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Sample records for nontuberculous mycobacteria zambia

  1. Genomic characterization of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Fedrizzi, Tarcisio; Meehan, Conor J.; Grottola, Antonella; Giacobazzi, Elisabetta; Fregni Serpini, Giulia; Tagliazucchi, Sara; Fabio, Anna; Bettua, Clotilde; Bertorelli, Roberto; De Sanctis, Veronica; Rumpianesi, Fabio; Pecorari, Monica; Jousson, Olivier; Tortoli, Enrico; Segata, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae have remained, for many years, the primary species of the genus Mycobacterium of clinical and microbiological interest. The other members of the genus, referred to as nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), have long been underinvestigated. In the last decades, however, the number of reports linking various NTM species with human diseases has steadily increased and treatment difficulties have emerged. Despite the availability of whole genome sequencing technologies, limited effort has been devoted to the genetic characterization of NTM species. As a consequence, the taxonomic and phylogenetic structure of the genus remains unsettled and genomic information is lacking to support the identification of these organisms in a clinical setting. In this work, we widen the knowledge of NTMs by reconstructing and analyzing the genomes of 41 previously uncharacterized NTM species. We provide the first comprehensive characterization of the genomic diversity of NTMs and open new venues for the clinical identification of opportunistic pathogens from this genus. PMID:28345639

  2. Natural Disasters and Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, Jon N.; Chan, Edward D.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases acquired by survivors of large-scale natural disasters complicate the recovery process. During events such as tsunamis, hurricanes, earthquakes, and tornados and well into the recovery period, victims often are exposed to water-soil mixtures that have relocated with indigenous microbes. Because nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous in water and soil, there is potential for increased exposure to these organisms during natural disasters. In this hypothesis-driven commentary, we discuss the rise in NTM lung disease and natural disasters and examine the geographic overlap of NTM infections and disaster frequencies in the United States. Moreover, we show an increased number of positive NTM cultures from Louisiana residents in the years following three of the relatively recent epic hurricanes and posit that such natural disasters may help to drive the increased number of NTM infections. Finally, we advocate for increased environmental studies and surveillance of NTM infections before and after natural disasters. PMID:25644904

  3. EXAMINATION OF BOTTLED WATER FOR NONTUBERCULOUS MYCOBACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to examine bottled water for the presence of nontuberculous mycobacteria as a potential source of infection in AIDS patients. Twenty brands of bottled water commonly used in the Los Angeles area were tested for the presence of nontuberculous mycoba...

  4. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Immune Reconstitution Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mogambery, J. C.; Motala, A.; Padayachee, K.; Jozi, C.; Dawood, H.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria infection (NTM) in Sub-Saharan Africa is estimated to be less than 1%. NTM is often underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed as tuberculosis in patients who present with immune reconstitution syndrome (IRS) following initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART). Immune reconstitution syndrome is common in patients who start ART with low CD4 counts and high HIV viral load. Furthermore, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) commonly infects those with CD4 counts less than 50 cells/mm3. Three patients, with low baseline CD4 counts, presenting with NTM following the initiation of antiretroviral treatment are described in this case series. The first patient presented with disseminated NTM two weeks after commencing antiretroviral treatment. Acid fast bacilli were found in the liver, duodenum, and bone marrow and were suggestive of MAC microscopically. The second developed cervical lymphadenitis following the initiation of ART. Lymph node aspirate culture grew NTM. The last patient developed pancytopenia after 3 months of ART. AFB was seen on bone marrow biopsy. Culture of the bone marrow aspirate was suggestive of NTM. All three patients improved on ethambutol, clarithromycin, and rifampicin. NTM may be underdiagnosed in areas with a high TB prevalence and should be actively excluded by culture. PMID:25435881

  5. Nontuberculous mycobacteria immune reconstitution syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mogambery, J C; Motala, A; Padayachee, K; Jozi, C; Dawood, H

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria infection (NTM) in Sub-Saharan Africa is estimated to be less than 1%. NTM is often underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed as tuberculosis in patients who present with immune reconstitution syndrome (IRS) following initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART). Immune reconstitution syndrome is common in patients who start ART with low CD4 counts and high HIV viral load. Furthermore, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) commonly infects those with CD4 counts less than 50 cells/mm(3). Three patients, with low baseline CD4 counts, presenting with NTM following the initiation of antiretroviral treatment are described in this case series. The first patient presented with disseminated NTM two weeks after commencing antiretroviral treatment. Acid fast bacilli were found in the liver, duodenum, and bone marrow and were suggestive of MAC microscopically. The second developed cervical lymphadenitis following the initiation of ART. Lymph node aspirate culture grew NTM. The last patient developed pancytopenia after 3 months of ART. AFB was seen on bone marrow biopsy. Culture of the bone marrow aspirate was suggestive of NTM. All three patients improved on ethambutol, clarithromycin, and rifampicin. NTM may be underdiagnosed in areas with a high TB prevalence and should be actively excluded by culture.

  6. Clinical Relevance of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mahruqi, Sara H.; Al-Busaidy, Suleiman; Boeree, Martin J.; Al-Zadjali, Samiya; Patel, Arti; Dekhuijzen, P.N. Richard; van Soolingen, Dick

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the clinical relevance of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in the Arabian Peninsula. We assessed the prevalence and studied a random sample of isolates at a reference laboratory in Muscat, Oman. NTM cause disease in this region, and their prevalence has increased. PMID:19193276

  7. OCCURRENCE OF NONTUBERCULOUS MYCOBACTERIA IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a major cause of opportunistic infection in immunocompromised hosts. Because there is no evidence of person-to-person transmission and NTM have been found in drinking water, the environment is considered a likely source of infection. In this ...

  8. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Lymphadenitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Varnam, Meera; Fernandez, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Atypical mycobacteria, also known as nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) includes acid-fast bacteria other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis. NTM can be isolated from a variety of environmental sources including water, food products, domestic animals, and soil; human exposure is typically from soil to the oral cavity and respiratory tract. Diagnosis of NTM is suspected in children less than five years old with subacute, unilateral, non-tender cervicofacial lymphadenitis in combination with a history of water exposure, penetrating injection, as well as negative routine cultures or response to antistaphylococcal and antistreptococcal antibiotics. The course of the disease is variable and can involve eruption of the lymph node and tract formation with drainage. Management of nontuberculous mycobacteria can include surgical and antimycobacterial therapy. We present a case of a two-year-old African American girl who presented to the clinic with anterior ear lobe and submandibular lymphadenitis due to suspected NTM. PMID:27909634

  9. Epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacteria, an emerging environmental pathogen

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is an environmentally transmitted pathogen primarily associated with water and soil exposure. It is increasingly recognized in the developed world and may manifest as infection or colonization of multiple anatomic sites. Nontuberculous mycobacter...

  10. Pneumothorax associated with nontuberculous mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ueyama, M; Asakura, Takanori; Morimoto, Kozo; Namkoong, Ho; Matsuda, Shuichi; Osawa, Takeshi; Ishii, Makoto; Hasegawa, Naoki; Kurashima, Atsuyuki; Goto, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The incidence of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTMPD) is increasing worldwide. Secondary spontaneous pneumothorax occurs as a complication of underlying lung disease and is associated with higher morbidity, mortality, and recurrence than primary spontaneous pneumothorax. We here investigated the clinical features and long-term outcomes of pneumothorax associated with NTMPD. We conducted a retrospective study on consecutive adult patients with pneumothorax associated with NTMPD at Fukujuji Hospital and Keio University Hospital from January 1992 to December 2013. We reviewed the medical records of 69 such patients to obtain clinical characteristics, radiological findings, and long-term outcomes, including pneumothorax recurrence and mortality. The median age of the patients was 68 years; 34 patients were women. The median body mass index was 16.8 kg/m2. Underlying pulmonary diseases mainly included chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary tuberculosis. On computed tomography, nodules and bronchiectasis were observed in 46 (98%) and 45 (96%) patients, respectively. Consolidation, pleural thickening, interlobular septal thickening, and cavities were most common, and observed in 40 (85%), 40 (85%), 37 (79%), and 36 (77%) patients, respectively. Regarding pneumothorax treatment outcomes, complete and incomplete lung expansion were observed in 49 patients (71%) and 15 patients (22%), respectively. The survival rate after pneumothorax was 48% at 5 years. By the end of the follow-up, 33 patients had died, and the median survival was 4.4 years with a median follow-up period of 1.7 years. The rate of absence of recurrence after the first pneumothorax was 59% at 3 years. By the end of the follow-up, 18 patients had experienced pneumothorax recurrence. Furthermore, 12/18 patients (66%) with recurrent pneumothorax died during the study period. Twenty-three patients (70%) died because of NTMPD progression. Low body mass index (BMI) was a

  11. Pulmonary Disease Due to Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Glassroth, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Since pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria (PNTM) lung disease was last reviewed in CHEST in 2008, new information has emerged spanning multiple domains, including epidemiology, transmission and pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. The overall prevalence of PNTM is increasing, and in the United States, areas of highest prevalence are clustered in distinct geographic locations with common environmental and socioeconomic factors. Although the accepted paradigm for transmission continues to be inhalation from the environment, provocative reports suggest that person-to-person transmission may occur. A panoply of host factors have been investigated in an effort to elucidate why infection from this bacteria develops in ostensibly immunocompetent patients, and there has been clarification that immunocompetent patients exhibit different histopathology from immunocompromised patients with nontuberculous mycobacteria infection. It is now evident that Mycobacterium abscessus, an increasingly prevalent cause of PNTM lung disease, can be classified into three separate subspecies with differing genetic susceptibility or resistance to macrolides. Recent publications also raise the possibility of improved control of PNTM through enhanced adherence to current treatment guidelines as well as new approaches to treatment and even prevention. These and other recent developments and insights that may inform our approach to PNTM lung disease are reviewed and discussed. PMID:26225805

  12. Distribution of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria strains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Aim Mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT) cause increasingly serious infections especially in immunosuppressive patients by direct transmission from the environment or after colonization. However, identification of these species is difficult because of the cost and difficulties in defining to species level. Identification and distribution of these species can help clinician in the choice of treatment. Materials and methods A total of 90 MOTT strains obtained from four different centers were included in the study. These strains were identified by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and Hsp65 genetic regions. Results Accordingly, within the 90 MOTT strains, 17 different species were identified. In order of frequency, these species were M. gordonea (n = 21), M. abscessus (n = 13), M. lentiflavum (n = 9), M. fortuitum (n = 8), M. intracellulare (n = 6), M. kumamotonense (n = 6), M. neoaurum (n = 5), M. chimaera (n = 5), M. alvei (n = 5), M. peregrinum (n = 3), M. canariasense (n = 3), M. flavescens (n = 1), M. mucogenicum (n = 1), M. chelona (n = 1), M. elephantis (n = 1), M. terrae (n = 1) and M. xenopi (n = 1). Most frequently identified MOTT species according to the geographical origin were as follows: M. abscessus was the most common species either in Istanbul or Malatya regions (n = 6, n = 6, consequently). While M. kumamotonense was the most frequent species isolated from Ankara region (n = 6), M. gordonea was the most common for Samsun region (n = 14). Conclusion Our study revealed that frequency of MOTT varies depending on the number of clinical samples and that frequency of these species were affected by the newly identified species as a result of the use of novel molecular methods. In conclusion, when establishing diagnosis and treatment methods, it is important to know that infections caused by unidentified MOTT species may vary according to the regions in Turkey. The results

  13. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Noncystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Bonaiti, Giulia; Pesci, Alberto; Marruchella, Almerico; Lapadula, Giuseppe; Gori, Andrea; Aliberti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    During the past decades, a growing interest has been raised in evaluating nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in patients with noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFBE). This paper reviews several aspects of the correlations between NTM and NCFBE, including pathogenesis, radiological features, diagnosis, and management. Bronchiectasis and NTM lung disease are connected, but which one comes first is still an unresolved question. The rate of NTM lung disease in NCFBE varies through the studies, from 5% to 30%. The most frequent species isolated is MAC. NCFBE patients affected by NTM infection frequently present coinfections, including both other different NTM species and microorganisms, such as P. aeruginosa. Once a diagnosis of NTM disease has been reached, the initiation of therapy is not always mandatory. NTM species isolated, patients' conditions, and disease severity and its evolution should be considered. Risk factors for disease progression in NCFBE patients with NTM are low body mass index, cavitary disease, consolidations, and macrolide resistance at presentation.

  14. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Noncystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    Bonaiti, Giulia; Pesci, Alberto; Marruchella, Almerico; Lapadula, Giuseppe; Gori, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    During the past decades, a growing interest has been raised in evaluating nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in patients with noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFBE). This paper reviews several aspects of the correlations between NTM and NCFBE, including pathogenesis, radiological features, diagnosis, and management. Bronchiectasis and NTM lung disease are connected, but which one comes first is still an unresolved question. The rate of NTM lung disease in NCFBE varies through the studies, from 5% to 30%. The most frequent species isolated is MAC. NCFBE patients affected by NTM infection frequently present coinfections, including both other different NTM species and microorganisms, such as P. aeruginosa. Once a diagnosis of NTM disease has been reached, the initiation of therapy is not always mandatory. NTM species isolated, patients' conditions, and disease severity and its evolution should be considered. Risk factors for disease progression in NCFBE patients with NTM are low body mass index, cavitary disease, consolidations, and macrolide resistance at presentation. PMID:26106603

  15. Epidemiology of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in French Polynesia

    PubMed Central

    Phelippeau, Michael; Aboubaker Osman, Djaltou; Musso, Didier

    2015-01-01

    As few data are available in the Pacific countries and territories of the Oceania region regarding nontuberculous mycobacteria, we retrospectively identified 87 such isolates from French Polynesia from 2008 to 2013 by hybridization using DNA-strip, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and partial rpoB gene sequencing. Partial rpoB gene sequencing classified 42/87 (48.3%) isolates in the Mycobacterium fortuitum complex, 28 (32.2%) in the Mycobacterium abscessus complex, 8 (9.2%) in the Mycobacterium mucogenicum complex, and 5 (5.7%) in the Mycobacterium avium complex. Two isolates were identified as Mycobacterium acapulcensis and Mycobacterium cosmeticum by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. One isolate, unidentified by MALDI-TOF MS and yielding less than 92% and 96% sequence similarity with rpoB and hsp65 reference sequences, respectively, was regarded as a potentially new species. Samples from three patients exhibiting ≥2 Mycobacterium porcinum isolates and from one patient with emphysema and a lung abscess exhibiting 2 Mycobacterium senegalense isolates fulfilled the American Thoracic Society microbiological criteria for nontuberculous mycobacterial lung infection. Remote geographic areas, such as French Polynesia, are potential sources for the discovery of new mycobacterial species. PMID:26400787

  16. Environmental Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Epperson, L. Elaine; Reynolds, Paul R.; Smith, Terry; Iakhiaeva, Elena; Bankowski, Matthew J.; Wallace, Richard J.; Chan, Edward D.; Falkinham, Joseph O.; Strong, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Lung disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is an emerging infectious disease of global significance. Epidemiologic studies have shown the Hawaiian Islands have the highest prevalence of NTM lung infections in the United States. However, potential environmental reservoirs and species diversity have not been characterized. In this cross-sectional study, we describe molecular and phylogenetic comparisons of NTM isolated from 172 household plumbing biofilms and soil samples from 62 non-patient households and 15 respiratory specimens. Although non-uniform geographic sampling and availability of patient information were limitations, Mycobacterium chimaera was found to be the dominant species in both environmental and respiratory specimens. In contrast to previous studies from the continental U.S., no Mycobacterium avium was identified. Mycobacterium intracellulare was found only in respiratory specimens and a soil sample. We conclude that Hawai’i’s household water sources contain a unique composition of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), increasing our appreciation of NTM organisms of pulmonary importance in tropical environments. PMID:27780201

  17. Environmental Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Honda, Jennifer R; Hasan, Nabeeh A; Davidson, Rebecca M; Williams, Myra D; Epperson, L Elaine; Reynolds, Paul R; Smith, Terry; Iakhiaeva, Elena; Bankowski, Matthew J; Wallace, Richard J; Chan, Edward D; Falkinham, Joseph O; Strong, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Lung disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is an emerging infectious disease of global significance. Epidemiologic studies have shown the Hawaiian Islands have the highest prevalence of NTM lung infections in the United States. However, potential environmental reservoirs and species diversity have not been characterized. In this cross-sectional study, we describe molecular and phylogenetic comparisons of NTM isolated from 172 household plumbing biofilms and soil samples from 62 non-patient households and 15 respiratory specimens. Although non-uniform geographic sampling and availability of patient information were limitations, Mycobacterium chimaera was found to be the dominant species in both environmental and respiratory specimens. In contrast to previous studies from the continental U.S., no Mycobacterium avium was identified. Mycobacterium intracellulare was found only in respiratory specimens and a soil sample. We conclude that Hawai'i's household water sources contain a unique composition of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), increasing our appreciation of NTM organisms of pulmonary importance in tropical environments.

  18. Invasive disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Crump, John A; van Ingen, Jakko; Morrissey, Anne B; Boeree, Martin J; Mavura, Daudi R; Swai, Britta; Thielman, Nathan M; Bartlett, John A; Grossman, Henning; Maro, Venance P; van Soolingen, Dick

    2009-01-01

    Data on nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease in sub-Saharan Africa are limited. During 2006-2008, we identified 3 HIV-infected patients in northern Tanzania who had invasive NTM; 2 were infected with "Mycobacterium sherrisii" and 1 with M. avium complex sequevar MAC-D. Invasive NTM disease is present in HIV-infected patients in sub-Saharan Africa.

  19. Epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolations among central North Carolina residents, 2006-2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are environmental mycobacteria associated with a range of infections. Reports of NTM epidemiology have primarily focused on pulmonary infections and isolations, however extrapulmonary infections of the skin, soft tissues and sterile s...

  20. Nontuberculous mycobacteria: Reports of clinical laboratory isolation in a three county area, North Carolina, 2006 -2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Laboratory reports of mycobacteria isolation and identification are created during the clinical diagnostic process to differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis from nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). NTM isolation rates are expected to exceed rates of true NTM infectio...

  1. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Respiratory Tract Infections, Eastern Asia

    PubMed Central

    van Ingen, Jakko; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Van Hung, Nguyen; Dekhuijzen, P.N. Richard; Boeree, Martin J.; van Soolingen, Dick

    2011-01-01

    To characterize the distribution of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) species isolated from pulmonary samples from persons in Asia and their association with pulmonary infections, we reviewed the literature. Mycobacterium avium complex bacteria were most frequently isolated (13%–81%) and were the most common cause of pulmonary NTM disease (43%–81%). Also pathogenic were rapidly growing mycobacteria (M. chelonae, M. fortuitum, M. abscessus). Among all NTM isolated from pulmonary samples, 31% (582/1,744) were considered clinically relevant according to American Thoracic Society diagnostic criteria. Most patients were male (79%) and had a history of tuberculosis (37%). In Asia, high prevalence of rapidly growing mycobacteria and a history of tuberculosis are distinct characteristics of pulmonary NTM disease. This geographic variation is not well reflected in the American Thoracic Society criteria for NTM infections and could be incorporated in future guidelines. PMID:21392422

  2. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Saudi Arabia and Gulf Countries: A Review

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are causing growing health problems worldwide. This is indicated by an increasing amount of scientific reports showing not only well-identified species reemerging but also emergence of new species. The emergence and reemergence of NTM are particularly worrying in developing countries due to scarce published data and improper identification. Here we aimed to examine the main epidemiological aspects and diagnostic challenges associated with NTM in countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) and compare these findings to the international arena findings. Data revealed that countries of the GCC are largely dominated by rapidly growing mycobacteria species such as M. fortuitum (29%) and M. abscessus (17%) with high rate of definitive respiratory diseases. On the other hand, most of the developed countries are dominated by slowly growing mycobacteria such as MAC, M. kansasii, and M. gordonae. More efforts are needed, however, to gain insights into NTM issues in countries of the GCC. PMID:28348502

  3. General Overview on Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Biofilms, and Human Infection

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Sonia; Joao, Ines; Jordao, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are emergent pathogens whose importance in human health has been growing. After being regarded mainly as etiological agents of opportunist infections in HIV patients, they have also been recognized as etiological agents of several infections on immune-competent individuals and healthcare-associated infections. The environmental nature of NTM and their ability to assemble biofilms on different surfaces play a key role in their pathogenesis. Here, we review the clinical manifestations attributed to NTM giving particular importance to the role played by biofilm assembly. PMID:26618006

  4. Impact of human activities on the ecology of nontuberculous mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Falkinham, Joseph O

    2010-06-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are environmental opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals. They are found in a wide variety of habitats to which humans are exposed, including drinking water distribution systems and household water and plumbing. In that regard, they are distinct from their obligate pathogenic relatives, the members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Owing to the presence of NTM in the human environment, human activities have had direct impacts on their ecology and thereby their epidemiology. NTM are oligotrophic, able to grow at low organic matter concentrations and over a wide range of temperatures, and even at low oxygen concentrations. Thus, NTM are normal inhabitants of natural waters and drinking waters. Discovery of the presence of NTM-polluted soils is not surprising in light of the ability of NTM to degrade a variety of hydrocarbon pollutants. A major human activity selecting for the growth and predominance of mycobacteria in habitats is disinfection. In comparison to other bacteria, NTM are disinfectant, heavy metal and antibiotic resistant. Therefore, the use of any antimicrobial agent selects for mycobacteria. Use of disinfectant in drinking water treatment selects for mycobacteria that can grow and come to proliferate in drinking water distribution systems in the absence of disinfectant-sensitive competing microorganisms. NTM selection may also occur as a consequence of antibiotics in drinking water sources.

  5. Evaluation of MALDI Biotyper Mycobacteria Library v3.0 for Identification of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Serrano, M. Jesús; Ruiz, Adrián; Timke, Markus; Kostrzewa, Markus; Bouza, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has demonstrated its ability to promptly identify nontuberculous mycobacteria using the Mycobacteria Library v2.0. However, some species are particularly difficult to identify reliably using this database, providing a low log(score). In this study, the identification power of an updated Mycobacteria Library (v3.0) has been evaluated. Overall, 109 NTM isolates were analyzed with both databases. The v3.0 database allowed a high-level confidence in the identification [log(score) value, ≥1.8] of 91.7% of the isolates versus 83.5% with the v2.0 version (P < 0.01). PMID:26842704

  6. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, Drug Resistance Mechanisms, and Therapy of Infections with Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Kevin A.; Wallace, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Within the past 10 years, treatment and diagnostic guidelines for nontuberculous mycobacteria have been recommended by the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Moreover, the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) has published and recently (in 2011) updated recommendations including suggested antimicrobial and susceptibility breakpoints. The CLSI has also recommended the broth microdilution method as the gold standard for laboratories performing antimicrobial susceptibility testing of nontuberculous mycobacteria. This article reviews the laboratory, diagnostic, and treatment guidelines together with established and probable drug resistance mechanisms of the nontuberculous mycobacteria. PMID:22763637

  7. Series of Case Patients with Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Isolation, Central North Carolina, 2006-2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection/colonization, associated with human morbidity/mortality, is linked to drinking water and drinking water distribution systems. To characterize rates and distribution of NTM isolation among residents living in three North Carolina countie...

  8. Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens Legionella pneumophila and non-tuberculous mycobacteria in hospital plumbing systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens Legionella pneumophila and non-tuberculous mycobacteria in hospital plumbing systems Jill Hoelle, Michael Coughlin, Elizabeth Sotkiewicz, Jingrang Lu, Stacy Pfaller, Mark Rodgers, and Hodon Ryu U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati...

  9. Nontuberculous mycobacteria isolations from residents of three counties in North Carolina, 2006 – 2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are emerging infections among the elderly and immunocompromised but the epidemiology is poorly characterized. Reports of NTM isolation from clinical specimens is a readily available, if imperfect surrogate for disease prevalence. Meth...

  10. Natural disasters and nontuberculous mycobacteria: a recipe for increased disease?

    PubMed

    Honda, Jennifer R; Bernhard, Jon N; Chan, Edward D

    2015-02-01

    Infectious diseases acquired by survivors of large-scale natural disasters complicate the recovery process. During events such as tsunamis, hurricanes, earthquakes, and tornados and well into the recovery period, victims often are exposed to water-soil mixtures that have relocated with indigenous microbes. Because nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous in water and soil, there is potential for increased exposure to these organisms during natural disasters. In this hypothesis-driven commentary, we discuss the rise in NTM lung disease and natural disasters and examine the geographic overlap of NTM infections and disaster frequencies in the United States. Moreover, we show an increased number of positive NTM cultures from Louisiana residents in the years following three of the relatively recent epic hurricanes and posit that such natural disasters may help to drive the increased number of NTM infections. Finally, we advocate for increased environmental studies and surveillance of NTM infections before and after natural disasters.

  11. Extrapulmonary Infections Associated with Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Immunocompetent Persons

    PubMed Central

    Scarparo, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Over the past several years, the prevalence of human disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has increased. Whether the increase in cases is real or whether more cases are being recognized remains unclear. Despite a considerable increase in knowledge about NTM infections, they still represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for several reasons: 1) pathogenic isolates may be indistinguishable from contaminant or saprophytic isolates; 2) timely and reliable identification of isolates may depend on proper communication between clinicians and laboratory staff; 3) lack of standardized susceptibility testing makes adoption of tailored therapies unrealistic; and 4) lack of treatment guidelines exposes patients to toxic drugs and disappointing outcomes. Laboratory research and multicenter controlled trials are needed to improve diagnosis and treatment of these infections. PMID:19788801

  12. Disseminated Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in HIV-Infected Patients, Oregon, USA, 2007–2012

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Jennifer H.; Henkle, Emily; Schafer, Sean D.; Winthrop, Kevin L.

    2017-01-01

    We determined disseminated nontuberculous mycobacteria incidence in the HIV-infected population of Oregon, USA, during 2007–2012 by using statewide laboratory surveillance. We identified 37 disseminated nontuberculous mycobacteria cases among 7,349 patients with median annual incidence of 110/100,000 HIV person-years and the highest incidence in those with CD4 counts <50 cells/mm3 (5,300/100,000 person-years). PMID:28221103

  13. Specific Proteins in Nontuberculous Mycobacteria: New Potential Tools

    PubMed Central

    Orduña, Patricia; Castillo-Rodal, Antonia I.; Mercado, Martha E.; Ponce de León, Samuel; López-Vidal, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been isolated from water, soil, air, food, protozoa, plants, animals, and humans. Although most NTM are saprophytes, approximately one-third of NTM have been associated with human diseases. In this study, we did a comparative proteomic analysis among five NTM strains isolated from several sources. There were different numbers of protein spots from M. gordonae (1,264), M. nonchromogenicum type I (894), M. nonchromogenicum type II (935), M. peregrinum (806), and M. scrofulaceum/Mycobacterium mantenii (1,486) strains, respectively. We identified 141 proteins common to all strains and specific proteins to each NTM strain. A total of 23 proteins were selected for its identification. Two of the common proteins identified (short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase SDR and diguanylate cyclase) did not align with M. tuberculosis complex protein sequences, which suggest that these proteins are found only in the NTM strains. Some of the proteins identified as common to all strains can be used as markers of NTM exposure and for the development of new diagnostic tools. Additionally, the specific proteins to NTM strains identified may represent potential candidates for the diagnosis of diseases caused by these mycobacteria. PMID:26106621

  14. Specific Proteins in Nontuberculous Mycobacteria: New Potential Tools.

    PubMed

    Orduña, Patricia; Castillo-Rodal, Antonia I; Mercado, Martha E; Ponce de León, Samuel; López-Vidal, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been isolated from water, soil, air, food, protozoa, plants, animals, and humans. Although most NTM are saprophytes, approximately one-third of NTM have been associated with human diseases. In this study, we did a comparative proteomic analysis among five NTM strains isolated from several sources. There were different numbers of protein spots from M. gordonae (1,264), M. nonchromogenicum type I (894), M. nonchromogenicum type II (935), M. peregrinum (806), and M. scrofulaceum/Mycobacterium mantenii (1,486) strains, respectively. We identified 141 proteins common to all strains and specific proteins to each NTM strain. A total of 23 proteins were selected for its identification. Two of the common proteins identified (short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase SDR and diguanylate cyclase) did not align with M. tuberculosis complex protein sequences, which suggest that these proteins are found only in the NTM strains. Some of the proteins identified as common to all strains can be used as markers of NTM exposure and for the development of new diagnostic tools. Additionally, the specific proteins to NTM strains identified may represent potential candidates for the diagnosis of diseases caused by these mycobacteria.

  15. In vitro activity of bedaquiline against nontuberculous mycobacteria in China.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yu; Zheng, Huiwen; Tan, Yaoju; Song, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yanlin

    2017-02-27

    The main goal of our study was to evaluate in vitro drug susceptibility of bedaquiline against six prevalent pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) diseases in China. In addition, we investigated the potential molecular mechanism contributing to the bedaquiline resistance in these different NTM species. For slowly growing mycobacteria (SGM), bedaquiline exhibited the highest activity against Mycobacterium avium, the MIC50 and MIC90 were 0.03 and 16 mg/L, respectively. Of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM), Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus (M. abscessus) and Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense (M. massiliense) seemed more susceptible to bedaquiline than Mycobacterium fortuitum, with the MIC50s and MIC90s of 0.13 and >16 mg/L for both species. On the basis of bimodal distributions of the bedaquiline MICs, we proposed the following epidemiological cut-off (ECOFF) values: 1.0 mg/L for SGM and 2.0 mg/L for RGM. There were 14 (29.8%), 41 (27.2%), 33 (39.3%), 44 (20.2%), 42 (25.8%) and 7 (31.8%) isolates resistant to bedaquiline for M. avium,Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium kansasii, M. abscessus, M. massiliense, and M. fortuitum, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the proportion of bedaquiline resistance among these species (P>0.05). The genetic mutations were observed in 74 (10.8%) isolates, while all nucleotide substitutions belonged to synonymous mutations. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that bedaquiline shows moderate in vitro activity against NTM species. Using the proposed ECOFF values, we could distinguish between bedaquiline resistant and susceptible strains by broth dilution method. In addition, no nonsynonymous mutations are identified in the atpE gene conferring bedaquiline resistance in all six NTM species.

  16. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria: An Underestimated Cause of Bioprosthetic Valve Infective Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Bouchiat, Coralie; Saison, Julien; Boisset, Sandrine; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre; Issartel, Bertrand; Dauwalder, Olivier; Benito, Yvonne; Jarraud, Sophie; Grando, Jacqueline; Boibieux, Andre; Dumitrescu, Oana; Delahaye, François; Farhat, Fadi; Thivolet-Bejui, Françoise; Frieh, Jean-Philippe; Vandenesch, François

    2015-01-01

    Background. Atypical mycobacteria, or nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), have been barely reported as infective endocarditis (IE) agents. Methods. From January 2010 to December 2013, cardiac valve samples sent to our laboratory as cases of blood culture-negative suspected IE were analyzed by 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). When positive for NTM, hsp PCR allowed species identification. Demographic, clinical, echocardiographic, histopathological, and Ziehl-Neelsen staining data were then collected. Results. Over the study period, 6 of 370 cardiac valves (belonging to 5 patients in 3 hospitals) were positive for Mycobacterium chelonae (n = 5) and Mycobacterium lentiflavum (n = 1) exclusively on bioprosthetic material. The 5 patients presented to the hospital for heart failure without fever 7.1–18.9 months (median 13.1 months) after biological prosthetic valve implantation. Echocardiography revealed paravalvular regurgitation due to prosthesis dehiscence in all patients. Histopathological examination of the explanted material revealed inflammatory infiltrates in all specimens, 3 of which were associated with giant cells. Gram staining and conventional cultures remained negative, whereas Ziehl-Neelsen staining showed acid-fast bacilli in all patients. Allergic etiology was ruled out by antiporcine immunoglobulin E dosages. These 5 cases occurred exclusively on porcine bioprosthetic material, revealing a statistically significant association between bioprosthetic valves and NTM IE (P < .001). Conclusions. The body of evidence confirmed the diagnosis of prosthetic IE. The statistically significant association between bioprosthetic valves and NTM IE encourages systematic Ziehl-Neelsen staining of explanted bioprosthetic valves in case of early bioprosthesis dysfunction, even without an obvious sign of IE. In addition, we strongly question the cardiac bioprosthesis conditioning process after animal sacrifice. PMID:26213691

  17. Characterizing Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria Infection in Bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    Faverio, Paola; Stainer, Anna; Bonaiti, Giulia; Zucchetti, Stefano C.; Simonetta, Edoardo; Lapadula, Giuseppe; Marruchella, Almerico; Gori, Andrea; Blasi, Francesco; Codecasa, Luigi; Pesci, Alberto; Chalmers, James D.; Loebinger, Michael R.; Aliberti, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Chronic airway infection is a key aspect of the pathogenesis of bronchiectasis. A growing interest has been raised on non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection. We aimed at describing the clinical characteristics, diagnostic process, therapeutic options and outcomes of bronchiectasis patients with pulmonary NTM (pNTM) disease. This was a prospective, observational study enrolling 261 adult bronchiectasis patients during the stable state at the San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy, from 2012 to 2015. Three groups were identified: pNTM disease; chronic P. aeruginosa infection; chronic infection due to bacteria other than P. aeruginosa. NTM were isolated in 32 (12%) patients, and among them, a diagnosis of pNTM disease was reached in 23 cases. When compared to chronic P. aeruginosa infection, patients with pNTM were more likely to have cylindrical bronchiectasis and a “tree-in-bud” pattern, a history of weight loss, a lower disease severity and a lower number of pulmonary exacerbations. Among pNTM patients who started treatment, 68% showed a radiological improvement, and 37% achieved culture conversion without recurrence, while 21% showed NTM isolation recurrence. NTM isolation seems to be a frequent event in bronchiectasis patients, and few parameters might help to suspect NTM infection. Treatment indications and monitoring still remain an important area for future research. PMID:27854334

  18. Characterizing Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria Infection in Bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Faverio, Paola; Stainer, Anna; Bonaiti, Giulia; Zucchetti, Stefano C; Simonetta, Edoardo; Lapadula, Giuseppe; Marruchella, Almerico; Gori, Andrea; Blasi, Francesco; Codecasa, Luigi; Pesci, Alberto; Chalmers, James D; Loebinger, Michael R; Aliberti, Stefano

    2016-11-16

    Chronic airway infection is a key aspect of the pathogenesis of bronchiectasis. A growing interest has been raised on non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection. We aimed at describing the clinical characteristics, diagnostic process, therapeutic options and outcomes of bronchiectasis patients with pulmonary NTM (pNTM) disease. This was a prospective, observational study enrolling 261 adult bronchiectasis patients during the stable state at the San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy, from 2012 to 2015. Three groups were identified: pNTM disease; chronic P. aeruginosa infection; chronic infection due to bacteria other than P. aeruginosa. NTM were isolated in 32 (12%) patients, and among them, a diagnosis of pNTM disease was reached in 23 cases. When compared to chronic P. aeruginosa infection, patients with pNTM were more likely to have cylindrical bronchiectasis and a "tree-in-bud" pattern, a history of weight loss, a lower disease severity and a lower number of pulmonary exacerbations. Among pNTM patients who started treatment, 68% showed a radiological improvement, and 37% achieved culture conversion without recurrence, while 21% showed NTM isolation recurrence. NTM isolation seems to be a frequent event in bronchiectasis patients, and few parameters might help to suspect NTM infection. Treatment indications and monitoring still remain an important area for future research.

  19. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Isolated from Tuberculosis Suspects in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Cadmus, Simeon Idowu; Diarra, Bassirou; Traore, Brehima; Maiga, Mamoudou; Siddiqui, Sophia; Tounkara, Anatole; Falodun, Olutayo; Lawal, Wole; Adewole, Isaac Folurunso; Murphy, Rob; van Soolingen, Dick; Taiwo, Babafemi

    2016-01-01

    In Nigeria, one of the highest tuberculosis (TB) burdened nations, sputum smear microscopy is routinely employed for TB diagnosis at Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course (DOTS) Centers. This diagnostic algorithm does not differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) from nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Between December 2008 and January 2009, consecutive patients diagnosed with TB were screened for inclusion at 10 DOTS centers in Ibadan, Nigeria. To verify Mycobacterium species in patients diagnosed, we cultured and identified mycobacterial isolates using PCR, line probe assay, and spoligotyping techniques. From 48 patients screened, 23 met the inclusion criteria for the study. All the 23 study patients had a positive culture. Overall, we identified 11/23 patients (48%) with MTC only, 9/23 (39%) with NTM only, and 3/23 (13%) with evidence of both MTC and NTM. Strains of MTC identified were Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) genotype (n = 12), M. africanum (n = 1), and the genotype family T (n = 1). Four M. avium-intracellulare-M. scrofulaceum complexes, one M. chelonae complex, one M. abscessus, and one M. intracellulare were identified. Our findings underscore the need to incorporate molecular techniques for more precise diagnosis of TB at DOTS centers to improve clinical outcomes and safe guard public health, particularly in TB endemic countries. PMID:27099795

  20. [Distribution and drug resistance of nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Su, J R; Ding, B C; Liu, J W; Yi, J L; Yang, X Y; Wang, N H; Wang, S M

    2017-03-12

    Objective: To analyze the distribution and drug resistance of nontuberculous mycobacteria(NTM) in Beijing. Methods: Using PCR-fluorescence probe method we identified 1 552 mycobacterial isolates in 2009 and 1 553 mycobacterial isolates in 2013, which were stored by Beijing Research Institute for Tuberculosis Control.All identified NTM strains were confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and drug sensitivity testing was performed by using 1% ratio method.SPSS 13.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results: The isolation rate for NTM in 2009 and 2013 was 3.8%(59/1 552), and 4.6%(71/1 553) respectively. A total of 130 NTM strains were identified to 13 species by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, including M. intracellulare strains 39.2%(51/130), M. kansasii strains 37.7%(49/130), M. avium strains 6.9%(9/130), M. abscessus strains 5.4%(7/130), M. fortuitum strains 3.0%(4/130), M. gordonae strains 1.5%(2/130), M. xenopi strains 1.5%(2/130), M. scrofulaceum, M. Phlei, M. smegmatis, M. vaccae, M. neoaurum, M. kumamotonense 1 strain each. For the patients infected with NTM, 87 were male and 43 were female, with an average age of 55 years. The results of drug sensitivity test from 97 strains of NTM showed that isoniazid and p-aminosalicylic acid showed the highest drug resistant rate of 98%(95/97), followed by streptomycin 94.8%(92/97), capreomycin 81.4%(79/97), amikacin 69.1%(67/97), levofloxacin 56.7%(55/97), rifampicin 54.6%(53/97), prothionamide 51.5%(50/97), and ethambutol 50.5%(49/97). Conclusions:Mycobacterium intracellulare and Mycobacterium kansasii were the main strains isolated from patients infected with NTM in Beijing. Patients infected with NTM were mostly males. NTM showed high resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs.

  1. Multidrug-resistant nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Cândido, Pedro Henrique Campanini; Nunes, Luciana de Souza; Marques, Elizabeth Andrade; Folescu, Tânia Wrobel; Coelho, Fábrice Santana; de Moura, Vinicius Calado Nogueira; da Silva, Marlei Gomes; Gomes, Karen Machado; Lourenço, Maria Cristina da Silva; Aguiar, Fábio Silva; Chitolina, Fernanda; Armstrong, Derek T; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso; Neves, Felipe Piedade Gonçalves; Mello, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz; Duarte, Rafael Silva

    2014-08-01

    Worldwide, nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have become emergent pathogens of pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, with an estimated prevalence ranging from 5 to 20%. This work investigated the presence of NTM in sputum samples of 129 CF patients (2 to 18 years old) submitted to longitudinal clinical supervision at a regional reference center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From June 2009 to March 2012, 36 NTM isolates recovered from 10 (7.75%) out of 129 children were obtained. Molecular identification of NTM was performed by using PCR restriction analysis targeting the hsp65 gene (PRA-hsp65) and sequencing of the rpoB gene, and susceptibility tests were performed that followed Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. For evaluating the genotypic diversity, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and/or enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (ERIC-PCR) was performed. The species identified were Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii (n = 24), M. abscessus subsp. abscessus (n = 6), Mycobacterium fortuitum (n = 3), Mycobacterium marseillense (n = 2), and Mycobacterium timonense (n = 1). Most of the isolates presented resistance to five or more of the antimicrobials tested. Typing profiles were mainly patient specific. The PFGE profiles indicated the presence of two clonal groups for M. abscessus subsp. abscessus and five clonal groups for M. abscesssus subsp. bolletii, with just one clone detected in two patients. Given the observed multidrug resistance patterns and the possibility of transmission between patients, we suggest the implementation of continuous and routine investigation of NTM infection or colonization in CF patients, including countries with a high burden of tuberculosis disease.

  2. HUMAN INFECTION WITH NONTUBERCULOUS MYCOBACTERIA SPP. IN KING COUNTY, WASHINGTON, 1999-2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human infection with nontuberculous Mycobacteria spp. in King County, Washington, 1999 - 2002
    E Hilborn, T Covert, M Yakrus, G Stelma, M Schmitt
    1) US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Research Laboratory,...

  3. Modeling Human Exposure Risk to Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Central North Carolina

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a broad group of soil-and water-borne bacteria. Some species are pathogenic and may cause serious infections in the lungs, soft tissues, bones and skin. Infections in humans are associated with environmental exposures to contaminated soil, ae...

  4. Culture-Independent Detection of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Clinical Respiratory Samples

    PubMed Central

    Scoleri, Gianny P.; Choo, Jocelyn M.; Leong, Lex E. X.; Goddard, Thomas R.; Shephard, Lisa; Burr, Lucy D.; Bastian, Ivan; Thomson, Rachel M.

    2016-01-01

    Culture-based detection of nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) in respiratory samples is time consuming and can be subject to overgrowth by nonmycobacterial bacteria. We describe a single-reaction TaqMan quantitative PCR assay for the direct detection of NTM species in clinical samples that is specific, sensitive, and robust. PMID:27413194

  5. Environmental Risks for Nontuberculous Mycobacteria. Individual Exposures and Climatic Factors in the Cystic Fibrosis Population

    PubMed Central

    Adjemian, Jennifer; Fernandez, Aisling G.; Knowles, Michael R.; Olivier, Kenneth N.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Persons with cystic fibrosis are at high risk of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial infection, with a national prevalence estimated at 13%. The risk of nontuberculous mycobacteria associated with specific environmental exposures, and the correlation with climatic conditions in this population has not been described. Objectives: To describe the association of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria with individual exposures to water and soil aerosols, and the population associations of these infections with climatic factors. Methods: We conducted a nested case–control study within a cohort study of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria prevalence at 21 geographically diverse national cystic fibrosis centers. Incident nontuberculous mycobacterial infection cases (at least one prior negative culture followed by one positive culture) were age- and sex-matched to culture-negative controls. Exposures to water and soil were assessed by administering a standardized questionnaire. Cohort prevalence at each of the 21 centers was correlated with climatic conditions in the same area through linear regression modeling. Measurements and Main Results: Overall, 48 cases and 85 control subjects were enrolled. Indoor swimming was associated with incident infection (adjusted odds ratio, 5.9, 95% confidence interval, 1.3–26.1), although only nine cases (19%) and five control subjects (6%) reported indoor swimming in the 4 months prior to infection. Exposure to showering and municipal water supply was common among both cases and control subjects: 77% of cases and 76% of control subjects reported showering at least daily. In linear regression, average annual atmospheric water vapor content was significantly predictive of center prevalence (P = 0.0019), with R2 = 0.40. Conclusions: Atmospheric conditions explain more of the variation in disease prevalence than individual behaviors. The risk of specific exposures may vary by geographic region due to differences in

  6. Use of green fluorescent protein labeled non-tuberculous mycobacteria to evaluate the activity quaternary ammonium compound disinfectants and antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Cortesia, Claudia; Bello, Teresita; Lopez, Gustavo; Franzblau, Scott; de Waard, Jacobus; Takiff, Howard

    Although infections with NonTuberculous Mycobacteria have become less common in AIDS patients, they are important opportunistic infections after surgical procedures, likely because they are ubiquitous and not efficiently killed by many commonly used disinfectants. In Venezuela there have recently been many non-tuberculous mycobacteria soft tissue infections after minor surgical procedures, some apparently related to the use of a commercial disinfectant based on a Quaternary Ammonium Compound. We studied the activity of this and other quaternary ammonium compounds on different non-tuberculous mycobacteria by transforming the mycobacteria with a dnaA-gfp fusion and then monitoring fluorescence to gauge the capacity of different quaternary ammonium compounds to inhibit bacterial growth. The minimum inhibitory concentration varied for the different quaternary ammonium compounds, but M. chelonae and M. abscessus were consistently more resistant than M. smegmatis, and M. terrae more resistant than M. bovis BCG.

  7. Frequency of tuberculous and non-tuberculous mycobacteria in HIV infected patients from Bogota, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Murcia-Aranguren, Martha I; Gómez-Marin, Jorge E; Alvarado, Fernando S; Bustillo, José G; de Mendivelson, Ellen; Gómez, Bertha; León, Clara I; Triana, William A; Vargas, Erwing A; Rodríguez, Edgar

    2001-01-01

    Background The prevalence of infections by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species in the HIV-infected patient population in Colombia was uncertain despite some pilot studies. We determined the frequency of isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and of non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species in diverse body fluids of HIV-infected patients in Bogota, Colombia. Methods Patients who attended the three major HIV/AIDS healthcare centres in Bogota were prospectively studied over a six month period. A total of 286 patients were enrolled, 20% of them were hospitalized at some point during the study. Sixty four percent (64%) were classified as stage C, 25% as stage B, and 11% as stage A (CDC staging system, 1993). A total of 1,622 clinical samples (mostly paired samples of blood, sputum, stool, and urine) were processed for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) stain and culture. Results Overall 43 of 1,622 cultures (2.6%) were positive for mycobacteria. Twenty-two sputum samples were positive. Four patients were diagnosed with M. tuberculosis (1.4%). All isolates of M. tuberculosis were sensitive to common anti-tuberculous drugs. M. avium was isolated in thirteen patients (4.5%), but only in three of them the cultures originated from blood. The other isolates were obtained from stool, urine or sputum samples. In three cases, direct AFB smears of blood were positive. Two patients presented simultaneously with M. tuberculosis and M. avium. Conclusions Non-tuberculous Mycobacterium infections are frequent in HIV infected patients in Bogota. The diagnostic sensitivity for infection with tuberculous and non-tuberculous mycobacteria can be increased when diverse body fluids are processed from each patient. PMID:11722797

  8. Baby bottle steam sterilizers for disinfecting home nebulizers inoculated with non-tuberculous mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Towle, D; Callan, D A; Lamprea, C; Murray, T S

    2016-03-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTMb), present in environmental water sources, can contribute to respiratory infection in patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Contaminated nebulizers are a potential source of respiratory infection. Treatment with baby bottle steam sterilizers disinfects home nebulizers inoculated with bacterial pathogens but whether this method works for disinfection of NTMb is unclear. Baby bottle steam sterilization was compared with vigorous water washing for disinfecting home nebulizers inoculated with NTMb mixed with cystic fibrosis sputum. No NTMb was recovered from any nebulizers after steam treatment whereas viable NTMb grew after water washing, demonstrating that steam sterilization effectively disinfects NTMb-inoculated nebulizers.

  9. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria and microbial populations in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Briancesco, Rossella; Semproni, Maurizio; Della Libera, Simonetta; Sdanganelli, Massimo; Bonadonna, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    Data on the occurrence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), in parallel with those obtained for bacterial indicators and amoebae, are presented with the aim to collect information on the spread of NTM in drinking water distribution systems in Italy. Samples were collected from taps of hospitals and households in Central and Southern Italy. The concentration values obtained for the more traditional microbial parameters complied with the mandatory requirements for drinking water. Conversely, moderate-to-high microbial loads (till 300 CFU/L) were observed for the NTM. Positive samples were obtained from 62% of the investigated water samples. Analogous results were observed for amoebae showing a higher percentage of positive samples (76%). In terms of public health, the presence of mycobacteria in water distribution systems may represent a potential risk especially for vulnerable people such as children, the elderly or immunocompromised individuals.

  10. Detection of nontuberculous mycobacteria from water buffalo raw milk in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jordão Junior, C M; Lopes, F C M; David, S; Farache Filho, A; Leite, C Q F

    2009-09-01

    Milk is an important nutritional source to man and water buffalo raw milk is used to produce mozzarella cheese. Products from unpasteurized milk have been associated with certain infectious diseases and can carry pathogenic mycobacteria. Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are emerging pathogens causing opportunistic infections in humans and animals. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate the presence of mycobacteria in water buffaloes' milk and to determine their role as possible sources of NTM infections. In this study, raw milk samples from dairy water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) (N = 23) were decontaminated by Petroff method and inoculated on to Löwenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink medium. After confirming positive colonies for acid fast bacilli (AFB) by Ziehl-Neelsen technique, the isolated mycobacteria were identified by PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis (PRA) and mycolic acids analysis by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Mycobacterium simiae (2 isolates), Mycobacterium kansasii (2 isolates), Mycobacterium flavescens (2 isolates), Mycobacterium gordonae (3 isolates) and Mycobacterium lentiflavum (1 isolate) were identified by these techniques. The isolation of opportunistic pathogens such as M. kansasii, M. simiae and M. lentiflavum from raw milk represent a risk for the consumers of mozzarella cheese made by this milk.

  11. THE PERSISTENCE OF NONTUBERCULOUS MYCOBACTERIA INI A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM AFTER THE ADDITION OF FILTRATION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is evidence that drinking water may be a source of pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections in humans. One method by which NTM are believed to enter drinking water distribution systems is by their intracellular colonization of protozoa. Our goal was to determ...

  12. Application of a dual target PCR-high resolution melting (HRM) method for rapid nontuberculous mycobacteria identification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jonathan Hk; Cheng, Vincent Cc; She, Kevin Kk; Yam, Wing-Cheong; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2017-01-01

    Species differentiation of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has long been a difficult task in clinical laboratories. This study demonstrated and evaluated a simple and cost-effective method using the real-time PCR with high-resolution melting (PCR-HRM) analysis technique, which could differentiate at least 14 different medically related NTM.

  13. Hospital management of tuberculosis in a region with a low incidence of tuberculosis and a high prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Alexander, B D; Stout, J E; Reller, L B; Hamilton, C D

    2001-11-01

    We prospectively assessed the management of patients with suspected tuberculosis (TB) in an area with a high prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and a low incidence of TB. Clinicians' assessments were sensitive for TB but had poor predictive value. The acid-fast smear was a weak predictor of TB, owing to a high rate of isolation of NTM.

  14. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Isolation from Clinical and Environmental Samples in Iran: Twenty Years of Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Velayati, Ali Akbar; Farnia, Parissa; Mozafari, Mohadese; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are opportunistic pathogens that are widely distributed in the environment. There is a lack of data on species distribution of these organisms from Iran. This study consists of a review of NTM articles published in Iran between the years 1992 and 2014. In this review, 20 articles and 14 case reports were identified. Among the 20 articles, 13 (65%) studies focused on NTM isolates from clinical specimens, 6 (30%) studies examined NTM isolates from environmental samples, and one (5%) article included both clinical and environmental isolates. M. fortuitum (229/997; 23%) was recorded as the most prevalent and rapid growing mycobacteria (RGM) species in both clinical (28%) and environmental (19%) isolated samples (P < 0.05). Among slow growing mycobacteria (SGM), M. simiae (103/494; 21%) demonstrated a higher frequency in clinical samples whereas in environmental samples it was M. flavescens (44/503; 9%). These data represent information from 14 provinces out of 31 provinces of Iran. No information is available in current published data on clinical or environmental NTM from the remaining 17 provinces in Iran. These results emphasize the potential importance of NTM as well as the underestimation of NTM frequency in Iran. NTM is an important clinical problem associated with significant morbidity and mortality in Iran. Continued research is needed from both clinical and environmental sources to help clinicians and researchers better understand and address NTM treatment and prevention.

  15. The Heater Cooler as a Source of Infection from Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Stammers, Alfred H.; Riley, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Nosocomial infections acquired during the course of cardiac surgery and hospitalization can have devastating patient consequences. The source of these infections is often difficult to determine which complicates eradication efforts. Recently it has become apparent that the heater-cooler devices used in conjunction with cardiopulmonary bypass may become contaminated with bacteria that are normally found in hospital water sources. The culprit organisms are nontuberculous mycobacteria which coat the intrinsic surfaces found within the circuits of the heater-coolers. Aerosolization of the bacteria occurs during normal heater-cooler operation which can disperse the organisms throughout the operating room. The bacteria are slow-growing and may not present for months, or years, following exposure which makes epidemiological determination a challenge. The ensuing report summarizes a recent outbreak in these infections that have been reported both in Europe and the United States, along with efforts to reduce the risk for patient infection. PMID:27578894

  16. Incidence of tuberculous and non-tuberculous mycobacteria, differentiated by multiplex PCR, in clinical specimens of a large general hospital

    PubMed Central

    Bensi, Eliane Picoli Alves; Panunto, Patricia Costa; de Carvalho Ramos, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and non-tuberculous mycobacterial isolates in the routine setting of a large general hospital using an "in-house" multiplex polymerase chain reaction method and to establish a paradigm for the definitive identification of mycobacteria isolated using semi-automated equipment. METHODS: Established tests, including polymerase chain reaction restriction enzyme analysis, PNB, and NAP inhibition tests as the gold standard, showed 100% agreement with an IS6110/hsp65 multiplex polymerase chain reaction when used to identify stock strains (n = 117). RESULTS: In a subsequent study, 8,790 clinical specimens producing 476 isolates were evaluated with multiplex PCR and also showed 100% agreement in identification using PRA-polymerase chain reaction as the gold standard. The application of this technique to routine analysis was demonstrated in this study. A method was established with the initial application of multiplex PCR for all positive liquid cultures and the subsequent identification of non-tuberculous mycobacteria by polymerase chain reaction restriction enzyme analysis. In total, 77% of isolates belonged to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, and 23% were non-tuberculous mycobacteria. CONCLUSIONS: Several non-tuberculous mycobacterial species were identified, primarily M. avium, but other potentially pathogenic species were also frequently observed, including M. fortuitum, M. abscessus, and M. kansasii. The expeditious communication of these data to the clinical staff was fundamental for the diagnosis of clinical cases. Even in settings where tuberculosis is of major importance, the incidence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria infection is substantial. PMID:23525313

  17. Calcaneal Osteomyelitis due to Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Tae-Im; Choe, Yeo-Reum; Kim, Joo-Sup; Kwon, Kye-Won

    2016-01-01

    Osteomyelitis is a bone infection caused by bacteria or other germs. Gram-positive cocci are the most common etiological organisms of calcaneal osteomyelitis; whereas, non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are rarely documented. We reported a case of NTM calcaneal osteomyelitis in a 51-year-old female patient. She had been previously treated in many local clinics with multiple local steroid injection over 50 times and extracorporeal shock-wave therapy over 20 times with the impression of plantar fasciitis for 3 years prior. Diagnostic workup revealed a calcaneal osteomyelitis and polymerase chain reaction assay on bone aspirate specimens confirmed the diagnosis of non-tuberculous mycobacterial osteomyelitis. The patient had a partial calcanectomy with antitubercular therapy. Six months after surgery, a follow-up magnetic resonance imaging showed localized chronic osteomyelitis with abscess formation. We continued anti-tubercular therapy without operation. At 18-month follow-up after surgery and comprehensive rehabilitation therapy, she was ambulating normally and able to carry out her daily activities without any discomfort. PMID:26949685

  18. The geographic diversity of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from pulmonary samples: an NTM-NET collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Hoefsloot, Wouter; van Ingen, Jakko; Andrejak, Claire; Angeby, Kristian; Bauriaud, Rosine; Bemer, Pascale; Beylis, Natalie; Boeree, Martin J; Cacho, Juana; Chihota, Violet; Chimara, Erica; Churchyard, Gavin; Cias, Raquel; Daza, Rosa; Daley, Charles L; Dekhuijzen, P N Richard; Domingo, Diego; Drobniewski, Francis; Esteban, Jaime; Fauville-Dufaux, Maryse; Folkvardsen, Dorte Bek; Gibbons, Noel; Gómez-Mampaso, Enrique; Gonzalez, Rosa; Hoffmann, Harald; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Indra, Alexander; Jagielski, Tomasz; Jamieson, Frances; Jankovic, Mateja; Jong, Eefje; Keane, Joseph; Koh, Wo-Jung; Lange, Berit; Leao, Sylvia; Macedo, Rita; Mannsåker, Turid; Marras, Theodore K; Maugein, Jeannette; Milburn, Heather J; Mlinkó, Tamas; Morcillo, Nora; Morimoto, Kozo; Papaventsis, Dimitrios; Palenque, Elia; Paez-Peña, Mar; Piersimoni, Claudio; Polanová, Monika; Rastogi, Nalin; Richter, Elvira; Ruiz-Serrano, Maria Jesus; Silva, Anabela; da Silva, M Pedro; Simsek, Hulya; van Soolingen, Dick; Szabó, Nora; Thomson, Rachel; Tórtola Fernandez, Teresa; Tortoli, Enrico; Totten, Sarah E; Tyrrell, Greg; Vasankari, Tuula; Villar, Miguel; Walkiewicz, Renata; Winthrop, Kevin L; Wagner, Dirk

    2013-12-01

    A significant knowledge gap exists concerning the geographical distribution of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolation worldwide. To provide a snapshot of NTM species distribution, global partners in the NTM-Network European Trials Group (NET) framework (www.ntm-net.org), a branch of the Tuberculosis Network European Trials Group (TB-NET), provided identification results of the total number of patients in 2008 in whom NTM were isolated from pulmonary samples. From these data, we visualised the relative distribution of the different NTM found per continent and per country. We received species identification data for 20 182 patients, from 62 laboratories in 30 countries across six continents. 91 different NTM species were isolated. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteria predominated in most countries, followed by M. gordonae and M. xenopi. Important differences in geographical distribution of MAC species as well as M. xenopi, M. kansasii and rapid-growing mycobacteria were observed. This snapshot demonstrates that the species distribution among NTM isolates from pulmonary specimens in the year 2008 differed by continent and differed by country within these continents. These differences in species distribution may partly determine the frequency and manifestations of pulmonary NTM disease in each geographical location.

  19. Prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from environmental samples in Iran: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Khaledi, Azad; Bahador, Abbas; Esmaeili, Davood; Tafazoli, Alireza; Ghazvini, Kiarash; Mansury, Davood

    2016-01-01

    Background: While the most nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTMs) species are considered as opportunistic pathogens, some of them are related to several human infections. It is believed that environment is the main source for these infections. Distribution and scattering pattern of NTMs has not been well studied in Iran and a few studies about this subject have been done, so the aim of this study was to determine prevalence of NTMs in environmental samples from Iran. Materials and Methods: Data about prevalence of NTMs in environmental samples from Iran were obtained by searching databases. The studies presenting cross-sectional or cohort and the papers with sample size ≥30 were included. Then, the meta-analysis was performed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software and Cochran's Q and I2 tests. The strategy search was based PRISMA protocol is available online (PRISMA, http://www.prisma-statement.org). Results: The results of this meta-analysis showed that overall combined prevalence of NTMs in environmental samples from Iran was 38.3%. The frequency of NTM was higher in the north of Iran (73.2%). The most prevalent rapid-growing mycobacterium was Mycobacterium fortuitum (19.8%), and the most dominant slow-growing mycobacterium was Mycobacterium flavescens (16.8%). Conclusion: In regard to increasing incidence of disease in immunocompromised patients and existence of different types of mycobacteria species in environmental samples, efforts should be focused on measures that will specifically remove NTMs from habitats where susceptible individuals are exposed. PMID:27904603

  20. Prevalence of Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria in Hospital Waters of Major Cities of Khuzestan Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Azar Dokht; Hashemi Shahraki, Abdolrazagh; Hashemzadeh, Mohammad; Sheini Mehrabzadeh, Rasa; Teimoori, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are among the emerging pathogens in immunocompromised individuals including hospitalized patients. So, it is important to consider hospitals water supplies as a source for infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of NTM in the hospital aquatic systems of Khuzestan, South west of Iran. In total, 258 hospital water samples were collected and examined. After initial sample processing, sediment of each sample were inoculated into two Lowenstein-Jensen medium. The positive cultures were studied with phenotypic tests including growth rate, colony morphology, and pigmentation, with subsequent PCR- restriction enzyme analysis (PRA) and rpoB gene sequence analysis. Mycobacterial strains were isolated from 77 samples (29.8%), comprising 52 (70.1%) rapid growing, and 25 (32.4%) slow growing mycobacteria. Based on the overall results, M. fortuitum (44.1%) was the most common mycobacterial species in hospital water samples, followed by M. gordonae (n = 13, 16.8%) and M. senegalense (n = 5, 7.7%). In conclusion, current study demonstrated the NTM strains as one of the major parts of hospital water supplies with probable potential source for nosocomial infections. This finding also help to shed light on to the dynamics of the distribution and diversity of NTM in the water system of hospitals in the region of study. PMID:27148491

  1. Isolation of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria from the Environment of Ghanian Communities Where Buruli Ulcer Is Endemic

    PubMed Central

    Aboagye, Samuel Yaw; Danso, Emelia; Ampah, Kobina Assan; Nakobu, Zuliehatu; Asare, Prince; Otchere, Isaac Darko; Röltgen, Katharina; Yirenya-Tawiah, Dzidzo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to isolate nontuberculous mycobacterial species from environmental samples obtained from some selected communities in Ghana. To optimize decontamination, spiked environmental samples were used to evaluate four decontamination solutions and supplemented media, after which the best decontamination solution and media were used for the actual analysis. The isolates obtained were identified on the basis of specific genetic sequences, including heat shock protein 65, IS2404, IS2606, rpoB, and the ketoreductase gene, as needed. Among the methods evaluated, decontamination with 1 M NaOH followed by 5% oxalic acid gave the highest rate of recovery of mycobacteria (50.0%) and the lowest rate of contamination (15.6%). The cultivation medium that supported the highest rate of recovery of mycobacteria was polymyxin B-amphotericin B-nalidixic acid-trimethoprim-azlocillin–supplemented medium (34.4%), followed by isoniazid-supplemented medium (28.1%). Among the 139 samples cultivated in the main analysis, 58 (41.7%) yielded mycobacterial growth, 70 (50.4%) had no growth, and 11 (7.9%) had all inoculated tubes contaminated. A total of 25 different mycobacterial species were identified. Fifteen species (60%) were slowly growing (e.g., Mycobacterium ulcerans, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium mantenii, and Mycobacterium malmoense), and 10 (40%) were rapidly growing (e.g., Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Mycobacterium abscessus). The occurrence of mycobacterial species in the various environmental samples analyzed was as follows: soil, 16 species (43.2%); vegetation, 14 species (38.0%); water, 3 species (8.0%); moss, 2 species (5.4%); snail, 1 species (2.7%); fungi, 1 species (2.7%). This study is the first to report on the isolation of M. ulcerans and other medically relevant nontuberculous mycobacteria from different environmental sources in Ghana. IMPORTANCE Diseases caused by mycobacterial species other than those that cause

  2. Isolation of non-tuberculous mycobacteria from pastoral ecosystems of Uganda: Public Health significance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The importance of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections in humans and animals in sub-Saharan Africa at the human-environment-livestock-wildlife interface has recently received increased attention. NTM are environmental opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals. Recent studies in pastoral ecosystems of Uganda detected NTM in humans with cervical lymphadenitis and cattle with lesions compatible with bovine tuberculosis. However, little is known about the source of these mycobacteria in Uganda. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify NTM in the environment of pastoral communities in Uganda, as well as assess the potential risk factors and the public health significance of NTM in these ecosystems. Method A total of 310 samples (soil, water and faecal from cattle and pigs) were examined for mycobacteria. Isolates were identified by the INNO-Lipa test and by 16S rDNA sequencing. Additionally, a questionnaire survey involving 231 pastoralists was conducted during sample collection. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics followed by a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results Forty-eight isolates of NTM were detected; 25.3% of soil samples, 11.8% of water and 9.1% from animal faecal samples contained mycobacteria. Soils around water sources were the most contaminated with NTM (29.8%). Of these samples, M. fortuitum-peregrinum complex, M. avium complex, M. gordonae, and M. nonchromogenicum were the most frequently detected mycobacteria. Drinking untreated compared to treated water (OR = 33), use of valley dam versus stream water for drinking and other domestic use (OR = 20), sharing of water sources with wild primates compared to antelopes (OR = 4.6), sharing of water sources with domestic animals (OR = 5.3), and close contact with cattle or other domestic animals (OR = 13.8) were the most plausible risk factors for humans to come in contact with NTM in the environment. Conclusions The study detected a wide range of

  3. Utility of rpoB Gene Sequencing for Identification of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    de Zwaan, Rina; van Ingen, Jakko

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, clinical isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has increased over the past decade. Proper identification of isolates is important, as NTM species differ strongly in clinical relevance. Most of the currently applied identification methods cannot distinguish between all different Mycobacterium species and complexes within species. rpoB gene sequencing exhibits a promising level of discrimination among rapidly and slowly growing mycobacteria, including the Mycobacterium avium complex. In this study, we prospectively compared rpoB gene sequencing with our routine algorithm of reverse line blot identification combined with partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 455 NTM isolates. rpoB gene sequencing identified 403 isolates to species level as 45 different known species and identified 44 isolates to complex level, and eight isolates remained unidentifiable to species level. In contrast, our reference reverse line blot assay with adjunctive 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified 390 isolates to species level (30 distinct species) and identified 56 isolates to complex level, and nine isolates remained unidentified. The higher discriminatory power of rpoB gene sequencing results largely from the distinction of separate species within complexes and subspecies. Also, Mycobacterium gordonae, Mycobacterium kansasii, and Mycobacterium interjectum were separated into multiple groupings with relatively low sequence similarity (98 to 94%), suggesting that these are complexes of closely related species. We conclude that rpoB gene sequencing is a more discriminative identification technique than the combination of reverse line blot and 16S rRNA gene sequencing and could introduce a major improvement in clinical care of NTM disease and the research on the epidemiology and clinical relevance of NTM. PMID:24808238

  4. Profiling serum antibodies to Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins in rhesus monkeys with nontuberculous Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Min, Fangui; Pan, Jinchun; Wu, Ruike; Chen, Meiling; Kuang, Huiwen; Zhao, Weibo

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the prevalence of diseases caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been increasing in both human and animals. In this study, antibody profiles of NTM in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were determined and compared with those of monkeys infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Antibodies against 10 M. tuberculosis proteins, purified protein derivative (PPD), and mammalian old tuberculin (MOT) were detected in 14 monkeys naturally infected with NTM by indirect ELISA. Sera from 10 monkeys infected with MTBC and 10 healthy monkeys were set as controls. All antigens showed high serological reactivities to MTBC infections and low reactivities in healthy monkeys. NTM infections showed strong antibody responses to MOT and PPD; moderate antibody responses to 16kDa, U1, MPT64L, 14kDa, and TB16.3; and low antibody responses to 38kDa, Ag85b, CFP10, ESAT-6, and CFP10-ESAT-6. According to the criteria of MTBC, only CFP10, ESAT-6, and CFP10-ESAT-6 showed negative antibody responses in all NTM infections. Taken together, these results suggest that positive results of a PPD/MOT-based ELISA in combination with results of antibodies to M. tuberculosis-specific antigens, such as CFP10 and ESAT-6, could discriminate NTM and MTBC infections. Two positive results indicate an MTBC infection, and a negative result for an M. tuberculosis-specific antigen may preliminarily predict an NTM infection.

  5. Clinical Significance of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Isolated From Respiratory Specimens in a Chinese Tuberculosis Tertiary Care Center

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Hongfei; Han, Xiqin; Wang, Qingfeng; Wang, Jing; Wang, Jun; Chu, Naihui; Huang, Hairong

    2016-01-01

    The clinical relevance of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been reported to be different dramatically by species or by regions, however, no such evaluation has been performed in China.A retrospective study was performed in Beijing Chest Hospital. All the NTM strains isolated from respiratory specimens in the past 5 years, and patients’ clinical records (symptoms and radiographic information etc.) were investigated. The clinical relevance was evaluated according to the criteria recommended by the American Thoracic society. Totally 232 NTM strains were recruited, among them, M. intracellulare was the dominant species (40.5%), followed by M. abscessus (28.4%). 109 patients, with 185 total isolates, had full clinical records available for review. 84.4% (38/45), 85.7% (24/28%) and 63.6% (7/11) of patients with isolation of M. intracellulare, M. abscessus and M. kansasii, respectively, were categorized as definite NTM disease. Whereas all the 10 patients with isolation of M. gordonae were defined as unlikely NTM disease. The majority of NTMs isolates yielded from respiratory specimens in Beijing Chest Hospital were clinically significant, and M. intracellulare and M. abscessus was the dominated species of NTM lung disease. NTM lung infections demonstrated some specific chest radiograph characteristics. PMID:27808247

  6. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Household Plumbing as Possible Cause of Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Thurlow, Jennifer; McNulty, Steven; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A.; Wallace, Richard J.; Falkinham, Joseph O.

    2012-01-01

    Symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) often persist despite treatment. Because nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are resistant to commonly used antimicrobial drugs and are found in drinking water that patients may use for sinus irrigation, we investigated whether some CRS patients were infected with NTM in New York, New York, USA, during 2001–2011. Two approaches were chosen: 1) records of NTM-infected CRS patients were reviewed to identify common features of infection and Mycobacterium species; 2) samples from plumbing in households of 8 NTM-infected patients were cultured for NTM presence. In 3 households sampled, M. avium sharing rep-PCR and pulsed field gel electrophoresis fingerprints identified M. avium isolates clonally related to the patients’ isolates. We conclude that patients with treatment-resistant CRS may be infected with NTM and should have cultures performed for NTM so appropriate therapy can be instituted. In addition, the results suggest that CRS patients can be infected by NTM in their household plumbing. PMID:23017381

  7. Multicenter Study of Prevalence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis in France ▿

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Anne-Laure; Catherinot, Emilie; Ripoll, Fabienne; Soismier, Nathalie; Macheras, Edouard; Ravilly, Sophie; Bellis, Gil; Vibet, Marie-Anne; Le Roux, Evelyne; Lemonnier, Lydie; Gutierrez, Cristina; Vincent, Véronique; Fauroux, Brigitte; Rottman, Martin; Guillemot, Didier; Gaillard, Jean-Louis

    2009-01-01

    We performed a multicenter prevalence study of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) involving 1,582 patients (mean age, 18.9 years; male/female ratio, 1.06) with cystic fibrosis in France. The overall NTM prevalence (percentage of patients with at least one positive culture) was 6.6% (104/1,582 patients), with prevalences ranging from 3.7% (in the east of France) to 9.6% (in the greater Paris area). Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABSC; 50 patients) and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC; 23 patients) species were the most common NTM, and the only ones associated with fulfillment of the American Thoracic Society bacteriological criteria for NTM lung disease. The “new” species, Mycobacterium bolletii and Mycobacterium massiliense, accounted for 40% of MABSC isolates. MABSC species were isolated at all ages, with a prevalence peak between 11 and 15 years of age (5.8%), while MAC species reached their highest prevalence value among patients over 25 years of age (2.2%). PMID:19846643

  8. Epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacteria among patients with cystic fibrosis in Scandinavia

    PubMed Central

    Qvist, Tavs; Gilljam, Marita; Jönsson, Bodil; Taylor-Robinson, David; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Wang, Mikala; Svahn, Anita; Kötz, Karsten; Hansson, Lennart; Hollsing, Annika; Hansen, Christine R.; Finstad, Pål L.; Pressler, Tania; Høiby, Niels; Katzenstein, Terese L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are an emerging threat to cystic fibrosis (CF) patients but their epidemiology is not well described. Methods In this retrospective observational study we identified all Scandinavian CF patients with a positive NTM culture from airway secretions from 2000 to the end of 2012 and used national CF databases to describe microbiological and clinical characteristics. Results During the 13-year period 157 (11%) CF patients were culture positive for NTM at least once. Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABSC) (45%) and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (32%) were the predominant species with geographical differences in distribution. Younger patients were more prone to MABSC (p < 0.01). Despite treatment, less than one-third of MABSC patients with repeated positive cultures cleared their infection and a quarter had a lung transplant or died. Conclusion NTM are significant CF pathogens and are becoming more prevalent in Scandinavia. MABSC and MAC appear to target distinct patient groups. Having multiple positive cultures despite treatment conveys a poor outcome. PMID:25178871

  9. Profiling serum antibodies to Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins in rhesus monkeys with nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Min, Fangui; Pan, Jinchun; Wu, Ruike; Chen, Meiling; Kuang, Huiwen; Zhao, Weibo

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the prevalence of diseases caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been increasing in both human and animals. In this study, antibody profiles of NTM in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were determined and compared with those of monkeys infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Antibodies against 10 M. tuberculosis proteins, purified protein derivative (PPD), and mammalian old tuberculin (MOT) were detected in 14 monkeys naturally infected with NTM by indirect ELISA. Sera from 10 monkeys infected with MTBC and 10 healthy monkeys were set as controls. All antigens showed high serological reactivities to MTBC infections and low reactivities in healthy monkeys. NTM infections showed strong antibody responses to MOT and PPD; moderate antibody responses to 16kDa, U1, MPT64L, 14kDa, and TB16.3; and low antibody responses to 38kDa, Ag85b, CFP10, ESAT-6, and CFP10-ESAT-6. According to the criteria of MTBC, only CFP10, ESAT-6, and CFP10-ESAT-6 showed negative antibody responses in all NTM infections. Taken together, these results suggest that positive results of a PPD/MOT-based ELISA in combination with results of antibodies to M. tuberculosis-specific antigens, such as CFP10 and ESAT-6, could discriminate NTM and MTBC infections. Two positive results indicate an MTBC infection, and a negative result for an M. tuberculosis-specific antigen may preliminarily predict an NTM infection. PMID:26437786

  10. Culture-Independent Identification of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Cystic Fibrosis Respiratory Samples

    PubMed Central

    Caverly, Lindsay J.; Carmody, Lisa A.; Haig, Sarah-Jane; Kotlarz, Nadine; Kalikin, Linda M.; Raskin, Lutgarde; LiPuma, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are increasing in prevalence and are a significant cause of lung function decline in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). NTM have been detected in culture-independent analyses of CF airway microbiota at lower rates than would be expected based on published prevalence data, likely due to poor lysing of the NTM cell wall during DNA extraction. We compared a standard bacterial lysis protocol with a modified method by measuring NTM DNA extraction by qPCR and NTM detection with bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The modified method improved NTM DNA recovery from spiked CF sputum samples by a mean of 0.53 log10 copies/mL for M. abscessus complex and by a mean of 0.43 log10 copies/mL for M. avium complex as measured by qPCR targeting the atpE gene. The modified method also improved DNA sequence based NTM detection in NTM culture-positive CF sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage samples; however, both qPCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing remained less sensitive than culture for NTM detection. We highlight the limitations of culture-independent identification of NTM from CF respiratory samples, and illustrate how alterations in the bacterial lysis and DNA extraction process can be employed to improve NTM detection with both qPCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. PMID:27093603

  11. Identification of Species of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Clinical Isolates from 8 Provinces of China

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Lulu; Jiang, Yi; Huang, Mingxiang; Tan, Yunhong; Zhang, Jingrui; Yu, Qin; Liu, Jiao; Dong, Haiyan; Lu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary diseases caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are increasing in incidence and prevalence worldwide. In this study, we identified NTM species of the clinical isolates from 8 provinces in China, in order to preliminarily provide some basic scientific data in the different species and distribution of NTM related to pulmonary disease in China. A total of 523 clinical isolates from patients with tuberculosis (TB) diagnosed clinically from 2005 to 2012 were identified to the species using conventional and molecular methods, including multilocus PCR, rpoB and hsp65 PCR-PRA, hsp65, rpoB, and 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region sequencing. The isolates were identified into 3 bacterium genera, including NTM, Gordonia bronchialis, and Nocardia farcinica, and, for the 488 NTM isolates, 27 species were identified. For all the 27 species of NTM which were found to cause pulmonary infections in humans, the most prevalent species was M. intracellulare, followed by M. avium and M. abscessus. And seven other species were for the first time identified in patients with TB in China. NTM species identification is very important for distinguishing between tuberculosis and NTM pulmonary diseases, and the species diversity drives the creation of diverse and integrated identification methods with higher accuracy and efficacy. PMID:27882322

  12. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria on Ready-to-Eat, Raw and Frozen Fruits and Vegetables.

    PubMed

    Dziedzinska, Radka; Makovcova, Jitka; Kaevska, Marija; Slany, Michal; Babak, Vladimir; Moravkova, Monika

    2016-08-01

    The consumption of fruits and vegetables is increasing worldwide because of the positive impact of these foods on human health. Ready-to-eat, raw whole, and frozen fruits and vegetables were purchased from markets and examined for the presence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) using culture, real-time PCR (qPCR), and sequencing. Using qPCR, Mycobacterium sp. at 10(0) to 10(4) ge/g (genome equivalents per gram) was found in almost all of the 178 samples; members of the M. avium complex were found only sporadically. Culture and sequencing revealed the presence of 22 viable NTM isolates in 17 samples. In addition to NTM commonly found in the environment, several rarely described isolates of viable NTM were recovered. The presence of Mycobacterium shigaense, which has been previously isolated only from human patients, was found in lettuce, the first time that this species has been found in an environmental sample. Mycobacterium parmense, Mycobacterium palustre, and Mycobacterium llatzerense, which have been previously isolated from human patients and occasionally from soil and water, were recovered from leafy green vegetables. Strawberries and cut salad mixes contained Mycobacterium algericum, Mycobacterium fallax, and Mycobacterium minnesotense. NTM are primarily nonpathogenic. However, consumption of fruits or vegetables contaminated with NTM could represent a health risk for immunocompromised people, children, and the elderly.

  13. Identification of Species of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Clinical Isolates from 8 Provinces of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haican; Lian, Lulu; Jiang, Yi; Huang, Mingxiang; Tan, Yunhong; Zhao, Xiuqin; Zhang, Jingrui; Yu, Qin; Liu, Jiao; Dong, Haiyan; Lu, Bing; Wu, Yimou; Wan, Kanglin

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary diseases caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are increasing in incidence and prevalence worldwide. In this study, we identified NTM species of the clinical isolates from 8 provinces in China, in order to preliminarily provide some basic scientific data in the different species and distribution of NTM related to pulmonary disease in China. A total of 523 clinical isolates from patients with tuberculosis (TB) diagnosed clinically from 2005 to 2012 were identified to the species using conventional and molecular methods, including multilocus PCR, rpoB and hsp65 PCR-PRA, hsp65, rpoB, and 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region sequencing. The isolates were identified into 3 bacterium genera, including NTM, Gordonia bronchialis, and Nocardia farcinica, and, for the 488 NTM isolates, 27 species were identified. For all the 27 species of NTM which were found to cause pulmonary infections in humans, the most prevalent species was M. intracellulare, followed by M. avium and M. abscessus. And seven other species were for the first time identified in patients with TB in China. NTM species identification is very important for distinguishing between tuberculosis and NTM pulmonary diseases, and the species diversity drives the creation of diverse and integrated identification methods with higher accuracy and efficacy.

  14. Chronic suppurative otitis media due to nontuberculous mycobacteria: A case of successful treatment with topical boric acid.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Marie-Astrid; Quach, Caroline; Daniel, Sam J

    2015-07-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are an increasingly recognized cause of chronic suppurative otitis media in children with tympanostomy tubes. Treatment of this condition is difficult and typically requires a combination of systemic antibiotics and surgical debridement. We present the first case of a 2-year-old male with chronic suppurative otitis media due to NTM who failed systemic antibiotic therapy and was successfully managed with topical boric acid powder. This report highlights the challenges involved in treating this infection, and introduces boric acid as a potentially valuable component of therapy.

  15. Public health relevance of non-tuberculous mycobacteria among AFB positive sputa

    PubMed Central

    Desikan, Prabha; Tiwari, Karuna; Panwalkar, Nikita; Khaliq, Saima; Chourey, Manju; Varathe, Reeta; Mirza, Shaina Beg; Sharma, Arun; Anand, Sridhar; Pandey, Manoj

    2017-01-01

    Background Sputum smear microscopy for acid fast bacilli (AFB) is used by most public health programmes to detect tuberculosis. While most AFB in countries endemic for tuberculosis are Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), some may also be non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The inability to differentiate NTM from MTB by sputum smear microscopy may lead to erroneous diagnoses of tuberculosis, leading in turn to inappropriate therapy. Methods This was a retrospective study of consecutive sputum samples received from November 2013 to March 2015 in the Department of Microbiology, Bhopal Memorial Hospital & Research Centre, Bhopal, India. Samples underwent smear microscopy, line probe assay (LPA) for MTB complex, culture, biochemical tests and LPA for NTM. Results Of 4095 sputum samples, 2886 were AFB smear positive (70.5%). Of these, MTB complex was detected in 2611 (90.5%) samples by LPA. Of the remaining 275 samples, 47 grew AFB on culture. Nine strains belonged to the MTB complex. The remaining 38 (1.3%) were NTM, and could be speciated in 26 strains; 14 (53.8 %) were M. abscessus; 10 (38.4%) M. intracellulare, one (3.8%) M. kansasii and one (3.8%) M. fortuitum. The remaining 12 NTM could not be speciated. Conclusion NTM were present in at least 1.3% of all smear positive samples. It is important for public health programs to recognize the avoidable burden on logistics, infrastructure and finances caused by this. Detection and quantification of this burden would help design an appropriate strategy for optimal tuberculosis control. PMID:28331837

  16. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria in children: muddying the waters of tuberculosis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    López-Varela, Elisa; García-Basteiro, Alberto L; Santiago, Begoña; Wagner, Dirk; van Ingen, Jakko; Kampmann, Beate

    2015-03-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a large family of acid-fast bacteria, widespread in the environment. In children, NTM cause lymphadenitis, skin and soft tissue infections, and occasionally also lung disease and disseminated infections. These manifestations can be indistinguishable from tuberculosis on the basis of clinical and radiological findings and tuberculin skin testing. A diagnostic and therapeutic problem for respiratory physicians and other clinicians is therefore evident, particularly in settings where childhood tuberculosis is common, and bacteriological confirmation of any mycobacterial disease is difficult because of low availability of laboratory services in low-resource settings and the inherent paucibacillary nature of mycobacterial disease in childhood. The epidemiology of NTM varies by world region, and attempts to understand the burden of NTM disease and to identify risk factors in the paediatric population are hampered by inadequate mandatory NTM reporting and the overlap of clinical presentation with tuberculosis. The immune response to both NTM and Mycobacterium tuberculosis is based on cellular immunity and relies on the type-1 cytokine pathway. The disruption of this immune response by genetic or acquired mechanisms, such as mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease or HIV, might result in predisposition to mycobacterial infections. Published diagnostic and management guidelines do not provide specific advice for diagnosis of NTM in children, from whom the quantity and quality of diagnostic samples are often suboptimum. Treatment of NTM infections is very different from the treatment of tuberculosis, depends on the strain and anatomical site of infection, and often involves antibiotic combinations, surgery, or both. In this Review, we summarise the epidemiological and clinical features of NTM infection in children, with a specific focus on the implications for public health in settings with a high endemic burden of childhood

  17. High Rates of Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria Isolation in Mozambican Children with Presumptive Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    López-Varela, Elisa; L. García-Basteiro, Alberto; Augusto, Orvalho J.; Fraile, Oscar; Bulo, Helder; Ira, Tasmiya; Gondo, Kizito; van Ingen, Jakko; Naniche, Denise; Sacarlal, Jahit; Alonso, Pedro L.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) can cause disease which can be clinically and radiologically undistinguishable from tuberculosis (TB), posing a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in high TB settings. We aim to describe the prevalence of NTM isolation and its clinical characteristics in children from rural Mozambique. Methods This study was part of a community TB incidence study in children <3 years of age. Gastric aspirate and induced sputum sampling were performed in all presumptive TB cases and processed for smear testing using fluorochrome staining and LED Microscopy, liquid and solid culture, and molecular identification by GenoType® Mycobacterium CM/AS assays. Results NTM were isolated in 26.3% (204/775) of children. The most prevalent NTM species was M. intracellulare (N = 128), followed by M. scrofulaceum (N = 35) and M. fortuitum (N = 9). Children with NTM were significantly less symptomatic and less likely to present with an abnormal chest radiograph than those with M. tuberculosis. NTM were present in 21.6% of follow-up samples and 25 children had the same species isolated from ≥2 separate samples. All were considered clinically insignificant and none received specific treatment. Children with NTM isolates had equal all cause mortality and likelihood of TB treatment as those with negative culture although they were less likely to have TB ruled out. Conclusions NTM isolation is frequent in presumptive TB cases but was not clinically significant in this patient cohort. However, it can contribute to TB misdiagnosis. Further studies are needed to understand the epidemiology and the clinical significance of NTM in children. PMID:28095429

  18. Inventory study of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Since non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease is not notifiable in most European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) countries, the epidemiological situation of the >150 NTM species is largely unknown. We aimed to collect data on the frequency of NTM detection and NTM species types in EU/EEA countries. Methods Officially nominated national tuberculosis reference laboratories of all EU/EEA countries were asked to provide information on: laboratory routines for detection and identification of NTM, including drug sensitivity testing (DST) methods; data on the number and type of NTM species identified; coverage and completeness of the provided data on NTM; type and number of human specimens tested for NTM; and number of specimens tested for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and NTM. This information was summarized and the main results are described. Results In total, 99 different NTM species were identified with M. avium, M. gordonae, M. xenopi , M. intracellulare, and M. fortuitum identified most frequently. Seven percent of the NTM species could not be identified. NTM was cultured from between 0.4-2.0% of the specimens (data from four countries). The laboratories use culturing methods optimised for M. tuberculosis complex. Identification is mainly carried out by a commercial line probe assay supplemented with sequencing. Most laboratories carried out DST for rapid growers and only at the explicit clinical request for slow growers. Conclusion It is likely that the prevalence of NTM is underestimated because diagnostic procedures are not optimized specifically for NTM and isolates may not be referred to the national reference laboratory for identification. Due to the diagnostic challenges and the need to establish the clinical relevance of NTM, we recommend that countries should concentrate detection and identification in only few laboratories. PMID:24502462

  19. Fragment-Based Whole Cell Screen Delivers Hits against M. tuberculosis and Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Wilfried; Lim, Jia Jie; Yeo, Si Ying; Ramanujulu, Pondy M; Dymock, Brian W; Dick, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Reactive multi-target 'fragment drugs' represent critical components of current tuberculosis regimens. These compounds, such as pyrazinamide, are old synthetic antimycobacterials that are activated inside Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli and are smaller than the usual drug-like, single-target molecules. Based on the success of small 'dirty' drugs in the chemotherapy of tuberculosis, we suggested previously that fragment-based whole cell screens should be introduced in our current antimycobacterial drug discovery efforts. Here, we carried out such a screen and characterized bactericidal activity, selectivity and spectrum of hits we obtained. A library of 1725 fragments was tested at a single concentration for growth inhibitory activity against M. bovis BCG as screening strain and 38 of 116 primary hits were confirmed in dose response analyses to be active against virulent M. tuberculosis. Bacterial kill experiments showed that most hits displayed bactericidal activity at their minimal inhibitory concentration. Cytotoxicity assays established that a large proportion of hits displayed a favorable selectivity index for mammalian cells. Importantly, one third of M. tuberculosis active fragments were also active against M. abscessus and M. avium, two emerging non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pathogens, opening the opportunity to develop broad spectrum antimycobacterials. Activity determination against Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria, as well as fungi (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans) showed only a small overlap indicating a generally narrow spectrum of these novel antimicrobial hits for mycobacteria. In conclusion, we carried out the first fragment-based whole cell screen against bacteria and identified a substantial number of hits with excellent physicochemical properties and dual activity against M. tuberculosis and NTM pathogens

  20. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Fungi, and Opportunistic Pathogens in Unchlorinated Drinking Water in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    van der Kooij, Dick

    2013-01-01

    The multiplication of opportunistic pathogens in drinking water supplies might pose a threat to public health. In this study, distributed unchlorinated drinking water from eight treatment plants in the Netherlands was sampled and analyzed for fungi, nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), and several opportunistic pathogens by using selective quantitative PCR methods. Fungi and NTM were detected in all drinking water samples, whereas Legionella pneumophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Aspergillus fumigatus were sporadically observed. Mycobacterium avium complex and Acanthamoeba spp. were not detected. Season had no influence on the occurrence of these organisms, except for NTM and S. maltophilia, which were present in higher numbers in the summer. Opportunistic pathogens were more often observed in premise plumbing water samples than in samples from the distribution system. The lowest number of these organisms was observed in the finished water at the plant. Thus, fungi, NTM, and some of the studied opportunistic pathogens can multiply in the distribution and premise plumbing systems. Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and/or total organic carbon (TOC) had no clear effects on fungal and NTM numbers or on P. aeruginosa- and S. maltophilia-positive samples. However, L. pneumophila was detected more often in water with AOC concentrations above 10 μg C liter−1 than in water with AOC levels below 5 μg C liter−1. Finally, samples that contained L. pneumophila, P. aeruginosa, or S. maltophilia were more frequently positive for a second opportunistic pathogen, which shows that certain drinking water types and/or sampling locations promote the growth of multiple opportunistic pathogens. PMID:23160134

  1. Nontuberculous mycobacteria, fungi, and opportunistic pathogens in unchlorinated drinking water in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van der Wielen, Paul W J J; van der Kooij, Dick

    2013-02-01

    The multiplication of opportunistic pathogens in drinking water supplies might pose a threat to public health. In this study, distributed unchlorinated drinking water from eight treatment plants in the Netherlands was sampled and analyzed for fungi, nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), and several opportunistic pathogens by using selective quantitative PCR methods. Fungi and NTM were detected in all drinking water samples, whereas Legionella pneumophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Aspergillus fumigatus were sporadically observed. Mycobacterium avium complex and Acanthamoeba spp. were not detected. Season had no influence on the occurrence of these organisms, except for NTM and S. maltophilia, which were present in higher numbers in the summer. Opportunistic pathogens were more often observed in premise plumbing water samples than in samples from the distribution system. The lowest number of these organisms was observed in the finished water at the plant. Thus, fungi, NTM, and some of the studied opportunistic pathogens can multiply in the distribution and premise plumbing systems. Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and/or total organic carbon (TOC) had no clear effects on fungal and NTM numbers or on P. aeruginosa- and S. maltophilia-positive samples. However, L. pneumophila was detected more often in water with AOC concentrations above 10 μg C liter(-1) than in water with AOC levels below 5 μg C liter(-1). Finally, samples that contained L. pneumophila, P. aeruginosa, or S. maltophilia were more frequently positive for a second opportunistic pathogen, which shows that certain drinking water types and/or sampling locations promote the growth of multiple opportunistic pathogens.

  2. Isolation of Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria in Children Investigated for Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Hatherill, Mark; Hawkridge, Tony; Whitelaw, Andrew; Tameris, Michele; Mahomed, Hassan; Moyo, Sizulu; Hanekom, Willem; Hussey, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the frequency and clinical significance of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolates among children investigated for pulmonary tuberculosis in a rural South African community. Methods Children were investigated for pulmonary tuberculosis as part of a tuberculosis vaccine surveillance program (2001–2005). The clinical features of children in whom NTM were isolated, from induced sputum or gastric lavage, were compared to those with culture-proven M. tuberculosis. Results Mycobacterial culture demonstrated 114 NTM isolates from 109 of the 1,732 children investigated, a crude yield of 6% (95% CI 5–7). The comparative yield of positive NTM cultures from gastric lavage was 40% (95% CI 31–50), compared to 67% (95% CI 58–76) from induced sputum. 95% of children with NTM isolates were symptomatic. Two children were HIV-infected. By contrast, M. tuberculosis was isolated in 187 children, a crude yield of 11% (95% CI 9–12). Compared to those with culture-proven M. tuberculosis, children with NTM isolates were less likely to demonstrate acid-fast bacilli on direct smear microscopy (OR 0.19; 95% 0.0–0.76). Children with NTM were older (p<0.0001), and more likely to demonstrate constitutional symptoms (p = 0.001), including fever (p = 0.003) and loss of weight or failure to gain weight (p = 0.04), but less likely to demonstrate a strongly positive tuberculin skin test (p<0.0001) or radiological features consistent with pulmonary tuberculosis (p = 0.04). Discussion NTM were isolated in 6% of all children investigated for pulmonary tuberculosis and in more than one third of those with a positive mycobacterial culture. NTM may complicate the diagnosis of PTB in regions that lack capacity for mycobacterial species identification. The association of NTM isolates with constitutional symptoms suggestive of host recognition requires further investigation. PMID:17183648

  3. Concurrent Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infection and High-Grade Anterior Mediastinal Extraskeletal Osteosarcoma (ESOS): Is There a Connection?

    PubMed Central

    Faz, Gabriel T.; Eltorky, Mahmoud; Karnath, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 59 Final Diagnosis: High-grade anterior mediastinal extraskeletal osteosarcoma Symptoms: Dyspnea • hemoptysis Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Biopsy Specialty: Oncology Objective: Rare disease Background: Extraskeletal osteosarcomas (ESOS) of the mediastinum are extremely rare and may present with concurrent nontuberculous mycobacteria infection. Case Report: We present the second documented case of high-grade anterior mediastinal extraskeletal osteosarcoma in a 59-year-old man with a history of treated, latent tuberculosis (TB). Sputum samples grew Mycoplasma avium complex and Mycobacterium fortuitum. Imaging showed a right-sided 7.6 cm mass with compression of the main bronchus. Subsequent biopsy with vimentin staining established the diagnosis of ESOS. Due to the patient’s rapidly declining performance status, he was not deemed a candidate for surgery or chemotherapy. He subsequently expired within one month of presentation. Conclusions: We present a unique case of high-grade anterior mediastinum ESOS and a review of the literature regarding all documented cases of ESOS to date. We suggest there is a possible link between mediastinal masses and nontuberculous mycobacteria infection. PMID:27539718

  4. Emergence of Rare Species of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria as Potential Pathogens in Saudi Arabian Clinical Setting

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Bright; Enani, Mushira; Shoukri, Mohammed; AlThawadi, Sahar; AlJohani, Sameera; Al- Hajoj, Sahal

    2017-01-01

    Background Clinical relevance of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is increasing worldwide including in Saudi Arabia. A high species diversity of NTM’s has been noticed in a recent study. However, the identification in diagnostic laboratories is mostly limited to common species. The impact of NTM species diversity on clinical outcome is so far neglected in most of the clinical settings. Methodology/Principal Findings During April 2014 to September 2015, a nationwide collection of suspected NTM clinical isolates with clinical and demographical data were carried out. Primary identification was performed by commercial line probe assays. Isolates identified up to Mycobacterium species level by line probe assays only were included and subjected to sequencing of 16S rRNA, rpoB, hsp65 and 16S-23S ITS region genes. The sequence data were subjected to BLAST analysis in GenBank and Ez-Taxon databases. Male Saudi nationals were dominated in the study population and falling majorly into the 46–59 years age group. Pulmonary cases were 59.3% with a surprising clinical relevance of 75% based on American Thoracic Society guidelines. Among the 40.7% extra-pulmonary cases, 50% of them were skin infections. The identification revealed 16 species and all of them are reporting for the first time in Saudi Arabia. The major species obtained were Mycobacterium monascence (18.5%), M. cosmeticum (11.1%), M. kubicae (11.1%), M. duvalli (7.4%), M.terrae (7.4%) and M. triplex (7.4%). This is the first report on clinical relevance of M. kubicae, M. tusciae, M.yongonense, M. arupense and M.iranicum causing pulmonary disease and M. monascence, M. duvalli, M. perigrinum, M. insubricum, M. holsaticum and M. kyorinense causing various extra-pulmonary diseases in Saudi Arabia. Ascites caused by M. monascence and cecum infection by M. holsaticum were the rarest incidents. Conclusions/Significance To the first time in the country, clinical significance of various rare NTM’s are well explored and

  5. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF NONTUBERCULOUS MYCOBACTERIA FROM FOODS AS POSSIBLE EXPOSURE SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of foods collected from local supermarkets and produce stands were examined as possible sources of nontuberculous mycobacterial exposure. Food samples were combined with sterile ultrapure water and manually shaken. To remove large particles, the suspensions were filtere...

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility and MIC distribution of 41 drugs against clinical isolates from China and reference strains of nontuberculous mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Li, Guilian; Pang, Hui; Guo, Qian; Huang, Mingxiang; Tan, Yanhong; Li, Chao; Wei, Jianhao; Xia, Yuanzhi; Jiang, Yi; Zhao, Xiuqin; Liu, Haican; Zhao, Li-Li; Liu, Zhiguang; Xu, Donglei; Wan, Kanglin

    2017-03-01

    To treat nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections more optimally, further research pertaining to mycobacterial susceptibility to antimicrobial agents is required. A total of 82 species of NTM reference strains and 23 species of NTM clinical isolates were included. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for 41 drugs were determined using the microdilution method in cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth. The results showed that most of the NTM were susceptible to aminoglycosides, quinolones, three macrolides (clarithromycin, azithromycin and roxithromycin), cefmetazole, linezolid and capreomycin. Rapidly growing mycobacterium strains were additionally susceptible to cefoxitin, clofazimine, rifapentine, doxycycline, minocycline, tigecycline, meropenem and sulfamethoxazole, whereas slowly growing mycobacterium strains were additionally susceptible to rifabutin. This study on the susceptibility of NTM includes the largest sample size of Chinese clinical isolates and reference strains. NTM species-specific drug susceptibility patterns suggested that it is urgent to identify the species of NTM, to normalise the treatment of NTM infectious disease and to clarify the resistance mechanisms of NTM.

  7. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Fails To Identify Nontuberculous Mycobacteria from Primary Cultures of Respiratory Samples

    PubMed Central

    van Eck, Kim; Faro, Dirk; Wattenberg, Melanie; de Jong, Arjan; Kuipers, Saskia

    2016-01-01

    We have assessed matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identification (Bruker) of nontuberculous mycobacteria from newly positive liquid cultures of respiratory samples. Twelve (22%) of 54 isolates were identified directly from liquid medium. After subculture and with manual laser operation, this rose to 49/54 isolates (91%). MALDI-TOF MS is less promising than previously suggested. PMID:27147723

  8. Bath water contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria in 24-hour home baths, hot springs, and public bathhouses of Nagano Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michiko; Oana, Kozue; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Bath water samples were collected from 116 hot springs, 197 public bathhouses, and 38 24-hour home baths in Nagano Prefecture, Japan, during the period of April 2009 to November 2011, for determining the presence and extent of contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Cultures positive for Legionella were observed in 123 of the 3,314 bath water samples examined. The distribution and abundance of Legionella and/or combined contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria were investigated to clarify the contamination levels. The abundance of Legionella was demonstrated to correlate considerably with the levels of combined contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Legionella spp. were obtained from 61% of the water samples from 24-hour home baths, but only from 3% of the samples from public bathhouses and hot springs. This is despite the fact that a few outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in Nagano Prefecture as well as other regions of Japan have been traced to bath water contamination. The comparatively higher rate of contamination of the 24-hour home baths is a matter of concern. It is therefore advisable to routinely implement good maintenance of the water basins, particularly of the 24-hour home baths.

  9. Structural analysis of biofilm formation by rapidly and slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) such as M. abscessus, M. mucogenicum, M. chelonae and M. fortuitum, implicated in healthcare-associated infections, are often isolated from potable water supplies as part of the microbial flora. To understa...

  10. Medical Management for the Treatment of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infection of the Parotid Gland: Avoiding Surgery May Be Possible

    PubMed Central

    Bouhabel, Sarah; Oughton, Matthew Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is uncommon in the head and neck; therefore there is no clear consensus on treating these infections. Our objective was to report our experience with a unique case of NTM infection of the parotid in an immunocompetent patient, in order to determine appropriate management through our experience with this pathology. A 57-year-old man, known for numerous comorbid diseases, presented to our institution complaining of right parotid swelling and pain. A computed tomography (CT) of the neck showed a multiloculated collection in the inferior portion of the right parotid gland, compatible with abscess formation. This abscess was drained by interventional radiology (IR) but required repeat drainage twice due to lack of initial improvement. He was treated with several antibiotics as culture results initially indicated Gram-positive bacilli and then Mycobacterium species, with final identification by a reference laboratory as Mycobacterium abscessus. Imipenem was initiated with amikacin and clarithromycin. His infection clinically and radiologically resolved after 5 months of antibiotherapy. In our case, the patient improved following intravenous antibiotic therapy. Our experience demonstrates that appropriate antibiotherapy can lead to resolution of Mycobacterium abscessus infection in the parotid without the risks associated with surgical intervention. PMID:27340407

  11. Colonization with nontuberculous mycobacteria is associated with positive tuberculin skin test reactions in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Wachtman, Lynn M; Miller, Andrew D; Xia, DongLing; Curran, Elizabeth H; Mansfield, Keith G

    2011-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections can result in significant morbidity and mortality in nonhuman primate colonies. Preventative health programs designed to detect infection routinely include tuberculin skin testing (TST). Because Mammalian Old Tuberculin used for TST contains antigens common to a variety of mycobacterial species, false-positive results can occur in animals sensitized to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Over 11 mo, a large colony of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) demonstrated a 3.6% prevalence of equivocal or positive TST reactions (termed 'suspect reactions'). Culture of gastric aspirates, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and feces revealed a single animal with a positive fecal culture for Mycobacterium gordonae. PCR amplification of M. gordonae DNA in feces collected from animals with suspect TST reactions (demonstrating a 66.7% colonization rate) and colony controls (demonstrating a 14.3% colonization rate) revealed a significant association between suspect TST reactions and intestinal colonization. Gross and histopathologic evaluation revealed a multifocal lymphadenopathy and granulomatous lymphadenitis in 2 of 4 TST-positive marmosets examined. Counter to expectations, granulomatous lymphoid tissue was culture-positive for M. kansasii rather than M. gordonae. Detection of M. gordonae in the feces of TST-suspect animals likely represents an apathogenic intestinal colonization that may serve as an indicator of NTM exposure, whereas evidence of histopathologic disease is associated with the more pathogenic M. kansasii. Although a high index of suspicion for M. tuberculosis should always be maintained, colonization with NTM organisms represents a cause of suspect TST reactions in common marmosets.

  12. Clinical Relevance of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Isolated from Sputum in a Gold Mining Workforce in South Africa: An Observational, Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    van Halsema, Clare L.; Chihota, Violet N.; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C.; Fielding, Katherine L.; Lewis, James J.; van Helden, Paul D.; Churchyard, Gavin J.; Grant, Alison D.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The clinical relevance of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), detected by liquid more than solid culture in sputum specimens from a South African mining workforce, is uncertain. We aimed to describe the current spectrum and relevance of NTM in this population. Methods. An observational study including individuals with sputum NTM isolates, recruited at workforce tuberculosis screening and routine clinics. Symptom questionnaires were administered at the time of sputum collection and clinical records and chest radiographs reviewed retrospectively. Results. Of 232 individuals included (228 (98%) male, median age 44 years), M. gordonae (60 individuals), M. kansasii (50), and M. avium complex (MAC: 38) were the commonest species. Of 38 MAC isolates, only 2 (5.3%) were from smear-positive sputum specimens and 30/38 grew in liquid but not solid culture. MAC was especially prevalent among symptomatic, HIV-positive individuals. HIV prevalence was high: 57/74 (77%) among those tested. No differences were found in probability of death or medical separation by NTM species. Conclusions. M. gordonae, M. kansasii, and MAC were the commonest NTM among miners with suspected tuberculosis, with most MAC from smear-negative specimens in liquid culture only. HIV testing and identification of key pathogenic NTM in this setting are essential to ensure optimal treatment. PMID:26180817

  13. Mixed infections of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria in South African antelopes presenting with tuberculosis-like lesions.

    PubMed

    Müller, Borna; de Klerk-Lorist, Lin-Mari; Henton, Marijke M; Lane, Emily; Parsons, Sven; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C; Kotze, Antoinette; van Helden, Paul D; Tanner, Manfred

    2011-01-27

    Routine meat inspection of antelope carcasses from a South African game reserve revealed a high prevalence of tuberculosis-like lesions. This study aimed to identify the causative agent of this disease and to describe its pathological features. In total, 139 antelopes were randomly harvested from the game reserve and subjected to meat inspection. Of these animals, 46 (33%) showed gross visible, tuberculosis-like lesions. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of encapsulated necrogranulomas in organs and/or lymph nodes of 22 of 27 animals tested. Tissue samples from lesions were processed for both non-selective bacterial culture and mycobacterial culture following decontamination. In non-selective cultures of lesions from 25 of 31 animals tested, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was detected. Isolation of C. pseudotuberculosis was closely associated with the presence of necrogranulomas. In mycobacterial cultures of lesions from 9 of 41 animals tested, different species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTMs) were detected. In 5 instances, depending on the culture procedure that was applied, either C. pseudotuberculosis or NTMs were isolated from the same tissue sample. Our results suggest that the disease has been caused by infections with C. pseudotuberculosis. In sub-Saharan Africa, the role of pathogens other than Mycobacterium bovis may be underestimated in causing tuberculosis-like lesions. In cases where potentially pathogenic NTMs are isolated from mycobacterial cultures of tuberculosis-like lesions, the non-use of additional non-selective culture techniques could lead to misinterpretations of the diagnostic test results.

  14. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria in wild boar (Sus scrofa) from Southern Spain: epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic concerns.

    PubMed

    García-Jiménez, W L; Benítez-Medina, J M; Martínez, R; Carranza, J; Cerrato, R; García-Sánchez, A; Risco, D; Moreno, J C; Sequeda, M; Gómez, L; Fernández-Llario, P; Hermoso-de-Mendoza, J

    2015-02-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are widely distributed in the environment, particularly in wet soil, marshland, rivers or streams, but also are causative agents of a wide variety of infections in animals and humans. Little information is available regarding the NTM prevalence in wildlife and their effects or significance in the bovine tuberculosis (bTB) epidemiology and diagnosis. This research shows the most frequently NTM isolated in lymph nodes of wild boar (Sus scrofa) from southern Spain, relating the NTM presence with the individual characteristics, the management of animals and the possible misdiagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis in concurrent infections. A total of 219 NTM isolates were obtained from 1249 wild boar mandibular lymph nodes sampled between 2007 and 2011. All but 75 isolates were identified by the PCR-restriction analysis-hsp65, and a partial sequencing of the 16S rDNA was carried out to identify the rest of the isolates. Results showed that Mycobacterium chelonae was the most frequently isolated NTM specie (133 isolates, 60.7%), followed by Mycobacterium avium (24 isolates, 11%). No relation was found regarding sex, body condition and management, but M. chelonae was more frequently detected in adults, whereas M. avium was more prevalent in subadults. The high NTM prevalence observed in the studied wild boar populations could make difficult the bTB diagnostic.

  15. Hospital microbial surface colonization revealed during monitoring of Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and non-tuberculous mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Geadas Farias, Pedro; Gama, Fernando; Reis, Diogo; Alarico, Susana; Empadinhas, Nuno; Martins, José Carlos; de Almeida, Ana Figueiredo; Morais, Paula Vasconcelos

    2017-03-23

    Hospital environmental conditions, human occupancy, and the characteristics of the equipment influence the survival of microbial communities and raise a concern with regard to nosocomial infections. The objective of the present work was to use the monitoring of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella spp. and non-tuberculous mycobacteria as a strategy to improve knowledge on microbial colonization of non-critical equipment and surfaces, in a tertiary hospital from Central Portugal. A 3-month microbiological survey was performed in a district teaching hospital. A total of 173 samples were obtained from the wards Hematology, Urology, Medicine, and Renal Transplants, and 102 presumptive strains recovered. Per sampling, Pseudomonas Isolation agar showed 42.8 to 73.3% of presumptive P. aeruginosa colonies and MacConkey agar recovered mostly Staphylococcus. Most of the colonies recovered in Middlebrook 7H10-PANTA belonged to the genus Methylobacterium. Taps and WC shower curtains carry high bacterial species diversity. The Redundancy Analysis grouped the samples in those mostly handled by patients, and those mostly handled by healthcare staff or of mixed use. This study shows that the preferential users of the space and equipment seem to be important contributors to the microbial community. The most recovered genus was Methylobacterium, known as colonizer of the water distribution system therefore, it is possible that the water points and biofilms in taps also contribute as dispersion hotspots.

  16. Validation of biomarkers for distinguishing Mycobacterium tuberculosis from non-tuberculous mycobacteria using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Dang, Ngoc A; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Walters, Elisabetta; Claassens, Mareli; van Soolingen, Dick; Vivo-Truyols, Gabriel; Janssen, Hans-Gerd; Kolk, Arend H J

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major international health problem. Rapid differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) from non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is critical for decisions regarding patient management and choice of therapeutic regimen. Recently we developed a 20-compound model to distinguish between MTB and NTM. It is based on thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and partial least square discriminant analysis. Here we report the validation of this model with two independent sample sets, one consisting of 39 MTB and 17 NTM isolates from the Netherlands, the other comprising 103 isolates (91 MTB and 12 NTM) from Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa. All the MTB strains in the 56 Dutch samples were correctly identified and the model had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 94%. For the South African samples the model had a sensitivity of 88% and specificity of 100%. Based on our model, we have developed a new decision-tree that allows the differentiation of MTB from NTM with 100% accuracy. Encouraged by these findings we will proceed with the development of a simple, rapid, affordable, high-throughput test to identify MTB directly in sputum.

  17. Synergistic activity of rifampicin and ethambutol against slow-growing nontuberculous mycobacteria is currently of questionable clinical significance.

    PubMed

    van Ingen, Jakko; Hoefsloot, Wouter; Mouton, Johan W; Boeree, Martin J; van Soolingen, Dick

    2013-07-01

    A key issue in the treatment of disease caused by slow-growing nontuberculous mycobacteria is the limited association between in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of rifampicin and ethambutol alone and the in vivo outcome of treatment with these drugs. Combined susceptibility testing to rifampicin and ethambutol could provide a more realistic view of the efficacy of these drugs. In this study, Mycobacterium avium (n = 5), Mycobacterium chimaera (n = 6), Mycobacterium intracellulare (n = 4), Mycobacterium xenopi (n = 4), Mycobacterium malmoense (n = 3) and Mycobacterium simiae (n = 2) clinical isolates were selected and the MICs of rifampicin and ethambutol alone and in combination were measured using the Middlebrook 7H10 agar dilution method. Synergy was defined as a fractional inhibitory concentration index ≤ 0.5. Rifampicin and ethambutol showed synergistic activity against the majority of M. avium (4/5), M. chimaera (5/6) and M. intracellulare (3/4) isolates and 1 of 2 eligible M. malmoense isolates. No synergistic activity was measured against M. xenopi and M. simiae. Synergy was neither universal for all species nor for all isolates of one species; it thus needs to be tested for rather than assumed. Even if this synergy exists in vivo, it is questionable whether the MICs to the combined drugs can be overcome by the drug exposure attained by current regimens at the recommended dosages. New dosing strategies for rifampicin and ethambutol should be studied to increase the exposure to these drugs and thus maximise their impact.

  18. Bacteria in a water-damaged building: associations of actinomycetes and non-tuberculous mycobacteria with respiratory health in occupants.

    PubMed

    Park, J-H; Cox-Ganser, J M; White, S K; Laney, A S; Caulfield, S M; Turner, W A; Sumner, A D; Kreiss, K

    2017-01-01

    We examined microbial correlates of health outcomes in building occupants with a sarcoidosis cluster and excess asthma. We offered employees a questionnaire and pulmonary function testing and collected floor dust and liquid/sludge from drain tubing traps of heat pumps that were analyzed for various microbial agents. Forty-nine percent of participants reported any symptom reflecting possible granulomatous disease (shortness of breath on exertion, flu-like achiness, or fever and chills) weekly in the last 4 weeks. In multivariate regressions, thermophilic actinomycetes (median = 529 CFU/m(2) ) in dust were associated with FEV1 /FVC [coefficient = -2.8 per interquartile range change, P = 0.02], percent predicted FEF25-75% (coefficient = -12.9, P = 0.01), and any granulomatous disease-like symptom [odds ratio (OR) = 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.45-6.73]. Mycobacteria (median = 658 CFU/m(2) ) were positively associated with asthma symptoms (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 0.97-2.43). Composite score (median = 11.5) of total bacteria from heat pumps was negatively associated with asthma (0.8, 0.71-1.00) and positively associated with FEV1 /FVC (coefficient = 0.44, P = 0.095). Endotoxin (median score = 12.0) was negatively associated with two or more granulomatous disease-like symptoms (OR = 0.8, 95% CI = 0.67-0.98) and asthma (0.8, 0.67-0.96). Fungi or (1→3)-β-D-glucan in dust or heat pump traps was not associated with any health outcomes. Thermophilic actinomycetes and non-tuberculous mycobacteria may have played a role in the occupants' respiratory outcomes in this water-damaged building.

  19. Surveillance and molecular characterization of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in a hospital water distribution system over a three-year period.

    PubMed

    Crago, B; Ferrato, C; Drews, S J; Louie, T; Ceri, H; Turner, R J; Roles, A; Louie, M

    2014-05-01

    A three-year surveillance of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in a hospital water distribution system was conducted at a facility located in southern Alberta. NTM was not present in any intake water samples, but was found in 106/183 (58%) of endpoint samples across 15 sites over the study period. Two different species of NTM were identified, Mycobacterium gordonae (88/183) and Mycobacterium avium (34/183); with only one strain of each M. gordonae and M. avium found. Given the sensitive nature of a healthcare facility, attention should be paid to minimize potential impact of NTM from potable water sources on patient health.

  20. Current trends in nontuberculous mycobacteria infections in Canadian children: A Pediatric Investigators Collaborative Network on Infections in Canada (PICNIC) study

    PubMed Central

    Pham-Huy, Anne; Robinson, Joan L; Tapiéro, Bruce; Bernard, Chantal; Daniel, Sam; Dobson, Simon; Déry, Pierre; Le Saux, Nicole; Embree, Joanne; Valiquette, Louis; Quach, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections appear to be increasing in number and severity in developed countries worldwide. Surgical excision has been considered the standard treatment for NTM lymphadenitis, but the use of medical therapy seems to be increasing. OBJECTIVE: To determine the disease characteristics as well as the current therapeutic management of NTM infections in Canadian children. METHODS: Cases of definite or probable NTM infections were identified prospectively in children up to 18 years of age seen in 10 Canadian paediatric tertiary care centres from September 2005 to August 2006. Clinical, microbiological and pathological data were collected. RESULTS: A total of 60 cases were identified. Data were complete for 45 patients, including 34 cases of lymphadenitis, four cases of skin and soft tissue infection, and seven cases of pulmonary NTM infection. Seventy-nine per cent of children (27 of 34) with lymphadenitis had an unsuccessful course of antibiotics before diagnosis. Sixty-eight per cent of purified protein derivative tests (15 of 22) were positive. NTM was detected in 76% of samples (29 of 38), of which 62% were Mycobacterium avium complex. All patients with lymphadenitis underwent surgical therapy and most patients (74%) also received antimicrobials. CONCLUSIONS: Current trends indicate that the majority of the study centres are using medical therapy with variable regimen and duration as an adjunct to surgical excision in the treatment of NTM lymphadenitis. Larger numbers and longer follow-up times are needed to better evaluate the efficacy of medical therapy and outcome of disease. A randomized controlled study comparing surgical therapy alone and chemotherapy for NTM lymphadenitis is required. PMID:21532791

  1. Patient-Centered Research Priorities for Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) Infection. An NTM Research Consortium Workshop Report.

    PubMed

    Henkle, Emily; Aksamit, Timothy; Barker, Alan; Daley, Charles L; Griffith, David; Leitman, Philip; Leitman, Amy; Malanga, Elisha; Marras, Theodore K; Olivier, Kenneth N; Prevots, D Rebecca; Prieto, Delia; Quittner, Alexandra L; Skach, William; Walsh, John W; Winthrop, Kevin L

    2016-09-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cause an increasingly important chronic and debilitating lung disease in older adults. Diagnosis is often delayed, although awareness among clinicians and patients is increasing. When necessary, treatment often lasts 18-24 months and consists of three or four antibiotics that can have serious side effects. Relapses are common and commonly require resumption of prolonged therapy. Given the need for improved diagnostic techniques and clinical trials to identify new therapies or to improve existing therapies, a group of North American clinicians and researchers formed the NTM Research Consortium (NTMRC) in 2014. The NTMRC recognized the importance of including the patient voice in determining research priorities for NTM. In November 2015, patients, caregivers, patient advocates, clinical experts, and researchers gathered for a 1-day meeting in Portland, Oregon funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute. The meeting goal was to define patient-centered research priorities for NTM lung infections. Patients expressed frustration with the number of people who have endured years of missed diagnoses or inadequate treatment of NTM. Participants identified as top research priorities the prevention of NTM infection; approval of more effective treatments with fewer side effects and easier administration; understanding the best chest physiotherapy methods; validating and using tools to measure quality of life; and developing a disease-specific activity and severity assessment tool. Workshop participants agreed that two complementary objectives are critical to ensure the best achievable outcomes for patients: (1) additional clinician education to improve screening and diagnosis of NTM infections; and (2) development of a geographically distributed network of experts in NTM disease to offer consultation or direct therapy after a diagnosis is made.

  2. Isolation and identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria from hospitalized patients and drinking water samples--examination of their correlation by chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Dovriki, Eleni; Gerogianni, Irini; Petinaki, Efi; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Papaioannou, Agelos; Gourgoulianis, Kostas

    2016-04-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been found to be widely dispersed in the environment and are being considered potentially pathogenic for humans and animals, while reports of their human to human transmission are absent. Water and aerosols are potential transmission modes of NTM to humans. Hospitalized patients with NTM infections were studied together with drinking water samples from their respective residence areas during 2003-2013. Cluster analysis and factor analysis were used to analyze the data matrix. A total of 367 hospitalized patients living in 30 localities in the Prefecture of Larissa were tested positive for NTM. The most frequently isolated NTM species of the 383 NTM isolates from the clinical specimens were Mycobacterium fortuitum (n = 118, 30.8 %), M. gordonae (n = 87, 22.7 %), M. peregrinum (n = 46, 12.0 %), M. chelonae (n = 11, 2.9 %), M. avium (n = 8, 2.1 %), and M. intracellulare (n = 7, 1.8 %), while 88 (23.0 %) of these isolates were not identified. It is noted that in 8 patients, M. tuberculosis was isolated simultaneously with one NTM, in 15 patients, together with two types of NTM, while in 1 patient, it was found at the same time as three different NTM. In addition, 3360 drinking water samples were collected from 30 localities and analyzed during 2010 to 2013; they were found 11.2 % NTM positive. Cluster analysis and factor analysis results confirm that NTM strains are correlated to each other in both isolated samples from patients and drinking water, while the strength of their correlation varied from weak to moderate (e.g., factor loadings ranged from 0.69 to 0.74 when all data are considered). These results provide indications that drinking water could be linked with NTM cases in humans.

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria from Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Otchere, ID; Asante-Poku, A; Osei-Wusu, S; Aboagye, SY; Yeboah-Manu, D

    2017-01-01

    Background Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) species are assuming public health importance in pulmonary diseases; they are increasingly being isolated, and importantly, most NTMs do not respond to routine tuberculosis (TB) drugs. This study aimed to identify NTMs isolated from pulmonary TB cases and also determine their susceptibility to streptomycin (STR), isoniazid (INH), and rifampicin (RIF). Methods A total of 1755 mycobacterial isolates, obtained between August 2012 and July 2014, from 2036 smear-positive pulmonary cases were identified using polymerase chain reaction amplification of IS6110, and hsp65 gene sequencing analysis. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) was then performed for the identified NTMs against STR, INH, and RIF using microplate Alamar blue assay. The results were analyzed against patients’ biodata for statistical associations. Results Of the 1755 analyzed isolates, we identified 43 (2.5%) NTMs, which included 18 (41.9%) Mycobacterium intracellulare, 13 (30.2%) Mycobacterium avium subs. paratuberculosis, 5 (11.3%) Mycobacterium abscessus, 3 (7.0%) each of Mycobacterium mucogenicum and Mycobacterium colombiense, and 1 (2.3%) Mycobacterium simiae. Patients infected with NTMs (52.0%) were more likely to be human immunodeficiency virus-positive (P = 0.001, odds ratio = 6.6, 95% confidence interval = 2.7–16.2) than those infected with M. tuberculosis complex (5.8%). All the 43 (100%) NTMs were resistant to INH, whereas 32 (74%) and 19 (44%) were resistant to RIF and STR, respectively. Furthermore, 16 (37.2%) NTMs were resistant to all three drugs, 20 were resistant to INH and RIF, and 3 were resistant to STR and INH. All the M. abscessus isolates were resistant to all the three drugs, whereas all the M. avium isolates were resistant to INH and RIF, but only three were resistant to STR. Among the M. intracellulare isolates, 8, 18, and 15 isolates were resistant to STR, INH, and RIF, respectively. Conclusion The observed high-resistance level to

  4. Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria in South African Wildlife: Neglected Pathogens and Potential Impediments for Bovine Tuberculosis Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Gcebe, Nomakorinte; Hlokwe, Tiny M.

    2017-01-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are not only emerging and opportunistic pathogens of both humans and animals, but from a veterinary point of view some species induce cross-reactive immune responses that hamper the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in both livestock and wildlife. Little information is available about NTM species circulating in wildlife species of South Africa. In this study, we determined the diversity of NTM isolated from wildlife species from South Africa as well as Botswana. Thirty known NTM species and subspecies, as well as unidentified NTM, and NTM closely related to Mycobacterium goodii/Mycobacterium smegmatis were identified from 102 isolates cultured between the years 1998 and 2010, using a combination of molecular assays viz PCR and sequencing of different Mycobacterial house-keeping genes as well as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. The NTM identified in this study include the following species which were isolated from tissue with tuberculosis- like lesions in the absence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) implying their potential role as pathogens of animals: Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii, Mycobacterium gastri, Mycobacterium species closely related to Mycobacterium goodii/Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium brasiliensis, Mycobacterium sinense JMD 601, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, Mycobacterium sp. GR-2007, Mycobacterium bouchedurhonense, and Mycobacterium septicum/M. peregrinum. Mycobaterium brasiliensis, Mycobacterium gastri, Mycobacterium sp. GR-2007, and a potential novel Mycobacterium species closely related to Mycobacterium goodii were found for the first time in this study to be potential pathogens of animals. Mycobacterium simiae was isolated from a sample originating from a tuberculin skin test positive reactor, demonstrating its potential to elicit inappropriate immune responses in animals that may interfere with diagnosis of tuberculosis by immunology. Mycobacterium abscessus

  5. Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria in South African Wildlife: Neglected Pathogens and Potential Impediments for Bovine Tuberculosis Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gcebe, Nomakorinte; Hlokwe, Tiny M

    2017-01-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are not only emerging and opportunistic pathogens of both humans and animals, but from a veterinary point of view some species induce cross-reactive immune responses that hamper the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in both livestock and wildlife. Little information is available about NTM species circulating in wildlife species of South Africa. In this study, we determined the diversity of NTM isolated from wildlife species from South Africa as well as Botswana. Thirty known NTM species and subspecies, as well as unidentified NTM, and NTM closely related to Mycobacterium goodii/Mycobacterium smegmatis were identified from 102 isolates cultured between the years 1998 and 2010, using a combination of molecular assays viz PCR and sequencing of different Mycobacterial house-keeping genes as well as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. The NTM identified in this study include the following species which were isolated from tissue with tuberculosis- like lesions in the absence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) implying their potential role as pathogens of animals: Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii, Mycobacterium gastri, Mycobacterium species closely related to Mycobacterium goodii/Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium brasiliensis, Mycobacterium sinense JMD 601, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, Mycobacterium sp. GR-2007, Mycobacterium bouchedurhonense, and Mycobacterium septicum/M. peregrinum. Mycobaterium brasiliensis, Mycobacterium gastri, Mycobacterium sp. GR-2007, and a potential novel Mycobacterium species closely related to Mycobacterium goodii were found for the first time in this study to be potential pathogens of animals. Mycobacterium simiae was isolated from a sample originating from a tuberculin skin test positive reactor, demonstrating its potential to elicit inappropriate immune responses in animals that may interfere with diagnosis of tuberculosis by immunology. Mycobacterium abscessus

  6. Cooccurrence of free-living amoebae and nontuberculous Mycobacteria in hospital water networks, and preferential growth of Mycobacterium avium in Acanthamoeba lenticulata.

    PubMed

    Ovrutsky, Alida R; Chan, Edward D; Kartalija, Marinka; Bai, Xiyuan; Jackson, Mary; Gibbs, Sara; Falkinham, Joseph O; Iseman, Michael D; Reynolds, Paul R; McDonnell, Gerald; Thomas, Vincent

    2013-05-01

    The incidence of lung and other diseases due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is increasing. NTM sources include potable water, especially in households where NTM populate pipes, taps, and showerheads. NTM share habitats with free-living amoebae (FLA) and can grow in FLA as parasites or as endosymbionts. FLA containing NTM may form cysts that protect mycobacteria from disinfectants and antibiotics. We first assessed the presence of FLA and NTM in water and biofilm samples collected from a hospital, confirming the high prevalence of NTM and FLA in potable water systems, particularly in biofilms. Acanthamoeba spp. (genotype T4) were mainly recovered (8/17), followed by Hartmannella vermiformis (7/17) as well as one isolate closely related to the genus Flamella and one isolate only distantly related to previously described species. Concerning mycobacteria, Mycobacterium gordonae was the most frequently found isolate (9/17), followed by Mycobacterium peregrinum (4/17), Mycobacterium chelonae (2/17), Mycobacterium mucogenicum (1/17), and Mycobacterium avium (1/17). The propensity of Mycobacterium avium hospital isolate H87 and M. avium collection strain 104 to survive and replicate within various FLA was also evaluated, demonstrating survival of both strains in all amoebal species tested but high replication rates only in Acanthamoeba lenticulata. As A. lenticulata was frequently recovered from environmental samples, including drinking water samples, these results could have important consequences for the ecology of M. avium in drinking water networks and the epidemiology of disease due to this species.

  7. Cooccurrence of Free-Living Amoebae and Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Hospital Water Networks, and Preferential Growth of Mycobacterium avium in Acanthamoeba lenticulata

    PubMed Central

    Ovrutsky, Alida R.; Kartalija, Marinka; Bai, Xiyuan; Jackson, Mary; Gibbs, Sara; Falkinham, Joseph O.; Iseman, Michael D.; Reynolds, Paul R.; McDonnell, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of lung and other diseases due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is increasing. NTM sources include potable water, especially in households where NTM populate pipes, taps, and showerheads. NTM share habitats with free-living amoebae (FLA) and can grow in FLA as parasites or as endosymbionts. FLA containing NTM may form cysts that protect mycobacteria from disinfectants and antibiotics. We first assessed the presence of FLA and NTM in water and biofilm samples collected from a hospital, confirming the high prevalence of NTM and FLA in potable water systems, particularly in biofilms. Acanthamoeba spp. (genotype T4) were mainly recovered (8/17), followed by Hartmannella vermiformis (7/17) as well as one isolate closely related to the genus Flamella and one isolate only distantly related to previously described species. Concerning mycobacteria, Mycobacterium gordonae was the most frequently found isolate (9/17), followed by Mycobacterium peregrinum (4/17), Mycobacterium chelonae (2/17), Mycobacterium mucogenicum (1/17), and Mycobacterium avium (1/17). The propensity of Mycobacterium avium hospital isolate H87 and M. avium collection strain 104 to survive and replicate within various FLA was also evaluated, demonstrating survival of both strains in all amoebal species tested but high replication rates only in Acanthamoeba lenticulata. As A. lenticulata was frequently recovered from environmental samples, including drinking water samples, these results could have important consequences for the ecology of M. avium in drinking water networks and the epidemiology of disease due to this species. PMID:23475613

  8. Prevalence and distribution of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in cattle, African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) and their environments in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Gcebe, N; Rutten, V; Gey van Pittius, N C; Michel, A

    2013-11-01

    It has been hypothesized that a variety of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) species to which livestock and wildlife species are naturally exposed induce broadly cross-reactive anti-mycobacterial immune responses which interfere with current standard diagnostic assays. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria have also been implicated in Mycobacterium bovis-specific immune responsiveness, hence potentially the development of tuberculosis. Cattle and African buffaloes are both maintenance hosts of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in South Africa, yet the effective diagnosis and control in these species may be hampered by adverse effects of NTM. As part of an investigation of the role of NTM in the immune responsiveness of cattle and African buffaloes to NTM, we conducted a countrywide survey to establish the prevalent NTM species and their distribution in the natural environments of these animals. A total of 1123 samples (water, soil, nasal and pharyngeal swabs) were collected for mycobacterium isolation. In addition, NTM isolated from tissue samples between 1991 and 2011 were included in the analysis. Mycobacteria were isolated from 56% of the samples from the countrywide survey. A total of 420 NTM isolates from soil, water, animal tissues and animal-derived swab samples were genotyped with the following results: 302 belonged to 40 known NTM species, 79 were found to be closely related to 23 known NTM species, and 38 isolates were found to be potentially novel species that are not currently listed in the RIDOM and NCBI BLAST databases. The four NTM species or closely related groups most frequently isolated in this survey included Mycobacterium terrae (11.2% of isolates), a group of mycobacteria closely related to Mycobacterium moriokaense (referred to as M. moriokaense-like) (8.1% of isolates), Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum (7.4% of isolates) and Mycobacterium vaccae/M. vanbaalenii (5.2% of isolates). The phylogenetic analysis of the M. moriokaense-like isolates, based on the 16S r

  9. US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation and European Cystic Fibrosis Society consensus recommendations for the management of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in individuals with cystic fibrosis: executive summary.

    PubMed

    Floto, R Andres; Olivier, Kenneth N; Saiman, Lisa; Daley, Charles L; Herrmann, Jean-Louis; Nick, Jerry A; Noone, Peadar G; Bilton, Diana; Corris, Paul; Gibson, Ronald L; Hempstead, Sarah E; Koetz, Karsten; Sabadosa, Kathryn A; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Smyth, Alan R; van Ingen, Jakko; Wallace, Richard J; Winthrop, Kevin L; Marshall, Bruce C; Haworth, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous environmental organisms that can cause chronic pulmonary infection, particularly in individuals with pre-existing inflammatory lung disease, such as cystic fibrosis (CF). Pulmonary disease (PD) caused by NTM has emerged as a major threat to the health of individuals with CF, but remains difficult to diagnose and problematic to treat. In response to this challenge, the US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF) and the European Cystic Fibrosis Society (ECFS) convened a panel of 19 experts to develop consensus recommendations for the screening, investigation, diagnosis and management of NTM-PD in individuals with CF. PICO (population, intervention, comparison, outcome) methodology and systematic literature reviews were employed to inform draft recommendations, which were then modified to achieve consensus and subsequently circulated for public consultation within the USA and European CF communities. We have thus generated a series of pragmatic, evidence-based recommendations as an initial step in optimising management for this challenging condition.

  10. US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation and European Cystic Fibrosis Society consensus recommendations for the management of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in individuals with cystic fibrosis: executive summary

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, Kenneth N; Saiman, Lisa; Daley, Charles L; Herrmann, Jean-Louis; Nick, Jerry A; Noone, Peadar G; Bilton, Diana; Corris, Paul; Gibson, Ronald L; Hempstead, Sarah E; Koetz, Karsten; Sabadosa, Kathryn A; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Smyth, Alan R; van Ingen, Jakko; Wallace, Richard J; Winthrop, Kevin L; Marshall, Bruce C; Haworth, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous environmental organisms that can cause chronic pulmonary infection, particularly in individuals with pre-existing inflammatory lung disease, such as cystic fibrosis (CF). Pulmonary disease (PD) caused by NTM has emerged as a major threat to the health of individuals with CF, but remains difficult to diagnose and problematic to treat. In response to this challenge, the US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF) and the European Cystic Fibrosis Society (ECFS) convened a panel of 19 experts to develop consensus recommendations for the screening, investigation, diagnosis and management of NTM-PD in individuals with CF. PICO (population, intervention, comparison, outcome) methodology and systematic literature reviews were employed to inform draft recommendations, which were then modified to achieve consensus and subsequently circulated for public consultation within the USA and European CF communities. We have thus generated a series of pragmatic, evidence-based recommendations as an initial step in optimising management for this challenging condition. PMID:26678435

  11. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM)

    MedlinePlus

    ... do not cause human diseases (saprophytic). For example, Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an infamous species. This is the organism that causes human tuberculosis. Mycobacterium leprae is the organism that causes leprosy. The ...

  12. Occurrence of Mycobacterium bovis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in raw and pasteurized milk in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sgarioni, Sônia Aparecida; Hirata, Rosario Dominguez Crespo; Hirata, Mario Hiroyuki; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; de Prince, Karina Andrade; de Andrade Leite, Sergio Roberto; Filho, Dirceu Vedovello; Siqueira, Vera Lucia Dias; Caleffi-Ferracioli, Katiany Rizzieri; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti

    2014-01-01

    Milk is widely consumed in Brazil and can be the vehicle of agent transmission. In this study, was evaluated the occurrence of Mycobacterium bovis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in raw and pasteurized milk consumed in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil. Fifty-two milk samples (20 pasteurized and 32 raw) from dairy farms near the municipality of Maringa, Parana State, Brazil were collected. Milk samples were decontaminated using 5% oxalic acid method and cultured on Lowenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media at 35 °C and 30 °C, with and without 5-10% CO2. Mycobacteria isolates were identified by morphological features, PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis (PCR-PRA) and Mycolic acids analysis. Thirteen (25%) raw and 2 (4%) pasteurized milk samples were positive for acid fast bacilli growth. Nine different species of NTM were isolated (M. nonchromogenicum, M. peregrinum, M. smegmatis, M. neoaurum, M. fortuitum, M. chelonae, M. flavescens, M. kansasii and M. scrofulaceum). M. bovis was not detected. Raw and pasteurized milk may be considered one source for NTM human infection. The paper reinforces the need for intensification of measures in order to avoid the milk contamination and consequently prevent diseases in the south of Brazil.

  13. Occurrence of Mycobacterium bovis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in raw and pasteurized milk in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Sgarioni, Sônia Aparecida; Hirata, Rosario Dominguez Crespo; Hirata, Mario Hiroyuki; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; de Prince, Karina Andrade; de Andrade Leite, Sergio Roberto; Filho, Dirceu Vedovello; Siqueira, Vera Lucia Dias; Caleffi-Ferracioli, Katiany Rizzieri; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti

    2014-01-01

    Milk is widely consumed in Brazil and can be the vehicle of agent transmission. In this study, was evaluated the occurrence of Mycobacterium bovis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in raw and pasteurized milk consumed in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil. Fifty-two milk samples (20 pasteurized and 32 raw) from dairy farms near the municipality of Maringa, Parana State, Brazil were collected. Milk samples were decontaminated using 5% oxalic acid method and cultured on Lowenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media at 35 °C and 30 °C, with and without 5–10% CO2. Mycobacteria isolates were identified by morphological features, PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis (PCR-PRA) and Mycolic acids analysis. Thirteen (25%) raw and 2 (4%) pasteurized milk samples were positive for acid fast bacilli growth. Nine different species of NTM were isolated (M. nonchromogenicum, M. peregrinum, M. smegmatis, M. neoaurum, M. fortuitum, M. chelonae, M. flavescens, M. kansasii and M. scrofulaceum). M. bovis was not detected. Raw and pasteurized milk may be considered one source for NTM human infection. The paper reinforces the need for intensification of measures in order to avoid the milk contamination and consequently prevent diseases in the south of Brazil. PMID:25242962

  14. US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation and European Cystic Fibrosis Society consensus recommendations for the management of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in individuals with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Floto, R Andres; Olivier, Kenneth N; Saiman, Lisa; Daley, Charles L; Herrmann, Jean-Louis; Nick, Jerry A; Noone, Peadar G; Bilton, Diana; Corris, Paul; Gibson, Ronald L; Hempstead, Sarah E; Koetz, Karsten; Sabadosa, Kathryn A; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Smyth, Alan R; van Ingen, Jakko; Wallace, Richard J; Winthrop, Kevin L; Marshall, Bruce C; Haworth, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous environmental organisms that can cause chronic pulmonary infection, particularly in individuals with pre-existing inflammatory lung disease such as cystic fibrosis (CF). Pulmonary disease caused by NTM has emerged as a major threat to the health of individuals with CF but remains difficult to diagnose and problematic to treat. In response to this challenge, the US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF) and the European Cystic Fibrosis Society (ECFS) convened an expert panel of specialists to develop consensus recommendations for the screening, investigation, diagnosis and management of NTM pulmonary disease in individuals with CF. Nineteen experts were invited to participate in the recommendation development process. Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome (PICO) methodology and systematic literature reviews were employed to inform draft recommendations. An anonymous voting process was used by the committee to reach consensus. All committee members were asked to rate each statement on a scale of: 0, completely disagree, to 9, completely agree; with 80% or more of scores between 7 and 9 being considered 'good' agreement. Additionally, the committee solicited feedback from the CF communities in the USA and Europe and considered the feedback in the development of the final recommendation statements. Three rounds of voting were conducted to achieve 80% consensus for each recommendation statement. Through this process, we have generated a series of pragmatic, evidence-based recommendations for the screening, investigation, diagnosis and treatment of NTM infection in individuals with CF as an initial step in optimising management for this challenging condition.

  15. Microbiological Quality of Ready-to-Eat Vegetables Collected in Mexico City: Occurrence of Aerobic-Mesophilic Bacteria, Fecal Coliforms, and Potentially Pathogenic Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cerna-Cortes, Jorge Francisco; Leon-Montes, Nancy; Cortes-Cueto, Ana Laura; Salas-Rangel, Laura P.; Helguera-Repetto, Addy Cecilia; Lopez-Hernandez, Daniel; Rivera-Gutierrez, Sandra; Fernandez-Rendon, Elizabeth; Gonzalez-y-Merchand, Jorge Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the microbiological quality and the occurrence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in a variety of salads and sprouts from supermarkets and street vendors in Mexico City. Aerobic-mesophilic bacteria (AMB) were present in 100% of RTE-salads samples; 59% of samples were outside guidelines range (>5.17 log10 CFU per g). Although fecal coliforms (FC) were present in 32% of samples, only 8% of them exceeded the permissible limit (100 MPN/g). Regarding the 100 RTE-sprouts, all samples were also positive for AMB and total coliforms (TC) and 69% for FC. Seven NTM species were recovered from 7 salad samples; they included three M. fortuitum, two M. chelonae, one M. mucogenicum, and one M. sp. Twelve RTE-sprouts samples harbored NTM, which were identified as M. porcinum (five), M. abscessus (two), M. gordonae (two), M. mucogenicum (two), and M. avium complex (one). Most RTE-salads and RTE-sprouts had unsatisfactory microbiological quality and some harbored NTM associated with illness. No correlation between the presence of coliforms and NTM was found. Overall, these results suggest that RTE-salads and RTE-sprouts might function as vehicles for NTM transmission in humans; hence, proper handling and treatment before consumption of such products might be recommendable. PMID:25918721

  16. Evaluation of three real-time PCR assays for differential identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and nontuberculous mycobacteria species in liquid culture media.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yu Jung; Kim, Ji-Youn; Song, Dong Joon; Koh, Won-Jung; Huh, Hee Jae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the analytical performance of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC)/nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) PCR assays for differential identification of MTBC and NTM using culture-positive liquid media. Eighty-five type strains and 100 consecutive mycobacterial liquid media cultures (MGIT 960 system) were analyzed by a conventional PCR assay (MTB-ID(®) V3) and three real-time PCR assays (AdvanSure™ TB/NTM real-time PCR, AdvanSure; GENEDIA(®) MTB/NTM Detection Kit, Genedia; Real-Q MTB & NTM kit, Real-Q). The accuracy rates for reference strains were 89.4%, 100%, 98.8%, and 98.8% for the MTB-ID V3, AdvanSure, Genedia, and Real-Q assays, respectively. Cross-reactivity in the MTB-ID V3 assay was mainly attributable to non-mycobacterium Corynebacterineae species. The diagnostic performance was determined using clinical isolates grown in liquid media, and the overall sensitivities for all PCR assays were higher than 95%. In conclusion, the three real-time PCR assays showed better performance in discriminating mycobacterium species and non-mycobacterium Corynebacterineae species than the conventional PCR assay.

  17. Microbiological Quality of Ready-to-Eat Vegetables Collected in Mexico City: Occurrence of Aerobic-Mesophilic Bacteria, Fecal Coliforms, and Potentially Pathogenic Nontuberculous Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Cerna-Cortes, Jorge Francisco; Leon-Montes, Nancy; Cortes-Cueto, Ana Laura; Salas-Rangel, Laura P; Helguera-Repetto, Addy Cecilia; Lopez-Hernandez, Daniel; Rivera-Gutierrez, Sandra; Fernandez-Rendon, Elizabeth; Gonzalez-y-Merchand, Jorge Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the microbiological quality and the occurrence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in a variety of salads and sprouts from supermarkets and street vendors in Mexico City. Aerobic-mesophilic bacteria (AMB) were present in 100% of RTE-salads samples; 59% of samples were outside guidelines range (>5.17 log10 CFU per g). Although fecal coliforms (FC) were present in 32% of samples, only 8% of them exceeded the permissible limit (100 MPN/g). Regarding the 100 RTE-sprouts, all samples were also positive for AMB and total coliforms (TC) and 69% for FC. Seven NTM species were recovered from 7 salad samples; they included three M. fortuitum, two M. chelonae, one M. mucogenicum, and one M. sp. Twelve RTE-sprouts samples harbored NTM, which were identified as M. porcinum (five), M. abscessus (two), M. gordonae (two), M. mucogenicum (two), and M. avium complex (one). Most RTE-salads and RTE-sprouts had unsatisfactory microbiological quality and some harbored NTM associated with illness. No correlation between the presence of coliforms and NTM was found. Overall, these results suggest that RTE-salads and RTE-sprouts might function as vehicles for NTM transmission in humans; hence, proper handling and treatment before consumption of such products might be recommendable.

  18. US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation and European Cystic Fibrosis Society consensus recommendations for the management of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in individuals with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, Kenneth N; Saiman, Lisa; Daley, Charles L; Herrmann, Jean-Louis; Nick, Jerry A; Noone, Peadar G; Bilton, Diana; Corris, Paul; Gibson, Ronald L; Hempstead, Sarah E; Koetz, Karsten; Sabadosa, Kathryn A; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Smyth, Alan R; van Ingen, Jakko; Wallace, Richard J; Winthrop, Kevin L; Marshall, Bruce C; Haworth, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous environmental organisms that can cause chronic pulmonary infection, particularly in individuals with pre-existing inflammatory lung disease such as cystic fibrosis (CF). Pulmonary disease caused by NTM has emerged as a major threat to the health of individuals with CF but remains difficult to diagnose and problematic to treat. In response to this challenge, the US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF) and the European Cystic Fibrosis Society (ECFS) convened an expert panel of specialists to develop consensus recommendations for the screening, investigation, diagnosis and management of NTM pulmonary disease in individuals with CF. Nineteen experts were invited to participate in the recommendation development process. Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome (PICO) methodology and systematic literature reviews were employed to inform draft recommendations. An anonymous voting process was used by the committee to reach consensus. All committee members were asked to rate each statement on a scale of: 0, completely disagree, to 9, completely agree; with 80% or more of scores between 7 and 9 being considered ‘good’ agreement. Additionally, the committee solicited feedback from the CF communities in the USA and Europe and considered the feedback in the development of the final recommendation statements. Three rounds of voting were conducted to achieve 80% consensus for each recommendation statement. Through this process, we have generated a series of pragmatic, evidence-based recommendations for the screening, investigation, diagnosis and treatment of NTM infection in individuals with CF as an initial step in optimising management for this challenging condition. PMID:26666259

  19. Zambia.

    PubMed

    1988-08-01

    Attention in this discussion of Zambia is directed to the following: geography; the people; history; government; the economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between Zambia and the US. In 1986, the population totaled 7 million with an annual growth rate of 3.7%. The infant mortality rate is 87/1000 with a life expectancy of 51 years. Zambia, located in south-central Africa, is bordered by Zaire, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Angola, and Namibia. The population is made up of over 70 Bantu-speaking tribes. Expatriates, mostly British (15,000 in 1986) or South African, live primarily in Lusaka where they are employed in mines and related activities. Some ancestors of present-day Zambians most likely arrived about 2000 years ago and eventually displaced or absorbed indigenous stone age hunters and gatherers. The major waves of Bantu-speaking immigrants began in the 15th century; the greatest influx occurred in the late 17th to the early 19th centuries. After the mid-19th century, the area was penetrated by Western explorers. In 1888, Northern and Southern Rhodesia (now Zambia and Zimbabwe) were proclaimed a British sphere of influence. Southern Rhodesia was annexed formally and granted self-government in 1923. Independence was realized on October 24, 1964. Zambia was the 1st British territory to become a republic immediately upon realizing independence. The constitution promulgated on August 25, 1973, abrogated the original 1964 constitution, and this new constitution and the national elections that followed in December 1973 were the final steps in achieving what is termed a "1-party participatory democracy." President Kenneth Kaunda is the major figure in the country's politics. He has wide popular support and traditionally has bridged the rivalries among the country's various regions and ethnic groups. The economy of Zambia is based primarily on its majority state-owned copper industry, which is the only significant source of foreign

  20. In vitro effects of citrus oils against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-tuberculous Mycobacteria of clinical importance.

    PubMed

    Crandall, Philip G; Ricke, Steven C; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Parrish, Nicole M

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the in vitro activity of citrus oils against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species. Citrus essential oils were tested against a variety of Mycobacterium species and strains using the BACTEC radiometric growth system. Cold pressed terpeneless Valencia oil (CPT) was further tested using the Wayne model of in vitro latency. Exposure of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG to 0.025 % cold pressed terpeneless Valencia orange oil (CPT) resulted in a 3-log decrease in viable counts versus corresponding controls. Inhibition of various clinical isolates of the M. avium complex and M. abscessus ranged from 2.5 to 5.2-logs. Some species/strains were completely inhibited in the presence of CPT including one isolate each of the following: the M. avium complex, M. chelonae and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. CPT also inhibited the growth of BCG more than 99 % in an in vitro model of latency which mimics anaerobic dormancy thought to occur in vivo. The activity of CPT against drug-resistant strains of the M. avium complex and M. abscessus suggest that the mechanism of action for CPT is different than that of currently available drugs. Inhibition of latently adapted bacilli offers promise for treatment of latent infections of MTB. These results suggest that the antimycobacterial properties of CPT warrant further study to elucidate the specific mechanism of action and clarify the spectrum of activity.

  1. Analysis of DNA gyrA Gene Mutation in Clinical and Environmental Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Isolates of Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria Using Molecular Methods

    PubMed Central

    Nasr Esfahani, Bahram; Zarkesh Esfahani, Fatemeh Sadat; Bahador, Nima; Moghim, Sharareh; Radaei, Tooba; Rezaei Yazdi, Hadi; Ghasemian Safaei, Hajiyeh; Fazeli, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background During the past several years, nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been reported as some of the most important agents of infection in immunocompromised patients. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the ciprofloxacin susceptibility of clinical and environmental NTM species isolated from Isfahan province, Iran, using the agar dilution method, and to perform an analysis of gyrA gene-related ciprofloxacin resistance. Materials and Methods A total of 41 clinical and environmental isolates of NTM were identified by conventional and multiplex PCR techniques. The isolates were separated out of water, blood, abscess, and bronchial samples. The susceptibility of the isolates to 1 µg/mL, 2 µg/mL and 4 µg/mL of ciprofloxacin concentrations was determined by the agar dilution method according to CLSI guidelines. A 120-bp area of the gyrA gene was amplified, and PCR-SSCP templates were defined using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The 120-bp of gyrA amplicons with different PCR-SSCP patterns were sequenced. Results The frequency of the identified isolates was as follows: Mycobacterium fortuitum, 27 cases; M. gordonae, 10 cases; M. smegmatis, one case; M. conceptionense, one case; and M. abscessus, two cases. All isolates except for M. abscessus were sensitive to all three concentrations of ciprofloxacin. The PCR-SSCP pattern of the gyrA gene of resistant M. abscessus isolates showed four different bands. The gyrA sequencing of resistant M. abscessus isolates showed 12 alterations in nucleotides compared to the M. abscessus ATCC 19977 resistant strain; however, the amino acid sequences were similar. Conclusions This study demonstrated the specificity and sensitivity of the PCR-SSCP method for finding mutations in the gyrA gene. Due to the sensitivity of most isolates to ciprofloxacin, this antibiotic should be considered an appropriate drug for the treatment of related diseases. PMID:27217921

  2. Clinical findings in relation to mortality in non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections: patients with Mycobacterium avium complex have better survival than patients with other mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Kotilainen, H; Valtonen, V; Tukiainen, P; Poussa, T; Eskola, J; Järvinen, A

    2015-09-01

    We compared the clinical findings and survival in patients with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and other non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). A total of 167 adult non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients with at least one positive culture for NTM were included. Medical records were reviewed. The patients were categorised according to the 2007 American Thoracic Society (ATS) criteria. MAC comprised 59 % of all NTM findings. MAC patients were more often female (70 % vs. 34 %, p < 0.001) and had less fatal underlying diseases (23 % vs. 47 %, p = 0.001) as compared to other NTM patients. Symptoms compatible with NTM infection had lasted for less than a year in 34 % of MAC patients but in 54 % of other NTM patients (p = 0.037). Pulmonary MAC patients had a significantly lower risk of death compared to pulmonary other NTM (hazard ratio [HR] 0.50, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.33-0.77, p = 0.002) or subgroup of other slowly growing NTM (HR 0.55, 95 % CI 0.31-0.99, p = 0.048) or as rapidly growing NTM (HR 0.47, 95 % CI 0.25-0.87, p = 0.02). The median survival time was 13.0 years (95 % CI 5.9-20.1) for pulmonary MAC but 4.6 years (95 % CI 3.4-5.9) for pulmonary other NTM. Serious underlying diseases (HR 3.21, 95 % CI 2.05-5.01, p < 0.001) and age (HR 1.07, 95 % CI 1.04-1.09, p < 0.001) were the significant predictors of mortality and female sex was a predictor of survival (HR 0.38, 95 % CI 0.24-0.59, p < 0.001) in the multivariate analysis. Pulmonary MAC patients had better prognosis than pulmonary other NTM patients. The symptom onset suggests a fairly rapid disease course.

  3. Learn about Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM)

    MedlinePlus

    ... xml).find('event_item').each(function(i){ var city = $(this).find('city').text(); var state = $(this).find('state').text(); var date = $(this).find('date').text(); if ((city != "") && (state != "")){ var citystate = ' | ' + city + ', ' + state; } else if ((city == "") && ( ...

  4. Isolation and molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis from Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) from Zambia.

    PubMed

    Malama, Sydney; Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Muma, John Bwalya; Mwanza, Sydney; Djønne, Berit; Godfroid, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a chronic bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Infections due to M. bovis, which serves as a stable reservoir, can pose serious challenge to control and eradicate in both wildlife and livestock at the interface. This study aimed at isolating and characterizing M. bovis from Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) and black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani) at the animal/human interface in Zambia. The samples with lesions compatible with BTB collected during the hunting seasons of 2009 and 2010 were cultured for isolation of mycobacteria using Stonebrink with pyruvate (BD Diagnostics, MD, USA) and Middlebrook 7H10 (BD Diagnostics) slants. Isolated mycobacteria were identified using IS6110 polymerase chain reaction and deletion analysis. Molecular characterization of the isolates was performed using spoligotyping and mycobacteria interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) with nine loci. Data was analyzed using BioNumerics software 6.1. Out of the 39 samples, acid fast bacilli were detected in 27 (69.2 %) based on smear microscopy. Seven isolates were found to belong to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, and all were identified as M. bovis based on deletion analysis. All seven isolates were identical on spoligotyping as belonging to the SB0120 (SIT 482). MIRU-VNTR differentiated the isolates into five different patterns. This study has confirmed that M. bovis circulates in the Kafue lechwe, and non-tuberculous mycobacteria were detected in the black lechwe in Zambia which represents a wildlife reservoir, with a potential to spillover to cattle and humans. Isolates of M. bovis from lechwe antelopes are much conserved as only one spoligotype was detected. The study has shown that three loci differentiated fairly well. This option is cheap and less laborious, and hence a better option in resource-strained country like Zambia. The study further showed that some of the loci recommended by the European

  5. MICOBACTERIUM PARATUBERCULOSIS AND NONTUBERCULOUS MYCOBACTERIAL IN POTABLE WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) include Mycobacterium species that are not members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex. Members of the NTM group are important causes of disease in birds and mammals. Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare and Mycobacterium parat...

  6. Molecular Detection and Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex and Four Clinically Important Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Species in Smear-Negative Clinical Samples by the GenoType Mycobacteria Direct Test ▿

    PubMed Central

    Bicmen, Can; Gunduz, Ayriz T.; Coskun, Meral; Senol, Gunes; Cirak, A. Kadri; Ozsoz, Ayse

    2011-01-01

    Although the sensitivity and specificity of nucleic acid amplification assays are high with smear-positive samples, the sensitivity with smear-negative and extrapulmonary samples for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in suspicious tuberculosis cases still remains to be investigated. This study evaluates the performance of the GenoType Mycobacteria Direct (GTMD) test for rapid molecular detection and identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and four clinically important nontuberculous mycobacteria (M. avium, M. intracellulare, M. kansasii, and M. malmoense) in smear-negative samples. A total of 1,570 samples (1,103 bronchial aspiration, 127 sputum, and 340 extrapulmonary samples) were analyzed. When we evaluated the performance criteria in combination with a positive culture result and/or the clinical outcome of the patients, the overall sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were found to be 62.4, 99.5, 95.9, and 93.9%, respectively, whereas they were 63.2, 99.4, 95.7, and 92.8%, respectively, for pulmonary samples and 52.9, 100, 100, and 97.6%, respectively, for extrapulmonary samples. Among the culture-positive samples which had Mycobacterium species detectable by the GTMD test, three samples were identified to be M. intracellulare and one sample was identified to be M. avium. However, five M. intracellulare samples and an M. kansasii sample could not be identified by the molecular test and were found to be negative. The GTMD test has been a reliable, practical, and easy tool for rapid diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis so that effective precautions may be taken and appropriate treatment may be initiated. However, the low sensitivity level should be considered in the differentiation of suspected tuberculosis and some other clinical condition until the culture result is found to be negative and a true picture of the clinical outcome is obtained. PMID:21653780

  7. Rapid and accurate identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and common non-tuberculous mycobacteria by multiplex real-time PCR targeting different housekeeping genes.

    PubMed

    Nasr Esfahani, Bahram; Rezaei Yazdi, Hadi; Moghim, Sharareh; Ghasemian Safaei, Hajieh; Zarkesh Esfahani, Hamid

    2012-11-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of mycobacteria isolates from primary culture is important due to timely and appropriate antibiotic therapy. Conventional methods for identification of Mycobacterium species based on biochemical tests needs several weeks and may remain inconclusive. In this study, a novel multiplex real-time PCR was developed for rapid identification of Mycobacterium genus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and the most common non-tuberculosis mycobacteria species including M. abscessus, M. fortuitum, M. avium complex, M. kansasii, and the M. gordonae in three reaction tubes but under same PCR condition. Genetic targets for primer designing included the 16S rDNA gene, the dnaJ gene, the gyrB gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS). Multiplex real-time PCR was setup with reference Mycobacterium strains and was subsequently tested with 66 clinical isolates. Results of multiplex real-time PCR were analyzed with melting curves and melting temperature (T (m)) of Mycobacterium genus, MTC, and each of non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium species were determined. Multiplex real-time PCR results were compared with amplification and sequencing of 16S-23S rDNA ITS for identification of Mycobacterium species. Sensitivity and specificity of designed primers were each 100 % for MTC, M. abscessus, M. fortuitum, M. avium complex, M. kansasii, and M. gordonae. Sensitivity and specificity of designed primer for genus Mycobacterium was 96 and 100 %, respectively. According to the obtained results, we conclude that this multiplex real-time PCR with melting curve analysis and these novel primers can be used for rapid and accurate identification of genus Mycobacterium, MTC, and the most common non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium species.

  8. Nontuberculous mycobacterial disease following hot tub exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Mangione, E. J.; Huitt, G.; Lenaway, D.; Beebe, J.; Bailey, A.; Figoski, M.; Rau, M. P.; Albrecht, K. D.; Yakrus, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been recognized as an important cause of disease in immunocompromised hosts. Pulmonary disease caused by NTM is increasingly recognized in previously healthy persons. Investigation of pulmonary disease affecting a family of five identified an indoor hot tub as the source of NTM-related disease. PMID:11747738

  9. 16S-23S Internal Transcribed Spacer Region PCR and Sequencer-Based Capillary Gel Electrophoresis has Potential as an Alternative to High Performance Liquid Chromatography for Identification of Slowly Growing Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Subedi, Shradha; Kong, Fanrong; Jelfs, Peter; Gray, Timothy J.; Xiao, Meng; Sintchenko, Vitali; Chen, Sharon C-A

    2016-01-01

    Accurate identification of slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (SG-NTM) of clinical significance remains problematic. This study evaluated a novel method of SG-NTM identification by amplification of the mycobacterial 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region followed by resolution of amplified fragments by sequencer-based capillary gel electrophoresis (SCGE). Fourteen American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains and 103 clinical/environmental isolates (total n = 24 species) of SG-NTM were included. Identification was compared with that achieved by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), in-house PCR and 16S/ITS sequencing. Isolates of all species yielded a SCGE profile comprising a single fragment length (or peak) except for M. scrofulaceum (two peaks). SCGE peaks of ATCC strains were distinct except for peak overlap between Mycobacterium kansasii and M. marinum. Of clinical/environmental strains, unique peaks were seen for 7/17 (41%) species (M. haemophilum, M. kubicae, M. lentiflavum, M. terrae, M. kansasii, M. asiaticum and M. triplex); 3/17 (18%) species were identified by HPLC. There were five SCGE fragment length types (I–V) each of M. avium, M. intracellulare and M. gordonae. Overlap of fragment lengths was seen between M. marinum and M. ulcerans; for M. gordonae SCGE type III and M. paragordonae; M. avium SCGE types III and IV, and M. intracellulare SCGE type I; M. chimaera, M. parascrofulaceum and M. intracellulare SCGE types III and IV; M. branderi and M. avium type V; and M. vulneris and M. intracellulare type V. The ITS-SCGE method was able to provide the first line rapid and reproducible species identification/screening of SG-NTM and was more discriminatory than HPLC. PMID:27749897

  10. 16S-23S Internal Transcribed Spacer Region PCR and Sequencer-Based Capillary Gel Electrophoresis has Potential as an Alternative to High Performance Liquid Chromatography for Identification of Slowly Growing Nontuberculous Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Shradha; Kong, Fanrong; Jelfs, Peter; Gray, Timothy J; Xiao, Meng; Sintchenko, Vitali; Chen, Sharon C-A

    2016-01-01

    Accurate identification of slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (SG-NTM) of clinical significance remains problematic. This study evaluated a novel method of SG-NTM identification by amplification of the mycobacterial 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region followed by resolution of amplified fragments by sequencer-based capillary gel electrophoresis (SCGE). Fourteen American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains and 103 clinical/environmental isolates (total n = 24 species) of SG-NTM were included. Identification was compared with that achieved by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), in-house PCR and 16S/ITS sequencing. Isolates of all species yielded a SCGE profile comprising a single fragment length (or peak) except for M. scrofulaceum (two peaks). SCGE peaks of ATCC strains were distinct except for peak overlap between Mycobacterium kansasii and M. marinum. Of clinical/environmental strains, unique peaks were seen for 7/17 (41%) species (M. haemophilum, M. kubicae, M. lentiflavum, M. terrae, M. kansasii, M. asiaticum and M. triplex); 3/17 (18%) species were identified by HPLC. There were five SCGE fragment length types (I-V) each of M. avium, M. intracellulare and M. gordonae. Overlap of fragment lengths was seen between M. marinum and M. ulcerans; for M. gordonae SCGE type III and M. paragordonae; M. avium SCGE types III and IV, and M. intracellulare SCGE type I; M. chimaera, M. parascrofulaceum and M. intracellulare SCGE types III and IV; M. branderi and M. avium type V; and M. vulneris and M. intracellulare type V. The ITS-SCGE method was able to provide the first line rapid and reproducible species identification/screening of SG-NTM and was more discriminatory than HPLC.

  11. Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary infections

    PubMed Central

    Odell, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary infections due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are increasingly recognized worldwide. Although over 150 different species of NTM have been described, pulmonary infections are most commonly due to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), Mycobacterium kansasii, and Mycobacterium abscessus. The identification of these organisms in pulmonary specimens does not always equate with active infection; supportive radiographic and clinical findings are needed to establish the diagnosis. It is difficult to eradicate NTM infections. A prolonged course of therapy with a combination of drugs is required. Unfortunately, recurrent infection with new strains of mycobacteria or a relapse of infection caused by the original organism is not uncommon. Surgical resection is appropriate in selected cases of localized disease or in cases in which the infecting organism is resistant to medical therapy. Additionally, surgery may be required for infections complicated by hemoptysis or abscess formation. This review will summarize the practical aspects of the diagnosis and management of NTM thoracic infections, with emphasis on the indications for surgery and the results of surgical intervention. The management of NTM disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections is beyond the scope of this article and, unless otherwise noted, comments apply to hosts without HIV infection PMID:24624285

  12. Nontuberculous mycobacterial osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Sheng; Hu, Fei-Shu; Yu, Hai-Ying; Xu, Kai-Jin; Zheng, Bei-Wen; Ji, Zhong-Kang; Li, Jun-Jie; Deng, Mei; Hu, Hai-Yang; Sheng, Ji-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Osteomyelitis caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) can have severe consequences and a poor prognosis. Physicians therefore need to be alert to this condition, especially in immunocompromised patients. Although the pathogenesis of NTM osteomyelitis is still unclear, studies in immunodeficient individuals have revealed close relationships between NTM osteomyelitis and defects associated with the interleukin-12–interferon-γ–tumor necrosis factor-α axis, as well as human immunodeficiency virus infection, various immunosuppressive conditions, and diabetes mellitus. Culture and species identification from tissue biopsies or surgical debridement tissue play crucial roles in diagnosing NTM osteomyelitis. Suitable imaging examinations are also important. Adequate surgical debridement and the choice of appropriate, combined antibiotics for long-term anti-mycobacterial chemotherapy, based on in vitro drug susceptibility tests, are the main therapies for these bone infections. Bacillus Calmette–Guerin vaccination might have limited prophylactic value. The use of multiple drugs and long duration of treatment mean that the therapeutic process needs to be monitored closely to detect potential side effects. Adequate duration of anti-mycobacterial chemotherapy together with regular monitoring with blood and imaging tests are key factors determining the recovery outcome in patients with NTM osteomyelitis. PMID:25915177

  13. Nontuberculous mycobacterial osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Bi, Sheng; Hu, Fei-Shu; Yu, Hai-Ying; Xu, Kai-Jin; Zheng, Bei-Wen; Ji, Zhong-Kang; Li, Jun-Jie; Deng, Mei; Hu, Hai-Yang; Sheng, Ji-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Osteomyelitis caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) can have severe consequences and a poor prognosis. Physicians therefore need to be alert to this condition, especially in immunocompromised patients. Although the pathogenesis of NTM osteomyelitis is still unclear, studies in immunodeficient individuals have revealed close relationships between NTM osteomyelitis and defects associated with the interleukin-12-interferon-γ-tumor necrosis factor-α axis, as well as human immunodeficiency virus infection, various immunosuppressive conditions, and diabetes mellitus. Culture and species identification from tissue biopsies or surgical debridement tissue play crucial roles in diagnosing NTM osteomyelitis. Suitable imaging examinations are also important. Adequate surgical debridement and the choice of appropriate, combined antibiotics for long-term anti-mycobacterial chemotherapy, based on in vitro drug susceptibility tests, are the main therapies for these bone infections. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination might have limited prophylactic value. The use of multiple drugs and long duration of treatment mean that the therapeutic process needs to be monitored closely to detect potential side effects. Adequate duration of anti-mycobacterial chemotherapy together with regular monitoring with blood and imaging tests are key factors determining the recovery outcome in patients with NTM osteomyelitis.

  14. Microbiological diagnosis of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    van Ingen, Jakko

    2015-03-01

    Pulmonary disease is by far the most frequent disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). To diagnose NTM pulmonary disease (NTM-PD), patients should have symptoms and radiologic signs suggestive of NTM-PD, and cultures of multiple respiratory tract samples must grow the same NTM species. Thus, the microbiological laboratory has a central role in the diagnosis of NTM-PD. This review summarizes currently available data on techniques involved in the microbiological diagnosis of NTM-PD, and aims to provide a framework for optimal microbiological diagnosis.

  15. Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infection after Fractionated CO2 Laser Resurfacing

    PubMed Central

    Culton, Donna A.; Miller, Becky A.; Miller, Melissa B.; MacKuen, Courteney; Groben, Pamela; White, Becky; Cox, Gary M.; Stout, Jason E.

    2013-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria are increasingly associated with cutaneous infections after cosmetic procedures. Fractionated CO2 resurfacing, a widely used technique for photorejuvenation, has been associated with a more favorable side effect profile than alternative procedures. We describe 2 cases of nontuberculous mycobacterial infection after treatment with a fractionated CO2 laser at a private clinic. Densely distributed erythematous papules and pustules developed within the treated area within 2 weeks of the laser procedure. Diagnosis was confirmed by histologic analysis and culture. Both infections responded to a 4-month course of a multidrug regimen. An environmental investigation of the clinic was performed, but no source of infection was found. The case isolates differed from each other and from isolates obtained from the clinic, suggesting that the infection was acquired by postprocedure exposure. Papules and pustules after fractionated CO2 resurfacing should raise the suspicion of nontuberculous mycobacterial infection. PMID:23628077

  16. NONTUBERCULOUS MYCOBACYERIA SPP ISOLATED FROM RESIDENTS OF KING COUNTY, WASHINGTON, 1999-2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Pathogenic nontuberculous Mycobacteria spp. (NTM) are not known to be transmitted among persons, but may be acquired from exposure to contaminated media such as soil, food and water. We examined the spectrum of NTM isolated from human specimens in King County, WA.
    ...

  17. Outbreak of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Subcutaneous Infections Related to Multiple Mesotherapy Injections▿

    PubMed Central

    Carbonne, Anne; Brossier, Florence; Arnaud, Isabelle; Bougmiza, Iheb; Caumes, Eric; Meningaud, Jean-Paul; Dubrou, Sylvie; Jarlier, Vincent; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Astagneau, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    We describe an outbreak of severe subcutaneous infections due to nontuberculous mycobacteria following mesotherapy. Epidemiological studies and molecular comparisons of Mycobacterium chelonae strains from different patients and the environment suggested that contamination may be associated with inappropriate cleaning of the multiple-injection device with tap water. PMID:19386853

  18. Natural and acquired macrolide resistance in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Doucet-Populaire, F; Buriánková, K; Weiser, J; Pernodet, J-L

    2002-12-01

    The genus Mycobacterium contains two of the most important human pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, the etiologic agents of tuberculosis and leprosy, respectively. Other mycobacteria are mostly saprophytic organisms, living in soil and water, but some of them can cause opportunistic infections. The increasing incidence of tuberculosis as well as infections with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in AIDS patients has renewed interest in molecular mechanisms of drug resistance in these pathogens. Mycobacteria show a high degree of intrinsic resistance to most common antibiotics. For instance, species from the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC) are intrinsically resistant to macrolides. Nevertheless, some semi-synthetic macrolides as the erythromycin derivatives clarithromycin, azithromycin and most recently the ketolides, are active against NTM, particularly Mycobacterium avium, and some of them are widely used for infection treatment. However, shortly after the introduction of these new drugs, resistant strains appeared due to mutations in the macrolide target, the ribosome. The mycobacterial cell wall with its specific composition and structure is considered to be a major factor in promoting the natural resistance of mycobacteria to various antibiotics. However, to explain the difference in macrolide sensitivity between the MTC and NTM, the synergistic contribution of a specific resistance mechanism might be required, in addition to possible differences in cell wall permeability. This mini-review summarizes the current knowledge on the natural and acquired macrolide resistance in mycobacteria, gives an overview of potential mechanisms implicated in the intrinsic resistance and brings recent data concerning a macrolide resistance determinant in the MTC.

  19. Host Response to Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections of Current Clinical Importance

    PubMed Central

    Orme, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    The nontuberculous mycobacteria are a large group of acid-fast bacteria that are very widely distributed in the environment. While Mycobacterium avium was once regarded as innocuous, its high frequency as a cause of disseminated disease in HIV-positive individuals illustrated its potential as a pathogen. Much more recently, there is growing evidence that the incidence of M. avium and related nontuberculous species is increasing in immunocompetent individuals. The same has been observed for M. abscessus infections, which are very difficult to treat; accordingly, this review focuses primarily on these two important pathogens. Like the host response to M. tuberculosis infections, the host response to these infections is of the TH1 type but there are some subtle and as-yet-unexplained differences. PMID:24914222

  20. Cluster of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Skin Infections from Tattoos

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    as lichen planus, psoriasis, sarcoidosis , and systemic lupus erythematosus have been shown to develop within the borders of tattoos (Ref 10,11...Development of Sarcoidosis in Cosmetic Tattoos,” Archives of Dermatology, 141, 2005, pp. 869-72. 11. Tanzi EL, Michael E, “Tattoo Reactions,” E

  1. Use of MALDI-TOF MS for Identification of Nontuberculous Mycobacterium Species Isolated from Clinical Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Mediavilla-Gradolph, María Concepción; De Toro-Peinado, Inmaculada; Bermúdez-Ruiz, María Pilar; García-Martínez, María de los Ángeles; Ortega-Torres, María; Montiel Quezel-Guerraz, Natalia; Palop-Borrás, Begoña

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the results obtained for identification by MALDI-TOF of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolated in clinical samples with those obtained by GenoType Mycobacterium CM/AS (common mycobacteria/additional species). A total of 66 Mycobacterium isolates from various clinical specimens (mainly respiratory) were tested in this study. They were identified using MALDI-TOF Bruker from strains isolated in Lowenstein, following the recommended protocol of heat inactivation and extraction, and were simultaneously analyzed through hybridization by GenoType Mycobacterium from liquid culture MGIT. Our results showed that identification by MALDI-TOF was correct in 98.4% (65/66) of NTM isolated in our clinical practice (M. avium, M. intracellulare, M. abscessus, M. chelonae, M. fortuitum, M. mucogenicum, M. kansasii, and M. scrofulaceum). MALDI-TOF was found to be an accurate, rapid, and cost-effective system for identification of mycobacteria species. PMID:26106617

  2. [Methods for determining the antimicrobial susceptibility of mycobacteria].

    PubMed

    Alcaide, Fernando; Esteban, Jaime; González-Martin, Julià; Palacios, Juan-José

    2016-05-25

    Mycobacteria are a large group of microorganisms, multiple species of which are major causes of morbidity and mortality, such as tuberculosis and leprosy. At present, the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex are one of the most serious health problems worldwide. Furthermore, in contrast to M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are more frequently isolated and, in many cases, treatment is based on drug susceptibility testing. This article is a review of the different methods to determine the in vitro drug susceptibility of M. tuberculosis complex and the most relevant NTM isolates. The molecular techniques currently used for rapid detection of resistance of clinical specimens are also analysed.

  3. First Detection of Mycobacteria in African Rodents and Insectivores, Using Stratified Pool Screening▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Durnez, Lies; Eddyani, Miriam; Mgode, Georgies F.; Katakweba, Abdul; Katholi, Charles R.; Machang'u, Robert R.; Kazwala, Rudovik R.; Portaels, Françoise; Leirs, Herwig

    2008-01-01

    With the rising number of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS in developing countries, the control of mycobacteria is of growing importance. Previous studies have shown that rodents and insectivores are carriers of mycobacteria. However, it is not clear how widespread mycobacteria are in these animals and what their role is in spreading them. Therefore, the prevalence of mycobacteria in rodents and insectivores was studied in and around Morogoro, Tanzania. Live rodents were trapped, with three types of live traps, in three habitats. Pieces of organs were pooled per habitat, species, and organ type (stratified pooling); these sample pools were examined for the presence of mycobacteria by PCR, microscopy, and culture methods. The mycobacterial isolates were identified using phenotypic techniques and sequencing. In total, 708 small mammals were collected, 31 of which were shrews. By pool prevalence estimation, 2.65% of the animals were carriers of mycobacteria, with a higher prevalence in the urban areas and in Cricetomys gambianus and the insectivore Crocidura hirta. Nontuberculous mycobacteria (Mycobacterium chimaera, M. intracellulare, M. arupense, M. parascrofulaceum, and Mycobacterium spp.) were isolated from C. gambianus, Mastomys natalensis, and C. hirta. This study is the first to report findings of mycobacteria in African rodents and insectivores and the first in mycobacterial ecology to estimate the prevalence of mycobacteria after stratified pool screening. The fact that small mammals in urban areas carry more mycobacteria than those in the fields and that potentially pathogenic mycobacteria were isolated identifies a risk for other animals and humans, especially HIV/AIDS patients, that have a weakened immune system. PMID:18065608

  4. First detection of mycobacteria in African rodents and insectivores, using stratified pool screening.

    PubMed

    Durnez, Lies; Eddyani, Miriam; Mgode, Georgies F; Katakweba, Abdul; Katholi, Charles R; Machang'u, Robert R; Kazwala, Rudovik R; Portaels, Françoise; Leirs, Herwig

    2008-02-01

    With the rising number of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS in developing countries, the control of mycobacteria is of growing importance. Previous studies have shown that rodents and insectivores are carriers of mycobacteria. However, it is not clear how widespread mycobacteria are in these animals and what their role is in spreading them. Therefore, the prevalence of mycobacteria in rodents and insectivores was studied in and around Morogoro, Tanzania. Live rodents were trapped, with three types of live traps, in three habitats. Pieces of organs were pooled per habitat, species, and organ type (stratified pooling); these sample pools were examined for the presence of mycobacteria by PCR, microscopy, and culture methods. The mycobacterial isolates were identified using phenotypic techniques and sequencing. In total, 708 small mammals were collected, 31 of which were shrews. By pool prevalence estimation, 2.65% of the animals were carriers of mycobacteria, with a higher prevalence in the urban areas and in Cricetomys gambianus and the insectivore Crocidura hirta. Nontuberculous mycobacteria (Mycobacterium chimaera, M. intracellulare, M. arupense, M. parascrofulaceum, and Mycobacterium spp.) were isolated from C. gambianus, Mastomys natalensis, and C. hirta. This study is the first to report findings of mycobacteria in African rodents and insectivores and the first in mycobacterial ecology to estimate the prevalence of mycobacteria after stratified pool screening. The fact that small mammals in urban areas carry more mycobacteria than those in the fields and that potentially pathogenic mycobacteria were isolated identifies a risk for other animals and humans, especially HIV/AIDS patients, that have a weakened immune system.

  5. In Vitro Synergy between Clofazimine and Amikacin in Treatment of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Totten, Sarah E.; Helstrom, Niels K.; Heifets, Leonid B.; Boeree, Martin J.; Daley, Charles L.

    2012-01-01

    Disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is increasing in frequency. The outcome of treatment for NTM lung disease is poor, particularly lung disease caused by Mycobacterium simiae and M. abscessus. Exploring synergy between active available drugs is a sensible way forward given the lack of new active drugs. We tested for synergy between amikacin and clofazimine, using standardized methods, in 564 consecutive clinical isolates identified as 21 species of rapidly growing mycobacteria, 16 clinical M. avium complex isolates, and 10 M. simiae isolates. Clofazimine and amikacin are each active in vitro against NTM; 97% (n = 548) of the rapid growers revealed MICs of clofazimine of ≤1 μg/ml, and 93% (n = 524) proved susceptible to amikacin. The combination showed significant synergistic activity in 56 of 68 (82%) eligible M. abscessus isolates, 4 of 5 M. chelonae isolates, and 1 M. fortuitum and 1 M. cosmeticum isolate, with 4- to 8-fold decreases in MICs to both drugs. Significant synergy could also be demonstrated against all M. avium complex and M. simiae isolates, with fractional inhibitory concentrations of <0.5. Clofazimine and amikacin show significant synergistic activity against both rapidly and slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria. The safety and tolerability of adding clofazimine to amikacin-containing regimens should be tested in clinical trials, and the results of susceptibility tests for these two compounds and their combination merit clinical validation. Synergy between clofazimine and other antibiotics with intracellular targets should be explored. PMID:23027189

  6. The water environment as a source of potentially pathogenic mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Makovcova, Jitka; Slany, Michal; Babak, Vladimir; Slana, Iva; Kralik, Petr

    2014-06-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous organisms of a wide variety of environmental reservoirs, including natural and municipal water, soil, aerosols, protozoans, animals and humans. Several of these species are potential pathogens which affect human health. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of NTM in the water environment. Samples were taken from 13 water-related facilities including fish ponds, storage ponds, drinking water reservoirs and an experimental recirculation system. Altogether, 396 samples of water, sediment and aquatic plants were collected and analysed. All samples were examined using conventional culture methods. Suspected microbial isolates were subjected to polymerase chain reaction analysis and identified using partial sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA gene. The culture revealed 94/396 samples (23.7%) that contained mycobacteria. Among known NTM we identified potentially pathogenic mycobacteria isolated from the fresh water environment for the first time: Mycobacterium asiaticum, M. chimaera, M. interjectum, M. kumamotonense, M. lentiflavum, M. montefiorense, M. nebraskense, M. paraffinicum and M. simiae. Epidemiologic studies suggest that the natural water environment is the principal source of human exposure. Our results indicate that besides the well-known potentially pathogenic mycobacteria it is important to observe occurrence, proliferation and persistence of newly discovered mycobacterial species.

  7. Microscopy, culture, and quantitative real-time PCR examination confirm internalization of mycobacteria in plants.

    PubMed

    Kaevska, M; Lvoncik, S; Slana, I; Kulich, P; Kralik, P

    2014-07-01

    The environment is a reservoir of nontuberculous mycobacteria and is considered a source of infection for animals and humans. Mycobacteria can persist in different types of environments for a relatively long time. We have studied their possible internalization into plant tissue through intact, as well as damaged, root systems of different types of plants grown in vitro and under field conditions. The substrate into which plants were seeded was previously contaminated with different strains of Mycobacterium avium (10(8) to 10(10) cells/g of soil) and feces from animals with paratuberculosis. We detected M. avium subsp. avium, hominissuis, and paratuberculosis in the stems and leaves of the plants by both culture and real-time quantitative PCR. The presence of mycobacteria in the plant tissues was confirmed by microscopy. The concentration of mycobacteria found inside plant tissue was several orders of magnitude lower (up to 10(4) cells/g of tissue) than the initial concentration of mycobacteria present in the culture medium or substrate. These findings led us to the hypothesis that plants may play a role in the spread and transmission of mycobacteria to other organisms in the environment.

  8. The genomics of mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Viale, M N; Zumárraga, M J; Araújo, F R; Zarraga, A M; Cataldi, A A; Romano, M I; Bigi, F

    2016-04-01

    The species Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis are the causal agents, respectively, of tuberculosis and paratuberculosis in animals. Both mycobacteria, especially M. bovis, are also important to public health because they can infect humans. In recent years, this and the impact of tuberculosis and paratuberculosis on animal production have led to significant advances in knowledge about both pathogens and their host interactions. This article describes the contribution of genomics and functional genomics to studies of the evolution, virulence, epidemiology and diagnosis of both these pathogenic mycobacteria.

  9. Use of the BACTEC Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube 960 automated system for recovery of Mycobacteria from 9,558 extrapulmonary specimens, including urine samples.

    PubMed

    Hillemann, Doris; Richter, Elvira; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine

    2006-11-01

    The BACTEC Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube 960 (MGIT 960) system was applied for recovery of mycobacteria from extrapulmonary specimens and compared with solid media (Löwenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink). A total of 9,558 specimens were investigated, comprising 3,074 body fluids, 1,878 tissues, and 2,069 urine samples, from which the recovery of mycobacteria was not yet established for MGIT 960. In total, the MGIT 960 was able to detect 446 (90.3%) of the 494 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and 223 (86.0%) out of the 259 isolates of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). In comparison to this, culture on solid medium revealed 358 (72.6%) MTBC isolates and 164 (66.8%) NTM isolates. While 136 (27.6%) of the MTBC isolates and 95 (19.2%) of the NTM isolates were recovered from the MGIT 960 only, 48 (9.7%) of the MTBC isolates and 36 (13.9%) NTM isolates grew only on solid media. Thus, the overall sensitivities for the recovery of mycobacteria from extrapulmonary specimens with MGIT 960 and solid media were 88.8% and 69.3%, respectively. However, the efficiency of the MGIT 960 system can be maximized with additional culture on solid media.

  10. Use of the BACTEC Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube 960 Automated System for Recovery of Mycobacteria from 9,558 Extrapulmonary Specimens, Including Urine Samples▿

    PubMed Central

    Hillemann, Doris; Richter, Elvira; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine

    2006-01-01

    The BACTEC Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube 960 (MGIT 960) system was applied for recovery of mycobacteria from extrapulmonary specimens and compared with solid media (Löwenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink). A total of 9,558 specimens were investigated, comprising 3,074 body fluids, 1,878 tissues, and 2,069 urine samples, from which the recovery of mycobacteria was not yet established for MGIT 960. In total, the MGIT 960 was able to detect 446 (90.3%) of the 494 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and 223 (86.0%) out of the 259 isolates of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). In comparison to this, culture on solid medium revealed 358 (72.6%) MTBC isolates and 164 (66.8%) NTM isolates. While 136 (27.6%) of the MTBC isolates and 95 (19.2%) of the NTM isolates were recovered from the MGIT 960 only, 48 (9.7%) of the MTBC isolates and 36 (13.9%) NTM isolates grew only on solid media. Thus, the overall sensitivities for the recovery of mycobacteria from extrapulmonary specimens with MGIT 960 and solid media were 88.8% and 69.3%, respectively. However, the efficiency of the MGIT 960 system can be maximized with additional culture on solid media. PMID:17005737

  11. First evidence of amoebae-mycobacteria association in drinking water network.

    PubMed

    Delafont, Vincent; Mougari, Faïza; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Joyeux, Michel; Bouchon, Didier; Héchard, Yann; Moulin, Laurent

    2014-10-21

    Free-living amoebae are protozoa ubiquitously found in water systems. They mainly feed on bacteria by phagocytosis, but some bacterial species are able to resist or even escape this lethal process. Among these amoeba resistant bacteria are numerous members of the genus Mycobacterium. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are opportunistic pathogens that share the same ecological niches as amoebae. While several studies have demonstrated the ability of these bacteria to colonise and persist within drinking water networks, there is also strong suspicion that mycobacteria could use amoebae as a vehicle for protection and even replication. We investigated here the presence of NTM and FLA on a drinking water network during an all year round sampling campaign. We observed that 87.6% of recovered amoebal cultures carried high numbers of NTM. Identification of these amoeba and mycobacteria strains indicated that the main genera found in drinking water networks, that is, Acanthamoeba, Vermamoeba, Echinamoeba, and Protacanthamoeba are able to carry and likely to allow replication of several environmental and potentially pathogenic mycobacteria including M. llatzerense and M. chelonae. Direct Sanger sequencing as well as pyrosequencing of environmental isolates demonstrated the frequent association of mycobacteria and FLA, as they are part of the most represented genera composing amoebae's microbiome. This is the first time that an association between FLA and NTM is observed in water networks, highlighting the importance of FLA in the ecology of NTM.

  12. Diagnosis and Treatment of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease: Clinicians' Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Yon Ju; Koh, Won-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are emerging pathogens that affect both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. The incidence and prevalence of NTM lung disease are increasing worldwide and rapidly becoming a major public health problem. For the diagnosis of NTM lung disease, patients suspected to have NTM lung disease are required to meet all clinical and microbiologic criteria. The development of molecular methods allows the characterization of new species and NTM identification at a subspecies level. Even after the identification of NTM species from respiratory specimens, clinicians should consider the clinical significance of such findings. Besides the limited options, treatment is lengthy and varies by species, and therefore a challenge. Treatment may be complicated by potential toxicity with discouraging outcomes. The decision to start treatment for NTM lung disease is not easy and requires careful individualized analysis of risks and benefits. Clinicians should be alert to those unique aspects of NTM lung disease concerning diagnosis with advanced molecular methods and treatment with limited options. Current recommendations and recent advances for diagnosis and treatment of NTM lung disease are summarized in this article. PMID:27066084

  13. Diagnosis and Treatment of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong-Soo; Koh, Won-Jung

    2016-05-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous organisms; their isolation from clinical specimens does not always indicate clinical disease. The incidence of NTM lung diseases has been increasing worldwide. Although the geographic diversity of NTM species is well known, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), M. abscessus complex (MABC), and M. kansasii are the most commonly encountered and important etiologic organisms. Two distinct types of NTM lung diseases have been reported, namely fibrocavitary and nodular bronchiectatic forms. For laboratory diagnosis of NTM lung diseases, both liquid and solid media cultures and species-level identification are strongly recommended to enhance growth detection and determine the clinical relevance of isolates. Treatment for NTM lung diseases consists of a multidrug regimen and a long course of therapy, lasting more than 12 months after negative sputum conversion. For MAC lung disease, several new macrolide-based regimens are now recommended. For nodular bronchiectatic forms of MAC lung diseases, an intermittent three-time-weekly regimen produces outcomes similar to those of daily therapy. Treatment of MABC lung disease is very difficult, requiring long-term use of parenteral agents in combination with new macrolides. Treatment outcomes are much better for M. massiliense lung disease than for M. abscessus lung disease. Thus, precise identification of species in MABC infection is needed for the prediction of antibiotic response. Likewise, increased efforts to improve treatment outcomes and develop new agents for NTM lung disease are needed.

  14. Diagnosis and Treatment of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous organisms; their isolation from clinical specimens does not always indicate clinical disease. The incidence of NTM lung diseases has been increasing worldwide. Although the geographic diversity of NTM species is well known, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), M. abscessus complex (MABC), and M. kansasii are the most commonly encountered and important etiologic organisms. Two distinct types of NTM lung diseases have been reported, namely fibrocavitary and nodular bronchiectatic forms. For laboratory diagnosis of NTM lung diseases, both liquid and solid media cultures and species-level identification are strongly recommended to enhance growth detection and determine the clinical relevance of isolates. Treatment for NTM lung diseases consists of a multidrug regimen and a long course of therapy, lasting more than 12 months after negative sputum conversion. For MAC lung disease, several new macrolide-based regimens are now recommended. For nodular bronchiectatic forms of MAC lung diseases, an intermittent three-time-weekly regimen produces outcomes similar to those of daily therapy. Treatment of MABC lung disease is very difficult, requiring long-term use of parenteral agents in combination with new macrolides. Treatment outcomes are much better for M. massiliense lung disease than for M. abscessus lung disease. Thus, precise identification of species in MABC infection is needed for the prediction of antibiotic response. Likewise, increased efforts to improve treatment outcomes and develop new agents for NTM lung disease are needed. PMID:27134484

  15. Evaluation and management of patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Stout, Jason E

    2006-12-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are emerging pathogens increasingly associated with chronic pulmonary disease. NTM are environmental saprophytes found in soil, dust and water and, unlike Mycobacterium tuberculosis, NTM are not transmitted from person to person. Pulmonary disease caused by NTM is a particular problem in older people without underlying immune compromise. The diagnosis of NTM pulmonary disease usually requires either multiple respiratory cultures that grow NTM or heavy growth of NTM from a single bronchoscopy or lung-biopsy specimen. High resolution computed tomography is the most useful radiographic study for diagnosis and to determine the extent of disease. Treatment includes multiple medications with activity against the particular NTM species, as single-drug therapy is likely to select for resistant organisms. Data demonstrating the effectiveness of specific drug regimens for NTM pulmonary disease are limited. Clarithromycin and azithromycin form the backbone of most treatment regimens because these drugs are active against many NTM species. Drug tolerability and cost are the major barriers to successful treatment of NTM pulmonary disease. Adjunctive therapies, including mucus clearance techniques and appetite stimulants, are unproven but may be of value in management of NTM pulmonary disease. Multicenter, randomized trials of macrolide-based therapies are sorely needed to determine the safest and most effective treatments for NTM pulmonary disease.

  16. Epidemiology of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease and Tuberculosis, Hawaii, USA

    PubMed Central

    Frankland, Timothy B.; Daida, Yihe G.; Honda, Jennifer R.; Olivier, Kenneth N.; Zelazny, Adrian; Honda, Stacey; Prevots, D. Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies found Hawaiians and Asian-Americans/Pacific Islanders to be independently at increased risk for nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTMPD) and tuberculosis (TB). To better understand NTM infection and TB risk patterns in Hawaii, USA, we evaluated data on a cohort of patients in Hawaii for 2005–2013. Period prevalence of NTMPD was highest among Japanese, Chinese, and Vietnamese patients (>300/100,000 persons) and lowest among Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (50/100,000). Japanese patients were twice as likely as all other racial/ethnic groups to have Mycobacterium abscessus isolated (adjusted odds ratio 2.0, 95% CI 1.2–3.2) but were not at increased risk for infection with other mycobacteria species. In contrast, incidence of TB was stable and was lowest among Japanese patients (no cases) and highest among Filipino, Korean, and Vietnamese patients (>50/100,000). Substantial differences exist in the epidemiology of NTMPD by race/ethnicity, suggesting behavioral and biologic factors that affect disease susceptibility. PMID:28221128

  17. Duplex detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and medically important non-tuberculosis mycobacteria by real-time PCR based on the rnpB gene.

    PubMed

    Abdeldaim, Guma; Svensson, Erik; Blomberg, Jonas; Herrmann, Björn

    2016-11-01

    A duplex real-time PCR based on the rnpB gene was developed for Mycobacterium spp. The assay was specific for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) and also detected all 19 tested species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The assay was evaluated on 404 clinical samples: 290 respiratory samples and 114 from tissue and other non-respiratory body sites. M. tuberculosis was detected by culture in 40 samples and in 30 samples by the assay. The MTB assay showed a sensitivity similar to Roche Cobas Amplicor MTB-PCR (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, CA, USA). There were only nine samples with non-tuberculous mycobacteria detected by culture. Six of them were detected by the PCR assay.

  18. Novel Arenavirus, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Yuka; Moonga, Ladslav; Nakamura, Ichiro; Ohnuma, Aiko; Hang’ombe, Bernard; Takada, Ayato; Mweene, Aaron; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2011-01-01

    To investigate arenavirus in Zambia, we characterized virus from the kidneys of 5 arenavirus RNA–positive rodents (Mastomys natalensis) among 263 captured. Full-genome sequences of the viruses suggested that they were new strains similar to Lassa virus–related arenaviruses. Analyzing samples from additional rodents and other species can elucidate epizootiologic aspects of arenaviruses. PMID:22000372

  19. Novel arenavirus, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Akihiro; Thomas, Yuka; Moonga, Ladslav; Nakamura, Ichiro; Ohnuma, Aiko; Hang'ombe, Bernard; Takada, Ayato; Mweene, Aaron; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2011-10-01

    To investigate arenavirus in Zambia, we characterized virus from the kidneys of 5 arenavirus RNA-positive rodents (Mastomys natalensis) among 263 captured. Full-genome sequences of the viruses suggested that they were new strains similar to Lassa virus-related arenaviruses. Analyzing samples from additional rodents and other species can elucidate epizootiologic aspects of arenaviruses.

  20. Evaluation of Various Culture Media for Detection of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria from Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Preece, Clair L.; Wichelhaus, Thomas A.; Perry, Audrey; Jones, Amanda L.; Cummings, Stephen P.; Hogardt, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) from the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is challenging due to overgrowth by rapidly growing species that colonize the lungs of patients with CF. Extended incubation on Burkholderia cepacia selective agar (BCSA) has been recommended as an expedient culture method for the isolation of rapidly growing NTM in this setting. The aim of this study was to assess five selective media designed for the isolation of Burkholderia cepacia complex, along with two media designed for the isolation of mycobacteria (rapidly growing mycobacteria [RGM] medium and Middlebrook 7H11 agar), for their abilities to isolate NTM. All seven media were challenged with 147 isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria and 185 isolates belonging to other species. RGM medium was then compared with the most selective brand of BCSA for the isolation of NTM from 224 sputum samples from patients with CF. Different agars designed for the isolation of B. cepacia complex varied considerably in their inhibition of other bacteria and fungi. RGM medium supported the growth of all isolates of mycobacteria and was more selective than any other medium. NTM were recovered from 17 of 224 sputum samples using RGM medium, compared with only 7 samples using the most selective brand of BCSA (P = 0.023). RGM medium offers a superior option, compared to other selective agars, for the isolation of rapidly growing mycobacteria from the sputum of patients with CF. Furthermore, the convenience of using RGM medium enables routine screening for rapidly growing NTM in all submitted sputum samples from patients with CF. PMID:27098962

  1. Leveraging Advances in Tuberculosis Diagnosis and Treatment to Address Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease.

    PubMed

    Raju, Ravikiran M; Raju, Sagar M; Zhao, Yanlin; Rubin, Eric J

    2016-03-01

    The nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), defined as any mycobacterial pathogen other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium leprae, are a diverse group of pathogens that collectively cause a substantive but often unappreciated worldwide burden of illness. Although NTMs may cause illness similar to M. tuberculosis, these pathogens generally do not respond to classic tuberculosis (TB) drug regimens, resulting in misdiagnosis and poor treatment, particularly in resource-poor settings. Although a few high-quality epidemiologic surveys have been made on the topic, existing evidence suggests that NTM-associated disease is much more common than previously thought: more common than TB in the industrialized world and likely increasing in prevalence globally. Despite this evidence, these organisms remain markedly understudied, and few international grants support basic science and clinical research. Here we suggest that the considerable efforts in developing new treatments and diagnostics for TB can be harnessed in the fight against NTM-associated illnesses.

  2. Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals a Possible Novel Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterium Species with High Pathogenic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Siew Woh; Dutta, Avirup; Wong, Guat Jah; Wee, Wei Yee; Ang, Mia Yang; Siow, Cheuk Chuen

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacteria have been reported to cause a wide range of human diseases. We present the first whole-genome study of a Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium sp. UM_CSW (referred to hereafter as UM_CSW), isolated from a patient diagnosed with bronchiectasis. Our data suggest that this clinical isolate is likely a novel mycobacterial species, supported by clear evidence from molecular phylogenetic, comparative genomic, ANI and AAI analyses. UM_CSW is closely related to the Mycobacterium avium complex. While it has characteristic features of an environmental bacterium, it also shows a high pathogenic potential with the presence of a wide variety of putative genes related to bacterial virulence and shares very similar pathogenomic profiles with the known pathogenic mycobacterial species. Thus, we conclude that this possible novel Mycobacterium species should be tightly monitored for its possible causative role in human infections. PMID:27035710

  3. The looming tide of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in Portugal and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunes-Costa, Daniela; Alarico, Susana; Dalcolmo, Margareth Pretti; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Empadinhas, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are widely disseminated in the environment and an emerging cause of infectious diseases worldwide. Their remarkable natural resistance to disinfectants and antibiotics and an ability to survive under low-nutrient conditions allows NTM to colonize and persist in man-made environments such as household and hospital water distribution systems. This overlap between human and NTM environments afforded new opportunities for human exposure, and for expression of their often neglected and underestimated pathogenic potential. Some risk factors predisposing to NTM disease have been identified and are mainly associated with immune fragilities of the human host. However, infections in apparently immunocompetent persons are also increasingly reported. The purpose of this review is to bring attention to this emerging health problem in Portugal and Brazil and to emphasize the urgent need for increased surveillance and more comprehensive epidemiological data in both countries, where such information is scarce and seriously thwarts the adoption of proper preventive strategies and therapeutic options.

  4. Clinical Usefulness of PCR for Differential Diagnosis of Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infection in Paraffin-Embedded Lung Tissues.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yo Na; Kim, Kyoung Min; Choi, Ha Na; Lee, Ju Hyung; Park, Ho Sung; Jang, Kyu Yun; Moon, Woo Sung; Kang, Myoung Jae; Lee, Dong Geun; Chung, Myoung Ja

    2015-09-01

    The need for isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) from clinical specimens has increased in recent years. Our aim was to determine the clinical usefulness of PCR for differential diagnosis of tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial infection in lung tissue that show chronic granulomatous inflammation. A total of 199 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens, including 137 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), 17 NTM cases, and 45 other than mycobacterial cases were collected. We performed acid-fast staining, MTB and NTM nested PCRs, and MTB and NTM real-time PCRs. No histologic difference between MTB and NTM infections was observed. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting MTB were 70.1% and 95.1% by nested PCR, respectively, and 70.8% and 100.0% by real-time PCR, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting NTM were 52.9% and 96.15% by nested PCR, respectively, and 35.3% and 100.0% by real-time PCR, respectively. Mycobacteria were identified by acid-fast staining in 50 of 154 cases (32.5%). All 50 acid-fast staining-positive cases showed positive nested and real-time PCR results (n = 47 MTB PCR positive; n = 3 NTM PCR positive), and results agreed with final diagnosis. PCR will be useful for the rapid diagnosis of mycobacterial infection and differentiation of MTB from NTM in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens, especially in acid-fast staining-positive specimens.

  5. Animal Models of Mycobacteria Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ordway, Diane J.; Orme, Ian M.

    2011-01-01

    This unit describes the infection of mice and guinea pigs with mycobacteria via various routes, as well as necropsy methods for the determination of mycobacterial loads within target organs. Additionally, methods for cultivating mycobacteria and preparing stocks are described. The protocols outlined are primarily used for M. tuberculosis, but can also be used for the study of other non-tuberculosis mycobacterial species. PMID:18432756

  6. Nontuberculous mycobacterial infection of the musculoskeletal system in immunocompetent hosts

    PubMed Central

    Gundavda, Manit K; Patil, Hitendra G; Agashe, Vikas M; Soman, Rajeev; Rodriques, Camilla; Deshpande, Ramesh B

    2017-01-01

    Background: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) were considered saprophytic organisms for many years but now are recognized as human pathogens. Although humans are routinely exposed to NTM, the rate of clinical infection is low. Such infections usually occur in the elderly and in patients who are immunocompromised. However, there has been an increasing incidence in recent years of infections in immunocompetent hosts. NTM infections in immunocompetent individuals are secondary to direct inoculation either contamination from surgical procedures or penetrating injuries rather than hematogenous dissemination. Clinically and on histopathology, musculoskeletal infections caused by NTM resemble those caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis but are mostly resistant to routine antituberculosis medicines. Materials and Methods: Six cases of NTM infection in immunocompetent hosts presenting to the department from 2004 to 2015 were included in study. Of which two cases (one patella and one humerus) of infection were following an open wound due to trauma while two cases (one hip and one shoulder) of infection were by inoculation following an intraarticular injection for arthrogram of the joint, one case was infection following arthroscopy of knee joint and one case (calcaneum) was infection following local injection for the treatment of plantar fasciitis. All patients underwent inaging and tissue diagnosis with samples being sent for culture, staining, and histopathology. Results: Clinical suspicion of NTM inoculation led to the correct diagnosis (four cases with culture positive and two cases with histopathological diagnosis). There treatment protocol for extrapulmonary NTM infection was radical surgical debridement and medical management based on drug sensitivity testing in culture positive cases. At a mean follow up of 3 years (range1–9 years) all patients had total remission and excellent results. Conclusions: Whenever a case of chronic granulomatous infection is encountered

  7. Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infection. A Multisystem, Multigenic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Szymanski, Eva P.; Leung, Janice M.; Fowler, Cedar J.; Haney, Carissa; Hsu, Amy P.; Chen, Fei; Duggal, Priya; Oler, Andrew J.; McCormack, Ryan; Podack, Eckhard; Drummond, Rebecca A.; Lionakis, Michail S.; Browne, Sarah K.; Prevots, D. Rebecca; Knowles, Michael; Cutting, Gary; Liu, Xinyue; Devine, Scott E.; Fraser, Claire M.; Tettelin, Hervé; Olivier, Kenneth N.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: The clinical features of patients infected with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria (PNTM) are well described, but the genetic components of infection susceptibility are not. Objectives: To examine genetic variants in patients with PNTM, their unaffected family members, and a control group. Methods: Whole-exome sequencing was done on 69 white patients with PNTM and 18 of their white unaffected family members. We performed a candidate gene analysis using immune, cystic fibrosis transmembrance conductance regulator (CFTR), cilia, and connective tissue gene sets. The numbers of patients, family members, and control subjects with variants in each category were compared, as was the average number of variants per person. Measurements and Main Results: A significantly higher number of patients with PNTM than the other subjects had low-frequency, protein-affecting variants in immune, CFTR, cilia, and connective tissue categories (35, 26, 90, and 90%, respectively). Patients with PNTM also had significantly more cilia and connective tissue variants per person than did control subjects (2.47 and 2.55 compared with 1.38 and 1.40, respectively; P = 1.4 × 10−6 and P = 2.7 × 10−8, respectively). Patients with PNTM had an average of 5.26 variants across all categories (1.98 in control subjects; P = 2.8 × 10−17), and they were more likely than control subjects to have variants in multiple categories. We observed similar results for family members without PNTM infection, with the exception of the immune category. Conclusions: Patients with PNTM have more low-frequency, protein-affecting variants in immune, CFTR, cilia, and connective tissue genes than their unaffected family members and control subjects. We propose that PNTM infection is a multigenic disease in which combinations of variants across gene categories, plus environmental exposures, increase susceptibility to the infection. PMID:26038974

  8. Nontuberculous mycobacterial infection in hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Doucette, Karen; Fishman, Jay A

    2004-05-15

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous environmental organisms. In immunocompetent hosts, they are a rare cause of disease. In immunocompromised hosts, disease due to NTM is well documented. Reports of NTM disease have increased in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) and solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. This increase may reflect increased numbers of transplants, intensification of immune suppressive regimens, prolonged survival of transplant recipients, and/or improved diagnostic techniques. The difficulty of diagnosis and the impact associated with infections due to NTM in HSCT and SOT recipients necessitates that, to ensure prompt diagnosis and early initiation of therapy, a high level of suspicion for NTM disease be maintained. The most common manifestations of NTM infection in SOT recipients include cutaneous and pleuropulmonary disease, and, in HSCT recipients, catheter-related infection. Skin and pulmonary lesions should be biopsied for histologic examination, special staining, and microbiologic cultures, including cultures for bacteria, Nocardia species, fungi, and mycobacteria. Mycobacterial infections associated with catheters may be documented by tunnel or blood (isolator) cultures. Susceptibility testing of mycobacterial isolates is an essential component of optimal care. The frequent isolation of NTM other than Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) from transplant recipients limits the extrapolation of therapeutic data from human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals to the population of transplant recipients. Issues involved in the management of NTM disease in transplant recipients are characterized by a case of disseminated infection due to Mycobacterium avium complex in a lung transplant recipient, with a review of the relevant literature.

  9. Occurrence of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Pulmonary Infection in an Endemic Area of Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Ana Roberta Fusco; Falkinham, Joseph O.; Lopes, Maria Luiza; Barretto, Adriana Rodrigues; Felicio, João Soares; Sales, Lúcia Helena Messias; Bahia, Jeann Ricardo da Costa; Conceição, Emilyn Costa; Lima, Karla Valéria Batista

    2013-01-01

    The majority of investigations of the epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have focused on highly developed nations with a low prevalence of tuberculosis. In contrast, the Para state of north Brazil represents an area of high tuberculosis prevalence and increasing NTM incidence. Toward the goal of understanding the dynamics of infection by all Mycobacterium species, we report patient characteristics and the identification of NTM strains isolated from sputum samples from patients that were residents of Para, a state in the Amazon region, Northern of Brazil, over the period January 2010 through December 2011 (2 years). The 29 NTM patients comprised 13.5% of positive mycobacterial cultures over the 2-year period. A major risk factor for NTM pulmonary disease was previous tuberculosis (76%). Further, the average age of NTM patients (52 years) was significantly higher than that of tuberculosis patients (39 years) and more were female (72.4% vs. 37.4%). Unlike other Brazilian states, NTM pulmonary patients in Para were infected with a different spectrum of mycobacteria; primarily the rapidly growing Mycobacterium massiliense and Mycobacterium simiae complex. PMID:23875055

  10. [Non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections related to esthetic care in France, 2001-2010].

    PubMed

    Couderc, C; Carbonne, A; Thiolet, J M; Brossier, F; Savey, A; Bernet, C; Ortmans, C; Lecadet-Morin, C; Coudière, I; Aggoune, M; Astagneau, P; Coignard, B; Cambau, E

    2011-07-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections usually occur in immunocompromised patients but also in immunocompetent patients following invasive procedures, especially for esthetic purposes. Since 2001, 20 episodes (57 cases) of NTM infections, seven of which (43 cases) were related to esthetic care, have been reported to the regional infection control coordinating centers (RICCC), the local health authorities (LHA), and the national institute for public health surveillance. Four notifications (40 cases) were related to non-surgical procedures performed by general practitioners in private settings: mesotherapy, carboxytherapy, and sclerosis of microvaricosities. The three other notifications (three cases) concerned surgical procedures-lifting and mammary prosthesis. Practice evaluations performed by the RICCC and LHA for five notifications showed deficiency of standard hygiene precautions and tap water misuse for injection equipment cleaning, or skin disinfection. Microbiological investigations (national reference center for mycobacteria) demonstrated the similarity of patient and environmental strains: in one episode (16 cases after mesotherapy), M. chelonae isolated from tap water was similar to those isolated from 11 cases. Healthcare-associated NTM infections are rare but have a potentially severe outcome. These cases stress the need of healthcare-associated infection notifications in outpatient settings.

  11. Utility of the MALDI-TOF MS method to identify nontuberculous mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Kodana, Masahiro; Tarumoto, Norihito; Kawamura, Tohru; Saito, Taeko; Ohno, Hideaki; Maesaki, Shigefumi; Ikebuchi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    In comparison to the conventional real-time polymerase chain reaction method (PCR method) or the DNA-DNA hybridization method (DDH method), the utility of NTM identification by the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) method has seldom been reported. In this study, 75 clinical NTM isolates from our hospital between April 2013 and July 2014 were identified and analyzed using PCR, DDH, and MALDI-TOF MS methods, and the results for the MALDI-TOF MS method were compared with the others. Identification at the species level was in agreement for 71 (94.5%) of the 75 isolates. For further details, identification was possible for 23 (95.8%) of 24 Mycobacterium avium, 11 (100%) of 11 Mycobacterium intracellulare, and 1 (50%) of 2 isolates mixed with M. avium and M. intracellulare. Mycobacterium ksansasii, Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium gordonae, and Mycobacterium chelonae identified by DDH method were same result by MALDI-TOF MS. Additionally, Mycobacterium mucogenicum, which could not be identified by the DDH method, was identified by the MALDI-TOF MS method. However, two isolates identified as Mycobacterium terrae by DDH method could not be identified by the MALDI-TOF MS method and were determined to be Mycobacterium arupense by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequence analysis. The present findings show that, for rare bacterial species, identification is sometimes not possible, but, in most cases, the results of identification by the MALDI-TOF MS method have a high concordance rate with the results of the PCR and DDH methods.

  12. Occurrence of Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria at an Acute Care Hospital Using Secondary Drinking Water Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of infection control strategies at acute-care hospitals has contributed to an overall decline in the number of healthcare-associated infections (HAI’s) in the United States, especially those caused by contaminated equipment used in surgical procedures and co...

  13. Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens Legionella Pneumophilaand Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria in Hospital Plumbing Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) such as Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are frequently detected in the plumbing systems of large buildings. The ability of these organisms to form biofilms and to grow in phagocytic amoeba ar...

  14. Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections in a French Hospital: A 12-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Peggy; Dutronc, Hervé; Peuchant, Olivia; Dauchy, Frédéric-Antoine; Cazanave, Charles; Neau, Didier; Wirth, Gaëtane; Pellegrin, Jean-Luc; Morlat, Philippe; Mercié, Patrick; Tunon-de-Lara, José-Manuel; Doutre, Marie-Sylvie; Pélissier, Philippe; Dupon, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Background Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are environmental organisms associated with a range of infections. Reports of NTM epidemiology are mainly focused on pulmonary infections and isolations, and extrapulmonary infections are less frequently described. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of NTM infections at the Bordeaux University Hospital, France, between January 2002 and December 2013. We used the microbiologic component of the American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America's pulmonary NTM disease criteria to define cases of pulmonary NTM, and patients with isolates from a normally sterile site were classified as having extrapulmonary disease. Results In our setting, 170 patients were included. Pulmonary cases predominated (54.1%), followed by skin and soft tissue infections (22.9%), disseminated cases (10.6%), lymphadenitis (7.7%), bone and joint infections (2.9%) and the remaining 1.8% catheter-related infections. Overall, 16 NTM species were isolated. Mycobacterium avium (31.8%) and M. intracellulare (20%) were the most common species identified, followed by M. marinum (13.5%), M. kansasii (10.6%), M. xenopi (9.4%), rapidly growing mycobacteria (9.4%) and other slowly growing mycobacteria (5.3%). In general, NTM isolates were largely prevalent in people older than 50 (62.4%); patients aged 1–10 year-old exclusively yielded M. avium from lymph nodes, almost cases having being diagnosed after 2007. Among the 121 patients with complete follow-up, 78 (64.5%), 24 (19.8%), and 19 (15.7%) were cured, experienced relapse, or died, respectively. Conclusion In our study, extrapulmonary NTM infections represented almost half of cases, consisting mainly in skin and soft tissue infections. The increase lymphadenitis cases in children after 2007 could be linked to the cessation of mandatory BCG vaccination in France. We observed similar cure rates (64%) between pulmonary and extrapulmonary infections. PMID:27959960

  15. [Nontuberculous pulmonary mycobacteriosis complicated by pleuritis].

    PubMed

    Ichiki, Hiraku; Ueda, Seiya; Watanabe, Akira; Sato, Chika; Abe, Masahiro

    2011-12-01

    Pleuritis is a rare complication associated with nontuberculous mycobacteriosis of the lung and its etiology remains to be clarified. We investigated pleuritis associated with nontuberculous mycobacteriosis of the lung in 304 patients who visited our hospital. Of these, 9 patients (3%) had pleural effusion not attributable to any factor other than pleuritis; these cases were diagnosed as pleuritis. Massive pleural effusion requiring drainage was rare (1 patient, 0.3%) and pleuritis accompanied by pneumothorax was also rare (2 patients, 0.7%). The lung lesions in the patients with pleuritis were often extensive or contained a cavity. All these patients showed infection with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Although it is difficult to diagnose MAC-induced pleuritis, patients with this condition often present with at least 1 of the following signs: the presence of nontuberculous mycobacterium in pleural effusion, a predominance of lymphocytes among the cells detected in pleural effusion, a high adenosine deaminase level, and the disappearance of pleural effusion following treatment. Recognizing these signs may aid the diagnosis of MAC-induced pleuritis.

  16. Physiology of Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Gregory M.; Berney, Michael; Gebhard, Susanne; Heinemann, Matthias; Cox, Robert A.; Danilchanka, Olga; Niederweis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    mycobacteria of course stems from the diseases they cause and, lest it be imagined that tuberculosis is a disease which has now been largely conquered and that leprosy is of relatively rare occurrence, current estimates for the number of case of tuberculosis and leprosy in the world today are 20,000,000 and 11,000,000, respectively (Bechelli and Dominguez, 1972). The annual estimated mortality rate is equally dramatic, namely 3,000,000 (World Health Organization, 1974). Also causing unease is the continuing isolation from tubercular patients of strains already resistant to one or more chemotherapeutic agent”. C. Ratledge (1976). PMID:19573696

  17. Developing whole mycobacteria cell vaccines for tuberculosis: Workshop proceedings, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany, July 9, 2014.

    PubMed

    2015-06-12

    On July 9, 2014, Aeras and the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology convened a workshop entitled "Whole Mycobacteria Cell Vaccines for Tuberculosis" at the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology on the grounds of the Charité Hospital in Berlin, Germany, close to the laboratory where, in 1882, Robert Koch first identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) as the pathogen responsible for tuberculosis (TB). The purpose of the meeting was to discuss progress in the development of TB vaccines based on whole mycobacteria cells. Live whole cell TB vaccines discussed at this meeting were derived from Mtb itself, from Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the only licensed vaccine against TB, which was genetically modified to reduce pathogenicity and increase immunogenicity, or from commensal non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Inactivated whole cell TB and non-tuberculous mycobacterial vaccines, intended as immunotherapy or as safer immunization alternatives for HIV+ individuals, also were discussed. Workshop participants agreed that TB vaccine development is significantly hampered by imperfect animal models, unknown immune correlates of protection and the absence of a human challenge model. Although a more effective TB vaccine is needed to replace or enhance the limited effectiveness of BCG in all age groups, members of the workshop concurred that an effective vaccine would have the greatest impact on TB control when administered to adolescents and adults, and that use of whole mycobacteria cells as TB vaccine candidates merits greater support, particularly given the limited understanding of the specific Mtb antigens necessary to generate an immune response capable of preventing Mtb infection and/or disease.

  18. The genealogic tree of mycobacteria reveals a long-standing sympatric life into free-living protozoa.

    PubMed

    Lamrabet, Otmane; Merhej, Vicky; Pontarotti, Pierre; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Free-living protozoa allow horizontal gene transfer with and between the microorganisms that they host. They host mycobacteria for which the sources of transferred genes remain unknown. Using BLASTp, we searched within the genomes of 15 mycobacteria for homologous genes with 34 amoeba-resistant bacteria and the free-living protozoa Dictyostelium discoideum. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis of these sequences revealed that eight mycobacterial open-reading frames (ORFs) were probably acquired via horizontal transfer from beta- and gamma-Proteobacteria and from Firmicutes, but the transfer histories could not be reliably established in details. One further ORF encoding a pyridine nucleotide disulfide oxidoreductase (pyr-redox) placed non-tuberculous mycobacteria in a clade with Legionella spp., Francisella spp., Coxiella burnetii, the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila and D. discoideum with a high reliability. Co-culturing Mycobacterium avium and Legionella pneumophila with the amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga demonstrated that these two bacteria could live together in amoebae for five days, indicating the biological relevance of intra-amoebal transfer of the pyr-redox gene. In conclusion, the results of this study support the hypothesis that protists can serve as a source and a place for gene transfer in mycobacteria.

  19. The Genealogic Tree of Mycobacteria Reveals a Long-Standing Sympatric Life into Free-Living Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Lamrabet, Otmane; Merhej, Vicky; Pontarotti, Pierre; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Free-living protozoa allow horizontal gene transfer with and between the microorganisms that they host. They host mycobacteria for which the sources of transferred genes remain unknown. Using BLASTp, we searched within the genomes of 15 mycobacteria for homologous genes with 34 amoeba-resistant bacteria and the free-living protozoa Dictyostelium discoideum. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis of these sequences revealed that eight mycobacterial open-reading frames (ORFs) were probably acquired via horizontal transfer from beta- and gamma-Proteobacteria and from Firmicutes, but the transfer histories could not be reliably established in details. One further ORF encoding a pyridine nucleotide disulfide oxidoreductase (pyr-redox) placed non-tuberculous mycobacteria in a clade with Legionella spp., Francisella spp., Coxiella burnetii, the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila and D. discoideum with a high reliability. Co-culturing Mycobacterium avium and Legionella pneumophila with the amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga demonstrated that these two bacteria could live together in amoebae for five days, indicating the biological relevance of intra-amoebal transfer of the pyr-redox gene. In conclusion, the results of this study support the hypothesis that protists can serve as a source and a place for gene transfer in mycobacteria. PMID:22511965

  20. Mycobacteria in aquarium fish: results of a 3-year survey indicate caution required in handling pet-shop fish.

    PubMed

    Kušar, D; Zajc, U; Jenčič, V; Ocepek, M; Higgins, J; Žolnir-Dovč, M; Pate, M

    2016-10-17

    Fish are commonly infected with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), which should be regarded as potential pathogens when handling aquarium fish and equipment. This study examined 107 aquarium fish from pet shops. Cultivation of the fish samples using different selective media was conducted for identification of NTM. Isolates were identified using the GenoType Mycobacterium common mycobacteria and additional species assays, sequencing of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes, and real-time PCR assay for identification of Mycobacterium (M.) marinum. Among the investigated fish, 79.4% (85/107) were positive for mycobacteria, with 8.2% (7 of 85) having two mycobacterial species present. Among the positive fish, the common pathogens M. marinum, Mycobacterium fortuitum (M. fortuitum group) and Mycobacterium chelonae were identified in approx. 90% of fish and other NTM species in 10%, including Mycobacterium peregrinum/septicum, Mycobacterium gordonae, Mycobacterium arupense, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium ulcerans and Mycobacterium setense. The well-known human pathogen M. marinum was present in 10.6% of the positive fish (9 of 85). The species of mycobacteria identified in the study are not only recognized as aquarium fish pathogens, but can also cause pathology in humans. Microbiological and clinical communities should therefore be sensitized to the role of NTM in infections associated with exposure to aquarium fish.

  1. Mycobacteria Clumping Increase Their Capacity to Damage Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Brambilla, Cecilia; Llorens-Fons, Marta; Julián, Esther; Noguera-Ortega, Estela; Tomàs-Martínez, Cristina; Pérez-Trujillo, Miriam; Byrd, Thomas F.; Alcaide, Fernando; Luquin, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The rough morphotypes of non-tuberculous mycobacteria have been associated with the most severe illnesses in humans. This idea is consistent with the fact that Mycobacterium tuberculosis presents a stable rough morphotype. Unlike smooth morphotypes, the bacilli of rough morphotypes grow close together, leaving no spaces among them and forming large aggregates (clumps). Currently, the initial interaction of macrophages with clumps remains unclear. Thus, we infected J774 macrophages with bacterial suspensions of rough morphotypes of M. abscessus containing clumps and suspensions of smooth morphotypes, primarily containing isolated bacilli. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy and electron microscopy, we observed clumps of at least five rough-morphotype bacilli inside the phagocytic vesicles of macrophages at 3 h post-infection. These clumps grew within the phagocytic vesicles, killing 100% of the macrophages at 72 h post-infection, whereas the proliferation of macrophages infected with smooth morphotypes remained unaltered at 96 h post-infection. Thus, macrophages phagocytose large clumps, exceeding the bactericidal capacities of these cells. Furthermore, proinflammatory cytokines and granuloma-like structures were only produced by macrophages infected with rough morphotypes. Thus, the present study provides a foundation for further studies that consider mycobacterial clumps as virulence factors. PMID:27757105

  2. Catholic Schools in Zambia: 1891-1924.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmody, Brendan

    1999-01-01

    Retraces the contribution of the Catholic Church to schooling in Northern Rhodesia (currently Zambia) from 1891-1924. Provides background on the development of the Church in Zambia. Discusses Catholic and government perspectives on schooling and conversion, Catholic schooling in Zambia, and the African response to Catholic schooling. (CMK)

  3. Attitudes toward abortion in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Gebreselassie, Hailemichael; Awah, Paschal; Pearson, Erin

    2012-09-01

    Despite Zambia's relatively progressive abortion law, women continue to seek unsafe, illegal abortions. Four domains of abortion attitudes - support for legalization, immorality, rights, and access to services - were measured in 4 communities. A total of 668 people were interviewed. Associations among the 4 domains were inconsistent with expectations. The belief that abortion is immoral was widespread, but was not associated with lack of support for legalization. Instead, it was associated with belief that women need access to safe services. These findings suggest that increasing awareness about abortion law in Zambia may be important for encouraging more favorable attitudes.

  4. Mycobacteria in nail salon whirlpool footbaths, California.

    PubMed

    Vugia, Duc J; Jang, Yvonne; Zizek, Candi; Ely, Janet; Winthrop, Kevin L; Desmond, Edward

    2005-04-01

    In 2000, an outbreak of Mycobacterium fortuitum furunculosis affected customers using whirlpool footbaths at a nail salon. We swabbed 30 footbaths in 18 nail salons from 5 California counties and found mycobacteria in 29 (97%); M. fortuitum was the most common. Mycobacteria may pose an infectious risk for pedicure customers.

  5. Mycobacteria in Nail Salon Whirlpool Footbaths, California

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yvonne; Zizek, Candi; Ely, Janet; Winthrop, Kevin L.; Desmond, Edward

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, an outbreak of Mycobacterium fortuitum furunculosis affected customers using whirlpool footbaths at a nail salon. We swabbed 30 footbaths in 18 nail salons from 5 California counties and found mycobacteria in 29 (97%); M. fortuitum was the most common. Mycobacteria may pose an infectious risk for pedicure customers. PMID:15829204

  6. Methodological and Clinical Aspects of the Molecular Epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Other Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Minias, Alina; van Ingen, Jakko; Rastogi, Nalin; Brzostek, Anna; Żaczek, Anna; Dziadek, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Molecular typing has revolutionized epidemiological studies of infectious diseases, including those of a mycobacterial etiology. With the advent of fingerprinting techniques, many traditional concepts regarding transmission, infectivity, or pathogenicity of mycobacterial bacilli have been revisited, and their conventional interpretations have been challenged. Since the mid-1990s, when the first typing methods were introduced, a plethora of other modalities have been proposed. So-called molecular epidemiology has become an essential subdiscipline of modern mycobacteriology. It serves as a resource for understanding the key issues in the epidemiology of tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases. Among these issues are disclosing sources of infection, quantifying recent transmission, identifying transmission links, discerning reinfection from relapse, tracking the geographic distribution and clonal expansion of specific strains, and exploring the genetic mechanisms underlying specific phenotypic traits, including virulence, organ tropism, transmissibility, or drug resistance. Since genotyping continues to unravel the biology of mycobacteria, it offers enormous promise in the fight against and prevention of the diseases caused by these pathogens. In this review, molecular typing methods for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacteria elaborated over the last 2 decades are summarized. The relevance of these methods to the epidemiological investigation, diagnosis, evolution, and control of mycobacterial diseases is discussed. PMID:26912567

  7. Searching for an immunogenetic factor that will illuminate susceptibility to non-tuberculous mycobacterial disease.

    PubMed

    Affandi, Jacquita S; Hendry, Shona; Waterer, Grant; Thomson, Rachel; Wallace, Hilary; Burrows, Sally; Price, Patricia

    2013-10-01

    The incidence of pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease in otherwise healthy adults is increasing as the population ages. The organisms are ubiquitous so susceptibility probably reflects a deficiency in a protective immune response. Here we investigate if singlenucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) affecting cytokines, chemokines and their receptors associate with pulmonary NTM disease. Samples from NTM patients (n=79) and healthy controls (n=188) were genotyped using TaqMan probes. Of the 16 SNPs assessed, IL28B-rs8099917*TG (rs8099917; P=0.01, OR=2.2), TNFA-1031*CC (rs1799964; p=0.02, OR=0.48) and IL10-1082*AA (rs1800896; P=0.001, OR=0.33) were significantly associated with NTM disease. IL28B-rs8099917 and IL10-1082 have been associated with perturbations of the Th1/Th2 balance, whilst TNFA-1031*CC associates with sensory neuropathy in HIV patients. IL10-1082 warrants further investigation because we observed high production of IL-10 in blood mononuclear cells from NTM patients.

  8. On the Reportability of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease to Public Health Authorities.

    PubMed

    Winthrop, Kevin L; Henkle, Emily; Walker, Aryn; Cassidy, Maureen; Hedberg, Katrina; Schafer, Sean

    2017-03-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are environmental pathogens that are an increasingly common cause of pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease. Electronic laboratory-based reporting is a straightforward mechanism for identifying NTM infections and for monitoring trends in disease. Oregon was the first state to make NTM reportable, although at this time the reporting requirement is limited to extrapulmonary infection. This has assisted authorities in detecting outbreaks and healthcare-related infections. However, further consideration should be given to the reportability of pulmonary NTM disease. Pulmonary NTM disease is more common than tuberculosis in the United States and is of emerging public health concern. Although the direct public health action that would be triggered by a pulmonary NTM disease report is not clear, without surveillance, public health is missing an opportunity to better understand pulmonary NTM disease trends and reasons for its increasing recognition within our population. We believe state health authorities should conduct surveillance for pulmonary NTM, either by mandating reporting of laboratory isolates or by other mechanisms as we have done in Oregon.

  9. Earth Science Education in Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyambe, Imasiku Anayawa

    1999-05-01

    Mining in Zambia has been practised for centuries, and in the last 70 years Zambia has risen to become one of the world's leading Cu producers as a result of the exploitation of the Zambian Copperbelt orebodies. In contrast to this long history of mining, Zambia has a relatively short history of Earth Science Education. For the past 24 years, the earth sciences have been taught within the School of Mines in University of Zambia. The School started operation on 1st June, 1973, with the purpose of training professional geologists, extractive metallurgical/mineral processing engineers and mining engineers to service the needs of the mining industry in Zambia. The School consists of three departments — Geology, Metallurgy and Mineral Processing, and Mining Engineering — which deliver a five-year undergraduate programme. Students are admitted to the School after completing a one-year programme in the School of Natural Sciences of the University of Zambia. Students with an average of C+ or better in Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics and Physics are admitted into the School of Mines. The School of Mines has a total of 36 teaching positions — 12 for each Department. To successfully complete their course, students must pass 40 courses over a period of five years. During this time, industrial training is mandatory in the vacation periods after the third and fourth years of study. This training is mainly within the mining industry who in most cases sponsor the students for their studies in the School. The School admits 50 students on average per year, of whom five students take up Geology as a career. So far only two female students have studied in the School of Mines, both of them in Geology. The student to staff ratio in the Geology Department is 3 to 1. The low enrolment in Geology is thought to be because of a lack of knowledge of geology as a possible career by prospective students and a perceived lack of progression, once employed in industry. This has lead to a

  10. Cross-Reactive Immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR Regulon-Encoded Antigens in Individuals Infected with Environmental, Nontuberculous Mycobacteria▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Lin, May Young; Reddy, T. B. K.; Arend, Sandra M.; Friggen, Annemieke H.; Franken, Kees L. M. C.; van Meijgaarden, Krista E.; Verduyn, Marleen J. C.; Schoolnik, Gary K.; Klein, Michel R.; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR regulon-encoded antigens are highly immunogenic in M. tuberculosis-infected humans and are associated with latent tuberculosis infection. We have investigated the hypothesis that infection with or exposure to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) can induce cross-reactive immunity to M. tuberculosis DosR regulon-encoded antigens since responsiveness has been observed in non-M. tuberculosis-exposed but purified protein derivative-responsive individuals. M. tuberculosis DosR regulon-encoded antigen-specific T-cell responses were studied in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of NTM-infected/exposed individuals. BLASTP was used to determine the presence of M. tuberculosis DosR regulon-encoded protein orthologs among environmental mycobacteria and nonmycobacteria. Significant gamma interferon production was observed in PBMCs from NTM-infected/exposed individuals in response to M. tuberculosis DosR regulon-encoded antigens. DosR regulon-encoded protein orthologs were prominently present in tuberculous and environmental mycobacteria and surprisingly also in nonmycobacteria. The ubiquitous presence of the highly conserved DosR master regulator protein Rv3133c suggests that this is a general adaptive bacterial response regulator. We report a first series of M. tuberculosis antigens to which cross-reactive immunity is induced by NTM infection/exposure. The high conservation of M. tuberculosis DosR regulon-encoded antigens most likely enables them to induce cross-reactive T-cell responses. PMID:19737909

  11. The tracing of mycobacteria in drinking water supply systems by culture, conventional, and real time PCRs.

    PubMed

    Klanicova, Barbora; Seda, Jaromir; Slana, Iva; Slany, Michal; Pavlik, Ivo

    2013-12-01

    Mycobacteria are widely present in diverse aquatic habitats, where they can survive for months or years while some species can even proliferate. The resistance of different mycobacterial species to disinfection methods like chlorination or ozonation could result in their presence in the final tap water of consumers. In this study, the culture method, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex conventional duplex PCR for detection of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to detect three subspecies of M. avium species (M. a. avium, M. a. hominissuis, and M. a. paratuberculosis) were used to trace their possible path of transmission from the watershed through the reservoir and drinking water plant to raw drinking water and finally to households. A total of 124 samples from four drinking water supply systems in the Czech Republic, 52 dam sediments, 34 water treatment plant sludge samples, and 38 tap water household sediments, were analyzed. NTM of 11 different species were isolated by culture from 42 (33.9 %) samples; the most prevalent were M. gordonae (16.7 %), M. triplex (14.3 %), M. lentiflavum (9.5 %), M. a. avium (7.1 %), M. montefiorenase (7.1 %), and M. nonchromogenicum (7.1 %). NTM DNA was detected in 92 (76.7 %) samples. By qPCR analysis a statistically significant decrease (P < 0.01) was observed along the route from the reservoir (dam sediments), through water treatment sludge and finally to household sediments. The concentrations ranged from 10(0) to 10(4) DNA cells/g. It was confirmed that drinking water supply systems (watershed-reservoir-drinking water treatment plant-household) might be a potential transmission route for mycobacteria.

  12. Selective killing of nonreplicating mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Bryk, Ruslana; Gold, Benjamin; Venugopal, Aditya; Singh, Jasbir; Samy, Raghu; Pupek, Krzysztof; Cao, Hua; Popescu, Carmen; Gurney, Mark; Hotha, Srinivas; Cherian, Joseph; Rhee, Kyu; Ly, Lan; Converse, Paul J; Ehrt, Sabine; Vandal, Omar; Jiang, Xiuju; Schneider, Jean; Lin, Gang; Nathan, Carl

    2008-03-13

    Antibiotics are typically more effective against replicating rather than nonreplicating bacteria. However, a major need in global health is to eradicate persistent or nonreplicating subpopulations of bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Hence, identifying chemical inhibitors that selectively kill bacteria that are not replicating is of practical importance. To address this, we screened for inhibitors of dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase (DlaT), an enzyme required by Mtb to cause tuberculosis in guinea pigs and used by the bacterium to resist nitric oxide-derived reactive nitrogen intermediates, a stress encountered in the host. Chemical screening for inhibitors of Mtb DlaT identified select rhodanines as compounds that almost exclusively kill nonreplicating mycobacteria in synergy with products of host immunity, such as nitric oxide and hypoxia, and are effective on bacteria within macrophages, a cellular reservoir for latent Mtb. Compounds that kill nonreplicating pathogens in cooperation with host immunity could complement the conventional chemotherapy of infectious disease.

  13. Recurrent nontuberculous mycobacterial endophthalmitis: a diagnostic conundrum

    PubMed Central

    Venkateswaran, Nandini; Yeaney, Gabrielle; Chung, Mina; Hindman, Holly B

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report a case of recurrent nontuberculous mycobacterial endophthalmitis in the context of neurotrophic keratopathy secondary to herpes zoster ophthalmicus that had an atypical presentation and complex course, and highlights the challenges of causative organism identification and therapeutic interventions in this condition. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted to determine the visual outcomes of the patient. Results A 68-year-old pseudophakic male with long-standing neurotrophic keratopathy and perforated descemetocele managed with cyanoacrylate glue and a contact bandage lens in the left eye, began experiencing recurrent episodes of endophthalmitis after undergoing a penetrating keratoplasty. Several therapeutic procedures including an anterior chamber washout, two pars plana vitrectomies, explantation of the posterior chamber intraocular lens and capsular bag, and multiple intravitreal antimicrobial injections, were performed to which he has ultimately responded favorably, with no signs of infection to date and stable visual acuity. The causative organism of his recurrent infections was initially identified as Mycobacterium abscessus through biochemical testing and 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene sequencing; however, repeat polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the 65 kDa heat shock protein (hsp65) gene for experimental purposes confirmed the accurate identification of the organism to be Mycobacterium chelonae. Given the greater reliability of PCR and sequencing of the hsp65 gene over traditional biochemical tests and culture techniques, M. chelonae was likely the infectious agent all along, and the organism was originally misidentified on the basis of less accurate tests. Conclusion Recurrent atypical mycobacterial endophthalmitis requires expedient identification and management to prevent poor visual outcomes. Standard biochemical testing can identify the causative organism but is limited by the inability to distinguish

  14. Molecular characterization of mycobacteria isolated from seals.

    PubMed

    Zumárraga, M J; Bernardelli, A; Bastida, R; Quse, V; Loureiro, J; Cataldi, A; Bigi, F; Alito, A; Castro Ramos, M; Samper, S; Otal, I; Martin, C; Romano, M I

    1999-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) was diagnosed in 10 seals from three species (Arctocephalus australis, Arctocephalus tropicalis and Otaria flavescens) found in South America. The mycobacteria isolated from these cases belonged to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, as determined by RFLP using an IS6110 probe, spoligotyping, analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence and by PCR-restriction analysis of hsp65. Polymorphisms in gyrA, katG, oxyR and pncA were investigated in some of the isolates, as well as the presence of the MPB70 antigen. The insertion sequence IS6110 was present in three to seven copies in the genome of the mycobacteria isolated from seals. Using the IS6110 probe, six patterns (designated A, B, C, D, E and F) were identified from 10 different isolates. Patterns A and B were found for the mycobacteria isolated from two and four seals, respectively, indicating an epidemiological relationship between isolates grouped according to their IS6110 RFLP. The mycobacteria isolated from seals shared the majority of their IS6110 DNA-containing restriction fragments, and nine isolates had an identical spoligotype; only one isolate showed a minor difference in its spoligotype. In addition, none of these spoligotypes were found in other M. tuberculosis complex strains. These results suggest that the isolates from seals constitute a unique group of closely related strains. The mycobacteria isolated from seals showed polymorphisms at gyrA codon 95 and katG codon 463, as do group 1 M. tuberculosis, and M. bovis. Group 1 mycobacteria are associated with cluster cases. The spoligotypes found in the mycobacteria isolated from seals lack spacers 39-43, as does M. bovis, but the MPB70 antigen, which is highly expressed in M. bovis and minimally expressed in M. tuberculosis, was not detected in these mycobacteria. The mycobacteria isolated from seals also showed oxyR and pncA polymorphisms specific to M. tuberculosis. In conclusion, the mycobacteria that cause TB in seals in the South

  15. Low enthalpy geothermal project in Zambia

    SciTech Connect

    Dominco, E.; Liguori, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    A project financed by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MAE), implements the installation of two organic Rankine cycle (ORC) turbogenerators in remote, rural areas of Zambia. The Italian Government grant amounts to 2,000,000 US dollars. The Government of Zambia will bear all costs of the Zambian counterpart and will provide the low voltage transmission line and distribution grid.

  16. Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease mimicking lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Tae Jung; Lee, Jae-Ho; Park, Jeong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To describe the features and clinical implications of computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), and percutaneous needle aspiration biopsy (PCNB) in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease manifesting as a solitary nodule, mass, or mass-like consolidation mimicking malignancy. Among a cohort of 388 patients with NTM pulmonary disease, 14 patients with clinically and radiologically suspected lung cancer were included in our study. Two chest radiologists evaluated CT features, including lesion type (nodule, mass, or mass-like consolidation), morphologic features (margin, degree of enhancement, calcification), and presence of accompanying findings suggestive of NTM pulmonary disease (bronchiectasis with clustered centrilobular nodules or upper-lobe cavitary lesions) by consensus. Diagnostic procedures for microbiologic diagnosis of NTM disease and clinical outcome were reviewed. Incidence of NTM pulmonary disease presenting as solitary nodule/mass (n = 8) or mass-like consolidation (n = 6) was 3.6% (14 of 388). Most lesions were detected incidentally during routine health check-up or evaluation of other disease (11 of 14, 79%). Lesions typically showed poor contrast-enhancement (9 of 12) and internal calcification (6 of 14). No lesions had CT features suggestive of NTM pulmonary disease. All 4 lesions for which PET/CT imaging was performed showed strong fluorodeoxyglucose uptake simulating malignant lesions (mean, 4.9; range, 3.6–7.8). PCNB revealed mycobacterial histology in 6 of 11 specimens and positive culture results were obtained for 7 of 7 specimens. NTM pulmonary disease may present as a solitary nodule, mass, or mass-like consolidation mimicking malignancy. CT features and PCNB are important to diagnose NTM disease mimicking lung cancer to avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:27367996

  17. An Examination of Professionalism in the Zambia Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-12

    Promotion Examination UK United Kingdom UN United Nations ZAF Zambia Air Force ZMA Zambia Military Academy ZNDF Zambia National Defense...Late Stone Age never tilled land or kept animals , but they survived by hunting and collecting wild fruits and honey.6 The modern history of Zambia... Kingdom (UK) at the Royal Military Academy. The Army leadership understood very well that the only way the Zambia Army was going to enhance

  18. Zambia moves towards reproductive health.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    Several events in Zambia this year have marked the development of an integrated approach to reproductive health. A team met in March to draw up a national safe motherhood policy, plus strategies and guidelines. These were completed by April and are being distributed for comments. Clinical guidelines for safe motherhood in health centers have also been developed. These aim to reduce mortality and morbidity among mothers and infants by helping health workers to provide quality care to women at every stage of pregnancy and delivery. A reproductive health workshop was held in Ngwerere in May to create awareness of the concept of reproductive health, identify reproductive health problems in the area, propose solutions and outline activities. The 75 participants included community health workers, community leaders, teachers, youth leaders, and community members, as well as health workers and policymakers. The workshop was conducted in the local language so that those present were able to participate fully. June 1997 saw the official launch of Zambia's new policy framework, guidelines and strategy on family planning within reproductive health. The country's Minister of Health, Dr. Katele Kalumba, said the family planning guidelines were a sign of the government's commitment to providing a basic health care package for all Zambians. To promote widespread discussion of the whole concept of reproductive health, local newspapers printed feature articles with the headline "Let's talk reproductive health." The articles raised a variety of sensitive issues that ranged from safe sex and adolescent sexuality to safe motherhood and HIV prevention. Plans are going ahead in Zambia for drawing up a national training curriculum for safe motherhood and family planning. The curriculum for health workers will cover both pre-service and in-service training.

  19. A spatial epidemiological analysis of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been changing and the incidence has been increasing in some settings. The main route of transmission to humans is considered to be from the environment. We aimed to describe spatial clusters of cases of NTM infections and to identify associated climatic, environmental and socio-economic variables. Methods NTM data were obtained from the Queensland Mycobacterial Reference Laboratory for the period 2001–2011. A Bayesian spatial conditional autoregressive model was constructed at the postcode level, with covariates including soil variables, maximum, mean and minimum rainfall and temperature, income (proportion of population earning < $32,000 and < $52,000) and land use category. Results Significant clusters of NTM infection were identified in the central Queensland region overlying the Surat sub-division of the Great Artesian Basin, as well as in the lower North Queensland Local Government Area known as the Whitsunday region. Our models estimated an expected increase of 21% per percentage increase of population earning < $52,000 (95% CI 9–34%) and an expected decrease of 13% for every metre increase of average topsoil depth for risk of Mycobacterium intracellulare infection (95% CI -3 – -22%). There was an estimated increase of 79% per mg/m3 increase of soil bulk density (95% CI 26–156%) and 19% decrease for every percentage increase in population earning < $32,000 for risk of M. kansasii infection (95% CI -3 – -49%). Conclusions There were distinct spatial clusters of M. kansasii, M. intracellulare and M. abscessus infections in Queensland, and a number of socio-ecological, economic and environmental factors were found to be associated with NTM infection risk. PMID:24885916

  20. Epidemiology of infection by nontuberculous mycobacteria. V. Numbers in eastern United States soils and correlation with soil characteristics.

    PubMed

    Brooks, R W; Parker, B C; Gruft, H; Falkinham, J O

    1984-10-01

    Organisms of the Mycobacterium avium, M. intracellulare, and M. scrofulaceum (MAIS) group were recovered in significant numbers from 63 soil samples collected from the floodplains of 4 major rivers in the eastern United States: Hudson (NY), James (VA), Savannah (GA, SC), and Tombigbee (AL, MS). The mean numbers of M. avium-intracellulare, M. scrofulaceum, and MAIS-intermediate biovars recovered increased significantly from the Hudson to the James to the Tombigbee and Savannah soil samples, agreeing reasonably well with previous findings on MAIS distribution in eastern U.S. waters and with the geographic distribution of naval recruits reacting to PPD-B and PPD-G, which is higher in the southeastern United States. From the Savannah and Tombigbee rivers, soils were collected throughout their lengths. The number of total MAIS and biovars recovered from the different soil sites varied widely and showed no obvious trends. However, statistical analysis revealed a highly significant correlation between high numbers of MAIS recovered and high acidity of the soils. Other soil characteristics, such as high total organic matter, high conductivity, and reduced moisture, were only weakly, if at all, correlated with high MAIS numbers. Whereas the general distribution of MAIS in these soils of the Northeast (NY), mid-Atlantic (VA), and Southeast (GA, SC, AL, and MS) might explain the geographic distribution of the naval recruits reacting to PPD-B and PPD-G, the distribution of MAIS in soils along the stretches of the 2 southeastern rivers was not correlated with the county-by-county frequency of PPD-B reactive naval recruits in Georgia, South Carolina, Alabama, and Mississippi.

  1. Insertional mutagenesis and illegitimate recombination in mycobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Kalpana, G V; Bloom, B R; Jacobs, W R

    1991-01-01

    Mycobacteria, particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, and Mycobacterium avium, are major pathogens of man. Although insertional mutagenesis has been an invaluable genetic tool for analyzing the mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis, it has not yet been possible to apply it to the mycobacteria. To overcome intrinsic difficulties in directly manipulating the genetics of slow-growing mycobacteria, including M. tuberculosis and bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine strains, we developed a system for random shuttle mutagenesis. A genomic library of Mycobacterium smegmatis was subjected to transposon mutagenesis with Tn5 seq1, a derivative of Tn5, in Escherichia coli and these transposon-containing recombinant plasmids were reintroduced into mycobacterial chromosomes by homologous recombination. This system has allowed us to isolate several random auxotrophic mutants of M. smegmatis. To extend this strategy to M. tuberculosis and BCG, targeted mutagenesis was performed using a cloned BCG methionine gene that was subjected to Tn5 seq1 mutagenesis in E. coli and reintroduced into the mycobacteria. Surprisingly for prokaryotes, both BCG and M. tuberculosis were found to incorporate linear DNA fragments into illegitimate sites throughout the mycobacterial genomes at a frequency of 10(-5) to 10(-4) relative to the number of transformants obtained with autonomously replicating vectors. Thus the efficient illegitimate recombination of linear DNA fragments provides the basis for an insertional mutagenesis system for M. tuberculosis and BCG. Images PMID:2052623

  2. Evaluation of the Speed-oligo Direct Mycobacterium tuberculosis Assay for Molecular Detection of Mycobacteria in Clinical Respiratory Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Lara-Oya, Ana; Mendoza-Lopez, Pablo; Rodriguez-Granger, Javier; Fernández-Sánchez, Ana María; Bermúdez-Ruiz, María Pilar; Toro-Peinado, Inmaculada; Palop-Borrás, Begoña; Navarro-Marí, Jose María

    2013-01-01

    We present the first evaluation of a novel molecular assay, the Speed-oligo Direct Mycobacterium tuberculosis (SO-DMT) assay, which is based on PCR combined with a dipstick for the detection of mycobacteria and the specific identification of M. tuberculosis complex (MTC) in respiratory specimens. A blind evaluation was carried out in two stages: first, under experimental conditions on convenience samples comprising 20 negative specimens, 44 smear- and culture-positive respiratory specimens, and 11 sputa inoculated with various mycobacterium-related organisms; and second, in the routine workflow of 566 fresh respiratory specimens (4.9% acid-fast bacillus [AFB] smear positives, 7.6% MTC positives, and 1.8% nontuberculous mycobacteria [NTM] culture positives) from two Mycobacterium laboratories. SO-DMT assay showed no reactivity in any of the mycobacterium-free specimens or in those with mycobacterium-related organisms. Compared to culture, the sensitivity in the selected smear-positive specimens was 0.91 (0.92 for MTC and 0.90 for NTM), and there was no molecular detection of NTM in a tuberculosis case or vice versa. With respect to culture and clinical data, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the SO-DMT system in routine specimens were 0.76 (0.93 in smear positives [1.0 for MTC and 0.5 for NTM] and 0.56 in smear negatives [0.68 for MTC and 0.16 for NTM]), 0.99, 0.85 (1.00 in smear positives and 0.68 in smear negatives), and 0.97, respectively. Molecular misidentification of NTM cases occurred when testing 2 gastric aspirates from two children with clinically but not microbiologically confirmed lung tuberculosis. The SO-DMT assay appears to be a fast and easy alternative for detecting mycobacteria and differentiating MTC from NTM in smear-positive respiratory specimens. PMID:23100355

  3. Comparison of the Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) with radiometric and solid culture for recovery of acid-fast bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Pfyffer, G E; Welscher, H M; Kissling, P; Cieslak, C; Casal, M J; Gutierrez, J; Rüsch-Gerdes, S

    1997-01-01

    In a multicenter study involving three reference centers for mycobacteria, the rate of recovery of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) and the mean time to their detection from clinical specimens was determined by using the Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT). These parameters were compared to those assessed by the radiometric BACTEC 460 TB system and by cultivation on solid media. Clinical specimens (n = 1,500) were pretreated with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NALC)-NaOH. The contamination rates for MGITs were 2.0% (center 1), 13.8% (center 2), and 6.1% (center 3). A total of 180 mycobacterial isolates were detected (M. tuberculosis complex, n = 113; nontuberculous mycobacteria [NTM], n = 67). When using a combination of liquid and solid media (the current "gold standard" for culture), MGIT plus solid media detected 156 (86.7%) of the isolates, whereas BACTEC plus solid media recovered 168 (93.3%) of all AFB. Between these two gold standards there was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). The combination of MGIT plus BACTEC detected 171 (95.0%) of all isolates (compared with MGIT plus solid media, P < 0.01; compared with BACTEC plus solid media, P > 0.05). Considering the efficacies of the different media separately, MGIT was superior to solid media (although not significantly; P > 0.05) in detecting AFB but was inferior to the BACTEC system (P < 0.01). The mean time to the detection of M. tuberculosis complex was 9.9 days with MGIT, 9.7 days with BACTEC, and 20.2 days with solid media. NTM needed, on average, 11.9, 13.0, and 22.2 days to appear by the three methods, respectively. In conclusion, MGIT proved to be a valuable alternative to the radiometric cultivation system. PMID:9003597

  4. The trend and the disease prediction of vascular endothelial growth factor and placenta growth factor in nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chou-Han; Shu, Chin-Chung; Hsu, Chia-Lin; Cheng, Shih-Lung; Wang, Jann-Yuan; Yu, Chong-Jen; Lee, Li-Na

    2016-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM)-lung disease (LD) is an increasing health problem worldwide. The diagnosis of this disease remains difficult, however the application of placenta growth factor (PlGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has not yet been studied. We screened patients with Mycobacterium avium complex or M. abscessus isolated from sputum, and enrolled 32 patients with NTM-LD and 93 with NTM pulmonary colonization. The NTM-LD group had a lower body mass index, higher proportion of bronchiectasis, more respiratory symptoms and pulmonary lesions, and higher titers of sputum acid-fast stain than the NTM pulmonary colonization group. The plasma level of PlGF was lower in the NTM-LD group than in the NTM colonization group, whereas the level of VEGF was higher in the NTM-LD group. In multivariable logistic regression analysis excluding NTM cultures, the predictive model for NTM-LD included sputum AFS titer, a nodular-bronchiectasis radiographic pattern, plasma VEGF/PlGF ratio, and chest radiographic score (VEGF/P1GF ratio became not significant as a factor in multivariable generalized linear model). The four-factor predictive index had good positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio for predicting NTM-LD in the patients with NTM in their sputum. PMID:27876856

  5. Nontuberculous mycobacterial infection in a clinical presentation of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome: a case report with multigene diagnostic approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome (FHCS) is caused by inflammation of perihepatic capsules associated with pelvic inflammatory disease. In recent years, infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been increasingly occurring in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. However, NTM has never been reported in patients with FHCS. We present the first case of a patient with extrapulmonary NTM infection in a clinical presentation of FHCS. Case presentation A 26-year-old Korean woman presented with right upper quadrant and suprapubic pain. She was initially suspected to have FHCS. However, she was refractory to conventional antibiotic therapy. Laparoscopy revealed multiple violin-string adhesions of the parietal peritoneum to the liver and miliary-like nodules on the peritoneal surfaces. Diagnosis of NTM was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction analysis results of biopsy specimens that showed caseating granulomas with positive acid-fast bacilli. Treatment with anti-NTM medications was initiated, and the patient’s symptoms were considerably ameliorated. Conclusions An awareness of NTM as potential pathogens, even in previously healthy adults, and efforts to exclude other confounding diseases are important to establish the diagnosis of NTM disease. NTM infection can cause various clinical manifestations, which in the present case, overlapped with the symptoms of perihepatic inflammation seen in FHCS. PMID:25115526

  6. Comparison of clinical and laboratory findings between those with pulmonary tuberculosis and those with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Thanachartwet, Vipa; Desakorn, Varunee; Duangrithi, Duangjai; Chunpongthong, Pongsak; Phojanamongkolkij, Kamol; Jitruckthai, Pasakorn; Kasetjaroen, Yuttichai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee

    2014-01-01

    In tuberculosis endemic areas, patients with sputum positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) are usually diagnosed and treated for pulmonary tuberculosis. The diagnosis of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) lung disease is often ascertained only after lung disease progression occurs, increasing the risk of severe morbidity and mortality. We conducted a matched case-control study among a prospective cohort of 300 patients with newly diagnosed AFB-positive sputum in Thailand during 2010-2012. We compared clinical and laboratory parameters and outcomes among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, NTM lung disease and NTM colonization. A mycobacterial culture was performed in all patients. Ten patients with NTM lung disease were compared to 50 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 10 patients with NTM colonization. The presence of diabetes mellitus or human immunodeficiency virus infection, were associated with NTM lung disease (p = 0.030). Patients with NTM lung disease had a significantly lower body weight prior to treatment (p = 0.021), a higher body weight change from baseline (p = 0.038), and were more likely to have cavitations on chest radiograph (p = 0.033) than those with NTM colonization. In tuberculosis endemic areas, mycobacterial identification should be performed among patients with impaired immune function. NTM lung disease treatment should be considered in patients with NTM sputum isolates who have a history of significant weight loss or cavitations on chest radiography.

  7. Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Ocular Infections: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kheir, Wajiha J.; Sheheitli, Huda; Abdul Fattah, Maamoun; Hamam, Rola N.

    2015-01-01

    Nontuberculous or atypical mycobacterial ocular infections have been increasing in prevalence over the past few decades. They are known to cause periocular, adnexal, ocular surface and intraocular infections and are often recalcitrant to medical therapy. These infections can potentially cause detrimental outcomes, in part due to a delay in diagnosis. We review 174 case reports and series on nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) ocular infections and discuss etiology, microbiology, risk factors, diagnosis, clinical presentation, and treatment of these infections. History of interventions, trauma, foreign bodies, implants, contact lenses, and steroids are linked to NTM ocular infections. Steroid use may prolong the duration of the infection and cause poorer visual outcomes. Early diagnosis and initiation of treatment with multiple antibiotics are necessary to achieve the best visual outcome. PMID:26106601

  8. Characterization of Mycobacterium bovis from Humans and Cattle in Namwala District, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Muma, John Bwalya; Munyeme, Musso; Mbulo, Grace; Muwonge, Adrian; Djønne, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem in Zambia. While human to human transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is of major importance in driving the tuberculosis epidemic, the impact of Mycobacterium bovis transmission from infected cattle is largely unknown. This cross-sectional study aimed at molecular characterization of M. bovis in humans and cattle. A total of 100 human sputum samples and 67 bovine tissues were collected and analyzed for the presence of mycobacteria. Of 65 human samples that harbored acid fast bacteria (AFB), 55 isolates were obtained of which 34 were identified as M. tuberculosis and 2 as M. bovis. AFB-positive bovine samples (n = 67) yielded 47 mycobacterial isolates among which 25 were identified as M. bovis and no M. tuberculosis was found. Among the M. bovis isolates, spoligotyping revealed a high homogeneity in genotypes circulating in Namwala district. Human and cattle isolates shared identical MIRU-VNTR genotypes, suggesting that transmission between the two hosts may occur. Therefore, this study has documented zoonotic TB in human patients in Namwala district of Zambia. However, further molecular epidemiological studies in the study area are recommended. PMID:24847441

  9. Characterization of Mycobacterium bovis from Humans and Cattle in Namwala District, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Malama, Sydney; Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Muma, John Bwalya; Munyeme, Musso; Mbulo, Grace; Muwonge, Adrian; Djønne, Berit; Godfroid, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem in Zambia. While human to human transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is of major importance in driving the tuberculosis epidemic, the impact of Mycobacterium bovis transmission from infected cattle is largely unknown. This cross-sectional study aimed at molecular characterization of M. bovis in humans and cattle. A total of 100 human sputum samples and 67 bovine tissues were collected and analyzed for the presence of mycobacteria. Of 65 human samples that harbored acid fast bacteria (AFB), 55 isolates were obtained of which 34 were identified as M. tuberculosis and 2 as M. bovis. AFB-positive bovine samples (n = 67) yielded 47 mycobacterial isolates among which 25 were identified as M. bovis and no M. tuberculosis was found. Among the M. bovis isolates, spoligotyping revealed a high homogeneity in genotypes circulating in Namwala district. Human and cattle isolates shared identical MIRU-VNTR genotypes, suggesting that transmission between the two hosts may occur. Therefore, this study has documented zoonotic TB in human patients in Namwala district of Zambia. However, further molecular epidemiological studies in the study area are recommended.

  10. Salicylanilide pyrazinoates inhibit in vitro multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, atypical mycobacteria and isocitrate lyase.

    PubMed

    Krátký, Martin; Vinšová, Jarmila; Novotná, Eva; Stolaříková, Jiřina

    2014-03-12

    The development of antimicrobial agents represents an up-to-date topic. This study investigated in vitro antimycobacterial activity, mycobacterial isocitrate lyase inhibition and cytotoxicity of salicylanilide pyrazinoates. They may be considered being mutual prodrugs of both antimycobacterial active salicylanilides and pyrazinoic acid (POA), an active metabolite of pyrazinamide, in which these esters are likely hydrolysed without presence of pyrazinamidase/nicotinamidase. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the esters were within the range 0.5-8 μmol/l for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 1-32 μmol/l for nontuberculous mycobacteria (Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium kansasii). All esters showed a weak inhibition (8-17%) of isocitrate lyase at the concentration of 10 μmol/l. The most active pyrazinoates showed MICs for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis strains in the range of 0.125-2 μmol/l and no cross-resistance with clinically used drugs, thus being the most in vitro efficacious salicylanilide esters with 4-chloro-2-{[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]carbamoyl}phenyl pyrazine-2-carboxylate superiority (MICs⩽0.25 μmol/l). This promising activity is likely due to an additive or synergistic effect of released POA and salicylanilides. Selectivity indexes for the most active salicylanilide pyrazinoates ranged up to 64, making some derivatives being attractive candidates for the next research; 4-bromo-2-{[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]carbamoyl}phenyl pyrazine-2-carboxylate showed the most convenient toxicity profile.

  11. Elevated serum CA 19-9 levels in patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji Young; Jang, Sun Hee; Kim, Song Yee; Chung, Kyung Soo; Song, Joo Han; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Kang, Young Ae

    2016-01-01

    Increased serum CA 19-9 levels in patients with nonmalignant diseases have been investigated in previous reports. This study evaluates the clinical significance of serum CA 19-9 elevation in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease and pulmonary tuberculosis. The median CA 19-9 level was higher in patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease than in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease: 13.80, tuberculosis: 5.85, p<0.001). A multivariate logistic regression analysis performed in this study showed that Mycobacterium abscessus (OR 9.97, 95% CI: 1.58, 62.80; p=0.014) and active phase of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease (OR 12.18, 95% CI: 1.07, 138.36, p=0.044) were found to be risk factors for serum CA 19-9 elevation in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease. The serum CA 19-9 levels showed a tendency to decrease during successful treatment of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease but not in pulmonary tuberculosis. These findings suggest that CA 19-9 may be a useful marker for monitoring therapeutic responses in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease, although it is not pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease-specific marker.

  12. Evaluation of the MB/BacT system and comparison to the BACTEC 460 system and solid media for isolation of mycobacteria from clinical specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Rohner, P; Ninet, B; Metral, C; Emler, S; Auckenthaler, R

    1997-01-01

    The MB/BacT automated system is designed for the isolation of mycobacteria from clinical specimens. It utilizes a colorimetric sensor and reflected light to continuously monitor the CO2 concentration in the culture medium. We compared its performance to that of the BACTEC 12B media for the radiometric BACTEC 460 instrument and that of solid culture media. Respiratory specimens and urine samples were decontaminated with 4% NaOH. The vials of the two instruments were inoculated with 500 microl of sample and two solid egg-based media at 200 microl each. All vials were incubated at 37 degrees C for 6 weeks. A total of 1,078 specimens (633 respiratory specimens, 78 cerebrospinal fluid specimens, 177 other body fluid specimens, 87 urine specimens, and 103 other types of specimens) were cultured in parallel. Mycobacteria could be identified from 73 (6.8%) specimens: 67 M. tuberculosis, 3 M. kansasii, 1 M. xenopi, 1 M. terrae, and 1 mixed M. avium with M. scrofulaceum. Of these, 63 (86.3%) specimens were positive with the MB/BacT system, 67 (91.8%) were positive with the BACTEC 460 instrument, and 58 (79.5%) were positive with the two egg-based media. MB/BacT cultures were positive on average after 17.5 (+/-6.4) days, BACTEC cultures with a growth index of >20 (mean, 200) were positive after 14.3 (+/-8.2) days, and egg-based media were positive after 24.2 (+/-7.5) days. Microorganisms other than mycobacteria contaminated 46 (4.3%) MB/BacT cultures and 31 (2.9%) BACTEC cultures, which had to be discarded. The MB/BacT system is a well-automated system for the detection of M. tuberculosis in clinical specimens without using radioactive reagents. Further trials are required to determine whether it is suitable for the culture of nontuberculous mycobacteria. PMID:9399507

  13. BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL STUDIES ON MYCOBACTERIA

    PubMed Central

    Fregnan, G. B.; Smith, D. W.; Randall, H. M.

    1961-01-01

    Fregnan, G. B. (University of Wisconsin, Madison), D. W. Smith, and H. M. Randall. Biological and chemical studies on mycobacteria. Relationship of colony morphology to mycoside content for Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium fortuitum. J. Bacteriol. 82:517–527. 1961.—Using a suitable technique and an adequate medium it was possible to show a unique and uniform type of colony characteristic for Mycobacterium kansasii (photochromogen) and for Mycobacterium fortuitum strains freshly isolated either from patients, or from the soil, or kept in our stock culture collection for several years. New symbols have been proposed to represent these colony types. It was demonstrated that colony morphology is closely related to the specific mycoside present in a given strain; for example, M. kansasii strains showed in each instance colony type K and mycoside A, and M. fortuitum strains showed colony type F and mycoside F. Attention is called to the importance of the technique and the medium used. No change in colony morphology resulted from incubation in the presence of air containing 5 to 10% CO2, although this improved growth. Better growth of mycobacteria occurred in the presence of glycerol, or lipids of a human strain of mycobacteria, or sodium bicarbonate, but the specificity of colony form was lost. Images PMID:13894938

  14. Non-tuberculosis mycobacteria in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Zykov, M. P.; Roulet, H.

    1967-01-01

    The third study in a series on the prevalence of non-tuberculosis mycobacteria in Africa is devoted to the investigation of the formamidase activity of 288 cultures of mycobacteria, already typed by a battery of standard tests as pathogenic or atypical (184 strains) and saprophytic (104 strains). Of the latter, 96 (92.3%) were formamidase-positive, as compared with only 6 (3.3%) of the former. A close correlation was observed between the speed of growth on Löwenstein-Jensen medium and formamidase activity, 98 (96.1%) of the positive strains showing visible growth within 1-3 days. The relation between formamidase activity and growth on nutrient media was less clear-cut, however, and it was concluded that for the routine differentiation of saprophytic from other mycobacteria the formamidase test should be combined with simple tests such as speed of growth on L-J medium and ability to grow on nutrient media. Russel's method and Nessler's reagent for the detection of ammonia in the formamidase test were compared; the authors consider the former to be preferable, since the reaction is easier to read. PMID:4173140

  15. Improving abortion care in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Bradley, J; Sikazwe, N; Healy, J

    1991-01-01

    In this commentary, the impact of the introduction of manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) for incomplete abortion patients and for early uterine evacuation is discussed for the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. This 3-year training and service delivery program was begun in 1988 after it was clear that 15% of maternal deaths were due to illegally induced abortion. The prior procedure of dilation and curettage (D and C) required use of the main operating room and general anesthesia, which resulted in severe congestion and treatment delays. As a result of the new MVA procedure, congestion has decreased substantially, treatment is safer and more timely, and the staff's ability to provide abortions has increased. Family planning counseling is provided to postabortion patients in a more thorough fashion, and the savings in time has improved the quality of patient-staff interactions. Specifically, the patient flow has improved from a 12-hour wait to a 4-6 hour wait and rarely requires overnight hospitalization. The demand for the main operating room had decreased which frees space, time, and commodities for other gynecological treatment. The shorter procedure and release time means a minimal loss of earnings and productivity, and allows for greater privacy in explaining absences to families, schools, or employers. The improved quality of are is reflected in the figures for number treated, i.e., in 1989, 74% were treated with MVA for incomplete abortion 12 weeks and pregnancy termination 8 weeks compared with 26% treated with D and C. In 1990, the figures were 86% with MVA and 14% with D and C. The likelihood of complications from hemorrhage and sepsis have also been reduced. The MVA procedure is also less traumatic for the patient. The increased access to safe legal abortion services is reflected in the ratio of induced to incomplete abortions between 1988-1990 (1:25 to 1:5). Family planning counseling is provided by a full-time counselor who counsels preabortion

  16. MISR Images Zambia and Botswana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These MISR images of Zambia and Botswana, Africa were acquired on August 25, 2000 during Terra orbit 3655. The left image is a 'true' color view from the vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. True color means that the images acquired through MISR's red, green, and blue filters, respectively, are displayed as red, green, and blue when creating the digital image. The middle image combines data from the green, red, and near-infrared bands. The right image contains red band data only, but is a composite of imagery from the nadir (An), 70.5-degrees forward (Df), and 70.5-degrees aftward (Da) cameras. The color variations in the multi-angle composite arise not from how the different parts of the scene reflect light at different wavelengths, but rather, at different angles.

    The distinctive fan-like feature on the left of each image is the highly vegetated Okavango Delta, a mosaiced network of grasslands and water channels, observed here during the dry season. The town of Maunis at its southeastern edge. Note how the plant life, which is highly reflective in the near-infrared, shows up as bright red in the middle image. Vegetation also preferentially reflects light back toward the source of illumination, so in the right image, the Df camera image, which is displayed in green, is brighter in this region.

    The body of water in the upper right is the Itezhi-Tezhi Dam, fed by the Kafue River in Zambia. At the lower left, south of the Okavango Delta, is Lake Ngami. A smoke plume is present at the southern edge of the lake. This plume and others show up in shades of blue and purple in the multi-angle composite as a result of the manner in which the smoke particles scatter sunlight.

    Other landmarks include the Ntwetwe Pan, whose western edge is visible as the bright area in the lower right. The Zambezi River enters from the upper left and wends its way southeast, passing the Caprivi Strip, a narrow panhandle in northeast Namibia. The greater abundance of vegetation here

  17. Looking in amoebae as a source of mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Drancourt, M

    2014-12-01

    Mycobacteria exhibit various relationships with amoebae, ranging from the killing of one partner by the other one, to amoebae hosting mycobacteria in trophozoites and cysts. This observation indicates that poorly described biological factors affect the relationships, including mycobacterial cell-wall glycolipids and the size of the mycobacteria. Experimental observations indicate that a majority of environmental, opportunistic mycobacteria but also obligate pathogens including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium ulcerans are inter-amoebal organisms. Amoebae may give opportunities for genetic exchanges between mycobacteria, sympatric intra-amoebal organisms and the amoebae themselves. Amoebae clearly protect opportunistic mycobacterial pathogens during their environmental life but their role for obligate mycobacterial infection remains to be established. Accordingly, water was the source for emerging, community-acquired and health care-associated infection with amoeba-resisting mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium fortuitum groups, among others. Amoebae are organisms where mycobacteria can be found and, accordingly, amoeba co-culture can be used for the isolation of mycobacteria from environmental and clinical specimens. Looking in amoebae may help recovering new species of mycobacteria.

  18. Infection Sources of a Common Non-tuberculous Mycobacterial Pathogen, Mycobacterium avium Complex

    PubMed Central

    Nishiuchi, Yukiko; Iwamoto, Tomotada; Maruyama, Fumito

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have revealed a continuous increase in the worldwide incidence and prevalence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) diseases, especially pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) diseases. Although it is not clear why NTM diseases have been increasing, one possibility is an increase of mycobacterial infection sources in the environment. Thus, in this review, we focused on the infection sources of pathogenic NTM, especially MAC. The environmental niches for MAC include water, soil, and dust. The formation of aerosols containing NTM arising from shower water, soil, and pool water implies that these niches can be infection sources. Furthermore, genotyping has shown that clinical isolates are identical to environmental ones from household tap water, bathrooms, potting soil, and garden soil. Therefore, to prevent and treat MAC diseases, it is essential to identify the infection sources for these organisms, because patients with these diseases often suffer from reinfections and recurrent infections with them. In the environmental sources, MAC and other NTM organisms can form biofilms, survive within amoebae, and exist in a free-living state. Mycobacterial communities are also likely to occur in these infection sources in households. Water distribution systems are a transmission route from natural water reservoirs to household tap water. Other infection sources include areas with frequent human contact, such as soil and bathrooms, indicating that individuals may carry NTM organisms that concomitantly attach to their household belongings. To explore the mechanisms associated with the global spread of infection and MAC transmission routes, an epidemiological population-wide genotyping survey would be very useful. A good example of the power of genotyping comes from M. avium subsp. hominissuis, where close genetic relatedness was found between isolates of it from European patients and pigs in Japan and Europe, implying global transmission of this bacterium

  19. Floodwaters Renew Zambia's Kafue Wetland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Not all floods are unwanted. Heavy rainfall in southern Africa between December 2003 and April 2004 provided central Zambia with floodwaters needed to support the diverse uses of water within the Kafue Flats area. The Kafue Flats are home to about one million people and provide a rich inland fishery, habitat for an array of unique wildlife, and the means for hydroelectricity production. The Flats falls between two dams: Upstream to the west (not visible here) is the Izhi-tezhi, and downstream (middle right of the images) is the Kafue Gorge dam. Since the construction of these dams, the flooded area has been reduced and the timing and intensity of the inundation has changed. During June 2004 an agreement was made with the hydroelectricity company to restore water releases from the dams according to a more natural flooding regime. These images from NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) illustrate surface changes to the wetlands and other surfaces in central Zambia resulting from an unusually lengthy wet season. The Kafue Flats appear relatively dry on July 19, 2003 (upper images), with the Kafue River visible as a slender dark line that snakes from east to west on its way to join the Zambezi (visible in the lower right-hand corner). On July 21, 2004 (lower images), well into the dry season, much of the 6,500-square kilometer area of the Kafue Flats remains inundated. To the east of the Kafue Flats is Lusaka, the Zambian capital, visible as a pale area in the middle right of the picture, north of the river. In the upper portions of these images is the prominent roundish shape of the Lukanga Swamp, another important wetland.

    The images along the left are natural-color views from MISR's nadir camera, and the images along the right are angular composites in which red band data from MISR's 46o forward, nadir, and 46o backward viewing cameras is displayed as red, green and blue, respectively. In order to preserve brightness variations among the various

  20. Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterium Induced Pseudoaneurysm of the Common Carotid Artery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hae Young; Cho, Seong Ho; Kim, Hyun Su; Moon, Jeong Min; Lee, Sangho; Kim, Jong In

    2016-01-01

    An 81-year-old male patient presented with complaint of a pulsating neck mass. The patient had a previous history of cervical lymphadenopathy by non-tuberculous mycobacterium infection. Rapid growth of the mass on admission and contrast enhanced computed tomography of the neck resulted in a diagnosis of non-tuberculous mycobacterium induced pseudoaneurysm. The patient underwent emergency open repair of the pseudoaneurysm. Pseudoaneurysm of the common carotid artery is regularly reported, but here we report a rare case of non-tuberculous mycobacterium induced pseudoaneurysm of the common carotid artery. PMID:27965926

  1. Zambia: Multi-Faith Religious Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmody, Brendan

    2006-01-01

    As countries' populations become more religiously diverse, a need to review the religious education syllabus that operates is often perceived. One such country is Zambia, which was not only traditionally religiously diverse but has become even more so with the advent of Christianity, Islam and Hinduism and other non-African faiths. This article…

  2. OUTLINE OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING IN ZAMBIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Perth.

    THE 1963 POPULATION OF ZAMBIA WAS APPROXIMATELY 3.5 MILLION. THE 8-YEAR PRIMARY EDUCATION PROGRAM IS FOLLOWED BY SECONDARY, SECONDARY TECHNICAL, AND TRADE SCHOOL OPTIONS. THERE IS AN INCREASE IN ADULT EDUCATION AT THE PRIMARY AND SECONDARY LEVELS. CRAFT AND TECHNICIAN LEVEL PROGRAMS ARE CONDUCTED AT NORTHERN TECHNICAL COLLEGE AND ITS ANCILLARY…

  3. Men targeted for family planning in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Chirambo, K

    1992-08-01

    80% of women using contraception in Zambia use oral contraceptives (OCs), yet they often complain about side effects. 66% of people polled at family planning (FP) clinics prefer OCs and 30% chose condoms. Nevertheless only 10% of the 60% of married couples familiar with FP use contraception. This contributes to Zambia having 1 of the highest annual population growth rates in the world (3.4%). The Planned Parenthood Association of Zambia (PPAZ) thinks that if males become more knowledgeable about FP, the population growth would slow down. At least 60% of men in Zambia approve of their wives using FP, yet they are slow to use male contraception. They say condoms reduce sensation and wives often consider condoms a nuisance. The AIDS epidemic forces men to rethink their views toward condom use, however. Those 30% of men who do use condoms are more likely to use them with their girlfriends or women with whom they are unfamiliar. So they are not using them for FP purposes. Men fear vasectomy because they perceive it to cause impotence. Considerable education to counter this myth is needed to increase the number of vasectomies. Besides some men prefer their wives be sterilized rather than themselves because if the men lose all their children they can have other children with other wives. PPAZ aims programs at men in order to expand their participation and nurture their influence in FP matters. It has a male counseling program serving rural villages along the railroad lines which begin in the northern copper belt and end in urban areas in the south to promote birth spacing. It is working with companies to include FP services in their clinics so men can learn more about FP. FP specialists in Zambia foresee an increase in male support of FP as they realize the difficulty of supporting large families during the economic crises.

  4. Detection of Mycobacteria, Mycobacterium avium Subspecies, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex by a Novel Tetraplex Real-Time PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Elena; Elguezabal, Natalia; Pérez, Valentín; Garrido, Joseba M.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Mycobacterium avium, and many other nontuberculous mycobacteria are worldwide distributed microorganisms of major medical and veterinary importance. Considering the growing epidemiologic significance of wildlife-livestock-human interrelation, developing rapid detection tools of high specificity and sensitivity is vital to assess their presence and accelerate the process of diagnosing mycobacteriosis. Here we describe the development and evaluation of a novel tetraplex real-time PCR for simultaneous detection of Mycobacterium genus, M. avium subspecies, and M. tuberculosis complex in an internally monitored single assay. The method was evaluated using DNA from mycobacterial (n = 38) and nonmycobacterial (n = 28) strains, tissues spiked with different CFU amounts of three mycobacterial species (n = 57), archival clinical samples (n = 233), and strains isolated from various hosts (n = 147). The minimum detectable DNA amount per reaction was 50 fg for M. bovis BCG and M. kansasii and 5 fg for M. avium subsp. hominissuis. When spiked samples were analyzed, the method consistently detected as few as 100 to 1,000 mycobacterial CFU per gram. The sensitivity and specificity values for the panel of clinical samples were 97.5 and 100% using a verified culture-based method as the reference method. The assays performed on clinical isolates confirmed these results. This PCR was able to identify M. avium and M. tuberculosis complex in the same sample in one reaction. In conclusion, the tetraplex real-time PCR we designed represents a highly specific and sensitive tool for the detection and identification of mycobacteria in routine laboratory diagnosis with potential additional uses. PMID:25588660

  5. Genus Level Identification of Mycobacteria from Clinical Specimens by Using an Easy-To-Handle Mycobacterium-Specific PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Stauffer, Fritz; Haber, Heinrich; Rieger, Armin; Mutschlechner, Robert; Hasenberger, Petra; Tevere, Vincent J.; Young, Karen K. Y.

    1998-01-01

    An easy-to-handle Mycobacterium-specific PCR assay for detection of the presence of a wide range of mycobacterial species in clinical samples was evaluated. The performance of the genus probe was compared with the performance of probes specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium and with that of standard culture. In addition, the utility of an internal control in monitoring amplification inhibitors was studied. Of 545 respiratory and 325 nonrespiratory specimens (a total of 870 specimens), 58 (6.7%) showed the presence of amplification inhibitors, as determined by a negative result for the internal control. Of these 58 specimens, 31 (53%) were stool specimens; other material, even citrate blood after lysis of erythrocytes, did not pose a problem with regard to inhibition of PCR amplification. Eighty-one of the remaining 812 specimens had a positive Mycobacterium culture result. Of these culture-positive specimens, 58 (71.6%) showed a positive result with the Mycobacterium genus-specific probe. Seventy-two samples had a positive result with the Mycobacterium-specific probe but a negative culture result. Of these 72 samples, 26 samples were regarded as true positive, either because the M. tuberculosis- or M. avium-specific probe was also positive at the same time or because other specimens from the same patient taken at the same time were culture positive. The sensitivity of the Mycobacterium-specific probe was 78.5% and the specificity was 93.5%. This study showed that pretesting of clinical specimens for mycobacteria to the genus level with a Mycobacterium-specific probe offers the routine clinical laboratory the possibility of detecting tuberculous and nontuberculous mycobacteria with one test. Furthermore, specimens testing positive with the genus-specific probe can be immediately identified with species-specific probes. PMID:9508282

  6. Detection of mycobacteria, Mycobacterium avium subspecies, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by a novel tetraplex real-time PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Sevilla, Iker A; Molina, Elena; Elguezabal, Natalia; Pérez, Valentín; Garrido, Joseba M; Juste, Ramón A

    2015-03-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Mycobacterium avium, and many other nontuberculous mycobacteria are worldwide distributed microorganisms of major medical and veterinary importance. Considering the growing epidemiologic significance of wildlife-livestock-human interrelation, developing rapid detection tools of high specificity and sensitivity is vital to assess their presence and accelerate the process of diagnosing mycobacteriosis. Here we describe the development and evaluation of a novel tetraplex real-time PCR for simultaneous detection of Mycobacterium genus, M. avium subspecies, and M. tuberculosis complex in an internally monitored single assay. The method was evaluated using DNA from mycobacterial (n = 38) and nonmycobacterial (n = 28) strains, tissues spiked with different CFU amounts of three mycobacterial species (n = 57), archival clinical samples (n = 233), and strains isolated from various hosts (n = 147). The minimum detectable DNA amount per reaction was 50 fg for M. bovis BCG and M. kansasii and 5 fg for M. avium subsp. hominissuis. When spiked samples were analyzed, the method consistently detected as few as 100 to 1,000 mycobacterial CFU per gram. The sensitivity and specificity values for the panel of clinical samples were 97.5 and 100% using a verified culture-based method as the reference method. The assays performed on clinical isolates confirmed these results. This PCR was able to identify M. avium and M. tuberculosis complex in the same sample in one reaction. In conclusion, the tetraplex real-time PCR we designed represents a highly specific and sensitive tool for the detection and identification of mycobacteria in routine laboratory diagnosis with potential additional uses.

  7. MYCOBACTOCIDIN, A NEW ANTIBIOTIC ACTIVE AGAINST MYCOBACTERIA

    PubMed Central

    Fregnan, G. B.; Smith, D. W.

    1962-01-01

    Fregnan, G. B. (University of Wisconsin, Madison) and D. W. Smith. Mycobactocidin, a new antiboitic active against mycobacteria. J. Bacteriol. 83:1069–1076. 1962.—A new antibiotic, produced by a strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis, is described. The name mycobactocidin is proposed because of the specificity of the antibiotic against mycobacteria. Methods for extraction and purification of the antibiotic are described. The water-soluble fraction is shown to be active in vitro. No toxicity could be detected in mice after intraperitoneal or subcutaneous injection. Enzymatic hydrolysis suggests a glyco-protein nature for the antibiotic. Mycobactocidin is soluble in distilled water at neutrality but is generally insoluble in organic solvents. The antibiotic is precipitated from aqueous solution by heavy metals. It is stable in the pH range of 2 to 8, but is precipitated at pH 3 to 4. An aqueous solution of the antibiotic is stable for several days at 5 C, and for longer periods if lyophilized and stored at −20 C. It does not pass through a dialysis membrane and its activity is retained after 15 to 20 hr of dialysis at 5 C. The activity was shown to be unrelated to the formation of hydrogen peroxide. Images PMID:16561941

  8. Heme oxygenase-1 promotes granuloma development and protects against dissemination of mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Regev, Doron; Surolia, Ranu; Karki, Suman; Zolak, Jason; Montes-Worboys, Ana; Oliva, Ocatvio; Guroji, Purushotum; Saini, Vikram; Steyn, Adrie Jc; Agarwal, Anupam; Antony, Veena B

    2012-11-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections occur in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts and are an increasingly recognized cause of morbidity and mortality. The hallmark of pulmonary mycobacterial infections is the formation of granuloma in the lung. Our study focuses on the role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a cytoprotective enzyme, in the regulation of granuloma development and maturation following infection with Mycobacterium avium. We examined the role of HO-1 in regulating monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2), two molecules involved in monocyte-macrophage cell trafficking after infection. We showed that RAW 264.7 mouse monocytes exposed to M. avium expressed HO-1 and MCP-1. Inhibition of HO by zinc protoporphyrin-IX led to inhibition of MCP-1 and increased expression of CCR2, its cognate receptor. HO-1⁻/⁻ mice did not develop organized granuloma in their lungs, had higher lung colony forming unit of M. avium when infected with intratracheal M. avium, and had loose collections of inflammatory cells in the lung parenchyma. Mycobacteria were found only inside defined granulomas but not outside granuloma in the lungs of HO-1⁺/⁺ mice. In HO-1⁻/⁻ mice, mycobacteria were also found in the liver and spleen and showed increased mortality. Peripheral blood monocytes isolated from GFP⁺ mice and given intravenously to HO-1⁺/⁺ mice localized into tight granulomas, while in HO-1⁻/⁻ mice they remained diffusely scattered in areas of parenchymal inflammation. Higher MCP-1 levels were found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of M. avium infected HO-1(-/-) mice and CCR2 expression was higher in HO-1⁻/⁻ alveolar macrophages when compared with HO-1⁺/⁺ mice. CCR2 expression localized to granuloma in HO-1⁺/⁺ mice but not in the HO-1⁻/⁻ mice. These findings strongly suggest that HO-1 plays a protective role in the control of M. avium infection.

  9. Pyrosequence analysis of the hsp65 genes of nontuberculous mycobacterium communities in unchlorinated drinking water in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van der Wielen, Paul W J J; Heijnen, Leo; van der Kooij, Dick

    2013-10-01

    Studies have shown that certain opportunistic pathogenic species of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) can be present in distributed drinking water. However, detailed information about NTM population composition in drinking water is lacking. Therefore, NTM communities in unchlorinated drinking water from the distribution system of five treatment plants in the Netherlands were characterized using 454 pyrosequencing of the hsp65 gene. Results showed high diversities in unchlorinated drinking water, with up to 28 different NTM operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in a single sample. Each drinking water sample had a unique NTM community, and most (81.1%) OTUs were observed only once. One OTU was observed in 14 of 16 drinking water samples, indicating that this NTM species is well adapted to unchlorinated drinking water conditions. A clear influence of season, source type (groundwater, surface water), easily assimilable organic carbon (AOC) concentration, biofilm formation rate, and active biomass in treated water on the establishment of an NTM community in drinking water was not observed. Apparently, local conditions are more important for the development of a specific NTM community in the drinking water distribution system. A low (4.2%) number of hsp65 gene sequences showed more than 97% similarity to sequences of the opportunistic pathogens M. avium, M. genavense, and M. gordonae. However, most (95.8%) NTM hsp65 gene sequences were related to not-yet-described NTM species that have not been linked to disease, indicating that most NTM species in unchlorinated drinking water from distribution systems in the Netherlands have a low public health significance.

  10. Mycobacteria in Terrestrial Small Mammals on Cattle Farms in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Durnez, Lies; Katakweba, Abdul; Sadiki, Harrison; Katholi, Charles R.; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Machang'u, Robert R.; Portaels, Françoise; Leirs, Herwig

    2011-01-01

    The control of bovine tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in developing countries is important but difficult because of the existence of wildlife reservoirs. In cattle farms in Tanzania, mycobacteria were detected in 7.3% of 645 small mammals and in cow's milk. The cattle farms were divided into “reacting” and “nonreacting” farms, based on tuberculin tests, and more mycobacteria were present in insectivores collected in reacting farms as compared to nonreacting farms. More mycobacteria were also present in insectivores as compared to rodents. All mycobacteria detected by culture and PCR in the small mammals were atypical mycobacteria. Analysis of the presence of mycobacteria in relation to the reactor status of the cattle farms does not exclude transmission between small mammals and cattle but indicates that transmission to cattle from another source of infection is more likely. However, because of the high prevalence of mycobacteria in some small mammal species, these infected animals can pose a risk to humans, especially in areas with a high HIV-prevalence as is the case in Tanzania. PMID:21785686

  11. Isolation and identification of Mycobacterium avium complex and other nontuberculosis mycobacteria from drinking-water in Basra governorate, Iraq.

    PubMed

    Al-Sulami, A A; Al-Taee, A M R; Wida'a, Q H

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the occurrence of Mycobacterium avium complex and other nontuberculous mycobacteria in drinking-water in Basra governorate, Iraq and their susceptibility to several antibiotics and the effect of 0.5 mg/L of chlorine on their survival. A total of 404 samples of drinking-water were collected from 33 different districts of the governorate from November 2006 to August 2007. Filtered samples were incubated for 7 days or less in a monophasic-biphasic culture setup of tuberculosis broth and Lowenstein-Jensen agar. The 252 isolates were identified as M. avium complex (21), M. marinum (15), M. kansasii (30), M. simiae (20), M. szulgai (19), M. xenopi (16), M. malmoense (11), M. fortuitum (37), M. chelonae (50) and M. abscessus (33). Isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility as well as their ability to tolerate chlorine at a concentration of 0.5 mg/L. The presence of these pathogenic bacteria in drinking-water renders the water unfit for human consumption.

  12. Orthopoxvirus infection among wildlife in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Orba, Yasuko; Sasaki, Michihito; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Ishii, Akihiro; Thomas, Yuka; Ogawa, Hirohito; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Morikawa, Shigeru; Saijo, Masayuki; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2015-02-01

    Human monkeypox is a viral zoonosis caused by monkeypox virus, an orthopoxvirus (OPXV). The majority of human monkeypox cases have been reported in moist forested regions in West and Central Africa, particularly in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). In this study we investigated zoonotic OPXV infection among wild animals in Zambia, which shares a border with DRC, to assess the geographical distribution of OPXV. We screened for OPXV antibodies in sera from non-human primates (NHPs), rodents and shrews by ELISA, and performed real-time PCR to detect OPXV DNA in spleen samples. Serological analysis indicated that 38 of 259 (14.7 %) rodents, 14 of 42 (33.3 %) shrews and 4 of 188 (2.1 %) NHPs had antibodies against OPXV. The OPXV DNA could not be detected in spleens from any animals tested. Our results indicated that wild animals living in rural human habitation areas of Zambia have been infected with OPXV.

  13. Structural adjustment and drought in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mulwanda, M

    1995-06-01

    While drought is not uncommon in Zambia, the country is now facing the worst drought in history. The monetary and social costs will be enormous. Although it is too early to measure the economic and social costs of the drought on Zambia, it is obvious that the impact is catastrophic on a country whose economy is under pressure. The drought will affect the structural adjustment programme (SAP) unveiled by the new government which has embraced the market economy. The country has imported, and will continue to import, large quantities of maize and other foodstuffs, a situation likely to strain the balance of payments. Earlier targets with regard to export earnings, reductions in the budget deficit, and GDP growth as contained in the Policy Framework Paper (PFP) are no longer attainable due to the effects of the drought.

  14. Arylamine N-Acetyltransferases in Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Edith; Sandy, James; Evangelopoulos, Dimitrios; Fullam, Elizabeth; Bhakta, Sanjib; Westwood, Isaac; Krylova, Anna; Lack, Nathan; Noble, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Polymorphic Human arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) inactivates the anti-tubercular drug isoniazid by acetyltransfer from acetylCoA. There are active NAT proteins encoded by homologous genes in mycobacteria including M. tuberculosis, M. bovis BCG, M. smegmatis and M. marinum. Crystallographic structures of NATs from M. smegmatis and M. marinum, as native enzymes and with isoniazid bound share a similar fold with the first NAT structure, Salmonella typhimurium NAT. There are three approximately equal domains and an active site essential catalytic triad of cysteine, histidine and aspartate in the first two domains. An acetyl group from acetylCoA is transferred to cysteine and then to the acetyl acceptor e.g. isoniazid. M. marinum NAT binds CoA in a more open mode compared with CoA binding to human NAT2. The structure of mycobacterial NAT may promote its role in synthesis of cell wall lipids, identified through gene deletion studies. NAT protein is essential for survival of M. bovis BCG in macrophage as are the proteins encoded by other genes in the same gene cluster (hsaA-D). HsaA-D degrade cholesterol, essential for mycobacterial survival inside macrophage. Nat expression remains to be fully understood but is co-ordinated with hsaA-D and other stress response genes in mycobacteria. Amide synthase genes in the streptomyces are also nat homologues. The amide synthases are predicted to catalyse intramolecular amide bond formation and creation of cyclic molecules, e.g. geldanamycin. Lack of conservation of the CoA binding cleft residues of M. marinum NAT suggests the amide synthase reaction mechanism does not involve a soluble CoA intermediate during amide formation and ring closure. PMID:18680471

  15. Building opportunities and partnerships in Zambia, Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Decot, M.E.

    1998-07-01

    This paper explores opportunities in Zambia, Africa for the US and other developed nations to extend building technologies that can potentially reduce global greenhouse gas emissions and also support mutual economic development and environmental quality benefits. About ninety percent of the agrarian population in Zambia live in buildings constructed of wooden sticks and native grasses. Energy for these homes is primarily limited to wood and charcoal for heating and cooking. The countryside and ambient air are tainted by smoke from smoldering wood from production of charcoal for local and export markets. Cooking and heating appliances are extremely primitive, inefficient, and unhealthy. Opportunities exist to develop building technologies that use cleaner burning coal briquettes for fuel, improve efficiency of cooking stoves, improve conditions for human health, construct more energy-efficient buildings, and stimulate economic development. External financial and technical support for such development would yield investor benefits including market entry or expansion in a resource rich developing county, low capital investment costs, low labor costs, and greenhouse gas mitigation and offset opportunities. Zambia is too rich in natural and human resources to be so poor. Building infrastructure and community development can establish a foundation for sustainable economic development and environmental quality for the whole world to enjoy.

  16. Association of CFTR gene variants with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease in a Korean population with a low prevalence of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Mi-Ae; Kim, Su-Young; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Park, Hye Yun; Jeon, Kyeongman; Kim, Jong-Won; Ki, Chang-Seok; Koh, Won-Jung

    2013-05-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that in Caucasian populations, mutations in the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene are associated with susceptibility to lung disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). However, there is little data available in Asian populations, in which the prevalence of CF is very low. Therefore, we investigated this potential relationship in a Korean population. Sixty patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for NTM lung disease were screened for genetic alterations in the CFTR gene by whole-exon resequencing. For all identified CFTR gene variants, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) genotyping was performed. Genotype and haplotype data were compared between 360 patients with NTM lung disease and 446 healthy controls. Among 13 CFTR genetic variants that were found by whole-exon resequencing, Q1352H showed a significantly higher frequency in NTM patients than in controls, giving an odds ratio (OR) of 4.27 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.43-12.78). A haplotype with Q1352H showed the strongest association with the disease, with an OR of 3.73 (95% CI, 1.50-9.25). Furthermore, all Q1352H alleles were associated with the V allele of the V470M variant. Our results suggest that CFTR gene variants may increase susceptibility to NTM lung disease in the Korean population. Q1352H appears to be strongly related to NTM lung disease susceptibility in the Korean population.

  17. [Recommendations from the Spanish Society of Paediatric Infectious Diseases on the diagnosis and treatment of non-tuberculous mycobacterial cervical lymphadenitis].

    PubMed

    Núñez Cuadros, E; Baquero Artigao, F

    2012-09-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been increasingly isolated over the last 20 years in Spain. However, as NTM disease is not a notifiable condition, there is no national registry, thus the true prevalence and incidence of these infections in children are difficult to estimate. Cervical adenitis is the most common clinical manifestation of NTM infection in immunocompetent children. The clinical course can be sub-acute or chronic, and is often associated with fluctuation, fistulisation, and scarring at a later stage. Although much less common, it is important to consider Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis, as the management and the epidemiological implications of tuberculous lymphadenitis are completely different. Diagnosis of NTM cervical lymphadenitis is based on a high level of clinical suspicion, supported by results of the tuberculin skin test and interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA). Fine needle aspiration or excisional biopsy is usually required for histological and microbiological confirmation. Complete surgical excision of the affected nodes is the treatment of choice. Incision and drainage is not recommended, due to the high risk of chronic fistulisation and recurrence rate. Antibiotic treatment or conservative wait-and-see therapy may be indicated in certain circumstances.

  18. T cell reactivity against mycolyl transferase antigen 85 of M. tuberculosis in HIV-TB coinfected subjects and in AIDS patients suffering from tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Launois, Pascal; Drowart, Annie; Bourreau, Eliane; Couppie, Pierre; Farber, Claire-Michèle; Van Vooren, Jean-Paul; Huygen, Kris

    2011-01-01

    The mycolyl transferase antigen 85 complex is a major secreted protein family from mycobacterial culture filtrate, demonstrating powerful T cell stimulatory properties in most HIV-negative, tuberculin-positive volunteers with latent M.tuberculosis infection and only weak responses in HIV-negative tuberculosis patients. Here, we have analyzed T cell reactivity against PPD and Ag85 in HIV-infected individuals, without or with clinical symptoms of tuberculosis, and in AIDS patients with disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria. Whereas responses to PPD were not significantly different in HIV-negative and HIV-positive tuberculin-positive volunteers, responses to Ag85 were significantly decreased in the HIV-positive (CDC-A and CDC-B) group. Tuberculosis patients demonstrated low T cell reactivity against Ag85, irrespective of HIV infection, and finally AIDS patients suffering from NTM infections were completely nonreactive to Ag85. A one-year follow-up of twelve HIV-positive tuberculin-positive individuals indicated a decreased reactivity against Ag85 in patients developing clinical tuberculosis, highlighting the protective potential of this antigen.

  19. Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 in Wild Nonhuman Primates, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Michihito; Ishii, Akihiro; Orba, Yasuko; Thomas, Yuka; Hang’ombe, Bernard M.; Moonga, Ladslav; Mweene, Aaron S.; Ogawa, Hirohito; Nakamura, Ichiro; Kimura, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) genome was detected in 4 baboons in Zambia. Antibody for HPIV3 was detected in 13 baboons and 6 vervet monkeys in 2 distinct areas in Zambia. Our findings suggest that wild nonhuman primates are susceptible to HPIV3 infection. PMID:23968816

  20. Human parainfluenza virus type 3 in wild nonhuman primates, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Michihito; Ishii, Akihiro; Orba, Yasuko; Thomas, Yuka; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Moonga, Ladslav; Mweene, Aaron S; Ogawa, Hirohito; Nakamura, Ichiro; Kimura, Takashi; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) genome was detected in 4 baboons in Zambia. Antibody for HPIV3 was detected in 13 baboons and 6 vervet monkeys in 2 distinct areas in Zambia. Our findings suggest that wild nonhuman primates are susceptible to HPIV3 infection.

  1. Recasting Postcolonial Citizenship through Civic Education: Critical Perspectives on Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdi, Ali A.; Shizha, Edward; Bwalya, Ignatio

    2006-01-01

    Since the early 1990s and, perhaps, as one effect of the emergence of the uni-polar world, there have been a lot of "democratizing" activities in the Sub-Saharan context, with Zambia, a central African country of about 10 million, at the forefront of these processes. While democracy, in one form or another, has come to Zambia,…

  2. Perceptions of and Attitudes towards Ageing in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapoma, Christopher C.; Masaiti, Gift

    2012-01-01

    This paper reflects part of the wider outlook on ageing in general in Zambia and was intended to investigate perceptions of and attitudes towards the aged and ageing in Zambia by members of the community who, by definition and chronologically are not classified as aged i.e. not yet 60 years and over. Focus Group Discussions (FGD) were used to…

  3. Survival of Environmental Mycobacteria in Acanthamoeba polyphaga

    PubMed Central

    Adékambi, Toïdi; Ben Salah, Skandar; Khlif, Mohamed; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2006-01-01

    Free-living amoebae in water are hosts to many bacterial species living in such an environment. Such an association enables bacteria to select virulence factors and survive in adverse conditions. Waterborne mycobacteria (WBM) are important sources of community- and hospital-acquired outbreaks of nontuberculosis mycobacterial infections. However, the interactions between WBM and free-living amoebae in water have been demonstrated for only few Mycobacterium spp. We investigated the ability of a number (n = 26) of Mycobacterium spp. to survive in the trophozoites and cysts of Acanthamoeba polyphaga. All the species tested entered the trophozoites of A. polyphaga and survived at this location over a period of 5 days. Moreover, all Mycobacterium spp. survived inside cysts for a period of 15 days. Intracellular Mycobacterium spp. within amoeba cysts survived when exposed to free chlorine (15 mg/liter) for 24 h. These data document the interactions between free-living amoebae and the majority of waterborne Mycobacterium spp. Further studies are required to examine the effects of various germicidal agents on the survival of WBM in an aquatic environment. PMID:16957218

  4. Energetics of Respiration and Oxidative Phosphorylation in Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hards, Kiel; Vilchèze, Catherine; Hartman, Travis; Berney, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacteria inhabit a wide range of intracellular and extracellular environments. Many of these environments are highly dynamic and therefore mycobacteria are faced with the constant challenge of redirecting their metabolic activity to be commensurate with either replicative growth or a non-replicative quiescence. A fundamental feature in this adaptation is the ability of mycobacteria to respire, regenerate reducing equivalents and generate ATP via oxidative phosphorylation. Mycobacteria harbor multiple primary dehydrogenases to fuel the electron transport chain and two terminal respiratory oxidases, an aa3-type cytochrome c oxidase and cytochrome bd-type menaquinol oxidase, are present for dioxygen reduction coupled to the generation of a protonmotive force. Hypoxia leads to the downregulation of key respiratory complexes, but the molecular mechanisms regulating this expression are unknown. Despite being obligate aerobes, mycobacteria have the ability to metabolize in the absence of oxygen and a number of reductases are present to facilitate the turnover of reducing equivalents under these conditions (e.g. nitrate reductase, succinate dehydrogenase/fumarate reductase). Hydrogenases and ferredoxins are also present in the genomes of mycobacteria suggesting the ability of these bacteria to adapt to an anaerobic-type of metabolism in the absence of oxygen. ATP synthesis by the membrane-bound F1FO-ATP synthase is essential for growing and non-growing mycobacteria and the enzyme is able to function over a wide range of protonmotive force values (aerobic to hypoxic). The discovery of lead compounds that target respiration and oxidative phosphorylation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis highlights the importance of this area for the generation of new front line drugs to combat tuberculosis. PMID:25346874

  5. [Analysis of the MGTI (Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube) system in the primary isolation of mycobacteria].

    PubMed

    Togneri, A M; Cimalando, L

    2000-01-01

    The advantages of Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) system were analyzed and compared to Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) and Stonebrink (S) solid media when searching for a fast method to diagnose tuberculosis and mycobacterioses, which should be easy to perform in laboratories and of non-invasive reading. All nonsterile specimens were pretreated with Petroff method. A total of 191 specimens were processed (among which 152 were pulmonary and 39 extrapulmonary). Twenty-nine tested positive by one of the methods employed. The rate of recovery of smear positive specimens (ED+) was of 92% with LJ/S, and 85% with MGIT. The mean time to detect a positive result was 18.7 days with MGIT, and 20.6 days with LJ/S. The rate of recovery of smear negative specimens (ED-) was 88.2% with LJ, 70.6% with S, and 23.5% with MGIT. The mean time to detect a positive result were 38.5; 26.5 and 29 days, respectively. During this experiment, MGIT did not seem to have any advantage over the traditional methods, particularly when working with samples containing a low number of bacilli (p < 0.05). It is obviously necessary to make a comparative study with a large amount of cases which might support this observation and to analyze the influence of the reagents employed in the pre-treatment of the specimens on the MGIT system's efficacy to detect mycobacteria.

  6. Health and agricultural productivity: Evidence from Zambia.

    PubMed

    Fink, Günther; Masiye, Felix

    2015-07-01

    We evaluate the productivity effects of investment in preventive health technology through a randomized controlled trial in rural Zambia. In the experiment, access to subsidized bed nets was randomly assigned at the community level; 516 farmers were followed over a one-year farming period. We find large positive effects of preventative health investment on productivity: among farmers provided with access to free nets, harvest value increased by US$ 76, corresponding to about 14.7% of the average output value. While only limited information was collected on farming inputs, shifts in the extensive and the intensive margins of labor supply appear to be the most likely mechanism underlying the productivity improvements observed.

  7. Molecular Typing of Mycobacterium intracellulare Using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis, Mycobacteria Interspersed Repetitive-Unit-Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Typing, and Multilocus Sequence Typing: Molecular Characterization and Comparison of Each Typing Methods

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Semi; Lim, Nara; Kwon, Seungjik; Shim, Taesun; Park, Misun; Kim, Bum-Joon; Kim, Seonghan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Mycobacterium intracellulare is the major causative agent of nontuberculous mycobacteria-related pulmonary infections. The strain typing of M. intracellulare is important for the treatment and control of its infections. We compared the discrimination capacity and effective value of four different molecular typing methods. Methods Antibiotic susceptibility testing, hsp65 and rpoB sequencing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), mycobacteria interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MIRU-VNTR), and VNTR assay targeting 44 M. intracellulare isolates obtained from patients with pulmonary infections were performed. Results All the antibiotic susceptibility patterns had no association with the molecular and sequence types tested in this study; however, the molecular and sequence types were related with each other. PFGE gave best results for discriminatory capacity, followed by VNTR, MLST, and MIRU-VNTR. Conclusion The high discriminatory power of PFGE, VNTR, and MLST is enough for differentiating between reinfection and relapse, as well as for other molecular epidemiological usages. The MLST could be regarded as a representative classification method, because it showed the clearest relation with the sequence types. PMID:25180144

  8. Molecular Characterization of Mycolactone Producing Mycobacteria from Aquatic Environments in Buruli Ulcer Non-Endemic Areas in Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Tano, Marcellin B.; Dassi, Christelle; Mosi, Lydia; Koussémon, Marina; Bonfoh, Bassirou

    2017-01-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), particularly mycolactone producing mycobacteria (MPM), are bacteria found in aquatic environments causing skin diseases in humans like Buruli ulcer (BU). Although the causative agent for BU, Mycobacterium ulcerans has been identified and associated with slow-moving water bodies, the real transmission route is still unknown. This study aimed to characterize MPMs from environmental aquatic samples collected in a BU non-endemic community, Adiopodoumé, in Côte d’Ivoire. Sixty samples were collected in four types of matrices (plant biofilms, water filtrate residues, plant detritus and soils) from three water bodies frequently used by the population. Using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), MPMs were screened for the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) mycobacterial gene, the IS2404 insertion sequence, and MPM enoyl reductase (ER) gene. Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) typing with loci 6, 19, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit 1 (MIRU1) and sequence type 1(ST1) was performed to discriminate between different MPMs. Our findings showed 66.7%, 57.5% and 43.5% of positivity respectively for 16S rRNA, IS2404 and ER. MPM discrimination using VNTR typing did not show any positivity and therefore did not allow precise MPM distinction. Nevertheless, the observed contamination of some water bodies in a BU non-endemic community by MPMs suggests the possibility of pathogen dissemination and transmission to humans. These aquatic environments could also serve as reservoirs that should be considered during control and prevention strategies. PMID:28208653

  9. Markets for hospital services in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Nakamba, Pamela; Hanson, Kara; McPake, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Hospital reforms involving the introduction of measures to increase competition in hospital markets are being implemented in a range of low and middle-income countries. However, little is understood about the operation of hospital markets outside the USA and the UK. This paper assesses the degree of competition for hospital services in two hospital markets in Zambia (Copperbelt and Midlands), and the implications for prices, quality and efficiency. We found substantial differences among different hospital types in prices, costs and quality, suggesting that the hospital service market is a segmented market. The two markets differ significantly in their degree of competition, with the high cost inpatient services market in Copperbelt relatively more competitive than that in the Midlands market. The implications of these differences are discussed in terms of the potential for competition to improve hospital performance, the impact of market structure on equity of access, and how the government should address the problem of the mine hospitals.

  10. Detection of mycobacteria by radiometric and standard plate procedures.

    PubMed Central

    Damato, J J; Collins, M T; Rothlauf, M V; McClatchy, J K

    1983-01-01

    A group of 89 smear-positive sputum specimens were evaluated by radiometric and standard plate procedures to determine the methodology which would provide the earliest detection of mycobacteria and maximum test sensitivity. Digested non-decontaminated specimens were concentrated and inoculated into modified selective BACTEC radiometric 7H12 broth and Mitchison selective 7H10 agar. Sodium hydroxide (1.5% final concentration) was then used to decontaminate these specimens. They were then concentrated and inoculated into both selective and nonselective 7H12 radiometric broths and into selective 7H10 and nonselective Middlebrook 7H11 agar media. The specimen processing and media combinations providing the earliest detection were non-decontaminated specimens with modified selective 7H12 BACTEC broth and decontaminated specimens with 7H12 BACTEC broths. Maximum sensitivity (percent positive) was obtained by using non-decontaminated specimens on Mitchison selective 7H10 Agar (98%) or decontaminated specimens in 7H12 BACTEC broth (95%). The decontamination process was found to reduce significantly the number of mycobacteria in clinical specimens, particularly the mycobacteria other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The specimen processing-media combinations providing the earliest detection and maximum recovery of mycobacteria (100%) were non-decontaminated specimens with modified selective 7H12 BACTEC broth or Mitchison selective agar and decontaminated specimens with 7H12 BACTEC broth or 7H11 agar. PMID:6348076

  11. [Inactivation of Mycobacteria mucogenicum in drinking water: chlorine resistance and mechanism analysis].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qi; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Xiao-Jian; Lu, Pin-Pin; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Qiao

    2013-02-01

    In recent years, chlorine-resistant bacteria were detected in drinking water distribution systems which threatened the drinking water safety. Our group detected one strain named Mycobacteria mucogenicum from the drinking water distribution system of a city in south China. This paper studied chlorine resistance and mechanism of Mycobacteria mucogenicum. Inactivation experiments of one strain Mycobacteria mucogenicum were conducted with free chlorine, monochloramind and chlorine dioxide. The CT values of 99.9% inactivation by free chlorine, monochloramine and chlorine dioxide were detected as (76.25 +/- 47.55)mg.min.L-1, (1396 +/-382)mg.min.L-1, (13.5 +/- 4.9) mg.min L-1. Using transmission electronmicroscopy (TEM) observed the inactivation process of Mycobacteria mucogenicum. The bacteria surface hydrophobic of Mycobacteria mucogenicum was 37.2%. Mycobacteria mucogenicum has a higher hydrophobicity than other bacteria which prevented the diffusion of chlorine into cells. Mycobacteria mucogenicum is more resistant to chorine than other bacteria.

  12. Comparison of chest CT findings in nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases vs. Mycobacterium tuberculosis lung disease in HIV-negative patients with cavities

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cherry; Park, So Hee; Oh, Sang Young; Kim, Sung-Soo; Jo, Kyung-Wook; Shim, Tae Sun

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This article focuses on the differences between CT findings of HIV-negative patients who have cavities with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease and those with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections (TB). Methods We retrospectively reviewed 128 NTM disease patients (79 males and 49 females) with cavities in chest CT, matched for age and gender with 128 TB patients in the same period. Sputum cultures of all patients were positive for pathogens. Two independent chest radiologists evaluated the characteristics of the largest cavity and related factors. Results Interobserver agreement was excellent (κ value, 0.853–0.938). Cavity walls in NTM disease were significantly thinner (6.9±4 mm vs 10.9±6 mm, P<0.001) and more even (the ratio of thickness, 2.6±1 vs 3.7±2, P<0.001) than those in TB. The thickening of adjacent pleura next to the cavity was also significantly thicker in NTM than TB (P<0.001). However, in the multivariate analysis, thickening of adjacent pleura was the only significant factor among the representative cavity findings (Odds ratio [OR], 6.49; P<0.001). In addition, ill-defined tree-in-bud nodules (OR, 8.82; P<0.001), number of non-cavitary nodules (≥10mm) (OR, 0.72; P = 0.003), and bronchiectasis in the RUL (OR, 5.3; P = 0.002) were significantly associated ancillary findings with NTM disease in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions The major cavities in NTM disease generally have thinner and more even walls than those in TB. When cavities are associated with adjacent pleural thickening, ill-defined satellite tree-in-bud nodules, or fewer non-cavitary nodules ≥10 mm, these CT findings are highly suggestive of NTM disease rather than TB. PMID:28346488

  13. Risk Factors and Outcomes of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease among Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: A Case-Control study in a TB Endemic Area.

    PubMed

    Liao, Tsai-Ling; Lin, Chin-Fu; Chen, Yi-Ming; Liu, Hung-Jen; Chen, Der-Yuan

    2016-07-11

    Increasing evidence indicates that the risk of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease is elevated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the risk factors and outcomes for NTM disease among RA patients remain unclear. We conducted a case-control study and estimated odds ratios (ORs) for RA patients with NTM disease according to comorbidities and anti-rheumatic medications by using conditional logistic regression. Prior tuberculosis history (adjusted OR (aOR) =5.58, p < 0.001), hypertension (aOR = 2.55, p = 0.013), diabetes mellitus (aOR = 3.31, p = 0.005), interstitial lung disease (aOR = 8.22, p < 0.001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (aOR = 8.59, p < 0.001) and exposure to oral corticosteroids in a dose-dependent manner (5- < 10 mg/day aOR = 2.51, Ptrend = 0.007) were associated with a significantly increased risk of NTM disease in RA patients. The predominant species causing NTM disease in RA patients was Mycobacterium intracellulare (46.0%). Most NTM isolates were resistant to the majority of the antibiotics that are currently available, which maybe caused treatment failure; hospitalization and mortality are increased. To prevent and treat NTM disease efficiently, we suggested that it is important to monitor the development of NTM disease in RA patients receiving therapy with corticosteroids, particularly in those with predisposing factors.

  14. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) and Environmental isolates associated with a Simulated Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution System Subjected to Episodes of Nitrification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacterial populations were examined in a simulated chloraminated drinking water distribution system. After six months of continuous operation, coupons were incubated in CDC reactors receiving water from the simulated system to study biofilm development. The distribution system ...

  15. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) and Environmental Isolates Associated with a Simulated Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution System Subjected to Episodes of Nitrification - poster #2168

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacterial populations were examined in a simulated chloraminated drinking water distribution system. After six months of continuous operation, coupons were incubated in CDC reactors receiving water from the simulated system to study biofilm development. The distribution system wa...

  16. Evaluation of a simple in-house test to presumptively differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from nontuberculous mycobacteria by detection of p-nitrobenzoic acid metabolites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guirong; Yu, Xia; Liang, Qian; Chen, Suting; Wilson, Stuart; Huang, Hairong

    2013-01-01

    The timely differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and non-tubercular mycobacterium (NTM) species is urgently needed in patient care since the routine laboratory method is time consuming and cumbersome. An easy and cheap method which can successfully distinguish MTC from NTM was established and evaluated. 38 mycobacterial type and reference strains and 65 clinical isolates representing 10 species of mycobacterium were included in this study. Metabolites of p-nitrobenzoic acid (PNB) reduction were identified using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). A spectrophotometric method was developed to detect these metabolites, which was evaluated on a number of MTC and NTM species. All of the tested NTM species and strains reduced PNB to p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), while none of the MTC strains showed a similar activity. Spectrophotometric detection of PABA had 100% sensitivity and specificity for MTC and NTM differentiation among the type strains and the clinical isolates tested. PABA was identified as one of the metabolites of PNB reduction. All the tested NTM species metabolized PNB to PABA whereas the MTC members lacked this activity. A simple, specific and cost-effective method based on PABA production was established in order to discriminate MTC from NTM from cultured organisms.

  17. Detection and characterization of Clostridium species in soil of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Hang'ombe, B M; Isogai, E; Lungu, J; Mubita, C; Nambota, A; Kirisawa, R; Kimura, K; Isogai, H

    2000-10-01

    In the retrospective study of soil-borne diseases of cattle in Zambia, malignant edema and blackquarter were widespread. One hundred and sixty-five cases with malignant edema and 103 cases with blackquarter were reported between 1985 and 1997. It was found that specific soil-conditions associate the emergence of the soil-borne diseases. Soil samples from five areas in Zambia were examined for the presence of genus Clostridium. Direct immunofluorescent assay (IFA) examination showed that C. septicum, C. novyi and C. chauvoei were detected in the soil of specific areas in Zambia, respectively. Causal organisms such as C. perfringens were isolated from the soil samples. The information of area-specific distribution of Clositridium species may give an efficient program in protecting cattle and man.

  18. Phylogenetic comparison of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading mycobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Govindaswami, M; Feldhake, D J; Kinkle, B K; Mindell, D P; Loper, J C

    1995-01-01

    Two mycobacterial strains previously isolated from fossil-fuel-contaminated environments and shown to degrade four- and/or five-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were further characterized. The two strains, PYR-I and RJGII-135, had similar growth characteristics, colony morphologies, and scotochromogenic pigmentations. DNA amplification fingerprints obtained with total genomic DNA indicated some strain similarities but with several distinctly different bands. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis based upon essentially full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences separates the two strains as distinct species within the fast-growing group of mycobacteria. Although both strains are thermosensitive, strain PYR-I has the bulged U between positions 184 and 193 characteristic of thermotolerant mycobacteria. Both strains are of potential use for reintroduction into and bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. PMID:7574631

  19. Phylogenetic comparison of two polycyclic aromatic hydrogen-degrading mycobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Govindaswami, M.; Loper, J.C.; Feldhake, D.J.

    1995-09-01

    Two mycobacterial strains previously isolated from fossil-fuel-contaminated environments and shown to degrade four- and/or five-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were further characterized. The two strains, PYR-I and RJGII-135, had similar growth characteristics, colony morphologies, and scotochromogenic pigmentations. DNA amplification fringerprints obtained with total genomic DNA indicated some strain similarities but with several distinctly different bands. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis based upon essentially full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences separates the two strains as distinct species within the fast-growing group of mycobacteria. Although both strains are thermosensitive, strain PYR-I has the bulged U between positions 184 and 193 characteristic of thermotolerant mycobacteria. Both strains are of potential use for reintroduction into and bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. 26 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Malachite green interferes with postantibiotic recovery of mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Gelman, Ekaterina; McKinney, John D; Dhar, Neeraj

    2012-07-01

    The genus Mycobacterium comprises slow-growing species with generation times ranging from hours to weeks. The protracted incubation time before colonies appear on solid culture medium can result in overgrowth by faster-growing microorganisms. To prevent contamination, the solid media used in laboratories and clinics for cultivation of mycobacteria contain the arylmethane compound malachite green, which has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Malachite green has no impact on the plating efficiency of mycobacteria when cells are grown under normal conditions. However, we found that malachite green interfered with colony formation when bacteria were preexposed to antibiotics targeting cell wall biogenesis (isoniazid, ethionamide, ethambutol). This inhibitory effect of malachite green was not observed when bacteria were preexposed to antibiotics targeting cellular processes other than cell wall biogenesis (rifampin, moxifloxacin, streptomycin). Sputum specimens from tuberculosis patients are routinely evaluated on solid culture medium containing high concentrations of malachite green. This practice could lead to underestimation of bacterial loads and overestimation of chemotherapeutic efficacy.

  1. Innate immunity to mycobacteria: vitamin D and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Jo, Eun-Kyeong

    2010-08-01

    Autophagy is an ancient mechanism of protein degradation and a novel antimicrobial strategy. With respect to host defences against mycobacteria, autophagy plays a crucial role in antimycobacterial resistance, and contributes to immune surveillance of intracellular pathogens and vaccine efficacy. Vitamin D3 contributes to host immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis through LL-37/hCAP-18, which is the only cathelicidin identified to date in humans. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of host immune strategies against mycobacteria, including vitamin D-mediated innate immunity and autophagy activation. This review also addresses our current understanding regarding the autophagy connection to principal innate machinery, such as ubiquitin- or inflammasome-involved pathways. Integrated dialog between autophagy and innate immunity may contribute to adequate host immune defences against mycobacterial infection.

  2. Isolation of Mycobacteria from Frozen Fish Destined for Human Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Mediel, M. J.; Rodriguez, V.; Codina, G.; Martin-Casabona, N.

    2000-01-01

    Mycobacteria were isolated from defrost water and tissue of sole (Solea solea), hake (Merluccius merluccius), cod (Gadus morhua), ling (Genypterus blacodes), and monkfish (Lophius piscatorius) on Löwenstein-Jensen medium after incubation at different temperatures. Samples of frozen fish were obtained under sterile conditions inside a refrigeration chamber (−18 to −22°C) in a wholesale market from which these products are distributed to shops for retail sale and human consumption. PMID:10919833

  3. Environmental reservoirs of pathogenic mycobacteria across the Ethiopian biogeographical landscape

    PubMed Central

    James, Phillip; Oakley, Brian B.; Erenso, Girume; Aseffa, Abraham; Knight, Rob; Wellington, Elizabeth M.; Courtenay, Orin

    2017-01-01

    The Mycobacterium genus comprises over one-hundred-and-fifty recognised species, the majority of which reside in the environment and many of which can be pathogenic to mammals. Some species of environmental mycobacteria may interfere with BCG vaccination efficacy and in tuberculin test interpretation. Examining biogeographic trends in the distribution of members of the mycobacteria across a number of physicochemical and spatial gradients in soil and water environments across Ethiopia using oligotyping identified differential distributions of pathogenic and significant species. The tuberculosis complex was identified in more than 90% of water samples and taxonomic groups implicated in lower BCG vaccine efficiency were core in both soil and water Mycobacterium communities. A reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis was identified in water, with up to 7.3×102 genome equivalents per ml. Elevation, temperature, habitat and vegetation type were important predictors of both soil and water Mycobacterium communities. These results represent the first step in understanding the potential risk of exposure to environmental mycobacteria that may undermine efforts to reduce disease incidence. PMID:28333945

  4. Environmental reservoirs of pathogenic mycobacteria across the Ethiopian biogeographical landscape.

    PubMed

    King, Hayley C; Khera-Butler, Tanya; James, Phillip; Oakley, Brian B; Erenso, Girume; Aseffa, Abraham; Knight, Rob; Wellington, Elizabeth M; Courtenay, Orin

    2017-01-01

    The Mycobacterium genus comprises over one-hundred-and-fifty recognised species, the majority of which reside in the environment and many of which can be pathogenic to mammals. Some species of environmental mycobacteria may interfere with BCG vaccination efficacy and in tuberculin test interpretation. Examining biogeographic trends in the distribution of members of the mycobacteria across a number of physicochemical and spatial gradients in soil and water environments across Ethiopia using oligotyping identified differential distributions of pathogenic and significant species. The tuberculosis complex was identified in more than 90% of water samples and taxonomic groups implicated in lower BCG vaccine efficiency were core in both soil and water Mycobacterium communities. A reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis was identified in water, with up to 7.3×102 genome equivalents per ml. Elevation, temperature, habitat and vegetation type were important predictors of both soil and water Mycobacterium communities. These results represent the first step in understanding the potential risk of exposure to environmental mycobacteria that may undermine efforts to reduce disease incidence.

  5. Cost Sharing in Zambia's Public Universities: Prospects and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masaiti, Gift; Shen, Hong

    2013-01-01

    This research paper explores the concept of "cost sharing" which became more prominent in Zambia education with the advent of democratic form of governance in 1991. As a way of responding to the ever diminishing tax revenues, government through the education policy of 1996, allowed higher education institutions including public…

  6. The Implementation of School Based Continuous Assessment (CA) in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapambwe, William M.

    2010-01-01

    In Zambia, continuous assessment (CA) is defined as an on-going, diagnostic, classroom-based process that uses a variety of assessment tools to measure learner performance (MOE, 2005:5). Over the years, examinations have been used for selection and certification, without formal considerations on school-based continuous assessment as a component in…

  7. Next Steps at the University of Zambia in Implementing ESD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namafe, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    By acting within a comfort zone formed by, first, its own institutional location and, second, the subsector of teacher education, the University of Zambia can be said to be succeeding in mainstreaming Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) and Environmental Education (EE). This article provides outline activities and lessons learnt along the…

  8. Theileriosis in Zambia: etiology, epidemiology and control measures.

    PubMed

    Nambota, A; Samui, K; Sugimoto, C; Kakuta, T; Onuma, M

    1994-06-01

    In Zambia, theileriosis manifests itself in the form of Corridor disease (CD), caused by Theileria parva lawrencei, and East Coast fever (ECF), caused by T. parva parva. Of the approximately 3 million cattle in Zambia, 1.4 million are at risk to theileriosis. ECF is found in the Northern and Eastern provinces of the country, while CD appears in Southern, Central, Lusaka and Copperbelt provinces. Theileriosis is a major constraint to the development of the livestock industry in Zambia, with losses of about 10,000 cattle per annum. The disease is spreading at a very fast rate, over-flowing its original borders. The epidemiology is complicated by, among other factors, the wide distribution of the tick vector, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, which is found all over the country. The current strategy of relying on tick control and therapeutic drugs as a way of controlling the disease is becoming increasingly difficult for Zambia. This is because both curative drugs and acaricides are very costly. Immunization against theileriosis using the infection and treatment method as a way of controlling the disease is becoming increasingly accepted, provided local Theileria stocks are used. This paper reviews the incidence of theileriosis in the last 2 years, 1991 and 1992. It also gives a historical perspective of the disease, epidemiology and control measures presently in use.

  9. Catholic Education in Zambia: Mission Integrity and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmody, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    This article provides the history of Catholic state-aided schooling in Zambia for over a century. It notes how the Catholic Church came to view its school to be a pivotal means of church development. By cooperation with the state it entered more fully into the nation's future by offering high-quality state-sponsored schooling. This proved to…

  10. Child labour or school attendance? Evidence from Zambia.

    PubMed

    Jensen, P; Nielsen, H S

    1997-01-01

    "In this paper we investigate what affects school attendance and child labour in an LDC, using data for Zambia.... The empirical analysis suggests that both economic and sociological variables are important determinants for the choice between school attendance and child labour. In particular, we find some support for the hypothesis that poverty forces households to keep their children away from school."

  11. Textbooks and Learning Materials Program: Zambia. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Mississippi Consortium for International Development's (MCID's) intervention involved the development, publication and distribution of an Integrated Foundations of Learning Kit, focused on numeracy. This intervention was aligned with Zambia's priorities and strategies and matched the requirements of the Textbooks and Learning Materials Program…

  12. Abortion as a public health problem in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Sims, P

    1996-06-01

    Contraception is not widely accepted in Zambia. Many unwanted pregnancies therefore result. Abortion law in Zambia allows a woman to seek the termination of pregnancy when her own life and health, or the health of other members of her family, may be put at risk by the pregnancy, or when the fetus may be expected to be damaged or diseased. Even so, many illegal abortions are performed each year in Zambia. The majority of women seeking to terminate an unwanted pregnancy seek help from friends, go to traditional healers or "wise women", or find and take the abortifacients of folklore or muti. This approach may either succeed or result in major complications, including death. Induced abortion is, however, provided at the main teaching hospital in Lusaka without anesthesia, on a day care basis with neither pain relief, sedation, nor follow-up. Unsafe abortion is a major cause of maternal mortality in Zambia, with maternal mortality estimated to be approximately 500 per 100,000 live births; abortion accounts for approximately 30% of such mortality. If available figures reasonably reflect the true situation, then approximately 2300 women die in childbirth or of factors related to pregnancy every year, and 700-1000 deaths are directly attributable to abortion. There is a need to improve the practice of family planning and the provision of sex education in the country.

  13. Cucumis zambianus (Cucurbitaceae): A New Species from Northwestern Zambia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During germplasm explorations within Zambia in 1984, seven Cucumis accessions were collected that could not be identified to species. Two of the accessions were studied in-depth. Based on phenotypic characters, they were closest to Cucumis pustulatus. In ITS analyses of all available Cucumis spec...

  14. Increased Economic Relations Between China and Zambia in the Last Decade: Implications on Zambia’s Existing Bilateral Relations with the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-13

    opposition party Patriotic Front, led by Michael Sata, campaigned on evicting the Chinese and re-establishing ties with Taiwan. This posed a threat...American metal fabrication company in Zambia, Metal Fabricators of Zambia owned by Phelps Dolge International depends on the copper mines for its

  15. Mapping the Geographical Distribution of Lymphatic Filariasis in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Mwase, Enala T.; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Nsakashalo-Senkwe, Mutale; Mubila, Likezo; Mwansa, James; Songolo, Peter; Shawa, Sheila T.; Simonsen, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Past case reports have indicated that lymphatic filariasis (LF) occurs in Zambia, but knowledge about its geographical distribution and prevalence pattern, and the underlying potential environmental drivers, has been limited. As a background for planning and implementation of control, a country-wide mapping survey was undertaken between 2003 and 2011. Here the mapping activities are outlined, the findings across the numerous survey sites are presented, and the ecological requirements of the LF distribution are explored. Methodology/Principal findings Approximately 10,000 adult volunteers from 108 geo-referenced survey sites across Zambia were examined for circulating filarial antigens (CFA) with rapid format ICT cards, and a map indicating the distribution of CFA prevalences in Zambia was prepared. 78% of survey sites had CFA positive cases, with prevalences ranging between 1% and 54%. Most positive survey sites had low prevalence, but six foci with more than 15% prevalence were identified. The observed geographical variation in prevalence pattern was examined in more detail using a species distribution modeling approach to explore environmental requirements for parasite presence, and to predict potential suitable habitats over unsurveyed areas. Of note, areas associated with human modification of the landscape appeared to play an important role for the general presence of LF, whereas temperature (measured as averaged seasonal land surface temperature) seemed to be an important determinant of medium-high prevalence levels. Conclusions/significance LF was found to be surprisingly widespread in Zambia, although in most places with low prevalence. The produced maps and the identified environmental correlates of LF infection will provide useful guidance for planning and start-up of geographically targeted and cost-effective LF control in Zambia. PMID:24587466

  16. An IPTG Inducible Conditional Expression System for Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ravishankar, Sudha; Ambady, Anisha; Ramu, Haripriya; Mudugal, Naina Vinay; Tunduguru, Ragadeepthi; Anbarasu, Anand; Sharma, Umender K.; Sambandamurthy, Vasan K.; Ramaiah, Sudha

    2015-01-01

    Conditional expression strains serve as a valuable tool to study the essentiality and to establish the vulnerability of a target under investigation in a drug discovery program. While essentiality implies an absolute requirement of a target function, vulnerability provides valuable information on the extent to which a target function needs to be depleted to achieve bacterial growth inhibition followed by cell death. The critical feature of an ideal conditional expression system is its ability to tightly regulate gene expression to achieve the full spectrum spanning from a high level of expression in order to support growth and near zero level of expression to mimic conditions of gene knockout. A number of bacterial conditional expression systems have been reported for use in mycobacteria. The utility of an isopropylthiogalactoside (IPTG) inducible system in mycobacteria has been reported for protein overexpression and anti-sense gene expression from a replicating multi-copy plasmid. Herein, we report the development of a versatile set of non-replicating IPTG inducible vectors for mycobacteria which can be used for generation of conditional expression strains through homologous recombination. The role of a single lac operator versus a double lac operator to regulate gene expression was evaluated by monitoring the expression levels of β-galactosidase in Mycobacterium smegmatis. These studies indicated a significant level of leaky expression from the vector with a single lac operator but none from the vector with double lac operator. The significance of the double lac operator vector for target validation was established by monitoring the growth kinetics of an inhA, a rpoB and a ftsZ conditional expression strain grown in the presence of different concentrations of IPTG. The utility of this inducible system in identifying target specific inhibitors was established by screening a focussed library of small molecules using an inhA and a rpoB conditional expression

  17. Findings of mycobacteria in insectivores and small rodents.

    PubMed

    Fischer, O; Mátlová, L; Bartl, J; Dvorská, L; Melichárek, I; Pavlík, I

    2000-01-01

    The organs of 30 insectivorous mammals and 62 rodents from areas inhabited by people or livestock where cattle paratuberculosis or mycobacterial infections of swine had been found to occur were examined by cultivation during the monitoring of occurrence and spread of mycobacterioses in cattle and swine. Mycobacteria were found in the organs of 3 insectivores (10%) and 6 rodents (9.7%). Mycobacterium chelonae was isolated from the organs of the lesser white-toothed shrew (Crocidura suaveolens) and the common vole (Microtus arvalis), and M. vaccae and M. avium subsp. avium (IS901+, serotype 1) from the organs of the common shrew (Sorex araneus). M. avium subsp. avium (IS901+, serotype 1) was also isolated from the organs of the yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis). Slow-growing mycobacteria of group III (according to Runyon) were isolated from the organs of the mouse (Mus musculus sensu lato) and the yellow-necked mouse (A. flavicollis). These findings had no connection with the epizootological situation in the nearby livestock. M. fortuitum was isolated from the organs of the common vole (M. arvalis) caught in a field within easy reach of a swine breeding herd. M. fortuitum was also identified in the lymph nodes and droppings of this swine herd, as well as in the straw, scrapings from the floor of stalls, troughs and banisters, as well as from larvae and imagoes of dipterous insects. These results demonstrate the possibility that insectivores and small rodents can spread the causative agents of mycobacteria in wild and domestic animals.

  18. Isolation of Mycobacteria from clinical samples collected in the United States from 2004 to 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Mycobacteria other than M. bovis (i.e. atypical mycobacteria) may interfere with current bovine tuberculosis diagnostic tests resulting in false positive test results. In populations with low prevalence of M. bovis (i.e., as detected within the United States), interference from atypical ...

  19. A novel protein extraction method for identification of mycobacteria using MALDI-ToF MS.

    PubMed

    Adams, La'Tonzia L; Salee, Parichat; Dionne, Kim; Carroll, Karen; Parrish, Nicole

    2015-12-01

    Commercial extraction methods for identification of mycobacteria using MALDI-ToF MS are laborious and time consuming. We have developed a novel extraction method which utilizes a bead beater and zirconia/silica beads to significantly shorten the existing protocol. This novel method provides a more rapid extraction of mycobacteria versus the commercial standard.

  20. Identification of mycobacteria by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Butler, W R; Jost, K C; Kilburn, J O

    1991-01-01

    Mycolic acids extracted from saponified mycobacterial cells were examined as p-bromophenacyl esters by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Standard HPLC patterns were developed for species of Mycobacterium by examination of strains from culture collections and other well-characterized isolates. Relative retention times of peaks and peak height comparisons were used to develop a differentiation scheme that was 98% accurate for the species examined. A rapid, cost-effective HPLC method which offers an alternative approach to the identification of mycobacteria is described. PMID:1774251

  1. Economics of theileriosis control in Zambia.

    PubMed

    D'Haese, L; Penne, K; Elyn, R

    1999-09-01

    For an economic analysis of theileriosis control, we adopted the total economic cost (TEC) method, which calculates the sum of output losses from tick damage, theileriosis mortality and morbidity, and expenditures for treatment or prevention of the disease. At farm level, the TEC can be minimized by a specific combination of vector control and/or immunization and an acceptable level of losses. Expenditures for vector control include acaricides, construction of dipping or spraying facilities and their maintenance, and variable costs such as those for water and labour. Economics of vector control depend on the herd size and the method of application of the acaricide. Morbidity, mortality and tick damage losses are effectively reduced by correct and intensive vector control programmes. Expenditures for vector control are estimated at US$ 8. 43, 13.62 and 21.09 per animal per year for plunge dipping, hand spraying and pour-on, respectively. Immunization costs comprise production of parasite stabilates, storage and application, delivery and treatment. At US$ 9.5 per animal, immunization limits losses caused by Theileria parva, but ticks still may reduce the productivity of the animals. Expenditures for treatment after natural infection involve drugs, transport, veterinary fees and farm labour costs. Treatment has a moderate success rate, hence both morbidity and mortality remain important factors. Equally, it does not affect the vector, which may continue to reduce overall productivity of cattle. Expenditures for treatment range between US$ 9.04 and US$ 27.31 per animal. To compare different TECs in relation to different control strategies, assumptions have to be made on disease occurrence, case fatality, value and productivity of the cattle, reductions in productivity due to morbidity and number of animals under a specific control regime. Calculations based on data from Southern Province, Zambia show that large-scale immunization reduces the TEC by 90% compared to no

  2. Mycobacteria in Water and Loose Deposits of Drinking Water Distribution Systems in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Torvinen, Eila; Suomalainen, Sini; Lehtola, Markku J.; Miettinen, Ilkka T.; Zacheus, Outi; Paulin, Lars; Katila, Marja-Leena; Martikainen, Pertti J.

    2004-01-01

    Drinking water distribution systems were analyzed for viable counts of mycobacteria by sampling water from waterworks and in different parts of the systems. In addition, loose deposits collected during mechanical cleaning of the main pipelines were similarly analyzed. The study covered 16 systems at eight localities in Finland. In an experimental study, mycobacterial colonization of biofilms on polyvinyl chloride tubes in a system was studied. The isolation frequency of mycobacteria increased from 35% at the waterworks to 80% in the system, and the number of mycobacteria in the positive samples increased from 15 to 140 CFU/liter, respectively. Mycobacteria were isolated from all 11 deposits with an accumulation time of tens of years and from all 4 deposits which had accumulated during a 1-year follow-up time. The numbers of mycobacteria were high in both old and young deposits (medians, 1.8 × 105 and 3.9 × 105 CFU/g [dry weight], respectively). Both water and deposit samples yielded the highest numbers of mycobacteria in the systems using surface water and applying ozonation as an intermediate treatment or posttreatment. The number and growth of mycobacteria in system waters correlated strongly with the concentration of assimilable organic carbon in the water leaving the waterworks. The densities of mycobacteria in the developing biofilms were highest at the distal sites of the systems. Over 90% of the mycobacteria isolated from water and deposits belonged to Mycobacterium lentiflavum, M. tusciae, M. gordonae, and a previously unclassified group of mycobacteria. Our results indicate that drinking water systems may be a source for recently discovered new mycobacterial species. PMID:15066787

  3. Mycobacteria in water and loose deposits of drinking water distribution systems in Finland.

    PubMed

    Torvinen, Eila; Suomalainen, Sini; Lehtola, Markku J; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Zacheus, Outi; Paulin, Lars; Katila, Marja-Leena; Martikainen, Pertti J

    2004-04-01

    Drinking water distribution systems were analyzed for viable counts of mycobacteria by sampling water from waterworks and in different parts of the systems. In addition, loose deposits collected during mechanical cleaning of the main pipelines were similarly analyzed. The study covered 16 systems at eight localities in Finland. In an experimental study, mycobacterial colonization of biofilms on polyvinyl chloride tubes in a system was studied. The isolation frequency of mycobacteria increased from 35% at the waterworks to 80% in the system, and the number of mycobacteria in the positive samples increased from 15 to 140 CFU/liter, respectively. Mycobacteria were isolated from all 11 deposits with an accumulation time of tens of years and from all 4 deposits which had accumulated during a 1-year follow-up time. The numbers of mycobacteria were high in both old and young deposits (medians, 1.8 x 10(5) and 3.9 x 10(5) CFU/g [dry weight], respectively). Both water and deposit samples yielded the highest numbers of mycobacteria in the systems using surface water and applying ozonation as an intermediate treatment or posttreatment. The number and growth of mycobacteria in system waters correlated strongly with the concentration of assimilable organic carbon in the water leaving the waterworks. The densities of mycobacteria in the developing biofilms were highest at the distal sites of the systems. Over 90% of the mycobacteria isolated from water and deposits belonged to Mycobacterium lentiflavum, M. tusciae, M. gordonae, and a previously unclassified group of mycobacteria. Our results indicate that drinking water systems may be a source for recently discovered new mycobacterial species.

  4. Gene replacement and expression of foreign DNA in mycobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Husson, R N; James, B E; Young, R A

    1990-01-01

    A system that permits molecular genetic manipulation of mycobacteria was developed on the basis of the yeast paradigm of gene replacement by homologous recombination. A shuttle vector that can replicate autonomously at a high copy number in Escherichia coli but must integrate into homologous DNA for survival in Mycobacterium smegmatis was constructed. The vector contains a ColE1 origin of replication, antibiotic resistance markers for ampicillin and kanamycin, a nutritional marker (pyrF) that allows both positive and negative selection in E. coli and M. smegmatis, and unique restriction sites that permit insertion of foreign DNA. Transformation of mycobacteria with this vector results in integration of its DNA into the genomic pyrF locus by either a single or a double homologous recombination event. With this system, the 65-kilodalton Mycobacterium leprae stress protein antigen was inserted into the M. smegmatis genome and expressed. This gene replacement technology, together with a uniquely useful pyrF marker, should be valuable for investigating mycobacterial pathobiology, for the development of candidate mycobacterial vaccine vehicles, and as a model for the development of molecular genetic systems in other pathogenic microorganisms. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:2153655

  5. Mycobacteria and allograft heart valve banking: an international survey.

    PubMed

    Warwick, R M; Magee, J G; Leeming, J P; Graham, J C; Hannan, M M; Chadwick, M; Crook, D W; Yearsley, C P; Rayner, A; Parker, R

    2008-03-01

    Since the 1970s many tissue banks have been testing allograft heart valves (HVs) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Donor selection for low risk of tuberculosis (TB) was introduced in the 1980s and appears to have reduced the risk of TB transmission. Regulatory guidance does not specify testing for TB, but does exclude donors with a recent history of TB. This survey of HV international bank practices revealed variations in donor selection, testing and processing of valves. Participant banks (from Europe and the USA) reported that over a period of 15 years, HV tissues from 38,413 donors were banked and 32,289 donors were tested for TB, none being positive. HV-associated tissue from 27,840 donors was stained and underwent microscopy; none of these were positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). Non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTBM) were detected by culture on 24 HVs. It is recommended that HV banks employ donor selection to exclude donors at risk of TB, to culture material for mycobacteria, and to investigate potential sources when clusters of NTBM are found to facilitate corrective and preventative actions.

  6. The Role of Open and Distance Learning in the Implementation of the Right to Education in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siaciwena, Richard; Lubinda, Foster

    2008-01-01

    As a member of the United Nations, Zambia is committed to the observance of human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948. This is evidenced, among others, by the fact that Zambia is a signatory to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. Zambia has a…

  7. The Urgent Need to Train Teachers for Multigrade Pedagogy in African Schooling Contexts: Lessons from Uganda and Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivunja, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Our research project funded by the British Council on multigrade teaching capacity building in Uganda and Zambia found that Uganda does not have a single higher education institution training teachers in multigrade pedagogy and Zambia has only one located at Serenje village in rural Zambia. Yet the research found that in both countries many…

  8. Mycobacterium gilvum illustrates size-correlated relationships between mycobacteria and Acanthamoeba polyphaga.

    PubMed

    Lamrabet, Otmane; Drancourt, Michel

    2013-03-01

    Mycobacteria are isolated from soil and water environments, where free-living amoebae live. Free-living amoebae are bactericidal, yet some rapidly growing mycobacteria are amoeba-resistant organisms that survive in the amoebal trophozoites and cysts. Such a capacity has not been studied for the environmental rapidly growing organism Mycobacterium gilvum. We investigated the ability of M. gilvum to survive in the trophozoites of Acanthamoeba polyphaga strain Linc-AP1 by using optical and electron microscopy and culture-based microbial enumerations in the presence of negative controls. We observed that 29% of A. polyphaga cells were infected by M. gilvum mycobacteria by 6 h postinfection. Surviving M. gilvum mycobacteria did not multiply and did not kill the amoebal trophozoites during a 5-day coculture. Extensive electron microscopy observations indicated that M. gilvum measured 1.4 ± 0.5 μm and failed to find M. gilvum organisms in the amoebal cysts. Further experimental study of two other rapidly growing mycobacteria, Mycobacterium rhodesiae and Mycobacterium thermoresistibile, indicated that both measured <2 μm and exhibited the same amoeba-mycobacterium relationships as M. gilvum. In general, we observed that mycobacteria measuring <2 μm do not significantly grow within and do not kill amoebal trophozoites, in contrast to mycobacteria measuring >2 μm (P < 0.05). The mechanisms underlying such an observation remain to be determined.

  9. Mycobacterium gilvum Illustrates Size-Correlated Relationships between Mycobacteria and Acanthamoeba polyphaga

    PubMed Central

    Lamrabet, Otmane

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacteria are isolated from soil and water environments, where free-living amoebae live. Free-living amoebae are bactericidal, yet some rapidly growing mycobacteria are amoeba-resistant organisms that survive in the amoebal trophozoites and cysts. Such a capacity has not been studied for the environmental rapidly growing organism Mycobacterium gilvum. We investigated the ability of M. gilvum to survive in the trophozoites of Acanthamoeba polyphaga strain Linc-AP1 by using optical and electron microscopy and culture-based microbial enumerations in the presence of negative controls. We observed that 29% of A. polyphaga cells were infected by M. gilvum mycobacteria by 6 h postinfection. Surviving M. gilvum mycobacteria did not multiply and did not kill the amoebal trophozoites during a 5-day coculture. Extensive electron microscopy observations indicated that M. gilvum measured 1.4 ± 0.5 μm and failed to find M. gilvum organisms in the amoebal cysts. Further experimental study of two other rapidly growing mycobacteria, Mycobacterium rhodesiae and Mycobacterium thermoresistibile, indicated that both measured <2 μm and exhibited the same amoeba-mycobacterium relationships as M. gilvum. In general, we observed that mycobacteria measuring <2 μm do not significantly grow within and do not kill amoebal trophozoites, in contrast to mycobacteria measuring >2 μm (P < 0.05). The mechanisms underlying such an observation remain to be determined. PMID:23275502

  10. [Effect of heat-staining procedure on the gram staining properties of mycobacteria].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, M; Harano, Y; Koga, T

    1991-03-01

    Since the establishment of Gram stain by H.C.Y. Gram in 1884, it has been widely and routinely used as an aid for differentiation of bacteria. The bacteria are divided into three categories by the staining properties; Gram-positive, -negative, and -indefinite. All the text books in the world describe that mycobacteria such as M. tuberculosis are Gram-positive. By the merest chance, however, it was found that M. lepraemurium grown in tissues was not stained by the routinely used Gram staining method. Therefore, we tried to stain some of the mycobacteria by the Gram staining procedure which is widely used at present. The results obtained indicated that the mycobacteria tested were divided into three groups; the unstainable group such as M. leprae and M. lepraemurium, the Gram-positive and difficult-to-stain group which involves such slow growing mycobacteria as M. tuberculosis, M. avium, and M. intracellulare, and the Gram-indefinite group which contains such rapid growing mycobacteria as M. phlei, M. smegmatis, and M. chelonae. However, if Gram stain is carried out by the heating procedure at the first staining step, all the mycobacteria would become Gram-positive. Therefore, we emphasize that Gram staining of mycobacteria should be performed by the heating procedure.

  11. Review of the malaria epidemiology and trends in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Masaninga, Freddie; Chanda, Emmanuel; Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Hamainza, Busiku; Masendu, Hieronymo T; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Kapelwa, Wambinji; Chimumbwa, John; Govere, John; Otten, Mac; Fall, Ibrahima Soce; Babaniyi, Olusegun

    2013-02-01

    A comprehensive desk review of malaria trends was conducted between 2000-2010 in Zambia to study malaria epidemiology and trends to guide strategies and approaches for effective malaria control. This review considered data from the National Health Information Management System, Malaria Surveys and Programme Review reports and analyzed malaria in-patient cases and deaths in relation to intervention coverage for all ages. Data showed three distinct epidemiological strata after a notable malaria reduction (66%) in in-patient cases and deaths, particularly between 2000-2008. These changes occurred following the (re-)introduction and expansion of indoor residual spraying up to 90% coverage, scale-up of coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets in household from 50% to 70%, and artemisin-based combination therapy nationwide. However, malaria cases and deaths re-surged, increasing in 2009-2010 in the northern-eastern parts of Zambia. Delays in the disbursement of funds affected the implementation of interventions, which resulted in resurgence of cases and deaths. In spite of a decline in malaria disease burden over the past decade in Zambia, a reversal in impact is notable in the year 2009-2010, signifying that control gains are fragile and must be sustained to eliminate malaria.

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during...

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during...

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during...

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during...

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during...

  17. Child Abuse and Aids-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior among Adolescents in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slonim-Nevo, Vered; Mukuka, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To research the correlation between physical and sexual abuse by family members and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy and behavior among urban and rural adolescents in Zambia. Sample: The sample comprises 3,360 adolescents, aged 10-19, from urban and rural Zambia; 2,160 of them attended school, while 1,200 of them did…

  18. Strategies for Living with the Challenges of HIV and Antiretroviral Use in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deborah; Zulu, Isaac; Mumbi, Miriam; Chitalu, Ndashi; Vamos, Szonja; Gomez, Jacqueline; Weiss, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to identify strategies for living with the challenges of HIV and antiretroviral (ARV) use among new medication users in urban Zambia. Participants (n = 160) were recruited from urban Lusaka, Zambia. Qualitative Data was drawn from monthly ARV treatment education intervention groups addressing HIV and antiretroviral use. Themes…

  19. Why Context Matters: Understanding the Material Conditions of School-Based Caring in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2009-01-01

    This study utilized in-depth interviewing, participant observation, and student diaries completed by participants to examine the quality of teacher-student relationships at a low-cost private school in the townships of Ndola, Zambia. Amidst economic decline and the HIV/AIDS epidemic facing Zambia today, teachers and students developed strong…

  20. Consultancy Report: Assessment of the Zambia College of Distance Education (ZACODE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Justin

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out at the request of the Ministry of Education, Zambia. The Commonwealth of Learning contracted Turning Points Consultancy CC, a Namibian company, who provided the services of the author, to "carry out an evaluation of the Zambia College of Distance Education (ZACODE) and submit recommendations to the Ministry of…

  1. Bismarck in the Bush: Year 12 Write Zambia's History for Zambian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Peter Gray explains how his Year 12 students came to research and write a resource on the history of Zambia, for history teachers "in" Zambia. The construction of the resource stretched the Year 12 students in new ways: the Internet was useless and there were no easy digests in A-Level textbooks to get them started. They would have to…

  2. Zambia: A Country Guide Series Report from the AACRAO-AID Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Holly A.

    This report on the educational system of Zambia contains information for university admissions officers and registrars in the United States on the credentials and other documentation that would be minimally required for student entry from Zambia to specified levels of study in the United States. A section of general information describes that…

  3. 77 FR 48498 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... with the ] Republic of Zambia aimed at reducing poverty through economic growth (the ``Compact''). The... agency that works to reduce poverty through economic growth. The Compact will address one of Zambia's... an integrated approach to water resource management (IWRM), where water security for...

  4. Urbanization in Zambia. An International Urbanization Survey Report to the Ford Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmance, Alan J. F.

    This report reviews the "Seers Report," which contained policy guidelines for modern development planning in Zambia, and compares its findings to recent findings during the period 1963-1970. The Seers Report found that Zambia was the most urbanized country in Africa south of the Sahara (excluding South Africa). This report finds that…

  5. Personal and Environmental Predictors of the Intention to Use Maternal Healthcare Services in Kalomo, Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sialubanje, Cephas; Massar, Karlijn; Hamer, Davidson H.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Low maternal healthcare service utilization contributes to poor maternal and new born health outcomes in rural Zambia. The purpose of this study was to identify important factors influencing women's intention to use these services in Kalomo, Zambia. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 1007 women of reproductive…

  6. In silico identification of common epitopes from pathogenic mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    de la Caridad Addine Ramírez, Bárbara; Marrón, Reynel; Calero, Rommel; Mirabal, Mayelin; Ramírez, Juan Carlos; Sarmiento, María E; Norazmi, Mohd Nor; Acosta, Armando

    2013-01-01

    An in silico study was carried out to identify antigens for their possible collective use as vaccine candidates against diseases caused by different classes of pathogenic mycobacteria with significant clinical relevance. The genome sequences of the relevant causative agents were used in order to search for orthologous genes among them. Bioinformatics tools permitted us to identify several conserved sequences with 100% identity with no possibility of cross-reactivity to the normal flora and human proteins. Nine different proteins were characterized using the strain H37Rv as reference and taking into account their functional category, their in vivo expression and subcellular location. T and B cell epitopes were identified in the selected sequences. Theoretical prediction of population coverage was calculated for individual epitopes as well as their combinations. Several identical sequences, belonging to six proteins containing T and B cell epitopes which are not present in selected microorganisms of the normal microbial flora or in human proteins were obtained.

  7. Identification of a Copper-Binding Metallothionein in Pathogenic Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Ben; Deng, Haiteng; Bryk, Ruslana; Vargas, Diana; Eliezer, David; Roberts, Julia; Jiang, Xiuju; Nathan, Carl

    2009-01-01

    A screen of a genomic library from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) identified a small, unannotated open reading frame (MT0196) that encodes a 4.9-kDa, cysteine-rich protein. Despite extensive nucleotide divergence, the amino acid sequence is highly conserved among mycobacteria that are pathogenic in vertebrate hosts. We synthesized the protein and found that it preferentially bound up to 6 Cu(I) ions in a solvent-shielded core. Copper, cadmium and compounds that generate nitric oxide or superoxide induced the gene’s expression in Mtb up to a thousand-fold. The native protein bound copper within Mtb and partially protected Mtb from copper toxicity. We propose that the product of the MT0196 gene be named mycobacterial metallothionien (MymT). To our knowledge, MymT is the first metallothionein of a Gram-positive bacterium with a demonstrated function. PMID:18724363

  8. Temporal and intrinsic factors of rifampicin tolerance in mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Kirill; Bennion, Owen T.; Tan, Shumin; Hoang, Anh N.; Cokol, Murat; Aldridge, Bree B.

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacteria grow and divide asymmetrically, creating variability in growth pole age, growth properties, and antibiotic susceptibilities. Here, we investigate the importance of growth pole age and other growth properties in determining the spectrum of responses of Mycobacterium smegmatis to challenge with rifampicin. We used a combination of live-cell microscopy and modeling to prospectively identify subpopulations with altered rifampicin susceptibility. We found two subpopulations that had increased susceptibility. At the initiation of treatment, susceptible cells were either small and at early stages of the cell cycle, or large and in later stages of their cell cycle. In contrast to this temporal window of susceptibility, tolerance was associated with factors inherited at division: long birth length and mature growth poles. Thus, rifampicin response is complex and due to a combination of differences established from both asymmetric division and the timing of treatment relative to cell birth. PMID:27357669

  9. In silico identification of common epitopes from pathogenic mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    An in silico study was carried out to identify antigens for their possible collective use as vaccine candidates against diseases caused by different classes of pathogenic mycobacteria with significant clinical relevance. The genome sequences of the relevant causative agents were used in order to search for orthologous genes among them. Bioinformatics tools permitted us to identify several conserved sequences with 100% identity with no possibility of cross-reactivity to the normal flora and human proteins. Nine different proteins were characterized using the strain H37Rv as reference and taking into account their functional category, their in vivo expression and subcellular location. T and B cell epitopes were identified in the selected sequences. Theoretical prediction of population coverage was calculated for individual epitopes as well as their combinations. Several identical sequences, belonging to six proteins containing T and B cell epitopes which are not present in selected microorganisms of the normal microbial flora or in human proteins were obtained. PMID:23458668

  10. Increased Lytic Efficiency of Bovine Macrophages Trained with Killed Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Juste, Ramon A.; Alonso-Hearn, Marta; Garrido, Joseba M.; Abendaño, Naiara; Sevilla, Iker A.; Gortazar, Christian; de la Fuente, José; Dominguez, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    Innate immunity is evolutionarily conserved in multicellular organisms and was considered to lack memory until very recently. One of its more characteristic mechanisms is phagocytosis, the ability of cells to engulf, process and eventually destroy any injuring agent. We report the results of an ex vivo experiment in bovine macrophages in which improved clearance of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) was induced by pre-exposure to a heat killed M. bovis preparation. The effects were independent of humoral and cellular adaptive immune responses and lasted up to six months. Specifically, our results demonstrate the existence of a training effect in the lytic phase of phagocytosis that can be activated by killed mycobacteria, thus suggesting a new mechanism of vaccine protection. These findings are compatible with the recently proposed concept of trained immunity, which was developed to explain the observation that innate immune responses provide unspecific protection against pathogens including other than those that originally triggered the immune response. PMID:27820836

  11. Comparative Genomics of Mycobacteria: Some Answers, Yet More New Questions

    PubMed Central

    Behr, Marcel A.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative genomic studies permit a genus-level perspective on the distinction between environmental mycobacteria and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as well as a species-level assessment of genetic variability within M. tuberculosis. Both of these strata of evolutionary analysis serve to generate hypotheses regarding the genomic basis of M. tuberculosis virulence. In contrasting lessons from macroevolutionary study and microevolutionary study, one can form predictions about which segments of the genome are likely to be essential for or dispensable for the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. Although some of these predictions have been experimentally verified, notable exceptions challenge the direct link between these virulence factors and the capacity of M. tuberculosis to successfully cause disease and propagate between human hosts. These unexpected findings serve as the stimulus for further studies, using genomic comparisons and other approaches, to better define the remarkable success of this recalcitrant pathogen. PMID:25395374

  12. Dual Analysis for Mycobacteria and Propionibacteria in Sarcoidosis BAL

    PubMed Central

    Oswald-Richter, Kyra A.; Beachboard, Dia C.; Seeley, Erin H.; Abraham, Susamma; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Jenkins, Cathy A.; Culver, Daniel A.; Caprioli, Richard M.; Drake, Wonder P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Sarcoidosis is a non-caseating granulomatous disease for which a role for infectious antigens continues to strengthen. Recent studies have reported molecular evidence of mycobacteria or propionibacteria. We assessed for immune responses against mycobacterial and propionibacterial antigens in sarcoidosis bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) using flow cytometry, and localized signals consistent with microbial antigens with sarcoidosis specimens, using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS). Methods BAL cells from 27 sarcoidosis, 14 PPD- controls, and 9 subjects with nontuberculosis mycobacterial (NTM) infections were analyzed for production of IFN-γ after stimulation with mycobacterial ESAT-6 and Propionibacterium acnes proteins. To complement the immunological data, MALDI-IMS was performed to localize ESAT-6 and Propionibacterium acnes signals within sarcoidosis and control specimens. Results CD4+ immunologic analysis for mycobacteria was positive in 17/27 sarcoidosis subjects, compared to 2/14 PPD-subjects, and 5/9 NTM subjects (p=00.008 and p=00.71 respectively, Fisher's exact test). There was no significant difference for recognition of P. acnes, which occurred only in sarcoidosis subjects that also recognized ESAT-6. Similar results were also observed for the CD8+ immunologic analysis. MALDI-IMS localized signals consistent with ESAT-6 only within sites of granulomatous inflammation, whereas P. acnes signals were distributed throughout the specimen. Conclusions MALDI-IMS localizes signals consistent with ESAT-6 to sarcoidosis granulomas, whereas no specific localization of P. acnes signals is detected. Immune responses against both mycobacterial and P. acnes are present within sarcoidosis BAL, but only mycobacterial signals are distinct from disease controls. These immunologic and molecular investigations support further investigation of the microbial community within sarcoidosis granulomas. PMID:22552860

  13. [Contamination of a bronchial fiberscope by mycobacteria linked to an automated bronchoscope disinfection machine].

    PubMed

    Nomura, K; Ogawa, M; Chang, B; Miyamoto, H; Tanabe, T; Taniguchi, H; Matsumoto, T

    2000-06-01

    Mycobacteria are being isolated with increasing frequency from automated bronchoscope disinfection machines. This has led to misdiagnosis and nosocomial infections. In this study, we isolated Mycobacterium chelonae from a bronchoscope disinfection machine and found one strain to be resistant to 2% glutaraldehyde and sensitive to 70% ethanol. Since we began cleaning the sink of the machine with 70% ethanol, no mycobacteria has been seen throughout the machine.

  14. Confinement-Induced Drug-Tolerance in Mycobacteria Mediated by an Efflux Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Luthuli, Brilliant B; Purdy, Georgiana E; Balagaddé, Frederick K

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the world's deadliest curable disease, responsible for an estimated 1.5 million deaths annually. A considerable challenge in controlling this disease is the prolonged multidrug chemotherapy (6 to 9 months) required to overcome drug-tolerant mycobacteria that persist in human tissues, although the same drugs can sterilize genetically identical mycobacteria growing in axenic culture within days. An essential component of TB infection involves intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria that multiply within macrophages and are significantly more tolerant to antibiotics compared to extracellular mycobacteria. To investigate this aspect of human TB, we created a physical cell culture system that mimics confinement of replicating mycobacteria, such as in a macrophage during infection. Using this system, we uncovered an epigenetic drug-tolerance phenotype that appears when mycobacteria are cultured in space-confined bioreactors and disappears in larger volume growth contexts. Efflux mechanisms that are induced in space-confined growth environments contribute to this drug-tolerance phenotype. Therefore, macrophage-induced drug tolerance by mycobacteria may be an effect of confined growth among other macrophage-specific mechanisms.

  15. Confinement-Induced Drug-Tolerance in Mycobacteria Mediated by an Efflux Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Luthuli, Brilliant B.; Purdy, Georgiana E.; Balagaddé, Frederick K.

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the world’s deadliest curable disease, responsible for an estimated 1.5 million deaths annually. A considerable challenge in controlling this disease is the prolonged multidrug chemotherapy (6 to 9 months) required to overcome drug-tolerant mycobacteria that persist in human tissues, although the same drugs can sterilize genetically identical mycobacteria growing in axenic culture within days. An essential component of TB infection involves intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria that multiply within macrophages and are significantly more tolerant to antibiotics compared to extracellular mycobacteria. To investigate this aspect of human TB, we created a physical cell culture system that mimics confinement of replicating mycobacteria, such as in a macrophage during infection. Using this system, we uncovered an epigenetic drug-tolerance phenotype that appears when mycobacteria are cultured in space-confined bioreactors and disappears in larger volume growth contexts. Efflux mechanisms that are induced in space-confined growth environments contribute to this drug-tolerance phenotype. Therefore, macrophage-induced drug tolerance by mycobacteria may be an effect of confined growth among other macrophage-specific mechanisms. PMID:26295942

  16. Clinical patterns of juvenile idiopathic arthritis in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a heterogeneous group of disorders with different disease manifestations among various populations. There are few reports of JIA among indigenous Africans especially sub-Saharan Africa. We present herein the clinical patterns of JIA encountered at a tertiary hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. Method Hospital records of patients with a diagnosis of chronic arthritis with onset at the age of 16 years or less presenting to University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia for the periods 1994–98 and 2006–2010 were retrospectively reviewed and reclassified as Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) based on the International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILA R) JIA diagnostic criteria. Results In total, 126 patients with chronic arthritis of onset at age 16 years or less were evaluated over these periods at the hospital. Of these, 85 could further be analyzed by ILAR JIA criteria but 7 (8.24%) were HIV seropositive and were assessed separately. The average age at disease onset among the 78 JIA patients was 8.70 years (range: 1–15 years) with average age at first visit to hospital being 11.3 years (range: 2 to 25 years) and with a female to male ratio of 1.2:1. Polyarticular rheumatoid factor negative JIA, at 34.62%, was the most frequent type of chronic arthritis encountered. Oligoarthritis was found in 32.05% while 11.54% and 14.10% were polyarticular rheumatoid factor positive and systemic JIA, respectively. Enthesitis-related arthritis was found in 6.41% and only 1.28% were determined to have psoriatic arthritis among this population. Conclusion JIA is predominantly a polyarticular rheumatoid factor negative disease in Zambia. Late presentation is an issue with major implications for educational input and resource acquisition. There is need to elucidate the genetics and environmental factors of JIA in this region. PMID:24034206

  17. A Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness in Southern Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Lindfield, Robert; Griffiths, Ulla; Bozzani, Fiammetta; Mumba, Musonda; Munsanje, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) was conducted in Southern Zambia to establish the prevalence and causes of blindness in order to plan effective services and advocate for support for eye care to achieve the goals of VISION 2020: the right to sight. Methods Cluster randomisation was used to select villages in the survey area. These were further subdivided into segments. One segment was selected randomly and a survey team moved from house to house examining everyone over the age of 50 years. Each individual received a visual acuity assessment and simple ocular examination. Data was recorded on a standard proforma and entered into an established software programme for analysis. Results 2.29% of people over the age of 50 were found to be blind (VA <3/60 in the better eye with available correction). The major cause of blindness was cataract (47.2%) with posterior segment disease being the next main cause (18.8%). 113 eyes had received cataract surgery with 30.1% having a poor outcome (VA <6/60) following surgery. Cataract surgical coverage showed that men (72%) received more surgery than women (65%). Discussion The results from the RAAB survey in Zambia were very similar to the results from a similar survey in Malawi, where the main cause of blindness was cataract but posterior segment disease was also a significant contributor. Blindness in this part of Zambia is mainly avoidable and there is a need for comprehensive eye care services that can address both cataract and posterior segment disease in the population if the aim of VISION 2020 is to be achieved. Services should focus on quality and gender equity of cataract surgery. PMID:22737211

  18. Nursing the critically ill surgical patient in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Carter, Chris; Snell, David

    2016-11-10

    Critical illness in the developing world is a substantial burden for individuals, families, communities and healthcare services. The management of these patients will depend on the resources available. Simple conditions such as a fractured leg or a strangulated hernia can have devastating effects on individuals, families and communities. The recent Lancet Commission on Global Surgery and the World Health Organization promise to strengthen emergency and essential care will increase the focus on surgical services within the developing world. This article provides an overview of nursing the critically ill surgical patient in Zambia, a lower middle income country (LMIC) in sub-Saharan Africa.

  19. Examination of specimens for mycobacteria in clinical laboratories in 21 countries: a 10-year review of the UK National Quality Assessment Scheme for Mycobacteria Culture.

    PubMed

    Walton, C; Hawkey, P M; James, V L A

    2005-12-01

    Results from clinical diagnostic microbiology laboratories taking part in the UK National Quality Assessment Service (UK NEQAS) scheme for Mycobacteria Culture between 1993 and 2003 were evaluated and assessed to determine whether the perceived increase in the use of rapid methods is improving time-to-positive reporting of results. Four simulated sputum specimens containing mycobacteria in mixed cultures with normal commensal organisms were distributed three times a year. Participating laboratories were required to report on the presence of 'mycobacteria' and on the time required to obtain a positive result. The overall level of performance with the mycobacteria culture external quality assessment specimens remained consistently high, with an average success rate of 94% over 10 years. The mean time-to-positive decreased from 24 to 17 days during the previous 8 years. A survey questionnaire, circulated in 2002, addressed the use of continuous automated mycobacterial liquid culture (CAMLiC) and molecular methods. The increase in the use of rapid culture methods for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has resulted in an overall reduction in time-to-positive data reported by participants, and has provided an indication of participants' ability to meet the 21-day target recommended by the CDC for the detection and identification of M. tuberculosis.

  20. Mycobacteria manipulate macrophage recruitment through coordinated use of membrane lipids.

    PubMed

    Cambier, C J; Takaki, Kevin K; Larson, Ryan P; Hernandez, Rafael E; Tobin, David M; Urdahl, Kevin B; Cosma, Christine L; Ramakrishnan, Lalita

    2014-01-09

    The evolutionary survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the cause of human tuberculosis, depends on its ability to invade the host, replicate, and transmit infection. At its initial peripheral infection site in the distal lung airways, M. tuberculosis infects macrophages, which transport it to deeper tissues. How mycobacteria survive in these broadly microbicidal cells is an important question. Here we show in mice and zebrafish that M. tuberculosis, and its close pathogenic relative Mycobacterium marinum, preferentially recruit and infect permissive macrophages while evading microbicidal ones. This immune evasion is accomplished by using cell-surface-associated phthiocerol dimycoceroserate (PDIM) lipids to mask underlying pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In the absence of PDIM, these PAMPs signal a Toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent recruitment of macrophages that produce microbicidal reactive nitrogen species. Concordantly, the related phenolic glycolipids (PGLs) promote the recruitment of permissive macrophages through a host chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2)-mediated pathway. Thus, we have identified coordinated roles for PDIM, known to be essential for mycobacterial virulence, and PGL, which (along with CCR2) is known to be associated with human tuberculosis. Our findings also suggest an explanation for the longstanding observation that M. tuberculosis initiates infection in the relatively sterile environment of the lower respiratory tract, rather than in the upper respiratory tract, where resident microflora and inhaled environmental microbes may continually recruit microbicidal macrophages through TLR-dependent signalling.

  1. Comprehensive identification of conditionally essential genes in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Sassetti, C M; Boyd, D H; Rubin, E J

    2001-10-23

    An increasing number of microbial genomes have been completely sequenced, and the identified genes are categorized based on their homology to genes of known function. However, the function of a large number of genes cannot be determined on this basis alone. Here, we describe a technique, transposon site hybridization (TraSH), which allows rapid functional characterization by identifying the complete set of genes required for growth under different conditions. TraSH combines high-density insertional mutagenesis with microarray mapping of pools of mutants. We have made large pools of independent transposon mutants in mycobacteria by using a mariner-based transposon and efficient phage transduction. By using TraSH, we have defined the set of genes required for growth of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin on minimal but not rich medium. Genes of both known and unknown functions were identified. Of the genes with known functions, nearly all were involved in amino acid biosynthesis. TraSH is a powerful method for categorizing gene function that should be applicable to a variety of microorganisms.

  2. Synthesis and biological activity of alkynoic acids derivatives against mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Vilchèze, Catherine; Leung, Lawrence W.; Bittman, Robert; Jacobs, William R.

    2015-01-01

    2-alkynoic acids have bactericidal activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis but their activity fall sharply as the length of the carbon chain increased. In this study, derivatives of 2- alkynoic acids were synthesized and tested against fast- and slow-growing mycobacteria. Their activity was first evaluated in M. smegmatis against their parental 2-alkynoic acids, as well as isoniazid, a first-line antituberculosis drug. The introduction of additional unsaturation or heteroatoms into the carbon chain enhanced the antimycobacterial activity of longer chain alkynoic acids (more than 19 carbons long). In contrast, although the modification of the carboxylic group did not improve the antimycobacterial activity, it significantly reduced the toxicity of the compounds against eukaryotic cells. Importantly, 4-(alkylthio)but-2-ynoic acids, had better bactericidal activity than the parental 2-alkynoic acids and on a par with isoniazid against the slow-grower Mycobacterium bovis BCG. These compounds had also low toxicity against eukaryotic cells, suggesting that they could be potential therapeutic agents against other types of topical mycobacterial infections causing skin diseases including Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium ulcerans, and Mycobacterium leprae. Moreover, they provide a possible scaffold for future drug development. PMID:26256431

  3. Iron Deprivation Affects Drug Susceptibilities of Mycobacteria Targeting Membrane Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Rahul; Hameed, Saif; Fatima, Zeeshan

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) acquired by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) through continuous deployment of antitubercular drugs warrants immediate search for novel targets and mechanisms. The ability of MTB to sense and become accustomed to changes in the host is essential for survival and confers the basis of infection. A crucial condition that MTB must surmount is iron limitation, during the establishment of infection, since iron is required by both bacteria and humans. This study focuses on how iron deprivation affects drug susceptibilities of known anti-TB drugs in Mycobacterium smegmatis, a “surrogate of MTB.” We showed that iron deprivation leads to enhanced potency of most commonly used first line anti-TB drugs that could be reverted upon iron supplementation. We explored that membrane homeostasis is disrupted upon iron deprivation as revealed by enhanced membrane permeability and hypersensitivity to membrane perturbing agent leading to increased passive diffusion of drug and TEM images showing detectable differences in cell envelope thickness. Furthermore, iron seems to be indispensable to sustain genotoxic stress suggesting its possible role in DNA repair machinery. Taken together, we for the first time established a link between cellular iron and drug susceptibility of mycobacteria suggesting iron as novel determinant to combat MDR. PMID:26779346

  4. Mycobacteriophage cell binding proteins for the capture of mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Arutyunov, Denis; Singh, Upasana; El-Hawiet, Amr; Seckler, Henrique dos Santos; Nikjah, Sanaz; Joe, Maju; Bai, Yu; Lowary, Todd L; Klassen, John S; Evoy, Stephane; Szymanski, Christine M

    2014-01-01

    Slow growing Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes a deadly condition in cattle known as Johne's disease where asymptomatic carriers are the major source of disease transmission. MAP was also shown to be associated with chronic Crohn's disease in humans. Mycobacterium smegmatis is a model mycobacterium that can cause opportunistic infections in a number of human tissues and, rarely, a respiratory disease. Currently, there are no rapid, culture-independent, reliable and inexpensive tests for the diagnostics of MAP or M. smegmatis infections. Bacteriophages are viruses producing a number of proteins that effectively and specifically recognize the cell envelopes of their bacterial hosts. We demonstrate that the mycobacterial phage L5 minor tail protein Gp6 and lysin Gp10 are useful tools for the rapid capture of mycobacteria. Immobilized Gp10 was able to bind both MAP and M. smegmatis cells whereas Gp6 was M. smegmatis specific. Neither of the 2 proteins was able to capture E. coli, salmonella, campylobacter or Mycobacterium marinum cells. Gp6 was detected previously as a component of the phage particle and shows no homology to proteins with known function. Therefore, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was used to determine whether recombinant Gp6 could bind to a number of chemically synthesized fragments of mycobacterial surface glycans. These findings demonstrate that mycobacteriophage proteins could be used as a pathogen capturing platform that can potentially improve the effectiveness of existing diagnostic methods. PMID:26713219

  5. Pathogenic mycobacteria achieve cellular persistence by inhibiting the Niemann-Pick Type C disease cellular pathway

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Tuberculosis remains a major global health concern. The ability to prevent phagosome-lysosome fusion is a key mechanism by which intracellular mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, achieve long-term persistence within host cells. The mechanisms underpinning this key intracellular pro-survival strategy remain incompletely understood. Host macrophages infected with persistent mycobacteria share phenotypic similarities with cells taken from patients suffering from Niemann-Pick Disease Type C (NPC), a rare lysosomal storage disease in which endocytic trafficking defects and lipid accumulation within the lysosome lead to cell dysfunction and cell death. We investigated whether these shared phenotypes reflected an underlying mechanistic connection between mycobacterial intracellular persistence and the host cell pathway dysfunctional in NPC. Methods. The induction of NPC phenotypes in macrophages from wild-type mice or obtained from healthy human donors was assessed via infection with mycobacteria and subsequent measurement of lipid levels and intracellular calcium homeostasis. The effect of NPC therapeutics on intracellular mycobacterial load was also assessed. Results. Macrophages infected with persistent intracellular mycobacteria phenocopied NPC cells, exhibiting accumulation of multiple lipid types, reduced lysosomal Ca2+ levels, and defects in intracellular trafficking. These NPC phenotypes could also be induced using only lipids/glycomycolates from the mycobacterial cell wall. These data suggest that persistent intracellular mycobacteria inhibit the NPC pathway, likely via inhibition of the NPC1 protein, and subsequently induce altered acidic store Ca2+ homeostasis. Reduced lysosomal calcium levels may provide a mechanistic explanation for the reduced levels of phagosome-lysosome fusion in mycobacterial infection. Treatments capable of correcting defects in NPC mutant cells via modulation of host cell calcium were of benefit in promoting

  6. Telemedicine in Primary Health: The Virtual Doctor Project Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a commentary on a project application of telemedicine to alleviate primary health care problems in Lundazi district in the Eastern province of Zambia. The project dubbed 'The Virtual Doctor Project' will use hard body vehicles fitted with satellite communication devices and modern medical equipment to deliver primary health care services to some of the neediest areas of the country. The relevance and importance of the project lies in the fact that these areas are hard-to-reach due to rugged natural terrain and have very limited telecommunications infrastructure. The lack of these and other basic services makes it difficult for medical personnel to settle in these areas, which leads to an acute shortage of medical personnel. We comment on this problem and how it is addressed by 'The Virtual Doctor Project', emphasizing that while the telemedicine concept is not new in sub-Saharan Africa, the combination of mobility and connectivity to service a number of villages 'on the go' is an important variation in the shift back to the 1978 Alma Ata principles of the United Nations World Health Organization [WHO]. This overview of the Virtual Doctor Project in Zambia provides insight into both the potential for ICT, and the problems and limitations that any "real-world" articulation of this technology must confront. PMID:21569490

  7. Study of familial Parkinson's disease in Russia, Uzbekistan, and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Atadzhanov, M; Zumla, A; Mwaba, P

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this study were (A) to determine inheritance patterns of familial Parkinson's disease in three different geographical areas (Russia, Uzbekistan, and Zambia); (B) compare clinical characteristics of familial with sporadic Parkinson's disease; and (C) assess whether there were ethnic differences in clinical manifestations of the disease. Methods: Fifty two index cases of familial Parkinson's disease in Moscow, 55 in Tashkent, and 27 in Lusaka were selected on the basis of the typical clinical features of Parkinson's disease with a familial history. The sex ratio, transmission patterns, and segregation ratio were determined by pedigree analysis. Results: Familial Parkinson's disease was found in all three countries (30 families in Russia, 12 in Uzbekistan, and seven in Zambia), and appeared more common in Russia. Both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive patterns of inheritance were seen, but autosomal dominance was more common in all countries. Conclusions: In all three countries men have a higher risk of developing Parkinson's disease than women and there are ethnic differences in clinical manifestations of the disease. The onset of both familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease in Zambian patients occurs at a younger age and is associated with slow progression and a benign course, and generally responds well to levodopa treatment. PMID:15701745

  8. e-Government for Development Information Exchange (DIE): Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Bwalya Kelvin

    In most parts of the world, political systems which utilize authoritative rule and mostly employ top-down decision-making processes are slowly transcending towards democratic norms. Information Technology Systems have been identified and adopted as one of the most efficient vehicles for appropriate, transparent and inclusive / participatory decision making. Zambia has shown a higher propensity to indigenous knowledge systems which are full of inefficiencies, a lot of red tape in public service delivery, and prone to corrupt practices. Despite that being the case, it is slowly trying to implement e-government. The adoption of e-government promises a sharp paradigm shift where public institutions will be more responsive and transparent, promote efficient PPP (Public Private Partnerships), and empower citizens by making knowledge and other resources more directly accessible. This paper examines three cases from Zambia where ICT in support of e-government has been implemented for Development Information Exchange (DIE) - knowledge-based decision making. The paper also assesses the challenges, opportunities, and issues together with e-government adoption criteria regarding successful encapsulation of e-government into the Zambian contextual environment. I propose a conceptual model which offers balanced e-government adoption criteria involving a combination of electronic and participatory services. This conceptual e-government adoption model can later be replicated to be used at the Southern African Development Community (SADC) level given the similarity in the contextual environment.

  9. Will savannas survive outside the parks? A lesson from Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsch, W.; Merbold, L.; Scholes, B.; Mukelabai, M.

    2012-04-01

    Miombo woodlands cover the transition zone between dry open savannas and moist forests in Southern Africa. They cover about 2.7 million km2 in southern Africa and provide many ecosystem services that support rural life, including medical products, wild foods, construction timber and fuel. In Zambia, as in many of its neighbouring countries, miombo woodlands are currently experiencing accelerating degradation and clearing, mostly with charcoal production as the initial driver. Domestic energy needs in the growing urban areas are largely satisfied by charcoal, which is less energy-efficient fuel on a tree-to-table basis than the firewood that is used in rural areas, but has a higher energy density and is thus cheaper to transport. This study uses data from inventories and from eddy covariance measurements of carbon exchange to characterize the impact of charcoal production on miombo woodlands. We address the following questions: (i) how much carbon is lost at local as well as at national scale and (ii) does forest degradation result in the loss of a carbon sink? On the basis of our data we (iii) estimate the per capita emissions through deforestation and forest degradation in Zambia and relate it to fossil fuel emissions. Furthermore, (iv) a rough estimate of the energy that is provided by charcoal production to private households at a national level is calculated and (v) options for alternative energy supply to private households are discussed.

  10. Role of the horizontal gene exchange in evolution of pathogenic Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the most dangerous human pathogens, the causative agent of tuberculosis. While this pathogen is considered as extremely clonal and resistant to horizontal gene exchange, there are many facts supporting the hypothesis that on the early stages of evolution the development of pathogenicity of ancestral Mtb has started with a horizontal acquisition of virulence factors. Episodes of infections caused by non-tuberculosis Mycobacteria reported worldwide may suggest a potential for new pathogens to appear. If so, what is the role of horizontal gene transfer in this process? Results Availing of accessibility of complete genomes sequences of multiple pathogenic, conditionally pathogenic and saprophytic Mycobacteria, a genome comparative study was performed to investigate the distribution of genomic islands among bacteria and identify ontological links between these mobile elements. It was shown that the ancient genomic islands from M. tuberculosis still may be rooted to the pool of mobile genetic vectors distributed among Mycobacteria. A frequent exchange of genes was observed between M. marinum and several saprophytic and conditionally pathogenic species. Among them M. avium was the most promiscuous species acquiring genetic materials from diverse origins. Conclusions Recent activation of genetic vectors circulating among Mycobacteria potentially may lead to emergence of new pathogens from environmental and conditionally pathogenic Mycobacteria. The species which require monitoring are M. marinum and M. avium as they eagerly acquire genes from different sources and may become donors of virulence gene cassettes to other micro-organisms. PMID:25708825

  11. Transcriptome analysis of mycobacteria in sputum samples of pulmonary tuberculosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sumedha; Ryndak, Michelle B.; Aggarwal, Ashutosh N.; Yadav, Rakesh; Sethi, Sunil; Masih, Shet; Laal, Suman; Verma, Indu

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis, the disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, still retains a top rank among the deadliest communicable diseases. Sputum expectorated during the disease continues to be a primary diagnostic specimen and also serves as a reservoir of bacteria. The expression pattern of mycobacteria in sputum will lead to an insight into bacterial adaptation at the most highly transmissible stage of infection and can also help in identifying newer diagnostic as well as drug targets. Thus, in the present study, a whole genome microarray of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was used to elucidate the transcriptional profile of mycobacteria in the sputum samples of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Overall, the mycobacteria in sputum appeared to be in a low energy and low replicative state as compared to in vitro grown log phase M. tb with downregulation of genes involved in ATP synthesis, aerobic respiration and translational machinery. Simultaneously, downregulation was also seen in the genes involved in secretion machinery of mycobacteria along with the downregulation of genes involved in the synthesis of phthiocerol dimycocerosate and phenol glycolipids. In contrast, the majority of the genes which showed an upregulation in sputum mycobacteria were of unknown function. Further identification of these genes may provide new insights into the mycobacterial behavior during this phase of infection and may help in deciphering candidates for development of better diagnostic and drug candidates. PMID:28282458

  12. Predictors of attitudes toward intimate partner violence: a comparative study of men in Zambia and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Lawoko, Stephen

    2008-08-01

    Attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV) were compared between Zambian and Kenyan men on sociodemographic, attitudinal, and structural predictors of such attitudes. Data were retrieved from the latest Demographic and Health Surveys in each country. The results showed that many men in Zambia (71%) and Kenya (68%) justified IPV to punish a woman for transgression from normative domestic roles. In priority order, sociodemographic, autonomy, and access-to-information indicators predicted attitudes toward IPV in both countries. Whereas in Kenya, education reduced the likelihood of justifying IPV, the reverse was observed in Zambia. Access to information reduced the likelihood of justifying IPV among men in Zambia but not in Kenya. Men's positive attitudes toward women's autonomy reduced the likelihood of justifying IPV in Kenya but not in Zambia. Differences in specific predictors between the countries demonstrate the significance of capitalizing on need-adapted interventions tailored to fit conditions in each country.

  13. 77 FR 29369 - Notice of Entering Into a Compact With the Republic of Zambia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... Millennium Challenge Corporation and the Republic of Zambia Millennium Challenge Compact Table of Contents... undertaken or existing under or in furtherance of this Compact or similar language will include...

  14. Characterization of rifampin-resistance in pathogenic mycobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D L; Waguespack, C; Eisenach, K; Crawford, J T; Portaels, F; Salfinger, M; Nolan, C M; Abe, C; Sticht-Groh, V; Gillis, T P

    1994-01-01

    The emergence of rifampin-resistant strains of pathogenic mycobacteria has threatened the usefulness of this drug in treating mycobacterial diseases. Critical to the treatment of individuals infected with resistant strains is the rapid identification of these strains directly from clinical specimens. It has been shown that resistance to rifampin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae apparently involves mutations in the rpoB gene encoding the beta-subunit of the RNA polymerases of these species. DNA sequences were obtained from a 305-bp fragment of the rpoB gene from 110 rifampin-resistant and 10 rifampin-susceptible strains of M. tuberculosis from diverse geographical regions throughout the world. In 102 of 110 rifampin-resistant strains 16 mutations affecting 13 amino acids were observed. No mutations were observed in rifampin-susceptible strains. No association was found between particular mutations in the rpoB gene and drug susceptibility patterns of multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains. Drug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains from the same outbreak and exhibiting the same IS6110 DNA fingerprint and drug susceptibility pattern contained the same mutation in the rpoB gene. However, mutations are not correlated with IS6110 profiling outside of epidemics. The evolution of rifampin resistance as a consequence of mutations in the rpoB gene was documented in a patient who developed rifampin resistance during the course of treatment. Rifampin-resistant strains of M. leprae, Mycobacterium avium, and Mycobacterium africanum contained mutations in the rpoB gene similar to that documented for M. tuberculosis. This information served as the basis for developing a rapid DNA diagnostic assay (PCR-heteroduplex formation) for the detection of rifampin susceptibility of M. tuberculosis. Images PMID:7840574

  15. Effects of storage and transport on the cultivability of mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Šula, Ladislav; Sundaresan, T. K.; Langerová, M.

    1960-01-01

    In the course of WHO/UNICEF-assisted tuberculosis surveys carried out in a number of African territories, sputa were microscopically examined for the presence of acid-fast bacilli. Since adequate facilities for performing cultures to confirm the diagnosis of tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infections were not available in these territories, it was necessary to despatch sputum specimens to certain European laboratories for culturing and typing of mycobacteria. However, it was noticed that the number of positive cultures from such sputa was very low, being limited largely to specimens in which acid-fast bacilli were easily demonstrable by microscopy. Specimens containing scanty acid-fast bacilli, or microscopically negative specimens, usually failed to exhibit growth on culture, contrary to the usual observations made with European sputum specimens cultured in European laboratories. As the sputa were mostly taken from new cases with lung pathology, previous treatment could not have been responsible for these poor culture results, and it was thought that the conditions in which the specimens were transported, and possibly also the chemical composition of the containers in which they were stored, might be the cause. In an experiment carried out by the WHO Tuberculosis Research Office, in collaboration with a WHO field team in Africa and the Tuberculosis Research Institute in Prague, pure cultures of the H37 Rv strain and sputa were sent from Prague to East Africa and book in conditions simulating those in which specimens collected by African field teams are routinely sent to European laboratories. The results show that the cultivability of tubercle bacilli is adversely affected by storage and transport. PMID:20604080

  16. Identification of apolipoprotein N-acyltransferase (Lnt) in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Tschumi, Andreas; Nai, Corrado; Auchli, Yolanda; Hunziker, Peter; Gehrig, Peter; Keller, Peter; Grau, Thomas; Sander, Peter

    2009-10-02

    Lipoproteins of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria carry a thioether-bound diacylglycerol but differ by a fatty acid amide bound to the alpha-amino group of the universally conserved cysteine. In Escherichia coli the N-terminal acylation is catalyzed by the N-acyltransferase Lnt. Using E. coli Lnt as a query in a BLASTp search, we identified putative lnt genes also in Gram-positive mycobacteria. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipoprotein LppX, heterologously expressed in Mycobacterium smegmatis, was N-acylated at the N-terminal cysteine, whereas LppX expressed in a M. smegmatis lnt::aph knock-out mutant was accessible for N-terminal sequencing. Western blot analyses of a truncated and tagged form of LppX indicated a smaller size of about 0.3 kDa in the lnt::aph mutant compared with the parental strain. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight analyses of a trypsin digest of LppX proved the presence of the diacylglycerol modification in both strains, the parental strain and lnt::aph mutant. N-Acylation was found exclusively in the M. smegmatis parental strain. Complementation of the lnt::aph mutant with M. tuberculosis ppm1 restored N-acylation. The substrate for N-acylation is a C16 fatty acid, whereas the two fatty acids of the diacylglycerol residue were identified as C16 and C19:0 fatty acid, the latter most likely tuberculostearic acid. We demonstrate that mycobacterial lipoproteins are triacylated. For the first time to our knowledge, we identify Lnt activity in Gram-positive bacteria and assigned the responsible genes. In M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis the open reading frames are annotated as MSMEG_3860 and M. tuberculosis ppm1, respectively.

  17. Infection by tubercular mycobacteria is spread by nonlytic ejection from their amoeba hosts

    PubMed Central

    Hagedorn, Monica; Rohde, Kyle H.; Russell, David G.; Soldati, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    To generate efficient vaccines and cures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we need a far better understanding of modes of infection, persistence and spreading. Host cell entry and establishment of a replication niche are well understood, but little is known about how tubercular mycobacteria exit host cells and disseminate the infection. Using the social amoeba Dictyostelium as a genetically tractable host for pathogenic mycobacteria, we discovered that M. tuberculosis and M. marinum but not M. avium are ejected from the cell through an actin-based structure, the ejectosome. This conserved nonlytic spreading mechanism requires a cytoskeleton regulator from the host and an intact mycobacterial ESX-1 secretion system. This insight offers new directions for research into the spreading of tubercular mycobacteria infections in mammalian cells. PMID:19325115

  18. [Isolation of environmental mycobacteria from soils of Córdoba city Argentina].

    PubMed

    Ballarino, Guillermo J; Eseverri, M Verónica; Salas, Andrea V; Giayetto, Víctor O; González, Silvia; Wolff, Lidia; Pessah, Oscar

    2002-01-01

    The interest for the research on enviromental mycobacteria has risen over the last decades, in part, due to a significant incidence rate rise. Reports from all over the world address the soil as the major source for human contamination. In Argentina two documents report the prevalence of atypical mycobacteriosis at Córdoba (1997), and the isolation of enviromental mycobacteria from soils of the Province of La Pampa (1999) respectively. The aim of our study was to confirm the presence of enviromental mycobacteria in soil of the city of Córdoba. The map of the city was divided in 9 regions according to avenues and major streets distribution. A total of 120 soil samples were recollected with spatula from a 10 x 10 cm square up to 1 cm deep. Samples were kept at 4 degrees C no more than 7 days. Soil samples were homogenized with destilled water in a 1:1 proportion, and decontaminated according to Petroff's method. The cultures were made in Lowestein-Jehnsen media and incubated at 37 degrees C controlling development every 7 days for 2 months. An acid-fast-bacilli smear was made from colonies obtained. Twenty three cultures (19%) were discarded due to contamination. Twenty cultures (17%) developed acid fast bacilli (AFB). Colonies obtained were sent to the Mycobacteria Service of the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán, in the city of Buenos Aires, for identification. A single isolation was identified as Mycobacterium triviale. A positive correlation was observed between the frequency of positive AFB isolation and the number of samples taken from park areas. The presence of enviromental mycobacteria in soils of Córdoba was confirmed. Results suggest higher odds of isolation in parklands and soils where animals live. Extensive works are needed to asset the features that allow and contribute the proliferation of mycobacteria in soils.

  19. Subsistence settlement systems in the prehistory of Southwestern Zambia

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, J.O.

    1986-12-01

    Humans participate in ecological systems as one means of extracting and distributing environmental resources. Such ecosystems manifest themselves in the archeological record. Settlement systems represent subsistence systems latent with information relevant to explaining the spatial organization of people and change through time. Three subsistence settlement systems were segregated from the record of prehistoric farmers in southwestern Zambia. One is associated with the practice of pioneer populations successively occupying and abandoning favored microenvironments. The second is associated with the cyclical swiddening of a few opportunities within a single microenvironment. The third set spreads centers of production throughout several environmental segments. It is suggested that swiddening the marginal soils of the Zambezi periphery enabled the colonization but did not permit a burgeoning population. It is further suggested that internal networks were crucial to equalization of access to necessary resources and that these were incorporated in the segmentary, descent group.

  20. Mineralization types in the Mozambique Belt of eastern Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamona, A. F.

    1994-10-01

    Several mineral occurences, that include massive, disseminated and vein types of mineralization, are found in Paleoproterozoic rocks of the Mozambique Belt of Eastern Zambia. Mineralization associated with mafic igneous activity is presented by ilmenite in gabbros, whereas muscovite, aquamarine and tourmaline are mined from numerous pegmatites, which intrude into basement schists and gneisses. Massive Zn-Cu sulphides are interbanded with amphibolites and paragneisses of the Mvuvye Group. The disseminated type of mineralization includes cooper associated with gold in schists and metavolcanics and with graphite in gneisses and granulites. Quartz veins in schists and quartzites are mineralized with gold, bismuth and copper. The gold is associated mainly with disseminated pyrite, bismutite and bismuthinite as well as wtih native copper, chalcopyrite or malachite. In addition, concentrations of alluvial gold derived from quartz veins have been worked from sands and gravels in the region.

  1. Filarial infections in domestic dogs in Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Siwila, Joyce; Mwase, Enala T; Nejsum, Peter; Simonsen, Paul E

    2015-06-15

    Filariae are common parasites of dogs in many parts of the world, but little is known about the status of these infections in sub-Saharan Africa. A study was carried out to determine the occurrence and species of filariae among 272 dogs in Lusaka, Zambia. Giemsa stained blood smear and Knott's concentration methods revealed microfilariae in 16 (5.9%) of the dogs. PCR confirmed that most of these dogs had Acanthocheilonema reconditum infection. Ten (4.0%) of the examined dogs were positive for Dirofilaria immitis circulating antigen (by DiroCHEK(®) test), but D. immitis microfilariae were not identified in any of the dogs and the status of this infection remains unclear. Further studies are needed to explore the occurrence of filariae in Zambian dogs and the zoonotic potential for humans.

  2. HIV stress in primary school teachers in Zambia.

    PubMed Central

    Baggaley, R.; Sulwe, J.; Chilala, M.; Mashambe, C.

    1999-01-01

    A study was made of stress factors experienced by primary school teachers in Zambia after they had attended a course on stress management and counselling skills. Their pupils were significantly affected by poverty, death and illness of parents, fellow-pupils and teachers, teenage sex and pregnancy, violence in the home and, among girls, low self-esteem. The HIV epidemic had a major bearing on these factors, and there were wide-ranging effects on the teachers' own lives. Despite the training they had been given, many teachers felt that they could not adequately counsel their pupils on these matters. The teachers were in need of continuing support and training to enable them to cope with this aspect of their work. PMID:10212524

  3. Identification of a novel polyomavirus from vervet monkeys in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Shintaro; Ishii, Akihiro; Ogawa, Hirohito; Nakamura, Ichiro; Moonga, Ladslav; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Thomas, Yuka; Kimura, Takashi; Sawa, Hirofumi; Orba, Yasuko

    2013-06-01

    To examine polyomavirus (PyV) infection in wildlife, we investigated the presence of PyVs in Zambia with permission from the Zambia Wildlife Authority. We analysed 200 DNA samples from the spleens and kidneys (n = 100 each) of yellow baboons and vervet monkeys (VMs) (n = 50 each). We detected seven PyV genome fragments in 200 DNA samples using a nested broad-spectrum PCR method, and identified five full-length viral genomes using an inverse PCR method. Phylogenetic analysis of virally encoded proteins revealed that four PyVs were closely related to either African green monkey PyV or simian agent 12. Only one virus detected from a VM spleen was found to be related, with relatively low nucleotide sequence identity (74 %), to the chimpanzee PyV, which shares 48 % nucleotide sequence identity with the human Merkel cell PyV identified from Merkel cell carcinoma. The obtained entire genome of this virus was 5157 bp and had large T- and small t-antigens, and VP1 and VP2 ORFs. This virus was tentatively named vervet monkey PyV 1 (VmPyV1) as a novel PyV. Comparison with other PyVs revealed that VmPyV1, like chimpanzee PyV, had a longer VP1 ORF. To examine whether the VmPyV1 genome could produce viral proteins in cultured cells, the whole genome was transfected into HEK293T cells. We detected VP1 protein expression in the transfected HEK293T cells by immunocytochemical and immunoblot analyses. Thus, we identified a novel PyV genome from VM spleen.

  4. Prevention and Management of Neonatal Hypothermia in Rural Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Lunze, Karsten; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Marsh, David R.; Kafwanda, Sarah Ngolofwana; Musso, Austen; Semrau, Katherine; Waltensperger, Karen Z.; Hamer, Davidson H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Neonatal hypothermia is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for newborn survival. The World Health Organization recommends maintaining a warm chain and skin-to-skin care for thermoprotection of newborn children. Since little is known about practices related to newborn hypothermia in rural Africa, this study's goal was to characterize relevant practices, attitudes, and beliefs in rural Zambia. Methods and Findings We conducted 14 focus group discussions with mothers and grandmothers and 31 in-depth interviews with community leaders and health officers in Lufwanyama District, a rural area in the Copperbelt Province, Zambia, enrolling a total of 171 participants. We analyzed data using domain analysis. In rural Lufwanyama, community members were aware of the danger of neonatal hypothermia. Caregivers' and health workers' knowledge of thermoprotective practices included birthplace warming, drying and wrapping of the newborn, delayed bathing, and immediate and exclusive breastfeeding. However, this warm chain was not consistently maintained in the first hours postpartum, when newborns are at greatest risk. Skin-to-skin care was not practiced in the study area. Having to assume household and agricultural labor responsibilities in the immediate postnatal period was a challenge for mothers to provide continuous thermal care to their newborns. Conclusions Understanding and addressing community-based practices on hypothermia prevention and management might help improve newborn survival in resource-limited settings. Possible interventions include the implementation of skin-to-skin care in rural areas and the use of appropriate, low-cost newborn warmers to prevent hypothermia and support families in their provision of newborn thermal protection. Training family members to support mothers in the provision of thermoprotection for their newborns could facilitate these practices. PMID:24714630

  5. Intestinal Infestations in Under-Five Children in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Mwale, Kamukwamba; Siziya, Seter

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intestinal infestations are of considerable public health importance in Zambia and elsewhere in Africa. Children aged less than 5 years are at the highest risk of infection. Interventions for prevention and control of these infestations require identification of their determinants. This study investigates the determinants of intestinal infestations in children below 5 years of age admitted to a children’s hospital and assesses the most prevalent of the helminthes. Methods: This was a hospital based cross-sectional study conducted at Arthur Davison Children’s Hospital, Ndola, Zambia. Socio-demographic data of study participants and possible determinants for occurrence of intestinal infestations were collected using structured questionnaires. Stool samples were collected and examined for presence of parasites using direct techniques. The Pearson’s Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used to establish associations. Results: Present study had 148 participants out of the expected 165, making a respondent rate of 89.7%. Over half of the participants were male (50.6%), and 68.9% were above the age of 2 years. Prevalence of intestinal infestations was 19.6%, and the most prevalent parasite was Ascaris lumbricoides. Factors independently associated with worm infestation were father’s employment (AOR = 0.41; 95 % CI [0.19, 0.90]) and history of prior worm infestation (AOR = 6.54; 95 % CI [3.28, 13.03]). Conclusion: Intestinal infestations particularly Ascaris lumbricoides were more prevalent in this study. There should be policy towards countrywide deworming programs and enhanced hygiene. PMID:27622006

  6. Epilepsy Care in Zambia: A Study of Traditional Healers

    PubMed Central

    Baskind, Roy; Birbeck, Gretchen

    2005-01-01

    Summary Purpose Most people with epilepsy (PWE) reside in developing countries with limited access to medical care. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), traditional healers (THs) play a prominent role in caring for PWE, yet little is known about epilepsy care by THs. We conducted a multimethod, qualitative study to better understand the epilepsy care delivered by THs in Zambia. Methods We conducted focus-group discussions with THs, in-depth semistructured interviews with a well-recognized TH at his place of work, and multiple informal interviews with health-care providers in rural Zambia. Results THs recognize the same symptoms that a neurologist elicits to characterize seizure onset (e.g., olfactory hallucinations, jacksonian march, automatisms). Although THs acknowledge a familial propensity for some seizures and endorse causes of symptomatic epilepsy, they believe witchcraft plays a central, provocative role in most seizures. Treatment is initiated after the first seizure and usually incorporates certain plant and animal products. Patients who do not experience further seizures are considered cured. Those who do not respond to therapy may be referred to other healers. Signs of concomitant systemic illness are the most common reason for referral to a hospital. As a consequence of this work, our local Epilepsy Care Team has developed a more collaborative relationship with THs in the region. Conclusions THs obtain detailed event histories, are treatment focused, and may refer patients who have refractory seizures to therapy to other healers. Under some circumstances, they recognize a role for modern health care and refer patients to the hospital. Given their predominance as care providers for PWE, further understanding of their approach to care is important. Collaborative relationships between physicians and THs are needed if we hope to bridge the treatment gap in SSA. PMID:16026565

  7. Developmental assessment, cultural context, gender, and schooling in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Serpell, Robert; Jere-Folotiya, Jacqueline

    2008-04-01

    Multiple perspectives on the assessment of children's development at the school-community interface in rural areas of Zambia are discussed in the light of several empirical studies conducted between 1974 and 2005. A longitudinal trace study of a cohort of 46 young people born into a rural, Chewa community in Katete District found that girls' scores in early childhood on a battery of ecoculturally grounded cognitive tests correlated less well than they did for boys with two educational outcomes: number of grades of schooling completed, and adult literacy scores. Conversely, ratings of the children on indigenous conceptions of intelligence by adults familiar with the children in the context of their home village lives predicted the same outcomes better for girls than for boys. A separate, linked experiment compared the performance of 76 Katete school children with that of 84 school children in the capital city of Lusaka on the US standardized Draw-a-Person Test (DPT) and the Panga Munthu Test (PMT), an expanded version of one of the tests developed for the Zambian trace study. Analysis of the correlations among scores on these two tests, age, and teacher ratings suggests that aptitudes evident in the home and school domains are less well integrated for rural girls than for urban boys, and that for a low-income, rural population, the PMT taps the domain of home cognition better than school cognition, while the converse is true of the DPT. Implications for educational assessment in Zambia are discussed, and supportive documentation is cited from two ongoing programs of test development. The authors conclude that if educational testing is to support the process of enhancing educational equity across gender, family socioeconomic status, and residential location, its focus should be broadened to include other dimensions of psychological development such as multilingual and personal-social competencies.

  8. Rapid detection of mycobacteria in clinical specimens by using the automated BACTEC 9000 MB system and comparison with radiometric and solid-culture systems.

    PubMed Central

    Pfyffer, G E; Cieslak, C; Welscher, H M; Kissling, P; Rüsch-Gerdes, S

    1997-01-01

    Recovery rates of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) and the mean time to their detection from clinical specimens were determined by using the fluorescent BACTEC 9000 MB system. Data were compared to those assessed by the radiometric BACTEC 460 system and by cultivation on solid media. A total of 3,095 specimens were processed with N-acetyl-L-cysteine-NaOH by two laboratories. The contamination rates for the BACTEC 9000 MB system were 6.8% (center 1) and 9.8% (center 2). A total of 451 mycobacterial isolates were detected (Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, n = 296; nontuberculous mycobacteria [NTM], n = 155). These isolates originated from 94 (20.8%) smear-positive and 357 (79.2%) smear-negative specimens. The BACTEC 9000 MB system was significantly better than solid media (P < 0.05) in detecting AFB, but it was less efficient than the radiometric system (P < 0.01). The BACTEC 9000 MB system plus solid media (combination A) recovered 393 (87.1%) of the isolates, while the BACTEC 460 system plus solid media (combination B) detected 430 (95.3%) of all AFB isolates. Between combination A and B there was no statistically significant difference for the detection of isolates from smear-positive specimens (P > 0.05), in contrast to the recovery of AFB from smear-negative specimens for M. tuberculosis complex, P < 0.05; for NTM, P < 0.01). The mean time to detection of M. tuberculosis complex was 12.2 days for smear-positive specimens and 18.1 days for smear-negative specimens with the BACTEC 9000 MB system; 9.3 and 15.6 days, respectively, with the BACTEC 460 system; and 21.2 and 28.4 days, respectively, with solid media. For NTM, the average detection times were 15.1, 17.3, and 31.3 days by the three methods, respectively. In conclusion, the BACTEC 9000 MB system is a rapid, less labor-intensive detection system which allows for higher levels of recovery of AFB than solid media. There is no risk of cross contamination, which is known to be the case for the BACTEC 460 system, and

  9. Phenotypic, immunologic, and clinical characteristics of patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to elucidate the phenotypic, immunologic, and clinical characteristics of Korean patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) lung disease and compare them with non-NTM bronchiectasis (BE) patients. Methods We prospectively recruited patients between 20 and 80 years of age who had nodular BE type NTM lung disease. Phenotypic, immunologic, and clinical characteristics were evaluated through physical examination, laboratory tests, pulmonary function tests, and radiographic examinations. Questionnaires were also answered. The results of the evaluations were compared with the results of non-NTM BE patients. Results A total of 84 patients with NTM lung disease and 47 non-NTM BE patients participated in the study. Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease and M. abscessus lung disease were most common. Patients with NTM lung disease had lower body mass index than non-NTM BE patients. Scoliosis was observed more frequently in patients with NTM lung disease than in non-NTM BE patients. Conclusions Significant similarities were seen between Korean patients with NTM lung disease and patients from other countries. Differences in phenotypic and clinical characteristics between NTM lung disease and non-NTM BE patients suggest differences in the immunopathogenesis of NTM lung disease and non-NTM BE. Trial registration information ClinicalTrials.gov Registration number; NCT01616745 PMID:24274658

  10. Nutritional status and eating disorders: neglected risks factor for nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease?

    PubMed

    Portillo, Karina; Morera, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease (NTMLD) in immunocompetent patients is an increasingly important epidemiologic concern. However, risk factors associated with susceptibility to NTMLD are not completely known. A prevalence of NTMLD appears to be rising, mainly in some populations such as middle-aged or elderly thin women, (a group including those with Lady Windermere syndrome) with neither remarkable history of respiratory disease nor smoking habit. Right middle lobe (RML) and lingula are often involved. Various predisposing factors and genetic defects have been described as possible causes of development of NTMLD, namely: voluntary suppression of cough, RML anatomical factors, menopause and mutations in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Malnutrition is also an important and common risk factor associated with other mycobacterial disease like tuberculosis (TB) and its probable association with NTMLD as have been pointed out for some authors. However, a real description of all nutritional aspects and eating habits of patients prior to NTMLD diagnosis is lacking. We hypothesized that malnutrition and eating disorders like anorexia nervosa could be risk factors that may promoting NTMLD. From a clinical viewpoint, if this hypothesis proves to be correct, eating habits and nutritional aspects should be taken into account in the diagnosis process of suspected NTMLD, since they are easily identifiable and treatable conditions.

  11. Tattoo-associated nontuberculous mycobacterial skin infections--multiple states, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    2012-08-24

    Permanent tattoos have become increasingly common, with 21% of adults in the United States reporting having at least one tattoo. On rare occasions, outbreaks of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) skin infections have been reported after tattooing. In January 2012, public health officials in New York received reports of Mycobacterium chelonae skin infections in 14 New York residents who received tattoos during September-December 2011. All infections were associated with use of the same nationally distributed, prediluted gray ink manufactured by company A. CDC disseminated an Epi-X public health alert to identify additional tattoo-associated NTM skin infections; previously identified cases were reported from three states (Washington, Iowa, and Colorado). Public health investigations by CDC, state and local health departments, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) found NTM contamination in tattoo inks used in two of five identified clusters. All infected persons were exposed to one of four different brands of ink. NTM contamination of inks can occur during the manufacturing process as a result of using contaminated ingredients or poor manufacturing practices, or when inks are diluted with nonsterile water by tattoo artists. No specific FDA regulatory requirement explicitly provides that tattoo inks must be sterile. However, CDC recommends that ink manufacturers ensure ink is sterile and that tattoo artists avoid contamination of ink through dilution with nonsterile water. Consumers also should be aware of the health risks associated with getting an intradermal tattoo.

  12. The cost of medical management of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Leber, A; Marras, T K

    2011-05-01

    Treatment of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection is complex, requiring multiple antibiotics and a prolonged treatment course. We determined the monthly cost of treating patients with pulmonary NTM infections in our clinic, a tertiary care centre in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. We reviewed records of a single clinic at the University Health Network (Toronto) for all patients with pulmonary NTM isolates. Pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment costs were calculated using a number of Canadian references. 172 patients were reviewed, 91 of whom were treated pharmacologically. The median total duration and cost per treated patient were 14 months (interquartile range (IQR) 9-23 months) and CAD 4,916 (IQR CAD 2,934-9,063), respectively. Median monthly drug treatment cost was CAD 321 (IQR CAD 254-458) for all patients, CAD 289 (IQR CAD 237-341) for patients receiving exclusively oral antibiotics and CAD 1,161 (IQR CAD 795-1,646) for patients whose treatment included i.v. antibiotics. The most costly oral regiment consisted of a fluroquinolone, macrolide and rifampin. In multivariable analysis, Mycobacterium abscessus infection, i.v. therapy and Mycobacterium xenopi infection were all associated with increased monthly treatment costs. The direct medical costs of NTM infections are substantial. Less expensive alternative therapies might be most helpful for M. abscessus infection and when i.v. antibiotics are deemed necessary.

  13. Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacteria–Associated Deaths, Ontario, Canada, 2001–2013

    PubMed Central

    Campitelli, Michael A.; Lu, Hong; Chung, Hannah; Brode, Sarah K.; Marchand-Austin, Alex; Winthrop, Kevin L.; Gershon, Andrea S.; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Jamieson, Frances B.

    2017-01-01

    Survival implications of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) and NTM pulmonary isolation without disease (NTM-PI) are unclear. To study deaths associated with NTM-PD and NTM-PI and differences in survival between them, we conducted a population-based cohort study of persons with microbiologically defined NTM-PD or NTM-PI diagnosed during 2001–2013 in Ontario, Canada. We used propensity score matching and Cox proportional hazards models to compare survival. Among 9,681 NTM-PD patients and 10,936 NTM-PI patients, 87% and 91%, respectively, were successfully matched with unexposed controls. Both NTM-PD and NTM-PI were associated with higher rates of death for all species combined and for most individual species. Compared with NTM-PI, NTM-PD was associated with higher death rates for all species combined, Mycobacterium avium complex, and M. xenopi. NTM-PD and NTM-PI were significantly associated with death, NTM-PD more so than NTM-PI. PMID:28221106

  14. Lung abscess due to non-tuberculous, non-Mycobacterium fortuitum in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Glatstein, Miguel; Scolnik, Dennis; Bensira, Liat; Domany, Keren Armoni; Shah, Mansi; Vala, Snehal

    2012-10-01

    Although Mycobacterium fortuitum (MF) is a non-tuberculous mycobacterium that rarely causes disease, there are reported cases of pneumonia, lung abscess, and empyema in subjects with predisposing lung disease. We report a neonate, without predisposing disease or risk factors, who manifested pneumonia and lung abscess. The patient was initially treated with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and gentamycin, and subsequently with piperazilin, tazobactam, and vancomycin when there was no improvement. Pleural nodules were detected on computed tomography, and microbiology revealed MF in the absence of other pathogens and a week later the organism was identified in culture as MF, confirmed on four separate samples. The MF was sensitive to amikacin and clarithromycin and the patient was continued on oral clarithromycin for two more weeks until full recovery. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of MF abscess in a neonate. MF should be sought in similar patients, especially when microbiology fails to detect the usual pathogens, and when the clinical picture is unclear.

  15. Exosome secretome and mediated signaling in breast cancer patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial disease.

    PubMed

    Philley, Julie V; Kannan, Anbarasu; Griffith, David E; Devine, Megan S; Benwill, Jeana L; Jr, Richard J Wallace; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Thakkar, Foram; Taskar, Varsha; Fox, James G; Alqaid, Ammar; Bains, Hernaina; Gupta, Sudeep; Dasgupta, Santanu

    2017-02-01

    Bronchiectasis Nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTMnb) infection is an emerging health problem in breast cancer (BCa) patients. We measured sera exosome proteome in BCa-NTMnb subjects and controls by Mass Spectroscopy. Extracellular matrix protein 1 (ECM1) was detected exclusively in the circulating exosomes of 82% of the BCa-NTMnb cases. Co-culture of ECM1+ exosomes with normal human mammary epithelial cells induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition accompanied by increased Vimentin/CDH1 expression ratio and Glutamate production. Co-culture of the ECM1+ exosomes with normal human T cells modulated their cytokine production. The ECM1+ exosomes were markedly higher in sera obtained from BCa-NTMnb subjects. Exclusive expression of APN, APOC4 and AZGP1 was evident in the circulating exosomes of these BCa-NTMnb cases, which predicts disease prevalence independent of the body max index in concert with ECM1. Monitoring ECM1, APN, APOC4 and AZGP1 in the circulating exosomes could be beneficial for risk assessment, monitoring and surveillance of BCa-NTMnb.

  16. Understanding nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease: it’s been a long time coming

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, David E.; Aksamit, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    With a surprising predictability, most studies and reviews addressing therapy for nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) lung disease either start or end by mentioning the paucity of data from randomized and controlled trials. That is a legitimate criticism for NTM lung disease therapy, but it also somehow seems to influence attitudes toward all aspects of NTM investigation. Certainly the study of NTM diseases in general and NTM lung disease in particular is a recent development. Previously, NTM were viewed as minor, if inconvenient, pathogens similar to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, over the last three decades, NTM have emerged as increasingly important pathogens that are clearly different compared with tuberculosis. Although there has been frustratingly slow progress in the treatment of NTM diseases, in contrast there has unquestionably been impressive progress in almost every other realm of investigation into NTM disease. Our understanding of NTM lung disease a) pathophysiology, including mechanisms of organism acquisition, b) epidemiology, including estimates of disease prevalence, c) mycobacteriology, including application of molecular laboratory techniques and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI–TOF) mass spectrometry, and d) even treatment strategies, including the recognition of innate drug resistance mechanisms, has immeasurably and permanently changed and advanced the landscape for NTM lung disease. It is no longer necessary to apologize for the state of NTM lung disease knowledge and understanding, but rather it is time to recognize the great distance we have travelled over the last 30 years. PMID:27990278

  17. Membrane-active antimicrobial peptides and human placental lysosomal extracts are highly active against mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Jena, Prajna; Mishra, Bibhuti; Leippe, Matthias; Hasilik, Andrej; Griffiths, Gareth; Sonawane, Avinash

    2011-05-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis, manifests discreet strategies to subvert host immune responses, which enable the pathogen to survive and multiply inside the macrophages. This problem is further worsened by the emergence of multidrug resistant mycobacterial strains, which make most of the anti-tuberculous drugs ineffective. It is thus imperative to search for and design better therapeutic strategies, including employment of new antibiotics. Recently, naturally produced antimicrobial molecules such as enzymes, peptides and their synthetic analogs have emerged as compounds with potentially significant therapeutical applications. Although, many antimicrobial peptides have been identified only very few of them have been tested against mycobacteria. A major limitation in using peptides as therapeutics is their sensitivity to enzymatic degradation or inactivity under certain physiological conditions such as relatively high salt concentration. Here, we show that NK-2, a peptide representing the cationic core region of the lymphocytic effector protein NK-lysin, and Ci-MAM-A24, a synthetic salt-tolerant peptide derived from immune cells of Ciona intestinalis, efficiently kill Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium bovis-BCG. In addition, NK-2 and Ci-MAM-A24 showed a synergistic killing effect against M. smegmatis, no cytotoxic effect on mouse macrophages at bactericidal concentrations, and were even found to kill mycobacteria residing inside the macrophages. We also show that human placental lysosomal contents exert potent killing effect against mycobacteria under acidic and reducing growth conditions. Electron microscopic studies demonstrate that the lysosomal extract disintegrate bacterial cell membrane resulting in killing of mycobacteria.

  18. Does infection with environmental mycobacteria suppress the protective response to subsequent vaccination with BCG?

    PubMed

    Smith, D; Reeser, P; Musa, S

    1985-03-01

    Using a guinea pig model of experimental airborne tuberculosis, we were unable to find evidence to support the hypothesis that infection with environmental mycobacteria (M. simiae or M. avium-intracellulare) interferes with the induction of a protective response in animals subsequently vaccinated with BCG.

  19. Mild Nutrient Starvation Triggers the Development of a Small-Cell Survival Morphotype in Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mu-Lu; Gengenbacher, Martin; Dick, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacteria, generally believed to be non-sporulating, are well known to survive shock starvation in saline for extended periods of time in a non-replicating state without any apparent morphological changes. Here, we uncover that mycobacteria can undergo cellular differentiation by exposing Mycobacterium smegmatis to mild starvation conditions. Traces of various carbon sources in saline triggered the development of a novel small resting cell (SMRC) morphotype. Development of SMRCs could also be observed for other mycobacteria, suggesting evolutionary conservation of this differentiation pathway. Fluorescence microscopic analyses showed that development of SMRCs progresses via septated, multi-nucleoided cell intermediates, which divide to generate mono-nucleoided SMRCs. Intriguingly, saline shock-starved large resting cells (LARCs), which did not show cell size or surface changes when observed by scanning electron microscopy, remodeled their internal structure to septated, multi-nucleoided cells, similar to the intermediates seen during differentiation to SMRCs. Our results suggest that mycobacteria harbor a starvation-induced differentiation program in which at first septated, multi-nucleoided cells are generated. Under zero-nutrient conditions bacteria terminate development at this stage as LARCs. In the presence of traces of a carbon source, these multi-nucleoided cells continue differentiation into mono-nucleoided SMRCs. Both SMRCs and LARCs exhibited extreme antibiotic tolerance. SMRCs showed increased long-term starvation survival, which was associated with the presence of lipid inclusion bodies. PMID:27379076

  20. Moving Towards Inclusive Education Policies and Practices? Basic Education for AIDS Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Sue; Kanyanta, Sylvester Bonaventure

    2007-01-01

    The global spread of HIV and AIDS has presented a major threat to development, affecting the health of the poor and many aspects of social and economic development. The greatest impact of the epidemic has been felt in sub-Saharan Africa, and Zambia ranks among the worst hit countries. The Free Basic Education Policy in Zambia upholds the right of…

  1. Provision of Learning and Teaching Materials for Pupils with Visual Impairment: Results from a National Survey in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akakandelwa, Akakandelwa; Munsanje, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the provision of learning and teaching materials for pupils with visual impairment in basic and high schools of Zambia. A survey approach utilizing a questionnaire, interviews and a review of the literature was adopted for the study. The findings demonstrated that most schools in Zambia did not provide…

  2. Provision and Management of Special Education in Community Schools: A Case of Donata, Malaikha and Shalom Community Schools in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwamba, Mwenya N.

    2016-01-01

    Community schools appeared in Zambia in 1992 beginning with Lusaka and they quickly spread to other parts of the country. The Ministry of General Education recognizes its obligation to provide education of good quality to all children in response to national and international protocols to which Zambia is a part. The creation of Community Schools…

  3. University Adult Education in Independent Zambia: The Role of a Department of Extra-Mural Studies in National Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okafor, Clement Abiazem

    1971-01-01

    Like other African countries, Zambia's most pragmatic approach to national development must lie in adult education. The University of Zambia is one agency involved toward this goal and its emphasis is on rapid expansion of university-type education and the training of adult educators. (Author/JB)

  4. Isolation and characterization of mycobacteria from striped bass Morone saxatilis from the Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhodes, M.W.; Kator, H.; Kaattari, I.; Gauthier, D.; Vogelbein, W.; Ottinger, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    Mycobacteriosis in striped bass Morone saxatilis of Chesapeake Bay, USA, was first diagnosed in 1997 based on the presence of granulomatous inflammation and acid-fast bacteria in skin and spleen. To confirm histopathology, bacteriological detection and identification of mycobacteria were begun using splenic tissue from fish with and without skin ulcerations. On the basis of initial studies using a variety of selective and nonselective media, decontamination, homogenization and incubation conditions, a simple and quantitative recovery method using aseptic necropsy of splenic tissue was developed. Optimal recovery was obtained by spread-plating homogenates on Middlebrook 7H10 agar with incubation for 3 mo at 23??C. Mycobacteria were recovered from 76% (n = 149/196) of fish examined. Mycobacterial densities exceeded 104 colony forming units??g tissue-1 in 38% of samples (n = 63/168) that were examined using a quantitative approach. The most frequently recovered mycobacterium, present in 57% (n = 109/192) of characterized samples, was the recently named new species Mycobacterium shottsii. Polyinfections of M. shottsii and other mycobacteria were observed in 25% of samples (n = 47/192) with densities of M. shottsii usually 1 or more orders of magnitude higher than co-isolate(s). Other mycobacteria recovered included isolates that, based on phenotypic traits, resembled M. interjectum, M. marinum, M. scrofulaceum, M. szulgai and M. triplex. M. marinum, commonly associated with fish mycobacteriosis and human disease, was recovered infrequently (3%, n = 6/192). The presence of multiple mycobacterial types occurring at high densities suggests that a variety of mycobacteria could be causative agents of mycobacteriosis in striped bass from the Chesapeake Bay. Striped bass is the major recreational fish species in the Chesapeake Bay, and the significance of the current epizootic to human health and the potential adverse effects on fish stocks are not known.

  5. Anthelmintic efficacy in captive wild impala antelope (Aepyceros melampus) in Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Nalubamba, King S; Mudenda, Ntombi B

    2012-05-25

    There has been an increase in the number of wild ungulates kept in captivity for ecotourism and conservation in Zambia and these animals are susceptible to a number of diseases including gastrointestinal helminth infections. Surveys to determine anthelmintic efficacy to gastrointestinal nematodes in captive-wildlife are not common and there have been no reports of anthelmintic resistance in captive-wildlife in Zambia. This study was carried out to determine the efficacy of the benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole in captive wild impala (Aepyceros melampus) in Zambia. During the month of April 2011, at the end of the rainy season, the faecal egg count reduction test was performed at a private game facility for assessing anthelmintic efficacy of oral fenbendazole and the anthelmintic treatment showed an efficacy of 90%. Haemonchus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. were the predominant genera present before treatment, but Haemonchus spp. larvae were the only genus recovered from the faecal cultures after anthelmintic treatment. This represents the first documentation of anthelmintic treatment failure in captive wild-antelopes in Zambia. It also demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the common traditional practice of deworming captive-wild antelopes at the end of the rainy season due to the rapid re-infection of impala that occurs due to high pasture infectivity. Suggestions on changes to current anthelmintic use/practices that will make them more efficacious and reduce the possibility of development of anthelmintic resistance in captive wild game in Zambia are also made.

  6. Randomized Trial of Liposomal Amikacin for Inhalation in Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Kenneth N; Griffith, David E; Eagle, Gina; McGinnis Ii, John P; Micioni, Liza; Liu, Keith; Daley, Charles L; Winthrop, Kevin L; Ruoss, Stephen; Addrizzo-Harris, Doreen J; Flume, Patrick A; Dorgan, Daniel; Salathe, Matthias; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Gupta, Renu; Wallace, Richard J

    2016-10-17

    Rationale Lengthy multi-drug, toxic, and low efficacy regimens limit management of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (PNTM) disease. Objective This phase 2 study investigated efficacy and safety of liposomal amikacin for inhalation (LAI) in treatment-refractory PNTM (Mycobacterium avium complex [MAC] or Mycobacterium abscessus) disease. Methods During the double-blind phase, patients were randomly assigned to LAI (590 mg) or placebo once daily added to their multi-drug regimen for 84 days. Both groups could receive open-label LAI for 84 additional days. Primary endpoint was change from baseline to day 84 on a semi-quantitative mycobacterial growth scale. Other endpoints included sputum conversion, 6-minute walk distance, and adverse events. Measurements and Main Results Modified intent-to-treat population included 89 (LAI=44; placebo=45) patients. Average age was 59 years, 88% were female, 92% were Caucasian; 80 and 59 patients completed study drug dosing during the double-blind and open-label phases, respectively. Primary endpoint was not achieved (P=0.072); however, a greater proportion of the LAI group demonstrated ≥1 negative sputum cultures (32% [14/44] vs. 9% [4/45]; P=0.006) and improvement in 6-minute walk test (+20.6 vs. -25.0 meters; P=0.017) at day 84. Treatment effect was predominantly in patients without cystic fibrosis with MAC and was sustained 1 year post-LAI. Most adverse events were respiratory and in some patients led to drug discontinuation. Conclusions Although the primary endpoint was not reached, LAI added to a multi-drug regimen produced improvements in sputum conversion and 6-minute walk distance vs. placebo with limited systemic toxicity in patients with refractory MAC lung disease. Further research is needed. Clinical trial registration available at www.clinicaltrials.gov, ID NCT01315236.

  7. Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease in Children – Epidemiology, Diagnosis & Management at a Tertiary Center

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, Duncan; Gonis, Gena; Leslie, David; Sedda, Luigi; Ritz, Nicole; Connell, Tom; Curtis, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Background There are limited data on the epidemiology, diagnosis and optimal management of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease in children. Methods Retrospective cohort study of NTM cases over a 10-year-period at a tertiary referral hospital in Australia. Results A total of 140 children with NTM disease, including 107 with lymphadenitis and 25 with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), were identified. The estimated incidence of NTM disease was 0.6–1.6 cases / 100,000 children / year; no increasing trend was observed over the study period. Temporal analyses revealed a seasonal incidence cycle around 12 months, with peaks in late winter/spring and troughs in autumn. Mycobacterium-avium-complex accounted for most cases (77.8%), followed by Mycobacterium ulcerans (14.4%) and Mycobacterium marinum (3.3%). Polymerase chain reaction testing had higher sensitivity than culture and microscopy for acid-fast bacilli (92.0%, 67.2% and 35.7%, respectively). The majority of lymphadenitis cases underwent surgical excision (97.2%); multiple recurrences in this group were less common in cases treated with clarithromycin and rifampicin compared with clarithromycin alone or no anti-mycobacterial drugs (0% versus 7.1%; OR:0.73). SSTI recurrences were also less common in cases treated with two anti-mycobacterial drugs compared with one or none (10.5% versus 33.3%; OR:0.23). Conclusions There was seasonal variation in the incidence of NTM disease, analogous to recently published observations in tuberculosis, which have been linked to seasonal variation in vitamin D. Our finding that anti-mycobacterial combination therapy was associated with a reduced risk of recurrences in patients with NTM lymphadenitis or SSTI requires further confirmation in prospective trials. PMID:26812154

  8. Health Seeking Behaviour among Individuals with Presumptive Tuberculosis in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Kapata, Nathan; Masiye, Felix; Maboshe, Mwendaweli; Klinkenberg, Eveline; Cobelens, Frank; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) prevalence surveys offer a unique opportunity to study health seeking behaviour at the population level because they identify individuals with symptoms that should ideally prompt a health consultation. Objective To assess the health-seeking behaviour among individuals who were presumptive TB cases in a national population based TB prevalence survey. Methods A cross sectional survey was conducted between 2013 and 2014 among 66 survey clusters in Zambia. Clusters were census supervisory areas (CSAs). Participants (presumptive TB cases) were individuals aged 15 years and above; having either cough, fever or chest pain for 2 weeks or more; and/or having an abnormal or inconclusive chest x-ray image. All survey participants were interviewed about symptoms and had a chest X-ray taken. An in-depth interview was conducted to collect information on health seeking behaviour and previous TB treatment. Results Of the 6,708 participants, the majority reported at least a history of chest pain (3,426; 51.1%) followed by cough (2,405; 35.9%), and fever (1,030; 15.4%) for two weeks or more. Only 34.9% (2,340) had sought care for their symptoms, mainly (92%) at government health facilities. Of those who sought care, 13.9% (326) and 12.1% (283) had chest x-ray and sputum examinations, respectively. Those ever treated for TB were 9.6% (644); while 1.7% (114) was currently on treatment. The average time (in weeks) from onset of symptoms to first care-seeking was 3 for the presumptive TB cases. Males, urban dwellers and individuals in the highest wealth quintile were less likely to seek care for their symptoms. The likelihood of having ever been treated for TB was highest among males, urban dwellers; respondents aged 35–64 years, individuals in the highest wealth quintile, or HIV positive. Conclusion Some presumptive TB patients delay care-seeking for their symptoms. The health system misses opportunities to diagnose TB among those who seek care. Improving

  9. Climate Trends and Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mulenga, Brian P; Wineman, Ayala; Sitko, Nicholas J

    2017-02-01

    A number of studies use meteorological records to analyze climate trends and assess the impact of climate change on agricultural yields. While these provide quantitative evidence on climate trends and the likely effects thereof, they incorporate limited qualitative analysis of farmers' perceptions of climate change and/or variability. The present study builds on the quantitative methods used elsewhere to analyze climate trends, and in addition compares local narratives of climate change with evidence found in meteorological records in Zambia. Farmers offer remarkably consistent reports of a rainy season that is growing shorter and less predictable. For some climate parameters-notably, rising average temperature-there is a clear overlap between farmers' observations and patterns found in the meteorological records. However, the data do not support the perception that the rainy season used to begin earlier, and we generally do not detect a reported increase in the frequency of dry spells. Several explanations for these discrepancies are offered. Further, we provide policy recommendations to help farmers adapt to climate change/variability, as well as suggestions to shape future climate change policies, programs, and research in developing countries.

  10. Conceptualization of appropriate technology in Lundazi district of rural Zambia

    SciTech Connect

    Tembo, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    A sample of 144 people from the Lundazi District of the Eastern Province of rural Zambia in Central Africa responded to a questionnaire. The first objective of the study was to determine how men and women conceptualize and evaluated appropriate technology for food production, processing, preservation, and storage; second, to investigate if participation in modern institutions (COSISOCHINS) was related to conceptualization of appropriate technology. There were no significant gender differences in how men and women viewed appropriate technology. Participation in modern institutions was not significantly related to how people conceptualized and evaluated appropriate technology. There were significant gender differences in participation in modern institutions; men participated more than women. The findings remained the same when age, education, income and marital status held constant. Sex-role task overlap and exclusiveness in gender division of labor account for lack of significant gender differences. Modern institutions can be useful if they are effectively integrated with the social structure, gender division of labor, and social organization of the production process of the rural communities of the Third World.

  11. Flexible engineering designs for urban water management in Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Tembo, Lucy; Pathirana, Assela; van der Steen, Peter; Zevenbergen, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Urban water systems are often designed using deterministic single values as design parameters. Subsequently the different design alternatives are compared using a discounted cash flow analysis that assumes that all parameters remain as-predicted for the entire project period. In reality the future is unknown and at best a possible range of values for design parameters can be estimated. A Monte Carlo simulation could then be used to calculate the expected Net Present Value of project alternatives, as well as so-called target curves (cumulative frequency distribution of possible Net Present Values). The same analysis could be done after flexibilities were incorporated in the design, either by using decision rules to decide about the moment of capacity increase, or by buying Real Options (in this case land) to cater for potential capacity increases in the future. This procedure was applied to a sanitation and wastewater treatment case in Lusaka, Zambia. It included various combinations of on-site anaerobic baffled reactors and off-site waste stabilisation ponds. For the case study, it was found that the expected net value of wastewater treatment systems can be increased by 35-60% by designing a small flexible system with Real Options, rather than a large inflexible system.

  12. Urban women's informal savings and credit systems in Zambia.

    PubMed

    O'reilly, C

    1996-05-01

    This article is based on findings from semi-structured interviews and discussions among "chilimba" groups in Zambia. Chilimba groups are primarily women's groups that engage in credit and savings programs. Group membership ranges from 4 to 20 members. The women agree on a fixed, regular cash contribution that is given in turn to each member in a specified order. Market groups tend to be larger and contributions of about a dollar are made daily. Smaller groups tend to make larger, but less frequent contributions. Default is rare, as the commitment is taken very seriously. New members are added at the end of the rotation. Loans can be used for domestic or business use. Chilimba groups are evidence that very poor people desire savings. Chilimba brings together people with similar financial needs and resources. Chilimba does not require formal, written procedures or formal institutional frameworks. Chilimba is not a remedy for reducing overall poverty. It is appropriate only for people with some regular source of income. It does not serve as a safety net in emergencies. Long-term loans are not possible. A limitation is its openness and lack of structure that permit potential abuse. It is a livelihood strategy for women, but benefits could be gained from including men. It is urged that groups consider whether the position of the poor is being enhanced or undermined. Different models need to be tested. Members themselves must decide on the type and phasing of activities.

  13. Thelazia rhodesii in the African buffalo, Syncerus caffer, in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Chembensofu, Mweelwa; Siamudaala, Victor M; Munyeme, Musso; Matandiko, Wigganson

    2011-03-01

    We report 2 cases of Thelazia rhodesii infection in the African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, in Zambia. African buffalo calves were captured from the livestock and wildlife interface area of the Kafue basin in the dry season of August 2005 for the purpose to translocate to game ranches. At capture, calves (n=48) were examined for the presence of eye infections by gently manipulating the orbital membranes to check for eye-worms in the conjunctival sacs and corneal surfaces. Two (4.3%) were infected and the mean infection burden per infected eye was 5.3 worms (n=3). The mean length of the worms was 16.4 mm (95% CI; 14.7-18.2 mm) and the diameter 0.41 mm (95% CI; 0.38-0.45 mm). The surface cuticle was made of transverse striations which gave the worms a characteristic serrated appearance. Although the calves showed signs of kerato-conjunctivitis, the major pathological change observed was corneal opacity. The calves were kept in quarantine and were examined thrice at 30 days interval. At each interval, they were treated with 200 µg/kg ivermectin, and then translocated to game ranches. Given that the disease has been reported in cattle and Kafue lechwe (Kobus lechwe kafuensis) in the area, there is a need for a comprehensive study which aims at determining the disease dynamics and transmission patterns of thelaziasis between wildlife and livestock in the Kafue basin.

  14. Climate Trends and Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change in Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulenga, Brian P.; Wineman, Ayala; Sitko, Nicholas J.

    2017-02-01

    A number of studies use meteorological records to analyze climate trends and assess the impact of climate change on agricultural yields. While these provide quantitative evidence on climate trends and the likely effects thereof, they incorporate limited qualitative analysis of farmers' perceptions of climate change and/or variability. The present study builds on the quantitative methods used elsewhere to analyze climate trends, and in addition compares local narratives of climate change with evidence found in meteorological records in Zambia. Farmers offer remarkably consistent reports of a rainy season that is growing shorter and less predictable. For some climate parameters—notably, rising average temperature—there is a clear overlap between farmers' observations and patterns found in the meteorological records. However, the data do not support the perception that the rainy season used to begin earlier, and we generally do not detect a reported increase in the frequency of dry spells. Several explanations for these discrepancies are offered. Further, we provide policy recommendations to help farmers adapt to climate change/variability, as well as suggestions to shape future climate change policies, programs, and research in developing countries.

  15. The Socioeconomic status of children with epilepsy in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Chomba, Elwyn; Haworth, Alan; Atadzhanov, Masharip; Mbewe, Edward; Birbeck, Gretchen L.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Epilepsy is a highly stigmatized disorder in Zambia. Adult studies indicated that adults with epilepsy in many regions have significantly lower socioeconomic status (SES) than their peers. We conducted a case-control study of Zambian children with epilepsy (CWE) to assess the SES of CWE. 98 child pairs were recruited (n=196), mean age 10.8 yrs, 59.7% male. The comparison group’s medical conditions included asthma (54.0%), rheumatic heart disease (26.6%), type 1 diabetes (14.2%), and hypertension (5.2%). Compared to children with non-stigmatized chronic medical conditions, CWE have fewer educational opportunities, more environmental hazards, and poorer food quality and security (all p’s<0.05). These deprivations may be related to lost maternal income from mothers who deferred employment so they could remain at home to care for the child. These early deprivations have long-term implications for health and well-being. Healthcare workers and child advocates need to be aware of the circumstances facing CWE in this region. PMID:18602496

  16. Seroprevalence of Canine Parvovirus in Dogs in Lusaka District, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis is a highly contagious enteric disease of young dogs. Limited studies have been done in Zambia to investigate the prevalence of CPV in dogs. Blood was collected from dogs from three veterinary clinics (clinic samples, n = 174) and one township of Lusaka (field samples, n = 56). Each dog's age, sex, breed, and vaccination status were recorded. A haemagglutination assay using pig erythrocytes and modified live parvovirus vaccine as the antigen was used. Antibodies to CPV were detected in 100% of dogs (unvaccinated or vaccinated). The titres ranged from 160 to 10240 with a median of 1280. Vaccinated dogs had significantly higher antibody titres compared to unvaccinated (p < 0.001). There was a significant difference in titres of clinic samples compared to field samples (p < 0.0001) but not within breed (p = 0.098) or sex (p = 0.572). Multiple regression analysis showed that only age and vaccination status were significant predictors of antibody titres. The presence of antibody in all dogs suggests that the CPV infection is ubiquitous and the disease is endemic, hence the need for research to determine the protection conferred by vaccination and natural exposure to the virus under local conditions. PMID:27699205

  17. Correlation between virulence of various strains of mycobacteria and their susceptibility to ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP).

    PubMed

    Scheller, S; Kawalski, H; Oklek, K; Dworniczak, S; Matsuno, T; Waldemar-Klimmek, K; Rajca, M; Shani, J

    1998-01-01

    Ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) has antibacterial, antiviral, antiprotozoal and antifungal properties, in addition to many biological effects. Our laboratory has demonstrated a synergistic effect of EEP and antibiotics on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, and suggested that the bactericidal effect of EEP was expressed mainly on virulent mycobacteria rather than on non-virulent (attenuated) ones. The present study was designed to reconfirm the latter finding, by subjecting 17 different mycobacteria strains to EEP, and evaluating whether there is a correlation between the virulence of the mycobacteria strains studied and their susceptibility to EEP. Our findings demonstrate that while the four non-virulent strains studied are not susceptible to EEP, out of the 13 virulent strains studied seven are susceptible and six are resistant to it. These results suggest that while there is no full correlation between virulence of the mycobacteria tested and their susceptibility to EEP, the few strains that were resistant to EEP were non-virulent.

  18. Clinical and subclinical bovine leukemia virus infection in a dairy cattle herd in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Girja S; Simulundu, Edgar; Mwiinga, Danstan; Samui, Kenny L; Mweene, Aaron S; Kajihara, Masahiro; Mangani, Alfred; Mwenda, Racheal; Ndebe, Joseph; Konnai, Satoru; Takada, Ayato

    2017-04-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) causes enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) and is responsible for substantial economic losses in cattle globally. However, information in Africa on the disease is limited. Here, based on clinical, hematological, pathological and molecular analyses, two clinical cases of EBL were confirmed in a dairy cattle herd in Zambia. In contrast, proviral DNA was detected by PCR in five apparently healthy cows from the same herd, suggesting subclinical BLV infection. Phylogenetic analysis of the env gene showed that the identified BLV clustered with Eurasian genotype 4 strains. This is the first report of confirmed EBL in Zambia.

  19. Observation of the total solar eclipse on 21 June 2001 in Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Noritsugu; Yumoto, Kiyohumi; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi

    2002-04-01

    On 21 June 2001, path of totality in Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and Madagascar in Africa. The Japan Scientific Observation Team, consisting primarily of the members of the Solar Eclipse Subcommittee of the Committee for International Collaboration in Astronomy of the Science Council of JAPAN, visited Lusaka in Zambia to observe the total solar eclipse. Blessed with fine weather, the observation was successful. The outline of the influence of solar eclipse on the terrestrial magnetism, polarization of the flash spectrum, and other observation data, as well as the way educational activities were carried out, are reported.

  20. The emergence and evolution of HIV counselling in Zambia: a 25-year history.

    PubMed

    Simbaya, Joseph; Moyer, Eileen

    2013-01-01

    HIV-related counselling practices have evolved since emerging in Zambia in 1987. Whereas, initially, the goal of HIV counselling was to provide psychological support to the dying and their families, as knowledge about HIV grew, counselling objectives expanded to include behavioural change, encouraging safer sexual practices, encouraging disclosure, convincing people to test, treatment adherence and shaping HIV-positive people's sexual and reproductive choices. This paper highlights a number of key shifts in counselling practices in Zambia over the last 25 years, demonstrating the relationship between those shifts, changes in medical technology, (inter)national political will and the epidemiological maturity of the disease.

  1. Mycobacteria emulsified in olive oil-in-water trigger a robust immune response in bladder cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Noguera-Ortega, Estela; Blanco-Cabra, Núria; Rabanal, Rosa Maria; Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro; Roldán, Mónica; Guallar-Garrido, Sandra; Torrents, Eduard; Luquin, Marina; Julián, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The hydrophobic composition of mycobacterial cell walls leads to the formation of clumps when attempting to resuspend mycobacteria in aqueous solutions. Such aggregation may interfere in the mycobacteria-host cells interaction and, consequently, influence their antitumor effect. To improve the immunotherapeutic activity of Mycobacterium brumae, we designed different emulsions and demonstrated their efficacy. The best formulation was initially selected based on homogeneity and stability. Both olive oil (OO)- and mineral oil-in-water emulsions better preserved the mycobacteria viability and provided higher disaggregation rates compared to the others. But, among both emulsions, the OO emulsion increased the mycobacteria capacity to induce cytokines’ production in bladder tumor cell cultures. The OO-mycobacteria emulsion properties: less hydrophobic, lower pH, more neutralized zeta potential, and increased affinity to fibronectin than non-emulsified mycobacteria, indicated favorable conditions for reaching the bladder epithelium in vivo. Finally, intravesical OO-M. brumae-treated mice showed a significantly higher systemic immune response, together with a trend toward increased tumor-bearing mouse survival rates compared to the rest of the treated mice. The physicochemical characteristics and the induction of a robust immune response in vitro and in vivo highlight the potential of the OO emulsion as a good delivery vehicle for the mycobacterial treatment of bladder cancer. PMID:27265565

  2. Mycobacteria emulsified in olive oil-in-water trigger a robust immune response in bladder cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Noguera-Ortega, Estela; Blanco-Cabra, Núria; Rabanal, Rosa Maria; Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro; Roldán, Mónica; Guallar-Garrido, Sandra; Torrents, Eduard; Luquin, Marina; Julián, Esther

    2016-06-06

    The hydrophobic composition of mycobacterial cell walls leads to the formation of clumps when attempting to resuspend mycobacteria in aqueous solutions. Such aggregation may interfere in the mycobacteria-host cells interaction and, consequently, influence their antitumor effect. To improve the immunotherapeutic activity of Mycobacterium brumae, we designed different emulsions and demonstrated their efficacy. The best formulation was initially selected based on homogeneity and stability. Both olive oil (OO)- and mineral oil-in-water emulsions better preserved the mycobacteria viability and provided higher disaggregation rates compared to the others. But, among both emulsions, the OO emulsion increased the mycobacteria capacity to induce cytokines' production in bladder tumor cell cultures. The OO-mycobacteria emulsion properties: less hydrophobic, lower pH, more neutralized zeta potential, and increased affinity to fibronectin than non-emulsified mycobacteria, indicated favorable conditions for reaching the bladder epithelium in vivo. Finally, intravesical OO-M. brumae-treated mice showed a significantly higher systemic immune response, together with a trend toward increased tumor-bearing mouse survival rates compared to the rest of the treated mice. The physicochemical characteristics and the induction of a robust immune response in vitro and in vivo highlight the potential of the OO emulsion as a good delivery vehicle for the mycobacterial treatment of bladder cancer.

  3. Molecular epidemiology and a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for diagnosis of infection with rabies virus in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Muleya, Walter; Namangala, Boniface; Mweene, Aaron; Zulu, Luke; Fandamu, Paul; Banda, Douglas; Kimura, Takashi; Sawa, Hirofumi; Ishii, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    The National Livestock Epidemiology and Information Center (NALEIC) in Zambia reported over 132 cases of canine rabies diagnosed by the direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT) from 2004 to 2009. In this study, the lineage of rabies virus (RABV) in Zambia was determined by phylogenetic analysis of the nucleoprotein (N) and glycoprotein (G) gene sequences. Total RNA was extracted from 87-DFAT brain specimens out of which only 35 (40%) were positive on nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for each gene, and 26 being positive for both genes. Positive specimens for the N (n=33) and G (n=35) genes were used for phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of the N gene showed two phylogenetic clusters in Zambia belonging to the Africa 1b lineage present in eastern and southern Africa. While one cluster exclusively comprised Zambian strains, the other was more heterogeneous regarding the RABV origins and included strains from Tanzania, Mozambique and Zambia. Phylogenetic analysis of the G gene revealed similar RABV strains in different hosts and regions of Zambia. We designed primers for reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay from the consensus sequence of the N gene in an attempt to improve the molecular diagnosis of RABV in Zambia. The specificity and reproducibility of the RT-LAMP assay was confirmed with actual clinical specimens. Therefore, the RT-LAMP assay presented in this study may prove to be useful for routine diagnosis of rabies in Zambia.

  4. Current efforts and future prospects in the development of live mycobacteria as vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tony W; Saavedra-Ávila, Noemí A; Kennedy, Steven C; Carreño, Leandro J; Porcelli, Steven A

    2015-01-01

    The development of more effective vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains a major goal in the effort to reduce the enormous global burden of disease caused by this pathogen. Whole-cell vaccines based on live mycobacteria with attenuated virulence represent an appealing approach, providing broad antigen exposure and intrinsic adjuvant properties to prime durable immune responses. However, designing vaccine strains with an optimal balance between attenuation and immunogenicity has proven to be extremely challenging. Recent basic and clinical research efforts have broadened our understanding of Mtb pathogenesis and created numerous new vaccine candidates that have been designed to overcome different aspects of immune evasion by Mtb. In this review, we provide an overview of the current efforts to create improved vaccines against tuberculosis based on modifications of live attenuated mycobacteria. In addition, we discuss the use of such vaccine strains as vectors for stimulating protective immunity against other infectious diseases and cancers.

  5. Mycobacteriocins produced by rapidly growing mycobacteria are Tween-hydrolyzing esterases.

    PubMed Central

    Saito, H; Tomioka, H; Watanabe, T; Yoneyama, T

    1983-01-01

    Smegmatocin, a protein produced by Mycobacterium smegmatis ATCC 14468, was found to have an esterase activity, hydrolyzing Tween 80, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate, added to the assay medium for various "bacteriocins" from mycobacteria. Because M. diernhoferi ATCC 19340 (indicator strain for smegmatocin) is highly susceptible to oleic acid and smegmatocin requires Tween 80 for manifestation of its anti-M. diernhoferi activity, it is likely that smegmatocin-mediated antimicrobial action is caused by oleic acid generated by hydrolysis of Tween 80 by the inherent esterase action of smegmatocin. Other mycobacteriocins from rapidly growing mycobacteria also have inherent esterase activity against Tween 80 and require Tween 80 for expression of antimycobacterial action. Smegmatocin was found to hydrolyze various polyoxyethylene (sorbitan) fatty acyl esters but not sorbitan monooleate and glyceryl esters. Images PMID:6826523

  6. Commercial DNA Probes for Mycobacteria Incorrectly Identify a Number of Less Frequently Encountered Species▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Tortoli, Enrico; Pecorari, Monica; Fabio, Giuliana; Messinò, Massimino; Fabio, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Although commercially available DNA probes for identification of mycobacteria have been investigated with large numbers of strains, nothing is known about the ability of these probes to identify less frequently encountered species. We analyzed, with INNO LiPA MYCOBACTERIA (Innogenetics) and with GenoType Mycobacterium (Hein), 317 strains, belonging to 136 species, 61 of which had never been assayed before. INNO LiPA misidentified 20 taxa, the majority of which cross-reacted with the probes specific for Mycobacterium fortuitum and the Mycobacterium avium-Mycobacterium intracellulare-Mycobacterium scrofulaceum group. GenoType misidentified 28 taxa, most of which cross-reacted with M. intracellulare and M. fortuitum probes; furthermore, eight species were not recognized as members of the genus Mycobacterium. Among 54 strains investigated with AccuProbe (Gen-Probe), cross-reactions were detected for nine species, with the probes aiming at the M. avium complex being most involved in cross-reactions. PMID:19906898

  7. Rapid identification of mycobacteria to the species level by polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Telenti, A; Marchesi, F; Balz, M; Bally, F; Böttger, E C; Bodmer, T

    1993-01-01

    A method for the rapid identification of mycobacteria to the species level was developed on the basis of evaluation by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the gene encoding for the 65-kDa protein. The method involves restriction enzyme analysis of PCR products obtained with primers common to all mycobacteria. Using two restriction enzymes, BstEII and HaeIII, medically relevant and other frequent laboratory isolates were differentiated to the species or subspecies level by PCR-restriction enzyme pattern analysis. PCR-restriction enzyme pattern analysis was performed on isolates (n = 330) from solid and fluid culture media, including BACTEC, or from frozen and lyophilized stocks. The procedure does not involve hybridization steps or the use of radioactivity and can be completed within 1 working day. Images PMID:8381805

  8. Radiometric selective inhibition tests for differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, and other mycobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Gross, W M; Hawkins, J E

    1985-01-01

    In the context of a busy reference laboratory, radiometric selective inhibition tests were evaluated for rapid differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis and of the M. tuberculosis complex from other mycobacteria. p-Nitro-alpha-acetylamino-beta-hydroxypropiophenone at 5 micrograms and hydroxylamine hydrochloride at 62.5 and 125 micrograms per ml of 7H12 medium were used to separate the M. tuberculosis complex from other mycobacteria (MOTT bacilli). Since it is important epidemiologically to distinguish M. tuberculosis from M. bovis, susceptibility to 1 microgram of thiophene-2-carboxylic acid per ml was also determined radiometrically. By using these three agents as selective inhibitors, M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, and MOTT bacilli were differentiated with a high degree of specificity by a BACTEC radiometric procedure. Results of tests performed on clinical isolates submitted on solid medium to our reference laboratory were available within 5 days. PMID:3921561

  9. Changes in cholesterol level correlate with the course of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ji Young; Yang, Go Eun; Ko, Yousang; Park, Yong Bum; Sim, Yun Su; Park, Sung Hoon; Lee, Chang Youl; Jung, Ki-Suck

    2016-01-01

    Background Nutritional assessment is important in patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (PNTM) disease. The therapeutic effect of a cholesterol-rich diet in tuberculosis (TB) patients has been demonstrated, but the role of cholesterol in PNTM disease is unclear. This study evaluated the sequential changes in nutritional markers, including cholesterol, total lymphocyte count and visceral fat volume, according to the PNTM disease course. Methods This was an age-, sex- and number of comorbid diseases-matched case-control analysis of 89 patients with PNTM disease and 356 controls, who were participants in a Korean national survey. Results The median body mass index (BMI) and cholesterol level in the PNTM group [BMI =19.7 kg/m2; interquartile range (IQR): 17.8–21.6; cholesterol: 159 mg/dL; IQR, 135–185] were lower than those in controls (BMI: 23.1 kg/m2; IQR, 21.3–25.3; cholesterol: 188 mg/dL; IQR, 164-217; both P<0.001). In a multivariate analysis, Age more than 70 years (OR =3.38; 95% CI: 1.13–10.15, P=0.029), BMI <19.5 kg/m2 (OR =5.09; 95% CI: 1.67–15.48; P=0.004) and cavitary lesions (OR: 3.86; 95% CI: 1.30–11.47; P=0.015) were independently associated with extensive pulmonary lesions involving more than four lobes. The total cholesterol level, total lymphocyte count showed a tendency to decrease in PNTM patients with disease progression (both, P value <0.05), but not in those with a stable disease course. A decrease in cholesterol concentration of >20 mg/dL and a decrease in lymphocyte count more than 200/µL were predictive factors for disease progression (cholesterol: OR =10.50, 95% CI: 2.51–43.98, P=0.001; lymphocyte count: OR =5.32, 95% CI: 1.46–19.35, P=0.011). Conclusions These findings suggest that the change in cholesterol level may be a marker of disease progression in patients with PNTM disease. PMID:27867565

  10. Performance Assessment of New Multiplex Probe Assay for Identification of Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Tortoli, Enrico; Nanetti, Anna; Piersimoni, Claudio; Cichero, Paola; Farina, Claudio; Mucignat, Giorgio; Scarparo, Claudio; Bartolini, Laura; Valentini, Roberta; Nista, Domenico; Gesu, Giampietro; Tosi, Cristiana Passerini; Crovatto, Marina; Brusarosco, Giuliana

    2001-01-01

    A new DNA probe assay (INNO LiPA Mycobacteria; Innogenetics, Ghent, Belgium) for the simultaneous identification, by means of reverse hybridization and line-probe technology, of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium xenopi, Mycobacterium gordonae, the species of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, and Mycobacterium chelonae was evaluated on a panel of 238 strains including, besides representatives of all the taxa identifiable by the system, a number of other mycobacteria, some of which are known to be problematic with the only other commercial DNA probe system (AccuProbe; Gen-Probe, San Diego, Calif.), and two nocardiae. The new kit, which includes a control probe reacting with the whole genus Mycobacterium, correctly identified 99.6% of the strains tested; the one discrepancy, which remained unresolved, concerned an isolate identified as MAC intermediate by INNO LiPA Mycobacteria and as Mycobacterium intracellulare by AccuProbe. In five cases, because of an imperfect checking of hybridization temperature, a very slight, nonspecific, line was visible which was no longer evident when the test was repeated. Two strains whose DNA failed amplification at the first attempt were regularly identified when the test was repeated. Interestingly, the novel kit dodged all the pitfalls presented by the strains giving anomalous reactions with AccuProbe. A unique feature of INNO LiPA Mycobacteria is its ability to recognize different subgroups within the species M. kansasii and M. chelonae, while the declared overlapping reactivity of probe 4 with some M. kansasii and Mycobacterium gastri organisms and of probe 9 with MAC, Mycobacterium haemophilum, and Mycobacterium malmoense, may furnish a useful aid for their identification. The turnaround time of the method is approximately 6 h, including a preliminary PCR amplification. PMID:11230430

  11. Carbohydrate-Conjugated Hollow Oblate Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles as Nanoantibiotics to Target Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Nanjing; Chen, Xuan; Jeon, Seaho

    2015-01-01

    Engineering nanomaterials with enhanced antibacterial activities remains a critical and practical challenge. Hollow oblate mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HOMSNs) are synthesized by a simple protocol of ammonia hydrothermal treatment of oblate mesoporous silica nanoparticles prepared using dibenzyl ether as a co-solvent. When conjugate with trehalose as the targeting ligand, the antibiotic-encapsulated HOMSNs exhibit high binding affinity and antibacterial efficacy towards mycobacteria. PMID:26450697

  12. Mycobacteria causing human cervical lymphadenitis in pastoral communities in the Karamoja region of Uganda

    PubMed Central

    OLOYA, J.; OPUDA-ASIBO, J.; KAZWALA, R.; DEMELASH, A. B.; SKJERVE, E.; LUND, A.; JOHANSEN, T. B.; DJONNE, B.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Mycobacteria from lymph node biopsies of patients with cervical lymphadenitis reporting for tuberculosis treatment in Matany and Moroto Hospitals in the transhumant areas of Karamoja, Uganda were isolated and characterized. The AccuProbe® culture identification kits for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), M. avium complex (MAC) and M. avium were used to identify the isolates. Spoligotyping, IS901 PCR and IS1311 and IS1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) were used to characterize the isolates. Of the 43 biopsies, ten M. avium, seven M. tuberculosis, three M. bovis, and two M. intracellulare were isolated. Two isolates could not be identified with AccuProbe® and from 19 samples no mycobacteria could be isolated. Three isolates with the Beijing spoligotype were identified from the seven M. tuberculosis isolates. The spoligopatterns of the M. bovis isolates had previously been detected in cattle in Uganda. Isolation of members of the MAC group reflects the complex interaction between the transhumant communities, water sources and their cattle. None of the M. avium isolates harboured IS901, and all showed several bands on IS1311 and IS1245 RFLP, in accordance with M. avium subsp. hominissuis. Composite dendrograms of IS1311 and IS1245 RFLP showed that the isolates were similar and identical patterns were found. The isolation of M. bovis confirms the human infection with zoonotic mycobacteria in areas where consumption of raw milk and meat is routine. Isolation of environmental mycobacteria also confirms their increasing role in human disease and the occupational risk of infection in the transhumant ecosystem in the absence of safe drinking water and environmental contamination. PMID:17599779

  13. Characterisation of mycobacteria isolated from slaughter cattle in pastoral regions of Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Oloya, J; Kazwala, R; Lund, A; Opuda-Asibo, J; Demelash, B; Skjerve, E; Johansen, TB; Djønne, B

    2007-01-01

    Background Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic problem in pastoral cattle and communities in Uganda. Tuberculin tests in pastoral cattle had shown a high herd but low animal prevalence, with a high proportion of avian reactors. No work had been done to identify the mycobacterial species involved. The objective of the study was to isolate and characterise Mycobacterial species causing tuberculous lesions in slaughtered animals. Lesioned organs compatible with bovine tuberculosis in slaughtered cattle from pastoral areas in Uganda were collected and cultured to isolate mycobacteria. AccuProbe culture identification kits for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, M. avium complex and M. avium were used to identify the isolates. Spoligotyping and Insertion Sequence (IS) 1311 and IS1245 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis (RFLP) were used to further characterise the isolates. Results Of the 61 lesioned organs and tissues cultured, 19 isolates were identified as M. bovis, 3 as M. avium subsp.hominissuis, 1 as M. intracellulare, 1 as a mixed culture of M. bovis and M. avium sp. and 1 as M. avium sp. and unidentified mycobacteria. Eleven other mycobacteria outside the tuberculosis and avium complex groups were also isolated. Ten new spoligopatterns grouped into three clusters were identified from M. bovis isolates. Two of the three M. avium subsp.hominissuis isolates showed similar patterns on the IS1311 RFLP but all were different on the IS1245 RFLP. Conclusion The isolation of M. bovis confirms the ongoing infection with spoligotypes unique to Uganda. Isolation of environmental mycobacteria could explain the high avian or non specific tuberculin reactor patterns commonly observed in pastoral cattle and suggests their pathogenic or opportunistic role in the infection of cattle with disseminated bovine tuberculous lesions. PMID:17961243

  14. Development of a rapid ATP bioluminescence assay for biocidal susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Renuka; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2010-10-01

    An ATP-based biocide susceptibility assay for mycobacteria was developed by optimizing the cell lysis and assay conditions. Compared to the conventional agar plating method, the assay was rapid (1.5 h) and showed high sensitivity and specificity as determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The test species, Mycobacterium immunogenum, M. chelonae, and M. abscessus, showed various susceptibilities to the glutaraldehyde- and isothiazolone-based test biocides.

  15. Detection of fastidious mycobacteria in human intestines by the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Dumonceau, J M; Van Gossum, A; Adler, M; Van Vooren, J P; Fonteyne, P A; De Beenhouwer, H; Portaels, F

    1997-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether difficult-to-grow mycobacteria are present in human intestines. Intestinal tissue samples were subjected to both mycobacterial culture and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. After detection by PCR, species identity was determined by hybridizing the amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments with species-specific oligonucleotides. Intestinal biopsies from 63 patients with noninflammatory bowel diseases (n = 22), Crohn's disease (n = 31), or ulcerative colitis (n = 10) were analyzed. Culture and PCR revealed mycobacteria in four (6%) and 25 (40%) samples, respectively. Samples positive by PCR were negative with all probes specific to nine common cultivable species but were positive with Mycobacterium genavense-specific probe in 68% of cases. Mycobacterial isolates were identified as Mycobacterium gordonae and Mycobacterium chelonae. Findings were similar in Crohn's disease samples compared to non-Chron's disease samples. This study shows that difficult-to-grow mycobacteria can be detected by PCR in large and similar proportions of inflamed intestinal tissue from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and intestinal tissue that appears normal from patients with noninflammatory bowel disease.

  16. Factors Affecting Phage D29 Infection: A Tool to Investigate Different Growth States of Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Benjamin M. C.; Gerrard, Zara E.; Huxley, Jonathan N.; Rees, Catherine E. D.

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriophages D29 and TM4 are able to infect a wide range of mycobacteria, including pathogenic and non-pathogenic species. Successful phage infection of both fast- and slow-growing mycobacteria can be rapidly detected using the phage amplification assay. Using this method, the effect of oxygen limitation during culture of mycobacteria on the success of phage infection was studied. Both D29 and TM4 were able to infect cultures of M. smegmatis and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) grown in liquid with aeration. However when cultures were grown under oxygen limiting conditions, only TM4 could productively infect the cells. Cell attachment assays showed that D29 could bind to the cells surface but did not complete the lytic cycle. The ability of D29 to productively infect the cells was rapidly recovered (within 1 day) when the cultures were returned to an aerobic environment and this recovery required de novo RNA synthesis. These results indicated that under oxygen limiting conditions the cells are entering a growth state which inhibits phage D29 replication, and this change in host cell biology which can be detected by using both phage D29 and TM4 in the phage amplification assay. PMID:25184428

  17. Synergism between ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) and anti-tuberculosis drugs on growth of mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Scheller, S; Dworniczak, S; Waldemar-Klimmek, K; Rajca, M; Tomczyk, A; Shani, J

    1999-01-01

    Ethanolic extract of propolis exerts a strong anti-bacterial activity, in addition to antifungal, antiviral and antiprotozoal properties. In previous studies from these laboratories we have demonstrated that the intensity of the bactericidal activity of EEP is correlated with the virulence of the mycobacteria tested, and that EEP has a synergistic effect with antibiotics on growth of staphylococcus aureus. In the present study we investigated whether the same synergism and correlation exists between EEP and some anti-tuberculosis drugs on tuberculosis mycobacteria with different degrees of virulence. Six standard strains and 11 wild strains of mycobacteria were exposed for 30 days to EEP, with or without streptomycin, rifamycin, isoniazid or ethambutol. Out of the 17 strains, 8 were resistant to at least two standard antibiotics, and were considered "multi-resistant strains". The rest were either susceptible or resistant to only one of the antimycobacterial drugs. Antagonism was recorded only in one case, when Staphylococcus aureus were treated with a mixture of EEP and ethambutol, suggesting that a chemical bond could have been formed between this anti-tuberculosis antibiotic and one of the active components of the ethanol extract of propolis.

  18. Evaluation of hemostatic field dressing for bacteria, mycobacteria, or fungus contamination.

    PubMed

    Murray, Clinton K; Brunstetter, Tyson; Beckius, Miriam; Dunne, James R; Mende, Katrin

    2013-03-01

    Infectious complications have a major impact on wounded warriors. Pathogens causing infections include multidrug-resistant bacteria, fungi, and mycobacteria. The potential sources for these pathogens include nosocomial transmission, the environment (e.g., dirt), or the patients (skin flora) themselves. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the possibility that hemostatic field dressings might act as an inoculation source of pathogens into wounds. To accomplish this, hemostatic field dressings were assessed for the presence of bacterial, fungal, or mycobacterial contamination. We evaluated two samples of QuikClot Combat Gauze and two samples of CELOX Gauze subjected to normal stresses associated with storage after receipt from the manufacturer. We then evaluated 16 samples of QuikClot Combat Gauze that were collected from personnel deployed in Afghanistan and had undergone routine mechanical stress. Samples underwent screening with Trypticase Soy Broth, blood agar plates, MacConkey agar plates, CHROMagar Staphylococcus aureus plates, chocolate agar plates, Potato Flake agar, Lowenstein-Jensen media, and Middlebrook 7H11 media. No bacteria, fungi, or mycobacteria were recovered from the dressings. It does not appear that hemostatic field dressings are contaminated, even after subjected to field conditions. Further research is needed to identify inoculation sources of fungi and mycobacteria, which cause infections.

  19. Formation of intracytoplasmic membrane system of mycobacteria related to cell division.

    PubMed

    IMAEDA, T; OGURA, M

    1963-01-01

    Imaeda, Tamotsu (Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Caracas, Venezuela) and Mitua Ogura. Formation of intracytoplasmic membrane system of mycobacteria related to cell division. J. Bacteriol. 85:150-163. 1963.-Mycobacterium leprae, M. lepraemurium, and a Mycobacterium sp. were observed with an electron microscope. In these bacilli, the three-dimensional structure of the intracytoplasmic membrane system consists of tubular infoldings of the invaginated plasma membrane. The moderately dense substance, presumably representing the cell-wall precursor, is found in the membranous system, especially in the rapid growth phase of mycobacteria. This system always shows an intimate relationship with cell division. A low-density zone, probably corresponding to the low-density substance which coats the cell wall, appears in the connecting regions of the system and in the longitudinal portion of the cell wall. These zones extend centripetally, and the separation of the cell wall occurs after the two zones meet. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the intracytoplasmic membrane system may produce cell-wall material during cell division of mycobacteria.

  20. Rapid recovery of mycobacteria from clinical specimens using automated radiometric technic

    SciTech Connect

    Park, C.H.; Hixon, D.L.; Ferguson, C.B.; Hall, S.L.; Risheim, C.C.; Cook, C.B.

    1984-03-01

    Automated radiometric technic (BACTEC Johnston Laboratories, Towson, MD) was compared with conventional mycobacterial culture procedure (Lowenstein-Jensen plus Gruft modification of Lowenstein-Jensen) in this study of 1,000 clinical specimens. In addition, 8-azaguanine inhibition was tested by radiometric technic as a rapid procedure for the differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from other mycobacterial species. A total of 59 mycobacteria was recovered. Of 28 clinically significant isolates (M. tuberculosis, M. kansasii, M. avium, M. fortuitum), the BACTEC system detected 26 (93%). Conventional methods recovered 23 (82%). The BACTEC system required an average of seven days to recover M. tuberculosis from smear-positive specimens compared with 18 days required by Lowenstein-Jensen or Gruft slants. From smear-negative specimens, the BACTEC detected M. tuberculosis in an average of 20 days versus 28 days by conventional procedure. All 20 isolates of M. tuberculosis were inhibited by 8-azaguanine, whereas 39 isolates of mycobacteria other than M. tuberculosis were not inhibited. The BACTEC system accomplishes more rapid recovery of mycobacteria and provides a higher yield than conventional methods.

  1. Couples' voluntary HIV counseling and testing provider training evaluation, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kathleen Y; Oppert, Marydale; Wall, Kristin M; Inambao, Mubiana; Simpungwe, Matildah K; Ahmed, Nurilign; Abdallah, Joseph F; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan A

    2017-01-23

    With the expansion of couples' voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT) in urban Zambia, there is a growing need to evaluate CVCT provider trainings to ensure that couples are receiving quality counseling and care. We evaluated provider knowledge scores, pre- and post-training and predictors of pre- and post-training test scores. Providers operating in 67 government clinics in four Copperbelt Province cities were trained from 2008 to 2013 in three domains: counseling, rapid HIV laboratory testing and data management. Trainees received pre- and post-training tests on domain-specific topics. Pre- and post-training test scores were tabulated by provider demographics and training type, and paired t-tests evaluated differences in pre- and post-training test scores. Multivariable ANCOVA determined predictors of pre- and post-training test scores. We trained 1226 providers, and average test scores increased from 68.8% pre-training to 83.8% post-training (p < 0.001). Test scores increased significantly for every demographic group and training type (p < 0.001) with one exception-test scores did not significantly increase for those receiving counseling or data management training who had less than a high school education. In multivariable analysis, higher educational level and having a medical background were predictive of a higher pre-test score; higher pre-test scores and having a medical background were predictive of higher post-test scores. Pre- and post-test assessments are critical to ensure quality services, particularly as task-shifting from medical to lay staff becomes more common. Assessments showed that our CVCT trainings are successful at increasing knowledge, and that those with lower education may benefit from repeat trainings.

  2. Diagnostic approaches to malaria in Zambia, 2009-2014.

    PubMed

    Mukonka, Victor M; Chanda, Emmanuel; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Elbadry, Maha A; Wamulume, Pauline K; Mwanza-Ingwe, Mercy; Lubinda, Jailos; Laytner, Lindsey A; Zhang, Wenyi; Mushinge, Gabriel; Haque, Ubydul

    2015-06-03

    Malaria is an important health burden in Zambia with proper diagnosis remaining as one of the biggest challenges. The need for reliable diagnostics is being addressed through the introduction of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). However, without sufficient laboratory amenities in many parts of the country, diagnosis often still relies on non-specific, clinical symptoms. In this study, geographical information systems were used to both visualize and analyze the spatial distribution and the risk factors related to the diagnosis of malaria. The monthly reported, district-level number of malaria cases from January 2009 to December 2014 were collected from the National Malaria Control Center (NMCC). Spatial statistics were used to reveal cluster tendencies that were subsequently linked to possible risk factors, using a non-spatial regression model. Significant, spatio-temporal clusters of malaria were spotted while the introduction of RDTs made the number of clinically diagnosed malaria cases decrease by 33% from 2009 to 2014. The limited access to road network(s) was found to be associated with higher levels of malaria, which can be traced by the expansion of health promotion interventions by the NMCC, indicating enhanced diagnostic capability. The capacity of health facilities has been strengthened with the increased availability of proper diagnostic tools and through retraining of community health workers. To further enhance spatial decision support systems, a multifaceted approach is required to ensure mobilization and availability of human, infrastructural and technological resources. Surveillance based on standardized geospatial or other analytical methods should be used by program managers to design, target, monitor and assess the spatio-temporal dynamics of malaria diagnostic resources country-wide.

  3. CIDA funds AIDS counselling and care centre in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Meehan, S T

    1993-12-01

    In its fight against the spread of AIDS, which is inextricably linked to the issues of international development, the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) has focused support on strengthening existing health care systems, helping vulnerable groups gain control over their lives and health, promoting AIDS prevention measures, and building links to other related health services. Funding includes 1) a grant to Hope House in Zambia (counseling and support for persons with AIDS); 2) a contribution to the Canadian Public Health Association's $11 million Southern Africa AIDS Training Programme (helps regional organizations working in AIDS prevention and support through education, training, hospital outreach, peer education for vulnerable groups, assistance to women's shelters, and networking); 3) support for Laval University's Laval Centre for International Cooperation in Health and Development (runs a $22 million program in French-speaking West Africa that operates in over 10 countries and focuses on epidemiological surveillance, information, education, and communication, control of sexually transmitted diseases [STDs], and management of national AIDS programs); 4) support for the University of Manitoba's $3 million program with the University of Nairobi to slow the spread of HIV (strengthens local health care capabilities for STD/HIV diagnosis, treatment, and counseling, with special emphasis on training and education); 5) support in the past for a study of proposed AIDS legislation and its potential impact on the human rights of PLWHIV/AIDS in Thailand; 6) a contribution to help equip the office of the National Movement for Street Children, Rio de Janeiro (focuses on preventing the spread of AIDS among child prostitutes); and 7) long-term financial support to the Interagency Coalition on AIDS and Development, a coalition of Canadian development nongovernmental organizations responding to AIDS in developing countries. An address to obtain a pamphlet giving

  4. Gender, British Administration and Mission Management of Education in Zambia 1900-1939

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Julia

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the impact of including gender in the analytical framework in a study of the management and provision of education in Zambia from 1900 to 1939. It shows that a focus on gender allows females to enter the historical narrative and the leadership of women such as Mabel Shaw, Hannah Frances Davidson and Julia Smith can be given…

  5. Using Images to Promote Reflection: An Action Research Study in Zambia and Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Susie; Kaplan, Ian

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of images to promote reflection and analysis of inclusive practices. The image-based work was set in the context of a two-year action research study, which took place in Tanzania and Zambia, 2001-2003, in collaboration with researchers from the Enabling Education Network (EENET), based at the University of…

  6. Organization of Distance Education at the University of Zambia: An Analysis of the Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyirenda, Juma E.

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of two basic organizational models for distance education systems or institutions focuses on the mixed-mode organization at the University of Zambia. Highlights include the development, production, storage, and distribution of teaching materials; communication channels between students and teachers; and the record-keeping system. (11…

  7. Two new planthopper species (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea, Caliscelidae) collected in pitfall traps in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Chmurova, Lucia; Webb, Michael D

    2016-08-22

    Two new species of planthoppers in the family Caliscelidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) are described from Zambia, i.e., Afronaso spinosa sp. n. and Calampocus zambiaensis sp. n. All specimens are flightless males and nearly all were collected from baited pitfall traps (except for one specimen collected from a yellow pan trap), suggesting that they live near to or on the ground.

  8. Inquiry-Based Science Education: A Scenario on Zambia's High School Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabalengula, Vivien M.; Mumba, Frackson

    2012-01-01

    This paper is aimed at elucidating the current state of inquiry-based science education (IBSE) in Zambia's high school science curriculum. Therefore, we investigated Zambian teachers' conceptions of inquiry; determined inquiry levels in the national high school science curriculum materials, which include syllabi, textbooks and practical exams; and…

  9. Factors Related to Pre-Service Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion: A Case for Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muwana, Florence Chuzu; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2014-01-01

    Inclusive education has become a global trend in the provision of services for students with disabilities. In Zambia and other developing nations, international initiatives from UNESCO and other nongovernmental organisations have contributed to the consensus that all children have a right to a free and appropriate education and that all students…

  10. Un/Doing Gender? A Case Study of School Policy and Practice in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2009-01-01

    This article explores an attempt to disrupt gender inequality in a unique, low-cost private school in Ndola, Zambia. It examines deliberate school policies aimed at "undoing gender" or fostering greater gender equity. These include efforts to maintain gender parity at all levels of the school and the requirement that both young men and…

  11. The Nature and Role of Religious Studies at the University of Zambia: 1985-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmody, Brendan

    2008-01-01

    The place of religion in higher education has been and remains a complex issue internationally. This article aims to outline the nature and development of Religious Studies at the University of Zambia in Lusaka (UNZA) as an instance of how religion entered higher education in an African setting. In doing so, it will also provide perspectives on…

  12. Beyond a Learning Society? It Is All to Be Done Again: Zambia and Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, David

    2006-01-01

    This article considers the ways in which educators and learning societies in Zambia and Zimbabwe have had to struggle to create independent, democratic and critical curricula in difficult circumstances over the last 50 years in the context of historical shifts in power, a declining British Empire and the re-emergence of reactionary forces at a…

  13. Early Childhood Care and Education in Zambia: An Integral Part of Educational Provision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Carolyn M.; Thomas, Matthew A. M.

    2009-01-01

    The field of international development has recently been consumed by a shift in contemporary educational discourse, one that moves Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) closer to the forefront of what is considered progressive policy formation. In Zambia, the current educational environment seems to indicate that the creation and continued…

  14. Access, Quality, and Opportunity: A Case Study of Zambia Open Community Schools (ZOCS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwalimu, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Community schools and other approaches to Alternative Primary Education or APE have increased access to primary education for underserved populations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America as a major goal of the Education for All (EFA) movement. In Zambia, a country where an estimated 20 percent of the basic education enrollment now attends community…

  15. Folklore as an Instrument of Education among the Chewa People of Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banda, Dennis; Morgan, W. John

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the folklore of the Chewa people of Zambia as an instrument of education. It suggests that there is only a fine distinction between Chewa culture ["mwambo wa a Chewa"] and Chewa education ["maphunziro ya Uchewa"]. The former comprises tribal "truths" to be imposed on the minds of the younger…

  16. HIV Testing among Adolescents in Ndola, Zambia: How Individual, Relational, and Environmental Factors Relate to Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denison, Julie A.; McCauley, Ann P.; Dunnett-Dagg, Wendy A.; Lungu, Nalakwanji; Sweat, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how individual, relational and environmental factors related to adolescent demand for HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). A cross-sectional survey among randomly selected 16-19-year-olds in Ndola, Zambia, covered individual (e.g., HIV knowledge), environmental (e.g., distance), and relational factors (e.g., discussed…

  17. Comparative Policy Brief: Status of Intellectual Disabilities in the Republic of Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mung'omba, James

    2008-01-01

    In the Republic of Zambia, an estimated 256,000 persons have some form of disability, and of these, 5.4% have intellectual disabilities. Even now, traditional beliefs about the etiology of intellectual disabilities persist and considerable stigma is attached to the presence of persons with intellectual disabilities who are often excluded from…

  18. Developing a Nutrition and Health Education Program for Primary Schools in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Jane; Muehlhoff, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    School-based health and nutrition interventions in developing countries aim at improving children's nutrition and learning ability. In addition to the food and health inputs, children need access to education that is relevant to their lives, of good quality, and effective in its approach. Based on evidence from the Zambia Nutrition Education in…

  19. Predictors of Attitudes toward Intimate Partner Violence: A Comparative Study of Men in Zambia and Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawoko, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV) were compared between Zambian and Kenyan men on sociodemographic, attitudinal, and structural predictors of such attitudes. Data were retrieved from the latest Demographic and Health Surveys in each country. The results showed that many men in Zambia (71%) and Kenya (68%) justified IPV to punish a…

  20. 'Behind walls': a study of HIV risk behaviours and seroprevalence in prisons in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Simooya, O O; Sanjobo, N E; Kaetano, L; Sijumbila, G; Munkonze, F H; Tailoka, F; Musonda, R

    2001-09-07

    Inmate populations include a large number of individuals at risk of HIV infection. However, there is insufficient data about HIV/AIDS epidemiology in prisons. Our study, conducted in Zambia, a sub-Saharan African nation with an estimated HIV prevalence of 19% in adults, was designed to address this shortfall.

  1. Information Provision in Emergency Settings: The Experience of Refugee Communities in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanyengo, Brendah Kakulwa; Kanyengo, Christine Wamunyima

    2011-01-01

    This article identifies information provision services in emergency settings using Zambia as a case study by identifying innovative ways of providing library and information services. The thrust of the article is to analyze information management practices of organizations that work within refugee camps and how they take specific cognizance of the…

  2. The Impact of an Unconditional Cash Transfer on Early Child Development: The Zambia Child Grant Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidenfeld, David; Prencipe, Leah; Handa, Sudhanshu; Hawkinson, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Little research has been conducted on unconditional cash transfers (UCTs) despite their growing prevalence in Africa, including South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Malawi, Lesotho, and Uganda. In this study, researchers implemented a randomized control trial with over 2,500 households to investigate the impact of Africa's child grant program on…

  3. Assessment of Integrated Environmental Management in Public and Private Schools in the Copperbelt Province of Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makisa, Kaponda

    2016-01-01

    Copperbelt Province is one of the ten provinces of Zambia. It has public and private schools which have been faced with escalating levels of environmental problems due to growth in human population and economic growth. The environmental problems which are matters of concern in the schools include, unsound waste management, loss of vegetation…

  4. Socio-cultural factors surrounding mental distress during the perinatal period in Zambia: a qualitative investigation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The presence of mental distress during pregnancy and after childbirth imposes detrimental developmental and health consequences for families in all nations. In Zambia, the Ministry of Health (MoH) has proposed a more comprehensive approach towards mental health care, recognizing the importance of the mental health of women during the perinatal period. Aim The study explores factors contributing to mental distress during the perinatal period of motherhood in Zambia. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in Lusaka, Zambia with nineteen focus groups comprising 149 women and men from primary health facilities and schools respectively. Findings There are high levels of mental distress in four domains: worry about HIV status and testing; uncertainty about survival from childbirth; lack of social support; and vulnerability/oppression. Conclusion Identifying mental distress and prompt referral for interventions is critical to improving the mental health of the mother and prevent the effects of mental distress on the baby. Recommendation Strategies should be put in place to ensure pregnant women are screened for possible perinatal mental health problems during their visit to antenatal clinic and referral made to qualified mental health professionals. In addition further research is recommended in order to facilitate evidence based mental health policy formulation and implementation in Zambia. PMID:22954173

  5. Report from the Field: Education under Structural Adjustment in Nigeria and Zambia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babalola, Joel B.; Lungwangwa, Geoffrey; Adeyinka, Augustus A.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the effects of the Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) on the educational systems in Nigeria and Zambia. Reports that SAP impacted the public expenditure on education, the purchasing power of the incomes earned by both learning institutions and their staff, and on access, equity, and quality indicators in education at all levels. (CMK)

  6. The Information Marketing Concept and the Implementation of National Information Policy (NIP) in Zambia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundu, Maurice C.

    This paper describes the purpose of a national information policy in general, the process that led to the formation of such a policy in Zambia, and the requirements for its successful implementation. Particular attention is paid to the concept of information marketing. It is argued that such a concept would be an implementation requirement if…

  7. Aflatoxin contamination of groundnut and maize in Zambia: observed and potential concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize and groundnut, important staples in Zambia, are susceptible to aflatoxin-producing fungi. Aflatoxins are potent human carcinogens also associated with stunting and immunosuppression. Although health and economic burdens of aflatoxins are well known, patterns of contamination in maize and grou...

  8. Absence of Active Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Clinics in Zambia and Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Wandeler, Gilles; Mulenga, Lloyd; Hobbins, Michael; Joao, Candido; Sinkala, Edford; Hector, Jonas; Aly, Musa; Chi, Benjamin H.; Egger, Matthias; Vinikoor, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the prevalence of replicating hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Among 1812 individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus, no patient in rural Mozambique and 4 patients in urban Zambia were positive for anti-HCV antibodies. Of these, none had confirmed HCV replication. PMID:27047986

  9. 77 FR 60966 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International... to allow for additional recruitment and marketing in support of the mission. Applications will now...

  10. Genome Sequence of a Bacillus anthracis Outbreak Strain from Zambia, 2011.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Naomi; Maruyama, Fumito; Ogawa, Hirohito; Kachi, Hirokazu; Yamada, Shunsuke; Fujikura, Daisuke; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Hang'ombe, Mudenda B; Thomas, Yuka; Mweene, Aaron S; Higashi, Hideaki

    2014-03-06

    In August 2011, an anthrax outbreak occurred among Hippopotamus amphibius hippopotamuses and humans in Zambia. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the Bacillus anthracis outbreak strain CZC5, isolated from tissues of H. amphibius hippopotamuses that had died in the outbreak area.

  11. Genome Sequence of a Bacillus anthracis Outbreak Strain from Zambia, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Ohnishi, Naomi; Maruyama, Fumito; Ogawa, Hirohito; Kachi, Hirokazu; Yamada, Shunsuke; Fujikura, Daisuke; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Hang’ombe, Mudenda B.; Thomas, Yuka; Mweene, Aaron S.

    2014-01-01

    In August 2011, an anthrax outbreak occurred among Hippopotamus amphibius hippopotamuses and humans in Zambia. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the Bacillus anthracis outbreak strain CZC5, isolated from tissues of H. amphibius hippopotamuses that had died in the outbreak area. PMID:24604644

  12. Education and Zambia's Democratic Development: Reconstituting "Something" from the Predatory Project of Neoliberal Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdi, Ali A.; Ellis, Lee

    2007-01-01

    Zambia, a central African country of about 10 million people, is currently exposed to the nonsubjective forces of globalization, including institutional weaknesses such as high unemployment rated and chronic levels of poverty that ipso facto problematize its governance and social development priorities. The first part of the article focuses on an…

  13. Exploring Understandings of Inclusion in Schools in Zambia and Tanzania Using Reflective Writing and Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Susie

    2011-01-01

    In this article I explore insights gained from participating in an exploratory, small-scale study led by the Enabling Education Network (EENET) in 17 schools in northern Zambia and five schools in Tanzania. Facilitating South-based research, while based in a Northern university, raises complex ethical issues about voice and control which are…

  14. Report to the Government of Zambia on Co-Operative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This 1-year study was undertaken in the Reupublic of Zambia to survey and analyze needs in cooperative education and training and to plan and execute immediate courses with detailed curricula in this area. A brief history of Zambian cooperative societies and a description of the expert's study activities are followed by conclusions and…

  15. Health workforce responses to global health initiatives funding: a comparison of Malawi and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Shortages of health workers are obstacles to utilising global health initiative (GHI) funds effectively in Africa. This paper reports and analyses two countries' health workforce responses during a period of large increases in GHI funds. Methods Health facility record reviews were conducted in 52 facilities in Malawi and 39 facilities in Zambia in 2006/07 and 2008; quarterly totals from the last quarter of 2005 to the first quarter of 2008 inclusive in Malawi; and annual totals for 2004 to 2007 inclusive in Zambia. Topic-guided interviews were conducted with facility and district managers in both countries, and with health workers in Malawi. Results Facility data confirm significant scale-up in HIV/AIDS service delivery in both countries. In Malawi, this was supported by a large increase in lower trained cadres and only a modest increase in clinical staff numbers. Routine outpatient workload fell in urban facilities, in rural health centres and in facilities not providing antiretroviral treatment (ART), while it increased at district hospitals and in facilities providing ART. In Zambia, total staff and clinical staff numbers stagnated between 2004 and 2007. In rural areas, outpatient workload, which was higher than at urban facilities, increased further. Key informants described the effects of increased workloads in both countries and attributed staff migration from public health facilities to non-government facilities in Zambia to PEPFAR. Conclusions Malawi, which received large levels of GHI funding from only the Global Fund, managed to increase facility staff across all levels of the health system: urban, district and rural health facilities, supported by task-shifting to lower trained staff. The more complex GHI arena in Zambia, where both Global Fund and PEPFAR provided large levels of support, may have undermined a coordinated national workforce response to addressing health worker shortages, leading to a less effective response in rural areas

  16. Disappearance of some human African trypanosomiasis transmission foci in Zambia in the absence of a tsetse fly and trypanosomiasis control program over a period of forty years.

    PubMed

    Mwanakasale, Victor; Songolo, Peter

    2011-03-01

    We conducted a situation analysis of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) in Zambia from January 2000 to April 2007. The aim of this survey was to identify districts in Zambia that were still recording cases of HAT. Three districts namely, Mpika, Chama, and Chipata were found to be still reporting cases of HAT and thus lay in HAT transmission foci in North Eastern Zambia. During the period under review, 24 cases of HAT were reported from these three districts. We thereafter reviewed literature on the occurrence of HAT in Zambia from the early 1960s to mid 1990s. This revealed that HAT transmission foci were widespread in Western, North Western, Lusaka, Eastern, Luapula, and Northern Provinces of Zambia during this period. In this article we have tried to give possible reasons as to why the distribution of HAT transmission foci is so different between before and after 2000 when there has been no active national tsetse fly and trypanosomiasis control program in Zambia.

  17. HIV/AIDS Prevention in Zambia: A Preliminary Study of Obstacles to Behavior Change in the Copperbelt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    PREVENTION IN ZAMBIA: A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF OBSTACLES TO BEHAVIOR CHANGE IN THE COPPERBELT by Jana Ramona Alley Nyerges June 2006 Thesis Co...A Preliminary Study of Obstacles to Behavior Change in the Copperbelt 6. AUTHOR(S) Jana Ramona Alley Nyerges 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING... Copperbelt region in Zambia, finding significant evidence that both social and economic factors operate as fundamental obstacles to behavior change

  18. Magmatic under-plating beneath the Luangwa Rift Valley, Zambia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matende, Kitso Nkooko

    We used aeromagnetic data, and satellite and terrestrial gravity data to examine the thermal and crustal structure beneath the Karoo-aged Luangwa Rift Valley (LRV) in Zambia in order to determine the geodynamic controls of its formation. We computed Curie Point Depth (CPD) values using two-dimensional (2D) power spectrum analysis of the aeromagnetic data, and these results were used to calculate heat flow under the LRV. We also inverted the aeromagnetic data for three-dimensional (3D) magnetic susceptibility distribution. We further determined the crustal thickness beneath the LRV by calculating depths to the Moho using 2D power spectrum analysis of the satellite gravity data. We found that: (1) there is no elevated CPD beneath the LRV, and as such no elevated heat flow anomaly. (2) there are numerous 5-15 km wide magnetic bodies at shallow depth (5-20 km) under the LRV. (3) the Moho beneath the LRV is 50 km deep, compared to 35-45 km depths outside the rift. The gravity-derived Moho depths beneath the LRV differ from Moho depths determined from preliminary results of passive seismic studies but are comparable with those outside the rift. (4) there is a broad long-wavelength positive anomaly in the terrestrial gravity data, possibly related to the presence of dense material at the Moho level. This anomaly is modified by shorter-wavelength positive anomalies at the rift shoulders and floor that might be related to shallow depth magnetic bodies. Also, there are negative short-wavelength anomalies that correlate with rift sediment infill. We subsequently used the ground gravity data to develop 2D forward models to reconcile the observed thermal and crustal characteristics of the LRV. Our models suggest that the deeper Moho beneath the rift is due to the presence of a magmatic under-plated mafic body. The difference between the gravity and passive seismic Moho depths estimates may be because the passive seismic data imaged the top of the under-plated mafic body whereas

  19. Adolescent HIV disclosure in Zambia: barriers, facilitators and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mburu, Gitau; Hodgson, Ian; Kalibala, Sam; Haamujompa, Choolwe; Cataldo, Fabian; Lowenthal, Elizabeth D; Ross, David

    2014-01-01

    Introduction As adolescents living with HIV gain autonomy over their self-care and begin to engage in sexual relationships, their experiences of being informed about their HIV status and of telling others about their HIV status may affect their ability to cope with having the disease. Methods In 2010, we conducted a qualitative study among adolescents aged 10–19 living with HIV in Zambia, and with their parents and health care providers. Through interviews and focus group discussions, we explored the disclosure of HIV status to adolescents living with HIV; adolescents’ disclosure of their status to others; and the impact of both forms of disclosure on adolescents. Results Our study identified three main barriers to disclosure of HIV status: local norms that deter parents from communicating with their children about sexuality; fear of HIV stigma; and an underlying presumption that adolescents would not understand the consequences of a HIV diagnosis on their lives and relationships. With regard to adolescents’ disclosure of their HIV status to their sexual partners, our study identified fear of rejection as a common barrier. In rare cases, open family conversations about HIV helped adolescents come to terms with a HIV diagnosis. Findings indicated that disclosure had various outcomes at the individual and interpersonal levels. At the individual level, some adolescents described being anxious, depressed and blaming themselves after being told they had HIV. At the interpersonal level, disclosure created opportunities for adolescents to access adherence support and other forms of psychosocial support from family members and peers. At the same time, it occasionally strained adolescents’ sexual relationships, although it did not always lead to rejection. Conclusions There is a need for public health interventions that guide adolescents living with HIV, their parents and families through the disclosure process. Such interventions should help parents to assess and

  20. Mycobacteria in pond waters as a source of non-specific reactions to bovine tuberculin in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Kazda, J; Cook, B R

    1988-12-01

    When 71 samples were collected from ponds throughout New Zealand, 35 (49.3%) were found to contain mycobacteria. The majority of these strains (62.9%) belonged to a homogeneous group (tentative designation H-Group, which differed from any known mycobacterial species. Mycobacteria of this H-group had also been found in sphagnum vegetation growing in the immediate vicinity of many of the ponds. H-Group mycobacteria induce sensitization in guinea pigs against bovine tuberculin. The PPD sensitin prepared from these mycobacteria gave rise to larger reactions in guinea pigs than did bovine tuberculin when used in the same concentrations (500 and 50 TU). The possible sensitization of cattle to bovine tuberculin via drinking water containing H-Group mycobacteria, is discussed. The larger size of the delayed hypersensitivity reactions in guinea pigs using the same concentrations of bovine and homologous tuberculin, suggests that comparative intradermal testing might enable this non-specific reaction to be distinguished from the specific reaction developed during bovine tuberculosis infection in cattle.

  1. Restructuring of labor markets in the Philippines and Zambia: the gender dimension.

    PubMed

    Floro, M S; Schaefer, K

    1998-01-01

    This paper critically examines labor market changes accompanying the process of structural adjustment in the Philippines and Zambia and, in particular, the resulting impact on women's economic participation. The changes in the labor market occurring during the process of economic restructuring in Zambia and the Philippines are similar in some respects but very different in others. Zambia's economic performance has not been sufficient to generate wide-based employment and has been characterized by rising unemployment. The Philippines has also unfortunately been characterized by a growth in joblessness, specifically with regard to skilled and semiskilled employment. Global integration of labor markets in the Philippines give some employment opportunity to workers who are willing to seek jobs overseas but not to those in Zambia. Both in the Philippines and Zambia, the informal sector has shifted its agricultural reforms to female labor toward agricultural wage work (which is seasonal and low paid). In the Philippines, specifically in urban areas, certain export-oriented industries have created some jobs, predominantly for young women, but only a small proportion of total females are employed. Much of the female job growth has occurred in sales and service sectors, including sex work, domestic service, and petty trade. International labor migration in the Philippines has become more feminized, because a majority of overseas contract workers are women, who are employed in the service sector as entertainers and domestic helpers. Access to paid work in some cases may empower women, yet in other cases their power may be diminished. Both the specific character of labor market development and the nature of the accompanying economic reform alter the ability of the women and men to take advantage of the opportunity. Reform shifts patterns of production organization and location of employment and can either reinforce the prevailing distribution of power or provide tension

  2. Direct Visualization of the Outer Membrane of Mycobacteria and Corynebacteria in Their Native State▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Zuber, Benoît; Chami, Mohamed; Houssin, Christine; Dubochet, Jacques; Griffiths, Gareth; Daffé, Mamadou

    2008-01-01

    The cell envelope of mycobacteria, which include the causative agents of tuberculosis and leprosy, is crucial for their success as pathogens. Despite a continued strong emphasis on identifying the multiple chemical components of this envelope, it has proven difficult to combine its components into a comprehensive structural model, primarily because the available ultrastructural data rely on conventional electron microscopy embedding and sectioning, which are known to induce artifacts. The existence of an outer membrane bilayer has long been postulated but has never been directly observed by electron microscopy of ultrathin sections. Here we have used cryo-electron microscopy of vitreous sections (CEMOVIS) to perform a detailed ultrastructural analysis of three species belonging to the Corynebacterineae suborder, namely, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Corynebacterium glutamicum, in their native state. We provide new information that accurately describes the different layers of the mycobacterial cell envelope and challenges current models of the organization of its components. We show a direct visualization of an outer membrane, analogous to that found in gram-negative bacteria, in the three bacterial species examined. Furthermore, we demonstrate that mycolic acids, the hallmark of mycobacteria and related genera, are essential for the formation of this outer membrane. In addition, a granular layer and a low-density zone typifying the periplasmic space of gram-positive bacteria are apparent in CEMOVIS images of mycobacteria and corynebacteria. Based on our observations, a model of the organization of the lipids in the outer membrane is proposed. The architecture we describe should serve as a reference for future studies to relate the structure of the mycobacterial cell envelope to its function. PMID:18567661

  3. Th1-skewed tissue responses to a mycolyl glycolipid in mycobacteria-infected rhesus macaques

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Ayumi; Hattori, Yuki; Komori, Takaya; Nakamura, Takashi; Igarashi, Tatsuhiko; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Sugita, Masahiko

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Glucose monomycolate (GMM) is a marker glycolipid for active tuberculosis. •Tissue responses to GMM involved up-regulation of Th1-attracting chemokines. •Th1-skewed local responses were mounted at the GMM-injected tissue. -- Abstract: Trehalose 6,6′-dimycolate (TDM) is a major glycolipid of the cell wall of mycobacteria with remarkable adjuvant functions. To avoid detection by the host innate immune system, invading mycobacteria down-regulate the expression of TDM by utilizing host-derived glucose as a competitive substrate for their mycolyltransferases; however, this enzymatic reaction results in the concomitant biosynthesis of glucose monomycolate (GMM) which is recognized by the acquired immune system. GMM-specific, CD1-restricted T cell responses have been detected in the peripheral blood of infected human subjects and monkeys as well as in secondary lymphoid organs of small animals, such as guinea pigs and human CD1-transgenic mice. Nevertheless, it remains to be determined how tissues respond at the site where GMM is produced. Here we found that rhesus macaques vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette–Guerin mounted a chemokine response in GMM-challenged skin that was favorable for recruiting T helper (Th)1 T cells. Indeed, the expression of interferon-γ, but not Th2 or Th17 cytokines, was prominent in the GMM-injected tissue. The GMM-elicited tissue response was also associated with the expression of monocyte/macrophage-attracting CC chemokines, such as CCL2, CCL4 and CCL8. Furthermore, the skin response to GMM involved the up-regulated expression of granulysin and perforin. Given that GMM is produced primarily by pathogenic mycobacteria proliferating within the host, the Th1-skewed tissue response to GMM may function efficiently at the site of infection.

  4. Development of an In Vitro Assay for Detection of Drug-Induced Resuscitation-Promoting-Factor-Dependent Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Loraine, Jessica; Pu, Feifei; Turapov, Obolbek

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major infectious disease that requires prolonged chemotherapy with a combination of four drugs. Here we present data suggesting that treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, and Mycobacterium smegmatis, a model organism widely used for the screening of antituberculosis agents, with first-line drugs resulted in the generation of substantial populations that could be recovered only by the addition of a culture supernatant from growing mycobacteria. These bacilli failed to grow in standard media, resulting in significant underestimation of the numbers of viable mycobacteria in treated samples. We generated M. smegmatis strains overexpressing M. tuberculosis resuscitation-promoting factors (Rpfs) and demonstrated their application for the detection of Rpf-dependent mycobacteria generated after drug exposure. Our data offer novel opportunities for validation of the sterilizing activity of antituberculosis agents. PMID:27503641

  5. Mercuric reductase activity and evidence of broad-spectrum mercury resistance among clinical isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Steingrube, V.A.; Wallace, R.J. Jr.; Steele, L.C.; Pang, Y.J. )

    1991-05-01

    Resistance to mercury was evaluated in 356 rapidly growing mycobacteria belonging to eight taxonomic groups. Resistance to inorganic Hg2+ ranged from 0% among the unnamed third biovariant complex of Mycobacterium fortuitum to 83% among M. chelonae-like organisms. With cell extracts and 203Hg(NO3)2 as the substrate, mercuric reductase (HgRe) activity was demonstrable in six of eight taxonomic groups. HgRe activity was inducible and required NADPH or NADH and a thiol donor for optimai activity. Species with HgRe activity were also resistant to organomercurial compounds, including phenylmercuric acetate. Attempts at intraspecies and intragenus transfer of HgRe activity by conjugation or transformation were unsuccessful. Mercury resistance is common in rapidly growing mycobacteria and appears to function via the same inducible enzyme systems already defined in other bacterial species. This system offers potential as a strain marker for epidemiologic investigations and for studying genetic systems in rapidly growing mycobacteria.

  6. [The model of resting forms of mycobacteria for testing of drugs for latent forms of tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Anuchin, A M; Goncharenko, A V; Galon, I V; Demidenok, O I; Kudykina, Iu K; Moĭsenovich, M M; Muliukin, A L; Kaprel'iants, A S

    2010-01-01

    The new model of obtaining of ovoid resting forms Mycobacterium smegmatis, which are morphologically different from vegetative (rod-like) cells, was developed. Ovoid forms were characterized by a drastically decreased level of metabolic activity, an increased stability to heat processing and antibiotics action, and also by prolonged (more than 2 months) storage time preserving colony-forming ability. Obtained resting forms of mycobacteria may be used in test-systems for checking efficiency of new medical agents against latent forms of tuberculosis and determination of role of these of those genes in entering rest state.

  7. F420H2 Is Required for Phthiocerol Dimycocerosate Synthesis in Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Lacy; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Phthiocerol dimycocerosates (PDIM) are a group of cell surface-associated apolar lipids of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and closely related mycobacteria, such as Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium leprae. A characteristic methoxy group of these lipids is generated from the methylation of a hydroxyl group of the direct precursors, the phthiotriols. The precursors arise from the reduction of phthiodiolones, the keto intermediates, by a ketoreductase. The putative phthiodiolone ketoreductase (PKR) is encoded by Rv2951c in M. tuberculosis and BCG_2972c in M. bovis BCG, and these open reading frames (ORFs) encode identical amino acid sequences. We investigated the cofactor requirement of the BCG_2972c protein. A comparative analysis based on the crystallographic structures of similar enzymes identified structural elements for binding of coenzyme F420 and hydrophobic phthiodiolones in PKR. Coenzyme F420 is a deazaflavin coenzyme that serves several key functions in pathogenic and nonpathogenic mycobacteria. We found that an M. bovis BCG mutant lacking F420-dependent glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Fgd), which generates F420H2 (glucose-6-phosphate + F420 → 6-phosphogluconate + F420H2), was devoid of phthiocerols and accumulated phthiodiolones. When the mutant was provided with F420H2, a broken-cell slurry of the mutant converted accumulated phthiodiolones to phthiocerols; F420H2 was generated in situ from F420 and glucose-6-phosphate by the action of Fgd. Thus, the reaction mixture was competent in reducing phthiodiolones to phthiotriols (phthiodiolones + F420H2 → phthiotriols + F420), which were then methylated to phthiocerols. These results established the mycobacterial phthiodiolone ketoreductase as an F420H2-dependent enzyme (fPKR). A phylogenetic analysis of close homologs of fPKR revealed potential F420-dependent lipid-modifying enzymes in a broad range of mycobacteria. IMPORTANCE Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of tuberculosis

  8. Modifying culture conditions in chemical library screening identifies alternative inhibitors of mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Miller, Christopher H; Nisa, Shahista; Dempsey, Sandi; Jack, Cameron; O'Toole, Ronan

    2009-12-01

    In this study, application of a dual absorbance/fluorescence assay to a chemical library screen identified several previously unknown inhibitors of mycobacteria. In addition, growth conditions had a significant effect on the activity profile of the library. Some inhibitors such as Se-methylselenocysteine were detected only when screening was performed under nutrient-limited culture conditions as opposed to nutrient-rich culture conditions. We propose that multiple culture condition library screening is required for complete inhibitory profiling and for maximal antimycobacterial compound detection.

  9. A two-plasmid system for stable, selective-pressure-independent expression of multiple extracellular proteins in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Harth, Günter; Maslesa-Galić, Sasa; Horwitz, Marcus A

    2004-07-01

    Recombinant mycobacteria expressing Mycobacterium tuberculosis extracellular proteins are leading candidates for new vaccines against tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases, and important tools both in antimycobacterial drug development and basic research in mycobacterial pathogenesis. Recombinant mycobacteria that stably overexpress and secrete major extracellular proteins of M. tuberculosis in native form on plasmids pSMT3 and pNBV1 were previously constructed by the authors. To enhance the versatility of this plasmid-based approach for mycobacterial protein expression, the Escherichia coli/mycobacteria shuttle plasmid pGB9 was modified to accommodate mycobacterial genes expressed from their endogenous promoters. Previous studies showed that the modified plasmid, designated pGB9.2, derived from the cryptic Mycobacterium fortuitum plasmid pMF1, was present at a low copy number in both E. coli and mycobacteria, and expression of recombinant M. tuberculosis proteins was found to be at levels paralleling its copy number, that is, approximating their endogenous levels. Plasmid pGB9.2 was compatible with the shuttle vectors pSMT3 and pNBV1 and in combination with them it simultaneously expressed the M. tuberculosis 30 kDa extracellular protein FbpB. Plasmid pGB9.2 was stably maintained in the absence of selective pressure in three mycobacterial species: Mycobacterium bovis BCG, M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis. Plasmid pGB9.2 was found to be self-transmissible between both fast- and slow-growing mycobacteria, but not from mycobacteria to E. coli or between E. coli strains. The combination of two compatible plasmids in one BCG strain allows expression of recombinant mycobacterial proteins at different levels, a potentially important factor in optimizing vaccine potency.

  10. A Cassette Containing Thiostrepton, Gentamicin Resistance Genes, and dif sequences Is Effective in Construction of Recombinant Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mugweru, Julius; Makafe, Gaelle; Cao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Bangxing; Huang, Shaobo; Njire, Moses; Chhotaray, Chiranjibi; Tan, Yaoju; Li, Xinjie; Liu, Jianxiong; Tan, Shouyong; Deng, Jiaoyu; Zhang, Tianyu

    2017-01-01

    The genetic manipulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome is limited by the availability of selection markers. Spontaneous resistance mutation rate of M. tuberculosis to the widely used kanamycin is relatively high which often leads to some false positive transformants. Due to the few available markers, we have created a cassette containing thiostrepton resistance gene (tsr) for selection in M. tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG, and gentamicin resistance gene (aacC1) for Escherichia coli and M. smegmatis mc2155, flanked with dif sequences recognized by the Xer system of mycobacteria. This cassette adds to the limited available selection markers for mycobacteria. PMID:28392781

  11. Satellite Estimates of Crop Area and Maize Yield in Zambia's Agricultural Districts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzari, G.; Lobell, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    Predicting crop yield and area from satellite is a valuable tool to monitor different aspects of productivity dynamics and food security. In Sub-Saharan Africa, where the agricultural landscape is complex and dominated by smallholder systems, such dynamics need to be investigated at the field scale. We leveraged the large data pool and computational power of Google Earth Engine to 1) generate 30 m resolution cover maps of selected provinces of Zambia, 2) estimate crop area, and 3) produce yearly maize yield maps using the recently developed SCYM (Scalable satellite-based Crop Yield Mapper) algorithm. We will present our results and their validation against a ground survey dataset collected yearly by the Zambia Ministry of Agriculture from about 12,500 households.

  12. Bacillus cereus from the environment is genetically related to the highly pathogenic B. cereus in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    OGAWA, Hirohito; OHNUMA, Miyuki; SQUARRE, David; MWEENE, Aaron Simanyengwe; EZAKI, Takayuki; FUJIKURA, Daisuke; OHNISHI, Naomi; THOMAS, Yuka; HANG’OMBE, Bernard Mudenda; HIGASHI, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    To follow-up anthrax in Zambia since the outbreak in 2011, we have collected samples from the environment and the carcasses of anthrax-suspected animals, and have tried to isolate Bacillus anthracis. In the process of identification of B. anthracis, we collected two isolates, of which colonies were similar to B. anthracis; however, from the results of identification using the molecular-based methods, two isolates were genetically related to the highly pathogenic B. cereus, of which clinical manifestation is severe and fatal (e.g., pneumonia). In this study, we showed the existence of bacteria suspected to be highly pathogenic B. cereus in Zambia, indicating the possibility of an outbreak caused by highly pathogenic B. cereus. PMID:25797134

  13. Evaluating the program effects of a radio drama about AIDS in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Yoder, P S; Hornik, R; Chirwa, B C

    1996-01-01

    This study describes an approach to the analysis of data that is designed to isolate program effects for evaluations and applies that approach to a program in Zambia designed to disseminate AIDS information. Evidence is considered that a radio drama broadcast for nine months had an impact on knowledge and behavior related to AIDS among Bemba speakers in northern Zambia. Using results from large sample surveys (1,600 men and women), conducted before and after the drama was broadcast, the analyses compare changes in knowledge and behavior in those most likely and least likely to have listened to the broadcast. While the population as a whole had improved its knowledge substantially, and some people reported having reduced risky behavior, attributing these changes to the program itself was not possible.

  14. Social indicators and physical abuse of women by intimate partners: a study of women in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Okenwa, Leah; Lawoko, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Intimate partner physical abuse (IPPA) of women is a societal problem with sinister implications on health. IPPA has been integrally linked to social status though the direction of association remains elusive, not the least in sub-Saharan Africa. This article investigated the association between IPPA and social status of women in Zambia. Data comprising 3,969 currently partnered women were retrieved from the 2001 Zambian Demographic and Health Survey and analyzed using chi-square test and logistic regression. IPPA augmented with low education, income-generating activity, access to information, autonomy over household health issues, and having tolerant attitudes toward IPPA. Tolerant attitude toward IPPA and illiteracy were independent risk factors for IPPA. Educational interventions are recommended to prevent IPPA in Zambia.

  15. Factors associated with attitudes toward intimate partner violence: a study of women in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Lawoko, Stephen

    2006-10-01

    Demographic, social, and empowerment factors associated with attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV) were investigated in a random sample of women (n = 5,029) aged 15-49 years in Zambia. Data was retrieved from the Zambia Demographic and Health Survey 2001-2002 (2003). The findings indicated demographic, social, and structural differences in attitudes toward IPV. Married/previously married and less educated women, employees in the agricultural sector, and women with a history of IPV were more likely to tolerate IPV. In addition, structurally disempowered women (i.e., women lacking access to information and autonomy in household decisions) were more likely to justify IPV than more-empowered peers. Most variables remained significant even when possible confounding was adjusted for using a logistic regression. The findings are discussed and implications for prevention as well as methodological issues considered.

  16. Active management of third stage of labour saves facility costs in Guatemala and Zambia.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Judith T; Frick, Kevin D; Fogarty, Linda A; Fishel, Joy D; Vivio, Donna M

    2006-12-01

    This study calculated the net benefit of using active management of the third stage of labour (AMTSL) rather than expectant management of the third stage of labour (EMTSL) for mothers in Guatemala and Zambia. Probabilities of events were derived from opinions of experts, publicly available data, and published literature. Costs of clinical events were calculated based on national price lists, observation of resources used in AMTSL and EMTSL, and expert estimates of resources used in managing postpartum haemorrhage and its complications, including transfusion. A decision tree was used for modelling expected costs associated with AMTSL or EMTSL. The base case analysis suggested a positive net benefit from AMTSL, with a net cost-saving of US $18,000 in Guatemala (with 100 lives saved) and US $145,000 in Zambia (with 467 lives saved) for 100,000 births. Facilities have strong economic incentives to adopt AMTSL if uterotonics are available.

  17. Health system productivity change in Zambia: A focus on the child health services.

    PubMed

    Achoki, Tom; Kinfu, Yohannes; Masiye, Felix; Frederix, Geert W J; Hovels, Anke; Leufkens, Hubert G

    2017-02-01

    Efficiency and productivity improvement have become central in global health debates. In this study, we explored productivity change, particularly the contribution of technological progress and efficiency gains associated with improvements in child survival in Zambia (population 15 million). Productivity was measured by applying the Malmquist productivity index on district-level panel data. The effect of socioeconomic factors was further analyzed by applying an ordinary least squares regression technique. During 2004-2009, overall productivity in Zambia increased by 5.0 per cent, a change largely attributed to technological progress rather than efficiency gains. Within-country productivity comparisons revealed wide heterogeneity in favor of more urbanized and densely populated districts. Improved cooking methods, improved sanitation, and better educated populations tended to improve productive gains, whereas larger household size had an adverse effect. Addressing such district-level factors and ensuring efficient delivery and optimal application of existing health technologies offer a practical pathway for further improving population health.

  18. Health system productivity change in Zambia: A focus on the child health services.

    PubMed

    Achoki, Tom; Kinfu, Yohannes; Masiye, Felix; Frederix, Geert W J; Hovels, Anke; Leufkens, Hubert G

    2016-12-08

    Efficiency and productivity improvement have become central in global health debates. In this study, we explored productivity change, particularly the contribution of technological progress and efficiency gains associated with improvements in child survival in Zambia (population 15 million). Productivity was measured by applying the Malmquist productivity index on district-level panel data. The effect of socioeconomic factors was further analyzed by applying an ordinary least squares regression technique. During 2004-2009, overall productivity in Zambia increased by 5.0 per cent, a change largely attributed to technological progress rather than efficiency gains. Within-country productivity comparisons revealed wide heterogeneity in favor of more urbanized and densely populated districts. Improved cooking methods, improved sanitation, and better educated populations tended to improve productive gains, whereas larger household size had an adverse effect. Addressing such district-level factors and ensuring efficient delivery and optimal application of existing health technologies offer a practical pathway for further improving population health.

  19. Bacillus cereus from the environment is genetically related to the highly pathogenic B. cereus in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Hirohito; Ohnuma, Miyuki; Squarre, David; Mweene, Aaron Simanyengwe; Ezaki, Takayuki; Fujikura, Daisuke; Ohnishi, Naomi; Thomas, Yuka; Hang'ombe, Bernard Mudenda; Higashi, Hideaki

    2015-08-01

    To follow-up anthrax in Zambia since the outbreak in 2011, we have collected samples from the environment and the carcasses of anthrax-suspected animals, and have tried to isolate Bacillus anthracis. In the process of identification of B. anthracis, we collected two isolates, of which colonies were similar to B. anthracis; however, from the results of identification using the molecular-based methods, two isolates were genetically related to the highly pathogenic B. cereus, of which clinical manifestation is severe and fatal (e.g., pneumonia). In this study, we showed the existence of bacteria suspected to be highly pathogenic B. cereus in Zambia, indicating the possibility of an outbreak caused by highly pathogenic B. cereus.

  20. Structural study and geochronology in the Hook Batholith, Central Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naydenov, K.; Lehmann, J.; Saalmann, K.; Milani, L.; Kinnaird, J.; Charlesworth, G.; Frei, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Pan-African Hook batholith is emplaced N of the Mwembeshi dislocation, a regional scale structure at the contact between Zambezi Belt and Lufilian Arc in Central Zambia. Exposed over 12000 km2 the batholith is composed mainly of fine-grained and coarse-grained porphyritic granites and leucogranites affected by solid-state deformation along high-strain zones. Two main zones of deformation were investigated - the Itezhi-Tezhi Zone (ITZ) in the SW part of the batholith and the Nalusanga Zone (NZ) to the NE. The 2.5 km wide, N-S trending, subvertical ITZ is a medium-grade, pure shear dominated structure, reflecting probably regional scale E-W shortening. In the central part of the zone, augen-gneiss textures developed. Mineral lineations plunging ~40° S are recorded occasionally. The deformed feldspar porphyroclasts show symmetrical tails and rarely sinistral stair-stepping. In the SE part of the Hook batholith the continuation of the ITZ trends E-W. This orientation can be explained by rotation of the original ITZ trend by N-S shortening that also has been recorded in the siliciclastic metasediments S of the contact. S dipping, up to 15 cm wide thrust zones observed in the ITZ area were probably formed during this tectonic event. The 3 km wide NZ is a subvertical to steeply SSW dipping structure, parallel to the NE contact of the batholith, with well-developed foliation and mineral stretching lineations. Field and microstructural analyses defined the NZ as a medium-grade, non-coaxial, sinistral strike-slip shear zone. The transition from weak foliated granite to S-C mylonites and ultramylonites was observed. The sinistral shearing is consistent with E-W shortening in agreement with the tectonic framework of the ITZ. The low grade metasediments to the E of the granite are folded in N to NNW trending structures also implying E-W shortening. Temperature conditions during the deformation in ITZ and NZ inferred from microstructural analyses are about 500°-550°C. The

  1. Zambia : long-term generation expansion study - executive summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Buehring, W.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-02-28

    The objective of this study is to analyze possible long-term development options of the Zambian electric power system in the period up to 2015. The analysis involved the hydro operations studies of the Zambezi river basin and the systems planning studies for the least-cost generation expansion planning. Two well-known and widely accepted computer models were used in the analysis: PC-VALORAGUA model for the hydro operations and optimization studies and the WASP-III Plus model for the optimization of long-term system development. The WASP-III Plus model is a part of the Argonne National Laboratory's Energy and Power Evaluation Model (ENPEP). The analysis was conducted in close collaboration with the Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO). On the initiative from The World Bank, the sponsor of the study, ZESCO formed a team of experts that participated in the analysis and were trained in the use of computer models. Both models were transferred to ZESCO free of charge and installed on several computers in the ZESCO corporate offices in Lusaka. In September-October 1995, two members of the ZESCO National Team participated in a 4-week training course at Argonne National Laboratory near Chicago, U.S.A., focusing on the long-term system expansion planning using the WASP and VALORAGUA models. The hydropower operations studies were performed for the whole Zambezi river basin, including the full installation of the Kariba power station, and the Cahora Bassa hydro power station in Mozambique. The analysis also included possible future projects such as Itezhi-Tezhi, Kafue Gorge Lower, and Batoka Gorge power stations. As hydropower operations studies served to determine the operational characteristics of the existing and future hydro power plants, it was necessary to simulate the whole Zambezi river basin in order to take into account all interactions and mutual influences between the hydro power plants. In addition, it allowed for the optimization of reservoir management

  2. Investment Incentives and the Implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: Evidence from Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Drope, Jeffrey; Labonte, Ronald; Zulu, Richard; Goma, Fastone

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Policy misalignment across different sectors of government serves as one of the pivotal barriers to WHO Framework convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) implementation. This paper examines the logic used by government officials to justify providing investment incentives to increase tobacco processing and manufacturing in the context of FCTC implementation in Zambia. Methods We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with key informants from government, civil society and intergovernmental economic organizations (n=23). We supplemented the interview data with an analysis of public documents pertaining to economic development policy in Zambia. Results We found gross misalignments between the policies of the economic sector and efforts to implement the provisions of the FCTC. Our interviews uncovered the rationale used by officials in the economic sector to justify providing economic incentives to bolster tobacco processing and manufacturing in Zambia: 1) tobacco is not consumed by Zambians/tobacco is an export commodity, 2) economic benefits outweigh health costs, and 3) tobacco consumption is a personal choice. Conclusions Much of the struggle Zambia has experienced implementing the FCTC can be attributed to misalignments between the economic and health sectors. Zambia’s development agenda seeks to bolster agricultural processing and manufacturing. Tobacco control proponents must understand and work within this context of economic development in order to foster productive strategies with those working on tobacco supply issues. These findings are broadly applicable to the global analysis on the barriers and facilitators of FCTC implementation. It is important that the Ministry of Health monitors the tobacco policy of other sectors and engages with these sectors to find ways of harmonizing FCTC implementation across sectors. PMID:26135987

  3. Women's knowledge and attitudes surrounding abortion in Zambia: a cross-sectional survey across three provinces

    PubMed Central

    Cresswell, Jenny A; Schroeder, Rosalyn; Dennis, Mardieh; Owolabi, Onikepe; Vwalika, Bellington; Musheke, Maurice; Campbell, Oona; Filippi, Veronique

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In Zambia, despite a relatively liberal legal framework, there remains a substantial burden of unsafe abortion. Many women do not use skilled providers in a well-equipped setting, even where these are available. The aim of this study was to describe women's knowledge of the law relating to abortion and attitudes towards abortion in Zambia. Setting Community-based survey in Central, Copperbelt and Lusaka provinces. Participants 1484 women of reproductive age (15–44 years). Primary and secondary outcome measures Correct knowledge of the legal grounds for abortion, attitudes towards abortion services and the previous abortions of friends, family or other confidants. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyse how knowledge and attitudes varied according to sociodemographic characteristics. Results Overall, just 16% (95% CI 11% to 21%) of women of reproductive age correctly identified the grounds for which abortion is legal. Only 40% (95% CI 32% to 45% of women of reproductive age knew that abortion was legally permitted in the extreme situation where the pregnancy threatens the life of the mother. Even in urban areas of Lusaka province, only 55% (95% CI 41% to 67%) of women knew that an abortion could legally take place to save the mother's life. Attitudes remain conservative. Women with correct knowledge of abortion law in Zambia tended to have more liberal attitudes towards abortion and access to safe abortion services. Neither correct knowledge of the law nor attitudes towards abortion were associated with knowing someone who previously had an induced abortion. Conclusions Poor knowledge and conservative attitudes are important obstacles to accessing safe abortion services. Changing knowledge and attitudes can be challenging for policymakers and public health practitioners alike. Zambia could draw on its previous experience in dealing with its large HIV epidemic to learn cross-cutting lessons in effective mass

  4. Provisioning of game meat to rural communities as a benefit of sport hunting in Zambia.

    PubMed

    White, Paula A; Belant, Jerrold L

    2015-01-01

    Sport hunting has reportedly multiple benefits to economies and local communities; however, few of these benefits have been quantified. As part of their lease agreements with the Zambia Wildlife Authority, sport hunting operators in Zambia are required to provide annually to local communities free of charge i.e., provision a percentage of the meat obtained through sport hunting. We characterized provisioning of game meat to rural communities by the sport hunting industry in Zambia for three game management areas (GMAs) during 2004-2011. Rural communities located within GMAs where sport hunting occurred received on average > 6,000 kgs per GMA of fresh game meat annually from hunting operators. To assess hunting industry compliance, we also compared the amount of meat expected as per the lease agreements versus observed amounts of meat provisioned from three GMAs during 2007-2009. In seven of eight annual comparisons of these GMAs, provisioning of meat exceeded what was required in the lease agreements. Provisioning occurred throughout the hunting season and peaked during the end of the dry season (September-October) coincident with when rural Zambians are most likely to encounter food shortages. We extrapolated our results across all GMAs and estimated 129,771 kgs of fresh game meat provisioned annually by the sport hunting industry to rural communities in Zambia at an approximate value for the meat alone of >US$600,000 exclusive of distribution costs. During the hunting moratorium (2013-2014), this supply of meat has halted, likely adversely affecting rural communities previously reliant on this food source. Proposed alternatives to sport hunting should consider protein provisioning in addition to other benefits (e.g., employment, community pledges, anti-poaching funds) that rural Zambian communities receive from the sport hunting industry.

  5. Investigation of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in the Mbala and Kazungula districts of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Banda, Frank; Kasanga, Christopher J; Sallu, Raphael; Sinkala, Yona; Sinkombe, Tingiya W; Mulumba, Misheck; Rweyemamu, Mark M; Wambura, Philemon N

    2014-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute, highly contagious viral infection of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. It is known to be endemic in Zambia, with periodic outbreaks occurring in different geographical areas of the country. This study was conducted to investigate the presence of FMD virus (FMDV) in reported FMD-suspected cases in cattle from the Kazungula and Mbala districts of Zambia. Sixty epithelial tissues or oesophageal-pharyngeal (OP) scrapings (probang samples) were collected from Mbala (n = 51) and Kazungula (n = 9) and examined for FMDV. The FMDV viral RNA and serotypes were examined by realtime reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and antigen Enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Twenty-two samples (36.7%) were positive for the FMDV genome by qRT-PCR with Cycle threshold (Ct) values ranging from 13 to 31. The FMDV-positive samples from epithelial tissues showed relatively higher Ct values compared to those obtained from OP scrapings, irrespective of geographical location. Forty percent (40%; n = 4) of epithelial tissues from Mbala were serotyped into SAT 2 serotype by antigen ELISA. Kazungula samples were serotyped into SAT 1. These findings indicated that Mbala and Kazungula districts had FMD outbreaks in 2012 that were ascribed to at least FMDV serotype SAT 2 and SAT 1 field strains. Furthermore, regular interaction between buffalos from the Mosi-o Tunya Park and domestic animals from surrounding areas could contribute to the occurrence of regular FMD outbreaks in Kazungula, whilst the uncontrolled animal movements across borders between Mbala and Nsumbawanga could be responsible for disease outbreaks in Mbala. In-depth molecular biological studies, including sequencing and phylogeny of the viruses, should be conducted to elucidate the complex epidemiology of FMD in Zambia, thereby providing valuable information needed for the rational control strategy of FMD in Zambia and neighbouring countries.

  6. Strategies of Successful Poverty Reduction: Case Studies of Tanzania and Zambia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    growth in the 21st century, Tanzania has been able to translate that growth into poverty reduction while Zambia has not. A contextual picture of the two...countries’ economic growth trajectories is provided, with an emphasis on understanding how specific policies and changes in their governance have...affected growth , poverty reduction, inequality, and overall development. After considering each respective country’s economic growth and constraints

  7. Provisioning of Game Meat to Rural Communities as a Benefit of Sport Hunting in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    White, Paula A.; Belant, Jerrold L.

    2015-01-01

    Sport hunting has reportedly multiple benefits to economies and local communities; however, few of these benefits have been quantified. As part of their lease agreements with the Zambia Wildlife Authority, sport hunting operators in Zambia are required to provide annually to local communities free of charge i.e., provision a percentage of the meat obtained through sport hunting. We characterized provisioning of game meat to rural communities by the sport hunting industry in Zambia for three game management areas (GMAs) during 2004–2011. Rural communities located within GMAs where sport hunting occurred received on average > 6,000 kgs per GMA of fresh game meat annually from hunting operators. To assess hunting industry compliance, we also compared the amount of meat expected as per the lease agreements versus observed amounts of meat provisioned from three GMAs during 2007–2009. In seven of eight annual comparisons of these GMAs, provisioning of meat exceeded what was required in the lease agreements. Provisioning occurred throughout the hunting season and peaked during the end of the dry season (September–October) coincident with when rural Zambians are most likely to encounter food shortages. We extrapolated our results across all GMAs and estimated 129,771 kgs of fresh game meat provisioned annually by the sport hunting industry to rural communities in Zambia at an approximate value for the meat alone of >US$600,000 exclusive of distribution costs. During the hunting moratorium (2013–2014), this supply of meat has halted, likely adversely affecting rural communities previously reliant on this food source. Proposed alternatives to sport hunting should consider protein provisioning in addition to other benefits (e.g., employment, community pledges, anti-poaching funds) that rural Zambian communities receive from the sport hunting industry. PMID:25693191

  8. Outbreak of Plague in a High Malaria Endemic Region - Nyimba District, Zambia, March-May 2015.

    PubMed

    Sinyange, Nyambe; Kumar, Ramya; Inambao, Akatama; Moonde, Loveness; Chama, Jonathan; Banda, Mapopa; Tembo, Elliot; Nsonga, Beron; Mwaba, John; Fwoloshi, Sombo; Musokotwane, Kebby; Chizema, Elizabeth; Kapin'a, Muzala; Hang'ombe, Benard Mudenda; Baggett, Henry C; Hachaambwa, Lottie

    2016-08-12

    Outbreaks of plague have been recognized in Zambia since 1917 (1). On April 10, 2015, Zambia's Ministry of Health was notified by the Eastern Provincial Medical Office of possible bubonic plague cases in Nyimba District. Eleven patients with acute fever and cervical lymphadenopathy had been evaluated at two rural health centers during March 28-April 9, 2015; three patients died. To confirm the outbreak and develop control measures, the Zambia Ministry of Health's Field Epidemiology Training Program (ZFETP) conducted epidemiologic and laboratory investigations in partnership with the University of Zambia's schools of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine and the provincial and district medical offices. Twenty-one patients with clinically compatible plague were identified, with symptom onset during March 26-May 5, 2015. The median age was 8 years, and all patients were from the same village. Blood specimens or lymph node aspirates from six (29%) patients tested positive for Yersinia pestis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There is an urgent need to improve early identification and treatment of plague cases. PCR is a potential complementary tool for identifying plague, especially in areas with limited microbiologic capacity. Twelve (57%) patients, including all six with PCR-positive plague and all three who died, also tested positive for malaria by rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Plague patients coinfected with malaria might be misdiagnosed as solely having malaria, and appropriate antibacterial treatment to combat plague might not be given, increasing risk for mortality. Because patients with malaria might be coinfected with other pathogens, broad spectrum antibiotic treatment to cover other pathogens is recommended for all children with severe malaria, until a bacterial infection is excluded.

  9. Cholera epidemic associated with raw vegetables--Lusaka, Zambia, 2003-2004.

    PubMed

    2004-09-03

    Zambia experienced widespread cholera epidemics in 1991 (13,154 cases), 1992 (11,659), and 1999 (11,327). In response to the large outbreak in 1999, the Zambian Ministry of Health (ZMOH) urged use of in-home chlorination with the locally produced solution, Clorin, and the practice increased substantially Clorin had been introduced in Zambia in 1998 as part of the Safe Water System (SWS), a point-of-use water disinfection and safe-water storage strategy launched by the Society for Family Health, in partnership with ZMOH, the U.S. Agency for International Development, and CDC. Although no outbreaks were reported during 2000-2002, cholera remained endemic. Epidemic cholera returned to Zambia in November 2003, when cases of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor were confirmed in the capital city, Lusaka. During November 28, 2003-January 4, 2004, an estimated 2,529 cholera cases and 128 cholera deaths (case-fatality rate [CFR] = 5.1%) occurred in Lusaka. In February 2004, the Lusaka District Health Management Team (LDHMT) invited CDC to assist in an investigation of the epidemic. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which implicated foodborne transmission via raw vegetables and demonstrated a protective role for hand washing with soap. The results underscore the importance of hygiene, clean water, and sanitary food handling for cholera prevention.

  10. Prevalence and Correlates for Psychosocial Distress Among In-School Adolescents in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Siziya, Seter; Mazaba, Mazyanga Lucy

    2015-01-01

    There is scanty information on correlates for psychosocial distress in Zambia. Secondary analysis was conducted using the data collected in 2004 in Zambia during the global school-based health survey to determine the prevalence and correlates for psychosocial distress. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate magnitudes of associations between exposure factors and the outcome, while the Yates’ corrected Chi-squared test was used to compare proportions at the 5% significance level. A total of 2257 students participated in the survey of which 54.2% were males. Males were generally older than females (p < 0.001). Significantly, more females than males were bullied (p = 0.036), involved in a fight (p = 0.019), and consumed alcohol (p = 0.012). Psychosocial distress was detected in 15.7% of the participants (14.4% of males and 16.8% of females). Age <14 years, male gender, parental support for males, and having close friends were protective factors against psychosocial distress. Risk factors for psychosocial distress were being bullied, involvement in a fight, alcohol consumption, being physically active, and parental support. The prevalence of psychosocial distress among adolescents in Zambia appears to be common. There is a need to validate the psychosocial distress indicators that were used in the current study. PMID:26236704

  11. Prevalence and Correlates for Psychosocial Distress Among In-School Adolescents in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Siziya, Seter; Mazaba, Mazyanga Lucy

    2015-01-01

    There is scanty information on correlates for psychosocial distress in Zambia. Secondary analysis was conducted using the data collected in 2004 in Zambia during the global school-based health survey to determine the prevalence and correlates for psychosocial distress. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate magnitudes of associations between exposure factors and the outcome, while the Yates' corrected Chi-squared test was used to compare proportions at the 5% significance level. A total of 2257 students participated in the survey of which 54.2% were males. Males were generally older than females (p < 0.001). Significantly, more females than males were bullied (p = 0.036), involved in a fight (p = 0.019), and consumed alcohol (p = 0.012). Psychosocial distress was detected in 15.7% of the participants (14.4% of males and 16.8% of females). Age <14 years, male gender, parental support for males, and having close friends were protective factors against psychosocial distress. Risk factors for psychosocial distress were being bullied, involvement in a fight, alcohol consumption, being physically active, and parental support. The prevalence of psychosocial distress among adolescents in Zambia appears to be common. There is a need to validate the psychosocial distress indicators that were used in the current study.

  12. Diagnosis and genotyping of African swine fever viruses from 2015 outbreaks in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Thoromo, Jonas; Simulundu, Edgar; Chambaro, Herman M; Mataa, Liywalii; Lubaba, Caesar H; Pandey, Girja S; Takada, Ayato; Misinzo, Gerald; Mweene, Aaron S

    2016-04-29

    In early 2015, a highly fatal haemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs resembling African swine fever (ASF) occurred in North Western, Copperbelt, and Lusaka provinces of Zambia. Molecular diagnosis by polymerase chain reaction targeting specific amplification of p72 (B646L) gene of ASF virus (ASFV) was conducted. Fourteen out of 16 domestic pigs from the affected provinces were found to be positive for ASFV. Phylogenetic analyses based on part of the p72 and the complete p54 (E183L) genes revealed that all the ASFVs detected belonged to genotypes I and Id, respectively. Additionally, epidemiological data suggest that the same ASFV spread from Lusaka to other provinces possibly through uncontrolled and/or illegal pig movements. Although the origin of the ASFV that caused outbreaks in domestic pigs in Zambia could not be ascertained, it appears likely that the virus may have emerged from within the country or region, probably from a sylvatic cycle. It is recommended that surveillance of ASF, strict biosecurity, and quarantine measures be imposed in order to prevent further spread and emergence of new ASF outbreaks in Zambia.

  13. Notes from the field: severe environmental contamination and elevated blood lead levels among children - Zambia, 2014.

    PubMed

    Caravanos, Jack; Fuller, Richard; Robinson, Stephan

    2014-11-07

    Lead poisoning can have devastating health consequences, especially for children, with childhood lead exposure estimated to contribute to 600,000 new cases globally of children with intellectual disabilities every year. Lead exposure is entirely preventable, yet is estimated to account for 0.6% of the global burden of disease, with the highest burden in developing regions. Kabwe, the second largest city in Zambia with a population of approximately 203,000, is located in Zambia's Copperbelt. During 1904-1994, lead mining and smelting operations contaminated the soil in residential areas, but no extensive environmental health assessment was completed. In 2003, the World Bank funded the Copperbelt Environmental Project to assist the Government of Zambia in addressing environmental health problems related to the mining sector. Components of the project included removal of mining waste materials, soil remediation, resident evacuation, and treatment of lead-exposed children. During July 22-28, 2014, a team from PureEarth/Blacksmith Institute, the City University of New York School of Public Health, and Green Cross Switzerland conducted extensive surface soil testing and blood lead testing of children in six communities adjacent to the now-closed Kabwe mines and smelters.

  14. Lusaka, Zambia, during SAFARI-2000: Convergence of local and imported ozone pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Freiman, M. Tal; Phahlane, N. Agnes; Coetzee, Gert J. R.

    2002-10-01

    In August and September, throughout south central Africa, seasonal clearing of dry vegetation and other fire-related activities lead to intense smoke haze and ozone formation. The first ozone soundings in the heart of the southern African burning region were taken at Lusaka, Zambia (15.5S, 28E) in early September 2000. Maximum surface ozone was over 90 ppbv and column tropospheric ozone exceeded 50 DU. These values are higher than concurrent measurements over Nairobi (1S, 38E) and Irene (25S, 28E, near Pretoria). At least 30% of Lusaka surface ozone appears to be from local sources. A layer at 800-500 hPa has ozone >120 ppbv and originates from trans-boundary recirculation. Starting out over Zambia, Angola, and Namibia, ozone-rich air travels east to the Indian Ocean, before heading back toward Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Zambia. Thus, Lusaka collects local and imported pollution, consistent with its location within the southern African gyre.

  15. Raman spectroscopic monitoring of the growth of pigmented and non-pigmented mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Stöckel, Stephan; Stanca, Andrei Sebastian; Helbig, Jonathan; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    Raman microspectroscopy has increased in popularity in the field of microbiology because it allows a spectral fingerprinting of bacterial pathogens at an unrivaled speed, which is important for the early treatment of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. An indispensable prerequisite for the success of this method is a profound knowledge, how the spectral profiles depend on the age of the bacteria. We therefore followed the growth of two rapidly growing Mycobacterium tuberculosis relatives, the pigmented Mycobacterium aurum, and the non-pigmented Mycobacterium smegmatis, by means of Raman microspectroscopy. Both species showed remarkable temporal changes in the single-bacteria Raman spectra: In the signatures of M. aurum, pigment-associated Raman signals could be detected not until 72 h of growth and also remained highly variable thereafter. The Raman spectra of M. smegmatis exhibited lipid signals presumably arising from mycolic acids, which are a hallmark feature of mycobacteria, but only after the bacteria reached the late stationary growth phase (>48 h). A principal component analysis thus classified the Raman spectra according to the cultivation age. In summary, these findings have to be reckoned with in future studies dealing with the identification of mycobacteria via Raman microspectroscopy. Graphical abstract Changes in the chemical composition of bacterial cells over growth time may influence the results of Raman spectroscopic studies of bacteria.

  16. Effects of Lipid-Lowering Drugs on Vancomycin Susceptibility of Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Rens, Céline; Laval, Françoise; Daffé, Mamadou; Denis, Olivier; Frita, Rosangela; Baulard, Alain; Wattiez, Ruddy; Lefèvre, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is still a cause of major concern, partly due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains. New drugs are therefore needed. Vancomycin can target mycobacteria with cell envelope deficiency. In this study, we used a vancomycin susceptibility assay to detect drugs hampering lipid synthesis in Mycobacterium bovis BCG and in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We tested three drugs already used to treat human obesity: tetrahydrolipstatin (THL), simvastatin, and fenofibrate. Only vancomycin and THL were able to synergize on M. bovis BCG and on M. tuberculosis, although mycobacteria could also be inhibited by simvastatin alone. Lipid analysis allowed us to identify several lipid modifications in M. tuberculosis H37Rv treated with those drugs. THL treatment mainly reduced the phthiocerol dimycocerosate (PDIM) content in the mycobacterial cell wall, providing an explanation for the synergy, since PDIM deficiency has been related to vancomycin susceptibility. Proteomic analysis suggested that bacteria treated with THL, in contrast to bacteria treated with simvastatin, tried to recover, inducing, among other reactions, lipid synthesis. The combination of THL and vancomycin should be considered a promising solution in developing new strategies to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:27503643

  17. Effect of iron concentration on the expression and activity of catalase-peroxidases in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Yeruva, Veena C; Sundaram, C A S Sivagami; Sritharan, Manjula

    2005-02-01

    Mycobacterial catalases are known to exist in different isoforms. We studied the influence of iron concentration on the expression and activity of the different isoforms in Mycobacterium bovis BCG, M. smegmatis, M. fortuitum, M. kansasii and M. vaccae by growing them under iron-sufficient (4 microg Fe/mL) and iron-deficient (0.02 microg Fe/ml) conditions. Upon iron deprivation, significant differences were observed in the catalase/peroxidase activities in both quantitative spectrophotometric assays and in the activity staining in native gels. Notable feature was that the peroxidase activity showed a significant decrease upon iron deprivation in all the mycobacteria, except M. vaccae. Peroxidase activity in all the mycobacteria, irrespective of the iron status was susceptible to heat inactivation. However, the isoforms of catalase showed differences in their heat stability, indicating possible structural differences in these proteins. For example, M. bovis BCG expressed a heat labile catalase under iron-sufficient conditions, while a heat stable catalase band of similar mobility was expressed under iron-deprivation conditions. The study clearly indicates that iron plays an important role in the regulation of expression of the different isoforms of the catalase-peroxidases.

  18. Two Human Host Defense Ribonucleases against Mycobacteria, the Eosinophil Cationic Protein (RNase 3) and RNase 7

    PubMed Central

    Pulido, David; Torrent, Marc; Andreu, David; Nogués, M. Victoria

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop new agents against mycobacterial infections, such as tuberculosis and other respiratory tract or skin affections. In this study, we have tested two human antimicrobial RNases against mycobacteria. RNase 3, also called the eosinophil cationic protein, and RNase 7 are two small cationic proteins secreted by innate cells during host defense. Both proteins are induced upon infection displaying a wide range of antipathogen activities. In particular, they are released by leukocytes and epithelial cells, contributing to tissue protection. Here, the two RNases have been proven effective against Mycobacterium vaccae at a low micromolar level. High bactericidal activity correlated with their bacterial membrane depolarization and permeabilization activities. Further analysis on both protein-derived peptides identified for RNase 3 an N-terminus fragment that is even more active than the parental protein. Also, a potent bacterial agglutinating activity was unique to RNase 3 and its derived peptide. The particular biophysical properties of the RNase 3 active peptide are envisaged as a suitable reference for the development of novel antimycobacterial drugs. The results support the contribution of secreted RNases to the host immune response against mycobacteria. PMID:23716047

  19. Mycobacteria counteract a TLR-mediated nitrosative defense mechanism in a zebrafish infection model.

    PubMed

    Elks, Philip M; van der Vaart, Michiel; van Hensbergen, Vincent; Schutz, Esther; Redd, Michael J; Murayama, Emi; Spaink, Herman P; Meijer, Annemarie H

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), caused by the intracellular bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is a major world health problem. The production of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is a potent cytostatic and cytotoxic defense mechanism against intracellular pathogens. Nevertheless, the protective role of RNS during Mtb infection remains controversial. Here we use an anti-nitrotyrosine antibody as a readout to study nitration output by the zebrafish host during early mycobacterial pathogenesis. We found that recognition of Mycobacterium marinum, a close relative of Mtb, was sufficient to induce a nitrosative defense mechanism in a manner dependent on MyD88, the central adaptor protein in Toll like receptor (TLR) mediated pathogen recognition. However, this host response was attenuated by mycobacteria via a virulence mechanism independent of the well-characterized RD1 virulence locus. Our results indicate a mechanism of pathogenic mycobacteria to circumvent host defense in vivo. Shifting the balance of host-pathogen interactions in favor of the host by targeting this virulence mechanism may help to alleviate the problem of infection with Mtb strains that are resistant to multiple drug treatments.

  20. Evaluation of practical chromatographic procedures for identification of clinical isolates of mycobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Luquin, M; Ausina, V; López Calahorra, F; Belda, F; García Barceló, M; Celma, C; Prats, G

    1991-01-01

    After experimental conditions were established, 366 strains of mycobacteria belonging to 23 different species were studied for fatty acids, secondary alcohols, and mycolic acid cleavage products by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. Additionally, the mycolic acid pattern was studied by thin-layer chromatography. Capillary gas-liquid chromatography allowed direct identification of the following Mycobacterium spp.: M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. szulgai, M. xenopi, M. malmoense, and M. gordonae. The patterns of mycolic acid methyl esters recorded for the test strains of M. chelonae and M. agri may be of value in the identification of these species. Moreover, the combined use of the two chromatographic techniques provided precise identification of the M. tuberculosis complex, M. simiae, M. fallax, M. triviale, and M. chelonae-like organisms. A minimal set of biochemical tests is usually required to obtain identification to the species level when chromatographic procedures alone are not sufficient. Under the reported experimental conditions, thin-layer chromatography and capillary gas-liquid chromatography are rapid and very useful techniques for the identification of mycobacteria. Images PMID:1993746

  1. Single-cell dynamics of the chromosome replication and cell division cycles in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Santi, Isabella; Dhar, Neeraj; Bousbaine, Djenet; Wakamoto, Yuichi; McKinney, John D

    2013-01-01

    During the bacterial cell cycle, chromosome replication and cell division must be coordinated with overall cell growth in order to maintain the correct ploidy and cell size. The spatial and temporal coordination of these processes in mycobacteria is not understood. Here we use microfluidics and time-lapse fluorescence microscopy to measure the dynamics of cell growth, division and chromosome replication in single cells of Mycobacterium smegmatis. We find that single-cell growth is size-dependent (large cells grow faster than small cells), which implicates a size-control mechanism in cell-size homoeostasis. Asymmetric division of mother cells gives rise to unequally sized sibling cells that grow at different velocities but show no differential sensitivity to antibiotics. Individual cells are restricted to one round of chromosome replication per cell division cycle, although replication usually initiates in the mother cell before cytokinesis and terminates in the daughter cells after cytokinesis. These studies reveal important differences between cell cycle organization in mycobacteria compared with better-studied model organisms.

  2. Comparative genome analyses of mycobacteria give better insights into their evolution

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Wei Yee; Dutta, Avirup; Choo, Siew Woh

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacteria a genus of Actinobacteria are widespread in nature ranging from soil-dwelling saprophytes to human and animal pathogens. The rate of growth has been a classifying factor for the Mycobacterium spp., dividing them into the rapid growers and the slow growers. Here we have performed a comparative genome study of mycobacterial species in order to get better understanding of their evolution, particularly to understand the distinction between the rapid and slow growers. Our study shows that the slow growers had generally gained and lost more genes compared to the rapid growers. The slow growers might haved eventually lost genes (LivFGMH operon, shaACDEFG genes and MspA porin) that could contribute to the slow growth rate of the slow growers. The genes gained and lost in mycobacteria had eventually helped these bacteria to adapt to different environments and have led to the evolution of the present day rapid and slow growers. Our results also show high number of Mycobacterium abscessus specific genes (811 genes) and some of them are associated with the known bacterial quorum sensing genes that might be important for Mycobacterium abscessus to adapt and survive in variety of unfavorable environments. Mycobacterium abscessus also does not contains genes involved in the bacterial defense system and together with the quorum sensing genes may have contributed to the high gene gain rate of Mycobacterium abscessus. PMID:28291784

  3. Linking carbon metabolism to carotenoid production in mycobacteria using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Srividya; Matange, Nishad; Umapathy, Siva; Visweswariah, Sandhya S

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria can utilize multiple sources of carbon for growth, and for pathogenic bacteria like Mycobacterium tuberculosis, this ability is crucial for survival within the host. In addition, phenotypic changes are seen in mycobacteria grown under different carbon sources. In this study, we use Raman spectroscopy to analyze the biochemical components present in M. smegmatis cells when grown in three differently metabolized carbon sources. Our results show that carotenoid biosynthesis is enhanced when M. smegmatis is grown in glucose compared to glycerol and acetate. We demonstrate that this difference is most likely due to transcriptional upregulation of the carotenoid biosynthesis operon (crt) mediated by higher levels of the stress-responsive sigma factor SigF. Moreover, we find that increased SigF and carotenoid levels correlate with greater resistance of glucose-grown cells to oxidative stress. Thus, we demonstrate the use of Raman spectroscopy in unraveling unknown aspects of mycobacterial physiology and describe a novel effect of carbon source variation on mycobacteria.

  4. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using monoclonal antibodies for identification of mycobacteria from early cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Verstijnen, C P; Ly, H M; Polman, K; Richter, C; Smits, S P; Maselle, S Y; Peerbooms, P; Rienthong, D; Montreewasuwat, N; Koanjanart, S

    1991-01-01

    A simple enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the identification of cultured mycobacteria belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, the Mycobacterium avium complex, and Mycobacterium kansasii has been developed (R. Schöningh, C. P. H. J. Verstijnen, S. Kuijper, and A. H. J. Kolk. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:708-713, 1990). The test for the routine identification of cultured mycobacteria was introduced in five clinical laboratories located in Tanzania, Thailand, Vietnam, and The Netherlands. The ELISA can be conducted without an ELISA reader since the test can be read visually. The results of identification of 255 strains of the M. tuberculosis complex by microbiological means and by ELISA were compared; the specificity and the sensitivity were 100%. For the M. avium complex, the specificity was 100% and the sensitivity was 64%. All 26 M. kansasii strains tested could be identified as M. kansasii. The ELISA described here proved to be useful in both well- and modestly equipped laboratories and may replace the microbiological method of identification of M. tuberculosis and M. kansasii. PMID:1909344

  5. Signal Regulatory Protein alpha (SIRPalpha)+ Cells in the Adaptive Response to ESAT-6/CFP-10 Protein of Tuberculous Mycobacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early secretory antigenic target-6 (ESAT-6) and culture filtrate protein-10(CFP-10) are co-secreted proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex mycobacteria (includes M. bovis, the zoonotic agent of bovine tuberculosis) involved in phagolysosome escape of the bacillus and, potentially, in the eff...

  6. Legionella pneumophila Arthritis: use of medium specific for Mycobacteria for isolation of L. pneumophila in culture of articular fluid specimens.

    PubMed

    Bemer, Pascale; Leautez, Sophie; Ninin, Emmanuelle; Jarraud, Sophie; Raffi, François; Drugeon, Henri

    2002-07-01

    We report the first case, to our knowledge, of acute purulent arthritis due to Legionella pneumophila in an immunosuppressed patient. L. pneumophila was isolated from samples of blood and articular fluid cultured with use of medium specific for mycobacteria (Bactec 13A medium).

  7. Inhibition of phagosome maturation by mycobacteria does not interfere with presentation of mycobacterial antigens by MHC molecules.

    PubMed

    Majlessi, Laleh; Combaluzier, Benoit; Albrecht, Imke; Garcia, Jessica E; Nouze, Clémence; Pieters, Jean; Leclerc, Claude

    2007-08-01

    Pathogenic mycobacteria escape host innate immune responses by surviving within phagosomes of host macrophages and blocking their delivery to lysosomes. Avoiding lysosomal delivery may also be involved in the capacity of living mycobacteria to modulate MHC class I- or II-dependent T cell responses, which may contribute to their pathogenicity in vivo. In this study, we show that the presentation of mycobacterial Ags is independent of the site of intracellular residence inside professional APCs. Infection of mouse macrophages or dendritic cells in vitro with mycobacterial mutants that are unable to escape lysosomal transfer resulted in an identical efficiency of Ag presentation compared with wild-type mycobacteria. Moreover, in vivo, such mutants induced CD4(+) Th1 or CD8(+) CTL responses in mice against various mycobacterial Ags that were comparable to those induced by their wild-type counterparts. These results suggest that the limiting factor for the generation of an adaptive immune response against mycobacteria is not the degree of lysosomal delivery. These findings are important in the rational design of improved vaccines to combat mycobacterial diseases.

  8. Rendering of mycobacteria safe for molecular diagnostic studies and development of a lysis method for strand displacement amplification and PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Zwadyk, P; Down, J A; Myers, N; Dey, M S

    1994-01-01

    Two criteria must be met before mycobacterial specimens can be tested by DNA amplification methods: (i) the sample must be rendered noninfectious, and (ii) the organisms must be lysed to free the DNA. Previous publications reporting DNA amplification of mycobacteria have concentrated on lysis and amplification procedures and have not addressed the issue of sample safety. We have shown that heating of samples below 100 degrees C may not consistently kill mycobacteria; however, heating at 100 degrees C in a boiling-water bath or a forced-air oven for a minimum of 5 min kills mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium thermoresistibile. Furthermore, heating at 100 degrees C for 30 min consistently lyses mycobacteria to produce short fragments of DNA that are suitable for amplification by PCR and strand displacement amplification. This procedure works with clinical samples digested by the n-acetyl cysteine-NaOH method as well as with suspensions of organisms in phosphate buffer. This paper also demonstrates the feasibility of using strand displacement amplification with clinical specimens. Images PMID:7814537

  9. Newly Detected Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infection and Peripheral Lung Cancers in Patients During Follow-Up of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sang Young; Kim, Mi Young; Hwang, Hye Jeon; Shim, Tae Sun; Choi, Chang-Min; Kim, Sung-Soo; Kim, Dong Soon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article describes the difference between the computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with newly detected pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial infection (NTM-IIP) and Cancer-IIP. We retrospectively evaluated 35 NTM-IIP and 78 Cancer-IIP patients in reference to their null idiopathic interstitial pneumonia CT (n = 113), using >10 years of data. Two independent radiologists analyzed the CT characteristics and the axial location of the main opacity. The interobserver agreement was good (κ > 0.771). The NTM-IIP patients were older (P = 0.034). The median size of the main opacity in the NTM-IIP (27 mm; 11–73) was larger (19 mm; 5–60; P = 0.002). Consolidation (n = 30; 85.7%; odds ratio [OR], 45) and cavities (n = 14; 40%, OR, 25) were more common in NTM-IIP (all P < 0.001). The midst of the fibrotic cysts including honeycomb cysts (n = 16; 45.7%, OR, 4.95) was more common in NTM-IIP (P = 0.006). NTM-IIP appeared larger, with more frequent consolidation and cavities, and was more likely to have been located in the midst of the fibrotic cysts including honeycomb cysts at the CT, which showed that it was older than Cancer-IIP. PMID:25837763

  10. [A case of non-tuberculous mycobacteriosis with pleurisy with a past history of dense exposure to environmental asbestos].

    PubMed

    Okuda, Miyuki; Kashio, Makoto; Tanaka, Nobuya; Masuno, Tomiya; Kamei, Junko; Tsuyuguchi, Izuo

    2008-08-01

    We report a case of non-tuberculous mycobacteriosis (NTM) with pleurisy in a 75-year-old man. The patient was admitted with a diagnosis of pneumonia. Chest radiography and CT scans revealed a tumorous shadow that increased rapidly in size despite treatment with antibiotics. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) disclosed numerous asbestos bodies, suggesting dense exposure and pulmonary silicosis. The tumorous chest shadow remained undiagnosed. Repeated microscopic examination of sputum and BALF revealed no acidophilic-bacilli. Diagnostic pneumonectomy was performed to further explore the nature of the tumorous shadow on chest radiography. Ziehl-Neelsen staining of excised lung tissue disclosed no acid-bacilli; however, the washed fluid of the tissue specimen showed acid-fast bacilli that were subsequently verified as M. avium by in vitro culture. The X-ray findings in our case were not consistent with NTM or specific for disease due to asbestos inhalation. A final diagnosis of NTM was confirmed via open biopsy of the lung. Our case suggests that in addition to tuberculosis, NTM should be taken into consideration as a complication of silicosis.

  11. Essential Role of the ESX-5 Secretion System in Outer Membrane Permeability of Pathogenic Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Ates, Louis S; Ummels, Roy; Commandeur, Susanna; van de Weerd, Robert; van der Weerd, Robert; Sparrius, Marion; Weerdenburg, Eveline; Alber, Marina; Kalscheuer, Rainer; Piersma, Sander R; Abdallah, Abdallah M; Abd El Ghany, Moataz; Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M; Pain, Arnab; Jiménez, Connie R; Bitter, Wilbert; Houben, Edith N G

    2015-05-01

    Mycobacteria possess different type VII secretion (T7S) systems to secrete proteins across their unusual cell envelope. One of these systems, ESX-5, is only present in slow-growing mycobacteria and responsible for the secretion of multiple substrates. However, the role of ESX-5 substrates in growth and/or virulence is largely unknown. In this study, we show that esx-5 is essential for growth of both Mycobacterium marinum and Mycobacterium bovis. Remarkably, this essentiality can be rescued by increasing the permeability of the outer membrane, either by altering its lipid composition or by the introduction of the heterologous porin MspA. Mutagenesis of the first nucleotide-binding domain of the membrane ATPase EccC5 prevented both ESX-5-dependent secretion and bacterial growth, but did not affect ESX-5 complex assembly. This suggests that the rescuing effect is not due to pores formed by the ESX-5 membrane complex, but caused by ESX-5 activity. Subsequent proteomic analysis to identify crucial ESX-5 substrates confirmed that all detectable PE and PPE proteins in the cell surface and cell envelope fractions were routed through ESX-5. Additionally, saturated transposon-directed insertion-site sequencing (TraDIS) was applied to both wild-type M. marinum cells and cells expressing mspA to identify genes that are not essential anymore in the presence of MspA. This analysis confirmed the importance of esx-5, but we could not identify essential ESX-5 substrates, indicating that multiple of these substrates are together responsible for the essentiality. Finally, examination of phenotypes on defined carbon sources revealed that an esx-5 mutant is strongly impaired in the uptake and utilization of hydrophobic carbon sources. Based on these data, we propose a model in which the ESX-5 system is responsible for the transport of cell envelope proteins that are required for nutrient uptake. These proteins might in this way compensate for the lack of MspA-like porins in slow

  12. Biosynthesis of D-arabinose in mycobacteria - a novel bacterial pathway with implications for antimycobacterial therapy.

    PubMed

    Wolucka, Beata A

    2008-06-01

    Decaprenyl-phospho-arabinose (beta-D-arabinofuranosyl-1-O-monophosphodecaprenol), the only known donor of d-arabinose in bacteria, and its precursor, decaprenyl-phospho-ribose (beta-D-ribofuranosyl-1-O-monophosphodecaprenol), were first described in 1992. En route to D-arabinofuranose, the decaprenyl-phospho-ribose 2'-epimerase converts decaprenyl-phospho-ribose to decaprenyl-phospho-arabinose, which is a substrate for arabinosyltransferases in the synthesis of the cell-wall arabinogalactan and lipoarabinomannan polysaccharides of mycobacteria. The first step of the proposed decaprenyl-phospho-arabinose biosynthesis pathway in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and related actinobacteria is the formation of D-ribose 5-phosphate from sedoheptulose 7-phosphate, catalysed by the Rv1449 transketolase, and/or the isomerization of d-ribulose 5-phosphate, catalysed by the Rv2465 d-ribose 5-phosphate isomerase. d-Ribose 5-phosphate is a substrate for the Rv1017 phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase which forms 5-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate (PRPP). The activated 5-phosphoribofuranosyl residue of PRPP is transferred by the Rv3806 5-phosphoribosyltransferase to decaprenyl phosphate, thus forming 5'-phosphoribosyl-monophospho-decaprenol. The dephosphorylation of 5'-phosphoribosyl-monophospho-decaprenol to decaprenyl-phospho-ribose by the putative Rv3807 phospholipid phosphatase is the committed step of the pathway. A subsequent 2'-epimerization of decaprenyl-phospho-ribose by the heteromeric Rv3790/Rv3791 2'-epimerase leads to the formation of the decaprenyl-phospho-arabinose precursor for the synthesis of the cell-wall arabinans in Actinomycetales. The mycobacterial 2'-epimerase Rv3790 subunit is similar to the fungal D-arabinono-1,4-lactone oxidase, the last enzyme in the biosynthesis of D-erythroascorbic acid, thus pointing to an evolutionary link between the D-arabinofuranose- and L-ascorbic acid-related pathways. Decaprenyl-phospho-arabinose has been a lead compound for the

  13. Problems in acquiring mineral revenues for financing economic development: a case study of Zambia during 1970-78

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, R.L. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    During the 1970s Zambia granted tax incentives to translational mining companies (thereby foregoing some revenues) in order to achieve expected investment benefits to the economy and government. The Government also acquired ownership interests in the companies via asset acquisition. Global market forces turned against Zambia's interests, and expected benefits were not forthcoming because company profits had become the sole tax base in the mineral sector. Zambia's experience from 1970 to 1978 suggests that it and other mineral export countries should (a) evaluate carefully whether reducing the effective tax rate on company profits actually induces investment and (b) consider thoroughly whether a tax scheme that includes a proper mix of profit, mineral and export levies is more appropriate than a single tax base.

  14. [Pulmonary disease caused by opportunistic environmental mycobacteria. Review of 35 cases].

    PubMed

    Hernández Flix, S; Sauret, J; Ausina, V; Condom, M J; Rodríguez Froján, G; Luquin, M; Cornudella, R

    1990-06-09

    The clinical characteristics, radiologic findings, and therapeutic response in 35 cases of pulmonary disease induced by opportunistic environmental mycobacteria collected during a period of 4 years are reported. These cases included 21 infections by Mycobacterium kansasii, 10 by M. xenopi, and 4 by M. avium. The cases reported constituted the 6% of all mycobacterial infections of the lung observed in our institution. The mean age of the patients was 56 years and 83% of them were male. The presence of previous pulmonary involvement was rather frequent, specially the existence of chronic limitation of the air flow (CLAF) (91%) and previous tuberculosis (29%). The clinical symptoms were almost nonspecific and they could frequently be misinterpreted as an intercurrent infection in cases of CLAF. The radiologic findings could not be distinguished from an infection by M. tuberculosis. The clinical course with pharmacologic first line therapy (93% of cases) was satisfactory in 28 patients in whom follow-up controls are available.

  15. A rheostat mechanism governs the bifurcation of carbon flux in mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Murima, Paul; Zimmermann, Michael; Chopra, Tarun; Pojer, Florence; Fonti, Giulia; Dal Peraro, Matteo; Alonso, Sylvie; Sauer, Uwe; Pethe, Kevin; McKinney, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid metabolism is an important feature of the pathogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during infection. Consumption of fatty acids requires regulation of carbon flux bifurcation between the oxidative TCA cycle and the glyoxylate shunt. In Escherichia coli, flux bifurcation is regulated by phosphorylation-mediated inhibition of isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICD), a paradigmatic example of post-translational mechanisms governing metabolic fluxes. Here, we demonstrate that, in contrast to E. coli, carbon flux bifurcation in mycobacteria is regulated not by phosphorylation but through metabolic cross-activation of ICD by glyoxylate, which is produced by the glyoxylate shunt enzyme isocitrate lyase (ICL). This regulatory circuit maintains stable partitioning of fluxes, thus ensuring a balance between anaplerosis, energy production, and precursor biosynthesis. The rheostat-like mechanism of metabolite-mediated control of flux partitioning demonstrates the importance of allosteric regulation during metabolic steady-state. The sensitivity of this regulatory mechanism to perturbations presents a potentially attractive target for chemotherapy. PMID:27555519

  16. In vitro susceptibilities of rapidly growing mycobacteria to newer antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Khardori, N; Nguyen, H; Rosenbaum, B; Rolston, K; Bodey, G P

    1994-01-01

    The in vitro antimicrobial susceptibilities of 42 isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria (Mycobacterium fortuitum, M. chelonae, and Mycobacterium species [other than M. fortuitum and M. chelonae]) to nine quinolones, including newer agents, two new aminoglycosides, and an aminocyclitol (trospectomycin) were determined by a broth microdilution method. The new quinolones, PD 117596, PD 127391, and PD 117558, showed excellent in vitro activities against M. fortuitum (MICs for 90% of isolates [MIC90s], 0.06, 0.06, and 0.12 microgram/ml, respectively). The MIC90 of ciprofloxacin for M. fortuitum was 0.5 microgram/ml. Only 14 to 28% of isolates of M. chelonae were susceptible to various quinolones. Most isolates of all three species were susceptible to the new aminoglycosides SCH 21420 and SCH 22591. The MIC90s of trospectomycin were 8 micrograms/ml for M. chelonae, 32 micrograms/ml for Mycobacterium species, and > 64 micrograms/ml for M. fortuitum. PMID:8141567

  17. Association of mycobacteria in recirculating aquaculture systems and mycobacterial disease in fish.

    PubMed

    Yanong, Roy P E; Pouder, Deborah B; Falkinham, Joseph O

    2010-12-01

    Mycobacterium marinum isolates cultivated from tissue containing granulomatous lesions in Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus and from biofilm samples collected from their tank and water recirculating system had identical (L1 of 11 bands) repetitive-sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) DNA fingerprints. A second M. marinum clone sharing 4 of 11 rep-PCR bands with the first clone was isolated from some fish tissues but not from system samples. Water samples yielded low numbers of colonies of mycobacteria (0.08-1.3/mL), but high numbers were recovered from biofilms (260-12,000/swab) and filters (63-21,000/ filter). Mycobacterium hemophilum, M. chelonae, M. trivale, M. gastri, and M. gordonae were isolated from system samples alone.

  18. WHO Co-operative studies on a simple culture technique for the isolation of mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Šula, Ladislav

    1963-01-01

    Tuberculosis surveys are in progress in many countries that do not have adequate laboratory facilities for carrying out complicated bacteriological procedures. As part of a WHO co-operative research programme, studies have been undertaken with a view to developing a simple culture technique for the isolation of mycobacteria that does not require elaborate equipment. This paper is the first report on these co-operative studies. Storage and transport are known to affect adversely the viability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pathological specimens, thus giving rise to poor culture results and indicating the advisability of culturing such specimens on the spot. The preparation of the efficient and widely used Löwenstein-Jensen (L-J) culture medium, however, requires materials and facilities that are not easy available in developing countries. In an attempt to overcome this difficulty, the Tuberculosis Research Institute in Prague has developed a semi-synthetic liquid medium that can be prepared in bulk, concentrated and lyophilized, and sent even to distant laboratories. The present paper describes in detail the preparation of this lyophilized medium, which can be stored at room temperature for at least 6-12 months and is easy to reconstitute, and discusses the growth characteristics of mycobacteria multiplied in it. Experience in Czechoslovakia, where between 1953 and 1962 nearly 21 million cultures have been made with the medium, has shown that it is quite satisfactory and even slightly superior to L-J medium in certain respects. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3 & 4FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 13FIG. 14FIG. 15FIG. 16 PMID:14102036

  19. Evolutionary Thrift: Mycobacteria Repurpose Plasmid Diversity during Adaptation of Type VII Secretion Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Tatum D.; Weber, Alexandra M.

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacteria have a distinct secretion system, termed type VII (T7SS), which is encoded by paralogous chromosomal loci (ESX) and associated with pathogenesis, conjugation, and metal homeostasis. Evolution of paralogous gene families is of interest because duplication is an important mechanism by which novel genes evolve, but there are potential conflicts between adaptive forces that stabilize duplications and those that enable evolution of new functions. Our objective was to delineate the adaptive forces underlying diversification of T7SS. Plasmid-borne ESX were described recently, and we found evidence that the initial duplication and divergence of ESX systems occurred on plasmids and was driven by selection for advantageous mutations. Plasmid conjugation has been linked to T7SS and type IV secretion systems (T4SS) in mycobacteria, and we discovered that T7SS and T4SS genes evolved in concert on the plasmids. We hypothesize that differentiation of plasmid ESX helps to prevent conjugation among cells harboring incompatible plasmids. Plasmid ESX appear to have been repurposed following migration to the chromosome, and there is evidence of positive selection driving further differentiation of chromosomal ESX. We hypothesize that ESX loci were initially stabilized on the chromosome by mediating their own transfer. These results emphasize the diverse adaptive paths underlying evolution of novelty, which in this case involved plasmid duplications, selection for advantageous mutations in the mobile and core genomes, migration of the loci between plasmids and chromosomes, and lateral transfer among chromosomes. We discuss further implications for the choice of model organism to study ESX functions in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:28391322

  20. Two-laboratory collaborative study on identification of mycobacteria: molecular versus phenotypic methods.

    PubMed Central

    Springer, B; Stockman, L; Teschner, K; Roberts, G D; Böttger, E C

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the conventional tests used for the identification of mycobacteria may (i) frequently result in erroneous identification and (ii) underestimate the diversity within the genus Mycobacterium. To address this issue in a more systematic fashion, a study comparing phenotypic and molecular methods for the identification of mycobacteria was initiated. Focus was given to isolates which were difficult to identify to species level and which yielded inconclusive results by conventional tests performed under day-to-day routine laboratory conditions. Traditional methods included growth rate, colonial morphology, pigmentation, biochemical profiles, and gas-liquid chromatography of short-chain fatty acids. Molecular identification was done by PCR-mediated partial sequence analysis of the gene encoding the 16S rRNA. A total of 34 isolates was included in this study; 13 of the isolates corresponded to established species, and 21 isolates corresponded to previously uncharacterized taxa. For five isolates, phenotypic and molecular analyses gave identical results. For five isolates, minor discrepancies were present; four isolates remained unidentified after biochemical testing. For 20 isolates, major discrepancies between traditional and molecular typing methods were observed. Retrospective analysis of the data revealed that the discrepant results were without exception due to erroneous biochemical test results or interpretations. In particular, phenotypic identification schemes were compromised with regard to the recognition of previously undescribed taxa. We conclude that molecular typing by 16S rRNA sequence determination is not only more rapid (12 to 36 h versus 4 to 8 weeks) but also more accurate than traditional typing. PMID:8789004