Brigato, Rafael Mulatti; Mouraria, Guilherme Grisi; Kikuta, Fernando Kenji; Coelho, Sérgio de Paula; Cruz, Márcio Alves; Zoppi, Américo
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the functional outcome of patients with surgically treated terrible triad of the elbow. METHODS: A retrospective evaluation was performed using the MEPS score (Mayo Elbow Performance Score) of patients diagnosed with terrible triad of the elbow who underwent surgical treatment. RESULTS: 14 patients (nine men and five women) and 15 elbows (one bilateral case) were evaluated. A MEPS average score of 78 points and 86% good and excellent results was obtained. As complications, we had one case of infection and three of neuropraxia of the ulnar nerve. CONCLUSION: The patients had stable elbow with good function, however with reduced range of motion. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:26207090
Dodds, Seth D; Fishler, Thomas
The terrible triad of the elbow is a difficult injury with historically poor outcomes. Improved experience, techniques, and implants have advanced to the point where restoration of elbow stability can be expected. Careful attention to each destabilizing element of the injury pattern is essential and places high demands on the surgeon's mastery of the anatomic complexity of the elbow. Technically, the surgeon must bring every skill to bear, as soft tissue techniques, fracture repair, and joint arthroplasty are routinely required to adequately treat these complex constellations of injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sun, Qiang; Guo, Shu; Wang, Di; Xu, Nan; Fang, Qi-gen
Our goal was to evaluate the shoulder dysfunction after radiotherapy in surgically and nonsurgically treated necks.A prospective pair matched design was performed. A total of 96 patients from 3 groups were enrolled in the study. The patients were asked to complete the shoulder domain section of the University of Washington Quality of Life questionnaire on 2 occasions: preoperatively and 12 months postoperatively.None of the patients had a shoulder impairment before the operation. At the follow-up session, 4 patients who had received radiotherapy only reported mild shoulder dysfunction, the mean score was 96.3, the difference was significant compared with the preoperative score (P = 0.046). For patients who had received neck dissection, 7 patients reported that the impaired shoulder function caused them to change their work and 14 patients reported that their shoulder function was affected a little; the mean score was 71.6. For patients who had received both neck dissection and postoperative radiotherapy, 9 patients reported that they had changed their work due to shoulder dysfunction and 16 patients reported mild shoulder impairment; the mean score was 65.3 and the difference was not significant (P = 0.304).Radiotherapy does not increase shoulder dysfunction in surgically treated necks, but it could induce shoulder impairment in nonsurgically treated necks.
Borges, Boniek Castillo Dutra; de Souza Borges, Juliane; de Araujo, Larissa Sgarbosa Napoleao; Machado, Claudia Tavares; dos Santos, Alex Jose Souza; de Assunçao Pinheiro, Isauremi Vieira
Dental caries on tooth surfaces is still a problem in many industrialized countries. For many years, dentistry was influenced by a mechanical approach characterized by the use of high-speed rotary cutting instruments, and dentists predominantly used surgical methods to address caries. This included radical removal of diseased portions of the tooth, along with material-driven geometric extensions to areas that were assumed to be caries-resistant. This concept of extension for prevention was introduced by G. V. Black and influenced dentists for more than 120 years. Recently, a new paradigm of operative conservatism, sometimes referred to as “minimally invasive dentistry,” has gained popularity. This paradigm is designed to promote maximum preservation of healthy dental structures over a lifetime. The aim of this review is to discuss the efficacy of current nonsurgical treatments for non-cavitated caries lesions in permanent teeth. Based on results obtained from clinical trials, this review evaluates treatments such as consumption of CPP-ACP added gums, resin infiltration and fissure sealing. Although in a few cases an invasive approach is needed to arrest caries progression, the non-surgical approach generally provides potential benefits that include conserving structure by delaying intervention or minimizing the operative procedure. All current non-invasive methods are effective in treating non-cavitated caries lesions. The adoption of non-invasive approaches in the management of these lesions can preserve dental tissues, thus increasing tooth longevity. PMID:21494394
Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Yokoya, Shin; Mochizuki, Yu; Harada, Yohei; Kikugawa, Kazuhiko; Ochi, Mitsuo
Nonsurgically treated rotator cuff tears sometimes become irreparable in the lead up to surgical repair. The purposes of our study were to identify predictive factors in the progression of tear size, and determine the changes in tear location. Eighty shoulders from 71 patients (mean age 69.4 years) diagnosed with rotator cuff tears by MRI were treated nonsurgically. MRI was repeated after more than 1 year of initial diagnosis. Tear size was measured from the edge of the tear to the lateral aspect of the greater tuberosity. Tears were classified into 5 groups based on tear size and 4 groups based on tear location. Changes in tear size and location were examined. The mean follow-up period was 22.3 months. The average progression of tear size was 5 mm during follow-up, averaging 3 mm per year. Tears that were initially <1 or ≥4 cm were unlikely to progress in tear size. On the other hand, 1- to 2-cm tears on the initial MRI exhibited the greatest progression in tear size, followed by 2- to 3-cm tears. Furthermore, 62.5 % of localized tears in the posterior of the superior facet spread anteriorly, whereas 88.9 % of localized tears in the anterior of the superior facet did not change. Medium-sized tears are at high risk of tear progression. In contrast, there is little risk of early development of irreparable damage in partial tear or small full-thickness tears. In addition, typical tears may start in the posterior of the superior facet, and subsequently spread anteriorly. Our present findings may serve as a useful reference in determining the treatment course for rotator cuff tears. Level IV, Case Series, Prognosis Study.
Zeun, Paul; Gooday, Catherine; Nunney, Ian; Dhatariya, Ketan
The optimal way to manage diabetic foot osteomyelitis remains uncertain, with debate in the literature as to whether it should be managed conservatively (ie, nonsurgically) or surgically. We aimed to identify clinical variables that influence outcomes of nonsurgical management in diabetic foot osteomyelitis. We conducted a retrospective study of consecutive patients with diabetes presenting to a tertiary center between 2007 and 2011 with foot osteomyelitis initially treated with nonsurgical management. Remission was defined as wound healing with no clinical or radiological signs of osteomyelitis at the initial or contiguous sites 12 months after clinical and/or radiological resolution. Nine demographic and clinical variables including osteomyelitis site and presence of foot pulses were analyzed. We identified 100 cases, of which 85 fulfilled the criteria for analysis. After a 12-month follow-up period, 54 (63.5%) had achieved remission with nonsurgical management alone with a median (interquartile range) duration of antibiotic treatment of 10.8 (10.1) weeks. Of these, 14 (26%) were admitted for intravenous antibiotics. The absence of pedal pulses in the affected foot (n = 34) was associated with a significantly longer duration of antibiotic therapy to achieve remission, 8.7 (7.1) versus 15.9 (13.3) weeks (P = .003). Osteomyelitis affecting the metatarsal was more likely to be amputated than other sites of the foot (P = .016). In line with previous data, we have shown that almost two thirds of patients presenting with osteomyelitis healed without undergoing surgical bone resection.
Labronici, Pedro José; Santos Filho, Fernando Claudino Dos; Reis, Tales Bregalda; Pires, Robinson Esteves Santos; Junior, Adriano Fernando Mendes; Kojima, Kodi Edson
To evaluate the decision of orthopedics surgeons regarding which cases they would indicate surgery or non-surgical treatment. 20 images of radiographs with fracture in the middle third of the collar bone (AO/OTA 15-B) in anteroposterior view were analyzed, and divided into four groups: group 1 - fracture type AO/OTA 15-B1 without displacement; group 2 - fracture type AO/OTA 15-B1 with displacement; group 3 - fracture type AO/OTA 15-B2; group 4 - fracture type AO/OTA 15-B3. The evaluator was requested to indicate the choice of treatment, surgical or non-surgical. There was no strong correlation between the amount of surgical indications and the working experience or age of the medical evaluator. It was observed that the average of surgical indications in the total sample was 52%. When indications were studied in different areas of Brazil, there was no significant difference among them. No pattern for the Brazilian regions studied was observed in the case analysis. Even within a group (cases of the same complexity), no specific pattern of surgical indication was observed. No association between surgical indication and the length of professional experience was found. The Southern and Southeastern regions were those that most recommended surgeries in groups 2, 3, and 4. In no region the same level of surgical indication for cases of the same complexity rate was kept.
Adenoidal hypertrophy (AH) and adenotonsillar hypertrophy are common disorders in the pediatric population and can cause symptoms such as mouth breathing, nasal congestion, hyponasal speech, snoring, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), as well as chronic sinusitis and recurrent otitis media. More serious long-term sequelae, typically secondary to OSA, include neurocognitive abnormalities (e.g. behavioral and learning difficulties, poor attention span, hyperactivity, below average intelligence quotient); cardiovascular morbidity (e.g. decreased right ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular hypertrophy, elevated diastolic blood pressure); and growth failure. Adenoidectomy (with tonsillectomy in cases of adenotonsillar hypertrophy) is the typical management strategy for patients with AH. Potential complications have prompted the investigation of non-surgical alternatives. Evidence of a pathophysiologic link between AH and allergy suggests a possible role for intranasal corticosteroids (INS) in the management of patients with AH. This article reviews the epidemiology and pathophysiology of AH with a particular focus on evidence of its association with allergy and allergic rhinitis. Current treatment options are briefly considered with discussion on the rationale and evidence for the use of INS. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Sauerbruch, T; Neubrand, M
Nonsurgical management of gallstones has made considerable progress within the past 20 years. More than 95% of all patients with bile duct stones can be treated successfully by peroral endoscopic or percutaneous techniques. In the case of very large or impacted calculi, intracorporeal or extracorporeal lithotripsy is available (Figure 9-10). Mortality from these approaches is low (in the range of 1%) despite the fact that most patients are elderly and frail, and open surgery is rarely required. While nonsurgical management of bile duct stones is commonly accepted, there is disagreement as to whether gallbladder stones should be managed nonsurgically, especially in view of the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. For patients in good general health who are willing to undergo surgery, removal of the gallbladder is the treatment of choice. However, there are some patients in whom a nonsurgical procedure ought to be considered. These are patients with a patent cystic duct, a functioning gallbladder, and symptomatic, radiolucent stones who can be scheduled for elective treatment. In patients with small floating stones, solitary radiolucent stones or even multiple large stones with a CT density lower than 50 HU, the chance of complete clearance of the gallbladder ranges between 80% and 90% using oral dissolution therapy, direct contact dissolution, or a combination of extracorporeal lithotripsy and dissolution. Each method has its ideal candidates (Table 9-1). The overall percentage of patients with gallstones for these nonsurgical therapeutic options is probably not higher than 20%. Therefore, the impact on surgery is still minor. Controlled clinical comparisons of the different therapies are lacking at the moment. However, these approaches have already stimulated further research into the pathogenesis of gallbladder stone disease and will no doubt undergo further improvement. Drugs that, in addition to ursodeoxycholic acid, further reduce cholesterol
Chen, Neal C; Ring, David
The treatment of terrible triad injuries of the elbow continues to evolve. Radial head fixation and arthroplasty, coronoid process fixation, and repair of the lateral collateral ligament continue to be the mainstays of treatment. In the elbow with persistent instability after repair of these elements, application of a static external fixation, hinged external fixation, ulnohumeral joint pinning, or an internal hinge may be needed. In patients who undergo treatment after the acute injury period, the coronoid may require reconstruction using radial head autograft, iliac crest autograft, olecranon autograft, or allograft.
Fernandes, Marina; de Ataide, Ida
Periapical lesions develop as sequelae to pulp disease. They often occur without any episode of acute pain and are discovered on routine radiographic examination. The incidence of cysts within periapical lesions varies between 6 and 55%. The occurrence of periapical granulomas ranges between 9.3 and 87.1%, and of abscesses between 28.7 and 70.07%. It is accepted that all inflammatory periapical lesions should be initially treated with conservative nonsurgical procedures. Studies have reported a success rate of up to 85% after endodontic treatment of teeth with periapical lesions. A review of literature was performed by using electronic and hand searching methods for the nonsurgical management of periapical lesions. Various methods can be used in the nonsurgical management of periapical lesions: the conservative root canal treatment, decompression technique, active nonsurgical decompression technique, aspiration-irrigation technique, method using calcium hydroxide, Lesion Sterilization and Repair Therapy, and the Apexum procedure. Monitoring the healing of periapical lesions is essential through periodic follow-up examinations. PMID:21217952
Gajendran, Varun K; Bishop, Julius A
Terrible triad elbow injuries, consisting of fractures of the radial head and coronoid with ulnohumeral dislocation, are challenging to treat. They require a comprehensive understanding of the complex anatomy of the elbow to effectively treat all of the pathology and create a stable, congruent joint. The authors present a case of a terrible triad injury with avulsion of the triceps and flexor-pronator mass after a low-energy fall in a young patient. Although most terrible triad fracture-dislocations can be successfully treated with coronoid fixation, radial head fixation or replacement, and repair of the lateral collateral ligament complex, this case involved a completely circumferential injury to the elbow. The coronoid and anterior capsule were disrupted anteriorly, the radial head and lateral collateral ligament complex were disrupted laterally, the triceps was disrupted posteriorly, and the flexor-pronator mass was disrupted medially. Although the authors prefer to address most terrible triad injuries through a lateral approach, they suspected a circumferential injury preoperatively and elected to use a single posterior incision to address all of the pathology conveniently. This injury required treatment of all disrupted structures, because the elbow remained unstable until the triceps and flexor-pronator mass avulsions were ultimately repaired. With any elbow fracture-dislocation, surgeons should look for evidence of additional injuries that do not fit the commonly described patterns, because they may necessitate modifications to the treatment plan. Given the relatively common complications of stiffness and instability despite modern surgical techniques, additional injuries may further compromise functional outcomes unless they are addressed properly.
Okoye, Obi T; Reddy, Heather; Wong, Monica D; Doane, Suzann; Resnick, Shelby; Karamanos, Efstathios; Skiada, Dimitra; Goodrich, Raymond; Inaba, Kenji
The Mirasol system has been demonstrated to effectively inactivate white blood cells (WBCs) and reduce pathogens in whole blood in vitro. The purpose of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of Mirasol-treated fresh whole blood (FWB) to untreated FWB in an in vivo model of surgical bleeding. A total of 18 anesthetized pigs (40 kg) underwent a 35% total blood volume bleed, cooling to 33°C, and a standardized liver injury. Animals were then randomly assigned to resuscitation with either Mirasol-treated or untreated FWB, and intraoperative blood loss was measured. After abdominal closure, the animals were observed for 14 days, after which the animals were euthanized and tissues were obtained for histopathologic examination. Mortality, tissue near-infrared spectroscopy, red blood cell (RBC) variables, platelets (PLTs), WBCs, and coagulation indices were analyzed. Total intraoperative blood loss was similar in test and control arms (8.3 ± 3.2 mL/kg vs. 7.7 ± 3.9 mL/kg, p = 0.720). All animals survived to Day 14. Trended values over time did not show significant differences-tissue oxygenation (p = 0.605), hemoglobin (p = 0.461), PLTs (p = 0.807), WBCs (p = 0.435), prothrombin time (p = 0.655), activated partial thromboplastin time (p = 0.416), thromboelastography (TEG)-reaction time (p = 0.265), or TEG-clot formation time (p = 0.081). Histopathology did not show significant differences between arms. Mirasol-treated FWB did not impact survival, blood loss, tissue oxygen delivery, RBC indices, or coagulation variables in a standardized liver injury model. These data suggest that Mirasol-treated FWB is both safe and efficacious in vivo. © 2015 AABB.
Lin, Yu-Ching; Wu, Wei-Ting; Hsu, Yu-Chun; Han, Der-Sheng; Chang, Ke-Vin
To explore the effectiveness of botulinum toxin compared with non-surgical treatments in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Data sources including PubMed, Scopus, Embase and Airity Library from the earliest record to February 2017 were searched. Study design, patients' characteristics, dosage/brand of botulinum toxin, injection techniques, and measurements of pain and hand grip strength were retrieved. The standardized mean differences (SMDs) in pain relief and grip strength reduction were calculated at the following time points: 2-4, 8-12, and 16 weeks or more after injection. Six randomized controlled trials (321 participants) comparing botulinum toxin with placebo or corticosteroid injections were included. Compared with placebo, botulinum toxin injection significantly reduced pain at all three time points (SMD, -0.729, 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.286 to -0.171; SMD, -0.446, 95% CI, -0.740 to -0.152; SMD, -0.543, 95% CI, -0.978 to -0.107, respectively). Botulinum toxin was less effective than corticosteroid at 2-4 weeks (SMD, 1.153; 95% CI, 0.568-1.737) and both treatments appeared similar in efficacy after 8 weeks. Different injection sites and dosage/brand did not affect effectiveness. Botulinum toxin decreased grip strength 2-4 weeks after injection, and high equivalent dose could extend its paralytic effects to 8-12 weeks. When treating lateral epicondylitis, botulinum toxin was superior to placebo and could last for 16 weeks. Corticosteroid and botulinum toxin injections were largely equivalent, except the corticosteroid injections were better at pain relief in the early stages and were associated with less weakness in grip in the first 12 weeks.
Pollock, Bruce E
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is commonly performed in patients with trigeminal neuralgia, and numerous investigators have found that facial pain outcomes after this procedure are better for patients in whom prior surgery did not fail. Researchers in some centers claim that the results of SRS are equivalent to posterior fossa exploration (PFE). The goal in this study was to verify that claim. Information was retrieved from a prospectively maintained database of patients less than 70 years old with idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia who underwent PFE (55 patients) or SRS (28 patients) as their initial surgery between 1999 and 2004. Of the two groups, patients who underwent radiosurgery were older (60.5 compared with 50.7 years, p<0.001). Microvascular decompression was performed in 49 patients (89%) and partial nerve section was performed in six (11%) in the PFE group. The mean maximum dose for SRS was 89.1 Gy. At a mean follow-up duration of 25.5 months, patients who had undergone PFE were more commonly pain free without medications (75% at 1 year, 72% at 3 years) compared with the patients treated with SRS (59% at 1 and 3 years; p = 0.01). Additional surgery was performed in 10 patients (18%) after PFE, compared with eight patients (29%) after SRS (p = 0.4). Eight patients (15%) had either new facial numbness (six cases) or dysesthesias (two cases) after PFE, whereas 12 (43%) had either new facial numbness (eight cases) or dysesthesias (four cases) after SRS. No correlation was noted between the development of facial numbness and facial pain outcome after PFE (p = 0.37), whereas patients in whom trigeminal dysfunction developed after radiosurgery were more frequently free of pain (p = 0.02). The results support PFE as a more effective primary surgery than SRS in patients with idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. Moreover, injury to the trigeminal nerve during PFE is not required to achieve excellent facial pain outcomes.
Miller, Bruce S.; Robbins, Christopher; Gagnier, Joel Joseph
Objectives: The minimally important difference (MID) is the smallest change in an outcome measure that is perceived by patients as beneficial. The MIDs for the ASES and WORC scores have not been established in a homogenous population of patients with rotator cuff tears. The objective of the present study was to establish the MIDs for patients with known cuff tears who were treated both surgically and non-surgically, and to compare the MIDs over time. Methods: We included 209 subjects with known full-thickness rotator cuff tears who were followed prospectively for two years. The WORC and ASES scores were collected at baseline, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 48 weeks, 1 year and 2 years. At the final follow-up point patients filled out an end-of-study form which included questions regarding change in their condition after treatment. Results: For those that indicated being minimally better, the change from baseline for the ASES score was -20.57 (-2.94 to -38.20) and for the WORC was 418.60 (70.39 to 766.81); both indicated improvement in outcomes. When converted to the percentage change score the WORC change represented 19.93%. The plots of these new MID values for the ASES and WORC indicate that not only does the operative group improve more than the non-operative group but it does so to an extent that is greater than the MID. The non-operative group also improved across time, but the magnitude did not exceed the MID for either the WORC or the ASES. Conclusion: We found that the ASES and the WORC MIDs in patients with rotator cuff tears is different from that previously reported, and that the operative group change was greater than the non-operative group change. This information will directly improve our ability to: (1) Determine when patients with RCTs are changing in a meaningful manner; (2) Accurately power clinical studies using these outcome measures; (3) Make more informed choices of treatments in these patients. This is the first study to report MIDs for the ASES and WORC
St-Onge, Eric; MacIntyre, Ian G; Galea, Anthony M
To present the clinical management of inguinal disruption in a professional hockey player and highlight the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and management. A professional hockey player with recurrent groin pain presented to the clinic after an acute exacerbation of pain while playing hockey. The patient received a clinical diagnosis of inguinal disruption. Imaging revealed a tear in the rectus abdominis. Management included two platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections to the injured tissue, and subsequent manual therapy and exercise. The patient returned to his prior level of performance in 3.5 weeks. This case demonstrated the importance of a multidisciplinary team and the need for advanced imaging in athletes with groin pain. Research quality concerning the non-surgical management of inguinal disruption remains low. This case adds evidence that PRP, with the addition of manual therapy and exercise may serve as a relatively quick and effective non-surgical management strategy.
Ling, Jun-qi; Wei, Xi
The introduction of dental operating microscope and microscopic instruments including ultrasonic tips has revealed the endodontic therapy. Dental operating microscope provides magnification and illumination for the operational area. Cases which should be treated by surgical approach in the past can be managed predictably by nonsurgical micro-endodontics. The use of dental operating microscope and ultrasonics in non-surgical endodontics includes location of missed canal, removal of intracanal post and separated instruments, negotiation of ledged canals, management of apical transportation and perforation repair.
Unfortunately, we come across many traumatised teeth during our practising career. Some of these traumatic injuries are rather simple to treat whereas others provide us with a real challenge. It is absolutely essential that the diagnosis of the injury be known before any treatment is attempted. When it comes to trauma, however, defining the exact form of treatment can often be very difficult. In this paper I will discuss some of the cases that I have managed and leave it up to YOU to decide whether my treatment has been correct, incorrect or whether there is some other form of treatment that we have at our disposal that could have been attempted.
St-Onge, Eric; MacIntyre, Ian G.; Galea, Anthony M.
Objective: To present the clinical management of inguinal disruption in a professional hockey player and highlight the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and management. Clinical Features: A professional hockey player with recurrent groin pain presented to the clinic after an acute exacerbation of pain while playing hockey. Intervention: The patient received a clinical diagnosis of inguinal disruption. Imaging revealed a tear in the rectus abdominis. Management included two platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections to the injured tissue, and subsequent manual therapy and exercise. The patient returned to his prior level of performance in 3.5 weeks. Discussion: This case demonstrated the importance of a multidisciplinary team and the need for advanced imaging in athletes with groin pain. Summary: Research quality concerning the non-surgical management of inguinal disruption remains low. This case adds evidence that PRP, with the addition of manual therapy and exercise may serve as a relatively quick and effective non-surgical management strategy. PMID:26816415
Dudeja, Pooja Gupta; Dudeja, Krishan Kumar; Garg, Arvind; Srivastava, Dhirendra; Grover, Shibani
Teeth with calcified canals, dilacerated roots, and associated large periradicular lesions involving both cortical plates pose a challenge to dentists. In addition to the nonsurgical endodontic treatment, such teeth may require surgical intervention with concomitant use of bone grafting materials and barrier techniques. These techniques, when combined with the use of a host modulating agent such as platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), may improve the chances of success. A 26-year-old woman was referred for dental treatment with a recurrence of an intraoral sinus tract 2 months after periradicular surgery in the upper anterior region. Clinical and radiographic examinations revealed a calcified and perforated maxillary left lateral incisor with a severely dilacerated root as well as an associated large radiolucent lesion surrounding the roots of the maxillary left central and lateral incisors. A cone-beam computed tomographic scan of the anterior maxilla showed erosion of the labial and palatal cortical plates in the same region. A calcified canal in the lateral incisor was negotiated up to the straight line portion of the canal. Periradicular surgery with root-end resection was performed, and root-end filling was performed with mineral trioxide aggregate. The perforation present on the middle third of the labial surface of the root was repaired with mineral trioxide aggregate, and the canal was cleaned, shaped, and obturated. A PRF scaffold was prepared and used with a collagen membrane and a freeze-dried bone allograft. Follow-up visits after 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year revealed satisfactory clinical and radiographic healing. The combined use of nonsurgical and surgical modes of treatment cannot be overemphasized in this case. The use of PRF along with a bone graft and a barrier membrane may have enhanced the speed of healing and the resolution of periradicular radiolucency by enhancing bone regeneration. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists
Braun, Edy; Iacono, Vincent J
The risk of developing osteochemonecrosis is increased in patients who are taking bisphosphonate drugs and must undergo extractions or other dental surgery. Because of the difficulty in predicting and preventing osteochemonecrosis and in managing patients after it has occurred, avoidance of surgery has been advised. This paper reports on the development of this complication in a patient who received nonsurgical periodontal treatment. Although it is believed that the risk of developing this severely debilitating complication is low when treating patients nonsurgically, practitioners must be able to recognize and understand the presentation and difficulties in managing osteochemonecrosis, even when only nonsurgical therapy is performed.
Fitzgibbons, Peter G; Louie, Dexter; Dyer, George Sinclair Mitchell; Blazar, Philip; Earp, Brandon
Historically, the published literature on "terrible triad" injuries has shown a high rate of unacceptable results. The use of systematic treatment protocols may improve functional outcome. The authors performed a retrospective study of all patients aged 18 years or older who underwent surgical treatment for "terrible triad" elbow fracture dislocation at their institution over a period 7 years. Surgical treatment involved fixation or replacement of the radial head, repair of the anterior capsule or coronoid fracture in most cases, and repair of the lateral collateral ligament. Outcomes included grip strength, range of motion, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire score, and a visual analog score for pain as well as radiographic assessment of arthritis, maintenance of reduction, and development of heterotopic ossification. Eighteen patients were identified and 11 enrolled. Seven patients had suture fixation of the coronoid fragment and anterior capsule, 2 had screw fixation, and 2 had no repair of the coronoid. The radial head was replaced in 9 patients and repaired in 1, and a fracture fragment was excised in another. The average follow-up was 38 months. The average arc of motion of the injured elbow was 112° and that of the contralateral elbow was 142°. The average DASH score was 19.7 (scale, 0-100). The average visual analog score for pain was 2.2 (scale, 0-10). No patients had recurrent elbow instability. Three patients underwent further surgical procedures, all for loss of motion. The authors concluded that a systematic approach to the fixation of "terrible triad" elbow fracture dislocations can provide predictable elbow stability and functional range of motion in the medium term.
Bohn, Kevin; Ipaktchi, Kyros; Livermore, Meryl; Cao, Jue; Banegas, Rodrigo
Elbow fracture-dislocations destabilize the elbow, preventing functional rehabilitation. If left untreated, they commonly result in functional compromise and poor outcomes. The "terrible triad" injury is classically described as a combination of a coronoid process and radial head fractures, as well as a posterolateral elbow dislocation. Surgical treatment to restore stable elbow range of motion has evolved in the past few decades based on increased understanding of elbow biomechanics and the anatomy of these injuries. This article highlights current concepts in the treatment of these complicated injuries.
The primary goal of nonsurgical periodontal therapy is to control microbial periodontal infection by removing bacterial biofilm, calculus, and toxins from periodontally involved root surfaces. A review of the scientific literature indicates that mechanical nonsurgical periodontal treatment predictably reduces the levels of inflammation and probing pocket depths, increases the clinical attachment level and results in an apical shift of the gingival margin. Another parameter to be considered, in spite of the lack of scientific evidence, is the reduction in the degree of tooth mobility, as clinically experienced. It is important to point out that nonsurgical periodontal treatment presents limitations such as the long-term maintainability of deep periodontal pockets, the risk of disease recurrence, and the skill of the operator. A high number of posttreatment residual pockets exhibiting bleeding on probing and > 5 mm deep are related to lower clinical stability. The successful treatment of plaque-induced periodontitis will restore periodontal health, but with reduced periodontium. In such cases, anatomical damage from previous periodontal disease will persist and inverse architecture of soft tissue may impair home plaque removal. The clinician can select one of the following therapeutic options according to the individual patient's needs: - Quadrant/sextant wise instrumentation (conventional staged debridement, CSD). - Instrumentation of all pockets within a 24-hour period with (full mouth disinfection [FMD]) or without (full mouth scaling and root planing [FMSRP]) local antiseptics. Both procedures can be associated with systemic antimicrobials. -CSD or FMD in combination with laser or photodynamic therapy. Patients with aggressive periodontitis constitute a challenge to the clinician. To date there are no established protocols for controlling the disease. However, data from the literature on the application of the FMD protocol combined with amoxicillin
Zha, Guoqing; Niu, Xiaofeng; Yu, Weiguang; Xiao, Liangbao
Terrible triad of the elbow is characterized as posterior dislocation of the elbow joint accompanied by the fractures of the radial head and coronoid process of the ulna, which is rarely seen in clinical practice, especially because the mild fracture is barely detected by imaging method In this study, we reported one case of serious complex bilateral elbow injury, presenting with unilateral typical terrible triad of the elbow and suspected terrible triad of the elbow complicated with olecranon fracture on the other side. Clinical experience was obtained during the diagnosis and treatment procedures. PMID:26550399
Kumar, Vishal; Kumar, Avinash; Aggarwal, Sameer
Radial head and coronoid fractures without posterior dislocation of the elbow have not been recorded in the literature. There is no literature documenting the combined fractures of the radial head, capitellum and coronoid process together in the same elbow. This is a case report highlighting this combination of fractures in a 30 year old patient treated with open reduction and internal fixation of all three fractures. The patient was followed up for 28 months and had a good range of motion of the elbow without any instability. Thus such a triad with no ligamentous injuries could depict a bony variant of terrible triad and a mechanism for such an injury has also been explained.
Chen, Hong-Wei; Liu, Guo-dong; Ou, Shan; Fei, Jun; Zhao, Gang-sheng; Wu, Li-Jun; Pan, Jun
The aim of the study was to explore the clinical outcome of posterolateral and anteromedial approaches in treatment of terrible triad of the elbow. The study involved 12 patients with closed terrible triad of the elbow treated by posterolateral and anteromedial approaches between January 2010 and June 2012. The mechanism of injury included fall from height in 9 patients and traffic accident in 3. According to O'Driscoll classification for fractures of the ulnar coronoid, there were 11 patients with type Ⅰ and 1 with type Ⅱ fractures. According to Mason classification for fractures of the radial head, there were 3 patients with type Ⅰ, 7 with type Ⅱ and 2 with type Ⅲ fractures. All patients were followed up for 12-27 months (average 15.5 months), which showed no pain or severe pain in all patients except for 2 patients with mild pain. At the last follow-up, the mean flexion was for 125°(range, 90°-140°), the mean extension loss for 20°(range, 0°-70°), the mean pronation for 66°(range, 20°-85°) and the mean supination for 60°(range, 30°-85°). The bony union time was 8-14 weeks (average 11 weeks) and the elbows were stable in flexion-extension and varus-valgus in all patients. The elbows maintained a concentric reduction of both the ulnotrochlear and the radiocapitellar articulation. Mild heterotopic ossification of the elbow occurred in 3 patients at 6 months after operation and mild degenerative change in 1 patient at 18 months after operation. The Broberg and Morrey elbow performance score was 82 points (range, 58-98 points). The results were excellent in 6 patients, good in 4, fair in 1 and poor in 1, with excellence rate of 83.3%. The results showed that the combined posterolateral and anteromedial approaches can facilitate the reduction and fixation of terrible triad of the elbow. Repair of radial head, coronoid, medial and lateral collateral ligaments can sufficiently restore the elbow stability, allow early postoperative motion and
Diplopia is a potential undesirable outcome of nearly any ocular surgery. In some cases, the unexpected strabismus and diplopia resolve quickly without intervention, especially if due to swelling or minor insult from the surgical procedure. When double vision persists, effective treatment may be more elusive in patients in which the strabismus is the result of a restrictive process. The sudden onset of strabismus makes treatment more challenging. Frequently these patients will require surgical intervention. Where possible, patients may be managed with nonsurgical treatments until the time of surgery or indefinitely if successful and acceptable to the patient. Diplopia has been documented as a result of restrictive strabismus following vitreoretinal surgery, glaucoma surgery, orbital decompression surgery, strabismus surgery, orbital surgery, conjunctival surgery, cataract surgery, blepharoplasty, and others. The treatment of diplopia after ocular surgery is complicated by the incomitance and torsion that may be associated with restrictive strabismus as well as the variability of the deviation during healing. Nonsurgical treatment options include prisms or occlusion. Fresnel prisms are used primarily, but occasionally the prism is ground into the spectacles. Occlusion of the involved eye may be partial or complete, using a "pirate" patch, adhesive patch, Bangerter foil, tape, or related method.
Mathew, Paul K; Athwal, George S; King, Graham J W
Fracture-dislocations of the elbow remain among the most difficult injuries to manage. Historically, the combination of an elbow dislocation, a radial head fracture, and a coronoid process fracture has had a consistently poor outcome; for this reason, it is called the terrible triad. An elbow dislocation associated with a displaced fracture of the radial head and coronoid process almost always renders the elbow unstable, making surgical fixation necessary. The primary goal of surgical fixation is to stabilize the elbow to permit early motion. Recent literature has improved our understanding of elbow anatomy and biomechanics along with the pathoanatomy of this injury, thereby allowing the development of a systematic approach for treatment and rehabilitation. Advances in knowledge combined with improved implants and surgical techniques have contributed to better outcomes.
Espinoza G, Ricardo; Benavides S, Evelyn
Ivan IV "The Terrible" was the first Tsar of all Russias and was crowned in 1547. He extended Russian territories and opened the route to Siberia in successful campaigns against Tartars. He increased his personal power to the point of generating an autocracy that isolated him progressively from the council of Boyars. He had a complex personality and his acts were impregnated by a profound religiousness, episodes of rage, mood changes and a sense of "personal fate". All these traits configure the controversial "temporal lobe personality". The possible association between these personality traits and the eventual epilepsy that Ivan IV could suffer, is discussed. This association is called "temporal lobe syndrome". Considering the mood changes, with severe irritability and episodes of control loss alternated with feelings of guilt, sadness and isolation, another possibility is that the Tsar had an affective bipolar disorder or, less probably, a personality disorder.
Drisko, C H
reports, however, would indicate that, when daily irrigation with water was added to a regular oral hygiene home regimen, a significant reduction in probing depth, bleeding on probing and Gingival Index was observed. A significant reduction in cytokine levels (interleukin-1beta and prostaglandin E2, which are associated with destructive changes in inflamed tissues and bone resorption also occurs. If patient-applied antimicrobial therapy is insufficient in preventing, arresting, or reversing the disease progression, then professionally applied antimicrobial agents should be considered including sustained local drug delivery products. Other, more broadly based pharmacotherapeutic agents may be indicated for multiple failing sites. Such agents would include systemic antibiotics or host modulating drugs used in conjunction with periodontal debridement. More aggressive types of juvenile periodontitis or severe rapidly advancing adult periodontitis usually require a combination of surgical intervention in conjunction with systemic antibiotics and generally are not controlled with nonsurgical anti-infective therapy alone. It should be noted, however, that, to date, no home care products or devices currently available can completely control or eliminate the pathogenic plaques associated with periodontal diseases for extended periods of time. Daily home care and frequent recall are still paramount for long-term success. Nonsurgical therapy remains the cornerstone of periodontal treatment. Attention to detail, patient compliance and proper selection of adjunctive antimicrobial agents for sustained plaque control are important elements in achieving successful long-term results. Frequent re-evaluation and careful monitoring allows the practitioner the opportunity to intervene early in the disease state, to reverse or arrest the progression of periodontal disease with meticulous nonsurgical anti-infective therapy.
Kurita, Tsugiko; Sakurai, Kotaro; Takeda, Youji; Horinouchi, Toru; Kusumi, Ichiro
Objective Surgical intervention can result in complete seizure remission rates of up to 80% in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS). However, certain patients cannot be treated surgically for various reasons. We analyzed the very long-term clinical outcomes of patients with TLE-HS who could not be treated surgically. Methods Subjects were selected from among patients with TLE-HS who were actively followed up for >10 years and treated with medication without surgical treatment. Patient medical records were used to retrospectively study seizure frequency, various clinical factors, and social adjustment. Patients who were seizure-free or had only aura were classified into Group 1; the others were classified into Group 2. Clinical factors including both patient and disease-specific factors were compared between the two groups. Current social adjustment, including the education, work, and economic status of each patient, was also investigated. Results Forty-one (41) subjects met the criteria for analysis, of which 12 (29%) were classified into Group 1. The average age of patients in Group 1 was higher than that of Group 2 (p = 0.0468). Group 2 included a significantly higher rate of patients who had more than one seizure per week at the onset (p = 0.0328), as well as a greater mean number of anti-epileptic drugs taken (p = 0.0024). Regarding social adjustment, Group 2 contained significantly fewer current jobholders than Group 1 (p = 0.0288). Conclusions After very long-term follow-up periods, 29% of patients with TLE-HS had a good outcome through treatment with anticonvulsant medications. Older patients tended to have fewer seizures, and seizure frequency at the onset was the only factor that predicted outcome. PMID:27415827
Mejia, Jose L; Donado, Jaime E; Basrani, Bettina
This paper describes a new nonsurgical approach for treating large periapical lesions which involves using a modified vacuum system within the root canal space. This new technique produces a vacuum effect in the periapical zone, which facilitates evacuation of large amounts of inflammatory fluids. This technique was used in 3 clinical cases, in which the patients presented with copious amounts of exudate draining from within the root canals. Clinical and radiographic results showed long-term resolution of the endodontic lesions. This treatment of the periapical pathology was consistent with the principles of conservative, nonsurgical endodontic procedures.
Noyola-Villalobos, Héctor Faustino; Loera-Torres, Marco Antonio; Jiménez-Chavarría, Enrique; Núñez-Cantú, Olliver; García-Núñez, Luis Manuel; Arcaute-Velázquez, Fernando Federico
Hepatic trauma is a common cause for admissions in the Emergency Room. Currently, non-surgical management is the standard treatment in haemodynamically stable patients with a success rate of around 85 to 98%. This haemodynamic stability is the most important factor in selecting the appropriate patient. Adjuncts in non-surgical management are angioembolisation, image-guided drainage and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Failure in non-surgical management is relatively rare but potentially fatal, and needs to be recognised and aggressively treated as early as possible. The main cause of failure in non-surgical management is persistent haemorrhage. The aim of this paper is to describe current evidence and guidelines that support non-surgical management of liver injuries in blunt trauma. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Noonan, Kenneth J; Richards, B Stephens
Because nonsurgical management was thought not to yield adequate correction and a durable result, most children with idiopathic clubfoot have undergone surgery with extensive posteromedial and lateral release. However, surgical management caused residual deformity, stiffness, and pain in some children; thus, the favorable long-term results with the Ponseti and French methods of nonsurgical management have garnered interest. The Ponseti method consists of manipulation and casting of idiopathic clubfeet; the French method consists of physiotherapy, taping, and continuous passive motion. Careful evaluation of the techniques and results of these two approaches may increase their use and decrease or minimize the use of surgical management and thus the associated morbidity resulting from extensile releases.
Thomas, Sarah Boby; Balasubramaniam, Deepak; Hiran, K. R.; Dinesh, M.; Pavithran, K.
Esthesioneuroblastoma is a rare tumor arising from the olfactory mucosa of upper respiratory tract. The primary modality of treatment has been surgery with craniofacial resection followed by post-operative radiotherapy. There are only a few reported cases of non-surgical approaches. We report a case of esthesioneuroblastoma with intracranial extension treated with Vincristine, Adriamycin, Cyclophosphamide, Ifosfamide, Etoposide protocol followed by radiation with 5 years of follow-up. This is the first reported case using this chemotherapy schedule. PMID:27366272
Thomas, Sarah Boby; Balasubramaniam, Deepak; Hiran, K R; Dinesh, M; Pavithran, K
Esthesioneuroblastoma is a rare tumor arising from the olfactory mucosa of upper respiratory tract. The primary modality of treatment has been surgery with craniofacial resection followed by post-operative radiotherapy. There are only a few reported cases of non-surgical approaches. We report a case of esthesioneuroblastoma with intracranial extension treated with Vincristine, Adriamycin, Cyclophosphamide, Ifosfamide, Etoposide protocol followed by radiation with 5 years of follow-up. This is the first reported case using this chemotherapy schedule.
In 15-minute slots, theatre company Invisible Ink invited participants to enter a room by themselves, make a call on a rotary phone, and tell an answering machine about a terrible thing they had done and how they felt about it. In this paper I argue that the body of each participant, in the moment of speaking into the phone, became a cyborg body,…
In 15-minute slots, theatre company Invisible Ink invited participants to enter a room by themselves, make a call on a rotary phone, and tell an answering machine about a terrible thing they had done and how they felt about it. In this paper I argue that the body of each participant, in the moment of speaking into the phone, became a cyborg body,…
Pierrart, Jérôme; Bégué, Thierry; Mansat, Pierre
The terrible triad is an uncommon injury, which includes an elbow posterior dislocation with fractures of the radial head and coronoid process of the ulna. In addition there is rupture of the lateral and medial collateral ligaments. The short-term and long term results are historically poor, with a high rate of complications. The main objective of this study is to report the results of a multicentre study of patients who sustained the terrible triad injury focusing on surgical treatment in order to offer a standardized surgical protocol. We retrospectively review the results of surgical treatment of eighteen terrible triads from a multicentre study of 226 elbow dislocations. At an average follow up of 31.5 months postoperatively, all eighteen patients returned for clinical examination, functional evaluation, and radiographs. The mean MEPS score value was 78 (25-100), which correspond to three excellent results, ten good results, three fair results, and two poor results. Five early and three late complications were reported. This particular case of elbow dislocation is very unstable and leads to many complications. The surgeon should attempt to restore stability by preserving the radial head whenever possible or replacing it with prosthesis otherwise, by repairing the lateral collateral ligament and performing fixation of the coronoid fracture. If after anatomical restoration of stability elements, the elbow remains unstable, options include repair of the medial collateral ligament or stabilization assumed by hinged external fixator.
Sangala, Jaypal Reddy; Dakwar, Elias; Uribe, Juan; Vale, Fernando
The aim of this study was to review the current evidence-based nonsurgical management strategies of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) for spine surgeons. Whereas surgical management is indicated in a highly selected group, nonsurgical management is itself a useful measure for nearly all patients with AS. The authors conducted a literature review of PubMed using relevant search words. All the articles published in English in the last 15 years were reviewed and the level of evidence provided by them was noted. Nonpharmacological treatments in the form of physical therapy and patient education have Level Ib evidence in maintaining function in AS. There is Level Ib evidence supporting the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and coxibs for treatment in patients with symptoms. There is not enough evidence to support the use of conventional disease-modifying antirheumatoid arthritis drugs. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha inhibitors (infliximab, etanercept, and adalimumab) are associated with Level Ib evidence in improving spinal pain, function, inflammatory biomarkers, and spinal inflammation detected by magnetic resonance imaging in patients in whom symptom duration has exceeded 3 months. Physical therapy and patient education are useful for all patients diagnosed with AS. If symptomatic, patients are started with either a course of nonselective NSAIDs or a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor. The role of NSAIDs as a disease-modifying therapy in the treatment of AS is increasingly being understood. The central role of TNF in the pathogenesis of AS is now known, and the advent of biological treatment in the form of anti-TNFalpha factors has revolutionized the medical management of AS and is used in patients with axial disease whose symptoms persist despite an adequate dose of NSAIDs.
Zentai, Christian; Grottke, Oliver; Spahn, Donat R; Rossaint, Rolf
Significant advancements in nonsurgical and surgical approaches to control bleeding in severely injured patients have also improved the treatment of critical trauma-related coagulopathy. Nonsurgical procedures such as angiographic embolization are progressively considered to terminate arterial bleeding from pelvic fractures. The disturbance of coagulation may aggravate bleeding and hamper surgical procedures. The administration of coagulation factors and factor concentrates may be useful for correcting systemic coagulopathy and reducing the need for fresh frozen plasma, platelet, and red blood cell transfusions, which are associated with various adverse outcomes. In this review, nonsurgical management of critical trauma bleeding is discussed.
Hatta, Taku; Nobuta, Shingo; Aizawa, Toshitake; Sasajima, Koichi; Nakajima, Soichi; Honda, Masahito; Oki, Gosuke; Yamanaka, Yoshiaki; Itoi, Eiji
The aim of our study is to evaluate the clinical and radiologic outcomes in patients with terrible triad injury, who underwent surgical treatment with or without the medial collateral ligament (MCL) repair. Fourteen patients who underwent surgery with a minimum of 12-month follow-up (mean, 17 months) were reviewed. Based on the systematic treatment protocol, radial head fracture, lateral collateral ligament, and coracoid fracture were treated. Subsequently, torn MCL was repaired in 7 patients, whereas in the remaining 7 patients, the MCL was not treated. Range of motion, elbow function, and radiographs regarding the arthrosis and heterotopic ossification were assessed. At final follow-up, no significant differences were found in elbow motion or function between the groups with and without MCL repair; except the pronation and supination which had superior range in repair group. In contrast, radiologic findings such as the arthrosis were seen more frequently in patients without MCL repair than those with repair. Our results indicate the effect of MCL repair on elbow motion and function might be small, whereas osteoarthritic changes occurred more frequently in elbows without MCL repair. PMID:27761222
Tour, Robert L.
It is generally agreed that surgical treatment of convergent strabismus should be withheld until all other less traumatic approaches have proved ineffectual. There are four categories of nonsurgical treatment. One is psychiatric. Too often psychiatric problems in the causation of convergent strabismus are either overlooked or unrecognized. Another is the proper employment of optical devices. For example, spectacle lenses to eliminate the need for excessive accommodation with its associated convergence excess, and the employment of prisms in the lenses to permit the two eyes to see as a unit even though they may not be properly anatomically oriented. Another kind of treatment is orthoptics, the use of exercises and rather complex optical equipment in a laboratory to train the patient in coordination between the two eyes. Treatment with drugs is based on the fact that certain drugs reduce the effort necessary for accommodation (much as eye-glasses do) and therefore lessen the stimulus toward convergence which may possibly tend toward the development of convergent strabismus. PMID:13662849
Okoroafor, Ugochi C; Cannada, Lisa K; McGinty, Jasmin L
In pediatric extremity fractures treated nonsurgically, maintaining reduction can be difficult in obese children owing to the larger soft tissue envelope. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between obesity and failure of nonsurgical management of pediatric both-bone forearm fractures. We conducted a retrospective review of 129 skeletally immature patients older than 2 years who received nonsurgical treatment for closed radius and ulna shaft fractures at a level I pediatric trauma center between 2011 and 2014. The patients were divided into 2 groups: (1) normal-weight children and (2) overweight and obese children. The primary outcome measure was failure of nonsurgical management, defined as the indication for repeat closed reduction under anesthesia or surgical intervention owing to unacceptable angulation after initial closed treatment. Of the 129 patients included in the study, 34 patients (26%) were female and 95 patients (74%) were male. Seventy-six patients (59%) were normal weight, 27 patients (22%) were obese, and 26 patients (20%) were overweight. Eighteen percent (14 of 76) of normal-weight children failed nonsurgical management compared with 34% (18 of 53) of overweight and obese children. Twenty-nine percent (4 of 14) of normal-weight children who failed nonsurgical management required surgery compared with 56% (10 of 18) of overweight and obese children. Overweight and obese children have a significantly higher rate of failure of nonsurgical management of both-bone forearm fractures compared with normal-weight children. These patients may benefit from closer clinical follow-up and a lower threshold for surgical intervention. Prognosis II. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cataneo, Antonio José Maria; Cataneo, Daniele C; de Oliveira, Frederico H S; Arruda, Karine A; El Dib, Regina; de Oliveira Carvalho, Paulo Eduardo
Thoracic trauma (TT) is common among people with multiple traumatic injuries. One of the injuries caused by TT is the loss of thoracic stability resulting from multiple fractures of the rib cage, otherwise known as flail chest (FC). A person with FC can be treated conservatively with orotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation (internal pneumatic stabilization) but may also undergo surgery to fix the costal fractures. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of surgical stabilization compared with clinical management for people with FC. We ran the search on the 12 May 2014. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (OvidSP), EMBASE Classic and EMBASE (OvidSP), CINAHL Plus (EBSCO), ISI WOS (SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI, CPCI-S, and CPSI-SSH), and clinical trials registers. We also screened reference lists and contacted experts. Randomized controlled trials of surgical versus nonsurgical treatment for people diagnosed with FC. Two review authors selected relevant trials, assessed their risk of bias, and extracted data. We included three studies that involved 123 people. The methods used for blinding the participants and researchers to the treatment group were not reported, but as the comparison is surgical treatment with medical treatment this bias is hard to avoid. There was no description of concealment of the randomization sequence in two studies.All three studies reported on mortality, and deaths occurred in two studies. There was no clear evidence of a difference in mortality between treatment groups (risk ratio (RR) 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13 to 2.42); however, the analysis was underpowered to detect a difference between groups. Out of the 123 people randomized and treated, six people died; the causes of death were pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, mediastinitis, and septic shock.Among people randomized to surgery, there were reductions in
Thomas, Manuel S; Joseph, Robin Mathai; Parolia, Abhishek
Gingival displacement is critical for obtaining accurate impressions for the fabrication of fixed restorations, especially when the finish line is at or just within the gingival sulcus. Displacement of the gingival tissue is also important when dealing with the restoration of cervical lesions due to their proximity to the periodontal tissue. The methods of gingival tissue displacement can be broadly classified as nonsurgical and surgical techniques, with nonsurgical being the more commonly practiced method. Dentists must alter their armamentarium and gingival displacement techniques to meet specific demands and obtain predictable results. Hence, the purpose of this article is to describe the different means by which nonsurgical gingival displacement can be achieved effectively under a variety of clinical situations.
Ortiz, Arisa E.
Once sought nearly exclusively by women, nonsurgical cosmetic procedures are increasingly being sought after by men. Reviewed here are survey data that characterize the spectrum of nonsurgical cosmetic procedures men are preferentially utilizing, the percentage of nonsurgical cosmetic procedures consumers who are men, and how some of these figures are changing with time. while men still comprise a small minority (approximately 10–20%) of those pursuing nonsurgical cosmetic procedures, this sector is growing, in particular for injection of neurotoxins. Practitioners performing nonsurgical cosmetic procedures on male patients need to be aware of anatomical, physiological, behavioral, and psychological factors unique to this demographic. PMID:28210397
Rome, Keith; Ashford, Robert L; Evans, Angela
Paediatric pes planus ('flat feet') is a common childhood condition with a reported prevalence of 14%. Flat feet can result in pain and altered gait. No optimal strategy for non-surgical management of paediatric flat feet has been identified. To assess the effectiveness of non-surgical interventions for treatment of paediatric pes planus (flat feet). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Index to Theses, and Dissertation Abstracts (up to June 2009). All randomised and quasi-randomised trials of non-surgical interventions for paediatric pes planus were identified. The primary outcomes were pain reduction and adverse events; secondary outcomes included disability involving the foot, goniometric measurements, quality of life and patient comfort. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included trials. Three trials involving 305 children were included in this review. Due to clinical heterogeneity, data were not pooled. All trials had potential for bias. Data from one trial (40 children with juvenile arthritis and foot pain) indicated that use of custom-made orthoses compared with supportive shoes alone resulted in significantly greater reduction in pain intensity (mean difference (MD) -1.5 points on a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS), 95% CI -2.8 to -0.2; number need to treat to benefit (NNTB) 3, 95% CI 2 to 23), and reduction in disability (measured using the disability subscale of the Foot Function Index on a 100mm scale (MD -18.65mm, 95% CI -34.42 to -2.68mm). The second trial of seven to 11 year old children with bilateral flat feet (n = 178) found no difference in the number of participants with foot pain between custom-made orthoses, prefabricated orthoses and the control group who received no treatment. A third trial of one to five year olds with bilateral flat feet (n=129) did not report pain at baseline but reported the subjective
Mewasingh, Leena D; Kadhim, Hazim; Christophe, Catherine; Christiaens, Florence J; Dan, Bernard
Cerebellar mutism (anarthria) is a well-described complication of posterior fossa tumor resection. It is accompanied by a characteristic behavior including irritability and autistic features. This syndrome is typically reversible within days to months. Underlying pathophysiology is unknown. We describe two children who presented with a similar clinical finding after nonsurgical cerebellar involvement, hemolytic-uremic syndrome in one and cerebellitis in the other. Postmortem pathologic findings in the first patient indicated cerebellar ischemic necrosis. Single-photon emission computed tomography in the second patient revealed diffuse cerebellar hypoperfusion with no supratentorial abnormalities, refuting a phenomenon of diaschisis between cerebellar and frontal connections. These findings confirm that this clinical syndrome may occur in a nonsurgical, nontraumatic context. They are consistent with recent integrative hypotheses explaining cerebellar anarthria.
Thorsness, Robert J; Faust, John R; Behrend, Caleb J; Sanders, James O
Early-onset scoliosis is potentially fatal if left untreated. Although surgical management with growing instrumentation may be necessary, this is not a panacea and is associated with high complication rates. Recent evidence has demonstrated that nonsurgical treatment can be an effective early management strategy in delaying or even precluding the need for surgery, especially surgery with growing instrumentation. The goal of both nonsurgical and surgical management is to control or correct the spinal curve to allow appropriate pulmonary development while delaying definitive fusion until an appropriate skeletal age. Although more commonly used to delay surgery, serial cast correction using the Cotrel and Morel elongation-derotation-flexion technique may result in complete correction in patients with infantile idiopathic scoliosis and smaller curve magnitudes. Copyright 2015 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.
McClinton, Shane; Luedke, Lace; Clewley, Derek
Midsubstance Achilles tendinopathy is one of the most common lower leg conditions. Most patients can recover with nonsurgical treatment that focuses on tendon loading exercises and, when necessary, symptom modulating treatments such as topical, oral, or injected medication, ice, shoe inserts, manual therapy, stretching, taping, or low-level laser. If unresponsive to initial management, a small percentage of patients may consider shockwave or sclerosing treatment and possibly surgery.
Fleury, Anna Maria; Silva, Antonio Carlos da; de Castro Pochini, Alberto; Pochini, Alberto; Ejnisman, Benno; Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa de; Andrade, Marilia Dos Santos
Rupture of the pectoralis major muscle appears to be increasing in athletes. However, the optimal treatment strategy has not yet been established. To compare the isokinetic shoulder performance after surgical treatment to that after non-surgical treatment for pectoralis major muscle rupture. We assessed 33 pectoralis major muscle ruptures (18 treated non-surgically and 15 treated surgically). Horizontal abduction and adduction as well as external and internal rotation at 60 and 120 degrees/s were tested in both upper limbs. Peak torque, total work, contralateral deficiency, and the peak torque agonist-to-antagonist ratio were measured. Contralateral muscular deficiency did not differ between the surgical and non-surgical treatment modalities. However, the surgical group presented twice the number of athletes with clinically acceptable contralateral deficiency (<20%) for internal rotators compared to the non-surgical group. The peak torque ratio between the external and internal rotator muscles revealed a similar deficit of the external rotation in both groups and on both sides (surgical, 61.60% and 57.80% and non-surgical, 62.06% and 54.06%, for the dominant and non-dominant sides, respectively). The peak torque ratio revealed that the horizontal adduction muscles on the injured side showed similar weakness in both groups (surgical, 86.27%; non-surgical, 98.61%). This study included the largest single series of athletes reported to date for this type of injury. A comparative analysis of muscular strength and balance showed no differences between the treatment modalities for pectoralis major muscle rupture. However, the number of significant clinical deficiencies was lower in the surgical group than in the non-surgical group, and both treatment modalities require greater attention to the rehabilitation process, especially for the recovery of muscle strength and balance.
Fleury, Anna Maria; da Silva, Antonio Carlos; de Castro Pochini, Alberto; Ejnisman, Benno; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa; dos Santos Andrade, Marilia
INTRODUCTION: Rupture of the pectoralis major muscle appears to be increasing in athletes. However, the optimal treatment strategy has not yet been established. OBJECTIVES: To compare the isokinetic shoulder performance after surgical treatment to that after non-surgical treatment for pectoralis major muscle rupture. METHODS: We assessed 33 pectoralis major muscle ruptures (18 treated non-surgically and 15 treated surgically). Horizontal abduction and adduction as well as external and internal rotation at 60 and 120 degrees/s were tested in both upper limbs. Peak torque, total work, contralateral deficiency, and the peak torque agonist-to-antagonist ratio were measured. RESULTS: Contralateral muscular deficiency did not differ between the surgical and non-surgical treatment modalities. However, the surgical group presented twice the number of athletes with clinically acceptable contralateral deficiency (<20%) for internal rotators compared to the non-surgical group. The peak torque ratio between the external and internal rotator muscles revealed a similar deficit of the external rotation in both groups and on both sides (surgical, 61.60% and 57.80% and non-surgical, 62.06% and 54.06%, for the dominant and non-dominant sides, respectively). The peak torque ratio revealed that the horizontal adduction muscles on the injured side showed similar weakness in both groups (surgical, 86.27%; non-surgical, 98.61%). CONCLUSIONS: This study included the largest single series of athletes reported to date for this type of injury. A comparative analysis of muscular strength and balance showed no differences between the treatment modalities for pectoralis major muscle rupture. However, the number of significant clinical deficiencies was lower in the surgical group than in the non-surgical group, and both treatment modalities require greater attention to the rehabilitation process, especially for the recovery of muscle strength and balance. PMID:21484052
Harris, Kyle P; Driban, Jeffrey B; Sitler, Michael R; Cattano, Nicole M; Balasubramanian, Easwaran; Hootman, Jennifer M
To determine if surgical or nonsurgical treatment of anterior cruciate ligament rupture affects the prevalence of posttraumatic tibiofemoral osteoarthritis (OA). Studies published between 1983 and April 2012 were identified via EBSCOhost and OVID. Reference lists were then screened in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Studies were included if (a) treatment outcomes focused on a direct comparison of surgical versus nonsurgical treatment of anterior cruciate ligament rupture, (b) the prevalence of tibiofemoral OA was reported, and (c) they were written in English. Studies were excluded if (a) the included patients were treated with cast immobilization after surgery, (b) the mean follow-up was less than 10 years, or (c) the patients underwent anterior cruciate ligament revision surgery. Two independent investigators reviewed the included articles using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Frequency of OA, surgical procedure, nonsurgical treatments, and participant characteristics were extracted and summarized. We calculated prevalence (%) and 95% confidence intervals for treatment groups for each individual study and overall. We developed 2 × 2 contingency tables to assess the association between treatment groups (exposed had surgery, referent was nonsurgical treatment) and the prevalence of OA. Four retrospective studies were identified (140 surgical patients, 240 nonsurgical patients). The mean Newcastle-Ottawa Scale score was 5 (range = 4-6 [of 10] points). Average length of follow-up was 11.8 years (range = 10-14 years). The prevalence of OA for surgically treated patients ranged from 32.6% to 51.2% (overall = 41.4%, 95% confidence interval = 35.0%, 48.1%) and for nonsurgical patients ranged from 24.5% to 42.3% (overall = 30.9%, 95% confidence interval = 24.4%, 38.3%). Although OA prevalence was higher in the surgical treatment group at a mean follow-up of 11.8 years, no
Ariza, S; Espinosa, S; Naranjo, M
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most prevalent malignant tumor in humans and the local destruction of tissue that can result from excision has a significant impact on well-being. Treating BCC is costly for health care systems given the high incidence of this tumor, especially in older patients. Standard treatment involves either resection with histologic assessment of margins or Mohs micrographic surgery. Surgery is sometimes contraindicated, however, due to the presence of significant comorbidity or high cosmetic expectations. For such patients, nonsurgical treatments have become available. These alternatives can offer good local control of disease, preserve function, and achieve excellent cosmetic results. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
AlJehani, Yousef A
The aim of this report is to present a severe case of phenytoin (PHT)-induced gingival hyperplasia in a Saudi patient. A 12-year-old male epileptic patient, undergoing PHT therapy, was diagnosed clinically with severe gingival hyperplasia. His treatment consisted meticulous oral care and weekly professional prophylaxis. The patient was advised oral folic acid supplementation (0.5 mg/day) and was also recommended 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash twice daily. There was significant reduction in the hyperplastic tissue within 4 weeks of treatment. It is possible to treat PHT-induced gingival hyperplasia non-surgically with intensive dental care, correct oral hygiene and oral folic acid supplements.
Nouri, Mahtab; Farzan, Arash
Introduction: Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a birth defect involving craniofacial structures derived from the first and second branchial arches. Although it is a relatively uncommon malformation, it is the second most common craniofacial birth defect after cleft lip and palate (CL/P). Case Presentation: This is a case report about the successful orthodontic treatment of a patient with mild hemifacial microsomia (HFM), using a non-surgical orthopedic and orthodontic treatment approach. The aim of this approach was to make the best noninvasive modality to treat HFM. A 7-year-old boy with a mild HFM presented with a convex profile and slight chin deviation. Orthopedic treatment performed using a hybrid functional and high pulls headgear. Treatment continued by fixed orthodontic straight wire appliance to achieve perfect occlusion. Conclusions: Excellent esthetic and functional results achieved; total treatment duration was about 72 months. PMID:26734473
Redden, Mark D; Chin, Tze Yang; van Driel, Mieke L
thoracotomy versus tube thoracostomy and VATS versus tube thoracostomy. We pooled data for meta-analysis where appropriate. We performed a subgroup analysis for children along with a sensitivity analysis for studies that used fibrinolysis in non-surgical treatment arms.The comparison of open thoracotomy versus thoracostomy drainage included only one study in children, which reported no deaths in either treatment arm. However, the trial showed a statistically significant reduction in mean hospital stay of 5.90 days for those treated with primary thoracotomy. It also showed a statistically significant reduction in procedural complications for those treated with thoracotomy compared to thoracostomy drainage. We downgraded the quality of the evidence for length of hospital stay and procedural complications outcomes to moderate due to the small sample size.The comparison of VATS versus thoracostomy drainage included seven studies, which we pooled in a meta-analysis. There was no statistically significant difference in mortality or procedural complications between groups. This was true for both adults and children with or without fibrinolysis. However, mortality data were limited: one study reported one death in each treatment arm, and seven studies reported no deaths. There was a statistically significant reduction in mean length of hospital stay for those treated with VATS. The subgroup analysis showed the same result in adults, but there was insufficient evidence to estimate an effect for children. We could not perform a separate analysis for fibrinolysis for this outcome because all included studies used fibrinolysis in the non-surgical arms. We downgraded the quality of the evidence to low for mortality (due to wide confidence intervals and indirectness), and moderate for other outcomes in this comparison due to either high heterogeneity or wide confidence intervals. Our findings suggest there is no statistically significant difference in mortality between primary surgical and
Villafán-Quiroga, Ronald; Cienfuegos-Monroy, Ricardo; Sierra-Martínez, Eduardo
treatment of frontal sinus fractures remains controversial. If the posterior wall is fractured and there is cerebrospinal fluid leak, treatment seeks to restore the integrity of the dura and isolate the intracranial contents through the obliteration of the nasofrontal duct and cranialization. Another group supports nonoperative management CSF leakage is produced. The purpose is to avoid complications of meningitis, fistula and late sequelae. The difficulty lies in predicting which patients will develop complications. The aim of this study is to identify complications in patients with posterior wall fracture of the frontal sinus treated nonsurgically. an observational, cross-sectional, retrospective study was conducted with 20 patients with posterior wall fractures of the frontal sinus treated nonsurgically at the Hospital de Traumatología y Ortopedia Lomas Verdes, Service of Maxillofacial Surgery from January 2007 to October 2009. twenty patients with posterior wall fractures of the frontal sinus were included. There were 17 males and 3 females. Fractures were divided into groups according to their degree of movement and presence of cerebrospinal fluid fistula. Postoperative complications were cerebrospinal fluid fistula and frontal abscess. nonsurgical treatment has proven to be an option, although not free from complications, the most common being CSF fistula and abscess. Future comparative studies should be carried out to define therapeutic strategies usibg clinical monitoring and long-term imaging.
Tu, Ming; Lu, Qin; Zhu, Penglei; Zheng, Weiming
Pituitary apoplexy is a rare disease caused by a sudden hemorrhage into or infarction of the pituitary gland. Its optimal management remains controversial. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of surgical and non-surgical treatments for pituitary apoplexy. A systematic literature search was performed of MedLine, EmBase, the Cochrane Library, and the Web of Science for articles published between January 1992 and September 2014. Studies of the outcomes in consecutive patients that compared surgical intervention with non-surgical treatment for pituitary apoplexy were included. Six studies met the inclusion criteria. As compared to the non-surgically treated patients, surgically treated patients had a significantly higher rate of recovery of ocular palsy and visual field (both P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the recovery of visual acuity and pituitary function (P>0.05) between the two groups. The findings of our study suggest that surgical intervention should be advocated for pituitary apoplexy patients with visual field defects and ocular palsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Grindem, Hege; Eitzen, Ingrid; Engebretsen, Lars; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Risberg, May Arna
Background: While there are many opinions about the expected knee function, sports participation, and risk of knee reinjury following nonsurgical treatment of injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), there is a lack of knowledge about the clinical course following nonsurgical treatment compared with that after surgical treatment. Methods: This prospective cohort study included 143 patients with an ACL injury. Isokinetic knee extension and flexion strength and patient-reported knee function as recorded on the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) 2000 form were collected at baseline, six weeks, and two years. Sports participation was reported monthly for two years with use of an online activity survey. Knee reinjuries were reported at the follow-up evaluations and in a monthly online survey. Repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA), generalized estimating equation (GEE) models, and Cox regression analysis were used to analyze group differences in functional outcomes, sports participation, and knee reinjuries, respectively. Results: The surgically treated patients (n = 100) were significantly younger, more likely to participate in level-I sports, and less likely to participate in level-II sports prior to injury than the nonsurgically treated patients (n = 43). There were no significant group-by-time effects on functional outcome. The crude analysis showed that surgically treated patients were more likely to sustain a knee reinjury and to participate in level-I sports in the second year of the follow-up period. After propensity score adjustment, these differences were nonsignificant; however, the nonsurgically treated patients were significantly more likely to participate in level-II sports during the first year of the follow-up period and in level-III sports over the two years. After two years, 30% of all patients had an extensor strength deficit, 31% had a flexor strength deficit, 20% had patient-reported knee function below the normal range, and
Graziani, Filippo; Cei, Silvia; Tonetti, Maurizio; Paolantonio, Michele; Serio, Rossella; Sammartino, Gilberto; Gabriele, Mario; D'Aiuto, Francesco
To describe the kinetics of serum inflammatory markers after a course of treatment comprising surgical and non-surgical treatment of chronic periodontitis (CP). Fourteen CP cases received full-mouth non-surgical treatment and, after 6 months, at least two surgical sessions. Blood samples were collected at various time-points after treatment. Blood markers of systemic inflammation/coagulation including leucocyte counts, C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid-A (SAA) and D-dimers and renal function (cystatin C) were determined using high-sensitivity assays. Periodontal treatment resulted in substantial reductions of the number of pockets, gingival bleeding and plaque at 3 and 6 months after non-surgical therapy (p<0.001). Surgical therapy led to an additional reduction of periodontal pockets (p<0.01). Marked increases in the serum levels of CRP and SAA were noted 24 h after non-surgical therapy (p<0.01) and periodontal surgeries (p<0.05). D-dimer levels increased drastically 24 h after non-surgical therapy (p<0.05). The drastic increase of CRP after non-surgical therapy was greater than both the surgical therapy sessions (p<0.05). Patients undergoing periodontal treatment experience perturbations of systemic inflammation of a greater magnitude after non-surgical than surgical periodontal therapy.
Regan, John D; Fleury, Alex A P
This paper highlights that one of the main goals of root canal treatment is the elimination of microorganisms from the contaminated root canal system. Instrumentation alone will not allow for adequate debridement and disinfection of the complex and diverse root canal system. Chemomechanical debridement is required. The importance of the use of irrigants during non-surgical root canal treatment has frequently been neglected both during instruction of dental students and later in the clinical practice of endodontics. The article highlights 'shape, clean and fill' vs. 'clean, shape and fill' to enable chemomechanical debridement. Our protocol advises mechanical debridement and copious irrigation for a minimum of twenty minutes with 2.5% to 6% solutions of sodium hypochlorite, followed by a rinse with a 17% solution of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and a final rinse with 2% chlorhexidine. The canals are dried with high volume aspirators and sterile paper points.
Non-surgical removal of plaque and calculus has been part of the initial phase of the management of patients with gingivitis and periodontitis for decades. It consists of patient motivation and oral hygiene instruction as well as mechanical removal of supra and subgingival plaque deposits. The purpose of this review was to assess recent changes. The article reports on changes in our understanding of plaque as a biofilm, developments in patient plaque control, chemical plaque control and scaling instruments. It also comments on full-mouth disinfection, the use of lasers and host modulation. Modern technology has made removal of microbial deposits by the patient and dental professionals more efficient. However, other advancements need to be used in conjunction with mechanical debridement at this time.
Asakura, H; Suzuki, K; Honma, T
Ulcerative colitis involving primarily the mucosa of the colon and rectum is a diffuse and nonspecific inflammatory disease. Immunocompetent cells infiltrating in the inflammed mucosa are mainly lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils. These activated cells produce proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF alpha and inflammatory activators such as PAF, leukotriene, prostaglandins, free radicals and proteases, resulting in acute on chronic states. Non-surgical therapy for ulcerative colitis includes basic medical therapy with sulfasulphapyridine, 5-ASA, corticosteroids and immune suppressive drugs as well as new therapies, which are leukocytapheresis, granulocytapheresis, anticytokine therapy with antiTNF alpha monoclonal antibody, IL-1ra and IL-10, intravenous treatment of massive immunoglobulins and transdermal nicotine therapy.
Silverman, Elliott; Dunkin, Brian J; Todd, S Rob; Turner, Krista; Fahy, Bridget N; Sukumaran, Anakara; Hagberg, Carin; Bass, Barbara
Airway management occupies a crucial component of surgical education. As such, it can be difficult to provide adequate training within the hospital setting alone. To be facile in all aspects of nonsurgical airway management, the surgical resident must have thorough cognitive understanding of the process as well as technical mastery. The Department of Surgery at the Methodist Hospital in Houston has developed a curriculum for nonsurgical airway management that uses multiple modalities for education, reinforcement, and testing. Didactic lectures based on established national guidelines are provided as a foundation. This method is supplemented by hands-on group scenarios that use inanimate models. Throughout the course, faculty leaders provide guidance and skills assessment. Residents are tested for competency using core value checklists based on knowledge and technical proficiency. During its pilot year, the curriculum has proven its need and success in residency education. Future improvements include development of specific clinical scenarios as well as integration of more advanced educational equipment and models for use in nonsurgical airway management. Materials used for this program include an article by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Management of the Difficult Airway, the New England Journal of Medicine article entitled "Videos in clinical medicine. Orotracheal intubation" by Kabrhel et al,(2) "Management of the difficult and failed airway" by Hung and Murphy,(3) the American Heart Association Airway Management course 2007,(4) and the Manual of Emergency Airway Management by Walls et al.(5) EVALUATION COMPONENT: Before participating in the module, residents completed a written pretest and performed an initial simulation to establish a baseline. Residents then worked through a series of skills that provided experience in both the cognitive and the procedural aspects of airway management. To complete the module successfully, residents
Laforgia, A; Corsalini, M; Stefanachi, G; Tafuri, S; Ballini, A; Pettini, F; Di Venere, D
The aim of the present study is to investigate the periodontal status of people with scleroderma and their response to non-surgical treatment protocol aimed at controlling the evolution of the disease. The response to non-surgical periodontal treatment was tested on patients belonging to a scleroderma group and a control group: the data show an improvement of the periodontal conditions of all these patients in response to treatment. When compared on the same diagram, a slight remission of the periodontal disease was obtained in both scleroderma and healthy patients. This highlights the benefit to soft tissues produced by non-surgical periodontal treatment also in patients affected by systemic diseases.
Eyles, Jillian; Lucas, Barbara R; Hunter, David J
International evidence-based guidelines recommend a multitude of nonsurgical treatment options for the management of osteoarthritis. This article summarizes the evidence available for patient characteristics that have been analyzed as potential predictors of response to nonsurgical interventions for patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis. The specific variables targeted for this review include body mass index, psychological factors, muscle strength, tibiofemoral alignment, radiographic changes, and signs of inflammation. Several studies provide moderate to good evidence of potential predictors of response to nonsurgical treatments, and areas for future research are illuminated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Calişkan, Mehmet Kemal
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of nonsurgical retreatment of teeth with periapical lesions, which had been previously managed by either endodontic or surgical intervention, and to identify factors that might influence the prognosis. Seventy-five endodontically and 11 surgically treated teeth with persisting periapical lesions ranging in size from 2 to 11 mm in diameter were included in this study. The teeth were nonsurgically retreated, using calcium hydroxide as intracanal medicament, and were followed for a period of 2 to 8 years. Clinical and radiographic assessment of retreatment showed that complete healing for all cases was 61.6% with an additional category of incomplete healing of 14%; 24.4% failed. The size of the periapical lesions and previous surgical treatment had marginally negative influences on the prognosis, but the differences were not statistically significant. The favourable results of this study demonstrated that nonsurgical root canal retreatment is an alternative to surgical intervention of postendodontic or postsurgical failure.
Garzón-Sanabria, Verónica; Olmos-Bringas, Marisol; Mota-Sanhu, Vanessa; Enríquez-Bárcenas, Luis Fernando; García-Ruiz, Erika; Rivas-Ayala, Lourdes; Rojas-Jiménez, José Alberto
To evaluate the effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on the metabolic control, measured by HbA1c in uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with periodontal disease treated with the ADA-EASD algorithm. The study group consisted of 38 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease, attending a benefit clinic. HbA1c measures were obtained before and after 3 months of the non-surgical periodontal treatment. T student test for dependent samples was applied with a p value less than 0.05 for statistical significance. From the total sample, 79% was female, and mean age was of 51 +/- 9.8 years old. Mean HbA1c at baseline was of 8.6 and 8% at exit. The mean reduction was statistically significant (p = 0.026). After non-surgical periodontal treatment, the prevalence of periodontal disease was of 8%. The mean of personal plaque control before and after the treatment decreased from 82.6% to 35.5% (p < 0.000). Consistent with similar previous studies, in this study we demonstrate progress in glycemic control, remission of periodontal disease and improved personal plaque control.
Khare, Neha; Vanza, Bhavuk; Sagar, Deepak; Saurav, Kumar; Chauhan, Rohit; Mishra, Supriya
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis are common chronic inflammatory conditions. Several studies suggested a relationship between RA and periodontitis. Recent studies have shown a beneficial effect of periodontal treatment on the severity of active RA. So the aim of this study was to examine the effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on the clinical parameters of RA. A total of 60 subjects with moderate-to-severe chronic generalized periodontitis and active RA in the age range 18 to 65 were selected for the study. They were divided into two groups. Group A (control group) consisted of 30 subjects with chronic generalized periodontitis and RA, and group B of 30 subjects with chronic generalized peri-odontitis and RA and they received nonsurgical periodontal therapy (scaling, root planning, and oral hygiene instructions). Evaluation of clinical observations of Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), number of swollen joints (SJ), number of tender joints (TJ), values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), visual analogue scale (VAS) for patient's global assessment, 3 months disease activity score (DAS) index, and C-reactive protein (CRP) was done at baseline and 3 months. Statistical evaluation of clinical observations was carried out. Group B subjects who received nonsurgical periodon-tal therapy showed statistically significant improvement in all periodontal and RA parameters at 3 months, compared with group A who did not receive periodontal therapy. It can be concluded from the result that nonsurgical periodontal therapy may contribute to reduction in severity and symptoms of RA. Rheumatoid arthritis patients should be evaluated for periodontitis and treated for the same in order to reduce its severity level.
Burnett, Arthur L
Peyronie's disease (PD) is a debilitating condition of the penis that leads to significant pain, erectile dysfunction, and emotional distress in men. PD is likely underreported due to lack of knowledge of the disease and the absence of well-established available treatments. Surgical treatment can lead to sustained improvements, but is often associated with penile shortening and places the patient at risk for perioperative morbidity. Nonsurgical management has been studied for several years as an alternative to surgery for men with PD. Currently, much of the data on nonsurgical management is conflicting, with only one treatment that has been recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Significant effort has been devoted to advancing non-surgical treatments for PD that can be implemented outside of the operating room. This review aims to describe the research behind current nonsurgical therapies for PD and to highlight the recent advances that have been made within the last three years. PMID:27574590
Ribeiro, Adriana Spinola; Salles, Patrícia Ribeiro; da Silva, Tarcília Aparecida; Mesquita, Ricardo Alves
The aim of this paper was to assess the nonsurgical treatment of oral leukoplakia (OL). A medline search from 1983 to 2009 was conducted. The topical or systemic nonsurgical treatments or combination of both was reviewed. The primary outcomes of interest were clinical resolution, malignant transformation, follow-up, and recurrence of OL. Studies showed a rate higher than 50% of clinical resolution with photodynamic therapy, beta-carotene, lycopene, or vitamin A. Few studies reported rates of recurrence from 5 to 67% and of malignant transformation from 8 to 23%. There is a lack of randomized clinical trials that assess the effectiveness of nonsurgical treatment of OL. At this time, randomized controlled trials for nonsurgical treatment of OL demonstrate no evidence of effective treatment in preventing malignant transformation and recurrence. It reinforces that even after clinical resolution, OL should be regularly followed. PMID:20339486
Bartoli, Carlo R; Ailawadi, Gorav; Kern, John A
Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) thrombosis is a life-threatening complication. Multiple case reports describe successful nonsurgical management with thrombolytics, aggressive antiplatelet therapy, or percutaneous catheter-directed thrombectomy. However, consensus management of LVAD thrombosis has not been established and guidelines are urgently needed. In order to raise awareness of nonsurgical treatment options, we review the current strategies for the clinical diagnosis, management, and prevention of LVAD thrombosis.
Scheiman, Mitchell; Gwiazda, Jane; Li, Tianjing
Background Convergence insufficiency is a common eye muscle co-ordination problem in which the eyes have a strong tendency to drift outward (exophoria) when reading or doing close work. Symptoms may include eye strain, headaches, double vision, print moving on the page, frequent loss of place when reading, inability to concentrate, and short attention span. Objectives To systematically assess and synthesize evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effectiveness of non-surgical interventions for convergence insufficiency. Search strategy We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com) and ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) on 7 October 2010. We manually searched reference lists and optometric journals. Selection criteria We included RCTs examining any form of non-surgical intervention against placebo, no treatment, sham treatment, or each other. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed eligibility, risk of bias, and extracted data. We performed meta-analyses when appropriate. Main results We included six trials (three in children, three in adults) with a total of 475 participants. We graded four trials at low risk of bias. Evidence from one trial (graded at low risk of bias) suggests that base-in prism reading glasses was no more effective than placebo reading glasses in improving clinical signs or symptoms in children. Evidence from one trial (graded at high risk of bias) suggests that base-in prism glasses using a progressive addition lens design was more effective than progressive addition lens alone in decreasing symptoms in adults. At three weeks of therapy, the mean difference in Convergence Insufficiency Symptoms Survey (CISS) score was −10.24 points (95% confidence interval (CI) −15.45 to −5.03). Evidence from two trials (graded at low risk of bias) suggests that outpatient (or office-based as used in the
Felton, Elizabeth A; Cervenka, Mackenzie C
Ketogenic diet therapies for epilepsy have been described since the fifth century and published in scientific literature since the early 1900s. Since that time, the diet's popularity has waxed and waned as newer drugs and other treatments have been introduced. However, in recent years, dietary therapy for epilepsy has been increasingly accepted by physicians and desired by patients as an alternative to new drugs and neurostimulation. The introduction of less restrictive versions of the classic ketogenic diet, such as the modified Atkins diet (MAD), have led to increased numbers of adult patients with refractory epilepsy who are initiating dietary treatment. Approximately half of adults and children who start a ketogenic diet have a >50% seizure reduction, which is impressive given that these patients typically have medically refractory epilepsy. We believe that ketogenic dietary treatment is the best option for children and adults with refractory nonsurgical epilepsy due to its efficacy, rapid seizure reduction, synergistic effects with other antiseizure treatments, known and treatable side effects, potential to treat comorbid medical conditions, and worldwide availability.
Heitz-Mayfield, Lisa J A; Lang, Niklaus P
This review aims to highlight concepts relating to nonsurgical and surgical periodontal therapy, which have been learned and unlearned over the past few decades. A number of treatment procedures, such as gingival curettage and aggressive removal of contaminated root cementum, have been unlearned. Advances in technology have resulted in the introduction of a range of new methods for use in nonsurgical periodontal therapy, including machine-driven instruments, lasers, antimicrobial photodynamic therapy and local antimicrobial-delivery devices. However, these methods have not been shown to offer significant benefits over and above nonsurgical debridement using hand instruments. The method of debridement is therefore largely dependent on the preferences of the operator and the patient. Recent evidence indicates that specific systemic antimicrobials may be indicated for use as adjuncts to nonsurgical debridement in patients with advanced disease. Full-mouth disinfection protocols have been proven to be a relevant treatment option. We have learned that while nonsurgical and surgical methods result in similar long-term treatment outcomes, surgical therapy results in greater probing-depth reduction and clinical attachment gain in initially deep pockets. The surgical technique chosen seems to have limited influence upon changes in clinical attachment gain. What has not changed is the importance of thorough mechanical debridement and optimal plaque control for successful nonsurgical and surgical periodontal therapy.
Kahn, Susan R.; Lim, Wendy; Dunn, Andrew S.; Cushman, Mary; Dentali, Francesco; Akl, Elie A.; Cook, Deborah J.; Balekian, Alex A.; Klein, Russell C.; Le, Hoang; Schulman, Sam
Background: This guideline addressed VTE prevention in hospitalized medical patients, outpatients with cancer, the chronically immobilized, long-distance travelers, and those with asymptomatic thrombophilia. Methods: This guideline follows methods described in Methodology for the Development of Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis Guidelines: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines in this supplement. Results: For acutely ill hospitalized medical patients at increased risk of thrombosis, we recommend anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), low-dose unfractionated heparin (LDUH) bid, LDUH tid, or fondaparinux (Grade 1B) and suggest against extending the duration of thromboprophylaxis beyond the period of patient immobilization or acute hospital stay (Grade 2B). For acutely ill hospitalized medical patients at low risk of thrombosis, we recommend against the use of pharmacologic prophylaxis or mechanical prophylaxis (Grade 1B). For acutely ill hospitalized medical patients at increased risk of thrombosis who are bleeding or are at high risk for major bleeding, we suggest mechanical thromboprophylaxis with graduated compression stockings (GCS) (Grade 2C) or intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) (Grade 2C). For critically ill patients, we suggest using LMWH or LDUH thromboprophylaxis (Grade 2C). For critically ill patients who are bleeding or are at high risk for major bleeding, we suggest mechanical thromboprophylaxis with GCS and/or IPC at least until the bleeding risk decreases (Grade 2C). In outpatients with cancer who have no additional risk factors for VTE we suggest against routine prophylaxis with LMWH or LDUH (Grade 2B) and recommend against the prophylactic use of vitamin K antagonists (Grade 1B). Conclusions: Decisions regarding prophylaxis in nonsurgical patients should be made after consideration of risk
Zhang, Yanfei; Mooneyan-Ramchurn, Jessini Soranambal; Zuo, Nan; Feng, Yiguo; Xiao, Shengxiang
Vitiligo is a common depigmenting acquired disorder affecting about 1-2% of the world population, regardless of race, ethnic background, or gender. It is characterized by the appearance of milky white maculae because of a loss of melanocytes. The disfiguring nature of vitiligo causes high psychosocial morbidity. This is especially pronounced in populations with darker skin tone, likely because of the marked contrast. A variety of nonsurgical treatment regimens are currently employed in vitiligo. We reviewed the latest studies carried out on different nonsurgical treatment modalities used in vitiligo. All nonsurgical treatment aid to repigment or depigmentation the skin, however, many of them require a prolonged treatment course and may yield minimal results as well as carry unwanted side effects. There is a need for further research into the causes of vitiligo and into discovering better treatments.
Nund, Rebecca L; Ward, Elizabeth C; Scarinci, Nerina A; Cartmill, Bena; Kuipers, Pim; Porceddu, Sandro V
The prevalence and severity of dysphagia in people treated non-surgically for primary head and neck cancer (HNC) is well documented. However, few studies have looked beyond the physiological impairment to explore the lived experience of dysphagia in the post-treatment period of HNC. The current study adopted a person-centred, qualitative approach to describe the experiences of people living with dysphagia in the months and years following non-surgical treatment for HNC. Using maximum variation sampling, 24 participants who had undergone radiotherapy treatment for HNC were recruited. Individual interviews were conducted to explore the impact of dysphagia on participants' everyday lives. The themes identified included: (1) physical changes related to swallowing; (2) emotions evoked by living with dysphagia; (3) altered perceptions and changes in appreciation of food; and (4) personal and lifestyle impacts. The data revealed the breadth and significance of the impact of dysphagia on the lives of people treated curatively for HNC. Assessment and management in the post-treatment period must be sufficiently holistic to address both the changing physical states and the psychosocial needs of people with dysphagia following HNC. Rehabilitation services which focus only on impairment-based management will fail to fully meet the support needs of this clinical population.
Hegde, Vivek; Morawala, Abdul; Gupta, Abhilasha; Khandwawala, Naqiyaa
Dens invaginatus, also known as dens in dente, is a rare anomaly affecting human dentition. The condition results in invagination of an amelodental structure within the pulp. This case report discusses the current management protocol of dens invaginatus using a minimally invasive and nonsurgical treatment option. As with most conditions, early diagnosis and preventive measures help minimize complications in dens invaginatus cases. PMID:27656073
Okeson, Jeffrey P
This article reviews common intracapsular temporomandibular disorders encountered in the dental practice. It begins with a brief review of normal temporomandibular joint anatomy and function followed by a description of the common types of disorders known as internal derangements. The etiology, history, and clinical presentation of each are reviewed. Nonsurgical management is presented based on current long-term scientific evidence.
Apatzidou, Danae Anastasia
The subgingival dental plaque is a microbial biofilm consisting of highly variable bacterial microcolonies embedded within a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substance. In contrast to microorganisms growing in a planktonic state, the inhabitants of a biofilm are effectively protected within this dense structure from host defense mechanisms and from therapeutic agents, including antimicrobials. The mechanical removal of the microbial biofilm and the establishment of meticulous plaque control measures comprise the key elements for the success of non-surgical periodontal treatment. Ultrasonic devices are effective in disrupting the biofilm, and carefully remove soft and hard deposits from a root surface with minimal trauma to the tooth structure. Controversies and modern trends in non-surgical periodontal therapy - such as quadrant-wise treatment modalities versus full-mouth approaches, hand-versus power-driven instrumentation, and the time frame of non-surgical periodontal therapy - are discussed here in depth in order to provide an insight into modern approaches to non-surgical biofilm management. Clinical, microbiological and immunological findings following different treatment protocols, in addition to cost-effective benefits of these clinical modalities, are discussed.
Hullfish, Kathie L; Bovbjerg, Viktor E; Gurka, Matthew J; Steers, William D
In women with pelvic floor dysfunction we assessed the degree to which treatment (surgical vs nonsurgical) was associated with achievement of patient centered goals, satisfaction with care and quality of life. In this prospective cohort study between September 2003 and December 2004 we recruited women during their first referral visit for pelvic floor dysfunction treatment at our outpatient Urogynecology Clinic. At the first visit women enumerated up to 5 personal treatment goals, and anchored each goal by anticipating best and worst possible outcomes. At 12-month followup women were asked to indicate the level of goal attainment (-2 worst outcome, +2 best outcome). At baseline and followup women completed short forms of the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire and Urogenital Distress Inventory (range 0 to 100, high scores indicating greater impact or distress). Patients indicated the level of treatment satisfaction on a 4-level ordinal scale. Of the 127 study participants with complete data 46 (36.2%) were treated surgically and 81 (63.8%) were treated nonsurgically. There were no major demographic differences between the 2 groups in terms of age, race, weight, prior pelvic floor dysfunction surgery and vaginal parity. The surgical group was more likely to have received a baseline diagnosis of pelvic organ prolapse (80% vs 60%, p = 0.0259) and be postmenopausal (89% vs 72%, p = 0.0261). There were no significant differences in the distribution of goal type (symptom relief, activity, self-image, general health) by treatment status (p = 0.1074). Using logistic regression to adjust for age and baseline diagnosis, surgically treated patients at 1 year were significantly more likely to report complete primary goal attainment (OR 4.42, p = 0.0154) and complete treatment satisfaction (OR 6.12, p = 0.0109). For all participants 1-year Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7 and Urogenital Distress Inventory-6 scores were significantly correlated with primary goal attainment
Torabinejad, Mahmoud; Corr, Robert; Handysides, Robert; Shabahang, Shahrokh
The purpose of this systematic review was to compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes of nonsurgical retreatment with those of endodontic surgery to determine which modality offers more favorable outcomes. The study began with targeted electronic searches of MEDLINE, PubMed, and Cochrane databases, followed with exhaustive hand searching and citation mining for all articles reporting clinical and/or radiographic outcomes for at least a mean follow-up of 2 years for these procedures. Pooled and weighted success rates were determined from a meta-analysis of the data abstracted from the articles. A significantly higher success rate was found for endodontic surgery at 2-4 years (77.8%) compared with nonsurgical retreatment for the same follow-up period (70.9%; P < .05). At 4-6 years, however, this relationship was reversed, with nonsurgical retreatment showing a higher success rate of 83.0% compared with 71.8% for endodontic surgery (P < .05). Insufficient numbers of articles were available to make comparisons after 6 years of follow-up period. Endodontic surgery studies showed a statistically significant decrease in success with each increasing follow-up interval (P < .05). The weighted success for 2-4 years was 77.8%, which declined at 4-6 years to 71.8% and further declined at 6+ years to 62.9% (P < .05). Conversely, the nonsurgical retreatment success rates demonstrated a statistically significant increase in weighted success from 2-4 years (70.9%) to 4-6 years (83.0%; P < .05). On the basis of these results it appears that endodontic surgery offers more favorable initial success, but nonsurgical retreatment offers a more favorable long-term outcome.
Chen, Hong-Wei; Bi, Qing
Background This study compared the efficacy of combined lateral and medial approach, lateral approach, and anterior medial approach in treatment of terrible triad of the elbow (TTE). Material/Methods Thirty-eight TTE patients hospitalized in our center were retrospectively analyzed, among which 14 patients were arranged for combined lateral and medial approach, 12 for lateral approach, and 12 for anterior medial approach. All included patients underwent open reduction, collateral ligament repair, and postoperative function exercise. Follow-up was conducted for 13~22 months. The elbow motion, excellent and good rate, healing time, and complication rate were recorded and compared. Results These 3 approaches significantly improved the postoperative elbow motion, MEPS, VAS, excellent and good rate, and open reduction (all P<0.05). The VAS score for lateral approach was evidently higher than that for combined lateral and medial approach (P<0.05). Combined lateral and medial approach and anterior medial approach had better performance on elbow motion, MEPS, and excellent and good rate than lateral approach (both P<0.05). Lateral approach and anterior medial approach had a significantly reduced healing time compared with combined lateral and medial approach (both P<0.05), while anterior medial approach had a higher complication rate compared with anterior medial approach and lateral approach (both P<0.05). Conclusions Lateral combined medial surgery approach contributes to wide surgical exposure, facture stability, and decreased complication rate, and thus has superior efficacy than the other 2 surgical approaches. PMID:27841255
Levine, Laurence A.
In this review I discuss the current non-surgical treatment options for Peyronie’s disease (PD), which remains a therapeutic dilemma for the treating physician. This is despite a large array of treatments that have been used since the time of de la Peyronie in the mid-18th century. Part of the problem with finding an effective treatment is the incomplete understanding of the aetiopathophysiology of this scarring disorder. Published articles in peer-reviewed journals were assessed, recognising that most of the reported trials are compromised by being single-centre studies with no placebo control. Various treatment options have emerged, most with limited and unreliable benefit, but a few treatments have shown a consistent, albeit incomplete, response rate. Currently the only scientifically sensible oral agents appear to be pentoxifylline, l-arginine, and possibly the phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors. The current intralesional injection treatment options include verapamil and interferon, with a reported benefit in reducing deformity and improving sexual function. Intralesional clostridial collagenase is in the midst of phase-3 trial analysis by the USA Food and Drug Administration. External mechanical traction therapy has recently emerged as a technique to reduce the curvature, recover lost length, and possibly obviate surgery. Currently there is no clear, reliable and effective non-surgical treatment for PD, but it appears that several of the available treatments can reduce the deformity and improve sexual function, and might at least stabilise the disease process. PMID:26558093
Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is a frequent condition with an insidious presentation; it is initially asymptomatic and thus it is seldom diagnosed at the early stages. The purpose of this review is to update the status of the diagnosis and non-surgical treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head. This paper analyzes the natural history of the disease as well as the prognostic importance of early diagnosis and the identification of the extension and location of osteonecrosis. It also discusses the different nonsurgical treatment methods such as: high energy extracorporeal shock waves, electromagnetic pulsed fields, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, drugs, physical therapy, and regenerative medicine. The conclusion is that no method is effective in the advanced stages and there is great hope of treating this condition without surgery; however, progress needs to be made in research, particularly in the use of external biophysical agents and regenerative medicine. The gold standard of treatment is still surgical decompression of the femoral head at the stages in which no collapse has occurred. The prognosis apparently improves with the use of biophysical and regenerative medicine adjuvants.
Bokhari, Syed A H; Khan, Ayyaz A; Butt, Arshad K; Azhar, Mohammad; Hanif, Mohammad; Izhar, Mateen; Tatakis, Dimitris N
Periodontal disease elevates systemic inflammatory markers strongly associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on systemic C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen and white blood cells in CHD patients. Angiographically proven CHD patients with periodontitis (n = 317) were randomized to intervention (n = 212) or control group (n = 105). Primary outcome was reduction in serum CRP levels; secondary outcomes were reductions in fibrinogen and white blood cells. Periodontal treatment included scaling, root planing and oral hygiene instructions. Periodontal and systemic parameters were assessed at baseline and at 2-month follow-up. Intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis was performed. Study was completed by 246 subjects (intervention group = 161; control group = 85). Significant improvements in periodontal and systemic parameters were observed in intervention group. The number of subjects with CRP > 3mg/L in intervention group decreased by 38% and in control group increased by 4%. ITT analysis gave a significant (χ(2) =4.381, p = 0.036) absolute risk reduction of 12.5%. In CHD patients with periodontitis, non-surgical mechanical periodontal therapy significantly reduced systemic levels of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen and white blood cells. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Liang, Tsung-Jung; Liu, Shiuh-Inn; Tsai, Chung-Yu; Kang, Chi-Hsiang; Huang, Wei-Chun; Chang, Hong-Tai; Chen, I-Shu
The recurrence rate for acute appendicitis treated nonoperatively varies between studies. Few studies have adequately evaluated the management of these patients when appendicitis recurs. We aimed to explore the recurrence rate and management of patients with acute appendicitis that were first treated nonoperatively.We identified patients in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database who were hospitalized due to acute appendicitis for the first time between 2000 and 2010 and received nonsurgical treatment. The recurrence and its management were recorded. Data were analyzed to access the risk factors for recurrence and factors that influenced the management of recurrent appendicitis.Among the 239,821 patients hospitalized with acute appendicitis for the first time, 12,235 (5.1%) patients were managed nonoperatively. Of these, 864 (7.1%) had a recurrence during a median follow-up of 6.5 years. Appendectomy was performed by an open and laparoscopic approach in 483 (55.9%) and 258 (29.9%) patients, respectively. The remaining 123 (14.2%) patients were again treated nonsurgically. Recurrence was independently associated with young age, male sex, percutaneous abscess drainage, and medical center admission by multivariable analysis. In addition, age <18, a (CCI) <2, medical center admission, and a longer time to recurrence were correlated with using laparoscopy to treat recurrence. Neither type of appendicitis, percutaneous abscess drainage, nor length of first time hospital stay had an influence on the selection of surgical approach.In conclusion, a laparoscopic appendectomy can be performed in recurrent appendicitis cases, and its application may not be related to previous appendicitis severity.
Liang, Tsung-Jung; Liu, Shiuh-Inn; Tsai, Chung-Yu; Kang, Chi-Hsiang; Huang, Wei-Chun; Chang, Hong-Tai; Chen, I-Shu
Abstract The recurrence rate for acute appendicitis treated nonoperatively varies between studies. Few studies have adequately evaluated the management of these patients when appendicitis recurs. We aimed to explore the recurrence rate and management of patients with acute appendicitis that were first treated nonoperatively. We identified patients in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database who were hospitalized due to acute appendicitis for the first time between 2000 and 2010 and received nonsurgical treatment. The recurrence and its management were recorded. Data were analyzed to access the risk factors for recurrence and factors that influenced the management of recurrent appendicitis. Among the 239,821 patients hospitalized with acute appendicitis for the first time, 12,235 (5.1%) patients were managed nonoperatively. Of these, 864 (7.1%) had a recurrence during a median follow-up of 6.5 years. Appendectomy was performed by an open and laparoscopic approach in 483 (55.9%) and 258 (29.9%) patients, respectively. The remaining 123 (14.2%) patients were again treated nonsurgically. Recurrence was independently associated with young age, male sex, percutaneous abscess drainage, and medical center admission by multivariable analysis. In addition, age <18, a (CCI) <2, medical center admission, and a longer time to recurrence were correlated with using laparoscopy to treat recurrence. Neither type of appendicitis, percutaneous abscess drainage, nor length of first time hospital stay had an influence on the selection of surgical approach. In conclusion, a laparoscopic appendectomy can be performed in recurrent appendicitis cases, and its application may not be related to previous appendicitis severity. PMID:27015200
Hernández-Ibáñez, C; Aguilar-Bernier, M; Fúnez-Liébana, R; Del Boz, J; Blázquez, N; de Troya, M
Accurate subtyping of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is crucial for the effective management of this disease and it is particularly important to distinguish between aggressive and nonaggressive histologic variants. Histologic subtype is not always accurately identified by biopsy and this can have serious implications. High-resolution ultrasound (HRUS) is a recent technique that has proven to be of value in differentiating between variants of BCC. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential usefulness of HRUS for detecting invasive disease in recurrent BCC treated nonsurgically following an initial diagnosis of noninvasive BCC by biopsy. This was a prospective observational study of consecutive cases of BCC with clinical suspicion of recurrence following nonsurgical treatment and a pretreatment diagnosis of superficial BCC by punch biopsy. Before surgical excision, the recurrent lesions were evaluated by HRUS followed by a punch biopsy of the site of suspected recurrence. The diagnostic agreement between HRUS, punch biopsy, and excisional biopsy was then evaluated. Eight lesions were studied. HRUS identified invasive disease in 3 of the 4 cases that were incorrectly classified as superficial subtypes by punch biopsy. HRUS could be useful for detecting persistent tumor after nonsurgical treatment and for choosing the site most likely to harbor invasive disease for punch biopsy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEDV. All rights reserved.
Kantsevoy, Sergey V; Bitner, Marianne
Internal hemorrhoids often present with bleeding, prolapse, and other symptoms. Currently used nonsurgical treatment modalities have limited effectiveness and usually require several treatment sessions. To evaluate effectiveness and safety of a novel endoscopic device for nonsurgical treatment of internal hemorrhoids. Retrospective study. Single center. This study involved 23 patients with actively bleeding internal hemorrhoids. The HET Bipolar System is a modified anoscope, with a treatment window, light source, and tissue temperature monitor. The device is inserted into the rectum under direct observation. The tissue carrying superior hemorrhoidal branches and the apex of the internal hemorrhoid is positioned inside the treatment window, clamped with incorporated tissue forceps, and treated with bipolar energy to ligate hemorrhoidal feeding vessels. Rate of hemorrhoidal bleeding after the treatment. The mean age of the patients was 64.3 ± 9.9 years (range 44-79 years). Eleven patients (47.8%) had grade I hemorrhoids and 12 patients (52.2%) had grade II hemorrhoids. In 18 patients (78.3%), treatment with the HET System was performed with the patient under conscious sedation. Five patients (21.7%) were treated without sedation. All patients tolerated treatment without complaints. The average follow-up period was 11.2 ± 4.7 months. No bleeding or prolapse occurred after the procedure in any of the treated patients. Retrospective study. The newly developed HET System is easy to use, safe, and highly effective in eliminating bleeding in grade I and II internal hemorrhoids and prolapse in grade II internal hemorrhoids. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P
We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment.
Pugh, A; Trounson, A O; Aarts, M H; McPhee, S
A simple filtration system has been developed for the rapid collection of bovine embryos from large fluid volumes such as non-surgical uterine flushings. The technique utilizes a nylon plankton net sieve of 56 mum pore size and was evaluated on the non-surgical flushings of 18 superovulated cows. Approximately 500 ml of flushings from each uterine horn was collected in sedimentation flasks and two aliquots of 20 ml removed from the bottom of the flask after standing for 20 min, and searched for embryos. The remainder of the flushings was passed through the sieve and the sieve examined for embryos. Seven days (Day 7) after insemination, 53.3% (40 75 ) of embryos were found on the sieve or 47.2% of all normal embryos. On Day 12,28% (7 25 ) of eggs were found on the sieve, all of which were unfertilized or degenerate. All embryos were located within 10 min of starting filtration.
Yücel, Ali Cağin; Güler, Eda
The purpose of this case presentation is to describe nonsurgical retreatment of anterior teeth with gemination. A 21-year-old male patient was referred for endodontic treatment of his maxillary left lateral incisor. In the clinical examination, a large crown was observed in the left maxillary incisor region when compared with the right maxillary lateral incisor. In the present case, a tooth gemination of a maxillary lateral incisor has been described. A periapical radiograph showed that the tooth had partially separated two crowns having a single root and one root canal, but the access cavity of the distal crown had not been opened, and the root canal had been obturated with single cone technique. Nonsurgical endodontic retreatment was decided for geminated lateral incisor. At the 6-month follow-up, the tooth was asymptomatic and there was no radiolucency around the apical region.
Wright, K.C.; Bowers, T.; Chuang, V.P.; Tsai, C.C.
Six adult dogs weighing 18-28 kg were used to evaluate a new embolic material, Ethibloc, for nonsurgical nephrectomy. Both acute and chronic studies were performed. Results indicated that Ethibloc is easily administered and neither toxic nor mutagenic (at 9 weeks). However, it exhibits inadequate radiopacity at the dosages used and may require a balloon catheter (which could cause some Ethibloc to be forced through the glomerular capillaries) or repeat embolization to achieve permanent and complete renal infarction.
Zaina, Fabio; Tomkins-Lane, Christy; Carragee, Eugene; Negrini, Stefano
7.50, 95% CI 1.00 to 56.48) and 10 years (RR 4.09, 95% CI 0.95 to 17.58).Low-quality evidence from one small study suggested no differences at six weeks in the Oswestry Disability Index for patients treated with minimally invasive mild decompression versus those treated with epidural steroid injections (MD 5.70, 95% CI 0.57 to 10.83; 38 participants). Zurich Claudication Questionnaire (ZCQ) results were better for epidural injection at six weeks (MD -0.60, 95% CI -0.92 to -0.28), and visual analogue scale (VAS) improvements were better in the mild decompression group (MD 2.40, 95% CI 1.92 to 2.88). At 12 weeks, many cross-overs prevented further analysis.Low-quality evidence from a single study including 191 participants favoured the interspinous spacer versus usual conservative treatment at six weeks, six months and one year for symptom severity and physical function.All remaining studies reported complications associated with surgery and conservative side effects of treatment: Two studies reported no major complications in the surgical group, and the other study reported complications in 10% and 24% of participants, including spinous process fracture, coronary ischaemia, respiratory distress, haematoma, stroke, risk of reoperation and death due to pulmonary oedema. We have very little confidence to conclude whether surgical treatment or a conservative approach is better for lumbar spinal stenosis, and we can provide no new recommendations to guide clinical practice. However, it should be noted that the rate of side effects ranged from 10% to 24% in surgical cases, and no side effects were reported for any conservative treatment. No clear benefits were observed with surgery versus non-surgical treatment. These findings suggest that clinicians should be very careful in informing patients about possible treatment options, especially given that conservative treatment options have resulted in no reported side effects. High-quality research is needed to compare surgical
Dandotikar, Deepakraj; Peddi, Ravigna; Lakhani, Bharvi; Lata, Kamini; Mathur, Aditi; Chowdary, Uday Kumar
Large periapical lesions, regardless of whether they are granulomas, abscesses or cysts, are primarily caused by root canal infection. Thus the treatment protocol should be elimination of etiological factors in the root canal system rather than their product, apical true cyst. A 10 year old female patient reported to the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Dr R Ahmed Dental College & Hospital, Kolkata, with the chief complaint of pain and swelling in relation to upper front fractured teeth. Clinical and radiological findings were suggestive of periapical radicular cyst. Non-surgical endodontic therapy was performed using 1% sodium hypochlorite solution irrigant and Calcium hydroxide intra canal medicament. A 12 months follow-up radiographic examination revealed progressive involution of periapical radiolucency without any clinical symptoms. Periapical cysts respond favorably to non-surgical endodontic treatment and should be considered as primary treatment modality. How to cite this article: Dandotikar D, Peddi R, Lakhani B, Lata K, Mathur A, Chowdary U K. Nonsurgical Management of a Periapical Cyst: A Case Report. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):79-84.
Dandotikar, Deepakraj; Peddi, Ravigna; Lakhani, Bharvi; Lata, Kamini; Mathur, Aditi; Chowdary, Uday Kumar
Large periapical lesions, regardless of whether they are granulomas, abscesses or cysts, are primarily caused by root canal infection. Thus the treatment protocol should be elimination of etiological factors in the root canal system rather than their product, apical true cyst. A 10 year old female patient reported to the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Dr R Ahmed Dental College & Hospital, Kolkata, with the chief complaint of pain and swelling in relation to upper front fractured teeth. Clinical and radiological findings were suggestive of periapical radicular cyst. Non-surgical endodontic therapy was performed using 1% sodium hypochlorite solution irrigant and Calcium hydroxide intra canal medicament. A 12 months follow-up radiographic examination revealed progressive involution of periapical radiolucency without any clinical symptoms. Periapical cysts respond favorably to non-surgical endodontic treatment and should be considered as primary treatment modality. How to cite this article: Dandotikar D, Peddi R, Lakhani B, Lata K, Mathur A, Chowdary U K. Nonsurgical Management of a Periapical Cyst: A Case Report. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):79-84. PMID:24155607
Patel, Rakesh; Werschler, William Philip; Ceilley, Roger I.; Strimling, Robert
The authors summarized data from a group of physicians with experience using high-dose rate electronic brachytherapy for the treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. The data have been published or presented in abstract format at national dermatology and radiation oncology meetings. The data included 1,822 treated lesions from 2009 to 2014 in patients ranging in age from 52 to 104 years. Most lesions were basal cell carcinoma (57%) or squamous cell carcinoma (38%) less than 2cm in size (97%). Median follow-up at the various centers ranged from 4 to 16 months, and results yielded an extremely low recurrence rate of less than one percent. Results show that within the confines of this follow up period, electronic brachytherapy is an effective, convenient, nonsurgical treatment option for patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer with few recurrences and excellent cosmetic results. PMID:28210385
Kitsukawa, Shin-ichi; Ito, Takaaki; Hosoda, Satoru; Samejima, Takeshi; Otsuru, Norihiko; Matsumoto, Taro; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Noda, Kenjiro; Matsumoto, Tetsuo; Aizawa, Taku
We evaluated the early efficacy of non-surgical treatment using 0.07% betamethasone valerate ointment on, 34 boys with phimosis between January 2001 and June 2005. Patients were treated with 0.07% betamethasone valerate ointment applied to the distal aspect of the prepuce every other day for 2-6 weeks. During the treatment period, patients were instructed to retract the foreskin to penis root without overstraining. The overall success rate was 94.1% and therapeutic effects were observed in 58.8% of the patients in two weeks. There were no medical side effects. Treatment using betamethasone valerate ointment is very effective, easy and safe. We recommend this treatment for patients with phimosis and/or those with recurring balanoposthitis.
Kuehhas, Franklin E; Weibl, Peter; Georgi, Tosev; Djakovic, Nenad; Herwig, Ralf
Peyronie’s disease (PD) is a fibrous inelastic scar of the tunica albuginea, leading to penile deformity, penile curvature, shortening, narrowing, and painful erections that subsequently lead to painful or unsatisfying sexual intercourse. No consensus exists yet on the ideal management of PD. This fact is a result of our limited knowledge of its etiology and causative factors. The acute presentation of PD is treated conservatively, and surgical approaches are only attempted if severe curvature, narrowing, or indentation persists for more than 1 year; PD stability exists for at least 3 months; curvature impedes sexual intercourse; and severe penile shortening occurs. This review focuses on new developments for conservative treatment strategies for PD. PMID:22110397
Sato, Shuichi; Nomura, Naoyuki; Kawashima, Hideyuki; Ito, Koichi
This case report describes the nonsurgical creation of an interdental papilla in orthodontic therapy of a patient with severe periodontal disease. A large diastema between the maxillary incisors was closed completely, and the lost interdental papilla was re-created by orthodontic therapy after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Radiographs showed improvement of the bone defect. Periodontal/orthodontic soft tissue manipulation is a nonsurgical technique that can lead to reformation of the interdental papilla, provided that periodontal health is maintained.
Williams, N. M.; Watkin, D. F.
Intraperitoneal free gas seen radiologically as air under the diaphragm nearly always indicates a perforated abdominal viscus that requires surgical intervention. Rarely, however, the presence of a pneumoperitoneum may not indicate an intra-abdominal perforation and thus may not require laparotomy. Such a situation is termed spontaneous or nonsurgical pneumoperitoneum. In this review, we explore the aetiological mechanisms and the pathophysiology of the appearance of intra-abdominal free gas. An appreciation of the condition and its likely aetiological factors should improve awareness and possibly reduce the imperative to perform an emergency laparotomy on an otherwise well patient with an unexplained pneumoperitoneum. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9373590
Symptomatic knee osteoarthritis is a common complaint of many elderly patients in primary care offices. For those unable or unwilling to undergo knee replacement, the primary practitioners' understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the available treatment modalities for pain relief is critical to successful in-office counseling and expectation management. Treatment requires a multimodal approach of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapies to achieve a maximal clinical benefit. The focus of this review is on the nonsurgical options for treatment of knee osteoarthritis in patients aged 65 and older.
Shaw, Eric James; Mitchell, Gregory Clyde; Tan, Ronny B.; Sangkum, Premsant
Peyronie disease is a common cause of penile deformity and sexual dysfunction. Although surgery is regarded as the definitive management for this condition, there are many medical and minimally invasive therapies available, with widely varying efficacy reported in the literature. The purpose of this review is to describe the current state-of-the-art for each of the most commonly used as well as several developing non-surgical treatments. Further, we hope to offer perspectives that will aid practitioners in deciding among these treatments that are either already in use or have the potential to be used as alternatives to surgery in the management of this frustrating disease. PMID:24459651
Shaw, Eric James; Mitchell, Gregory Clyde; Tan, Ronny B; Sangkum, Premsant; Hellstrom, Wayne John G
Peyronie disease is a common cause of penile deformity and sexual dysfunction. Although surgery is regarded as the definitive management for this condition, there are many medical and minimally invasive therapies available, with widely varying efficacy reported in the literature. The purpose of this review is to describe the current state-of-the-art for each of the most commonly used as well as several developing non-surgical treatments. Further, we hope to offer perspectives that will aid practitioners in deciding among these treatments that are either already in use or have the potential to be used as alternatives to surgery in the management of this frustrating disease.
Hodgkinson, Darryl J
Thermage is a nonsurgical treatment for sagging skin in the jowl, neck, and eyelids. Abdominal striae, loose upper arm skin and buttock sagging, and improvement of the appearance of cellulite have become amenable to the radiofrequency treatment. Radiofrequency passed through cooled epidermis allows for radiofrequency-induced thermal damage to the dermis and deep dermal collagen (fibrous septae). The remodeling of the collagen leads to clinically discernible improvement in the sagging skin and skin quality; the remodeling of deep dermal collagen (fibrous septae) allows modeling of contours and improvement of the cellulite appearance.
Parker, William P; Griebling, Tomas Lindor
Urinary incontinence is a prevalent condition in elderly women with significant associated morbidity. Incontinence can by grouped into several types: stress incontinence, urgency incontinence, overflow incontinence, functional incontinence, and mixed urinary incontinence. Careful evaluation, including history and physical examination, is critical to making the correct diagnosis and guiding therapy. A variety of nonsurgical treatments, including behavioral therapies, pelvic floor muscle exercise, medications, and other treatments, are available; can be successful for many older women; and may preclude the need for surgery. Working closely with the patient, understanding her goals of care, and targeting treatments accordingly are essential for success.
Hussain Bokhari, Syed Akhtar; Khan, Ayyaz Ali; Tatakis, Dimitris N; Azhar, Mohammad; Hanif, Mohammad; Izhar, Mateen
Evidence suggests an association between periodontal disease and coronary heart disease (CHD). C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and white blood cell (WBC) counts are markers of inflammation, and their systemic levels have been associated with CHD risk. This pilot study investigated the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on systemic levels of CRP, fibrinogen, and WBC counts in subjects with CHD or no CHD (NCHD). Twenty-seven angiographically defined patients with CHD and 18 subjects with NCHD aged >or=40 years were recruited for the study. Periodontal disease was measured through the clinical parameters bleeding on probing (BOP) and probing depth (PD). All subjects received non-surgical periodontal therapy that included oral hygiene instructions and subgingival scaling and root planing. Systemic levels of inflammatory markers (CRP, fibrinogen, and WBC counts) were measured prior to and 1 month after periodontal therapy. Seventeen subjects with CHD and 11 subjects with NCHD completed the study. Subjects with CHD or NCHD experienced significant reductions in BOP (59% and 34%, respectively; P <0.05) and PD (41% and 35%, respectively; P <0.05), with non-significant intergroup differences (P >0.05). In all subjects, CRP, fibrinogen, and WBC counts were reduced significantly (21% to 40%) after periodontal therapy (P <0.05). Periodontal treatment resulted in significant decreases in BOP and PD and lowered serum inflammatory markers in patients with CHD or NCHD. This may result in a decreased risk for CHD in the treated patients. These findings will allow pursuit of a large-scale randomized intervention trial in this population.
Handa, Victoria L.; Whitcomb, Emily; Weidner, Alison C.; Nygaard, Ingrid; Brubaker, Linda; Bradley, Catherine S.; Paraiso, Marie Fidela R.; Schaffer, Joseph; Zyczynski, Halina M.; Zhang, Min; Richter, Holly E.
Objectives (1) to describe sexual function in women seeking treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI); (2) to compare the impact on sexual function of three SUI treatments; and (3) to investigate whether non-surgical treatment of SUI is associated with improved sexual function. Methods Women with SUI were randomized to continence pessary, behavioral therapy (pelvic floor muscle training and continence strategies), or combination therapy. Sexual function was assessed at baseline and 3-months using short forms of the Pelvic Organ Prolapse-Urinary Incontinence Sexual Function Questionnaire (PISQ-12) and the Personal Experiences Questionnaire (SPEQ). Successful treatment of SUI was assessed with a patient global impression of improvement. ANOVA was used to compare scores between groups. Results At baseline, sexual function was worse among women with mixed incontinence compared to those with pure SUI. After therapy, successful treatment of SUI was associated with greater improvement in PISQ-12 score (2.26 ± 3.24 versus 0.48 ± 3.76, p=0.0007), greater improvement in incontinence with sexual activity (0.45 ± 0.84 versus 0.01 ± 0.71, p=0.0002), and greater reduction in restriction in sexual activity related to fear of incontinence (0.32 ± 0.76 versus −0.06 ± 0.78, p=0.0008). Among those successfully treated for SUI, improvement in continence during sexual activity was greater in both the combined therapy group (p=0.019) and the behavioral group (p=0.02) compared to the pessary group. Conclusions Successful non-surgical treatment of SUI is associated with improvements in incontinence-specific measures of sexual function. Behavioral therapy may be preferred to pessary for treatment of SUI among women whose incontinence interferes with sexual function. PMID:21572534
Romanos, George E
Mandibular fractures in association with the insertion of endosseous dental implants have been reported in the literature. In this clinical case report, the nonsurgical management of a mandibular fracture with the use of a bar restoration is described and a 3-year follow-up is presented. The options for nonsurgical treatment are discussed.
Sauer, M.V.; Macaso, T.M.; Ishida, E.H.; Giudice, L.; Marshall, J.R.; Buster, J.E.
We report this country's first nonsurgical donor ovum transfer pregnancy in a functionally agonadal woman who had received chemotherapy and radiation for Hodgkin's lymphoma. For women with ovarian failure, nonsurgical uterine lavage and ovum transfer may provide an opportunity for motherhood that was not possible previously.
Kutzler, Michelle; Wood, Anna
The Humane Society of the United States estimates that each year between 8 and 10 million dogs and cats enter shelters and 4-5 million of these animals are euthanized due to lack of homes. Many veterinarians within the United States recommend surgical sterilization for population control in dogs and cats. However, there are non-surgical methods to control reproduction. Pharmacologic methods of contraception and sterilization can be safe, reliable and reversible. Hormonal treatments using progestins, androgens, or gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs act to either directly block reproductive hormone receptor-mediated events, or indirectly block conception via negative feedback mechanisms. Immunocontraception, via vaccination against GnRH, the luteinizing hormone receptor or zona pellucida proteins, is also possible. Intratesticular or intraepididymal injections provide a method for non-surgical sterilization of the male dog and cat. Additional methods have been employed for mechanical disruption of fertility including intravaginal and intrauterine devices and ultrasound testicular ablation. Alternative approaches to surgical sterilization will be reviewed.
Objective To determine how often nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) resolves with 6 months of nonsurgical management in infants aged 6 to <10 months old. Methods As part of a randomized trial evaluating the cost effectiveness of immediate office probing versus observation with deferred probing for unresolved cases, 107 infants aged 6 to <10 months old who had NLDO and no history of prior nasolacrimal duct surgery were prescribed 6 months of nasolacrimal duct massage and topical antibiotics as needed. Resolution of the nasolacrimal duct obstruction was assessed 6 months after study entry and was defined as the absence of all clinical signs of NLDO (epiphora, increased tear lake, or mucous discharge) and not having undergone NLDO surgery. Exploratory analyses assessed whether baseline characteristics including age, gender, laterality, and prior treatment were associated with the probability of NLDO resolving without surgery. Results At the 6-month examination, which was completed for 117 of the 133 eyes (88%), the NLDO had resolved without surgery in 77 eyes (66%, 95% CI = 56% to 74%). None of the baseline characteristics we evaluated were found to be associated with resolution. Discussion In infants 6 to < 10 months of age, more than half of eyes with NLDO resolve within 6 months with nonsurgical management. Knowledge of the rate of NLDO resolution in infancy without surgery will help clinicians and parents effectively discuss treatment options. PMID:22801833
Del Felice, Alessandra; Alderighi, Marzia; Martinato, Matteo; Grisafi, Davide; Bosco, Anna; Thompson, Pamela J; Sander, Josemir W; Masiero, Stefano
People with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) who have not undergone epilepsy surgery often complain of memory deficits. Cognitive rehabilitation is employed as a remedial intervention in clinical settings, but research is limited and findings concerning efficacy and the criteria for choosing different approaches have been inconsistent. We aimed to appraise existing evidence on memory rehabilitation in nonsurgical individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy and to ascertain the effectiveness of specific strategies. A scoping review was preferred given the heterogeneous nature of the interventions. A comprehensive literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, Scholars Portal/PSYCHinfo, Proceedings First, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses identified articles published in English before February 2016. The search retrieved 372 abstracts. Of 25 eligible studies, six were included in the final review. None included pediatric populations. Strategies included cognitive training, external memory aids, brain training, and noninvasive brain stimulation. Selection criteria tended to be general. Overall, there was insufficient evidence to make definitive conclusions regarding the efficacy of traditional memory rehabilitation strategies, brain training, and noninvasive brain stimulation. The review suggests that cognitive rehabilitation in nonsurgical TLE is underresearched and that there is a need for a systematic evaluation in this population.
Chen, Xiao; Liu, Hai-Peng; Li, Mei; Qiao, Liang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the third most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. There have been great improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of HCC in recent years, but the problems, including difficult diagnosis at early stage, quick progression, and poor prognosis remain unsolved. Surgical resection is the mainstay of the treatment for HCC. However, 70%-80% of HCC patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage when most are ineligible for potentially curative therapies such as surgical resection and liver transplantation. In recent years, non-surgical management for unrespectable HCC, such as percutaneous ethanol injection, percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy, percutaneous radiofrequency ablation, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, biotherapy, and hormonal therapy have been developed. These therapeutic options, either alone or in combination, have been shown to control tumor growth, prolong survival time, and improve quality of life to some extent. This review covers the current status and progress of non-surgical management for HCC. PMID:25469032
Pini-Prato, Giovanpaolo; Magnani, Cristina; Rotundo, Roberto
The aim of this preliminary study is to show the effect of the biofilm decontamination approach on peri-implantitis treatment. Clinical cases showing peri-implantitis were treated using an oral tissue decontaminant material that contains a concentrated aqueous mixture of hydroxybenzenesulfonic and hydroxymethoxybenzenesulfonic acids and sulfuric acid. The material was positioned in the pocket around the implant without anesthesia in nonsurgically treated cases. No instrumentation and no systemic or local antibiotics were used in any of the cases. A questionnaire was used for each patient to record the pain/discomfort felt when the material was administered. All of the treated cases healed well and rapidly. The infections were quickly resolved without complications. The momentary pain on introduction of the material was generally well tolerated and completely disappeared after a few seconds. The biofilm decontamination approach seems to be a very promising technique for the treatment of peri-implantitis. The local application of this material avoids the use of systemic or local antibiotics.
Valderrama, Pilar; Blansett, Jonathan A; Gonzalez, Mayra G; Cantu, Myrna G; Wilson, Thomas G
Objective: The aim of this review is to summarize the findings of studies that have evaluated non-surgical approaches for detoxification of implant body surfaces in vitro and in vivo, and to evaluate clinical trials on the use of these methodologies for treating peri-implant disease. Materials and methods: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (Pubmed) from 1966 to 2013. In vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical trials on non-surgical therapy were evaluated. The outcome variables were the ability of the therapeutic method to eliminate the biofilm and endotoxins from the implant surface, the changes in clinical parameters including probing depth, clinical attachment levels, bleeding on probing; radiographic bone fill and histological re-osseointegration. Results: From 134 articles found 35 were analyzed. The findings, advantages and disadvantages of using lasers as well as mechanical and chemical methods are discussed. Most of the in vivo and human studies used combination therapies which makes determining the efficacy of one specific method difficult. Most human studies are case series with short term longitudinal analysis without survival or failure reports. Conclusion: Complete elimination of the biofilms is difficult to achieve using these approaches. All therapies induce changes of the chemical and physical properties of the implant surface. Re-osseointegration may be difficult to achieve if not impossible without surgical access to ensure thorough debridement of the defect and detoxification of the implant surface. Combination protocols for non-surgical treatment of peri-implantitis in humans have shown some positive clinical results but long-term evaluation to evaluate the validity and reliability of the techniques is needed. PMID:24894571
Valderrama, Pilar; Blansett, Jonathan A; Gonzalez, Mayra G; Cantu, Myrna G; Wilson, Thomas G
The aim of this review is to summarize the findings of studies that have evaluated non-surgical approaches for detoxification of implant body surfaces in vitro and in vivo, and to evaluate clinical trials on the use of these methodologies for treating peri-implant disease. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (Pubmed) from 1966 to 2013. In vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical trials on non-surgical therapy were evaluated. The outcome variables were the ability of the therapeutic method to eliminate the biofilm and endotoxins from the implant surface, the changes in clinical parameters including probing depth, clinical attachment levels, bleeding on probing; radiographic bone fill and histological re-osseointegration. From 134 articles found 35 were analyzed. The findings, advantages and disadvantages of using lasers as well as mechanical and chemical methods are discussed. Most of the in vivo and human studies used combination therapies which makes determining the efficacy of one specific method difficult. Most human studies are case series with short term longitudinal analysis without survival or failure reports. Complete elimination of the biofilms is difficult to achieve using these approaches. All therapies induce changes of the chemical and physical properties of the implant surface. Re-osseointegration may be difficult to achieve if not impossible without surgical access to ensure thorough debridement of the defect and detoxification of the implant surface. Combination protocols for non-surgical treatment of peri-implantitis in humans have shown some positive clinical results but long-term evaluation to evaluate the validity and reliability of the techniques is needed.
Taub, Amy Forman
Non-invasive procedures for tissue tightening and elevation are new frontiers in dermasurgery. Current methods for achieving a "nonsurgical face-lift" include radiofrequency and infrared light devices which disrupt non-covalent collagen bonds and stimulate collagen production. This study evaluated a novel treatment protocol designed to achieve a nonsurgical face-lift with electrical stimulation of muscle. Thirty-five women were treated with the Pan G Lift (Pan Germinal Systems, Clearwater, Florida) to enhance skin and induce soft-tissue lifting via hypertrophy of the facial musculature. The protocol consists of biweekly treatments for 10 weeks followed by monthly maintenance treatments. Results were evaluated by both the investigating physician and patients for up to 12 months. Estimates of percentage improvement were based on a scale of 1 to 4 (1 = 0%-25% [mild]; 2 = 26%-50% [moderate]; 3 = 51%-75% [good]; and 4 = 76%-100% [marked]). After 10 weeks (20 treatments), the median lifting improvement scores as assessed by patients and physician were the following: cheeks-2.0 and 2.0, jowls-2.0 and 2.0, and texture-2.0 and 2.0, respectively. Physician-evaluated eye lift and neck lift showed similar improvement. At 12 months (32 treatments), lifting and skin texture changes (assessed by patients and physician) reached 3.0 to 4.0, respectively, while physician-evaluated eye lift and neck lift achieved at least a 3.0 at 20 and 26 treatments. At one year (32 treatments), neck lift reached a 4.0. There was no downtime and no complications occurred. The non-invasive, muscle-stimulating Pan G Lift is a novel procedure that yields significant 3-dimensional improvements of the face and neck (nonsurgical face-lift), which demonstrates progressive improvement with continued monthly treatments over time.
Lindsley, Kristina; Nichols, Jason J; Dickersin, Kay
A hordeolum is a common, painful inflammation of the eyelid margin that is usually caused by a bacterial infection. The infection affects oil glands of the eyelid and can be either internal or external. In many cases, the lesion drains spontaneously and resolves without treatment; however, the inflammation can spread to other ocular glands or tissues, and recurrences are common. If unresolved, an acute internal hordeolum can become chronic, or can develop into a chalazion. External hordeola, also known as styes, were not included in the scope of this review. The objective of this review was to investigate the effectiveness, and when possible, the safety, of non-surgical treatments for acute internal hordeola compared with observation or placebo. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register (2016; Issue 12)), MEDLINE Ovid, MEDLINE Ovid Epub Ahead of Print, MEDLINE Ovid In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, MEDLINE(R) Ovid Daily (January 1946 to December 2016), Embase (January 1947 to December 2016), PubMed (1948 to December 2016), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS (January 1982 to December 2016)), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT; www.controlled-trials.com (last searched 26 July 2012)), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We used no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 2 December 2016. The selection criteria for this review included randomized or quasi-randomized clinical trials of participants diagnosed with an acute internal hordeolum. Studies of participants with external hordeola (styes), chronic hordeola, or chalazia were excluded. Non-surgical interventions of interest included the use of hot or warm compresses, lid scrubs, antibiotics, or steroids compared with
Grindem, Hege; Eitzen, Ingrid; Engebretsen, Lars; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Risberg, May Arna
While there are many opinions about the expected knee function, sports participation, and risk of knee reinjury following nonsurgical treatment of injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), there is a lack of knowledge about the clinical course following nonsurgical treatment compared with that after surgical treatment. This prospective cohort study included 143 patients with an ACL injury. Isokinetic knee extension and flexion strength and patient-reported knee function as recorded on the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) 2000 form were collected at baseline, six weeks, and two years. Sports participation was reported monthly for two years with use of an online activity survey. Knee reinjuries were reported at the follow-up evaluations and in a monthly online survey. Repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA), generalized estimating equation (GEE) models, and Cox regression analysis were used to analyze group differences in functional outcomes, sports participation, and knee reinjuries, respectively. The surgically treated patients (n = 100) were significantly younger, more likely to participate in level-I sports, and less likely to participate in level-II sports prior to injury than the nonsurgically treated patients (n = 43). There were no significant group-by-time effects on functional outcome. The crude analysis showed that surgically treated patients were more likely to sustain a knee reinjury and to participate in level-I sports in the second year of the follow-up period. After propensity score adjustment, these differences were nonsignificant; however, the nonsurgically treated patients were significantly more likely to participate in level-II sports during the first year of the follow-up period and in level-III sports over the two years. After two years, 30% of all patients had an extensor strength deficit, 31% had a flexor strength deficit, 20% had patient-reported knee function below the normal range, and 20% had experienced knee
Arora, R; Kaiser, P; Kastenberger, T-J; Schmiedle, G; Erhart, S; Gabl, M
Nonsurgical treatment of Dupuytren's disease using collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH). Metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint (20-100°) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint (20-80°) contractures. Pregnancy, previous hypersensitivity to collagenase or excipients, anticoagulant use within 7 days prior to treatment. CCH injected directly into the Dupuytren's cord weakening the contracted cord. After injection, the patient returns the following day to allow CCH to lyse the collagen within the cord. An extension force is then applied to the involved finger to disrupt the weakened cord. Use of extension splint at night, movement instructions during the day. A total of 120 patients (107 men; 13 women; mean age 62 years, range 30-84 years) were treated. In 49% the little finger, in 44% the ring finger, in 4% the middle finger, and in 3% the index finger was treated. Full release was achieved in 71%, partial release in 26%, and no change in 3% of patients. The median pretreatment contracture for the MP joint was 37° (range 25-100°) and PIP joint 51° (range 30-97°). At 12 months, the mean contracture for the MP joint was 9° (range 0-25°) and for the PIP joint 21° (range 10-36°). Adverse events observed in 96% of patients for 3 months . No tendon ruptures, anaphylactic reactions, or nerve or ligament injuries observed.
Roh, Jong-Lyel; Kim, Hyo Sun
Although surgery is the first choice of therapy for plunging ranula, it is associated with technical difficulties, morbidity and recurrence. Plunging ranula may be also primarily treated with nonsurgical sclerotherapy, but there is little experience in pediatric patients. We, therefore, assessed the efficacy of OK-432 sclerotherapy for pediatric plunging ranula. Nine children with plunging ranula were prospectively treated with intracystic injections of OK-432. At the outpatient clinic, the ranula was punctured in the neck and aspirated mucus was replaced with 0.1-0.2mg OK-432 solution. The size of the ranula was compared before and after sclerotherapy. Total or nearly total shrinkage was observed in 6 of 9 patients; marked reduction (>50% of original size) in 2; and partial reduction (<50% of original size) in 1. At a mean follow-up of 26 months after last sclerotherapy, recurrence was observed in only 1 patient; this patient showed complete response after reinjection of OK-432 solution. No significant complications were observed, with only fever and mild local pain observed in 4 patients for 2-4 days after treatment. OK-432 sclerotherapy is safe and effective in the treatment of pediatric plunging ranula. Sclerotherapy may become a primary treatment modality prior to surgery.
Salzano, Stefano; Tirone, Federico
External cervical resorption, also called invasive cervical resorption (ICR), is a pathological process difficult to diagnose that causes a progressive replacement of dentin by granulation tissue and results in complete tooth destruction. According to the literature, class 4 ICR can be expected to have success rates of 12.5% if treated. In this case series, we show nonsurgical conservative treatment of 4 patients affected by class 4 ICR. In 4 patients affected by class 4 ICRs, granulomatous tissue was orthograde removed with the help of an operating microscope and cone-beam computed tomographic imaging. The teeth were devitalized, the granulomatous tissue was mechanically removed, and the defects were filled with either mineral trioxide aggregate or Biodentine (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France). After a follow-up period varying from 18 months for case 1 to 4 months for case 4, neither signs of periradicular bone rarefaction nor recurrence of resorption were observed. The teeth were asymptomatic, and conservative restorations appeared to be in excellent condition. Given the results achieved in this case series, it may be assumed that many class 4 ICRs could be successfully treated with the help of an operating microscope and cone-beam computed tomographic imaging. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Carlson, Hans; Colbert, Agatha; Frydl, Jennifer; Arnall, Elizabeth; Elliot, Molly; Carlson, Nels
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common of the entrapment neuropathies. Surgical decompression is commonly performed and has traditionally been considered the defnitive treatment for CTS. Conservative treatment options include physical therapy, bracing, steroid injections and alternative medicine. While CTS is often progressive, patients may get better without formal treatment. The resolution of symptoms is not necessarily related to the severity of the clinical findings and self-limited activity is common. The current literature suggests that bracing and corticosteroid injections may be useful in the nonsurgical treatment of CTS, although the benefits may be short term. There is limited evidence regarding the efficacy of other treatments, such as therapy, exercise, yoga, acupuncture, lasers and magnets, and further studies are needed. Surgery is recommended for progressive functional deficits and significant pain. PMID:20490348
Pike, Carolyn M; Firriolo, Joseph M; Ontiveros, Nicole C; Kuchibhotla, Sarada P; Oppel, Olivia K; Monoxelos, Lauren C; Greene, Arin K; Labow, Brian I
Currently, there are few nonsurgical treatment options for pediatric patients with developmental breast asymmetry. Our group established a partnership with a prosthetic unit within a local oncology center to provide custom-fit breast prostheses for young women with breast asymmetry. The purpose of this study was to describe the effect of this experience on patients' self-esteem and body image. Patients were administered an anonymous satisfaction survey at least 1 month after their first fitting at the prosthetic unit. The survey was designed to evaluate body image, self-esteem, as well as social and emotional well-being before and after treatment. Thematic analysis was used to assess their experiences. Seventeen patients, aged 12-19 years, visited the prosthetic unit and subsequently completed the retrospective survey. After using the breast prostheses, 14 (82.4%) patients reported an improvement in body image and 12 (70.6%) patients reported an improvement in self-esteem. Benefits pertaining to three emergent themes were revealed: "body wholeness/symmetry," "body image and psychological well-being," and "esthetic outcome." Results from the survey demonstrate the ease and efficacy of a form of nonsurgical treatment for adolescent breast asymmetry. Our partnership with an adult oncology center can serve as a national model to support the development of similar treatment programs. Existing resources that have been previously used only for adult breast cancer survivors can be effectively applied to the adolescent population to ameliorate the negative psychological effects of breast asymmetry. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Ti-Sun; Schenk, Aniela; Lungeanu, Diana; Reitmeir, Peter
The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of tooth related and patient related factors on the success of non-surgical and surgical periodontal therapy. In 41 patients (22 female) with untreated and/or recurrent periodontitis, no therapy, scaling and root planing (SRP), or access flap (AF) were assigned according to probing pocket depth (PPD). PPD and vertical relative attachment level (RAL-V) were obtained initially, 3 and 6 months after therapy. Baseline data were compared according to therapy, jaw, tooth type, and site. Factors influencing clinical parameters were identified using multilevel analyses. Baseline PPDs were deeper interproximally, in the maxilla and at premolars compared to buccal/oral sites, mandibular, and anterior teeth. At 6 months, PPD reduction and RAL-V gain were significantly greater at sites receiving SRP and AF as compared to untreated sites (p < 0.001). PPD reduction and RAL-V gain were significantly less (p < 0.005) in smokers as compared to nosmokers and at interproximal sites (p < 0.0001) as compared to buccal/oral sites. RAL-V gain was less in aggressive periodontitis, and PPD reduction was less in the maxilla (p < 0.001). In sites with greater bone loss and infrabony defects, a poorer response was observed regarding RAL-V gain or PPD reduction, respectively. The conclusions of the study are the following: (1) Nonsurgical and surgical periodontal therapies are effective in single-rooted teeth; (2) severe interproximal bone loss and infrabony defects deteriorate clinical results; and (3) there seem to be more defect-associated (tooth, site) factors influencing treatment outcome than patient-associated factors. PMID:17690922
Amini, Sadegh; Viera, Martha H.; Valins, Whitney
Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most frequent types of cancer in the United States and represent 75 percent and 20 percent, respectively, of all nonmelanoma skin cancers. Since ultraviolet radiation is implicated in their development, photoprotection is fundamental in their prevention. Additional preventive measures include identifying high-risk individuals for early detection along with using agents, such as retinoids, that are effective in decreasing the risk of premalignant cells further developing into carcinomas. Newer agents achieving this goal include perillyl alcohol, T4 endonuclease 5, DL-α-tocopherol, and α-difluoromethylornithine. Procedural modalities are currently the standard of treatment, but recent evidence has consistently shown that newer (nonsurgical) therapies, such as interferon, imiquimod, retinoids, and 5-fluorouracil, can be used effectively either as monotherapies or as adjuvants to those surgical modalities for the treatment of superficial nonmelanoma skin cancers and premalignant lesions. These newer therapies have achieved significant reductions in morbidity and mortality. Procedural modalities that have been evolving into important tools for the treatment of actinic keratosis and nonmelanoma skin cancers include photodynamic therapy and lasers. Nonsurgical therapies currently proving to be effective in clinical trials include ingenol mebutate and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors. Agents that are showing promising results in early phases of clinical trials include betulinic acid; hedgehog signaling pathway inhibitors, such as cyclopamine and GDC-0449; α-melanocyte–stimulating hormone analogs, such as afamelanotide; epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors, such as gefitinib and erlotinib; anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibodies, such as cetuximab and panitumumab; and the 5-fluorouracil prodrug capecitabine. PMID:20725548
Lin, Guang-Mao; Liu, Liang-Le; Ye, Li-Jie; Li, Qi; Liu, Mei-Fen
To study therapeutic effects of comprehensive traditional Chinese medicine therapy for preventing postsurgery stiffness after operation for terrible triad of the elbow. From December 2008 to December 2013,32 patients with elbow triad were randomly divided into two groups: therapy group and control group. There were 17 patients in control group including 12 males and 5 females with a mean age of (41.0 ± 7.1) years old. The patients in control group were received the past procedure therapy. There were 15 patients in therapy group, including 10 males and 5 females with a mean age of (41.3 ± 7.6) years old. The patients in therapy group were received comprehensive traditional Chinese medicine therapy, including passive exercise training at early stage (0 to 2 weeks after operation), transition from passive to active exercise training at middle stage (3 to 4 weeks after operation), and active exercise training at late stage (5 to 12 weeks after operation). Other treatment methods, such as orally taking or externally use of Chinese herbal medicine, manipulation and physiotherapy, were used at all stages. The Mayo Elbow Performance Score, patient satisfaction and complications were evaluated and analyzed. All the patients were followed up, and the mean duration was 7.5 months. There were no complications such as internal fixation loosing, obvious displacement fracture and heterotopic ossification occurred. The Mayo score and patient satisfaction in therapy group were higher than those in control group (t = 12.78, P = 0.00; χ2 = 8.719, P = 0.003). Seven patients needed reoperation in control group, compared with 1 patient in therapy group (χ2 = 4.626, P = 0.032). The comprehensive traditional Chinese medicine therapy is effective to prevent postoperative stiffness after operation for terrible triad of the elbow by using different methods at different stages, which is worthy of spread and application.
Dutra, Bernardo Carvalho; Oliveira, Alcione Maria Soares Dutra; Oliveira, Peterson Antônio Dutra; Manzi, Flavio Ricardo; Cortelli, Sheila Cavalca; Cota, Luís Otávio de Miranda; Costa, Fernando Oliveira
Few studies have evaluated the effect of the topical application of sodium alendronate (ALN) on the treatment of intrabuccal bone defects, especially those caused by periodontitis. This 6-month randomized placebo controlled clinical trial aimed at evaluating the effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment associated with the use of 1% ALN, through clinical evaluations and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Twenty individuals with chronic periodontitis underwent periodontal examination at the baseline as well as 3 and 6 months after periodontal treatment, registering clinical attachment level (CAL), periodontal probing depth (PPD), and bleeding on probing (BOP) as the clinical outcomes. After manual scaling and root planing, 40 bilateral sites with interproximal vertical bone defects were randomly treated with either 1% ALN gel or a placebo. Bone defects were evaluated through CBCT at the baseline and 6 months post-treatment. The clinical and CBCT parameters were compared using the Wilcoxon and Friedman tests (p<0.05). Although ALN produced a greater CAL gain when compared to the placebo at 6 months post-treatment (p=0.021), both treatments produced similar effects on the PPD, BOP, and bone height. Significant differences in bone fill were observed only in patients of the ALN group (4.5 to 3.8 mm; p=0.003) at 6 months post-treatment. Topical application of 1% ALN might be a beneficial adjuvant to non-surgical periodontal therapy.
DUTRA, Bernardo Carvalho; OLIVEIRA, Alcione Maria Soares Dutra; OLIVEIRA, Peterson Antônio Dutra; MANZI, Flavio Ricardo; CORTELLI, Sheila Cavalca; COTA, Luís Otávio de Miranda; COSTA, Fernando Oliveira
Abstract Background and objectives Few studies have evaluated the effect of the topical application of sodium alendronate (ALN) on the treatment of intrabuccal bone defects, especially those caused by periodontitis. This 6-month randomized placebo controlled clinical trial aimed at evaluating the effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment associated with the use of 1% ALN, through clinical evaluations and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Material and Methods Twenty individuals with chronic periodontitis underwent periodontal examination at the baseline as well as 3 and 6 months after periodontal treatment, registering clinical attachment level (CAL), periodontal probing depth (PPD), and bleeding on probing (BOP) as the clinical outcomes. After manual scaling and root planing, 40 bilateral sites with interproximal vertical bone defects were randomly treated with either 1% ALN gel or a placebo. Bone defects were evaluated through CBCT at the baseline and 6 months post-treatment. The clinical and CBCT parameters were compared using the Wilcoxon and Friedman tests (p<0.05). Results Although ALN produced a greater CAL gain when compared to the placebo at 6 months post-treatment (p=0.021), both treatments produced similar effects on the PPD, BOP, and bone height. Significant differences in bone fill were observed only in patients of the ALN group (4.5 to 3.8 mm; p=0.003) at 6 months post-treatment. Conclusions Topical application of 1% ALN might be a beneficial adjuvant to non-surgical periodontal therapy. PMID:28678950
Moura, Lucas Alves; Ribeiro, Fernanda Vieira; Aiello, Talita Bianchi; Duek, Eliana Ap De Rezende; Sallum, Enilson Antonio; Nociti Junior, Francisco Humberto; Casati, Márcio Zaffalon; Sallum, Antonio Wilson
The aim of this pilot study was to assess the release of locally delivered doxycycline by poly (l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres in the periodontal pocket of patients with chronic periodontitis, treated by non-surgical periodontal therapy. Nineteen sites of non-adjacent teeth of four different patients were evaluated. Five milligram of PLGA microspheres loaded with 16 doxycycline hyclate (DOX) was administered per periodontal site. To quantify DOX released into the periodontal pocket, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was collected from the sites on days 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, and 20 after DOX application, and high-performance liquid chromatography was performed. Data were statistically assessed by ANOVA/Tukey test. At days 2, 5, and 7, the DOX concentration was stably sustained (23.33 ± 1.38, 23.4 ± 1.82, and 22.75 ± 1.33 μg/mL, respectively), with no significant differences over these assessment times (p > 0.05). At days 10 and 15, a tendency was observed toward a decrease in DOX concentration (21.74 ± 0.91 and 20.53 ± 4.88 μg/mL, respectively), but a significant decrease in GCF drug concentration (19.69 ± 4.70 μg/mL) was observed only on day 20. The DOX delivery system developed demonstrated a successful sustained release after local administration, as an adjunct to non-surgical periodontal therapy.
da Silva, Helbert Eustáquio Cardoso; Stefani, Cristine Miron; de Santos Melo, Nilce; de Almeida de Lima, Adriano; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Porporatti, André Luís; Canto, Graziela De Luca
The aim of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to analyze the effects of intra-pregnancy nonsurgical periodontal therapy on periodontal inflammatory biomarkers and adverse pregnancy outcomes. On June 5, 2017, we searched PubMed, Cochrane, SCOPUS, Web of Science, LILACS, ProQuest, Open Grey, and Google Scholar databases. Randomized clinical trials in which pregnant women with chronic periodontitis underwent nonsurgical periodontal therapy, compared with an untreated group, tested for inflammatory biomarkers, and followed till delivery were included. Primary outcomes were preterm birth, low birth weight, and preeclampsia. Meta-analysis was performed with 5.3.5 version of Review Manager software. We found 565 references in the databases, 326 after duplicates removal, 28 met criteria for full text reading, and 4 met eligibility criteria for quantitative and qualitative synthesis. Intra-pregnancy nonsurgical periodontal therapy improved periodontal clinical parameters (periodontal pocket depth, clinical attachment level, and bleeding on probing) and reduced biomarker level from gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), and some from blood serum; however, it did not influence biomarker level from umbilical cord blood. Meta-analysis showed tendency for reduction of the risk of preterm birth before 37 weeks for treated group (risk ratio (RR) = 0.54, 95% CI 0.38-0.77; p = 0.0007; inconsistency indexes (I2) 32%) but did not show any difference for low birth weight occurrence (RR = 0.78, 95%CI 0.50-1.21; p = 0.27; I2 41%). No included study considered preeclampsia as a gestational outcome. These results demonstrated that the intra-pregnancy nonsurgical periodontal therapy decreased periodontal inflammatory biomarker levels from gingival crevicular fluid and some from serum blood, with no influence on inflammatory biomarker level from cord blood, and it did not consistently reduce adverse gestational adverse outcome occurrence. PROSPERO CRD42015027750.
Morcel, Karine; Lavoué, Vincent; Jaffre, Frédérique; Paniel, Bernard-Jean; Rouzier, Roman
To compare nonsurgical and surgical procedures for creation of a neovagina in women with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome in terms of sexual satisfaction. We report a cross-sectional study of 91 women with MRKH syndrome undergoing a neovagina creation procedure. They were members of the French National Association of Women with MRKH syndrome. We analyzed all answers to a questionnaire mailed to each woman. The questionnaire solicited short answers concerning the diagnosis and the neovagina procedure, and included the standardized FSFI (Female Sexual Function Index) questionnaire. All analyses were performed using the chi-squared test and Student's t-test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Forty women answered the questionnaire. Twenty had been treated by Frank's method (non-surgical group) and 20 had undergone a surgical procedure, sigmoid vaginoplasty (12 cases) or Davidov's technique (8 cases) (surgical group). The mean time after neovagina creation was 7 years (range 1-44 years). The population characteristics did not differ significantly between the nonsurgical and surgical groups. The total FSFI score indicated good and similar functional results in the two groups (25.3±7.5 versus 25.3±8.0). Functional sexual outcomes after nonsurgical and surgical methods were similar. Therefore, the Frank's method should be proposed as first line therapy because it is less invasive than surgical procedures. In the case of failure of this technique or of refusal by the patient, surgical reconstruction may then be offered. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
... Non-surgical Treatment Options for Urinary Incontinence in Women What is UI? “Taking Control” (5-minute video) “ ... video in a new window) Are there other women like me? (8-minute video) Urinary incontinence happens ...
... Non-surgical Treatment Options for Urinary Incontinence in Women What is UI? “Taking Control” (5-minute video) “ ... video in a new window) Are there other women like me? (8-minute video) Urinary incontinence happens ...
van Wijk, M P; Breugem, C C; Kon, M
Splinting is an elegant non-surgical method to correct ear deformities in the newborn. Since the late 1980s, many authors demonstrated that permanent correction occurs by forcing the ear into the proper position for several weeks. The external ear anomalies suitable for splinting have a common feature that no skin or cartilage is absent; the protruding, lop and Stahl's ears are good examples of these anomalies. Surprisingly, this technique is relatively unknown to plastic surgeons and is hardly ever communicated to the general public. To review the literature on non-surgical correction of ear deformities, focussing on indications, technique, results and possible complications. A systematic literature search was performed in July 2008 using PubMed. Twenty papers were suitable for review. Splinting can be performed in many ways, provided that the ear is permanently kept in the desired shape without distorting it. It is disputable until what age splinting therapy can reasonably be offered--opinions vary from 'newborn only' to well up to 3 or 6 months of age. A rigid fixation seems to allow correction in older children. The time needed to splint for permanent correction depends upon the age at the time of starting the treatment. For a newborn, 2 weeks often suffice, whereas for older children splinting time becomes more variable--up to 6 months. Most patients we treated had lop, Stahl's or prominent ears. In a case series in Japan, cryptotia was the most frequent deformity encountered. Most authors made their own judgement on the results, categorising their outcomes from poor to excellent, or asked a lay opinion. Fair-to-excellent results were reported in 70-100% of the cases. The results tended to be poor in older children. Recurrence was seldom described clearly in the literature and was probably listed as poor result. No serious complications occurred and skin irritation was seen sporadically. Ear splinting is an elegant technique that should be practised on a wider
Morris, Nicholas A; Merkler, Alexander E; Parker, Whitney E; Claassen, Jan; Connolly, E Sander; Sheth, Kevin N; Kamel, Hooman
Little is known about the natural history of non-surgically managed subdural hematoma (SDH). The purpose of this study is to determine rates of adverse events after non-surgical management of SDH and whether these outcomes differ depending on traumatic versus nontraumatic etiology. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using administrative claims data on all emergency department visits and acute care hospitalizations at nonfederal facilities in California from 2005 to 2011, Florida from 2005 to 2012, and New York from 2006 to 2011. We included patients who were discharged home after hospitalization with a first-recorded diagnosis of SDH and no record of surgical hematoma evacuation. Patients were followed for readmission with SDH, readmission for surgical SDH evacuation, and fatal readmission with SDH. Survival statistics and the log-rank test were used to compare rates of these adverse events after traumatic versus nontraumatic SDH. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to compare hazards for traumatic versus nontraumatic etiology while adjusting for age, sex, race, insurance status, presence of dementia, alcohol use, acquired abnormalities in coagulation, acquired abnormalities in platelet function, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, venous thromboembolism, ischemic stroke, coronary heart disease, and valvular disease. We identified 27,502 conservatively treated patients with SDH, of which 70.9% were traumatic and 29.1% nontraumatic. Compared to patients with traumatic SDH, patients with nontraumatic SDH had significantly higher rates of subsequent hospitalization with SDH (cumulative 90-day rates: 15.3 % [95% CI 14.5-16.1%] vs. 10.3% [95% CI 9.9-10.8%]), surgical SDH evacuation (7.8% [95% CI 7.3-8.5%] vs. 5.5% [95% CI 5.2-5.8%]), and SDH-related in-hospital death (1.0% [95% CI 0.8-1.2%] vs. 0.4% [95 % CI 0.3-0.5%]). In multivariable Cox regression analysis, nontraumatic etiology was associated with a higher hazard of readmission with SDH (HR 1
Background Peyronie’s disease (PD) remains a therapeutic dilemma for the treating physician. This is in spite of a large array of treatments which have been used since the time of de la Peyronie in the mid 18th century. Part of this problem is due to an incomplete understanding of the etiopathophysiology of this scarring disorder. Having a better understanding of the how and why the scarring occurs may help prevent progression, but ultimately reversing the existing scar remains the real challenge. Methods This review discusses the current non-surgical treatment options for Peyronie’s disease. Published articles in peer-reviewed journals are used, recognizing that the majority of the published trials are compromised by being single-center studies without a placebo control. Results A variety of treatments options have emerged, most with limited and unreliable benefit, but a few treatments have shown a consistent albeit incomplete response rate. Could this suggest that all PD is not the same and that the heterogeneous nature of this scarring disorder may account for why some patients respond and others do not? Further investigation of this diverse response rate may yield insights into the pathophysiology of PD. In the meantime, there have been many oral treatments offered for PD. Currently the only scientifically sensible treatments appear to be pentoxifylline, L-arginine, and possibly the phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors. Intralesional injection has been used for many years. The current treatment options include verapamil and interferon, with reported benefit with respect to reduced deformity and improved sexual function. Intralesional clostridial collagenase is in the midst of phase 3 trial analysis by the FDA in the USA and may become the newest and only FDA approved treatment for Peyronie’s disease. External mechanical traction therapy has also recently emerged as a technique to reduce curvature, recover lost length, enhance girth, and possibly obviate
Liu, Hong; Li, Jian-Xue
Objective: To examine the application of a modified fixed reverse twin-block appliance (TBA) in adults with an Angle Class III malocclusion and anterior crossbite. Participants: Thirty-two adults with an Angle III malocclusion were recruited. An associated temporomandibular disorder (TMD) was found in 18 patients, laterognathism in 21, and both conditions in the remaining 12 patients. Methods: A modified fixed reverse TBA was used to posture the mandible back, divert bite force and centre the dentition. The malocclusion, laterognathism and temporomandibular disorders were concurrently treated. The outcome was evaluated radiographically and the findings were analyzed via Electronic Measurement Scale software. Results: Treatment was shown to be effective and could significantly shorten the course of treatment and avoid orthognathic surgery. The average course of treatment was 14 months, during which time, the mandible was postured back and the dentition was successfully aligned and levelled. Most patients achieved an edge-to-edge occlusion of the anterior teeth after 7-10 days of appliance wear. Most symptoms of TMD were relieved after 1 month and the laterognathism resolved in 4-5 months. Conclusion: A modified fixed reverse TBA was an effective non-surgical strategy for the treatment of selected Angle Class III malocclusions with an anterior crossbite in adults. PMID:24179566
Shibata, Toshiya; Maetani, Yoji; Ametani, Fumie; Kubo, Takeshi; Itoh, Kyo; Konishi, Junji
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of nonsurgical treatments for caudate hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: Between January 1994 and February 2001, 25 patients were treated for HCCs with percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), and/or transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). PEI was performed for 19 caudate HCCs, combined treatment with PEI and TAE for 4 nodules, and TAE for 2 nodules. Results: During follow-up periods ranging from 3 to 60 months (mean 21.3 months), 18 patients had no local recurrence. Local recurrence was seen in 7 patients, and recurrence in the other segments of the liver in 15 patients. Thirteen patients were alive, ranging from 6 to 60 months, and 12 patients died of multiple HCCs, hepatic failure, or rupture of esophageal varix. The 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates of the 25 patients were 70.6%,60.2%, 48.1%, and 16.0%, respectively. Conclusion:PEI, PEI and TAE, or TAE would be an effective alternative treatment for HCC in the caudate lobe.
Oyo-Ita, Angela; Chinnock, Paul; Ikpeme, Ikpeme A
Injury to the abdomen can be blunt or penetrating. Abdominal injury can damage internal organs such as the liver, spleen, kidneys, intestine, and large blood vessels. There are controversies about the best approach to manage abdominal injuries. To assess the effects of surgical and non-surgical interventions in the management of abdominal trauma in a haemodynamically stable and non-peritonitic abdomen. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, The Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE(R), Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE(R) Daily and Ovid OLDMEDLINE(R), EMBASE Classic+EMBASE (Ovid), ISI WOS (SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI, CPCI-S & CPSI-SSH), CINAHL Plus (EBSCO), and clinical trials registers, and screened reference lists. We ran the most recent search on 17 September 2015. Randomised controlled trials of surgical interventions and non-surgical interventions involving people with abdominal injury who were haemodynamically stable with no signs of peritonitis. The abdominal injury could be blunt or penetrating. Two review authors independently applied the selection criteria. Data were extracted by two authors using a standard data extraction form, and are reported narratively. Two studies are included, which involved a total of 114 people with penetrating abdominal injuries. Both studies are at moderate risk of bias because the randomisation methods are not fully described, and the original study protocols are no longer available. The studies were undertaken in Finland between 1992 and 2002, by the same two researchers.In one study, 51 people were randomised to surgery or an observation protocol. None of the participants in the study died. Seven people had complications: 5 (18.5%) in the surgical group and 2 (8.3%) in the observation group; the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.42; Fischer's exact). Among the 27 people who had surgery, 6 (22.2%) surgeries were negative laparotomies, and 15 (55.6%) were non
Park, Woo Young; Cho, Kwang Bum; Kim, Eun Soo; Park, Kyung Sik
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)-related perforation is classified into three or four types based on anatomical location and the mechanism of injury. Although ampullary injury, among them, may be managed nonsurgically, surgical management is required in cases of perforation with retroperitoneal fluid collection and severe condition. Here, a patient with ERCP-related severe ampullary perforation with retroperitoneal fluid collection that was treated nonsurgically with a covered stent is presented.
Olsson, Nicklas; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare; Eriksson, Bengt I; Sansone, Mikael; Brorsson, Annelie; Nilsson-Helander, Katarina; Karlsson, Jón
The optimal treatment for acute Achilles tendon ruptures is still a subject of debate. Early loading of the tendon is a factor that has been shown to be beneficial to recovery and to minimize complications. The main outcome of previous studies has been complications such as reruptures and deep infections, without focusing on the functional outcome relevant to the majority of patients who do not experience these complications. To evaluate whether stable surgical repair and early loading of the tendon could improve patient-reported outcome and function after an acute Achilles tendon rupture. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. A total of 100 patients (86 men, 14 women; mean age, 40 years) with an acute total Achilles tendon rupture were randomized to either surgical treatment, including an accelerated rehabilitation protocol, or nonsurgical treatment. The primary outcome was the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS). The patients were evaluated at 3, 6, and 12 months for symptoms, physical activity level, and function. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of symptoms, physical activity level, or quality of life. There was a trend toward improved function in surgically treated patients; the results were significantly superior when assessed by the drop countermovement jump (95% CI, 0.03-0.15; P = .003) and hopping (95% CI, 0.01-0.33; P = .040). No reruptures occurred in the surgical group, while there were 5 in the nonsurgical group (P = .06). There were 6 superficial infections in the surgically treated group; however, these superficial infections had no bearing on the final outcome. Symptoms, reduced quality of life, and functional deficits still existed 12 months after injury on the injured side in both groups. The results of the present study demonstrate that stable surgical repair with accelerated tendon loading could be performed in all (n = 49) patients without reruptures and major soft tissue
Mettraux, Gérald R; Sculean, Anton; Bürgin, Walter B; Salvi, Giovanni E
Non-surgical mechanical therapy of peri-implantitis (PI) with/without adjunctive measures yields limited clinical improvements. To evaluate the clinical outcomes following non-surgical mechanical therapy of PI with adjunctive application of a diode laser after an observation period ≥2 years. At baseline (BL), 15 patients with 23 implants with a sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) surface diagnosed with PI were enrolled and treated. PI was defined as presence of probing pocket depths (PPD) ≥5 mm with bleeding on probing (BoP) and/or suppuration and ≥2 threads with bone loss after delivery of the restoration. Implant sites were treated with carbon fiber and metal curettes followed by repeated application of a diode laser 3x for 30 s (settings: 810 nm, 2.5 W, 50 Hz, 10 ms). This procedure was performed at Day 0 (i.e., baseline), 7 and 14. Adjunctive antiseptics or adjunctive systemic antibiotics were not prescribed. All implants were in function after 2 years. The deepest PPD decreased from 7.5 ± 2.6 mm to 3.6 ± 0.7 mm at buccal (P < 0.0001) and from 7.7 ± 2.1 mm to 3.8 ± 0.9 mm at oral sites (P < 0.0001), respectively. The % of implants with ≥1 site with BoP decreased from 100% at BL to 43% after 2 years (P = 0.0002). The % of implants with suppuration decreased from 87% at BL to 0% after 2 years (P < 0.0001). Non-surgical mechanical therapy of PI with adjunctive repeated application of a diode laser yielded significant clinical improvements after an observation period of at least 2 years. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sinha, Rupam; Sarkar, Soumyabrata; Kabiraj, Arpita; Maji, Anirban
Background. Oral mucocele is a common lesion resulting from an alteration of minor salivary glands due to mucus accumulation. Rapid appearance, specific location, history of trauma, bluish colour, and consistency help in the diagnosis. Conventional surgical removal is the treatment of choice but has several disadvantages like damage to adjacent ducts with further development of satellite lesions. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of intralesional corticosteroid injection (betamethasone) as a nonsurgical treatment procedure in oral mucoceles. Material and Method. A total of 20 cases (males and females, 10–30 years of age) with clinically diagnosed oral mucoceles were given 1 mL of betamethasone intralesionally. All the patients were examined after a period of 7, 14, and 21 days to evaluate the response of the lesion towards treatment and consequently given the 2nd, 3rd, 4th injections. If the lesion resolved after one or two injections, the treatment was discontinued. Results. Out of the 20 cases, 18 of them showed complete regression of the lesion whereas the remaining 2 cases showed decrease in size. All the patients received maximum of 4 consecutive shots in weekly interval. Conclusion. Intralesional corticosteroid therapy can be considered as the first choice in the treatment of oral mucoceles. PMID:27822227
Lucas, Malcolm G; Bosch, Ruud J L; Burkhard, Fiona C; Cruz, Francisco; Madden, Thomas B; Nambiar, Arjun K; Neisius, Andreas; de Ridder, Dirk J M K; Tubaro, Andrea; Turner, William H; Pickard, Robert S
The previous European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on urinary incontinence comprised a summary of sections of the 2009 International Consultation on Incontinence. A decision was made in 2010 to rewrite these guidelines based on an independent systematic review carried out by the EAU guidelines panel, using a sustainable methodology. We present a short version of the full guidelines on assessment, diagnosis, and nonsurgical treatment of urinary incontinence, with the aim of increasing their dissemination. Evidence appraisal included a pragmatic review of existing systematic reviews and independent new literature searches, based on Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome questions. Appraisal of papers was carried out by an international panel of experts, who also collaborated on a series of consensus discussions, to develop concise structured evidence summaries and action-based recommendations using a modified Oxford system. The full version of the guidelines is available online (http://www.uroweb.org/guidelines/online-guidelines/). The guidelines include algorithms that refer the reader back to the supporting evidence, and they are more immediately useable in daily clinical practice. These new guidelines present an up-to-date summary of the available evidence, together with clear clinical algorithms and action-based recommendations based on the best available evidence. Where such evidence does not exist, they present a consensus of expert opinion. Copyright © 2012 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bertl, Kristina; Schoiber, Angelika; Haririan, Hady; Laky, Markus; Steiner, Irene; Rausch, W D; Andrukhov, Oleh; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui
Melatonin is a hormone, which is involved in the control of the circadian rhythm, but also acts as an antioxidant and immune modulator. Previous studies reported decreased salivary and serum melatonin levels in periodontitis. This prospective cohort trial assessed the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on melatonin levels. Salivary and serum samples of 60 participants (30 patients suffering from a severe generalized form of periodontitis, 30 healthy controls) were collected at baseline and 19 samples of periodontitis patients after treatment. Salivary and serum melatonin levels were determined by a commercially available ELISA kit and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) by a routine laboratory test. At baseline, periodontitis patients showed significantly increased serum CRP values and significantly decreased salivary melatonin levels compared to the control group. Clinical periodontal parameters significantly correlated with salivary melatonin levels and serum CRP. Periodontal therapy resulted in a recovery of the decreased salivary melatonin levels and a negative correlation was detected for the changes of salivary melatonin and the inflammatory parameter bleeding on probing. Serum melatonin levels showed no significant differences. Salivary melatonin levels recovered after periodontal therapy and correlated with a decrease of local periodontal inflammation. This may imply the local involvement of melatonin in the pathogenesis of periodontitis due to its antioxidant abilities. However, the exact role of melatonin in periodontal disease remains to be investigated in future trials. The present results suggest salivary melatonin as a risk indicator for the severity of periodontal disease.
Wilhelm, Kai E.; Hofer, Ulrich; Textor, Hans J.; Boeker, Thorsten; Strunk, Holger; Schild, Hans H.
Purpose: To assess dacryocystoplasty in the treatment of epiphora due to obstructions of the common canaliculus.Methods: Twenty patients with severe epiphora due to partial (n = 16) or complete (n = 4) obstruction of the common canaliculus underwent fluoroscopically guided dacryocystoplasty. In all cases of incomplete obstruction balloon dilation was performed. Stent implantation was attempted in cases with complete obstruction. Dacryocystography and clinical follow-up was performed at intervals of 1 week, and 3, 6, 12, and 18 months after the procedure. The mean follow-up was 6 months (range 3-18 months).Results: Balloon dilation was technically successfully performed in all patients with incomplete obstructions (n = 16). In three of four patients with complete obstruction stent implantation was performed successfully. Subsequent to failure of stent implantation in one of these patients balloon dilation was performed instead. The long-term primary patency rate in patients with incomplete obstructions was 88% (n = 14/16). In three of four cases with complete obstruction long-term patency was achieved during follow-up. Severe complications, infections, or punctal splitting were not observed.Conclusion: Fluoroscopically guided balloon dacryocystoplasty is a feasible nonsurgical therapy in canalicular obstructions with good clinical results that may be used as an alternative to surgical procedures. In patients with complete obstructions stent placement is possible but further investigations are needed to assess the procedural and long-term results.
Shen, Francis H; Samartzis, Dino; Andersson, Gunnar B J
A variety of nonsurgical treatment alternatives exists for acute and chronic low back pain. Patients should receive appropriate education about the favorable natural history of low back pain, basic body mechanics, and methods (eg, exercises, activity modification, behavioral modification) that can reduce symptoms. Nonprescription medication is efficacious for mild to moderate pain. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, alone or in combination with muscle relaxants, relieve pain and improve overall symptoms of acute low back pain. Exercise therapy has limited value for acute low back pain, but strong evidence supports exercise therapy in the management of chronic low back pain. Moderately strong evidence supports the use of manipulation in acute back pain. Evidence is weak for the use of epidural corticosteroid injections in patients with acute low back pain, strong for short-term relief of chronic low back pain, and limited for long-term relief of chronic low back pain. The use of facet injections in the management of acute low back pain is not supported by evidence, nor is the effectiveness of orthoses, traction, magnets, or acupuncture. Trigger point injections are not indicated for nonspecific acute or chronic low back pain, and sacroiliac joint injections are not indicated in the routine management of low back pain. Conflicting evidence exists regarding the use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.
Idowu, Olufemi Emmanuel; Obafunwa, John O; Soyemi, Sunday O
Traumatic injury to pituitary gland can lead to significant endocrine dysfunctions. The aim of this study is to define the frequency of pituitary gland injury in patients with fatal nonsurgical closed traumatic brain injury (TBI), and to correlate if any, the type of craniocerebral injury associated with the pituitary gland injury. The study is a prospective autopsy review of 30 adult patients with fatal closed TBI. Patients who had any form of neurosurgical intervention were excluded from the study. The harvested pituitary glands were assessed morphologically and histologically with haematoxylin-eosin stains. There were 25 males and five females (median age: 35 years). Fatal closed TBI was associated with at least pituitary stalk rupture or pituitary gland haemorrhage in 13 patients (43.3%). There was significant relationship between subdural haemorrhage (SH) and either pituitary gland haemorrhage or pituitary stalk rupture. Odds ratio (OR) of a patient with SH having accompanying glandular pituitary haemorrhage was 21 while the OR of a patient with SH having pituitary stalk rupture was 12. Pituitary gland haemorrhage and stalk rupture frequency are fairly common in fatal closed TBI that do not require surgical intervention. Injury to both structures probably plays substantial roles in closed TBI outcome. We suggest routine assessment of pituitary gland function test in patients with closed TBI associated with SH.
Wang, Lijun; Shang, Xiaoke; Qiu, Qiu; Lu, Rong; Xiao, Shuna; Li, Dingyang; Yu, Jie; Zhang, Changdong; Xia, Cheng; Zhou, Hongmei; Zhang, Gangcheng
Postoperative junctional ectopic tachycardia (JET) is a narrow complex tachycardia and most frequently occurs during and after surgical repair of certain types of congenital heart defects. Postoperative junctional ectopic tachycardia may produce unfavorable hemodynamics that prolongs stays in the cardiac intensive care unit and hospital, prolongs time on a ventilator, and occasionally requires the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as rescue therapy. The present report describes a rare case of late-onset postoperative junctional ectopic tachycardia, which occurred 13 days after the deployment of a perimembranous ventricular septal defect (PmVSD) occluder in a 17-year-old female teenager. To the best of our knowledge, late-onset postoperative junctional ectopic tachycardia has not previously been reported as a complication in nonsurgical procedures. In this case, the junctional ectopic tachycardia remained resistant to medicines and the haemodynamic imbalance caused a serious life-threatening situation in the patient. The occluder was removed by an emergent thoracotomy; then, the patient was successfully cured by being supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The findings suggest that during follow-up management, the physician should pay attention postoperatively to junctional ectopic tachycardia even after discharge from the hospital.
Talib, Raidh A.; Ibrahim, Mohammed Abdulkareem; Cangüven, Önder
Peyronie’s disease (PD) is an inflammatory condition of penile tunica albuginea which commonly ends with penile curvature and difficulty in vaginal penetration. Unfortunately, the pathophysiology of PD has not been completely understood. In this paper, we will review what is known about the pathophysiology of PD and the nonsurgical medical treatment options that have been trialed as a result. In the last 5 years, commonly used oral medications left their places to intralesional therapies. Clostridium collagenase, which is the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved treatment for PD, is now the most prescribed intralesional therapy in the last years. Clostridium collagenase is advised for patients whose penile curvature is > 30° and < 90°. Because of its side effects, patients should be counseled before intralesional Clostridium collagenase treatment. Until finding best treatment solution for PD, more investigations in regards to the basic science of PD need to be carried out in order to elucidate the exact mechanisms of the fibrosis. PMID:27909612
Hildebrandt, T B; Göritz, F; Boardman, W; Strike, T; Strauss, G; Jewgenow, K
This paper presents the successful use of a non-surgical, transcervical uterine lavage technique for the treatment of uterine infection-induced infertility in three female large cats. We developed a non-surgical uterine lavage technique, which allowed repeated flushing of the uterine lumen and installation of therapeutic antibiotics. The entire procedure was performed under general anaesthesia (duration of anesthesia ranged from 40 to 70 min). It was successfully applied in a Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae), a Corbett tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) and an Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis). The tigers were treated only once, whereas the leopard received four uterine treatments, due to re-infection after mating. Decisions to conduct uterine treatments were based on detection of uterine fluid during previous transrectal ultrasound examinations. The catheter was guided into the vagina, with the aid of an endoscope, passing the urethra, and then into the uterus, with the aid of transrectal ultrasonography. Both uterine horns were separately flushed with approximately 300 mL of cell medium M199, followed by an antibiotic infusion. Upon ultrasonographic re-examination, the topical uterine treatments resulted in an apparent decline in the inflammatory and/or degenerative processes. The Corbett tiger had the most severe uterine alterations, in addition to an aseptic pyometra. As a result, she was treated 1 month prior to ovariohysterectomy (in order to reduce the surgical risk). The Sumatran tiger was artificially inseminated twice after hormone-induced estrus, and the Amur leopard expressed a spontaneous estrus and re-initiated mating behaviour.
Cheong, Ying C; Smotra, Grisham; Williams, Amanda C de C
Chronic pelvic pain is a common and debilitating condition; its aetiology is multifactorial, involving social, psychological and biological factors. The management of chronic pelvic pain is challenging, as despite interventions involving surgery, many women remain in pain without a firm gynaecological diagnosis. To assess the effectiveness and safety of non-surgical interventions for women with chronic pelvic pain. We searched the Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Specialised Register. We also searched (from inception to 5 February 2014) AMED, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and LILACS. We handsearched sources such as citation lists, trial registers and conference proceedings. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on non-surgical management of chronic pelvic pain were eligible for inclusion. We included studies of women with a diagnosis of pelvic congestion syndrome or adhesions but excluded those with pain known to be caused by endometriosis, primary dysmenorrhoea (period pain), active chronic pelvic inflammatory disease or irritable bowel syndrome. We considered studies of any non-surgical intervention, including lifestyle, physical, medical and psychological treatments. Study selection, quality assessment and data extraction were performed independently by two review authors. Meta-analysis was performed using the Peto odds ratio (Peto OR) for dichotomous outcomes and the mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The primary outcome measure was pain relief, and secondary outcome measures were psychological outcomes, quality of life, requirement for analgesia and adverse effects. The quality of the evidence was assessed by using GRADE methods. Twenty-one RCTs were identified that involved non-surgical management of chronic pelvic pain: 13 trials were included in the review, and eight were excluded. The studies included a total of 750 women-406 women in the intervention groups and 344 in the control groups
Hofstede, Stefanie N.; Marang-van de Mheen, Perla J.; Vliet Vlieland, Thea P. M.; van den Ende, Cornelia H. M.; Nelissen, Rob G. H. H.; van Bodegom-Vos, Leti
Introduction International evidence-based guidelines for the management of patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) recommend to start with (a combination of) non-surgical treatments, and using surgical intervention only if a patient does not respond sufficiently to non-surgical treatment options. Despite these recommendations, there are strong indications that non-surgical treatments are not optimally used in orthopaedic practice. To improve the adoption of non-surgical treatments, more insight is needed into barriers and facilitators of these treatments. Therefore, this study assessed which barriers and facilitators are associated with the use and prescription of different non-surgical treatments before hip and knee OA in orthopaedic practice among patients and orthopaedic surgeons in the Netherlands. Materials and Methods We performed two internet-based surveys among 172 orthopaedic surgeons and 174 OA patients. Univariate association and multivariable regression techniques are used to identify barriers and facilitators associated with the use of non-surgical treatments. Results Most barriers and facilitators among patients were associated with the use of physical therapy, lifestyle advice and dietary therapy. Among orthopaedic surgeons, most were associated with prescription of acetaminophen, dietary therapy and physical therapy. Examples of barriers and facilitators among patients included “People in my environment had positive experiences with a surgery” (facilitator for education about OA), and “Advice of people in my environment to keep on moving” (facilitator for lifestyle and dietary advice). For orthopaedic surgeons, examples were “Lack of knowledge about guideline” (barrier for lifestyle advice), “Agreements/ deliberations with primary care” and “Easy communication with a dietician” (facilitators for dietary therapy). Also the belief in the efficacy of these treatments was associated with increased prescription. Conclusions
Hofstede, Stefanie N; Marang-van de Mheen, Perla J; Vliet Vlieland, Thea P M; van den Ende, Cornelia H M; Nelissen, Rob G H H; van Bodegom-Vos, Leti
International evidence-based guidelines for the management of patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) recommend to start with (a combination of) non-surgical treatments, and using surgical intervention only if a patient does not respond sufficiently to non-surgical treatment options. Despite these recommendations, there are strong indications that non-surgical treatments are not optimally used in orthopaedic practice. To improve the adoption of non-surgical treatments, more insight is needed into barriers and facilitators of these treatments. Therefore, this study assessed which barriers and facilitators are associated with the use and prescription of different non-surgical treatments before hip and knee OA in orthopaedic practice among patients and orthopaedic surgeons in the Netherlands. We performed two internet-based surveys among 172 orthopaedic surgeons and 174 OA patients. Univariate association and multivariable regression techniques are used to identify barriers and facilitators associated with the use of non-surgical treatments. Most barriers and facilitators among patients were associated with the use of physical therapy, lifestyle advice and dietary therapy. Among orthopaedic surgeons, most were associated with prescription of acetaminophen, dietary therapy and physical therapy. Examples of barriers and facilitators among patients included "People in my environment had positive experiences with a surgery" (facilitator for education about OA), and "Advice of people in my environment to keep on moving" (facilitator for lifestyle and dietary advice). For orthopaedic surgeons, examples were "Lack of knowledge about guideline" (barrier for lifestyle advice), "Agreements/ deliberations with primary care" and "Easy communication with a dietician" (facilitators for dietary therapy). Also the belief in the efficacy of these treatments was associated with increased prescription. Strategies to improve non-surgical treatment use in orthopaedic practice
Whang, Peter; Polly, David; Frank, Clay; Lockstadt, Harry; Glaser, John; Limoni, Robert; Sembrano, Jonathan
Background Sacroiliac (SI) joint pain is a prevalent, underdiagnosed cause of lower back pain. SI joint fusion can relieve pain and improve quality of life in patients who have failed nonoperative care. To date, no study has concurrently compared surgical and non-surgical treatments for chronic SI joint dysfunction. Methods We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial of 148 subjects with SI joint dysfunction due to degenerative sacroiliitis or sacroiliac joint disruptions who were assigned to either minimally invasive SI joint fusion with triangular titanium implants (N=102) or non-surgical management (NSM, n=46). SI joint pain scores, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short-Form 36 (SF-36) and EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) were collected at baseline and at 1, 3 and 6 months after treatment commencement. Six-month success rates, defined as the proportion of treated subjects with a 20-mm improvement in SI joint pain in the absence of severe device-related or neurologic SI joint-related adverse events or surgical revision, were compared using Bayesian methods. Results Subjects (mean age 51, 70% women) were highly debilitated at baseline (mean SI joint VAS pain score 82, mean ODI score 62). Six-month follow-up was obtained in 97.3%. By 6 months, success rates were 81.4% in the surgical group vs. 23.9% in the NSM group (difference of 56.6%, 95% posterior credible interval 41.4-70.0%, posterior probability of superiority >0.999). Clinically important (≥15 point) ODI improvement at 6 months occurred in 75% of surgery subjects vs. 27.3% of NSM subjects. At six months, quality of life improved more in the surgery group and satisfaction rates were high. The mean number of adverse events in the first six months was slightly higher in the surgical group compared to the non-surgical group (1.3 vs. 1.0 events per subject, p=0.1857). Conclusions Six-month follow-up from this level 1 study showed that minimally invasive SI joint fusion using triangular titanium implants was more
Martín-Oviedo, Carlos; García, Irene; Lowy, Alex; Scola, Esteban; Aristegui, Miguel; Scola, Bartolome
Management of lagophthalmos should be a priority in the treatment of patients with facial palsy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of injecting hyaluronic acid gel into the upper eyelid as a nonsurgical alternative for patients with temporary facial palsy. Retrospective study of 26 patients treated with hyaluronic acid gel injected into the pretarsal region of the upper eyelid. Measurements taken before and after treatment were standardized and compared using digitized photographs. Patients were followed up for 1 year, and overall outcomes were assessed. All patients initially demonstrated improvement in lagophthalmos, which decreased to 0.0 mm. After 1 month, a significant increase in lagophthalmos was observed in two patients (initial fissure of 8 and 9 mm), and a platinum weight was implanted to control keratopathy. The remaining patients (initial lagophthalmos below 6.5 mm) maintained the improvement until facial restoration. Only three patients had recurrent lagophthalmos (2 mm) due to resorption, which was resolved by injecting an additional 0.3 cc. The mean improvement in lagophthalmos was 4.6 mm (range, 3.5-6.5 mm). Complications included transient ecchymosis and minimal blepharoptosis due to nonreabsorption in five patients. These patients were successfully treated with hyaluronidase. Hyaluronic acid gel has proven effective in reducing paralytic lagophthalmos and controlling keratopathy in patients with temporary facial palsy, especially those with palpebral fissure with attempted closure no greater than 6.5 mm. Injection of hyaluronic acid gel is safe, quick, and easily performed. In addition, it is more cost-effective than surgery. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Cambio, Angelo J; Evans, Christopher P; Kurzrock, Eric A
To better define the outcome and association of multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) with hypertension, vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR), infection and cancer, as there is no consensus on the management of patients born with MCDK. The risk of cancer has dictated the surgical management of the disease in the past. The Medline database was searched for articles published between 1965 and 2006 and written in the English language, and containing the keywords 'multicystic dysplastic kidney'. The inclusion criteria were met by 105 reports that were subsequently analysed. Of MCDK, 60% regress or involute within 3 years. About 25% of patients will have VUR into the contralateral kidney, of which 90% is grade
Background Lumbar spinal stenosis is the most common reason for spinal surgery in older adults. Previous studies have shown that surgery is effective for severe cases of stenosis, but many patients with mild to moderate symptoms are not surgical candidates. These patients and their providers are seeking effective non-surgical treatment methods to manage their symptoms; yet there is a paucity of comparative effectiveness research in this area. This knowledge gap has hindered the development of clinical practice guidelines for non-surgical treatment approaches for lumbar spinal stenosis. Methods/design This study is a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial that will be conducted from November 2013 through October 2016. The sample will consist of 180 older adults (>60 years) who have both an anatomic diagnosis of stenosis confirmed by diagnostic imaging, and signs/symptoms consistent with a clinical diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis confirmed by clinical examination. Eligible subjects will be randomized into one of three pragmatic treatment groups: 1) usual medical care; 2) individualized manual therapy and rehabilitative exercise; or 3) community-based group exercise. All subjects will be treated for a 6-week course of care. The primary subjective outcome is the Swiss Spinal Stenosis Questionnaire, a self-reported measure of pain/function. The primary objective outcome is the Self-Paced Walking Test, a measure of walking capacity. The secondary objective outcome will be a measurement of physical activity during activities of daily living, using the SenseWear Armband, a portable device to be worn on the upper arm for one week. The primary analysis will use linear mixed models to compare the main effects of each treatment group on the changes in each outcome measure. Secondary analyses will include a responder analysis by group and an exploratory analysis of potential baseline predictors of treatment outcome. Discussion Our study should provide evidence
Madan, Atul K; Harper, Jason L; Frantzides, Constantine T; Tichansky, David S
Laparoscopic basic skills are best trained in the nonclinical setting. Box trainers and virtual-reality trainers have been shown to be useful in training laparoscopic skills. Certain nonsurgical skills may predict baseline skills in these trainers. This study tested the hypothesis that baseline scores could be predicted in inanimate box trainers and virtual-reality trainers by nonsurgical skills. Only preclinical medical students were included in the study. All students were given a survey ascertaining if they played computer games, typed, sew, played a musical instrument, and utilized chopsticks. Students utilized a box trainer (BT) and/or virtual-reality trainer (VR). Nonparametric two-tailed Mann-Whitney tests were utilized to compare students that possessed certain nonsurgical skills versus those who did not. There were 18 students in the VR group and 33 students in the BT group. In the VR group, students who played computer games, typed, utilized chopsticks, or played a musical instrument had better scores and fewer errors than those who did not but this did not reach statistical significance in any comparison (p = NS). In the BT group, none of the nonsurgical skills predicted times or errors. Males performed better than females in the VR group (p < 0.001); but this gender discrepancy was not seen in the BT group. Nonsurgical skills do not predict baseline scores in either trainer. The gender differences in VR training need to be further explored.
Renvert, Stefan; Roos-Jansåker, Ann-Marie; Claffey, Noel
To review the literature on non-surgical treatment of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis. A search of PubMed and The Cochrane Library of the Cochrane Collaboration (CENTRAL) as well as a hand search of articles were conducted. Publications and articles accepted for publication up to November 2007 were included. Out of 437 studies retrieved a total of 24 studies were selected for the review. Thus the available evidence for non-surgical treatment of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis is scarce. It was observed that mechanical non-surgical therapy could be effective in the treatment of peri-implant mucositis lesions. Furthermore, the adjunctive use of antimicrobial mouth rinses enhanced the outcome of mechanical therapy of such mucositis lesions. In peri-implantitis lesions non-surgical therapy was not found to be effective. Adjunctive chlorhexidine application had only limited effects on clinical and microbiological parameters. However, adjunctive local or systemic antibiotics were shown to reduce bleeding on probing and probing depths. Minor beneficial effects of laser therapy on peri-implantitis have been shown; this approach needs to be further evaluated. There is a need for randomized-controlled studies evaluating treatment models of non-surgical therapy of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis.
Wooden, Steven; Docherty, Sharron; Plaus, Karen; Kusek, Anthony; Vacchiano, Charles
Certification is the outcome of the demonstration of knowledge and skills, which is an important link to licensing and credentialing. Considering the essential role that Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists play in the practice of nonsurgical pain management, it is important that a certification process be developed that provides the necessary support to licensing and credentialing at the local, state, and federal levels. The goal of this project was to develop the foundational elements for a specialty certification in nonsurgical pain management. The Delphi method for the systematic solicitation and collation of information was used to query experts in the field of nonsurgical pain management regarding the elements necessary to establish such a specialty certification. Results of the query were compiled, analyzed, and compared to feedback about the elements from a sample of certified registered nurse anesthetists involved in nonsurgical pain management to assess reliability. The results provided identification of a target population for competency evaluation, tools for evaluation, resources for knowledge and skills testing, and a table of specifications for testing. A valid process to develop a specialty certification for nurse anesthetists with demonstration of knowledge and skills will help bridge the gap between continuing education and an actual demonstration that an individual practitioner possesses the necessary knowledge and skills to practice nonsurgical pain management.
Qamruddin, Irfan; Shahid, Fazal; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Zehra Jamal, Wafa
Skeletal class II has always been a challenge in orthodontics and often needs assistance of surgical orthodontics in nongrowing patients when it presents with severe discrepancy. Difficulty increases more when vertical dysplasia is also associated with sagittal discrepancy. The advent of mini implants in orthodontics has broadened the spectrum of camouflage treatment. This case report presents a 16-year-old nongrowing girl with severe class II because of retrognathic mandible, and anterior dentoalveolar protrusion sagittally and vertically resulted in severe overjet of 13 mm and excessive display of incisors and gums. Both maxillary central incisors were trimmed by general practitioner few years back to reduce visibility. Treatment involved use of micro implant for retraction and intrusion of anterior maxillary dentoalveolar segment while lower incisors were proclined to obtain normal overjet, and overbite and pleasing soft tissue profile. Smile esthetics was further improved with composite restoration of incisal edges of both central incisors.
Qamruddin, Irfan; Shahid, Fazal; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Zehra Jamal, Wafa
Skeletal class II has always been a challenge in orthodontics and often needs assistance of surgical orthodontics in nongrowing patients when it presents with severe discrepancy. Difficulty increases more when vertical dysplasia is also associated with sagittal discrepancy. The advent of mini implants in orthodontics has broadened the spectrum of camouflage treatment. This case report presents a 16-year-old nongrowing girl with severe class II because of retrognathic mandible, and anterior dentoalveolar protrusion sagittally and vertically resulted in severe overjet of 13 mm and excessive display of incisors and gums. Both maxillary central incisors were trimmed by general practitioner few years back to reduce visibility. Treatment involved use of micro implant for retraction and intrusion of anterior maxillary dentoalveolar segment while lower incisors were proclined to obtain normal overjet, and overbite and pleasing soft tissue profile. Smile esthetics was further improved with composite restoration of incisal edges of both central incisors. PMID:25548686
Borgström, F; Olafsson, G; Ström, O; Tillman, J B; Wardlaw, D; Boonen, S; Miltenburger, C
This study uses data from a previously published randomised trial where balloon kyphoplasty was compared to non-surgical management. Of the improved overall quality of life, 60 % was caused by decreased pain. However, ignoring other dimensions of quality of life would underestimate the procedure's effect. Acute back pain has been viewed as the most important factor lowering quality of life (QoL) for patients suffering vertebral fractures. The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of different health dimensions on overall QoL using patient-reported outcome measurements (PROMs) collected in Fracture Reduction Evaluation (FREE) trial. The analysis was based on patients included in the 2-year-long randomised controlled FREE trial studying the efficacy and safety of balloon kyphoplasty procedure (BKP) compared to non-surgical management (NSM). The PROMs included were EQ-5D, Short Form (SF)-36, visual analogue scale (VAS) pain and the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). The health dimensional contribution to the overall QoL improvements was analysed by isolating the impact of each dimension on QoL in the SF-36 and EQ-5D, respectively. A correlation analysis of the QoL improvement was performed to investigate the relationships between the four instruments. Changes in pain explained 60 % of the quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained in BKP vs. NSM followed by self-care (17 %), mobility (16 %) and usual activities (10 %) (EQ-5D). Health dimensions capturing the mental state had little impact on the QALY gained. The SF-36 dimensional analysis showed similar results. The correlation analysis showed that the correlation between VAS pain, RMDQ and QALY improvement was fairly weak. Changes in the pain dimension of health are the most important drivers for changes of overall QoL in patients treated with BKP or NSM. However, ignoring the impact of other dimensions would lead to an underestimation of the actual improvement in overall QoL.
Turner, Simon R; Lai, Hollis; Bédard, Eric L R
Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in North America and a major contributor to surgically treated diseases and operative complications. Counseling by residents can be an effective means of helping patients to quit smoking, and with the introduction of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and CanMEDS competency frameworks, health promotion is a required component of residency training. However, past studies have found that smoking cessation counseling by residents, and in particular surgical residents, is lacking. In light of the introduction of health promotion as a core competency in residency training, this study was designed to examine the attitudes and practices of residents at our institution regarding smoking cessation counseling, comparing surgical and nonsurgical residents and seeking to identify barriers to resident counseling. An internet-based questionnaire was distributed to all residents at the University of Alberta in the fall of 2012. Items examined residents׳ attitudes and practices related to smoking cessation counseling and barriers to counseling. Although almost all residents believed that smoking cessation was important and that counseling was part of their job as a resident, far fewer routinely practiced the counseling behaviors examined. Surgical residents were less likely to perform counseling and more likely to think that counseling was not part of their job. Surgical residents were also more likely to identify obstacles to counseling such as a lack of time and formal training. Residents, and surgical residents in particular, are missing opportunities to help their patients quit smoking and improve their health. Given their positive attitudes toward counseling, it may be possible to improve their counseling practices through simple means. By identifying obstacles to counseling and tools that may increase residents׳ tendency to perform counseling, this study can help to guide training programs
Ronay, Valerie; Merlini, Andrea; Attin, Thomas; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Sahrmann, Philipp
To assess the cleaning potential of commonly used implant debridement methods, simulating non-surgical peri-implantitis therapy in vitro. One-hundred-and-eighty dental implants were ink-stained and mounted in combined soft and hard tissue models, representing peri-implantitis defects with angulations of 30, 60, and 90° covered by a custom-made artificial mucosa. Implants were treated by a dental school graduate and a board-certified periodontist for 120 s with following instruments: Gracey curette, ultrasonic scaler, and an air powder abrasive device with a nozzle for sub-mucosal use utilizing glycine powder. All procedures were repeated 10 times for each instrumentation and defect morphology respectively. Images of the implant surface were taken. Areas with color remnants were planimetrically determined and their cumulative surface area was calculated. Results were tested for statistical differences using two-way anova and Bonferroni correction. Micro-morphologic surface changes were analyzed on scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. The areas of uncleaned surfaces (%, mean ± standard deviations) for curettes, ultrasonic tips, and air abrasion accounted for 74.70 ± 4.89%, 66.95 ± 8.69% and 33.87 ± 12.59% respectively. The air powder abrasive device showed significantly better results for all defect angulations (P < 0.0001). SEM evaluation displayed considerable surface alterations after instrumentation with Gracey curettes and ultrasonic devices, whereas glycine powder did not result in any surface alterations. A complete surface cleaning could not be achieved regardless of the instrumentation method applied. The air powder abrasive device showed a superior cleaning potential for all defect angulations with better results at wide defects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Apovian, Caroline M.; Garvey, W. Timothy; Ryan, Donna H.
Objective Adult obesity is recognized as a chronic disease. According to principles of chronic disease management, healthcare professionals should work collaboratively with patients to determine appropriate therapeutic strategies that address overweight and obesity, specifically considering a patient’s disease status in addition to their individual needs, preferences, and attitudes regarding treatment. A central role and responsibility of healthcare professionals in this process is to inform and educate patients about their treatment options. Although current recommendations for the management of adult obesity provide general guidance regarding safe and proper implementation of lifestyle, pharmacological, and surgical interventions, healthcare professionals need awareness of specific evidence-based information that supports individualized clinical application of these therapies. More specifically, healthcare professionals should be up-to-date on approaches that promote successful lifestyle management and be knowledgeable about newer weight loss pharmacotherapies, so they can offer patients with obesity a wide range of options to personalize their treatment. Accordingly, this educational activity has been developed to provide participants with the latest information on treatment recommendations and therapeutic advances in lifestyle intervention and pharmacotherapy for adult obesity management. Design and Methods This supplement is based on the content presented at a live CME symposium held in conjunction with ObesityWeek 2014. Results This supplement provides an expert summary of current treatment recommendations and recent advances in nonsurgical therapies for the management of adult obesity. Patient and provider perspectives on obesity management are highlighted in embedded video clips available via QR codes, and new evidence will be applied using clinically relevant case studies. Conclusions This supplement provides a topical update of obesity management
Albandar, Jasim M
A systematic review was performed to identify randomized, controlled, clinical trials designed to study the efficacy of adjunctive antimicrobial therapy with periodontal treatment of chronic periodontitis in smokers. A search was carried out using the databases PubMed (using MeSH terms and free text), EMBASE, SCOPUS, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials, and a manual search of 4 periodontal journals, bibliographies, review articles, and consensus statements. The databases were searched from their earliest records until December 31, 2009. The inclusion criteria of studies were as follows: (1) randomized, controlled clinical studies of ≥6 months study duration; (2) application of a systemic or local adjunctive antimicrobial agent for the treatment of chronic periodontitis in current smokers; (3) measurement of clinical attachment level, probing depth, and bleeding on probing as primary outcomes; (4) no periodontal treatment or use of systemic antibiotics within 6 months of the start of the trial; and (5) publication in an English-language, peer-reviewed journal. The key intervention was the use of antibiotics as an adjunct to nonsurgical or surgical periodontal treatment of chronic periodontitis in current smokers. There were no limitations on the type of antibiotics used, regimen, or the route of administration. The change in clinical attachment level and probing depth ≥6 months postoperatively following periodontal treatment. Five clinical trials met the inclusion criteria and their findings were used in this systematic review. Nine additional studies were excluded: 8 because smokers were not randomized, and 1 because the follow-up was only 3 months. The age of subjects in the included studies ranged from 42 to 52 years, and the sample size ranged from 30 to 181 subjects. Three studies used nonsurgical periodontal therapy (scaling and root planing) (Table 1). The first study used doxycycline 10% gel delivered locally and reported a
Chang, Hee-Yung; Park, Shin-Young; Kim, Jin-Ah; Kim, Young-Kyun
Purpose This retrospective study evaluated the relationship between the timing of peri-implantitis diagnosis and marginal bone level after a 5-year follow-up of non-surgical peri-implantitis treatment. Methods Thirty-three patients (69 implants) were given peri-implantitis diagnosis in 2008-2009 in Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Among them, 31 implants from 16 patients were included in this study. They were treated non-surgically in this hospital, and came for regular maintenance visits for at least 5 years after peri-implantitis treatment. Radiographic marginal bone levels at each interval were measured and statistical analysis was performed. Results Timing of peri-implantitis was one of the significant factors affecting initial bone loss and total bone loss not additional bone after peri-implantitis diagnosis. Patients with cardiovascular disease and diabetic mellitus were positively influenced on both initial bone loss and total bone loss. Patients who needed periodontal treatment after implant placement showed a negative effect on bone loss compared to those who needed periodontal treatment before implant placement during entire periods. Implant location also significantly influenced on amounts of bone loss. Mandibular implants showed less bone loss than maxillary implants. Among surgical factors, combined use of autogenous and xenogenic bone graft materials showed a negative effect on bone loss compared to autogenous bone graft materials. Use of membrane negatively affected on initial bone loss but positively on additional bone loss and total bone loss. Thread exposure showed positive effects on initial bone loss and total bone loss. Conclusions Early peri-implantitis diagnosis led to early non-surgical intervention for peri-implantitis treatment, which resulted in the maintenance of the bone level as well as preservation of the implant. Graphical Abstract PMID:26131368
This French reader, intended for use in a bilingual education setting, tells the story of a monster, "Croque-Carotte," who served Franco-American villages in the days when people believed in monsters. The story tells of the monster's difficulties in plying his trade because of the sadness of the people. Eventually two children discover…
Pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis are serious complications of non-surgical patients, but scarcity of data documenting prophylaxis means antithrombotic therapy is rarely used. Prediction of risk is complicated by the variation in the medical conditions associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE), and lack of data defining risk in different groups. Accurate risk assessment is further confounded by inherited or acquired factors for VTE, additional risk due to medical interventions, and interactions between risk factors. Acquired and inherited risk factors may underlie thromboembolic complications in a range of conditions, including pregnancy, ischaemic stroke, myocardial infarction and cancer. Risk stratification may be feasible in non-surgical patients by considering individual risk factors and their cumulative effects. Current risk assessment models require expansion and modification to reflect emerging evidence in the non-surgical field. A large on-going study of prophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin in non-surgical patients will clarify our understanding of the components of risk, and assist in developing therapy recommendations.
Silvestre, F-J; Silvestre-Rangil, J; Bagán, L; Bagán, J-V
Periodontitis has been regarded as a potential risk factor for rheumatoid arthrosis (RA). A systematic review is made to determine whether nonsurgical periodontal treatment in patients with RA offers benefits in terms of the clinical activity and inflammatory markers of the disease. A search was made of the Medline-PubMed, Cochrane, Embase and Scopus databases to identify studies on the relationship between the two disease processes, and especially on the effects of nonsurgical treatment in patients of this kind. The search was based on the following keywords: rheumatoid arthritis AND periodontitis (MeSH), rheumatoid arthritis AND periodontal treatment. Eight articles on the nonsurgical treatment of patients with periodontitis and RA were finally included in the study. All of them evaluated clinical (DAS28) and laboratory test activity (ESR, CRP, IL-6, TNFα) before and after treatment. A clear decrease in DAS28 score and ESR was recorded, while other parameters such as CRP, IL-6 and TNFα showed a nonsignificant tendency to decrease as a result of treatment. Nonsurgical treatment improved the periodontal condition of patients with periodontitis and RA, with beneficial effects upon the clinical and laboratory test parameters (DAS28 and ESR), while other inflammatory markers showed a marked tendency to decrease. However, all the studies included in the review involved small samples sizes and follow-up periods of no more than 6 months. Larger and particularly longitudinal studies are therefore needed to more firmly establish possible significant relations between the two disease processes.
Kerdvongbundit, Varunee; Wikesjö, Ulf M E
Tobacco smoking is an established risk factor for periodontitis, and is associated with periodontal attachment and tooth loss. Clinical studies have indicated that smoking may adversely affect and impede healing following periodontal therapy. Adjunctive antimicrobials, on the other hand, have been shown to enhance the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a triclosan/copolymer/fluoride dentifrice on healing following non-surgical periodontal therapy in smokers. Sixty smokers (aged 35-59 years; 23 females) with chronic periodontal disease volunteered to participate in a double-blind, randomized, controlled, clinical trial. The subjects were randomly assigned to use a triclosan/copolymer/fluoride (30 subjects) or a standard fluoride (30 subjects) dentifrice and received detailed information on proper techniques for self-performed plaque control. The participants then received non-surgical periodontal therapy followed by periodontal maintenance care every 6 months over 24 months. Clinical recordings included evaluation of oral hygiene standards, gingival health, and periodontal status. Subjects using the triclosan/copolymer/fluoride dentifrice exhibited significantly improved oral hygiene conditions, gingival health, and periodontal status compared with those using the standard fluoride dentifrice over the 24-month maintenance interval. The results suggest that an oral hygiene regimen including a triclosan/copolymer/fluoride dentifrice may sustain the short-term effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy in smokers.
Fonseca, Jeferson F; Souza-Fabjan, Joanna Maria G; Oliveira, Maria Emília F; Leite, Ceci R; Nascimento-Penido, Paula Maria P; Brandão, Felipe Z; Lehloenya, Khoboso C
The embryo transfer techniques used in small ruminants worldwide are based in surgical procedures. These actions are performed under general anesthesia which needs a combination of animal fasting and drugs for secure animal handling and surgery manipulations. Therefore, it involves risks to animal health and life. The major limiting sequels are adhesions formed by the abdominal surgery, in the ovaries, uterus, or between them. These occurrences can both compromise uterus accessing and oocyte capture and are responsible for decreasing success and limiting successive embryo collections. In contrast, nonsurgical embryo procedures can be performed in a relatively simplified way. Nonsurgical embryo recovery does not need animal prolonged starvation, drug retention is minimized, and donors can stay in a standing position. After the end of embryo recovery, donors are promptly restored to their routine housing and feeding. Furthermore, this technique does not need incisions and, therefore, can be used repetitively in superovulated or nonsuperovulated goats and sheep for embryo recovery-a similar procedure done in cattle. In Brazil, promising results are reported using nonsurgical embryo transfer in recipient goats, and studies are currently evaluating similar procedures in sheep. Therefore, this review aimed to present the current panorama of nonsurgical embryo transfer in sheep and goats.
Choma, Theodore J; Rechtine, Glenn; McGuire, Robert A; Brodke, Darrel S
Demographic trends make it incumbent on orthopaedic spine surgeons to recognize the special challenges involved in caring for older patients with spine pathology. Unique pathologies, such as osteoporosis and degenerative deformities, must be recognized and treated. Recent treatment options and recommendations for the medical optimization of bone health include vitamin D and calcium supplementation, diphosphonates, and teriparatide. Optimizing spinal fixation in elderly patients who have osteoporosis is critical; cement augmentation of pedicle screws is promising. In the management of geriatric odontoid fractures, nonsurgical support with a collar may be considered for low-demand patients, whereas surgical fixation is favored for high-demand patients. Management of degenerative deformity must address sagittal plane balance, which includes consideration of pelvic incidence. Various osteotomies may prove helpful in this setting.
Gill, Beant S; Chapman, Bhavana V; Hansen, Karyn J; Sukumvanich, Paniti; Beriwal, Sushil
The National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) was analyzed to evaluate practice patterns and the impact of radiotherapy modalities for endometrial cancer treated with primary radiotherapy. The NCDB was queried for Stage I endometrioid adenocarcinoma patients treated with primary radiotherapy without surgery from 1998 to 2006. Brachytherapy (BT) utilization factors were established using multivariable logistic regression. Log-rank and Cox proportional hazards modeling were used to assess variables impacting survival. A total of 853 patients were analyzed: 23.7%, 31.3%, and 45.0% received BT alone, external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and BT, or EBRT alone. The BT utilization ranged from 40.5% to 51.9% over time (p=0.70). Lower utilization was associated with advanced age (≥80 years: odds ratio [OR] 0.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28-0.65, p<0.01) and facilities with volume in the bottom quartile (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.30-0.66, p<0.01). Utilization was higher among patients living more than 30 miles from the facilities (OR 2.14, 95%CI 1.35-3.42, p<0.01). With 36-month median followup, unadjusted median survivals for EBRT dose of 30Gy or lower, EBRT dose higher than 30Gy, BT, and EBRT+BT were 12.6, 31.1, 44.6, and 57.1 months (p<0.01). After correcting for other factors, higher risk of mortality was seen with EBRT dose of 30Gy or lower (hazard ratio [HR]2.75, 95% CI 1.66-4.55, p<0.01) and EBRT dose higher than 30Gy (HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.07-1.91, p=0.02) compared with EBRT+BT. No difference was seen using BT alone (HR 1.29, 95% CI 0.92-1.79, p=0.14). BT utilization for nonsurgically managed endometrial cancer remains low with most patients receiving EBRT alone. Despite concerns of overtreatment in a population with competing causes of death, BT appears to improve survival. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rosenthal, David I; Mohamed, Abdallah S R; Weber, Randal S; Garden, Adam S; Sevak, Parag R; Kies, Merril S; Morrison, William H; Lewin, Jan S; El-Naggar, Adel K; Ginsberg, Lawrence E; Kocak-Uzel, Esengul; Ang, K Kian; Fuller, Clifton David
The current study was conducted to evaluate long-term disease control, survival, and functional outcomes after surgical and nonsurgical initial treatment for patients with T4 larynx cancer. Demographics, disease stage, and treatment characteristics were reviewed for 221 sequential patients treated for T4 laryngeal squamous cell cancer at a single institution between 1983 and 2011. Survival and disease control outcomes were calculated. The median follow-up time was 47 months (71 months for patients still alive at the time of analysis). The overall 5-year and 10-year overall survival rates were 52% and 29%, respectively, and the corresponding disease-free survival rates were 57% and 48%, respectively. Overall 5-year and 10-year locoregional control rates were 78% and 67%, respectively, and the corresponding rates for freedom from distant metastasis were 76% and 74%, respectively. On both univariate and multivariate analyses, lymph node-positive disease at the time of presentation was associated with overall mortality (P<.0001). Patients treated with laryngectomy followed by postlaryngectomy radiotherapy (161 patients) achieved better initial locoregional control than patients treated with a laryngeal preservation (LP) approach (60 patients) throughout the follow-up period (log-rank P<.007) yet the median overall survival times were equal for both groups (64 months; 95% confidence interval 47-87 months and 38-87 months, respectively [P =.7]). Patients treated with an LP approach had a tracheostomy rate of 45% and an any-event aspiration rate of 23%. Rates of high-grade dysphagia at the time of last follow-up were worse for patients treated with an LP approach (P<.01). Surgery and postoperative radiotherapy can produce substantial long-term cancer control and survival rates for patients with T4 larynx cancer. Caution should be taken when selecting patients for initial nonsurgical treatment because of significant rates of functional impairment despite survival
Dens invaginatus is a morphological abnormality of the tooth in which the coronal tooth enamel and dentin fold inwards towards the pulp cavity. Dens invaginatus type III (Oehlers: 1957) is characterized by infolding of the enamel and dentin as far as the root apex. This report describes a case of surgical and non-surgical endodontic therapy for a maxillary lateral incisor with type III dens invaginatus, necrotic pulp, and an associated large periradicular lesion. The patient was a 16-year-old man. Periapical radiographs suggested the presence of an untreated area of invagination. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was then used for three-dimensional observation of the morphological details of this area. The CBCT scans revealed invagination and its relationship with the pulp chamber. A dental operating microscope was used to access two primary root canals and the area of invagination. The root canals were then localized, negotiated, enlarged, and filled with calcium hydroxide. Two months later, the canal and invagination were obturated with core-based gutta-percha (FlexPoint Neo: FP core-carrier technique) and restored. Cone beam computed tomography and microscopic techniques allow even complicated cases of dens invaginatus to be diagnosed and treated using non-surgical root canal management.
Piaggesi, A; Schipani, E; Campi, F; Romanelli, M; Baccetti, F; Arvia, C; Navalesi, R
To test the efficacy of surgical treatment of non-infected neuropathic foot ulcers compared to conventional non-surgical management, a group of diabetic outpatients attending our diabetic foot clinic were studied. All patients who came to the clinic for the first time from January to December 1995 inclusive with an uncomplicated neuropathic ulcer were randomized into two groups. Group A received conservative treatment, consisting of relief of weight-bearing, regular dressings; group B underwent surgical excision, eventual debridement or removal of bone segments underlying the lesion and surgical closure. Healing rate, healing time, prevalence of infection, relapse during a 6-month period following intervention and subjective discomfort were assessed. Twenty-four ulcers in 21 patients were treated in group A (17 Type 2 DM/3 Type 1 DM, age 63.24 +/- 13.46 yr, duration of diabetes 18.2 +/- 8.41 yr, HbA1c 9.5 +/- 3.8%) and 22 ulcers in 21 patients in group B (19 Type 2 DM/2 Type 1 DM, age 65.53 +/- 9.87yr, duration of diabetes 16.84 +/- 10.61 yr; HbA1c 8.9 +/- 2.2%). Healing rate was lower (79.2% = 19/24 ulcers) in group A than in group B (95.5% = 21/22 ulcers; p < 0.05), and healing time was longer (128.9 +/- 86.60 days vs 46.73 +/- 38.94 days; p < 0.001). Infective complications occurred significantly more often in group A patients (3/24, 12.5% vs 1/22, 4.5%; p < 0.05), as did relapses of ulcerations (8 vs 3; p < 0.01). There were only two minor perioperative complications in group B patients. Patients reported a higher degree of satisfaction in group B (p < 0.01) as well as lower discomfort (p < 0.05) and restrictions (p < 0.05). Thus surgical treatment of neuropathic foot ulcers in diabetic patients proved to be an effective approach compared to conventional treatment in terms of healing time, complications, and relapses, and can be safely performed in an outpatient setting.
Santili, Cláudio; Akkari, Miguel; Waisberg, Gilberto; Braga, Susana Reis; Kasahara, Akemi; Perez, Mauro Coura
To evaluate the efficacy of conservative treatment of patients with slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) and the complications due to the progression of the disease. Methods: 18 patients (26 hips) seen consecutively from December 1996 to August 2006 at the Orthopedics Service of Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, who had been referred from other services with a diagnosis of SCFE and were treated without surgery, were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Slip progression occurred in 19 hips (73%). Among the mild cases, eight remained mild, four became moderate and one became severe, according to the Southwick classification. Four out of the six originally moderate cases became severe and the two already severe cases worsened. Conclusion: Although today there is a consensus regarding the indication of surgical treatment for SCFE to prevent progression, some cases with confirmed diagnoses are still being treated conservatively. This is a major error, since it implies increased morbidity of the disease. PMID:27022585
Rosenthal, David I.; Mohamed, Abdallah S. R.; Weber, Randal S.; Garden, Adam S.; Sevak, Parag R.; Kies, Merril S.; Morrison, William H.; Lewin, Jan S.; El-Naggar, Adel; Ginsberg, Lawrence E.; Kocak-Uzel, Esengul; Ang, K. Kian
BACKGROUND To evaluate long-term disease control, survival, and functional outcomes after surgical and nonsurgical initial treatment for T4 larynx cancer. METHODS Demographics, disease stage, and treatment characteristics were reviewed for 221 sequential patients treated for T4 laryngeal squamous cell cancer at a single institution between 1983-2011. Survival and disease-control outcomes were calculated. RESULTS The median follow-up time was 47 months (71 months for patients alive at the time of analysis). The overall 5- and 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 52% and 29%, and the corresponding disease free survival rates were 57% and 48%. Overall 5- and 10-year locoregional control (LRC) was 78% and 67% and freedom from distant metastasis 76% and 74%. In both univariate and multivariate analyses, node-positive disease at presentation was associated with overall mortality, (P<0.0001). Patients treated by laryngectomy followed by post-laryngectomy radiotherapy (161 patients) achieved better initial LRC than patients treated by a laryngeal preservation (LP) approach (60 patients) throughout the follow-up period (log-rank P<0.007) yet median OS times were equal (64 months) for both groups (95% confidence interval [CI] 47-87 months, and 38-87 months, respectively, P=0.7) LP Patients had a tracheostomy rate of 45% and any-event aspiration rate of 23%. Rates of high-grade dysphagia at last follow-up were worse for LP patients (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS Surgery and postoperative RT can produce substantial long-term cancer control and survival rates for patients with T4 larynx cancer. Caution should be taken in selecting patients for initial nonsurgical treatment because of significant rates of functional impairment despite survival equivalence. PMID:25586197
Arias de Luxan, A
A case report is presented of an upper central incisor with incomplete endodontic procedure evidencing a radiolucent image that was treated by apicoectomy and retroamalgam. A year later the periapical lesion had healed completely but a new lateral radiolucency is observed. A reentry of the canal is performed eliminating the old obturating material, biomechanical preparation and obturation with sealer and thermo gutta-percha. The lesion was cured in nine months.
Shadmehr, Elham; Kiaani, Sima; Mahdavian, Parinaz
Dens invaginatus is a rare developmental anomaly of teeth with complex root canal system morphology. The present case describes a peg shape maxillary lateral incisor with dens invaginatus (Oehlers type II), necrotic pulp, and an associated large periradicular lesion. Nonsurgical endodontic treatment was performed with the aim of removing the blind sac with diamond bur under the use of operating surgical microscope. The root canal system was obturated with thermoplastic technique. Final restoration was done using composite. The 20-months clinical and radiological follow up revealed an asymptomatic tooth with healing of the periapical pathology; however, for complete healed periradicular lesion more follow up is needed. This case illustrated that a dens invaginatus malformed teeth with a large periradicular lesion can be managed successfully with nonsurgical root canal therapy (NSRCT). PMID:25878686
Cui, Jie; Freed, Robert; Liu, Fengyong; Irani, Zubin
The presence of collateral veins is one of the most common causes of fistula failure to mature. The traditional approach to eliminate collateral vessel flow is coil embolization under fluoroscopy or surgical cut down and branch vessel ligation. However, both approaches are expensive and time consuming. Here, we described an image-guided nonsurgical method to ligate collateral veins. The collateral veins were ligated using Hawkins-Akins needle under ultrasound guidance. The average time for one ligation procedure was 17 minutes. There was a significant increase of blood flow in the venous outflow postligation procedure. Four weeks postprocedure ultrasound demonstrated occlusion of the target vessels. This procedure was well tolerated without major complications. In summary, the novel procedure described here offers an image-guided nonsurgical approach for collateral vein occlusion.
Pratt-Johnson, J A; Tillson, G
Twenty-seven patients with esotropia and convergence excess (a high accommodative convergence/accommodation [AC/A] ratio) managed nonsurgically underwent a final standardized evaluation of their sensory and motor status after a follow-up period of at least 8 years. All had a deviation with distance fixation of less than 10 prism dioptres (PD) of esotropia with full optical correction both initially and throughout the follow-up period. The average spherical-equivalent refractive error was +2.3 D. The AC/A ratio had tended to decrease with age, and most patients had fusion, although only a small proportion had central fusion and stereopsis. Approximately half of the patients had been treated with bifocals, but their sensory outcome did not differ from that of the other patients. Miotics had not been used for more than a few months in any patient, as they were ineffective in reducing the deviation with near fixation to less than 10 PD of esotropia. A study, possibly a multicentre one, involving larger numbers of patients should be designed to find out whether bifocal therapy offers an advantage in the final sensory outcome of such patients.
Background Calcium chloride solution is an established injectable sterilant in dogs and other mammals. With cat populations a continuing problem, we sought to explore its first use in cats. Six cats per group were injected with 5%, 10% or 20% calcium chloride dihydrate in saline solution with lignocaine hydrochloride, a local anaesthetic. Results At the 60th day post-injection, cat testes were collected and showed complete testicular necrosis and replacement by fibrous tissue; very low sperm counts; and reduction of serum testosterone by at least 70% in 20% dose. Androgenic enzyme activities and their expressions were also reduced in all the treated groups along with intra-testicular testosterone concentration was also low. Increased testicular lipid peroxidation, with reduced antioxidants and mitochondrial membrane potential, were evident following calcium chloride treatments. However, there were no apparent changes in serum concentrations of cortisol, fasting blood sugar level, blood urea nitrogen, packed cell volume, or total serum protein following calcium chloride injection, suggesting that this method of sterilization is not associated with any general stress response. Conclusion Calcium chloride solution demonstrates potential for androgenesis-eliminating nonsurgical sterilization of male cats in addition to its proven efficacy in dogs and other mammals. PMID:21774835
Płaszewski, Maciej; Bettany-Saltikov, Josette
Non-surgical interventions for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis remain highly controversial. Despite the publication of numerous reviews no explicit methodological evaluation of papers labeled as, or having a layout of, a systematic review, addressing this subject matter, is available. Analysis and comparison of the content, methodology, and evidence-base from systematic reviews regarding non-surgical interventions for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. Systematic overview of systematic reviews. Articles meeting the minimal criteria for a systematic review, regarding any non-surgical intervention for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, with any outcomes measured, were included. Multiple general and systematic review specific databases, guideline registries, reference lists and websites of institutions were searched. The AMSTAR tool was used to critically appraise the methodology, and the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine and the Joanna Briggs Institute's hierarchies were applied to analyze the levels of evidence from included reviews. From 469 citations, twenty one papers were included for analysis. Five reviews assessed the effectiveness of scoliosis-specific exercise treatments, four assessed manual therapies, five evaluated bracing, four assessed different combinations of interventions, and one evaluated usual physical activity. Two reviews addressed the adverse effects of bracing. Two papers were high quality Cochrane reviews, Three were of moderate, and the remaining sixteen were of low or very low methodological quality. The level of evidence of these reviews ranged from 1 or 1+ to 4, and in some reviews, due to their low methodological quality and/or poor reporting, this could not be established. Higher quality reviews indicate that generally there is insufficient evidence to make a judgment on whether non-surgical interventions in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are effective. Papers labeled as systematic reviews need to be considered in terms
Silvestre-Rangil, Javier; Bagan, Leticia; Bagan, Jose V.
Background Periodontitis has been regarded as a potential risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A systematic review is made to determine whether nonsurgical periodontal treatment in patients with RA offers benefits in terms of the clinical activity and inflammatory markers of the disease. Material and Methods A search was made of the Medline-PubMed, Cochrane, Embase and Scopus databases to identify studies on the relationship between the two disease processes, and especially on the effects of nonsurgical treatment in patients of this kind. The search was based on the following keywords: rheumatoid arthritis AND periodontitis (MeSH), rheumatoid arthritis AND periodontal treatment. Results Eight articles on the nonsurgical treatment of patients with periodontitis and RA were finally included in the study. All of them evaluated clinical (DAS28) and laboratory test activity (ESR, CRP, IL-6, TNFα) before and after treatment. A clear decrease in DAS28 score and ESR was recorded, while other parameters such as CRP, IL-6 and TNFα showed a non significant tendency to decrease as a result of treatment. Conclusions Nonsurgical treatment improved the periodontal condition of patients with periodontitis and RA, with beneficial effects upon the clinical and laboratory test parameters (DAS28 and ESR), while other inflammatory markers showed a marked tendency to decrease. However, all the studies included in the review involved small samples sizes and follow-up periods of no more than 6 months. Larger and particularly longitudinal studies are therefore needed to more firmly establish possible significant relations between the two disease processes. Key words:Periodontitis, rheumatoid arthritis, periodontal treatment. PMID:26946202
Płaszewski, Maciej; Bettany-Saltikov, Josette
Background Non-surgical interventions for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis remain highly controversial. Despite the publication of numerous reviews no explicit methodological evaluation of papers labeled as, or having a layout of, a systematic review, addressing this subject matter, is available. Objectives Analysis and comparison of the content, methodology, and evidence-base from systematic reviews regarding non-surgical interventions for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. Design Systematic overview of systematic reviews. Methods Articles meeting the minimal criteria for a systematic review, regarding any non-surgical intervention for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, with any outcomes measured, were included. Multiple general and systematic review specific databases, guideline registries, reference lists and websites of institutions were searched. The AMSTAR tool was used to critically appraise the methodology, and the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine and the Joanna Briggs Institute’s hierarchies were applied to analyze the levels of evidence from included reviews. Results From 469 citations, twenty one papers were included for analysis. Five reviews assessed the effectiveness of scoliosis-specific exercise treatments, four assessed manual therapies, five evaluated bracing, four assessed different combinations of interventions, and one evaluated usual physical activity. Two reviews addressed the adverse effects of bracing. Two papers were high quality Cochrane reviews, Three were of moderate, and the remaining sixteen were of low or very low methodological quality. The level of evidence of these reviews ranged from 1 or 1+ to 4, and in some reviews, due to their low methodological quality and/or poor reporting, this could not be established. Conclusions Higher quality reviews indicate that generally there is insufficient evidence to make a judgment on whether non-surgical interventions in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are effective. Papers
Parekh, Deepak J; R, Sathyanarayanan
Mandibular first molars have highly variable root canal morphology. According to previous studies, the occurrence of middle mesial canals ranges from 1% to 15%. In this case, nonsurgical endodontic retreatment of a mandibular first molar with a middle mesial canal is attempted. The authors describe the diagnosis and clinical management of a mandibular first molar with three mesial root canals, drawing particular attention to radiographic interpretation and access refinements.
Ekuni, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Takeuchi, Noriko
The aim of this retrospective study was to assess teeth with a poor prognosis and the proximal periodontium of adjacent teeth, and to identify the risk factors associated with the loss of teeth with a poor prognosis following non-surgical periodontal treatment. Teeth with a poor prognosis (n=113), teeth adjacent to those of poor prognosis (n=105) and non-adjacent teeth (n=51) were evaluated in 25 non-smoking patients who had received supportive periodontal treatment for 5-16 years following non-surgical periodontal treatment at a university hospital. Probing pocket depth (PPD), percentage of alveolar bone loss, presence of tooth mobility and bleeding on probing in all teeth improved significantly after treatment. Logistic regression analysis showed that loss of teeth with a poor prognosis depended on the initial deepest PPD, tooth mobility and multi-rooted tooth. Teeth with a poor prognosis did not affect the proximal periodontium of the adjacent teeth, and progression of periodontal disease in these teeth and adjacent teeth can be prevented by non-surgical periodontal treatment in non-smokers. The risk factors for loss of teeth with a poor prognosis were the initial deepest PPD, tooth mobility and multi-rooted tooth.
Lin, Louis M; Ricucci, Domenico; Lin, Jarshen; Rosenberg, Paul A
It is a general belief that large cyst-like periapical lesions and apical true cysts caused by root canal infection are less likely to heal after nonsurgical root canal therapy. Nevertheless, there is no direct evidence to support this assumption. A large cyst-like periapical lesion or an apical true cyst is formed within an area of apical periodontitis and cannot form by itself. Therefore, both large cyst-like periapical lesions and apical true cysts are of inflammatory and not of neoplastic origin. Apical periodontitis lesions, regardless of whether they are granulomas, abscesses, or cysts, fail to heal after nonsurgical root canal therapy for the same reason, intraradicular and/or extraradicular infection. If the microbial etiology of large cyst-like periapical lesions and inflammatory apical true cysts in the root canal is removed by nonsurgical root canal therapy, the lesions might regress by the mechanism of apoptosis in a manner similar to the resolution of inflammatory apical pocket cysts. To achieve satisfactory periapical wound healing, surgical removal of an apical true cyst must include elimination of root canal infection.
Lin, Hua; Wang, Yu-ping; Li, Li-ping; Wu, Xun; Li, Yong-jie; Zhang, Guo-jun
To investigate the causes of non-surgical candidates after presurgical evaluation for epilepsy surgery. A retrospective review was conducted for the clinical data of 112 non-surgical candidates after presurgical evaluation for epilepsy surgery. Potential surgical candidates were identified through a detailed seizure and medical history, physical examination, and uses of video electroencephalography and neuroimaging. The common causes of non-surgical candidates after presurgical evaluation for epilepsy surgery were patients and their families giving up intracranial electrode positioning for various reasons (42/112, 37.5%), multifocal epileptogenic zones (29/112, 25.9%), generalized seizures (15/112, 13.4%), pseudoseizure or slight seizure (10/112, 8.9%; 7/112, 6.3%), epileptogenic zone in functional areas (6/112, 5.4%) and so on. Epilepsy surgery is less likely in patients with a history of severe encephalitis and perinatal brain injury and diffuse, multiple, bilateral abnormality on cranial MRI. Unnecessary presurgical evaluation can be avoided by distinguishing generalized seizures, pseudoseizure and progressive brain disease. Patients and their families still have doubts about the surgical risks, costs and effects. It is important to inform the patients of the potential risks and benefit of surgery.
Nonsurgical rhinoplasty involves the use of injectable fillers to improve the contours of the nose. It has become a widely practiced procedure since this author first popularized it in 2003. The use of permanent fillers in nonsurgical rhinoplasty has not been well documented, especially in this country. To demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based filler for nonsurgical rhinoplasty. Eligible subjects underwent up to three injection sessions with a commercially available PMMA product and were followed for 1 year. Efficacy was assessed according to evaluator grading of subjects and digital image analysis of standardized photographs. Nineteen subjects were enrolled and followed to conclusion. Average improvement in global score was more than one point observed on day 90 and lasting through 1 year. Eight of 10 subjects showed improvement according to digital image analysis at 1 year. Subject satisfaction was high throughout the study. Adverse events were minimal and well tolerated. Filler rhinoplasty using a PMMA-based injectable filler is safe and effective. This is the first study documenting the use of PMMA for this indication. Longer-term follow-up is needed to demonstrate persistence of improvement. © 2013 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Grisolia, Ana Beatriz Diniz; Couso, Ricardo Christopher; Matayoshi, Suzana; Douglas, Raymond S; Briceño, César Augusto
Thyroid eye disease (TED) is an autoimmune condition with an unpredictable course that may lead to permanent facial disfigurement. Eyelid retraction is one of the most common findings, and frequently demands attention due to ocular exposure and impaired cosmesis. Surgical treatment remains the most effective option, but there is a role for temporary corrections during the active phase of the disease, as well as in patients who are poor surgical candidates. The aim of this review is to describe the non-surgical modalities currently available for treatment of eyelid malposition in TED. The authors have focused on the use of hyaluronic acid, triamcinolone injections and botulinum toxin type A as non-surgical treatment alternatives, paying special attention to dosing, technique, efficacy and duration of effect. Non-surgical treatment modalities may represent viable in cases where surgical correction is not an option. Although temporary, these modalities appear to be beneficial for ocular exposure remediation, improving quality of life and broadening our therapeutic arsenal. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Background The objective of this randomized clinical study was to evaluate the effect of systemic administration of moxifloxacin compared to amoxicillin and metronidazole, combined with non-surgical treatment in patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) in a 6-month follow-up. Material and Methods A total of 39 systemically healthy patients with GAgP were evaluated in this randomized clinical trial. Periodontal parameters were recorded at the baseline during the 1st, 3rd and 6th month. Patients received either 400 mg of moxifloxacin per os once daily or 500 mg of metronidazole and 500 mg amoxicillin per os three times daily for 7 days consecutively. Results No significant differences between groups were found in any parameters at the baseline. Both groups led to a statistically significant decrease in all clinical periodontal parameters compared to the baseline (PI, p<0.001 and GI, PD, BOP, CAL, p<0.01). There were no differences between the 1st and 3rd months or the 3rd and 6th months for clinical parameters in the groups. Also, no intergroup difference was observed in any parameters at any time, except the gingival index at 6th months. Conclusions Systemic administration of moxifloxacin as an adjunct to non-surgical treatment significantly improves clinical outcomes and provides comparable clinical improvement with less adverse events to that of combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole in the treatment of GAgP. Key words: Aggressive periodontitis, amoxicillin, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, nonsurgical periodontal debridement. PMID:26034931
de Almeida, Juliano Milanezi; Matheus, Henrique Rinaldi; Rodrigues Gusman, David Jonathan; Faleiros, Paula Lazilha; Januário de Araújo, Nathália; Noronha Novaes, Vivian Cristina
This study aimed to perform a systematic review of the effectiveness of nonsurgical treatment associated with different adjuvant therapies on periimplantitis. Different individuals, following a research process, performed a network research of controlled and randomized controlled clinical trials on PubMed, Embase/MEDLINE, with 20 years' time constraint and the last search in January 2016. From 108 articles found by the first search, they analyzed 10 full texts, and in none did they find a standard control group. When compared, mechanical therapies combined with adjuvant therapy decreased prevalence of periimplant ratios; however, some groups showed unsatisfactory results, mainly related to the probing depth and bleeding index. When comparing debridement with other nonsurgical therapies (Er:YAG, Vector, air abrasive with amino acid glycine powder), increased periimplant levels were noticed in the test and control groups, although in different periods. Despite the improvement in the periimplant indices, there is no sufficient evidence to score the best results or even to choose the best association for nonsurgical treatment of periimplantitis; hence, more trials are necessary to answer this question.
Filgueira, Clemente Paz; Sánchez, Roberto F; Colombo, Elisa M; Vilaseca, Meritxell; Pujol, Jaume; Issolio, Luis A
The aim of this article is to propose a quantitative methodology for determining a criterion to discriminate the nonsurgical nuclear cataract from the surgical one taking into account objective measures of intraocular scattering in patients with good visual acuity (>0.6). Two groups of subjects were taken into account: a control group and a group with nuclear cataracts. At a first stage, eyes belonging to the cataract group were classified into "nonsurgical" and "surgical" cataracts by ophthalmologists at their clinical settings. At a second stage a double-pass instrument was also used to determine the objective scatter index (OSI) at the laboratory. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to analyze OSI values to determine a value able to separate between nonsurgical and surgical cataracts. We obtained statistically significant differences among the control and both nuclear cataract groups (p < 0.05). ROC curves determined an OSI criterion level (of 2.1) to suggest surgery in nuclear cataracts with an area under curve of 0.83, i.e. with 80% of sensitivity and 80% of specificity. ROC analysis allows separating both groups of nuclear cataract, and we determined a value of OSI in nuclear cataract quantification for surgery.
Hall, Sally Elizabeth; Nixon, Brett; Aitken, R John
Feral horses are a significant pest species in many parts of the world, contributing to land erosion, weed dispersal and the loss of native flora and fauna. There is an urgent need to modify feral horse management strategies to achieve public acceptance and long-term population control. One way to achieve this is by using non-surgical methods of sterilisation, which are suitable in the context of this mobile and long-lived species. In this review we consider the benefits of implementing novel mechanisms designed to elicit a state of permanent sterility (including redox cycling to generate oxidative stress in the gonad, random peptide phage display to target non-renewable germ cells and the generation of autoantibodies against proteins essential for conception via covalent modification) compared with that of traditional immunocontraceptive approaches. The need for a better understanding of mare folliculogenesis and conception factors, including maternal recognition of pregnancy, is also reviewed because they hold considerable potential in providing a non-surgical mechanism for sterilisation. In conclusion, the authors contend that non-surgical measures that are single shot and irreversible may provide a sustainable and effective strategy for feral horse control.
West, C.B. Jr.; Shagets, F.W.; Mansfield, M.J. )
Aggressive fibromatosis is a poorly defined, locally aggressive, yet histologically benign fibroblastic proliferative lesion that may occur in the head and neck. The lesion is highly cellular and locally infiltrative and has a propensity to invade and erode bone, compromising vital structures within the head and neck. However, it is not a true malignancy because it does not have malignant cytologic characteristics nor does it metastasize. We present two cases of aggressive fibromatosis occurring in young adult men. The first case involved a rapidly enlarging mass of the anterior maxilla that involved the upper lip, nasal alae, nasal septum, inferior turbinates, and hard palate. The patient underwent incisional biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. Because of difficulty in determining the actual margins of this extensive lesion and the significant morbidity that would have resulted from surgical resection, we elected to treat this patient with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The second case was an extensive lesion involving the right temporal bone, pterygomaxillary space, and infratemporal, temporal, and middle cranial fossae. Incisional biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. Because of the lack of functional and cosmetic deficits and the unavoidable morbidity of a surgical resection, this patient was treated with radiation therapy. Although wide field resection is the most satisfactory form of treatment, in situations in which this modality would result in unacceptable morbidity or if surgical margins are positive, then radiation therapy and chemotherapy should be considered. Support for these therapeutic modalities is found in larger series of cases outside the head and neck.
Background Foot ulceration has been reported as the leading cause of hospital admission and amputation in individuals with diabetes. Diabetes-related foot ulcers require multidisciplinary management and best practice care, including debridement, offloading, dressings, management of infection, modified footwear and management of extrinsic factors. Ulcer debridement is a commonly applied management approach involving removal of non-viable tissue from the ulcer bed. Different methods of debridement have been reported in the literature including autolytic debridement via moist wound healing, mechanical debridement utilising wet to dry dressings, theatre based sharps debridement, biological debridement, non-surgical sharps debridement and newer technology such as low frequency ultrasonic debridement. Methods People with diabetes and a foot ulcer, referred to and treated by the Podiatry Department at Monash Health and who meet the inclusion criteria will be invited to participate in this randomised controlled trial. Participants will be randomly and equally allocated to either the non-surgical sharps debridement (control) or low frequency ultrasonic debridement (intervention) group (n = 322 ulcers/n = 108 participants). Where participants have more than one ulcer, only the participant will be randomised, not the ulcer. An investigator not involved in participant recruitment or assessment will be responsible for preparing the random allocation sequence and envelopes. Each participant will receive weekly treatment for six months including best practice podiatric management. Each ulcer will be measured on a weekly basis by calculating total area in centimetres squared. Measurement will be undertaken by a trained research assistant to ensure outcomes are blinded from the treating podiatrist. Another member of the research team will assess the final primary outcome. Discussion The primary aim of this study is to compare healing rates for diabetes-related foot ulcers
Tengman, Tine; Riad, Jacques
Precise long-term assessment of movement and physical function following Achilles tendon rupture is required for the development and evaluation of treatment, including different regimens of physical therapy. To assess intermediate-term (<10 years by conventional thinking) objective measures of physical function following Achilles tendon rupture treated nonsurgically and to compare these with self-reported measures of physical function. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Two to 5 years after Achilles tendon rupture, 9 women and 43 men (mean age, 49.2 years; range, 26-68 years) were assessed by physical examination, performance of 1-legged jumps, and 3-dimensional gait analysis (including calculation of muscle work). Self-reported scores for foot function (Achilles tendon rupture score) and level of physical activity were collected. Twenty age- and sex-matched controls were assessed in the same manner. Physical examination of patients with the knee extended revealed 11.1° of dorsiflexion on the injured side and 9.2° on the uninjured side (P = .020), indicating gastrocnemius muscle lengthening. The 1-legged jump distance was shorter on the injured side (89.5 vs 96.2 cm; P < .001). Gait analysis showed higher peak dorsiflexion (14.3° vs 13.3°; P = .016) and lower concentric (positive) plantar flexor work (16.6 vs 19.9 J/kg; P = .001) in the ankle on the uninjured side. At the same time, eccentric (negative) dorsiflexor work was higher on the injured side (13.2 vs 11.9 J/kg; P = .010). Self-perceived foot function and physical activity were lower in patients than in healthy controls (mean Achilles tendon rupture score, 78.6 and 99.8, respectively). Nonsurgically treated patients with Achilles tendon rupture showed signs of both anatomic and functional lengthening of the tendon. Attenuated muscle strength and function were present during walking as long as 2 to 5 years after rupture, as determined by 3-dimensional gait analysis. More extensive future
Tengman, Tine; Riad, Jacques
Background: Precise long-term assessment of movement and physical function following Achilles tendon rupture is required for the development and evaluation of treatment, including different regimens of physical therapy. Purpose: To assess intermediate-term (<10 years by conventional thinking) objective measures of physical function following Achilles tendon rupture treated nonsurgically and to compare these with self-reported measures of physical function. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Two to 5 years after Achilles tendon rupture, 9 women and 43 men (mean age, 49.2 years; range, 26-68 years) were assessed by physical examination, performance of 1-legged jumps, and 3-dimensional gait analysis (including calculation of muscle work). Self-reported scores for foot function (Achilles tendon rupture score) and level of physical activity were collected. Twenty age- and sex-matched controls were assessed in the same manner. Results: Physical examination of patients with the knee extended revealed 11.1° of dorsiflexion on the injured side and 9.2° on the uninjured side (P = .020), indicating gastrocnemius muscle lengthening. The 1-legged jump distance was shorter on the injured side (89.5 vs 96.2 cm; P < .001). Gait analysis showed higher peak dorsiflexion (14.3° vs 13.3°; P = .016) and lower concentric (positive) plantar flexor work (16.6 vs 19.9 J/kg; P = .001) in the ankle on the uninjured side. At the same time, eccentric (negative) dorsiflexor work was higher on the injured side (13.2 vs 11.9 J/kg; P = .010). Self-perceived foot function and physical activity were lower in patients than in healthy controls (mean Achilles tendon rupture score, 78.6 and 99.8, respectively). Conclusion: Nonsurgically treated patients with Achilles tendon rupture showed signs of both anatomic and functional lengthening of the tendon. Attenuated muscle strength and function were present during walking as long as 2 to 5 years after rupture, as
Shangraw, Sarah; Stone, Rivka C.; Cho-Vega, Jeong Hee; Kirsner, Robert S.
Giant basal cell carcinomas (GBCCs) are large basal cell carcinomas (BCCs; <5 cm) with a greater propensity to invade and metastasize than standard BCCs. The presence of 2 GBCCs in a single individual is rare. We present the case of a 71-year-old Caucasian male with bilateral GBCCs on the dorsal forearms, measuring 130 cm2 and 24 cm2, respectively, that developed over a 21-year period. Over this period, the patient treated the tumors with herbal remedies. Histologic evaluation showed a conventional nodular BCC for both tumors. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a T4N0M0 stage for the larger lesion. Surgical excision and grafting and reconstruction were offered, but he declined. This case highlights a shared belief in holistic treatments and rejection of Western medical interventions that are common among many patients with GBCC. Studies reporting nonsurgical treatments for GBCCs, including radiotherapy, vismodegib, topical imiquimod, and acitretin are reviewed. PMID:28101025
Ren, Yi-Ming; Wang, Xi-Shan; Wei, Zhi-Jian; Fan, Bao-You; Lin, Wei; Zhou, Xian-Hu; Feng, Shi-Qing
Abstract Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common peripheral nerve entrapment disease. Either surgical or conservative intervention for CTS patients is needed to choose. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the clinical efficacy, safety, and cost of surgical versus nonsurgical intervention. Methods: The eligible studies were acquired from PubMed, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Google, and Cochrane Library. The data were extracted by 2 of the coauthors independently and were analyzed by RevMan5.3. Standardized mean differences (SMDs), odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool and Newcastle–Ottawa Scale were used to assess risk of bias. Results: Thirteen studies including 9 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 4 observational studies were assessed. The methodological quality of the trials ranged from moderate to high. The difference of clinical efficacy was statistically significant between surgical and nonsurgical intervention, and nonsurgical treatment was more effective (OR = 2.35, 95%CI = 1.18–4.67, P = 0.01). Meanwhile, different results were discovered by subgroup analysis. The pooled results of function improvement, symptom improvement, neurophysiological parameters improvement, and cost of care at different follow-up times showed that the differences were not statistically significant between the 2 interventions. The difference of complications and side-effects was statistically significant and conservative treatment achieved better result than surgery (OR = 2.03, 95%CI = 1.28–3.22, P = 0.003). Sensitivity analysis proved the stability of the pooled results. Conclusion: Both surgical and conservative interventions had benefits in CTS. Nonsurgical treatment was more effective and safety than surgical treatment, but there were no significant differences in function improvement, symptom improvement, neurophysiological
JUNG, Joohyun; CHOI, Mincheol
A one-year-old, castrated male domestic short hair cat was admitted with a history of anorexia, regurgitation and pyrexia for two days. Fever and leukocytosis were identified. There were a large soft tissue density oval mass in the caudal mediastinum on thoracic radiographs, a fluid-filled oval mass in the caudal mediastinum on ultrasonography, and left-sided and ventrally displaced and compressed esophagus on esophagram. On esophageal endoscopy, there were no esophageal abnormalities. CT findings with a fluid filled mass with rim enhancement indicated a caudal mediastinal paraesophageal abscess. The patient was treated with oral antibiotics, because the owner declined percutaneous drainage and surgery. The patient was admitted on emergency with severe respiratory distress; and ruptured abscess and deteriorated pleuropneumonia were suspected. With intensive hospitalization care and additional antibiotic therapy, the patient had full recovery. PMID:25648207
Grambart, Sean T
A Cochrane Review was performed to assess the effects of platelet-rich therapies for treating musculoskeletal soft tissue injuries. Selection criteria were randomized and quasirandomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared platelet-rich therapy with either placebo, autologous whole blood, dry needling, or no platelet-rich therapy for people with acute or chronic musculoskeletal soft tissue injuries. Primary outcomes were functional status, pain, and adverse effects. The investigators found 19 studies that compared platelet-rich therapy with placebo, autologous whole blood, dry needling, or no platelet-rich therapy. Disorders included rotator cuff tears (arthroscopic repair; 6 trials); shoulder impingement syndrome surgery (1 trial); elbow epicondylitis (3 trials); anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (4 trials), ACL reconstruction (donor graft site application; 2 trials), patellar tendinopathy (1 trial), Achilles tendinopathy (1 trial), and acute Achilles rupture surgical repair (1 trial). They further subdivided the studies based on type of treatment, including tendinopathies in which platelet-rich therapy injections were the main treatment (5 trials), and surgical augmentation procedures in which platelet-rich therapy was applied during surgery (14 trials). The conclusion was that there is currently insufficient evidence to support the use of platelet-rich therapy for treating musculoskeletal soft tissue injuries. Researchers contemplating RCTs should consider the coverage of currently ongoing trials when assessing the need for future RCTs on specific conditions. There is a need for standardization of PRP preparation methods. At this time, the use of PRP in foot and ankle surgery as an orthobiologic does not have an absolute indication. Many of the studies are lower evidence-based from surgical techniques. Several in vitro studies have shown that growth factors promote the regeneration of bone, cartilage, and tendons. More clinical studies are
Pitkänen, Sari; Jeskanen, Leila; Ylitalo, Leea
Increasing exposure to UV radiation is considered the most important etiologic factor of nonmelanoma skin cancers. Consequently, exposed areas such as the scalp and face, are the primary areas for developing non-melanoma skin cancers. Once a patient has presented with one tumor, additional lesions are common. The diagnosis is based on typical clinical picture and biopsy or excision for histopathological analysis. Various non-surgical treatment options have been established. Superficial basal cell carcinoma, superficial carcinoma in situ and all actinic keratoses are preferentially treated non-surgically. Most other basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas should be surgically removed.
Shell, Tracey L; Woods, Michael G
This study was designed to compare selected divine or golden proportions in Class II division 1 patients treated either during the growth phase with an activator and fixed appliances or after the completion of growth with fixed appliances and orthognathic surgery; and to determine the associations between divine facial proportions and perceived facial attractiveness. The material consisted of subjects with Class II division 1 malocclusions treated either with upper and lower fixed appliances and orthognathic surgery or with activators followed by fixed appliances. There were 23 females and 9 males in the surgical group (Mean age: 23.5 years; SD: 9.6 years) and 17 females and 11 males in the non-surgical group (Mean age: 10.8 years; SD: 1.1 years). The divine relationships of the subjects were assessed on pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs, and on lateral and frontal facial photographs. In addition, the attractiveness of the subjects was scored by a panel of judges using a visual analogue scale. Facial aesthetic scores were then correlated with the presence of particular divine facial proportions. On average, few ratios fitted the divine proportion, either before or after treatment in either treatment group. There was, however, significant individual variation in the presence or otherwise of these divine proportions, as there were with changes in the proportions with treatment. Regardless of the treatment method, ratios in some patients moved toward the divine proportion, while those in others moved away from it. A comparison of the two treatment groups both before and after treatment showed that the mean group values for some of the proportions differed. These differences could largely be explained by differences in growth status and treatment method. Neither treatment method was more likely to result in a greater number of divine proportions, and the achievement of divine proportions seemed to have little, if any, influence on overall
Thierbach, René; Eger, Thomas
The replacement of missing teeth with dental implants has been standard practice in dentistry for many years. The success of dental implants depends on many factors, among which the diagnosis, clinical severity, and treatment of peri-implant diseases play a key role. In this prospective case series, the influence of cumulative treatment modalities on peri-implantitis with and without pus formation on clinical outcome was assessed. During 2010, 28 patients were referred for peri-implantitis treatment. They presented two different types of peri-implant diseases: peri-implantitis with (17 implants) or without pus formation (33 implants). After microbiologic diagnosis, all patients were treated at baseline with full-mouth scaling and root planing. Two months later, further full-mouth scaling and root planing and additional antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) was applied. Four months after baseline, patients with pus formation additionally underwent access flap surgery. Active human matrix metalloproteinase-8 (aMMP-8) levels were measured in eluates before and after all treatment modalities and 7 months after baseline. Clinical parameters (probing depth, bleeding on probing) and aMMP-8-levels improved in both groups after treatment and the final examination. In periimplantitis patients without pus formation, all parameters decreased after full-mouth scaling and root planing and the additional aPDT and no surgery was necessary to improve the parameters. In patients with pus formation, the parameters decreased only after access flap surgery. The presence of pus influences the clinical outcome of the treatment of peri-implant diseases. Whereas peri-implantitis cases without pus formation can be successfully managed nonsurgically, peri-implantitis with pus formation can be effectively treated after an additional observation time of 3 months postoperatively only with additional flap surgery.
Talebi, Mohammadreza; Taliee, Rojin; Mojahedi, Masoud; Meymandi, Mansour; Torshabi, Maryam
Introduction: The efficiency of routine scaling and root planning is negatively influenced by the tooth anatomy and residual bacteria all possibly affecting the treatment outcomes in future. The present study compared the microbiologic effectiveness of the photodynamic therapy (PDT) as an adjunctive treatment modality for nonsurgical treatment in chronic periodontitis. Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 18 chronic periodontitis patients were selected. Four quadrants were randomly treated by scaling and root planning (SRP), diode laser (810n m wavelength, 1.5 W and 320 μm fiber, contact and sweeping technique), SRP + PDT (with diode laser 808 nm, 0.5 W) and laser + SRP (with diode laser 808 nm, 1 W) in each patient. Presence of periodontal pathogen species in the treated areas were measured before the treatment, at 1 and 3 months afterwards. The identification and reproduction of the specific genes of pathogen bacteria were done by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Presence of oral pathogen bacteria in the treatment groups were analyzed by chi-square test. A semi quantitative analysis was used to measure the intensity of white light in each band. This was calculated by number of pixels in each band. Results: In the qualitative analysis, Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) and Treponema denticola (Td) species were killed after 1 month in all treatment modalities. PDT had more effects to decrease Prevotella intermedia (Pi) species than SRP while Tannerella forsythensis count (Tf) species increased in all treatments. Furthermore, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) species decreased in all treatments and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g) species increased in all treatments after 1 and 3 months. Conclusion: It can be concluded that PDT was more effective as an adjunctive treatment to SRP than SRP alone; however, no distinct differences were found between both treatment modalities regarding reduction of certain pathogen bacteria. PMID
Souza-Gallardo, Luis Manuel; Martínez-Ordaz, José Luis
Appendicitis represents a common disease for the surgeon with a relative risk between 7-8%. It was thought that if more time passed between diagnosis and treatment, the risk for complications, such as perforation or abscess formation, was higher; nevertheless; the evolution is variable, making necessary the development of different strategies such as antibiotic use only, interval surgery or endoscopic treatment. The purpose of this study is to make a revision in the management of appendicitis comparing conservative and surgical treatment. It is known that traditional management of appendicitis is appendectomy with a complication rate of 2.5% to 48%. Nowadays, laparoscopy is the approach of choice by many surgeons and there have proposed new invasive techniques such as endoscopic treatment with the use of prosthesis and ambulatory surgery. Antibiotic use is essential in the management of appendicitis. Its use as the only strategy to treat this disease has the purpose of lowering costs and diminishing complications related to surgery or the resection of the organ. We conclude that the ideal management of appendicitis remains controversial and it will depend of the clinical characteristics of each patient and the resources available.
Wilson, Janet A; Carding, Paul N; Patterson, Joanne M
Assess patients' perspectives on the severity, time course, and relative importance of swallowing deficit before and after (chemo)radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Before-and-after cohort study. Head and neck cancer UK multidisciplinary clinic. A total of 167 patients with a primary cancer, mostly laryngopharyngeal, completed the MD Anderson Dysphagia Index (MDADI) and the University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire (UWQOL) before treatment and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Pretreatment swallowing, age, gender, and tumor site and stage were assessed. Statistical methods used were Mann-Whitney, analysis of variance, and logistic regression. There was a sharp deterioration in swallowing on average by 18%, from before treatment to 3 months post treatment (mean difference in MDADI score = 14.5; P < .001). Treatment schedule, pretreatment score, and age accounted for 37% of the variance in 3-month posttreatment MDADI scores. There was then little improvement from 3 to 12 months. Patients treated with only 50-Gy radiotherapy reported significantly less dysphagia at 1 year than patients receiving higher doses or combined chemoradiation (P < .001). Swallowing was the most commonly prioritized of the 12 UWQOL domains both before and after therapy. The MDADI and UWQOL scores were strongly correlated: ρ > 0.69. Swallowing is a top priority before and after treatment for the vast majority of patients with head and neck cancer. Swallowing deteriorates significantly posttreatment (P < .001). Treatment intensity, younger age, and lower pretreatment scores predict long-term dysphagia. After chemoradiation, there is little improvement from 3 to 12 months.
Caccialanza, Riccardo; Cereda, Emanuele; Klersy, Catherine; Bonardi, Chiara; Cappello, Silvia; Quarleri, Lara; Turri, Annalisa; Montagna, Elisabetta; Iacona, Isabella; Valentino, Francesco; Pedrazzoli, Paolo
The assessment of nutritional intakes during hospitalization is crucial, as it is known that nutritional status tends to worsen during the hospital stay, and this can lead to the negative consequences of malnutrition. International guidelines recommend the use of parenteral nutrition (PN) in hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk, with contraindications to enteral nutrition. However, to date, there are no published data regarding either energy intake or objective measurements associated with it in this patient population. The aim of the present exploratory methodological study was to evaluate whether phase angle (PhA) and handgrip strength normalized for skeletal muscle mass (HG/SMM) are sensitive early markers of energy intake in hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk, with contraindications to enteral nutrition. We evaluated 30 eligible patients, who were treated with personalized dietary modifications and supplemental PN for at least one week during hospitalization. In a liner regression model adjusted for age, gender, basal protein intake and the basal value of each variable, a trend toward improvement of PhA and preservation of HG/SMM was observed in patients satisfying the estimated calorie requirements (N = 20), while a significant deterioration of these parameters occurred in those who were not able to reach the target (N = 10). The mean adjusted difference and 95% CI were +1.4° (0.5-2.3) (p = 0.005) for PhA and +0.23 (0.20-0.43) (p = 0.033) for HG/SMM. A significant correlation between PhA and HG/SMM variations was also observed (r = 0.56 (95% CI, 0.23-0.77); p = 0.0023). PhA and HG/SMM were able to distinguish between hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk who satisfied their estimated caloric requirements and those who did not after a one-week personalized nutritional support. Clinical studies are warranted, in order to verify these preliminary observations and to validate the role of PhA variations as early
Di Minno, Giovanni; Zotz, Rainer B; d'Oiron, Roseline; Bindslev, Niels; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Poon, Man-Chiu
Standard treatment for Glanzmann thrombasthenia is platelet transfusion. Recombinant activated factor VII has been shown to be successful in patients with Glanzmann thrombasthenia with platelet antibodies or who are refractory to platelet transfusions. The Glanzmann Thrombasthenia Registry prospectively collected worldwide information on the effectiveness and safety of platelet transfusion, recombinant activated factor VII and/or antifibrinolytics for the treatment of bleeds in patients with Glanzmann thrombasthenia. Data relating to 829 non-surgical bleeding episodes were entered into the Glanzmann Thrombasthenia Registry (severe/moderate: 216/613; spontaneous/post-traumatic: 630/199). Recombinant activated factor VII alone was used in 124/829 bleeds, recombinant activated factor VII+antifibrinolytics in 107/829, platelets±antifibrinolytics in 312/829, antifibrinolytics alone in 219/829, and recombinant activated factor VII+platelets±antifibrinolytics in 67/829. The proportion of successful treatments to stop bleeding was 91.0% in cases treated with recombinant activated factor VII only, 82.7% for recombinant activated factor VII+antifibrinolytics, 72.7% for treatment with recombinant activated factor VII+platelets±antifibrinolytics, 78.8% for platelets±antifibrinolytics and 84.7% for antifibrinolytics alone. Treatment failure was documented in 18 bleeding events (2% of the total treatments), the majority of which were in patients receiving treatment with antifibrinolytics; bleeding re-started in 6% of bleeds after initial effective treatment. Thirty-five adverse events were reported, none of which was a thromboembolic event. Among treatments that included recombinant activated factor VII, only one patient reported three possibly drug-related non-serious adverse events (nausea, dyspnea and headache). To conclude, non-surgical bleeds were common and often severe in Glanzmann thrombasthenia; both platelets and recombinant activated factor VII appeared to be
Windfuhr, Jochen P; Toepfner, Nicole; Steffen, Gregor; Waldfahrer, Frank; Berner, Reinhard
More than 120,000 patients are treated annually in Germany to resolve repeated episodes of acute tonsillitis. Therapy is aiming at symptom regression, avoidance of complications, reduction in the number of disease-related absences in school or at work, increased cost-effectiveness and improved quality of life. The purpose of this part of the guideline is to provide clinicians in any setting with a clinically focused multi-disciplinary guidance through different conservative treatment options in order to reduce inappropriate variation in clinical care, improve clinical outcome and reduce harm. Surgical management in terms of intracapsular as well as extracapsular tonsillectomy (i.e. tonsillotomy) is the subject of part II of this guideline. To estimate the probability of tonsillitis caused by β-hemolytic streptococci, a diagnostic scoring system according to Centor or McIsaac is suggested. If therapy is considered, a positive score of ≥3 should lead to pharyngeal swab or rapid test or culture in order to identify β-hemolytic streptococci. Routinely performed blood tests for acute tonsillitis are not indicated. After acute streptococcal tonsillitis, there is no need to repeat a pharyngeal swab or any other routine blood tests, urine examinations or cardiological diagnostics such as ECG. The determination of the antistreptolysin O-titer (ASLO titer) and other antistreptococcal antibody titers do not have any value in relation to acute tonsillitis with or without pharyngitis and should not be performed. First-line therapy of β-hemolytic streptococci consists of oral penicillin. Instead of phenoxymethylpenicillin-potassium (penicillin V potassium), also phenoxymethlpenicillin-benzathine with a clearly longer half-life can be used. Oral intake for 7 days of one of both the drugs is recommended. Alternative treatment with oral cephalosporins (e.g. cefadroxil, cefalexin) is indicated only in cases of penicillin failure, frequent recurrences, and whenever a more
Cota, Luís Otávio Miranda; Cyrino, Renata Magalhães; Lages, Eugênio José Pereira
Background and Objective Prospective studies that investigated the influence of surgical and nonsurgical procedures in the recurrence of periodontitis and tooth loss in periodontal maintenance therapy (PMT) programs have not been previously reported. The objective of this study was to evaluate longitudinally the recurrence of periodontitis in regular compliers (RC) and irregular compliers (IC) individuals undergoing surgical and non-surgical procedures over 5 years in a program of PMT. Materials and Methods A total of 212 individuals participated in this study. Full-mouth periodontal examination including bleeding on probing, probing depth, and clinical attachment level were determined at all PMT visits over 5 years. The recurrence of periodontitis was evaluated in RC and IC individuals undergoing surgical and non-surgical procedures in PMT. The influences of risk variables of interest were tested through univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression. Results Recurrence of periodontitis was significantly lower among RC when compared to IC. Individuals with recurrence of periodontitis and undergoing surgical procedures showed higher probing depth and clinical attachment loss than those who received non-surgical procedures. Recurrence of periodontitis was higher in individual undergoing surgical procedures and irregular compliance during PMT. Conclusions Irregular compliance and surgical procedures in individuals undergoing PMT presented higher rates of recurrence of periodontitis when compared to regular compliant patients undergoing non-surgical procedures. PMID:26496187
Fam, Maged D; Zeineddine, Hussein A; Nassir, Rafiq Muhammed; Bhatt, Pragnesh; Kamel, Mahmoud H
Background: Transverse (type II) odontoid process fracture is among the most commonly encountered cervical spine fractures. Nonsurgical management through external immobilization is occasionally preferred to surgical management but is criticized for its higher rates of failure and lower patient satisfaction. Our aim is to analyze patient-reported outcomes in patients who underwent nonsurgical treatment for type II odontoid fractures. Methods: We identified patients >18-year-old who underwent external immobilization as a treatment for isolated type II odontoid fracture between 2007 and 2012. We collected demographic parameters, clinical presentation, mode of injury, imaging studies and modality and duration of treatment (soft collar, halo-vest, or both). Patients were contacted by telephone to participate in a 15-min survey addressing their recovery including their subjective rate of return to preinjury level of functioning. Results: Fifteen patients met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and participated in our survey. Patients were followed up for an average of 19 months after injury. Overall mean age was 61 years. Injury followed a mechanical fall or a road traffic accident in 11 and 4 cases, respectively. External immobilization was achieved by halo vest only in nine patients, soft collar only in two patients (13%), and through a sequential combination in the remaining 4 (27%). This was deployed for a mean of 7.8 months. Radiological studies at the last follow-up showed bony healing (27%), fibrous nonunion (60%), and persistent instability (13%). Patients reported gradual recovery of function throughout the 1st year after injury with levels above 70% of preinjury functioning achieved by 13% of patients at 6 months, 33% at 9 months, and 47% at 12 months. Overall satisfaction with nonsurgical management was 68%. Conclusion: In selected patients with type II odontoid fractures, external immobilization represents a good option with acceptable course of recovery. PMID
Suárez-López del Amo, Fernando; Yu, Shan-Huey
ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of this paper was to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of non-surgical therapy for the treatment of peri-implant diseases including both, mucositis and peri-implantitis lesions. Material and Methods An electronic search in two different databases was performed including MEDLINE (PubMed) and EMBASE from 2011 to 2016. Human studies reporting non-surgical treatment of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis with more than 10 implants and at least 6 months follow up published in English language were evaluated. A systematic review was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the different methods of decontamination employed in the included investigations. Risk of bias assessment was elaborated for included investigations. Results Twenty-five articles were identified of which 14 were further evaluated and included in the analysis. Due to significant heterogeneity in between included studies, a meta-analysis could not be performed. Instead, a systematic descriptive review was performed. Included investigations reported the used of different methods for implant decontamination, including self-performed cleaning techniques, and professionally delivered treatment such as laser, photodynamic therapy, supra-/sub-mucosal mechanical debridement, and air-abrasive devices. Follow-up periods ranged from 6 to 60 months. Conclusions Non-surgical treatment for peri-implant mucositis seems to be effective while modest and not-predictable outcomes are expected for peri-implantitis lesions. Limitations include different peri-implant diseases definitions, treatment approaches, as well as different implant designs/surfaces and defect characteristics. PMID:27833738
Yoshioka, Koji; Noguchi, Michiko; Suzuki, Chie
The objective of this study was to enhance procedures for producing piglets derived from in vitro-produced (IVP) pig embryos by non-surgical embryo transfer (ET). The effects of insertion length for the catheter, asynchrony between the age of donor IVP blastocysts and the recipient estrous cycle, and volume of transfer medium were investigated. The IVP blastocysts at 5 days after in vitro fertilization were placed into porcine zygote medium (PZM)-5 supplemented with 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum (PZM+FBS) in a 0.25 mL plastic straw (21-40 blastocysts per straw) and then transferred into one uterine horn of recipients using the Takumi(®) catheter for deep intrauterine insertion. Successful production of piglets derived from IVP embryos was achieved following non-surgical ET when the catheter was inserted at more than 30 cm anterior to the spiral guide spirette. The efficiency of piglet production (percentage number of piglet(s) born based on the number of embryos transferred) was greater (P<0.05) in recipients whose estrous cycle was asynchronous to that of donors with a 1-day delay (8.3%) than in those with a 2-day (1.5%) or 3-day (0.9%) delay, while pregnancy and farrowing rates (10-40%) did not differ among treatments. When blastocysts were transferred into recipients with 1.0 or 2.5 mL PZM+FBS, there were no significant differences in farrowing rate (30-40%) or average litter size (4.5-6.7) between treatments. The results of the present study indicate that the insertion length of the deep intrauterine catheter and the degree of asynchrony between donor embryos and recipient estrous cycle influenced on pregnancy and birth outcome following non-surgical transfer of IVP blastocysts.
Moreno-Moya, Juan Manuel; Ramírez, Leslie; Vilella, Felipe; Martínez, Sebastián; Quiñonero, Alicia; Noguera, Inmaculada; Pellicer, Antonio; Simón, Carlos
To illustrate an efficient, complete, step-by-step protocol for studying implantation in mice. Video presentation of an animal model for research in reproductive biology. Mouse (Mus musculus). A nonsurgical embryo transfer system very similar to that used for human embryo transfer. The protocols with recipient and donor mice are performed in parallel in the same week. For the donor mice: the first step is ovarian stimulation, followed by ovulation induction and mating; finally, the mice are sacrificed, and the embryos are collected and cultured. For recipient mice: first estrous synchrony is induced, followed by mating with a vasectomized male, visualization of the vaginal plug, and nonsurgical transfer of the embryos. Finally (optionally), the implantation sites can be visualized on day 7.5 of development. (All animal experiments were performed with the approval of the institutional review board.) Implantation is an essential step in human reproduction although, because of technical and ethics considerations, still relatively little is known about human implantation and early development. Conversely, mouse models are well established and can be used for preliminary experiments. However, there are various bottlenecks in the procedure for obtaining and transferring murine embryos, which makes experimentation with this model more difficult. These difficulties include pseudopregnancy, ovarian hyperstimulation, and embryo collection, culture, and transfer. We have proposed a complete, efficient method for obtaining, culturing, and transferring mouse blastocysts that can be easily applied in research. Potential applications include testing new media components that do not affect preimplantation but do affect implantation and early development. The embryo transfer method proposed here has been demonstrated to achieve embryo implantation easier and faster than, and in approximately similar rates as other traditional surgery methods. This workflow is the first set of
Albush, Muhammad M.; Razan, Khattab K.; Raed, Al Dieri M.
Background: Periodontal debridement has an impact on the vascular thrombotic markers in healthy individuals. This study aimed to investigate changes in several vascular thrombotic markers after surgical and non-surgical periodontal debridement in hypertensives with periodontitis. Materials and Methods: 40 hypertensives, 27 males and 13 females, 37-68 year old, mean 51.2 years, with moderate to severe periodontitis, were divided into two groups, (n = 20 for each); the first received comprehensive one session non-surgical periodontal debridement, (pockets 4-6 mm), while the second received comprehensive supragingival scaling with surgical debridement at one quadrant, (Pockets > 6 mm). Periodontal parameters included; plaque index (PI), gingival inflammation (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), pocket probing depth (PPD). Vascular thrombotic tests included; platelets count (Plt), fibrinogen (Fib), Von Willebrand factor antigen activity (vWF:Ag), and D-dimers (DD). Results: PI, GI, BOP, PPD, decreased significantly (P = 0.001) after 6 weeks of periodontal debridement in both groups, while BOP and PPD remained higher in the surgical one (P < 0.05). Thrombotic vascular markers changes through the three-time intervals were significant in each group (P = 0.001), and time-group interception effect was significant for vWF:Ag (P = 0.005), while no significant differences between groups after treatment (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Periodontal debridement, surgical and non-surgical, improved the periodontal status in hypertensives. Periodontal treatment activated the coagulation system in hypertensives and recessed later while the treatment modality did not affect the degree of activation. PMID:24049332
Fang, Zheng; Fu, Xing-li; Zhou, Hai-sen; Zhang, Wen; Tian, Zhi-qiang
Background To compare short-term and long-term results of bariatric surgery vs non-surgical treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods A systematic search was conducted in the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). All statistical analysis was performed using Review Manager version 5.3. The dichotomous data was calculated using risk ratio (RR) and continuous data was using mean differences (MD) along with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results A total of 8 RCTs with 619 T2DM patients were analyzed. Compared with non-surgical treatment group, bariatric surgery group was associated with higher rate T2DM remission (RR = 5.76, 95%CI:3.15-10.55, P < 0.00001), more reduction HbA1C (MD = 1.29, 95%CI: -1.70 to -0.87, P < 0.00001), more decrease fasting plasma glucose (MD = -36.38, 95%CI: -51.76 to -21.01, P < 0.00001), greater loss body weight (MD = -16.93, 95%CI: 19.78 to -14.08, P < 0.00001), more reduction body mass index (MD = -5.80, 95%CI: -6.95 to -4.64, P < 0.00001), more decrease triglyceride concentrations (MD = -51.27, 95%CI: -74.13 to -28.41, P < 0.0001), and higher increase density lipoprotein cholesterol (MD = 9.10, 95%CI: 7.99 to 10.21; P < 0.00001). But total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol were no significant changes. Conclusion Bariatric surgery for T2DM is efficacious and improves short- and long-term outcomes as compared with non-surgical treatment. PMID:27626180
Kang, Minji; In Jung, Hoi; Song, Minju; Kim, Sue Youn; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Kim, Euiseong
The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes of nonsurgical endodontic retreatment and endodontic microsurgery by a meta-analysis. Electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Medline, and The Cochrane Library were searched, and the references of related articles were manually searched to identify all the clinical studies that evaluated the clinical and radiographic outcomes after retreatment or microsurgery. The first and second screening processes were conducted by three reviewers independently. The final studies were selected after strict application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The random effects meta-analysis model with the DerSimonian-Laird pooling method was performed. The weighted pooled success rates and 95 % confidence interval estimates of the outcome were calculated. Additionally, the effects of the follow-up period and study quality were investigated by a subgroup analysis. Endodontic microsurgery and nonsurgical retreatment have stable outcomes presenting 92 and 80 % of overall pooled success rates, respectively. The microsurgery group had a significantly higher success rate than the retreatment group. When the data were organized and analyzed according to their follow-up periods, a significantly higher success rate was found for the microsurgery group in the short-term follow-up (less than 4 years), whereas no significant difference was observed in the long-term follow-up (more than 4 years). Endodontic microsurgery was confirmed as a reliable treatment option with favorable initial healing and a predictable outcome. Clinicians may consider the microsurgery as an effective way of retreatment as well as nonsurgical retreatment depending on the clinical situations.
Numerous reports primarily in the implant literature outline the loss of an implant claimed to be as a consequence of endodontic pathosis from an adjacent tooth. This case report outlines the resolution of a large cyst-like periapical lesion that resolved with nonsurgical management when the canal was dressed with calcium hydroxide on 4 occasions because of persistent intracanal exudate. A favorable healing outcome was achieved for the affected tooth and the implant. This report adds to a growing body of evidence to suggest that implant retained crowns are not vulnerable when an endodontic infection occurs in an adjacent tooth.
Moshari, Amirabbas; Vatanpour, Mehdi; EsnaAshari, Ehsan; Zakershahrak, Mehrsa; Jalali Ara, Afsoon
Long-term success of endodontic treatment is dependent on adequate and appropriate cleaning and shaping of the root canal along with proper and correct obturation of the entire prepared space. This article aims to report an exceptional non-surgical and orthograde endodontic treatment of maxillary right central incisor with an extensive radiolucent lesion in a 17-year-old male. Six and 20-month follow-ups showed significant changes, including bone formation and periapical healing within the lesion. The patient was asymptomatic. After 20 months, complete radiographic and clinical healing of the periapical lesion was observed. PMID:28179937
DePace, N L; Burke, W; Kotler, M N; Glazier, E E
A case of Bjork-Shiley mitral valve dysfunction is presented. The patient has not responded to anticoagulant therapy and had hypotension, dyspnea, chest pain, and a pulse deficit but normal sinus rhythm. Simultaneous echocardiogram, ECG, and arterial pulse tracing were used as noninvasive means of monitoring. Nonsurgical correction of a clinical emergency restored the patient to prior normal baseline cardiovascular function. This case illustrates the possibility of restoring normal prosthetic function by supporting the patient medically while undertaking diagnostic testing and arranging surgical intervention. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a malfunctioning Bjork-Shiley mitral valve corrected without surgery.
Optical correction is the basis of optometry. Optimized visual quality through optical correction is more challenging and more scientific as visual quality is becoming more closely related to social integration and development. There are many visual quality problems associated with various non-surgical optical correction methods in different aspects and degrees. This article discusses in depth some of the problems regarding optical correction with spectacles for different age groups, from children to seniors. The use of soft contact lenses, rigid gas-permeable contact lenses, and orthokeratology lenses is also evaluated. Moreover, some suggestions and recommendations on promoting visual quality through optical correction are provided.
Eskandarinezhad, Mahsa; Ghasemi, Negin
Successful endodontic treatment requires thorough knowledge regarding each root canal system of any tooth and probability of extra canals should be considered. Second maxillary molar with two palatal root canals is not frequent and its incidence reported in literatures is about 0.4-2%. The present case report describes non-surgical retreatment of maxillary second mo-lar with two palatal root canals. Radiographic interpretation is difficult in this region; so, very careful examination of pulpal space and using supportive devices such as loupe and operating microscope is recommended to discover any unusual anat-omic features like extra canals.
Grubbs, Vanessa; Garcia, Faviola; Jue, Bonnie L; Vittinghoff, Eric; Ryder, Mark; Lovett, David; Carrillo, Jacqueline; Offenbacher, Steven; Ganz, Peter; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Powe, Neil R
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains a prevalent public health problem that disproportionately affects minorities and the poor, despite intense efforts targeting traditional risk factors. Periodontal diseases are common bacterial plaque-induced inflammatory conditions that can respond to treatment and have been implicated as a CKD risk factor. However there is limited evidence that treatment of periodontal disease slows the progression of CKD. We describe the protocol of the Kidney and Periodontal Disease (KAPD) study, a 12-month un-blinded, randomized, controlled pilot trial with two intent-to-treat treatment arms: 1. immediate intensive non-surgical periodontal treatment or 2. rescue treatment with delayed intensive treatment. The goals of this pilot study are to test the feasibility of conducting a larger trial in an ethnically and racially diverse, underserved population (mostly poor and/or low literacy) with both CKD and significant periodontal disease to determine the effect of intensive periodontal treatment on renal and inflammatory biomarkers over a 12-month period. To date, KAPD has identified 634 potentially eligible patients who were invited to in-person screening. Of the 83 (13.1%) of potentially eligible patients who attended in-person screening, 51 (61.4%) were eligible for participation and 46 enrolled in the study. The mean age of participants is 59.2years (range 34 to 73). Twenty of the participants (43.5%) are Black and 22 (47.8%) are Hispanic. Results from the KAPD study will provide needed preliminary evidence of the effectiveness of non-surgical periodontal treatment to slow CKD progression and inform the design future clinical research trials. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Sarwer, David B; Spitzer, Jacqueline C; Wadden, Thomas A; Rosen, Raymond C; Mitchell, James E; Lancaster, Kathy; Courcoulas, Anita; Gourash, William; Christian, Nicholas J
Many individuals with obesity are motivated to lose weight to improve weight-related co-morbidities or psychosocial functioning, including sexual functioning. Few studies have documented rates of sexual dysfunction in persons with obesity. This study investigated sexual functioning, sex hormones, and relevant psychosocial constructs in individuals with obesity who sought surgical and nonsurgical weight loss. One hundred forty-one bariatric surgery patients (median BMI [25th percentile, 75th percentile] 44.6 [41.4, 50.1]) and 109 individuals (BMI = 40.0 [38.0, 44.0]) who sought nonsurgical weight loss participated. Sexual functioning was assessed by the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Hormones were assessed by blood assay. Quality of life, body image, depressive symptoms, and marital adjustment were assessed by validated questionnaires. Fifty-one percent of women presenting for bariatric surgery reported a sexual dysfunction; 36% of men presenting for bariatric surgery reported erectile dysfunction (ED). This is in contrast to 41% of women who sought nonsurgical weight loss and reported a sexual dysfunction and 20% of men who sought nonsurgical weight loss and reported ED. These differences were not statistically significant. Sexual dysfunction was strongly associated with psychosocial distress in women; these relationships were less strong and less consistent among men. Sexual dysfunction was unrelated to sex hormones, except for sex hormone binding globulin (SHGB) in women. Women and men who present for bariatric surgery, compared with individuals who sought nonsurgical weight loss, were not significantly more likely to experience a sexual dysfunction. There were few differences in reproductive hormones and psychosocial constructs between candidates for bariatric surgery and individuals interested in nonsurgical weight loss. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery
Sarwer, David B.; Spitzer, Jacqueline C.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Rosen, Raymond C.; Mitchell, James E.; Lancaster, Kathy; Courcoulas, Anita; Gourash, William; Christian, Nicholas J.
Background Many individuals with obesity are motivated to lose weight to improve weight-related comorbidities or psychosocial functioning, including sexual functioning. Few studies have documented rates of sexual dysfunction in persons with obesity. Objectives This study investigated sexual functioning, sex hormones, and relevant psychosocial constructs in individuals with obesity who sought surgical and non-surgical weight loss. Setting University based health systems. Methods One hundred forty-one bariatric surgery patients (median BMI [25th percentile, 75th percentile] 44.6 [41.4, 50.1]) and 109 individuals (BMI = 40.0 [38.0, 44.0]) who sought nonsurgical weight loss participated. Sexual functioning was assessed by the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Hormones were assessed by blood assay. Quality of life, body image, depressive symptoms and marital adjustment were assessed by validated questionnaires. Results Fifty-one percent of women presenting for bariatric surgery reported a sexual dysfunction; 36% of men presenting for bariatric surgery reported erectile dysfunction (ED). This is in contrast to 41% of women who sought nonsurgical weight loss and reported a sexual dysfunction and 20% of men who sought nonsurgical weight loss and reported ED. These differences were not statistically significant. Sexual dysfunction was strongly associated with psychosocial distress in women; these relationships were less strong and less consistent among men. Sexual dysfunction was unrelated to sex hormones, except for sex hormone binding globulin (SHGB) in women. Conclusion Women and men who present for bariatric surgery, as compared to individuals who sought non-surgical weight loss, were not significantly more likely to experience a sexual dysfunction. There were few differences in reproductive hormones and psychosocial constructs between candidates for bariatric surgery and individuals interested in non-surgical
Hofstede, Stefanie N; Vliet Vlieland, Thea P M; van den Ende, Cornelia H M; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Marang-van de Mheen, Perla J; van Bodegom-Vos, Leti
Objectives National and international evidence-based guidelines for hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) recommend to start with non-surgical treatments, followed by surgical intervention if a patient does not respond sufficiently to non-surgical treatments, but there are indications that these are not optimally used. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which all recommended non-surgical treatments were used by patients with hip or knee OA who receive(d) a total hip or knee replacement, as reported by patients and orthopaedic surgeons. Setting We performed two cross-sectional internet-based surveys among patients and orthopaedic surgeons throughout the Netherlands. Participants 195 OA patients either have undergone total knee arthroplasty or total hip arthroplasty no longer than 12 months ago or being on the waiting list for surgery with a confirmed date within 3 months and 482 orthopaedic surgeons were invited to participate. Primary and secondary outcome measures The use of recommended non-surgical treatments including education about OA/treatment options, lifestyle advice, dietary therapy, physical therapy, acetaminophen, NSAIDs and glucocorticoid injections. Results 174 OA patients (93%) and 172 orthopaedic surgeons (36%) completed the surveys. Most recommended non-surgical treatments were given to the majority of patients (eg, 80% education about OA, 73% physical therapy, 72% acetaminophen, 80% NSAIDs). However, only 6% of patients and 10% of orthopaedic surgeons reported using a combination of all recommended treatments. Dietary therapy was used least frequently. Only 11% of overweight and 30% of obese participants reported having received dietary therapy and 28% of orthopaedic surgeons reported to prescribe dietary therapy to overweight patients. Conclusions While most recommended non-surgical treatments were used frequently as single therapy, the combination is used in only a small percentage of OA patients. Especially, use of dietary therapy
Hamaji, Masatsugu; Chen, Fengshi; Miyamoto, Ei; Kondo, Takeshi; Ohata, Keiji; Motoyama, Hideki; Hijiya, Kyoko; Menju, Toshi; Aoyama, Akihiro; Sato, Toshihiko; Sonobe, Makoto; Date, Hiroshi
Although repeat pulmonary metastasectomy for sarcoma is not uncommon and associated with a favorable survival in select patients, there is a paucity of data on the demographics and tumor characteristics of patients with repeat pulmonary metastasis following complete resection of pulmonary metastases from osteogenic or soft tissue sarcoma. A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients with isolated repeat pulmonary metastasis after complete resection of pulmonary metastases from sarcoma at Kyoto University Hospital between January 1990 and December 2014. Isolated pulmonary metastasis was defined as limited to presumable pulmonary metastasis according to the follow-up radiologic workup. Thirty-five patients were identified to have repeat pulmonary metastasis. Thirty patients underwent attempted repeat pulmonary metastasectomy (including 21 undergoing documented complete resection and 7 undergoing documented incomplete or aborted resections). Five patients received non-surgical management. The median follow-up period was 16 months (range 1-234) from repeat pulmonary metastasis. The five-year overall survival of the whole patient cohort and those undergoing repeat pulmonary metastasectomy were 37.6 and 41.1 %, respectively, from repeat pulmonary metastasis. A majority of patients with repeat pulmonary metastasis from sarcoma undergo repeat metastasectomy, which is associated with favorable survival outcomes. However, a greater accumulation of data on non-surgically managed patients is needed as such information is currently limited available.
Noites, Rita Brandão; Martins, Miguel André Duarte; Paulo, Manuel Pedro da Fonseca
Tooth transposition is a disorder in which a permanent tooth develops and erupts in the normal position of another permanent tooth. Fusion and gemination are developmental disturbances presenting as the union of teeth. This article reports the nonsurgical retreatment of a very rare case of fused teeth with transposition. A patient was referred for endodontic treatment of her maxillary left first molar in the position of the first premolar, which was adjacent to it on the distobuccal side. Orthopantomography and periapical radiography showed two crowns sharing the same root, with a root canal treatment and an associated periapical lesion. Tooth fusion with transposition of a maxillary molar and a premolar was diagnosed. Nonsurgical endodontic retreatment was performed. At four yr follow-up, the tooth was asymptomatic and the radiolucency around the apical region had decreased, showing the success of our intervention. The diagnosis and treatment of fused teeth require special attention. The canal system should be carefully explored to obtain a full understanding of the anatomy, allowing it to be fully cleaned and obturated. Thermoplastic techniques were useful in obtaining hermetic obturation. A correct anatomical evaluation improves the set of treatment options under consideration, leading to a higher likelihood of esthetically and functionally successful treatment. PMID:27200284
Farr II, Jack; Miller, Larry E.; Block, Jon E.
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) has a significant negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Identification of therapies that improve HRQoL in patients with knee OA may mitigate the clinical, economic, and social burden of this disease. The purpose of this commentary is to report the impact of knee OA on HRQoL, describe the change in HRQoL attributable to common knee OA interventions, and summarize findings from clinical trials of a promising therapy. Nonsurgical therapies do not reliably modify HRQoL in knee OA patients given their general inability to alleviate physical manifestations of OA. Surgical knee OA interventions generally result in good to excellent patient outcomes. However, there are significant barriers to considering surgery, which limits clinical utility. Therapies that most effectively control OA-related pain with a low risk: benefit ratio will likely have the greatest benefit on HRQoL with greater rates of patient adoption. Initial clinical trial findings suggest that less invasive joint unloading implants hold promise in bridging the therapeutic gap between nonsurgical and surgical treatments for the knee OA patient. PMID:24285987
Atiyeh, Bishara S; Dibo, Saad A
The gold standard treatment for the many aesthetic aspects of aging has for many years been surgery in its many forms. However, with increasing patient demand for cosmetic rejuvenation and with the strong desire and drive by patients to attain aesthetic enhancement with minimal risk and rapid recovery, there has been a strong surge inspiring the field of nonsurgical skin rejuvenation. Traditionally, most of the nonsurgical methods have centered around those that destroy the epidermis and cause a dermal wound, with resultant dermal collagen remodeling and secondary skin tightening and rhytid improvement. Currently, there is growing interest in a wide range of nonablative interventions that, predictably, are claimed to rejuvenate skin and subcutaneous tissue "safely and effectively." Although several nonablative systems have been cleared by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the purpose of skin rejuvenation and despite significant reported improvement in the appearance of signs and symptoms of photoaging by relatively noninvasive means, the clinical results have been generally less than impressive, with most subjects showing only mild improvement. The current review aims at summarizing the various nonablative methods currently in use for skin rejuvenation and to evaluate the evidence-based efficacy of a particular nonablative radiofrequency (NARF) method: monopolar radiofrequency.
Tutunjian, Alyssa M; Bugaev, Nikolay; Breeze, Janis L; Arabian, Sandra S; Rabinovici, Reuven
Given potential safety risks when admitting injured patients to nonsurgical services (NSS), the American College of Surgeons mandates trauma centers justification. However, evidence supporting this requirement is lacking. Adult patients cleared for admission to a NSS at a level 1 trauma center between 2012 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographic, injury, and outcome characteristics were compared between nonsurgical (NSA) and surgical admission patients and analyzed for predictive value. Compared with surgical admission patients, NSA patients were significantly older, had a higher number of comorbidities and/or patient and a lower Injury Severity Score, while hospital length of stay, complications, and missed injury and adjusted mortality rates were similar. NSA did not predict mortality whereas increased age, increased Injury Severity Score, and number of comorbidities and/or patient did. As all complications and mortalities were unrelated to injuries per se, admission to a NSS, after protocoled clearance by a trauma or Emergency Department attending, appears to be safe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gaspard, Dany; Vito, Karen; Schorr, Christa; Hunter, Krystal; Gerber, David
Background. Thromboembolic events are major causes of morbidity, and prevention is important. We aimed to compare chemical prophylaxis (CP) and mechanical prophylaxis (MP) as methods of prevention in nonsurgical patients on mechanical ventilation. Methods. We performed a retrospective study of adult patients admitted to the Cooper University Hospital ICU between 2002 and 2010. Patients on one modality of prophylaxis throughout their stay were included. The CP group comprised 329 patients and the MP group 419 patients. The primary outcome was incidence of thromboembolic events. Results. Acuity measured by APACHE II score was comparable between the two groups (p = 0.215). Univariate analysis showed 1 DVT/no PEs in the CP group and 12 DVTs/1 PE in the MP group (p = 0.005). Overall mortality was 34.3% and 50.6%, respectively. ICU LOS was similar. Hospital LOS was shorter in the MP group. Multivariate analysis showed a significantly higher incidence of events in the MP prophylaxis group (odds ratio 9.9). After excluding patients admitted for bleeding in both groups, repeat analysis showed again increased events in the MP group (odds ratio 2.9) but this result did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion. Chemical methods for DVT/PE prophylaxis seem superior to mechanical prophylaxis in nonsurgical patients on mechanical ventilation and should be used when possible. PMID:26682067
Cardoso, Miguel Agostinho Beco Pinto; Noites, Rita Brandão; Martins, Miguel André Duarte; Paulo, Manuel Pedro da Fonseca
Tooth transposition is a disorder in which a permanent tooth develops and erupts in the normal position of another permanent tooth. Fusion and gemination are developmental disturbances presenting as the union of teeth. This article reports the nonsurgical retreatment of a very rare case of fused teeth with transposition. A patient was referred for endodontic treatment of her maxillary left first molar in the position of the first premolar, which was adjacent to it on the distobuccal side. Orthopantomography and periapical radiography showed two crowns sharing the same root, with a root canal treatment and an associated periapical lesion. Tooth fusion with transposition of a maxillary molar and a premolar was diagnosed. Nonsurgical endodontic retreatment was performed. At four yr follow-up, the tooth was asymptomatic and the radiolucency around the apical region had decreased, showing the success of our intervention. The diagnosis and treatment of fused teeth require special attention. The canal system should be carefully explored to obtain a full understanding of the anatomy, allowing it to be fully cleaned and obturated. Thermoplastic techniques were useful in obtaining hermetic obturation. A correct anatomical evaluation improves the set of treatment options under consideration, leading to a higher likelihood of esthetically and functionally successful treatment.
Goldenberg, Gary; Hamid, Omid
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer in the world. It is typically slow growing and usually effectively managed with surgery. However, BCCs in some patients are unsuitable for surgery or the patient may prefer a nonsurgical treatment. Radiotherapy is a nonsurgical option for the primary treatment of either low- or high-risk BCCs. It is associated with high cure rates, albeit somewhat lower than those observed with Mohs micrographic surgery for high-risk BCCs. Not all patients with BCCs are suitable for radiotherapy. Superficial therapies for BCC include topical imiquimod or 5- fluorouracil and photodynamic therapy (PDT). These therapies are generally associated with somewhat lower clearance rates and/or higher recurrence rates than surgery or radiotherapy, although they may be suitable in patients with low-risk BCCs when surgery or radiotherapy are impractical or less appropriate. An appealing feature of PDT is excellent cosmesis, but PDT is not currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and regimens are not well standardized. Vismodegib is a first-in-class hedgehog pathway inhibitor and recent addition to the armamentarium for the treatment of advanced BCC.
Furuichi, Y; Rosling, B; Volpe, A R; Lindhe, J
The present study examined whether the daily use of a triclosan/copolymer dentifrice enhanced healing following non-surgical periodontal therapy at sites with progressive attachment loss in periodontitis-susceptible subjects: 60 subjects who had been (i) treated for advanced periodontal disease using nonsurgical means and (ii) had been enrolled, for at least 3-5 years, in a maintenance care program that called for prophylaxis once every 3 months. During the course of this maintenance period, all 60 subjects had suffered recurrent periodontitis at > or = 2 sites at several intervals. Following a baseline examination, all 60 subjects received, on an individual basis, detailed instruction in proper self-performed plaque control methods. They were stratified in 2 balanced groups (test and control groups). The members of the test group were assigned to use a triclosan/copolymer/fluoride-containing dentifrice, while the control group used a placebo dentifrice. During the following 3 years, all participants were recalled every 3 months for an evaluation of their oral hygiene standard. Re-examinations were performed after 6, 12, 24 and 36 months. In conjunction with the re-examinations, sites (loser sites) which exhibited additional probing attachment loss (> or = 2 mm) were identified. The loser sites were exposed to professional therapy. Thus, the site was anaesthetized and the surface carefully scaled and root planed (S/RP). Alterations regarding probing pocket depth (PPD), probing attachment level (PAL), and bleeding on probing (BoP) that occurred in the interval between S/RP and 36 months were analyzed. In the control group, 126 loser sites, 67 identified at the 12-month and 59 at the 24-month examinations, were subjected to S/RP. The corresponding number of loser sites in the test group was 85 (48 at 12 months and 37 at 24 months). At the time of S/RP, about 60% of the sites were BoP (+) in both groups. Following treatment, there was a reduction in the number of
El-Angbawi, Ahmed; McIntyre, Grant T; Fleming, Padhraig S; Bearn, David R
Accelerating the rate of tooth movement may help to reduce the duration of orthodontic treatment and associated unwanted effects including root resorption and enamel demineralisation. Several methods, including surgical and non-surgical adjuncts, have been advocated to accelerate the rate of tooth movement. Non-surgical techniques include low-intensity laser irradiation, resonance vibration, pulsed electromagnetic fields, electrical currents and pharmacological approaches. To assess the effect of non-surgical adjunctive interventions on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement and the overall duration of treatment. We searched the following databases on 25 November 2014: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (November 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 10), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to November 2014), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to November 2014), LILACS via BIREME (1980 to November 2014), metaRegister of Controlled Trials (November 2014), the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (ClinicalTrials.gov; November 2014) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (November 2014). We checked the reference lists of all trials identified for further studies. There were no restrictions regarding language or date of publication in the searches of the electronic databases. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of people receiving orthodontic treatment using fixed appliances along with non-surgical adjunctive interventions to accelerate tooth movement. We excluded non-parallel design studies (for example, split-mouth) as we regarded them as inappropriate for assessment of the effects of this type of intervention. Two review authors were responsible for study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction; they carried out these tasks independently. Any disagreements were resolved by discussion amongst the review team to reach consensus. The review authors contacted
Stefopoulos, Spyridon; Tzanetakis, Giorgos N; Kontakiotis, Evangelos G
Root-end resected teeth with persistent apical periodontitis are usually retreated surgically or a combination of non-surgical and surgical retreatment is employed. However, patients are sometimes unwilling to be subjected to a second surgical procedure. The apical barrier technique that is used for apical closure of immature teeth with necrotic pulps may be an alternative to non-surgically retreat a failed apicoectomy. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has become the material of choice in such cases because of its excellent biocompatibility, sealing ability and osseoinductive properties. This case report describes the non-surgical retreatment of a failed apicoectomy with no attempt at retrofilling of a maxillary central incisor. White MTA was used to induce apical closure of the wide resected apical area. Four-year follow-up examination revealed an asymptomatic, fully functional tooth with a satisfactory healing of the apical lesion. White MTA apical barrier may constitute a reliable and efficient technique to non-surgically retreat teeth with failed root-end resection. The predictability of such a treatment is of great benefit for the patient who is unwilling to be submitted to a second surgical procedure.
Matsudaira, Ko; Hara, Nobuhiro; Oka, Hiroyuki; Kunogi, Junichi; Yamazaki, Takashi; Takeshita, Katsushi; Atsushi, Seichi; Tanaka, Sakae
Objective To assess the predictive factors for subjective improvement with nonsurgical treatment in consecutive patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Materials and Methods Patients with LSS were enrolled from 17 medical centres in Japan. We followed up 274 patients (151 men; mean age, 71 ± 7.4 years) for 3 years. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess the predictive factors for subjective symptom improvement with nonsurgical treatment. Results In 30% of patients, conservative treatment led to a subjective improvement in the symptoms; in 70% of patients, the symptoms remained unchanged, worsened, or required surgical treatment. The multivariable analysis of predictive factors for subjective improvement with nonsurgical treatment showed that the absence of cauda equina symptoms (only radicular symptoms) had an odds ratio (OR) of 3.31 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.50–7.31); absence of degenerative spondylolisthesis/scoliosis had an OR of 2.53 (95% CI: 1.13–5.65); <1-year duration of illness had an OR of 3.81 (95% CI: 1.46–9.98); and hypertension had an OR of 2.09 (95% CI: 0.92–4.78). Conclusions The predictive factors for subjective symptom improvement with nonsurgical treatment in LSS patients were the presence of only radicular symptoms, absence of degenerative spondylolisthesis/scoliosis, and an illness duration of <1 year. PMID:26863214
RIBEIRO, Érica Del Peloso; BITTENCOURT, Sandro; SALLUM, Enilson Antônio; SALLUM, Antônio Wilson; NOCITI JÚNIOR, Francisco Humberto; CASATI, Márcio Zaffalon
Objective The aim of this controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the effect of topically applied povidone-iodine (PVP-I) used as an adjunct to non-surgical treatment of interproximal class II furcation involvements. Material and methods Thirty-two patients presenting at least one interproximal class II furcation involvement that bled on probing with probing pocket depth (PPD) ≥5 mm were recruited. Patients were randomly chosen to receive either subgingival instrumentation with an ultrasonic device using PVP-I (10%) as the cooling liquid (test group) or identical treatment using distilled water as the cooling liquid (control group). The following clinical outcomes were evaluated: visible plaque index, bleeding on probing (BOP), position of the gingival margin, relative attachment level (RAL), PPD and relative horizontal attachment level (RHAL). BAPNA (N-benzoyl-Larginine-p-nitroanilide) testing was used to analyze trypsin-like activity in dental biofilm. All parameters were evaluated at baseline and 1, 3 and 6 months after non-surgical subgingival instrumentation. Results Six months after treatment, both groups had similar means of PPD reduction, RAL and RHAL gain (p>0.05). These variables were, respectively, 2.20±1.10 mm, 1.27±1.02 mm and 1.33±0.85 mm in the control group and 2.67±1.21 mm, 1.50±1.09 mm and 1.56±0.93 mm in the test group. No difference was observed between groups at none of the posttreatment periods, regarding the number of sites showing clinical attachment gain ≥2 mm. However, at 6 months posttreatment, the test group presented fewer sites with PPD ≥5 mm than the control group. Also at 6 months the test group had lower BAPNA values than control group. Conclusion The use of PVP-I as an adjunct in the non-surgical treatment of interproximal class II furcation involvements provided limited additional clinical benefits. PMID:21308291
Rühling, A; König, J; Rolf, H; Kocher, T; Schwahn, C; Plagmann, H C
In a manikin study we recently assessed how effectively student operators were able to learn scaling with curettes (GRA) and power-driven instruments (PP). Calculating the debrided root area effectiveness was low in both groups without systematic training or without a motivational program. After 10 weeks (20 h) of training, operators reached a high effectiveness of 84.7% (GRA) and 81.6% (PP). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of nonsurgical treatment as performed by these student operators. In a clinical trial, 19 students trained in the use of Gracey curettes for 10 weeks (=20 h) (GRA10) and Periopolisher system for 1 week (=2 h) (PP1), and 20 students trained in the use of Gracey curettes for 1 week (GRA1) and the Periopolisher for 10 weeks (PP10) treated one patient each in a split-mouth design. At baseline and 6 months, we recorded probing depth (PD), probing attachment level (PAL) and bleeding on probing (BOP) by computer-assisted probing. Statistical analysis was carried out for moderate (category B) and deep sites (category C). Groups were compared using Student's t-tests (p<0.05). Category B sites showed a PD reduction of 1.2/1.0 mm (GRA10/GRA1) and 1.1 mm (PP10/PP1). PAL gain was 0.5/0.3 mm (GRA10/GRA1) and 0.4/0.2 mm (PP10/PP1). In category C sites, PD reduction was 2.1/2.3 mm (GRA10/GRA1) and 2.0 mm (PP10/PP1) with a PAL gain of 0.6/0.9 mm (GRA10/GRA1) and 0.4 mm (PP10/PP1). BOP was significantly lower in all groups. The results show that student operators who had received a systematical training on manikins and had attained different effectiveness results were able to treat periodontally diseased patients successfully using both Gracey and Periopolisher instruments.
Massei, Giovanna; Miller, Lowell A
About 75% of dogs worldwide are free to roam and reproduce, thus creating locally overabundant populations. Problems caused by roaming dogs include diseases transmitted to livestock and humans, predation on livestock, attacks on humans, road traffic accidents, and nuisance behavior. Nonsurgical fertility control is increasingly advocated as more cost-effective than surgical sterilization to manage dog populations and their impact. The aims of this review were to 1) analyze trends in numbers of scientific publications on nonsurgical fertility control for dogs; 2) illustrate the spectrum of fertility inhibitors available for dogs; 3) examine how differences between confined and free-roaming dogs might affect the choice of fertility inhibitors to be used in dog population management; and 4) provide a framework of criteria to guide decisions regarding the use of nonsurgical fertility control for dog population management. The results showed that the 117 articles published between 1982 and 2011 focussed on long-term hormonal contraceptives, such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, immunocontraceptives, and male chemical sterilants. The number of articles published biennially increased from one to five papers produced in the early 1980s to 10 to 20 in the past decade. Differences between confined dogs and free-roaming dogs include reproduction and survival as well as social expectations regarding the duration of infertility, the costs of sterilization, and the responsibilities for meeting these costs. These differences are likely to dictate which fertility inhibitors will be used for confined or free-roaming dogs. The criteria regarding the use of fertility control for dog population management, presented as a decision tree, covered social acceptance, animal welfare, effectiveness, legal compliance, feasibility, and sustainability. The review concluded that the main challenges for the future are evaluating the feasibility, effectiveness, sustainability, and
Rotational limb deformity due to tibiotarsal rotation can affect captive-bred houbara bustard chicks (Chlamydotis macqueenii) from an early age. If not completely corrected, the affected birds can neither be released into the wild nor used in captive-breeding projects. A nonsurgical orthopedic method was developed to correct this deformity before growth is completed. The method consists of hobbling digits III and the distal part of the tarsometatarsus of each leg with a self-adhesive conforming bandage that keeps digits III parallel with enough freedom of movement to allow walking. The tibiotarsal bones are left free. This treatment was successful when it was implemented for 20 days on 10-day-old houbara bustard chicks presenting with 60 degrees to 90 degrees unilateral tibiotarsal rotation. Implementing the same corrective method at an older age was not successful. This cheap, accessible, and noninvasive technique may be applicable to other avian species.
Usmani, Abul; Ganguli, Nirmalya; Sarkar, Hironmoy; Dhup, Suveera; Batta, Suryaprakash R.; Vimal, Manoj; Ganguli, Nilanjana; Basu, Sayon; Nagarajan, P.; Majumdar, Subeer S.
Microinjection of foreign DNA in male pronucleus by in-vitro embryo manipulation is difficult but remains the method of choice for generating transgenic animals. Other procedures, including retroviral and embryonic stem cell mediated transgenesis are equally complicated and have limitations. Although our previously reported technique of testicular transgenesis circumvented several limitations, it involved many steps, including surgery and hemicastration, which carried risk of infection and impotency. We improved this technique further, into a two step non-surgical electroporation procedure, for making transgenic mice. In this approach, transgene was delivered inside both testes by injection and modified parameters of electroporation were used for in-vivo gene integration in germ cells. Using variety of constructs, germ cell integration of the gene and its transmission in progeny was confirmed by PCR, slot blot and immunohistochemical analysis. This improved technique is efficient, requires substantially less time and can be easily adopted by various biomedical researchers. PMID:24305437
Maity, Ipsita; Meena, N.; Kumari, R. Anitha
Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of single sitting root canal treatment (RCT) of asymptomatic teeth with periapical cysts. Materials and Methods: Ten maxillary anterior teeth showing periapical lesion on the radiograph was further screened by ultrasound with color power Doppler (CPD) for confirmation of a cyst. The average dimension of the lesions ranged from 1.3 to 1.9 cm. Single sitting RCT was performed on all the selected teeth. Postoperative healing was monitored at regular interval of 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year by using subjective feedback, radiograph, and ultrasound with CPD study. Results: Eight among the ten cases showed either signs of complete healing or healing in progress by the end of 6-12 months. Conclusions: It was observed that single sitting nonsurgical endodontic management of asymptomatic teeth with periapical cyst confirmed by ultrasound was successful in selected cases. PMID:24963246
Maity, Ipsita; Meena, N; Kumari, R Anitha
The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of single sitting root canal treatment (RCT) of asymptomatic teeth with periapical cysts. Ten maxillary anterior teeth showing periapical lesion on the radiograph was further screened by ultrasound with color power Doppler (CPD) for confirmation of a cyst. The average dimension of the lesions ranged from 1.3 to 1.9 cm. Single sitting RCT was performed on all the selected teeth. Postoperative healing was monitored at regular interval of 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year by using subjective feedback, radiograph, and ultrasound with CPD study. Eight among the ten cases showed either signs of complete healing or healing in progress by the end of 6-12 months. It was observed that single sitting nonsurgical endodontic management of asymptomatic teeth with periapical cyst confirmed by ultrasound was successful in selected cases.
Purpose This article describes a case of the successful non-surgical management of a periodontally compromised maxillary premolar. Methods A combination therapy, including root planing, occlusal adjustment, and tooth splinting, was applied. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed during the 16-month follow-up period. Results All periodontal parameters were improved. There were dramatic decreases (3–6 mm) in the probing pocket depth, tooth mobility, and marginal bone loss. Interestingly, gradual resolution of the periapical radiolucency and alveolar bone regeneration were observed in the radiographs, and the periodontal condition was maintained during the follow-up period. Conclusions Within the limits of this study, these results demonstrate the importance of natural tooth preservation through proper periodontal treatment and occlusal adjustment of the periodontally compromised tooth, which is typically targeted for tooth extraction and dental implantation. PMID:27127693
Fernandes, Marina; de Ataide, Ida
Immature nonvital teeth can often be associated with periapical lesions. Presence of external inflammatory resorption can complicate the treatment plan. A 21-year-old female patient presented with a large periapical lesion in relation to teeth 11 and 12. Tooth 11 was an immature tooth undergoing external inflammatory resorption. Aspiration through the root canal was carried out to evacuate the purulent fluid in the periapical lesion. Triple antibiotic paste was then placed as an intracanal medicament for a period of 2 weeks, followed by calcium hydroxide therapy for a period of 2 months. Mineral trioxide aggregate was then placed as an apical barrier to a thickness of about 4 mm. Obturation of the remainder of the canal space was done after 48 h. Complete periapical healing was evident after 1 year and 6 months. Nonsurgical healing of a large periapical lesion associated with an immature tooth displaying external inflammatory resorption can be successfully achieved. PMID:26180425
Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Astur, Diego da Costa; Cohen, Carina; Ejnisman, Benno; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; De Castro Pochini, Alberto; Cohen, Moises
Anterior traumatic dislocation is a common problem faced by orthopedic surgeons. After the first episode of shoulder dislocation, a combination of lesions can lead to chronic instability. The management in treatment of young athletes after the first acute anterior shoulder dislocation is controversial. The available literature supports early surgical treatment for young male athletes engaged in highly demanding physical activities after the first episode of traumatic dislocation of the shoulder. This is because of the best functional results and lower recurrence rates obtained with this treatment in this population. However, further clinical trials of good quality comparing surgical versus nonsurgical treatment for well-defined lesions are needed, especially for categories of patients who have a lower risk of recurrence. PMID:24198566
Alexander, R G; Sinclair, P M; Goates, L J
Increasing numbers of adult patients are seeking orthodontic care and some, despite significant skeletal malocclusions, elect not to have combined orthodontic-surgical treatment. The purpose of this article is to outline some of the diagnostic and therapeutic principles that can be used in the adult nonsurgical orthodontic patient. The importance of realistic goal setting in the face of compromised occlusions is emphasized. Diagnosis should include evaluation of all three dimensions and recognize the limitations of therapy in each dimension for the nongrowing patient. Periodontal considerations, extraction decisions, and retention regimens are of vital importance to the achievement and maintenance of an optimum result. Clinical records will demonstrate four commonly seen problems and their resolution.
Klastersky, J.; Sculier, J.P.
Nonsurgical combined approaches of non-small cell lung cancer represent a concept that has only been investigated so far with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Thoracic irradiation of locoregional disease is associated with a high rate of local control and a 5-10% long-term (5-year) survival; however, distant metastases remain the main cause of failure. This observation suggests that the tumor is often microscopically disseminated at the time of diagnosis. Systemic therapy therefore must be associated to radiation therapy to try to control both the undetectable metastases and the local disease. However, the results reported so far have been disappointing, probably because of the modest activity of the available chemotherapy. Further progress with the combined approach requires new developments in the chemotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer, particularly the introduction of new active drugs.67 references.
Bove, Allyn M; Lynch, Andrew D; Ammendolia, Carlo; Schneider, Michael
Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a highly prevalent disease in older adults that causes significant limitations in walking and other daily activities. There is a lack of research into optimal nonsurgical treatment approaches for LSS. The purpose of this qualitative study is to assess the opinions of participants in a randomized clinical trial of non-surgical LSS treatments regarding the interventions they received, factors contributing to adherence to the interventions, and methods of outcomes assessment. Qualitative focus group study; academic research center PATIENT SAMPLE: Individuals participating in a randomized clinical trial (RCT) for non-surgical LSS treatment were invited to discuss their study treatments and general experiences with LSS. The three treatment arms in the study were medical care, community-based group exercise, and clinic-based manual therapy and individual exercise. Following coding of qualitative data, kappa statistic was used to calculate agreement between observers. Themes were identified and agreed upon by both coders. This study was funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). Fifty individuals (28 female, mean age 73 ± 7.7 years) participated in a focus group. Two focus groups based on modified grounded theory were held for participants of each of the three treatment arms, for a total of six focus groups. Discussion topics included perceived effectiveness of the assigned treatment, suggestions for improvement, barriers and facilitators to completing treatment, and opinions of research outcome measures. Several themes were evident across all treatment groups. First, patients prefer individualized treatment that is tailored to their specific impairments and functional limitations. They also want to learn self-management strategies to rely less upon formal health care providers. Participants consistently stated that exercise improved their pain levels and physical function. However, they noted that these effects
Molleman, Eric; Broekhuis, Manda; Stoffels, Renee; Jaspers, Frans
This study examines the consequences for medical specialists of participating in multidisciplinary medical team meetings in terms of perceived clinical autonomy, domain distinctiveness, and professional accountability. These consequences may influence their willingness to cooperate and the quality of teamwork. The authors hypothesized that multidisciplinary medical team meetings would be more of a threat to the professional identity of surgical specialists than to the professional identity of nonsurgical and supporting specialists. A survey among 1,827 Dutch medical specialists supported the authors' hypotheses. However, a few specific specialties had response patterns that deviated from our expectations. The results are related to specialty choice, to the training of medical specialties, and to having a role in leading team meetings.
Fernandes, Marina; de Ataide, Ida
Immature nonvital teeth can often be associated with periapical lesions. Presence of external inflammatory resorption can complicate the treatment plan. A 21-year-old female patient presented with a large periapical lesion in relation to teeth 11 and 12. Tooth 11 was an immature tooth undergoing external inflammatory resorption. Aspiration through the root canal was carried out to evacuate the purulent fluid in the periapical lesion. Triple antibiotic paste was then placed as an intracanal medicament for a period of 2 weeks, followed by calcium hydroxide therapy for a period of 2 months. Mineral trioxide aggregate was then placed as an apical barrier to a thickness of about 4 mm. Obturation of the remainder of the canal space was done after 48 h. Complete periapical healing was evident after 1 year and 6 months. Nonsurgical healing of a large periapical lesion associated with an immature tooth displaying external inflammatory resorption can be successfully achieved.
Haley, Andreana P.; Alosco, Michael L.; Gunstad, John
Objective The purpose of this article is to highlight what is currently known about the mechanisms of obesity-related cognitive impairment and weight-loss-related cognitive improvement, and discuss the benefits and drawbacks of available treatments. Methods The manuscript is based on a live debate, presenting the main advantages and disadvantages of exercise interventions and bariatric surgery as related to cognitive functioning. The live debate took place during a one-day conference on Diabetes, Obesity and the Brain, organized by the American Psychosomatic Society in October of 2013. Results While it is well established that bariatric surgery tends to lead to greater weight loss, better glycemic control, and cognitive improvement (effect sizes ranging between 0.61 to 0.78) during the first one to two years post intervention than non-surgical treatments, medical complications are possible, and follow-up data beyond five years is limited. In contrast, non-surgical therapies have been extensively studied in a variety of clinical settings and have proved that they can sustain positive health outcomes up to 10 years later, but their cognitive benefits tend to be more modest (effect sizes ranging from 0.18 to 0.69) and long-term regiment compliance, especially in obese individuals is uncertain. Conclusions Rather than focusing on debating whether surgical or no-surgical interventions for obesity are better, additional research is needed to identify the most efficient and practical combination of approaches to ensure sustained positive health outcomes for the largest number of patients possible. PMID:26163819
Over the last 40 years, researchers have explored methods to non-surgically suppress fertility in animals. Immunocontraception has been used to control wildlife populations but does not confer long-term immunity. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist deslorelin, formulated as an implant to provide 6-month to 1-year suppression of fertility in male dogs, is available commercially in some countries. Neither of these approaches provide permanent sterility. A single-dose, permanent treatment would be a valuable tool in dog and cat population control. The Michelson Prize and Grants (MPG) programme was initiated "to eliminate shelter euthanasia of healthy, adoptable companion animals and reduce populations of feral and free-roaming cats and dogs" offering a $25 million US prize for a non-surgical sterilant that is effective as a single treatment in both male and female dogs and cats. Michelson Prize and Grants programme has offered US $50 million in grant money for research and has attracted scientists worldwide. Approaches under study include gene therapy, small interfering RNA to inhibit reproductive targets and delivery of cytotoxins to pituitary gonadotrophs or GnRH producing neurons in the hypothalamus. Research in implant technology that could deliver compounds over an animal's lifetime is also underway. Details of funded grants and results to date can be found at: http://www.michelsonprizeandgrants.org/michelson-grants/research-findings. The next steps are translating the most promising research into products. The Alliance for Contraception of Cats and Dogs (ACC&D) is helping to research practical methods of marking sterilized animals to avoid costly retreatment and population modelling that will help guide field workers in use of resources for sterilization programmes. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Zhang, Yuan; Tang, Xue; Xie, Hui; Wang, Rui Lan
The objective of this study is to compare the clinical efficacy of surgical fixation and nonsurgical management of flail chest and pulmonary contusion (FC-PC) and to compare the diverse timings of surgery to discuss case management in FC-PC. The data of 39 patients diagnosed with FC-PC were obtained from the intensive care unit of Shanghai First People's Hospital and analyzed retrospectively from July 2010 to Dec 2013. The patients required ventilator support and were divided into a surgical group and a nonsurgical group, according to the treatment method. The clinical data, such as mortality, the duration of mechanical ventilation (DMV), intensive care unit length of stay, hospital length of stay (HLOS), days of antibiotic use, transfusion volume, medical expense as well as the incidence of tracheotomy, pleural effusion, and incidence of ventilator associated pneumonia, were collected for all subjects. The surgical group was further divided into 2 groups according to the surgery timing. Surgery within 7 days of admission was defined as early surgery, and all other times were defined as late surgery. The clinical data and incidence of incision infection were collected and compared. The patients in the surgical group had a slightly shorter HLOS. No differences were noted in mortality and the other clinical data between the groups. The early surgical group had a shorter DMV and less incidence of tracheotomy. The other parameters had no differences. Surgery for FC-PC could reduce the HLOS, and early surgery could decrease the DMV and the need for tracheotomy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Joseph, Rosamma; Sasikumar, Meera; Mammen, Jerry; Joseraj, M G; Radhakrishnan, Chandni
AIM To evaluate the effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on glycosylated haemoglobin levels in pre-diabetic patients with chronic periodontitis (CHP). METHODS Sixty pre-diabetic patients with CHP were selected and equally allocated to case and control group. All subjects were evaluated at base line for periodontal parameters (plaque index, oral hygiene index, modified gingival index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level) and systemic parameters [glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting lipid profile, and fasting blood glucose]. The case group received non-surgical periodontal therapy. Subjects were re-evaluated for periodontal and systemic parameters after three months. RESULTS Both groups were comparable at baseline. Three months after non surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT), there was significant improvement in periodontal parameters in case group. The mean difference in systemic parameters like HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose from baseline to fourth month for case group was 0.22 ± 0.11 and 3.90 ± 8.48 respectively and control group was -0.056 ± 0.10 and -1.66 ± 6.04 respectively, which was significant between case and control group (P < 0.05). In the case group there was a significant decrease in HbA1c from baseline to three months following NSPT (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION This study showed that periodontal inflammation could affect the glycemic control in otherwise systemically healthy individuals. Periodontal therapy improved periodontal health status and decreased glycosylated haemoglobin levels, thus reducing the probability of occurrence of inflammation induced prediabetes in patients with CHP. PMID:28572882
Olivares, Carlos Roberto; Sepúlveda, Oscar Julián; Acosta, Juan Sebastián; Barón, Rafael Andrés; Diaztagle, Juan José
Introduction. Detecting acute kidney injury (AKI) in the first days of hospitalization could prevent potentially fatal complications. However, epidemiological data are scarce, especially on nonsurgical patients. Objectives. To determine the incidence and risk factors associated with AKI within five days of hospitalization (EAKI). Methods. Prospective cohort of patients hospitalized in the Internal Medicine Department. Results. A total of 16% of 400 patients developed EAKI. The associated risk factors were prehospital treatment with nephrotoxic drugs (2.21 OR; 95% CI 1.12–4.36, p = 0.022), chronic kidney disease (CKD) in stages 3 to 5 (3.56 OR; 95% CI 1.55–8.18, p < 0.003), and venous thromboembolism (VTE) at admission (5.05 OR; 95% CI 1.59–16.0, p < 0.006). The median length of hospital stay was higher among patients who developed EAKI (8 [IQR 5–14] versus 6 [IQR 4–10], p = 0.008) and was associated with an increased requirement for dialysis (4.87 OR 95% CI 2.54 to 8.97, p < 0.001) and in-hospital death (3.45 OR; 95% CI 2.18 to 5.48, p < 0.001). Conclusions. The incidence of EAKI in nonsurgical patients is similar to the worldwide incidence of AKI. The risk factors included CKD from stage 3 onwards, prehospital treatment with nephrotoxic drugs, and VTE at admission. EAKI is associated with prolonged hospital stay, increased mortality rate, and dialysis requirement. PMID:28487772
Shirmohamadi, Adileh; Chitsazi, Mohamad Taghi; Faramarzi, Masoumeh; Salari, Ashkan; Naser Alavi, Fereshteh; Pashazadeh, Nazila
Background. Transferrin is a negative acute phase protein, which decreases during inflammation and infection. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate changes in the transferrin serum levels subsequent to non-surgical treatment of chronic periodontal disease. Methods. Twenty patients with chronic periodontitis and 20 systemically healthy subjects without periodontal disease, who had referred to Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry, were selected. Transferrin serum levels and clinical periodontal parameters (pocket depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, bleeding index and plaque index) were measured at baseline and 3 months after non-surgical periodontal treatment. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistical methods (means ± standard deviations). Independent samples t-test was used to compare transferrin serum levels and clinical variables between the test and control groups. Paired samples t-test was used in the test group for comparisons before and after treatment. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. The mean transferrin serum level in patients with chronic periodontitis (213.1 ± 9.2 mg/dL) was significantly less than that in periodontally healthy subjects (307.8 ± 11.7 mg/dL). Three months after periodontal treatment, the transferrin serum level increased significantly (298.3 ± 7.6 mg/dL) and approached the levels in periodontally healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The decrease and increase in transferrin serum levels with periodontal disease and periodontal treatment, respectively, indicated an inverse relationship between transferrin serum levels and chronic periodontitis. PMID:27651883
Liu, Chang; Shi, Xinge; Liu, Yujie; Wang, Zhigang; Wei, Min
To evaluate the effectiveness of arthroscopic treatment and nonsurgical treatment on ankle degenerative osteoarthropathy. Between July 2009 and June 2011, 58 patients (58 ankles) suffering from ankle degenerative osteoarthropathy underwent arthroscopic treatment (arthroscopic group, n=28) and routine treatment (control group, n=30). There was no significant difference in gender, age, body mass index, disease duration, and degree of ankle degenerative osteoarthropathy between 2 groups (P > 0.05). Mazur score, visual analogue scale (VAS), and Tegner activity scale were used to evaluate the effectiveness. Incision healed primarily in arthroscopic group. The patients of 2 groups were followed up 1-2 years, averaged 1.5 years in arthroscopic group and 1.6 years in control group. At last follow-up, Mazur, VAS, and Tegner scores were significantly improved when compared with the preoperative scores in 2 groups (P < 0.05), but no significant difference was found at last follow-up between 2 groups (P > 0.05). According to Mazur scoring, the results were excellent in 8 cases, good in 14 cases, fair in 5 cases, and poor in 1 case, with an excellent and good rate of 79% in arthroscopic group; the results were excellent in 6 cases, good in 15 cases, fair in 6 cases, and poor in 3 cases, with an excellent and good rate of 70% in control group; and no significant difference was observed between 2 groups (u=0.98, P=0.77). Moreover, there was no correlation between Outerbridge classification and Mazur score in patients undergoing arthroscopic treatment (r=0.18, P= 0.34). Arthroscopic and nonsurgical treatments of ankle degenerative osteoarthropathy can both achieve good effectiveness.
McCutcheon, Brandon A; Chang, David C; Marcus, Logan P; Inui, Tazo; Noorbakhsh, Abraham; Schallhorn, Craig; Parina, Ralitza; Salazar, Francesca R; Talamini, Mark A.
Background Emerging literature has supported the safety of non-operative management of uncomplicated appendicitis. Study Design Patients with emergent, uncomplicated appendicitis were identified by appropriate ICD-9 diagnosis codes in the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD) database from 1997 to 2008. Rates of treatment failure, recurrence, and perforation following non-surgical management were calculated. Factors associated with treatment failure, recurrence, and perforation were identified using multivariable logistic regression. Mortality, length of stay, and total charges were compared between treatment cohorts using matched propensity score analysis. Results Among 231,678 patients with uncomplicated appendicitis, the majority (98.5%) were managed operatively. Among the 3,236 non-surgically managed patients who survived to discharge without an interval appendectomy, 5.9% and 4.4% experienced treatment failure or recurrence, respectively, over a median duration of follow up of greater than seven years. There were no mortalities associated with treatment failure or recurrence. The risk of perforation after discharge was approximately 3%. Using multivariable analysis, race and age were significantly associated with the odds of treatment failure. Gender, age, and hospital teaching status were significantly associated with the odds of recurrence. Age and hospital teaching status were significantly associated with the odds of perforation. Matched propensity score analysis indicated that after risk adjustment mortality rates (0.1% vs. 0.3%, p=0.65) and total charges ($23,243 vs. $24,793, p=0.70) were not statistically different between operative and non-operative patients, however, length of stay was significantly greater amongst the non-operative treatment group (2.1 vs. 3.2 days, p<0.001). Conclusions This study suggests that non-operative management of uncomplicated appendicitis may be safe, and prompts further investigations
Itaya, M; Ifuku, M; Toshima, H; Takahashi, H; Koga, Y; Ohishi, K
Abnormal ventricular septal motion is usually observed after open heart surgery, but its mechanism is not fully understood. Our previous study suggested that a sudden reduction of left ventricular (LV) volume overload after corrective surgery would be one mechanism, showing that postoperative abnormal septal motion is more frequent in patients who have preoperative LV volume overload. The purpose of this study was to investigate further the direct effect of LV volume alone on the ventricular septal motion in 22 patients who underwent non-surgical closure of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) by the Porstmann's method. The non-surgical closure of a PDA reduced LV diastolic diameter (LVDd) from 55.7 +/- 7.3 mm to 48.1 +/- 5.2 mm (P less than 0.001), and LV systolic diameter (LVDs) from 36.3 +/- 7.0 mm to 34.1 +/- 7.0 mm (p less than 0.01). Septal motion decreased in amplitude from 8.5 +/- 2.4 mm to 3.8 +/- 3.4 mm (p less than 0.01) and eight (36%) patients developed abnormal septal motion, while LV posterior wall excursions remained unchanged. When compared these eight patients with 14 without abnormal septal motion, the magnitude of postoperative LVDd reduction (delta LVDd) and its ratio to preoperative volume (delta LVDd/pre op LVDd) were significantly greater in patients with abnormal septal motion. Thus sudden reduction in LV volume overload alone could induce abnormal septal motion without altering other factors such as adhesion of the pericardium.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Smith, WG; Toye, JW; Reid, A; Smith, RW
OBJECTIVE To determine whether a simple, nonsurgical treatment for congenital ear abnormalities (lop-ear, Stahl’s ear, protruding ear, cryptotia) improved the appearance of ear abnormalities in newborns at six weeks of age. METHODS This is a descriptive case series. All newborns with identified abnormalities were referred by their family physician to one paediatrician (WGS) in a small level 2 perinatal centre. The ears were waxed and taped in a standard manner within 10 days of birth. Pictures were taken before taping and at the end of taping (one month). All patients and pictures were assessed by one plastic surgeon (JWT) at six weeks of age and scored using a standard scoring system. A telephone survey of the nontreatment group was conducted. RESULTS The total number of ears assessed was 90. Of this total, 69 ears were taped and fully evaluated in the study (77%). The refusal rate was 23%. In the treatment group, 59% had lop-ear, 19% had Stahl’s ear, 17% had protruding ear and 3% had cryptotia. Overall correction (excellent/improved) for the treatment group was 90% (100% for lop-ear, 100% for Stahl’s ear, 67% for protruding ear and 0% for cryptotia). In the nontreatment (refusal) group, 67% of the ears failed to correct spontaneously. No complications were recognized by the authors or parents by six weeks. The percentage of newborns in one year in the perinatal centre with recognized ear abnormalities was 6% (90 of 1600). CONCLUSIONS A simple, nonsurgical treatment in a Caucasian population appeared to be very effective in correcting congenital ear abnormalities with no complications and high patient/parent satisfaction. PMID:19675840
Xue, Xuhong; Wei, Xiaochun; Li, Li
Abstract The optimal management of high-grade spondylolisthesis in children and adolescent is controversial. There is a paucity of literature regarding operatively or nonoperative management in this setting. To assessment of the current state of evidence regarding high-grade spondylolisthesis treatment with the goal of obtaining outcome comparisons in these patients managed either operatively or nonoperatively. We performed a systematic literature search up to November 2014, using Medline, Embase, and The Cochrane Library. The analysis and eligibility criteria were documented according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA-guidelines) and Cochrane Back Review Group editorial board. We used the Newcastle–Ottawa quality assessment scale (NOS-scale) to assess the quality. Five observational studies were considered eligible for analysis based on the evaluation of 1596 identified papers. The mean overall difference in the Scoliosis Research Society questionnaire 22 between the surgical and nonsurgical groups was not statistically significant (95% CI: −0.17 to 0.21, P = 0.84). The pooled mean difference in progression of slip between the surgical and nonsurgical groups was no significant difference (OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.12–1.81, P = 0.27, I2 = 0%). Because of the preponderance of uncontrolled case series, low-quality evidence indicates that the quality of life and progression of slips was no significant difference between surgery and nonoperation group. Nonoperative patients had no radiologic progression of their slip during the follow-up period. PMID:26986134
Huang, Hui-Ya; Huang, Xiao-Zhong; Han, Yi-Jiang; Zhu, Li-Bin; Huang, Kai-Yu; Lin, Jing; Li, Zhong-Rong
Intestinal necrosis is the most serious complication of intussusception. The risk factors associated with intestinal necrosis in pediatric patients with intussusception have not been well characterized. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with intestinal necrosis in pediatric patients with failed non-surgical reduction for intussusception. Hospitalized patients who failed the air-enema reduction for intussusception in the outpatient department and subsequently underwent surgery were retrospectively reviewed. All cases were categorized into two groups: intestinal necrosis group and non-intestinal necrosis group based on the surgical findings. Demographic and clinical features including the findings from the surgery were recorded and analyzed. Factors associated with intestinal necrosis were analyzed using univariate and multivariate unconditional logistic regression analyses. A total of 728 cases were included. Among them, 171 had intestinal necrosis at the time of surgery. The group with intestinal necrosis had a longer duration of symptom or length of illness (P = 0.000), and younger (P = 0.000) than the non-intestinal necrosis group. Complex/compound type of intussusceptions is more likely to have intestinal necrosis. Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of grossly bloody stool (OR = 2.12; 95% CI 1.19-3.76, P = 0.010) and duration of symptom (OR = 1.07; 95% CI 1.06-1.08, P = 0.000) were independent risk factors for intestinal necrosis in patients hospitalized for surgical reduction for intussusceptions. At time of admission, the presence of bloody stools and duration of symptom are the important risk factors for developing intestinal necrosis for those patients who failed non-surgical reduction. The length of illness has the highest sensitivity and specificity to correlate with intestinal necrosis. This finding may suggest that we should take the intussusception cases that have the longer duration of
Schwarz, Frank; Bieling, Katrin; Bonsmann, Martin; Latz, Thilo; Becker, Jürgen
The aim of this controlled, parallel design clinical study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an Er:YAG (erbium-doped:yttrium, aluminum, and garnet) laser for nonsurgical treatment of periimplantitis lesions. Twenty patients, each of whom displayed at least one implant with (a) moderate and (b) advanced periimplantitis (n=40 implants; IMZ, ITI, Spline Twist, ZL-Duraplant, Camlog), were randomly instrumented nonsurgically using either (1) an Er:YAG laser (100 mJ/pulse, 10 Hz) device (LAS) or (2) mechanical debridement using plastic curettes and antiseptic therapy with chlorhexidine digluconate (0.2%) (C). The following clinical parameters were measured at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment: plaque index, bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth, gingival recession, and clinical attachment level (CAL). Mean BOP improved significantly in both groups at 3, 6, and 12 months (a- lesions: P<0.001 and b- lesions: P<0.01, respectively). After 3 and 6 months, the mean reduction of BOP was significantly higher in the LAS group when compared to the C group (a- and b- lesions: P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). At 3 and 6 months, both groups revealed significant CAL gains at a- and b- lesions (P<0.01, respectively). In both groups, however, the mean CAL at a- and b- lesions was not significantly different from the respective baseline values at 12 months (P>0.05, respectively). Although treatment of periimplantitis lesions with LAS resulted in a significantly higher BOP reduction than C, its effectiveness seemed to be limited to a period of 6 months, particularly at b- lesions.
Levin, Liran; Frankenthal, Shai; Joseph, Livia; Rozitsky, Doron; Levi, Guy; Machtei, Eli E
Peri-implant disease following successful integration of an endosseous implant is the result of an imbalance between bacterial load and host defense, which may affect not only the peri-implant mucosa but also involve the supporting bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adjunctive effect of a dental water jet rinse mixed with chlorhexidine gel to the nonsurgical treatment for peri-implantitis. A prospective randomized interventional cohort study was conducted. Forty consecutive patients presenting with peri-implantitis were recruited and randomly assigned into two treatment groups. Initially all patients received scaling/surface debridement and oral hygiene instruction. Patients in the study group received a water jet device containing chlorhexidine gel (Silonite®) for home use twice daily while the control group performed the recommended oral hygiene measures with no water jet usage. Three months following baseline visit, patients were reevaluated clinically and radiographically. In total, 39 patients completed the study and were available for final examination. Three months following baseline visit the test group exhibited greater mean probing depth reduction (0.75 mm vs 0.27 mm; P = .029) as well as greater reduction in the number of sites presenting with bleeding on probing (2.26 vs 0.45 sites; P = .011). No significant change in bone level was observed at 3 months (mean bone gain was 0.18 mm). Water jet mixed with chlorhexidine gel might supplement the response to nonsurgical treatment for peri-implantitis lesions. Further, larger-cohort studies are warranted.
Goslar, Tomaž; Marš, Tomaž; Podbregar, Matej
Previous animal and human studies have suggested that total plasma sulfide plays a role in the pathophysiology of shock. This study's aim was to determine the value of total plasma sulfide as a marker of shock severity in nonsurgical adult patients admitted to the ICU. Forty-one patients, with various types of shock (septic, cardiogenic, obstructive, and hypovolemic), were included in the study, with an average total plasma sulfide concentration of 23.2 ± 26.3 µM. Survivors (of shock) had lower total plasma sulfide concentrations than nonsurvivors (13.0 ± 26.3 vs. 31.9 ± 31.5 µM; P = 0.02). Total plasma sulfide correlated with dose of administered norepinephrine (R linear = 0.829; P = 0.001) and with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score (R cubic = 0.767; P = 0.001). Area under the receiver operating characteristic for total plasma sulfide as a predictor of ICU mortality was 0.739 (confidence interval, 0.587-0.892; P = 0.009). Even after correcting for APACHE II score and lactate values, total plasma sulfide correlated with mortality (odds ratio, 1.058; 95% confidence interval, 1.001-1.118; P = 0.045). The study provides evidence that, in nonsurgical adult ICU patients admitted because of any type of shock, total plasma sulfide correlates with administered norepinephrine dose at admission, severity of disease (APACHE II score ≥30 points), and survival outcome.
Hu, Guofang; Wang, Zhehai; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Qingqing; Tang, Ning; Guo, Jun; Liu, Liyan; Han, Xiao
Background To retrospectively evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (dCRT) with cisplatinum/paclitaxel versus cisplatinum/5-fluorouracil in patients with locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) who received nonsurgical treatment. Methods This study retrospectively evaluated 202 patients with locally advanced ESCC treated at Shandong Cancer Hospital between January 2009 and December 2013. All the patients initially received dCRT, including platinum and paclitaxel or 5-fluorouracil, with concurrent 1.8 or 2 Gy/fraction radiation (total dose, 54–60 Gy). The patient population was divided into two treatment groups: 105 patients who received the cisplatinum/paclitaxel regimen were allocated to group A, and 97 patients who received the cisplatinum/5-fluorouracil regimen were allocated to group B. We compared the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) by various clinical variables, including prior treatment characteristics, major toxicities (mainly in grade 3 and 4 hematological), and response to dCRT. We used the receiver operating curve analysis to determine the optimal cutoff value of clinical stage and radiation dose. The Kaplan–Meier method was used for survival comparison and Cox regression for multivariate analysis. Results Median PFS and OS in group A were significantly better compared with group B (median PFS, 15.9 versus 13.0 months, P=0.016 and median OS, 33.9 versus 23.1 months, P=0.014, respectively). The 1- and 2-year survival rates of the two groups were 82.9% versus 76.3%, and 61.9% versus 47.6%, respectively. The complete response and response rate were 17.1% versus 7.2% (P=0.032) and 52.4% versus 30.9% (P=0.042) in group A and B, respectively. Meanwhile, group B was associated with a significantly lower rate of grade 3/4 overall toxicity than group A (P=0.039). Conclusion Our data showed that patients with locally advanced ESCC in group A had longer PFS and OS compared with
Angel, M A; Gil, M A; Cuello, C; Sanchez-Osorio, J; Gomis, J; Parrilla, I; Vila, J; Colina, I; Diaz, M; Reixach, J; Vazquez, J L; Vazquez, J M; Roca, J; Martinez, E A
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of superovulation protocols in improving the efficiency of embryo donors for porcine nonsurgical deep-uterine (NsDU) embryo transfer (ET) programs. After weaning (24 hours), purebred Duroc sows (2-6 parity) were treated with 1000 IU (n = 27) or 1500 IU (n = 27) of eCG. Only sows with clear signs of estrus 4 to 72 hours after eCG administration were treated with 750 IU hCG at the onset of estrus. Nonhormonally treated postweaning estrus sows (n = 36) were used as a control. Sows were inseminated and subjected to laparotomy on Days 5 to 6 (Day 0 = onset of estrus). Three sows (11.1%) treated with the highest dosage of eCG presented with polycystic ovaries without signs of ovulation. The remaining sows from nonsuperovulated and superovulated groups were all pregnant, with no differences in fertilization rates among groups. The number of CLs and viable embryos was higher (P < 0.05) in the superovulated groups compared with the controls and increased (P < 0.05) with increasing doses of eCG. There were no differences among groups in the number of oocytes and/or degenerated embryos. The number of transferable embryos (morulae and unhatched blastocysts) obtained in pregnant sows was higher (P < 0.05) in the superovulated groups than in the control group. In all groups, there was a significant correlation between the number of CLs and the number of viable and transferable embryos, but the number of CLs and the number of oocytes and/or degenerated embryos were not correlated. A total of 46 NsDU ETs were performed in nonhormonally treated recipient sows, with embryos (30 embryos per transfer) recovered from the 1000-IU eCG, 1500-IU eCG, and control groups. In total, pregnancy and farrowing rates were 75.1% and 73.2%, respectively, with a litter size of 9.4 ± 0.6 piglets born, of which 8.8 ± 0.5 were born alive. There were no differences for any of the reproductive parameters evaluated among groups. In conclusion, our results
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Weidlich, Patricia; Moreira, Carlos Heitor C; Fiorini, Tiago; Musskopf, Marta L; da Rocha, José M; Oppermann, Maria Lucia R; Aass, Anne M; Gjermo, Per; Susin, Cristiano; Rösing, Cassiano K; Oppermann, Rui V
This randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out to assess the effect of comprehensive nonsurgical periodontal treatment and strict plaque control performed during pregnancy on the reduction of preterm and/or low birth weight rates (PTLBW). Three hundred and three women were randomly allocated to receive periodontal treatment either during pregnancy (n = 147, test group) or after delivery (n = 156, control group). During pregnancy, the control group received only one session of supragingival scaling and oral hygiene instruction. In contrast, the test group received comprehensive periodontal treatment including multiple sessions of scaling and root planing, oral hygiene instructions, and frequent maintenance visits. At baseline, periodontal inflammation was observed in approximately 50% of sites and attachment loss affected <15% of sites. Compared to controls, women in the test group had significant reductions in the percentage of sites with plaque (48.5% vs. 10.3%, p < 0.001), gingival bleeding (23.3% vs. 2.5%, p < 0.001), calculus (21.3% vs. 4.1%, p < 0.001), bleeding on probing (38.1% vs. 2.6%, p < 0.001) and probing depth ≥3 mm (19.97% vs. −2.45%, p < 0.001). No significant differences were observed between the groups in the occurrence of PT (11.7% vs. 9.1%, p = 0.57), LBW (5.6 % vs. 4.1%, p = 0.59), and PTLBW (4.15% vs. 2.60%, p = 0.53). Comprehensive periodontal treatment and strict plaque control significantly improved periodontal health; however, no reduction of PTLBW rates was observed. Thus, remaining periodontal inflammation posttreatment cannot explain the lack of effect of periodontal treatment on PTLBW. Clinical relevance This study demonstrated that periodontal diseases may be successfully treated during pregnancy. Our results do not support a potential beneficial effect of periodontal treatment on PTLBW.
Hofstede, Stefanie N; Vliet Vlieland, Thea P M; van den Ende, Cornelia H M; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Marang-van de Mheen, Perla J; van Bodegom-Vos, Leti
National and international evidence-based guidelines for hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) recommend to start with non-surgical treatments, followed by surgical intervention if a patient does not respond sufficiently to non-surgical treatments, but there are indications that these are not optimally used. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which all recommended non-surgical treatments were used by patients with hip or knee OA who receive(d) a total hip or knee replacement, as reported by patients and orthopaedic surgeons. We performed two cross-sectional internet-based surveys among patients and orthopaedic surgeons throughout the Netherlands. 195 OA patients either have undergone total knee arthroplasty or total hip arthroplasty no longer than 12 months ago or being on the waiting list for surgery with a confirmed date within 3 months and 482 orthopaedic surgeons were invited to participate. The use of recommended non-surgical treatments including education about OA/treatment options, lifestyle advice, dietary therapy, physical therapy, acetaminophen, NSAIDs and glucocorticoid injections. 174 OA patients (93%) and 172 orthopaedic surgeons (36%) completed the surveys. Most recommended non-surgical treatments were given to the majority of patients (eg, 80% education about OA, 73% physical therapy, 72% acetaminophen, 80% NSAIDs). However, only 6% of patients and 10% of orthopaedic surgeons reported using a combination of all recommended treatments. Dietary therapy was used least frequently. Only 11% of overweight and 30% of obese participants reported having received dietary therapy and 28% of orthopaedic surgeons reported to prescribe dietary therapy to overweight patients. While most recommended non-surgical treatments were used frequently as single therapy, the combination is used in only a small percentage of OA patients. Especially, use of dietary therapy may be improved to help patients manage their symptoms, and potentially delay the need for
Kan, Shun-Li; Yuan, Zhi-Fang; Chen, Ling-Xiao; Sun, Jing-Cheng; Ning, Guang-Zhi; Feng, Shi-Qing
Introduction Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) commonly cause both acute and chronic back pain, substantial spinal deformity, functional disability and decreased quality of life and increase the risk of future vertebral fractures and mortality. Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP), balloon kyphoplasty (BK) and non-surgical treatment (NST) are mostly used for the treatment of OVCFs. However, which treatment is preferred is unknown. The purpose of this study is to comprehensively review the literature and ascertain the relative efficacy and safety of BK, PVP and NST for patients with OVCFs using a Bayesian network meta-analysis. Methods and analysis We will comprehensively search PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, to include randomided controlled trials that compare BK, PVP or NST for treating OVCFs. The risk of bias for individual studies will be assessed according to the Cochrane Handbook. Bayesian network meta-analysis will be performed to compare the efficacy and safety of BK, PVP and NST. The quality of evidence will be evaluated by GRADE. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval and patient consent are not required since this study is a meta-analysis based on published studies. The results of this network meta-analysis will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal for publication. PROSPERO registration number CRD42016039452; Pre-results. PMID:28093431
Minkalis, Amy L; Vining, Robert D; Long, Cynthia R; Hawk, Cheryl; de Luca, Katie
Although many conservative management options are available for patients with non-surgical shoulder conditions, there is little evidence of their effectiveness. This review investigated one manual therapy approach, thrust manipulation, as a treatment option. A systematic search was conducted of the electronic databases from inception to March 2016: PubMed, PEDro, ICL, CINAHL, and AMED. Two independent reviewers conducted the screening process to determine article eligibility. Inclusion criteria were manuscripts published in peer-reviewed journals with human participants of any age. The intervention included was thrust, or high-velocity low-amplitude, manipulative therapy directed to the shoulder and/or the regions of the cervical or thoracic spine. Studies investigating secondary shoulder pain or lacking diagnostic confirmation procedures were excluded. Methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro scale and the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. The initial search rendered 5041 articles. After screening titles and abstracts, 36 articles remained for full-text review. Six articles studying subacromial impingement syndrome met inclusion criteria. Four studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 2 were uncontrolled clinical studies. Five studies included 1 application of a thoracic spine thrust manipulation and 1 applied 8 treatments incorporating a shoulder joint thrust manipulation. Statistically significant improvements in pain scores were reported in all studies. Three of 4 RCTs compared a thrust manipulation to a sham, and statistical significance in pain reduction was found within the groups but not between them. Clinically meaningful changes in pain were inconsistent; 3 studies reported that scores met minimum clinically important difference, 1 reported scores did not, and 2 were unclear. Four studies found statistically significant improvements in disability; however, 2 were RCTs and did not find statistical significance between the active and sham
Hahn, In Kyun; Kim, Jae Yong; Kim, Myoung Joon; Tchah, Hungwon
Purpose To assess the validity of central corneal thickness (CCT) and corrected intraocular pressure (IOP) values obtained by tono-pachymetry in non-surgical and post-photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) eyes. Methods For the study, 108 young healthy participants and 108 patients who had PRK were enrolled. Measurements were randomly performed by tono-pachymetry, ultrasonic (US) pachymetry, and Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT). CCT measurement by tono-pachymetry was compared to that of US pachymetry. The corrected IOP value obtained by tono-pachymetry was compared to that obtained by US pachymetry and GAT. The corrected IOP from US pachymetry and GAT was calculated using the identical compensation formula built into the tono-pachymetry. Bland-Altman plot and paired t-test were conducted to evaluate the between-method agreements. Results The mean CCT measurement using tono-pachymetry was significantly greater by 7.3 µm in non-surgical eyes (p < 0.001) and 17.8 µm in post-PRK eyes (p < 0.001) compared with US pachymetry. Differences were significant in both Bland-Altman plotand paired t-test. The mean difference of corrected IOP values obtained by tono-pachymetry and calculated from measurements by US pachymetry and GAT was 0.33 ± 0.87 mmHg in non-surgical eyes and 0.57 ± 1.08 mmHg in post-PRK eyes. The differences in the Bland-Altman plot were not significant. Conclusions The CCT measurement determined using tono-pachymetrywas significantly thicker than that of US pachymetry. The difference in CCT was greater in post-PRK eyes than in non-surgical eyes. However, the corrected IOP value obtained by tono-pachymetry showed reasonable agreement with that calculated from US pachymetry and GAT measurements. PMID:28243023
Szopa, Andrzej; Domagalska-Szopa, Małgorzata; Gallert-Kopyto, Weronika; Kiebzak, Wojciech; Plinta, Ryszard
Background Recent studies have reported many possibilities for the treatment of idiopathic toe walking (ITW); however, none of them have been sufficiently documented. The purpose of this case study was to document the evolution of the gait pattern of a child with severe ITW using the Gillette Gait Index before and after the third and sixth weeks, a nonsurgical treatment program and then every 3 months to 1 year from the start of the treatment. This is significant because the case study shows that a nonsurgical treatment program can be an alternative treatment method for children with severe ITW. Case description The case study involved a 5-year-old boy diagnosed with severe ITW. An orthopedist recommended a surgical treatment, but his parents refused to provide consent. Intervention The subject participated in a 12-week nonsurgical treatment program that used tone-inhibiting casts (TICs) combined with physiotherapy based on neurodevelopmental treatment principles. The treatment protocol included the following: 1) precast preparation; 2) TICs with treatment; and 3) post-cast treatment to improve the gait pattern. Outcomes After treatment with TICs, the range of motion of ankle dorsiflexion during stance had increased, resulting in an almost normalized gait. The patient stopped toe walking for at least 1 year. Discussion This study demonstrates that nonsurgical treatment should be considered first, with surgical options reserved for resistant cases; however, further research is required given the current lack of knowledge about treatment outcomes using TICs and the wide use of this treatment modality in children with ITW. PMID:26937193
Zheng, Xiaozuo; Kang, Kai; Li, Tong; Lu, Bo; Dong, Jiangtao; Gao, Shijun
The aim of this up-to-date meta-analysis was to compare the effects of surgical versus non-surgical treatment of patients following primary patellar dislocation and to provide the best evidence currently available. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using multiple databases, including Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Registry of Clinical Trials. All databases were searched from the earliest records to May 2013. Eligible studies were selected, and data were extracted by two independent investigators. The primary outcome variable was the frequency of recurrent patellar dislocation. The other outcomes included knee function scores, patient-rated outcomes, and radiographic examination. If appropriate, meta-analysis of these variables was performed. Nine independent trials were found to match the inclusion criteria. The pooled results demonstrated that the incidence of recurrent patellar dislocation and Hughston visual analog scale was significantly lower in the surgical treatment group than that in the non-surgical treatment group (P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the two treatment groups in frequency of subsequent surgical interventions, percentage of excellent or good subjective opinion, Kujala score, pain score on visual analog scale, and severity of patellofemoral joint osteoarthrosis (P > 0.05). This up-to-date meta-analysis indicates that surgical treatment was associated with a lower risk of recurrent patellar dislocation, but a lower Hughston VAS than non-surgical treatment for primary patellar dislocation. More large high-quality trials and further studies are needed to overcome the limitations of small sample sizes, and varieties of different surgical procedures or non-surgical management strategies adopted in the included trials.
Abolfazli, Nader; Jabali, Sahar; Saleh Saber, Fariba; Babaloo, Zohreh; Shirmohammadi, Adileh
Background and aims. Visfatin, mainly secreted by visceral adipose tissue, especially by macrophages, plays an important role in regulating the defense and immune functions, and functions as a growth factor, a cytokine, an enzyme and more importantly as a proinflammatory mediator. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on serum and salivary levels of visfatin in patients with generalized moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis. Materials and methods. Eighteen patients with generalized moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis were selected based on periodontal parameters of gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and radiographic parameters. Serum and salivary samples were collected at baseline and one month following non-surgical periodontal therapy (scaling and root planing ([SRP]). Visfatin levels were measured using an ELISA kit. Data were analyzed by SPSS 15, using paired t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results. Mean salivary and serum levels of visfatin significantly decreased after non-surgical periodontal treatment (P<0.05). Changes in salivary visfatin levels were more prominent. Conclusion. According to the findings of this study it seems that there is a direct relationship between periodontal tissue inflammation and disease activity with salivary and serum visfatin levels. PMID:25973148
Kiany, Farin; Hedayati, Azita
The present study investigated the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on serum level of anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCLA), which are potentially involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases in periodontal patients. Twenty volunteers (11 females and 9 males) with the mean age of 40.55 years participated in this study. Generalized chronic periodontitis was diagnosed through clinical periodontal examination at baseline visit. This examination included measuring the probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss. Plaque index and gingival index were also recorded. After baseline examination, all the subjects received full-mouth non-surgical periodontal treatment. Subjects returned for a final visit 6 weeks after the last session of scaling for reevaluation of the periodontal parameters. At baseline and final visits 2 ml of venous blood was collected from each patient and an available commercially enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for analyzing aCLA (IgM and IgG). The collected data were analyzed using the paired sample t test. Mean levels of both forms of aCLA, before and after treatment, showed statistically significant difference (P = 0.003 for IgM and P = 0.001 for IgG). In addition, study results showed significant reductions in periodontal parameters after non-surgical periodontal therapy (P < 0.001). The results of this study suggested that successful periodontal therapy can improve the serum level of one of the inflammatory biomarkers involved in the cardiovascular problems.
Söder, P O; Frithiof, L; Wikner, S; Wouters, F; Engström, P E; Rubin, B; Nedlich, U; Söder, B
The effect of adjunctive systemic metronidazole was studied in patients with moderate and advanced periodontitis recalcitrant to comprehensive non-surgical treatment. The material originated from a randomly selected part of the population aged 31 to 40 years. After non-surgical treatment of 149 patients, 98 with persisting pathological pockets greater than or equal to 5 mm (52 men and 46 women) became the subjects for the study. Clinical parameters were registered and pocket contents subjected to laboratory analysis. The subjects were randomized into two groups according to a code list known only by the manufacturer and the statistician. The test group took three 400 mg metronidazole tablets daily for 1 week and the control group took placebo tablets. Reassessment 6 months later showed statistically significant clinical improvement, with a reduction in the number of sites greater than or equal to 5 mm in both test and control groups. Complete healing, with no pockets greater than or equal to 5 mm, was noted in 30% of the test group and 9% of the control group. The difference is statistically significant and shows the supplementary effect of adjunctive metronidazole in non-surgical treatment of moderate and advanced periodontitis.
Azuma, Tetsuji; Yamane, Mayu; Ekuni, Daisuke; Kawabata, Yuya; Kataoka, Kota; Kasuyama, Kenta; Maruyama, Takayuki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Morita, Manabu
Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. A reduction of oxidative stress by drinking hydrogen-rich water (HW) might be beneficial to periodontal health. In this pilot study, we compared the effects of non-surgical periodontal treatment with or without drinking HW on periodontitis. Thirteen patients (3 women, 10 men) with periodontitis were divided into two groups: The control group (n = 6) or the HW group (n = 7). In the HW group, participants consumed HW 4-5 times/day for eight weeks. At two to four weeks, all participants received non-surgical periodontal treatment. Oral examinations were performed at baseline, two, four and eight weeks, and serum was obtained at these time points to evaluate oxidative stress. At baseline, there were no significant differences in periodontal status between the control and HW groups. The HW group showed greater improvements in probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level than the control group at two, four and eight weeks (p < 0.05). The HW group also exhibited an increased serum level of total antioxidant capacity at four weeks, compared to baseline (p < 0.05). Drinking HW enhanced the effects of non-surgical periodontal treatment, thus improving periodontitis.
Matte, J J
A rapid and non-surgical method for jugular catheterization in pigs was set up in 30 piglets of 6.2 kg, 23 pigs of 46 kg and 84 kg and two lactating multiparous sows. The animal was restrained on a V-shaped table (piglets) or with a rope around the mandible (slaughter pigs and sows). The vein was located with the Vacutainer system and a wire guide was inserted into the Vacutainer needle up to the vein lumen. When the needle was removed, the catheter was inserted over the wire guide and advanced until it penetrated the skin and thereafter, the vein wall. The catheter was fixed outside by a large tape and coiled inside a patch just behind the ears. The technique utilizes readily available material and is no more risky for the animal than a single blood sampling. Moreover, it can be performed within 15 to 20 min (including animal restraint) within pens. This new approach might have important implications not only for research purposes by facilitating repeated blood samplings but also for projects which require a rapid and easy method for testing of any kind of pharmaceutical or other type of products under husbandry conditions.
Burton, Martin J; Glasziou, Paul P; Chong, Lee Yee; Venekamp, Roderick P
Surgical removal of the tonsils, with or without adenoidectomy (adeno-/tonsillectomy), is a common ENT operation, but the indications for surgery are controversial. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in The Cochrane Library in Issue 3, 1999 and previously updated in 2009. To assess the effectiveness of tonsillectomy (with and without adenoidectomy) in children and adults with chronic/recurrent acute tonsillitis in reducing the number and severity of episodes of tonsillitis or sore throat. We searched the Cochrane Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders Group Trials Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; Cambridge Scientific Abstracts; ISRCTN and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the most recent search was 30 June 2014. Randomised controlled trials comparing tonsillectomy (with or without adenoidectomy) with non-surgical treatment in adults and children with chronic/recurrent acute tonsillitis. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. This review includes seven trials with low to moderate risk of bias: five undertaken in children (987 participants) and two in adults (156 participants). An eighth trial in adults (40 participants) was at high risk of bias and did not provide any data for analysis. Good information about the effectiveness of adeno-/tonsillectomy is only available for the first year following surgery in children and for a shorter period (five to six months) in adults.We combined data from five trials in children; these trials included children who were 'severely affected' (based on the specific 'Paradise' criteria) and less severely affected. Children who had an adeno-/tonsillectomy had an average of three episodes of sore throats (of any severity) in the first postoperative year, compared to 3.6 episodes in the control group; a difference of 0.6 episodes (95% confidence interval (CI) -1 to
Pereira, Jonathas Xavier; Cavalcante, Yuri; Wanzeler de Oliveira, Riane
Background The adipocytolytic non-surgical esthetic procedures are indicated for the reduction of localized fat and are effective in reducing local adiposity through the ablation of adipocytes with fast and lasting results, besides causing local inflammation. Objective This study aimed to characterize the adipocytolytic procedures and correlate the phases of the inflammatory process with the results obtained from such procedures, in order to clarify the role of inflammation triggered by the adipocytolytic procedures and its relation with the lipolytic process, with a focus on body shaping. Methods This work is an integrative literature review that presents a total of 72 articles published between 1998 and 2015, derived from the PubMed database, in order to establish a relationship between clinical and basic science research, assuming an important role in medical practice based on evidence. Results The results show that the adipocytolytic procedures are characterized by triggering inflammation arising from the disruption of adipocytes by interfering with the lipolytic signaling pathways in both acute and chronic phases of inflammation through the direct action of proinflammatory cytokines or catecholamines. Therefore, inflammation plays an important role in modulating the lipolytic process, influencing body shaping. Conclusion The inflammatory process assists the adipolytic process in all stages of inflammation, contributing to the reduction of body contouring. PMID:28260937
Crispino, Antonio; Figliuzzi, Michele Mario; Iovane, Claudio; Del Giudice, Teresa; Lomanno, Simona; Pacifico, Delfina; Fortunato, Leonzio; Del Giudice, Roberto
Summary Background Chronic periodontitis affects 47% of adult population over the age of 30. The first phase of periodontal treatment is always represented by scaling and root planning (SRP), that is a causal, non-surgical therapy that recognizes as primary aims the control of bacterial infection and the reduction of periodontal plaque-associated inflammation. Yet, another innovative causal therapy is represented by the irradiation of periodontal pockets with laser. Aim To evaluate the effect of a 940-nm diode laser as an adjunct to SRP in patients affected by periodontitis. Materials and methods Sixty-eight adult patients with moderate-to-severe periodontitis were sequentially enrolled and undergone to periodontal examination (V1) in order to detect gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI) and probing depth (PD). The patients were randomly divided into two groups: the first (n=34) received SRP treatment alone, the control group (n=34) received SRP and 940-nm diode laser therapy. Results Data were analyzed by Student’s t-test, with two tails; for all clinical parameters, both groups reported statistically significant differences compared to basal values (p<0.0001). Both procedures were effective in improving GI, PI and PD, but the use of diode laser was associated with more evident results. Conclusions Considered the better clinical outcomes, diode laser can be routinely associated with SRP in the treatment of periodontal pockets of patients with moderate-to-severe periodontitis. PMID:26161248
Gupta, Sonia; Jawanda, Manveen Kaur; Arora, Vikram; Mehta, Nishant; Yadav, Vipul
Without pigments, we are nothing. Life presents us with a kaleidoscope of colors. From the green grass of home to a forest's ruddy autumn hues, we are surrounded by living colors. Living things obtain their colors, with few exceptions, from natural pigments. In addition to their role in coloration, natural pigments carry out a variety of important biological functions. Of the various classes of pigments in nature, the carotenoids are among the most widespread and important ones, especially due to their varied functions. Lycopene is a red plant pigment found in tomatoes, apricots, guavas, watermelons, papayas, and pink grapefruits, with tomatoes being the largest contributor to the dietary intake of humans. Lycopene exhibits higher singlet oxygen quenching ability. Due to its strong color and nontoxicity, it is a useful food coloring agent. Moreover, it plays a multifunctional role as a nonsurgical aid in the treatment of oral diseases like leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, lichen planus, oral squamous cell carcinoma, and also prevents the destruction of periodontal tissues. This review article focuses mainly on the role of lycopene in the prevention of various oral diseases. PMID:26330986
Brugada, Josep; Berruezo, Antonio; Cuesta, Alejandro; Osca, Joaquin; Chueca, Enrique; Fosch, Xavier; Wayar, Luis; Mont, Lluis
The purpose of this study was to analyze the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of epicardial radiofrequency (RF) ablation in patients with incessant ventricular tachycardia (VT). Management of patients with incessant VT is a difficult clinical problem. Drugs and RF catheter ablation are not always effective. A nonsurgical transthoracic epicardial RF ablation can be an alternative in patients refractory to conventional therapy. Epicardial RF ablation was performed in 10 patients who presented with incessant VT despite the use of two or more intravenous antiarrhythmic drugs. In eight patients, endocardial ablation (EdA) failed to control the tachycardia. In the remaining two patients, epicardial ablation (EpA) was first attempted because of left ventricular thrombus and severe artery disease, respectively. Eight patients had a diagnosis of coronary artery disease with healed myocardial infarction. One patient had dilated cardiomyopathy, and one patient had idiopathic, incessant VT. In patients with structural heart disease, the mean ejection fraction was 0.28 +/- 0.10%. Four patients previously received an implantable defibrillator. The EpA effectively terminated the incessant tachycardia in eight patients, which represents a success rate of 80%. In them, after a follow-up of 18 +/- 18 months, a single episode of a different VT was documented in one patient. No significant complications occurred related to the procedure. In patients with incessant VT despite the use of drugs or standard EdA, the epicardial approach was very effective and should be considered as an alternative in this life-threatening situation.
Schneider, Eric W; Johnson, Mark W
With the dissemination of optical coherence tomography over the past two decades, the role of persistent vitreomacular adhesion (VMA) in the development of numerous macular pathologies – including idiopathic macular hole, vitreomacular traction syndrome, cystoid and diabetic macular edema, neovascularization in diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion, exudative age-related macular degeneration, and myopic traction maculopathy – has been established. While invasive vitreoretinal procedures have long been utilized to address complications related to these disorders, such an approach is hampered by incomplete vitreoretinal separation and vitreous removal, surgical complications, and high costs. In light of such limitations, investigators have increasingly looked to nonsurgical means for the treatment of persistent pathologic VMA. Chief among these alternative measures is the intravitreal application of pharmacologic agents for the induction of vitreous liquefaction and/or vitreoretinal separation, an approach termed pharmacologic vitreolysis. This article aims to review the available evidence regarding the use of pharmacologic agents in the treatment of VMA-related pathology. In addition, a discussion of vitreous molecular organization and principles of physiologic posterior vitreous detachment is provided to allow for a consideration of vitreolytic agent mode of action and molecular targets. PMID:21887098
Nair, Rajeshwari; Perencevich, Eli N; Blevins, Amy E; Goto, Michihiko; Nelson, Richard E; Schweizer, Marin L
A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was performed to identify effectiveness of mupirocin decolonization in prevention of Staphylococcus aureus infections, among nonsurgical settings. Of the 15 662 unique studies identified up to August 2015, 13 randomized controlled trials, 22 quasi-experimental studies, and 1 retrospective cohort study met the inclusion criteria. Studies were excluded if mupirocin was not used for decolonization, there was no control group, or the study was conducted in an outbreak setting. The crude risk ratios were pooled (cpRR) using a random-effects model. We observed substantial heterogeneity among included studies (I(2) = 80%). Mupirocin was observed to reduce the risk for S. aureus infections by 59% (cpRR, 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], .36-.48) and 40% (cpRR, 0.60; 95% CI, .46-.79) in both dialysis and nondialysis settings, respectively. Mupirocin decolonization was protective against S. aureus infections among both dialysis and adult intensive care patients. Future studies are needed in other settings such as long-term care and pediatrics. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Steele, Kendra H; Hester, James M; Stone, Barbara J; Carrico, Kimberly M; Spear, Brett T; Fath-Goodin, Angelika
The use of a murine nonsurgical embryo transfer (NSET) device had been described previously for the transfer of blastocysts, morulae, DNA-microinjected embryos, and embryonic stem cell-containing embryos to create genetically modified mice. However, physiologic effects of the NSET device and traditional surgical methods had not been compared directly. Here we used electrocardiography and fecal corticosterone levels to monitor pseudopregnant mice that underwent anesthesia only, the NSET procedure with or without anesthesia, or surgery. These procedures were performed without the use of actual embryos, to focus on effects of the procedures themselves rather than on any physiologic effects due to the deposition of embryos. As compared with surgery and anesthesia, the NSET procedure was associated with less fluctuation in cardiac rhythm and lower levels of the stress biomarker fecal corticosterone. These results indicate that use of the NSET device avoids these physi- ological perturbations as well as other disadvantages of surgery (for example, postoperative pain and need for postoperative analgesia) and therefore provides a valuable refinement of existing mouse embryo transfer procedures.
Beppu, S; Masuda, Y; Sakakibara, H; Izumi, S; Park, Y D; Nagata, S; Miyatake, K; Nimura, Y
Abnormal septal motion on M mode echocardiography was seen in eight of 16 patients soon after non-surgical closure of the ductus arteriosus. Ten to twenty-nine months after the procedure the abnormal septal motion had disappeared spontaneously. The cross section of the left ventricular cavity was circular both when septal motion was abnormal and when it was normal. Cross sectional echocardiography showed that there was an exaggerated anterior swinging motion of the heart in systole in patients with abnormal septal motion on the M mode recordings. The left ventricular end diastolic diameter before closure was significantly larger, and its reduction after closure was more pronounced in those with abnormal septal motion than in those without. This suggested that the abnormal septal motion was associated with relief of long standing left ventricular volume overload. It is suggested that acute shrinkage of the heart caused temporary laxity of the pericardium, and consequently more movement of the heart within the thorax. The return of normal septal motion suggests that the pericardium gradually shrank to accommodate the smaller heart.
Sasi, P; English, M; Berkley, J; Lowe, B; Shebe, M; Mwakesi, R; Kokwaro, G
Metabolic acidosis is associated with most severe malaria deaths in African children, and most deaths occur before maximum antimalarial action is achieved. Thus, specific acidosis treatment may reduce mortality. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood and no specific interventions have been developed. A detailed characterisation of this acidosis is critical in treatment development. We used the traditional and Stewart's approach to characterise acidosis in consecutive paediatric admissions for malaria and other acute non-surgical conditions to Kilifi District Hospital in Kenya. The overall acidosis prevalence was 21%. Gastroenteritis had the highest prevalence (61%). Both the mean albumin-corrected anion gap and the strong ion gap were high (>13 mmol/l and >0 mmol/l, respectively) in malaria, gastroenteritis, lower respiratory tract infection and malnutrition. Presence of salicylate in plasma was not associated with acidosis but was associated with signs of severe illness (odds ratio 2.11, 95% CI 1.1-4.2). In malaria, mean (95% CI) strong ion gap was 15 (14-7) mmol/l, and lactate, creatinine and inorganic phosphorous explained only approximately 40% of the variability in base excess (adjusted R2 = 0.397). Acidosis may be more common than previously recognised amongst paediatric admissions in Africa and is characterised by the presence of currently unidentified strong anions. In malaria, lactate and ketones, but not salicylate, are associated with acidosis. However, unidentified anions may be more important.
Crispino, Antonio; Figliuzzi, Michele Mario; Iovane, Claudio; Del Giudice, Teresa; Lomanno, Simona; Pacifico, Delfina; Fortunato, Leonzio; Del Giudice, Roberto
Chronic periodontitis affects 47% of adult population over the age of 30. The first phase of periodontal treatment is always represented by scaling and root planning (SRP), that is a causal, non-surgical therapy that recognizes as primary aims the control of bacterial infection and the reduction of periodontal plaque-associated inflammation. Yet, another innovative causal therapy is represented by the irradiation of periodontal pockets with laser. To evaluate the effect of a 940-nm diode laser as an adjunct to SRP in patients affected by periodontitis. Sixty-eight adult patients with moderate-to-severe periodontitis were sequentially enrolled and undergone to periodontal examination (V1) in order to detect gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI) and probing depth (PD). The patients were randomly divided into two groups: the first (n=34) received SRP treatment alone, the control group (n=34) received SRP and 940-nm diode laser therapy. Data were analyzed by Student's t-test, with two tails; for all clinical parameters, both groups reported statistically significant differences compared to basal values (p<0.0001). Both procedures were effective in improving GI, PI and PD, but the use of diode laser was associated with more evident results. Considered the better clinical outcomes, diode laser can be routinely associated with SRP in the treatment of periodontal pockets of patients with moderate-to-severe periodontitis.
Zare, Davoud; Haerian, Ahmad; Molla, Reza
Introduction: Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease, for which, scaling and root planning(SRP) is the common approach for non-surgical control of inflammation. Using lasers is anotherapproach in the first phase of periodontal treatment for control of inflammation. Diode laserhas some beneficial effects such as acceleration of wound healing, promotion of angiogenesisand augmentation of growth factor release. Thus the aim of this study is the evaluation of diodelaser (980 nm) effect on gingival inflammation when it is used between the first and secondphase of periodontal treatment, in comparison with common treatment (SRP) modality alone. Methods: In this study, 21 patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis were selectedand divided in to control group (SRP) and test group (SRP + laser). Two months after the lastscaling and laser radiation, indexes including gingival level (GL), bleeding on probing (BOP)and modified gingival index (MGI) were recorded and compared with baseline. Results: Two months after the beginning of the study, all indices improved in both groups. Theindices were not different between two groups except for BOP which was lower in laser group. Conclusion: Based on overall improvement in parameters such as superiority of laser applicationin some indices, lack of thermal damage and gingival recession with the specific settings usedin this study, the application of laser as an adjunctive treatment together with common methodsis preferable. PMID:25606336
Chen, Yi-Jane; Yao, Chung-Chen Jane; Chang, Hsin-Fu
Treatment modalities for Class II Division 2 malocclusion include growth modification, dental compensation, and surgical-orthodontic therapy; which treatment is chosen depends on the patient's age and growth potential. Deep overbite can be corrected by intrusion of anterior teeth, extrusion of posterior teeth, or a combination of both. Treatment considerations include the patient's facial profile, skeletal pattern, growth potential, and severity of dental malocclusion. Here, we present the nonsurgical orthodontic treatment of an adult patient with deep overbite and underlying skeletal Class II discrepancy. He had a hypodivergent facial pattern, Class II Division 2 malocclusion, and traumatic deep overbite due to supereruption of the mandibular anterior teeth. He refused orthognathic surgery but would accept orthodontic treatment alone, with the understanding that the treatment results could be compromised. We corrected the deep overbite by proclining the mandibular incisors; this helped to level the exaggerated curve of Spee. The posttreatment occlusion was significantly improved, both functionally and esthetically, with stable interincisal contacts. However, the improvement in occlusion and esthetics was achieved at the expense of reduced periodontal support for the mandibular anterior teeth.
Olate, Sergio; Lima, Sergio Monteiro; Sawazaki, Renato; Moreira, Roger William Fernandez; de Moraes, Márcio
The aim of this retrospective research was to establish the association between variables for the surgical treatment of zygomatic complex (ZC) fractures. In a 10-year period, 532 patients were examined for ZC fractures. The medical records of patients were analyzed to obtain information related to sociodemographic characteristics, trauma etiology, sign and symptoms of patients, and surgical or nonsurgical treatment. Statistical analysis was performed using χ test with statistical significance of P < 0.05. Most fractures were sustained by subjects between 21 and 40 years of age (55.8%), being principally men (80.1%), and 153 patients underwent surgery (28.8%). Surgical treatment of ZC fractures was statistically associated to the presence of other facial fractures (P = 0.004), alteration of occlusion (P = 0.0001; probably due to jaw fractures), presence of the comminuted fractures (P = 0.0002), and infraorbital nerve sensory disturbances (P = 0.003). A mixture of complex variables can be associated to surgical treatment; however, variables as comminuted fracture and alteration of occlusion were associated to surgical treatment indications.
Smith, C A; Ficken, M D
A nonsurgical cannulation technique for blood collections from mature swine was evaluated. Primiparous Yorkshire-Landrace sows (n = 6) received an indwelling jugular vein cannulae for 7 days duration. Recannulation was performed at monthly intervals for a total of 14 months. During cannulation, sows were restrained in a standing position using a rope snout snare. A 12-gauge by 10 cm needle was inserted into the jugular vein. Sterilized polyvinyl chloride tubing was advanced through the needle into the vein and a blunted 18-gauge needle and attached intermittent injection hub was inserted into the free end of the tubing. Surgical tape was used to form a butterfly on the tubing by suturing the tape to the animals' skin. Foam padding, livestock cement, and elastic tape helped to keep the tubing in position. Problems with cannulae patency and maintenance were few. No behavioral problems or systemic signs of illness were noted and necropsy examinations performed after the final cannulation revealed few abnormalities associated with chronic intermittent cannulation. This technique provides a safe, quick, effective means for multiple and repeated cannulae placement for blood collection from mature swine with minimal effects on the animal and without the risks associated with surgical techniques.
Listl, Stefan; Frühauf, Nadine; Dannewitz, Bettina; Weis, Christiane; Tu, Yu-Kang; Chang, Huei-Ju; Faggion, Clovis M
The purpose of the present study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of various alternatives of non-surgical peri-implantitis treatment. A decision analytical model was constructed and populated with parameter estimates from recent literature for reduction in pocket probing depth (PPD) in response to eight different treatment alternatives. A micro-costing approach combined with an online expert survey was applied to simulate a decision-making scenario taking place in Germany. The treatment alternatives providing the most advantageous cost/outcome combinations were identified according to the net benefit criterion. Uncertainties regarding model input parameters were incorporated via simple and probabilistic sensitivity analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation. In the base case scenario, debridement alone, Air-Flow, debridement combined with PerioChip, and debridement combined with local antibiotics were identified as treatment strategies with comparably better value for money than Er:YAG laser monotherapy, Vector System, debridement combined with CHX, and photodynamic therapy. Sensitivity analysis revealed considerable decision uncertainty corresponding to limited evidence about different treatment alternatives for peri-implantitis treatment. Derivation of robust treatment recommendations for peri-implantitis requires more comprehensive and patient-centred evidence on peri-implantitis treatments. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Schmitz-Rode, T; Ross, P L; Timmermans, H; Thurmond, A S; Günther, R W; Rösch, J
A simple, nonsurgical female sterilization method involving fallopian tube catheterization under fluoroscopic guidance and implantation of microspindles was investigated in laboratory animals. A self-expanding microspindle made from tubular metal mesh was implanted in a single fallopian tube of 12 New Zealand Cross rabbits through catheterization of a single uterus. The contralateral fallopian tube and uterus served as controls. 8 rabbits completed three cycles of breeding and pregnancy; 2 rabbits had one pregnancy and 2 rabbits did not conceive (one presumably because of incorrect spindle placement). Successful contraception was achieved in 9 rabbits, who had 25 gestations on the nonspindle side and none on the spindle side. The rabbit with bilateral pregnancy (the recipient of the shortest spindle) represents one contraceptive failure in a total of 26 valid cycles. At autopsy, all spindles were firmly embedded in the tubal wall with no signs of inflammation. Complete obstruction of the interior space of the spindle was absent in all cases, indicating that complete occlusion of the tubal lumen was not the mechanism of action. A more likely explanation for the contraceptive effect observed in this study is the impairment of contractility of the spindle-carrying segment of the fallopian tube. These findings suggest that microspindles of a certain minimum length merit further investigation as a transcervically implantable, permanent intratubal contraceptive device.
Frances, Laura; Pascual, Jose C; Leiva-Salinas, Maria; Betlloch, Isabel
Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is an intraepithelial adenocarcinoma usually localized in areas rich in apocrine sweat glands. Surgery remains the treatment of choice for EMPD. However, several nonsurgical treatments have been also described. Around 40 cases of EMPD treated with imiquimod 5% have been published; of these, only six correspond to nonresponses. We describe a recurrent vulvar EMPD with failure to respond to topical imiquimod 5% in monotherapy but a favorable response to its association with tazarotene.
Polly, David W.; Wine, Kathryn D.; Whang, Peter G.; Frank, Clay J.; Harvey, Charles F.; Lockstadt, Harry; Glaser, John A.; Limoni, Robert P.; Sembrano, Jonathan N.
BACKGROUND: Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) dysfunction is a prevalent cause of chronic, unremitting lower back pain. OBJECTIVE: To concurrently compare outcomes after surgical and nonsurgical treatment for chronic SIJ dysfunction. METHODS: A total of 148 subjects with SIJ dysfunction were randomly assigned to minimally invasive SIJ fusion with triangular titanium implants (n = 102) or nonsurgical management (n = 46). Pain, disability, and quality-of-life scores were collected at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Success rates were compared using Bayesian methods. Crossover from nonsurgical to surgical care was allowed after the 6-month study visit was complete. RESULTS: Six-month success rates were higher in the surgical group (81.4% vs 26.1%; posterior probability of superiority > 0.9999). Clinically important (≥ 15 point) Oswestry Disability Index improvement at 6 months occurred in 73.3% of the SIJ fusion group vs 13.6% of the nonsurgical management group (P < .001). At 12 months, improvements in SIJ pain and Oswestry Disability Index were sustained in the surgical group. Subjects who crossed over had improvements in pain, disability, and quality of life similar to those in the original surgical group. Adverse events were slightly more common in the surgical group (1.3 vs 1.1 events per subject; P = .31). CONCLUSION: This Level 1 study showed that minimally invasive SIJ fusion using triangular titanium implants was more effective than nonsurgical management at 1 year in relieving pain, improving function, and improving quality of life in patients with SIJ dysfunction caused by degenerative sacroiliitis or SIJ disruptions. Pain, disability, and quality of life also improved after crossover from nonsurgical to surgical treatment. ABBREVIATIONS: EQ-5D, EuroQoL-5D INSITE, Investigation of Sacroiliac Fusion Treatment MCS, mental component summary NSM, nonsurgical management ODI, Oswestry Disability Index PCS, physical component summary RFA, radiofrequency ablation SF
Ashrafian, Hutan; Toma, Tania; Rowland, Simon P; Harling, Leanne; Tan, Alan; Efthimiou, Evangelos; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a well-recognised complication of obesity. Non-surgical weight loss (medical, behavioural and lifestyle interventions) may improve OSA outcomes, although long-term weight control remains challenging. Bariatric surgery offers a successful strategy for long-term weight loss and symptom resolution. To comparatively appraise bariatric surgery vs. non-surgical weight loss interventions in OSA treatment utilising body mass index (BMI) and apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) as objective measures of weight loss and apnoea severity. A systematic literature review revealed 19 surgical (n = 525) and 20 non-surgical (n = 825) studies reporting the primary endpoints of BMI and AHI before and after intervention. Data were meta-analysed using random effects modelling. Subgroup analysis, quality scoring and risk of bias were assessed. Surgical patients had a mean pre-intervention BMI of 51.3 and achieved a significant 14 kg/m(2) weighted decrease in BMI (95%CI [11.91, 16.44]), with a 29/h weighted decrease in AHI (95%CI [22.41, 36.74]). Non-surgical patients had a mean pre-intervention BMI of 38.3 and achieved a significant weighted decrease in BMI of 3.1 kg/m(2) (95%CI [2.42, 3.79]), with a weighted decrease in AHI of 11/h (95%CI [7.81, 14.98]). Heterogeneity was high across all outcomes. Both bariatric surgery and non-surgical weight loss may have significant beneficial effects on OSA through BMI and AHI reduction. However, bariatric surgery may offer markedly greater improvement in BMI and AHI than non-surgical alternatives. Future studies must address the lack of randomised controlled and comparative trials in order to confirm the exact relationship between metabolic surgery and non-surgical weight loss interventions in OSA resolution.
Chan, Kenneth H; Tom, Henry; Lee, Robert C; Kang, Hobin; Simon, Jacob C; Staninec, Michal; Darling, Cynthia L; Pelzner, Roger B; Fried, Daniel
Studies have shown that cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) can be used to image the internal structure of carious lesions in vivo. The objective of this study was to show that CP-OCT can be used to monitor changes in the internal structure of early active carious lesions on smooth surfaces during non-surgical intervention with fluoride. Lesions on the smooth surfaces of teeth were imaged using CP-OCT on 17 test subjects. Lesion structural changes were monitored during fluoride varnish application at 6-week intervals for 30 weeks. The lesion depth (Ld ), integrated reflectivity (ΔR), and surface zone thickness (Sz ) were monitored. A distinct transparent surface zone that may be indicative of lesion arrestment was visible in CP-OCT images on 62/63 lesions before application of fluoride varnish. The lesion depth and internal structure were resolved for all the lesions. The overall change in the mean values for Ld , ΔR, and Sz for all the lesions was minimal and was not significant during the study (P > 0.05). Only 5/63 lesions manifested a significant increase in Sz during intervention. Even though it appears that most of the lesions manifested little change with fluoride varnish application in the 30 weeks of the study, CP-OCT was able to measure the depth and internal structure of all the lesions including the thickness of the important transparent surface zone located at the surface of the lesions, indicating that CP-OCT is ideally suited for monitoring lesion severity in vivo. Lasers Surg. Med. 48:915-923, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kuribayashi, Yuri; Tsushima, Fumihiko; Morita, Kei-Ichi; Matsumoto, Kanako; Sakurai, Jinkyo; Uesugi, Atsushi; Sato, Kiyoshi; Oda, Seiichiro; Sakamoto, Kei; Harada, Hiroyuki
The standard treatments for oral leukoplakia range from careful observation to complete resection. No surgical intervention is chosen for several supposable reasons. Surgical treatment and no surgical treatment for oral leukoplakia have no defined basis for comparisons, and few studies have reported on the long-term outcomes of oral leukoplakia without surgery. This study aimed to identify the important factors using a long-term wait-and-see policy in patients with oral leukoplakia. In total, 237 lesions from 218 patients selected for non-surgical therapy between 2001 and 2010 were analyzed. On the basis of long-term follow-up data, lesions were classified as unchanged, reduced, disappeared, expanded, and malignantly transformed. In total, 135 (57.0%) lesions remained unchanged, 30 (12.7%) lesions were characterized by a reduction in size or clinical severity, and 44 (18.6%) lesions had disappeared. Another 17 (7.2%) lesions resulted in spread or clinical deterioration, and 11 (4.6%) lesions developed oral squamous cell carcinoma. We demonstrated a cumulative malignant transformation rate of 11.6% in 10years without resection. The lesions that were nonhomogeneous, and higher degree of epithelial dysplasia, located on the tongue were likely to progress into cancer. In addition, 32.5% of lesions without surgical treatment were reduced or disappeared. There is a possibility that removal of considerable irritation for a long time contributes to the treatment of this disease. The development of appropriate treatments for oral leukoplakia is required, which will enable successful differentiation between surgical and observation cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Giassin, Nantin Panagiota; Apatzidou, Danae Anastasia; Solomou, Katerina; Mateo, Luis R; Panagakos, Fotinos S; Konstantinidis, Antonis
To determine the efficacy of a desensitizing regimen compared to a control in preventing the occurrence and/or alleviating dentin/root sensitivity (DRS) following non-surgical (NSPT) and surgical periodontal treatment (SPT). Seventy-four chronic-periodontitis patients (CPP) were randomized into a test group (n = 38) using an in-office prophylaxis paste and a toothpaste at home both containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate (Pro-Argin(™) Technology) or into a control group (n = 36) receiving a fluoride-free prophylaxis paste and a fluoride toothpaste. The examiner applied the assigned paste onto selected teeth for 3 s following NSPT and for 60 s before flap closure. Patients brushed with the assigned toothpaste twice daily throughout the study. DRS to air stimulus was assessed by the Schiff scale (0-3) and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS: 0-100 mm) six times over 17 weeks. In the test group, VAS scores significantly decreased at 8, 11 and 17 weeks from baseline (p ≤ 0.003) and Schiff scores at 8 and 11 weeks from baseline (p ≤ 0.014). The control group exhibited significant increases in VAS and Schiff during the study period (p ≤ 0.006). Marked inter-group differences were noted at all time points (p < 0.001). The combined use of desensitizing products (8% arginine and calcium carbonate) in-office and at-home prevented DRS development and maintained this effect for 17 weeks following NSPT and SPT. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wong, Amy WY; Zhang, Chengfei; Chu, Chun-hung
Conventional endodontic treatment used to require multiple visits, but some clinicians have suggested that single-visit treatment is superior. Single-visit endodontic treatment and multiple-visit endodontic treatment both have their advantages and disadvantages. This paper is a literature review of the research on nonsurgical single-visit versus multiple-visit endodontic treatment. The PubMed database was searched using the keywords (endodontic treatment OR endodontic therapy OR root canal treatment OR root canal therapy) AND (single-visit OR one-visit OR 1-visit). Review papers, case reports, data studies, and irrelevant reports were excluded, and 47 papers on clinical trials were reviewed. The studies generally had small sample sizes, and the endodontic procedures varied among the studies. Meta-analysis on the selected studies was performed, and the results showed that the postoperative complications of the single-visit and multiple-visit endodontic treatment were similar. Furthermore, neither single-visit endodontic treatment nor multiple-visit treatment had superior results over the other in terms of healing or success rate. Results of limited studies on disinfection of the root canals using low-energy laser photodynamic therapy is inconclusive, and further studies are necessary to show whether laser should be used in endodontic treatment. This review also found that that neither single-visit endodontic treatment nor multiple-visit treatment could guarantee the absence of postoperative pain. Since the study design of many studies displayed significant limitation and the materials and equipment used in endodontic treatment have dramatically changed in recent years, prospective randomized clinical trials are needed to further verify the postoperative pain and success rates of single-visit versus multiple-visit endodontic treatment. PMID:24855389
Henehan, Michael; Shiple, Brian; Coppola, Gregory
To survey graduates of nonsurgical sports medicine fellowship training programs about the quality and content of their educational curriculum. Survey. Participants were year 2000 active members of the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) and American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine (AOASM) and all other attendees at the 2000 AOASM and AMSSM annual meetings. The survey also was sent to candidates sitting for the 1999 CAQ examination from the American Board of Family Practice, American Board of Internal Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, and American Academy of Pediatrics. A total of 1608 surveys were distributed; 612 were returned for a return rate of 43%. Of respondents, 294 were fellowship trained, and 318 considered themselves to be sports medicine physicians but were not fellowship trained. Sections of the survey completed only by fellowship-trained physicians and focusing on training curriculum are reported in this article. Categories of survey questions included clinical experience, curriculum, academic activities, research, teaching experiences, primary care skills, procedures, types of athletes seen during training, supervision, and benefits. General attitudes about fellowship training also were surveyed: 99% of graduates were satisfied with their training and would do a fellowship again, and 98% felt they their training prepared them for a career in sports medicine. Orthopaedic experiences and physical examination skills were rated the highest. Research experience, work with disabled athletes, and selected areas of nonorthopaedic medical training, such as sports ophthalmology and sports psychology, were rated the lowest. Overall, fellowship training in sports medicine seems to be satisfactory to fellowship graduates. Strengths and weaknesses in training programs were identified.
Aujla, Randeep; Kumar, Amit; Bhatia, Maneesh
The treatment of acute Achilles tendon ruptures is continually being debated. The success of non-surgical regimes is now evident yet there remains a high rate of surgery in the United States of America and Scandinavia. Recent studies have investigated functional outcome rather than complication rates as primary outcome but the current data are still sparse. We aimed to investigate whether there is any difference in functional outcomes between two dynamic regimes of differing durations for acute Achilles tendon ruptures. The patients in the two groups were matched for age, gender, follow-up duration and mechanism of injury. Forty-four patients were managed in a regime of 11 weeks and another 44 patients for 8 weeks. Demographics, injury details, complications and functional outcome were recorded. The validated Achilles Tendon Rupture Score (ATRS) was used to assess functional outcomes. Minimum follow-up was 1 year. The 11-week group had a mean age of 50.8 years (range: 27-80) with 36 (82%) males. The 8-week group had a mean age of 52.0 years (range: 32-77) with 36 (82%) males. The mean ATRS for the 11-week group was 76.0 (range: 8-100). The mean ATRS for the 8-week group was 76.1 (range: 30-100). There were no re-ruptures in the 11-week group and one in the 8-week group. There were three episodes of venous thromboembolism in the 11-week group and four in the 8-week group. A reduction in duration of dynamic rehabilitation for non-operative treatment of Achilles tendon rupture from 11 weeks to 8 weeks does not lead to a significant detriment in functional outcomes or complication rates. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Jason Y; Kerbl, David C; McDougall, Elspeth M; Mucksavage, Phillip
Medical students pursue different career paths based on a variety of factors. We sought to examine the impact of innate manual dexterity, both perceived and objective, on the career interests of medical students. Third-year medical students from the University of California, Irvine were recruited for this study. Subjects completed a pretest questionnaire followed by assessment of gross and fine motor dexterity using the Purdue Pegboard test. A total of 6 independent trials were performed, 3 for each hand. The scores were recorded as an integer value between 0 and 25. A statistical analysis was performed using student t tests, the Fischer exact test, or the χ(2) test, where appropriate. A total of 100 students completed the questionnaire while 58 completed the dexterity testing. Students interested in a surgical field (SF) were similar in handedness, gender, video game exposure, and learning style as those interested in a nonsurgical field (NSF). In the SF group, "personal skill set" was reported as the most common factor influencing career selection, and "interest in disease process/patient population" was reported most commonly by NSF students (p = 0.015). Although a perceived innate manual dexterity was higher among SF students compared with NSF students (p = 0.032), no significant objective differences were found in right hand, left hand, or combined dexterity scores. Perceived "personal skill set" may influence strongly a medical student's career choice. Despite greater perceived manual dexterity, students interested in an SF do not have greater objective innate manual dexterity than those interested in an NSF. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oakden, Wendy; Kwiecien, Jacek M; O'Reilly, Meaghan A; Dabrowski, Wojciech; Whyne, Cari; Finkelstein, Joel; Hynynen, Kullervo; Stanisz, Greg J
Quantitative T2 (qT2), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and histology were used to investigate a cervical model of spinal cord injury (SCI) in the rat. While quantitative MRI can significantly increase the specificity in the presence of pathology, it must be validated for each type of injury or disease. In the case of traumatic SCI most models are difficult to image, either due to the location of the injury, or as a result of damage to surrounding tissues resulting from invasive surgical procedures. In this study a non-surgical cervical model of SCI, produced using a combination of focused ultrasound and microbubbles, was used to produce pathology similar to that seen in models of contusive and compressive injuries. qT2 and DTI were performed at 24 h and 1 and 2 weeks following injury, and compared with H&E and luxol fast blue histology. In the injured spinal cord, in addition to intra/extracellular (I/E) water and myelin water in white matter, qT2 revealed a large component with very short T2 of about 3 ms, which was highly correlated with the presence of hemorrhage in both gray and white matter at 24 h, and with the presence of hemosiderin in gray matter at 2 weeks following injury. The T2 of the I/E water peak was also elevated at 24 h in both gray and white matter, which was correlated with the presence of vacuolation/edema on histology. Cystic cavities were only seen at the 1 or 2 week timepoints, and were correlated with the presence of a water peak with T2 > 250 ms. No significant changes in diffusivity parameters were observed. Pathologies were often co-occurring, with opposite effects on the average T2 in a given voxel, reducing the visibility of injured tissue on standard T2 -weighted MR images. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Adams, Ted D.; Pendleton, Robert C.; Strong, Michael B.; Kolotkin, Ronette L.; Walker, James M.; Litwin, Sheldon E.; Berjaoui, Wael K.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Cloward, Tom V.; Avelar, Erick; Owan, Theophilus E.; Nuttall, Robert T.; Gress, Richard E.; Crosby, Ross D.; Hopkins, Paul N.; Brinton, Eliot A.; Rosamond, Wayne D.; Wiebke, Gail A.; Yanowitz, Frank G.; Farney, Robert J.; Halverson, R. Chad; Simper, Steven C.; Smith, Sherman C.; Hunt, Steven C.
Favorable health outcomes at 2 years postbariatric surgery have been reported. With exception of the Swedish Obesity Subjects (SOS) study, these studies have been surgical case series, comparison of surgery types, or surgery patients compared to subjects enrolled in planned nonsurgical intervention. This study measured gastric bypass effectiveness when compared to two separate severely obese groups not participating in designed weight-loss intervention. Three groups of severely obese subjects (N = 1,156, BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2) were studied: gastric bypass subjects (n = 420), subjects seeking gastric bypass but did not have surgery (n = 415), and population-based subjects not seeking surgery (n = 321). Participants were studied at baseline and 2 years. Quantitative outcome measures as well as prevalence, incidence, and resolution rates of categorical health outcome variables were determined. All quantitative variables (BMI, blood pressure, lipids, diabetes-related variables, resting metabolic rate (RMR), sleep apnea, and health-related quality of life) improved significantly in the gastric bypass group compared with each comparative group (all P < 0.0001, except for diastolic blood pressure and the short form (SF-36) health survey mental component score at P < 0.01). Diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension resolved much more frequently in the gastric bypass group than in the comparative groups (all P < 0.001). In the surgical group, beneficial changes of almost all quantitative variables correlated significantly with the decrease in BMI. We conclude that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery when compared to severely obese groups not enrolled in planned weight-loss intervention was highly effective for weight loss, improved health-related quality of life, and resolution of major obesity-associated complications measured at 2 years. PMID:19498344
Valle, Juan W; Eatock, Martin; Clueit, Ben; Gabriel, Zahava; Ferdinand, Roxanne; Mitchell, Stephen
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (pNETs) are rare and the majority of patients present with advanced disease. Such patients have limited treatment options. We conducted a systematic review of published clinical trials of non-surgical interventions in pNET, to understand the efficacy, safety and health related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes from the current evidence base. Electronic databases and manual bibliographic searches were conducted to identify relevant studies. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers. Forty seven clinical studies met the predefined inclusion criteria. The following interventions were included: targeted therapies (two RCTs and six single-arm studies), chemotherapy (two RCTs, one prospective nonrandomised, comparative study and 14 single-arm studies);somatostatin analogues (SSA) and radiolabeled SSA therapies (nine single-arm studies), liver-directed therapies (six single-arm studies), mixed treatment regimens (one RCT, four single-arm studies) and other interventions such as interferon and recombinant human endostatin (one single-arm study for each). The paucity of RCT data and lack of consistency in reporting validated study outcomes and differing patient inclusion criteria between studies made it difficult to compare the relative efficacy of therapies. The majority of published studies assessing treatment regimens for the management of pNET are single arm, non-randomised studies, often enrolling a small number of patients and not reporting clinically meaningful outcomes. However data from recently conducted studies assessing targeted therapies indicate that it is possible to conduct adequately powered RCTs reporting standardised oncological endpoints in this rare cancer. Further, similarly robust studies should be conducted to define the optimal treatment algorithm. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Fielding, Lawrence W.
Sport functioned in several capacities during the Civil War: as a means of improving training effectiveness, as a diversion during holiday periods, as a relief from boredom and inactivity during winter camp, and as a method for settling individual disputes and animosities. (MB)
Curzer, Howard J
The traditional approaches to dental ethics include appeals to principles, duties (deontology), and consequences (utilitarianism). These approaches are often inadequate when faced with the case of a patient who refuses reasonable treatment and does not share the same ethical framework the dentist is using. An approach based on virtue ethics may be helpful in this and other cases. Virtue ethics is a tradition going back to Plato and Aristotle. It depends on forming a holistic character supporting general appropriate behavior. By correctly diagnosing the real issues at stake in a patient's inappropriate oral health choices and working to build effective habits, dentists can sometimes respond to ethical challenges that remain intractable given rule-based methods.
Goren, Idan; Israel, Ariel; Carmel-neiderman, Narin n.; Kliers, Iris; Gringauz, Irina; Dagan, Amir; Lavi, Bruno; Segal, Omer; Segal, Gad
Abstract After initial evaluation in the Emergency Department (ED), many patients complaining of abdominal pain are classified as suffering from nonsurgical abdominal pain (NSAP). Clinical characteristics and risk factors for worse prognosis were not published elsewhere. Characterizing the clinical profile of patients hospitalized due to NSAP and identifying predictor variables for worse clinical outcomes. We made a retrospective cohort analysis of patients hospitalized due to NSAP compared to matched control patients (for age, gender, and Charlson comorbidity index) hospitalized due to other, nonsurgical reasons in a ratio of 1 to 10. We further performed in-group analysis of patients admitted due to NSAP in order to appreciate variables (clinical and laboratory parameters) potentially associated with worse clinical outcomes. Overall 23,584 patients were included, of which 2144 were admitted due to NSAP and 21,440 were matched controls. Patients admitted due to NSAP had overall better clinical outcomes: they had lower rates of in-hospital and 30-days mortality (2.8% vs 5.5% and 7.9% vs 10.4% respectively, P < 0.001 for both comparisons). They also had a significantly shorter length of hospital stay (3.9 vs 6.2 days, P < 0.001). Rates of re-hospitalization within 30-days were not significantly different between study groups. Among patients hospitalized due to NSAP, we found that vomiting or hyponatremia at presentation or during hospital stay were associated with worse clinical outcomes. Compared to patients hospitalized due to other, nonsurgical reasons, the overall prognosis of patients admitted due to NSAP is favorable. The combination of NSAP with vomiting and hyponatremia is associated with worse clinical outcomes. PMID:27057886
Doufexi, Aikaterini-Ellisavet; Kouvatsi, Anastasia
Background Genetic polymorphisms are commonly associated with altered transcriptional activity and possibly make individuals more susceptible to periodontal disease development, increased disease severity and poor treatment outcome. The study aimed to determine the effect of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) -572 G/C (rs1800796) and IL-10 -592 C/A (rs1800872) polymorphisms on the outcomes of non-surgical periodontal therapy in a Caucasian population. Material and Methods Sixty-eight patients with chronic periodontal disease were grouped according to their genotype: IL-6, IL-10, IL-6 and IL-10 susceptible (SCP) and non-susceptible (NSCP). All individuals were clinically evaluated at the first visit, and blood sample were collected from patients after checking the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study. All patients received non-surgical periodontal therapy from a single-blinded periodontist. Clinical periodontal measurements were repeated 45 days after therapy. Results This population mean aged 47.63 years included 52.2% females and 58.2% non-smokers. Following DNA separation and genotyping, 65.7% of patients were homozygous carriers of the IL-6 - 572G; 49.3% were carriers of the IL-10 -592A- allele (AA and CA genotypes); and 35.8% carried SCP genotypes for both polymorphisms. The clinical parameters after therapy were not associated with the genotype status. The multiple logistic regression analysis did not show any statistically significant association between the genotypes and the variables tested. Conclusions Within the limitations of this longitudinal study, it can be suggested that IL-6 -572 G/C and IL-10 -592 C/A polymorphisms as well as their combination do not influence the outcome of nonsurgical periodontal therapy in Caucasian patients diagnosed with chronic periodontal disease. Key words:Gene polymorphism, genetics, interleukins, periodontal disease, treatment outcome. PMID:28624837
Vetterlein, Malte W.; Jindal, Tarun; Becker, Andreas; Regier, Marc; Kluth, Luis A.; Tilki, Derya
Over the last decades, there has been a significant stage migration in renal cell carcinoma and especially older patients are getting diagnosed more frequently with low stage disease, such as small renal masses ≤4 cm of size. Considering the particular risk profile of an older population, often presenting with a nonnegligible comorbidity profile and progressive renal dysfunction, treatment approaches beyond aggressive radical surgical procedures have come to the fore. We sought to give a contemporary overview of the available different treatment strategies for incidental small renal masses in an elderly population with the focus on comparative oncological outcomes of nonsurgical and surgical modalities. PMID:27437532
Qureshi, Ali A; Parikh, Rajiv P; Sharma, Ketan; Myckatyn, Terence M; Tenenbaum, Marissa M
The ability to perform nonsurgical facial rejuvenation procedures is a core competency requirement for plastic surgery residents. However, limited data exist on training models to achieve competency in nonsurgical facial rejuvenation and on outcomes of these procedures performed by residents. The purpose here is to evaluate patient-reported outcomes and safety of nonsurgical facial rejuvenation procedures performed by plastic surgery residents. We prospectively enrolled 50 patients undergoing neuromodulator and/or soft-tissue filler injections in a resident cosmetic clinic between April and August 2016. Patients completed FACE-Q modules pre-procedure, and at 1 week and 1 month post-procedure. Paired t-tests were used to calculate statistical significance of changes between pre- and post-procedure scores. Effect sizes were calculated to assess clinical improvement from pre- to post-procedure. The magnitude of change was interpreted using Cohen's arbitrary criteria (small 0.20, moderate 0.50, large 0.80). Forty-five patients completed the study. Patients experienced significant improvements (p < 0.001) in all FACE-Q domains, including aging appearance appraisal (improved from 49.7 ± 29.4 to 70.1 ± 21.6, effect size 0.79), psychological well-being (44.0 ± 14.6-78.6 ± 20.7, effect size 1.93), social functioning (48.6 ± 16.6-75.5 ± 21.7, effect size 1.20), and satisfaction with facial appearance (50.1 ± 13.7-66.2 ± 19.7, effect size 0.95). At 1 month, overall satisfaction with outcome and decision were 75.8 ± 20.7 and 81.1 ± 20.4, respectively. No patients experienced complications. Nonsurgical facial rejuvenation procedures performed by residents can improve patients' quality of life and provide high satisfaction without compromising safety. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each submission to which Evidence-Based Medicine rankings are applicable. This excludes Review Articles, Book Reviews, and
Collins, Natalie J; Bisset, Leanne M; Crossley, Kay M; Vicenzino, Bill
Anterior knee pain is a chronic condition that presents frequently to sports medicine clinics, and can have a long-term impact on participation in physical activity. Conceivably, effective early management may prevent chronicity and facilitate physical activity. Although a variety of nonsurgical interventions have been advocated, previous systematic reviews have consistently been unable to reach conclusions to support their use. Considering a decade has lapsed since publication of the most recent data in these reviews, it is timely to provide an updated synthesis of the literature to assist sports medicine practitioners in making informed, evidence-based decisions. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the evidence for nonsurgical interventions for anterior knee pain. A comprehensive search strategy was used to search MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Pre-CINAHL, PEDro, PubMed, SportDiscus, Web of Science, BIOSIS Previews, and the full Cochrane Library, while reference lists of included papers and previous systematic reviews were hand searched. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were randomized clinical trials that used a measure of pain to evaluate at least one nonsurgical intervention over at least 2 weeks in participants with anterior knee pain. A modified version of the PEDro scale was used to rate methodological quality and risk of bias. Effect size calculation and meta-analyses were based on random effects models. Of 48 suitable studies, 27 studies with low-to-moderate risk of bias were included. There was minimal opportunity for meta-analysis because of heterogeneity of interventions, comparators and follow-up times. Meta-analysis of high-quality clinical trials supports the use of a 6-week multimodal physiotherapy programme (standardized mean difference [SMD] 1.08, 95% CI 0.73, 1.43), but does not support the addition of electromyography biofeedback to an exercise programme in the short-term (4 weeks: SMD -0.21, 95% CI -0.64, 0
Shubbar, Ashraf; Bolhari, Behnam; Fakhari, Nooshin; Alemi, Parvin; Nosrat, Ali
Knowledge about internal anatomy plays a crucial role in the success of the root canal treatment. Many studies on internal anatomy have repeatedly reported that maxillary lateral incisors have only one canal. The primary aim of this article was to describe successful non-surgical retreatment of a permanent maxillary lateral incisor with two root canals and open apices. The treatment was carried out using dental operating microscope and the canals were obturated with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as an apical plug. A review of literature was also conducted to evaluate the anatomical variations of maxillary lateral incisors. PMID:28808470
Hazeleger, W; Bouwman, E G; Noordhuizen, J P; Kemp, B
To evaluate the effects of eCG dosage on recovery and quality of Day 5 embryos and on subsequent development and survival after embryo transfer, batches of 5 to 10 donor sows were treated with 1000 or 1500 IU eCG. Recipients from the same batch were synchronously treated with 800 IU eCG. Ovulation was induced with 750 IU hCG (72 h after eCG) in donors and recipients. Donors were inseminated and embryos were collected at 162 h after hCG (120 h after ovulation). Ovulation rate was lower using 1000 IU eCG (28.5+/-11.7; n=48) than 1500 IU eCG (45.7+/-20.3; n=32; P<0.0001). Embryo recovery rate (82.9+/-16.9%) and percentage expanded blastocysts (56.2+/-31.4%) were similar (P>0.05). Expanded blastocysts from each group of sows were pooled into 2 groups within eCG treatment, containing embryos from normally ovulating sows (< or = 25 corpora lutea [CL]) or from superovulated sows (> 25 CL). Average diameter and number of cells of a random sample of the expanded blastocysts per pool were recorded. The average diameter of blastocysts (160.5+/-11.5 microm) was not affected by eCG dosage or ovulation rate (P>0.10). The average number of cells per embryo was higher in the 1000 IU eCG group (84.3+/-15.3) than in the 1500 IU eCG group (70.2+/-1.9; P<0.05) but was similar for normal and superovulated donors within each eCG group (P>0.10). Of the 4 groups, litters of 28 to 30 blastocysts were nonsurgically transferred to 27 synchronous recipients. Pregnant recipients were slaughtered on Day 37 after hCG treatment to evaluate embryonic development and survival. Pregnancy rate for the 1000 and 1500 IU eCG donor groups was 71% (10/14) and 46% (6/13; P>0.10), respectively. The number of implantations and fetuses for the 1000 IU eCG groups was 12.9+/-3.0 and 11.1+/-2.7, and 14.2+/-7.0 and 10.5+/-4.6, respectively, for the 1500 IU eCG groups (P>0.10). After post-priory categorizing the litters of blastocysts to below or above the average diameter (158 microm) of the transferred embryos
Salaria, Sanjeev Kumar; Kamra, Shilpa; Ghuman, Simrat Kaur; Sharma, Garima
Radicular cyst (RC) is the most common odontogenic cyst of inflammatory origin affecting the jaws; involves the roots of the carious or traumatic non-vital tooth. Different therapeutic modalities, such as nonsurgical endodontic therapy or surgical enucleation with primary closure, decompression etc., were proposed for the management of such lesions. Presenting a case of a 28-year-old otherwise healthy male patient who reported with pain and swelling with respect to tooth #41, 31. Diagnosis of infected RC at a rare location was established on the basis of clinical, radiographical and fine needle aspiration cytological examination. Looking after the clinical characteristics, origin, extension, size of cystic lesion and patient cooperation; nonsurgical endodontic therapy utilizing Bhasker's hypothesis was opted. One year post-operative result suggested that nonsurgical endodontic therapy along with minimally invasive treatment utilizing Bhasker's hypothesis is an effective tool to transform infected radicular cystic lesion to healthy periapical periodontal tissue. PMID:27994430
Cazzato, Roberto Luigi; Garnon, Julien; Tsoumakidou, Georgia; Koch, Guillaume; Palussière, Jean; Gangi, Afshin; Buy, Xavier
To present percutaneous image-guided screw-mediated osteosynthesis (PIGSMO) for fixation of impending fractures (ImF) and non-displaced/mildly displaced pathological/insufficient fractures (PF/InF) of the femoral neck in non-surgical cancer patients. This is a double-centre single-arm observational study. Retrospective review of electronic records identified all oncologic patients who had undergone femoral neck PIGSMO. Inclusion criteria were: non-displaced or mildly displaced PF/InF, and ImF (Mirels' score ≥8); life expectancy ≥1 month; unsuitability for surgical treatment due to sub-optimal clinical fitness, refusal of consent, or unacceptable delay to systemic therapy. Eleven patients were treated (mean age 63.7±13.5 years) due to ImF (63.6%, mean Mirels' score 10.1), PF (27.3%) or post-radiation InF (9.1%) under CT/fluoroscopy- (36.4%) or CBCT- (63.6%) guidance. Thirty-two screws were implanted and cement injection was added in 36.4% cases. Technical success was 90.9%. No procedure related complications were noted. At 1-month clinical follow-up (pain/walking impairment), 63.6% and 27.3% patients reported significant and mild improvement, respectively. Imaging follow-up (available in 63.6% cases) showed no signs of secondary fractures, neither of screws loosening at mean 2.8 months. Five patients (45.5%) died after PIGSMO (mean time interval 3.6 months). PIGSMO is technically feasible and safe in cancer patients with limited life expectancy; it offers good short-term results. Further prospective studies are required to corroborate mid- and to prove long-term efficacy of the technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Polly, David W; Cher, Daniel J; Wine, Kathryn D; Whang, Peter G; Frank, Clay J; Harvey, Charles F; Lockstadt, Harry; Glaser, John A; Limoni, Robert P; Sembrano, Jonathan N
Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) dysfunction is a prevalent cause of chronic, unremitting lower back pain. To concurrently compare outcomes after surgical and nonsurgical treatment for chronic SIJ dysfunction. A total of 148 subjects with SIJ dysfunction were randomly assigned to minimally invasive SIJ fusion with triangular titanium implants (n = 102) or nonsurgical management (n = 46). Pain, disability, and quality-of-life scores were collected at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Success rates were compared using Bayesian methods. Crossover from nonsurgical to surgical care was allowed after the 6-month study visit was complete. Six-month success rates were higher in the surgical group (81.4% vs 26.1%; posterior probability of superiority > 0.9999). Clinically important (≥ 15 point) Oswestry Disability Index improvement at 6 months occurred in 73.3% of the SIJ fusion group vs 13.6% of the nonsurgical management group (P < .001). At 12 months, improvements in SIJ pain and Oswestry Disability Index were sustained in the surgical group. Subjects who crossed over had improvements in pain, disability, and quality of life similar to those in the original surgical group. Adverse events were slightly more common in the surgical group (1.3 vs 1.1 events per subject; P = .31). This Level 1 study showed that minimally invasive SIJ fusion using triangular titanium implants was more effective than nonsurgical management at 1 year in relieving pain, improving function, and improving quality of life in patients with SIJ dysfunction caused by degenerative sacroiliitis or SIJ disruptions. Pain, disability, and quality of life also improved after crossover from nonsurgical to surgical treatment.
Wu, Yaohong; Lin, Linghan; Li, Hao; Zhao, Yachao; Liu, Longgang; Jia, Zhiwei; Wang, Deli; He, Qing; Ruan, Dike
There is discordance in the results from meta-analyses on surgical versus non-surgical treatment for acute Achilles tendon rupture. We systematically reviewed the overlapping meta-analyses on this topic to provide information that will be helpful to decision makers when selecting treatments based on the current best available evidence. We comprehensively searched multiple databases for systematic reviews that compared surgical and non-surgical treatments for acute Achilles tendon rupture. We only included meta-analyses that comprised randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The methodological quality and extracted data were assessed. The meta-analysis that offered the best evidence was ascertained with the Jadad decision algorithm. Nine meta-analyses were included in our study and all of them included RCTs with Level-II evidence. Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) scores ranged from 5 to 10 (median 7). The Jadad decision algorithm was used to select a high-quality meta-analysis with more RCTs. The results from this study showed that when functional rehabilitation was used, non-surgical intervention was similar to surgical treatment regarding the incidence of range of motion, rerupture, calf circumference and functional outcomes, and the incidence of other complications was reduced. Non-surgical intervention significantly increased the rerupture rate if functional rehabilitation was not considered. The findings of meta-analyses regarding surgical versus non-surgical treatment for acute Achilles tendon rupture are inconsistent. According to this systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses, the current best available evidence suggests that centers offering functional rehabilitation may prefer non-surgical intervention. Surgical treatment may be preferred at centers that do not have functional rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Santini, L; Robert, D; Lagier, A; Giovanni, A; Dessi, P; Fakhry, N
The aim of this study was to analyze the causal mechanisms of severe swallowing disorders after the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer. Twenty-six patients with severe swallowing disorders at ≥12 months after treatment for oropharyngeal cancer were analyzed retrospectively using videofluoroscopy. Fourteen patients (54%) had been treated with surgery (±postoperative radiotherapy), while 12 patients (46%) had been treated with (chemo)radiotherapy. Videofluoroscopy analysis showed a localized alteration in the surgical excision area resulting in impaired tongue root retraction in the surgical group (P=0.012), while general impairment of the pharyngeal, laryngeal, and upper oesophagus sphincter was found in the non-surgical group. Aspirations in the surgical group most often occurred after swallowing, while in the non-surgical group, they occurred during and after swallowing (P=0.039). This analysis by videofluoroscopy provides important insights into the mechanisms giving rise to swallowing disorders after the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer.
Soroceanu, Alexandra; Sidhwa, Feroze; Aarabi, Shahram; Kaufman, Annette; Glazebrook, Mark
Surgical repair is a common method of treatment of acute Achilles rupture in North America because, despite a higher risk of overall complications, it has been believed to offer a reduced risk of rerupture. However, more recent trials, particularly those using functional bracing with early range of motion, have challenged this belief. The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare surgical treatment and conservative treatment with regard to the rerupture rate, the overall rate of other complications, return to work, calf circumference, and functional outcomes, as well as to examine the effects of early range of motion on the rerupture rate. A literature search, data extraction, and quality assessment were conducted by two independent reviewers. Publication bias was assessed with use of the Egger and Begg tests. Heterogeneity was assessed with use of the I2 test, and fixed or random-effect models were used accordingly. Pooled results were expressed as risk ratios, risk differences, and weighted or standardized mean differences, as appropriate. Meta-regression was employed to identify causes of heterogeneity. Subgroup analysis was performed to assess the effect of early range of motion. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria. If functional rehabilitation with early range of motion was employed, rerupture rates were equal for surgical and nonsurgical patients (risk difference = 1.7%, p = 0.45). If such early range of motion was not employed, the absolute risk reduction achieved by surgery was 8.8% (p = 0.001 in favor of surgery). Surgery was associated with an absolute risk increase of 15.8% (p = 0.016 in favor of nonoperative management) for complications other than rerupture. Surgical patients returned to work 19.16 days sooner (p = 0.0014). There was no significant difference between the two treatments with regard to calf circumference (p = 0.357), strength (p = 0.806), or functional outcomes (p = 0.226). The results of the meta-analysis demonstrate that conservative
Furuya, M.; Abe, T.
Seasonal glacier velocity changes are attributed to subglacial slip associated with water pressure changes that occur because of the seasonal variability of meltwater input. Abe and Furuya (2014) reported winter speed-up signals and their downglacier propagation at a number of glaciers near the border of Alaska and Yukon, based on ALOS/PALSAR radar image analyses. Here we perform the similar analyses at the Chugach mountain range of South Central Alaska, and report the spatial-temporal evolution of the Matanuska Glacier. Matanuska Glacier is the largest accessible glacier in Alaska with its nearly 40 km length and 5 km width near the terminus. Comparing the winter velocity images in 2007, 2008 and 2010, those in 2010 were about 1.5-2 times faster than those during the previous two years. In addition, comparing the fall and winter velocities, winter velocities were apparently faster at every 2007-2008, 2009-2010, and 2010-2011 season. These data indicate winter speed-up or mini-surge signals even at a temperate and non-surgetype Matanuska Glacier. We also examine the spatial-temporal elevation changes, using data from the LiDAR altimeter in the Icebridge mission, and found significant elevation increase near the terminus. Winter speed-up may not be uncommon at Alaskan/Yukon glaciers. Lingle and Fatland (2003) detected faster speed in winter than in fall at non-surging Seward Glacier in the St. Elias Mountains; this is the only published and unambiguous report of winter speed-up, to our knowledge. Combined with earlier glacier hydrological studies, Lingle and Fatland proposed englacial water storage and gravity-driven water flow toward the bed in winter regardless of whether a given glacier is surge-type or not, and considered that the capacity of englacial water storage would control if a given glacier was surge-type or not. We consider that our measurements are complementary to Lingle and Fatland's observations and lend further support for their hypothesis. Basal
Gilpin, David; Coleman, Stephen; Hall, Stephen; Houston, Anthony; Karrasch, Jeff; Jones, Nigel
-approved, nonsurgical treatment option for adult Dupuytren's contracture patients with a palpable cord that is highly effective and well tolerated. Therapeutic I. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Rattanasuwan, Kanyawat; Rassameemasmaung, Supanee; Sangalungkarn, Vanida; Komoltri, Chulaluk
Green tea catechins had an in vitro antibacterial effect against periodontopathic bacteria and were able to inhibit destruction of the periodontal tissue. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of locally delivered gel containing green tea extract as an adjunct to non-surgical periodontal treatment. Forty-eight subjects who had teeth with probing pocket depth of 5-10 mm were randomly allocated into the test or control group. Probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP) and full mouth plaque score were measured at baseline. Subjects received oral hygiene instruction, single episode of scaling and root planing and subgingival application of the green tea gel (test group) or the placebo gel (control group). The gel was repeatedly applied at 1 and 2 weeks later. The parameters were recorded again at the 1st, 3rd and 6th month after the last gel application. The results showed that all parameters were improved in both groups compared to baseline. The test group exhibited significantly higher reduction in BOP at the 3rd month (p = 0.003) and significantly lower GI at the 1st month (p < 0.001) and 3rd month (p < 0.001) when compared with the control group. Thus, green tea gel could provide a superior benefit in reducing bleeding on probing and gingival inflammation when used as an adjunct to non-surgical periodontal treatment. ( MU-IRB 2008/153.0511, ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00918060).
Casarin, Renato Corrêa Viana; Bittencourt, Sandro; Ribeiro, Erica Del Peloso; Nociti, Francisco Humberto; Sallum, Antonio Wilson; Sallum, Enilson Antônio; Casati, Márcio Zafallon
Mechanical instrumentation is fundamental to periodontal treatment. However, independent of the instrument used in scaling, an immediate attachment loss occurs at the bottom of the periodontal pocket. This study aimed to determine the influence of tip diameter on attachment loss and the influence of attachment loss on the periodontal response to nonsurgical treatment. Fifteen patients presenting periodontal pockets with a probing depth of 3.5 mm or more in bilateral teeth were divided into two groups: test group-instrumented with a thin tip, and control group-instrumented with a traditional tip. Probing depth, relative gingival position, and relative attachment level were evaluated immediately before and after and at 1 and 3 months after treatment using an electronic computerized probe. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey tests (P = .05). Both groups presented attachment loss immediately after instrumentation; however, the thin tip resulted in statistically higher immediate clinical attachment loss than the traditional tip (0.85 and 0.15 mm, respectively; P < .0001). However, both groups showed a similar healing after the ultrasonic therapy, at all parameters evaluated (P > .05). In spite of the higher immediate clinical attachment loss inflicted by thin ultrasonic tips during instrumentation, this did not affect the clinical response to the nonsurgical treatment.
Minami, Yasunori; Kudo, Masatoshi
Tumor response and time to progression have been considered pivotal for surrogate assessment of treatment efficacy for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recent advancements in imaging modalities such as contrast-enhanced ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are playing an important role in assessing the therapeutic effects of HCC treatments. According to some HCC clinical guidelines, post-therapeutic evaluation of HCC patients is based exclusively on contrast-enhanced dynamic imaging criteria. The recommended techniques are contrast-enhanced CT or contrast-enhanced MRI. Contrast-enhanced US is employed more in the positive diagnosis of HCC than in post-therapeutic monitoring. Although contrast enhancement is an important finding on imaging, enhancement does not necessarily depict the same phenomenon across modalities. We need to become well acquainted with the characteristics of each modality, including not only contrast-enhanced CT and MRI but also contrast-enhanced US. Many nonsurgical treatment options are now available for unresectable HCC, and accurate assessment of tumor response is essential to achieve favorable outcomes. For the assessment of successful radiofrequency ablation (RFA), the achievement of a sufficient ablation margin as well the absence of tumor vascular enhancement is essential. To evaluate the response to transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), enhanced tumor shrinkage is relied on as a measure of antitumor activity. Here, we give an overview of the current status of imaging assessment of HCC response to nonsurgical treatments including RFA and TACE.
Rashidi Maybodi, Fahimeh; Haerian Ardakani, Ahmad; Fattahi Bafghi, Ali; Haerian Ardakani, Alireza; Zafarbakhsh, Akram
Statement of the Problem Trichomonas tenax and Entamoeba gingivalis are commensal protozoa which inhabit the human oral cavity. These parasites are found in patients with poor oral hygiene and might be a reason for progressive periodontal diseases. Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nonsurgical periodontal treatment on the frequency of these protozoa in saliva and plaque samples. Materials and Method In this clinical trial, samples of saliva and dental plaque were collected from 46 patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis before and after periodontal therapy. The samples were assessed for the frequency of parasites. Results The frequency of Entamoeba gingivalis was reduced in saliva (p= 0.007) and plaque (p= 0.027) three weeks after the treatment. Likewise, the frequency of Trichomonas tenax reduced in saliva (p= 0.030); however, the decrease was not significant in plaque (p= 0.913). Trichomonas tenax frequency in dental plaque directly related to the severity of periodontitis (r= 0.565, p≤ 0.000). In contrast, the number of Entamoeba gingivalis in both saliva (r= -0.405, p≤ 0.005) and plaque (r= -0.304, p= 0.040) was inversely related with the severity of the periodontal disease. Conclusion Nonsurgical periodontal treatment could reduce the number of Trichomonas Tenax and Entamoeba gingivalis in the oral environment of patients with chronic periodontitis. PMID:27602391
Kim, Kiok; Shin, Kyung-Min; Lee, Jun-Hwan; Seo, Bok-Nam; Jung, So-Young; Youn, Yousuk; Lee, Sang Ho; Kim, Jaehong; Qu, Wenchun
This is a study protocol for a pilot three-armed randomized controlled trial on nonsurgical integrative Korean medicinal treatment for symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Thirty-six participants who have been diagnosed with (LSS) and recommended for spinal surgery by neurosurgeons or orthopedics and have had spinal symptoms such as severe low back pain and neurological claudication regardless of at least three months of conservative treatments will be recruited. Participants will be randomly assigned to be one of the three intervention groups, including the Mokhuri treatment program group 1 or 2 or usual care group. All treatments will be administered in inpatient units over a period of 4 weeks. The primary outcomes are 0 to 100 Visual Analogue Scales for low back pain and leg pain and the secondary outcomes are Oswestry Disability Index; EQ-5D; Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire; Oxford Claudication Score; physical function test, including treadmill test, walking duration, and distance assessment for free leg pain; radiologic testing; and adverse events which will be assessed during the 4-week treatment period as well as after 3 and 6 months of follow-up. Then, we will assess the feasibility of the clinical trial design as well as a nonsurgical integrative treatment program. This trial is registered with CRIS registration number: KCT0001218. PMID:26941823
Aengst, Jennifer C; Harrington, Elizabeth K; Bahulekar, Pramod; Shivkumar, Poonam; Jensen, Jeffrey T; Garg, B S
New permanent contraceptive methods are in development, including nonsurgical permanent contraception (NSPC). In the present study, perceptions of NSPC in India among married women, married men, mothers-in-law, providers, and health advocates in Eastern Maharashtra (Wardha district) and New Delhi were examined. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 40 married women and 20 mothers-in-law; surveys with 150 married men; and focus group discussions with obstetrics/gynecology providers and advocates. Transcripts were coded and analyzed using a grounded theory approach, where emerging themes are analyzed during the data collection period. The majority of female respondents expressed support of permanent contraception and interest in NSPC, stating the importance of avoiding surgery and minimizing recovery time. They expressed concerns about safety and efficacy; many felt that a confirmation test would be necessary regardless of the failure rate. Most male respondents were supportive of female permanent contraception (PC) and preferred NSPC to a surgical method, as long as it was safe and effective. Providers were interested in NSPC yet had specific concerns about safety, efficacy, cost, uptake, and government pressure. They also had concerns that a nonsurgical approach could undermine the inherent seriousness of choosing PC. Advocates were interested in NSPC but had concerns about safety and potential misuse in the Indian context. Although perceptions of NSPC were varied, all study populations indicated interest in NSPC. Concerns about safety, efficacy, appropriate patient counseling, and ethics emerged from the present study and should be considered as NSPC methods continue to be developed.
Non-surgical contraceptives or sterilants need regulatory approval to be sold for that use. This approval process gives veterinarians the information required to assess the benefits and risks of each product, and to provide comprehensive information on the required dose, method and duration of use, safety and effectiveness. This article reviews the information that must be developed and provided to regulatory agencies worldwide, with a focus on the European Union and the United States, in order to achieve regulatory approval. The main components of developing a drug include developing extensive information on the safety and effectiveness of the product, and also the safety to the environment and to humans handling and administering the drug. Most importantly, a robust method of manufacturing both the drug itself and the formulated drug product (pill, liquid implant or injection) must be developed to assure quality and consistency in each batch. This information is then compiled and submitted to regulatory agencies; in the United States, this includes the Food and Drug Administration, the United States Department of Agriculture and the Environmental Protection Agency, and, in Europe, the European Medicines Agency. Because of the unique nature of non-surgical contraceptives for use in cats and dogs, particularly the desire to have these products last over multiple years, there are special challenges to their regulatory approval that are discussed in this review. © The Author(s) 2015.
Wagner, Steffen; Wittekindt, Claus; Sharma, Shachi Jenny; Wuerdemann, Nora; Jüttner, Theresa; Reuschenbach, Miriam; Prigge, Elena-Sophie; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Burkhardt, Ernst; Pons-Kühnemann, Jörn; Klussmann, Jens Peter
Upfront surgery is a valuable treatment option for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) and risk stratification is emerging for treatment de-escalation in human papillomavirus (HPV)-related OPSCC. Available prognostic models are either based on selected, mainly non-surgically treated cohorts. Therefore, we investigated unselected OPSCC treated with predominantly upfront surgery. All patients diagnosed with OPSCC and treated with curative intent between 2000 and 2009 (n=359) were included. HPV association was determined by HPV-DNA detection and p16(INK4a) immunohistochemistry. Predictors with significant impact on overall survival (OS) in univariate analysis were included in recursive partitioning analysis. Risk models generated from non-surgically treated patients showed low discrimination in our cohort. A new model developed for unselected patients predominantly treated with upfront surgery separates low-, intermediate- and high-risk patients with significant differences in 5-year OS (86%, 53% and 19%, P<0.001, respectively). HPV status is the most important parameter followed by T-stage in HPV-related and performance status in HPV-negative OPSCC. HPV status and ECOG remained important parameters in risk models for patients treated with or without surgery. Regardless of treatment strategies, HPV status is the strongest predictor of survival in unselected OPSCC patients. The proposed risk models are suitable to discriminate risk groups in unselected OPSCC patients treated with upfront surgery, which has substantial impact for design and interpretation of de-escalation trials.
Khalighinejad, Navid; Aminoshariae, Anita; Kulild, James C; Williams, Kristin A; Wang, Jeannie; Mickel, Andre
The aim of the current investigation was to assess the effect of the use of a dental operating microscope on the outcome of nonsurgical root canal treatment (NS RCT) while treating the mesiobuccal (MB) root of the maxillary first molar. This retrospective investigation included endodontically treated maxillary first molars (ETMs) with apparent adequate previous NS RCT and restorations referred for endodontic retreatment at the endodontic graduate clinic. Inclusion criteria were ETMs that were diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis and normal periapical tissues before the initial NS RCT and ETMs that presented with a minimum of 1 identifiable periapical lesion (PAR) at 1 of the roots at the time of retreatment. One hundred ninety-five ETMs were included and divided into 2 groups: (1) the initial NS RCT had been performed using a microscope (n = 83) and (2) NS RCT had been performed without the use of a microscope (n = 112). Data extracted were whether the second MB (MB2) canal was located initially and the presence of an MB PAR at the time of retreatment. Data were statistically analyzed using binary logistic regression (α = 0.05). The MB root was 3 times more likely to present with a PAR at the time of retreatment if the initial NS RCT was performed without the use of a microscope (P < .05, odds ratio = 3.1). There was a significant association between a missed MB2 canal and an MB PAR in the group in which the initial NS RCT was performed without the use of a microscope (P < .05, odds ratio = 5.1). However, in cases in which the initial NS RCT was performed using a microscope, a missed MB2 canal was not associated with the presence of an MB PAR. With proper education, dentists can gain further insight into recognizing limitations in treating cases that require advanced training and advanced optics such as a microscope. Based on this strategy, it would appear that the outcome of NS RCT can be improved. Copyright © 2017 American Association of
Burton, Martin J; Glasziou, Paul P
Surgical removal of the tonsils, with or without adenoidectomy (adeno-/tonsillectomy), is a common ENT operation but the indications for surgery are controversial. To determine the effects of tonsillectomy, with and without adenoidectomy, in patients with chronic/recurrent acute tonsillitis. The Cochrane Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2008, issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to 2008), EMBASE (1974 to 2008), bibliographies, and additional sources were searched for published and unpublished trials. The date of the last search was 11 April 2008. Randomised controlled trials comparing tonsillectomy, with or without adenoidectomy, with non-surgical treatment in adults and children with chronic/recurrent acute tonsillitis. We included trials which used reduction in the number and severity of tonsillitis and sore throat as main outcome measures. Two authors applied the inclusion/exclusion criteria independently. This review includes five studies: four undertaken in children (719 participants) and one in adults (70 participants). Good information about the effects of tonsillectomy is only available for children and for effects in the first year following surgery.Children were divided into two subgroups: those who are severely affected (based on specific criteria which are often referred to as the 'Paradise criteria') and those less severely affected.For more severely affected children adeno-/tonsillectomy will avoid three unpredictable episodes of any type of sore throat, including one episode of moderate or severe sore throat in the next year. The cost of this is a predictable episode of pain in the immediate postoperative period.Less severely affected children may never have had another severe sore throat anyway and the chance of them so doing is modestly reduced by adeno-/tonsillectomy. For them, surgery will mean having an average of two rather than three unpredictable
Fedorowicz, Zbys; Nasser, Mona; Sequeira-Byron, Patrick; de Souza, Raphael Freitas; Carter, Ben; Heft, Marc
Root canal treatment is carried out on teeth in which irreversible pulpitis has led to necrosis of the dental pulp. As a treatment option it is an alternative to dental extraction. Mechanical preparation and irrigation with antiseptic or antibacterial solutions destroys bacteria and cleans the infected root canal. Irrigants should be effective in deactivating bacteria in the entire root canal space without causing any adverse tissue reactions. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine are commonly used but there is uncertainty as to which solution, concentration or combination is the most effective. To assess the effects of irrigants used in the non-surgical root canal treatment of mature permanent teeth. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 5 July 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 4), MEDLINE via Ovid (1950 to 5 July 2012), EMBASE via Ovid (1980 to 5 July 2012), LILACS via BIREME (1980 to 5 July 2012). There were no restrictions regarding language or date of publication. Randomised controlled trials in single or multi-rooted permanent teeth with pulpal or periapical pathology or both, which require root canal treatment. Irrigants either against each other or against inactive irrigant or placebo. Combinations of irrigants were allowed and if used in conjunction with EDTA (ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid) or similar chelating agents. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias of included trials and extracted data. We included 11 trials involving 851 participants with 879 teeth which had undergone root canal treatment and involved the use of irrigants. Two trials were assessed as being at low risk of bias, with six unclear and three high. Four trials compared sodium hypochlorite versus chlorhexidine, however, no primary outcomes and only one secondary outcome, bacterial growth cultures, was reported for two of these trials (20% and 50% of teeth in the
Wu, Yun; Chen, Ling; Wei, Bin; Luo, Kai; Yan, Fuhua
This study aims to assess visfatin concentrations in serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and investigate this relationship in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and chronic periodontitis (CP) before and after non-surgical periodontal treatment. Fifty-four patients with T2DM and CP were recruited. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: treatment and control. Serum and GCF visfatin concentrations and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at different time points (at baseline and 3 and 6 months after non-surgical periodontal treatment). Serum and GCF visfatin concentrations showed no significant differences between the groups at baseline (t test, P >0.05). A significant decline of visfatin in the treatment group was found in serum and GCF 3 months after non-surgical periodontal treatment (t test, P <0.01). Baseline and 3-month HbA1c levels were not significantly different, but at 6 months, a statistically significant difference was detected (t test, P >0.05). The data suggest that non-surgical periodontal treatment is helpful for glucose control, an effect that may be associated with reduced visfatin in patients with T2DM and periodontitis. Furthermore, the data suggest that visfatin may be considered an inflammatory marker for periodontal diseases.
Huisstede, Bionka M A; Koes, Bart W; Gebremariam, Lukas; Keijsers, Ellen; Verhaar, Jan A N
In this systematic review we assessed effectiveness of non-surgical and (post)surgical interventions for symptomatic rotator cuff tears (RotCuffTear). The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, Cinahl, and Pedro were searched for relevant systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Two reviewers independently selected relevant studies, extracted data and assessed the methodological quality. Three Cochrane reviews (7 RCTs) and 14 RCTs were included (3 non-surgery, 10 surgery, 8 post-surgery). For small or medium RotCufftears, moderate evidence was found in favour of surgery versus physiotherapy in mid- and long-term. In surgery, tendon-to-bone fixation with one metal suture anchor loaded with double sutures (TB) was more effective (moderate evidence) than a side-to-side repair with permanent sutures (SS) in the mid- and long-term; limited evidence for effectiveness was found in favour of debridement versus anchor replacement and suture repair of the type II SLAP tear in the long-term. Further, no evidence was found in favour of any non-surgical, surgical or post-surgical intervention. In conclusion, although surgery seems to give better results compared to non-surgery and TB is more effective than SS in rotator cuff repair (RCR), it remains hard to draw firm evidence-based conclusions for effectiveness of non-surgical or (post)surgical interventions to treat RotCuffTears. More research is clearly needed.
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Martinez, Emilio A; Angel, Miguel Angel; Cuello, Cristina; Sanchez-Osorio, Jonatan; Gomis, Jesus; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Vila, Jordi; Colina, Ignaci; Diaz, Marta; Reixach, Josep; Vazquez, Jose Luis; Vazquez, Juan Maria; Roca, Jordi; Gil, Maria Antonia
Excellent fertility and prolificacy have been reported after non-surgical deep uterine transfers of fresh in vivo-derived porcine embryos. Unfortunately, when this technology is used with vitrified embryos, the reproductive performance of recipients is low. For this reason and because the embryos must be stored until they are transferred to the recipient farms, we evaluated the potential application of non-surgical deep uterine transfers with in vivo-derived morulae cultured for 24 h in liquid stage. In Experiment 1, two temperatures (25 °C and 37 °C) and two media (one fully defined and one semi-defined) were assessed. Morulae cultured in culture medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin and fetal calf serum at 38.5 °C in 5% CO2 in air were used as controls. Irrespective of medium, the embryo viability after 24 h of culture was negatively affected (P<0.05) at 25 °C but not at 37 °C compared with the controls. Embryo development was delayed in all experimental groups compared with the control group (P<0.001). Most of the embryos (95.7%) cultured at 37 °C achieved the full or expanded blastocyst stage, and unlike the controls, none of them hatched at the end of culture. In Experiment 2, 785 morulae were cultured in the defined medium at 37 °C for 24 h, and the resulting blastocysts were transferred to the recipients (n = 24). Uncultured embryos collected at the blastocyst stage (n = 750) were directly transferred to the recipients and used as controls (n = 25). No differences in farrowing rates (91.7% and 92.0%) or litter sizes (9.0 ± 0.6 and 9.4 ± 0.8) were observed between the groups. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that high reproductive performance can be achieved after non-surgical deep uterine transfers with short-term cultured morulae in a defined medium, which opens new possibilities for the sanitary, safe national and international trade of porcine embryos and the commercial use of embryo transfer in pigs.
Martinez, Emilio A.; Angel, Miguel Angel; Cuello, Cristina; Sanchez-Osorio, Jonatan; Gomis, Jesus; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Vila, Jordi; Colina, Ignaci; Diaz, Marta; Reixach, Josep; Vazquez, Jose Luis; Vazquez, Juan Maria; Roca, Jordi; Gil, Maria Antonia
Excellent fertility and prolificacy have been reported after non-surgical deep uterine transfers of fresh in vivo-derived porcine embryos. Unfortunately, when this technology is used with vitrified embryos, the reproductive performance of recipients is low. For this reason and because the embryos must be stored until they are transferred to the recipient farms, we evaluated the potential application of non-surgical deep uterine transfers with in vivo-derived morulae cultured for 24 h in liquid stage. In Experiment 1, two temperatures (25°C and 37°C) and two media (one fully defined and one semi-defined) were assessed. Morulae cultured in culture medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin and fetal calf serum at 38.5°C in 5% CO2 in air were used as controls. Irrespective of medium, the embryo viability after 24 h of culture was negatively affected (P<0.05) at 25°C but not at 37°C compared with the controls. Embryo development was delayed in all experimental groups compared with the control group (P<0.001). Most of the embryos (95.7%) cultured at 37°C achieved the full or expanded blastocyst stage, and unlike the controls, none of them hatched at the end of culture. In Experiment 2, 785 morulae were cultured in the defined medium at 37°C for 24 h, and the resulting blastocysts were transferred to the recipients (n = 24). Uncultured embryos collected at the blastocyst stage (n = 750) were directly transferred to the recipients and used as controls (n = 25). No differences in farrowing rates (91.7% and 92.0%) or litter sizes (9.0±0.6 and 9.4±0.8) were observed between the groups. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that high reproductive performance can be achieved after non-surgical deep uterine transfers with short-term cultured morulae in a defined medium, which opens new possibilities for the sanitary, safe national and international trade of porcine embryos and the commercial use of embryo transfer in pigs. PMID:25118944
Thomas, Roger; Wilson, Donna
A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of non-medical and non-surgical therapies for palliative care was undertaken to provide guidance for best practice palliative care. Nine databases were searched (ERIC, EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, AHMED, Psychinfo, HealthStar, Sociological Abstracts, and the Cochrane Library, including Central and Systematic Reviews) for RCTs and systematic reviews. Fifteen RCTs, varied in intervention and outcome measures, were identified. Several studies found positive results but the sample sizes were small, the methodological quality of the RCTs did not meet Cochrane Collaboration criteria, and the conclusions were at high risk of bias. Improved planning of the protocols and execution, with the addition of experienced trialists and statisticians, is required to improve the quality of the evidence collected in future studies.
Froes, Fabiana Gama Benevides; Miranda, Aguida Maria Menezes Aguiar; Abad, Ernani da Costa; Riche, Fernanda Nehme; Pires, Fábio Ramôa
The aim of this report was to present a case of endodontic sealer extrusion into the mandibular canal in a 42-year-old woman. The patient was referred to the Endodontology and Stomatology Clinics, School of Dentistry, Estácio de Sá University, complaining of 5-day duration intense spontaneous pain and paraesthesia, both arising after an endodontic intervention. Conventional radiographs and computed tomography of the mandible showed the presence of radiopacities inside the right mandibular canal. History and these radiographs confirmed extrusion of endodontic sealer. Treatment included an anti-inflammatory drug, completion of endodontic treatment and follow up. The patient reported gradual improvement, becoming asymptomatic after 2 months. Radiographs 30 months after initial examination revealed partial resorption of the foreign material. In conclusion, iatrogenic extrusion of endodontic materials should be included in differential diagnosis of endodontic pain and can sometimes be managed through non-surgical interventions in some cases.
Elsayed, A; Elgamal, E; Elsayed, A A; Wasserberg, J; Kuncz, A
Massive hematoma of the corpus callosum caused by blunt head trauma is an extremely rare lesion. Most frequent traumatic lesions involve the corpus callosum are diffuse axonal injuries. They might be associated with small hemorrhagic foci in the hemispheric and brain stem white matter, intraventricular hemorrhages, subarachnoid hemorrhages, traumatic lesions of the septum pellucidum and fornix. Many cases of corpus callosum injury present with permanent disconnection syndrome. We present a case of a 32-year-old female suffered blunt head trauma resulted in massive corpus callosum hematoma which was managed non-surgically. The patient initially had a reduced conscious level and symptoms of disconnection syndrome, and significant recovery was observed at 6 months follow up.
Goeritz, F; Painer, J; Jewgenow, K; Hermes, R; Rasmussen, K; Dehnhard, M; Hildebrandt, T B
Assisted reproduction technologies are essential for propagating endangered wild felids. Artificial insemination (AI) has been reported in several wild feline species, but pregnancy rates are low, partially owing to failures of current hormonal stimulation protocols. Therefore, this study describes the application of reliable methods to monitor ovarian activity and the development of an effective hormonal protocol to induce oestrus and ovulation in African lions. Application of porcine FSH and porcine LH was shown to be effective for inducing follicular growth and ovulation, and this regimen appeared to be superior to protocols described earlier in terms of ovulation and fertilization rates. Furthermore, non-surgical AI was performed successfully in lions, and uterine-stage embryos were collected and cryopreserved. African lions may serve as a valuable model to develop assisted reproduction for propagation of relic zoo populations in the critically endangered Asian lion or Barbary lion. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Atsawasuwan, Phimon; Hohlt, William; Evans, Carla A
Anterior open bite is one of the most challenging malocclusions for orthodontic treatment. The high incidence of relapse is a major concern. Therefore, accurate initial examination, diagnosis, treatment plan, and consideration of habitual risk factors are crucial for a successful outcome without unwanted sequelae. Excellent patient compliance for retainer wear is also a critical factor. This case report shows the 3-year stability of a nonsurgical and nonextraction orthodontic treatment of a 5-mm anterior open-bite malocclusion in a 12-year-old girl with extrusion mechanics and habit modification. After 2 years of orthodontic treatment, excellent outcomes were achieved. With an appropriate retention protocol, the long-term stability of the treatment was favorable.
Gracia-Cazaña, T; Salazar, N; Zamarrón, A; Mascaraque, M; Lucena, S R; Juarranz, Á
A wide range of treatments is now available for nonmelanoma skin cancer, including 5-fluorouracil, ingenol mebutate, imiquimod, diclofenac, photodynamic therapy, methotrexate, cetuximab, vismodegib, and radiotherapy. All are associated with high clinical and histologic response rates. However, some tumors do not respond due to resistance, which may be primary or acquired. Study of the resistance processes is a broad area of research that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of each tumor and the biologic features that make it resistant, as well as to facilitate the design of new therapies directed against these tumors. In this second article, having covered the topical treatments of nonmelanoma skin cancer, we review resistance to other nonsurgical treatments, such as monoclonal antibodies against basal and squamous cell carcinomas, intralesional chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, and radiotherapy.
Bassetti, Mario; Bassetti, Renzo; Sculean, Anton; Salvi, Giovanni E
Subcutaneous emphysema are rare complications in periodontology. In most cases, they resolve spontaneously. However, air might disperse into deeper facial spaces causing life-threatening complications such as compression of the tracheobronchial tree or the development of pneumomediastinum. Moreover, microorganisms might spread from the oral cavity into deeper spaces. Hence, rapid diagnosis of subcutaneous emphysema is important. Characteristic signs are both a shiftable swelling and a crepitation. In this case report, the case of a 69-year old man with a subcutaneous emphysema immediately after peri-implantitis therapy with the use of a glycine-based powder air-polishing device is described. Following therapy, air accumulated in the left side of the face. Seven days after non-surgical peri-implantitis therapy, the patient was asymptomatic with complete resolution of the emphysema.
Baxstrom, Curtis R
A 14-year-old girl with diplopia and esotropia secondary to Arnold-Chiari I malformation was surgically treated with Arnold-Chiari I malformation decompression (suboccipital craniectomy), C1 and partial C2 laminectomy, and duraplasty. The residual esotropia was treated with compensatory prisms and vision therapy more than 1 year after Arnold-Chiari malformation surgery. The esotropia was resolved after approximately 3.5 months of treatment. Five years later, the patient continued to maintain fusion without compensatory prism.
Martinez, E A; Nohalez, A; Martinez, C A; Parrilla, I; Vila, J; Colina, I; Diaz, M; Reixach, J; Vazquez, J L; Roca, J; Cuello, C; Gil, M A
With the development of the non-surgical deep uterine (NsDU) embryo transfer (ET) technology, the commercial applicability of ET in pigs is now possible. There are, nevertheless, many factors that influence NsDU-ET effectiveness that need to be addressed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the weaned recipients' parity on fertility and prolificacy following NsDU-ET. The recipients (n = 120) were selected based on their reproductive history and body condition and grouped into three categories according to their parity: primiparous sows, sows of parity 2 and sows of parities from 3 to 5. Thirty fresh embryos (morulae and unhatched blastocysts) were non-surgically transferred into one uterine horn of each recipient. It was possible to insert the NsDU-ET catheter through the cervix along a uterine horn in 98.3% of the recipients. The parity had no influence on the difficulty grade of the insertions or on the percentage of correct insertions. The cervix and uterine wall were not perforated during the insertions, and vaginal discharge was not observed after transfer in any of the recipients. There were no differences in the pregnancy rates (74.8%), farrowing rates (71.2%) or litter sizes (9.6 ± 3.3) between groups. Also, there were no differences between groups regarding to the piglets' birthweights or piglet production efficiency. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that weaned sows from parity 1 to 5 are appropriate to be used as recipients in NsDU-ET programs, which increase the possibilities for the utilization of ET in the recipient farms. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Romano, Federica; Bongiovanni, Loretta; Bianco, Laura; Di Scipio, Federica; Yang, Zhiqian; Sprio, Andrea Elio; Berta, Giovanni Nicolao; Aimetti, Mario
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of non-surgical periodontal treatment on gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) cytokines in patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP), in relation to clinical parameters. Data were obtained from 16 GAgP patients and 15 periodontally healthy controls. Periodontal parameters and GCF biomarker levels were evaluated at baseline and repeated 3 and 6 months after treatment for GAgP subjects. Moderate and deep pocket sites were analyzed separately. The amount of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-9, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-bb), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured using a highly specific and sensitive multiplex bead immunoassay. At baseline, cytokine levels in the moderate and deep pocket sites of GAgP patients were higher than those of the healthy control sites. In GAgP group, periodontal treatment led to improvement in all examined clinical parameters and resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the total amounts of IL-1β, VEGF, and TNF-α, in comparison to baseline, already 3 months after therapy in both moderate and deep pocket sites and of PDGF-bb in deep sites (p < 0.01). At the concentration level, only IL-1β and VEGF were affected. Non-surgical treatment of GAgP provided significant clinical benefits leading to a marked decrease in the GCF levels of some pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic cytokines, but not of IL-9 and PDGF-bb. Although the periodontal therapy successfully decreased clinical signs of inflammation, the GCF levels of some inflammatory cytokines were still elevated.
Fitchett, Joseph R; Bhatta, Surya; Sherpa, Tenzing Y; Malla, Bishwo S; A Fitchett, Elizabeth J; Samen, Arlene
Objectives Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a major cause of morbidity in Nepal, particularly affecting women in the rural communities. Women with POP in Nepal may suffer from symptoms for decades. At present, the Government of Nepal advocates surgical intervention but access to surgical care is inadequate. This report evaluated the feasibility of a non-surgical public health programme in rural Nepal, and describes risk factors associated with POP in this setting. Design Prospective monitoring and evaluation study of a new public health programme. Setting Baglung district, rural Nepal. Participants Women with gynaecological symptoms of POP. Main outcome measures Risk factors for disease progression were assessed using Fisher’s exact test, Pearson’s χ2-test and logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 74 women included in this analysis, 70.8% were diagnosed with stage 2 POP or greater. The majority of women did not have any further children following the onset of POP symptoms (63.5%). Duration of symptoms ranged from 2 months to 60 years, with 73.4% of women suffering for over 5 years and 28.4% suffering for over 20 years. Univariate analyses identified age at screening, age at onset of symptoms, the duration of symptoms and an associated rectocele as factors associated with increasing POP severity (p < 0.05). Kegel exercises were taught to 25 (33.8%) women with POP and ring pessaries were offered to 47 (63.5%) women with POP. Conclusions Non-surgical interventions may provide an opportunity to address the significant burden of POP in rural Nepal. PMID:26664731
Kubota, Kensuke; Doi, Toshio; Murata, Masaharu; Kobayakawa, Kazu; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Harimaya, Katsumi; Shiba, Keiichiro; Hashizume, Makoto; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Okada, Seiji
The pathomechanism underlying idiopathic scoliosis remains unclear, and, to our knowledge, a consistent and relevant animal model has not been established previously. The goal of this study was to examine whether a disturbance of rib cage development is a causative factor for scoliosis and to establish a nonsurgical mouse model of progressive scoliosis. To examine the relationship between rib cage development and the pathogenesis of progressive scoliosis, a plastic restraint limiting anteroposterior rib cage development was placed on the chest of four-week-old mice. All mice were evaluated with whole-spine radiographs, and the severity of scoliosis was consecutively measured. The rib cage rotation angle and the anteroposterior chest dimension were measured with use of micro-computed tomography scanning. To examine whether the imbalanced load transmission through the ribs to the vertebral body was involved in our model, we performed a rib-neck osteotomy in a subgroup of the mice. The thoracic restraint did not provoke spinal curvature immediately after it was applied, but nine of ten mice that wore the restraint but did not have rib osteotomy gradually developed progressive scoliosis. Radiographs and computed tomography images showed a right thoracic curvature, vertebral rotation, and narrow chest in the mice that had worn the restraint for eleven weeks but did not have rib osteotomy even after the restraint was removed. The anteroposterior chest dimension was significantly correlated with both the curve magnitude and the rib cage rotation angle. The progression of spinal deformity was observed only during the adolescent growth spurt, and it plateaued thereafter. The left-side rib osteotomy led to the development of progressive left-thoracic curvature, whereas the bilateral rib osteotomy did not cause scoliosis, even with restraint wear. We established a nonsurgical experimental model of progressive scoliosis and also demonstrated that a rib cage deformity with an
Michalowicz, Bryan S; Hyman, Leslie; Hou, Wei; Oates, Thomas W; Reddy, Michael; Paquette, David W; Katancik, James A; Engebretson, Steven P
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing health problem worldwide. People with T2DM are at risk of experiencing periodontitis and likely require treatment. Using data from the national multicenter Diabetes and Periodontal Therapy Trial (DPTT), the authors assessed patient-based characteristics associated with the clinical response to nonsurgical therapy. The DPTT investigators randomly assigned adults with T2DM (hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] ≥ 7 percent and < 9 percent) and moderate to advanced periodontitis to receive immediate or delayed therapy (scaling and root planing, oral hygiene instruction, chlorhexidine rinse). The investigators assessed probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP), and medical conditions at baseline, three months and six months. Six-month changes in mean PD, CAL and BOP defined the treatment response. Complete data were available for 473 of 514 DPTT participants. The authors used multiple regression models to evaluate participant-level factors associated with the response. More severe baseline PD, CAL and BOP were associated with greater improvements in these same measurements (P < .0001). Hispanic participants experienced greater improvements in PD and CAL than did non-Hispanic participants (P < .0001). Obese participants (those with a body mass index > 30 kilograms per square meter) experienced greater reductions in PD and BOP than did participants who were not obese (P < .001). Age, sex, HbA1c values, diabetes duration, and smoking were not associated with change in any outcome (P > .1). In patients with T2DM, baseline disease severity was associated with the clinical response to nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Body mass index and Hispanic ethnicity-but not glycemic control, diabetes duration or smoking-also may be useful in predicting clinical changes in this population.
Discussed are some of the ways to handle municipal and industrial wastewater treatment sludge presented at the 1978 American Chemical Society meeting. Suggestions include removing toxic materials, recovering metals, and disposing treated sewage sludge onto farm land. Arguments for and against land use are also given. (MA)
Colby, W. David
Background information on treating syphilis indicates that some currently recommended approaches to therapy are not optimal. There is no perfect drug schedule available, but penicillin remains the drug of choice. The author's recommendations for treatment and follow up are presented. PMID:21221354
Discussed are some of the ways to handle municipal and industrial wastewater treatment sludge presented at the 1978 American Chemical Society meeting. Suggestions include removing toxic materials, recovering metals, and disposing treated sewage sludge onto farm land. Arguments for and against land use are also given. (MA)
Ray, Tracy R
This article provides physicians specializing in nonsurgical sports medicine with an overview of viscosupplementation as a treatment for osteoarthritis (OA) pain. Osteoarthritis is a painful, disabling condition that is becoming more prevalent in patients and is generally treated using conservative nonpharmacologic measures. If conservative measures are unsuccessful at alleviating pain, current recommendations include prescribing acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to patients. However, long-term use of these agents increases the risk for liver, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and/or renal complications in patients. Viscosupplementation is the term used for intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid/hylans. Intra-articular injections of these agents have good safety profiles and have shown efficacy for treating knee OA pain. Viscosupplementation injections relieve pain for ≤ 26 weeks, which is longer than the short-term pain relief derived from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroid injections. Additionally, viscosupplementation administered to patients in earlier stages of OA may be more beneficial than when given later in the treatment of OA. As part of a multimodal algorithm, viscosupplementation combined with conventional therapy or other pharmacologic agents has been shown to be more effective at managing OA than conventional care alone. This article reviews the evidence for using viscosupplementation as part of a comprehensive program for managing OA in patients.
Pollak, L; Raziel, A; Ariely, S; Schiffer, J
The management of depressed skull fractures in the newborn infant can be controversial. We report on a neonate, born by Caesarean section with difficult head extraction, complicated by a parietal depressed fracture. This 'ping-pong' fracture was treated by elevation with an obstetrical vacuum extractor. No complications occurred. The possible treatment modalities for neonatal depressed fractures, being conservative or operative, will be discussed.
Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.; Cavalcanti, Eudes T.; Pinheiro, Tatiana I.; Alves, Marcos J.; Miranda, Ezenildes R.; Quevedo, Alexandre S.; Manzi, Cecilia T.; Vieira, Alessandro L. B.; Rolim, Aluizio B.
The authors report on the effects of NSLT in the treatment of maxillofacial disorders. Further to our previous study, this paper reports the results of the use of NSLT on the treatment of several disorders of the oral and maxillofacial region. This paper presents NSLT as an effective method of treating such disorders. Two hundred and five female and 36 male patients aged between 7 and 81 years old (average 38.9 years old) suffering from disorders of the maxillofacial region were treated with 632,8,670, and 830nm diodes Lasers at the Laser Center of the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE). The disorders included TMJ pain, Trigeminal neuralgia, muscular pain, aphatae, inflammation, tooth hypersensitivity, postoperatively, and in small haemangiomas. Most treatment consisted of a series of 12 applications (twice a week) and in 15 cases a second series was applied. Patients were treated with an average dose of 1.8 J/cm2. One hundred fifty four out of 241 patients were asymptomatic at the end of the treatment, 50 improved considerably and 37 were symptomatic. These results confirm that NSLT is an effective tool and brings many benefits for the treatment of many disorders of the Maxillofacial region.
Sexton, Paul; Garrett, Jeffrey E; Rankin, Nigel; Anderson, Graeme
Emphysema often affects the lungs in a heterogeneous fashion, and collapse or removal of severely hyperinflated portions of lung can improve overall lung function and symptoms. The role of lung volume reduction (LVR) surgery in selected patients is well established, but that of non-surgical LVR is still being defined. In particular, use of endobronchial LVR is still under development. This case report describes a 48-year-old non-smoker with severe bullous emphysema complicated by acute hypercapnic respiratory failure, who was successfully treated by endobronchial valve placement while intubated in an intensive care unit. © 2010 The Authors. Respirology © 2010 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.
Lindlohr, Cornelia; Lefering, R; Saad, S; Heiss, M M; Pape-Köhler, C
Acquiring laparoscopic skills is a necessity for every young surgeon. Whether it is a talent or a non-surgical skill that determines the surgical performance of an endoscopic operation has been discussed for years. In other disciplines aptitude testing has become the norm. Airlines, for example, have implemented assessments to test the natural aptitude of future pilots to predict their performance later on. In the medical field, especially surgery, there are no similar comparable tests implemented or even available. This study investigates the influence of potential factors that may predict the successful performance of a complex laparoscopic operation, such as the surgeon's age, gender or learning method. This study focussed 70 surgical trainees. It was designed as a secondary analysis of data derived from a 2 × 2 factorial randomised controlled trial of practical training and/or multimedia training (four groups) in an experimental exercise. Both before and then after the training sessions, the participating trainees performed a laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a pelvitrainer. Surgical performance was then evaluated using a modified objective structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS). Participants were classified as 'Skilled' (high score in the pre-test), 'Good Learner' (increase from pre- to post-test) or 'Others' based on the OSATS results. Based on the results of the recorded performance, the training methods as well as non-surgical skills were eventually evaluated in a univariate and in a multivariate analysis. In the pre-training performance 11 candidates were categorised as 'Skilled' (15.7%), 35 participants as 'Good Learners' (50.0%) and 24 participants were classified as 'Others'. The univariate analysis showed that the age, a residency in visceral surgery, and participation in a multimedia training were significantly associated with this grouping. Multivariate analyses revealed that residency in visceral surgery was the most predictive factor
Karabuda, Zihni Cüneyt; Arıcı, Selahattin Volkan; Topçuoğlu, Nursen; Külekçi, Güven
Abstract Objective: In this radiographic and microbiologic split-mouth clinical trial, efficacy of a diode laser as an adjunct to conventional scaling in the nonsurgical treatment of peri-implantitis was investigated. Background data: Eradication of pathogenic bacteria and infected sulcular epithelium presents a significant challenge in the nonsurgical treatment of peri-implantitis. Materials and methods: Ten patients (mean age, 55.1 years; SD, 11.4) with 48 two piece, rough-surface implants and diagnosed with peri-implantitis were recruited (NCT02362854). In addition to conventional scaling and debridement (control group), crevicular sulci and the corresponding surfaces of 24 random implants were lased by a diode laser running at 1.0 W power at the pulsed mode (λ, 810 nm; energy density, 3 J/cm2; time, 1 min; power density, 400 mW/cm2; energy, 1.5 J; and spot diameter, 1 mm); (laser group). Healing was assessed via periodontal indexes (baseline and after 1 and 6 months after the intervention), microbiologic specimens (baseline and after 1 month), and radiographs (baseline and after 6 months). Results: Baseline mean pocket depths (4.71, SD, 0.67; and 4.38, SD 0.42 mm) and marginal bone loss (2.71, SD 0.11; and 2.88, SD 0.18 mm) were similar (p = 0.09 and p = 0.12) between the control and laser groups, respectively. After 6 months, the laser group revealed higher marginal bone loss (2.79, SD 0.48) than the control groups (2.63, SD 0.53) (p < 0.0001). However, in both groups, the microbiota of the implants was found unchanged after 1 month. Conclusions: In this clinical trial, adjunct use of diode laser did not yield any additional positive influence on the peri-implant healing compared with conventional scaling alone. PMID:26382562
Goel, Khushboo; Pradhan, Shaili; Bhattarai, Madhur Dev
Objectives Despite several investigations, evidence is still controversial regarding the effect of periodontal treatment on diabetes. This study evaluates and compares the effect on glycemic control and periodontal status with or without nonsurgical periodontal therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic periodontitis in a Nepalese population. Materials and methods A total of 82 patients attending the diabetes clinic and fulfilling enrollment criteria with moderate to severe periodontitis were selected. They were assigned in an alternative sequence, into test and control group. Both groups were instructed to continue with their medical treatment without modifications. Scaling and root surface debridement were performed in the test group whereas the control group received oral hygiene instructions with no treatment during the 3-month study period. Results There were 41 participants in each group with the mean age of 50.66±7.70 and 53.80±9.16 years, average diabetes duration of 6.32±4.21 and 6.24±4.00 years, mean body mass index of 24.78±1.85 and 24.6±1.79 kg/m2, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level of 6.71±0.50% and 6.80±0.45%, in the test and control group, respectively. After 3 months, there was significant reduction in HbA1c levels in the test group compared to the control group (p=0.029). Clinical periodontal parameters of gingival index, probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) significantly improved in the test group (p<0.001) with PD reduction by 0.9 mm and gain in CAL by 0.3 mm compared to the control group (p>0.001) who showed an increase by 0.05 mm. Conclusion This study showed that nonsurgical periodontal therapy may have a beneficial effect on HbA1c level in moderately controlled type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:28761379
Lerario, Francesco; Roncati, Marisa; Gariffo, Annalisa; Attorresi, Enrica; Lucchese, Alessandra; Galanakis, Alexandros; Palaia, Gaspare; Romeo, Umberto
Peri-implant diseases present in two forms: peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis. The prevalence of peri-implant complications is significantly rising. The aim of this study was to compare conventional treatment of inflamed peri-implant tissues with conventional treatment together with diode laser application. Twenty-seven patients (age 36 to 67, 15 women and 12 men, 12 smokers and 15 non-smokers) requiring treatment for mucositis or peri-implantitis were taken into account for this preliminary study. Plaque index (PI), pocket depth (PD), and bleeding on probing (BoP) were recorded at baseline evaluation. Patients in control group (CG) received conventional non-surgical periodontal treatment. Patients in test group received conventional non-surgical periodontal treatment together with diode laser application (810 nm, 30 s, 1 W, 50 Hz, t on = 100 ms, t off = 100 ms, energy density = 24.87 J/cm(2)). Paired t test was used to evaluate the difference in repeated measurements of considered indexes at T 0 and T 1 (1 year) in both groups. A total of 606 sites were taken into account in the test group (TG) and 144 in the CG. PD mean variation in the TG was 2.66 mm ± 1.07, while mean PD variation in the CG was 0.94 ± 1.13 mm. Paired t testing of the variation in PD in CG and TG revealed a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p < 0.0001). A reduction of pathological sites from 89 % (T 0) to 14.35 % (T 1) was achieved in the TG, while reduction obtained in the CG was from 75.69 % (T 0) to 50 % (T 1); BoP scores at time T 1 had fallen below 5 % in the TG and decreased to 59.7 %, in the CG. Within the limitations of this study, diode laser seems to be an additional valuable tool for peri-implant disease treatment.
Blasimann, Angela; Eichelberger, Patric; Brülhart, Yvonne; El-Masri, Isam; Flückiger, Gerhard; Frauchiger, Lars; Huber, Martin; Weber, Martin; Krause, Fabian G; Baur, Heiner
Symptoms associated with pes planovalgus or flatfeet occur frequently, even though some people with a flatfoot deformity remain asymptomatic. Pes planovalgus is proposed to be associated with foot/ankle pain and poor function. Concurrently, the multifactorial weakness of the tibialis posterior muscle and its tendon can lead to a flattening of the longitudinal arch of the foot. Those affected can experience functional impairment and pain. Less severe cases at an early stage are eligible for non-surgical treatment and foot orthoses are considered to be the first line approach. Furthermore, strengthening of arch and ankle stabilising muscles are thought to contribute to active compensation of the deformity leading to stress relief of soft tissue structures. There is only limited evidence concerning the numerous therapy approaches, and so far, no data are available showing functional benefits that accompany these interventions. After clinical diagnosis and clarification of inclusion criteria (e.g., age 40-70, current complaint of foot and ankle pain more than three months, posterior tibial tendon dysfunction stage I & II, longitudinal arch flattening verified by radiography), sixty participants with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction associated complaints will be included in the study and will be randomly assigned to one of three different intervention groups: (i) foot orthoses only (FOO), (ii) foot orthoses and eccentric exercise (FOE), or (iii) sham foot orthoses only (FOS). Participants in the FOO and FOE groups will be allocated individualised foot orthoses, the latter combined with eccentric exercise for ankle stabilisation and strengthening of the tibialis posterior muscle. Participants in the FOS group will be allocated sham foot orthoses only. During the intervention period of 12 weeks, all participants will be encouraged to follow an educational program for dosed foot load management (e.g., to stop activity if they experience increasing pain). Functional
Goel, Khushboo; Pradhan, Shaili; Bhattarai, Madhur Dev
Despite several investigations, evidence is still controversial regarding the effect of periodontal treatment on diabetes. This study evaluates and compares the effect on glycemic control and periodontal status with or without nonsurgical periodontal therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic periodontitis in a Nepalese population. A total of 82 patients attending the diabetes clinic and fulfilling enrollment criteria with moderate to severe periodontitis were selected. They were assigned in an alternative sequence, into test and control group. Both groups were instructed to continue with their medical treatment without modifications. Scaling and root surface debridement were performed in the test group whereas the control group received oral hygiene instructions with no treatment during the 3-month study period. There were 41 participants in each group with the mean age of 50.66±7.70 and 53.80±9.16 years, average diabetes duration of 6.32±4.21 and 6.24±4.00 years, mean body mass index of 24.78±1.85 and 24.6±1.79 kg/m(2), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level of 6.71±0.50% and 6.80±0.45%, in the test and control group, respectively. After 3 months, there was significant reduction in HbA1c levels in the test group compared to the control group (p=0.029). Clinical periodontal parameters of gingival index, probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) significantly improved in the test group (p<0.001) with PD reduction by 0.9 mm and gain in CAL by 0.3 mm compared to the control group (p>0.001) who showed an increase by 0.05 mm. This study showed that nonsurgical periodontal therapy may have a beneficial effect on HbA1c level in moderately controlled type 2 diabetic patients.
Ehizele, Ao; Akhionbare, O
The major goal of non-surgical periodontal therapy is to reduce or eliminate the subgingival pathogenic microbial flora that is known to be associated with volatile sulfur compounds (VSC). The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on the concentration of VSC in mouth air of young adults. Four hundred subjects, grouped into two based on the absence or presence of periodontal diseases, were involved in this study. Basic periodontal examination was used for the grouping. The measurement of the concentration of the VSC in the mouth air of the subjects was done objectively, using the Halimeter, before and after the therapy, and at recall visits 2 weeks and 6 weeks after therapy. Chi-square and Paired t-test were used to find statistical significance. The results revealed that at baseline, 78.7% (48/61) of the subjects who had VSC concentration more than 250 parts per billion (ppb) were from the group with periodontal disease. Immediately after non-surgical periodontal therapy, only 8.5% (17/200) of the subjects with periodontal disease had VSC concentration of more than 250 ppb while all the subjects with no periodontal disease had VSC concentration less than 181 ppb. The same pattern of reduction in the concentration of the VSC and improvement in oral hygiene was also obtained 2 weeks and 6 weeks after therapy. It can be concluded that non-surgical periodontal therapy brought about reduction in the concentration of volatile sulfur compounds in mouth air of young adults.
Savita, A. M.; Sarun, E.; Arora, Shivli; Krishnan, Swathi
Context: Periodontitis is predominantly due to exaggerated host response to pathogenic microorganisms and their products which causes an imbalance between the reactive oxygen species-antioxidant in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Glutathione is an important redox regulator in GCF and maintenance of stable reduced glutathione (GSH):oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio is essential for periodontal health. Aims: The present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the level of glutathione and redox balance (GSH: GSSG ratio) in GCF of chronic periodontitis patients, periodontally healthy controls and also to evaluate the effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on the level of glutathione and redox balance during 3 months postoperative visit. Study Design: Baseline GCF samples were collected from 20 chronic periodontitis patients and 20 periodontally healthy subjects for GSH and GSSG levels estimation. Periodontitis patients were recalled 3 months postnonsurgical periodontal therapy to re-sample GCF. Materials and Methods: GSH and GSSG levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The values were statistically analyzed by Paired t-test. Results: The mean GSH and GSSG values in GCF were found to be significantly lower in periodontitis patients pre- and 3 months post-nonsurgical periodontal therapy, compared with those in the control group subjects. In addition, the successful nonsurgical therapy even though leading to a significant improvement in the GSH and GSSG levels, does not restore glutathione concentration to the levels seen in healthy subjects. Conclusion: Successful nonsurgical periodontal therapy leads to significant improvement in the redox balance (GSH: GSSG ratio) in chronic periodontitis patients. PMID:26097356
Dolińska, Ewa; Skurska, Anna; Dymicka-Piekarska, Violetta; Milewski, Robert; Pietruski, Jan; Pietruska, Małgorzata; Sculean, Anton
To assess the presence of HNP1-3 in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients suffering from aggressive periodontitis before and after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Twenty patients, each with generalised aggressive periodontitis (GAP) were included in the study. After periodontal examination, one site with a probing depth (PD) ≥ 4 mm was selected. Patients received nonsurgical treatment (scaling and root planing [SRP]) with additional administration of systemic antibiotic therapy (amoxicillin 375 mg three times daily + metronidazole 250 mg three times daily for 7 days). Prior to therapy and 3 and 6 months after, the following parameters were evaluated from the same site: PD, gingival recession (GR), clinical attachment level (CAL), plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), sulcus fluid flow rate (SFFR). The level of HNP1-3 in GCF was determined by means of a commercially available ELISA kit. Compared to baseline, the level of HNP 1-3 did not show statistically significant differences at 3 and 6 months. The evaluated clinical parameters and SFFR showed statistically significant decreases compared to baseline. At 6 months, PD (median) decreased from 7 to 3.5 and CAL (median) decreased from 7 to 4. In patients with GAP, nonsurgical periodontal therapy in conjunction with systemic administration of amoxicillin and metronidazole had no effect on the level of HNP1-3 in GCF.
Tieu, Long D; Saltaji, Humam; Normando, David; Flores-Mir, Carlos
This study aims to critically evaluate orthodontically induced external apical root resorption (OIEARR) in incisors of patients undergoing non-surgical orthodontic treatment of class II division 1 malocclusion by a systematic review of the published data. An electronic search of two databases was performed; the bibliographies of relevant articles were also reviewed. Studies were included if they examined the amount of OIEARR in incisors produced during non-surgical orthodontic treatment of individuals with class II division I malocclusion in the permanent dentition. Individuals had no previous history of OIEARR, syndromes, pathologies, or general diseases. Study selections, risk of bias assessment, and data extraction were performed in duplicate. Eight studies of moderate methodological quality were finally included. An increased prevalence (65.6% to 98.1%) and mild to moderate severity of OIEARR (<4 mm and <1/3 original root) were reported. No sex difference in root resorption was found. For the maxillary incisors, there was no evidence that either the central or lateral incisor was more susceptible to OIEARR. A weak to moderate positive correlation between treatment duration and root resorption, and anteroposterior apical displacement and root resorption was found. Current limited evidence suggests that non-surgical comprehensive orthodontic treatment to correct class II division 1 malocclusions causes increased prevalence and severity of OIEARR the more the incisor roots are displaced and the longer this movement takes.
Guzzini, M; Vadalà, A; Agrò, A; Di Sanzo, V; Pironi, D; Redler, A; Serlorenzi, P; Proietti, L; Civitenga, C; Mazza, D; Lanzetti, R M; Ferretti, Andrea
The best treatment for moderately displaced radial head fractures (Mason type II) still remains controversial. In cases of isolated fractures, there is no evidence that a fragment displacement of ≥ 2 mm gives poor results in conservatively treated fractures. We retrospectively reviewed 52 patients (31M, 21F) affected by an isolated Mason type II fracture, treated with a long arm cast for two weeks between 2008 and 2013. All patients had practiced sports before being injured. They were all either bicyclists, or baseball, boxers, basketball, rugby, tennis or football players. The mean follow-up was 36 months. Elbow and forearm range of motion were measured. The Mayo Elbow Performance Score, the Broberg and Morrey rating system and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Score (DASH score) were analyzed. Follow-up radiographs were examined for evidence of consolidation, late displacement, early arthritis and non-unions. Flexion was slightly impaired in the injured limb when compared to the uninjured limb (137°± 6° versus 139°±5°) as were extension (-3°±6° versus 1°±4°, p < 0.05), supination (86°±6° versus 88°±3°), pronation (87°±4° versus 88°±6°) and valgus deviation (10°±4° versus 8°±3°, p < 0.05). 40 patients had no elbow complaints; 9 patients experienced occasional pain, 2 a mild instability of the elbow, and 4 a mild loss of grip strength. The DASH score was excellent in 48 patients (92.31%). In only 6 cases (11.53%) degenerative changes were greater in formerly injured elbows than in uninjured elbows. All patients returned to their previous sports activities. Isolated Mason type II fractures can have a good or excellent mid-term functional outcome even when treated conservatively.
A 16-year-old female patient with skeletal Class III malocclusion and bilateral posterior cross bite complaining of difficulty in chewing was treated orthodontically without surgery (camouflage treatment). The treatment comprised of fixed orthodontic treatment with MBT prescription (0.022˝×0.028˝ slot) using quad helix appliance for bilateral expansion of maxillary arch and Class III elastics for occlusal correction. Post-treatment records showed normal overbite and overjet with acceptable occlusion. So with this treatment strategy of expanding the maxillary arch using a quad helix appliance and use of Class III elastics, we achieved a good result with optimal occlusion. PMID:28209011
John, Mike T; Michalowicz, Bryan S; Kotsakis, Georgios A; Chu, Haitao
The recent ADA-commissioned Clinical Practice Guideline on the nonsurgical treatment of chronic periodontitis has provided the most exhaustive library of clinical trials on scaling and root planing (SRP) with or without adjuncts. This network meta-analysis (NMA) compared the adjuncts against each other. A star-shaped NMA was performed based on 36 indirect comparisons of clinical attachment-level (CAL) gains among nine adjuncts in 74 studies from the Clinical Practice Guideline. All pairwise differences were accompanied by wide confidence intervals, and none of the adjuncts were statistically significantly superior to another. Local doxycycline hyclate and photodynamic therapy with a diode laser had the highest probabilities for ranking first and second, respectively. Publication bias was evident, with fewer than expected studies with small effects. The lack of these studies inflated the treatment effects by an estimated by 20%. Adjuncts improve CAL gain by about a third of a mm over 6-12 months compared with SRP alone, but no significant differences were found among the adjuncts. The patient-perceived benefit of this gain is unclear because CAL is a physical measure made by the clinician and not a patient-oriented outcome. Publication bias inflated the observed treatment effects. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Peter, Maya Rajan; Perayil, Jayachandran; Vyloppillil, Rajesh; Bhaskar, Anuradha
Background. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the supporting structures of the dentition. Periodontal destruction is an outcome of the imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs). We wanted to prove the hypothesis that salivary TIPM-1 level will vary in different people. A decrease in TIMP-1 level could make them more susceptible to periodontitis whereas a normal level could prevent increased tissue destruction thereby inhibiting the progression from gingivitis to periodontitis. This could probably pave the way for TIPM-1 to be a specific salivary biomarker and serve as a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool in periodontitis. Methods. Whole unstimulated saliva of 2 ml was collected from twenty-five periodontally healthy and twenty-seven systemically healthy subjects with periodontitis. Clinical parameters recorded at baseline and reevaluated after four weeks in subjects with periodontitis following nonsurgical periodontal therapy were gingival index (GI), oral hygiene index-Simplified (OHI-S), probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level (CAL). Salivary TIMP-1 levels in both were analyzed using a commercially available ELISA kit. PMID:26464855
Fenol, Angel; Peter, Maya Rajan; Perayil, Jayachandran; Vyloppillil, Rajesh; Bhaskar, Anuradha
Background. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the supporting structures of the dentition. Periodontal destruction is an outcome of the imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs). We wanted to prove the hypothesis that salivary TIPM-1 level will vary in different people. A decrease in TIMP-1 level could make them more susceptible to periodontitis whereas a normal level could prevent increased tissue destruction thereby inhibiting the progression from gingivitis to periodontitis. This could probably pave the way for TIPM-1 to be a specific salivary biomarker and serve as a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool in periodontitis. Methods. Whole unstimulated saliva of 2 ml was collected from twenty-five periodontally healthy and twenty-seven systemically healthy subjects with periodontitis. Clinical parameters recorded at baseline and reevaluated after four weeks in subjects with periodontitis following nonsurgical periodontal therapy were gingival index (GI), oral hygiene index-Simplified (OHI-S), probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level (CAL). Salivary TIMP-1 levels in both were analyzed using a commercially available ELISA kit.
Woodward, J. Scott; Parker, Andrew; MacDonald, Robert M.
Study Design: Case Report Background: Injury or weakness of lower abdominal attachments and the posterior inguinal wall can be symptoms of a “sports hernia” and an underlying source of groin pain. Although several authors note conservative treatment as the initial step in the management of this condition, very little has been written on the specific description of non-surgical measures. Most published articles favoring operative care describe poor results related to conservative management; however they fail to report what treatment techniques comprise non-operative management. Case Presentation: The subject of this case report is a professional ice hockey player who sustained an abdominal injury in a game, which was diagnosed as a sports hernia. Following the injury, structured conservative treatment emphasized core control and stability with progressive peripheral demand challenges. Intrinsic core control emphasis continued throughout the treatment progression and during the functional training prior to return to sport. Outcome: The player completed his recovery with return to full competition seven weeks post injury, and continues to compete in the NHL seven years later. Discussion: Surgical intervention has been shown to be effective in the treatment of the “sports hernia.” However it is the authors' opinion that conservative care emphasizing evaluation of intrinsic core muscular deficits and rehabilitation directed at addressing these deficits is an appropriate option, and should be considered prior to surgical intervention. PMID:22319682
Boston, Clare; Lovell, Harold; Weber, Paul; Chandler, Benjamin
Østre Svartisen is a plateau icefield located in northern Norway at 66°N. The icefield is understood to have reached its maximum Little Ice Age (LIA) limit at around 1750 AD and glacier recession has been fairly continuous since this time. Recent fieldwork at Fingerbreen, located in the northeast sector of the icefield, has produced a detailed geomorphological map of the glacier foreland, recording landforms such as moraines, flutes and geometrical ridge networks. This contribution focuses on the geomorphological and sedimentological characteristics of the geometrical ridges, which are typically oriented perpendicular and sub-perpendicular to ice flow and are found draped over flutes in the central sector of the foreland. In other settings, similar geometrical ridge networks are often interpreted as crevasse-squeeze ridges (CSRs), which are typically thought to uniquely form during glacier surges. Temperate glaciers in mainland Norway, however, have never been observed to surge, and thus in this work we consider potential processes of geometrical ridge network formation at non-surging temperate glacier margins. This evidence helps to improve our knowledge on former glacier dynamics based on interpretation of the subglacial record by refining our understanding of subglacial to sub-marginal processes of sediment deposition.
Kumaresan, Dhanangchaayan; Balasundaram, Aruna; Naik, Vanaja Krishna; Appukuttan, Deva Priya
Objective: Periostin is a matricellular protein highly expressed in periosteum, periodontal ligament and is essential for tissue integrity and maturation. It plays a role in collagen fibrillogenesis and is downregulated in periodontal disease. Biostimulation utilizing low-level laser therapy (LLLT) influences periodontal ligament fibroblast proliferation. This study was conducted with the objective of estimating periostin levels in chronic periodontitis (CP) patients following LLLT as an adjunct to root surface debridement (RSD). Materials and Methods: Thirty periodontally healthy participants (Group I) and sixty CP participants were recruited. Based on the therapeutic intervention, CP patients were allocated to either RSD (Group II) or to RSD with LLLT (Group III) group. Clinical parameters and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) periostin levels were assessed at the baseline and at the 3rd month. Results: Periostin levels were significantly lower in CP patients when compared to healthy individuals at the baseline (P < 0.01). Following nonsurgical periodontal treatment (NSPT), periostin levels significantly increased in both Group II and III, when compared to baseline values (P < 0.001). Comparison of mean periostin levels between both the treatment groups showed a significant increase in LLLT group than RSD at the 3rd month (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Within the limitations of the present study, LLLT application was found to have additional benefits over RSD with respect to clinical periodontal parameters and GCF periostin levels. Moreover, periostin may be used as a possible biomarker to evaluate the outcome following NSPT. PMID:28042273
Mehmedovic, Zlatan; Mehmedovic, Majda; Hasanovic, Jasmin
Although laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become a gold standard in treatment of symptomatic cholelithiasis, it is associated with higher risk of intraoperative lesions and primarily lesions of biliary ducts. In small percentage of cases biliary fistulas occur, most commonly after leakage from cystic duct stump or accessory bile ducts – Luschka’s duct. We report of a patient who had episodes of abdominal pain following routine laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute calculous gallbladder. Results of conducted diagnostics verify the presence of biliary fistula caused by obstruction of bile pathways by stagnant pus and microcalculi of common bile duct, with development of biloma presumably caused by pressure injection of contrast material during ERCP procedure. Endoscopic sphincterectomy via ERCP enabled healing of formed biliary fistula, whilst continuous percutaneous ultrasound guided drainage of biloma was method of choice in later treatment of our patient. It is important to note that diagnostic evaluation of biliary fistula is very challenging and that timely nonsurgical treatment is of great benefit for patient. PMID:26005280
Faierman, Michelle L.; Anderson, Jamie E.; Assane, Americo; Bendix, Peter; Vaz, Fernando; Rose, John A.; Funzamo, Carlos; Bickler, Stephen W.; Noormahomed, Emilia V.
Background Surgical care is increasingly recognised as an important component of global health delivery. However, there are still major gaps in knowledge related to access to surgical care in low-income countries. In this study, we compare distances travelled by surgical patients with patients seeking other medical services at a first-level hospital in rural Mozambique. Methods Data were collected on all inpatients at Hospital Rural de Chókwè in rural Mozambique between 20 June 2012 and 3 August 2012. Euclidean distances travelled by surgical versus non-surgical patients using coordinates of each patient's city of residence were compared. Data were analysed using ArcGIS 10 and STATA. Results In total, 500 patients were included. Almost one-half (47.6%) lived in the city where the hospital is based. By hospital ward, the majority (62.0%) of maternity patients came from within the hospital's city compared with only 35.2% of surgical patients. The average distance travelled was longest for surgical patients (42 km) compared with an average of 17 km for patients on all other wards. Conclusions Patients seeking surgical care at this first-level hospital travel farther than patients seeking other services. While other patients may have access to at community clinics, surgical patients depend more heavily on the services available at first-level hospitals. PMID:25135818
Buzinin, Samira Mukhtar; Alabsi, Aied Mohammed; Tan, Alexander Tong Boon; Vincent-Chong, Vui King; Swaminathan, Dasan
The association between diabetes mellitus and chronic periodontal disease has long been established. Most of the researches linking these two very common chronic diseases were based on type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic periodontal disease. However, this study was conducted to investigate the association between type 1 diabetes and chronic periodontal disease in Malaysian subjects. Forty-one Malaysian subjects, of which 20 subjects were type 1 diabetics and with chronic periodontal disease (test group) and 21 subjects with only chronic periodontal disease (control group), were included in the study. Periodontal parameters and plaque samples for microbiological evaluation were done at baseline, 2 and 3 months after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Blood samples were taken from only the test group and evaluated for HbA1c at baseline and 3 months after periodontal therapy. There were no statistically significant difference in periodontal parameters between groups (P>0.05) and no significant improvement in the level of HbA1c in the test group. Microbiological studies indicated that there were significant reductions in the levels of the tested pathogens in both groups. The results of our study were similar to the findings of several other studies that had been done previously.
Buzinin, Samira Mukhtar; Alabsi, Aied Mohammed; Tan, Alexander Tong Boon
The association between diabetes mellitus and chronic periodontal disease has long been established. Most of the researches linking these two very common chronic diseases were based on type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic periodontal disease. However, this study was conducted to investigate the association between type 1 diabetes and chronic periodontal disease in Malaysian subjects. Forty-one Malaysian subjects, of which 20 subjects were type 1 diabetics and with chronic periodontal disease (test group) and 21 subjects with only chronic periodontal disease (control group), were included in the study. Periodontal parameters and plaque samples for microbiological evaluation were done at baseline, 2 and 3 months after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Blood samples were taken from only the test group and evaluated for HbA1c at baseline and 3 months after periodontal therapy. There were no statistically significant difference in periodontal parameters between groups (P>0.05) and no significant improvement in the level of HbA1c in the test group. Microbiological studies indicated that there were significant reductions in the levels of the tested pathogens in both groups. The results of our study were similar to the findings of several other studies that had been done previously. PMID:25147841
Tidwell, E; Witherspoon, D E; Gutmann, J L; Vreeland, D L; Sweet, P M
The problem of thermal sensitivity following non-surgical root-canal treatment is explored and case reports are presented. Possible causes for post-treatment discomfort from endodontic and restorative aetiologies are discussed, as are the mechanisms to explain the patients' painful experiences. Treatment of this problem may vary from the simple replacement of a defective restoration to a more extensive non-surgical retreatment of the case, despite radiographic evidence of an acceptable root filling and normal periradicular tissues.
GUZZINI, M.; VADALÀ, A.; AGRÒ, A.; DI SANZO, V.; PIRONI, D.; REDLER, A.; SERLORENZI, P.; PROIETTI, L.; CIVITENGA, C.; MAZZA, D.; LANZETTI, R.M.; FERRETTI, A.
Objective The best treatment for moderately displaced radial head fractures (Mason type II) still remains controversial. In cases of isolated fractures, there is no evidence that a fragment displacement of ≥ 2 mm gives poor results in conservatively treated fractures. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed 52 patients (31M, 21F) affected by an isolated Mason type II fracture, treated with a long arm cast for two weeks between 2008 and 2013. All patients had practiced sports before being injured. They were all either bicyclists, or baseball, boxers, basketball, rugby, tennis or football players. The mean follow-up was 36 months. Elbow and forearm range of motion were measured. The Mayo Elbow Performance Score, the Broberg and Morrey rating system and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Score (DASH score) were analyzed. Follow-up radiographs were examined for evidence of consolidation, late displacement, early arthritis and non-unions. Results Flexion was slightly impaired in the injured limb when compared to the uninjured limb (137°± 6° versus 139°±5°) as were extension (–3°±6° versus 1°±4°, p < 0.05), supination (86°±6° versus 88°±3°), pronation (87°±4° versus 88°±6°) and valgus deviation (10°±4° versus 8°±3°, p < 0.05). 40 patients had no elbow complaints; 9 patients experienced occasional pain, 2 a mild instability of the elbow, and 4 a mild loss of grip strength. The DASH score was excellent in 48 patients (92.31%). In only 6 cases (11.53%) degenerative changes were greater in formerly injured elbows than in uninjured elbows. All patients returned to their previous sports activities. Conclusions Isolated Mason type II fractures can have a good or excellent mid-term functional outcome even when treated conservatively. PMID:28098055
Lue, Tom F.
Peyronient of Urology, Schoolaracterized by the formation of fibrous plaque in the tunica albuginea of the penis. The patient usually complains of penile deformities in the form of curvature, palpable plaques, hourglass deformity, shortening or indentation with or without pain. The patient might also suffer from erectile dysfunction. The disease is associated with significant mental morbidity as 48% of the patients are clinically depressed. In addition, several comorbidities were found to be associated with the disease, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, erectile dysfunction, low testosterone, obesity, and smoking. Furthermore, 20% of patients were found to have Dupuytren by the formation. This presentation summarizes the current literature pertaining to all pharmacotherapies (oral, intralesional, iontophoresis, and topical) and minimally invasive treatments available for PD (vacuum, traction device, shock wave therapy, and radiation treatment). Special emphasis will be on the recently FDA approved collagenase (Xiaflex). Clostridial collagenases’ ability to digest native, triple-helical types I, II, and III collagens into a mixture of small peptides is its primary distinguishing factor. This is accomplished by making multiple scissions in the triple helix. Digestion is completed by hydrolyzing those fragments into a mixture of small peptides. Conversely, vertebrate collagenases initiate collagenolysis by making a single scission across all three alpha chains after which attack on those alpha chains is very limited. Two phase 3 studies: IMPRESS (Investigation for Maximal Peyronie’s Reduction Efficacy and Safety Studies) I (417 men) and II (415 men) confirm the efficacy and safety. Men treated with collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) showed a mean 34% improvement in penile curvature, representing a -17.0 ±14.8 degree change per subject, compared with a mean 18.2% improvement in placebo treated men, representing a -9.3±13.6 degree change per subject
Fowler, John R; Gaughan, John P; Boden, Barry P; Pavlov, Helene; Torg, Joseph S
Stress fractures of the tarsal navicular, first described in 1970, were initially thought to be rare injuries. Heightened awareness and increased participation in athletics has resulted in more frequent diagnosis and more aggressive treatment. The vascular supply of the tarsal navicular results in a relatively avascular zone in the central one-third, which experiences severe compressive forces during explosive manoeuvers such as jumping and sprinting. Repetitive activities can result in stress reactions or even fracture. Patients often initially complain of vague midfoot pain localized to the medial border of the foot. The pain is usually exacerbated by activity and relieved with rest. The diagnosis of tarsal navicular stress fracture is challenging because of the high false negative rate of plain radiographs. Additional diagnostic testing with bone scan, CT and MRI are often required for diagnosis. The proper treatment of tarsal navicular stress fractures has become a topic of debate as surgical intervention for these injuries has increased. In a recent meta-analysis, Torg et al. found that 96% of tarsal navicular stress fractures treated with non-weight-bearing (NWB) conservative treatment for 5 weeks went on to successful outcomes. However, only 44% of patients treated with weight-bearing (WB) conservative treatment had successful outcomes. Surgical treatment resulted in successful outcome in 82% of patients. Interestingly, the meta-analysis also found that fracture type did not correlate with outcomes, regardless of treatment. The meta-analysis also found no difference in time to return to activity between patients treated surgically and those who underwent NWB conservative treatment. The recent literature indicates that patients are undergoing surgery or are receiving WB conservative management as a first-line treatment option with the expectation that they will return to their activity more quickly. Although surgical treatment seems increasingly common, the
Gong, Feilong; Li, Peng; Li, Bin; Zhang, Shizhen; Zhang, Xinjie; Yang, Sen; Liu, Hongbin; Wang, Wei
OBJECTIVE Anterior capsulotomy (AC) is sometimes used as a last resort for treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Previous studies assessing neuropsychological outcomes in patients with OCD have identified several forms of cognitive dysfunction that are associated with the disease, but few have focused on changes in cognitive function in OCD patients who have undergone surgery. In the present study, the authors investigated the effects of AC on the cognitive function of patients with treatment-refractory OCD. METHODS The authors selected 14 patients with treatment-refractory OCD who had undergone bilateral AC between 2007 and 2013, 14 nonsurgically treated OCD patients, and 14 healthy control subjects for this study. The 3 groups were matched for sex, age, and education. Several neuropsychological tests, including Similarities and Block Design, which are subsets of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence; Immediate and Delayed Logical Memory and Immediate and Delayed Visual Reproduction, which are subsets of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised; and Corrects, Categories, Perseverative Errors, Nonperseverative Errors, and Errors, subtests of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, were conducted in all 42 subjects at baseline and after AC, after nonsurgical treatment, or at 6-month intervals, as appropriate. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) was used to measure OCD symptoms in all 28 OCD patients. RESULTS The Y-BOCS scores decreased significantly in both OCD groups during the 12-month follow-up period. Surgical patients showed higher levels of improvement in verbal memory, visual memory, visuospatial skills, and executive function than the nonsurgically treated OCD patients. CONCLUSIONS The findings of this study suggest that AC not only reduces OCD symptoms but also attenuates moderate cognitive deficits.
Ito, Tetsuya; Chika, Noriyasu; Yamamoto, Azusa; Ogura, Toshiro; Amano, Kunihiko; Ishiguro, Toru; Fukuchi, Minoru; Kumagai, Youichi; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Eguchi, Hidetaka; Okazaki, Yasushi; Mochiki, Erito; Ishida, Hideyuki
A 44-year-old man with familial adenomatous polyposis underwent laparoscopic-assistedtotal proctocolectomy with ilealpouch anal anastomosis(IPAA). Computed tomography conducted 21 months after IPAA demonstrated bilateral hydronephrosis andan intra-abdominal mass with a maximal diameter of 22 cm, leading to a diagnosis of stage IV desmoid disease, according to the classification by Church and associates. Six courses of combination chemotherapy with doxorubicin plus dacarbazine were administered. Computed tomography after chemotherapy demonstrated marked shrinkage of the desmoidtumor with intraabdominal air andfluidcollection extending just below the skin of the ileostomy closure site. Stoollike fluidoverflowedspontaneously through the site of the ileostomy closure andthe abscess cavity was successfully drained. The patient was discharged 30 days after the start of drainage. The patient is doing well 10 months after the drainage without regrowth of the desmoid tumor, even though a cavity-like lesion encapsulatedby a thick wall remains.
Garrastazu, R; Fernández-Fonfria, J R
Thromboprophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin is efficient, effective and generates savings in health costs in hospitals. However, outside hospitals, there are situations of apparent risk of thrombosis, where there seems to be no such consensus. This occurs in traumatic lower limb injuries which are not undergoing surgery and need a period of immobilization. These are processes with multidisciplinary interventions (Emergency, Family Physicians and Traumatology), although during outpatient follow up it is not easy to find criteria for using thromboprophylaxis. We report a case of a pulmonary embolism, with unusual symptoms, in an ambulatory patient with a fractured fibula and metatarsal, who was being treated with Bemiparin. As we shall see, this is a rare complication, but it shows the importance of proper risk assessment of thromboembolic disease in these patients. We emphasize the accompanying tomographic images for their clarity and eloquence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMERGEN. All rights reserved.
Sanderson, P; Innamaa, A; Palmer, J; Tidy, J
Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare intraepidermal adenocarcinoma that can affect the vulval skin. Surgical excision is the gold-standard treatment, however, recurrence rates are high and extensive excisions can produce long-lasting cosmetic and functional defects. We describe one of the largest case series to-date (n = 6) on the use of topical 5% imiquimod cream as a novel treatment option and discuss our experiences. With the addition of our six cases to the literature, there are now 29 documented cases of vulval EMPD treated with 5% imiquimod cream. Of these, 50% of primary disease cases and 73% of recurrent primary disease cases have achieved clinical resolution with 5% imiquimod therapy alone. These findings suggest that imiquimod provides a viable alternative to surgical excision for vulval EMPD. However, we acknowledge that this is a simple retrospective analysis and that treatment scheduling and follow-up needs investigation in a trial setting.
Cuccia, Antonino Marco; Caradonna, Carola
Background A defect of condylar morphology can be caused by several sources. Case report A case of altered condylar morphology in adult male with temporomandibular disorders was reported in 30-year-old male patient. Erosion and flattening of the left mandibular condyle were observed by panoramic x-ray. The patient was treated with splint therapy that determined mandibular advancement. Eight months after the therapy, reduction in joint pain and a greater opening of the mouth was observed, although crepitation sounds during mastication were still noticeable. Conclusion During the following months of gnatologic treatment, new bone growth in the left condyle was observed by radiograph, with further improvement of the symptoms. PMID:19619334
Busetto, Luca; Mirabelli, Dario; Petroni, Maria Letizia; Mazza, Marco; Favretti, Franco; Segato, Gianni; Chiusolo, Monica; Merletti, Franco; Balzola, Franco; Enzi, Giuliano
To compare the mortality rate of obese patients treated by laparoscopic gastric banding (LAGB) with the mortality rate of matched obese patients observed at medical centers. The net effect of bariatric surgery on total mortality is still controversial. Gastric bypass has been shown to reduce the relative risk of death, but similar data with LABG are still lacking. The surgical series was composed of 821 patients with a body mass index (BMI) >40 kg/m(2) consecutively treated with LAGB at Padova University, Italy. The reference group was composed of 821 gender-, age-, and BMI-matched patients selected from a sample of 4681 adults with a BMI >40 kg/m(2) observed at 6 Italian medical centers not using surgical therapy. The mean follow-up was 5.6 +/- 1.9 and 7.2 +/- 1.2 years in the surgical and reference group, respectively. The vital status was known in 97.6% of the surgical group (8 deaths) and in 97.4% of the reference group (36 deaths). In the surgical group, the percentage of excess weight loss was 39.8% +/- 17.9% 1 year after LAGB and 37.2% +/- 23.8% 5 years after LAGB. The rate of late revisional surgery was 12.2%. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the differences between the 2 groups were evaluated using the log-rank test. The survival rate was significantly greater in the surgical group (P = 0.0004). On multivariate Cox analysis, the 5-year relative risk of death in the surgical group, adjusted for gender, age, and baseline BMI, was 0.36 (95% confidence interval 0.16-0.80). LAGB was associated with a 0% operative mortality rate and 40% stable excess weight loss. LAGB patients had a 5-year 60% lower risk of death than comparable morbidly obese patients.
Waguespack, R Wayne; Hanson, R Reid
Navicular syndrome is a chronic, progressive condition affecting the navicular bone and bursa, deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT), and associated soft tissue structures composing the navicular apparatus. The treatment options for navicular syndrome are as varied as the proposed causes of the condition. The severity of clinical signs, intended use and workload of the horse, and owner compliance with therapy are important considerations in developing a treatment plan. Nonsurgical treatment of navicular syndrome consists of rest, hoof balance and corrective trimming/shoeing, and medical therapy, including administration of systemic antiinflammatories, hemorheologic medications, and intraarticular medications. While surgical therapy can include desmotomy of the collateral (suspensory) ligaments of the navicular bone, palmar digital neurectomy is more commonly performed when medical therapy is ineffective. Recently, adjunct therapies, such as acupuncture and extracorporeal shock wave therapy, have also been used to treat horses with navicular syndrome. Because of the wide range of pathologic changes and the lack of a definitive cure associated with navicular syndrome, treatment is directed toward the individual horse, focusing on the management of clinical signs to alleviate stress and retard degenerative changes of the navicular bursal and navicular regions.
Effect of Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy Along With Myo-Inositol on High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and Insulin Resistance in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Chronic Periodontitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Deepti; Tewari, Shikha; Narula, Satish Chander; Singhal, Savita Rani; Sharma, Rajinder Kumar
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy and medical treatment on the level of a serologic marker of inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP]) and insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment [HOMA]) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and chronic periodontitis (CP). Women with PCOS and CP (n = 60) were randomly divided into two groups. The test group was treated with scaling and root planing (SRP) and myo-inositol (MI). The control group was treated with MI and given oral hygiene instructions. Anthropometric, metabolic, and periodontal parameters were assessed at baseline and re-evaluated at 3 and 6 months. All parameters of both groups at 6 months were compared with 25 systemically and periodontally healthy females (group A). Periodontal parameters were significantly improved in the test group compared with the control group at 3- and 6-month follow-up (P <0.001). A statistically significant reduction was observed in hsCRP and HOMA in both groups at 3- and 6-month follow-up (P <0.05). However, significantly more improvement in hsCRP (P <0.05) and a statistically comparable reduction in HOMA (P >0.05) was observed in the test group compared with the control group at 3 and 6 months. Both the test and control group showed significant consistent improvement in metabolic parameters at 3- and 6-month follow-up, which was further comparable to group A. SRP together with medical treatment results in a greater reduction of systemic inflammatory burden compared with medical treatment alone in management of women with PCOS and CP.
Gallucci, G L; Piuzzi, N S; Slullitel, P A I; Boretto, J G; Alfie, V A; Donndorff, A; De Carli, P
We retrospectively evaluated the clinical and radiological outcomes of a consecutive cohort of patients aged > 70 years with a displaced fracture of the olecranon, which was treated non-operatively with early mobilisation. We identified 28 such patients (27 women) with a mean age of 82 years (71 to 91). The elbow was initially immobilised in an above elbow cast in 90° of flexion of the elbow for a mean of five days. The cast was then replaced by a sling. Active mobilisation was encouraged as tolerated. No formal rehabilitation was undertaken. At a mean follow-up of 16 months (12 to 26), the mean ranges of flexion and extension were 140° and 15° respectively. On a visual analogue scale of 1 (no pain) to 10, the mean pain score was 1 (0 to 8). Of the original 28 patients 22 developed nonunion, but no patients required surgical treatment. We conclude that non-operative functional treatment of displaced olecranon fractures in the elderly gives good results and a high rate of satisfaction.
Silva, Claudio F; Soffia, Pablo S; Pruzzo, Edda
Prevertebral calcific tendinitis results from calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposits in the longus colli muscles, which induce symptoms similar to some surgically-treated conditions, such as retropharyngeal abscesses. Imaging techniques are critical for accurate diagnosis. To describe the computed tomography (CT) findings associated with prevertebral calcific tendinitis. Retrospective analysis performed in an 18-month period, searching for patients with neck CT and reports with diagnosis of "calcific longus collis tendinitis" or "prevertebral calcific tendinitis". CT images and clinical data available in the medical records were analyzed. One hundred and thirty-four examinations were performed in the period studied. Nine patients who fulfilled inclusion criteria were identified and their CT imaging characteristics are presented. Six presented with calcific deposits in the right longus colli muscle. CT matched the clinical pain lateralization in all cases. Eight patients had no significant enhancement post injection of contrast media. Prevertebral calcific tendinitis is a cause of acute cervical pain that clinically mimics a retropharyngeal abscess, however on neck CT has a characteristic appearance. Correct identification of this pathologic condition will help avoiding unnecessary invasive procedures.
Mottalib, Adham; Sakr, Mahmoud; Shehabeldin, Mohamed; Hamdy, Osama
Partial or complete remission from type 2 diabetes was recently observed after bariatric surgeries. Limited data is available about the possibility of inducing diabetes remission through intensive weight reduction. We retrospectively evaluated diabetes remissions after one year of the Weight Achievement and Intensive Treatment (Why WAIT) program, a 12-week intensive program for diabetes weight management in real-world clinical practice. Among 120 obese patients with type 2 diabetes who completed the program, 88 patients returned for follow-up at one year. Nineteen patients (21.6%) had major improvement in their glycemic control, defined as achieving an A1C <6.5% after one year. Four patients (4.5%) achieved either partial or complete diabetes remission defined as A1C <6.5% and <5.7%, respectively, on no antihyperglycemic medications for one year; 2 achieved partial remission (2.3%) and 2 achieved complete remission (2.3%). At the time of intervention, patients who achieved diabetes remission had shorter diabetes duration (<5 years) and lower A1C (<8%) and were treated with fewer than 2 oral medications. They achieved a weight reduction of >7% after 12 weeks. These results indicate that a subset of obese patients with type 2 diabetes is appropriate for intensive lifestyle intervention with the aim of inducing diabetes remission. PMID:26114120
Kondo, E; Aoba, T J
Two female patients, aged 14 years 5 months and 17 years 3 months with skeletal Class III open bite and temporomandibular dysfunction are presented. They had previously been classified as orthognathic surgical cases, involving first premolar removal. The primary treatment objective was to eliminate those skeletal and neuromuscular factors that were dominant in establishing their malocclusions. These included abnormal behavior of the tongue with short labial and lingual frenula, bilateral imbalance of chewing muscles, a partially blocked nasopharyngeal airway causing extrusion of the molars, with rotation of the mandible and narrowing of the maxillary arch. Resultant occlusal interference caused the mandible to shift to one side, which in turn produced the abnormal occlusal plane and curve of Spee. As a result, the form and function of the joints were adversely affected by the structural and functional asymmetry. These cases were treated by expanding the maxillary arch, which brought the maxilla downward and forward. The mandible moved downward and backward, with a slight increase in anterior facial height. Intruding and uprighting the posterior teeth, combined with a maxillary protraction, reconstructed the occlusal plane. A favorable perioral environment was created with widened tongue space in order to produce an adequate airway. Myofunctional therapy after lingual and labial frenectomy was assisted by vigorous gum chewing during and after treatment, together with a tooth positioner. Normal nasal breathing was achieved.
Bergamin, Paul A.
antimicrobials. Continuous prophylaxis, pre- and post-coital voiding, and self-starting are the three commonly accepted options for prophylaxis. The choice between these will depend upon patient preference, cultures and previous pattern of infection. Intra-vesical instillation of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulphate have been used for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) layer replenishment for many indications, including interstitial cystitis, overactive bladder syndrome, radiation cystitis and prevention of rUTI. At present, intra-vesical therapies are reserved for only those with the most unresponsive rUTIs. The principles of treating rUTI are to break the cycle and to treat any reversible causes. With our ever-expanding research knowledge, there are now many useful products that may be used for the successful treatment of rUTI. A management plan including a combination of a non-antimicrobial and selective antimicrobial regime for a minimum of six months should be considered. It is a prudent clinician that clearly defines this management plan, with reassurance of a finite period of therapy. PMID:28791233
Stevens, W. Grant; Bachelor, Eric P.
Background Vacuum applicators have been effective for cryolipolysis of the abdomen, flanks, inner thighs, back, chest, and arms. However, the lateral thighs have not been easily treated because fat from this area cannot be easily drawn into a vacuum cup. Objectives The authors investigated the safety and efficacy of a prototype applicator for treatment of “nonpinchable” fat in the lateral thighs. Methods In this prospective, nonrandomized, interventional cohort, multicenter study, a 120-minute unilateral treatment with a prototype conformable-surface applicator was performed on 1 lateral thigh of 40 patients, with the contralateral thigh serving as the control. During follow-up visits at 2 and 4 months, fat reduction was assessed by ultrasound imaging and clinical photography, and patient satisfaction surveys were completed. Results Ultrasound data indicated a 2.6-mm mean normalized reduction in fat thickness—a statistically significant reduction vs the untreated control thigh (P = 7.8E-8). According to patient survey responses, 89% of patients would recommend the procedure to a friend; 86% were satisfied with cryolipolysis for the lateral thighs; 86% noticed visible fat reduction; and 97% were likely to undergo a second treatment. A panel of 3 independent blinded physicians correctly identified baseline and posttreatment clinical photographs in 87% of cases. There were no serious adverse events or unanticipated adverse device effects. Conclusions The cryolipolysis conformable-surface applicator was safe and efficacious for treatment of lateral thigh fat. Clinical photographs and ultrasound results showed significant reduction in fat thickness, and noticeable reduction in undesirable “saddlebag” bulges. Level of Evidence: 3 Therapeutic PMID:25568236
Falimirski, M E; Provost, D
Age greater than 55 is often stated to be a contraindication to nonoperative management of intraperitoneal solid organ injury, based upon failures in early experiences of nonoperative therapy. Refinements in the criteria for nonoperative management of hepatic and splenic injuries have yielded improved success rates compared with those in initial reports, raising questions as to the validity of an age-related contraindication. A retrospective chart review of patients more than 55 years of age sustaining blunt hepatic and/or splenic injury at two urban Level I trauma centers was performed. Patients were stratified into three groups in which selection criteria could not consistently be determined: those managed nonoperatively, those managed operatively, and those who died within 24 hours. The purpose of this review is to identify whether age is a determinant for nonoperative management of abdominal solid organ injury. Eighty-eight patients were identified (mean age, 68.7 +/- 9.8), 17 of whom died in the emergency department or after operative intervention. Of the remaining 71 patients, 37 were originally managed nonoperatively (mean age 69.9 +/- 9.1, mean Injury Severity Score 19.9), 24 sustained hepatic injuries (grades I-IV), 12 sustained splenic injuries (grades I-III), and one patient sustained both organ injuries. Three patients with multisystem trauma died from complications unrelated to their solid organ injury (one brain death, one septic death, and one respiratory arrest). A single patient, with a grade I liver injury, required delayed exploration (for a persistent, unexplained metabolic acidosis) and underwent a nontherapeutic celiotomy. All but one of the 37 patients were successfully treated nonoperatively, for a 97 per cent success rate. We conclude that hemodynamically stable patients more than 55 years of age sustaining intra-abdominal injury can be observed safely. Age alone should no longer be considered an exclusion criterion for nonoperative
Pirani, Chiara; Chersoni, Stefano; Montebugnoli, Lucio; Prati, Carlo
This study investigated the long-term clinical outcome of root canal treatment. 240 root-treated teeth (n = 61 patients) were initially classified on the basis of radiographic presence/absence of initial apical periodontitis (IAP) and clinical data. The final outcome measure was the periapical healing (healed/disease). The outcome at 6-9 months was correlated with the outcome at 10 years following treatment. Prognostic factors for the periapical healing were assessed. Extraction data were recorded. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk indicators for apical periodontitis (AP) development. Chi-square analysis was performed to evaluate a possible relationship between the 6-9 months outcome and the final outcome related to IAP. Mean observation time was 14 ± 3.7 years. Survival rate was 84.6% and healing rate was 79% (10-19 years). Predictors of outcome (p < .05) were considered statistically significant. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that initial pulpal and periapical status and the quality of root canal filling as assessed two-dimensionally were independent predictors of outcome. The 6-9 months evaluation appears to be an indicator for the final outcome of primary root canal treatment both in the presence and in the absence of IAP. An initial radiolucency associated with an unsatisfactory quality and extent of root canal filling significantly diminishes the possibility of achieving long-term radiographic success. For those with uncertain healing at 6-9 months (91%), clinicians should consider the high healing rate when estimating the prognosis and adjust the decision making accordingly.
Taschieri, S; Machtou, P; Rosano, G; Weinstein, T; Del Fabbro, M
The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively if the outcome of periradicular surgery at four year follow-up can be affected by a previous orthograde re-treatment. Eighty-one patients with 118 endodontically treated teeth who underwent surgical retreatment were divided in three groups. In group OA endodontic re-treatment was feasible and was attempted but, owing to the persistence of clinical symptoms and radiographic lesion, apical surgery was performed 4.8 ± 3.5 months later. In group OF endodontic re-treatment was feasible but was not performed, with subsequent apical surgery. In group ONF endodontic re-treatment was unfeasible, and apical surgery was performed. The treatment outcome was assessed four years postsurgery according to clinical and radiographic criteria. Seventy-six patients (112 teeth) could be evaluated at four years. In the ONF group five anterior maxillary teeth, belonging to three female patients, failed to heal. Three failures in three patients occurred in the OF group. No failure was recorded in the OA group. Three teeth in three patients were classified as uncertain healing in each group. The outcome of group OA resulted significantly better than the other treatment groups for both tooth-based and patient-based analysis. No significant effect was found as related to jaw, tooth type, presence of a post. A significant relation was found with gender (P=0.04). A negative correlation was found between outcome and age (Pearson's coefficient=-0.09), suggesting that the probability of failure increases with age. Orthograde re-treatment prior to apical surgery could be considered a valid alternative to tooth extraction and not an over-treatment.
Caudal, Victor; Snead, Elisabeth C.; Starrak, Gregory S.; Sathya, Suresh; Feng, Cindy X.
The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of trephination of the frontal sinus and injection of antifungal cream using a medical bone marrow drill in dogs. Results were compared with frontal sinus trephination using a standard surgical technique. Bilateral trephination of the frontal sinuses was carried out in the heads of 11 cadavers using a medical bone marrow drill and a surgical bone chuck. The time taken to carry out the procedure using both techniques was compared. Before and after injection of antifungal cream into the frontal sinuses, computed-tomography (CT) scanning was done to assess for iatrogenic trauma and to determine the degree to which the sinuses were filled with each technique and evaluate the diffusion of the cream into the nasal cavity of each dog. The mean volume of the sinuses was 8.8 mL (3.1 to 14.3 mL). Trephination, flushing, and injecting of antifungal cream were significantly faster using the medical technique. There was no significant difference in the mean filling of the frontal sinuses between the medical (82.7%) and the surgical (82.4%) technique (P-value = 0.3). Filling of the nasal cavity was classified as very good in 6/11 cases, with evidence of trauma caused by the surgical trephination technique in 1 head. Findings suggest that use of the medical bone marrow drill is highly feasible for frontal sinus trephination. Injection of antifungal cream into the frontal sinuses using the bone marrow needle resulted in good diffusion into the ipsilateral nasal cavity and could be used to treat aspergillosis when debridement or sinusoscopy is not deemed necessary. PMID:28154464
Caudal, Victor; Snead, Elisabeth C; Starrak, Gregory S; Sathya, Suresh; Feng, Cindy X
The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of trephination of the frontal sinus and injection of antifungal cream using a medical bone marrow drill in dogs. Results were compared with frontal sinus trephination using a standard surgical technique. Bilateral trephination of the frontal sinuses was carried out in the heads of 11 cadavers using a medical bone marrow drill and a surgical bone chuck. The time taken to carry out the procedure using both techniques was compared. Before and after injection of antifungal cream into the frontal sinuses, computed-tomography (CT) scanning was done to assess for iatrogenic trauma and to determine the degree to which the sinuses were filled with each technique and evaluate the diffusion of the cream into the nasal cavity of each dog. The mean volume of the sinuses was 8.8 mL (3.1 to 14.3 mL). Trephination, flushing, and injecting of antifungal cream were significantly faster using the medical technique. There was no significant difference in the mean filling of the frontal sinuses between the medical (82.7%) and the surgical (82.4%) technique (P-value = 0.3). Filling of the nasal cavity was classified as very good in 6/11 cases, with evidence of trauma caused by the surgical trephination technique in 1 head. Findings suggest that use of the medical bone marrow drill is highly feasible for frontal sinus trephination. Injection of antifungal cream into the frontal sinuses using the bone marrow needle resulted in good diffusion into the ipsilateral nasal cavity and could be used to treat aspergillosis when debridement or sinusoscopy is not deemed necessary.
Salem, Leon; Devlin, Allison; Sullivan, Sean D.; Flum, David R.
Setting Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) and Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) are the two most commonly performed bariatric procedures. While both procedures likely reduce healthcare expenditures related to the resolution of comorbid conditions, they have different rates of perioperative risks and differential rates of associated weight loss. Objective We designed a model to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness (ICER) of these procedures compared to non-operative weight loss interventions and to each other. Methods Deterministic, payer-perspective model comparing the lifetime expected costs and outcomes of LAGB, LRYGB and non-surgical treatment. The major endpoints were survival, health related quality of life and weight loss. Life expectancy and lifetime medical costs were calculated across age, sex and body mass index (BMI) strata using previously published data. Results For both men and women LRYGB and LAGB were cost-effective at less than $25,000/QALY even when evaluating the full range of baseline BMI and estimates of adverse outcomes, weight loss and costs. For base-case scenarios in men (age 35, BMI 40) the ICER was $11,604 per QALY for LAGB, compared to $18,543 per QALY for LRYGB. For base-case scenarios in women (age 35, BMI 40) the ICER was $8,878 per QALY for LAGB, compared to $14,680 per QALY for LRYGB. Conclusions Modeled cost-effectiveness analysis showed that both operative interventions for morbid obesity, LAGB and RYGB, were cost-effective at less than $25,000, and LAGB was more cost-effective than RYGB for all the base-case scenarios. PMID:18069075
Graziani, Filippo; Cei, Silvia; Orlandi, Marco; Gennai, Stefano; Gabriele, Mario; Filice, Natalia; Nisi, Marco; D'Aiuto, Francesco
A moderate acute-phase response occurs 24-h following full-mouth non-surgical treatment (FM-SRP). The aim of this study was to compare acute-phase (24-h) and medium-term (3 months) inflammation after quadrant scaling (Q-SRP) versus FM-SRP. Thirty-eight periodontitis-affected subjects were randomly allocated to FM-SRP or Q-SRP after a baseline visit. Periodontal and anthropometric parameters were collected at baseline and 3 months. Serum samples were drawn at baseline, 1, 7, and 90 days after treatment. High-sensitivity assays of inflammation and endothelial assays were performed. FM-SRP produced a greater acute-phase response after 24 h [threefold increase in C-reactive protein (CRP), twofold increase in interleukin (IL-6), and a slight increase in tumour necrosis factor]. No differences in systemic biomarkers were noted between groups at any later follow-ups. Both periodontal treatments produced a comparable improvement in clinical periodontal parameters with no between-group differences. Treatment time was positively associated with the relative 24-h increase in CRP (R = 0.5, p < 0.001) and IL-6 (R = 0.5, p = 0.002), while the number of deeper (>6 mm) pockets predicted only the relative increase in IL-6 (R = 0.4, p < 0.05). FM-SRP triggers a moderate acute-phase response of 24 h duration compared to Q-SRP. Further research is needed to assess the eventual impact of such findings on the risk of vascular events is advocated. (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01857804). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fiorini, T; Susin, C; da Rocha, J M; Weidlich, P; Vianna, P; Moreira, C H C; Bogo Chies, J A; Rösing, C K; Oppermann, R V
A low-grade systemic inflammatory status originating from periodontal infection has been proposed to explain the association between periodontal disease and systemic conditions, including adverse obstetric outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of periodontal therapy during pregnancy on the gingival crevicular fluid and serum levels of six cytokines associated with periodontal disease and preterm birth. A subsample of 60 women (18-35 years of age) up to 20 gestational weeks, previously enrolled in a larger randomized clinical trial, was recruited for the present study. Participants were randomly allocated to receive either comprehensive nonsurgical periodontal therapy before 24 gestational weeks (n = 30, test group) or only one appointment for supragingival calculus removal (n = 30, control group). Clinical data, and samples of blood and gingival crevicular fluid, were collected at baseline, at 26-28 gestational weeks and 30 d after delivery. The levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70 and tumor necrosis factor-α were analyzed by flow cytometry. After treatment, a major reduction in periodontal inflammation was observed in the test group, with bleeding on probing decreasing from 49.62% of sites to 11.66% of sites (p < 0.001). Periodontal therapy significantly reduced the levels of IL-1β and IL-8 in gingival crevicular fluid (p < 0.001). However, no significant effect of therapy was observed on serum cytokine levels. After delivery, the levels of IL-1β in the gingival crevicular fluid of the test group were significantly lower than were those in the control group (p < 0.001), but there were no significant differences between test and control groups regarding serum cytokine levels. Although periodontal therapy during pregnancy successfully reduced periodontal inflammation and gingival crevicular fluid cytokine levels, it did not have a significant impact on serum biomarkers. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Dederich, Douglas N
Medline, PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Embase databases. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using thermal diode lasers as an adjunct to non-surgical conventional periodontal initial therapy conducted in patients ≥18 years old written in English or Dutch were considered. Study assessment data extraction and quality assessment was carried out independently by two reviewers. The main outcome variables were probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment loss (CAL), but plaque scores (PS), bleeding scores (BS) and the Gingival Index (GI) were also considered. Meta-analysis was carried out using a random effects model. Nine studies involving 247 patients were included. Seven studies were of split mouth design and two were parallel group studies. The study designs showed considerable heterogeneity and follow up ranged from six weeks to six months. Meta-analysis found no significant effect on PPD, CAL and PS. There was however a significant effect for GI and BS favouring adjunctive use of the diode laser. The collective evidence regarding adjunctive use of the diode laser with SRP indicates that the combined treatment provides an effect comparable to that of SRP alone. With respect to BS the results showed a small but significant effect favouring the diode laser, however, the clinical relevance of this difference remains uncertainStandard . This systematic review questions the adjunctive use of diode laser with traditional mechanical modalities of periodontal therapy in patients with periodontitis. The strength of the recommendation for the adjunctive use of the diode laser is considered to be 'moderate' for changes in PPD and CAL.
Martinez, Emilio A; Martinez, Cristina A; Nohalez, Alicia; Sanchez-Osorio, Jonatan; Vazquez, Juan M; Roca, Jordi; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Gil, Maria A; Cuello, Cristina
Surgical procedures are prevalent in porcine embryo transfer (ET) programs, where the use of vitrified embryos is quasi non-existent. This study compared the effectiveness of surgical vs nonsurgical deep uterine (NsDU) ET using vitrified, in vivo-derived embryos (morulae and blastocysts) on the reproductive performance and welfare of the recipients. The recipient sows (n=122) were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: surgical ET with 30 vitrified-warmed embryos (S-30 group, control); NsDU-ET with 30 vitrified-warmed embryos (NsDU-30 group) and NsDU-ET with 40 vitrified-warmed embryos (NsDU-40 group). Regardless of embryo stage, the NsDU-ET with 40 embryos presented similar rates of farrowing (72.7%) and litter size (9.9 ± 2.1 piglets) as the customary surgical procedure (75.0% and 9.6 ± 2.7 piglets). Numbers of ET-embryos appeared relevant, since the NsDU-ET with 30 embryos resulted in a decrease (P<0.05) in farrowing rates (38.9%) and litter sizes (5.7 ± 2.4 piglets). In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that farrowing rate and litter size following a NsDU-ET procedure increase in function of a larger number of transferred vitrified embryos, with fertility equalizing that obtained with the invasive surgical approach. The results open new possibilities for the widespread use of non-invasive ET in pigs.
Martinez, Emilio A.; Martinez, Cristina A; Nohalez, Alicia; Sanchez-Osorio, Jonatan; Vazquez, Juan M.; Roca, Jordi; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Gil, Maria A.; Cuello, Cristina
Surgical procedures are prevalent in porcine embryo transfer (ET) programs, where the use of vitrified embryos is quasi non-existent. This study compared the effectiveness of surgical vs nonsurgical deep uterine (NsDU) ET using vitrified, in vivo-derived embryos (morulae and blastocysts) on the reproductive performance and welfare of the recipients. The recipient sows (n = 122) were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: surgical ET with 30 vitrified-warmed embryos (S-30 group, control); NsDU-ET with 30 vitrified-warmed embryos (NsDU-30 group) and NsDU-ET with 40 vitrified-warmed embryos (NsDU-40 group). Regardless of embryo stage, the NsDU-ET with 40 embryos presented similar rates of farrowing (72.7%) and litter size (9.9 ± 2.1 piglets) as the customary surgical procedure (75.0% and 9.6 ± 2.7 piglets). Numbers of ET-embryos appeared relevant, since the NsDU-ET with 30 embryos resulted in a decrease (P < 0.05) in farrowing rates (38.9%) and litter sizes (5.7 ± 2.4 piglets). In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that farrowing rate and litter size following a NsDU-ET procedure increase in function of a larger number of transferred vitrified embryos, with fertility equalizing that obtained with the invasive surgical approach. The results open new possibilities for the widespread use of non-invasive ET in pigs. PMID:26030839
Lang, Brian Hung-Hin; Wong, Carlos K H
The issue of whether all incidental papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) should be managed by early surgery (ES) has been questioned and there is a growing acceptance that a non-surgical approach (NSA) might be more appropriate. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing the two strategies in managing incidental PTMC. Our base case was a hypothetical 40-year-old female diagnosed with a unifocal intra-thyroidal 9 mm PTMC. The PTMC was considered suitable for either strategy. A Markov decision tree model was constructed to compare the estimated cost-effectiveness between ES and NSA after 20 years. Outcome probabilities, utilities and costs were derived from the literature. The threshold for cost-effectiveness was set at USD 50,000/quality-adjusted life year (QALY). A further analysis was done for patients < 40 and ≥ 40 years. Sensitivity and threshold analyses were used to examine model uncertainty. Each patient who adopted NSA over ES cost an extra USD 682.54 but gained an additional 0.260 QALY. NSA was cost saving (i.e. less costly and more effective) up to 16 years from diagnosis and remained cost-effective from 17 years onward. In the sensitivity analysis, NSA remained cost-effective regardless of patient age (< 40 and ≥ 40 years), complications, rates of progression, year cycle and discount rate. In the threshold analysis, none of the scenarios that could have changed the conclusion appeared clinically likely. For a selected group of incidental PTMC, adopting NSA was not only cost saving in the initial 16 years but also remained cost effective thereafter. This was irrespective of patient age, complication rate or rate of PTMC progression. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.
Faierman, Michelle L; Anderson, Jamie E; Assane, Americo; Bendix, Peter; Vaz, Fernando; Rose, John A; Funzamo, Carlos; Bickler, Stephen W; Noormahomed, Emilia V
Surgical care is increasingly recognised as an important component of global health delivery. However, there are still major gaps in knowledge related to access to surgical care in low-income countries. In this study, we compare distances travelled by surgical patients with patients seeking other medical services at a first-level hospital in rural Mozambique. Data were collected on all inpatients at Hospital Rural de Chókwè in rural Mozambique between 20 June 2012 and 3 August 2012. Euclidean distances travelled by surgical versus non-surgical patients using coordinates of each patient's city of residence were compared. Data were analysed using ArcGIS 10 and STATA. In total, 500 patients were included. Almost one-half (47.6%) lived in the city where the hospital is based. By hospital ward, the majority (62.0%) of maternity patients came from within the hospital's city compared with only 35.2% of surgical patients. The average distance travelled was longest for surgical patients (42 km) compared with an average of 17 km for patients on all other wards. Patients seeking surgical care at this first-level hospital travel farther than patients seeking other services. While other patients may have access to at community clinics, surgical patients depend more heavily on the services available at first-level hospitals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Montaño, Daniel E.; Hamilton, Deven T.; Down, Kayla L.; Marrett, Karl D.; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Mugurungi, Owen
Abstract Male circumcision (MC), an effective HIV prevention tool, has been added to Zimbabwe's Ministry of Health and Child Care HIV/AIDS Prevention Program. A Phase I safety trial of a nonsurgical male circumcision device was conducted and extensive psychosocial variables were assessed. Fifty-three men (18 and older) were recruited for the device procedure; 13 follow-up clinical visits were completed. Interviews conducted three times (before the procedure, at 2 weeks and 90 days post-procedure) assessed: Satisfaction; expectations; actual experience; activities of daily living; sexual behavior; and HIV risk perception. Using the Integrated Behavioral Model, attitudes towards MC, sex, and condoms, and sources of social influence and support were also assessed. Men (mean age 32.5, range 18–50; mean years of education = 13.6; 55% employed) were satisfied with device circumcision results. Men understand that MC is only partially protective against HIV acquisition. Most (94.7%) agreed that they will continue to use condoms to protect themselves from HIV. Pain ratings were surprisingly negative for a procedure billed as painless. Men talked to many social networks members about their MC experience; post-procedure (mean of 14 individuals). Minimal impact on activities of daily living and absenteeism indicate possible cost savings of device circumcisions. Spontaneous erections occurred frequently post-procedure. The results had important implications for changes in the pre-procedure clinical counseling protocol. Clear-cut counseling to manage pain and erection expectations should result in improved psychosocial outcomes in future roll-out of device circumcisions. Men's expectations must be managed through evidence-based counseling, as they share their experiences broadly among their social networks. PMID:26745142
Rayamajhi, Manira; Redente, Elizabeth F; Condon, Tracy V; Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Riches, David W H; Lenz, Laurel L
Phagocytic cells such as alveolar macrophages and lung dendritic cells (LDCs) continuously sample antigens from the alveolar spaces in the lungs. LDCs, in particular, are known to migrate to the lung draining lymph nodes (LDLNs) where they present inhaled antigens to T cells initiating an appropriate immune response to a variety of immunogens. To model interactions between the lungs and airborne antigens in mice, antigens can be administered intranasally, intratracheally or as aerosols. Delivery by each route involves distinct technical skills and limitations that need to be considered before designing an experiment. For example, intranasal and aerosolized exposure delivers antigens to both the lungs and the upper respiratory tract. Hence antigens can access the nasal associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), potentially complicating interpretation of the results. In addition, swallowing, sneezing and the breathing rate of the mouse may also lead to inconsistencies in the doses delivered. Although the involvement of the upper respiratory tract may be preferred for some studies, it can complicate experiments focusing on events specifically initiated in the lungs. In this setting, the intratracheal (i.t) route is preferable as it delivers test materials directly into the lungs and bypasses the NALT. Many i.t injection protocols involve either blind intubation of the trachea through the oral cavity or surgical exposure of the trachea to access the lungs. Herein, we describe a simple, consistent, non-surgical method for i.t instillation. The opening of the trachea is visualized using a laryngoscope and a bent gavage needle is then inserted directly into the trachea to deliver the innoculum. We also describe procedures for harvesting and processing of LDLNs and lungs for analysis of antigen trafficking by flow cytometry. Copyright © 2011 Journal of Visualized Experiments
Choma, Theodore J; Rechtine, Glenn R; McGuire, Robert A; Brodke, Darrel S
Demographic trends make it incumbent on orthopaedic spine surgeons to recognize the special challenges involved in caring for older patients with spine pathology. Unique pathologies, such as osteoporosis and degenerative deformities, must be recognized and dealt with. Recent treatment options and recommendations for the medical optimization of bone health include vitamin D and calcium supplementation, diphosphonates, and teriparatide. Optimizing spinal fixation in elderly patients with osteoporosis is critical; cement augmentation of pedicle screws is promising. In the management of geriatric odontoid fractures, nonsurgical support with a collar may be considered for the low-demand patient, whereas surgical fixation is favored for high-demand patients. Management of degenerative deformity must address sagittal plane balance, including consideration of pelvic incidence. Various osteotomies may prove helpful in this setting. Copyright 2015 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.
Nund, Rebecca L; Ward, Elizabeth C; Scarinci, Nerina A; Cartmill, Bena; Kuipers, Pim; Porceddu, Sandro V
The implication of dysphagia for people treated nonsurgically for head and neck cancer (HNC) and its detrimental effects on functioning and quality of life has been well documented. To date, however, there has been a paucity of research on the effects of dysphagia following HNC on carers, independent of the consequences of a gastrostomy. The objective of this qualitative study was to report on the experiences of carers of people with dysphagia (non-gastrostomy dependent) following nonsurgical treatment for HNC and to identify the support needs of this group. A purposive, maximum-variation sampling technique was adopted to recruit 12 carers of people treated curatively for HNC since 2007. Each participated in an in-depth interview, detailing their experience of caring for someone with dysphagia and the associated impact on their life. Thematic analysis was adopted to search the transcripts for key phases and themes that emerged from the discussions. Analysis of the transcripts revealed four themes: (1) dysphagia disrupts daily life, (2) carers make adjustments to adapt to their partner's dysphagia, (3) the disconnect between carers' expectations and the reality of dysphagia, and (4) experiences of dysphagia-related services and informal supports. Carers generally felt ill-prepared for their role in dysphagia management. The qualitative methodology successfully described the impact of dysphagia on the everyday lives of carers, particularly in regard to meal preparation, social events, and family lifestyle. Clinicians should provide adequate and timely training and support to carers and view carers as copartners in dysphagia management.
Perayil, Jayachandran; Suresh, Neethu; Fenol, Angel; Vyloppillil, Rajesh; Bhaskar, Anuradha; Menon, Saimegha
Only a few studies have examined the association between periodontitis and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in individuals without diabetes. The aim of this study is to compare HbA1c levels in individuals without diabetes and with and without periodontitis before and after non-surgical periodontal therapy. This comparative study was done on individuals without diabetes who were 35 to 65 years old. Group A consisted of 30 individuals without periodontitis, and group B consisted of 30 individuals with periodontitis. Body mass indices and clinical parameters, including oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) score, gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and HbA1c level, of all participants were recorded. All participants received non-surgical periodontal therapy (scaling and root planing). After 3 months, all participants were reexamined, and clinical parameters and HbA1c levels were evaluated and compared to baseline values. There were significant differences between group A and group B in regard to baseline OHI-S, GI, PD, and HbA1c (P <0.05). There was no clinical attachment loss in group A, either at baseline or after 3 months. At the end of 3 months, group B showed improvement in all clinical parameters (P <0.05) and their HbA1c levels also significantly decreased (P <0.05), although the values never reached those of group A. The HbA1c levels of individuals without diabetes and with periodontitis (group B) were significantly reduced 3 months after non-surgical periodontal therapy, although they never reached the same levels as those of the individuals without diabetes or periodontitis (group A).
van Outeren, M V; Waarsing, J H; Brouwer, R W; Verhaar, J A N; Reijman, M; Bierma-Zeinstra, S M A
No randomized controlled trial (RCT) has compared the high tibial osteotomy (HTO) with non-surgical treatment in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis and varus malalignment. The aim was to compare the effectiveness of an unloader brace treatment or a usual care program to the HTO regarding pain severity and knee function. Surgical treatment (HTO) to two non-surgical options was compared by combining the data of two RCTs. One RCT (n=117) compared an unloader brace to usual care treatment; the other RCT (n=92) compared closing to opening wedge HTO.One-to-many propensity score matching was used to equalize patient characteristics. We compared clinical outcome at 1 year follow-up (VAS pain (0-10) and knee function (HSS, 0-100)) with mixed model analysis. Propensity score matching resulted in a comparison of 30 brace patient with 83 HTO patients, and of 28 usual care patients with 71 HTO patients. Pain at 1 year after HTO (VAS 3.8) was lower than after valgus bracing (VAS 5.0) with a mean difference of -1.1 (95% CI -2.2; -0.1). Function showed a nonsignificant mean difference of 2.1 [95% CI -3.1; 7.3].Comparing HTO to usual care a difference was seen in pain (-1.7 [95% CI -2.8; -0.6]) and function (6.6 [95% CI 0.2; 13.1]), in favor of the HTO. Our data suggest that HTO was more effective in pain reduction compared to both non-surgical treatments. Function improved only when HTO was compared to usual care treatment. These small differences question the benefits of surgical treatment over the brace treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Doufexi, Aikaterini-Ellisavet; Kalogirou, Fotini
Background The real clinical utility of genetic testing is the prognostic value of genetic factors in the clinical outcome of periodontal treatment and the tooth survival. A meta-analysis was undertaken to estimate the effect of a susceptible genotype to periodontitis on the clinical outcomes of non-surgical periodontal therapy and the tooth survival. Material and Methods A systematic search of MEDLINE-Pubmed, Cochrane Library and Scopus was performed. Additionally, a hand search was done in three journals. No specific language restriction was applied. Two reviewers screened independently titles and abstracts or full text copies. Quality assessment of all the included studies was held. Results Initial screening of electronic databases resulted in 283 articles. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria, nine of them examined the clinical outcome, while the other one investigated the tooth survival in susceptible individuals after non-surgical periodontal therapy. Eight of included studies were selected for the meta-analysis. IL-1 positive genotypes increase the risk of tooth loss, while no association found between the bleeding on probing (BOP), clinical attachment loss (CAL) and plaque index (PI) with the genotype status. Probing pocket depth (PPD) reduction in the first three months and in long-term results found to have a significant association with the genotype. Conclusions There is no difference in the clinical measurements after non-surgical periodontal treatment, apart from PPD. More publications are needed to identify a cause-effect relationship. Key words:Periodontal disease, periodontitis, periodontal therapy, clinical outcome, tooth loss, susceptibility, polymorphism, genotype, meta-analysis, systematic review. PMID:26595831
Gingival crevicular fluid tissue/blood vessel-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: effects of nonsurgical periodontal therapy.
Kurgan, Ş; Önder, C; Balcı, N; Fentoğlu, Ö; Eser, F; Balseven, M; Serdar, M A; Tatakis, D N; Günhan, M
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on clinical parameters and gingival crevicular fluid levels of tissue/blood vessel-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) in patients with periodontitis, with or without rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Fifteen patients with RA and chronic periodontitis (RA-P), 15 systemically healthy patients with chronic periodontitis (H-P) and 15 periodontally and systemically healthy volunteers (C) were included in the study. Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, bleeding on probing, gingival crevicular fluid t-PA and PAI-2 levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum C-reactive protein and disease activity score were evaluated at baseline and 3 mo after mechanical nonsurgical periodontal therapy. All periodontal clinical parameters were significantly higher in the RA-P and H-P groups compared with the C group (p < 0.001) and decreased significantly after treatment (p < 0.001). Pretreatment t-PA levels were highest in the RA-P group and significantly decreased post-treatment (p = 0.047). Pre- and post-treatment PAI-2 levels were significantly lower in controls compared with both periodontitis groups (p < 0.05). Gingival crevicular fluid volume and the levels of t-PA and PAI-2 were significantly correlated. In patients with periodontitis and RA, nonsurgical periodontal therapy reduced the pretreatment gingival crevicular fluid t-PA levels, which were significantly correlated with gingival crevicular fluid PAI-2 levels. The significantly higher t-PA and PAI-2 gingival crevicular fluid levels in periodontal patients, regardless of systemic status, suggest that the plasminogen activating system plays a role in the disease process of periodontitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Philippou, Yiannis; Parker, Richard A; Volanis, Dimitrios; Gnanapragasam, Vincent J
In the absence of randomised controlled trials comparing the oncologic, toxicity, and functional outcomes of salvage radical prostatectomy (SRP), salvage high-intensity focused ultrasound (SHIFU), salvage brachytherapy (SBT), and salvage cryotherapy (SCT), controversy exists as to the optimal salvage modality in radiorecurrent prostate cancer. We carried out a meta-regression analysis to determine whether there is a difference in oncologic, toxicity, and functional outcomes using data from original publications of salvage modalities in the postradiation setting. We performed a systematic review of PubMed/Medline citations according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement. We included 63 articles in the analysis (25 on SRP, 8 on SHIFU, 16 on SCT, 14 on SBT). Median values of the following variables were extracted from each study: patient age, length of follow-up, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) before radiotherapy (RT), PSA before salvage therapy, Gleason score before RT, and time interval between RT and salvage therapy. Functional, toxicity, and oncologic outcomes were measured according to rates of impotence, incontinence, fistula formation, urethral strictures, and biochemical recurrence. Meta-regression adjusting for confounders found no significant difference in oncologic outcomes between SRP and nonsurgical salvage modalities. SBT, SCT, and SHIFU appeared to have better continence outcomes than SRP. No significant difference in toxicity outcomes between modalities was found, although limitations such as reporting, selection, and publication bias and between-study heterogeneity must also be considered with these conclusions. Oncologic outcomes are comparable for SRP and all three nonsurgical salvage modalities. We found no significant differences in toxicity outcomes among modalities; however, SRP appears to be associated with worse rates of urinary incontinence than SBT, SCT, and SHIFU. We performed a meta
Pithon, Matheus Melo
This clinical case report presents the nonsurgical orthodontic treatment of a patient with skeletal Class II malocclusion, posterior crossbite, anterior open bite, accentuated dental discrepancies in both arches, and an odontoma. The proposed treatment involved maxillary expansion, extraction of atypical maxillary lateral incisors and mandibular first molars, and intrusion of maxillary teeth with the aid of mini-implants. The results obtained with these procedures included good tooth alignment, normal overbite and overjet, removal of the odontoma, and a harmonious smile. In complex cases, an accurate diagnosis is the key to a favorable outcome. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background Because previous studies have suggested that motorized non-surgical spinal decompression can reduce chronic low back pain (LBP) due to disc degeneration (discogenic low back pain) and disc herniation, it has accordingly been hypothesized that the reduction of pressure on affected discs will facilitate their regeneration. The goal of this study was to determine if changes in LBP, as measured on a verbal rating scale, before and after a 6-week treatment period with non-surgical spinal decompression, correlate with changes in lumbar disc height, as measured on computed tomography (CT) scans. Methods A retrospective cohort study of adults with chronic LBP attributed to disc herniation and/or discogenic LBP who underwent a 6-week treatment protocol of motorized non-surgical spinal decompression via the DRX9000 with CT scans before and after treatment. The main outcomes were changes in pain as measured on a verbal rating scale from 0 to 10 during a flexion-extension range of motion evaluation and changes in disc height as measured on CT scans. Paired t-test or linear regression was used as appropriate with p < 0.05 considered to be statistically significant. Results We identified 30 patients with lumbar disc herniation with an average age of 65 years, body mass index of 29 kg/m2, 21 females and 9 males, and an average duration of LBP of 12.5 weeks. During treatment, low back pain decreased from 6.2 (SD 2.2) to 1.6 (2.3, p < 0.001) and disc height increased from 7.5 (1.7) mm to 8.8 (1.7) mm (p < 0.001). Increase in disc height and reduction in pain were significantly correlated (r = 0.36, p = 0.044). Conclusions Non-surgical spinal decompression was associated with a reduction in pain and an increase in disc height. The correlation of these variables suggests that pain reduction may be mediated, at least in part, through a restoration of disc height. A randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm these promising results. Clinical trial registration number
Swofford, John; Whang, Peter G.; Frank, Clay J.; Glaser, John A.; Limoni, Robert P.; Cher, Daniel J.; Wine, Kathryn D.; Sembrano, Jonathan N.
Background Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) dysfunction is an important and underappreciated cause of chronic low back pain. Objective To prospectively and concurrently compare outcomes after surgical and non-surgical treatment for chronic SIJ dysfunction. Methods One hundred and forty-eight subjects with SIJ dysfunction were randomly assigned to minimally invasive SIJ fusion with triangular titanium implants (SIJF, n = 102) or non-surgical management (NSM, n = 46). SIJ pain (measured with a 100-point visual analog scale, VAS), disability (measured with Oswestry Disability Index, ODI) and quality of life scores were collected at baseline and at scheduled visits to 24 months. Crossover from non-surgical to surgical care was allowed after the 6-month study visit was complete. Improvements in continuous measures were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance. The proportions of subjects with clinical improvement (SIJ pain improvement ≥20 points, ODI ≥15 points) and substantial clinical benefit (SIJ pain improvement ≥25 points or SIJ pain rating ≤35, ODI ≥18.8 points) were compared. Results In the SIJF group, mean SIJ pain improved rapidly and was sustained (mean improvement of 55.4 points) at month 24. The 6-month mean change in the NSM group (12.2 points) was substantially smaller than that in the SIJF group (by 38.3 points, p<.0001 for superiority). By month 24, 83.1% and 82.0% received either clinical improvement or substantial clinical benefit in VAS SIJ pain score. Similarly, 68.2% and 65.9% had received clinical improvement or substantial clinical benefit in ODI score at month 24. In the NSM group, these proportions were <10% with non-surgical treatment only. Parallel changes were seen for EQ-5D and SF-36, with larger changes in the surgery group at 6 months compared to NSM. The rate of adverse events related to SIJF was low and only 3 subjects assigned to SIJF underwent revision surgery within the 24-month follow-up period. Conclusions In this Level
Background Cement dust contains heavy metals like nickel, cobalt, lead and chromium, pollutants hazardous to the biotic environment, with adverse impact for vegetation, human and animal health and ecosystems. Objective To investigate if long term exposure to cement dust can affect the periodontal health and affect the outcome of non-surgical periodontal therapy. Methods A total of sixty subjects were included in this study. Forty patients with chronic periodontitis were grouped into; Group I comprised of 20 patients with chronic periodontitis working in the Portland Cement Company and Group II comprised of 20 patients with chronic periodontitis who does not work in cement factories nor live near any of them. Twenty healthy subjects were included in this study as healthy control group (Group III). Clinical parameters including gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), pocket depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (CLA) were scored for all patients before and after periodontal therapy. All patients received non-surgical periodontal therapy together with strict oral hygiene program for one month. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were collected from both groups at baseline and one month after periodontal therapy. Real time PCR (RT-PCR) was used to analyze the GCF samples for detection and assessment of the levels of IL-1β and TNFα. Results The two studied groups responded well to non-surgical periodontal treatment and there was no significant difference between GI and GII (P>0.05). The levels of TNFα was higher in GI than in GII before and after periodontal therapy (P<0.05). The levels of IL-1β did not show any significant difference between the two groups at base line (P>0.05), but represented with a highly significant difference between G1 and GII after periodontal therapy (P<0.001). A significant positive correlation was found between the levels of both IL-1β and TNFα and all the clinical parameters in GI before and after periodontal therapy and in GII
Apfel, Christian C; Cakmakkaya, Ozlem S; Martin, William; Richmond, Charlotte; Macario, Alex; George, Elizabeth; Schaefer, Maximilian; Pergolizzi, Joseph V
Because previous studies have suggested that motorized non-surgical spinal decompression can reduce chronic low back pain (LBP) due to disc degeneration (discogenic low back pain) and disc herniation, it has accordingly been hypothesized that the reduction of pressure on affected discs will facilitate their regeneration. The goal of this study was to determine if changes in LBP, as measured on a verbal rating scale, before and after a 6-week treatment period with non-surgical spinal decompression, correlate with changes in lumbar disc height, as measured on computed tomography (CT) scans. A retrospective cohort study of adults with chronic LBP attributed to disc herniation and/or discogenic LBP who underwent a 6-week treatment protocol of motorized non-surgical spinal decompression via the DRX9000 with CT scans before and after treatment. The main outcomes were changes in pain as measured on a verbal rating scale from 0 to 10 during a flexion-extension range of motion evaluation and changes in disc height as measured on CT scans. Paired t-test or linear regression was used as appropriate with p < 0.05 considered to be statistically significant. We identified 30 patients with lumbar disc herniation with an average age of 65 years, body mass index of 29 kg/m2, 21 females and 9 males, and an average duration of LBP of 12.5 weeks. During treatment, low back pain decreased from 6.2 (SD 2.2) to 1.6 (2.3, p < 0.001) and disc height increased from 7.5 (1.7) mm to 8.8 (1.7) mm (p < 0.001). Increase in disc height and reduction in pain were significantly correlated (r = 0.36, p = 0.044). Non-surgical spinal decompression was associated with a reduction in pain and an increase in disc height. The correlation of these variables suggests that pain reduction may be mediated, at least in part, through a restoration of disc height. A randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm these promising results. NCT00828880.
Skou, Soren Thorgaard; Roos, Ewa M; Laursen, Mogens Berg; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Simonsen, Ole; Rasmussen, Sten
Introduction It is recommended that non-operative treatment of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) should be individually tailored and include multiple treatment modalities. Despite these recommendations, no one has yet investigated the efficacy of combining several non-surgical treatment modalities in a randomised controlled study. The purpose of this randomised controlled study is to examine if an optimised, combined non-surgical treatment programme results in greater improvements in pain, function and quality of life in comparison with usual care in patients with KOA who are not eligible for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods and analysis This study will include 100 consecutive patients from the North Denmark Region not eligible for TKA with radiographic KOA (K-L grade ≥1) and mean pain during the previous week of ≤60 mm (0–100). The participants will be randomised to receive either a 12-week non-surgical treatment programme consisting of patient education, exercise, diet, insoles, paracetamol and/or NSAIDs or usual care (two information leaflets containing information on KOA and advice regarding the above non-surgical treatment). The primary outcome will be the change from baseline to 12 months on the self-report questionnaire Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)4 defined as the average score for the subscale scores for pain, symptoms, activities of daily living and quality of life. Secondary outcomes include the five individual KOOS subscale scores, pain on a 100 mm Visual Analogue Scale, EQ-5D, self-efficacy, pain pressure thresholds, postural control and isometric knee flexion and knee extension strength. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the local Ethics Committee of The North Denmark Region (N-20110085) and the protocol conforms to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. Data collection will be completed by April 2014. Publications will be ready for submission in the summer of 2014. Trial registration number
Toupin April, Karine; Rader, Tamara; Hawker, Gillian A; Stacey, Dawn; O'Connor, Annette M; Welch, Vivian; Lyddiatt, Anne; McGowan, Jessie; Thorne, J Carter; Bennett, Carol; Pardo Pardo, Jordi; Wells, George A; Tugwell, Peter
To develop an innovative stepped patient decision aid (StDA) comparing the benefits and harms of 13 nonsurgical treatment options for managing osteoarthritis (OA) and to evaluate its acceptability and effects on informed decision making. Guided by the Ottawa Decision Support Framework and the International Patient Decision Aid Standards, the process involved (1) developing a decision aid with evidence on 13 nonsurgical treatments from the 2012 American College of Rheumatology OA clinical practice guidelines; and (2) interviewing patients with OA and healthcare providers to test its acceptability and effects on knowledge and decisional conflict. The StDA helped make the decision explicit, and presented evidence on 13 OA treatments clustered into 5 steps or levels according to their benefits and harms. Probabilities of benefits and harms were presented using pictograms of 100 faces formatted to allow comparisons across sets of options. It also included a values clarification exercise and knowledge test. Feedback was obtained from 49 patients and 7 healthcare providers. They found that the StDA presented evidence in a clear manner, and helped patients clarify their values and make an informed decision. Some participants found that there was too much information and others said that there was not enough on each treatment option. This innovative StDA allows patients to consider both the evidence and their values for multiple options. The findings are being used to revise and plan future evaluation. The StDA is an example of how research evidence in guidelines can be implemented in practice.
Hayashi, N; Sato, T; Fukushima, Y; Takano, A; Sakamoto, I; Yoda, T
This study re-examined the usefulness of surgery for the management of masticatory muscle tendon-aponeurosis hyperplasia (MMTAH) through a comparison of the outcomes between patients who underwent surgery and those who did not. The duration of follow-up was 2 years. Twenty-eight patients who attended the study hospital and were given a diagnosis of MMTAH were included. Nineteen patients underwent surgery (surgical group) and nine patients were instructed to open their mouths wide once a day and did not undergo surgery (non-surgical group). Maximum mouth opening, impairment of daily activities, satisfaction, and the status of mouth opening training were evaluated after surgery. The mean increase in mouth opening after 2 years was 20.2mm in the surgical group and 2.4mm in the non-surgical group. Adequate mouth opening training led to satisfactory results 2 years postoperative, and sustained mouth opening training for 6 months after surgery was a key factor for obtaining good outcomes. The general condition and personality of individual patients should be evaluated carefully before surgery to estimate whether or not they can endure the pain associated with postoperative mouth opening training. The results of this study suggest that the surgical procedure is useful for the management of MMTAH. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van de Wetering, Fleur T; Verleye, Leen; Andreyev, H Jervoise N; Maher, Jane; Vlayen, Joan; Pieters, Bradley R; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Scholten, Rob J P M
This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2002, and previously updated in 2007. Late radiation rectal problems (proctopathy) include bleeding, pain, faecal urgency, and incontinence and may develop after pelvic radiotherapy treatment for cancer. To assess the effectiveness and safety of non-surgical interventions for managing late radiation proctopathy. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 11, 2015); MEDLINE (Ovid); EMBASE (Ovid); CANCERCD; Science Citation Index; and CINAHL from inception to November 2015. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing non-surgical interventions for the management of late radiation proctopathy in people with cancer who have undergone pelvic radiotherapy for cancer. Primary outcomes considered were: episodes of bowel activity, bleeding, pain, tenesmus, urgency, and sphincter dysfunction. Study selection, 'Risk of bias' assessment, and data extraction were performed in duplicate, and any disagreements were resolved by involving a third review author. We identified 1221 unique references and 16 studies including 993 participants that met our inclusion criteria. One study found through the last update was moved to the 'Studies awaiting classification' section. We did not pool outcomes for a meta-analysis due to variation in study characteristics and endpoints across included studies.Since radiation proctopathy is a condition with various symptoms or combinations of symptoms, the studies were heterogeneous in their intended effect. Some studies investigated treatments targeted at bleeding only (group 1), some investigated treatments targeted at a combination of anorectal symptoms, but not a single treatment (group 2). The third group focused on the treatment of the collection of symptoms referred to as pelvic radiation disease. In order to enable some comparison of this heterogeneous collection of studies, we describe the effects in these three groups separately
Ortiz, P; Bissada, N F; Palomo, L; Han, Y W; Al-Zahrani, M S; Panneerselvam, A; Askari, A
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis are common chronic inflammatory conditions. Recent studies showed a beneficial effect of periodontal treatment on the severity of active RA. This study was undertaken to further examine the effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on the signs and symptoms of RA in patients treated with or without anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (anti-TNF-alpha) medications. The effect of anti-TNF-alpha therapy on periodontitis also was assessed. Forty participants diagnosed with moderate/severe RA (under treatment for RA) and severe periodontitis were randomly assigned to receive initial non-surgical periodontal therapy with scaling/root planing and oral hygiene instructions (n = 20) or no periodontal therapy (n = 20). To control RA, all participants had been using disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, and 20 had also been using anti-TNF-alpha before randomization. Probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP), gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), RA disease activity score 28 (DAS28), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured at baseline and 6 weeks later. Linear mixed models were used to identify significant differences between subjects who received periodontal treatment and those who did not. Patients receiving periodontal treatment showed a significant decrease in the mean DAS28, ESR (P <0.001), and serum TNF-alpha (P <0.05). There was no statistically significant decrease in these parameters in patients not receiving periodontal treatment. Anti-TNF-alpha therapy resulted in a significant improvement in CAL, PD, BOP, and GI. Non-surgical periodontal therapy had a beneficial effect on the signs and symptoms of RA, regardless of the medications used to treat this condition. Anti-TNF-alpha therapy without periodontal treatment had no significant effect on the periodontal condition.
Ortiz, P; Bissada, NF; Palomo, L; Han, YW; Al-Zahrani, MS; Panneerselvam, A; Askari, A
Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis (PD) are common chronic inflammatory conditions. Recent studies have shown a beneficial effect of periodontal treatment on reducing the severity of active RA. This study was undertaken to further examine the effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on signs and symptoms of RA in patients treated with or without anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α medications. The effect of anti-TNF-α therapy on periodontitis also was assessed. Methods Forty participants diagnosed with moderate/severe RA (under treatment for RA) and severe periodontitis were randomly assigned to receive initial non-surgical periodontal therapy with scaling/root planing and oral hygiene instructions (n=20) or no periodontal therapy (n=20). To control RA, all participants had been using disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and 20 had been using anti-TNF-α in addition to DMARDs before randomization. Periodontal probing depth (PD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP), gingival (GI) and plaque (PI) indices, RA disease activity score (DAS-28) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured at baseline and six weeks afterwards. Linear mixed models were used to identify significant differences between subjects receiving periodontal treatment and those who did not. Results Patients receiving periodontal treatment showed a significant decrease in the mean DAS28, ESR (p < 0.001) and serum TNF-α (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant decrease in these parameters in those patients not receiving periodontal treatment. Anti- TNF-α therapy resulted in a significant improvement in CAL, PD, BOP and GI. Conclusions Non-surgical periodontal therapy had a beneficial effect on signs and symptoms of RA regardless of the medications used to treat this condition. Anti-TNF-α therapy without periodontal treatment has no significant effect on the periodontal condition. PMID:19335072
Streiff, Michael B; Lau, Brandyn D
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in medically ill patients. Randomized controlled trials indicate that pharmacologic prophylaxis reduces deep venous thrombosis (relative risk [RR] = 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36-0.59) and pulmonary embolism (RR = 0.49; 95% CI, 0.33-0.72) with a nonsignificant trend toward more bleeding (RR = 1.36; 95% CI, 0.80-2.33]. Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) and unfractionated heparin are equally efficacious in preventing deep venous thrombosis (RR = 0.85; 95% CI, 0.69-1.06) and pulmonary embolism (RR = 1.05; 95% CI, 0.47-2.38), but LMWH is associated with significantly less major bleeding (RR = 0.45; 95% CI, 0.23-0.85). LMWH is favored for VTE prophylaxis in critically ill patients. New VTE and bleeding risk stratification tools offer the potential to improve the risk-benefit ratio for VTE prophylaxis in medically ill patients. Intermittent pneumatic compression devices should be used for VTE prophylaxis in patients with contraindications to pharmacologic prophylaxis. Graduated compression stockings should be used with caution. VTE prevention in medically ill patients using extended-duration VTE prophylaxis and new oral anticoagulants warrant further investigation. VTE prophylaxis prescription and administration rates are suboptimal and warrant multidisciplinary performance improvement strategies.
Prunet, Bertrand; Lacroix, Guillaume; Asencio, Yves; Cathelinaud, Olivier; Avaro, Jean-Philippe; Goutorbe, Philippe
Background Tracheal rupture is a rare but life-threatening complication that most commonly occurrs after blunt trauma to the chest, but which may also complicate tracheal intubation. We report a case of post-intubation tracheal rupture after cataract surgery under general anesthesia treated conservatively. Case presentation Four hours after extubation, a 67 year-old woman developed subcutaneous emphysema of the facial, bilateral laterocervical and upper anterior chest. Tracheobronchial fiberendoscopy showed a posterior tracheal transmural rupture 4 cm long located 2.5 cm above the carina that opened in inspiration. The location of the lesion and features of the patient favoured conservative treatment with antibiotic cover. The patient made a full and uncomplicated recovery and was discharged fourteen days after the original injury. Conclusion Two therapeutic strategies are currently employed for post-intubation tracheal rupture: a non-surgical strategy for small injuries and a surgical strategy for larger injuries. This case report presented the non-surgical therapeutic strategy of a large tracheal injury. PMID:18945364
A Biofilm Pocket Model to Evaluate Different Non-Surgical Periodontal Treatment Modalities in Terms of Biofilm Removal and Reformation, Surface Alterations and Attachment of Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts.
Hägi, Tobias T; Klemensberger, Sabrina; Bereiter, Riccarda; Nietzsche, Sandor; Cosgarea, Raluca; Flury, Simon; Lussi, Adrian; Sculean, Anton; Eick, Sigrun
There is a lack of suitable in vitro models to evaluate various treatment modalities intending to remove subgingival bacterial biofilm. Consequently, the aims of this in vitro-study were: a) to establish a pocket model enabling mechanical removal of biofilm and b) to evaluate repeated non-surgical periodontal treatment with respect to biofilm removal and reformation, surface alterations, tooth hard-substance-loss, and attachment of periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts. Standardized human dentin specimens were colonized by multi-species biofilms for 3.5 days and subsequently placed into artificially created pockets. Non-surgical periodontal treatment was performed as follows: a) hand-instrumentation with curettes (CUR), b) ultrasonication (US), c) subgingival air-polishing using erythritol (EAP) and d) subgingival air-polishing using erythritol combined with chlorhexidine digluconate (EAP-CHX). The reduction and recolonization of bacterial counts, surface roughness (Ra and Rz), the caused tooth substance-loss (thickness) as well as the attachment of PDL fibroblasts were evaluated and statistically analyzed by means of ANOVA with Post-Hoc LSD. After 5 treatments, bacterial reduction in biofilms was highest when applying EAP-CHX (4 log10). The lowest reduction was found after CUR (2 log10). Additionally, substance-loss was the highest when using CUR (128±40 µm) in comparison with US (14±12 µm), EAP (6±7 µm) and EAP-CHX (11±10) µm). Surface was roughened when using CUR and US. Surfaces exposed to US and to EAP attracted the highest numbers of PDL fibroblasts. The established biofilm model simulating a periodontal pocket combined with interchangeable placements of test specimens with multi-species biofilms enables the evaluation of different non-surgical treatment modalities on biofilm removal and surface alterations. Compared to hand instrumentation the application of ultrasonication and of air-polishing with erythritol prevents from substance-loss and
A Biofilm Pocket Model to Evaluate Different Non-Surgical Periodontal Treatment Modalities in Terms of Biofilm Removal and Reformation, Surface Alterations and Attachment of Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts
Hägi, Tobias T.; Klemensberger, Sabrina; Bereiter, Riccarda; Nietzsche, Sandor; Cosgarea, Raluca; Flury, Simon; Lussi, Adrian; Sculean, Anton; Eick, Sigrun
Background and Aim There is a lack of suitable in vitro models to evaluate various treatment modalities intending to remove subgingival bacterial biofilm. Consequently, the aims of this in vitro-study were: a) to establish a pocket model enabling mechanical removal of biofilm and b) to evaluate repeated non-surgical periodontal treatment with respect to biofilm removal and reformation, surface alterations, tooth hard-substance-loss, and attachment of periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts. Material and Methods Standardized human dentin specimens were colonized by multi-species biofilms for 3.5 days and subsequently placed into artificially created pockets. Non-surgical periodontal treatment was performed as follows: a) hand-instrumentation with curettes (CUR), b) ultrasonication (US), c) subgingival air-polishing using erythritol (EAP) and d) subgingival air-polishing using erythritol combined with chlorhexidine digluconate (EAP-CHX). The reduction and recolonization of bacterial counts, surface roughness (Ra and Rz), the caused tooth substance-loss (thickness) as well as the attachment of PDL fibroblasts were evaluated and statistically analyzed by means of ANOVA with Post-Hoc LSD. Results After 5 treatments, bacterial reduction in biofilms was highest when applying EAP-CHX (4 log10). The lowest reduction was found after CUR (2 log10). Additionally, substance-loss was the highest when using CUR (128±40 µm) in comparison with US (14±12 µm), EAP (6±7 µm) and EAP-CHX (11±10) µm). Surface was roughened when using CUR and US. Surfaces exposed to US and to EAP attracted the highest numbers of PDL fibroblasts. Conclusion The established biofilm model simulating a periodontal pocket combined with interchangeable placements of test specimens with multi-species biofilms enables the evaluation of different non-surgical treatment modalities on biofilm removal and surface alterations. Compared to hand instrumentation the applic