrigid molecular group theory to NMR spectroscopy, rovibronic splitting and nuclear spin statistics of nonrigid molecules, molecular beam deflection and electric resonance experiments of weakly bound Van der Waal complexes, isomerization processes, configuration interaction calculations and the symmetry of crystals with structural distortions are described. 81 references.

  5. Evaluation of five non-rigid image registration algorithms using the NIREP framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ying; Christensen, Gary E.; Song, Joo Hyun; Rudrauf, David; Bruss, Joel; Kuhl, Jon G.; Grabowski, Thomas J.

    2010-03-01

    Evaluating non-rigid image registration algorithm performance is a difficult problem since there is rarely a "gold standard" (i.e., known) correspondence between two images. This paper reports the analysis and comparison of five non-rigid image registration algorithms using the Non-Rigid Image Registration Evaluation Project (NIREP) (www.nirep.org) framework. The NIREP framework evaluates registration performance using centralized databases of well-characterized images and standard evaluation statistics (methods) which are implemented in a software package. The performance of five non-rigid registration algorithms (Affine, AIR, Demons, SLE and SICLE) was evaluated using 22 images from two NIREP neuroanatomical evaluation databases. Six evaluation statistics (relative overlap, intensity variance, normalized ROI overlap, alignment of calcarine sulci, inverse consistency error and transitivity error) were used to evaluate and compare image registration performance. The results indicate that the Demons registration algorithm produced the best registration results with respect to the relative overlap statistic but produced nearly the worst registration results with respect to the inverse consistency statistic. The fact that one registration algorithm produced the best result for one criterion and nearly the worst for another illustrates the need to use multiple evaluation statistics to fully assess performance.

  6. Two-character motion analysis and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Taesoo; Cho, Young-Sang; Park, Sang Il; Shin, Sung Yong

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of synthesizing novel motions of standing-up martial arts such as Kickboxing, Karate, and Taekwondo performed by a pair of human-like characters while reflecting their interactions. Adopting an example-based paradigm, we address three non-trivial issues embedded in this problem: motion modeling, interaction modeling, and motion synthesis. For the first issue, we present a semi-automatic motion labeling scheme based on force-based motion segmentation and learning-based action classification. We also construct a pair of motion transition graphs each of which represents an individual motion stream. For the second issue, we propose a scheme for capturing the interactions between two players. A dynamic Bayesian network is adopted to build a motion transition model on top of the coupled motion transition graph that is constructed from an example motion stream. For the last issue, we provide a scheme for synthesizing a novel sequence of coupled motions, guided by the motion transition model. Although the focus of the present work is on martial arts, we believe that the framework of the proposed approach can be conveyed to other two-player motions as well.

  7. Random motion analysis of flexible satellite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, T. C.; Das, A.

    1978-01-01

    A singular perturbation formulation is used to study the responses of a flexible satellite when random measurement errors can occur. The random variables, at different instants of time, are assumed to be uncorrelated. Procedures for obtaining maxima and minima are described, and a variation of the linear method is developed for the formal solution of the two-point boundary-value problems represented by the variational equations. Random and deterministic solutions for the structural position coordinates are studied, and an analytic algorithm for treating the force equation of motion is developed. Since the random system indicated by the variational equation will always be asymptotically unstable, any analysis of stability must be based on the deterministic system.

  8. INS integrated motion analysis for autonomous vehicle navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barry; Bazakos, Mike

    1991-01-01

    The use of inertial navigation system (INS) measurements to enhance the quality and robustness of motion analysis techniques used for obstacle detection is discussed with particular reference to autonomous vehicle navigation. The approach to obstacle detection used here employs motion analysis of imagery generated by a passive sensor. Motion analysis of imagery obtained during vehicle travel is used to generate range measurements to points within the field of view of the sensor, which can then be used to provide obstacle detection. Results obtained with an INS integrated motion analysis approach are reviewed.

  9. Wavelet based free-form deformations for nonrigid registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei; Niessen, Wiro J.; Klein, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    In nonrigid registration, deformations may take place on the coarse and fine scales. For the conventional B-splines based free-form deformation (FFD) registration, these coarse- and fine-scale deformations are all represented by basis functions of a single scale. Meanwhile, wavelets have been proposed as a signal representation suitable for multi-scale problems. Wavelet analysis leads to a unique decomposition of a signal into its coarse- and fine-scale components. Potentially, this could therefore be useful for image registration. In this work, we investigate whether a wavelet-based FFD model has advantages for nonrigid image registration. We use a B-splines based wavelet, as defined by Cai and Wang.1 This wavelet is expressed as a linear combination of B-spline basis functions. Derived from the original B-spline function, this wavelet is smooth, differentiable, and compactly supported. The basis functions of this wavelet are orthogonal across scales in Sobolev space. This wavelet was previously used for registration in computer vision, in 2D optical flow problems,2 but it was not compared with the conventional B-spline FFD in medical image registration problems. An advantage of choosing this B-splines based wavelet model is that the space of allowable deformation is exactly equivalent to that of the traditional B-spline. The wavelet transformation is essentially a (linear) reparameterization of the B-spline transformation model. Experiments on 10 CT lung and 18 T1-weighted MRI brain datasets show that wavelet based registration leads to smoother deformation fields than traditional B-splines based registration, while achieving better accuracy.

  10. Analysis of motion in speed skating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Yuzo; Nishimura, Tetsu; Watanabe, Naoki; Okamoto, Kousuke; Wada, Yuhei

    1997-03-01

    A motion on sports has been studied by many researchers from the view of the medical, psychological and mechanical fields. Here, we try to analyze a speed skating motion dynamically for an aim of performing the best record. As an official competition of speed skating is performed on the round rink, the skating motion must be studied on the three phases, that is, starting phase, straight and curved course skating phase. It is indispensable to have a visual data of a skating motion in order to analyze kinematically. So we took a several subject's skating motion by 8 mm video cameras in order to obtain three dimensional data. As the first step, the movement of the center of gravity of skater (abbreviate to C. G.) is discussed in this paper, because a skating motion is very complicated. The movement of C. G. will give an information of the reaction force to a skate blade from the surface of ice. We discuss the discrepancy of several skating motion by studied subjects. Our final goal is to suggest the best skating form for getting the finest record.

  11. Motion analysis and removal in intensity variation based OCT angiography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuan; Kirby, Mitchell; Zhao, Feng

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we investigated how bulk motion degraded the quality of optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography that was obtained through calculating interframe signal variation, i.e., interframe signal variation based optical coherence angiography (isvOCA). We demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that the spatial average of isvOCA signal had an explicit functional dependency on bulk motion. Our result suggested that the bulk motion could lead to an increased background in angiography image. Based on our motion analysis, we proposed to reduce image artifact induced by transient bulk motion in isvOCA through adaptive thresholding. The motion artifact reduced angiography was demonstrated in a 1.3μm spectral domain OCT system. We implemented signal processing using graphic processing unit for real-time imaging and conducted in vivo microvasculature imaging on human skin. Our results clearly showed that the adaptive thresholding method was highly effective in the motion artifact removal for OCT angiography.

  12. Extending the Analysis of One-Dimensional Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canderle, Luis H.

    1999-01-01

    Proposes that introductory physics courses extend the analysis of one-dimensional motion to a more sophisticated level. Gives four experimental setups and graphical analysis of the distance, velocity, and acceleration in the vertical and horizontal directions. (WRM)

  13. Galileo Redux or, How Do Nonrigid, Extended Bodies Fall?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newburgh, Ronald; Andes, George M.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a model for the Slinky that allows for calculations that agree with observed behavior and predictions that suggest further experimentation. Offers an opportunity for introducing nonrigid bodies within the Galilean framework. (JRH)

  14. Time motion analysis of international kickboxing competition.

    PubMed

    Ouergui, Ibrahim; Hssin, Nizar; Haddad, Monoem; Franchini, Emerson; Behm, David; Wong, Del P; Gmada, Nabil; Bouhlel, Ezzedine

    2014-06-17

    The objective of the study was to analyze the time structure of high-level kickboxing matches. A total of 45 combats from two male World Championships were monitored using a time motion analysis system. The combat time structure (i.e., high-intensity activity: HIA; low-intensity activity: LIA; and referee breaks or pauses) during competition and weight divisions was determined and compared. Results indicated that the time structures were HIA: 2.2± 1.2 s; LIA: 2.3± 0.8 s; pauses: 5.4± 4.3 s; and 3.4±1.2 s between two subsequent HIA. The fighting to non-fighting ratio was found to be 1:1. Moreover, the number of HIA and LIA and the time of LIA decreased in latter rounds (e.g., the average number of HIA were 27.1±7.1, 25.1±6.6 and 24.9±6.1 respectively for round1, 2 and 3), meanwhile the time and number of pauses increased (e.g., the average pause times were 12.8±11.4, 22.3±22.6 and 24.6±23.3s respectively for round1, 2 and 3). The activity times did not differ among weight categories. The present results confirm the intermittent nature of kickboxing competition and provide coaches with more information on how to structure training sessions to mimic the physical demands in competition.

  15. A Bio-Inspired, Motion-Based Analysis of Crowd Behavior Attributes Relevance to Motion Transparency, Velocity Gradients, and Motion Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Raudies, Florian; Neumann, Heiko

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of motion crowds is concerned with the detection of potential hazards for individuals of the crowd. Existing methods analyze the statistics of pixel motion to classify non-dangerous or dangerous behavior, to detect outlier motions, or to estimate the mean throughput of people for an image region. We suggest a biologically inspired model for the analysis of motion crowds that extracts motion features indicative for potential dangers in crowd behavior. Our model consists of stages for motion detection, integration, and pattern detection that model functions of the primate primary visual cortex area (V1), the middle temporal area (MT), and the medial superior temporal area (MST), respectively. This model allows for the processing of motion transparency, the appearance of multiple motions in the same visual region, in addition to processing opaque motion. We suggest that motion transparency helps to identify “danger zones” in motion crowds. For instance, motion transparency occurs in small exit passages during evacuation. However, motion transparency occurs also for non-dangerous crowd behavior when people move in opposite directions organized into separate lanes. Our analysis suggests: The combination of motion transparency and a slow motion speed can be used for labeling of candidate regions that contain dangerous behavior. In addition, locally detected decelerations or negative speed gradients of motions are a precursor of danger in crowd behavior as are globally detected motion patterns that show a contraction toward a single point. In sum, motion transparency, image speeds, motion patterns, and speed gradients extracted from visual motion in videos are important features to describe the behavioral state of a motion crowd. PMID:23300930

  16. Kinematic analysis of human body motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Yuhei; Yamashita, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Tetsu; Itoh, Masaru; Watanabe, Naoki; Yanagi, Shigeru

    1997-03-01

    The knowledge of analyzing a human motion can contribute to the treatment and the prevention of sports injuries or the investigation of welfare equipment. It is important to know the human motion by not only the medical field but the mechanical knowledge. The mechanical knowledge is expected to prevent the sports injuries or to design such as an artificial equipment. Here, we suggest a basic procedure to analyze a human motion from the view of the dynamical knowledge. Although the human body is composed of a lot of element and joint, if the slight movement on the joint such as dislocation and distortion is neglected, the human body can be replaced by a mechanical links system. On this assumption, we analyze an actual simple human motion. We take a picture of a simple arm motion from video cameras. And at the same time, we directly measure the vertical acceleration of the hand by an accelerometer. From the video image, we get the vertical acceleration of the hand with assuming the arm as two-links system. On the process of resolving the vertical acceleration of the hand, we introduce the Fourier series for filtering. Finally, we confirm the propriety of our suggested procedure by comparing the calculated acceleration of hand with the directly measured acceleration.

  17. Motional-mode analysis of trapped ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalis, Henning; Hakelberg, Frederick; Wittemer, Matthias; Mielenz, Manuel; Warring, Ulrich; Schaetz, Tobias

    2016-08-01

    We present two methods for characterization of motional-mode configurations that are generally applicable to the weak- and strong-binding limit of single or multiple trapped atomic ions. Our methods are essential to realize control of the individual as well as the common motional degrees of freedom. In particular, when implementing scalable radio-frequency trap architectures with decreasing ion-electrode distances, local curvatures of electric potentials need to be measured and adjusted precisely, e.g., to tune phonon tunneling and control effective spin-spin interaction. We demonstrate both methods using single 25Mg+ ions that are individually confined 40 μ m above a surface-electrode trap array and prepared close to the ground state of motion in three dimensions.

  18. Ground motion estimation and nonlinear seismic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, D.B.; Hutchings, L.J.

    1995-08-14

    Site specific predictions of the dynamic response of structures to extreme earthquake ground motions are a critical component of seismic design for important structures. With the rapid development of computationally based methodologies and powerful computers over the past few years, engineers and scientists now have the capability to perform numerical simulations of many of the physical processes associated with the generation of earthquake ground motions and dynamic structural response. This paper describes application of a physics based, deterministic, computational approach for estimation of earthquake ground motions which relies on site measurements of frequently occurring small (i.e. M < 3 ) earthquakes. Case studies are presented which illustrate application of this methodology for two different sites, and nonlinear analyses of a typical six story steel frame office building are performed to illustrate the potential sensitivity of nonlinear response to site conditions and proximity to the causative fault.

  19. Analysis of accelerated motion in the theory of relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    Conventional treatments of accelerated motion in the theory of relativity have led to certain difficulties of interpretation. Certain reversals in the apparent gravitational field of an accelerated body may be avoided by simpler analysis based on the use of restricted conformal transformations. In the conformal theory the velocity of light remains constant even for experimenters in accelerated motion. The problem considered is that of rectilinear motion with a variable velocity. The motion takes place along the x or x' axis of two coordinate systems.

  20. Inertial navigation sensor integrated motion analysis for autonomous vehicle navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barry; Bhanu, Bir

    1992-01-01

    Recent work on INS integrated motion analysis is described. Results were obtained with a maximally passive system of obstacle detection (OD) for ground-based vehicles and rotorcraft. The OD approach involves motion analysis of imagery acquired by a passive sensor in the course of vehicle travel to generate range measurements to world points within the sensor FOV. INS data and scene analysis results are used to enhance interest point selection, the matching of the interest points, and the subsequent motion-based computations, tracking, and OD. The most important lesson learned from the research described here is that the incorporation of inertial data into the motion analysis program greatly improves the analysis and makes the process more robust.

  1. Motion cue analysis for parkinsonian gait recognition.

    PubMed

    Khan, Taha; Westin, Jerker; Dougherty, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a computer-vision based marker-free method for gait-impairment detection in Patients with Parkinson's disease (PWP). The system is based upon the idea that a normal human body attains equilibrium during the gait by aligning the body posture with Axis-of-Gravity (AOG) using feet as the base of support. In contrast, PWP appear to be falling forward as they are less-able to align their body with AOG due to rigid muscular tone. A normal gait exhibits periodic stride-cycles with stride-angle around 45o between the legs, whereas PWP walk with shortened stride-angle with high variability between the stride-cycles. In order to analyze Parkinsonian-gait (PG), subjects were videotaped with several gait-cycles. The subject's body was segmented using a color-segmentation method to form a silhouette. The silhouette was skeletonized for motion cues extraction. The motion cues analyzed were stride-cycles (based on the cyclic leg motion of skeleton) and posture lean (based on the angle between leaned torso of skeleton and AOG). Cosine similarity between an imaginary perfect gait pattern and the subject gait patterns produced 100% recognition rate of PG for 4 normal-controls and 3 PWP. Results suggested that the method is a promising tool to be used for PG assessment in home-environment. PMID:23407764

  2. Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic of motion. Contents include: (1) "First Word" (Zach Tobias); (2) "Cosmic Collisions" (Robert Irion); (3) "The Mobile Cell" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (4) "The Paths of Paths" (Steven Vogel); (5) "Fragments" (Pearl Tesler); (6) "Moving Pictures" (Amy Snyder); (7) "Plants on the Go" (Katharine…

  3. Nonrigid registration method to assess reproducibility of breath-holding with ABC in lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrut, David . E-mail: dsarrut@univ-lyon2.fr; Boldea, Vlad; Ayadi, Myriam; Badel, Jean-Noel; Ginestet, Chantal; Clippe, Sebastien; Carrie, Christian

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: To study the interfraction reproducibility of breath-holding using active breath control (ABC), and to develop computerized tools to evaluate three-dimensional (3D) intrathoracic motion in each patient. Methods and materials: Since June 2002, 11 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer enrolled in a Phase II trial have undergone four CT scans: one during free-breathing (reference) and three using ABC. Patients left the room between breath-hold scans. The patient's breath was held at the same predefined phase of the breathing cycle (about 70% of the vital capacity) using the ABC device, then patients received 3D-conformal radiotherapy. Automated computerized tools for breath-hold CT scans were developed to analyze lung and tumor interfraction residual motions with 3D nonrigid registration. Results: All patients but one were safely treated with ABC for 7 weeks. For 6 patients, the lung volume differences were <5%. The mean 3D displacement inside the lungs was between 2.3 mm (SD 1.4) and 4 mm (SD 3.3), and the gross tumor volume residual motion was 0.9 mm (SD 0.4) to 5.9 mm (SD 0.7). The residual motion was slightly greater in the inferior part of the lung than the superior. For 2 patients, we detected volume changes >300 cm{sup 3} and displacements >10 mm, probably owing to atelectasia and emphysema. One patient was excluded, and two others had incomplete data sets. Conclusion: Breath-holding with ABC was effective in 6 patients, and discrepancies were clinically accountable in 2. The proposed 3D nonrigid registration method allows for personalized evaluation of breath-holding reproducibility with ABC. It will be used to adapt the patient-specific internal margins.

  4. Full-motion video analysis for improved gender classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flora, Jeffrey B.; Lochtefeld, Darrell F.; Iftekharuddin, Khan M.

    2014-06-01

    The ability of computer systems to perform gender classification using the dynamic motion of the human subject has important applications in medicine, human factors, and human-computer interface systems. Previous works in motion analysis have used data from sensors (including gyroscopes, accelerometers, and force plates), radar signatures, and video. However, full-motion video, motion capture, range data provides a higher resolution time and spatial dataset for the analysis of dynamic motion. Works using motion capture data have been limited by small datasets in a controlled environment. In this paper, we explore machine learning techniques to a new dataset that has a larger number of subjects. Additionally, these subjects move unrestricted through a capture volume, representing a more realistic, less controlled environment. We conclude that existing linear classification methods are insufficient for the gender classification for larger dataset captured in relatively uncontrolled environment. A method based on a nonlinear support vector machine classifier is proposed to obtain gender classification for the larger dataset. In experimental testing with a dataset consisting of 98 trials (49 subjects, 2 trials per subject), classification rates using leave-one-out cross-validation are improved from 73% using linear discriminant analysis to 88% using the nonlinear support vector machine classifier.

  5. Method for testing motion analysis laboratory measurement systems.

    PubMed

    Hakkarainen, Marko J; Bragge, Timo; Liikavainio, Tuomas; Arokoski, Jari; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Tarvainen, Mika

    2010-11-01

    This paper proposes a method for comparing data from accelerometers, optical based 3D motion capture systems, and force platforms (FPs) in the context of spatial and temporal differences. Testing method is based on the motion laboratory accreditation test (MLAT), which can be used to test FP and camera based motion capture components of a motion analysis laboratory. This study extends MLAT to include accelerometer data. Accelerometers were attached to a device similar to the MLAT rod. The elevation of the rod from the plane of the floor is computed and compared with the force platform vector orientation and the rod orientation obtained by optical motion capture system. Orientation of the test device is achieved by forming nonlinear equation group, which describes the components of the measured accelerations. Solution for this equation group is estimated by using the Gauss-Newton method. This expanded MLAT procedure can be used in the laboratory setting were either FP, camera based motion capture, or any other motion capture system is used along with accelerometer measurements.

  6. Motion analysis of both ventricles using tagged MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozturk, Cengizhan; McVeigh, Elliot R.

    2000-04-01

    Although several methods exist for the analysis of tagged MRI images of the left ventricle (LV), analysis of the right ventricle (RV) remains challenging due to its complex anatomy and significant through plane motion. We present here preliminary results of our new motion analysis method, both for RV and LV, in healthy human volunteers. In this method, following standard myocardial and tag segmentation of cardiac gated cine tagged MR images; a 4D B-spline based parametric motion field was computed for a volume of interest encompassing both ventricles. Using this motion field, 3D displacements and strains were calculated on the RV and LV. We observed that for both chambers the circumferential strain (Ecc) decreased with a constant rate throughout systole. The systolic strain rate displayed spatial similarity not only for the LV but also for the RV. For RV free wall, mean systolic Ecc was -0.19 +/- 0.05 with an average coefficient of variability of 20%. The 4D B-spline based motion analysis technique for tagged MRI yields compatible results for the LV and gives consistent circumferential strain measures for the RV free wall. Tagged MRI based RV mechanical analysis can be used along with LV results for a more complete cardiac evaluation.

  7. Nonrigid Medical Image Registration Based on Mesh Deformation Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, TianShuang; Guo, DongMei

    2013-01-01

    Regularizing the deformation field is an important aspect in nonrigid medical image registration. By covering the template image with a triangular mesh, this paper proposes a new regularization constraint in terms of connections between mesh vertices. The connection relationship is preserved by the spring analogy method. The method is evaluated by registering cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image data obtained from different individuals. Experimental results show that the proposed method has good deformation ability and topology-preserving ability, providing a new way to the nonrigid medical image registration. PMID:23424604

  8. Tracking Non-rigid Structures in Computer Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Gezahegne, A; Kamath, C

    2008-01-10

    A key challenge in tracking moving objects is the correspondence problem, that is, the correct propagation of object labels from one time step to another. This is especially true when the objects are non-rigid structures, changing shape, and merging and splitting over time. In this work, we describe a general approach to tracking thousands of non-rigid structures in an image sequence. We show how we can minimize memory requirements and generate accurate results while working with only two frames of the sequence at a time. We demonstrate our results using data from computer simulations of a fluimix problem.

  9. Numerical analysis of slender vortex motion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, H.

    1996-02-01

    Several numerical methods for slender vortex motion (the local induction equation, the Klein-Majda equation, and the Klein-Knio equation) are compared on the specific example of sideband instability of Kelvin waves on a vortex. Numerical experiments on this model problem indicate that all these methods yield qualitatively similar behavior, and this behavior is different from the behavior of a non-slender vortex with variable cross-section. It is found that the boundaries between stable, recurrent, and chaotic regimes in the parameter space of the model problem depend on the method used. The boundaries of these domains in the parameter space for the Klein-Majda equation and for the Klein-Knio equation are closely related to the core size. When the core size is large enough, the Klein-Majda equation always exhibits stable solutions for our model problem. Various conclusions are drawn; in particular, the behavior of turbulent vortices cannot be captured by these local approximations, and probably cannot be captured by any slender vortex model with constant vortex cross-section. Speculations about the differences between classical and superfluid hydrodynamics are also offered.

  10. Ground Motion in Central Mexico: A Comprehensive Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Juarez, A.; Rábade, S.; Aguirre, J.; Bielak, J.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents a detailed analysis of the ground motion in Central Mexico based on numerical simulations, as well as broadband and strong ground motion records. We describe and evaluate a velocity model for Central Mexico derived from noise and regional earthquake cross-correlations, which is used throughout this research to estimate the ground motion in the region. The 3D crustal model includes a geotechnical structure of the Valley of Mexico (VM), subduction zone geometry, and 3D velocity distributions. The latter are based on more than 200 low magnitude (Mw < 4.5) earthquakes and two years of noise recordings. We emphasize the analysis on the ground motion in the Valley of Mexico originating from intra-slab deep events and temblors located along the Pacific coast. Also, we quantify the effects Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) and the low-velocity deposits on the ground motion. The 3D octree-based finite element wave propagation computations, valid up to 1 Hz, reveal that the inclusion of a basin with a structure as complex as the Valley of Mexico dramatically enhances the regional effects induced by the TMVB. Moreover, the basin not only produces ground motion amplification and anomalous duration, but it also favors the energy focusing into zones of Mexico City where structures typically undergo high levels of damage.

  11. Analysis of models for curvature driven motion of interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, Drew E.

    Interfacial energies frequently appear in models arising in materials science and engineering. To dissipate energy in these systems, the interfaces will often move by a curvature dependent velocity. The present work details the mathematical analysis of some models for curvature dependent motion of interfaces. In particular we focus on two types, thresholding schemes and phase field models. With regard to thresholding schemes, we give a new proof of the convergence of the Merriman-Bence-Osher thresholding algorithm to motion by mean curvature. This new proof does not rely on the scheme satisfying a comparison principle. The technique shows promise in proving the convergence of thresholding schemes for more general motions, such as fourth-order motions and motions of higher codimension interfaces. The application of the proof technique to these more general schemes is discussed, along with rigorous consistency estimates. With regard to phase-field models, we examine the L 2-gradient flow of a second order gradient model for phase transitions, introduced by Fonseca and Mantegazza. In the case of radial symmetry we demonstrate that the diffuse interfacial dynamics converge to motion by mean curvature as the width of the interface decreases to zero. This is in accordance with the first-order Allen-Cahn model for phase transitions. But unlike the Allen-Cahn model, the gradient flow for the Fonseca-Mantegazza model is a fourth-order parabolic PDE. This creates new and novel difficulties in its analysis.

  12. Image sequence analysis workstation for multipoint motion analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafavi, Hassan

    1990-08-01

    This paper describes an application-specific engineering workstation designed and developed to analyze motion of objects from video sequences. The system combines the software and hardware environment of a modem graphic-oriented workstation with the digital image acquisition, processing and display techniques. In addition to automation and Increase In throughput of data reduction tasks, the objective of the system Is to provide less invasive methods of measurement by offering the ability to track objects that are more complex than reflective markers. Grey level Image processing and spatial/temporal adaptation of the processing parameters is used for location and tracking of more complex features of objects under uncontrolled lighting and background conditions. The applications of such an automated and noninvasive measurement tool include analysis of the trajectory and attitude of rigid bodies such as human limbs, robots, aircraft in flight, etc. The system's key features are: 1) Acquisition and storage of Image sequences by digitizing and storing real-time video; 2) computer-controlled movie loop playback, freeze frame display, and digital Image enhancement; 3) multiple leading edge tracking in addition to object centroids at up to 60 fields per second from both live input video or a stored Image sequence; 4) model-based estimation and tracking of the six degrees of freedom of a rigid body: 5) field-of-view and spatial calibration: 6) Image sequence and measurement data base management; and 7) offline analysis software for trajectory plotting and statistical analysis.

  13. New method of on-line quantification of regional wall motion with automated segmental motion analysis.

    PubMed

    Fujino, T; Ono, S; Murata, K; Tanaka, N; Tone, T; Yamamura, T; Tomochika, Y; Kimura, K; Ueda, K; Liu, J; Wada, Y; Murashita, M; Kondo, Y; Matsuzaki, M

    2001-09-01

    We have recently developed an automated segmental motion analysis (A-SMA) system, based on an automatic "blood-tissue interface" detection technique, to provide real-time and on-line objective echocardiographic segmental wall motion analysis. To assess the feasibility of A-SMA in detecting regional left ventricular (LV) wall motion abnormalities, we performed 2-dimensional echocardiography with A-SMA in 13 healthy subjects, 22 patients with prior myocardial infarction (MI), and 9 with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Midpapillary parasternal short-axis and apical 2- and 4-chamber views were obtained to clearly trace the blood-tissue interface. The LV cavity was then divided into 6 wedge-shaped segments by A-SMA. The area of each segment was calculated automatically throughout a cardiac cycle, and the area changes of each segment were displayed as bar graphs or time-area curves. The systolic fractional area change (FAC), peak ejection rate (PER), and filling rate (PFR) were also calculated with the use of A-SMA. In the control group, a uniform FAC was observed in real time among 6 segments in the short-axis view (60% +/- 10% to 78% +/- 9%), or among 5 segments in either the 2-chamber (59% +/- 12% to 75% +/- 16%) or 4-chamber view (58% +/- 13% to 72% +/- 12%). The variations of FAC, PER, and PFR were obviously decreased in infarct-related regions in the MI group and were globally decreased in the DCM group. We conclude that A-SMA is an objective and time-saving method for assessing regional wall motion abnormalities in real time. This method is a reliable new tool that provides on-line quantification of regional wall motion.

  14. A shockwave approach for web-based clinical motion analysis.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Edward

    2004-01-01

    Advances in Internet connectivity and personal multimedia computing have created opportunities for integrating simple motion analysis into clinical practice. The Macromedia Shockwave environment provides tools for creating media-rich software that runs within a Web browser. For this project, clinical motion analysis software was created using Shockwave that can load digital video clips of a client's motion, step/shuttle/play through the clip, superimpose a grid over the video image, measure relative joint angles, scale to a linear factor, measure distances, and measure average velocities. After installing the Shockwave and Quicktime video plug-ins, the Motion Analysis Tools-Shockwave program runs directly from a Web page hyperlink. Program testing involved comparing angle measurements, linear distances, stride length, and walking speed among six video clips. The first three clips were of a transtibial prosthesis being carried through the field of view (640 x 480, 320 x 240, 320 x 240 enlarged to 640 x 480). The second set of three clips was of a metal square carried through the field of view. Average root mean square errors were 2.0 degrees for angle measures and 1.2 cm for length measures. Stride length standard deviation was 4.6 cm (mean length = 212.1 cm). Average walking speed standard deviation was 0.015 m/s (mean speed = 1.15 m/s). The test results were consistent with video motion analysis results and within an acceptable range for clinical design-making. This Web-based motion analysis approach provides a useful tool for ubiquitous, quantitative, clinical gait analysis.

  15. Low-level motion analysis of color and luminance for perception of 2D and 3D motion.

    PubMed

    Shioiri, Satoshi; Yoshizawa, Masanori; Ogiya, Mistuharu; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Yaguchi, Hirohisa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the low-level motion mechanisms for color and luminance and their integration process using 2D and 3D motion aftereffects (MAEs). The 2D and 3D MAEs obtained in equiluminant color gratings showed that the visual system has the low-level motion mechanism for color motion as well as for luminance motion. The 3D MAE is an MAE for motion in depth after monocular motion adaptation. Apparent 3D motion can be perceived after prolonged exposure of one eye to lateral motion because the difference in motion signal between the adapted and unadapted eyes generates interocular velocity differences (IOVDs). Since IOVDs cannot be analyzed by the high-level motion mechanism of feature tracking, we conclude that a low-level motion mechanism is responsible for the 3D MAE. Since we found different temporal frequency characteristics between the color and luminance stimuli, MAEs in the equiluminant color stimuli cannot be attributed to a residual luminance component in the color stimulus. Although a similar MAE was found with a luminance and a color test both for 2D and 3D motion judgments after adapting to either color or luminance motion, temporal frequency characteristics were different between the color and luminance adaptation. The visual system must have a low-level motion mechanism for color signals as for luminance ones. We also found that color and luminance motion signals are integrated monocularly before IOVD analysis, showing a cross adaptation effect between color and luminance stimuli. This was supported by an experiment with dichoptic presentations of color and luminance tests. In the experiment, color and luminance tests were presented in the different eyes dichoptically with four different combinations of test and adaptation: color or luminance test in the adapted eye after color or luminance adaptation. Findings of little or no influence of the adaptation/test combinations indicate the integration of color and luminance motion signals prior to the

  16. Recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis of human motion data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josiński, Henryk; Michalczuk, Agnieszka; Świtoński, Adam; Szczesna, Agnieszka; Wojciechowski, Konrad

    2016-06-01

    The authors present exemplary application of recurrence plots, cross recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis for the purpose of exploration of experimental time series describing selected aspects of human motion. Time series were extracted from treadmill gait sequences which were recorded in the Human Motion Laboratory (HML) of the Polish-Japanese Academy of Information Technology in Bytom, Poland by means of the Vicon system. Analysis was focused on the time series representing movements of hip, knee, ankle and wrist joints in the sagittal plane.

  17. Human Factors Vehicle Displacement Analysis: Engineering In Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atencio, Laura Ashley; Reynolds, David; Robertson, Clay

    2010-01-01

    While positioned on the launch pad at the Kennedy Space Center, tall stacked launch vehicles are exposed to the natural environment. Varying directional winds and vortex shedding causes the vehicle to sway in an oscillating motion. The Human Factors team recognizes that vehicle sway may hinder ground crew operation, impact the ground system designs, and ultimately affect launch availability . The objective of this study is to physically simulate predicted oscillation envelopes identified by analysis. and conduct a Human Factors Analysis to assess the ability to carry out essential Upper Stage (US) ground operator tasks based on predicted vehicle motion.

  18. Observation and analysis of high-speed human motion with frequent occlusion in a large area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuru; Liu, Jiafeng; Liu, Guojun; Tang, Xianglong; Liu, Peng

    2009-12-01

    The use of computer vision technology in collecting and analyzing statistics during sports matches or training sessions is expected to provide valuable information for tactics improvement. However, the measurements published in the literature so far are either unreliably documented to be used in training planning due to their limitations or unsuitable for studying high-speed motion in large area with frequent occlusions. A sports annotation system is introduced in this paper for tracking high-speed non-rigid human motion over a large playing area with the aid of motion camera, taking short track speed skating competitions as an example. The proposed system is composed of two sub-systems: precise camera motion compensation and accurate motion acquisition. In the video registration step, a distinctive invariant point feature detector (probability density grads detector) and a global parallax based matching points filter are used, to provide reliable and robust matching across a large range of affine distortion and illumination change. In the motion acquisition step, a two regions' relationship constrained joint color model and Markov chain Monte Carlo based joint particle filter are emphasized, by dividing the human body into two relative key regions. Several field tests are performed to assess measurement errors, including comparison to popular algorithms. With the help of the system presented, the system obtains position data on a 30 m × 60 m large rink with root-mean-square error better than 0.3975 m, velocity and acceleration data with absolute error better than 1.2579 m s-1 and 0.1494 m s-2, respectively.

  19. Bifurcation analysis of aircraft pitching motions near the stability boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui, W. H.; Tobak, M.

    1984-01-01

    Bifuraction theory is used to analyze the nonlinear dynamic stability characteristics of an aircraft subject to single degree of freedom pitching-motion perturbations about a large mean angle of attack. The requisite aerodynamic information in the equations of motion is represented in a form equivalent to the response to finite-amplitude pitching oscillations about the mean angle of attack. This information is deduced from the case of infinitesimal-amplitude oscillations. The bifurcation theory analysis reveals that when the mean angle of attack is increased beyond a critical value at which the aerodynamic damping vanishes, new solutions representing finite-amplitude periodic motions bifurcate from the previously stable steady motion. The sign of a simple criterion, cast in terms of aerodynamic properties, determines whether the bifurcating solutions are stable (supercritical) or unstable (subcritical). For flat-plate airfoils flying at supersonic/hypersonic speed, the bifurcation is subcritical, implying either that exchanges of stability between steady and periodic motion are accompanied by hysteresis phenomena, or that potentially large aperiodic departures from steady motion may develop.

  20. AMAB: automated measurement and analysis of body motion.

    PubMed

    Poppe, Ronald; Van Der Zee, Sophie; Heylen, Dirk K J; Taylor, Paul J

    2014-09-01

    Technologies that measure human nonverbal behavior have existed for some time, and their use in the analysis of social behavior has become more popular following the development of sensor technologies that record full-body movement. However, a standardized methodology to efficiently represent and analyze full-body motion is absent. In this article, we present automated measurement and analysis of body motion (AMAB), a methodology for examining individual and interpersonal nonverbal behavior from the output of full-body motion tracking systems. We address the recording, screening, and normalization of the data, providing methods for standardizing the data across recording condition and across subject body sizes. We then propose a series of dependent measures to operationalize common research questions in psychological research. We present practical examples from several application areas to demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed method for full-body measurements and comparisons across time, space, body parts, and subjects.

  1. AMAB: automated measurement and analysis of body motion.

    PubMed

    Poppe, Ronald; Van Der Zee, Sophie; Heylen, Dirk K J; Taylor, Paul J

    2014-09-01

    Technologies that measure human nonverbal behavior have existed for some time, and their use in the analysis of social behavior has become more popular following the development of sensor technologies that record full-body movement. However, a standardized methodology to efficiently represent and analyze full-body motion is absent. In this article, we present automated measurement and analysis of body motion (AMAB), a methodology for examining individual and interpersonal nonverbal behavior from the output of full-body motion tracking systems. We address the recording, screening, and normalization of the data, providing methods for standardizing the data across recording condition and across subject body sizes. We then propose a series of dependent measures to operationalize common research questions in psychological research. We present practical examples from several application areas to demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed method for full-body measurements and comparisons across time, space, body parts, and subjects. PMID:24142835

  2. Non-actual motion: phenomenological analysis and linguistic evidence.

    PubMed

    Blomberg, Johan; Zlatev, Jordan

    2015-09-01

    Sentences with motion verbs describing static situations have been seen as evidence that language and cognition are geared toward dynamism and change (Talmy in Toward a cognitive semantics, MIT Press, Cambridge, 2000; Langacker in Concept, image, and symbol: the cognitive basis of grammar, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin and New York, 1990). Different concepts have been used in the literature, e.g., fictive motion, subjective motion and abstract motion to denote this. Based on phenomenological analysis, we reinterpret such concepts as reflecting different motivations for the use of such constructions (Blomberg and Zlatev in Phenom Cogn Sci 13(3):395-418, 2014). To highlight the multifaceted character of the phenomenon, we propose the concept non-actual motion (NAM), which we argue is more compatible with the situated cognition approach than explanations such as "mental simulation" (e.g., Matlock in Studies in linguistic motivation, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, 2004). We investigate the expression of NAM by means of a picture-based elicitation task with speakers of Swedish, French and Thai. Pictures represented figures that either afford human motion or not (±afford); crossed with this, the figure extended either across the picture from a third-person perspective (3 pp) or from a first-person perspective (1 pp). All picture types elicited NAM-sentences with the combination [+afford, 1 pp] producing most NAM-sentences in all three languages. NAM-descriptions also conformed to language-specific patterns for the expression of actual motion. We conclude that NAM shows interaction between pre-linguistic motivations and language-specific conventions.

  3. Analysis of unbounded operators and random motion

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, Palle E. T.

    2009-11-15

    We study infinite weighted graphs with view to 'limits at infinity' or boundaries at infinity. Examples of such weighted graphs arise in infinite (in practice, that means 'very' large) networks of resistors or in statistical mechanics models for classical or quantum systems. However, more generally, our analysis includes reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces and associated operators on them. If X is some infinite set of vertices or nodes, in applications the essential ingredient going into the definition is a reproducing kernel Hilbert space; it measures the differences of functions on X evaluated on pairs of points in X. Moreover, the Hilbert norm-squared in H(X) will represent a suitable measure of energy. Associated unbounded operators will define a notion or dissipation, it can be a graph Laplacian or a more abstract unbounded Hermitian operator defined from the reproducing kernel Hilbert space under study. We prove that there are two closed subspaces in reproducing kernel Hilbert space H(X) that measure quantitative notions of limits at infinity in X: one generalizes finite-energy harmonic functions in H(X) and the other a deficiency index of a natural operator in H(X) associated directly with the diffusion. We establish these results in the abstract, and we offer examples and applications. Our results are related to, but different from, potential theoretic notions of 'boundaries' in more standard random walk models. Comparisons are made.

  4. Visual analysis and image motion in locomoting cats.

    PubMed

    Sherk, H; Fowler, G A

    2001-03-01

    During locomotion, observers see a characteristic pattern of motion referred to as an optic flow field. To investigate how they make use of this pattern, we have developed a paradigm for testing visual function during locomotion. Foot placement was recorded while cats walked down an alley cluttered with a high density of small objects; the task was to avoid stepping on any object. In the experiments reported here, motion cues were eliminated by the use of low-frequency strobe lighting. In bright continuous light cats performed with great accuracy, and likewise at scotopic light levels. However, in strobe lighting their error rates increased more than threefold. This deterioration could not be attributed to lower acuity, since the cats' performance remained excellent when the light level was reduced well below that afforded by the strobe light. When very dim continuous light was combined with low-frequency strobe lighting, performance was substantially better than under strobe light alone. We conclude that motion-sensitive neurons make a major contribution to visual guidance of foot placement during locomotion. When strobe lighting is combined with very dim continuous light, even the minimal motion information available in the intervals between bright strobe flashes improves performance significantly. Cats were also trained to discriminate between complex patterns, and this discrimination was not affected by strobe lighting, suggesting that motion-sensitive neurons are not critical for this analysis. PMID:11285021

  5. Analysis of cardiac interventricular septum motion in different respiratory states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tautz, Lennart; Feng, Li; Otazo, Ricardo; Hennemuth, Anja; Axel, Leon

    2016-03-01

    The interaction between the left and right heart ventricles (LV and RV) depends on load and pressure conditions that are affected by cardiac contraction and respiration cycles. A novel MRI sequence, XD-GRASP, allows the acquisition of multi-dimensional, respiration-sorted and cardiac-synchronized free-breathing image data. In these data, effects of the cardiac and respiratory cycles on the LV/RV interaction can be observed independently. To enable the analysis of such data, we developed a semi-automatic exploration workflow. After tracking a cross-sectional line positioned over the heart, over all motion states, the septum and heart wall border locations are detected by analyzing the grey-value profile under the lines. These data are used to quantify septum motion, both in absolute units and as a fraction of the heart size, to compare values for different subjects. In addition to conventional visualization techniques, we used color maps for intuitive exploration of the variable values for this multi-dimensional data set. We acquired short-axis image data of nine healthy volunteers, to analyze the position and the motion of the interventricular septum in different breathing states and different cardiac cycle phases. The results indicate a consistent range of normal septum motion values, and also suggest that respiratory phase-dependent septum motion is greatest near end-diastolic phases. These new methods are a promising tool to assess LV/RV ventricle interaction and the effects of respiration on this interaction.

  6. Probabilistic seismic demand analysis using advanced ground motion intensity measures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tothong, P.; Luco, N.

    2007-01-01

    One of the objectives in performance-based earthquake engineering is to quantify the seismic reliability of a structure at a site. For that purpose, probabilistic seismic demand analysis (PSDA) is used as a tool to estimate the mean annual frequency of exceeding a specified value of a structural demand parameter (e.g. interstorey drift). This paper compares and contrasts the use, in PSDA, of certain advanced scalar versus vector and conventional scalar ground motion intensity measures (IMs). One of the benefits of using a well-chosen IM is that more accurate evaluations of seismic performance are achieved without the need to perform detailed ground motion record selection for the nonlinear dynamic structural analyses involved in PSDA (e.g. record selection with respect to seismic parameters such as earthquake magnitude, source-to-site distance, and ground motion epsilon). For structural demands that are dominated by a first mode of vibration, using inelastic spectral displacement (Sdi) can be advantageous relative to the conventionally used elastic spectral acceleration (Sa) and the vector IM consisting of Sa and epsilon (??). This paper demonstrates that this is true for ordinary and for near-source pulse-like earthquake records. The latter ground motions cannot be adequately characterized by either Sa alone or the vector of Sa and ??. For structural demands with significant higher-mode contributions (under either of the two types of ground motions), even Sdi (alone) is not sufficient, so an advanced scalar IM that additionally incorporates higher modes is used.

  7. Robust and sensitive video motion detection for sleep analysis.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Adrienne; Geng, Di; Znamenskiy, Dmitry; Vink, Jelte Peter; de Haan, Gerard

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a camera-based system combining video motion detection, motion estimation, and texture analysis with machine learning for sleep analysis. The system is robust to time-varying illumination conditions while using standard camera and infrared illumination hardware. We tested the system for periodic limb movement (PLM) detection during sleep, using EMG signals as a reference. We evaluated the motion detection performance both per frame and with respect to movement event classification relevant for PLM detection. The Matthews correlation coefficient improved by a factor of 2, compared to a state-of-the-art motion detection method, while sensitivity and specificity increased with 45% and 15%, respectively. Movement event classification improved by a factor of 6 and 3 in constant and highly varying lighting conditions, respectively. On 11 PLM patient test sequences, the proposed system achieved a 100% accurate PLM index (PLMI) score with a slight temporal misalignment of the starting time (<1 s) regarding one movement. We conclude that camera-based PLM detection during sleep is feasible and can give an indication of the PLMI score.

  8. Analysis of unstructured video based on camera motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdollahian, Golnaz; Delp, Edward J.

    2007-01-01

    Although considerable work has been done in management of "structured" video such as movies, sports, and television programs that has known scene structures, "unstructured" video analysis is still a challenging problem due to its unrestricted nature. The purpose of this paper is to address issues in the analysis of unstructured video and in particular video shot by a typical unprofessional user (i.e home video). We describe how one can make use of camera motion information for unstructured video analysis. A new concept, "camera viewing direction," is introduced as the building block of home video analysis. Motion displacement vectors are employed to temporally segment the video based on this concept. We then find the correspondence between the camera behavior with respect to the subjective importance of the information in each segment and describe how different patterns in the camera motion can indicate levels of interest in a particular object or scene. By extracting these patterns, the most representative frames, keyframes, for the scenes are determined and aggregated to summarize the video sequence.

  9. Energy flow: image correspondence approximation for motion analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liangliang; Li, Ruifeng; Fang, Yajun

    2016-04-01

    We propose a correspondence approximation approach between temporally adjacent frames for motion analysis. First, energy map is established to represent image spatial features on multiple scales using Gaussian convolution. On this basis, energy flow at each layer is estimated using Gauss-Seidel iteration according to the energy invariance constraint. More specifically, at the core of energy invariance constraint is "energy conservation law" assuming that the spatial energy distribution of an image does not change significantly with time. Finally, energy flow field at different layers is reconstructed by considering different smoothness degrees. Due to the multiresolution origin and energy-based implementation, our algorithm is able to quickly address correspondence searching issues in spite of background noise or illumination variation. We apply our correspondence approximation method to motion analysis, and experimental results demonstrate its applicability.

  10. Relativistic Double Group Spinor Representations of Non-rigid Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Balasubramanian, K

    2003-12-22

    The character theory of relativistic double group spinor representations is developed in order to represent the total rovibronic states of non-rigid molecules. It is shown that the double groups can be represented in terms of wreath products and powerful matrix cycle type generators that are used to construct their character tables. It is shown that these tables are of use when spin-orbit coupling is included in the hamiltonian even for molecules containing lighter atoms. Applications to non-rigid molecules such as Tl{sub 2}H{sub 4} /Tl{sub 2}H{sub 4}{sup +} are considered. It is shown that the tunneling splittings and the nuclear spin statistical weights can be obtained for such species using the character tables thus constructed. The spinor double groups of several other molecules such as hexamethyl dilead and heavy weakly bound clusters such as (PoH{sub 2}){sub 4} are also considered.

  11. Human detection and motion analysis at security points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozer, I. Burak; Lv, Tiehan; Wolf, Wayne H.

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents a real-time video surveillance system for the recognition of specific human activities. Specifically, the proposed automatic motion analysis is used as an on-line alarm system to detect abnormal situations in a campus environment. A smart multi-camera system developed at Princeton University is extended for use in smart environments in which the camera detects the presence of multiple persons as well as their gestures and their interaction in real-time.

  12. Quantitative analysis of motion control in long term microgravity.

    PubMed

    Baroni, G; Ferrigno, G; Anolli, A; Andreoni, G; Pedotti, A

    1998-01-01

    In the frame of the 179-days EUROMIR '95 space mission, two in-flight experiments have foreseen quantitative three-dimensional human movement analysis in microgravity. For this aim, a space qualified opto-electronic motion analyser based on passive markers has been installed onboard the Russian Space Station MIR and 8 in flight sessions have been performed. Techhology and method for the collection of kinematics data are described, evaluating the accuracy in three-dimensional marker localisation. Results confirm the suitability of opto-electronic technology for quantitative human motion analysis on orbital modules and raise a set of "lessons learned", leading to the improvement of motion analyser performance with a contemporary swiftness of the on-board operations. Among the experimental program of T4, results of three voluntary posture perturbation protocols are described. The analysis suggests that a short term reinterpretation of proprioceptive information and re-calibration of sensorimotor mechanisms seem to end within the first weeks of flight, while a continuous long term adaptation process allows the refinement of motor performance, in the frame of never abandoned terrestrial strategies.

  13. Non-rigid image registration with SalphaS filters.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shu; Chung, Albert C S

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, based on the SalphaS distributions, we design SalphaS filters and use the filters as a new feature extraction method for non-rigid medical image registration. In brain MR images, the energy distributions of different frequency bands often exhibit heavy-tailed behavior. Such non-Gaussian behavior is essential for non-rigid image registration but cannot be satisfactorily modeled by the conventional Gabor filters. This leads to unsatisfactory modeling of voxels located at the salient regions of the images. To this end, we propose the SalphaS filters for modeling the heavy-tailed behavior of the energy distributions of brain MR images, and show that the Gabor filter is a special case of the SalphaS filter. The maximum response orientation selection criterion is defined for each frequency band to achieve rotation invariance. In our framework, if the brain MR images are already segmented, each voxel can be automatically assigned a weighting factor based on the Fisher's separation criterion and it is shown that the registration performance can be further improved. The proposed method has been compared with the free-form-deformation based method, Demons algorithm and a method using Gabor features by conducting non-rigid image registration experiments. It is observed that the proposed method achieves the best registration accuracy among all the compared methods in both the simulated and real datasets obtained from the BrainWeb and IBSR respectively.

  14. Retrieval analysis of motion preserving spinal devices and periprosthetic tissues

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, Steven M.; Steinbeck, Marla; Ianuzzi, Allyson; van Ooij, André; Punt, Ilona M.; Isaza, Jorge; Ross, E.R.S.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews certain practical aspects of retrieval analysis for motion preserving spinal implants and periprosthetic tissues as an essential component of the overall revision strategy for these implants. At our institution, we established an international repository for motion-preserving spine implants in 2004. Our repository is currently open to all spine surgeons, and is intended to be inclusive of all cervical and lumbar implant designs such as artificial discs and posterior dynamic stabilization devices. Although a wide range of alternative materials is being investigated for nonfusion spine implants, many of the examples in this review are drawn from our existing repository of metal-on-polyethylene, metal-on-metal lumbar total disc replacements (TDRs), and polyurethane-based dynamic motion preservation devices. These devices are already approved or nearing approval for use in the United States, and hence are the most clinically relevant at the present time. This article summarizes the current literature on the retrieval analysis of these implants and concludes with recommendations for the development of new test methods that are based on the current state of knowledge of in vivo wear and damage mechanisms. Furthermore, the relevance and need to evaluate the surrounding tissue to obtain a complete understanding of the biological reaction to implant component corrosion and wear is reviewed. PMID:25802641

  15. Design and analysis of a star image motion compensator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanczyk, K. C.; Ostroff, A. J.; Howell, W. E.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of designing and fabricating a small optical system to compensate for motions of a stellar field image on the focal plane of a large orbiting telescope is examined for a single-axis system. An all-reflecting two-mirror star image motion compensator maintains both a flat focal plane and image focus for one or more star images. Both theoretical and experimental evaluations show that only one adjustment is needed to aline the system since the change in focus is linearly related to the misalinements of all critical components. Results of an error analysis show that the focus error resulting from fabrication tolerances is very small compared to the adjustment capability of the system.

  16. Motion Simulation Analysis of Rail Weld CNC Fine Milling Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Huajie; Shu, Min; Li, Chao; Zhang, Baojun

    CNC fine milling machine is a new advanced equipment of rail weld precision machining with high precision, high efficiency, low environmental pollution and other technical advantages. The motion performance of this machine directly affects its machining accuracy and stability, which makes it an important consideration for its design. Based on the design drawings, this article completed 3D modeling of 60mm/kg rail weld CNC fine milling machine by using Solidworks. After that, the geometry was imported into Adams to finish the motion simulation analysis. The displacement, velocity, angular velocity and some other kinematical parameters curves of the main components were obtained in the post-processing and these are the scientific basis for the design and development for this machine.

  17. Time series analysis of collective motions in proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alakent, Burak; Doruker, Pemra; ćamurdan, Mehmet C.

    2004-01-01

    The dynamics of α-amylase inhibitor tendamistat around its native state is investigated using time series analysis of the principal components of the Cα atomic displacements obtained from molecular dynamics trajectories. Collective motion along a principal component is modeled as a homogeneous nonstationary process, which is the result of the damped oscillations in local minima superimposed on a random walk. The motion in local minima is described by a stationary autoregressive moving average model, consisting of the frequency, damping factor, moving average parameters and random shock terms. Frequencies for the first 50 principal components are found to be in the 3-25 cm-1 range, which are well correlated with the principal component indices and also with atomistic normal mode analysis results. Damping factors, though their correlation is less pronounced, decrease as principal component indices increase, indicating that low frequency motions are less affected by friction. The existence of a positive moving average parameter indicates that the stochastic force term is likely to disturb the mode in opposite directions for two successive sampling times, showing the modes tendency to stay close to minimum. All these four parameters affect the mean square fluctuations of a principal mode within a single minimum. The inter-minima transitions are described by a random walk model, which is driven by a random shock term considerably smaller than that for the intra-minimum motion. The principal modes are classified into three subspaces based on their dynamics: essential, semiconstrained, and constrained, at least in partial consistency with previous studies. The Gaussian-type distributions of the intermediate modes, called "semiconstrained" modes, are explained by asserting that this random walk behavior is not completely free but between energy barriers.

  18. 3D Guided Wave Motion Analysis on Laminated Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Leckey, Cara; Yu, Lingyu

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves have proved useful for structural health monitoring (SHM) and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) due to their ability to propagate long distances with less energy loss compared to bulk waves and due to their sensitivity to small defects in the structure. Analysis of actively transmitted ultrasonic signals has long been used to detect and assess damage. However, there remain many challenging tasks for guided wave based SHM due to the complexity involved with propagating guided waves, especially in the case of composite materials. The multimodal nature of the ultrasonic guided waves complicates the related damage analysis. This paper presents results from parallel 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) simulations used to acquire 3D wave motion in the subject laminated carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites. The acquired 3D wave motion is then analyzed by frequency-wavenumber analysis to study the wave propagation and interaction in the composite laminate. The frequency-wavenumber analysis enables the study of individual modes and visualization of mode conversion. Delamination damage has been incorporated into the EFIT model to generate "damaged" data. The potential for damage detection in laminated composites is discussed in the end.

  19. Motion analysis of sun salutation using magnetometer and accelerometer

    PubMed Central

    Omkar, SN; Mour, Meenakshi; Das, Debarun

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sun salutation is a part of yoga. It consists of a sequence of postures done with synchronized breathing. The practice of few cycles of sun salutation is known to help in maintaining good health and vigor. The practice of sun salutation does not need any extra gadgets. Also it is very much aerobic and invigorates the body and the mind. sun salutation, which comprises 10 postures, involves most of the joints of the body. Understanding the transition phase during motion is a challenging task, and thus, new convenient methods need to be employed. Aims: The purpose of this study was to get an insight into the motion analysis of sun salutation during the transition from each of the 10 postures. Materials and Methods: A device MicroStrain sensor 3DM-GX1, which is a combination of magnetometers, accelerometers, and gyroscopes was used to measure the inclination and the acceleration of the body along the three axes. The acceleration obtained was then separated into gravitational and kinematic components. Results and Conclusions: The value of the gravitational component helps us to understand the position of the body and the kinematic component helps us to analyze the grace of the motion. PMID:20842266

  20. Sea Ice Motion from Wavelet Analysis of Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Antony K.; Zhou, Yun-He; Zukor, Dorothy (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Wavelet analysis of NASA scatterometer (NSCAT) backscatter and Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) radiance data can be used to obtain daily sea ice drift information for the Arctic region. This technique provides improved spatial coverage over the existing array of Arctic Ocean buoys and better temporal resolution over techniques utilizing data from satellite synthetic aperture radars. Comparisons with ice motion derived from ocean buoys give good quantitative agreement. Both comparison results from NSCAT and SSM/I are compatible, and the results from NSCAT can definitely complement that from SSM/I when there are cloud or surface effects. Then three sea-ice drift daily results from NSCAT, SSM/I, and buoy data can be merged as a composite map by some data fusion techniques. The ice flow streamlines are highly correlated with surface air pressure contours. Examples of derived ice-drift maps in December 1996 illustrate large-scale circulation reversals over a period of four days. A method for deriving divergence and shear at the large-scale has been developed and comparison between buoys and satellite results shows a good agreement. These calibrated/validated results indicate that NSCAT, SSM/I merged daily ice motion are suitably accurate to identify and closely locate sea ice processes, and to improve our current knowledge of sea ice drift and related processes through the data assimilation of ocean-ice numerical model. For demonstration purpose, the ice velocities derived from satellite data are compared with the ice velocities derived from a coupled ice-ocean interaction model. The comparison reveals that the general circulation patterns of the two are quite similar but the ice velocity differences between the two are quite significant. In order to quantify the wind effects on ice motion, empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) are used in the principal component analysis for both ice motion and pressure field. Some

  1. Coherence Motion Perception in Developmental Dyslexia: A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benassi, Mariagrazia; Simonelli, Letizia; Giovagnoli, Sara; Bolzani, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The magnitude of the association between developmental dyslexia (DD) and motion sensitivity is evaluated in 35 studies, which investigated coherence motion perception in DD. A first analysis is conducted on the differences between DD groups and age-matched control (C) groups. In a second analysis, the relationship between motion coherence…

  2. Validation and Comparison of Approaches to Respiratory Motion Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabus, Sven; Klinder, Tobias; Murphy, Keelin; Werner, René; Sarrut, David

    The accuracy of respiratory motion estimation has a direct impact on the success of clinical applications such as diagnosis, as well as planning, delivery, and assessment of therapy for lung or other thoracic diseases. While rigid registration is well suited to validation and has reached a mature state in clinical applications, for non-rigid registration no gold-standard exists. This chapter investigates the validation of non-rigid registration accuracy with a focus on lung motion. The central questions addressed in this chapter are (1) how to measure registration accuracy, (2) how to generate ground-truth for validation, and (3) how to interpret accuracy assessment results.

  3. Deformable models with sparsity constraints for cardiac motion analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Zhang, Shaoting; Li, Kang; Metaxas, Dimitris; Axel, Leon

    2014-08-01

    Deformable models integrate bottom-up information derived from image appearance cues and top-down priori knowledge of the shape. They have been widely used with success in medical image analysis. One limitation of traditional deformable models is that the information extracted from the image data may contain gross errors, which adversely affect the deformation accuracy. To alleviate this issue, we introduce a new family of deformable models that are inspired from the compressed sensing, a technique for accurate signal reconstruction by harnessing some sparseness priors. In this paper, we employ sparsity constraints to handle the outliers or gross errors, and integrate them seamlessly with deformable models. The proposed new formulation is applied to the analysis of cardiac motion using tagged magnetic resonance imaging (tMRI), where the automated tagging line tracking results are very noisy due to the poor image quality. Our new deformable models track the heart motion robustly, and the resulting strains are consistent with those calculated from manual labels. PMID:24721617

  4. Sparse deformable models with application to cardiac motion analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Zhang, Shaoting; Huang, Junzhou; Metaxas, Dimitris; Axel, Leon

    2013-01-01

    Deformable models have been widely used with success in medical image analysis. They combine bottom-up information derived from image appearance cues, with top-down shape-based constraints within a physics-based formulation. However, in many real world problems the observations extracted from the image data often contain gross errors, which adversely affect the deformation accuracy. To alleviate this issue, we introduce a new family of deformable models that are inspired from compressed sensing, a technique for efficiently reconstructing a signal based on its sparseness in some domain. In this problem, we employ sparsity to represent the outliers or gross errors, and combine it seamlessly with deformable models. The proposed new formulation is applied to the analysis of cardiac motion, using tagged magnetic resonance imaging (tMRI), where the automated tagging line tracking results are very noisy due to the poor image quality. Our new deformable models track the heart motion robustly, and the resulting strains are consistent with those calculated from manual labels. PMID:24683970

  5. Camera systems in human motion analysis for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Lim Chee; Basah, Shafriza Nisha; Yaacob, Sazali; Juan, Yeap Ewe; Kadir, Aida Khairunnisaa Ab.

    2015-05-01

    Human Motion Analysis (HMA) system has been one of the major interests among researchers in the field of computer vision, artificial intelligence and biomedical engineering and sciences. This is due to its wide and promising biomedical applications, namely, bio-instrumentation for human computer interfacing and surveillance system for monitoring human behaviour as well as analysis of biomedical signal and image processing for diagnosis and rehabilitation applications. This paper provides an extensive review of the camera system of HMA, its taxonomy, including camera types, camera calibration and camera configuration. The review focused on evaluating the camera system consideration of the HMA system specifically for biomedical applications. This review is important as it provides guidelines and recommendation for researchers and practitioners in selecting a camera system of the HMA system for biomedical applications.

  6. Improved spectral analysis for the motional Stark effect diagnostica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, J.; Klabacha, J.

    2012-10-01

    The magnetic pitch angle and the magnitude from reversed field pinch plasmas in the Madison symmetric torus (MST) have been routinely obtained from fully resolved motional Stark effect (MSE) spectrum analyses. Recently, the spectrum fit procedure has been improved by initializing and constraining the fit parameters based on the MSE model in the atomic data and analysis structure. A collisional-radiative model with level populations nlm-resolved up to n = 4 and a simple Born approximation for ion-impact cross sections is used for this analysis. Measurement uncertainty is quantified by making MSE measurements with multiple views of a single spatial location, ranging 5%-15% for typical MST operation conditions. A multi-view fit improves the goodness of fit of MSE spectral features and background.

  7. Arctic Sea Ice Motion from Wavelet Analysis of Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Antony K.; Zhao, Yunhe

    1998-01-01

    Wavelet analysis of DMSP SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager) 85 GHz and 37 GHz radiance data, SMMR (Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer) 37 GHz, and NSCAT (NASA Scatterometer) 13.9 GHZ data can be used to obtain daily sea ice drift information for both the northern and southern polar regions. The derived maps of sea ice drift provide both improved spatial coverage over the existing array of Arctic Ocean buoys and better temporal resolution over techniques utilizing data from satellite synthetic aperture radars (SAR). Examples of derived ice-drift maps in the Arctic illustrate large-scale circulation reversals within a period of a couple weeks. Comparisons with ice displacements derived from buoys show good quantitative agreement. NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) 13.9 GHZ data have been also used for wavelet analysis to derive sea-ice drift. First, the 40' incidence-angle, sigma-zero (surface roughness) daily map of whole Arctic region with 25 km of pixel size from satellite's 600 km swath has been constructed. Then, the similar wavelet transform procedure to SSM/I data can be applied. Various scales of wavelet transform and threshold have been tested. By overlaying , neighbor filtering, and block-averaging the results of multiscale wavelet transforms, the final sea ice drift vectors are much smooth and representative to the sea ice motion. This wavelet analysis procedure is robust and can make a major contribution to the understanding of ice motion over large areas at relatively high temporal resolutions. The results of wavelet analysis of SSM/I and NSCAT images and buoy data can be merged by some data fusion techniques and will help to improve our current knowledge of sea ice drift and related processes through the data assimilation of ocean-ice numerical model.

  8. Topology preserving non-rigid image registration using time-varying elasticity model for MRI brain volumes.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sahar; Khan, Muhammad Faisal

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present a new non-rigid image registration method that imposes a topology preservation constraint on the deformation. We propose to incorporate the time varying elasticity model into the deformable image matching procedure and constrain the Jacobian determinant of the transformation over the entire image domain. The motion of elastic bodies is governed by a hyperbolic partial differential equation, generally termed as elastodynamics wave equation, which we propose to use as a deformation model. We carried out clinical image registration experiments on 3D magnetic resonance brain scans from IBSR database. The results of the proposed registration approach in terms of Kappa index and relative overlap computed over the subcortical structures were compared against the existing topology preserving non-rigid image registration methods and non topology preserving variant of our proposed registration scheme. The Jacobian determinant maps obtained with our proposed registration method were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. The results demonstrated that the proposed scheme provides good registration accuracy with smooth transformations, thereby guaranteeing the preservation of topology.

  9. Topology preserving non-rigid image registration using time-varying elasticity model for MRI brain volumes.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sahar; Khan, Muhammad Faisal

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present a new non-rigid image registration method that imposes a topology preservation constraint on the deformation. We propose to incorporate the time varying elasticity model into the deformable image matching procedure and constrain the Jacobian determinant of the transformation over the entire image domain. The motion of elastic bodies is governed by a hyperbolic partial differential equation, generally termed as elastodynamics wave equation, which we propose to use as a deformation model. We carried out clinical image registration experiments on 3D magnetic resonance brain scans from IBSR database. The results of the proposed registration approach in terms of Kappa index and relative overlap computed over the subcortical structures were compared against the existing topology preserving non-rigid image registration methods and non topology preserving variant of our proposed registration scheme. The Jacobian determinant maps obtained with our proposed registration method were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. The results demonstrated that the proposed scheme provides good registration accuracy with smooth transformations, thereby guaranteeing the preservation of topology. PMID:26492319

  10. Effectiveness of an automatic tracking software in underwater motion analysis.

    PubMed

    Magalhaes, Fabrício A; Sawacha, Zimi; Di Michele, Rocco; Cortesi, Matteo; Gatta, Giorgio; Fantozzi, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Tracking of markers placed on anatomical landmarks is a common practice in sports science to perform the kinematic analysis that interests both athletes and coaches. Although different software programs have been developed to automatically track markers and/or features, none of them was specifically designed to analyze underwater motion. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a software developed for automatic tracking of underwater movements (DVP), based on the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi feature tracker. Twenty-one video recordings of different aquatic exercises (n = 2940 markers' positions) were manually tracked to determine the markers' center coordinates. Then, the videos were automatically tracked using DVP and a commercially available software (COM). Since tracking techniques may produce false targets, an operator was instructed to stop the automatic procedure and to correct the position of the cursor when the distance between the calculated marker's coordinate and the reference one was higher than 4 pixels. The proportion of manual interventions required by the software was used as a measure of the degree of automation. Overall, manual interventions were 10.4% lower for DVP (7.4%) than for COM (17.8%). Moreover, when examining the different exercise modes separately, the percentage of manual interventions was 5.6% to 29.3% lower for DVP than for COM. Similar results were observed when analyzing the type of marker rather than the type of exercise, with 9.9% less manual interventions for DVP than for COM. In conclusion, based on these results, the developed automatic tracking software presented can be used as a valid and useful tool for underwater motion analysis. Key PointsThe availability of effective software for automatic tracking would represent a significant advance for the practical use of kinematic analysis in swimming and other aquatic sports.An important feature of automatic tracking software is to require limited human interventions and

  11. Role of the eye in high-speed motion analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyzer, William G.

    1997-05-01

    Prior to the investigation of the photographic process over 150 years ago, the analyses of rapid motions were limited by the dynamic efficacies of the human eye, which has a temporal resolution of approximately 1/10 sec and a maximum information acquisition rate estimated at 103 to 104 bits/sec. At high rates of object motion, only the simplest actions can be resolved, comprehended and retained in human memory. Advances in the field of high-speed photography drastically changed all this by providing us with the ability today to capture permanent images of transient events at acquisition rates in excess of 1012 bits/sec. As remarkable as these improvements in temporal resolution and image retention may be, the final step in correctly interpreting any image still rests largely upon the analyst's ability to process visual data. Those who enter the field of image analysis soon learn how capricious the eye can be in this task. It is incumbent upon anyone performing important image analyses to have at least a basic understanding of the eye's performance characteristics, especially its limitations and capricious anomalies. Exemplary data presented in this paper are drawn from the scientific literature and the author's forty years of experience as a researcher, author and educator in the field of high-speed imaging.

  12. Nonrigid registration using regularization that accomodates local tissue rigidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Dan; Fessler, Jeffrey A.; Roberson, Michael; Balter, James; Kessler, Marc

    2006-03-01

    Regularized nonrigid medical image registration algorithms usually estimate the deformation by minimizing a cost function, consisting of a similarity measure and a penalty term that discourages "unreasonable" deformations. Conventional regularization methods enforce homogeneous smoothness properties of the deformation field; less work has been done to incorporate tissue-type-specific elasticity information. Yet ignoring the elasticity differences between tissue types can result in non-physical results, such as bone warping. Bone structures should move rigidly (locally), unlike the more elastic deformation of soft issues. Existing solutions for this problem either treat different regions of an image independently, which requires precise segmentation and incurs boundary issues; or use an empirical spatial varying "filter" to "correct" the deformation field, which requires the knowledge of a stiffness map and departs from the cost-function formulation. We propose a new approach to incorporate tissue rigidity information into the nonrigid registration problem, by developing a space variant regularization function that encourages the local Jacobian of the deformation to be a nearly orthogonal matrix in rigid image regions, while allowing more elastic deformations elsewhere. For the case of X-ray CT data, we use a simple monotonic increasing function of the CT numbers (in HU) as a "rigidity index" since bones typically have the highest CT numbers. Unlike segmentation-based methods, this approach is flexible enough to account for partial volume effects. Results using a B-spline deformation parameterization illustrate that the proposed approach improves registration accuracy in inhale-exhale CT scans with minimal computational penalty.

  13. Head Motion Modeling for Human Behavior Analysis in Dyadic Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Bo; Georgiou, Panayiotis; Baucom, Brian; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a computational study of head motion in human interaction, notably of its role in conveying interlocutors’ behavioral characteristics. Head motion is physically complex and carries rich information; current modeling approaches based on visual signals, however, are still limited in their ability to adequately capture these important properties. Guided by the methodology of kinesics, we propose a data driven approach to identify typical head motion patterns. The approach follows the steps of first segmenting motion events, then parametrically representing the motion by linear predictive features, and finally generalizing the motion types using Gaussian mixture models. The proposed approach is experimentally validated using video recordings of communication sessions from real couples involved in a couples therapy study. In particular we use the head motion model to classify binarized expert judgments of the interactants’ specific behavioral characteristics where entrainment in head motion is hypothesized to play a role: Acceptance, Blame, Positive, and Negative behavior. We achieve accuracies in the range of 60% to 70% for the various experimental settings and conditions. In addition, we describe a measure of motion similarity between the interaction partners based on the proposed model. We show that the relative change of head motion similarity during the interaction significantly correlates with the expert judgments of the interactants’ behavioral characteristics. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed head motion model, and underscore the promise of analyzing human behavioral characteristics through signal processing methods. PMID:26557047

  14. Autonomous rendezvous and proximate motion of satellites - A covariance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackison, Donald L.; Morenthaler, George W.

    1992-08-01

    The construction of large (10 exp 6 kg) spacecraft in orbit will, in order to meet the requirements of interplanetary launch windows and restrictions of launch facilities require the launch of several 100,000-kg payloads using the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), and their subsequent in-orbit assembly into a completed spacecraft. This assembly will require that the components rendezvous and dock within a reasonable time, taking into consideration launch window restrictions and the operating time limits on the component spacecraft. This will require that the rendezvous and docking operations be accomplished autonomously, without ground control. The trajectory and attitude control of a chase satellite to rendezvous with a target satellite are modeled using the Euler-Hill equations of relative orbital motion, and a linearized set of relative attitude parameters. The effect of uncertainties in the orbit dynamics and sensors, and the attitude dynamics and sensors are modeled using a linearized covariance analysis.

  15. Continuous motion decoding from EMG using independent component analysis and adaptive model training.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Xiong, Caihua; Chen, Wenbin

    2014-01-01

    Surface Electromyography (EMG) is popularly used to decode human motion intention for robot movement control. Traditional motion decoding method uses pattern recognition to provide binary control command which can only move the robot as predefined limited patterns. In this work, we proposed a motion decoding method which can accurately estimate 3-dimensional (3-D) continuous upper limb motion only from multi-channel EMG signals. In order to prevent the muscle activities from motion artifacts and muscle crosstalk which especially obviously exist in upper limb motion, the independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to extract the independent source EMG signals. The motion data was also transferred from 4-manifold to 2-manifold by the principle component analysis (PCA). A hidden Markov model (HMM) was proposed to decode the motion from the EMG signals after the model trained by an adaptive model identification process. Experimental data were used to train the decoding model and validate the motion decoding performance. By comparing the decoded motion with the measured motion, it is found that the proposed motion decoding strategy was feasible to decode 3-D continuous motion from EMG signals.

  16. Coherence analysis for movement disorder motion captured by six degree-of-freedom inertial sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teskey, Wesley J. E.; Elhabiby, Mohamed; El-Sheimy, Naser; MacIntosh, Brian

    2012-06-01

    The use of inertial sensors (accelerometer and gyroscopes) for evaluation of movement disorder motion, including essential tremor (ET) and Parkinson's disease (PD), is becoming prevalent. This paper uses a novel combination of six degree-of-freedom motion analysis and coherence based processing methodologies to uncover differences in the signature of motion for the ET and PD movement disorders. This is the first analysis of such motions utilizing the novel methodology outlined, and it displays a distinct motion profile differentiating between these two groups. Such an analysis can be used to assist medical professionals in diagnosing movement disorders given a currently high error rate of diagnosis. As well, the Kalman smoothing analysis performed in this paper can be quite useful for any application when tracking of human motion is required. Another contribution of the work is the use of wavelets in zero phase lag filtering, which helped in preparing the data for analysis by removing unwanted frequencies without introducing distortions into the data.

  17. Detection of mitoses in embryonic epithelia using motion field analysis.

    PubMed

    Siva, Parthipan; Wayne Brodland, G; Clausi, David

    2009-04-01

    Although computer simulations indicate that mitosis may be important to the mechanics of morphogenetic movements, algorithms to identify mitoses in bright field images of embryonic epithelia have not previously been available. Here, the authors present an algorithm that identifies mitoses and their orientations based on the motion field between successive images. Within this motion field, the algorithm seeks 'mitosis motion field prototypes' characterised by convergent motion in one direction and divergent motion in the orthogonal direction, the local motions produced by the division process. The algorithm uses image processing, vector field analyses and pattern recognition to identify occurrences of this prototype and to determine its orientation. When applied to time-lapse images of gastrulation and neurulation-stage amphibian (Ambystoma mexicanum) embryos, the algorithm achieves identification accuracies of 68 and 67%, respectively and angular accuracies of the order of 30 degrees , values sufficient to assess the role of mitosis in these developmental processes. PMID:19051076

  18. Heart Rate and Motion Analysis by GPS in Beach Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Julen; Casamichana, David

    2010-01-01

    Although beach soccer has become increasingly popular in recent years very little scientific research has been conducted into the sport. A pilot study was carried out with the aim of examining the physiological (heart rate) and physical (motion analysis) responses of beach soccer players during competitive matches. Ten players (age 25.5 ± 0.5 years; height 1.80 ± 0.08 m; weight 78.2 ± 5.6 kg.) were studied over five beach soccer matches. The physiological demands were analysed by measuring heart rate (HR) using telemetric devices, while the physical profile was evaluated by recording motion and speed by means of GPS devices. During competitive matches, players obtained a HRmean of 165.2 bpm (86.5% HRmax), with 59.3% of the time participating (TP) corresponding to values above 90% of the HRmax. The distance covered per minute of participation was 97.7 m, with 9.5% of this distance corresponding to high-intensity running and 2.5% to sprint; the work:rest ratio was 1.4:1 and the maximum speed 21.7 km·h-1. These results showed that beach soccer is an intermittent physical activity of greater intensity than other team games. It requires a major contribution from the anaerobic system as emphasis is placed on players making quick bursts of high-intensity activity separated by brief rest periods. Key points The distance covered per minute of play is around 100 m. Beach soccer is an intermittent sport with a work:rest ratio of 1.4:1. The playing surface in beach soccer is an important handicap to obtain maximum speeds. Beach soccer has a high physiological intensity, with more than half of the game is spent at intensities above 90 % of the HRmax. PMID:24149392

  19. Intracranial Aneurysms: Wall Motion Analysis for Prediction of Rupture.

    PubMed

    Vanrossomme, A E; Eker, O F; Thiran, J-P; Courbebaisse, G P; Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K

    2015-10-01

    Intracranial aneurysms are a common pathologic condition with a potential severe complication: rupture. Effective treatment options exist, neurosurgical clipping and endovascular techniques, but guidelines for treatment are unclear and focus mainly on patient age, aneurysm size, and localization. New criteria to define the risk of rupture are needed to refine these guidelines. One potential candidate is aneurysm wall motion, known to be associated with rupture but difficult to detect and quantify. We review what is known about the association between aneurysm wall motion and rupture, which structural changes may explain wall motion patterns, and available imaging techniques able to analyze wall motion. PMID:25929878

  20. Untypical Undergraduate Research: Player Motion Analysis in Sports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loerke, Dinah

    There is significant concern about the degree of attrition in STEM disciplines from the start of K-12 through to the end of higher education, and the analysis of the `leaky pipeline' from the various institutions has identified a critical decline - which may be as high as 60 percent - between the fraction of students who identify as having an interest in a science or engineering major at the start of college/university, and the fraction of students who ultimately graduate with a STEM degree. It has been shown that this decline is even more dramatic for women and underrepresented minorities (Blickenstaff 2005, Metcalf 2010). One intervention which has been proven to be effective for retention of potential STEM students is early research experience, particularly if it facilitates the students' integration into a STEM learning community (Graham et al. 2013, Toven-Lindsey et al. 2015). In other words, to retain students in STEM majors, we would like to encourage them to `think of themselves as scientists', and simultaneously promote supportive peer networks. The University of Denver (DU) already has a strong undergraduate research program. However, while the current program provides valuable training for many students, it likely comes too late to be effective for student retention in STEM, because it primarily serves older students who have already finished the basic coursework in their discipline; within physics, we know that the introductory physics courses already serve as gatekeeper courses that cause many gifted but `non-typical' students to lose interest in pursuing a STEM major (Tobias 1990). To address this issue, my lab is developing a small research spinoff program in which we apply spatiotemporal motion analysis to the motion trajectories of players in sports, using video recordings of DU Pioneer hockey games. This project aims to fulfill a dual purpose: The research is framed in a way that we think is attractive and accessible for beginning students who

  1. A study of attitude control concepts for precision-pointing non-rigid spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Likins, P. W.

    1975-01-01

    Attitude control concepts for use onboard structurally nonrigid spacecraft that must be pointed with great precision are examined. The task of determining the eigenproperties of a system of linear time-invariant equations (in terms of hybrid coordinates) representing the attitude motion of a flexible spacecraft is discussed. Literal characteristics are developed for the associated eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the system. A method is presented for determining the poles and zeros of the transfer function describing the attitude dynamics of a flexible spacecraft characterized by hybrid coordinate equations. Alterations are made to linear regulator and observer theory to accommodate modeling errors. The results show that a model error vector, which evolves from an error system, can be added to a reduced system model, estimated by an observer, and used by the control law to render the system less sensitive to uncertain magnitudes and phase relations of truncated modes and external disturbance effects. A hybrid coordinate formulation using the provided assumed mode shapes, rather than incorporating the usual finite element approach is provided.

  2. Articulated Non-Rigid Point Set Registration for Human Pose Estimation from 3D Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Song; Fan, Guoliang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a generative framework for 3D human pose estimation that is able to operate on both individual point sets and sequential depth data. We formulate human pose estimation as a point set registration problem, where we propose three new approaches to address several major technical challenges in this research. First, we integrate two registration techniques that have a complementary nature to cope with non-rigid and articulated deformations of the human body under a variety of poses. This unique combination allows us to handle point sets of complex body motion and large pose variation without any initial conditions, as required by most existing approaches. Second, we introduce an efficient pose tracking strategy to deal with sequential depth data, where the major challenge is the incomplete data due to self-occlusions and view changes. We introduce a visible point extraction method to initialize a new template for the current frame from the previous frame, which effectively reduces the ambiguity and uncertainty during registration. Third, to support robust and stable pose tracking, we develop a segment volume validation technique to detect tracking failures and to re-initialize pose registration if needed. The experimental results on both benchmark 3D laser scan and depth datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework when compared with state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:26131673

  3. An analysis of human motion detection systems use during elder exercise routines.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gregory L; Havens, Timothy C; Rantz, Marilyn; Keller, James; Casanova Abbott, Carmen

    2010-03-01

    Human motion analysis provides motion pattern and body pose estimations. This study integrates computer-vision techniques and explores a markerless human motion analysis system. Using human-computer interaction (HCI) methods and goals, researchers use a computer interface to provide feedback about range of motion to users. A total of 35 adults aged 65 and older perform three exercises in a public gym while human motion capture methods are used. Following exercises, participants are shown processed human motion images captured during exercises on a customized interface. Standardized questionnaires are used to elicit responses from users during interactions with the interface. A matrix of HCI goals (effectiveness, efficiency, and user satisfaction) and emerging themes are used to describe interactions. Sixteen users state the interface would be useful, but not necessarily for safety purposes. Users want better image quality, when expectations are matched satisfaction increases, and unclear meaning of motion measures decreases satisfaction. PMID:20185803

  4. Rolled fingerprint construction using MRF-based nonrigid image registration.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Dongjin; Yun, Il Dong; Lee, Sang Uk

    2010-12-01

    This paper proposes a new rolled fingerprint construction approach incorporating a state-of-the-art nonrigid image registration method based upon a Markov random field (MRF) energy model. The proposed method finds dense correspondences between images from a rolled fingerprint sequence and warps the entire fingerprint area to synthesize a rolled fingerprint. This method can generate conceptually more accurate rolled fingerprints by preserving the geometric properties of the finger surface as opposed to ink-based rolled impressions and other existing rolled fingerprint construction methods. To verify the accuracy of the proposed method, various comparative experiments were designed to reveal differences among the rolled construction methods. The results show that the proposed method is significantly superior in various aspects compared to previous approaches.

  5. Non-rigid multi-modal registration on the GPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, Christoph; Guetter, Christoph; Xu, Chenyang; Westermann, Rüdiger

    2007-03-01

    Non-rigid multi-modal registration of images/volumes is becoming increasingly necessary in many medical settings. While efficient registration algorithms have been published, the speed of the solutions is a problem in clinical applications. Harnessing the computational power of graphics processing unit (GPU) for general purpose computations has become increasingly popular in order to speed up algorithms further, but the algorithms have to be adapted to the data-parallel, streaming model of the GPU. This paper describes the implementation of a non-rigid, multi-modal registration using mutual information and the Kullback-Leibler divergence between observed and learned joint intensity distributions. The entire registration process is implemented on the GPU, including a GPU-friendly computation of two-dimensional histograms using vertex texture fetches as well as an implementation of recursive Gaussian filtering on the GPU. Since the computation is performed on the GPU, interactive visualization of the registration process can be done without bus transfer between main memory and video memory. This allows the user to observe the registration process and to evaluate the result more easily. Two hybrid approaches distributing the computation between the GPU and CPU are discussed. The first approach uses the CPU for lower resolutions and the GPU for higher resolutions, the second approach uses the GPU to compute a first approximation to the registration that is used as starting point for registration on the CPU using double-precision. The results of the CPU implementation are compared to the different approaches using the GPU regarding speed as well as image quality. The GPU performs up to 5 times faster per iteration than the CPU implementation.

  6. Optimal grid point selection for improved nonrigid medical image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fookes, Clinton; Maeder, Anthony

    2004-05-01

    Non-rigid image registration is an essential tool required for overcoming the inherent local anatomical variations that exist between medical images acquired from different individuals or atlases, among others. This type of registration defines a deformation field that gives a translation or mapping for every pixel in the image. One popular local approach for estimating this deformation field, known as block matching, is where a grid of control points are defined on an image and are each taken as the centre of a small window. These windows are then translated in the second image to maximise a local similarity criterion. This generates two corresponding sets of control points for the two images, yielding a sparse deformation field. This sparse field can then be propagated to the entire image using well known methods such as the thin-plate spline warp or simple Gaussian convolution. Previous block matching procedures all utilise uniformly distributed grid points. This results in the generation of a sparse deformation field containing displacement estimates at uniformly spaced locations. This neglects to make use of the evidence that block matching results are dependent on the amount of local information content. That is, results are better in regions of high information when compared to regions of low information. Consequently, this paper presents a solution to this drawback by proposing the use of a Reversible Jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo (RJMCMC) statistical procedure to optimally select grid points of interest. These grid points have a greater concentration in regions of high information and a lower concentration in regions of small information. Results show that non-rigid registration can by improved by using optimally selected grid points of interest.

  7. Motion as perturbation. II. Development of the method for dosimetric analysis of motion effects with fixed-gantry IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Nelms, Benjamin E.; Opp, Daniel; Zhang, Geoffrey; Moros, Eduardo; Feygelman, Vladimir

    2014-06-15

    s, with the resulting average motion speed of 1.45 cm/s. The motion-perturbed high resolution (2 mm voxel) volumetric dose grids on the MC2 phantom were generated for each beam. From each grid, a coronal dose plane at the detector level was extracted and compared to the corresponding moving MC2 measurement, using gamma analysis with both global (G) and local (L) dose-error normalization. Results: Using the TG-119 criteria of (3%G/3 mm), per beam average gamma analysis passing rates exceeded 95% in all cases. No individual beam had a passing rate below 91%. LDVE correction eliminated systematic disagreement patterns at the beams’ aperture edges. In a representative example, application of LDVE correction improved (2%L/2 mm) gamma analysis passing rate for an IMRT beam from 74% to 98%. Conclusions: The effect of motion on the moving region-of-interest IMRT dose can be estimated with a standard, static phantom QA measurement, provided the motion characteristics are independently known from 4D CT or otherwise. The motion-perturbed absolute dose estimates were validated by the direct planar diode array measurements, and were found to reliably agree with them in a homogeneous phantom.

  8. Effect of Non-rigid Registration Algorithms on Deformation Based Morphometry: A Comparative Study with Control and Williams Syndrome Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhaoying; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.; Gore, John C.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2014-01-01

    Deformation Based Morphometry (DBM) is a widely used method for characterizing anatomical differences across groups. DBM is based on the analysis of the deformation fields generated by non-rigid registration algorithms, which warp the individual volumes to a DBM atlas. Although several studies have compared non-rigid registration algorithms for segmentation tasks, few studies have compared the effect of the registration algorithms on group differences that may be uncovered through DBM. In this study, we compared group atlas creation and DBM results obtained with five well-established non-rigid registration algorithms using thirteen subjects with Williams Syndrome (WS) and thirteen Normal Control (NC) subjects. The five non-rigid registration algorithms include: (1) The Adaptive Bases Algorithm (ABA); (2) The Image Registration Toolkit (IRTK); (3) The FSL Nonlinear Image Registration Tool (FSL); (4) The Automatic Registration Tool (ART); and (5) the normalization algorithm available in SPM8. Results indicate that the choice of algorithm has little effect on the creation of group atlases. However, regions of differences between groups detected with DBM vary from algorithm to algorithm both qualitatively and quantitatively. The unique nature of the data set used in this study also permits comparison of visible anatomical differences between the groups and regions of difference detected by each algorithm. Results show that the interpretation of DBM results is difficult. Four out of the five algorithms we have evaluated detect bilateral differences between the two groups in the insular cortex, the basal ganglia, orbitofrontal cortex, as well as in the cerebellum. These correspond to differences that have been reported in the literature and that are visible in our samples. But our results also show that some algorithms detect regions that are not detected by the others and that the extent of the detected regions varies from algorithm to algorithm. These results suggest

  9. Curvature and torsion estimation for coronary-artery motion analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Ruben; Wahle, Andreas; Olszewski, Mark E.; Sonka, Milan

    2004-04-01

    The dynamics of curvature and torsion are important for the geometric description of arteries and for the distribution of accumulating plaque. In this research, two methods for estimating curvature and torsion are analyzed with respect to their accuracy. The first method is based on estimating the curvature and torsion of the artery centerline using the Fourier transform. Since the centerline always represents an open curve, extensions ensuring a minimal spectral energy are added on both ends to obtain a closed curve suitable for Fourier analysis. The second method has been previously used for analyzing the motion of coronary arteries and is based on the least squares fitting of a cubic polynomial to the centerline of the artery. Validation is performed using two mathematical, time-varying phantoms as well as 4-D (3-D plus time) in-vivo data of coronary arteries reconstructed by fusion of biplane angiograms and intravascular ultrasound images. Results show that both methods are accurate for estimating curvature and torsion, and that both methods have average errors below 2.15%.

  10. Spherical navigator registration using harmonic analysis for prospective motion correction.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, C L; Ari, N; Kraft, R A

    2005-01-01

    Spherical navigators are an attractive approach to motion compensation in Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Because they can be acquired quickly, spherical navigators have the potential to measure and correct for rigid motion during image acquisition (prospectively as opposed to retrospectively). A limiting factor to prospective use of navigators is the time required to estimate the motion parameters. This estimation problem can be separated into a rotational and translational component. Recovery of the rotational motion can be cast as a registration of functions defined on a sphere. Previous methods for solving this registration problem are based on optimization strategies that are iterative and require k-space interpolation. Such approaches have undesirable convergence behavior for prospective use since the estimation complexity depends on both the number of samples and the amount of rotation. We propose and demonstrate an efficient algorithm for recovery of rotational motion using spherical navigators. We decompose the navigator magnitude using the spherical harmonic transform. In this framework, rigid rotations can be recovered from an over-constrained system of equations, leading to a computationally efficient algorithm for prospective motion compensation. The resulting algorithm is compared to existing approaches in simulated and actual navigator data. These results show that the spherical harmonic based estimation algorithm is significantly faster than existing methods and so is suited for prospective motion correction.

  11. Compensation of intra-frame head motion in PET data with motion corrected independent component analysis (MCICA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, Martin J.; Gadala, Marwa; Abu-Gharbieh, Rafeef

    2005-04-01

    Independent Component Analysis (ICA) has proved a powerful exploratory analysis method for fMRI. In the ICA model, the fMRI data at a given time point are modeled as the linear superposition of spatially independent (and spatially stationary) component maps. The ICA model has been recently applied to positron emission tomography (PET) data with some success (Human Brain Mapping 18:284-295(2003), IEEE Trans. BME, Naganawa et al, in press). However, in PET imaging each frame is, in fact, activity integrated over a relatively long period of time, making the assumption that the underlying component maps are spatially stationary (and hence no head movement has taken place during the frame collection) very tenuous. Here we extend the application of the ICA model to 11C-methylphenidate PET data by assuming that each frame is actually composed of the superposition of rigidly transformed underlying spatial components. We first determine the "noisy" initial spatially independent components of a data set under the erroneous assumption of no intra or inter-frame motion. Aspects of the initial components that reliably track spatial perturbations of the data are then determined to produce the motion-compensated components. Initial components included ring-like spatial distributions, indicating that movement corrupts the statistical properties of the data. The final intra-frame motion-compensated components included more plausible symmetric and robust activity in the striatum as would be expected compared to the raw data and the initial components. We conclude that 1) intra-frame motion is a serious confound in PET imaging which affects the statistical properties of the data and 2) our proposed procedure ameliorates such motion effects.

  12. Applying Model Analysis to a Resource-Based Analysis of the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Trevor I.; Wittmann, Michael C.; Carter, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we analyzed the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation in terms of a resources-based model that allows for clustering of questions so as to provide useful information on how students correctly or incorrectly reason about physics. In this paper, we apply model analysis to show that the associated model plots provide more information…

  13. Sensitivity analysis of the GNSS derived Victoria plate motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apolinário, João; Fernandes, Rui; Bos, Machiel

    2014-05-01

    estimated trend (Williams 2003, Langbein 2012). Finally, our preferable angular velocity estimation is used to evaluate the consequences on the kinematics of the Victoria block, namely the magnitude and azimuth of the relative motions with respect to the Nubia and Somalia plates and their tectonic implications. References Agnew, D. C. (2013). Realistic simulations of geodetic network data: The Fakenet package, Seismol. Res. Lett., 84 , 426-432, doi:10.1785/0220120185. Blewitt, G. & Lavallee, D., (2002). Effect of annual signals on geodetic velocity, J. geophys. Res., 107(B7), doi:10.1029/2001JB000570. Bos, M.S., R.M.S. Fernandes, S. Williams, L. Bastos (2012) Fast Error Analysis of Continuous GNSS Observations with Missing Data, Journal of Geodesy, doi: 10.1007/s00190-012-0605-0. Bos, M.S., L. Bastos, R.M.S. Fernandes, (2009). The influence of seasonal signals on the estimation of the tectonic motion in short continuous GPS time-series, J. of Geodynamics, j.jog.2009.10.005. Fernandes, R.M.S., J. M. Miranda, D. Delvaux, D. S. Stamps and E. Saria (2013). Re-evaluation of the kinematics of Victoria Block using continuous GNSS data, Geophysical Journal International, doi:10.1093/gji/ggs071. Langbein, J. (2012). Estimating rate uncertainty with maximum likelihood: differences between power-law and flicker-random-walk models, Journal of Geodesy, Volume 86, Issue 9, pp 775-783, Williams, S. D. P. (2003). Offsets in Global Positioning System time series, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 2310, doi:10.1029/2002JB002156, B6.

  14. Circular motion analysis of time-varying bioimpedance.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, B; Louarroudi, E; Rutkove, S B; Pintelon, R

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a step forward towards the analysis of a linear periodically time-varying (PTV) bioimpedance ZPTV(jw, t), which is an important subclass of a linear time-varying (LTV) bioimpedance. Similarly to the Fourier coefficients of a periodic signal, a PTV impedance can be decomposed into frequency dependent impedance phasors, [Formula: see text], that are rotating with an angular speed of wr = 2πr/TZ. The vector length of these impedance phasors corresponds to the amplitude of the rth-order harmonic impedance |Zr( jw)| and the initial phase is given by Φr(w, t0) = [Symbol: see text]Zr( jw) + 2πrt0/TZ, with t0∈[0, T] being a time instant within the measurement time T. The impedance period TZ stands for the cycle length of the bio-system under investigation; for example, the elapsed time between two consecutive R-waves in the electrocardiogram or the breathing periodicity in case of the heart or lungs, respectively. First, it is demonstrated that the harmonic impedance phasor [Formula: see text], at a particular measured frequency k, can be represented by a rotating phasor, leading to the so-called circular motion analysis technique. Next, the two dimensional (2D) representation of the harmonic impedance phasors is then extended to a three-dimensional (3D) coordinate system by taking into account the frequency dependence. Finally, we introduce a new visualizing tool to summarize the frequency response behavior of ZPTV( jw, t) into a single 3D plot using the local Frenet-Serret frame. This novel 3D impedance representation is then compared with the 3D Nyquist representation of a PTV impedance. The concepts are illustrated through real measurements conducted on a PTV RC-circuit.

  15. Circular motion analysis of time-varying bioimpedance.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, B; Louarroudi, E; Rutkove, S B; Pintelon, R

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a step forward towards the analysis of a linear periodically time-varying (PTV) bioimpedance ZPTV(jw, t), which is an important subclass of a linear time-varying (LTV) bioimpedance. Similarly to the Fourier coefficients of a periodic signal, a PTV impedance can be decomposed into frequency dependent impedance phasors, [Formula: see text], that are rotating with an angular speed of wr = 2πr/TZ. The vector length of these impedance phasors corresponds to the amplitude of the rth-order harmonic impedance |Zr( jw)| and the initial phase is given by Φr(w, t0) = [Symbol: see text]Zr( jw) + 2πrt0/TZ, with t0∈[0, T] being a time instant within the measurement time T. The impedance period TZ stands for the cycle length of the bio-system under investigation; for example, the elapsed time between two consecutive R-waves in the electrocardiogram or the breathing periodicity in case of the heart or lungs, respectively. First, it is demonstrated that the harmonic impedance phasor [Formula: see text], at a particular measured frequency k, can be represented by a rotating phasor, leading to the so-called circular motion analysis technique. Next, the two dimensional (2D) representation of the harmonic impedance phasors is then extended to a three-dimensional (3D) coordinate system by taking into account the frequency dependence. Finally, we introduce a new visualizing tool to summarize the frequency response behavior of ZPTV( jw, t) into a single 3D plot using the local Frenet-Serret frame. This novel 3D impedance representation is then compared with the 3D Nyquist representation of a PTV impedance. The concepts are illustrated through real measurements conducted on a PTV RC-circuit. PMID:26489699

  16. Roll motion analysis of deepwater pipelay crane vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Dandan; Sun, Liping; Qu, Zhiguo; Wang, Tao

    2013-12-01

    For a large floating vessel in waves, radiation damping is not an accurate prediction of the degree of roll unlike other degrees of freedom motion. Therefore, to get the knowledge of roll motion performance of deepwater pipelay crane vessels and to keep the vessel working safety, the paper presents the relationship between a series of dimensionless roll damping coefficients and the roll response amplitude operator (RAO). By using two kinds of empirical data, the roll damping is estimated in the calculation flow. After getting the roll damping coefficient from the model test, a prediction of roll motion in regular waves is evaluated. According to the wave condition in the working region, short term statistics of roll motion are presented under different wave parameters. Moreover, the relationship between the maximal roll response level to peak spectral wave period and the roll damping coefficient is investigated. Results may provide some reference to design and improve this kind of vessel.

  17. Time-motion analysis of basketball players: a reliability assessment of Video Manual Motion Tracker 1.0 software.

    PubMed

    Hulka, Karel; Cuberek, Roman; Svoboda, Zdenek

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the measurement error of a monitoring system, the Video Manual Motion Tracker 1.0 (VMMT1.0), during time-motion analysis of basketball players. In this study, four reliability parameters were used to assess the measurement error of the system: the systematic bias, the inter-observer reliability, the intra-observer reliability and the absolute reliability. A basketball game video was used for the analysis. To assess the inter-observer reliability, two observers analysed a player's covered distance for 50 different periods of the game. To assess the relative and absolute reliability of the covered distance, the chosen players were monitored three times by 41 qualified observers. The findings did not indicate a significant systematic bias in the measurement error using the VMMT1.0 (one-way ANOVA, P > 0.05). The intra-observer reliability of the monitoring system was rated as very high (intraclass correlation, ICC = 0.999), similar to its inter-observer reliability (Pearson product-moment correlation, r = 0.994). The absolute reliability does not appear to be significant (standard error of measurement, SEM = 0.34 m). The results showed that the measurement error of the VMMT1.0 is acceptable and comparable with that of other time-motion analysis techniques.

  18. A Mobile Motion Analysis System Using Intertial Sensors for Analysis of Lower Limb Prosthetics

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, John Kyle P; Ericson, Milton Nance; Farquhar, Ethan; Lind, Randall F; Evans III, Boyd Mccutchen

    2011-01-01

    Soldiers returning from the global war on terror requiring lower leg prosthetics generally have different concerns and requirements than the typical lower leg amputee. These subjects are usually young, wish to remain active and often desire to return to active military duty. As such, they demand higher performance from their prosthetics, but are at risk for chronic injury and joint conditions in their unaffected limb. Motion analysis is a valuable tool in assessing the performance of new and existing prosthetic technologies as well as the methods in fitting these devices to both maximize performance and minimize risk of injury for the individual soldier. We are developing a mobile, low-cost motion analysis system using inertial measurement units (IMUs) and two custom force sensors that detect ground reaction forces and moments on both the unaffected limb and prosthesis. IMUs were tested on a robot programmed to simulate human gait motion. An algorithm which uses a kinematic model of the robot and an extended Kalman filter (EKF) was used to convert the rates and accelerations from the gyro and accelerometer into joint angles. Compared to encoder data from the robot, which was considered the ground truth in this experiment, the inertial measurement system had a RMSE of <1.0 degree. Collecting kinematic and kinetic data without the restrictions and expense of a motion analysis lab could help researchers, designers and prosthetists advance prosthesis technology and customize devices for individuals. Ultimately, these improvements will result in better prosthetic performance for the military population.

  19. Learning intervention-induced deformations for non-rigid MR-CT registration and electrode localization in epilepsy patients

    PubMed Central

    Onofrey, John A.; Staib, Lawrence H.; Papademetris, Xenophon

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a framework for learning a statistical model of non-rigid deformations induced by interventional procedures. We make use of this learned model to perform constrained non-rigid registration of pre-procedural and post-procedural imaging. We demonstrate results applying this framework to non-rigidly register post-surgical computed tomography (CT) brain images to pre-surgical magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of epilepsy patients who had intra-cranial electroencephalography electrodes surgically implanted. Deformations caused by this surgical procedure, imaging artifacts caused by the electrodes, and the use of multi-modal imaging data make non-rigid registration challenging. Our results show that the use of our proposed framework to constrain the non-rigid registration process results in significantly improved and more robust registration performance compared to using standard rigid and non-rigid registration methods. PMID:26900569

  20. Time-motion analysis of elite male kickboxing competition.

    PubMed

    Ouergui, Ibrahim; Hssin, Nizar; Haddad, Monoem; Franchini, Emerson; Behm, David G; Wong, Del P; Gmada, Nabil; Bouhlel, Ezzedine

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the time structure of high-level kickboxing matches. A total of 45 combats from 2 male World Championships were monitored using a time-motion analysis system. The combat time structure (i.e., high-intensity activity [HIA], low-intensity activity [LIA], and referee breaks or pauses) during competition and weight divisions was determined and compared. Results indicated that the time structures were HIA: 2.2 ± 1.2 seconds; LIA: 2.3 ± 0.8 seconds; pauses: 5.4 ± 4.3 seconds; and 3.4 ± 1.2 seconds between 2 subsequent HIA. The fighting to nonfighting ratio was found to be 1:1. Moreover, the number of HIA and LIA and the time of LIA decreased in latter rounds (e.g., the average number of HIA was 27.1 ± 7.1, 25.1 ± 6.6, and 24.9 ± 6.1, respectively, for rounds 1, 2, and 3), meanwhile the time and number of pauses increased (e.g., the average pause times were 12.8 ± 11.4, 22.3 ± 22.6, and 24.6 ± 23.3 seconds, respectively, for rounds 1, 2, and 3). The activity times did not differ among weight categories. The present results confirm the intermittent nature of kickboxing competition and provide coaches with more information on how to structure training sessions to mimic the physical demands in competition.

  1. Analysis of glacial and periglacial processes using structure from motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piermattei, L.; Carturan, L.; de Blasi, F.; Tarolli, P.; Dalla Fontana, G.; Vettore, A.; Pfeifer, N.

    2015-11-01

    Close-range photo-based surface reconstruction from the ground is rapidly emerging as an alternative to lidar (light detection and ranging), which today represents the main survey technique in many fields of geoscience. The recent evolution of photogrammetry, incorporating computer vision algorithms such as Structure from Motion (SfM) and dense image matching such as Multi-View Stereo (MVS), allows the reconstruction of dense 3-D point clouds for the photographed object from a sequence of overlapping images taken with a digital consumer camera. The objective of our work was to test the accuracy of the ground-based SfM-MVS approach in calculating the geodetic mass balance of a 2.1 km2 glacier in the Ortles-Cevedale Group, Eastern Italian Alps. In addition, we investigated the feasibility of using the image-based approach for the detection of the surface displacement rate of a neighbouring active rock glacier. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) data were used as benchmarks to estimate the accuracy of the photogrammetric DTMs and the reliability of the method in this specific application. The glacial and periglacial analyses were performed using both range and image-based surveying techniques, and the results were then compared. The results were encouraging because the SfM-MVS approach enables the reconstruction of high-quality DTMs which provided estimates of glacial and periglacial processes similar to those achievable by ALS. Different resolutions and accuracies were obtained for the glacier and the rock glacier, given the different survey geometries, surface characteristics and areal extents. The analysis of the SfM-MVS DTM quality allowed us to highlight the limitations of the adopted expeditious method in the studied alpine terrain and the potential of this method in the multitemporal study of glacial and periglacial areas.

  2. Tectonic Motion of Malaysia: Analysis from Years 2001 TO 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, J.; Shariff, N. S.; Omar, K.; Amin, Z. M.

    2015-10-01

    This paper seeks to investigate the tectonic motion of Malaysia using the Malaysian Active GPS Station (MASS) and Malaysia Realtime Kinematic GNSS Network (MyRTKnet) data from years 2001 to 2013. GNSS data were processed using Bernese 5.0, and plotted as a time series; whereby the period before and after the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman mega earthquake are plotted separately. From the time series, episodic events and stable inter-seismic deformation period are analysed. The results indicate that the 2001- 2004 and 2008-2011 periods were free from episodic events; hence, chosen to depict the tectonic motion of Malaysia before and after 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, respectively. The motion had a major change in direction and rate, especially for East Malaysia and South Peninsular Malaysia. This indicates there exist a long-term post-seismic deformation due to the 2004 mega earthquake. Nonetheless, the 2008-2011 inter-seismic period is stable, and suitable to represent the current long-term tectonic motion of Malaysia: Peninsular and East Malaysia moves south-east, at an average velocity of 0.89 ±0.01 cm/yr south and 1.70 ±0.02 cm/yr east, and 1.06 ±0.01 cm/yr south and 2.50 ±0.02 cm/yr east, respectively. In addition, the co-seismic motion for the 2005 Nias, 2007 Bengkulu and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes after the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake are relatively small, indicating these three earthquakes have no significant contribution to the long-term tectonic motion of Malaysia. Overall, this paper aims to provide a general insight into the tectonic motion of Malaysia which, expectedly, may benefit other scientific fields.

  3. Analysis and synthesis of textured motion: particles and waves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yizhou; Zhu, Song-Chun

    2004-10-01

    Natural scenes contain a wide range of textured motion phenomena which are characterized by the movement of a large amount of particle and wave elements, such as falling snow, wavy water, and dancing grass. In this paper, we present a generative model for representing these motion patterns and study a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm for inferring the generative representation from observed video sequences. Our generative model consists of three components. The first is a photometric model which represents an image as a linear superposition of image bases selected from a generic and overcomplete dictionary. The dictionary contains Gabor and LoG bases for point/particle elements and Fourier bases for wave elements. These bases compete to explain the input images and transfer them to a token (base) representation with an O(10(2))-fold dimension reduction. The second component is a geometric model which groups spatially adjacent tokens (bases) and their motion trajectories into a number of moving elements--called "motons." A moton is a deformable template in time-space representing a moving element, such as a falling snowflake or a flying bird. The third component is a dynamic model which characterizes the motion of particles, waves, and their interactions. For example, the motion of particle objects floating in a river, such as leaves and balls, should be coupled with the motion of waves. The trajectories of these moving elements are represented by coupled Markov chains. The dynamic model also includes probabilistic representations for the birth/death (source/sink) of the motons. We adopt a stochastic gradient algorithm for learning and inference. Given an input video sequence, the algorithm iterates two steps: 1) computing the motons and their trajectories by a number of reversible Markov chain jumps, and 2) learning the parameters that govern the geometric deformations and motion dynamics. Novel video sequences are synthesized from the learned models and, by

  4. Inertial motion capture system for biomechanical analysis in pressure suits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Capua, Massimiliano

    A non-invasive system has been developed at the University of Maryland Space System Laboratory with the goal of providing a new capability for quantifying the motion of the human inside a space suit. Based on an array of six microprocessors and eighteen microelectromechanical (MEMS) inertial measurement units (IMUs), the Body Pose Measurement System (BPMS) allows the monitoring of the kinematics of the suit occupant in an unobtrusive, self-contained, lightweight and compact fashion, without requiring any external equipment such as those necessary with modern optical motion capture systems. BPMS measures and stores the accelerations, angular rates and magnetic fields acting upon each IMU, which are mounted on the head, torso, and each segment of each limb. In order to convert the raw data into a more useful form, such as a set of body segment angles quantifying pose and motion, a series of geometrical models and a non-linear complimentary filter were implemented. The first portion of this works focuses on assessing system performance, which was measured by comparing the BPMS filtered data against rigid body angles measured through an external VICON optical motion capture system. This type of system is the industry standard, and is used here for independent measurement of body pose angles. By comparing the two sets of data, performance metrics such as BPMS system operational conditions, accuracy, and drift were evaluated and correlated against VICON data. After the system and models were verified and their capabilities and limitations assessed, a series of pressure suit evaluations were conducted. Three different pressure suits were used to identify the relationship between usable range of motion and internal suit pressure. In addition to addressing range of motion, a series of exploration tasks were also performed, recorded, and analysed in order to identify different motion patterns and trajectories as suit pressure is increased and overall suit mobility is reduced

  5. Quantitative underwater 3D motion analysis using submerged video cameras: accuracy analysis and trajectory reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Silvatti, Amanda P; Cerveri, Pietro; Telles, Thiago; Dias, Fábio A S; Baroni, Guido; Barros, Ricardo M L

    2013-01-01

    In this study we aim at investigating the applicability of underwater 3D motion capture based on submerged video cameras in terms of 3D accuracy analysis and trajectory reconstruction. Static points with classical direct linear transform (DLT) solution, a moving wand with bundle adjustment and a moving 2D plate with Zhang's method were considered for camera calibration. As an example of the final application, we reconstructed the hand motion trajectories in different swimming styles and qualitatively compared this with Maglischo's model. Four highly trained male swimmers performed butterfly, breaststroke and freestyle tasks. The middle fingertip trajectories of both hands in the underwater phase were considered. The accuracy (mean absolute error) of the two calibration approaches (wand: 0.96 mm - 2D plate: 0.73 mm) was comparable to out of water results and highly superior to the classical DLT results (9.74 mm). Among all the swimmers, the hands' trajectories of the expert swimmer in the style were almost symmetric and in good agreement with Maglischo's model. The kinematic results highlight symmetry or asymmetry between the two hand sides, intra- and inter-subject variability in terms of the motion patterns and agreement or disagreement with the model. The two outcomes, calibration results and trajectory reconstruction, both move towards the quantitative 3D underwater motion analysis.

  6. Low-cost human motion capture system for postural analysis onboard ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocerino, Erica; Ackermann, Sebastiano; Del Pizzo, Silvio; Menna, Fabio; Troisi, Salvatore

    2011-07-01

    The study of human equilibrium, also known as postural stability, concerns different research sectors (medicine, kinesiology, biomechanics, robotics, sport) and is usually performed employing motion analysis techniques for recording human movements and posture. A wide range of techniques and methodologies has been developed, but the choice of instrumentations and sensors depends on the requirement of the specific application. Postural stability is a topic of great interest for the maritime community, since ship motions can make demanding and difficult the maintenance of the upright stance with hazardous consequences for the safety of people onboard. The need of capturing the motion of an individual standing on a ship during its daily service does not permit to employ optical systems commonly used for human motion analysis. These sensors are not designed for operating in disadvantageous environmental conditions (water, wetness, saltiness) and with not optimal lighting. The solution proposed in this study consists in a motion acquisition system that could be easily usable onboard ships. It makes use of two different methodologies: (I) motion capture with videogrammetry and (II) motion measurement with Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). The developed image-based motion capture system, made up of three low-cost, light and compact video cameras, was validated against a commercial optical system and then used for testing the reliability of the inertial sensors. In this paper, the whole process of planning, designing, calibrating, and assessing the accuracy of the motion capture system is reported and discussed. Results from the laboratory tests and preliminary campaigns in the field are presented.

  7. A novel spinal kinematic analysis using X-ray imaging and vicon motion analysis: a case study.

    PubMed

    Noh, Dong K; Lee, Nam G; You, Joshua H

    2014-01-01

    This study highlights a novel spinal kinematic analysis method and the feasibility of X-ray imaging measurements to accurately assess thoracic spine motion. The advanced X-ray Nash-Moe method and analysis were used to compute the segmental range of motion in thoracic vertebra pedicles in vivo. This Nash-Moe X-ray imaging method was compared with a standardized method using the Vicon 3-dimensional motion capture system. Linear regression analysis showed an excellent and significant correlation between the two methods (R2 = 0.99, p < 0.05), suggesting that the analysis of spinal segmental range of motion using X-ray imaging measurements was accurate and comparable to the conventional 3-dimensional motion analysis system. Clinically, this novel finding is compelling evidence demonstrating that measurements with X-ray imaging are useful to accurately decipher pathological spinal alignment and movement impairments in idiopathic scoliosis (IS).

  8. Physiological model of motion analysis for machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Richard A.; Lesperance, Ronald M.

    1993-09-01

    We studied the spatio-temporal shape of `receptive fields' of simple cells in the monkey visual cortex. Receptive fields are maps of the regions in space and time that affect a cell's electrical responses. Fields with no change in shape over time responded to all directions of motion; fields with changing shape over time responded to only some directions of motion. A Gaussian Derivative (GD) model fit these fields well, in a transformed variable space that aligned the centers and principal axes of the field and model in space-time. The model accounts for fields that vary in orientation, location, spatial scale, motion properties, and number of lobes. The model requires only ten parameters (the minimum possible) to describe fields in two dimensions of space and one of time. A difference-of-offset-Gaussians (DOOG) provides a plausible physiological means to form GD model fields. Because of its simplicity, the GD model improves the efficiency of machine vision systems for analyzing motion. An implementation produced robust local estimates of the direction and speed of moving objects in real scenes.

  9. Motion Analysis of a Rocket-Propelled Truck.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitt, Darren L.; Lowe, Mary L.

    1996-01-01

    Describes an experiment to study the motion of a rocket-propelled vehicle over the entire duration of the engine burn using a video system with a frame-by-frame playback and a Sonic Ranger for ultrasonic position movements. Enables students to study the impulse-momentum principle and the effects of a time-varying force. (JRH)

  10. Motion synthesis and force distribution analysis for a biped robot.

    PubMed

    Trojnacki, Maciej T; Zielińska, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the method of generating biped robot motion using recorded human gait is presented. The recorded data were modified taking into account the velocity available for robot drives. Data includes only selected joint angles, therefore the missing values were obtained considering the dynamic postural stability of the robot, which means obtaining an adequate motion trajectory of the so-called Zero Moment Point (ZMT). Also, the method of determining the ground reaction forces' distribution during the biped robot's dynamic stable walk is described. The method was developed by the authors. Following the description of equations characterizing the dynamics of robot's motion, the values of the components of ground reaction forces were symbolically determined as well as the coordinates of the points of robot's feet contact with the ground. The theoretical considerations have been supported by computer simulation and animation of the robot's motion. This was done using Matlab/Simulink package and Simulink 3D Animation Toolbox, and it has proved the proposed method.

  11. Non-rigid alignment in electron tomography in materials science.

    PubMed

    Printemps, Tony; Bernier, Nicolas; Bleuet, Pierre; Mula, Guido; Hervé, Lionel

    2016-09-01

    Electron tomography is a key technique that enables the visualization of an object in three dimensions with a resolution of about a nanometre. High-quality 3D reconstruction is possible thanks to the latest compressed sensing algorithms and/or better alignment and preprocessing of the 2D projections. Rigid alignment of 2D projections is routine in electron tomography. However, it cannot correct misalignments induced by (i) deformations of the sample due to radiation damage or (ii) drifting of the sample during the acquisition of an image in scanning transmission electron microscope mode. In both cases, those misalignments can give rise to artefacts in the reconstruction. We propose a simple-to-implement non-rigid alignment technique to correct those artefacts. This technique is particularly suited for needle-shaped samples in materials science. It is initiated by a rigid alignment of the projections and it is then followed by several rigid alignments of different parts of the projections. Piecewise linear deformations are applied to each projection to force them to simultaneously satisfy the rigid alignments of the different parts. The efficiency of this technique is demonstrated on three samples, an intermetallic sample with deformation misalignments due to a high electron dose typical to spectroscopic electron tomography, a porous silicon sample with an extremely thin end particularly sensitive to electron beam and another porous silicon sample that was drifting during image acquisitions.

  12. Non-rigid registration of cervical spine MRI volumes.

    PubMed

    Aktar, Mst Nargis; Alam, Md Jahangir; Pickering, Mark; Webb, Alexandra; Perriman, Diana

    2015-08-01

    Whiplash is the colloquial term for neck injuries caused by sudden extension of the cervical spine. Patients with chronic whiplash associated disorder (WAD) can experience neck pain for many years after the original injury. Researchers have found some evidence to suggest that chronic whiplash is related to the amount of intra-muscular fat in the cervical spine muscles. Hence, an important step towards developing a treatment for chronic WAD is a technique to accurately and efficiently measure the amount of intra-muscular fat in the muscles of the cervical spine. Our proposed technique for making this measurement is to automatically segment the cervical spine muscles using a fused volume created from multi-modal MRI volumes of the cervical spine. Multiple modes are required to enhance the boundaries between the different muscles to assist the following automatic segmentation process. However, before these multiple modes can be fused it is first necessary to accurately register these volumes. Hence, in this paper, we have proposed a new non-rigid multi-modal registration algorithm using the sum of conditional variance (SCV) with partial volume interpolation (PVI) similarity measure and Gauss-Newton (GN) optimization for the accurate registration of multi-modal cervical spine MRI volumes. The performance of the proposed approach is compared with the existing SCV based registration algorithm and the sum of the conditional squared deviation from the mode (SCSDM) method. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach provides superior performance than the best existing approaches. PMID:26736677

  13. Non-rigid alignment in electron tomography in materials science.

    PubMed

    Printemps, Tony; Bernier, Nicolas; Bleuet, Pierre; Mula, Guido; Hervé, Lionel

    2016-09-01

    Electron tomography is a key technique that enables the visualization of an object in three dimensions with a resolution of about a nanometre. High-quality 3D reconstruction is possible thanks to the latest compressed sensing algorithms and/or better alignment and preprocessing of the 2D projections. Rigid alignment of 2D projections is routine in electron tomography. However, it cannot correct misalignments induced by (i) deformations of the sample due to radiation damage or (ii) drifting of the sample during the acquisition of an image in scanning transmission electron microscope mode. In both cases, those misalignments can give rise to artefacts in the reconstruction. We propose a simple-to-implement non-rigid alignment technique to correct those artefacts. This technique is particularly suited for needle-shaped samples in materials science. It is initiated by a rigid alignment of the projections and it is then followed by several rigid alignments of different parts of the projections. Piecewise linear deformations are applied to each projection to force them to simultaneously satisfy the rigid alignments of the different parts. The efficiency of this technique is demonstrated on three samples, an intermetallic sample with deformation misalignments due to a high electron dose typical to spectroscopic electron tomography, a porous silicon sample with an extremely thin end particularly sensitive to electron beam and another porous silicon sample that was drifting during image acquisitions. PMID:27018779

  14. Local collective motion analysis for multi-probe dynamic imaging and microrheology.

    PubMed

    Khan, Manas; Mason, Thomas G

    2016-08-01

    Dynamical artifacts, such as mechanical drift, advection, and hydrodynamic flow, can adversely affect multi-probe dynamic imaging and passive particle-tracking microrheology experiments. Alternatively, active driving by molecular motors can cause interesting non-Brownian motion of probes in local regions. Existing drift-correction techniques, which require large ensembles of probes or fast temporal sampling, are inadequate for handling complex spatio-temporal drifts and non-Brownian motion of localized domains containing relatively few probes. Here, we report an analytical method based on local collective motion (LCM) analysis of as few as two probes for detecting the presence of non-Brownian motion and for accurately eliminating it to reveal the underlying Brownian motion. By calculating an ensemble-average, time-dependent, LCM mean square displacement (MSD) of two or more localized probes and comparing this MSD to constituent single-probe MSDs, we can identify temporal regimes during which either thermal or athermal motion dominates. Single-probe motion, when referenced relative to the moving frame attached to the multi-probe LCM trajectory, provides a true Brownian MSD after scaling by an appropriate correction factor that depends on the number of probes used in LCM analysis. We show that LCM analysis can be used to correct many different dynamical artifacts, including spatially varying drifts, gradient flows, cell motion, time-dependent drift, and temporally varying oscillatory advection, thereby offering a significant improvement over existing approaches. PMID:27269299

  15. Local collective motion analysis for multi-probe dynamic imaging and microrheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Manas; Mason, Thomas G.

    2016-08-01

    Dynamical artifacts, such as mechanical drift, advection, and hydrodynamic flow, can adversely affect multi-probe dynamic imaging and passive particle-tracking microrheology experiments. Alternatively, active driving by molecular motors can cause interesting non-Brownian motion of probes in local regions. Existing drift-correction techniques, which require large ensembles of probes or fast temporal sampling, are inadequate for handling complex spatio-temporal drifts and non-Brownian motion of localized domains containing relatively few probes. Here, we report an analytical method based on local collective motion (LCM) analysis of as few as two probes for detecting the presence of non-Brownian motion and for accurately eliminating it to reveal the underlying Brownian motion. By calculating an ensemble-average, time-dependent, LCM mean square displacement (MSD) of two or more localized probes and comparing this MSD to constituent single-probe MSDs, we can identify temporal regimes during which either thermal or athermal motion dominates. Single-probe motion, when referenced relative to the moving frame attached to the multi-probe LCM trajectory, provides a true Brownian MSD after scaling by an appropriate correction factor that depends on the number of probes used in LCM analysis. We show that LCM analysis can be used to correct many different dynamical artifacts, including spatially varying drifts, gradient flows, cell motion, time-dependent drift, and temporally varying oscillatory advection, thereby offering a significant improvement over existing approaches.

  16. Cardiac Motion Analysis Using High-Speed Video Images in a Rat Model for Myocardial Infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Idaku; Okuda, Toshikazu; Nie, Yuman; Takaki, Takeshi; Orito, Kensuke; Tanaka, Akane; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    In this study, we performed a cardiac motion analysis by using 1000-frames per second (fps) stereo images to capture the three-dimensional motion of small color markers in a rat heart. This method of recording cardiac motion could quantify the rate of change in the myocardial area, which indicated localized myocardial activity of rhythmic expansion and contraction. We analyzed the three-dimensional motion distributions in a rat model for myocardial infarction, in which the heart rate was 4 times/s or more. In the analysis, we spatiotemporally quantified the characteristic cardiac motion in ischemic heart diseases and found that infarction due to ischemia in the rat heart was spread around the left ventricle.

  17. Tendon strain imaging using non-rigid image registration: a validation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Nuno M.; Slagmolen, Pieter; Barbosa, Daniel; Scheys, Lennart; Geukens, Leonie; Fukagawa, Shingo; Peers, Koen; Bellemans, Johan; Suetens, Paul; D'Hooge, Jan

    2012-03-01

    Ultrasound image has already been proved to be a useful tool for non-invasive strain quantifications in soft tissue. While clinical applications only include cardiac imaging, the development of techniques suitable for musculoskeletal system is an active area of research. On this study, a technique for speckle tracking on ultrasound images using non-rigid image registration is presented. This approach is based on a single 2D+t registration procedure, in which the temporal changes on the B-mode speckle patterns are locally assessed. This allows estimating strain from ultrasound image sequences of tissues under deformation while imposing temporal smoothness in the deformation field, originating smooth strain curves. METHODS: The tracking algorithm was systematically tested on synthetic images and gelatin phantoms, under sinusoidal deformations with amplitudes between 0.5% and 4.0%, at frequencies between 0.25Hz and 2.0Hz. Preliminary tests were also performed on Achilles tendons isolated from human cadavers. RESULTS: The strain was estimated with deviations of -0.011%+/-0.053% on the synthetic images and agreements of +/-0.28% on the phantoms. Some tests with real tendons show good tracking results. However, significant variability between the trials still exists. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed image registration methodology constitutes a robust tool for motion and deformation tracking in both simulated and real phantom data. Strain estimation in both cases reveals that the proposed method is accurate and provides good precision. Although the ex-vivo results are still preliminary, the potential of the proposed algorithm is promising. This suggests that further improvements, together with systematic testing, can lead to in-vivo and clinical applications.

  18. The stability analysis of rolling motion of hypersonic vehicles and its validations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, YouDa; Zhao, ZhongLiang; Tian, Hao; Zhang, XianFeng

    2014-12-01

    The stability of the rolling motion of near space hypersonic vehicles with rudder control is studied using method of qualitative analysis of nonlinear differential equations, and the stability criteria of the deflected rolling motions are improved. The outcomes can serve as the basis for further study regarding the influence of pitching and lateral motion on the stability of rolling motion. To validate the theoretical results, numerical simulations were done for the rolling motion of two hypersonic vehicles with typical configurations. Also, wind tunnel experiments for four aircraft models with typical configurations have been done. The results show that: 1) there exist two dynamic patterns of the rolling motion under statically stable condition. The first one is point attractor, for which the motion of aircraft returns to the original state. The second is periodic attractor, for which the aircraft rolls periodically. 2) Under statically unstable condition, there exist three dynamic patterns of rolling motion, namely, the point attractor, periodic attractor around deflected state of rolling motion, and double periodic attractors or chaotic attractors.

  19. Directivity in NGA earthquake ground motions: Analysis using isochrone theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spudich, P.; Chiou, B.S.J.

    2008-01-01

    We present correction factors that may be applied to the ground motion prediction relations of Abrahamson and Silva, Boore and Atkinson, Campbell and Bozorgnia, and Chiou and Youngs (all in this volume) to model the azimuthally varying distribution of the GMRotI50 component of ground motion (commonly called 'directivity') around earthquakes. Our correction factors may be used for planar or nonplanar faults having any dip or slip rake (faulting mechanism). Our correction factors predict directivity-induced variations of spectral acceleration that are roughly half of the strike-slip variations predicted by Somerville et al. (1997), and use of our factors reduces record-to-record sigma by about 2-20% at 5 sec or greater period. ?? 2008, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  20. Statistical analysis of motion contrast in optical coherence tomography angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yuxuan; Guo, Li; Pan, Cong; Lu, Tongtong; Hong, Tianyu; Ding, Zhihua; Li, Peng

    2015-11-01

    Optical coherence tomography angiography (Angio-OCT), mainly based on the temporal dynamics of OCT scattering signals, has found a range of potential applications in clinical and scientific research. Based on the model of random phasor sums, temporal statistics of the complex-valued OCT signals are mathematically described. Statistical distributions of the amplitude differential and complex differential Angio-OCT signals are derived. The theories are validated through the flow phantom and live animal experiments. Using the model developed, the origin of the motion contrast in Angio-OCT is mathematically explained, and the implications in the improvement of motion contrast are further discussed, including threshold determination and its residual classification error, averaging method, and scanning protocol. The proposed mathematical model of Angio-OCT signals can aid in the optimal design of the system and associated algorithms.

  1. GOCI Level-2 Processing Improvements and Cloud Motion Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    The Ocean Biology Processing Group has been working with the Korean Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST) to process geosynchronous ocean color data from the GOCI (Geostationary Ocean Color Instrument) aboard the COMS (Communications, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite). The level-2 processing program, l2gen has GOCI processing as an option. Improvements made to that processing are discussed here as well as a discussion about cloud motion effects.

  2. Enhanced Tethered-Particle Motion Analysis Reveals Viscous Effects

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sandip; Manzo, Carlo; Zurla, Chiara; Ucuncuoglu, Suleyman; Finzi, Laura; Dunlap, David

    2014-01-01

    Tethered-particle motion experiments do not require expensive or technically complex hardware, and increasing numbers of researchers are adopting this methodology to investigate the topological effects of agents that act on the tethering polymer or the characteristics of the polymer itself. These investigations depend on accurate measurement and interpretation of changes in the effective length of the tethering polymer (often DNA). However, the bead size, tether length, and buffer affect the confined diffusion of the bead in this experimental system. To evaluate the effects of these factors, improved measurements to calibrate the two-dimensional range of motion (excursion) versus DNA length were carried out. Microspheres of 160 or 240 nm in radius were tethered by DNA molecules ranging from 225 to 3477 basepairs in length in aqueous buffers containing 100 mM potassium glutamate and 8 mM MgCl2 or 10 mM Tris-HCl and 200 mM KCl, with or without 0.5% Tween added to the buffer, and the motion was recorded. Different buffers altered the excursion of beads on identical DNA tethers. Buffer with only 10 mM NaCl and >5 mM magnesium greatly reduced excursion. Glycerol added to increase viscosity slowed confined diffusion of the tethered beads but did not change excursion. The confined-diffusion coefficients for all tethered beads were smaller than those expected for freely diffusing beads and decreased for shorter tethers. Tethered-particle motion is a sensitive framework for diffusion experiments in which small beads on long leashes most closely resemble freely diffusing, untethered beads. PMID:24461015

  3. Analysis of unstable modes distinguishes mathematical models of flagellar motion

    PubMed Central

    Bayly, P. V.; Wilson, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the coordinated beating of cilia and flagella remain incompletely understood despite the fundamental importance of these organelles. The axoneme (the cytoskeletal structure of cilia and flagella) consists of microtubule doublets connected by passive and active elements. The motor protein dynein is known to drive active bending, but dynein activity must be regulated to generate oscillatory, propulsive waveforms. Mathematical models of flagellar motion generate quantitative predictions that can be analysed to test hypotheses concerning dynein regulation. One approach has been to seek periodic solutions to the linearized equations of motion. However, models may simultaneously exhibit both periodic and unstable modes. Here, we investigate the emergence and coexistence of unstable and periodic modes in three mathematical models of flagellar motion, each based on a different dynein regulation hypothesis: (i) sliding control; (ii) curvature control and (iii) control by interdoublet separation (the ‘geometric clutch’ (GC)). The unstable modes predicted by each model are used to critically evaluate the underlying hypothesis. In particular, models of flagella with ‘sliding-controlled’ dynein activity admit unstable modes with non-propulsive, retrograde (tip-to-base) propagation, sometimes at the same parameter values that lead to periodic, propulsive modes. In the presence of these retrograde unstable modes, stable or periodic modes have little influence. In contrast, unstable modes of the GC model exhibit switching at the base and propulsive base-to-tip propagation. PMID:25833248

  4. Independent motion detection with a rival penalized adaptive particle filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Stefan; Hübner, Wolfgang; Arens, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Aggregation of pixel based motion detection into regions of interest, which include views of single moving objects in a scene is an essential pre-processing step in many vision systems. Motion events of this type provide significant information about the object type or build the basis for action recognition. Further, motion is an essential saliency measure, which is able to effectively support high level image analysis. When applied to static cameras, background subtraction methods achieve good results. On the other hand, motion aggregation on freely moving cameras is still a widely unsolved problem. The image flow, measured on a freely moving camera is the result from two major motion types. First the ego-motion of the camera and second object motion, that is independent from the camera motion. When capturing a scene with a camera these two motion types are adverse blended together. In this paper, we propose an approach to detect multiple moving objects from a mobile monocular camera system in an outdoor environment. The overall processing pipeline consists of a fast ego-motion compensation algorithm in the preprocessing stage. Real-time performance is achieved by using a sparse optical flow algorithm as an initial processing stage and a densely applied probabilistic filter in the post-processing stage. Thereby, we follow the idea proposed by Jung and Sukhatme. Normalized intensity differences originating from a sequence of ego-motion compensated difference images represent the probability of moving objects. Noise and registration artefacts are filtered out, using a Bayesian formulation. The resulting a posteriori distribution is located on image regions, showing strong amplitudes in the difference image which are in accordance with the motion prediction. In order to effectively estimate the a posteriori distribution, a particle filter is used. In addition to the fast ego-motion compensation, the main contribution of this paper is the design of the probabilistic

  5. Slice-to-Volume Nonrigid Registration of Histological Sections to MR Images of the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Osechinskiy, Sergey; Kruggel, Frithjof

    2011-01-01

    Registration of histological images to three-dimensional imaging modalities is an important step in quantitative analysis of brain structure, in architectonic mapping of the brain, and in investigation of the pathology of a brain disease. Reconstruction of histology volume from serial sections is a well-established procedure, but it does not address registration of individual slices from sparse sections, which is the aim of the slice-to-volume approach. This study presents a flexible framework for intensity-based slice-to-volume nonrigid registration algorithms with a geometric transformation deformation field parametrized by various classes of spline functions: thin-plate splines (TPS), Gaussian elastic body splines (GEBS), or cubic B-splines. Algorithms are applied to cross-modality registration of histological and magnetic resonance images of the human brain. Registration performance is evaluated across a range of optimization algorithms and intensity-based cost functions. For a particular case of histological data, best results are obtained with a TPS three-dimensional (3D) warp, a new unconstrained optimization algorithm (NEWUOA), and a correlation-coefficient-based cost function. PMID:22567290

  6. GENERAL THEORY OF THE ROTATION OF THE NON-RIGID EARTH AT THE SECOND ORDER. I. THE RIGID MODEL IN ANDOYER VARIABLES

    SciTech Connect

    Getino, J.; Miguel, D.; Escapa, A.

    2010-05-15

    This paper is the first part of an investigation where we will present an analytical general theory of the rotation of the non-rigid Earth at the second order, which considers the effects of the interaction of the rotation of the Earth with itself, also named as the spin-spin coupling. Here, and as a necessary step in the development of that theory, we derive complete, explicit, analytical formulae of the rigid Earth rotation that account for the second-order rotation-rotation interaction. These expressions are not provided in this form by any current rigid Earth model. Working within the Hamiltonian framework established by Kinoshita, we study the second-order effects arising from the interaction of the main term in the Earth geopotential expansion with itself, and with the complementary term arising when referring the rotational motion to the moving ecliptic. To this aim, we apply a canonical perturbation method to solve analytically the canonical equations at the second order, determining the expressions that provide the nutation-precession, the polar motion, and the length of day. In the case of the motion of the equatorial plane, nutation-precession, we compare our general approach with the particular study for this motion developed by Souchay et al., showing the existence of new terms whose numerical values are within the truncation level of 0.1 {mu}as adopted by those authors. These terms emerge as a consequence of not assuming in this work the same restrictive simplifications taken by Souchay et al. The importance of these additional contributions is that, as the analytical formulae show, they depend on the Earth model considered, in such a way that the fluid core resonance could amplify them significatively when extending this theory to the non-rigid Earth models.

  7. A new analysis methodology for the motion of self-propelled particles and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Young-Moo; Lammert, Paul; Crespi, Vincent

    2011-03-01

    The self-propelled particle (SPP) on the microscale in the solution is a growing field of study, which has a potential to be used for nanomedicine and nanorobots. However, little detailed quantitative analysis on the motion of the SPP has been performed so far because its self-propelled motion is strongly coupled to Brownian motion, which makes the extraction of intrinsic propulsion mechanisms problematic, leading to inconsistent conclusions. Here, we present a novel way to decompose the motion of the SPP into self-propelled and Brownian components; accurate values for self-propulsion speed and diffusion coefficients of the SPP are obtained for the first time. Then, we apply our analysis methodology to ostensible chemotaxis of SPP, and reveal the actual (non-chemotactic) mechanism of the phenomenon, demonstrating that our analysis methodology is a powerful and reliable tool.

  8. Nonrigid registration of remote sensing images via sparse and dense feature matching.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Luo, Linbo; Liu, Chengyin; Yu, Jin-Gang; Ma, Jiayi

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel formulation for building pixelwise alignments between remote sensing images under nonrigid transformation based on matching both sparsely and densely sampled features. Our formulation contains two coupling variables: the nonrigid geometric transformation and the discrete dense flow field. To match sparse features, we fit a geometric transformation specified in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space and impose a locally linear constraint to regularize the transformation. To match dense features, we compute a dense flow field by using a formulation analogous to scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) flow which allows nonrigid matching across different scene appearances. An additional term is introduced to ensure the coherence between the two variables, and we alternatively solve for one variable under the assumption that the other is known. Extensive experiments on both synthetic and real remote sensing images demonstrate that our approach greatly outperforms state-of-the-art methods, particularly when the data contain severe degradations. PMID:27409688

  9. Nonrigid registration of remote sensing images via sparse and dense feature matching.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Luo, Linbo; Liu, Chengyin; Yu, Jin-Gang; Ma, Jiayi

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel formulation for building pixelwise alignments between remote sensing images under nonrigid transformation based on matching both sparsely and densely sampled features. Our formulation contains two coupling variables: the nonrigid geometric transformation and the discrete dense flow field. To match sparse features, we fit a geometric transformation specified in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space and impose a locally linear constraint to regularize the transformation. To match dense features, we compute a dense flow field by using a formulation analogous to scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) flow which allows nonrigid matching across different scene appearances. An additional term is introduced to ensure the coherence between the two variables, and we alternatively solve for one variable under the assumption that the other is known. Extensive experiments on both synthetic and real remote sensing images demonstrate that our approach greatly outperforms state-of-the-art methods, particularly when the data contain severe degradations.

  10. A non-rigid registration method for cerebral DSA images based on forward and inverse stretching - avoiding bilinear interpolation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Zhang, Bingbing; Wan, Chao; Dong, Yihuan

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce the motion artifact caused by the patient in cerebral DSA images, a non-rigid registration method based on stretching transformation is presented in this paper. Unlike other traditional methods, it does not need bilinear interpolation which is rather time-consuming and even produce 'originally non-existent gray value'. By this method, the mask image is rasterized to generate appropriate control points. The Energy of Histogram of Differences criterion is adopted as similarity measurement, and the Powell algorithm is utilized for acceleration. A forward stretching transformation is used to complete motion estimation and an inverse stretching transformation to generate target image by pixel mapping strategy. This method is effective to maintain the topological relationships of the gray value before and after the image deformation. The mask image remains clear and accurate contours, and the quality of the subtraction image after the registration is favorable. This method can provide support for clinical treatment and diagnosis of cerebral disease. PMID:24212008

  11. Strong Ground-Motion Prediction in Seismic Hazard Analysis: PEGASOS and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherbaum, F.; Bommer, J. J.; Cotton, F.; Bungum, H.; Sabetta, F.

    2005-12-01

    The SSHAC Level 4 approach to probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), which could be considered to define the state-of-the-art in PSHA using multiple expert opinions, has been fully applied only twice, firstly in the multi-year Yucca Mountain study and subsequently (2002-2004) in the PEGASOS project. The authors of this paper participated as ground-motion experts in this latter project, the objective of which was comprehensive seismic hazard analysis for four nuclear power plant sites in Switzerland, considering annual exceedance frequencies down to 1/10000000. Following SSHAC procedure, particular emphasis was put on capturing both the aleatory and epistemic uncertainties. As a consequence, ground motion prediction was performed by combining several empirical ground motion models within a logic tree framework with the weights on each logic tree branch expressing the personal degree-of-belief of each ground-motion expert. In the present paper, we critically review the current state of ground motion prediction methodology in PSHA in particular for regions of low seismicity. One of the toughest lessons from PEGASOS was that in systematically and rigorously applying the laws of uncertainty propagation to all of the required conversions and adjustments of ground motion models, a huge price has to be paid in an ever-growing aleatory variability. Once this path has been followed, these large sigma values will drive the hazard, particularly for low annual frequencies of exceedance. Therefore, from a post-PEGASOS perspective, the key issues in the context of ground-motion prediction for PSHA for the near future are to better understand the aleatory variability of ground motion and to develop suites of ground-motion prediction equations that employ the same parameter definitions. The latter is a global rather than a regional challenge which might be a desirable long-term goal for projects similar to the PEER NGA (Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, Next

  12. Nonrigid registration of carotid ultrasound and MR images using a "twisting and bending" model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanayakkara, Nuwan D.; Chiu, Bernard; Samani, Abbas; Spence, J. David; Parraga, Grace; Samarabandu, Jagath; Fenster, Aaron

    2008-03-01

    Atherosclerosis at the carotid bifurcation resulting in cerebral emboli is a major cause of ischemic stroke. Most strokes associated with carotid atherosclerosis can be prevented by lifestyle/dietary changes and pharmacological treatments if identified early by monitoring carotid plaque changes. Plaque composition information from magnetic resonance (MR) carotid images and dynamic characteristics information from 3D ultrasound (US) are necessary for developing and validating US imaging tools to identify vulnerable carotid plaques. Combining these images requires nonrigid registration to correct the non-linear miss-alignments caused by relative twisting and bending in the neck due to different head positions during the two image acquisitions sessions. The high degree of freedom and large number of parameters associated with existing nonrigid image registration methods causes several problems including unnatural plaque morphology alteration, computational complexity, and low reliability. Our approach was to model the normal movement of the neck using a "twisting and bending model" with only six parameters for nonrigid registration. We evaluated our registration technique using intra-subject in-vivo 3D US and 3D MR carotid images acquired on the same day. We calculated the Mean Registration Error (MRE) between the segmented vessel surfaces in the target image and the registered image using a distance-based error metric after applying our "twisting bending model" based nonrigid registration algorithm. We achieved an average registration error of 1.33+/-0.41mm using our nonrigid registration technique. Visual inspection of segmented vessel surfaces also showed a substantial improvement of alignment with our non-rigid registration technique.

  13. Implementation of a Smart Phone for Motion Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yodpijit, Nantakrit; Songwongamarit, Chalida; Tavichaiyuth, Nicha

    2015-01-01

    In today’s information-rich environment, one of the most popular devices is a smartphone. Research has shown significant growth in the use of smartphones and apps all over the world. Accelerometer within smartphone is a motion sensor that can be used to detect human movements. Compared to other major vital signs, gait characteristics represent general health status, and can be determined using smartphones. The objective of the current study is to design and develop the alternative technology that can potentially predict health status and reduce healthcare cost. This study uses a smartphone as a wireless accelerometer for quantifying human motion characteristics from four steps of the system design and development (data acquisition operation, feature extraction algorithm, classifier design, and decision making strategy). Findings indicate that it is possible to extract features from a smartphone’s accelerometer using a peak detection algorithm. Gait characteristics obtain from the peak detection algorithm include stride time, stance time, swing time and cadence. Applications and limitations of this study are also discussed.

  14. Non-rigid registration of medical images based on ordinal feature and manifold learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Liu, Jin; Zang, Bo

    2015-12-01

    With the rapid development of medical imaging technology, medical image research and application has become a research hotspot. This paper offers a solution to non-rigid registration of medical images based on ordinal feature (OF) and manifold learning. The structural features of medical images are extracted by combining ordinal features with local linear embedding (LLE) to improve the precision and speed of the registration algorithm. A physical model based on manifold learning and optimization search is constructed according to the complicated characteristics of non-rigid registration. The experimental results demonstrate the robustness and applicability of the proposed registration scheme.

  15. Analysis of preflutter and postflutter characteristics with motion-matched aerodynamic forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    The development of the equations of dynamic equilibrium for a lifting surface from Lagrange's equation is reviewed and restated for general exponential growing and decaying oscillatory motion. Aerodynamic forces for this motion are obtained from the three-dimensional supersonic kernel function that is newly generalized to complex reduced frequencies. Illustrative calculations were made for two flutter models at supersonic Mach numbers. Preflutter and postflutter motion isodecrement curves were obtained. This type of analysis can be used to predict preflutter behavior during flutter testing and to predict postflutter behavior for use in the design of flutter suppression systems.

  16. Vibronic structure of the cyclopentadienyl radical and its nonrigid van der Waals cluster with nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, S.; Bernstein, E. R.

    1995-09-01

    Fluorescence excitation and two color mass resolved excitation spectroscopy are employed to study the D1(2A2″)←D0(2E1″) vibronic transitions of the cyclopentadienyl radical (cpd) and its van der Waals cluster with nitrogen. The radical is created by photolysis of the cyclopentadiene dimer and cooled by expansion from a supersonic nozzle. The cpd(N2)1 cluster is generated in this cooling process. Mass resolved excitation spectra of cpd are obtained for the first 1200 cm-1 of the D1←D0 transition. The excitation spectrum of cpd(N2)1 shows a complicated structure for the origin transition. With the application of hole burning spectroscopy, we are able to assign all the cluster transitions to a single isomer. The features are assigned to a 55 cm-1 out-of-plane van der Waals mode stretch and contortional (rotational) motions of the N2 molecule with respect to the cpd radical. Empirical potential energy calculations are used to predict the properties of this cluster and yield the following results: (1) the N2 molecular axis is perpendicular to the cpd fivefold axis and parallel to the plane of the cpd ring with the two molecular centers of mass lying on the fivefold ring axis; (2) the binding energy of cpd(N2)1 is 434 cm-1; and (3) the rotational motion of the N2 molecule is essentially unhindered about the cpd fivefold axis. The molecular symmetry group D5h(MS) is applied to the nonrigid cluster, and optical selection rules exclude even↔odd transitions (Δn=0, ±2, ±4,... allowed) between the different contortional levels. Tentative assignments are given to the observed contortional features based on these considerations. The barrier to internal rotation is also small in the excited state. The results for the cpd(N2)1 van der Waals cluster are compared to those for the benzene (N2)1 and benzyl radical (N2)1 clusters.

  17. Space positional and motion SRC effects: A comparison with the use of reaction time distribution analysis

    PubMed Central

    Styrkowiec, Piotr; Szczepanowski, Remigiusz

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of reaction time (RT) distributions has become a recognized standard in studies on the stimulus response correspondence (SRC) effect as it allows exploring how this effect changes as a function of response speed. In this study, we compared the spatial SRC effect (the classic Simon effect) with the motion SRC effect using RT distribution analysis. Four experiments were conducted, in which we manipulated factors of space position and motion for stimulus and response, in order to obtain a clear distinction between positional SRC and motion SRC. Results showed that these two types of SRC effects differ in their RT distribution functions as the space positional SRC effect showed a decreasing function, while the motion SRC showed an increasing function. This suggests that different types of codes underlie these two SRC effects. Potential mechanisms and processes are discussed. PMID:24605178

  18. Digital resolver for helicopter model blade motion analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, T. S.; Berry, J. D.; Park, S.

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports the development and initial testing of a digital resolver to replace existing analog signal processing instrumentation. Radiometers, mounted directly on one of the fully articulated blades, are electrically connected through a slip ring to analog signal processing circuitry. The measured signals are periodic with azimuth angle and are resolved into harmonic components, with 0 deg over the tail. The periodic nature of the helicopter blade motion restricts the frequency content of each flapping and yaw signal to the fundamental and harmonics of the rotor rotational frequency. A minicomputer is employed to collect these data and then plot them graphically in real time. With this and other information generated by the instrumentation, a helicopter test pilot can then adjust the helicopter model's controls to achieve the desired aerodynamic test conditions.

  19. Focal spot motion of linear accelerators and its effect on portal image analysis.

    PubMed

    Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Brand, Bob; van Herk, Marcel

    2003-06-01

    The focal spot of a linear accelerator is often considered to have a fully stable position. In practice, however, the beam control loop of a linear accelerator needs to stabilize after the beam is turned on. As a result, some motion of the focal spot might occur during the start-up phase of irradiation. When acquiring portal images, this motion will affect the projected position of anatomy and field edges, especially when low exposures are used. In this paper, the motion of the focal spot and the effect of this motion on portal image analysis are quantified. A slightly tilted narrow slit phantom was placed at the isocenter of several linear accelerators and images were acquired (3.5 frames per second) by means of an amorphous silicon flat panel imager positioned approximately 0.7 m below the isocenter. The motion of the focal spot was determined by converting the tilted slit images to subpixel accurate line spread functions. The error in portal image analysis due to focal spot motionwas estimated by a subtraction of the relative displacement of the projected slit from the relative displacement of the field edges. It was found that the motion of the focal spot depends on the control system and design of the accelerator. The shift of the focal spot at the start of irradiation ranges between 0.05-0.7 mm in the gun-target (GT) direction. In the left-right (AB) direction the shift is generally smaller. The resulting error in portal image analysis due to focal spotmotion ranges between 0.05-1.1 mm for a dose corresponding to two monitor units (MUs). For 20 MUs, the effect of the focal spot motion reduces to 0.01-0.3 mm. The error in portal image analysis due to focal spot motion can be reduced by reducing the applied dose rate.

  20. Motion Law Analysis and Structural Optimization of the Ejection Device of Tray Seeder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xin; Hu, Bin; Dong, Chunwang; Huang, Lili

    An ejection mechanism consisting four reset springs, an electromagnet and a seed disk was designed for tray seeder. The motion conditions of seeds in the seed disk were theoretical analyzed and intensity and height of seed ejection were calculated. The motions of the seeds and seed disk were multi-body dynamic simulated using Cosmos modules plug-in SolidWorks software package. The simulation results showed the consistence with the theoretical analysis.

  1. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography–Guided Positioning of Laryngeal Cancer Patients with Large Interfraction Time Trends in Setup and Nonrigid Anatomy Variations

    SciTech Connect

    Gangsaas, Anne Astreinidou, Eleftheria; Quint, Sandra; Levendag, Peter C.; Heijmen, Ben

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate interfraction setup variations of the primary tumor, elective nodes, and vertebrae in laryngeal cancer patients and to validate protocols for cone beam computed tomography (CBCT)-guided correction. Methods and Materials: For 30 patients, CBCT-measured displacements in fractionated treatments were used to investigate population setup errors and to simulate residual setup errors for the no action level (NAL) offline protocol, the extended NAL (eNAL) protocol, and daily CBCT acquisition with online analysis and repositioning. Results: Without corrections, 12 of 26 patients treated with radical radiation therapy would have experienced a gradual change (time trend) in primary tumor setup ≥4 mm in the craniocaudal (CC) direction during the fractionated treatment (11/12 in caudal direction, maximum 11 mm). Due to these trends, correction of primary tumor displacements with NAL resulted in large residual CC errors (required margin 6.7 mm). With the weekly correction vector adjustments in eNAL, the trends could be largely compensated (CC margin 3.5 mm). Correlation between movements of the primary and nodal clinical target volumes (CTVs) in the CC direction was poor (r{sup 2}=0.15). Therefore, even with online setup corrections of the primary CTV, the required CC margin for the nodal CTV was as large as 6.8 mm. Also for the vertebrae, large time trends were observed for some patients. Because of poor CC correlation (r{sup 2}=0.19) between displacements of the primary CTV and the vertebrae, even with daily online repositioning of the vertebrae, the required CC margin around the primary CTV was 6.9 mm. Conclusions: Laryngeal cancer patients showed substantial interfraction setup variations, including large time trends, and poor CC correlation between primary tumor displacements and motion of the nodes and vertebrae (internal tumor motion). These trends and nonrigid anatomy variations have to be considered in the choice of setup verification protocol

  2. In-vivo motion analysis of bi-ventricular hearts from tagged MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyoungju; Axel, Leon; Metaxas, Dimitris N.

    2005-04-01

    We conduct experiments to look at the in-vivo cardiac motion during systole, to visualize heart contraction, and to examine the clinical usefulness. Our model-based technique incorporates subject-specific modeling, motion analysis and the extraction of clinically relevant parameters within one framework. Previous bi-ventricular model based method could only handle up to the mid-ventricles and have a few test-subjects. Our parameterized model includes the LV, RV and up to the basal area for full ventricular motion study. Finite element methods capture cardiac motion by tracking the material points from tagged Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. A number of experiments from ten subjects are evaluated and analyzed. We tested subject several times and compared the resulting parameters to ensure the reproducibility and deviations. The resulting parameters can be used to describe the cardiac motion of normal subjects. The patterns of normal subjects were derived from experiments. While significant shape and motion variations were apparent in normal subjects, the quantitative analysis show typical patterns. Generally, the basal area moves downwards and the apical area contracts towards the cavity. The principal strain analysis describes the directions and magnitudes of maximum shortening, and maximum thickening.

  3. A finite state model for respiratory motion analysis in image guided radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huanmei; Sharp, Gregory C.; Salzberg, Betty; Kaeli, David; Shirato, Hiroki; Jiang, Steve B.

    2004-12-01

    Effective image guided radiation treatment of a moving tumour requires adequate information on respiratory motion characteristics. For margin expansion, beam tracking and respiratory gating, the tumour motion must be quantified for pretreatment planning and monitored on-line. We propose a finite state model for respiratory motion analysis that captures our natural understanding of breathing stages. In this model, a regular breathing cycle is represented by three line segments, exhale, end-of-exhale and inhale, while abnormal breathing is represented by an irregular breathing state. In addition, we describe an on-line implementation of this model in one dimension. We found this model can accurately characterize a wide variety of patient breathing patterns. This model was used to describe the respiratory motion for 23 patients with peak-to-peak motion greater than 7 mm. The average root mean square error over all patients was less than 1 mm and no patient has an error worse than 1.5 mm. Our model provides a convenient tool to quantify respiratory motion characteristics, such as patterns of frequency changes and amplitude changes, and can be applied to internal or external motion, including internal tumour position, abdominal surface, diaphragm, spirometry and other surrogates.

  4. Ground motion issues for seismic analysis of tall buildings: A status report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bozorgnia, Y.; Campbell, K.W.; Luco, N.; Moehle, J.P.; Naeim, F.; Somerville, P.; Yang, T.Y.

    2007-01-01

    The Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) is coordinating a major multidisciplinary programme, the Tall Buildings Initiative (TBI), to address critical technical issues related to the design and analysis of new tall buildings located in coastal California. The authors of this paper, listed alphabetically, are involved in various research studies related to ground motion modelling, selection, modification and simulation for analysis of tall buildings. This paper summarizes the scope and progress of ongoing activities related to ground motion issues for response history analysis of tall buildings.

  5. Polar motion excitation analysis due to global continental water redistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, L.; Schuh, H.

    2006-10-01

    We present the results obtained when studying the hydrological excitation of the Earth‘s wobble due to global redistribution of continental water storage. This work was performed in two steps. First, we computed the hydrological angular momentum (HAM) time series based on the global hydrological model LaD (Land Dynamics model) for the period 1980 till 2004. Then, we compared the effectiveness of this excitation by analysing the residuals of the geodetic time series after removing atmospheric and oceanic contributions with the respective hydrological ones. The emphasis was put on low frequency variations. We also present a comparison of HAM time series from LaD with respect to that one from a global model based on the assimilated soil moisture and snow accumulation data from NCEP/NCAR (The National Center for Environmental Prediction/The National Center for Atmospheric Research) reanalysis. Finally, we evaluate the performance of LaD model in closing the polar motion budget at seasonal periods in comparison with the NCEP and the Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) models.

  6. Experimental and numerical analysis of rider motion in weave conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doria, A.; Formentini, M.; Tognazzo, M.

    2012-08-01

    Motorcycle dynamics is characterised by the presence of modes of vibration that may become unstable and lead to dangerous conditions. In particular, the weave mode shows large yaw and roll oscillations of the rear frame and out of phase oscillations of the front frame about the steer axis. The presence of the rider influences the modes of vibration, since the mass, stiffness and damping of limbs modify the dynamic properties of the system; moreover, at low frequency the rider can control oscillations. There are few experimental results dealing with the response of the rider in the presence of large oscillations of the motorcycle. This lack is due to the difficulty of carrying out measurements on the road and of reproducing the phenomena in the laboratory. This paper deals with a research programme aimed at measuring the oscillations of the rider's body on a running motorcycle in the presence of weave. First, testing equipment is presented. It includes a special measurement device that is able to measure the relative motion between the rider and the motorcycle. Then the road tests carried out at increasing speeds (from 160 to 210 km/h) are described and discussed. Best-fitting methods are used for identifying the main features of measured vibrations in terms of natural frequencies, damping ratios and modal shapes. The last section deals with the comparison between measured and simulated response of the motorcycle-rider system in weave conditions; good agreement was found.

  7. Physiologically corrected coupled motion during gait analysis using a model-based approach.

    PubMed

    Bonnechère, Bruno; Sholukha, Victor; Salvia, Patrick; Rooze, Marcel; Van Sint Jan, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Gait analysis is used in daily clinics for patients' evaluation and follow-up. Stereophotogrammetric devices are the most used tool to perform these analyses. Although these devices are accurate results must be analyzed carefully due to relatively poor reproducibility. One of the major issues is related to skin displacement artifacts. Motion representation is recognized reliable for the main plane of motion displacement, but secondary motions, or combined, are less reliable because of the above artifacts. Model-based approach (MBA) combining accurate joint kinematics and motion data was previously developed based on a double-step registration method. This study presents an extensive validation of this MBA method by comparing results with a conventional motion representation model. Thirty five healthy subjects participated to this study. Gait motion data were obtained from a stereophotogrammetric system. Plug-in Gait model (PiG) and MBA were applied to raw data, results were then compared. Range-of-motion, were computed for pelvis, hip, knee and ankle joints. Differences between PiG and MBA were then computed. Paired-sample t-tests were used to compare both methods. Normalized root-mean square errors were also computed. Shapes of the curves were compared using coefficient of multiple correlations. The MBA and PiG approaches shows similar results for the main plane of motion displacement but statistically significative discrepancies appear for the combined motions. MBA appear to be usable in applications (such as musculoskeletal modeling) requesting better approximations of the joints-of-interest thanks to the integration of validated joint mechanisms.

  8. Motion Analysis of 100 Mediastinal Lymph Nodes: Potential Pitfalls in Treatment Planning and Adaptive Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Pantarotto, Jason R.; Piet, Anna H.M.; Vincent, Andrew; Soernsen de Koste, John R. van; Senan, Suresh

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: The motion of mediastinal lymph nodes may undermine local control with involved-field radiotherapy. We studied patterns of nodal and tumor motion in 41 patients with lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography planning scans were retrospectively evaluated to identify patients with clearly visible mediastinal lymph nodes. One hundred nodes from 14 patients with Stage I and 27 patients with Stage III were manually contoured in all 4D computed tomography respiratory phases. Motion was derived from changes in the nodal center-of-mass position. Primary tumors were also delineated in all phases for 16 patients with Stage III disease. Statistical analysis included a multivariate mixed-effects model of grouped data. Results: Average 3D nodal motion during quiet breathing was 0.68 cm (range, 0.17-1.64 cm); 77% moved greater than 0.5 cm, and 10% moved greater than 1.0 cm. Motion was greatest in the lower mediastinum (p = 0.002), and nodes measuring 2 cm or greater in diameter showed motion similar to that in smaller nodes. In 11 of 16 patients studied, at least one node moved more than the corresponding primary tumor. No association between 3D primary tumor motion and nodal motion was observed. For mobile primary tumors, phase offsets between the primary tumor and nodes of two or more and three or more phases were observed for 33% and 12% of nodes, respectively. Conclusions: Mediastinal nodal motion is common, with phase offsets seen between the primary tumor and different nodes in the same patient. Patient-specific information is needed to ensure geometric coverage, and adaptive strategies based solely on the primary tumor may be misleading.

  9. [Motion analysis of target in stereotactic radiotherapy of lung tumors using 320-row multidetector CT].

    PubMed

    Imae, Toshikazu; Haga, Akihiro; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Ino, Kenji; Tanaka, Kenichirou; Okano, Yukari; Sasaki, Katsutake; Saegusa, Shigeki; Shiraki, Takashi; Oritate, Takashi; Yano, Keiichi; Shinohara, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) has rapidly evolved and is increasingly used for treatment simulation of thoracic and abdominal radiotherapy. A 320-detector row CT scanner has recently become available that allows axial volumetric scanning of a 16-cm-long range in a patient without table movement. Current radiotherapy techniques require a generous margin around the presumed gross tumor volume (GTV) to account for uncertainties such as tumor motion and set up error. Motion analysis is useful to evaluate the internal margin of a moving target due to respiration and to improve therapeutic precision. The purpose of this study is to propose a method using phase-only correlation to automatically detect the target and to assess the motion of the target in numerical phantoms and patients. Free-breathing scans using 320-detector row CT were acquired for 4 patients with lung tumor(s). The proposed method was feasible for motion analysis of all numerical phantoms and patients. The results reproduced the facts that the motion of tumors in the patients varied in orbits during the respiratory cycle and exhibited hysteresis. The maximum distance between peak exhalation and inhalation increased as the tumors approached the diaphragm. The proposed method detected the three-dimensional position of the targets automatically and analyzed the trajectories. The tumor motion due to respiration differed by region and was greatest for the lower lobe. PMID:21471676

  10. Nuclear quadrupole resonance lineshape analysis for different motional models: Stochastic Liouville approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruk, D.; Earle, K. A.; Mielczarek, A.; Kubica, A.; Milewska, A.; Moscicki, J.

    2011-12-01

    A general theory of lineshapes in nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), based on the stochastic Liouville equation, is presented. The description is valid for arbitrary motional conditions (particularly beyond the valid range of perturbation approaches) and interaction strengths. It can be applied to the computation of NQR spectra for any spin quantum number and for any applied magnetic field. The treatment presented here is an adaptation of the "Swedish slow motion theory," [T. Nilsson and J. Kowalewski, J. Magn. Reson. 146, 345 (2000), 10.1006/jmre.2000.2125] originally formulated for paramagnetic systems, to NQR spectral analysis. The description is formulated for simple (Brownian) diffusion, free diffusion, and jump diffusion models. The two latter models account for molecular cooperativity effects in dense systems (such as liquids of high viscosity or molecular glasses). The sensitivity of NQR slow motion spectra to the mechanism of the motional processes modulating the nuclear quadrupole interaction is discussed.

  11. Singularity and workspace analysis of three isoconstrained parallel manipulators with schoenflies motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Po-Chih; Lee, Jyh-Jone

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the analysis of three parallel manipulators with Schoenflies-motion. Each parallel manipulator possesses two limbs in structure and the end-effector has three DOFs (degree of freedom) in the translational motion and one DOF in rotational motion about a given direction axis with respect to the world coordinate system. The three isoconstrained parallel manipulators have the structures denoted as C{u/u}UwHw-//-C{v/v}UwHw, CuR{u/u}Uhw-//-CvR{v/v}Uhw and CuPuUhw-//-CvPvUhw. The kinematic equations are first introduced for each manipulator. Then, Jacobian matrix, singularity, workspace, and performance index for each mechanism are subsequently derived and analysed for the first time. The results can be helpful for the engineers to evaluate such kind of parallel robots for possible application in industry where pick-and-place motion is required.

  12. Nuclear quadrupole resonance lineshape analysis for different motional models: stochastic Liouville approach.

    PubMed

    Kruk, D; Earle, K A; Mielczarek, A; Kubica, A; Milewska, A; Moscicki, J

    2011-12-14

    A general theory of lineshapes in nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), based on the stochastic Liouville equation, is presented. The description is valid for arbitrary motional conditions (particularly beyond the valid range of perturbation approaches) and interaction strengths. It can be applied to the computation of NQR spectra for any spin quantum number and for any applied magnetic field. The treatment presented here is an adaptation of the "Swedish slow motion theory," [T. Nilsson and J. Kowalewski, J. Magn. Reson. 146, 345 (2000)] originally formulated for paramagnetic systems, to NQR spectral analysis. The description is formulated for simple (Brownian) diffusion, free diffusion, and jump diffusion models. The two latter models account for molecular cooperativity effects in dense systems (such as liquids of high viscosity or molecular glasses). The sensitivity of NQR slow motion spectra to the mechanism of the motional processes modulating the nuclear quadrupole interaction is discussed. PMID:22168707

  13. Active zone impact on deformation state of non-rigid pavement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandula, Ján

    2014-06-01

    The paper deals with the design of non-rigid pavement, with emphasis on the effect of active zone on its deformation state. The concepts of determination of active zone are described. The results of numerical modelling of pavement laying on elastic subgrade are presented in the paper

  14. Motion compensation of ultrasonic perfusion images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Sebastian; Nylund, Kim; Gilja, Odd H.; Tönnies, Klaus D.

    2012-03-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a rapid and inexpensive medical imaging technique to assess tissue perfusion with a high temporal resolution. It is composed of a sequence with ultrasound brightness values and a contrast sequence acquired simultaneously. However, the image acquisition is disturbed by various motion influences. Registration is needed to obtain reliable information of spatial correspondence and to analyze perfusion characteristics over time. We present an approach to register an ultrasonography sequence by using a feature label map. This label map is generated from the b-mode data sequence by a Markov-Random-Field (MRF) based analysis, where each location is assigned to one of the user-defined regions according to its statistical parameters. The MRF reduces the chance that outliers are represented in the label map and provides stable feature labels over the time frames. A registration consisting of rigid and non-rigid transformations is determined consecutively using the generated label map of the respective frames for similarity calculation. For evaluation, the standard deviation within specific regions in intestinal CEUS images has been measured before and after registration resulting in an average decrease of 8.6 %. Additionally, this technique has proven to be more robust against noise influence compared to similarity calculation based on image intensities only. The latter leads only to 7.6 % decrease of the standard deviation.

  15. Right ventricular strain analysis from three-dimensional echocardiography by using temporally diffeomorphic motion estimation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Meihua; Ashraf, Muhammad; Broberg, Craig S.; Sahn, David J.; Song, Xubo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Quantitative analysis of right ventricle (RV) motion is important for study of the mechanism of congenital and acquired diseases. Unlike left ventricle (LV), motion estimation of RV is more difficult because of its complex shape and thin myocardium. Although attempts of finite element models on MR images and speckle tracking on echocardiography have shown promising results on RV strain analysis, these methods can be improved since the temporal smoothness of the motion is not considered. Methods: The authors have proposed a temporally diffeomorphic motion estimation method in which a spatiotemporal transformation is estimated by optimization of a registration energy functional of the velocity field in their earlier work. The proposed motion estimation method is a fully automatic process for general image sequences. The authors apply the method by combining with a semiautomatic myocardium segmentation method to the RV strain analysis of three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic sequences of five open-chest pigs under different steady states. Results: The authors compare the peak two-point strains derived by their method with those estimated from the sonomicrometry, the results show that they have high correlation. The motion of the right ventricular free wall is studied by using segmental strains. The baseline sequence results show that the segmental strains in their methods are consistent with results obtained by other image modalities such as MRI. The image sequences of pacing steady states show that segments with the largest strain variation coincide with the pacing sites. Conclusions: The high correlation of the peak two-point strains of their method and sonomicrometry under different steady states demonstrates that their RV motion estimation has high accuracy. The closeness of the segmental strain of their method to those from MRI shows the feasibility of their method in the study of RV function by using 3D echocardiography. The strain analysis of the

  16. Nonrigid Image Registration for Head and Neck Cancer Radiotherapy Treatment Planning With PET/CT

    SciTech Connect

    Ireland, Rob H. . E-mail: r.ireland@sheffield.ac.uk; Dyker, Karen E.; Barber, David C.; Wood, Steven M.; Hanney, Michael B.; Tindale, Wendy B.; Woodhouse, Neil; Hoggard, Nigel; Conway, John; Robinson, Martin H.

    2007-07-01

    Purpose: Head and neck radiotherapy planning with positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) requires the images to be reliably registered with treatment planning CT. Acquiring PET/CT in treatment position is problematic, and in practice for some patients it may be beneficial to use diagnostic PET/CT for radiotherapy planning. Therefore, the aim of this study was first to quantify the image registration accuracy of PET/CT to radiotherapy CT and, second, to assess whether PET/CT acquired in diagnostic position can be registered to planning CT. Methods and Materials: Positron emission tomography/CT acquired in diagnostic and treatment position for five patients with head and neck cancer was registered to radiotherapy planning CT using both rigid and nonrigid image registration. The root mean squared error for each method was calculated from a set of anatomic landmarks marked by four independent observers. Results: Nonrigid and rigid registration errors for treatment position PET/CT to planning CT were 2.77 {+-} 0.80 mm and 4.96 {+-} 2.38 mm, respectively, p = 0.001. Applying the nonrigid registration to diagnostic position PET/CT produced a more accurate match to the planning CT than rigid registration of treatment position PET/CT (3.20 {+-} 1.22 mm and 4.96 {+-} 2.38 mm, respectively, p = 0.012). Conclusions: Nonrigid registration provides a more accurate registration of head and neck PET/CT to treatment planning CT than rigid registration. In addition, nonrigid registration of PET/CT acquired with patients in a standardized, diagnostic position can provide images registered to planning CT with greater accuracy than a rigid registration of PET/CT images acquired in treatment position. This may allow greater flexibility in the timing of PET/CT for head and neck cancer patients due to undergo radiotherapy.

  17. Efficient multi-modal dense field non-rigid registration: alignment of histological and section images.

    PubMed

    du Bois d'Aische, Aloys; Craene, Mathieu De; Geets, Xavier; Gregoire, Vincent; Macq, Benoit; Warfield, Simon K

    2005-12-01

    We describe a new algorithm for non-rigid registration capable of estimating a constrained dense displacement field from multi-modal image data. We applied this algorithm to capture non-rigid deformation between digital images of histological slides and digital flat-bed scanned images of cryotomed sections of the larynx, and carried out validation experiments to measure the effectiveness of the algorithm. The implementation was carried out by extending the open-source Insight ToolKit software. In diagnostic imaging of cancer of the larynx, imaging modalities sensitive to both anatomy (such as MRI and CT) and function (PET) are valuable. However, these modalities differ in their capability to discriminate the margins of tumor. Gold standard tumor margins can be obtained from histological images from cryotomed sections of the larynx. Unfortunately, the process of freezing, fixation, cryotoming and staining the tissue to create histological images introduces non-rigid deformations and significant contrast changes. We demonstrate that the non-rigid registration algorithm we present is able to capture these deformations and the algorithm allows us to align histological images with scanned images of the larynx. Our non-rigid registration algorithm constructs a deformation field to warp one image onto another. The algorithm measures image similarity using a mutual information similarity criterion, and avoids spurious deformations due to noise by constraining the estimated deformation field with a linear elastic regularization term. The finite element method is used to represent the deformation field, and our implementation enables us to assign inhomogeneous material characteristics so that hard regions resist internal deformation whereas soft regions are more pliant. A gradient descent optimization strategy is used and this has enabled rapid and accurate convergence to the desired estimate of the deformation field. A further acceleration in speed without cost of accuracy

  18. Left ventricle motion estimation based on signal-dependent time-frequency representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Marco A.; Weiderpass, Heinar A.; Furuie, Sergio S.

    2003-05-01

    In current clinical practice, the noninvasive assessment of left ventricular deformation can be determined using all the principal imaging modalities, including contrast angiography, echocardiography, cine computed tomography, single photon emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. However, since the heart undergoes complex motion, proper characterization of its motion still remains an open and challenging research problem. A number of approaches for nonrigid motion analysis have been studied in the literature. Much of the effort has confined to estimate the displacement vector for each image point or optical flow. This is a challenging problem in image analysis because of a wide range of possible motions and the presence of noise in the image sets. In this work, we present an algorithm for computation of optical flow based on a signal-dependent radially Gaussian kernel that adapts over time. The adaptive kernel obtained from the proposed algorithm is used to estimate a 3D-frequency spectrum for a given pixel in a series of images. The orientation of the spectrum in the frequency domain is totally governed by the pixel velocity. In a recent contribution, a linear regression model is used over the spectrum to obtain the velocity components that are proportional to the pixel movement.

  19. Tracking motion, deformation, and texture using conditionally gaussian processes.

    PubMed

    Marks, Tim K; Hershey, John R; Movellan, Javier R

    2010-02-01

    We present a generative model and inference algorithm for 3D nonrigid object tracking. The model, which we call G-flow, enables the joint inference of 3D position, orientation, and nonrigid deformations, as well as object texture and background texture. Optimal inference under G-flow reduces to a conditionally Gaussian stochastic filtering problem. The optimal solution to this problem reveals a new space of computer vision algorithms, of which classic approaches such as optic flow and template matching are special cases that are optimal only under special circumstances. We evaluate G-flow on the problem of tracking facial expressions and head motion in 3D from single-camera video. Previously, the lack of realistic video data with ground truth nonrigid position information has hampered the rigorous evaluation of nonrigid tracking. We introduce a practical method of obtaining such ground truth data and present a new face video data set that was created using this technique. Results on this data set show that G-flow is much more robust and accurate than current deterministic optic-flow-based approaches. PMID:20075463

  20. Particle Motion Analysis Reveals Nanoscale Bond Characteristics and Enhances Dynamic Range for Biosensing.

    PubMed

    Visser, Emiel W A; van IJzendoorn, Leo J; Prins, Menno W J

    2016-03-22

    Biofunctionalized colloidal particles are widely used as labels in bioanalytical assays, lab-on-chip devices, biophysical research, and in studies on live biological systems. With detection resolution going down to the level of single particles and single molecules, understanding the nature of the interaction of the particles with surfaces and substrates becomes of paramount importance. Here, we present a comprehensive study of motion patterns of colloidal particles maintained in close proximity to a substrate by short molecular tethers (40 nm). The motion of the particles (500-1000 nm) was optically tracked with a very high localization accuracy (below 3 nm). A surprisingly large variation in motion patterns was observed, which can be attributed to properties of the particle-molecule-substrate system, namely the bond number, the nature of the bond, particle protrusions, and substrate nonuniformities. Experimentally observed motion patterns were compared to numerical Monte Carlo simulations, revealing a close correspondence between the observed motion patterns and properties of the molecular system. Particles bound via single tethers show distinct disc-, ring-, and bell-shaped motion patterns, where the ring- and bell-shaped patterns are caused by protrusions on the particle in the direct vicinity of the molecular attachment point. Double and triple tethered particles exhibit stripe-shaped and triangular-shaped motion patterns, respectively. The developed motion pattern analysis allows for discrimination between particles bound by different bond types, which opens the possibility to improve the limit of detection and the dynamic range of bioanalytical assays, with a projected increase of dynamic range by nearly 2 orders of magnitude.

  1. Robust object tracking techniques for vision-based 3D motion analysis applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyaz, Vladimir A.; Zheltov, Sergey Y.; Vishnyakov, Boris V.

    2016-04-01

    Automated and accurate spatial motion capturing of an object is necessary for a wide variety of applications including industry and science, virtual reality and movie, medicine and sports. For the most part of applications a reliability and an accuracy of the data obtained as well as convenience for a user are the main characteristics defining the quality of the motion capture system. Among the existing systems for 3D data acquisition, based on different physical principles (accelerometry, magnetometry, time-of-flight, vision-based), optical motion capture systems have a set of advantages such as high speed of acquisition, potential for high accuracy and automation based on advanced image processing algorithms. For vision-based motion capture accurate and robust object features detecting and tracking through the video sequence are the key elements along with a level of automation of capturing process. So for providing high accuracy of obtained spatial data the developed vision-based motion capture system "Mosca" is based on photogrammetric principles of 3D measurements and supports high speed image acquisition in synchronized mode. It includes from 2 to 4 technical vision cameras for capturing video sequences of object motion. The original camera calibration and external orientation procedures provide the basis for high accuracy of 3D measurements. A set of algorithms as for detecting, identifying and tracking of similar targets, so for marker-less object motion capture is developed and tested. The results of algorithms' evaluation show high robustness and high reliability for various motion analysis tasks in technical and biomechanics applications.

  2. High-Speed Video Analysis of Damped Harmonic Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poonyawatpornkul, J.; Wattanakasiwich, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we acquire and analyse high-speed videos of a spring-mass system oscillating in glycerin at different temperatures. Three cases of damped harmonic oscillation are investigated and analysed by using high-speed video at a rate of 120 frames s[superscript -1] and Tracker Video Analysis (Tracker) software. We present empirical data for…

  3. Propagating labels of the human brain based on non-rigid MR image registration: an evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckemann, Rolf A.; Hajnal, Joseph V.; Rueckert, Daniel; Hill, Derek L. G.; Hammers, Alexander

    2005-04-01

    Background: In order to perform statistical analysis of cohorts based on images, reliable methods for automated anatomical segmentation are required. Label propagation (LP) from manually segmented atlases onto newly acquired images is a particularly promising approach. Methods: We investigated LP on a set of 6 three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance data sets of the brains of normal individuals. For each image, a manually prepared segmentation of 67 structures was available. Each subject image was used in turn as an atlas and registered non-rigidly to each other subject's image. The resulting transformations were applied to the label sets, yielding five different generated segmentations for each subject, which we compared with the native manual segmentations using an overlap measure (similarity index, SI). We then reviewed the LP results for five structures with varied anatomical and label characteristics visually to determine how the registration procedure had affected the delineation of their boundaries. Results: The majority of structures propagated well as measured by SI (SI > 70 in 80% of measurements). Boundaries that were marked in the atlas image by definite intensity differences were congruent, with good agreement between the manual and the generated segmentations. Some boundaries in the manual segmentation were defined as planes marked by landmarks; such boundaries showed greater mismatch. In some cases, the proximity of structures with similar intensity distorted the LP results: e.g., parts of the parahippocampal gyrus were labeled as hippocampus in two cases. Conclusion: The size and shape of anatomical structures can be determined reliably using label propagation, especially where boundaries are defined by distinct differences in grey scale image intensity. These results will inform further work to evaluate potential clinical uses of information extracted from images in this way.

  4. Discomfort Evaluation of Truck Ingress/Egress Motions Based on Biomechanical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Nam-Chul; Lee, Sang Hun

    2015-06-10

    This paper presents a quantitative discomfort evaluation method based on biomechanical analysis results for human body movement, as well as its application to an assessment of the discomfort for truck ingress and egress. In this study, the motions of a human subject entering and exiting truck cabins with different types, numbers, and heights of footsteps were first measured using an optical motion capture system and load sensors. Next, the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) ratios of the muscles were calculated through a biomechanical analysis of the musculoskeletal human model for the captured motion. Finally, the objective discomfort was evaluated using the proposed discomfort model based on the MVC ratios. To validate this new discomfort assessment method, human subject experiments were performed to investigate the subjective discomfort levels through a questionnaire for comparison with the objective discomfort levels. The validation results showed that the correlation between the objective and subjective discomforts was significant and could be described by a linear regression model.

  5. Analysis of means of improving the uncontrolled lateral motions of personal airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinney, Marion O , Jr

    1951-01-01

    A theoretical analysis has been made of means of improving the uncontrolled motions of personal airplanes. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether such airplanes could be made to fly uncontrolled for an indefinite period of time without getting into dangerous attitudes and for a reasonable period of time (1 to 3 min) without deviating excessively from their original course. The results of this analysis indicated that the uncontrolled motions of a personal airplane could be made safe as regards spiral tendencies and could be greatly improved as regards maintenance of course without resort to an autopilot. The only way to make the uncontrolled motions completely satisfactory as regards continuous maintenance of course, however, is to use a conventional type of autopilot.

  6. Discomfort Evaluation of Truck Ingress/Egress Motions Based on Biomechanical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Nam-Chul; Lee, Sang Hun

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a quantitative discomfort evaluation method based on biomechanical analysis results for human body movement, as well as its application to an assessment of the discomfort for truck ingress and egress. In this study, the motions of a human subject entering and exiting truck cabins with different types, numbers, and heights of footsteps were first measured using an optical motion capture system and load sensors. Next, the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) ratios of the muscles were calculated through a biomechanical analysis of the musculoskeletal human model for the captured motion. Finally, the objective discomfort was evaluated using the proposed discomfort model based on the MVC ratios. To validate this new discomfort assessment method, human subject experiments were performed to investigate the subjective discomfort levels through a questionnaire for comparison with the objective discomfort levels. The validation results showed that the correlation between the objective and subjective discomforts was significant and could be described by a linear regression model. PMID:26067194

  7. Discomfort Evaluation of Truck Ingress/Egress Motions Based on Biomechanical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Nam-Chul; Lee, Sang Hun

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a quantitative discomfort evaluation method based on biomechanical analysis results for human body movement, as well as its application to an assessment of the discomfort for truck ingress and egress. In this study, the motions of a human subject entering and exiting truck cabins with different types, numbers, and heights of footsteps were first measured using an optical motion capture system and load sensors. Next, the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) ratios of the muscles were calculated through a biomechanical analysis of the musculoskeletal human model for the captured motion. Finally, the objective discomfort was evaluated using the proposed discomfort model based on the MVC ratios. To validate this new discomfort assessment method, human subject experiments were performed to investigate the subjective discomfort levels through a questionnaire for comparison with the objective discomfort levels. The validation results showed that the correlation between the objective and subjective discomforts was significant and could be described by a linear regression model. PMID:26067194

  8. Motion analysis of knee joint using dynamic volume images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haneishi, Hideaki; Kohno, Takahiro; Suzuki, Masahiko; Moriya, Hideshige; Mori, Sin-ichiro; Endo, Masahiro

    2006-03-01

    Acquisition and analysis of three-dimensional movement of knee joint is desired in orthopedic surgery. We have developed two methods to obtain dynamic volume images of knee joint. One is a 2D/3D registration method combining a bi-plane dynamic X-ray fluoroscopy and a static three-dimensional CT, the other is a method using so-called 4D-CT that uses a cone-beam and a wide 2D detector. In this paper, we present two analyses of knee joint movement obtained by these methods: (1) transition of the nearest points between femur and tibia (2) principal component analysis (PCA) of six parameters representing the three dimensional movement of knee. As a preprocessing for the analysis, at first the femur and tibia regions are extracted from volume data at each time frame and then the registration of the tibia between different frames by an affine transformation consisting of rotation and translation are performed. The same transformation is applied femur as well. Using those image data, the movement of femur relative to tibia can be analyzed. Six movement parameters of femur consisting of three translation parameters and three rotation parameters are obtained from those images. In the analysis (1), axis of each bone is first found and then the flexion angle of the knee joint is calculated. For each flexion angle, the minimum distance between femur and tibia and the location giving the minimum distance are found in both lateral condyle and medial condyle. As a result, it was observed that the movement of lateral condyle is larger than medial condyle. In the analysis (2), it was found that the movement of the knee can be represented by the first three principal components with precision of 99.58% and those three components seem to strongly relate to three major movements of femur in the knee bend known in orthopedic surgery.

  9. MAVENs: Motion analysis and visualization of elastic networks and structural ensembles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The ability to generate, visualize, and analyze motions of biomolecules has made a significant impact upon modern biology. Molecular Dynamics has gained substantial use, but remains computationally demanding and difficult to setup for many biologists. Elastic network models (ENMs) are an alternative and have been shown to generate the dominant equilibrium motions of biomolecules quickly and efficiently. These dominant motions have been shown to be functionally relevant and also to indicate the likely direction of conformational changes. Most structures have a small number of dominant motions. Comparing computed motions to the structure's conformational ensemble derived from a collection of static structures or frames from an MD trajectory is an important way to understand functional motions as well as evaluate the models. Modes of motion computed from ENMs can be visualized to gain functional and mechanistic understanding and to compute useful quantities such as average positional fluctuations, internal distance changes, collectiveness of motions, and directional correlations within the structure. Results Our new software, MAVEN, aims to bring ENMs and their analysis to a broader audience by integrating methods for their generation and analysis into a user friendly environment that automates many of the steps. Models can be constructed from raw PDB files or density maps, using all available atomic coordinates or by employing various coarse-graining procedures. Visualization can be performed either with our software or exported to molecular viewers. Mixed resolution models allow one to study atomic effects on the system while retaining much of the computational speed of the coarse-grained ENMs. Analysis options are available to further aid the user in understanding the computed motions and their importance for its function. Conclusion MAVEN has been developed to simplify ENM generation, allow for diverse models to be used, and facilitate useful analyses

  10. Continental deformation accommodated by non-rigid passive bookshelf faulting: An example from the Cenozoic tectonic development of northern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuza, Andrew V.; Yin, An

    2016-05-01

    Collision-induced continental deformation commonly involves complex interactions between strike-slip faulting and off-fault deformation, yet this relationship has rarely been quantified. In northern Tibet, Cenozoic deformation is expressed by the development of the > 1000-km-long east-striking left-slip Kunlun, Qinling, and Haiyuan faults. Each have a maximum slip in the central fault segment exceeding 10s to ~ 100 km but a much smaller slip magnitude (~< 10% of the maximum slip) at their terminations. The along-strike variation of fault offsets and pervasive off-fault deformation create a strain pattern that departs from the expectations of the classic plate-like rigid-body motion and flow-like distributed deformation end-member models for continental tectonics. Here we propose a non-rigid bookshelf-fault model for the Cenozoic tectonic development of northern Tibet. Our model, quantitatively relating discrete left-slip faulting to distributed off-fault deformation during regional clockwise rotation, explains several puzzling features, including the: (1) clockwise rotation of east-striking left-slip faults against the northeast-striking left-slip Altyn Tagh fault along the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, (2) alternating fault-parallel extension and shortening in the off-fault regions, and (3) eastward-tapering map-view geometries of the Qimen Tagh, Qaidam, and Qilian Shan thrust belts that link with the three major left-slip faults in northern Tibet. We refer to this specific non-rigid bookshelf-fault system as a passive bookshelf-fault system because the rotating bookshelf panels are detached from the rigid bounding domains. As a consequence, the wallrock of the strike-slip faults deforms to accommodate both the clockwise rotation of the left-slip faults and off-fault strain that arises at the fault ends. An important implication of our model is that the style and magnitude of Cenozoic deformation in northern Tibet vary considerably in the east

  11. Animation control of surface motion capture.

    PubMed

    Tejera, Margara; Casas, Dan; Hilton, Adrian

    2013-12-01

    Surface motion capture (SurfCap) of actor performance from multiple view video provides reconstruction of the natural nonrigid deformation of skin and clothing. This paper introduces techniques for interactive animation control of SurfCap sequences which allow the flexibility in editing and interactive manipulation associated with existing tools for animation from skeletal motion capture (MoCap). Laplacian mesh editing is extended using a basis model learned from SurfCap sequences to constrain the surface shape to reproduce natural deformation. Three novel approaches for animation control of SurfCap sequences, which exploit the constrained Laplacian mesh editing, are introduced: 1) space–time editing for interactive sequence manipulation; 2) skeleton-driven animation to achieve natural nonrigid surface deformation; and 3) hybrid combination of skeletal MoCap driven and SurfCap sequence to extend the range of movement. These approaches are combined with high-level parametric control of SurfCap sequences in a hybrid surface and skeleton-driven animation control framework to achieve natural surface deformation with an extended range of movement by exploiting existing MoCap archives. Evaluation of each approach and the integrated animation framework are presented on real SurfCap sequences for actors performing multiple motions with a variety of clothing styles. Results demonstrate that these techniques enable flexible control for interactive animation with the natural nonrigid surface dynamics of the captured performance and provide a powerful tool to extend current SurfCap databases by incorporating new motions from MoCap sequences.

  12. Wearable inertial sensors in swimming motion analysis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Magalhaes, Fabricio Anicio; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Gatta, Giorgio; Fantozzi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The use of contemporary technology is widely recognised as a key tool for enhancing competitive performance in swimming. Video analysis is traditionally used by coaches to acquire reliable biomechanical data about swimming performance; however, this approach requires a huge computational effort, thus introducing a delay in providing quantitative information. Inertial and magnetic sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetometers, have been recently introduced to assess the biomechanics of swimming performance. Research in this field has attracted a great deal of interest in the last decade due to the gradual improvement of the performance of sensors and the decreasing cost of miniaturised wearable devices. With the aim of describing the state of the art of current developments in this area, a systematic review of the existing methods was performed using the following databases: PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, IEEE Xplore, Google Scholar, Scopus and Science Direct. Twenty-seven articles published in indexed journals and conference proceedings, focusing on the biomechanical analysis of swimming by means of inertial sensors were reviewed. The articles were categorised according to sensor's specification, anatomical sites where the sensors were attached, experimental design and applications for the analysis of swimming performance. Results indicate that inertial sensors are reliable tools for swimming biomechanical analyses. PMID:25356682

  13. Wearable inertial sensors in swimming motion analysis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Magalhaes, Fabricio Anicio; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Gatta, Giorgio; Fantozzi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The use of contemporary technology is widely recognised as a key tool for enhancing competitive performance in swimming. Video analysis is traditionally used by coaches to acquire reliable biomechanical data about swimming performance; however, this approach requires a huge computational effort, thus introducing a delay in providing quantitative information. Inertial and magnetic sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetometers, have been recently introduced to assess the biomechanics of swimming performance. Research in this field has attracted a great deal of interest in the last decade due to the gradual improvement of the performance of sensors and the decreasing cost of miniaturised wearable devices. With the aim of describing the state of the art of current developments in this area, a systematic review of the existing methods was performed using the following databases: PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, IEEE Xplore, Google Scholar, Scopus and Science Direct. Twenty-seven articles published in indexed journals and conference proceedings, focusing on the biomechanical analysis of swimming by means of inertial sensors were reviewed. The articles were categorised according to sensor's specification, anatomical sites where the sensors were attached, experimental design and applications for the analysis of swimming performance. Results indicate that inertial sensors are reliable tools for swimming biomechanical analyses.

  14. Multi-scale AM-FM motion analysis of ultrasound videos of carotid artery plaques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, Sergio; Murray, Victor; Loizou, C. P.; Pattichis, C. S.; Pattichis, Marios; Barriga, E. Simon

    2012-03-01

    An estimated 82 million American adults have one or more type of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). CVD is the leading cause of death (1 of every 3 deaths) in the United States. When considered separately from other CVDs, stroke ranks third among all causes of death behind diseases of the heart and cancer. Stroke accounts for 1 out of every 18 deaths and is the leading cause of serious long-term disability in the United States. Motion estimation of ultrasound videos (US) of carotid artery (CA) plaques provides important information regarding plaque deformation that should be considered for distinguishing between symptomatic and asymptomatic plaques. In this paper, we present the development of verifiable methods for the estimation of plaque motion. Our methodology is tested on a set of 34 (5 symptomatic and 29 asymptomatic) ultrasound videos of carotid artery plaques. Plaque and wall motion analysis provides information about plaque instability and is used in an attempt to differentiate between symptomatic and asymptomatic cases. The final goal for motion estimation and analysis is to identify pathological conditions that can be detected from motion changes due to changes in tissue stiffness.

  15. ANALYSIS OF THE MOTION OF AN EXTRASOLAR PLANET IN A BINARY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Plávalová, Eva; Solovaya, Nina A. E-mail: solov@sai.msu.ru

    2013-11-01

    More than 10% of extra-solar planets (EPs) orbit in a binary or multiple stellar system. We investigated the motion of planets revolving in binary systems in the case of the three-body problem. We carried out an analysis of the motion of an EP revolving in a binary system with the following conditions: (1) a planet in a binary system revolves around one of the components (parent star); (2) the distance between the star's components is greater than that between the parent star and the orbiting planet (ratio of the semi-major axes is a small parameter); and (3) the mass of the planet is smaller than the mass of the stars, but is not negligible. The Hamiltonian of the system without short periodic terms was used. We expanded the Hamiltonian in terms of the Legendre polynomial and truncated after the second-order term, depending on only one angular variable. In this case, the solution of the system was obtained and the qualitative analysis of the motion was produced. We have applied this theory to real EPs and compared to the numerical integration. Analyses of the possible regions of motion are presented. It is shown that stable and unstable motions of EPs are possible. We applied our calculations to two binary systems hosting an EP and calculated the possible values for their unknown orbital elements.

  16. Robust motion tracking based on adaptive speckle decorrelation analysis of OCT signal

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuewen; Wang, Yahui; Akansu, Ali; Belfield, Kevin D.; Hubbi, Basil; Liu, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    Speckle decorrelation analysis of optical coherence tomography (OCT) signal has been used in motion tracking. In our previous study, we demonstrated that cross-correlation coefficient (XCC) between Ascans had an explicit functional dependency on the magnitude of lateral displacement (δx). In this study, we evaluated the sensitivity of speckle motion tracking using the derivative of function XCC(δx) on variable δx. We demonstrated the magnitude of the derivative can be maximized. In other words, the sensitivity of OCT speckle tracking can be optimized by using signals with appropriate amount of decorrelation for XCC calculation. Based on this finding, we developed an adaptive speckle decorrelation analysis strategy to achieve motion tracking with optimized sensitivity. Briefly, we used subsequently acquired Ascans and Ascans obtained with larger time intervals to obtain multiple values of XCC and chose the XCC value that maximized motion tracking sensitivity for displacement calculation. Instantaneous motion speed can be calculated by dividing the obtained displacement with time interval between Ascans involved in XCC calculation. We implemented the above-described algorithm in real-time using graphic processing unit (GPU) and demonstrated its effectiveness in reconstructing distortion-free OCT images using data obtained from a manually scanned OCT probe. The adaptive speckle tracking method was validated in manually scanned OCT imaging, on phantom as well as in vivo skin tissue. PMID:26600996

  17. The adaptation of GDL motion recognition system to sport and rehabilitation techniques analysis.

    PubMed

    Hachaj, Tomasz; Ogiela, Marek R

    2016-06-01

    The main novelty of this paper is presenting the adaptation of Gesture Description Language (GDL) methodology to sport and rehabilitation data analysis and classification. In this paper we showed that Lua language can be successfully used for adaptation of the GDL classifier to those tasks. The newly applied scripting language allows easily extension and integration of classifier with other software technologies and applications. The obtained execution speed allows using the methodology in the real-time motion capture data processing where capturing frequency differs from 100 Hz to even 500 Hz depending on number of features or classes to be calculated and recognized. Due to this fact the proposed methodology can be used to the high-end motion capture system. We anticipate that using novel, efficient and effective method will highly help both sport trainers and physiotherapist in they practice. The proposed approach can be directly applied to motion capture data kinematics analysis (evaluation of motion without regard to the forces that cause that motion). The ability to apply pattern recognition methods for GDL description can be utilized in virtual reality environment and used for sport training or rehabilitation treatment. PMID:27106581

  18. Cultural meanings of nature: an analysis of contemporary motion pictures.

    PubMed

    Pollio, Howard R; Anderson, John; Levasseur, Priscilla; Thweatt, Michael

    2003-03-01

    To evaluate current cultural meanings of nature, the authors asked 65 undergraduate students to "list 3 movies in which nature was an important aspect of the film." They also were asked to specify the natural element that stood out to them and describe "how it related to the overall theme of the movie." Two independent groups of raters skilled in interpretive analysis developed thematic meanings from these responses. Following this, in a 2nd study, a different group of participants rated the 18 most frequently mentioned natural elements on thematic scales derived from the initial interpretive analysis. Participants in the 1st study mentioned 33 different movies at least twice and 5 themes that captured the meaning of nature in these films. Correlational results derived from the 2nd study indicated that rating scales reflecting these 5 themes formed 2 distinct groups; the first group described settings in which nature is experienced as adversarial and plays a significant role in dramatic action, and the second group defined settings in which nature is viewed either as a place of refuge or simply as a locale in which ongoing narrative action occurs. The general conclusion reached in both studies concerns the often noted but not always appreciated fact that movies--similar to everyday events and actions--always take place in specific settings and that neither life events nor dramatic narratives can be understood apart from specific settings.

  19. Direct observation of laser speckles for real-time analysis of lateral motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikram, C. S.; Vedam, K.

    1981-11-01

    A method for real-time observation of speckle movement for the analysis of lateral motions is suggested. The method involves significant magnification using lenses and a TV-camera monitor system. This approach has the advantages of conventional speckle photography without the need for any chemical processing.

  20. Applying a Resources Framework to Analysis of the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Trevor I.; Wittman, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    We suggest one redefinition of common clusters of questions used to analyze student responses on the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation. Our goal is to propose a methodology that moves beyond an analysis of student learning defined by correct responses, either on the overall test or on clusters of questions defined solely by content. We use…

  1. The slider motion error analysis by positive solution method in parallel mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Lisong; Zhu, Liang; Yang, Wenguo; Hu, Penghao

    2016-01-01

    Motion error of slider plays key role in 3-PUU parallel coordinates measuring machine (CMM) performance and influence the CMM accuracy, which attracts lots of experts eyes in the world, Generally, the analysis method is based on the view of space 6-DOF. Here, a new analysis method is provided. First, the structure relation of slider and guideway can be abstracted as a 4-bar parallel mechanism. So, the sliders can be considered as moving platform in parallel kinematic mechanism PKM. Its motion error analysis is also transferred to moving platform position analysis in PKM. Then, after establishing the positive and negative solutions, some existed theory and technology for PKM can be applied to analyze slider straightness motion error and angular motion error simultaneously. Thirdly, some experiments by autocollimator are carried out to capture the original error data about guideway its own error, the data can be described as straightness error function by fitting curvilinear equation. Finally, the Straightness error of two guideways are considered as the variation of rod length in parallel mechanism, the slider's straightness error and angular error can be obtained by putting data into the established model. The calculated result is generally consistent with experiment result. The idea will be beneficial on accuracy calibration and error correction of 3-PUU CMM and also provides a new thought to analyze kinematic error of guideway in precision machine tool and precision instrument.

  2. SMART USE OF COMPUTER-AIDED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA) TO CHARACTERIZE SPERM MOTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) has evolved over the past fifteen years to provide an objective, practical means of measuring and characterizing the velocity and parttern of sperm motion. CASA instruments use video frame-grabber boards to capture multiple images of spermato...

  3. Improved dosimetry for targeted radionuclide therapy using nonrigid registration on sequential SPECT images

    SciTech Connect

    Ao, Edwin C. I.; Mok, Greta S. P.; Wu, Nien-Yun; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Song, Na

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Voxel-level and patient-specific 3D dosimetry for targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) typically involves serial nuclear medicine scans. Misalignment of the images can result in reduced dosimetric accuracy. Since the scans are typically performed over a period of several days, there will be patient movement between scans and possible nonrigid organ deformation. This work aims to implement and evaluate the use of nonrigid image registration on a series of quantitative SPECT (QSPECT) images for TRT dosimetry. Methods: A population of 4D extended cardiac torso phantoms, comprised of three In-111 Zevalin biokinetics models and three anatomical variations, was generated based on the patient data. The authors simulated QSPECT acquisitions at five time points. At each time point, individual organ and whole-body deformation between scans were modeled by translating/rotating organs and the body up to 5°/voxels, keeping ≤5% difference in organ volume. An analytical projector was used to generate realistic noisy projections for a medium energy general purpose collimator. Projections were reconstructed using OS-EM algorithm with geometric collimator detector response, attenuation, and scatter corrections. The QSPECT images were registered using organ-based nonrigid image registration method. The cumulative activity in each voxel was obtained by integrating the activity over time. Dose distribution images were obtained by convolving the cumulative activity images with a Y-90 dose kernel. Dose volume histograms (DVHs) for organs-of-interest were analyzed. Results: After nonrigid registration, the mean differences in organ doses compared to the case without misalignment were improved from (−15.50 ± 5.59)% to (−2.12 ± 1.05)% and (−7.28 ± 2.30)% to (−0.23 ± 0.71)% for the spleen and liver, respectively. For all organs, the cumulative DVHs showed improvement after nonrigid registration and the normalized absolute error of differential DVHs ranged from 6.79% to

  4. Piping benchmark problems. Volume 1. Dynamic analysis uniform support motion response spectrum method

    SciTech Connect

    Bezler, P.; Hartzman, M.; Reich, M.

    1980-08-01

    A set of benchmark problems and solutions have been developed for verifying the adequacy of computer programs used for dynamic analysis and design of nuclear piping systems by the Response Spectrum Method. The problems range from simple to complex configurations which are assumed to experience linear elastic behavior. The dynamic loading is represented by uniform support motion, assumed to be induced by seismic excitation in three spatial directions. The solutions consist of frequencies, participation factors, nodal displacement components and internal force and moment components. Solutions to associated anchor point motion static problems are not included.

  5. Noncontact optical motion sensing for real-time analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetzer, Bradley R.; Imai, Hiromichi

    1990-08-01

    The adaptation of an image dissector tube (IDT) within the OPTFOLLOW system provides high resolution displacement measurement of a light discontinuity. Due to the high speed response of the IDT and the advanced servo loop circuitry, the system is capable of real time analysis of the object under test. The image of the discontinuity may be contoured by direct or reflected light and ranges spectrally within the field of visible light. The image is monitored to 500 kHz through a lens configuration which transposes the optical image upon the photocathode of the IDT. The photoelectric effect accelerates the resultant electrons through a photomultiplier and an enhanced current is emitted from the anode. A servo loop controls the electron beam, continually centering it within the IDT using magnetic focusing of deflection coils. The output analog voltage from the servo amplifier is thereby proportional to the displacement of the target. The system is controlled by a microprocessor with a 32kbyte memory and provides a digital display as well as instructional readout on a color monitor allowing for offset image tracking and automatic system calibration.

  6. Development of a motion analysis system specialized for car-crash tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Young-Hoo; Lee, Jea-Sun

    1995-05-01

    A prototype of a PC-based motion analysis system specialized for the car-crash test with 2D and 3D analysis capabilities was developed. The core of the proposed motion analysis system is the film-to-video conversion and the semiautomatic marker tracking. Construction of the converter using a 16 mm film projector and a CCD camera is currently undergoing. The semiautomatic marker tracking system was tested in an outdoor pilot experiment a with a small-sized passenger car. A film-to- video converter, a PC with a frame grabber, an RGB video monitor and the tracking software are the components of the tracking system. A location- prediction & marker-detection algorithm was embedded in the tracking software of automatic marker detection. Other data analysis features were also discussed.

  7. Analysis of the Accuracy and Robustness of the Leap Motion Controller

    PubMed Central

    Weichert, Frank; Bachmann, Daniel; Rudak, Bartholomäus; Fisseler, Denis

    2013-01-01

    The Leap Motion Controller is a new device for hand gesture controlled user interfaces with declared sub-millimeter accuracy. However, up to this point its capabilities in real environments have not been analyzed. Therefore, this paper presents a first study of a Leap Motion Controller. The main focus of attention is on the evaluation of the accuracy and repeatability. For an appropriate evaluation, a novel experimental setup was developed making use of an industrial robot with a reference pen allowing a position accuracy of 0.2 mm. Thereby, a deviation between a desired 3D position and the average measured positions below 0.2 mm has been obtained for static setups and of 1.2 mm for dynamic setups. Using the conclusion of this analysis can improve the development of applications for the Leap Motion controller in the field of Human-Computer Interaction. PMID:23673678

  8. Analysis of the accuracy and robustness of the leap motion controller.

    PubMed

    Weichert, Frank; Bachmann, Daniel; Rudak, Bartholomäus; Fisseler, Denis

    2013-05-14

    The Leap Motion Controller is a new device for hand gesture controlled user interfaces with declared sub-millimeter accuracy. However, up to this point its capabilities in real environments have not been analyzed. Therefore, this paper presents a first study of a Leap Motion Controller. The main focus of attention is on the evaluation of the accuracy and repeatability. For an appropriate evaluation, a novel experimental setup was developed making use of an industrial robot with a reference pen allowing a position accuracy of 0.2 mm. Thereby, a deviation between a desired 3D position and the average measured positions below 0.2 mm has been obtained for static setups and of 1.2 mm for dynamic setups. Using the conclusion of this analysis can improve the development of applications for the Leap Motion controller in the field of Human-Computer Interaction.

  9. Energy Consumption Analysis Procedure for Robotic Applications in different task motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Iman; Aris, Ishak b.; Hamiruce Marhaban, Mohammad; Juraiza Ishak, Asnor

    2015-11-01

    This work proposes energy analysis method for humanoid robot, seen from simple motion task to complex one in energy chain. The research developed a procedure suitable for analysis, saving and modelling of energy consumption not only in this type of robot but also in most robots that based on electrical power as an energy source. This method has validated by an accurate integration using Matlab software for the power consumption curve to calculate the energy of individual and multiple servo motors. Therefore, this study can be considered as a procedure for energy analysis by utilizing the laboratory instruments capabilities to measure the energy parameters. We performed a various task motions with different angular speed to find out the speed limits in terms of robot stability and control strategy. A battery capacity investigation have been searched for several types of batteries to extract the power modelling equation and energy density parameter for each battery type, Matlab software have been built to design the algorithm and to evaluate experimental amount of the energy which is represented by area under the curve of the power curves. This will provide a robust estimation for the required energy in different task motions to be considered in energy saving (i.e., motion planning and real time scheduling).

  10. Quantitative biomechanical analysis of wrist motion in bone-trimming jobs in the meat packing industry.

    PubMed

    Marklin, R W; Monroe, J F

    1998-02-01

    This study was motivated by the serious impact that cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) of the upper extremities have on the meat packing industry. To date, no quantitative data have been gathered on the kinematics of hand and wrist motion required in bone-trimming jobs in the red-meat packing industry and how these motions are related to the risk of CTDs. The wrist motion of bone-trimming workers from a medium-sized plant was measured, and the kinematic data were compared to manufacturing industry's preliminary wrist motion benchmarks from industrial workers who performed hand-intensive, repetitive work in jobs that were of low and high risk of hand/wrist CTDs. Results of this comparison show that numerous wrist motion variables in both the left and right hands of bone-trimming workers are in the high-risk category. This quantitative analysis provides biomechanical support for the high incidence of CTDs in the meat packing industry. The research reported in this paper established a preliminary database of wrist and hand kinematics required in bone-trimming jobs in the red-meat packing industry. This kinematic database could augment the industry's efforts to reduce the severity and cost of CTDs. Ergonomics practitioners in the industry could use the kinematic methods employed in this research to assess the CTD risk of jobs that require repetitious, hand-intensive work. PMID:9494434

  11. Analysis of tissue changes, measurement system effects, and motion artifacts in echo decorrelation imaging.

    PubMed

    Hooi, Fong Ming; Nagle, Anna; Subramanian, Swetha; Douglas Mast, T

    2015-02-01

    Echo decorrelation imaging, a method for mapping ablation-induced ultrasound echo changes, is analyzed. Local echo decorrelation is shown to approximate the decoherence spectrum of tissue reflectivity. Effects of the ultrasound measurement system, echo signal windowing, electronic noise, and tissue motion on echo decorrelation images are determined theoretically, leading to a method for reduction of motion and noise artifacts. Theoretical analysis is validated by simulations and experiments. Simulated decoherence of the scattering medium was recovered with root-mean-square error less than 10% with accuracy dependent on the correlation window size. Motion-induced decorrelation measured in an ex vivo pubovisceral muscle model showed similar trends to theoretical motion-induced decorrelation for a 2.1 MHz curvilinear array with decorrelation approaching unity for 3-4 mm elevational displacement or 1-1.6 mm range displacement. For in vivo imaging of porcine liver by a 7 MHz linear array, theoretical decorrelation computed using image-based motion estimates correlated significantly with measured decorrelation (r = 0.931, N = 10). Echo decorrelation artifacts incurred during in vivo radiofrequency ablation in the same porcine liver were effectively compensated based on the theoretical echo decorrelation model and measured pre-treatment decorrelation. These results demonstrate the potential of echo decorrelation imaging for quantification of heat-induced changes to the scattering tissue medium during thermal ablation.

  12. Analysis of tissue changes, measurement system effects, and motion artifacts in echo decorrelation imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hooi, Fong Ming; Nagle, Anna; Subramanian, Swetha; Douglas Mast, T.

    2015-01-01

    Echo decorrelation imaging, a method for mapping ablation-induced ultrasound echo changes, is analyzed. Local echo decorrelation is shown to approximate the decoherence spectrum of tissue reflectivity. Effects of the ultrasound measurement system, echo signal windowing, electronic noise, and tissue motion on echo decorrelation images are determined theoretically, leading to a method for reduction of motion and noise artifacts. Theoretical analysis is validated by simulations and experiments. Simulated decoherence of the scattering medium was recovered with root-mean-square error less than 10% with accuracy dependent on the correlation window size. Motion-induced decorrelation measured in an ex vivo pubovisceral muscle model showed similar trends to theoretical motion-induced decorrelation for a 2.1 MHz curvilinear array with decorrelation approaching unity for 3–4 mm elevational displacement or 1–1.6 mm range displacement. For in vivo imaging of porcine liver by a 7 MHz linear array, theoretical decorrelation computed using image-based motion estimates correlated significantly with measured decorrelation (r = 0.931, N = 10). Echo decorrelation artifacts incurred during in vivo radiofrequency ablation in the same porcine liver were effectively compensated based on the theoretical echo decorrelation model and measured pre-treatment decorrelation. These results demonstrate the potential of echo decorrelation imaging for quantification of heat-induced changes to the scattering tissue medium during thermal ablation. PMID:25697993

  13. [Research on non-rigid medical image registration algorithm based on SIFT feature extraction].

    PubMed

    Wang, Anna; Lu, Dan; Wang, Zhe; Fang, Zhizhen

    2010-08-01

    In allusion to non-rigid registration of medical images, the paper gives a practical feature points matching algorithm--the image registration algorithm based on the scale-invariant features transform (Scale Invariant Feature Transform, SIFT). The algorithm makes use of the image features of translation, rotation and affine transformation invariance in scale space to extract the image feature points. Bidirectional matching algorithm is chosen to establish the matching relations between the images, so the accuracy of image registrations is improved. On this basis, affine transform is chosen to complement the non-rigid registration, and normalized mutual information measure and PSO optimization algorithm are also chosen to optimize the registration process. The experimental results show that the method can achieve better registration results than the method based on mutual information.

  14. Registering a non-rigid multi-sensor ensemble of images.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hwa Young; Orchard, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    The majority of image registration methods deal with registering only two images at a time. Recently, a clustering method that concurrently registers more than two multi-sensor images was proposed, dubbed ensemble clustering. In this paper, we apply the ensemble clustering method to a deformable registration scenario for the first time. Non-rigid deformation is implemented by a free-form deformation model based on B-splines with a regularization term. However, the increased degrees of freedom in the transformations caused the Newton-type optimization process to become ill-conditioned. This made the registration process unstable. We solved this problem by using the matrix approximation afforded by the singular value decomposition (SVD). Experiments show that the method is successfully applied to non-rigid multi-sensor ensembles and overall yields better registration results than methods that register only two images at a time.

  15. Geometrical regularization of nonrigid registration using local anisotropic structure and joint saliency map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiawei; Qin, Binjie

    2011-06-01

    Nonrigid image registration is a crucial task to study local structural/volumetric change in many applications. The presence and resection of brain tumor in pre- and intra-operative brain images will greatly distort local anatomical structure and introduce non-corresponding outlier features. This can cause serious conflicts in achieving a smoothly varying deformation field in nonrigid registration. In this paper, a novel regularizing scheme, which is based on local anisotropic structure and Joint Saliency Map weighted regularization, is introduced in registration to aim at handling local complex deformation and outliers. The sparse displacement is regularized to adapt its smoothness as well as orientation according to the local anisotropic structure. Moreover, the Joint Saliency Map guides the assignment of data certainty so that the reliable corresponding structural voxels are emphasized in regularization. The results show that our method is sufficiently accurate and effective to both local large deformation and outliers while maintaining an overall smooth deformation field.

  16. Statistical analysis of surrogate signals to incorporate respiratory motion variability into radiotherapy treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilms, Matthias; Ehrhardt, Jan; Werner, René; Marx, Mirko; Handels, Heinz

    2014-03-01

    Respiratory motion and its variability lead to location uncertainties in radiation therapy (RT) of thoracic and abdominal tumors. Current approaches for motion compensation in RT are usually driven by respiratory surrogate signals, e.g., spirometry. In this contribution, we present an approach for statistical analysis, modeling and subsequent simulation of surrogate signals on a cycle-by-cycle basis. The simulated signals represent typical patient-specific variations of, e.g., breathing amplitude and cycle period. For the underlying statistical analysis, all breathing cycles of an observed signal are consistently parameterized using approximating B-spline curves. Statistics on breathing cycles are then performed by using the parameters of the B-spline approximations. Assuming that these parameters follow a multivariate Gaussian distribution, realistic time-continuous surrogate signals of arbitrary length can be generated and used to simulate the internal motion of tumors and organs based on a patient-specific diffeomorphic correspondence model. As an example, we show how this approach can be employed in RT treatment planning to calculate tumor appearance probabilities and to statistically assess the impact of respiratory motion and its variability on planned dose distributions.

  17. Hilbert-Huang transform analysis of dynamic and earthquake motion recordings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, R.R.; Ma, S.; Safak, E.; Hartzell, S.

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the rationale of Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) for analyzing dynamic and earthquake motion recordings in studies of seismology and engineering. In particular, this paper first provides the fundamentals of the HHT method, which consist of the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and the Hilbert spectral analysis. It then uses the HHT to analyze recordings of hypothetical and real wave motion, the results of which are compared with the results obtained by the Fourier data processing technique. The analysis of the two recordings indicates that the HHT method is able to extract some motion characteristics useful in studies of seismology and engineering, which might not be exposed effectively and efficiently by Fourier data processing technique. Specifically, the study indicates that the decomposed components in EMD of HHT, namely, the intrinsic mode function (IMF) components, contain observable, physical information inherent to the original data. It also shows that the grouped IMF components, namely, the EMD-based low- and high-frequency components, can faithfully capture low-frequency pulse-like as well as high-frequency wave signals. Finally, the study illustrates that the HHT-based Hilbert spectra are able to reveal the temporal-frequency energy distribution for motion recordings precisely and clearly.

  18. Multi-level model for 2D human motion analysis and description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foures, Thomas; Joly, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the proposition of a model for human motion analysis in a video. Its main caracteristic is to adapt itself automatically to the current resolution, the actual quality of the picture, or the level of precision required by a given application, due to its possible decomposition into several hierarchical levels. The model is region-based to address some analysis processing needs. The top level of the model is only defined with 5 ribbons, which can be cut into sub-ribbons regarding to a given (or an expected) level of details. Matching process between model and current picture consists in the comparison of extracted subject shape with a graphical rendering of the model built on the base of some computed parameters. The comparison is processed by using a chamfer matching algorithm. In our developments, we intend to realize a platform of interaction between a dancer and tools synthetizing abstract motion pictures and music in the conditions of a real-time dialogue between a human and a computer. In consequence, we use this model in a perspective of motion description instead of motion recognition: no a priori gestures are supposed to be recognized as far as no a priori application is specially targeted. The resulting description will be made following a Description Scheme compliant with the movement notation called "Labanotation".

  19. Evaluation of suitability of a micro-processing unit of motion analysis for upper limb tracking.

    PubMed

    Barraza Madrigal, José Antonio; Cardiel, Eladio; Rogeli, Pablo; Leija Salas, Lorenzo; Muñoz Guerrero, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the suitability of a micro-processing unit of motion analysis (MPUMA), for monitoring, reproducing, and tracking upper limb movements. The MPUMA is based on an inertial measurement unit, a 16-bit digital signal controller and a customized algorithm. To validate the performance of the system, simultaneous recordings of the angular trajectory were performed with a video-based motion analysis system. A test of the flexo-extension of the shoulder joint during the active elevation in a complete range of 120º of the upper limb was carried out in 10 healthy volunteers. Additional tests were carried out to assess MPUMA performance during upper limb tracking. The first, a 3D motion reconstruction of three movements of the shoulder joint (flexo-extension, abduction-adduction, horizontal internal-external rotation), and the second, an upper limb tracking online during the execution of three movements of the shoulder joint followed by a continuous random movement without any restrictions by using a virtual model and a mechatronic device of the shoulder joint. Experimental results demonstrated that the MPUMA measured joint angles that are close to those from a motion-capture system with orientation RMS errors less than 3º. PMID:27185034

  20. Evaluation and validation methods for intersubject nonrigid 3D image registration of the human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ting; Starreveld, Yves P.; Peters, Terry M.

    2005-04-01

    This work presents methodologies for assessing the accuracy of non-rigid intersubject registration algorithms from both qualitative and quantitative perspectives. The first method was based on a set of 43 anatomical landmarks. MRI brain images of 12 subjects were non-rigidly registered to the standard MRI dataset. The "gold-standard" coordinates of the 43 landmarks in the target were estimated by averaging their coordinates after 6 tagging sessions. The Euclidean distance between each landmark of a subject after warping to the reference space and the homologous "gold-standard" landmark on the reference image was considered as the registration error. Another method based on visual inspection software displaying the spatial change of colour-coded spheres, before and after warping, was also developed to evaluate the performance of the non-rigid warping algorithms within the homogeneous regions in the deep-brain. Our methods were exemplified by assessing and comparing the accuracy of two intersubject non-rigid registration approaches, AtamaiWarp and ANIMAL algorithms. From the first method, the average registration error was 1.04mm +/- 0.65mm for AtamaiWarp, and 1.59mm +/- 1.47mm for ANIMAL. With maximum registration errors of 2.78mm and 3.90mm respectively, AtamaiWarp and ANIMAL located 58% and 35% landmarks respectively with registration errors less than 1mm. A paired t-test showed that the differences in registration error between AtamaiWarp and ANIMAL were significant (P < 0.002) demonstrating that AtamaiWarp, in addition to being over 60 times faster than ANIMAL, also provides more accurate results. From the second method, both algorithms treated the interior of homogeneous regions in an appropriate manner.

  1. A novel scheme for automatic nonrigid image registration using deformation invariant feature and geometric constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zhipeng; Lei, Lin; Zhou, Shilin

    2015-10-01

    Automatic image registration is a vital yet challenging task, particularly for non-rigid deformation images which are more complicated and common in remote sensing images, such as distorted UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) images or scanning imaging images caused by flutter. Traditional non-rigid image registration methods are based on the correctly matched corresponding landmarks, which usually needs artificial markers. It is a rather challenging task to locate the accurate position of the points and get accurate homonymy point sets. In this paper, we proposed an automatic non-rigid image registration algorithm which mainly consists of three steps: To begin with, we introduce an automatic feature point extraction method based on non-linear scale space and uniform distribution strategy to extract the points which are uniform distributed along the edge of the image. Next, we propose a hybrid point matching algorithm using DaLI (Deformation and Light Invariant) descriptor and local affine invariant geometric constraint based on triangulation which is constructed by K-nearest neighbor algorithm. Based on the accurate homonymy point sets, the two images are registrated by the model of TPS (Thin Plate Spline). Our method is demonstrated by three deliberately designed experiments. The first two experiments are designed to evaluate the distribution of point set and the correctly matching rate on synthetic data and real data respectively. The last experiment is designed on the non-rigid deformation remote sensing images and the three experimental results demonstrate the accuracy, robustness, and efficiency of the proposed algorithm compared with other traditional methods.

  2. An information theoretic approach for non-rigid image registration using voxel class probabilities.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, Emiliano; Maes, Frederik; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Suetens, Paul

    2006-06-01

    We propose two information theoretic similarity measures that allow to incorporate tissue class information in non-rigid image registration. The first measure assumes that tissue class probabilities have been assigned to each of the images to be registered by prior segmentation of both of them. One image is then non-rigidly deformed to match the other such that the fuzzy overlap of corresponding voxel object labels becomes similar to the ideal case whereby the tissue probability maps of both images are identical. Image similarity is assessed during registration by the divergence between the ideal and actual joint class probability distributions of both images. A second registration measure is proposed that applies in case a segmentation is available for only one of the images, for instance an atlas image that is to be matched to a study image to guide the segmentation thereof. Intensities in one image are matched to the fuzzy class labels in the other image by minimizing the conditional entropy of the intensities in the first image given the class labels in the second image. We derive analytic expressions for the gradient of each measure with respect to individual voxel displacements to derive a force field that drives the registration process, which is regularized by a viscous fluid model. The performance of the class-based measures is evaluated in the context of non-rigid inter-subject registration and atlas-based segmentation of MR brain images and compared with maximization of mutual information using only intensity information. Our results demonstrate that incorporation of class information in the registration measure significantly improves the overlap between corresponding tissue classes after non-rigid matching. The methods proposed here open new perspectives for integrating segmentation and registration in a single process, whereby the output of one is used to guide the other.

  3. Dynamic motion analysis of dart throwers motion visualized through computerized tomography and calculation of the axis of rotation.

    PubMed

    Edirisinghe, Y; Troupis, J M; Patel, M; Smith, J; Crossett, M

    2014-05-01

    We used a dynamic three-dimensional (3D) mapping method to model the wrist in dynamic unrestricted dart throwers motion in three men and four women. With the aid of precision landmark identification, a 3D coordinate system was applied to the distal radius and the movement of the carpus was described. Subsequently, with dynamic 3D reconstructions and freedom to position the camera viewpoint anywhere in space, we observed the motion pathways of all carpal bones in dart throwers motion and calculated its axis of rotation. This was calculated to lie in 27° of anteversion from the coronal plane and 44° of varus angulation relative to the transverse plane. This technique is a safe and a feasible carpal imaging method to gain key information for decision making in future hand surgical and rehabilitative practices.

  4. 4D-analysis of left ventricular heart cycle using procrustes motion analysis.

    PubMed

    Piras, Paolo; Evangelista, Antonietta; Gabriele, Stefano; Nardinocchi, Paola; Teresi, Luciano; Torromeo, Concetta; Schiariti, Michele; Varano, Valerio; Puddu, Paolo Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate human left ventricular heart morphological changes in time among 17 healthy subjects. Preliminarily, 2 patients with volumetric overload due to aortic insufficiency were added to our analyses. We propose a special strategy to compare the shape, orientation and size of cardiac cycle's morphological trajectories in time. We used 3D data obtained by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography in order to detect semi-automated and homologous landmarks clouds as proxies of left ventricular heart morphology. An extended Geometric Morphometrics toolkit in order to distinguish between intra- and inter-individual shape variations was used. Shape of trajectories with inter-individual variation were compared under the assumption that trajectories attributes, estimated at electrophysiologically homologous times are expressions of left ventricular heart function. We found that shape analysis as commonly applied in Geometric Morphometrics studies fails in identifying a proper morpho-space to compare the shape of morphological trajectories in time. To overcome this problem, we performed a special type of Riemannian Parallel Transport, called "linear shift". Whereas the two patients with aortic insufficiency were not differentiated in the static shape analysis from the healthy subjects, they set apart significantly in the analyses of motion trajectory's shape and orientation. We found that in healthy subjects, the variations due to inter-individual morphological differences were not related to shape and orientation of morphological trajectories. Principal Component Analysis showed that volumetric contraction, torsion and twist are differently distributed on different axes. Moreover, global shape change appeared to be more correlated with endocardial shape change than with the epicardial one. Finally, the total shape variation occurring among different subjects was significantly larger than that observable across properly defined morphological

  5. A Framework for the Validation of Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis Maps Using Strong Ground Motion Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bydlon, S. A.; Beroza, G. C.

    2015-12-01

    Recent debate on the efficacy of Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA), and the utility of hazard maps (i.e. Stein et al., 2011; Hanks et al., 2012), has prompted a need for validation of such maps using recorded strong ground motion data. Unfortunately, strong motion records are limited spatially and temporally relative to the area and time windows hazard maps encompass. We develop a framework to test the predictive powers of PSHA maps that is flexible with respect to a map's specified probability of exceedance and time window, and the strong motion receiver coverage. Using a combination of recorded and interpolated strong motion records produced through the ShakeMap environment, we compile a record of ground motion intensity measures for California from 2002-present. We use this information to perform an area-based test of California PSHA maps inspired by the work of Ward (1995). Though this framework is flexible in that it can be applied to seismically active areas where ShakeMap-like ground shaking interpolations have or can be produced, this testing procedure is limited by the relatively short lifetime of strong motion recordings and by the desire to only test with data collected after the development of the PSHA map under scrutiny. To account for this, we use the assumption that PSHA maps are time independent to adapt the testing procedure for periods of recorded data shorter than the lifetime of a map. We note that accuracy of this testing procedure will only improve as more data is collected, or as the time-horizon of interest is reduced, as has been proposed for maps of areas experiencing induced seismicity. We believe that this procedure can be used to determine whether PSHA maps are accurately portraying seismic hazard and whether discrepancies are localized or systemic.

  6. Analysis of sediment particle velocity in wave motion based on wave flume experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupiński, Adam

    2012-10-01

    The experiment described was one of the elements of research into sediment transport conducted by the Division of Geotechnics of West-Pomeranian University of Technology. The experimental analyses were performed within the framework of the project "Building a knowledge transfer network on the directions and perspectives of developing wave laboratory and in situ research using innovative research equipment" launched by the Institute of Hydroengineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Gdańsk. The objective of the experiment was to determine relations between sediment transport and wave motion parameters and then use the obtained results to modify formulas defining sediment transport in rivers, like Ackers-White formula, by introducing basic parameters of wave motion as the force generating bed material transport. The article presents selected results of the experiment concerning sediment velocity field analysis conducted for different parameters of wave motion. The velocity vectors of particles suspended in water were measured with a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) apparatus registering suspended particles in a measurement flume by producing a series of laser pulses and analysing their displacement with a high-sensitivity camera connected to a computer. The article presents velocity fields of suspended bed material particles measured in the longitudinal section of the wave flume and their comparison with water velocity profiles calculated for the definite wave parameters. The results presented will be used in further research for relating parameters essential for the description of monochromatic wave motion to basic sediment transport parameters and "transforming" mean velocity and dynamic velocity in steady motion to mean wave front velocity and dynamic velocity in wave motion for a single wave.

  7. SU-E-J-194: Continuous Patient Surface Monitoring and Motion Analysis During Lung SBRT

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, E; Rioux, A; Benedict, S; Yamamoto, T

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Continuous monitoring of the SBRT lung patient motion during delivery is critical for ensuring adequate target volume margins in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). This work assesses the deviation of the patient surface motion using a real-time surface tracking system throughout treatment delivery. Methods: Our SBRT protocol employs abdominal compression to reduce the diaphragm movement to within 1 cm, and this is confirmed daily with fluoroscopy. Most patients are prescribed 3–5 fractions, and on treatment day a repeat motion analysis with fluoroscopy is performed, followed by a kV CBCT is aligned with the original planning CT image for 3D setup confirmation. During this entire process a patient surface data restricted to whole chest or the sternum at the middle of the breathing cycle was captured using AlignRT optical surface tracking system and defined as a reference surface. For 10 patients, the deviation of the patient position from the reference surface was recorded during the SBRT delivery in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction at 3–6 measurements per second. Results: On average, the patient position deviated from the reference surface more than 4 mm, 3 mm and 2 mm in the AP direction for 0.95%, 3.7% and 11.1% of the total treatment time, respectively. Only one of the 10 patients showed that the maximum deviation of the patient surface during the SBRT delivery was greater than 1 cm. The average deviation of the patient surface from the reference surface during the SBRT delivery was not greater than 1.6 mm for any patient. Conclusion: This investigation indicates that AP motion can be significant even though the frequency is low. Continuous monitoring during SBRT has demonstrated value in monitoring patient motion ensuring that margins selected for SBRT are appropriate, and the use of non-ionizing and high-frequency imaging can provide useful indicators of motion during treatment.

  8. EVolution: an edge-based variational method for non-rigid multi-modal image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Senneville, B. Denis; Zachiu, C.; Ries, M.; Moonen, C.

    2016-10-01

    Image registration is part of a large variety of medical applications including diagnosis, monitoring disease progression and/or treatment effectiveness and, more recently, therapy guidance. Such applications usually involve several imaging modalities such as ultrasound, computed tomography, positron emission tomography, x-ray or magnetic resonance imaging, either separately or combined. In the current work, we propose a non-rigid multi-modal registration method (namely EVolution: an edge-based variational method for non-rigid multi-modal image registration) that aims at maximizing edge alignment between the images being registered. The proposed algorithm requires only contrasts between physiological tissues, preferably present in both image modalities, and assumes deformable/elastic tissues. Given both is shown to be well suitable for non-rigid co-registration across different image types/contrasts (T1/T2) as well as different modalities (CT/MRI). This is achieved using a variational scheme that provides a fast algorithm with a low number of control parameters. Results obtained on an annotated CT data set were comparable to the ones provided by state-of-the-art multi-modal image registration algorithms, for all tested experimental conditions (image pre-filtering, image intensity variation, noise perturbation). Moreover, we demonstrate that, compared to existing approaches, our method possesses increased robustness to transient structures (i.e. that are only present in some of the images).

  9. Non-rigid ultrasound image registration using generalized relaxation labeling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Ha; Seong, Yeong Kyeong; Park, MoonHo; Woo, Kyoung-Gu; Ku, Jeonghun; Park, Hee-Jun

    2013-03-01

    This research proposes a novel non-rigid registration method for ultrasound images. The most predominant anatomical features in medical images are tissue boundaries, which appear as edges. In ultrasound images, however, other features can be identified as well due to the specular reflections that appear as bright lines superimposed on the ideal edge location. In this work, an image's local phase information (via the frequency domain) is used to find the ideal edge location. The generalized relaxation labeling process is then formulated to align the feature points extracted from the ideal edge location. In this work, the original relaxation labeling method was generalized by taking n compatibility coefficient values to improve non-rigid registration performance. This contextual information combined with a relaxation labeling process is used to search for a correspondence. Then the transformation is calculated by the thin plate spline (TPS) model. These two processes are iterated until the optimal correspondence and transformation are found. We have tested our proposed method and the state-of-the-art algorithms with synthetic data and bladder ultrasound images of in vivo human subjects. Experiments show that the proposed method improves registration performance significantly, as compared to other state-of-the-art non-rigid registration algorithms.

  10. Registration of 3D point clouds and meshes: a survey from rigid to nonrigid.

    PubMed

    Tam, Gary K L; Cheng, Zhi-Quan; Lai, Yu-Kun; Langbein, Frank C; Liu, Yonghuai; Marshall, David; Martin, Ralph R; Sun, Xian-Fang; Rosin, Paul L

    2013-07-01

    Three-dimensional surface registration transforms multiple three-dimensional data sets into the same coordinate system so as to align overlapping components of these sets. Recent surveys have covered different aspects of either rigid or nonrigid registration, but seldom discuss them as a whole. Our study serves two purposes: 1) To give a comprehensive survey of both types of registration, focusing on three-dimensional point clouds and meshes and 2) to provide a better understanding of registration from the perspective of data fitting. Registration is closely related to data fitting in which it comprises three core interwoven components: model selection, correspondences and constraints, and optimization. Study of these components 1) provides a basis for comparison of the novelties of different techniques, 2) reveals the similarity of rigid and nonrigid registration in terms of problem representations, and 3) shows how overfitting arises in nonrigid registration and the reasons for increasing interest in intrinsic techniques. We further summarize some practical issues of registration which include initializations and evaluations, and discuss some of our own observations, insights and foreseeable research trends.

  11. Fixtureless geometric inspection of nonrigid parts using "generalized numerical inspection fixture"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radvar Esfahlan, Hassan

    Free-form nonrigid parts form the substance of today's automotive and aerospace industries. These parts have different shapes in free state due to their dimensional and geometric variations, gravity and residual strains. For the geometric inspection of such compliant parts, special inspection fixtures, in combination with coordinate measuring systems (CMM) and/or optical data acquisition devices (scanners) are used. This inevitably causes additional costs and delays that result in a lack of competitiveness in the industry. The goal of this thesis is to facilitate the dimensional and geometrical inspection of flexible components from a point cloud without using a jig or secondary conformation operation. More specifically, we aim to develop a methodology to localize and quantify the profile defects in the case of thin shells which are typical to the aerospace and automotive industries. The presented methodology is based on the fact that the interpoint geodesic distance between any two points of a shape remains unchangeable during an isometric deformation. This study elaborates on the theory and general methods for the metrology of nonrigid parts. We have developed a Generalized Numerical Inspection Fixture (GNIF), a robust methodology which merges existing technologies in metric and computational geometry, nonlinear dimensionality reduction techniques, and finite element methods to introduce a general approach to the fixtureless geometrical inspection of nonrigid parts.

  12. Depth information in natural environments derived from optic flow by insect motion detection system: a model analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schwegmann, Alexander; Lindemann, Jens P.; Egelhaaf, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the depth structure of the environment is crucial for moving animals in many behavioral contexts, such as collision avoidance, targeting objects, or spatial navigation. An important source of depth information is motion parallax. This powerful cue is generated on the eyes during translatory self-motion with the retinal images of nearby objects moving faster than those of distant ones. To investigate how the visual motion pathway represents motion-based depth information we analyzed its responses to image sequences recorded in natural cluttered environments with a wide range of depth structures. The analysis was done on the basis of an experimentally validated model of the visual motion pathway of insects, with its core elements being correlation-type elementary motion detectors (EMDs). It is the key result of our analysis that the absolute EMD responses, i.e., the motion energy profile, represent the contrast-weighted nearness of environmental structures during translatory self-motion at a roughly constant velocity. In other words, the output of the EMD array highlights contours of nearby objects. This conclusion is largely independent of the scale over which EMDs are spatially pooled and was corroborated by scrutinizing the motion energy profile after eliminating the depth structure from the natural image sequences. Hence, the well-established dependence of correlation-type EMDs on both velocity and textural properties of motion stimuli appears to be advantageous for representing behaviorally relevant information about the environment in a computationally parsimonious way. PMID:25136314

  13. Depth information in natural environments derived from optic flow by insect motion detection system: a model analysis.

    PubMed

    Schwegmann, Alexander; Lindemann, Jens P; Egelhaaf, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the depth structure of the environment is crucial for moving animals in many behavioral contexts, such as collision avoidance, targeting objects, or spatial navigation. An important source of depth information is motion parallax. This powerful cue is generated on the eyes during translatory self-motion with the retinal images of nearby objects moving faster than those of distant ones. To investigate how the visual motion pathway represents motion-based depth information we analyzed its responses to image sequences recorded in natural cluttered environments with a wide range of depth structures. The analysis was done on the basis of an experimentally validated model of the visual motion pathway of insects, with its core elements being correlation-type elementary motion detectors (EMDs). It is the key result of our analysis that the absolute EMD responses, i.e., the motion energy profile, represent the contrast-weighted nearness of environmental structures during translatory self-motion at a roughly constant velocity. In other words, the output of the EMD array highlights contours of nearby objects. This conclusion is largely independent of the scale over which EMDs are spatially pooled and was corroborated by scrutinizing the motion energy profile after eliminating the depth structure from the natural image sequences. Hence, the well-established dependence of correlation-type EMDs on both velocity and textural properties of motion stimuli appears to be advantageous for representing behaviorally relevant information about the environment in a computationally parsimonious way. PMID:25136314

  14. Analysis of Human's Motions Based on Local Mean Decomposition in Through-wall Radar Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qi; Liu, Cai; Zeng, Zhaofa; Li, Jing; Zhang, Xuebing

    2016-04-01

    Observation of human motions through a wall is an important issue in security applications and search-and rescue. Radar has advantages in looking through walls where other sensors give low performance or cannot be used at all. Ultrawideband (UWB) radar has high spatial resolution as a result of employment of ultranarrow pulses. It has abilities to distinguish the closely positioned targets and provide time-lapse information of targets. Moreover, the UWB radar shows good performance in wall penetration when the inherently short pulses spread their energy over a broad frequency range. Human's motions show periodic features including respiration, swing arms and legs, fluctuations of the torso. Detection of human targets is based on the fact that there is always periodic motion due to breathing or other body movements like walking. The radar can gain the reflections from each human body parts and add the reflections at each time sample. The periodic movements will cause micro-Doppler modulation in the reflected radar signals. Time-frequency analysis methods are consider as the effective tools to analysis and extract micro-Doppler effects caused by the periodic movements in the reflected radar signal, such as short-time Fourier transform (STFT), wavelet transform (WT), and Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT).The local mean decomposition (LMD), initially developed by Smith (2005), is to decomposed amplitude and frequency modulated signals into a small set of product functions (PFs), each of which is the product of an envelope signal and a frequency modulated signal from which a time-vary instantaneous phase and instantaneous frequency can be derived. As bypassing the Hilbert transform, the LMD has no demodulation error coming from window effect and involves no negative frequency without physical sense. Also, the instantaneous attributes obtained by LMD are more stable and precise than those obtained by the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) because LMD uses smoothed local

  15. Summary of transformation equations and equations of motion used in free flight and wind tunnel data reduction and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gainer, T. G.; Hoffman, S.

    1972-01-01

    Basic formulations for developing coordinate transformations and motion equations used with free-flight and wind-tunnel data reduction are presented. The general forms presented include axes transformations that enable transfer back and forth between any of the five axes systems that are encountered in aerodynamic analysis. Equations of motion are presented that enable calculation of motions anywhere in the vicinity of the earth. A bibliography of publications on methods of analyzing flight data is included.

  16. Tracking and Motion Analysis of Crack Propagations in Crystals for Molecular Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Tsap, L V; Duchaineau, M; Goldgof, D B

    2001-05-14

    This paper presents a quantitative analysis for a discovery in molecular dynamics. Recent simulations have shown that velocities of crack propagations in crystals under certain conditions can become supersonic, which is contrary to classical physics. In this research, they present a framework for tracking and motion analysis of crack propagations in crystals. It includes line segment extraction based on Canny edge maps, feature selection based on physical properties, and subsequent tracking of primary and secondary wavefronts. This tracking is completely automated; it runs in real time on three 834-image sequences using forty 250 MHZ processors. Results supporting physical observations are presented in terms of both feature tracking and velocity analysis.

  17. Analysis of myocardial motion using generalized spline models and tagged magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fang; Rose, Stephen E.; Wilson, Stephen J.; Veidt, Martin; Bennett, Cameron J.; Doddrell, David M.

    2000-06-01

    Heart wall motion abnormalities are the very sensitive indicators of common heart diseases, such as myocardial infarction and ischemia. Regional strain analysis is especially important in diagnosing local abnormalities and mechanical changes in the myocardium. In this work, we present a complete method for the analysis of cardiac motion and the evaluation of regional strain in the left ventricular wall. The method is based on the generalized spline models and tagged magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the left ventricle. The whole method combines dynamical tracking of tag deformation, simulating cardiac movement and accurately computing the regional strain distribution. More specifically, the analysis of cardiac motion is performed in three stages. Firstly, material points within the myocardium are tracked over time using a semi-automated snake-based tag tracking algorithm developed for this purpose. This procedure is repeated in three orthogonal axes so as to generate a set of one-dimensional sample measurements of the displacement field. The 3D-displacement field is then reconstructed from this sample set by using a generalized vector spline model. The spline reconstruction of the displacement field is explicitly expressed as a linear combination of a spline kernel function associated with each sample point and a polynomial term. Finally, the strain tensor (linear or nonlinear) with three direct components and three shear components is calculated by applying a differential operator directly to the displacement function. The proposed method is computationally effective and easy to perform on tagged MR images. The preliminary study has shown potential advantages of using this method for the analysis of myocardial motion and the quantification of regional strain.

  18. Turbulent Fluid Motion 5: Fourier Analysis, the Spectral Form of the Continuum Equations, and Homogeneous Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deissler, Robert G.

    1996-01-01

    Background material on Fourier analysis and on the spectral form of the continuum equations, both averaged and unaveraged, are given. The equations are applied to a number of cases of homogeneous turbulence with and without mean gradients. Spectral transfer of turbulent activity between scales of motion is studied in some detail. The effects of mean shear, heat transfer, normal strain, and buoyancy are included in the analyses.

  19. Quantitative analysis of motion control in long term μ-gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baroni, Guido; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Anolli, Alessandra; Andreoni, Giuseppe; Pedotti, Antonio

    In the frame of the 179-days EUROMIR '95 space mission, two in-flight experiments have foreseen quantitative thres-dimensional human movement analysis in μgravity. For this aim, a space qualified opto-electronic motion analyser based on passive markers has been installed onboard the Russian Space Station MIR and 8 in flight sessions have been performed. Technology and method for the collection of kinematics data are described, evaluating the accuracy in three-dimensional marker localisation. Results confirm the suitability of opto-electronic technology for quantitative human motion analysis on orbital modules and raise a set of "lessons learned", leading to the improvement of motion analyser performance with a contemporary swiftness of the on-board operations. Among the experimental program of T4, results of three voluntary posture perturbation protocols are described. The analysis suggests that a short term reinterpretation of proprioceptive information and re-calibration of sensorimotor mechanisms seem to end within the first weeks of flight, while a continues long term adaptation process allows the refinement of motor performance, in the frame of never abandoned terrestrial strategies.

  20. Probing the time course of head-motion cues integration during auditory scene analysis.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Hirohito M; Toshima, Iwaki; Pressnitzer, Daniel; Kashino, Makio

    2014-01-01

    The perceptual organization of auditory scenes is a hard but important problem to solve for human listeners. It is thus likely that cues from several modalities are pooled for auditory scene analysis, including sensory-motor cues related to the active exploration of the scene. We previously reported a strong effect of head motion on auditory streaming. Streaming refers to an experimental paradigm where listeners hear sequences of pure tones, and rate their perception of one or more subjective sources called streams. To disentangle the effects of head motion (changes in acoustic cues at the ear, subjective location cues, and motor cues), we used a robotic telepresence system, Telehead. We found that head motion induced perceptual reorganization even when the acoustic scene had not changed. Here we reanalyzed the same data to probe the time course of sensory-motor integration. We show that motor cues had a different time course compared to acoustic or subjective location cues: motor cues impacted perceptual organization earlier and for a shorter time than other cues, with successive positive and negative contributions to streaming. An additional experiment controlled for the effects of volitional anticipatory components, and found that arm or leg movements did not have any impact on scene analysis. These data provide a first investigation of the time course of the complex integration of sensory-motor cues in an auditory scene analysis task, and they suggest a loose temporal coupling between the different mechanisms involved. PMID:25009456

  1. Large-deformation modal coordinates for nonrigid vehicle dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Likins, P. W.; Fleischer, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    The derivation of minimum-dimension sets of discrete-coordinate and hybrid-coordinate equations of motion of a system consisting of an arbitrary number of hinge-connected rigid bodies assembled in tree topology is presented. These equations are useful for the simulation of dynamical systems that can be idealized as tree-like arrangements of substructures, with each substructure consisting of either a rigid body or a collection of elastically interconnected rigid bodies restricted to small relative rotations at each connection. Thus, some of the substructures represent elastic bodies subjected to small strains or local deformations, but possibly large gross deformations, in the hybrid formulation, distributed coordinates referred to herein as large-deformation modal coordinates, are used for the deformations of these substructures. The equations are in a form suitable for incorporation into one or more computer programs to be used as multipurpose tools in the simulation of spacecraft and other complex electromechanical systems.

  2. A computer program for an analysis of the relative motion of a space station and a free flying experiment module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. H.

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of the relative motion of a free flying experiment module in the vicinity of a space station under the perturbative effects of drag and earth oblateness was made. A listing of a computer program developed for determining the relative motion of a module utilizing the Cowell procedure is presented, as well as instructions for its use.

  3. Including the effect of motion artifacts in noise and performance analysis of dual-energy contrast-enhanced mammography.

    PubMed

    Allec, N; Abbaszadeh, S; Scott, C C; Lewin, J M; Karim, K S

    2012-12-21

    In contrast-enhanced mammography (CEM), the dual-energy dual-exposure technique, which can leverage existing conventional mammography infrastructure, relies on acquiring the low- and high-energy images using two separate exposures. The finite time between image acquisition leads to motion artifacts in the combined image. Motion artifacts can lead to greater anatomical noise in the combined image due to increased mismatch of the background tissue in the images to be combined, however the impact has not yet been quantified. In this study we investigate a method to include motion artifacts in the dual-energy noise and performance analysis. The motion artifacts are included via an extended cascaded systems model. To validate the model, noise power spectra of a previous dual-energy clinical study are compared to that of the model. The ideal observer detectability is used to quantify the effect of motion artifacts on tumor detectability. It was found that the detectability can be significantly degraded when motion is present (e.g., detectability of 2.5 mm radius tumor decreased by approximately a factor of 2 for translation motion on the order of 1000 μm). The method presented may be used for a more comprehensive theoretical noise and performance analysis and fairer theoretical performance comparison between dual-exposure techniques, where motion artifacts are present, and single-exposure techniques, where low- and high-energy images are acquired simultaneously and motion artifacts are absent.

  4. New method for detection of complex 3D fracture motion - Verification of an optical motion analysis system for biomechanical studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fracture-healing depends on interfragmentary motion. For improved osteosynthesis and fracture-healing, the micromotion between fracture fragments is undergoing intensive research. The detection of 3D micromotions at the fracture gap still presents a challenge for conventional tactile measurement systems. Optical measurement systems may be easier to use than conventional systems, but, as yet, cannot guarantee accuracy. The purpose of this study was to validate the optical measurement system PONTOS 5M for use in biomechanical research, including measurement of micromotion. Methods A standardized transverse fracture model was created to detect interfragmentary motions under axial loadings of up to 200 N. Measurements were performed using the optical measurement system and compared with a conventional high-accuracy tactile system consisting of 3 standard digital dial indicators (1 μm resolution; 5 μm error limit). Results We found that the deviation in the mean average motion detection between the systems was at most 5.3 μm, indicating that detection of micromotion was possible with the optical measurement system. Furthermore, we could show two considerable advantages while using the optical measurement system. Only with the optical system interfragmentary motion could be analyzed directly at the fracture gap. Furthermore, the calibration of the optical system could be performed faster, safer and easier than that of the tactile system. Conclusion The PONTOS 5 M optical measurement system appears to be a favorable alternative to previously used tactile measurement systems for biomechanical applications. Easy handling, combined with a high accuracy for 3D detection of micromotions (≤ 5 μm), suggests the likelihood of high user acceptance. This study was performed in the context of the deployment of a new implant (dynamic locking screw; Synthes, Oberdorf, Switzerland). PMID:22405047

  5. Comparative abilities of Microsoft Kinect and Vicon 3D motion capture for gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Alexandra; West, Alexandre M; Bronner, Shaw; Noah, Jack Adam

    2014-07-01

    Biomechanical analysis is a powerful tool in the evaluation of movement dysfunction in orthopaedic and neurologic populations. Three-dimensional (3D) motion capture systems are widely used, accurate systems, but are costly and not available in many clinical settings. The Microsoft Kinect™ has the potential to be used as an alternative low-cost motion analysis tool. The purpose of this study was to assess concurrent validity of the Kinect™ with Brekel Kinect software in comparison to Vicon Nexus during sagittal plane gait kinematics. Twenty healthy adults (nine male, 11 female) were tracked while walking and jogging at three velocities on a treadmill. Concurrent hip and knee peak flexion and extension and stride timing measurements were compared between Vicon and Kinect™. Although Kinect measurements were representative of normal gait, the Kinect™ generally under-estimated joint flexion and over-estimated extension. Kinect™ and Vicon hip angular displacement correlation was very low and error was large. Kinect™ knee measurements were somewhat better than hip, but were not consistent enough for clinical assessment. Correlation between Kinect™ and Vicon stride timing was high and error was fairly small. Variability in Kinect™ measurements was smallest at the slowest velocity. The Kinect™ has basic motion capture capabilities and with some minor adjustments will be an acceptable tool to measure stride timing, but sophisticated advances in software and hardware are necessary to improve Kinect™ sensitivity before it can be implemented for clinical use.

  6. Determination of viscoelastic properties by analysis of probe-particle motion in molecular simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Mir; Kohale, Swapnil C.; Indei, Tsutomu; Schieber, Jay D.; Khare, Rajesh

    2012-11-01

    We present a technique for the determination of viscoelastic properties of a medium by tracking the motion of an embedded probe particle by using molecular dynamics simulations. The approach involves the analysis of the simulated particle motion by continuum theory; it is shown to work in both passive and active modes. We demonstrate that, for passive rheology, an analysis based on the generalized Stokes-Einstein relationship is not adequate to obtain the values of the viscoelastic moduli over the frequency range studied. For both passive and active modes, it is necessary to account for the medium and particle inertia when analyzing the particle motion. For a polymer melt system consisting of short chains, the values calculated from the proposed approach are in good quantitative agreement with previous literature results that were obtained using completely different simulation approaches. The proposed particle rheology simulation technique is general and could provide insight into the characterization of the mechanical properties in biological systems, such as cellular environments and polymeric systems, such as thin films and nanocomposites that exhibit spatial variation in properties over the nanoscale.

  7. Dynamic modeling and sensitivity analysis of dAFM in the transient and steady state motions.

    PubMed

    Payam, Amir Farokh

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, based on the slow time varying function theory, dynamical equations for the amplitude and phase of the dynamic atomic force microscope are derived. Then, the sensitivity of the amplitude and phase to the dissipative and conservative parts of interaction force is investigated. The most advantage of this dynamical model is the ability to simulate and analysis the dynamics behavior of amplitude and phase of the AFM tip motion not only in the steady state but also in the transient regime. Using numerical analysis the transient and steady state behavior of amplitude and phase is studied and the sensitivity of amplitude and phase to the interaction force is analyzed. PMID:27448201

  8. MRI Signal Intensity Based B-Spline Nonrigid Registration for Pre- and Intraoperative Imaging During Prostate Brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Oguro, Sota; Tokuda, Junichi; Elhawary, Haytham; Haker, Steven; Kikinis, Ron; Tempany, Clare M.C.; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To apply an intensity-based nonrigid registration algorithm to MRI-guided prostate brachytherapy clinical data and to assess its accuracy. Materials and Methods A nonrigid registration of preoperative MRI to intraoperative MRI images was carried out in 16 cases using a Basis-Spline algorithm in a retrospective manner. The registration was assessed qualitatively by experts’ visual inspection and quantitatively by measuring the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) for total gland (TG), central gland (CG), and peripheral zone (PZ), the mutual information (MI) metric, and the fiducial registration error (FRE) between corresponding anatomical landmarks for both the nonrigid and a rigid registration method. Results All 16 cases were successfully registered in less than 5 min. After the nonrigid registration, DSC values for TG, CG, PZ were 0.91, 0.89, 0.79, respectively, the MI metric was −0.19 ± 0.07 and FRE presented a value of 2.3 ± 1.8 mm. All the metrics were significantly better than in the case of rigid registration, as determined by one-sided t-tests. Conclusion The intensity-based nonrigid registration method using clinical data was demonstrated to be feasible and showed statistically improved metrics when compare to only rigid registration. The method is a valuable tool to integrate pre- and intraoperative images for brachytherapy. PMID:19856437

  9. Initial assessment of facial nerve paralysis based on motion analysis using an optical flow method.

    PubMed

    Samsudin, Wan Syahirah W; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Ahmad, Amirozi; Salleh, Hasriah

    2016-01-01

    An initial assessment method that can classify as well as categorize the severity of paralysis into one of six levels according to the House-Brackmann (HB) system based on facial landmarks motion using an Optical Flow (OF) algorithm is proposed. The desired landmarks were obtained from the video recordings of 5 normal and 3 Bell's Palsy subjects and tracked using the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi (KLT) method. A new scoring system based on the motion analysis using area measurement is proposed. This scoring system uses the individual scores from the facial exercises and grades the paralysis based on the HB system. The proposed method has obtained promising results and may play a pivotal role towards improved rehabilitation programs for patients. PMID:26578273

  10. An Elastic Analysis of a Plated Bone to Determine Fracture Gap Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, F. W.; Vannah, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    An elastic analysis to determine fracture gap motions occurring in the osteotomized and plated canine femur was performed using the finite element program NASTRAN. The femur was idealized as a hollow right cylinder, and transverse anisotropy was assumed for the elastic properties of the bone. A 3-D 360 degree model consisting of 224 isoparametric quadrilateral hexahedral and 11 beam elements was created. A range of plate stiffnesses was tested by varying the modulus of elasticity of the plate from 207 GPa to 1 GPA. Moments were applied in the plane of the plate, about the axis of the plate, and in the plane of the screws. Results showed that, for plates of typical geometry and elastic modulus under 10 GPa, the contribution to fracture gap motion occurring due to deformation in the bone was negligible compared to that contribution from deformation in the plate.

  11. Representation of the Physiological Factors Contributing to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance Using Motion Analysis Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, Kelsey

    2010-01-01

    Astronauts experience changes in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight. To understand how changes in physiological function influence functional performance, a testing procedure has been developed that evaluates both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. Astronauts complete seven functional and physiological tests. The objective of this project is to use motion tracking and digitizing software to visually display the postflight decrement in the functional performance of the astronauts. The motion analysis software will be used to digitize astronaut data videos into stick figure videos to represent the astronauts as they perform the Functional Tasks Tests. This project will benefit NASA by allowing NASA scientists to present data of their neurological studies without revealing the identities of the astronauts.

  12. Initial assessment of facial nerve paralysis based on motion analysis using an optical flow method.

    PubMed

    Samsudin, Wan Syahirah W; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Ahmad, Amirozi; Salleh, Hasriah

    2016-01-01

    An initial assessment method that can classify as well as categorize the severity of paralysis into one of six levels according to the House-Brackmann (HB) system based on facial landmarks motion using an Optical Flow (OF) algorithm is proposed. The desired landmarks were obtained from the video recordings of 5 normal and 3 Bell's Palsy subjects and tracked using the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi (KLT) method. A new scoring system based on the motion analysis using area measurement is proposed. This scoring system uses the individual scores from the facial exercises and grades the paralysis based on the HB system. The proposed method has obtained promising results and may play a pivotal role towards improved rehabilitation programs for patients.

  13. Stochastic exploration of ambiguities for nonrigid shape recovery.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Noguer, Francesc; Fua, Pascal

    2013-02-01

    Recovering the 3D shape of deformable surfaces from single images is known to be a highly ambiguous problem because many different shapes may have very similar projections. This is commonly addressed by restricting the set of possible shapes to linear combinations of deformation modes and by imposing additional geometric constraints. Unfortunately, because image measurements are noisy, such constraints do not always guarantee that the correct shape will be recovered. To overcome this limitation, we introduce a stochastic sampling approach to efficiently explore the set of solutions of an objective function based on point correspondences. This allows us to propose a small set of ambiguous candidate 3D shapes and then use additional image information to choose the best one. As a proof of concept, we use either motion or shading cues to this end and show that we can handle a complex objective function without having to solve a difficult nonlinear minimization problem. The advantages of our method are demonstrated on a variety of problems including both real and synthetic data.

  14. Stochastic exploration of ambiguities for nonrigid shape recovery.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Noguer, Francesc; Fua, Pascal

    2013-02-01

    Recovering the 3D shape of deformable surfaces from single images is known to be a highly ambiguous problem because many different shapes may have very similar projections. This is commonly addressed by restricting the set of possible shapes to linear combinations of deformation modes and by imposing additional geometric constraints. Unfortunately, because image measurements are noisy, such constraints do not always guarantee that the correct shape will be recovered. To overcome this limitation, we introduce a stochastic sampling approach to efficiently explore the set of solutions of an objective function based on point correspondences. This allows us to propose a small set of ambiguous candidate 3D shapes and then use additional image information to choose the best one. As a proof of concept, we use either motion or shading cues to this end and show that we can handle a complex objective function without having to solve a difficult nonlinear minimization problem. The advantages of our method are demonstrated on a variety of problems including both real and synthetic data. PMID:22547426

  15. Action Sport Cameras as an Instrument to Perform a 3D Underwater Motion Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bernardina, Gustavo R D; Cerveri, Pietro; Barros, Ricardo M L; Marins, João C B; Silvatti, Amanda P

    2016-01-01

    Action sport cameras (ASC) are currently adopted mainly for entertainment purposes but their uninterrupted technical improvements, in correspondence of cost decreases, are going to disclose them for three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis in sport gesture study and athletic performance evaluation quantitatively. Extending this technology to sport analysis however still requires a methodologic step-forward to making ASC a metric system, encompassing ad-hoc camera setup, image processing, feature tracking, calibration and 3D reconstruction. Despite traditional laboratory analysis, such requirements become an issue when coping with both indoor and outdoor motion acquisitions of athletes. In swimming analysis for example, the camera setup and the calibration protocol are particularly demanding since land and underwater cameras are mandatory. In particular, the underwater camera calibration can be an issue affecting the reconstruction accuracy. In this paper, the aim is to evaluate the feasibility of ASC for 3D underwater analysis by focusing on camera setup and data acquisition protocols. Two GoPro Hero3+ Black (frequency: 60Hz; image resolutions: 1280×720/1920×1080 pixels) were located underwater into a swimming pool, surveying a working volume of about 6m3. A two-step custom calibration procedure, consisting in the acquisition of one static triad and one moving wand, carrying nine and one spherical passive markers, respectively, was implemented. After assessing camera parameters, a rigid bar, carrying two markers at known distance, was acquired in several positions within the working volume. The average error upon the reconstructed inter-marker distances was less than 2.5mm (1280×720) and 1.5mm (1920×1080). The results of this study demonstrate that the calibration of underwater ASC is feasible enabling quantitative kinematic measurements with accuracy comparable to traditional motion capture systems. PMID:27513846

  16. Action Sport Cameras as an Instrument to Perform a 3D Underwater Motion Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cerveri, Pietro; Barros, Ricardo M. L.; Marins, João C. B.; Silvatti, Amanda P.

    2016-01-01

    Action sport cameras (ASC) are currently adopted mainly for entertainment purposes but their uninterrupted technical improvements, in correspondence of cost decreases, are going to disclose them for three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis in sport gesture study and athletic performance evaluation quantitatively. Extending this technology to sport analysis however still requires a methodologic step-forward to making ASC a metric system, encompassing ad-hoc camera setup, image processing, feature tracking, calibration and 3D reconstruction. Despite traditional laboratory analysis, such requirements become an issue when coping with both indoor and outdoor motion acquisitions of athletes. In swimming analysis for example, the camera setup and the calibration protocol are particularly demanding since land and underwater cameras are mandatory. In particular, the underwater camera calibration can be an issue affecting the reconstruction accuracy. In this paper, the aim is to evaluate the feasibility of ASC for 3D underwater analysis by focusing on camera setup and data acquisition protocols. Two GoPro Hero3+ Black (frequency: 60Hz; image resolutions: 1280×720/1920×1080 pixels) were located underwater into a swimming pool, surveying a working volume of about 6m3. A two-step custom calibration procedure, consisting in the acquisition of one static triad and one moving wand, carrying nine and one spherical passive markers, respectively, was implemented. After assessing camera parameters, a rigid bar, carrying two markers at known distance, was acquired in several positions within the working volume. The average error upon the reconstructed inter-marker distances was less than 2.5mm (1280×720) and 1.5mm (1920×1080). The results of this study demonstrate that the calibration of underwater ASC is feasible enabling quantitative kinematic measurements with accuracy comparable to traditional motion capture systems. PMID:27513846

  17. Action Sport Cameras as an Instrument to Perform a 3D Underwater Motion Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bernardina, Gustavo R D; Cerveri, Pietro; Barros, Ricardo M L; Marins, João C B; Silvatti, Amanda P

    2016-01-01

    Action sport cameras (ASC) are currently adopted mainly for entertainment purposes but their uninterrupted technical improvements, in correspondence of cost decreases, are going to disclose them for three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis in sport gesture study and athletic performance evaluation quantitatively. Extending this technology to sport analysis however still requires a methodologic step-forward to making ASC a metric system, encompassing ad-hoc camera setup, image processing, feature tracking, calibration and 3D reconstruction. Despite traditional laboratory analysis, such requirements become an issue when coping with both indoor and outdoor motion acquisitions of athletes. In swimming analysis for example, the camera setup and the calibration protocol are particularly demanding since land and underwater cameras are mandatory. In particular, the underwater camera calibration can be an issue affecting the reconstruction accuracy. In this paper, the aim is to evaluate the feasibility of ASC for 3D underwater analysis by focusing on camera setup and data acquisition protocols. Two GoPro Hero3+ Black (frequency: 60Hz; image resolutions: 1280×720/1920×1080 pixels) were located underwater into a swimming pool, surveying a working volume of about 6m3. A two-step custom calibration procedure, consisting in the acquisition of one static triad and one moving wand, carrying nine and one spherical passive markers, respectively, was implemented. After assessing camera parameters, a rigid bar, carrying two markers at known distance, was acquired in several positions within the working volume. The average error upon the reconstructed inter-marker distances was less than 2.5mm (1280×720) and 1.5mm (1920×1080). The results of this study demonstrate that the calibration of underwater ASC is feasible enabling quantitative kinematic measurements with accuracy comparable to traditional motion capture systems.

  18. Sensitivity of tumor motion simulation accuracy to lung biomechanical modeling approaches and parameters.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Joubin Nasehi; Yang, Yin; Werner, Rene; Lu, Wei; Low, Daniel; Guo, Xiaohu; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-21

    Finite element analysis (FEA)-based biomechanical modeling can be used to predict lung respiratory motion. In this technique, elastic models and biomechanical parameters are two important factors that determine modeling accuracy. We systematically evaluated the effects of lung and lung tumor biomechanical modeling approaches and related parameters to improve the accuracy of motion simulation of lung tumor center of mass (TCM) displacements. Experiments were conducted with four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT). A Quasi-Newton FEA was performed to simulate lung and related tumor displacements between end-expiration (phase 50%) and other respiration phases (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%). Both linear isotropic and non-linear hyperelastic materials, including the neo-Hookean compressible and uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin models, were used to create a finite element model (FEM) of lung and tumors. Lung surface displacement vector fields (SDVFs) were obtained by registering the 50% phase CT to other respiration phases, using the non-rigid demons registration algorithm. The obtained SDVFs were used as lung surface displacement boundary conditions in FEM. The sensitivity of TCM displacement to lung and tumor biomechanical parameters was assessed in eight patients for all three models. Patient-specific optimal parameters were estimated by minimizing the TCM motion simulation errors between phase 50% and phase 0%. The uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin material model showed the highest TCM motion simulation accuracy. The average TCM motion simulation absolute errors for the Mooney-Rivlin material model along left-right, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions were 0.80 mm, 0.86 mm, and 1.51 mm, respectively. The proposed strategy provides a reliable method to estimate patient-specific biomechanical parameters in FEM for lung tumor motion simulation. PMID:26531324

  19. Sensitivity of tumor motion simulation accuracy to lung biomechanical modeling approaches and parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasehi Tehrani, Joubin; Yang, Yin; Werner, Rene; Lu, Wei; Low, Daniel; Guo, Xiaohu; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA)-based biomechanical modeling can be used to predict lung respiratory motion. In this technique, elastic models and biomechanical parameters are two important factors that determine modeling accuracy. We systematically evaluated the effects of lung and lung tumor biomechanical modeling approaches and related parameters to improve the accuracy of motion simulation of lung tumor center of mass (TCM) displacements. Experiments were conducted with four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT). A Quasi-Newton FEA was performed to simulate lung and related tumor displacements between end-expiration (phase 50%) and other respiration phases (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%). Both linear isotropic and non-linear hyperelastic materials, including the neo-Hookean compressible and uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin models, were used to create a finite element model (FEM) of lung and tumors. Lung surface displacement vector fields (SDVFs) were obtained by registering the 50% phase CT to other respiration phases, using the non-rigid demons registration algorithm. The obtained SDVFs were used as lung surface displacement boundary conditions in FEM. The sensitivity of TCM displacement to lung and tumor biomechanical parameters was assessed in eight patients for all three models. Patient-specific optimal parameters were estimated by minimizing the TCM motion simulation errors between phase 50% and phase 0%. The uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin material model showed the highest TCM motion simulation accuracy. The average TCM motion simulation absolute errors for the Mooney-Rivlin material model along left-right, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions were 0.80 mm, 0.86 mm, and 1.51 mm, respectively. The proposed strategy provides a reliable method to estimate patient-specific biomechanical parameters in FEM for lung tumor motion simulation.

  20. Cardiac motion compensation and resolution modeling in simultaneous PET-MR: a cardiac lesion detection study.

    PubMed

    Petibon, Y; Ouyang, J; Zhu, X; Huang, C; Reese, T G; Chun, S Y; Li, Q; El Fakhri, G

    2013-04-01

    Cardiac motion and partial volume effects (PVE) are two of the main causes of image degradation in cardiac PET. Motion generates artifacts and blurring while PVE lead to erroneous myocardial activity measurements. Newly available simultaneous PET-MR scanners offer new possibilities in cardiac imaging as MRI can assess wall contractility while collecting PET perfusion data. In this perspective, we develop a list-mode iterative reconstruction framework incorporating both tagged-MR derived non-rigid myocardial wall motion and position dependent detector point spread function (PSF) directly into the PET system matrix. In this manner, our algorithm performs both motion 'deblurring' and PSF deconvolution while reconstructing images with all available PET counts. The proposed methods are evaluated in a beating non-rigid cardiac phantom whose hot myocardial compartment contains small transmural and non-transmural cold defects. In order to accelerate imaging time, we investigate collecting full and half k-space tagged MR data to obtain tagged volumes that are registered using non-rigid B-spline registration to yield wall motion information. Our experimental results show that tagged-MR based motion correction yielded an improvement in defect/myocardium contrast recovery of 34-206% as compared to motion uncorrected studies. Likewise, lesion detectability improved by respectively 115-136% and 62-235% with MR-based motion compensation as compared to gating and no motion correction and made it possible to distinguish non-transmural from transmural defects, which has clinical significance given the inherent limitations of current single modality imaging in identifying the amount of residual ischemia. The incorporation of PSF modeling within the framework of MR-based motion compensation significantly improved defect/myocardium contrast recovery (5.1-8.5%, p < 0.01) and defect detectability (39-56%, p < 0.01). No statistical difference was found in PET contrast and lesion

  1. Cardiac motion compensation and resolution modeling in simultaneous PET-MR: a cardiac lesion detection study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petibon, Y.; Ouyang, J.; Zhu, X.; Huang, C.; Reese, T. G.; Chun, S. Y.; Li, Q.; El Fakhri, G.

    2013-04-01

    Cardiac motion and partial volume effects (PVE) are two of the main causes of image degradation in cardiac PET. Motion generates artifacts and blurring while PVE lead to erroneous myocardial activity measurements. Newly available simultaneous PET-MR scanners offer new possibilities in cardiac imaging as MRI can assess wall contractility while collecting PET perfusion data. In this perspective, we develop a list-mode iterative reconstruction framework incorporating both tagged-MR derived non-rigid myocardial wall motion and position dependent detector point spread function (PSF) directly into the PET system matrix. In this manner, our algorithm performs both motion ‘deblurring’ and PSF deconvolution while reconstructing images with all available PET counts. The proposed methods are evaluated in a beating non-rigid cardiac phantom whose hot myocardial compartment contains small transmural and non-transmural cold defects. In order to accelerate imaging time, we investigate collecting full and half k-space tagged MR data to obtain tagged volumes that are registered using non-rigid B-spline registration to yield wall motion information. Our experimental results show that tagged-MR based motion correction yielded an improvement in defect/myocardium contrast recovery of 34-206% as compared to motion uncorrected studies. Likewise, lesion detectability improved by respectively 115-136% and 62-235% with MR-based motion compensation as compared to gating and no motion correction and made it possible to distinguish non-transmural from transmural defects, which has clinical significance given the inherent limitations of current single modality imaging in identifying the amount of residual ischemia. The incorporation of PSF modeling within the framework of MR-based motion compensation significantly improved defect/myocardium contrast recovery (5.1-8.5%, p < 0.01) and defect detectability (39-56%, p < 0.01). No statistical difference was found in PET contrast and lesion

  2. Objective evaluation of methods to track motion from clinical cardiac-gated tagged MRI without the use of a gold standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parages, Felipe M.; Denney, Thomas S.; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac-gated MRI is widely used for the task of measuring parameters related to heart motion. More specifically, gated tagged MRI is the preferred modality to estimate local deformation (strain) and rotational motion (twist) of myocardial tissue. Many methods have been proposed to estimate cardiac motion from gated MRI sequences. However, when dealing with clinical data, evaluation of these methods is problematic due to the absence of gold-standards for cardiac motion. To overcome that, a linear regression scheme known as regression-without-truth (RWT) was proposed in the past. RWT uses priors to model the distribution of true values, thus enabling us to assess image-analysis algorithms without knowledge of the ground-truth. Furthermore, it allows one to rank methods by means of an objective figure-of-merit γ (i.e. precision). In this work we apply RWT to compare the performance of several gated MRI motion-tracking methods (e.g. non-rigid registration, feature based, harmonic phase) at the task of estimating myocardial strain and left-ventricle (LV) twist, from a population of 18 clinical human cardiac-gated tagged MRI studies.

  3. Calibration of a Hall effect displacement measurement system for complex motion analysis using a neural network.

    PubMed

    Northey, G W; Oliver, M L; Rittenhouse, D M

    2006-01-01

    Biomechanics studies often require the analysis of position and orientation. Although a variety of transducer and camera systems can be utilized, a common inexpensive alternative is the Hall effect sensor. Hall effect sensors have been used extensively for one-dimensional position analysis but their non-linear behavior and cross-talk effects make them difficult to calibrate for effective and accurate two- and three-dimensional position and orientation analysis. The aim of this study was to develop and calibrate a displacement measurement system for a hydraulic-actuation joystick used for repetitive motion analysis of heavy equipment operators. The system utilizes an array of four Hall effect sensors that are all active during any joystick movement. This built-in redundancy allows the calibration to utilize fully connected feed forward neural networks in conjunction with a Microscribe 3D digitizer. A fully connected feed forward neural network with one hidden layer containing five neurons was developed. Results indicate that the ability of the neural network to accurately predict the x, y and z coordinates of the joystick handle was good with r(2) values of 0.98 and higher. The calibration technique was found to be equally as accurate when used on data collected 5 days after the initial calibration, indicating the system is robust and stable enough to not require calibration every time the joystick is used. This calibration system allowed an infinite number of joystick orientations and positions to be found within the range of joystick motion.

  4. The Eye, Film, And Video In High-Speed Motion Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyzer, William G.

    1987-09-01

    The unaided human eye with its inherent limitations serves us well in the examination of most large-scale, slow-moving, natural and man-made phenomena, but constraints imposed by inertial factors in the visual mechanism severely limit our ability to observe fast-moving and short-duration events. The introduction of high-speed photography (c. 1851) and videography (c. 1970) served to stretch the temporal limits of human perception by several orders of magnitude so critical analysis could be performed on a wide range of rapidly occurring events of scientific, technological, industrial, and educational interest. The preferential selection of eye, film, or video imagery in fulfilling particular motion analysis requirements is determined largely by the comparative attributes and limitations of these methods. The choice of either film or video does not necessarily eliminate the eye, because it usually continues as a vital link in the analytical chain. The important characteristics of the eye, film, and video imagery in high-speed motion analysis are discussed with particular reference to fields of application which include biomechanics, ballistics, machine design, mechanics of materials, sports analysis, medicine, production engineering, and industrial trouble-shooting.

  5. Time series analysis of particle tracking data for molecular motion on the cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Ying, Wenxia; Huerta, Gabriel; Steinberg, Stanly; Zúñiga, Martha

    2009-11-01

    Biophysicists use single particle tracking (SPT) methods to probe the dynamic behavior of individual proteins and lipids in cell membranes. The mean squared displacement (MSD) has proven to be a powerful tool for analyzing the data and drawing conclusions about membrane organization, including features like lipid rafts, protein islands, and confinement zones defined by cytoskeletal barriers. Here, we implement time series analysis as a new analytic tool to analyze further the motion of membrane proteins. The experimental data track the motion of 40 nm gold particles bound to Class I major histocompatibility complex (MHCI) molecules on the membranes of mouse hepatoma cells. Our first novel result is that the tracks are significantly autocorrelated. Because of this, we developed linear autoregressive models to elucidate the autocorrelations. Estimates of the signal to noise ratio for the models show that the autocorrelated part of the motion is significant. Next, we fit the probability distributions of jump sizes with four different models. The first model is a general Weibull distribution that shows that the motion is characterized by an excess of short jumps as compared to a normal random walk. We also fit the data with a chi distribution which provides a natural estimate of the dimension d of the space in which a random walk is occurring. For the biological data, the estimates satisfy 1 < d < 2, implying that particle motion is not confined to a line, but also does not occur freely in the plane. The dimension gives a quantitative estimate of the amount of nanometer scale obstruction met by a diffusing molecule. We introduce a new distribution and use the generalized extreme value distribution to show that the biological data also have an excess of long jumps as compared to normal diffusion. These fits provide novel estimates of the microscopic diffusion constant. Previous MSD analyses of SPT data have provided evidence for nanometer-scale confinement zones that

  6. Motion analysis of a motorcycle taking into account the rider's effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shaopeng; Murakami, Shintaroh; Nishimura, Hidekazu

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, to analyse the rider's effects on the motion of a motorcycle, we model a rider-motorcycle system by taking into account the leaning motion of the rider's upper torso and his/her arm connection with the handlebars. The nonlinearity of the tyre force is introduced by utilising hyperbolic tangent functions to approximate a Magic Formula tyre model. On the basis of a derived nonlinear state-space model, we analyse the effects of not only the rider's arms but also his/her postures during steady turning by simulations. The rider's postures including lean-with, lean-in and lean-out are realised by adding the lean torque to the rider's upper torso. The motorcycle motion and the rider's effects are analysed in the case where the friction coefficient of the road surface changes severely during steady turning. In addition, a linearised state-space model is derived during steady turning, and a stability analysis of the rider-motorcycle system is performed.

  7. Receiver Function Analysis of Strong-motion Stations in Kaohsiung-Pingtung area, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Che-Min; Wen, Kuo-Liang; Kuo, Chun-Hsiang; Huang, Jyun-Yan

    2016-04-01

    The Kaohsiung City and Pingtung County are located in southern Taiwan and bounded on the west side by several active faults. The shallow velocity structure of thick alluvium basin in this area should be delineated to understand the seismic site effect of strong ground motion. Receiver Function (RF) is a conventional technique for studying the structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath the seismometer. But, the RF analysis of high-frequency acceleration seismograms is also proved to be feasible for estimating shallow structures recently. This study applied the RF technique on the Strong-motion records of almost one-hundred TSMIP stations in Kaohsiung-Pingtung area to estimate the shallow shear-wave velocity structures. The averaged RFs of all stations exhibit the obvious variation because of the different geologies and site conditions. After the forward modeling of RFs based on the Genetic Algorithms (GA) searching, the shallow shear-wave velocity structures beneath all the strong-motion stations in the Kaohsiung-Pingtung area were estimated to delineate the iso-depth contour maps of the main formation interfaces and a preliminary shallow 3D velocity model.

  8. Multi-modal 2D-3D non-rigid registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prümmer, M.; Hornegger, J.; Pfister, M.; Dörfler, A.

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a multi-modal non-rigid 2D-3D registration technique. This method allows a non-rigid alignment of a patient pre-operatively computed tomography (CT) to few intra operatively acquired fluoroscopic X-ray images obtained with a C-arm system. This multi-modal approach is especially focused on the 3D alignment of high contrast reconstructed volumes with intra-interventional low contrast X-ray images in order to make use of up-to-date information for surgical guidance and other interventions. The key issue of non-rigid 2D-3D registration is how to define the distance measure between high contrast 3D data and low contrast 2D projections. In this work, we use algebraic reconstruction theory to handle this problem. We modify the Euler-Lagrange equation by introducing a new 3D force. This external force term is computed from the residual of the algebraic reconstruction procedures. In the multi-modal case we replace the residual between the digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) and observed X-ray images with a statistical based distance measure. We integrate the algebraic reconstruction technique into a variational registration framework, so that the 3D displacement field is driven to minimize the reconstruction distance between the volumetric data and its 2D projections using mutual information (MI). The benefits of this 2D-3D registration approach are its scalability in the number of used X-ray reference images and the proposed distance that can handle low contrast fluoroscopies as well. Experimental results are presented on both artificial phantom and 3D C-arm CT images.

  9. Efficient Constrained Local Model Fitting for Non-Rigid Face Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Cox, Mark; Sridharan, Sridha; Cohn, Jeffery F.

    2009-01-01

    Active appearance models (AAMs) have demonstrated great utility when being employed for non-rigid face alignment/tracking. The “simultaneous” algorithm for fitting an AAM achieves good non-rigid face registration performance, but has poor real time performance (2-3 fps). The “project-out” algorithm for fitting an AAM achieves faster than real time performance (> 200 fps) but suffers from poor generic alignment performance. In this paper we introduce an extension to a discriminative method for non-rigid face registration/tracking referred to as a constrained local model (CLM). Our proposed method is able to achieve superior performance to the “simultaneous” AAM algorithm along with real time fitting speeds (35 fps). We improve upon the canonical CLM formulation, to gain this performance, in a number of ways by employing: (i) linear SVMs as patch-experts, (ii) a simplified optimization criteria, and (iii) a composite rather than additive warp update step. Most notably, our simplified optimization criteria for fitting the CLM divides the problem of finding a single complex registration/warp displacement into that of finding N simple warp displacements. From these N simple warp displacements, a single complex warp displacement is estimated using a weighted least-squares constraint. Another major advantage of this simplified optimization lends from its ability to be parallelized, a step which we also theoretically explore in this paper. We refer to our approach for fitting the CLM as the “exhaustive local search” (ELS) algorithm. Experiments were conducted on the CMU Multi-PIE database. PMID:20046797

  10. Efficient Constrained Local Model Fitting for Non-Rigid Face Alignment.

    PubMed

    Lucey, Simon; Wang, Yang; Cox, Mark; Sridharan, Sridha; Cohn, Jeffery F

    2009-11-01

    Active appearance models (AAMs) have demonstrated great utility when being employed for non-rigid face alignment/tracking. The "simultaneous" algorithm for fitting an AAM achieves good non-rigid face registration performance, but has poor real time performance (2-3 fps). The "project-out" algorithm for fitting an AAM achieves faster than real time performance (> 200 fps) but suffers from poor generic alignment performance. In this paper we introduce an extension to a discriminative method for non-rigid face registration/tracking referred to as a constrained local model (CLM). Our proposed method is able to achieve superior performance to the "simultaneous" AAM algorithm along with real time fitting speeds (35 fps). We improve upon the canonical CLM formulation, to gain this performance, in a number of ways by employing: (i) linear SVMs as patch-experts, (ii) a simplified optimization criteria, and (iii) a composite rather than additive warp update step. Most notably, our simplified optimization criteria for fitting the CLM divides the problem of finding a single complex registration/warp displacement into that of finding N simple warp displacements. From these N simple warp displacements, a single complex warp displacement is estimated using a weighted least-squares constraint. Another major advantage of this simplified optimization lends from its ability to be parallelized, a step which we also theoretically explore in this paper. We refer to our approach for fitting the CLM as the "exhaustive local search" (ELS) algorithm. Experiments were conducted on the CMU Multi-PIE database. PMID:20046797

  11. Motion-compensated coding and frame rate up-conversion: models and analysis.

    PubMed

    Dar, Yehuda; Bruckstein, Alfred M

    2015-07-01

    Block-based motion estimation (ME) and motion compensation (MC) techniques are widely used in modern video processing algorithms and compression systems. The great variety of video applications and devices results in diverse compression specifications, such as frame rates and bit rates. In this paper, we study the effect of frame rate and compression bit rate on block-based ME and MC as commonly utilized in inter-frame coding and frame rate up-conversion (FRUC). This joint examination yields a theoretical foundation for comparing MC procedures in coding and FRUC. First, the video signal is locally modeled as a noisy translational motion of an image. Then, we theoretically model the motion-compensated prediction of available and absent frames as in coding and FRUC applications, respectively. The theoretic MC-prediction error is studied further and its autocorrelation function is calculated, yielding useful separable-simplifications for the coding application. We argue that a linear relation exists between the variance of the MC-prediction error and temporal distance. While the relevant distance in MC coding is between the predicted and reference frames, MC-FRUC is affected by the distance between the frames available for interpolation. We compare our estimates with experimental results and show that the theory explains qualitatively the empirical behavior. Then, we use the models proposed to analyze a system for improving of video coding at low bit rates, using a spatio-temporal scaling. Although this concept is practically employed in various forms, so far it lacked a theoretical justification. We here harness the proposed MC models and present a comprehensive analysis of the system, to qualitatively predict the experimental results.

  12. Evaluation of nonrigid registration models for interfraction dose accumulation in radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, Guillaume; Orban de Xivry, Jonathan; Fekkes, Stein; Dekker, Andre; Macq, Benoit; Lambin, Philippe; Elmpt, Wouter van

    2009-09-15

    Purpose: Interfraction dose accumulation is necessary to evaluate the dose distribution of an entire course of treatment by adding up multiple dose distributions of different treatment fractions. This accumulation of dose distributions is not straightforward as changes in the patient anatomy may occur during treatment. For this purpose, the accuracy of nonrigid registration methods is assessed for dose accumulation based on the calculated deformations fields. Methods: A phantom study using a deformable cubic silicon phantom with implanted markers and a cylindrical silicon phantom with MOSFET detectors has been performed. The phantoms were deformed and images were acquired using a cone-beam CT imager. Dose calculations were performed on these CT scans using the treatment planning system. Nonrigid CT-based registration was performed using two different methods, the Morphons and Demons. The resulting deformation field was applied on the dose distribution. For both phantoms, accuracy of the registered dose distribution was assessed. For the cylindrical phantom, also measured dose values in the deformed conditions were compared with the dose values of the registered dose distributions. Finally, interfraction dose accumulation for two treatment fractions of a patient with primary rectal cancer has been performed and evaluated using isodose lines and the dose volume histograms of the target volume and normal tissue. Results: A significant decrease in the difference in marker or MOSFET position was observed after nonrigid registration methods (p<0.001) for both phantoms and with both methods, as well as a significant decrease in the dose estimation error (p<0.01 for the cubic phantom and p<0.001 for the cylindrical) with both methods. Considering the whole data set at once, the difference between estimated and measured doses was also significantly decreased using registration (p<0.001 for both methods). The patient case showed a slightly underdosed planning target volume

  13. Bending moments, envelope, and cable stresses in non-rigid airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgess, C P

    1923-01-01

    This report describes the theory of calculating the principal stresses in the envelope of a nonrigid airship used by the Bureau of Aeronautics, United States Navy. The principal stresses are due to the gas pressure and the unequal distribution of weight and buoyancy, and the concentrated loads from the car suspension cables. The second part of the report deals with the variations of tensions in the car suspension cables of any type of airship, with special reference to the rigid type, due to the propeller thrust or the inclination of the airship longitudinally.

  14. Ultrastructure and motion analysis of permeabilized Paramecium capable of motility and regulation of motility.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, S J; Hamasaki, T; Satir, P

    1988-01-01

    Structural and behavioral features of intact and permeabilized Paramecium tetraurelia have been defined as a basis for study of Ca2+ control of ciliary reversal. Motion analysis of living paramecia shows that all the cells in a population swim forward with gently curving spirals at speeds averaging 369 +/- 19 microns/second. Ciliary reversal occurs in 10% of the cell population per second. Living paramecia, quick-fixed for scanning electron microscopy (SEM), show metachronal waves and an effective stroke obliquely toward the posterior end of the cell. Upon treatment with Triton X-100, swimming ceases and both scanning and transmission electron microscopy reveal cilia that uniformly project perpendicularly from the cell surface. Thin sections of these cells indicate that the ciliary, cell, and outer alveolar membranes are greatly disrupted or entirely missing and that the cytoplasm is also disrupted. These permeabilized paramecia can be reactivated and are capable of motility and regulation of motility. Motion analysis of cells reactivated with Mg2+ and ATP in low Ca2+ buffer (pCa greater than 7) shows that 71% swim forward in straight or curved paths at speeds averaging 221 +/- 20 microns/second. When these cells are quick-fixed for SEM the metachronal wave patterns of living, forward swimming cells reappear. Motion analysis of permeabilized cells reactivated in high Ca2+ buffers (pCa 5.5) shows that 94% swim backward in tight spirals at a velocity averaging 156 +/- 7 microns/second. SEM reveals a metachronal wave pattern with an effective stroke toward the anterior region. Although the permeabilized cells do not reverse spontaneously, the pCa response is preserved and the Ca2+ switch remains intact. The ciliary axonemes are largely exposed to the external environment. Therefore, the behavioral responses of these permeabilized cells depend on interaction of Ca2+ with molecules that remain bound to the axonemes throughout the extraction and reactivation procedures.

  15. Tongue Motion Patterns in Post-Glossectomy and Typical Speakers: A Principal Components Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Maureen; Langguth, Julie M.; Woo, Jonghye; Chen, Hegang; Prince, Jerry L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined changes in tongue motion caused by glossectomy surgery. A speech task that involved subtle changes in tongue-tip positioning (the motion from /i/ to /s/) was measured. The hypothesis was that patients would have limited motion on the tumor (resected) side and would compensate with greater motion on the…

  16. Stability of sequences generated by nonlinear differential systems. [for analysis of glider jet aircraft motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    A local stability analysis is presented for both the analytic and numerical solutions of the initial value problem for a system of ordinary differential equations. It is shown that, using a proper choice of Liapunov function, a connected region of stable initial values of both the analytic solution and the one-leg k-step numerical solution can be approximated. Attention is given to the example of the two-dimensional problem involving the stability of the longitudinal equations of motion of a gliding jet aircraft.

  17. Piping benchmark problems: dynamic analysis independent support motion response spectrum method

    SciTech Connect

    Bezler, P.; Subudhi, M.; Hartzman, M.

    1985-08-01

    Four benchmark problems and solutions were developed for verifying the adequacy of computer programs used for the dynamic analysis and design of elastic piping systems by the independent support motion, response spectrum method. The dynamic loading is represented by distinct sets of support excitation spectra assumed to be induced by non-uniform excitation in three spatial directions. Complete input descriptions for each problem are provided and the solutions include predicted natural frequencies, participation factors, nodal displacements and element forces for independent support excitation and also for uniform envelope spectrum excitation. Solutions to the associated anchor point pseudo-static displacements are not included.

  18. Rainbows, water droplets, and seeing--slow motion analysis of experiments in atmospheric optics.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Michael; Möllmann, Klaus-Peter

    2011-10-01

    Many physics processes underlying phenomena in atmospheric optics happen on a rather short time scale such that neither the human eye nor video cameras are able to analyze the details. We report applications of high-speed imaging of laboratory experiments in atmospheric optics with subsequent slow motion analysis. The potential to study respective transient effects is investigated in general and for a few phenomena in detail, in particular for rainbow scattering due to single oscillating droplets during free fall, and for light propagation effects through atmospheric paths with turbulences, leading, e.g., to scintillation of stars or shimmering of mirage images. PMID:22016242

  19. Prostate Intrafraction Motion Assessed by Simultaneous Kilovoltage Fluoroscopy at Megavoltage Delivery I: Clinical Observations and Pattern Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, Justus; Wu Qiuwen

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: To describe prostate intrafraction motion using kilovoltage fluoroscopy at treatment delivery for a hypofractionated radiotherapy protocol. Methods and Materials: Kilovoltage images were acquired during treatment delivery, as well as pre- and posttreatment cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) for each fraction of 30 patients, totaling 571 fractions for analysis. We calculated population statistics, evaluated correlation between interfraction and intrafraction motion, evaluated effect of treatment duration, classified whether motion resolved by posttreatment CBCT, and compared motion magnitude on a per-patient basis. Results: The elapsed time between pre- and post-CBCTs was (18.6 {+-} 4.5) min. The population mean of motion measured by kilovoltage fluoroscopy was (-0.1, 0.5, -0.6) mm, the systematic was (0.5, 1.3, 1.2) mm, and random was (0.9, 1.9, 2.0) mm in the right-left, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior axes, respectively. The probability of motion increased with treatment duration, with the mean increasing to (0.0, 1.0, -0.9) mm and the systematic to (0.6, 1.7, 1.5) mm when measured using posttreatment CBCT. For any motion {>=}2mm, approximately 75% did not resolve by posttreatment CBCT. Motion magnitude varied considerably among patients, with the probability of a 5-mm displacement ranging from 0.0% to 58.8%. Conclusions: Time dependency of intrafraction motion should be considered to avoid bias in margin assessment, with posttreatment CBCT slightly exaggerating the true motion. The patient-specific nature of the intrafraction motion suggests that a patient-specific management approach may be beneficial.

  20. Motion capability analysis of a quadruped robot as a parallel manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jingjun; Lu, Dengfeng; Zhang, Zhongxiang; Pei, Xu

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the forward and inverse displacement analysis of a quadruped robot MANA as a parallel manipulator in quadruple stance phase, which is used to obtain the workspace and control the motion of the body. The robot MANA designed on the basis of the structure of quadruped mammal is able to not only walk and turn in the uneven terrain, but also accomplish various manipulating tasks as a parallel manipulator in quadruple stance phase. The latter will be the focus of this paper, however. For this purpose, the leg kinematics is primarily analyzed, which lays the foundation on the gait planning in terms of locomotion and body kinematics analysis as a parallel manipulator. When all four feet of the robot contact on the ground, by assuming there is no slipping at the feet, each contacting point is treated as a passive spherical joint and the kinematic model of parallel manipulator is established. The method for choosing six non-redundant actuated joints for the parallel manipulator from all twelve optional joints is elaborated. The inverse and forward displacement analysis of the parallel manipulator is carried out using the method of coordinate transformation. Finally, based on the inverse and forward kinematic model, two issues on obtaining the reachable workspace of parallel manipulator and planning the motion of the body are implemented and verified by ADAMS simulation.

  1. Radar signal analysis of ballistic missile with micro-motion based on time-frequency distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianming; Liu, Lihua; Yu, Hua

    2015-12-01

    The micro-motion of ballistic missile targets induces micro-Doppler modulation on the radar return signal, which is a unique feature for the warhead discrimination during flight. In order to extract the micro-Doppler feature of ballistic missile targets, time-frequency analysis is employed to process the micro-Doppler modulated time-varying radar signal. The images of time-frequency distribution (TFD) reveal the micro-Doppler modulation characteristic very well. However, there are many existing time-frequency analysis methods to generate the time-frequency distribution images, including the short-time Fourier transform (STFT), Wigner distribution (WD) and Cohen class distribution, etc. Under the background of ballistic missile defence, the paper aims at working out an effective time-frequency analysis method for ballistic missile warhead discrimination from the decoys.

  2. Motion analysis of the shoulder in adults: kinematics and electromyography for the clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Parel, Ilaria; Jaspers, Ellen; DE Baets, Liesbet; Amoresano, Amedeo; Cutti, Andrea G

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the principal aspects of kinematic and electromyographic (EMG) analysis of the shoulder and their potential for the every-day clinical practice are described. The text reports a brief description of standard recommendations for movement assessment, an overview of the main quantitative motion analysis protocols and a description of the most commonly investigated scapulothoracic muscles. To assess the possibility of using these protocols for clinical applications, reliability and repeatability of kinematic and EMG measures were investigated and reference data for scapulohumeral joint kinematics were provided. The last part of the manuscript reports the integration of the quantitative analysis of scapula dyskinesis within the widely accepted Constant-Murley clinical score. In addition, examples of assessment of muscles activity and recruitment patterns are discussed since they are crucial for the clinical evaluation of common shoulder pathologies. PMID:27434612

  3. Motion analysis of the shoulder in adults: kinematics and electromyography for the clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Parel, Ilaria; Jaspers, Ellen; DE Baets, Liesbet; Amoresano, Amedeo; Cutti, Andrea G

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the principal aspects of kinematic and electromyographic (EMG) analysis of the shoulder and their potential for the every-day clinical practice are described. The text reports a brief description of standard recommendations for movement assessment, an overview of the main quantitative motion analysis protocols and a description of the most commonly investigated scapulothoracic muscles. To assess the possibility of using these protocols for clinical applications, reliability and repeatability of kinematic and EMG measures were investigated and reference data for scapulohumeral joint kinematics were provided. The last part of the manuscript reports the integration of the quantitative analysis of scapula dyskinesis within the widely accepted Constant-Murley clinical score. In addition, examples of assessment of muscles activity and recruitment patterns are discussed since they are crucial for the clinical evaluation of common shoulder pathologies.

  4. Extended aeroelastic analysis for helicopter rotors with prescribed hub motion and blade appended penduluum vibration absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielawa, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    The mathematical development for the expanded capabilities of the G400 rotor aeroelastic analysis was examined. The G400PA expanded analysis simulates the dynamics of all conventional rotors, blade pendulum vibration absorbers, and the higher harmonic excitations resulting from prescribed vibratory hub motions and higher harmonic blade pitch control. The methodology for modeling the unsteady stalled airloads of two dimensional airfoils is discussed. Formulations for calculating the rotor impedance matrix appropriate to the higher harmonic blade excitations are outlined. This impedance matrix, and the associated vibratory hub loads, are the rotor dynamic characteristic elements for use in the simplified coupled rotor/fuselage vibration analysis (SIMVIB). Updates to the development of the original G400 theory, program documentation, user instructions and information are presented.

  5. Automatic segmentation of phase-correlated CT scans through nonrigid image registration using geometrically regularized free-form deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Shekhar, Raj; Lei, Peng; Castro-Pareja, Carlos R.; Plishker, William L.; D'Souza, Warren D.

    2007-07-15

    Conventional radiotherapy is planned using free-breathing computed tomography (CT), ignoring the motion and deformation of the anatomy from respiration. New breath-hold-synchronized, gated, and four-dimensional (4D) CT acquisition strategies are enabling radiotherapy planning utilizing a set of CT scans belonging to different phases of the breathing cycle. Such 4D treatment planning relies on the availability of tumor and organ contours in all phases. The current practice of manual segmentation is impractical for 4D CT, because it is time consuming and tedious. A viable solution is registration-based segmentation, through which contours provided by an expert for a particular phase are propagated to all other phases while accounting for phase-to-phase motion and anatomical deformation. Deformable image registration is central to this task, and a free-form deformation-based nonrigid image registration algorithm will be presented. Compared with the original algorithm, this version uses novel, computationally simpler geometric constraints to preserve the topology of the dense control-point grid used to represent free-form deformation and prevent tissue fold-over. Using mean squared difference as an image similarity criterion, the inhale phase is registered to the exhale phase of lung CT scans of five patients and of characteristically low-contrast abdominal CT scans of four patients. In addition, using expert contours for the inhale phase, the corresponding contours were automatically generated for the exhale phase. The accuracy of the segmentation (and hence deformable image registration) was judged by comparing automatically segmented contours with expert contours traced directly in the exhale phase scan using three metrics: volume overlap index, root mean square distance, and Hausdorff distance. The accuracy of the segmentation (in terms of radial distance mismatch) was approximately 2 mm in the thorax and 3 mm in the abdomen, which compares favorably to the

  6. A margin-based analysis of the dosimetric impact of motion on step-and-shoot IMRT lung plans

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Intrafraction motion during step-and-shoot (SNS) IMRT is known to affect the target dosimetry by a combination of dose blurring and interplay effects. These effects are typically managed by adding a margin around the target. A quantitative analysis was performed, assessing the relationship between target motion, margin size, and target dosimetry with the goal of introducing new margin recipes. Methods A computational algorithm was used to calculate 1,174 motion-encoded dose distributions and DVHs within the patient’s CT dataset. Sinusoidal motion tracks were used simulating intrafraction motion for nine lung tumor patients, each with multiple margin sizes. Results D95% decreased by less than 3% when the maximum target displacement beyond the margin experienced motion less than 5 mm in the superior-inferior direction and 15 mm in the anterior-posterior direction. For target displacements greater than this, D95% decreased rapidly. Conclusions Targets moving in excess of 5 mm outside the margin can cause significant changes to the target. D95% decreased by up to 20% with target motion 10 mm outside the margin, with underdosing primarily limited to the target periphery. Multi-fractionated treatments were found to exacerbate target under-coverage. Margins several millimeters smaller than the maximum target displacement provided acceptable motion protection, while also allowing for reduced normal tissue morbidity. PMID:24499602

  7. Anisotropic responses to motion toward and away from the eye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrone, John A.

    1986-01-01

    When a rigid object moves toward the eye, it is usually perceived as being rigid. However, in the case of motion away from the eye, the motion and structure of the object are perceived nonveridically, with the percept tending to reflect the nonrigid transformations that are present in the retinal image. This difference in response to motion to and from the observer was quantified in an experiment using wire-frame computer-generated boxes which moved toward and away from the eye. Two theoretical systems are developed by which uniform three-dimensional velocity can be recovered from an expansion pattern of nonuniform velocity vectors. It is proposed that the human visual system uses two similar systems for processing motion in depth. The mechanism used for motion away from the eye produces perceptual errors because it is not suited to objects with a depth component.

  8. Robust human motion detection via fuzzy set based image understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qin; You, Jane

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents an image understanding approach to monitor human movement and identify the abnormal circumstance by robust motion detection for the care of the elderly in a home-based environment. In contrast to the conventional approaches which apply either a single feature extraction scheme or a fixed object model for motion detection and tracking, we introduce a multiple feature extraction scheme for robust motion detection. The proposed algorithms include 1) multiple image feature extraction including the fuzzy compactness based detection of interesting points and fuzzy blobs, 2) adaptive image segmentation via multiple features, 3) Hierarchical motion detection, 4) a flexible model of human motion adapted in both rigid and non-rigid conditions, and 5) Fuzzy decision making via multiple features.

  9. Comparisons: Technical-Tactical and Time-Motion Analysis of Mixed Martial Arts by Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Miarka, Bianca; Vecchio, Fabrício B D; Camey, Suzi; Amtmann, John A

    2016-07-01

    Miarka, B, Vecchio, FBD, Camey, S, and Amtmann, JA. Comparisons: technical-tactical and time-motion analysis of mixed martial arts by outcomes. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1975-1984, 2016-The aim of this study was to compare time-motion and technical-tactical analysis between paired outcomes and rounds of mixed martial arts (MMA) matches. The sample consisted of 645 rounds of MMA competition paired by outcomes (first round, winners n = 215 and losers n = 215; second round, winners n = 215 and losers n = 215; third round, winners n = 215 and losers n = 215). The time-motion variables were categorized into low-intensity or high-intensity, stand-up or groundwork situations. Stand-up techniques were analyzed by observing total strikes to the head and body, and takedowns. The actions on the ground were analyzed by observing submission activity, including successful choking and joint locking actions, and also positional improvements, including advances to the mount, half guard, and side and back positions. Chi-squared and Wilcoxon tests were conducted with a significance level of p ≤ 0.05. Results showed that winners had higher values for total strikes and submissions in all rounds, and also positional improvements, over losers. The standing combat with low-intensity comparisons presented differences between the rounds first, with a median of 2:33.5 (P25-P75%: 1:20-3:56) minute, second, with 2:37 (1:24-3:59) minute, and third, with 2:07 (1:06-3:39.2) minute. These data suggest a focus on the intermittent demand presented in combat phases with a special attention to the strike and ground technical-tactical skills; strength and conditioning coaches could emphasize the effort pause ratios for both standing and ground combat that mimic the requirements of MMA, especially during the third round. PMID:26670995

  10. Comparisons: Technical-Tactical and Time-Motion Analysis of Mixed Martial Arts by Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Miarka, Bianca; Vecchio, Fabrício B D; Camey, Suzi; Amtmann, John A

    2016-07-01

    Miarka, B, Vecchio, FBD, Camey, S, and Amtmann, JA. Comparisons: technical-tactical and time-motion analysis of mixed martial arts by outcomes. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1975-1984, 2016-The aim of this study was to compare time-motion and technical-tactical analysis between paired outcomes and rounds of mixed martial arts (MMA) matches. The sample consisted of 645 rounds of MMA competition paired by outcomes (first round, winners n = 215 and losers n = 215; second round, winners n = 215 and losers n = 215; third round, winners n = 215 and losers n = 215). The time-motion variables were categorized into low-intensity or high-intensity, stand-up or groundwork situations. Stand-up techniques were analyzed by observing total strikes to the head and body, and takedowns. The actions on the ground were analyzed by observing submission activity, including successful choking and joint locking actions, and also positional improvements, including advances to the mount, half guard, and side and back positions. Chi-squared and Wilcoxon tests were conducted with a significance level of p ≤ 0.05. Results showed that winners had higher values for total strikes and submissions in all rounds, and also positional improvements, over losers. The standing combat with low-intensity comparisons presented differences between the rounds first, with a median of 2:33.5 (P25-P75%: 1:20-3:56) minute, second, with 2:37 (1:24-3:59) minute, and third, with 2:07 (1:06-3:39.2) minute. These data suggest a focus on the intermittent demand presented in combat phases with a special attention to the strike and ground technical-tactical skills; strength and conditioning coaches could emphasize the effort pause ratios for both standing and ground combat that mimic the requirements of MMA, especially during the third round.

  11. Thermal analysis of HGFQ using FIDAP(trademark): Solidification front motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodbury, Keith A.

    1996-01-01

    The High Gradient Furnace with Quench (HGFQ) is being designed by NASA/MSFC for flight on the International Space Station. The furnace is being designed specifically for solidification experiments in metal and metallic alloy systems. The HGFQ Product development Team (PDT) has been active since January 1994 and their effort is now in early Phase B. Thermal models have been developed both by NASA and Sverdrup (support contractor) to assist in the HGFQ design effort. Both these models use SINDA as a solution engine, but the NASA model was developed using PATRAN and includes more detail than the Sverdrup model. These models have been used to guide design decisions and have been validated through experimentation on a prototypical 'Breadboard' furnace at MSFC. One facet of the furnace operation of interest to the designers is the sensitivity of the solidification interface location to changes in the furnace setpoint. Specifically of interest is the motion (position and velocity) of the solidification front due to a small perturbation in the furnace temperature. FIDAP(TM) is a commercially available finite element program for analysis of heat transfer and fluid flow processes. Its strength is in solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow, but among its capabilities is the analysis of transient processes involving radiation and solidification. The models presently available from NASA and Sverdrup are steady-state models and are incapable of computing the motion of the solidification front. The objective of this investigation is to use FIDAP(TM) to compute the motion of the solidification interface due to a perturbation in the furnace setpoint.

  12. Computing Smooth Time Trajectories for Camera and Deformable Shape in Structure from Motion with Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Gotardo, Paulo F U; Martinez, Aleix M

    2011-10-01

    We address the classical computer vision problems of rigid and nonrigid structure from motion (SFM) with occlusion. We assume that the columns of the input observation matrix W describe smooth 2D point trajectories over time. We then derive a family of efficient methods that estimate the column space of W using compact parameterizations in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain. Our methods tolerate high percentages of missing data and incorporate new models for the smooth time trajectories of 2D-points, affine and weak-perspective cameras, and 3D deformable shape. We solve a rigid SFM problem by estimating the smooth time trajectory of a single camera moving around the structure of interest. By considering a weak-perspective camera model from the outset, we directly compute euclidean 3D shape reconstructions without requiring postprocessing steps such as euclidean upgrade and bundle adjustment. Our results on real SFM data sets with high percentages of missing data compared positively to those in the literature. In nonrigid SFM, we propose a novel 3D shape trajectory approach that solves for the deformable structure as the smooth time trajectory of a single point in a linear shape space. A key result shows that, compared to state-of-the-art algorithms, our nonrigid SFM method can better model complex articulated deformation with higher frequency DCT components while still maintaining the low-rank factorization constraint. Finally, we also offer an approach for nonrigid SFM when W is presented with missing data. PMID:21383398

  13. Evaluation of ground motion scaling methods for analysis of structural systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Donnell, A. P.; Beltsar, O.A.; Kurama, Y.C.; Kalkan, E.; Taflanidis, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Ground motion selection and scaling comprises undoubtedly the most important component of any seismic risk assessment study that involves time-history analysis. Ironically, this is also the single parameter with the least guidance provided in current building codes, resulting in the use of mostly subjective choices in design. The relevant research to date has been primarily on single-degree-of-freedom systems, with only a few studies using multi-degree-of-freedom systems. Furthermore, the previous research is based solely on numerical simulations with no experimental data available for the validation of the results. By contrast, the research effort described in this paper focuses on an experimental evaluation of selected ground motion scaling methods based on small-scale shake-table experiments of re-configurable linearelastic and nonlinear multi-story building frame structure models. Ultimately, the experimental results will lead to the development of guidelines and procedures to achieve reliable demand estimates from nonlinear response history analysis in seismic design. In this paper, an overview of this research effort is discussed and preliminary results based on linear-elastic dynamic response are presented. ?? ASCE 2011.

  14. Bringing Javanesse Traditional Dance into Basic Physics Class: Exemplifying Projectile Motion through Video Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, Langlang; Prasetya Aji, Mahardika; Susilo; Marwoto, Putut

    2016-08-01

    An alternative approach of an arts-based instruction for Basic Physics class has been developed through the implementation of video analysis of a Javanesse traditional dance: Bambangan Cakil. A particular movement of the dance -weapon throwing- was analyzed by employing the LoggerPro software package to exemplify projectile motion. The results of analysis indicated that the movement of the thrown weapon in Bambangan Cakil dance provides some helping explanations of several physics concepts of projectile motion: object's path, velocity, and acceleration, in a form of picture, graph and also table. Such kind of weapon path and velocity can be shown via a picture or graph, while such concepts of decreasing velocity in y direction (weapon moving downward and upward) due to acceleration g can be represented through the use of a table. It was concluded that in a Javanesse traditional dance there are many physics concepts which can be explored. The study recommends to bring the traditional dance into a science class which will enable students to get more understanding of both physics concepts and Indonesia cultural heritage.

  15. Interacting with target tracking algorithms in a gaze-enhanced motion video analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hild, Jutta; Krüger, Wolfgang; Heinze, Norbert; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth; Beyerer, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Motion video analysis is a challenging task, particularly if real-time analysis is required. It is therefore an important issue how to provide suitable assistance for the human operator. Given that the use of customized video analysis systems is more and more established, one supporting measure is to provide system functions which perform subtasks of the analysis. Recent progress in the development of automated image exploitation algorithms allow, e.g., real-time moving target tracking. Another supporting measure is to provide a user interface which strives to reduce the perceptual, cognitive and motor load of the human operator for example by incorporating the operator's visual focus of attention. A gaze-enhanced user interface is able to help here. This work extends prior work on automated target recognition, segmentation, and tracking algorithms as well as about the benefits of a gaze-enhanced user interface for interaction with moving targets. We also propose a prototypical system design aiming to combine both the qualities of the human observer's perception and the automated algorithms in order to improve the overall performance of a real-time video analysis system. In this contribution, we address two novel issues analyzing gaze-based interaction with target tracking algorithms. The first issue extends the gaze-based triggering of a target tracking process, e.g., investigating how to best relaunch in the case of track loss. The second issue addresses the initialization of tracking algorithms without motion segmentation where the operator has to provide the system with the object's image region in order to start the tracking algorithm.

  16. 3D nonrigid medical image registration using a new information theoretic measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bicao; Yang, Guanyu; Coatrieux, Jean Louis; Li, Baosheng; Shu, Huazhong

    2015-11-01

    This work presents a novel method for the nonrigid registration of medical images based on the Arimoto entropy, a generalization of the Shannon entropy. The proposed method employed the Jensen-Arimoto divergence measure as a similarity metric to measure the statistical dependence between medical images. Free-form deformations were adopted as the transformation model and the Parzen window estimation was applied to compute the probability distributions. A penalty term is incorporated into the objective function to smooth the nonrigid transformation. The goal of registration is to optimize an objective function consisting of a dissimilarity term and a penalty term, which would be minimal when two deformed images are perfectly aligned using the limited memory BFGS optimization method, and thus to get the optimal geometric transformation. To validate the performance of the proposed method, experiments on both simulated 3D brain MR images and real 3D thoracic CT data sets were designed and performed on the open source elastix package. For the simulated experiments, the registration errors of 3D brain MR images with various magnitudes of known deformations and different levels of noise were measured. For the real data tests, four data sets of 4D thoracic CT from four patients were selected to assess the registration performance of the method, including ten 3D CT images for each 4D CT data covering an entire respiration cycle. These results were compared with the normalized cross correlation and the mutual information methods and show a slight but true improvement in registration accuracy.

  17. Smart align -- A new tool for robust non-rigid registration of scanning microscope data

    DOE PAGES

    Jones, Lewys; Yang, Hao; Pennycook, Timothy J.; Marshall, Matthew S. J.; Van Aert, Sandra; Browning, Nigel D.; Castell, Martin R.; Nellist, Peter D.

    2015-07-10

    Many microscopic investigations of materials may benefit from the recording of multiple successive images. This can include techniques common to several types of microscopy such as frame averaging to improve signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) or time series to study dynamic processes or more specific applications. In the scanning transmission electron microscope, this might include focal series for optical sectioning or aberration measurement, beam damage studies or camera-length series to study the effects of strain; whilst in the scanning tunnelling microscope, this might include bias voltage series to probe local electronic structure. Whatever the application, such investigations must begin with the carefulmore » alignment of these data stacks, an operation that is not always trivial. In addition, the presence of low-frequency scanning distortions can introduce intra-image shifts to the data. Here, we describe an improved automated method of performing non-rigid registration customised for the challenges unique to scanned microscope data specifically addressing the issues of low-SNR data, images containing a large proportion of crystalline material and/or local features of interest such as dislocations or edges. Careful attention has been paid to artefact testing of the non-rigid registration method used, and the importance of this registration for the quantitative interpretation of feature intensities and positions is evaluated.« less

  18. NON-RIGID IMAGE REGISTRATION BASED STRAIN ESTIMATOR FOR INTRAVASCULAR ULTRASOUND ELASTOGRAPHY

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Michael S.; Doyley, Marvin M.

    2013-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound elastography (IVUSe) could improve the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease by revealing vulnerable plaques through their mechanical tissue properties. To improve the performance of IVUSe, we developed and implemented a non-rigid image-registration method to visualize the radial and circumferential component of strain within vascular tissues. We evaluated the algorithm’s performance with four initialization schemes using simulated and experimentally acquired ultrasound images. Applying the registration method to radio-frequency (RF) echo frames improved the accuracy of displacements compared to when B-mode images were employed. However, strain elastograms measured from RF echo frames produce erroneous results when both the zero-initialization method and the mesh-refinement scheme were employed. For most strain levels, the cross-correlation-initialization method produced the best performance. The simulation study predicted that elastograms obtained from vessels with average strains in the range of 3%–5% should have high elastographic signal-to-noise ratio (SNRe)–on the order of 4.5 and 7.5 for the radial and circumferential components of strain, respectively. The preliminary in vivo validation study (phantom and an atherosclerotic rabbit) demonstrated that the non-rigid registration method could produce useful radial and circumferential strain elastograms under realistic physiologic conditions. The results of this investigation were sufficiently encouraging to warrant a more comprehensive in vivo validation. PMID:23245827

  19. A kidney deformation model for use in non-rigid registration during image-guided surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Rowena E.; Herrell, S. Duke, III; Miga, Michael I.; Galloway, Robert L., Jr.

    2008-03-01

    In order to facilitate the removal of tumors during partial nephrectomies, an image-guided surgery system may be useful. This system would require a registration of the physical kidney to a pre-operative image volume; however, it is unclear whether a rigid registration would be sufficient. One possible source of non-rigid deformation is the clamping of the renal artery during surgery and the subsequent loss of pressure as the kidney is punctured and blood loss occurs. To explore this issue, a model of kidney deformation due to loss of perfusion and pressure was developed based on Biot's consolidation model. The model was tested on two resected porcine kidneys in which the renal artery and vein were clamped. CT image volumes of the kidney were obtained before and after the deformation caused unclamping, and fiducial markers embedded on the kidney surface allowed the deformation to be tracked. The accuracy of the kidney model was accessed by calculating the model error at the fiducial locations and using image similarity measures. Preliminary results indicate that the model may be useful in a non-rigid registration scheme; however, further refinements to the model may be necessary to better simulate the deformation due to loss of perfusion and pressure.

  20. A deformation model for non-rigid registration of the kidney

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Rowena E.; Glisson, Courtenay L.; Herrell, S. Duke; Miga, Michael I.; Galloway, Robert

    2009-02-01

    The development of an image-guided renal surgery system may aid tumor resection during partial nephrectomies. This system would require the registration of pre-operative kidney CT or MR scans to the physical kidney; however, the amount of non-rigid deformation occurring during surgery and whether it can be corrected for in an image-guided system is unknown. One possible source of non-rigid deformation is a change in pressure within the kidney: during surgery, clamping of the renal artery and vein results in a loss of perfusion, such that the subsequent cutting of the kidney and fluid outflow may cause a decrease in intrarenal pressure. In this work, we attempt to characterize the deformation due to cutting of the kidney and subsequent changes in intrarenal pressure. To accomplish this, we perfused a resected porcine kidney at a physiologically realistic pressure, clamped the renal vessels, and cut the kidney using a tracked scalpel. The resulting deformation was tracked in a CT scanner using 15-20 glass bead fiducials attached to the kidney surface. A modified form of Biot's consolidation model was used to simulate the deformation, and the accuracy was assessed by calculating the target registration error and image similarity.

  1. NMR discrimination in nonrigid prochiral solutes dissolved in chiral liquid crystals: symmetry considerations.

    PubMed

    Lesot, Philippe; Luz, Zeev; Aroulanda, Christie; Zimmermann, Herbert

    2014-10-01

    Enantiodiscrimination in the NMR spectra of flexible prochiral solutes dissolved in chiral liquid crystals (CLCs) is reviewed and compared with the analog phenomenon in such rigid solutes. In rigid prochiral solutes, the discrimination is brought about by the cancellation of improper symmetry elements upon dissolving in CLC within the frame of solute-solvent ordering mechanisms. If this reduction in symmetry renders the ordering of enantiotopic sites dissimilar, spectral discrimination may be observed. Symmetry considerations indicate that this is only possible for improper nonaxial groups lacking inversion symmetry. Nonrigid prochiral solutes consist of rapidly (on the NMR timescale) interconverting enantiomers, in which the racemization is accompanied by exchange of nonequivalent sites. These sites become, on the average, enantiotopically related, and in CLC, they exhibit spectral discrimination. The mechanism of the effect and the symmetry selection rules are different for the two cases. Specifically, the discrimination in flexible prochiral compounds results from the different ordering of the interchanging enantiomers in CLC. Using Altman's definition of average symmetry (Proc. R. Soc. A, 1967, 298, 184), selection rules for the phenomenon are derived. It follows that chiral discrimination in nonrigid prochiral solutes is much more abundant and can occur in all symmetry types except those possessing inversion. In particular, contrary to earlier thoughts, the effect can occur in compounds with axial symmetry. Illustrative examples of such studies with particular emphasis on compounds with average axial symmetry of the type D(3h), C(3v) and C(3h) are reviewed in this contribution.

  2. Smart align -- A new tool for robust non-rigid registration of scanning microscope data

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Lewys; Yang, Hao; Pennycook, Timothy J.; Marshall, Matthew S. J.; Van Aert, Sandra; Browning, Nigel D.; Castell, Martin R.; Nellist, Peter D.

    2015-07-10

    Many microscopic investigations of materials may benefit from the recording of multiple successive images. This can include techniques common to several types of microscopy such as frame averaging to improve signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) or time series to study dynamic processes or more specific applications. In the scanning transmission electron microscope, this might include focal series for optical sectioning or aberration measurement, beam damage studies or camera-length series to study the effects of strain; whilst in the scanning tunnelling microscope, this might include bias voltage series to probe local electronic structure. Whatever the application, such investigations must begin with the careful alignment of these data stacks, an operation that is not always trivial. In addition, the presence of low-frequency scanning distortions can introduce intra-image shifts to the data. Here, we describe an improved automated method of performing non-rigid registration customised for the challenges unique to scanned microscope data specifically addressing the issues of low-SNR data, images containing a large proportion of crystalline material and/or local features of interest such as dislocations or edges. Careful attention has been paid to artefact testing of the non-rigid registration method used, and the importance of this registration for the quantitative interpretation of feature intensities and positions is evaluated.

  3. 3D nonrigid registration via optimal mass transport on the GPU

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Tauseef ur; Haber, Eldad; Pryor, Gallagher; Melonakos, John; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new computationally efficient numerical scheme for the minimizing flow approach for optimal mass transport (OMT) with applications to non-rigid 3D image registration. The approach utilizes all of the gray-scale data in both images, and the optimal mapping from image A to image B is the inverse of the optimal mapping from B to A. Further, no landmarks need to be specified, and the minimizer of the distance functional involved is unique. Our implementation also employs multigrid, and parallel methodologies on a consumer graphics processing unit (GPU) for fast computation. Although computing the optimal map has been shown to be computationally expensive in the past, we show that our approach is orders of magnitude faster then previous work and is capable of finding transport maps with optimality measures (mean curl) previously unattainable by other works (which directly influences the accuracy of registration). We give results where the algorithm was used to compute non-rigid registrations of 3D synthetic data as well as intra-patient pre-operative and post-operative 3D brain MRI datasets. PMID:19135403

  4. Learning based non-rigid multi-modal image registration using Kullback-Leibler divergence.

    PubMed

    Guetter, Christoph; Xu, Chenyang; Sauer, Frank; Hornegger, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    The need for non-rigid multi-modal registration is becoming increasingly common for many clinical applications. To date, however, existing proposed techniques remain as largely academic research effort with very few methods being validated for clinical product use. It has been suggested by Crum et al. that the context-free nature of these methods is one of the main limitations and that moving towards context-specific methods by incorporating prior knowledge of the underlying registration problem is necessary to achieve registration results that are accurate and robust enough for clinical applications. In this paper, we propose a novel non-rigid multi-modal registration method using a variational formulation that incorporates a prior learned joint intensity distribution. The registration is achieved by simultaneously minimizing the Kullback-Leibler divergence between an observed and a learned joint intensity distribution and maximizing the mutual information between reference and alignment images. We have applied our proposed method on both synthetic and real images with encouraging results.

  5. A Method for Non-Rigid Face Alignment via Combining Local and Holistic Matching

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Chen, Zhuo

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method for non-rigid face alignment which only needs a single template, such as using a person’s smile face to match his surprise face. First, in order to be robust to outliers caused by complex geometric deformations, a new local feature matching method called K Patch Pairs (K-PP) is proposed. Specifically, inspired by the state-of-art similarity measure used in template matching, K-PP is to find the mutual K nearest neighbors between two images. A weight matrix is then presented to balance the similarity and the number of local matching. Second, we proposed a modified Lucas-Kanade algorithm combined with local matching constraint to solve the non-rigid face alignment, so that a holistic face representation and local features can be jointly modeled in the object function. Both the flexible ability of local matching and the robust ability of holistic fitting are included in our method. Furthermore, we show that the optimization problem can be efficiently solved by the inverse compositional algorithm. Comparison results with conventional methods demonstrate our superiority in terms of both accuracy and robustness. PMID:27494319

  6. Extracting a Purely Non-rigid Deformation Field of a Single Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirci, Stefanie; Manstad-Hulaas, Frode; Navab, Nassir

    During endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment, the aortic shape is subject to severe deformation that is imposed by medical instruments such as guide wires, catheters, and the stent graft. The problem definition of deformable registration of images covering the entire abdominal region, however, is highly ill-posed. We present a new method for extracting the deformation of an aneurysmatic aorta. The outline of the procedure includes initial rigid alignment of two abdominal scans, segmentation of abdominal vessel trees, and automatic reduction of their centerline structures to one specified region of interest around the aorta. Our non-rigid registration procedure then only computes local non-rigid deformation and leaves out all remaining global rigid transformations. In order to evaluate our method, experiments for the extraction of aortic deformation fields are conducted on 15 patient datasets from endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment. A visual assessment of the registration results were performed by two vascular surgeons and one interventional radiologist who are all experts in EVAR procedures.

  7. 3D nonrigid medical image registration using a new information theoretic measure.

    PubMed

    Li, Bicao; Yang, Guanyu; Coatrieux, Jean Louis; Li, Baosheng; Shu, Huazhong

    2015-11-21

    This work presents a novel method for the nonrigid registration of medical images based on the Arimoto entropy, a generalization of the Shannon entropy. The proposed method employed the Jensen-Arimoto divergence measure as a similarity metric to measure the statistical dependence between medical images. Free-form deformations were adopted as the transformation model and the Parzen window estimation was applied to compute the probability distributions. A penalty term is incorporated into the objective function to smooth the nonrigid transformation. The goal of registration is to optimize an objective function consisting of a dissimilarity term and a penalty term, which would be minimal when two deformed images are perfectly aligned using the limited memory BFGS optimization method, and thus to get the optimal geometric transformation. To validate the performance of the proposed method, experiments on both simulated 3D brain MR images and real 3D thoracic CT data sets were designed and performed on the open source elastix package. For the simulated experiments, the registration errors of 3D brain MR images with various magnitudes of known deformations and different levels of noise were measured. For the real data tests, four data sets of 4D thoracic CT from four patients were selected to assess the registration performance of the method, including ten 3D CT images for each 4D CT data covering an entire respiration cycle. These results were compared with the normalized cross correlation and the mutual information methods and show a slight but true improvement in registration accuracy.

  8. Understanding geological processes: Visualization of rigid and non-rigid transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, T. F.; Atit, K.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Resnick, I.; Tikoff, B.

    2012-12-01

    Visualizations are used in the geological sciences to support reasoning about structures and events. Research in cognitive sciences offers insights into the range of skills of different users, and ultimately how visualizations might support different users. To understand the range of skills needed to reason about earth processes we have developed a program of research that is grounded in the geosciences' careful description of the spatial and spatiotemporal patterns associated with earth processes. In particular, we are pursuing a research program that identifies specific spatial skills and investigates whether and how they are related to each other. For this study, we focus on a specific question: Is there an important distinction in the geosciences between rigid and non-rigid deformation? To study a general spatial thinking skill we employed displays with non-geological objects that had been altered by rigid change (rotation), and two types of non-rigid change ("brittle" (or discontinuous) and "ductile" (or continuous) deformation). Disciplinary scientists (geosciences and chemistry faculty), and novices (non-science faculty and undergraduate psychology students) answered questions that required them to visualize the appearance of the object before the change. In one study, geologists and chemists were found to be superior to non-science faculty in reasoning about rigid rotations (e.g., what an object would look like from a different perspective). Geologists were superior to chemists in reasoning about brittle deformations (e.g., what an object looked like before it was broken - here the object was a word cut into many fragments displaced in different directions). This finding is consistent with two hypotheses: 1) Experts are good at visualizing the types of changes required for their domain; and 2) Visualization of rigid and non-rigid changes are not the same skill. An additional important finding is that there was a broad range of skill in both rigid and non-rigid

  9. Estimation of spatial-temporal gait parameters using a low-cost ultrasonic motion analysis system.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yongbin; Soh, Cheong Boon; Gunawan, Erry; Low, Kay-Soon; Thomas, Rijil

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a low-cost motion analysis system using a wireless ultrasonic sensor network is proposed and investigated. A methodology has been developed to extract spatial-temporal gait parameters including stride length, stride duration, stride velocity, stride cadence, and stride symmetry from 3D foot displacements estimated by the combination of spherical positioning technique and unscented Kalman filter. The performance of this system is validated against a camera-based system in the laboratory with 10 healthy volunteers. Numerical results show the feasibility of the proposed system with average error of 2.7% for all the estimated gait parameters. The influence of walking speed on the measurement accuracy of proposed system is also evaluated. Statistical analysis demonstrates its capability of being used as a gait assessment tool for some medical applications. PMID:25140636

  10. Estimation of Spatial-Temporal Gait Parameters Using a Low-Cost Ultrasonic Motion Analysis System

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yongbin; Soh, Cheong Boon; Gunawan, Erry; Low, Kay-Soon; Thomas, Rijil

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a low-cost motion analysis system using a wireless ultrasonic sensor network is proposed and investigated. A methodology has been developed to extract spatial-temporal gait parameters including stride length, stride duration, stride velocity, stride cadence, and stride symmetry from 3D foot displacements estimated by the combination of spherical positioning technique and unscented Kalman filter. The performance of this system is validated against a camera-based system in the laboratory with 10 healthy volunteers. Numerical results show the feasibility of the proposed system with average error of 2.7% for all the estimated gait parameters. The influence of walking speed on the measurement accuracy of proposed system is also evaluated. Statistical analysis demonstrates its capability of being used as a gait assessment tool for some medical applications. PMID:25140636

  11. Analysis of conformational motions and related key residue interactions responsible for a specific function of proteins with elastic network model.

    PubMed

    Su, Ji Guo; Han, Xiao Ming; Zhang, Xiao; Hou, Yan Xue; Zhu, Jian Zhuo; Wu, Yi Dong

    2016-01-01

    Protein collective motions play a critical role in many biochemical processes. How to predict the functional motions and the related key residue interactions in proteins is important for our understanding in the mechanism of the biochemical processes. Normal mode analysis (NMA) of the elastic network model (ENM) is one of the effective approaches to investigate the structure-encoded motions in proteins. However, the motion modes revealed by the conventional NMA approach do not necessarily correspond to a specific function of protein. In the present work, a new analysis method was proposed to identify the motion modes responsible for a specific function of proteins and then predict the key residue interactions involved in the functional motions by using a perturbation approach. In our method, an internal coordinate that accounts for the specific function was introduced, and the Cartesian coordinate space was transformed into the internal/Cartesian space by using linear approximation, where the introduced internal coordinate serves as one of the axes of the coordinate space. NMA of ENM in this internal/Cartesian space was performed and the function-relevant motion modes were identified according to their contributions to the specific function of proteins. Then the key residue interactions important for the functional motions of the protein were predicted as the interactions whose perturbation largely influences the fluctuation along the internal coordinate. Using our proposed methods, the maltose transporter (MalFGK2) from E. Coli was studied. The functional motions and the key residue interactions that are related to the channel-gating function of this protein were successfully identified.

  12. Motion-mode energy method for vehicle dynamics analysis and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nong; Wang, Lifu; Du, Haiping

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle motion and vibration control is a fundamental motivation for the development of advanced vehicle suspension systems. In a vehicle-fixed coordinate system, the relative motions of the vehicle between body and wheel can be classified into several dynamic stages based on energy intensity, and can be decomposed into sets of uncoupled motion-modes according to modal parameters. Vehicle motions are coupled, but motion-modes are orthogonal. By detecting and controlling the predominating vehicle motion-mode, the system cost and energy consumption of active suspensions could be reduced. A motion-mode energy method (MEM) is presented in this paper to quantify the energy contribution of each motion-mode to vehicle dynamics in real time. The control of motion-modes is prioritised according to the level of motion-mode energy. Simulation results on a 10 degree-of-freedom nonlinear full-car model with the magic-formula tyre model illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed MEM. The contribution of each motion-mode to the vehicle's dynamic behaviour is analysed under different excitation inputs from road irregularities, directional manoeuvres and braking. With the identified dominant motion-mode, novel cost-effective suspension systems, such as active reconfigurable hydraulically interconnected suspension, can possibly be used to control full-car motions with reduced energy consumption. Finally, discussion, conclusions and suggestions for future work are provided.

  13. Slow dynamics in protein fluctuations revealed by time-structure based independent component analysis: The case of domain motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naritomi, Yusuke; Fuchigami, Sotaro

    2011-02-01

    Protein dynamics on a long time scale was investigated using all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and time-structure based independent component analysis (tICA). We selected the lysine-, arginine-, ornithine-binding protein (LAO) as a target protein and focused on its domain motions in the open state. A MD simulation of the LAO in explicit water was performed for 600 ns, in which slow and large-amplitude domain motions of the LAO were observed. After extracting domain motions by rigid-body domain analysis, the tICA was applied to the obtained rigid-body trajectory, yielding slow modes of the LAO's domain motions in order of decreasing time scale. The slowest mode detected by the tICA represented not a closure motion described by a largest-amplitude mode determined by the principal component analysis but a twist motion with a time scale of tens of nanoseconds. The slow dynamics of the LAO were well described by only the slowest mode and were characterized by transitions between two basins. The results show that tICA is promising for describing and analyzing slow dynamics of proteins.

  14. Slow dynamics in protein fluctuations revealed by time-structure based independent component analysis: the case of domain motions.

    PubMed

    Naritomi, Yusuke; Fuchigami, Sotaro

    2011-02-14

    Protein dynamics on a long time scale was investigated using all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and time-structure based independent component analysis (tICA). We selected the lysine-, arginine-, ornithine-binding protein (LAO) as a target protein and focused on its domain motions in the open state. A MD simulation of the LAO in explicit water was performed for 600 ns, in which slow and large-amplitude domain motions of the LAO were observed. After extracting domain motions by rigid-body domain analysis, the tICA was applied to the obtained rigid-body trajectory, yielding slow modes of the LAO's domain motions in order of decreasing time scale. The slowest mode detected by the tICA represented not a closure motion described by a largest-amplitude mode determined by the principal component analysis but a twist motion with a time scale of tens of nanoseconds. The slow dynamics of the LAO were well described by only the slowest mode and were characterized by transitions between two basins. The results show that tICA is promising for describing and analyzing slow dynamics of proteins.

  15. Automated analysis of rabbit sperm motility and the effect of chemicals on sperm motion parameters.

    PubMed

    Young, R J; Bodt, B A; Iturralde, T G; Starke, W C

    1992-11-01

    Appropriate software settings and optimum procedures were determined for the measurement of the motion parameters of rabbit spermatozoa by the CellSoft (Cryo Resources Ltd., Montgomery, NY) computer-assisted digital image analysis system. The system was used to follow motion parameter changes occurring in spermatozoa incubated for 6 hr with or without exposure to chemicals. Mean amplitude of lateral head displacement (AALH) increased over the 6 hr period, while curvilinear velocity (Vc) first increased and then decreased. Values for linearity (Lin), or beat cross frequency (BCF), were unchanged. The majority of spermatozoa progressed linearly, with rapid rotation of the sperm head, but subpopulations of spermatozoa with different swimming patterns appeared after 1-3 hr of incubation. Percentage motile sperm and Vc were most sensitive to the action of the compounds (pyrogallol, hydroquinone, ammonium oxalate, triethyl phosphite, and pinocolyl alcohol), while BCF was least affected. The decline in percentage of motile sperm was dependent on duration of exposure and chemical concentration. Mean Vc of the sperm population decreased rapidly upon chemical exposure and remained at a low value until motility ceased. The initial decrease in Vc was dependent on the concentration of the added compound. Motion-based indices--motility concentration (MCI50), motility time (MTI50), and velocity (VI)--were defined and used as toxicological endpoints. The rank order of these indices, the end point of the neutral red in vitro assay for cytotoxicity, and LD50 values for the five compounds were the same, suggesting that chemical inhibition of sperm motility may be useful as a method for the in vitro assessment of chemical cytotoxicity.

  16. Accelerated acquisition of tagged MRI for cardiac motion correction in simultaneous PET-MR: Phantom and patient studies

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chuan; Petibon, Yoann; Ouyang, Jinsong; El Fakhri, Georges; Reese, Timothy G.; Ahlman, Mark A.; Bluemke, David A.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Degradation of image quality caused by cardiac and respiratory motions hampers the diagnostic quality of cardiac PET. It has been shown that improved diagnostic accuracy of myocardial defect can be achieved by tagged MR (tMR) based PET motion correction using simultaneous PET-MR. However, one major hurdle for the adoption of tMR-based PET motion correction in the PET-MR routine is the long acquisition time needed for the collection of fully sampled tMR data. In this work, the authors propose an accelerated tMR acquisition strategy using parallel imaging and/or compressed sensing and assess the impact on the tMR-based motion corrected PET using phantom and patient data. Methods: Fully sampled tMR data were acquired simultaneously with PET list-mode data on two simultaneous PET-MR scanners for a cardiac phantom and a patient. Parallel imaging and compressed sensing were retrospectively performed by GRAPPA and kt-FOCUSS algorithms with various acceleration factors. Motion fields were estimated using nonrigid B-spline image registration from both the accelerated and fully sampled tMR images. The motion fields were incorporated into a motion corrected ordered subset expectation maximization reconstruction algorithm with motion-dependent attenuation correction. Results: Although tMR acceleration introduced image artifacts into the tMR images for both phantom and patient data, motion corrected PET images yielded similar image quality as those obtained using the fully sampled tMR images for low to moderate acceleration factors (<4). Quantitative analysis of myocardial defect contrast over ten independent noise realizations showed similar results. It was further observed that although the image quality of the motion corrected PET images deteriorates for high acceleration factors, the images were still superior to the images reconstructed without motion correction. Conclusions: Accelerated tMR images obtained with more than 4 times acceleration can still provide

  17. Accelerated acquisition of tagged MRI for cardiac motion correction in simultaneous PET-MR: Phantom and patient studies

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chuan; Petibon, Yoann; Ouyang, Jinsong; Reese, Timothy G.; Ahlman, Mark A.; Bluemke, David A.; El Fakhri, Georges

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Degradation of image quality caused by cardiac and respiratory motions hampers the diagnostic quality of cardiac PET. It has been shown that improved diagnostic accuracy of myocardial defect can be achieved by tagged MR (tMR) based PET motion correction using simultaneous PET-MR. However, one major hurdle for the adoption of tMR-based PET motion correction in the PET-MR routine is the long acquisition time needed for the collection of fully sampled tMR data. In this work, the authors propose an accelerated tMR acquisition strategy using parallel imaging and/or compressed sensing and assess the impact on the tMR-based motion corrected PET using phantom and patient data. Methods: Fully sampled tMR data were acquired simultaneously with PET list-mode data on two simultaneous PET-MR scanners for a cardiac phantom and a patient. Parallel imaging and compressed sensing were retrospectively performed by GRAPPA and kt-FOCUSS algorithms with various acceleration factors. Motion fields were estimated using nonrigid B-spline image registration from both the accelerated and fully sampled tMR images. The motion fields were incorporated into a motion corrected ordered subset expectation maximization reconstruction algorithm with motion-dependent attenuation correction. Results: Although tMR acceleration introduced image artifacts into the tMR images for both phantom and patient data, motion corrected PET images yielded similar image quality as those obtained using the fully sampled tMR images for low to moderate acceleration factors (<4). Quantitative analysis of myocardial defect contrast over ten independent noise realizations showed similar results. It was further observed that although the image quality of the motion corrected PET images deteriorates for high acceleration factors, the images were still superior to the images reconstructed without motion correction. Conclusions: Accelerated tMR images obtained with more than 4 times acceleration can still provide

  18. Detection of Counter-Changing Contrast: Second-Order Apparent Motion Without Postrectification Motion-Energy Analysis or Salience Mapping/Feature Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilroy, Lee A.; Hock, Howard S.

    2004-01-01

    The perception of 2nd-order, texture-contrast-defined motion was studied for apparent-motion stimuli composed of a pair of spatially displaced, simultaneously visible checkerboards. It was found that background-relative, counter-changing contrast provided the informational basis for the perception of 2nd-order apparent motion; motion began where…

  19. Accounting for signal loss due to dephasing in the correction of distortions in gradient-echo EPI via nonrigid registration.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Xu, Ning; Fitzpatrick, J Michael; Morgan, Victoria L; Pickens, David R; Dawant, Benoit M

    2007-12-01

    Gradient-echo (GE) echo planar imaging (EPI) is susceptible to both geometric distortions and signal loss. This paper presents a retrospective correction approach based on nonrigid image registration. A new physics-based intensity correction factor derived to compensate for intravoxel dephasing in GE EPI images is incorporated into a previously reported nonrigid registration algorithm. Intravoxel dephasing causes signal loss and thus intensity attenuation in the images. The new rephasing factor we introduce, which changes the intensity of a voxel in images during the registration, is used to improve the accuracy of the intensity-based nonrigid registration method and mitigate the intensity attenuation effect. Simulation-based experiments are first used to evaluate the method. A magnetic resonance (MR) simulator and a real field map are used to generate a realistic GE EPI image. The geometric distortion computed from the field map is used as the ground truth to which the estimated nonrigid deformation is compared. We then apply the algorithm to a set of real human brain images. The results show that, after registration, alignment between EPI and multi-shot, spin-echo images, which have relatively long acquisition times but negligible distortion, is improved and that signal loss caused by dephasing can be recovered. PMID:18092739

  20. A common framework for the analysis of complex motion? Standstill and capture illusions

    PubMed Central

    Dürsteler, Max R.

    2014-01-01

    A series of illusions was created by presenting stimuli, which consisted of two overlapping surfaces each defined by textures of independent visual features (i.e., modulation of luminance, color, depth, etc.). When presented concurrently with a stationary 2-D luminance texture, observers often fail to perceive the motion of an overlapping stereoscopically defined depth-texture. This illusory motion standstill arises due to a failure to represent two independent surfaces (one for luminance and one for depth textures) and motion transparency (the ability to perceive motion of both surfaces simultaneously). Instead the stimulus is represented as a single non-transparent surface taking on the stationary nature of the luminance-defined texture. By contrast, if it is the 2D-luminance defined texture that is in motion, observers often perceive the stationary depth texture as also moving. In this latter case, the failure to represent the motion transparency of the two textures gives rise to illusionary motion capture. Our past work demonstrated that the illusions of motion standstill and motion capture can occur for depth-textures that are rotating, or expanding / contracting, or else spiraling. Here I extend these findings to include stereo-shearing. More importantly, it is the motion (or lack thereof) of the luminance texture that determines how the motion of the depth will be perceived. This observation is strongly in favor of a single pathway for complex motion that operates on luminance-defines texture motion signals only. In addition, these complex motion illusions arise with chromatically-defined textures with smooth transitions between their colors. This suggests that in respect to color motion perception the complex motions' pathway is only able to accurately process signals from isoluminant colored textures with sharp transitions between colors, and/or moving at high speeds, which is conceivable if it relies on inputs from a hypothetical dual opponent color

  1. Analysis and Simulations of Near-Field Ground Motion from Source Physics Experiments (spe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobiev, O.; Xu, H.; Lomov, I.; Herbold, E. B.; Glenn, L. A.; Antoun, T.

    2012-12-01

    This work is focused on analysis of near-field measurements (up to 50-70 m from the source) recorded during Source Physics Experiments SPE1, SPE2 and SPE3 in a granitic formation (the Climax Stock) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The explosive source used in these experiments is a sensitized heavy ANFO (SHANFO) with a well characterized equation of state. The first event, SPE1, had a yield of 0.1 ton, and was detonated at a 55 m depth of burial in a spherical cavity of about 0.3 m radius. SPE2 and SPE3 had an explosive yield of 1 ton, and they were both detonated in the same cavity at a depth of burial of 45 meters. One of the main goals of these experiments was to investigate the possible mechanisms of shear wave generation in the nonlinear source region. Another objective, relating specifically to the SPE2-SPE3 sequence, was to investigate the effect of damage from one explosion on the response of the medium to a second explosion of the same yield and at the same location as the first explosion. Comparison of the results from SPE2 and SPE3 show some interesting trends. . At the shot level, and at deeper locations, the data from SPE3 seem to agree quite well with SPE2 data, indicating that damage from SPE2 had little to no effect on the response of the medium at these locations. On the other hand, SPE3 data consistently show delay in arrival times as well as reduced wave amplitudes both at 50 ft (16 m) depth and at the ground surface, indicating that above the shot horizon damage from SPE2 had a perceptible effect on the SPE3 near field motions. The quality of the near field data at some gages from the SPE1 and SPE2 events is somewhat questionable, with orientation uncertainties making it difficult to ascertain with confidence the extent to which shear wave generation in the source region affected near field motions. New gages were strategically added to the SPE3 test bed to provide the data needed to address this issue and verify previous

  2. Experimental analysis and prediction of antisymmetric wave motion in a tapered anisotropic waveguide.

    PubMed

    Moll, Jochen; Wandowski, Tomasz; Malinowski, Pawel; Radzienski, Maciej; Opoka, Szymon; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents experimental results for wave propagation in an anisotropic multilayered structure with linearly varying cross section. Knowing the dispersion and wave propagation properties in such a structure is of great importance for non-destructive material testing and structural health monitoring applications for accurate damage detection and localization. In the proposed study, the wavefield is generated by a circular piezoelectric wafer active sensor and measured by a scanning laser-Doppler-vibrometer. The measurements are compared with a theoretical group delay estimation and a signal prediction for the antisymmetric wave motion along the non-uniform propagation path. The required dispersion curves are derived from the well-known global matrix method for segments of constant thickness. A multidimensional frequency-wavenumber analysis of linescan data and the full wavefield provides further insight of the adiabatic wave motion because the wavenumber changes along the tapered geometry of the waveguide. In addition, it is demonstrated that a terahertz time-domain system can be used in glass-fiber reinforced plastic structures as a tool to estimate the thickness profile of thin structures by means of time-of-flight measurements. This information is particularly important for guided wave-based diagnostics of structures with unknown thickness. PMID:26233030

  3. Two-timescale analysis of extreme mass ratio inspirals in Kerr spacetime: Orbital motion

    SciTech Connect

    Hinderer, Tanja; Flanagan, Eanna E.

    2008-09-15

    Inspirals of stellar-mass compact objects into massive black holes are an important source for future gravitational wave detectors such as Advanced LIGO and LISA. The detection and analysis of these signals rely on accurate theoretical models of the binary dynamics. We cast the equations describing binary inspiral in the extreme mass ratio limit in terms of action-angle variables, and derive properties of general solutions using a two-timescale expansion. This provides a rigorous derivation of the prescription for computing the leading order orbital motion. As shown by Mino, this leading order or adiabatic motion requires only knowledge of the orbit-averaged, dissipative piece of the self-force. The two-timescale method also gives a framework for calculating the post-adiabatic corrections. For circular and for equatorial orbits, the leading order corrections are suppressed by one power of the mass ratio, and give rise to phase errors of order unity over a complete inspiral through the relativistic regime. These post-1-adiabatic corrections are generated by the fluctuating, dissipative piece of the first order self-force, by the conservative piece of the first order self-force, and by the orbit-averaged, dissipative piece of the second order self-force. We also sketch a two-timescale expansion of the Einstein equation, and deduce an analytic formula for the leading order, adiabatic gravitational waveforms generated by an inspiral.

  4. A finite element approach for large motion dynamic analysis of multibody structures in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Che-Wei

    1989-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite element formulation for modeling the transient dynamics of constrained multibody space sructures with truss-like configurations is presented. Convected coordinate systems are used to define rigid-body motion of individual elements in the system. These systems are located at one end of each element and are oriented such that one axis passes through the other end of the element. Deformation of each element, relative to its convected coordinate system, is defined by cubic flexural shape functions as used in finite element methods of structural analysis. The formulation is oriented toward joint dominated structures and places the generalized coordinates at the joint. A transformation matrix is derived to integrate joint degree-of-freedom into the equations of motion of the element. Based on the derivation, a general-purpose code LATDYN (Large Angle Transient DYNamics) was developed. Two examples are presented to illustrate the application of the code. For the spin-up of a flexible beam, results are compared with existing solutions available in the literature. For the deployment of one bay of a deployable space truss (the Minimast), results are verified by the geometric knowledge of the system and converged solution of a successively refined model.

  5. Contribution to a marker-free system for human motion analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calais, Elodie F.; Legrand, Louis; Voisin, Yvon; Diou, Alan

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to human gait analysis using a marker-free system. The devised acquisition system is composed of three synchronized and calibrated charge coupled device cameras. The aim of this work is to recognize in gray level image sequences the leg of a walking human and to reconstruct it in the three-dimensional space. An articulated three- dimensional (3D) model of the human body, based on the use of tapered superquadric curves, is first introduced. A motion-based segmentation, using morphological operators, is then applied to the image sequences in order to extract the boundaries of the leg in motion. A reconstruction process, based on the use of a least median of squares regression is next performed, to determine the location of the human body in the 3D space. Finally, a spatial coherence is imposed on the reconstructed curves in order to better fit the anatomy of the leg and to take into account the articulated model. Each stage of the proposed methodology has been tested both on synthetic images and on real world images of walking humans. The obtained results suggest that this approach is quite promising and should be useful in the study of the gait.

  6. A Theoretical Analysis of the Effects of Fuel Motion on Airplane Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schy, Albert A

    1952-01-01

    The general equations of motion for an airplane with a number of spherical fuel tanks are derived. The motion of the fuel is approximated by the motion of solid pendulums. The same type of derivation and equations are shown to apply to any type of fuel tank where the motion of the fuel may be represented in terms of undamped harmonic oscillators. Motions are calculated for a present-day high-speed airplane and a free-flying airplane model with two spherical tanks in the symmetry plane.

  7. A study of the nonlinear aerodynamics of bodies in nonplanar motion. Ph.D. Thesis - Stanford Univ., Calif.; [numerical analysis of aerodynamic force and moment systems during large amplitude, arbitrary motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiff, L. B.

    1974-01-01

    Concepts from the theory of functionals are used to develop nonlinear formulations of the aerodynamic force and moment systems acting on bodies in large-amplitude, arbitrary motions. The analysis, which proceeds formally once the functional dependence of the aerodynamic reactions upon the motion variables is established, ensures the inclusion, within the resulting formulation, of pertinent aerodynamic terms that normally are excluded in the classical treatment. Applied to the large-amplitude, slowly varying, nonplanar motion of a body, the formulation suggests that the aerodynamic moment can be compounded of the moments acting on the body in four basic motions: steady angle of attack, pitch oscillations, either roll or yaw oscillations, and coning motion. Coning, where the nose of the body describes a circle around the velocity vector, characterizes the nonplanar nature of the general motion.

  8. Regional-specific Stochastic Simulation of Spatially-distributed Ground-motion Time Histories using Wavelet Packet Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, D.; Wang, G.

    2014-12-01

    Stochastic simulation of spatially distributed ground-motion time histories is important for performance-based earthquake design of geographically distributed systems. In this study, we develop a novel technique to stochastically simulate regionalized ground-motion time histories using wavelet packet analysis. First, a transient acceleration time history is characterized by wavelet-packet parameters proposed by Yamamoto and Baker (2013). The wavelet-packet parameters fully characterize ground-motion time histories in terms of energy content, time- frequency-domain characteristics and time-frequency nonstationarity. This study further investigates the spatial cross-correlations of wavelet-packet parameters based on geostatistical analysis of 1500 regionalized ground motion data from eight well-recorded earthquakes in California, Mexico, Japan and Taiwan. The linear model of coregionalization (LMC) is used to develop a permissible spatial cross-correlation model for each parameter group. The geostatistical analysis of ground-motion data from different regions reveals significant dependence of the LMC structure on regional site conditions, which can be characterized by the correlation range of Vs30 in each region. In general, the spatial correlation and cross-correlation of wavelet-packet parameters are stronger if the site condition is more homogeneous. Using the regional-specific spatial cross-correlation model and cokriging technique, wavelet packet parameters at unmeasured locations can be best estimated, and regionalized ground-motion time histories can be synthesized. Case studies and blind tests demonstrated that the simulated ground motions generally agree well with the actual recorded data, if the influence of regional-site conditions is considered. The developed method has great potential to be used in computational-based seismic analysis and loss estimation in a regional scale.

  9. Motion error analysis of the 3D coordinates of airborne lidar for typical terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Tao; Lan, Tian; Ni, Guoqiang

    2013-07-01

    A motion error model of 3D coordinates is established and the impact on coordinate errors caused by the non-ideal movement of the airborne platform is analyzed. The simulation results of the model show that when the lidar system operates at high altitude, the influence on the positioning errors derived from laser point cloud spacing is small. For the model the positioning errors obey simple harmonic vibration whose amplitude envelope gradually reduces with the increase of the vibration frequency. When the vibration period number is larger than 50, the coordinate errors are almost uncorrelated with time. The elevation error is less than the plane error and in the plane the error in the scanning direction is less than the error in the flight direction. Through the analysis of flight test data, the conclusion is verified.

  10. Dynamics of proteins in different solvent systems: analysis of essential motion in lipases.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, G H; van Aalten, D M; Edholm, O; Toxvaerd, S; Bywater, R

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of different solvents on the dynamics of Rhizomucor miehei lipase. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed in water, methyl hexanoate, and cyclohexane. Analysis of the 400-ps trajectories showed that the solvent has a pronounced effect on the geometrical properties of the protein. The radius of gyration and total accessibility surface decrease in organic solvents, whereas the number of hydrogen bonds increases. The essential motions of the protein in different solvents can be described in a low-dimensional "essential subspace," and the dynamic behavior in this subspace correlates with the polarity of the solvent. Methyl hexanoate, which is a substrate for R. miehei lipase, significantly increases the fluctuations in the active-site loop. During the simulation, a methyl hexanoate entered the active-site groove. This observation provides insight into the possible docking mechanism of the substrate. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 PMID:8913568

  11. Quantitative analysis of DNA-looping kinetics from tethered particle motion experiments.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Carlo; Finzi, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we show the application of a maximum-likelihood-based method to the reconstruction of DNA-looping single-molecule time traces from tethered particle motion experiments. The method does not require time filtering of the data and improves the time resolution by an order of magnitude with respect to the threshold-crossing approach. Moreover, it is not based on presumed kinetic models, overcoming the limitations of other approaches proposed previously, and allowing its applications to mechanisms with complex kinetic schemes. Numerical simulations have been used to test the performances of this analysis over a wide range of time scales. We have then applied this method to determine the looping kinetics of a well-known DNA-looping protein, the lambda-repressor.

  12. Further results from PIXE analysis of inks in Galileo's notes on motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Carmine, P.; Giuntini, L.; Hooper, W.; Lucarelli, F.; Mandò, P. A.

    1996-06-01

    We have recently analysed the inks in some of the folios of Vol. 72 of Manoscritti galileiani, kept at the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze, which contains a collection of loose handwritten sheets containing undated notes, data from experiments and propositions on the problems of motion from different periods of Galileo's life. This paper reports specific results obtained from the analysis of some of these propositions, which allowed to make a contribution to their chronological attribution and therefore to the solution of some historical controversies. Even in the case where the "absolute" chronological attributions could not be made on the basis of comparison with dated documents, the PIXE results provided useful information to deny or confirm the hypothesis that different propositions were written in the same or in different periods.

  13. Interventional heart wall motion analysis with cardiac C-arm CT systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Kerstin; Maier, Andreas K.; Zheng, Yefeng; Wang, Yang; Lauritsch, Günter; Schwemmer, Chris; Rohkohl, Christopher; Hornegger, Joachim; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2014-05-01

    Today, quantitative analysis of three-dimensional (3D) dynamics of the left ventricle (LV) cannot be performed directly in the catheter lab using a current angiographic C-arm system, which is the workhorse imaging modality for cardiac interventions. Therefore, myocardial wall analysis is completely based on the 2D angiographic images or pre-interventional 3D/4D imaging. In this paper, we present a complete framework to study the ventricular wall motion in 4D (3D+t) directly in the catheter lab. From the acquired 2D projection images, a dynamic 3D surface model of the LV is generated, which is then used to detect ventricular dyssynchrony. Different quantitative features to evaluate LV dynamics known from other modalities (ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging) are transferred to the C-arm CT data. We use the ejection fraction, the systolic dyssynchrony index a 3D fractional shortening and the phase to maximal contraction (ϕi, max) to determine an indicator of LV dyssynchrony and to discriminate regionally pathological from normal myocardium. The proposed analysis tool was evaluated on simulated phantom LV data with and without pathological wall dysfunctions. The LV data used is publicly available online at https://conrad.stanford.edu/data/heart. In addition, the presented framework was tested on eight clinical patient data sets. The first clinical results demonstrate promising performance of the proposed analysis tool and encourage the application of the presented framework to a larger study in clinical practice.

  14. Analysis of organ motion effects on the effective fluences for liver IMRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Hsiang-Chi; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Liu, Wen Shan; Wu, Andrew; Lalonde, Ron

    2007-07-01

    An effective fluence concept was employed to make forward dose calculations to investigate the effects of a distorted fluence map on dose plans. Fluence changes caused by organ motion were calculated using Chui's algorithm (2003 Med. Phys. 30 1736). In two test cases with various fluence maps, the effects of motion were simulated using a maximal displacement from 5 mm to 25 mm; 108 fluence maps that were calculated from 16 IMRT plans for eight liver cancer patients were analyzed and compared with and without gating. Fluoroscopic measurements were made of a moving diaphragm in this study. Fluence changes associated with superior-inferior organ motion, perpendicular to the moving MLC, were also examined. The effects of motion on the fluence maps were evaluated from both the fluence differences between static and motion and the χ function. The maximum displacements of the organs in all of these cases were analyzed and correlated with the change in fluence generated from the liver IMRT plans. The dosimetric effects on the target coverage were evaluated for each plan. The results indicate that, for the same fluence map, the mean fluence intensity error or the percentage of the fluence points that have an unacceptable error is linearly related to the extent of motion. For different fluence maps, the degree to which the fluence is distorted by motion is strongly related to the product of the motion extent and the fluence gradient in the direction of diaphragm motion. For eight liver patients and 16 IMRT plans in this work (with gated technique, motion extent from 0.5 cm to 1.0 cm; without gated technique, motion extent from 0.9 cm to 1.8 cm), the fluence modulations are mild, such that the respiratory motion of each patient did not strongly affect the CTV coverage. The mean dose error is 1.5% for free motion (0.9-1.8 cm) and is around 1% for gated motion (0.5-1 cm).

  15. A novel flexible framework with automatic feature correspondence optimization for nonrigid registration in radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Vasquez Osorio, Eliana M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Bondar, Luiza; Levendag, Peter C.; Heijmen, Ben J. M.

    2009-07-15

    Technical improvements in planning and dose delivery and in verification of patient positioning have substantially widened the therapeutic window for radiation treatment of cancer. However, changes in patient anatomy during the treatment limit the exploitation of these new techniques. To further improve radiation treatments, anatomical changes need to be modeled and accounted for. Nonrigid registration can be used for this purpose. This article describes the design, the implementation, and the validation of a new framework for nonrigid registration for radiotherapy applications. The core of this framework is an improved version of the thin plate spline robust point matching (TPS-RPM) algorithm. The TPS-RPM algorithm estimates a global correspondence and a transformation between the points that represent organs of interest belonging to two image sets. However, the algorithm does not allow for the inclusion of prior knowledge on the correspondence of subset of points, and therefore, it can lead to inconsistent anatomical solutions. In this article TPS-RPM was improved by employing a novel correspondence filter that supports simultaneous registration of multiple structures. The improved method allows for coherent organ registration and for the inclusion of user-defined landmarks, lines, and surfaces inside and outside of structures of interest. A procedure to generate control points from segmented organs is described. The framework parameters r and {lambda}, which control the number of points and the nonrigidness of the transformation, respectively, were optimized for three sites with different degrees of deformation (head and neck, prostate, and cervix) using two cases per site. For the head and neck cases, the salivary glands were manually contoured on CT scans, for the prostate cases the prostate and the vesicles, and for the cervix cases the cervix uterus, the bladder, and the rectum. The transformation error obtained using the best set of parameters was below 1

  16. Infrared image non-rigid registration based on regional information entropy demons algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chaoliang; Ma, Lihua; Yu, Ming; Cui, Shumin; Wu, Qingrong

    2015-02-01

    Infrared imaging fault detection which is treated as an ideal, non-contact, non-destructive testing method is applied to the circuit board fault detection. Since Infrared images obtained by handheld infrared camera with wide-angle lens have both rigid and non-rigid deformations. To solve this problem, a new demons algorithm based on regional information entropy was proposed. The new method overcame the shortcomings of traditional demons algorithm that was sensitive to the intensity. First, the information entropy image was gotten by computing regional information entropy of the image. Then, the deformation between the two images was calculated that was the same as demons algorithm. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm has better robustness in intensity inconsistent images registration compared with the traditional demons algorithm. Achieving accurate registration between intensity inconsistent infrared images provided strong support for the temperature contrast.

  17. A novel flexible framework with automatic feature correspondence optimization for nonrigid registration in radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Vásquez Osorio, Eliana M; Hoogeman, Mischa S; Bondar, Luiza; Levendag, Peter C; Heijmen, Ben J M

    2009-07-01

    Technical improvements in planning and dose delivery and in verification of patient positioning have substantially widened the therapeutic window for radiation treatment of cancer. However, changes in patient anatomy during the treatment limit the exploitation of these new techniques. To further improve radiation treatments, anatomical changes need to be modeled and accounted for Nonrigid registration can be used for this purpose. This article describes the design, the implementation, and the validation of a new framework for nonrigid registration for radiotherapy applications. The core of this framework is an improved version of the thin plate spline robust point matching (TPS-RPM) algorithm. The TPS-RPM algorithm estimates a global correspondence and a transformation between the points that represent organs of interest belonging to two image sets. However, the algorithm does not allow for the inclusion of prior knowledge on the correspondence of subset of points, and therefore, it can lead to inconsistent anatomical solutions. In this article TPS-RPM was improved by employing a novel correspondence filter that supports simultaneous registration of multiple structures. The improved method allows for coherent organ registration and for the inclusion of user-defined landmarks, lines, and surfaces inside and outside of structures of interest. A procedure to generate control points from segmented organs is described. The framework parameters r and lambda, which control the number of points and the nonrigidness of the transformation, respectively, were optimized for three sites with different degrees of deformation (head and neck, prostate, and cervix) using two cases per site. For the head and neck cases, the salivary glands were manually contoured on CT scans, for the prostate cases the prostate and the vesicles, and for the cervix cases the cervix uterus, the bladder, and the rectum. The transformation error obtained using the best set of parameters was below 1 mm

  18. Rigid and non-rigid micro-plates: Philippines and Myanmar-Andaman case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangin, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Generally, tectonic plates are considered as rigid. Oblique plate convergence favors the development of micro-plates along the converging boundaries. The north-south-trending Philippines archipelago (here named Philippine Mobile Belt, PMB), a few hundreds kilometers wide, is one of such complex tectonic zones. We show here that it is composed of rigid rotating crustal blocks (here called platelets). In Myanmar, the northernmost tip of the Sumatra-Andaman subduction system is another complex zone made of various crustal blocks in-between convergent plates. Yet, contrary to PMB, it sustains internal deformation with platelet buckling, altogether indicative of a non-rigid behavior. Therefore, the two case studies, Philippine Mobile Belt and Myanmar-Andaman micro-plate (MAS), illustrate the complexity of micro-plate tectonics and kinematics at convergent plate boundaries.

  19. Analysis of bifurcation and stability for a tractor semi-trailer in planar motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Nenggen; Shi, Xiaobo; Zhang, Yipeng; Chen, Wen

    2014-12-01

    This paper is intended for bifurcation analysis of a nonlinear tractor semi-trailer vehicle model in planar motion and for investigating its stability under constant running conditions. Bifurcation analysis shows that bifurcation diagrams of a tractor semi-trailer are quite different from those of a single-unit vehicle. Some instability phenomena of the vehicle system such as jackknifing, sideslip, and spinning are explained by correlating them with the behaviour in the neighbourhood of unstable fixed points based on analysis of eigenvectors, phase trajectories, and status of lateral tyre force saturation. It is also found that yaw planar instability of a tractor semi-trailer is caused by lateral tyre force saturation of the tractor's rear axles and/or the trailer's axles. Moreover, the stability region in the state space is demarcated, and a stability index for evaluating size of the stability region in a feasible domain is proposed. Yaw stability under constant driving conditions is analysed by using the proposed stability index.

  20. Quantitative Analysis Of Sperm Motion Kinematics From Real-Time Video-Edge Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Russell O...; Katz, David F.

    1988-02-01

    A new model of sperm swimming kinematics, which uses signal processing methods and multivariate statistical techniques to identify individual cell-motion parameters and unique cell populations, is presented. Swimming paths of individual cells are obtained using real-time, video-edge digitization. Raw paths are adaptively filtered to identify average paths, and measurements of space-time oscillations about average paths are made. Time-dependent frequency information is extracted from spatial variations about average paths using harmonic analysis. Raw-path and average-path measures such as curvature, curve length, and straight-line length, and measures of oscillations about average paths such as time-dependent amplitude and frequency variations, are used in a multivariate, cluster analysis to identify unique cell populations. The entire process, including digitization of sperm video images, is computer-automated. Preliminary results indicate that this method of tracking, digitization, and kinematic analysis accurately identifies unique cell subpopulations, including: the relative numbers of cells in each subpopulation, how subpopulations differ, and the extent and significance of such differences. With appropriate work, this approach may be useful for clinical discrimination between normal and abnormal semen specimens.

  1. Non-rigid MRI-TRUS registration in targeted prostate biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marami, Bahram; Sirouspour, Shahin; Ghoul, Suha; Emami Abarghouei, Shadi; Sun, Yue; Fenster, Aaron

    2015-03-01

    A non-rigid registration method is presented for the alignment of pre-procedural magnetic resonance (MR) images with delineated suspicious regions to intra-procedural 3D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images in TRUS-guided prostate biopsy. In the first step, 3D MR and TRUS images are aligned rigidly using six pairs of manually identified approximate matching points on the boundary of the prostate. Then, two image volumes are non-rigidly registered using a finite element method (FEM)-based linear elastic deformation model. A vector of observation prediction errors at some points of interest within the prostate volume is computed using an intensity-based similarity metric called the modality independent neighborhood descriptor (MIND). The error vector is employed in a classical state estimation framework to estimate prostate deformation between MR and TRUS images. The points of interests are identified using speeded-up robust features (SURF) that are scale and rotation-invariant descriptors in MR images. The proposed registration method on 10 sets of prostate MR and TRUS images yielded a target registration error of 1.99+/-0.83 mm, and 1.97+/-0.87 mm in the peripheral zone (PZ) and whole gland (WG), respectively, using 68 manually-identified fiducial points. The Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) was 87.9+/-2.9, 82.3+/-4.8, 93.0+/-1.7, and 84.2+/-6.2 percent for the WG, apex, mid-gland and base of the prostate, respectively. Moreover, the mean absolute distances (MAD) between the WG surfaces in the TRUS and registered MR images was 1.6+/-0.3 mm. Registration results indicate effectiveness of the proposed method in improving the targeting accuracy in the TRUS-guided prostate biopsy.

  2. Non-Rigid Object Contour Tracking via a Novel Supervised Level Set Model.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Yao, Hongxun; Zhang, Shengping; Li, Dong

    2015-11-01

    We present a novel approach to non-rigid objects contour tracking in this paper based on a supervised level set model (SLSM). In contrast to most existing trackers that use bounding box to specify the tracked target, the proposed method extracts the accurate contours of the target as tracking output, which achieves better description of the non-rigid objects while reduces background pollution to the target model. Moreover, conventional level set models only emphasize the regional intensity consistency and consider no priors. Differently, the curve evolution of the proposed SLSM is object-oriented and supervised by the specific knowledge of the targets we want to track. Therefore, the SLSM can ensure a more accurate convergence to the exact targets in tracking applications. In particular, we firstly construct the appearance model for the target in an online boosting manner due to its strong discriminative power between the object and the background. Then, the learnt target model is incorporated to model the probabilities of the level set contour by a Bayesian manner, leading the curve converge to the candidate region with maximum likelihood of being the target. Finally, the accurate target region qualifies the samples fed to the boosting procedure as well as the target model prepared for the next time step. We firstly describe the proposed mechanism of two-phase SLSM for single target tracking, then give its generalized multi-phase version for dealing with multi-target tracking cases. Positive decrease rate is used to adjust the learning pace over time, enabling tracking to continue under partial and total occlusion. Experimental results on a number of challenging sequences validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26099142

  3. Non-Rigid Object Contour Tracking via a Novel Supervised Level Set Model.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Yao, Hongxun; Zhang, Shengping; Li, Dong

    2015-11-01

    We present a novel approach to non-rigid objects contour tracking in this paper based on a supervised level set model (SLSM). In contrast to most existing trackers that use bounding box to specify the tracked target, the proposed method extracts the accurate contours of the target as tracking output, which achieves better description of the non-rigid objects while reduces background pollution to the target model. Moreover, conventional level set models only emphasize the regional intensity consistency and consider no priors. Differently, the curve evolution of the proposed SLSM is object-oriented and supervised by the specific knowledge of the targets we want to track. Therefore, the SLSM can ensure a more accurate convergence to the exact targets in tracking applications. In particular, we firstly construct the appearance model for the target in an online boosting manner due to its strong discriminative power between the object and the background. Then, the learnt target model is incorporated to model the probabilities of the level set contour by a Bayesian manner, leading the curve converge to the candidate region with maximum likelihood of being the target. Finally, the accurate target region qualifies the samples fed to the boosting procedure as well as the target model prepared for the next time step. We firstly describe the proposed mechanism of two-phase SLSM for single target tracking, then give its generalized multi-phase version for dealing with multi-target tracking cases. Positive decrease rate is used to adjust the learning pace over time, enabling tracking to continue under partial and total occlusion. Experimental results on a number of challenging sequences validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Acquisition of priori tissue optical structure based on non-rigid image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Wenbo; Li, Jiao; Liu, Lingling; Wang, Yihan; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Feng

    2015-03-01

    Shape-parameterized diffuse optical tomography (DOT), which is based on a priori that assumes the uniform distribution of the optical properties in the each region, shows the effectiveness of complex biological tissue optical heterogeneities reconstruction. The priori tissue optical structure could be acquired with the assistance of anatomical imaging methods such as X-ray computed tomography (XCT) which suffers from low-contrast for soft tissues including different optical characteristic regions. For the mouse model, a feasible strategy of a priori tissue optical structure acquisition is proposed based on a non-rigid image registration algorithm. During registration, a mapping matrix is calculated to elastically align the XCT image of reference mouse to the XCT image of target mouse. Applying the matrix to the reference atlas which is a detailed mesh of organs/tissues in reference mouse, registered atlas can be obtained as the anatomical structure of target mouse. By assigning the literature published optical parameters of each organ to the corresponding anatomical structure, optical structure of the target organism can be obtained as a priori information for DOT reconstruction algorithm. By applying the non-rigid image registration algorithm to a target mouse which is transformed from the reference mouse, the results show that the minimum correlation coefficient can be improved from 0.2781 (before registration) to 0.9032 (after fine registration), and the maximum average Euclid distances can be decreased from 12.80mm (before registration) to 1.02mm (after fine registration), which has verified the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  5. A coordination class analysis of college students' judgments about animated motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaden-Koch, Thomas Christian

    The coordination class construct was invented by di5essa and Sherin to clarify what it means to learn and use scientific concepts. A coordination class is defined to consist of readout strategies, which guide observation, and the causal net, which contains knowledge necessary for making inferences from observations. A coordination class, as originally specified, reliably extracts a certain class of information from a variety of situations. The coordination class construct is relatively new. To examine its utility, transcripts of interviews with college students were analyzed in terms of the coordination class construct. In the interviews, students judged the realism of several computer animations depicting balls rolling on a pair of tracks. When shown animations with only one ball, students made judgments consistent with focusing on the ball's speed changes. Adding a second ball to each animation strongly affected judgments made by students taking introductory physics courses, but had a smaller effect on judgments made by students taking a psychology course. Reasoning was described in this analysis as the coordination of readouts about animations with causal net elements related to realistic motion. Decision-making was characterized both for individual students and for groups by the causal net elements expressed, by the types of readouts reported, and by the coordination processes involved. The coordination class construct was found useful for describing the elements and processes of student decision-making, but little evidence was found to suggest that the students studied possessed reliable coordination classes. Students' causal nets were found to include several appropriate expectations about realistic motion. Several students reached judgments that appeared contrary to their expectations and reported mutually incompatible expectations. Descriptions of students' decision-making processes often included faulty readouts, or feedback loops in which causal net

  6. Brownian motion of polyphosphate complexes in yeast vacuoles: characterization by fluorescence microscopy with image analysis.

    PubMed

    Puchkov, Evgeny O

    2010-06-01

    In the vacuoles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells, vividly moving insoluble polyphosphate complexes (IPCs) <1 microm size, stainable by a fluorescent dye, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), may appear under some growth conditions. The aim of this study was to quantitatively characterize the movement of the IPCs and to evaluate the viscosity in the vacuoles using the obtained data. Studies were conducted on S. cerevisiae cells stained by DAPI and fluorescein isothyocyanate-labelled latex microspheres, using fluorescence microscopy combined with computer image analysis (ImageJ software, NIH, USA). IPC movement was photorecorded and shown to be Brownian motion. On latex microspheres, a methodology was developed for measuring a fluorescing particle's two-dimensional (2D) displacements and its size. In four yeast cells, the 2D displacements and sizes of the IPCs were evaluated. Apparent viscosity values in the vacuoles of the cells, computed by the Einstein-Smoluchowski equation using the obtained data, were found to be 2.16 +/- 0.60, 2.52 +/- 0.63, 3.32 +/- 0.9 and 11.3 +/- 1.7 cP. The first three viscosity values correspond to 30-40% glycerol solutions. The viscosity value of 11.3 +/- 1.7 cP was supposed to be an overestimation, caused by the peculiarities of the vacuole structure and/or volume in this particular cell. This conclusion was supported by the particular quality of the Brownian motion trajectories set in this cell as compared to the other three cells.

  7. Collaborative real-time motion video analysis by human observer and image exploitation algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hild, Jutta; Krüger, Wolfgang; Brüstle, Stefan; Trantelle, Patrick; Unmüßig, Gabriel; Heinze, Norbert; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth; Beyerer, Jürgen

    2015-05-01

    Motion video analysis is a challenging task, especially in real-time applications. In most safety and security critical applications, a human observer is an obligatory part of the overall analysis system. Over the last years, substantial progress has been made in the development of automated image exploitation algorithms. Hence, we investigate how the benefits of automated video analysis can be integrated suitably into the current video exploitation systems. In this paper, a system design is introduced which strives to combine both the qualities of the human observer's perception and the automated algorithms, thus aiming to improve the overall performance of a real-time video analysis system. The system design builds on prior work where we showed the benefits for the human observer by means of a user interface which utilizes the human visual focus of attention revealed by the eye gaze direction for interaction with the image exploitation system; eye tracker-based interaction allows much faster, more convenient, and equally precise moving target acquisition in video images than traditional computer mouse selection. The system design also builds on prior work we did on automated target detection, segmentation, and tracking algorithms. Beside the system design, a first pilot study is presented, where we investigated how the participants (all non-experts in video analysis) performed in initializing an object tracking subsystem by selecting a target for tracking. Preliminary results show that the gaze + key press technique is an effective, efficient, and easy to use interaction technique when performing selection operations on moving targets in videos in order to initialize an object tracking function.

  8. Analysis of neck muscle activity and comparison of head movement and body movement during rotational motion.

    PubMed

    Sirikantharajah, Shahini; Valter McConville, Kristiina M; Zolfaghari, Nika

    2015-08-01

    The neck is a very delicate part of the body that is highly prone to whiplash injuries, during jerk. A lot of the research relating to whiplash injuries performed to date has been tested in environments with linear motions and have mostly applied their work to car collisions. Whiplash injuries can also affect disabled individuals during falls, bed transfers, and while travelling in wheelchairs. The primary objective of this paper was to focus on neck and body behaviour during rotational motion, rather than linear motion which has been often associated with car collisions. This paper takes the current motion signal processing technique a step further by computing the differential between head and body motion. Neck electromyogram (EMG) and angular velocity data of the head and body were acquired simultaneously from 20 subjects, as they were rotated 45 degrees in the forward pitch plane, with and without visual input, in a motion simulator. The centre of rotation (COR) on the simulator was located behind the subject Results showed that neck muscle behaviour was affected by the forward rotations, as well as visual input. Anterior neck muscles were most active during forward rotations and trials including VR. Maximum effective muscle power and activity of 10.54% and 55.72 (mV/mV)·s were reached respectively. Furthermore, during forward rotations the motion profiles started off with dominance in body motion, followed by dominance in head motion.

  9. Analysis of neck muscle activity and comparison of head movement and body movement during rotational motion.

    PubMed

    Sirikantharajah, Shahini; Valter McConville, Kristiina M; Zolfaghari, Nika

    2015-08-01

    The neck is a very delicate part of the body that is highly prone to whiplash injuries, during jerk. A lot of the research relating to whiplash injuries performed to date has been tested in environments with linear motions and have mostly applied their work to car collisions. Whiplash injuries can also affect disabled individuals during falls, bed transfers, and while travelling in wheelchairs. The primary objective of this paper was to focus on neck and body behaviour during rotational motion, rather than linear motion which has been often associated with car collisions. This paper takes the current motion signal processing technique a step further by computing the differential between head and body motion. Neck electromyogram (EMG) and angular velocity data of the head and body were acquired simultaneously from 20 subjects, as they were rotated 45 degrees in the forward pitch plane, with and without visual input, in a motion simulator. The centre of rotation (COR) on the simulator was located behind the subject Results showed that neck muscle behaviour was affected by the forward rotations, as well as visual input. Anterior neck muscles were most active during forward rotations and trials including VR. Maximum effective muscle power and activity of 10.54% and 55.72 (mV/mV)·s were reached respectively. Furthermore, during forward rotations the motion profiles started off with dominance in body motion, followed by dominance in head motion. PMID:26737049

  10. Car egress analysis of younger and older drivers for motion simulation.

    PubMed

    Chateauroux, Elodie; Wang, Xuguang

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of car egress motion by younger and older participants. The objective of these analyses is to gather knowledge about egress motion in order to simulate them using a Digital Human Model. Seven young (from 20 to 35 years old) and eighteen older volunteers (from 63 to 82 years old) participated in the experiment. Their ingress and egress motions were captured for 4 different types of car. Motions were reconstructed through inverse kinematics using the RPx Software and the RAMSIS model. Motions were analysed through the interactions between the participant and the environment. Key-frames were defined in order to split the motionsup. Two main car egress strategies were observed: 'Left Leg first' (LLF) and 'Two Legs Out' (TLO). Only older participants used the TLO strategy. For each strategy, a detailed motion description is presented together with the identification of sub-strategies and constraints. The motion descriptions and the constraints also help to better understand the difficulties of older people when getting out of a car. All motion constraints described in this study should be considered to simulate realistic egress motion.

  11. Processing of translational and rotational motions of surface waves: performance analysis and applications to single sensor and to array measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maranò, Stefano; Fäh, Donat

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of rotational seismic motions has received considerable attention in the last years. Recent advances in sensor technologies allow us to measure directly the rotational components of the seismic wavefield. Today this is achieved with improved accuracy and at an affordable cost. The analysis and the study of rotational motions are, to a certain extent, less developed than other aspects of seismology due to the historical lack of instrumental observations. This is due to both the technical challenges involved in measuring rotational motions and to the widespread belief that rotational motions are insignificant. This paper addresses the joint processing of translational and rotational motions from both the theoretical and the practical perspectives. Our attention focuses on the analysis of motions of both Rayleigh waves and Love waves from recordings of single sensors and from an array of sensors. From the theoretical standpoint, analysis of Fisher information (FI) allows us to understand how the different measurement types contribute to the estimation of quantities of geophysical interest. In addition, we show how rotational measurements resolve ambiguity on parameter estimation in the single sensor setting. We quantify the achievable estimation accuracy by means of Cramér-Rao bound (CRB). From the practical standpoint, a method for the joint processing of rotational and translational recordings to perform maximum likelihood (ML) estimation is presented. The proposed technique estimates parameters of Love waves and Rayleigh waves from single sensor or array recordings. We support and illustrate our findings with a comprehensive collection of numerical examples. Applications to real recordings are also shown.

  12. Applying a resources framework to analysis of the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Trevor I.; Wittmann, Michael C.

    2008-12-01

    We suggest one redefinition of common clusters of questions used to analyze student responses on the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation. Our goal is to propose a methodology that moves beyond an analysis of student learning defined by correct responses, either on the overall test or on clusters of questions defined solely by content. We use the resources framework theory of learning to define clusters within this experimental test that was designed without the resources framework in mind. We take special note of the contextual and representational dependence of questions with seemingly similar physics content. We analyze clusters in ways that allow the most common incorrect answers to give as much, or more, information as the correctness of responses in that cluster. We show that false positives can be found, especially on questions dealing with Newton’s third law. We apply our clustering to a small set of data to illustrate the value of comparing students’ incorrect responses which are otherwise identical on a correct or incorrect analysis. Our work provides a connection between theory and experiment in the area of survey design and the resources framework.

  13. Isotropic Brownian motions over complex fields as a solvable model for May-Wigner stability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipsen, J. R.; Schomerus, H.

    2016-09-01

    We consider matrix-valued stochastic processes known as isotropic Brownian motions, and show that these can be solved exactly over complex fields. While these processes appear in a variety of questions in mathematical physics, our main motivation is their relation to a May-Wigner-like stability analysis, for which we obtain a stability phase diagram. The exact results establish the full joint probability distribution of the finite-time Lyapunov exponents, and may be used as a starting point for a more detailed analysis of the stability-instability phase transition. Our derivations rest on an explicit formulation of a Fokker-Planck equation for the Lyapunov exponents. This formulation happens to coincide with an exactly solvable class of models of the Calgero-Sutherland type, originally encountered for a model of phase-coherent transport. The exact solution over complex fields describes a determinantal point process of biorthogonal type similar to recent results for products of random matrices, and is also closely related to Hermitian matrix models with an external source.

  14. Motion analysis and ultrastructural study of a colonial diatom, Bacillaria paxillifer.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Nozomi; Suetomo, Yasutaka; Yoshihisa, Tohru; Sonobe, Seiji

    2016-06-01

    The pennate diatom, Bacillaria paxillifer, forms a colony in which adjacent cells glide smoothly and almost continuously, yet no obvious apparatus driving the movement, such as flagella or cilia, is observed. Thus far, neither the mechanism nor physiological significance of this movement has been well understood. Here, we report quantitative analysis of the gliding motion of B. paxillifer and morphological analysis of this diatom with light and electron microscopes. The gliding of pairs of adjacent B. paxillifer cells in a colony was cyclic with rather constant periods while the average gliding period varied from a few seconds to multiples of 10 s among colonies. The gliding was compromised reversibly by inhibitors for actin and myosin, suggesting involvement of the actomyosin system. Indeed, we observed two closely apposed actin bundles near the raphe by fluorescence-labeled phalloidin staining. Using electron microscopy, we observed filamentous structures that resemble the actin bundles seen with fluorescence microscopy, and we also found novel electron-dense structures located between the plasma membrane and these actin-like filaments. From these and other observations, we suggest that B. paxillifer also uses actin bundles and propose a putative myosin as a molecular motor in the gliding of unicellular diatoms. PMID:26754563

  15. Numerical studies of motion of vortex filaments - Implementing the asymptotic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. H.; Tavantzis, J.; Ting, L.

    1984-01-01

    A computational code is developed for the integro-differential equations governing the motion of the centerlines of vortex filaments submerged in a background potential flow. These equations, which are derived from the method of matched asymptotic analysis, include the effect of the decaying large-magnitude circumferential and axial velocity components in the vortical cores. Numerical examples are presented to assess the effect of a large axial velocity and that of nonsimilar initial profiles in the vortical cores. The initial configurations of the filaments are chosen so as to fulfill the basic assumption of the asymptotic analysis, which is that the effective vortical core size is much smaller than all the other length scales in the flowfield, e.g., the radius of curvature and the interfilament distance. The computations are continued until the basic assumption is no longer valid, that is when the merging or intersection of filaments has begun. A classification of the various types of local or global merging or intersection of filaments is made and demonstrated by numerical examples. It is then shown that the asymptotic solution not only provides the initial data but also can be used to formulate the appropriate boundary conditions for the numerical solution of a merged region.

  16. Time-motion analysis of Italian elite women's basketball games: individual and team analyses.

    PubMed

    Conte, Daniele; Favero, Terence G; Lupo, Corrado; Francioni, Fabio M; Capranica, Laura; Tessitore, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess elite women's basketball game performance. Five elite women's games (3 Italian first division and 2 Euroleague) were analyzed for individual and team time-motion analyses. The individual analysis evaluated the players' movement patterns with particular focus on high-intensity activity (HIA), sprint activity, and repeated sprint events (RSEs). Team analysis included live time (LT), stoppage time (ST), and their ratio, transfer (TR) phases, and half court and full court actions. The frequency of occurrence of changes of activities was n = 576 ± 110, one every 2.56 seconds of LT. Total HIA was 8.5 ± 1.8% of LT and no significant differences between quarter periods were observed. In general, players performed linear sprints (48.3 ± 2.9%) over 1-5 m distance (56.8 ± 5.6%). The occurrence of RSE was 4.4 ± 1.7, with 58.6 ± 18.5% passive recovery between sprints. Team analysis showed no significant difference between games for LT and ST phases (ratio = 1.18 ± 0.25). For game analysis, LT and ST were 43.4 ± 7.8% and 51.1 ± 8.4%, respectively. A difference between games was found for half court actions (p < 0.01) and TR phases (p ≤ 0.05). Moreover, 1 TR and 2 TR were the most performed (45.3 and 23.9%) actions. These results encourage coaches to include repeated sprint ability with mainly linear and short sprints into a comprehensive training program.

  17. Time-motion analysis of Italian elite women's basketball games: individual and team analyses.

    PubMed

    Conte, Daniele; Favero, Terence G; Lupo, Corrado; Francioni, Fabio M; Capranica, Laura; Tessitore, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess elite women's basketball game performance. Five elite women's games (3 Italian first division and 2 Euroleague) were analyzed for individual and team time-motion analyses. The individual analysis evaluated the players' movement patterns with particular focus on high-intensity activity (HIA), sprint activity, and repeated sprint events (RSEs). Team analysis included live time (LT), stoppage time (ST), and their ratio, transfer (TR) phases, and half court and full court actions. The frequency of occurrence of changes of activities was n = 576 ± 110, one every 2.56 seconds of LT. Total HIA was 8.5 ± 1.8% of LT and no significant differences between quarter periods were observed. In general, players performed linear sprints (48.3 ± 2.9%) over 1-5 m distance (56.8 ± 5.6%). The occurrence of RSE was 4.4 ± 1.7, with 58.6 ± 18.5% passive recovery between sprints. Team analysis showed no significant difference between games for LT and ST phases (ratio = 1.18 ± 0.25). For game analysis, LT and ST were 43.4 ± 7.8% and 51.1 ± 8.4%, respectively. A difference between games was found for half court actions (p < 0.01) and TR phases (p ≤ 0.05). Moreover, 1 TR and 2 TR were the most performed (45.3 and 23.9%) actions. These results encourage coaches to include repeated sprint ability with mainly linear and short sprints into a comprehensive training program. PMID:25051006

  18. Video Analysis of Projectile Motion Using Tablet Computers as Experimental Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, P.; Gröber, S.; Kuhn, J.; Müller, A.

    2014-01-01

    Tablet computers were used as experimental tools to record and analyse the motion of a ball thrown vertically from a moving skateboard. Special applications plotted the measurement data component by component, allowing a simple determination of initial conditions and "g" in order to explore the underlying laws of motion. This experiment…

  19. Analysis of Interfraction Prostate Motion Using Megavoltage Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Bylund, Kevin C. Bayouth, John E.; Smith, Mark C.; Hass, A. Curtis; Bhatia, Sudershan K.; Buatti, John M..

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: Determine the degree of interfraction prostate motion and its components measured by using daily megavoltage (MV) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. Methods and Materials: A total of 984 daily MV CBCT images from 24 patients undergoing definitive intensity-modulated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer were analyzed retrospectively. Pretreatment couch shifts, based on physician registration of MV CBCT to planning CT data sets, were used as a measure of daily interfraction motion. Off-line bony registration was performed to separate bony misalignment from internal organ motion. Interobserver and intraobserver variation studies were performed on 20 MV CBCT images. Results: Mean interfraction prostate motion was 6.7 mm, with the greatest single-axis deviation in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction. The largest positional inaccuracy was accounted for by systematic deviations in bony misalignment, whereas random deviations occurred from bony misalignment and internal prostate motion. In the aggregate, AP motion did not correlate with days elapsed since beginning therapy or on average with rectal size at treatment planning. Interobserver variation was greatest in the AP direction, decreased in experienced observers, and further decreased in intraobserver studies. Mean interfraction motion during the first 6 days of therapy, when used as a subsequent offset, reduced acceptable AP planning target volume margins by 50%. Conclusion: The MV CBCT is a practical direct method of daily localization that shows significant interfraction motion with respect to conventional three-dimensional conformal and intensity-modulated radiotherapy margins, similar to that measured in other modalities.

  20. The timing of fault motion in Death Valley from Illite Age Analysis of fault gouge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, E. A.; Haines, S. H.; Van der Pluijm, B.

    2014-12-01

    We constrained the timing of fluid circulation and associated fault motion in the Death Valley region of the US Basin and Range Province from Illite Age Analysis (IAA) of fault gouge at seven Low-Angle Normal Fault (LANF) exposures in the Black Mountains and Panamint Mountains, and in two nearby areas. 40Ar/39Ar ages of neoformed, illitic clay minerals in these fault zones range from 2.8 Ma to 18.6 Ma, preserving asynchronous fault motion across the region that corresponds to an evolving history of crustal block movements during Neogene extensional deformation. From north to south, along the western side of the Panamint Range, the Mosaic Canyon fault yields an authigenic illite age of 16.9±2.9 Ma, the Emigrant fault has ages of less than 10-12 Ma at Tucki Mountain and Wildrose Canyon, and an age of 3.6±0.17 Ma was obtained for the Panamint Front Range LANF at South Park Canyon. Across Death Valley, along the western side of the Black Mountains, Ar ages of clay minerals are 3.2±3.9 Ma, 12.2±0.13 Ma and 2.8±0.45 Ma for the Amargosa Detachment, the Gregory Peak Fault and the Mormon Point Turtleback detachment, respectively. Complementary analysis of the δH composition of neoformed clays shows a primarily meteoric source for the mineralizing fluids in these LANF zones. The ages fall into two geologic timespans, reflecting activity pulses in the Middle Miocene and in the Upper Pliocene. Activity on both of the range front LANFs does not appear to be localized on any single portion of these fault systems. Middle Miocene fault rock ages of neoformed clays were also obtained in the Ruby Mountains (10.5±1.2 Ma) to the north of the Death Valley region and to the south in the Whipple Mountains (14.3±0.19 Ma). The presence of similar, bracketed times of activity indicate that LANFs in the Death Valley region were tectonically linked, while isotopic signatures indicate that faulting pulses involved surface fluid penetration.

  1. Automatic detection of a hand-held needle in ultrasound via phased-based analysis of the tremor motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beigi, Parmida; Salcudean, Septimiu E.; Rohling, Robert; Ng, Gary C.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an automatic localization method for a standard hand-held needle in ultrasound based on temporal motion analysis of spatially decomposed data. Subtle displacement arising from tremor motion has a periodic pattern which is usually imperceptible in the intensity image but may convey information in the phase image. Our method aims to detect such periodic motion of a hand-held needle and distinguish it from intrinsic tissue motion, using a technique inspired by video magnification. Complex steerable pyramids allow specific design of the wavelets' orientations according to the insertion angle as well as the measurement of the local phase. We therefore use steerable pairs of even and odd Gabor wavelets to decompose the ultrasound B-mode sequence into various spatial frequency bands. Variations of the local phase measurements in the spatially decomposed input data is then temporally analyzed using a finite impulse response bandpass filter to detect regions with a tremor motion pattern. Results obtained from different pyramid levels are then combined and thresholded to generate the binary mask input for the Hough transform, which determines an estimate of the direction angle and discards some of the outliers. Polynomial fitting is used at the final stage to remove any remaining outliers and improve the trajectory detection. The detected needle is finally added back to the input sequence as an overlay of a cloud of points. We demonstrate the efficiency of our approach to detect the needle using subtle tremor motion in an agar phantom and in-vivo porcine cases where intrinsic motion is also present. The localization accuracy was calculated by comparing to expert manual segmentation, and presented in (mean, standard deviation and root-mean-square error) of (0.93°, 1.26° and 0.87°) and (1.53 mm, 1.02 mm and 1.82 mm) for the trajectory and the tip, respectively.

  2. Motion Sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... people traveling by car, train, airplanes and especially boats. Motion sickness can start suddenly, with a queasy ... motion sickness. For example, down below on a boat, your inner ear senses motion, but your eyes ...

  3. Note: An automated image analysis method for high-throughput classification of surface-bound bacterial cell motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Simon; Syal, Karan; Tao, Nongjian; Wang, Shaopeng

    2015-12-01

    We present a Single-Cell Motion Characterization System (SiCMoCS) to automatically extract bacterial cell morphological features from microscope images and use those features to automatically classify cell motion for rod shaped motile bacterial cells. In some imaging based studies, bacteria cells need to be attached to the surface for time-lapse observation of cellular processes such as cell membrane-protein interactions and membrane elasticity. These studies often generate large volumes of images. Extracting accurate bacterial cell morphology features from these images is critical for quantitative assessment. Using SiCMoCS, we demonstrated simultaneous and automated motion tracking and classification of hundreds of individual cells in an image sequence of several hundred frames. This is a significant improvement from traditional manual and semi-automated approaches to segmenting bacterial cells based on empirical thresholds, and a first attempt to automatically classify bacterial motion types for motile rod shaped bacterial cells, which enables rapid and quantitative analysis of various types of bacterial motion.

  4. Note: An automated image analysis method for high-throughput classification of surface-bound bacterial cell motions.

    PubMed

    Shen, Simon; Syal, Karan; Tao, Nongjian; Wang, Shaopeng

    2015-12-01

    We present a Single-Cell Motion Characterization System (SiCMoCS) to automatically extract bacterial cell morphological features from microscope images and use those features to automatically classify cell motion for rod shaped motile bacterial cells. In some imaging based studies, bacteria cells need to be attached to the surface for time-lapse observation of cellular processes such as cell membrane-protein interactions and membrane elasticity. These studies often generate large volumes of images. Extracting accurate bacterial cell morphology features from these images is critical for quantitative assessment. Using SiCMoCS, we demonstrated simultaneous and automated motion tracking and classification of hundreds of individual cells in an image sequence of several hundred frames. This is a significant improvement from traditional manual and semi-automated approaches to segmenting bacterial cells based on empirical thresholds, and a first attempt to automatically classify bacterial motion types for motile rod shaped bacterial cells, which enables rapid and quantitative analysis of various types of bacterial motion. PMID:26724085

  5. Motion patterns in activities of daily living: 3- year longitudinal follow-up after total shoulder arthroplasty using an optical 3D motion analysis system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) can improve function in osteoarthritic shoulders, but the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) can still remain impaired. Routinely, shoulder surgeons measure range of motion (ROM) using a goniometer. Objective data are limited, however, concerning functional three-dimensional changes in ROM in ADLs after TSA in patients with degenerative glenohumeral osteoarthritis. Methods This study included ten consecutive patients, who received TSA for primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis. The patients were examined the day before, 6 months, and 3 years after shoulder replacement as well. We compared them with a control group (n = 10) without any shoulder pathology and measured shoulder movement by 3D motion analysis using a novel 3 D model. The measurement included static maximum values, the ability to perform and the ROM of the ADLs “combing the hair”, “washing the opposite armpit”, “tying an apron”, and “taking a book from a shelf”. Results Six months after surgery, almost all TSA patients were able to perform the four ADLs (3 out of 40 tasks could not be performed by the 10 patients); 3 years postoperatively all patients were able to carry out all ADLs (40 out of 40 tasks possible). In performing the ADLs, comparison of the pre- with the 6-month and 3-year postoperative status of the TSA group showed that the subjects did not fully use the available maximum flexion/extension ROM in performing the four ADLs. The ROM used for flexion/extension did not change significantly (preoperatively 135°-0° -34° vs. 3 years postoperatively 131° -0° -53°). For abduction/adduction, ROM improved significantly from 33°-0° -27° preoperatively to 76° -0° -35° postoperatively. Compared to the controls (118°) the TSA group used less ROM for abduction to perform the four ADLs 3 years postoperatively. Conclusion TSA improves the ability to perform ADL and the individual ROM in ADLs in patients with

  6. Three-dimensional motion analysis of lumbopelvic rhythm during lateral trunk bending

    PubMed Central

    Tojima, Michio; Ogata, Naoshi; Inokuchi, Haruhi; Haga, Nobuhiko

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To examine the variations in the lumbopelvic rhythm and lumbar-hip ratio in the frontal plane. [Subjects and Methods] Markers were placed on the T10 and T12 spinous processes, bilateral paravertebral muscles at the T11 level, the pelvis, and the femur. Lumbar spine and hip angles were measured during lateral trunk bending using three-dimensional motion analysis. Data from the trunk lateral bending movement were categorized into descending (start of hip movement to when the hip angle reached its maximum value) and ascending (from the maximum hip angle to the end of movement) phases. The lumbar-hip ratio was calculated as the ratio of the lumbar spine angle to the hip angle. [Results] The lumbar-hip ratio decreased from 5.9 to 3.6 in the descending phase, indicating lumbar spinal movement was less than hip movement. In the ascending phase, the lumbar-hip ratio was reversed. The lumbopelvic rhythm was better expressed by a cubic or quadratic function rather than a linear function. These functions indicate that when the hip inclines by 1° that the lumbar spine bends laterally by 2.4°. [Conclusion] The lumbopelvic rhythm and lumbar-hip ratio indicate lumbar lateral bending instead of a limitation of hip inclination. PMID:27630428

  7. Evaluation of lens distortion errors using an underwater camera system for video-based motion analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poliner, Jeffrey; Fletcher, Lauren; Klute, Glenn K.

    1994-01-01

    Video-based motion analysis systems are widely employed to study human movement, using computers to capture, store, process, and analyze video data. This data can be collected in any environment where cameras can be located. One of the NASA facilities where human performance research is conducted is the Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF), a pool of water which simulates zero-gravity with neutral buoyance. Underwater video collection in the WETF poses some unique problems. This project evaluates the error caused by the lens distortion of the WETF cameras. A grid of points of known dimensions was constructed and videotaped using a video vault underwater system. Recorded images were played back on a VCR and a personal computer grabbed and stored the images on disk. These images were then digitized to give calculated coordinates for the grid points. Errors were calculated as the distance from the known coordinates of the points to the calculated coordinates. It was demonstrated that errors from lens distortion could be as high as 8 percent. By avoiding the outermost regions of a wide-angle lens, the error can be kept smaller.

  8. Use of Finite Elements Analysis for a Weigh-in-Motion Sensor Design

    PubMed Central

    Opitz, Rigobert; Goanta, Viorel; Carlescu, Petru; Barsanescu, Paul-Doru; Taranu, Nicolae; Banu, Oana

    2012-01-01

    High speed weigh-in-motion (WIM) sensors are utilized as components of complex traffic monitoring and measurement systems. They should be able to determine the weights on wheels, axles and vehicle gross weights, and to help the classification of vehicles (depending on the number of axles). WIM sensors must meet the following main requirements: good accuracy, high endurance, low price and easy installation in the road structure. It is not advisable to use cheap materials in constructing these devices for lower prices, since the sensors are normally working in harsh environmental conditions such as temperatures between −40 °C and +70 °C, dust, temporary water immersion, shocks and vibrations. Consequently, less expensive manufacturing technologies are recommended. Because the installation cost in the road structure is high and proportional to the WIM sensor cross section (especially with its thickness), the device needs to be made as flat as possible. The WIM sensor model presented and analyzed in this paper uses a spring element equipped with strain gages. Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA), the authors have attempted to obtain a more sensitive, reliable, lower profile and overall cheaper elastic element for a new WIM sensor. PMID:22969332

  9. Quantifying cross-scatter contamination in biplane fluoroscopy motion analysis systems.

    PubMed

    Cross, Janelle A; McHenry, Ben; Schmidt, Taly Gilat

    2015-10-01

    Biplane fluoroscopy is used for dynamic in vivo three-dimensional motion analysis of various joints of the body. Cross-scatter between the two fluoroscopy systems may limit tracking accuracy. This study measured the magnitude and effects of cross-scatter in biplane fluoroscopic images. Four cylindrical phantoms of 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-in. diameter were imaged at varying kVp levels to determine the cross-scatter fraction and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Monte Carlo simulations quantified the effect of the gantry angle on the cross-scatter fraction. A cadaver foot with implanted beads was also imaged. The effect of cross-scatter on marker-based tracking accuracy was investigated. Results demonstrated that the cross-scatter fraction varied from 0.15 for the 4-in. cylinder to 0.89 for the 10-in. cylinder when averaged across kVp. The average change in CNR due to cross-scatter ranged from 5% to 36% CNR decreases for the 4- and 10-in. cylinders, respectively. In simulations, the cross-scatter fraction increased with the gantry angle for the 8- and 10-in. cylinders. Cross-scatter significantly increased static-tracking error by 15%, 25%, and 38% for the 6-, 8-, and 10-in. phantoms, respectively, with no significant effect for the foot specimen. The results demonstrated submillimeter marker-based tracking for a range of phantom sizes, despite cross-scatter degradation.

  10. Three-dimensional motion analysis of lumbopelvic rhythm during lateral trunk bending

    PubMed Central

    Tojima, Michio; Ogata, Naoshi; Inokuchi, Haruhi; Haga, Nobuhiko

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To examine the variations in the lumbopelvic rhythm and lumbar-hip ratio in the frontal plane. [Subjects and Methods] Markers were placed on the T10 and T12 spinous processes, bilateral paravertebral muscles at the T11 level, the pelvis, and the femur. Lumbar spine and hip angles were measured during lateral trunk bending using three-dimensional motion analysis. Data from the trunk lateral bending movement were categorized into descending (start of hip movement to when the hip angle reached its maximum value) and ascending (from the maximum hip angle to the end of movement) phases. The lumbar-hip ratio was calculated as the ratio of the lumbar spine angle to the hip angle. [Results] The lumbar-hip ratio decreased from 5.9 to 3.6 in the descending phase, indicating lumbar spinal movement was less than hip movement. In the ascending phase, the lumbar-hip ratio was reversed. The lumbopelvic rhythm was better expressed by a cubic or quadratic function rather than a linear function. These functions indicate that when the hip inclines by 1° that the lumbar spine bends laterally by 2.4°. [Conclusion] The lumbopelvic rhythm and lumbar-hip ratio indicate lumbar lateral bending instead of a limitation of hip inclination.

  11. Physiological demands of women's rugby union: time-motion analysis and heart rate response.

    PubMed

    Virr, Jody Lynn; Game, Alex; Bell, Gordon John; Syrotuik, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physical demands of women's rugby union match play using time-motion analysis and heart rate (HR) response. Thirty-eight premier club level female rugby players, ages 18-34 years were videotaped and HRs monitored for a full match. Performances were coded into 12 different movement categories: 5 speeds of locomotion (standing, walking, jogging, striding, sprinting), 4 forms of intensive non-running exertion (ruck/maul/tackle, pack down, scrum, lift) and 3 discrete activities (kick, jump, open field tackle). The main results revealed that backs spend significantly more time sprinting and walking whereas forwards spend more time in intensive non-running exertion and jogging. Forwards also had a significantly higher total work frequency compared to the backs, but a higher total rest frequency compared to the backs. In terms of HR responses, forwards displayed higher mean HRs throughout the match and more time above 80% of their maximum HR than backs. In summary, women's rugby union is characterised by intermittent bursts of high-intensity activity, where forwards and backs have similar anaerobic energy demands, but different specific match demands.

  12. Three-dimensional motion analysis of lumbopelvic rhythm during lateral trunk bending.

    PubMed

    Tojima, Michio; Ogata, Naoshi; Inokuchi, Haruhi; Haga, Nobuhiko

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] To examine the variations in the lumbopelvic rhythm and lumbar-hip ratio in the frontal plane. [Subjects and Methods] Markers were placed on the T10 and T12 spinous processes, bilateral paravertebral muscles at the T11 level, the pelvis, and the femur. Lumbar spine and hip angles were measured during lateral trunk bending using three-dimensional motion analysis. Data from the trunk lateral bending movement were categorized into descending (start of hip movement to when the hip angle reached its maximum value) and ascending (from the maximum hip angle to the end of movement) phases. The lumbar-hip ratio was calculated as the ratio of the lumbar spine angle to the hip angle. [Results] The lumbar-hip ratio decreased from 5.9 to 3.6 in the descending phase, indicating lumbar spinal movement was less than hip movement. In the ascending phase, the lumbar-hip ratio was reversed. The lumbopelvic rhythm was better expressed by a cubic or quadratic function rather than a linear function. These functions indicate that when the hip inclines by 1° that the lumbar spine bends laterally by 2.4°. [Conclusion] The lumbopelvic rhythm and lumbar-hip ratio indicate lumbar lateral bending instead of a limitation of hip inclination. PMID:27630428

  13. Laser Spot Tracking Based on Modified Circular Hough Transform and Motion Pattern Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Krstinić, Damir; Skelin, Ana Kuzmanić; Milatić, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Laser pointers are one of the most widely used interactive and pointing devices in different human-computer interaction systems. Existing approaches to vision-based laser spot tracking are designed for controlled indoor environments with the main assumption that the laser spot is very bright, if not the brightest, spot in images. In this work, we are interested in developing a method for an outdoor, open-space environment, which could be implemented on embedded devices with limited computational resources. Under these circumstances, none of the assumptions of existing methods for laser spot tracking can be applied, yet a novel and fast method with robust performance is required. Throughout the paper, we will propose and evaluate an efficient method based on modified circular Hough transform and Lucas–Kanade motion analysis. Encouraging results on a representative dataset demonstrate the potential of our method in an uncontrolled outdoor environment, while achieving maximal accuracy indoors. Our dataset and ground truth data are made publicly available for further development. PMID:25350502

  14. Automatic analysis and characterization of the hummingbird wings motion using dense optical flow features.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Fabio; Manzanera, Antoine; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    A new method for automatic analysis and characterization of recorded hummingbird wing motion is proposed. The method starts by computing a multiscale dense optical flow field, which is used to segment the wings, i.e., pixels with larger velocities. Then, the kinematic and deformation of the wings were characterized as a temporal set of global and local measures: a global angular acceleration as a time function of each wing and a local acceleration profile that approximates the dynamics of the different wing segments. Additionally, the variance of the apparent velocity orientation estimates those wing foci with larger deformation. Finally a local measure of the orientation highlights those regions with maximal deformation. The approach was evaluated in a total of 91 flight cycles, captured using three different setups. The proposed measures follow the yaw turn hummingbird flight dynamics, with a strong correlation of all computed paths, reporting a standard deviation of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] for the global angular acceleration and the global wing deformation respectively. PMID:25599248

  15. Physiological demands of women's rugby union: time-motion analysis and heart rate response.

    PubMed

    Virr, Jody Lynn; Game, Alex; Bell, Gordon John; Syrotuik, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physical demands of women's rugby union match play using time-motion analysis and heart rate (HR) response. Thirty-eight premier club level female rugby players, ages 18-34 years were videotaped and HRs monitored for a full match. Performances were coded into 12 different movement categories: 5 speeds of locomotion (standing, walking, jogging, striding, sprinting), 4 forms of intensive non-running exertion (ruck/maul/tackle, pack down, scrum, lift) and 3 discrete activities (kick, jump, open field tackle). The main results revealed that backs spend significantly more time sprinting and walking whereas forwards spend more time in intensive non-running exertion and jogging. Forwards also had a significantly higher total work frequency compared to the backs, but a higher total rest frequency compared to the backs. In terms of HR responses, forwards displayed higher mean HRs throughout the match and more time above 80% of their maximum HR than backs. In summary, women's rugby union is characterised by intermittent bursts of high-intensity activity, where forwards and backs have similar anaerobic energy demands, but different specific match demands. PMID:24168428

  16. Application of motion analysis system in pre-impact fall detection.

    PubMed

    Nyan, M N; Tay, Francis E H; Mah, Matthew Z E

    2008-07-19

    The purpose of this study is to investigate unique features of body segments in fall and activities of daily living (ADL) to make automatic detection of fall in its descending phase before the impact. Thus, fall-related injuries can be prevented or reduced by deploying feedback systems before the impact. In this study, the authors propose the following hypothesis: (1) thigh segment normally does not go beyond certain threshold angle to forward and sideways directions in ADL and (2) even if it does, the angular characteristics measured at torso and thigh differ from one another in ADL whereas in the case of fall, they become congruent. These two factors can be used to distinguish fall from ADL in its inception. Vicon 3-D motion analysis system was used in this study. High level of correlation between thigh and torso segments (corr > 0.99) was found for fall activities and low correlation coefficients (mean corr for lateral movements is 0.2338 and for sagittal movements is -0.665) were observed in ADL. By applying the hypothesis, all simulated falls could be detected with no false alarms and around 700ms lead-time before the impact was achieved in pre-impact fall detection. It is the longest lead-time obtained so far in pre-impact fall detection.

  17. Non-rigid registration between 3D ultrasound and CT images of the liver based on intensity and gradient information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Duhgoon; Nam, Woo Hyun; Lee, Jae Young; Ra, Jong Beom

    2011-01-01

    In order to utilize both ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) images of the liver concurrently for medical applications such as diagnosis and image-guided intervention, non-rigid registration between these two types of images is an essential step, as local deformation between US and CT images exists due to the different respiratory phases involved and due to the probe pressure that occurs in US imaging. This paper introduces a voxel-based non-rigid registration algorithm between the 3D B-mode US and CT images of the liver. In the proposed algorithm, to improve the registration accuracy, we utilize the surface information of the liver and gallbladder in addition to the information of the vessels inside the liver. For an effective correlation between US and CT images, we treat those anatomical regions separately according to their characteristics in US and CT images. Based on a novel objective function using a 3D joint histogram of the intensity and gradient information, vessel-based non-rigid registration is followed by surface-based non-rigid registration in sequence, which improves the registration accuracy. The proposed algorithm is tested for ten clinical datasets and quantitative evaluations are conducted. Experimental results show that the registration error between anatomical features of US and CT images is less than 2 mm on average, even with local deformation due to different respiratory phases and probe pressure. In addition, the lesion registration error is less than 3 mm on average with a maximum of 4.5 mm that is considered acceptable for clinical applications.

  18. Atmospheric angular momentum fluctuations, length-of-day changes and polar motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R. T. H.; Hide, R.; White, A. A.; Wilson, C. A.

    1983-05-01

    Meteorological effects on the variable rotation of the solid earth are discussed in terms of fluctuations in the total angular momentum of the atmosphere about the earth's center of mass. The basic formulas of nonrigid body rotational dynamics are briefly derived, the ensuing wobble excitation function is examined in detail, and some difficulties with standard treatments are identified. A simple new equatorial angular momentum function is proposed that can be accurately calculated from current meteorological data. The use of Love numbers to allow for the rotational and surface load deformation of the nonrigid earth is discussed, leading to a definition of effective angular momentum functions for the atmosphere. The values of the atmospheric angular momentum functions are compared with the astronomically observed values of length of day and polar motion.

  19. Motion analysis study on sensitivity of finite element model of the cervical spine to geometry.

    PubMed

    Zafarparandeh, Iman; Erbulut, Deniz U; Ozer, Ali F

    2016-07-01

    Numerous finite element models of the cervical spine have been proposed, with exact geometry or with symmetric approximation in the geometry. However, few researches have investigated the sensitivity of predicted motion responses to the geometry of the cervical spine. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of symmetric assumption on the predicted motion by finite element model of the cervical spine. We developed two finite element models of the cervical spine C2-C7. One model was based on the exact geometry of the cervical spine (asymmetric model), whereas the other was symmetric (symmetric model) about the mid-sagittal plane. The predicted range of motion of both models-main and coupled motions-was compared with published experimental data for all motion planes under a full range of loads. The maximum differences between the asymmetric model and symmetric model predictions for the principal motion were 31%, 78%, and 126% for flexion-extension, right-left lateral bending, and right-left axial rotation, respectively. For flexion-extension and lateral bending, the minimum difference was 0%, whereas it was 2% for axial rotation. The maximum coupled motions predicted by the symmetric model were 1.5° axial rotation and 3.6° lateral bending, under applied lateral bending and axial rotation, respectively. Those coupled motions predicted by the asymmetric model were 1.6° axial rotation and 4° lateral bending, under applied lateral bending and axial rotation, respectively. In general, the predicted motion response of the cervical spine by the symmetric model was in the acceptable range and nonlinearity of the moment-rotation curve for the cervical spine was properly predicted.

  20. Dynamics analysis of electrodynamic satellite tethers. Equations of motion and numerical solution algorithms for the tether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nacozy, P. E.

    1984-01-01

    The equations of motion are developed for a perfectly flexible, inelastic tether with a satellite at its extremity. The tether is attached to a space vehicle in orbit. The tether is allowed to possess electrical conductivity. A numerical solution algorithm to provide the motion of the tether and satellite system is presented. The resulting differential equations can be solved by various existing standard numerical integration computer programs. The resulting differential equations allow the introduction of approximations that can lead to analytical, approximate general solutions. The differential equations allow more dynamical insight of the motion.

  1. Motion analysis of mechanical heart valve prosthesis utilizing high-speed video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adlparvar, Payam; Guo, George; Kingsbury, Chris

    1993-01-01

    The Edwards-Duromedics (ED) mechanical heart valve prosthesis is of a bileaflet design, incorporating unique design features that distinguish its performance with respect to other mechanical valves of similar type. Leaflet motion of mechanical heart valves, particularly during closure, is related to valve durability, valve sounds and the efficiency of the cardiac output. Modifications to the ED valve have resulted in significant improvements with respect to leaflet motion. In this study a high-speed video system was used to monitor the leaflet motion of the valve, and to compare the performance of the Modified Specification to that of the Original Specification using a St. Jude Medical as a control valve.

  2. A trade-off analysis design tool. Aircraft interior noise-motion/passenger satisfaction model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1977-01-01

    A design tool was developed to enhance aircraft passenger satisfaction. The effect of aircraft interior motion and noise on passenger comfort and satisfaction was modelled. Effects of individual aircraft noise sources were accounted for, and the impact of noise on passenger activities and noise levels to safeguard passenger hearing were investigated. The motion noise effect models provide a means for tradeoff analyses between noise and motion variables, and also provide a framework for optimizing noise reduction among noise sources. Data for the models were collected onboard commercial aircraft flights and specially scheduled tests.

  3. ANALYSIS OF STRONG-MOTION EARTHQUAKE RECORDS FROM A WELL-INSTRUMENTED EARTH DAM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fedock, Joseph J.

    1986-01-01

    Strong-motion records from Long Valley Dam during the Mammoth Lakes earthquake sequence of May 1980 are analyzed to determine the main features of the dam's motions. The dam was instrumented with 22 accelerometers on its embankment and in the immediate vicinity, and more than 60 high-quality, long-duration accelerograms were recorded for the three largest earthquakes of the sequence. Free-field responses are compared with embankment responses to help establish the amplification of the structural motions and to identify modes of vibration of the structure.

  4. LEARNING NONRIGID DEFORMATIONS FOR CONSTRAINED POINT-BASED REGISTRATION FOR IMAGE-GUIDED MR-TRUS PROSTATE INTERVENTION

    PubMed Central

    Onofrey, John A.; Staib, Lawrence H.; Sarkar, Saradwata; Venkataraman, Rajesh; Papademetris, Xenophon

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents and validates a low-dimensional nonrigid registration method for fusing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) in image-guided prostate biopsy. Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent forms of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men in the United States. Conventional clinical practice uses TRUS to guide prostate biopsies when there is a suspicion of cancer. Pre-procedural MRI information can reveal lesions and may be fused with intra-procedure TRUS imaging to provide patient-specific, localization of lesions for targeting. The state-of-the-art MRI-TRUS nonrigid image fusion process relies upon semi-automated segmentation of the prostate in both the MRI and TRUS images. In this paper, we develop a fast, automated nonrigid registration approach to MRI-TRUS fusion based on a statistical deformation model of intra-procedural deformations derived from a clinical sample. PMID:26405508

  5. Non-rigid Group Theory, Tunneling Splittings and Nuclear Spin Statistics of Water Pentamer: (H2O5)

    SciTech Connect

    Balasubramanian, K

    2004-02-02

    The character table of the fully non-rigid water pentamer, (H{sub 2}O){sub 5} is derived for the first time. The group of all feasible permutations is the wreath product group S{sub 5}[S{sub 2}] and it consists of 3840 operations divided into 36 conjugacy classes and irreducible representations. We have shown that the full character table can be constructed using elegant matrix type generator algebra. The character table has been applied to the water pentamer by obtaining the nuclear spin statistical weights of the rovibronic levels and tunneling splittings of the fully non-rigid pentamer. We have also obtained the statistical weights and tunneling splittings of a semi-rigid deuterated pentamer that exhibits pseudo rotation with an averaged C{sub 5h}(G{sub 10}) symmetry used in the assignment of vibration-rotation-tunneling spectra . The correlation tables have been constructed for the semirigid (G{sub 10}) to non-rigid (G{sub 3840}) groups for the rotational levels and tunneling levels. The nuclear spin statistical weights have also been derived for both the limits.

  6. 3D non-rigid registration using surface and local salient features for transrectal ultrasound image-guided prostate biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Akbari, Hamed; Halig, Luma; Fei, Baowei

    2011-03-01

    We present a 3D non-rigid registration algorithm for the potential use in combining PET/CT and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images for targeted prostate biopsy. Our registration is a hybrid approach that simultaneously optimizes the similarities from point-based registration and volume matching methods. The 3D registration is obtained by minimizing the distances of corresponding points at the surface and within the prostate and by maximizing the overlap ratio of the bladder neck on both images. The hybrid approach not only capture deformation at the prostate surface and internal landmarks but also the deformation at the bladder neck regions. The registration uses a soft assignment and deterministic annealing process. The correspondences are iteratively established in a fuzzy-to-deterministic approach. B-splines are used to generate a smooth non-rigid spatial transformation. In this study, we tested our registration with pre- and postbiopsy TRUS images of the same patients. Registration accuracy is evaluated using manual defined anatomic landmarks, i.e. calcification. The root-mean-squared (RMS) of the difference image between the reference and floating images was decreased by 62.6+/-9.1% after registration. The mean target registration error (TRE) was 0.88+/-0.16 mm, i.e. less than 3 voxels with a voxel size of 0.38×0.38×0.38 mm3 for all five patients. The experimental results demonstrate the robustness and accuracy of the 3D non-rigid registration algorithm.

  7. Videoradiographic analysis of the range of motion in unilateral experimental knee joint arthritis in rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The translational and predictive value of animal models highly depends on the validity of respective readout parameters. In arthritis research, there has been a shift from sole threshold testing for pain-related behavior, as well as from swelling and histology assessment for inflammation, toward an analysis of joint function as indicated, for instance, by an increasing number of studies on gait abnormalities. Clinically, the range of motion (ROM) of the affected joint plays a major role in diagnosis and the assessment of treatment benefits. This parameter, however, is only insufficiently detected by currently used analytic systems in animals. Methods Here we used high-resolution videoradiographic analysis to assess ROM in experimental knee joint arthritis in rats. This parameter is described during the 21-day course of antigen-induced arthritis in rats. Furthermore, the therapeutic effects of antinociceptive (morphine) and anti-inflammatory (dexamethasone) treatment on ROM are documented. To obtain additional information on the implications of ROM in animal models, correlations were performed to measure pain-related behavior and inflammation. Results The study animals showed a significant reduction in ROM of the inflamed knee joint in the acute phase of arthritis. This was accompanied by an increase in knee joint movement on the contralateral side, indicating a compensational mechanism. Both morphine and dexamethasone treatment increased and thus normalized ROM. Changes in ROM were further stage-dependently correlated with weight bearing and joint swelling, that is, with both pain-related behavior and signs of inflammation. Conclusions The dynamic ROM observed in freely moving rats in our model of knee joint arthritis might serve as a parameter for global disease activity and might thus represent a promising readout parameter for preclinical assessment regarding the overall efficacy not only of antiarthritic but also of antinociceptive compounds. PMID

  8. Space Motion Sickness - Analysis of Medical Debriefs Data for Incidence and Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi; Younker, D.; Daniels, V.

    2011-01-01

    Astronauts use medications for the treatment of a variety of illnesses during space travel. Data mining efforts to assess minor clinical conditions occurring during Shuttle flights STS-1 through STS-94 revealed that space motion sickness (SMS) was the most common ailment during early flight days, occurring in approx.40% of crewmembers, followed by digestive system disturbances (9%) and infectious diseases, which most commonly involved the respiratory or urinary tracts. A more recent analysis of postflight medical debriefs data to examine trends with respect to medication use by astronauts during spaceflights indicated that 37% of all prescriptions recorded was for pain followed by sleep (22%), SMS (18%), decongestion (14%), and all others (14%). Further analysis revealed that about 150 of 317 crewmembers experienced symptoms of SMS. Nearly all (132 of 150) crewmembers took medication for the treatment of symptoms with a total of 387 doses. Promethazine was taken most often (201 doses); in most cases this resulted in alleviation of symptoms with 130 crewmembers (65%) reporting feeling much or somewhat better. Although fewer total doses of the combination of promethazine and dextroamphetamine (Phen/Dex) were taken (45 doses), slightly more than half of these doses resulted in improvement. The combination of scopolamine and dextroamphetamine (Scop/Dex) was reported to be effective in only 37% of cases, with 36 of 97 total doses resulting in improvement. A higher percentage (24%) of Scop/Dex doses was reported to be ineffective compared with promethazine alone or as Phen/Dex (10% and 7%, respectively). Comparisons of the effectiveness of the different dosage forms of promethazine revealed that intramuscular injection was most effective in alleviating symptoms with 55% feeling much better, 16% feeling somewhat better, and only 7% feeling no effect or worse. Overall, it appears that promethazine alone was used more frequently during flight and was reported effective for

  9. Analysis and comparison of motion-correction techniques in diffusion-weighted imaging.

    PubMed

    Trouard, T P; Sabharwal, Y; Altbach, M I; Gmitro, A F

    1996-01-01

    Motion continues to be a significant problem in MRI, producing image artifacts that can severely degrade image quality. In diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), the problem is amplified by the presence of large gradient fields used to produce the diffusion weighting. Three correction methods applicable for correction of specific classes of motion are described and compared. The first is based on a generalised projection onto convex sets (GPOCS) postprocessing algorithm. The second technique uses the collection of navigator echoes to track phase errors. The third technique is based on a radial-scan data acquisition combined with a modified projection-reconstruction algorithm. Although each technique corrects well for translations, the radial-scan method proves to be more robust when more complex motions are present. A detailed description of the causes of MR data errors caused by rigid body motion is included as an appendix.

  10. An analytical theory of the motion of PHOBOS and perturbation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emelyanov, N. V.; Nasonova, L. P.

    1989-08-01

    An analytical theory of the motion of Phobos is briefly described. The theory is realized by adapting the theory of artificial-satellite motion. A theoretical estimate of the coordinate computation method accuracy is about 0.5 m at an interval of 1 to 2 yrs. The perturbations of Phobos intermediate-orbit elements are analyzed and recommendations are made to account for perturbation factors. The possibility of determining the perturbing factors parameters from Phobos observations is discussed.

  11. Four-dimensional B-spline-based motion analysis of tagged cardiac MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozturk, Cengizhan; McVeigh, Elliot R.

    1999-05-01

    In recent years, with development of new MRI techniques, noninvasive evaluation of global and regional cardiac function is becoming a reality. One of the methods used for this purpose is MRI tagging. In tagging, spatially encoded magnetic saturation planes, tags, are created within tissues. These act as temporary markers and move with the tissue. In cardiac tagging, tag deformation pattern provides useful qualitative and quantitative information about the functional properties of underlying myocardium. The measured deformation of a single tag plane contains only unidirectional information of the past motion. In order to track the motion of a cardiac material point, this sparse, single dimensional data has to be combined with similar information gathered from other tag sets and all time frames. Previously, several methods have been developed which rely on the specific geometry of the chambers. Here, we employ an image plane based, simple cartesian coordinate system and provide a stepwise method to describe the heart motion using a four-dimensional tensor product of B-splines. The proposed displacement and forward motion fields exhibited sub-pixel accuracy. Since our motion fields are parametric and based on an image plane based coordinate system, trajectories or other derived values (velocity, acceleration, strains...) can be calculated for any desired point on the MRI images. This method is sufficiently general so that the motion of any tagged structure can be tracked.

  12. Analysis of motion of the body of a motor car hit on its side by another passenger car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gidlewski, M.; Prochowski, L.

    2016-09-01

    Based on an analysis of the course of a few experimental crash tests, a physical model and afterwards a mathematical model were prepared to describe the motion of bodies of the vehicles involved during the phase of impact. The motion was analysed in a global coordinate system attached to the road surface. Local coordinate systems were also adopted with their origins being placed at the centres of mass of the vehicles. Equations of motion of the model were derived. The calculation results enabled defining the influence of the location of the point of impact against the vehicle side on e.g. the following: - time history of the impact force exerted by the impacting car (A) on the impacted car (B) as well as characteristic values of this force and of the impulse of the impact force; - time histories showing changes in the velocity of the centre of vehicle mass and in the angle of deviation of the velocity vector from the direction of motion of the impacted vehicle before the collision; - trajectory of the centre of mass and angle of rotation of the body of the impacted vehicle. The calculations were focused on the initial period of motion of the body of the impacted vehicle, up to the instant of 200 ms from the start of the collision process. After this time, the vehicles separate from each other and move independently. The results obtained from the calculations covering this initial period make it possible to determine the starting-point values of the parameters to be taken for further calculations of the free post-impact motion of the cars.

  13. Precise ground motion measurements to support multi-hazard analysis in Jakarta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koudogbo, Fifamè; Duro, Javier; Garcia Robles, Javier; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.

    2015-04-01

    Jakarta is the capital of Indonesia and is home to approximately 10 million people on the coast of the Java Sea. The Capital District of Jakarta (DKI) sits in the lowest lying areas of the basin. Its topography varies, with the northern part just meters above current sea level and lying on a flood plain. Subsequently, this portion of the city frequently floods. Flood events have been increasing in severity during the past decade. The February 2007 event inundated 235 Km2 (about 36%) of the city, by up to seven meters in some areas. This event affected more than 2.6 million people; the estimated financial and economic losses from this event amounted to US900 million [1][2]. Inundations continue to occur under any sustained rainfall conditions. Flood events in Jakarta are expected to become more frequent in coming years, with a shift from previously slow natural processes with low frequency to a high frequency process resulting in severe socio-economic damage. Land subsidence in Jakarta results in increased vulnerability to flooding due to the reduced gravitational capacity to channel storm flows to the sea and an increased risk of tidal flooding. It continues at increasingly alarming rates, principally caused by intensive deep groundwater abstraction [3]. Recent studies have found typical subsidence rates of 7.5-10 cm a year. In localized areas of north Jakarta subsidence in the range 15-25 cm a year is occurring which, if sustained, would result in them sinking to 4-5 m below sea level by 2025 [3]. ALTAMIRA INFORMATION, company specialized in ground motion monitoring, has developed GlobalSARTM, which combines several processing techniques and algorithms based on InSAR technology, to achieve ground motion measurements with millimetric precision and high accuracy [4]. Within the RASOR (Rapid Analysis and Spatialisation and Of Risk) project, ALTAMIRA INFORMATION will apply GlobalSARTM to assess recent land subsidence in Jakarta, based on the processing of Very High

  14. Validity and Reliability of Two-Dimensional Motion Analysis for Quantifying Postural Deficits in Adults With and Without Neurological Impairment.

    PubMed

    Paul, S S; Lester, M E; Foreman, K B; Dibble, L E

    2016-09-01

    Frequently, clinical balance outcome measures are limited by floor or ceiling effects and provide insufficient resolution to determine subtle deficits. Detailed assessment of postural control obtained through posturography may be cost-prohibitive or logistically infeasible in some clinical settings. Two-dimensional (2D) motion analysis may provide a clinically feasible means of obtaining detailed quantification of balance deficits. Forty-five participants aged 18-80 years, with and without Parkinson disease, performed the Push and Release (PR) test, sit-to-stand (STS), and timed single leg stance (SLS). Performance was captured simultaneously using a three-dimensional (3D) (10-camera laboratory-based 3D motion capture system and 3D motion analysis software) and 2D (two commercially available video cameras and 2D motion analysis software) system. Agreement was excellent between 2D and 3D systems for all outcomes of the PR and SLS (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC2,1 ] 0.96-0.99, 95% CIs 0.92-0.98 to 0.99-1.0), and ranged from fair to excellent for STS outcomes (ICC2,1 0.59-0.93, 95% CIs 0.36-0.75 to 0.87-0.96). Test-retest reliability (ICC3,1 0.89-1.0, 95% CIs 0.76-0.96 to 1.0-1.0) and inter-rater reliability (ICC2,1 0.77-1.0, 95% CIs 0.61-0.87 to 1.0-1.0) of the 2D obtained outcomes were excellent. A technology package of commonly available video cameras and 2D motion analysis software was a valid and reliable method for quantifying outcomes of postural control tasks in people with a range of balance abilities. Two-dimensional analysis can be used in clinical practice to provide balance assessments as a cost-effective alternative to 3D motion capture. Anat Rec, 299:1165-1173, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27314922

  15. Analysis of accuracy in optical motion capture - A protocol for laboratory setup evaluation.

    PubMed

    Eichelberger, Patric; Ferraro, Matteo; Minder, Ursina; Denton, Trevor; Blasimann, Angela; Krause, Fabian; Baur, Heiner

    2016-07-01

    Validity and reliability as scientific quality criteria have to be considered when using optical motion capture (OMC) for research purposes. Literature and standards recommend individual laboratory setup evaluation. However, system characteristics such as trueness, precision and uncertainty are often not addressed in scientific reports on 3D human movement analysis. One reason may be the lack of simple and practical methods for evaluating accuracy parameters of OMC. A protocol was developed for investigating the accuracy of an OMC system (Vicon, volume 5.5×1.2×2.0m(3)) with standard laboratory equipment and by means of trueness and uncertainty of marker distances. The study investigated the effects of number of cameras (6, 8 and 10), measurement height (foot, knee and hip) and movement condition (static and dynamic) on accuracy. Number of cameras, height and movement condition affected system accuracy significantly. For lower body assessment during level walking, the most favorable setting (10 cameras, foot region) revealed mean trueness and uncertainty to be -0.08 and 0.33mm, respectively. Dynamic accuracy cannot be predicted based on static error assessments. Dynamic procedures have to be used instead. The significant influence of the number of cameras and the measurement location suggests that instrumental errors should be evaluated in a laboratory- and task-specific manner. The use of standard laboratory equipment makes the proposed procedure widely applicable and it supports the setup process of OCM by simple functional error assessment. Careful system configuration and thorough measurement process control are needed to produce high-quality data.

  16. Analysis of accuracy in optical motion capture - A protocol for laboratory setup evaluation.

    PubMed

    Eichelberger, Patric; Ferraro, Matteo; Minder, Ursina; Denton, Trevor; Blasimann, Angela; Krause, Fabian; Baur, Heiner

    2016-07-01

    Validity and reliability as scientific quality criteria have to be considered when using optical motion capture (OMC) for research purposes. Literature and standards recommend individual laboratory setup evaluation. However, system characteristics such as trueness, precision and uncertainty are often not addressed in scientific reports on 3D human movement analysis. One reason may be the lack of simple and practical methods for evaluating accuracy parameters of OMC. A protocol was developed for investigating the accuracy of an OMC system (Vicon, volume 5.5×1.2×2.0m(3)) with standard laboratory equipment and by means of trueness and uncertainty of marker distances. The study investigated the effects of number of cameras (6, 8 and 10), measurement height (foot, knee and hip) and movement condition (static and dynamic) on accuracy. Number of cameras, height and movement condition affected system accuracy significantly. For lower body assessment during level walking, the most favorable setting (10 cameras, foot region) revealed mean trueness and uncertainty to be -0.08 and 0.33mm, respectively. Dynamic accuracy cannot be predicted based on static error assessments. Dynamic procedures have to be used instead. The significant influence of the number of cameras and the measurement location suggests that instrumental errors should be evaluated in a laboratory- and task-specific manner. The use of standard laboratory equipment makes the proposed procedure widely applicable and it supports the setup process of OCM by simple functional error assessment. Careful system configuration and thorough measurement process control are needed to produce high-quality data. PMID:27230474

  17. Time-motion analysis, heart rate, and physiological characteristics of international canoe polo athletes.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Scott C; Kennedy, Michael D; Bell, Gordon J

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the time international canoe polo players spend performing various game activities, measure heart rate (HR) responses during games, and describe the physiological profile of elite players. Eight national canoe polo players were videotaped and wore HR monitors during 3 games at a World Championship and underwent fitness testing. The mean age, height, and weight were 25 ± 1 years, 1.82 ± 0.04 m, and 81.9 ± 10.9 kg, respectively. Time-motion analysis of 3 games indicated that the players spent 29 ± 3% of the game slow and moderate forward paddling, 28 ± 5% contesting, 27 ± 5% resting and gliding, 7 ± 1% turning, 5 ± 1% backward paddling, 2 ± 1% sprinting, and 2 ± 1% dribbling. Sixty-nine (±20)% of the game time was played at an HR intensity above the HR that corresponded to the ventilatory threshold (VT) that was determined during the peak V[Combining Dot Above]O2 test. Peak oxygen uptake and VT were 3.3 ± 0.3 and 2.2 ± 0.3 L·min, respectively, on a modified Monark arm crank ergometer. Arm crank peak 5-second anaerobic power was 379 W. The majority of the time spent during international canoe polo games involved slow-to-moderate forward paddling, contesting for the ball, and resting and gliding. Canoe polo games are played at a high intensity indicated by the HR responses, and the physiological characteristics suggest that these athletes had high levels of upper body aerobic and anaerobic fitness levels.

  18. Robust point matching for nonrigid shapes by preserving local neighborhood structures.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yefeng; Doermann, David

    2006-04-01

    In previous work on point matching, a set of points is often treated as an instance of a joint distribution to exploit global relationships in the point set. For nonrigid shapes, however, the local relationship among neighboring points is stronger and more stable than the global one. In this paper, we introduce the lotion of a neighborhood structure for the general point matching problem. We formulate point matching as an optimization problem to preserve local neighborhood structures during matching. Our approach has a simple graph matching interpretation, where each point is a node in the graph, and two nodes are connected by an edge if they are neighbors. The optimal match between two graphs is the one that maximizes the number of matched edges. Existing techniques are leveraged to search for an optimal solution with the shape context distance used to initialize the graph matching, followed by relaxation labeling updates for refinement. Extensive experiments show the robustness of our approach under deformation, noise in point locations, outliers, occlusion, and rotation. It outperforms the shape context and TPS-RPM algorithms on most scenarios.

  19. A non-rigid registration framework that accommodates resection and retraction.

    PubMed

    Risholm, Petter; Samsett, Eigil; Talos, Ion-Florin; Wells, William

    2009-01-01

    Traditional non-rigid registration algorithms are incapable of accurately registering intra-operative with pre-operative images whenever tissue has been resected or retracted. In this work we present methods for detecting and handling retraction and resection. The registration framework is based on the bijective Demons algorithm using an anisotropic diffusion smoother. Retraction is detected at areas of the deformation field with high internal strain and the estimated retraction boundary is integrated as a diffusion boundary in the smoother to allow discontinuities to develop across the resection boundary. Resection is detected by a level set method evolving in the space where image intensities disagree. The estimated resection is integrated into the smoother as a diffusion sink to restrict image forces originating inside the resection from being diffused to surrounding areas. In addition, the deformation field is continuous across the diffusion sink boundary which allow us to move the boundary of the diffusion sink without changing values in the deformation field (no interpolation or extrapolation is needed). We present preliminary results on both synthetic and clinical data which clearly shows the added value of explicitly modeling these processes in a registration framework.

  20. An Algebraic Method for Exploring Quantum Monodromy and Quantum Phase Transitions in Non-Rigid Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larese, D.; Iachello, F.

    2011-06-01

    A simple algebraic Hamiltonian has been used to explore the vibrational and rotational spectra of the skeletal bending modes of HCNO, BrCNO, NCNCS, and other ``floppy`` (quasi-linear or quasi-bent) molecules. These molecules have large-amplitude, low-energy bending modes and champagne-bottle potential surfaces, making them good candidates for observing quantum phase transitions (QPT). We describe the geometric phase transitions from bent to linear in these and other non-rigid molecules, quantitatively analysing the spectroscopy signatures of ground state QPT, excited state QPT, and quantum monodromy.The algebraic framework is ideal for this work because of its small calculational effort yet robust results. Although these methods have historically found success with tri- and four-atomic molecules, we now address five-atomic and simple branched molecules such as CH_3NCO and GeH_3NCO. Extraction of potential functions is completed for several molecules, resulting in predictions of barriers to linearity and equilibrium bond angles.

  1. Validation of Osteoarthritis synthetic defect database via non-rigid registration

    PubMed Central

    Pera, Juliette; Budin, Francois; Gomes, Liliane; Styner, Martin; Lucia, Cevidanes; Nguyen, Tung

    2015-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders are a group of conditions that cause pain and dysfunction in the jaw joint and the muscles controlling jaw movement. However, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions remain controversial. To date, there is no single sign, symptom, or test that can clearly diagnose early stages of osteoarthritis (OA). Instead, the diagnosis is based on a consideration of several factors, including radiological evaluation. The current radiological diagnosis scores of TMJ pathology are subject to misdiagnosis. We believe these scores are limited by the acquisition procedures, such as oblique cuts of the CT and head positioning errors, and can lead to incorrect diagnoses of flattening of the head of the condyle, formation of osteophytes, or condylar pitting. This study consists of creating and validating a methodological framework to simulate defects in CBCT scans of known location and size, in order to create synthetic TMJ OA database. User-generated defects were created using a non-rigid deformation protocol in CBCT. All segmentation evaluation, surface distances and linear distances from the user-generated to the simulated defects showed our methodological framework to be very precise and within a voxel (0.5 mm) of magnitude. A TMJ OA synthetic database will be created next, and evaluated by expert radiologists, and this will serve to evaluate how sensitive the current radiological diagnosis tools are. PMID:26236073

  2. Validation of TMJ osteoarthritis synthetic defect database via non-rigid registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paniagua, Beatriz; Pera, Juliette; Budin, Francois; Gomes, Liliane; Styner, Martin; Lucia, Cevidanes; Nguyen, Tung

    2015-03-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders are a group of conditions that cause pain and dysfunction in the jaw joint and the muscles controlling jaw movement. However, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions remain controversial. To date, there is no single sign, symptom, or test that can clearly diagnose early stages of osteoarthritis (OA). Instead, the diagnosis is based on a consideration of several factors, including radiological evaluation. The current radiological diagnosis scores of TMJ pathology are subject to misdiagnosis. We believe these scores are limited by the acquisition procedures, such as oblique cuts of the CT and head positioning errors, and can lead to incorrect diagnoses of flattening of the head of the condyle, formation of osteophytes, or condylar pitting. This study consists of creating and validating a methodological framework to simulate defects in CBCT scans of known location and size, in order to create synthetic TMJ OA database. User-generated defects were created using a non-rigid deformation protocol in CBCT. All segmentation evaluation, surface distances and linear distances from the user-generated to the simulated defects showed our methodological framework to be very precise and within a voxel (0.5 mm) of magnitude. A TMJ OA synthetic database will be created next, and evaluated by expert radiologists, and this will serve to evaluate how sensitive the current radiological diagnosis tools are.

  3. Infants' perception of curved illusory contour with motion.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kazuki; Masuda, Tomohiro; Wada, Yuji; Shirai, Nobu; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2013-12-01

    Recently, Masuda et al. (submitted for publication) showed that adults perceive moving rigid or nonrigid motion from illusory contour with neon color spreading in which the inducer has pendular motion with or without phase difference. In Experiment 1, we used the preferential looking method to investigate whether 3-8-month-old infants can discriminate illusory and non-illusory contour figures, and found that the 7-8-month-old, but not the 3-6-month-old, infants showed significant preference for illusory contour with phase difference. In Experiment 2, we tested the validity of the visual stimuli in the present study, and whether infants could detect illusory contour from the current neon color spreading figures. The results showed that all infants might detect illusory contour figure with neon color spreading figures. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 suggest that 7-8-month-old infants potentially perceive illusory contour from the visual stimulus with phase-different movement of inducers, which elicits the perception of nonrigid dynamic subjective contour in adults.

  4. An analysis of the treatment couch and control system dynamics for respiration-induced motion compensation

    SciTech Connect

    D'Souza, Warren D.; McAvoy, Thomas J.

    2006-12-15

    Sophisticated methods for real-time motion compensation include using the linear accelerator, MLC, or treatment couch. To design such a couch, the required couch and control system dynamics need to be investigated. We used an existing treatment couch known as the Hexapod{sup TM} to gain insight into couch dynamics and an internal model controller to simulate feedback control of respiration-induced motion. The couch dynamics, described using time constants and dead times, were investigated using step inputs. The resulting data were modeled as first and second order systems with dead time. The couch was determined to have a linear response for step inputs {<=}1 cm. Motion data from 12 patients were obtained using a skin marker placed on the abdomen of the patient and the marker data were assumed to be an exact surrogate of tumor motion. The feedback system was modeled with the couch as a second-ordersystem and the controller as a first order system. The time constants of the couch and controller and the dead times were varied starting with parameters obtained from the Hexapod{sup TM} couch and the performance of the feedback system was evaluated. The resulting residual motion under feedback control was generally <0.3 cm when a fast enough couch was simulated.

  5. Mathematical analysis and modeling of motion direction selectivity in the retina.

    PubMed

    Escobar, María-José; Pezo, Danilo; Orio, Patricio

    2013-11-01

    Motion detection is one of the most important and primitive computations performed by our visual system. Specifically in the retina, ganglion cells producing motion direction-selective responses have been addressed by different disciplines, such as mathematics, neurophysiology and computational modeling, since the beginnings of vision science. Although a number of studies have analyzed theoretical and mathematical considerations for such responses, a clear picture of the underlying cellular mechanisms is only recently emerging. In general, motion direction selectivity is based on a non-linear asymmetric computation inside a receptive field differentiating cell responses between preferred and null direction stimuli. To what extent can biological findings match these considerations? In this review, we outline theoretical and mathematical studies of motion direction selectivity, aiming to map the properties of the models onto the neural circuitry and synaptic connectivity found in the retina. Additionally, we review several compartmental models that have tried to fill this gap. Finally, we discuss the remaining challenges that computational models will have to tackle in order to fully understand the retinal motion direction-selective circuitry.

  6. A Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography Analysis of Multiorgan Abdominal Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Hallman, Joshua L.; Mori, Shinichiro; Sharp, Gregory C.; Lu, Hsiao-Ming; Hong, Theodore S.; Chen, George T.Y.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To characterize and quantify multiorgan respiration-induced motion in the abdomen in liver and pancreatic cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Four-dimensional computed tomography scans were acquired for 18 patients treated for abdominal tumors. Contours of multiple abdominal organs were drawn by the radiation oncologist at one respiratory phase; these contours were propagated to other respiratory phases by deformable registration. Three-dimensional organ models were generated from the resulting contours at each phase. Motions of the bounding box and center of mass were extracted and analyzed for the clinical target volume and organs at risk. Results: On average, the center of mass motion for liver clinical target volumes was 9.7 mm (SD 5 mm) in the superior-inferior direction, with a range of 3 to 18 mm; for pancreatic tumors, the average was 5 mm (SD 1 mm) m with a range of 3 to 7 mm. Abdominal organs move in unison, but with varying amplitudes. Gating near exhale (T40-T60) reduces the range of motion by a factor of {approx}10. Conclusion: We have used deformable registration to calculate the trajectories of abdominal organs in four dimensions, based on center of mass and bounding box motion metrics. Our results are compared with previously reported studies. Possible reasons for differences are discussed.

  7. Analysis of the Motion of the Extrasolar Planet HD 120136 Ab in a Binary System: Calculating Unknown Angular Orbital Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plávalová, E.; Solovay, N. A.

    2015-07-01

    We have carried out an analysis of the motion of an extrasolar planet orbiting in a binary system, as a particular case of the three-body problem. The following assumptions have been made: a) the planet orbits around one of the binary components (the parent star); b) the distance between the stellar components is greater than that between the parent star and the orbiting planet (the ratio of the semi-major axes is a small parameter); c) the mass of the planet is smaller than the mass of the star, but is not negligible. We employed the Hamiltonian of the system without short-period terms, and we expanded it in terms of Legendre polynomials and truncated the expansion after the second-order terms. Such form of the Hamiltonian enables us to solve the differential equations of motion of our system and analyze of the motion of the extrasolar planet. We have applied this theory to the system HD 120136, and described the possible regions in which the planet can move. The theory permits us to calculate an unknown angular orbital element for the planet HD 120136 Ab, the ascending node: Ω1=134°±14°. The motion of the planet is expected to be stable over long time scales.

  8. Motion analysis of the upper extremity in children with unilateral cerebral palsy--an assessment of six daily tasks.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Matthias C M; van Drongelen, Stefan; Rettig, Oliver; Wenger, Patrick; Gantz, Simone; Dreher, Thomas; Wolf, Sebastian I

    2014-11-01

    Restrictions in range of motion of the upper extremity are common in patients with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). The purpose of this study was to investigate movement deviations of the upper extremity in children with unilateral CP by means of 3D motion capture as well as by the use of easy to use scores and questionnaires (MACS, MRC, MAS, ABILHAND-Kids). 16 children with a spastic, unilateral CP were included and compared to a group of 17 typically developing adolescents (TD). The movement time and range of motion (ROM) of six uni- and bimanual daily tasks were compared and correlated with the scores and questionnaires. Movement times increased significantly with involvement according to MACS in all tasks. The restrictions in ROM were pronounced in the forearm. As a compensatory mechanism the children of the MACS 2 and 3 groups showed increased trunk movement. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between the MACS and the ABILHAND-Kids Questionnaire. In contrast to previous studies, which reported a correlation between the restrictions in ROM and the MACS, this study showed no consistent correlation between the restrictions in ROM neither with the MACS nor with the ABILHAND-Kids. While the MACS and the ABILHAND-Kids function as a simple rating tool for clinical use, the detailed analysis of different daily tasks using 3-D-motion capture provides more detailed information about the movement deviations and spatiotemporal parameters. PMID:25112796

  9. The strong ground motion in Mexico City: array and borehole data analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roullé, A.; Chávez-García, F. J.

    2003-04-01

    Site response at Mexico City has been intensively studied for the last 15 years, since the disastrous 1985 earthquakes. After those events, more than 100 accelerographs were installed, and their data have been extremely useful in quantifying amplification and in the subsequent upgrading of the building code. However, detailed analysis of the wavefield has been hampered by the lack of absolute time in the records and the large spacing between stations in terms of dominant wavelengths. In 2001, thanks to the support of CONACYT, Mexico, a new dense accelerographic network was installed in the lake bed zone of Mexico City. The entire network, including an existing network of 3 surface and 2 borehole stations operated by CENAPRED, consists in 12 surface and 4 borehole stations (at 30, 102 and 50 meters). Each station has a 18 bits recorder and a GPS receiver so that the complete network is a 3D array with absolute time. The main objective of this array is to provide data that can help us to better understand the wavefield that propagates in Mexico City during large earthquakes. Last year, a small event of magnitude 6.0 was partially recorded by 6 of the 12 surface stations and all the borehole stations. We analysed the surface data using different array processing techniques such as f-k methods and MUSIC algorithm and the borehole ones using a cross-correlation method. For periods inferior to the site resonance period, the soft clay layer with very low propagation velocities (less than 500 m/s) and a possible multipathing rule the wavefield pattern. For the large period range, the dominant surface wave comes from the epicentral direction and propagates with a quicker velocity (more than 1500 m/s) that corresponds to the velocity of deep layers. The analysis of borehole data shows the presence of different quick wavetrains in the short period range that could correspond to the first harmonic modes of Rayleigh waves. To complete this study, four others events recorded in

  10. Co-occurrence of outlet impingement syndrome of the shoulder and restricted range of motion in the thoracic spine - a prospective study with ultrasound-based motion analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Shoulder complaints, and especially the outlet-impingement syndrome, are a common condition. Among other things, poor posture has been discussed as a cause. A correlation between impingement syndrome and restricted mobility of the thoracic spine (T) has been described earlier, but there has been no motion analysis of the thoracic spine to show these correlations. In the present prospective study, we intended to find out whether there is a significant difference in the thoracic sagittal range of motion (ROM) between patients with a shoulder outlet impingement syndrome and a group of patients who had no shoulder pathology. Secondly, we wanted to clarify whether Ott's sign correlates with ultrasound topometric measurements. Methods Two sex- and age-matched groups (2 × n = 39) underwent a clinical and an ultrasound topometric examination. The postures examined were sitting up straight, sitting in maximal flexion and sitting in maximal extension. The disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) score (obtained by means of a self-assessment questionnaire) and the Constant score were calculated. Lengthening and shortening of the dorsal projections of the spine in functional positions was measured by tape with Ott's sign. Results On examination of the thoracic kyphosis in the erect seated posture there were no significant differences between the two groups (p = 0.66). With ultrasound topometric measurement it was possible to show a significantly restricted segmental mobility of the thoracic spine in the study group compared with the control group (p = 0.01). An in-depth look at the mobility of the subsegments T1-4, T5-8 and T9-12 revealed that differences between the groups in the mobility in the lower two sections of the thoracic spine were significant (T5-8: p = 0.03; T9-12: p = 0.02). The study group had an average Constant score of 35.1 points and the control group, 85.5 (p < 0.001). On the DASH score the patient group reached 34.2 points and the

  11. High-order harmonic generation from polyatomic molecules including nuclear motion and a nuclear modes analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, C. B.; Abu-samha, M.; Madsen, L. B.

    2010-04-15

    We present a generic approach for treating the effect of nuclear motion in high-order harmonic generation from polyatomic molecules. Our procedure relies on a separation of nuclear and electron dynamics where we account for the electronic part using the Lewenstein model and nuclear motion enters as a nuclear correlation function. We express the nuclear correlation function in terms of Franck-Condon factors, which allows us to decompose nuclear motion into modes and identify the modes that are dominant in the high-order harmonic generation process. We show results for the isotopes CH{sub 4} and CD{sub 4} and thereby provide direct theoretical support for a recent experiment [S. Baker et al., Science 312, 424 (2006)] that uses high-order harmonic generation to probe the ultrafast structural nuclear rearrangement of ionized methane.

  12. Laser vibrometer analysis of sensor loading effects in underwater measurements of compliant surface motion

    SciTech Connect

    Caspall, J.J.; Gray, M.D.; Caille, G.W.; Jarzynski, J.; Rogers, P.H.; McCall, G.S. II

    1996-04-01

    The application of contact motion sensors, such as accelerometers, in the measurement of the vibration of compliant surfaces underwater may lead to errors in the evaluation of certain types of surface motion. An underwater scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (USLDV) was used to measure the scattered velocity field due to a mock sensor (rigid, neutrally buoyant cylindrical body) on a compliant surface (the outer surface of a thin cylindrical shell coated with a layer of soft rubber). Axially propagating waves were launched in the shell by a ring of 10 uniformly distributed shakers located near one end of the shell and driven with a short pulse. The outer surface of the coating was scanned over a short line segment in the axial direction with and without the mock sensor attached. The extracted scattered field, consisted of high wavenumber fluid-solid interface waves accompanied by rotational motion of the mock sensor. [Work supported by ONR] {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Analysis of hip range of motion in everyday life: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Charbonnier, Caecilia; Chagué, Sylvain; Schmid, Jérôme; Kolo, Frank C; Bernardoni, Massimiliano; Christofilopoulos, Panayiotis

    2015-01-01

    Patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty are increasingly younger and have a higher demand concerning hip range of motion. To date, there is no clear consensus as to the amplitude of the "normal hip" in everyday life. It is also unknown if the physical examination is an accurate test for setting the values of true hip motion. The purpose of this study was: 1) to precisely determine the necessary hip joint mobility for everyday tasks in young active subjects to be used in computer simulations of prosthetic models in order to evaluate impingement and instability during their practice; 2) to assess the accuracy of passive hip range of motion measurements during clinical examination. A total of 4 healthy volunteers underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging and 2 motion capture experiments. During experiment 1, routine activities were recorded and applied to prosthetic hip 3D models including nine cup configurations. During experiment 2, a clinical examination was performed, while the motion of the subjects was simultaneously captured. Important hip flexion (mean range 95°-107°) was measured during daily activities that could expose the prosthetic hip to impingement and instability. The error made by the clinicians during physical examination varied in the range of ±10°, except for flexion and abduction where the error was higher. This study provides useful information for the surgical planning to help restore hip mobility and stability, when dealing with young active patients. The physical examination seems to be a precise method for determining passive hip motion, if care is taken to stabilise the pelvis during hip flexion and abduction.

  14. Video analysis of projectile motion using tablet computers as experimental tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, P.; Gröber, S.; Kuhn, J.; Müller, A.

    2014-01-01

    Tablet computers were used as experimental tools to record and analyse the motion of a ball thrown vertically from a moving skateboard. Special applications plotted the measurement data component by component, allowing a simple determination of initial conditions and g in order to explore the underlying laws of motion. This experiment can easily be performed by students themselves, providing more autonomy in their problem-solving processes than traditional learning approaches. We believe that this autonomy and the authenticity of the experimental tool both foster their motivation.

  15. Designed microtremor array based actual measurement and analysis of strong ground motion at Palu city, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Thein, Pyi Soe; Pramumijoyo, Subagyo; Wilopo, Wahyu; Setianto, Agung; Brotopuspito, Kirbani Sri; Kiyono, Junji; Putra, Rusnardi Rahmat

    2015-04-24

    In this study, we investigated the strong ground motion characteristics under Palu City, Indonesia. The shear wave velocity structures evaluated by eight microtremors measurement are the most applicable to determine the thickness of sediments and average shear wave velocity with Vs ≤ 300 m/s. Based on subsurface underground structure models identified, earthquake ground motion was estimated in the future Palu-Koro earthquake by using statistical green’s function method. The seismic microzonation parameters were carried out by considering several significant controlling factors on ground response at January 23, 2005 earthquake.

  16. Nonlinear random motion analysis of coupled heave-pitch motions of a spar platform considering 1st-order and 2nd-order wave loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuxiao; Tang, Yougang; Li, Wei

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we consider first- and second-order random wave loads and the effects of time-varying displacement volume and transient wave elevation to establish motion equations of the Spar platform's coupled heave-pitch. We generated random wave loads based on frequency-domain wave load transfer functions and the Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP) wave spectrum, designed program codes to solve the motion equations, and then simulated the coupled heave-pitch motion responses of the platform in the time domain. We then calculated and compared the motion responses in different sea conditions and separately investigated the effects of second-order random wave loads and transient wave elevation. The results show that the coupled heave-pitch motion responses of the platform are primarily dominated by wave height and the characteristic wave period, the latter of which has a greater impact. Second-order mean wave loads mainly affect the average heave value. The platform's pitch increases after the second-order low frequency wave loads are taken into account. The platform's heave is underestimated if the transient wave elevation term in the motion equations is neglected.

  17. Analysis of 3-D Tongue Motion from Tagged and Cine Magnetic Resonance Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xing, Fangxu; Woo, Jonghye; Lee, Junghoon; Murano, Emi Z.; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Measuring tongue deformation and internal muscle motion during speech has been a challenging task because the tongue deforms in 3 dimensions, contains interdigitated muscles, and is largely hidden within the vocal tract. In this article, a new method is proposed to analyze tagged and cine magnetic resonance images of the tongue during…

  18. Analysis of the characteristics of human arm in cooperative motion between two humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nan; Ikeura, Ryojun; Mizutani, Kazuki; Sawai, Hideki

    2005-12-01

    In the present day, there is demand for making robot being assistant in many kinds of cooperative tasks with human being, for example, in the medical service and welfare work. Such robot is supposed to be without sense of incongruity felt against human being and with the ability of executing smooth movement in human-robot cooperative task. In view of every motion of the human body being in naturally perfect smoothness, it is essential to analyze the human motional characteristics by introducing human model for establishing the law of control on the cooperative robot with human being. In this study, master-slave cooperation more appropriate for human-robot cooperative task was adopted. The experiment was carried out founded on the hypothesis that the human arm around the elbow joint was considered as a simple mass-spring-damper dynamic system with one end fixed. Upon main investigation into the slave's relaxed arm in clockwise motion, by virtue of examining the physical parameters in the mathematical model of the human arm, its impedance characteristics were recognized. It was found that as for human ordinary motion, the damping factor was low enough to be disregarded and the stiffness possessed individually linear property. And besides, the friction-like force was discovered to exist.

  19. Heart wall motion analysis by dynamic 3D strain rate imaging from tissue Doppler echocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastenteufel, Mark; Wolf, Ivo; de Simone, Raffaele; Mottl-Link, Sibylle; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    2002-04-01

    The knowledge about the complex three-dimensional (3D) heart wall motion pattern, particular in the left ventricle, provides valuable information about potential malfunctions, e.g., myocardial ischemia. Nowadays, echocardiography (cardiac ultrasound) is the predominant technique for evaluation of cardiac function. Beside morphology, tissue velocities can be obtained by Doppler techniques (tissue Doppler imaging, TDI). Strain rate imaging (SRI) is a new technique to diagnose heart vitality. It provides information about the contraction ability of the myocardium. Two-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography is still the most important clinical method for estimation of morphology and function. Two-dimensional methods leads to a lack of information due to the three-dimensional overall nature of the heart movement. Due to this complex three-dimensional motion pattern of the heart, the knowledge about velocity and strain rate distribution over the whole ventricle can provide more valuable diagnostic information about motion disorders. For the assessment of intracardiac blood flow three-dimensional color Doppler has already shown its clinical utility. We have developed methods to produce strain rate images by means of 3D tissue Doppler echocardiography. The tissue Doppler and strain rate images can be visualized and quantified by different methods. The methods are integrated into an interactively usable software environment, making them available in clinical everyday life. Our software provides the physician with a valuable tool for diagnosis of heart wall motion.

  20. Kinetics of the Shanghai Maglev: Kinematical Analysis of a Real "Textbook" Case of Linear Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Tung

    2014-01-01

    A vehicle starts from rest at constant acceleration, then cruises at constant speed for a time. Next, it decelerates at a constant rate.… This and similar statements are common in elementary physics courses. Students are asked to graph the motion of the vehicle or find the velocity, acceleration, and distance traveled by the vehicle from a given…

  1. Wave motion on the surface of the human tympanic membrane: Holographic measurement and modeling analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Hamade, Mohamad; Merchant, Saumil N.; Rosowski, John J.; Harrington, Ellery; Furlong, Cosme

    2013-01-01

    Sound-induced motions of the surface of the tympanic membrane (TM) were measured using stroboscopic holography in cadaveric human temporal bones at frequencies between 0.2 and 18 kHz. The results are consistent with the combination of standing-wave-like modal motions and traveling-wave-like motions on the TM surface. The holographic techniques also quantified sound-induced displacements of the umbo of the malleus, as well as volume velocity of the TM. These measurements were combined with sound-pressure measurements near the TM to compute middle-ear input impedance and power reflectance at the TM. The results are generally consistent with other published data. A phenomenological model that behaved qualitatively like the data was used to quantify the relative magnitude and spatial frequencies of the modal and traveling-wave-like displacement components on the TM surface. This model suggests the modal magnitudes are generally larger than those of the putative traveling waves, and the computed wave speeds are much slower than wave speeds predicted by estimates of middle-ear delay. While the data are inconsistent with simple modal displacements of the TM, an alternate model based on the combination of modal motions in a lossy membrane can also explain these measurements without invoking traveling waves. PMID:23363110

  2. Analysis of the Pendular and Pitch Motions of a Driven Three-Dimensional Pendulum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findley, T.; Yoshida, S.; Norwood, D. P.

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional pendulum, modelled after the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory's suspended optics, was constructed to investigate the pendulum's dynamics due to suspension point motion. In particular, we were interested in studying the pendular-pitch energy coupling. Determination of the pendular's Q value (the quality factor…

  3. Assessing randomness and complexity in human motion trajectories through analysis of symbolic sequences

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhen; Genewein, Tim; Braun, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Complexity is a hallmark of intelligent behavior consisting both of regular patterns and random variation. To quantitatively assess the complexity and randomness of human motion, we designed a motor task in which we translated subjects' motion trajectories into strings of symbol sequences. In the first part of the experiment participants were asked to perform self-paced movements to create repetitive patterns, copy pre-specified letter sequences, and generate random movements. To investigate whether the degree of randomness can be manipulated, in the second part of the experiment participants were asked to perform unpredictable movements in the context of a pursuit game, where they received feedback from an online Bayesian predictor guessing their next move. We analyzed symbol sequences representing subjects' motion trajectories with five common complexity measures: predictability, compressibility, approximate entropy, Lempel-Ziv complexity, as well as effective measure complexity. We found that subjects' self-created patterns were the most complex, followed by drawing movements of letters and self-paced random motion. We also found that participants could change the randomness of their behavior depending on context and feedback. Our results suggest that humans can adjust both complexity and regularity in different movement types and contexts and that this can be assessed with information-theoretic measures of the symbolic sequences generated from movement trajectories. PMID:24744716

  4. Analysis of Nematode Motion Using an Improved Light-Scatter Based System

    PubMed Central

    Nutting, Chuck S.; Eversole, Rob R.; Blair, Kevin; Specht, Sabine; Nutman, Thomas B.; Klion, Amy D.; Wanji, Samuel; Boussinesq, Michel; Mackenzie, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The detailed assessment of nematode activity and viability still remains a relatively undeveloped area of biological and medical research. Computer-based approaches to assessing the motility of larger nematode stages have been developed, yet these lack the capability to detect and analyze the more subtle and important characteristics of the motion of nematodes. There is currently a need to improved methods of assessing the viability and health of parasitic worms. Methods We describe here a system that converts the motion of nematodes through a light-scattering system into an electrical waveform, and allows for reproducible, and wholly non-subjective, assessment of alterations in motion, as well as estimation of the number of nematode worms of different forms and sizes. Here we have used Brugia sp. microfilariae (L1), infective larvae (L3) and adults, together with the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Results The motion of worms in a small (200ul) volume can be detected, with the presence of immotile worms not interfering with the readings at practical levels (up to at least 500 L1 /200ul). Alterations in the frequency of parasite movement following the application of the anti-parasitic drugs, (chloroquine and imatinib); the anti-filarial effect of the latter agent is the first demonstrated here for the first time. This system can also be used to estimate the number of parasites, and shortens the time required to estimate parasites numbers, and eliminates the need for microscopes and trained technicians to provide an estimate of microfilarial sample sizes up to 1000 parasites/ml. Alterations in the form of motion of the worms can also be depicted. Conclusions This new instrument, named a "WiggleTron", offers exciting opportunities to further study nematode biology and to aid drug discovery, as well as contributing to a rapid estimate of parasite numbers in various biological samples. PMID:25695776

  5. Three-dimensional kinematic analysis of upper and lower limb motion during gait of post-stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Carmo, A A; Kleiner, A F R; Costa, P H Lobo da; Barros, R M L

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the alterations of arm and leg movements of patients during stroke gait. Joint angles of upper and lower limbs and spatiotemporal variables were evaluated in two groups: hemiparetic group (HG, 14 hemiparetic men, 53 ± 10 years) and control group (CG, 7 able-bodied men, 50 ± 4 years). The statistical analysis was based on the following comparisons (P ≤ 0.05): 1) right versus left sides of CG; 2) affected (AF) versus unaffected (UF) sides of HG; 3) CG versus both the affected and unaffected sides of HG, and 4) an intracycle comparison of the kinematic continuous angular variables between HG and CG. This study showed that the affected upper limb motion in stroke gait was characterized by a decreased range of motion of the glenohumeral (HG: 6.3 ± 4.5, CG: 20.1 ± 8.2) and elbow joints (AF: 8.4 ± 4.4, UF: 15.6 ± 7.6) on the sagittal plane and elbow joint flexion throughout the cycle (AF: 68.2 ± 0.4, CG: 46.8 ± 2.7). The glenohumeral joint presented a higher abduction angle (AF: 14.2 ± 1.6, CG: 11.5 ± 4.0) and a lower external rotation throughout the cycle (AF: 4.6 ± 1.2, CG: 22.0 ± 3.0). The lower limbs showed typical alterations of the stroke gait patterns. Thus, the changes in upper and lower limb motion of stroke gait were identified. The description of upper limb motion in stroke gait is new and complements gait analysis. PMID:22473324

  6. Three-dimensional kinematic analysis of upper and lower limb motion during gait of post-stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Carmo, A.A.; Kleiner, A.F.R.; Lobo da Costa, P.H.; Barros, R.M.L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the alterations of arm and leg movements of patients during stroke gait. Joint angles of upper and lower limbs and spatiotemporal variables were evaluated in two groups: hemiparetic group (HG, 14 hemiparetic men, 53 ± 10 years) and control group (CG, 7 able-bodied men, 50 ± 4 years). The statistical analysis was based on the following comparisons (P ≤ 0.05): 1) right versus left sides of CG; 2) affected (AF) versus unaffected (UF) sides of HG; 3) CG versus both the affected and unaffected sides of HG, and 4) an intracycle comparison of the kinematic continuous angular variables between HG and CG. This study showed that the affected upper limb motion in stroke gait was characterized by a decreased range of motion of the glenohumeral (HG: 6.3 ± 4.5, CG: 20.1 ± 8.2) and elbow joints (AF: 8.4 ± 4.4, UF: 15.6 ± 7.6) on the sagittal plane and elbow joint flexion throughout the cycle (AF: 68.2 ± 0.4, CG: 46.8 ± 2.7). The glenohumeral joint presented a higher abduction angle (AF: 14.2 ± 1.6, CG: 11.5 ± 4.0) and a lower external rotation throughout the cycle (AF: 4.6 ± 1.2, CG: 22.0 ± 3.0). The lower limbs showed typical alterations of the stroke gait patterns. Thus, the changes in upper and lower limb motion of stroke gait were identified. The description of upper limb motion in stroke gait is new and complements gait analysis. PMID:22473324

  7. Three-dimensional kinematic analysis of upper and lower limb motion during gait of post-stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Carmo, A A; Kleiner, A F R; Costa, P H Lobo da; Barros, R M L

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the alterations of arm and leg movements of patients during stroke gait. Joint angles of upper and lower limbs and spatiotemporal variables were evaluated in two groups: hemiparetic group (HG, 14 hemiparetic men, 53 ± 10 years) and control group (CG, 7 able-bodied men, 50 ± 4 years). The statistical analysis was based on the following comparisons (P ≤ 0.05): 1) right versus left sides of CG; 2) affected (AF) versus unaffected (UF) sides of HG; 3) CG versus both the affected and unaffected sides of HG, and 4) an intracycle comparison of the kinematic continuous angular variables between HG and CG. This study showed that the affected upper limb motion in stroke gait was characterized by a decreased range of motion of the glenohumeral (HG: 6.3 ± 4.5, CG: 20.1 ± 8.2) and elbow joints (AF: 8.4 ± 4.4, UF: 15.6 ± 7.6) on the sagittal plane and elbow joint flexion throughout the cycle (AF: 68.2 ± 0.4, CG: 46.8 ± 2.7). The glenohumeral joint presented a higher abduction angle (AF: 14.2 ± 1.6, CG: 11.5 ± 4.0) and a lower external rotation throughout the cycle (AF: 4.6 ± 1.2, CG: 22.0 ± 3.0). The lower limbs showed typical alterations of the stroke gait patterns. Thus, the changes in upper and lower limb motion of stroke gait were identified. The description of upper limb motion in stroke gait is new and complements gait analysis.

  8. Non-Rigid Registration of Liver CT Images for CT-Guided Ablation of Liver Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Luu, Ha Manh; Klink, Camiel; Niessen, Wiro; Moelker, Adriaan; van Walsum, Theo

    2016-01-01

    CT-guided percutaneous ablation for liver cancer treatment is a relevant technique for patients not eligible for surgery and with tumors that are inconspicuous on US imaging. The lack of real-time imaging and the use of a limited amount of CT contrast agent make targeting the tumor with the needle challenging. In this study, we evaluate a registration framework that allows the integration of diagnostic pre-operative contrast enhanced CT images and intra-operative non-contrast enhanced CT images to improve image guidance in the intervention. The liver and tumor are segmented in the pre-operative contrast enhanced CT images. Next, the contrast enhanced image is registered to the intra-operative CT images in a two-stage approach. First, the contrast-enhanced diagnostic image is non-rigidly registered to a non-contrast enhanced image that is conventionally acquired at the start of the intervention. In case the initial registration is not sufficiently accurate, a refinement step is applied using non-rigid registration method with a local rigidity term. In the second stage, the intra-operative CT-images that are used to check the needle position, which often consist of only a few slices, are registered rigidly to the intra-operative image that was acquired at the start of the intervention. Subsequently, the diagnostic image is registered to the current intra-operative image, using both transformations, this allows the visualization of the tumor region extracted from pre-operative data in the intra-operative CT images containing needle. The method is evaluated on imaging data of 19 patients at the Erasmus MC. Quantitative evaluation is performed using the Dice metric, mean surface distance of the liver border and corresponding landmarks in the diagnostic and the intra-operative images. The registration of the diagnostic CT image to the initial intra-operative CT image did not require a refinement step in 13 cases. For those cases, the resulting registration had a Dice

  9. Non-Rigid Registration of Liver CT Images for CT-Guided Ablation of Liver Tumors.

    PubMed

    Luu, Ha Manh; Klink, Camiel; Niessen, Wiro; Moelker, Adriaan; Walsum, Theo van

    2016-01-01

    CT-guided percutaneous ablation for liver cancer treatment is a relevant technique for patients not eligible for surgery and with tumors that are inconspicuous on US imaging. The lack of real-time imaging and the use of a limited amount of CT contrast agent make targeting the tumor with the needle challenging. In this study, we evaluate a registration framework that allows the integration of diagnostic pre-operative contrast enhanced CT images and intra-operative non-contrast enhanced CT images to improve image guidance in the intervention. The liver and tumor are segmented in the pre-operative contrast enhanced CT images. Next, the contrast enhanced image is registered to the intra-operative CT images in a two-stage approach. First, the contrast-enhanced diagnostic image is non-rigidly registered to a non-contrast enhanced image that is conventionally acquired at the start of the intervention. In case the initial registration is not sufficiently accurate, a refinement step is applied using non-rigid registration method with a local rigidity term. In the second stage, the intra-operative CT-images that are used to check the needle position, which often consist of only a few slices, are registered rigidly to the intra-operative image that was acquired at the start of the intervention. Subsequently, the diagnostic image is registered to the current intra-operative image, using both transformations, this allows the visualization of the tumor region extracted from pre-operative data in the intra-operative CT images containing needle. The method is evaluated on imaging data of 19 patients at the Erasmus MC. Quantitative evaluation is performed using the Dice metric, mean surface distance of the liver border and corresponding landmarks in the diagnostic and the intra-operative images. The registration of the diagnostic CT image to the initial intra-operative CT image did not require a refinement step in 13 cases. For those cases, the resulting registration had a Dice

  10. Validation of non-rigid point-set registration methods using a porcine bladder pelvic phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakariaee, Roja; Hamarneh, Ghassan; Brown, Colin J.; Spadinger, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    The problem of accurate dose accumulation in fractionated radiotherapy treatment for highly deformable organs, such as bladder, has garnered increasing interest over the past few years. However, more research is required in order to find a robust and efficient solution and to increase the accuracy over the current methods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of utilizing non-rigid (affine or deformable) point-set registration in accumulating dose in bladder of different sizes and shapes. A pelvic phantom was built to house an ex vivo porcine bladder with fiducial landmarks adhered onto its surface. Four different volume fillings of the bladder were used (90, 180, 360 and 480 cc). The performance of MATLAB implementations of five different methods were compared, in aligning the bladder contour point-sets. The approaches evaluated were coherent point drift (CPD), gaussian mixture model, shape context, thin-plate spline robust point matching (TPS-RPM) and finite iterative closest point (ICP-finite). The evaluation metrics included registration runtime, target registration error (TRE), root-mean-square error (RMS) and Hausdorff distance (HD). The reference (source) dataset was alternated through all four points-sets, in order to study the effect of reference volume on the registration outcomes. While all deformable algorithms provided reasonable registration results, CPD provided the best TRE values (6.4 mm), and TPS-RPM yielded the best mean RMS and HD values (1.4 and 6.8 mm, respectively). ICP-finite was the fastest technique and TPS-RPM, the slowest.

  11. Atlas-based segmentation of deep brain structures using non-rigid registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Muhammad Faisal; Mewes, Klaus; Gross, Robert E.; Škrinjar, Oskar

    2008-03-01

    Deep brain structures are frequently used as targets in neurosurgical procedures. However, the boundaries of these structures are often not visible in clinically used MR and CT images. Techniques based on anatomical atlases and indirect targeting are used to infer the location of these targets intraoperatively. Initial errors of such approaches may be up to a few millimeters, which is not negligible. E.g. subthalamic nucleus is approximately 4x6 mm in the axial plane and the diameter of globus pallidus internus is approximately 8 mm, both of which are used as targets in deep brain stimulation surgery. To increase the initial localization accuracy of deep brain structures we have developed an atlas-based segmentation method that can be used for the surgery planning. The atlas is a high resolution MR head scan of a healthy volunteer with nine deep brain structures manually segmented. The quality of the atlas image allowed for the segmentation of the deep brain structures, which is not possible from the clinical MR head scans of patients. The subject image is non-rigidly registered to the atlas image using thin plate splines to represent the transformation and normalized mutual information as a similarity measure. The obtained transformation is used to map the segmented structures from the atlas to the subject image. We tested the approach on five subjects. The quality of the atlas-based segmentation was evaluated by visual inspection of the third and lateral ventricles, putamena, and caudate nuclei, which are visible in the subject MR images. The agreement of these structures for the five tested subjects was approximately 1 to 2 mm.

  12. Comparison of gradient approximation techniques for optimisation of mutual information in nonrigid registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Stefan; Staring, Marius; Pluim, Josien P. W.

    2005-04-01

    Nonrigid registration of medical images by maximisation of their mutual information, in combination with a deformation field parameterised by cubic B-splines, has been shown to be robust and accurate in many applications. However, the high computation time is a big disadvantage. This work focusses on the optimisation procedure. Many implementations follow a gradient-descent like approach. The time needed for computing the derivative of the mutual information with respect to the B-spline parameters is the bottleneck in this process. We investigate the influence of several gradient approximation techniques on the number of iterations needed and the computation time per iteration. Three methods are studied: a simple finite difference strategy, the so-called simultaneous perturbation method, and a more analytic computation of the gradient based on a continuous, and differentiable representation of the joint histogram. In addition, the effect of decreasing the number of image samples, used for computing the gradient in each iteration, is investigated. Two types of experiments are performed. Firstly, the registration of an image to itself, after application of a known, randomly generated deformation, is considered. Secondly, experiments are performed with 3D ultrasound brain scans, and 3D CT follow-up scans of the chest. The experiments show that the method using an analytic gradient computation outperforms the other two. Furthermore, the computation time per iteration can be extremely decreased, without affecting the rate of convergence and final accuracy, by using very few samples of the image (randomly chosen every iteration) to compute the derivative. With this approach, large data sets (2563) can be registered within 5 minutes on a moderate PC.

  13. Mass preserving nonrigid registration of CT lung images using cubic B-spline.

    PubMed

    Yin, Youbing; Hoffman, Eric A; Lin, Ching-Long

    2009-09-01

    The authors propose a nonrigid image registration approach to align two computed-tomography (CT)-derived lung datasets acquired during breath-holds at two inspiratory levels when the image distortion between the two volumes is large. The goal is to derive a three-dimensional warping function that can be used in association with computational fluid dynamics studies. In contrast to the sum of squared intensity difference (SSD), a new similarity criterion, the sum of squared tissue volume difference (SSTVD), is introduced to take into account changes in reconstructed Hounsfield units (scaled attenuation coefficient, HU) with inflation. This new criterion aims to minimize the local tissue volume difference within the lungs between matched regions, thus preserving the tissue mass of the lungs if the tissue density is assumed to be relatively constant. The local tissue volume difference is contributed by two factors: Change in the regional volume due to the deformation and change in the fractional tissue content in a region due to inflation. The change in the regional volume is calculated from the Jacobian value derived from the warping function and the change in the fractional tissue content is estimated from reconstructed HU based on quantitative CT measures. A composite of multilevel B-spline is adopted to deform images and a sufficient condition is imposed to ensure a one-to-one mapping even for a registration pair with large volume difference. Parameters of the transformation model are optimized by a limited-memory quasi-Newton minimization approach in a multiresolution framework. To evaluate the effectiveness of the new similarity measure, the authors performed registrations for six lung volume pairs. Over 100 annotated landmarks located at vessel bifurcations were generated using a semiautomatic system. The results show that the SSTVD method yields smaller average landmark errors than the SSD method across all six registration pairs.

  14. The role of external nonrigid ankle bracing in limiting ankle inversion.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D L; Sanderson, D J; Hennig, E M

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effectiveness of the nonrigid subtalar stabilizer (STS) ankle brace under conditions similar to an unexpected fall that could lead to a lateral ligament injury. The calcaneal inversion angles, times, and ground reaction forces were measured when the subject's right foot, bearing body weight, was suddenly inverted to a side slope of 22 degrees. Thirty subjects, 15 women and 15 men, participated in the study. The overall inversion drop was divided into two phases, free fall and loading. Based on the data of this study it is suggested that the major function of a brace is to restrict the amount of foot inversion during the fall before actual landing occurs rather than functioning as a force bypass for the lateral ligaments during loading after foot contact. The results showed that the brace significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the maximum calcaneal inversion angle from 27.4 +/- 6.1 to 18.3 +/- 6.0 degrees for the overall drop, significantly lengthened the inversion time from 0.14 +/- 0.04 to 0.18 +/- 0.04 s for the overall drop, and significantly reduced the calcaneal peak inversion velocity from 324.6 +/- 111.9 to 165.2 +/- 66.5 degrees/s during loading, and from 278.7 +/- 120.0 to 183.0 +/- 108.7 degrees/s for the overall drop. Following exercise, which incorporated lateral movements and sprinting, the STS ankle brace continued to provide significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the calcaneal inversion angle and velocity, although some of its effectiveness was reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7614076

  15. Analysis of left atrial respiratory and cardiac motion for cardiac ablation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettmann, M. E.; Holmes, D. R.; Johnson, S. B.; Lehmann, H. I.; Robb, R. A.; Packer, D. L.

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac ablation therapy is often guided by models built from preoperative computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. One of the challenges in guiding a procedure from a preoperative model is properly synching the preoperative models with cardiac and respiratory motion through computational motion models. In this paper, we describe a methodology for evaluating cardiac and respiratory motion in the left atrium and pulmonary veins of a beating canine heart. Cardiac catheters were used to place metal clips within and near the pulmonary veins and left atrial appendage under fluoroscopic and ultrasound guidance and a contrast-enhanced, 64-slice multidetector CT scan was collected with the clips in place. Each clip was segmented from the CT scan at each of the five phases of the cardiac cycle at both end-inspiration and end-expiration. The centroid of each segmented clip was computed and used to evaluate both cardiac and respiratory motion of the left atrium. A total of three canine studies were completed, with 4 clips analyzed in the first study, 5 clips in the second study, and 2 clips in the third study. Mean respiratory displacement was 0.2+/-1.8 mm in the medial/lateral direction, 4.7+/-4.4 mm in the anterior/posterior direction (moving anterior on inspiration), and 9.0+/-5.0 mm superior/inferior (moving inferior with inspiration). At end inspiration, the mean left atrial cardiac motion at the clip locations was 1.5+/-1.3 mm in the medial/lateral direction, and 2.1+/-2.0 mm in the anterior/posterior and 1.3+/-1.2 mm superior/inferior directions. At end expiration, the mean left atrial cardiac motion at the clip locations was 2.0+/-1.5mm in the medial/lateral direction, 3.0+/-1.8mm in the anterior/posterior direction, and 1.5+/-1.5 mm in the superior/inferior directions.

  16. Numerical simulation analysis on Wenchuan seismic strong motion in Hanyuan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Gao, M.; Guo, J.; Li, Z.; Li, T.

    2015-12-01

    69227 deaths, 374643 injured, 17923 people missing, direct economic losses 845.1 billion, and a large number houses collapse were caused by Wenchuan Ms8 earthquake in Sichuan Province on May 12, 2008, how to reproduce characteristics of its strong ground motion and predict its intensity distribution, which have important role to mitigate disaster of similar giant earthquake in the future. Taking Yunnan-Sichuan Province, Wenchuan town, Chengdu city, Chengdu basin and its vicinity as the research area, on the basis of the available three-dimensional velocity structure model and newly topography data results from ChinaArray of Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration, 2 type complex source rupture process models with the global and local source parameters are established, we simulated the seismic wave propagation of Wenchuan Ms8 earthquake throughout the whole three-dimensional region by the GMS discrete grid finite-difference techniques with Cerjan absorbing boundary conditions, and obtained the seismic intensity distribution in this region through analyzing 50×50 stations data (simulated ground motion output station). The simulated results indicated that: (1)Simulated Wenchuan earthquake ground motion (PGA) response and the main characteristics of the response spectrum are very similar to those of the real Wenchuan earthquake records. (2)Wenchuan earthquake ground motion (PGA) and the response spectra of the Plain are much greater than that of the left Mountain area because of the low velocity of the shallow surface media and the basin effect of the Chengdu basin structure. Simultaneously, (3) the source rupture process (inversion) with far-field P-wave, GPS data and InSAR information and the Longmenshan Front Fault (source rupture process) are taken into consideration in GMS numerical simulation, significantly different waveform and frequency component of the ground motion are obtained, though the strong motion waveform is distinct asymmetric

  17. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  18. Event-related alpha suppression in response to facial motion.

    PubMed

    Girges, Christine; Wright, Michael J; Spencer, Janine V; O'Brien, Justin M D

    2014-01-01

    While biological motion refers to both face and body movements, little is known about the visual perception of facial motion. We therefore examined alpha wave suppression as a reduction in power is thought to reflect visual activity, in addition to attentional reorienting and memory processes. Nineteen neurologically healthy adults were tested on their ability to discriminate between successive facial motion captures. These animations exhibited both rigid and non-rigid facial motion, as well as speech expressions. The structural and surface appearance of these facial animations did not differ, thus participants decisions were based solely on differences in facial movements. Upright, orientation-inverted and luminance-inverted facial stimuli were compared. At occipital and parieto-occipital regions, upright facial motion evoked a transient increase in alpha which was then followed by a significant reduction. This finding is discussed in terms of neural efficiency, gating mechanisms and neural synchronization. Moreover, there was no difference in the amount of alpha suppression evoked by each facial stimulus at occipital regions, suggesting early visual processing remains unaffected by manipulation paradigms. However, upright facial motion evoked greater suppression at parieto-occipital sites, and did so in the shortest latency. Increased activity within this region may reflect higher attentional reorienting to natural facial motion but also involvement of areas associated with the visual control of body effectors.

  19. Brownian motion of massive skyrmions in magnetic thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Troncoso, Roberto E.; Núñez, Álvaro S.

    2014-12-15

    We report on the thermal effects on the motion of current-driven massive magnetic skyrmions. The reduced equation for the motion of skyrmion has the form of a stochastic generalized Thiele’s equation. We propose an ansatz for the magnetization texture of a non-rigid single skyrmion that depends linearly with the velocity. By using this ansatz it is found that the skyrmion mass tensor is closely related to intrinsic skyrmion parameters, such as Gilbert damping, skyrmion-charge and dissipative force. We have found an exact expression for the average drift velocity as well as the mean-square velocity of the skyrmion. The longitudinal and transverse mobility of skyrmions for small spin-velocity of electrons is also determined and found to be independent of the skyrmion mass.

  20. Motion through Syntactic Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feist, Michele I.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of (Talmy, 1985), (Talmy, 1985) and (Talmy, 2000) typology sparked significant interest in linguistic relativity in the arena of motion language. Through careful analysis of the conflation patterns evident in the language of motion events, Talmy noted that one class of languages, V-languages, tends to encode path along with the…

  1. Analysis of Formation Flying in Eccentric Orbits Using Linearized Equations of Relative Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Christopher; Axelrad, Penina

    2004-01-01

    Geometrical methods for formation flying design based on the analytical solution to Hill's equations have been previously developed and used to specify desired relative motions in near circular orbits. By generating relationships between the vehicles that are intuitive, these approaches offer valuable insight into the relative motion and allow for the rapid design of satellite configurations to achieve mission specific requirements, such as vehicle separation at perigee or apogee, minimum separation, or a specific geometrical shape. Furthermore, the results obtained using geometrical approaches can be used to better constrain numerical optimization methods; allowing those methods to converge to optimal satellite configurations faster. This paper presents a set of geometrical relationships for formations in eccentric orbits, where Hill.s equations are not valid, and shows how these relationships can be used to investigate formation designs and how they evolve with time.

  2. Upper Limb Portable Motion Analysis System Based on Inertial Technology for Neurorehabilitation Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Rodrigo; Costa, Úrsula; Torrent, Marc; Solana, Javier; Opisso, Eloy; Cáceres, César; Tormos, Josep M.; Medina, Josep; Gómez, Enrique J.

    2010-01-01

    Here an inertial sensor-based monitoring system for measuring and analyzing upper limb movements is presented. The final goal is the integration of this motion-tracking device within a portable rehabilitation system for brain injury patients. A set of four inertial sensors mounted on a special garment worn by the patient provides the quaternions representing the patient upper limb’s orientation in space. A kinematic model is built to estimate 3D upper limb motion for accurate therapeutic evaluation. The human upper limb is represented as a kinematic chain of rigid bodies with three joints and six degrees of freedom. Validation of the system has been performed by co-registration of movements with a commercial optoelectronic tracking system. Successful results are shown that exhibit a high correlation among signals provided by both devices and obtained at the Institut Guttmann Neurorehabilitation Hospital. PMID:22163496

  3. Poincare analysis of wave motion in ultrarelativistic electron-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, G.; Spatschek, K. H.

    2011-03-15

    Based on a relativistic Maxwell-fluid description, the existence of ultrarelativistic laser-induced periodic waves in an electron-ion plasma is investigated. Within a one-dimensional propagation geometry nonlinear coupling of the electromagnetic and electrostatic components occurs that makes the fourth-order problem nonintegrable. A Hamiltonian description is derived, and the manifolds of periodic solutions are studied by Poincare section plots. The influence of ion motion is investigated in different intensity regimes. For ultrarelativistic laser intensities the phase-space structures change significantly compared to the weakly relativistic case. Ion motion becomes very important such that finally electron-ion plasmas in the far-ultrarelativistic regime behave similarly to electron-positron plasmas. The characteristic new types of periodic solutions of the system are identified and discussed.

  4. Seismic hazard analysis. Volume 5. Review panel, Ground Motion Panel, and feedback results

    SciTech Connect

    Bernreuter, D. L.

    1981-08-01

    The Site Specific Spectra Project (SSSP) was a multi-year study funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide estimates of the seismic hazards at a number of nuclear power plant sites in the Eastern US. A key element of our approach was the Peer Review Panel, which we formed in order to ensure that our use of expert opinion was reasonable. We discuss the Peer Review Panel results and provide the complete text of each member's report. In order to improve the ground motion model, an Eastern US Ground Motion Model Panel was formed. In Section 4 we tabulate the responses from the panel members to our feedback questionnaire and discuss the implications of changes introduced by them. We conclude that the net difference in seismic hazard values from those presented in Volume 4 is small and does not warrant a reanalysis. 22 figs.

  5. Energy pumping analysis of skating motion in a half pipe and on a level surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Z. C.; Xin, Ming

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an energy pumping mechanism for locomotion is analysed. The pumping is accomplished by exerting forces perpendicular to the direction of motion. The paper attempts to demonstrate an interesting application of the classical mechanics to two sporting events: a person skating in a half pipe and a person travelling on a level surface on a skateboard. The equations of motion based on simplified mechanical models are derived using the Lagrange mechanics. The energy-pumping phenomenon is revealed through numerical simulations with simple pumping actions. The result presented in this paper can be used as an interesting class project in undergraduate mechanics or physics courses. It also motivates potential new applications of energy pumping in many engineering fields.

  6. Analysis of a system modelling the motion of a piston in a viscous gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Debayan; Takahashi, Takéo; Tucsnak, Marius

    2016-09-01

    We study a free boundary problem mod