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Sample records for noodle consumption patterns

  1. Noodle consumption patterns of American consumers: NHANES 2001-2002

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chin Eun; Lee, Kyung Won

    2010-01-01

    Although noodles occupy an important place in the dietary lives of Americans, up until the present time research and in-depth data on the noodle consumption patterns of the US population have been very limited. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the food consumption and diet patterns of noodle consumers and non-consumers according to age, gender, income, and ethnicity. The 2001-2002 NHANES databases were used. The NHANES 2001-2002 data showed that noodle consumers reporting noodle consumption in their 24-h recall were 2,035 individuals (23.3% of total subjects). According to the results, the mean noodle consumption was 304.1 g/day/person, with 334.3 g for males and 268.0 g for females. By age, the intake of those in the age range of 9-18 years old ranked highest at 353.0 g, followed by the order of 19-50 year-olds with 333.5 g, 51-70 year-olds with by 280.4 g, older than 71years old with 252.3 g, and 1-8 year-olds with 221.5 g. By gender, males consumed more noodles than females. Also, according to income, the intake amount for the middle-income level (PIR 1~1.85) of consumers was highest at 312.5 g. Noodle intake also showed different patterns by ethnicity in which the "other" ethnic group consumed the most noodles with 366.1 g, followed by, in order, Hispanics with 318.7 g, Whites with 298.6 g, and Blacks with 289.5 g. After comparing food consumption by dividing the subjects into noodle consumers and non-consumers, the former was more likely to consume milk, fish, citrus fruits, tomatoes, and alcoholic beverages while the latter preferred meat, poultry, bread, and non-alcohol beverages. PMID:20607071

  2. Noodle consumption patterns of American consumers: NHANES 2001-2002.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chin Eun; Lee, Kyung Won; Cho, Mi Sook

    2010-06-01

    Although noodles occupy an important place in the dietary lives of Americans, up until the present time research and in-depth data on the noodle consumption patterns of the US population have been very limited. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the food consumption and diet patterns of noodle consumers and non-consumers according to age, gender, income, and ethnicity. The 2001-2002 NHANES databases were used. The NHANES 2001-2002 data showed that noodle consumers reporting noodle consumption in their 24-h recall were 2,035 individuals (23.3% of total subjects). According to the results, the mean noodle consumption was 304.1 g/day/person, with 334.3 g for males and 268.0 g for females. By age, the intake of those in the age range of 9-18 years old ranked highest at 353.0 g, followed by the order of 19-50 year-olds with 333.5 g, 51-70 year-olds with by 280.4 g, older than 71years old with 252.3 g, and 1-8 year-olds with 221.5 g. By gender, males consumed more noodles than females. Also, according to income, the intake amount for the middle-income level (PIR 1~1.85) of consumers was highest at 312.5 g. Noodle intake also showed different patterns by ethnicity in which the "other" ethnic group consumed the most noodles with 366.1 g, followed by, in order, Hispanics with 318.7 g, Whites with 298.6 g, and Blacks with 289.5 g. After comparing food consumption by dividing the subjects into noodle consumers and non-consumers, the former was more likely to consume milk, fish, citrus fruits, tomatoes, and alcoholic beverages while the latter preferred meat, poultry, bread, and non-alcohol beverages.

  3. Effect of hydrocolloids on the energy consumption and quality of frozen noodles.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhi-Li; Ai, Zhi-Lu; Wang, Tao; Wang, Yu-Hong; Zhang, Xiu-Ling

    2016-05-01

    Effects of hydrocolloids such as Sodium polyacrylate, xanthan gum and sodium alginate on the energy consumption and quality of frozen cooked noodles were investigated. Results showed that gelatinization temperature (GT) shortened significantly and texture properties (hardness, firmness, break strength) of frozen cooked noodle were significantly improved by adding different hydrocolloid additives (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, there were no significant differences of glass-transition temperature between hydrocolloid fortified and non fortified frozen cooked noodles. Moreover, the hydrocolloids improved quality of cooked noodle and increased energy consumption, however, xanthan gum showed the best results. The optimized constituents were: sodium polyacrylate 0.13 %, xanthan gum 0.86 %, sodium alginate 0.18 % with predicted sensory scores of 90.30. The study showed that hydrocolloids could be used as modifying agents in frozen cooked noodle process.

  4. Instant noodle consumption is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors among college students in Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Huh, In Sil; Kim, Hyesook; Jo, Hee Kyung; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Jong Seung; Kim, Soo Jin; Kwon, Oran

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Increased consumption of instant noodles has recently been reported to be positively associated with obesity and cardiometabolic syndrome in South Korea, which has the highest per capita instant noodle consumption worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the association between instant noodle consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors among college students in Seoul. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study subjects consisted of 3,397 college students (1,782 male; 1,615 female) aged 18-29 years who participated in a health checkup. Information on instant noodle consumption was obtained from the participants' answers to a question about their average frequency of instant noodle intake over the 1 year period prior to the survey. RESULTS Statistical analysis using a general linear model that adjusted for age, body mass index, gender, family income, health-related behaviors, and other dietary factors important for cardiometabolic risk, showed a positive association between the frequency of instant noodle consumption and plasma triglyceride levels, diastolic blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels in all subjects. Compared to the group with the lowest frequency of instant noodle intake (≤ 1/month), the odds ratio for hypertriglyceridemia in the group with an intake of ≥ 3/week was 2.639 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.393–5.000] for all subjects, while it was 2.149 (95% CI, 1.045–4.419) and 5.992 (95% CI, 1.859–21.824) for male and female students, respectively. In female students, diastolic blood pressure was also higher among more frequent consumers of instant noodles. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that frequent consumption of instant noodles may be associated with increased cardiometabolic risk factors among apparently healthy college students aged 18–29 years. PMID:28584580

  5. Instant noodle consumption is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors among college students in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Huh, In Sil; Kim, Hyesook; Jo, Hee Kyung; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Jong Seung; Kim, Soo Jin; Kwon, Oran; Oh, Bumjo; Chang, Namsoo

    2017-06-01

    Increased consumption of instant noodles has recently been reported to be positively associated with obesity and cardiometabolic syndrome in South Korea, which has the highest per capita instant noodle consumption worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the association between instant noodle consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors among college students in Seoul. The study subjects consisted of 3,397 college students (1,782 male; 1,615 female) aged 18-29 years who participated in a health checkup. Information on instant noodle consumption was obtained from the participants' answers to a question about their average frequency of instant noodle intake over the 1 year period prior to the survey. Statistical analysis using a general linear model that adjusted for age, body mass index, gender, family income, health-related behaviors, and other dietary factors important for cardiometabolic risk, showed a positive association between the frequency of instant noodle consumption and plasma triglyceride levels, diastolic blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels in all subjects. Compared to the group with the lowest frequency of instant noodle intake (≤ 1/month), the odds ratio for hypertriglyceridemia in the group with an intake of ≥ 3/week was 2.639 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.393-5.000] for all subjects, while it was 2.149 (95% CI, 1.045-4.419) and 5.992 (95% CI, 1.859-21.824) for male and female students, respectively. In female students, diastolic blood pressure was also higher among more frequent consumers of instant noodles. Our results suggest that frequent consumption of instant noodles may be associated with increased cardiometabolic risk factors among apparently healthy college students aged 18-29 years.

  6. Instant noodle intake and dietary patterns are associated with distinct cardiometabolic risk factors in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun Joon; Cho, Eunyoung; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Fung, Teresa T; Rimm, Eric; Rosner, Bernard; Manson, JoAnn E; Wheelan, Kevin; Hu, Frank B

    2014-08-01

    The consumption of instant noodles is relatively high in Asian populations. It is unclear whether a higher intake of instant noodles is associated with cardiometabolic risk independent of overall dietary patterns. We therefore investigated the association using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV 2007-2009, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the Korean population with a clustered, multistage, stratified, and rolling sampling design. A total of 10,711 adults (54.5% women) 19-64 y of age were analyzed, with adjustment for sampling design complexity. Diet was assessed by using a 63-item food-frequency questionnaire. We identified 2 major dietary patterns with the use of principal components analysis: the "traditional dietary pattern" (TP), rich in rice, fish, vegetables, fruit, and potatoes, and the "meat and fast-food pattern" (MP), with less rice intake but rich in meat, soda, fried food, and fast food including instant noodles. The highest MP quintile was associated with increased prevalence of abdominal obesity (OR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.90), LDL cholesterol ≥130 mg/dL (1.3 g/L) (OR: 1.57, 95% CI 1.26, 1.95), decreased prevalence of low HDL cholesterol (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.80), and high triglycerides [≥150 mg/dL (1.5 g/L); OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.93]. The highest quintile for the TP was associated with decreased prevalence of elevated blood pressure (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.90) and marginally lower trends for abdominal obesity (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.98; P-trend = 0.06), but neither of the dietary patterns was associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The consumption of instant noodles ≥2 times/wk was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.55) in women but not in men (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.49; P-interaction = 0.04). The 2 major dietary patterns were associated with distinct cardiometabolic risk factors. The consumption of instant noodles was

  7. Instant noodles, processed food intake, and dietary pattern are associated with atopic dermatitis in an adult population (KNHANES 2009-2011).

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Choi, Hyun-Seok; Bae, Ji-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of atopic dermatitis (AD) is continuously increasing in industrialized countries, possibly due to dietary and lifestyle changes. However, the association between processed food intake and AD has not been studied in a large adult population. We investigated the association between dietary habits and AD in 17,497 adults in the 2009-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We identified 4 dietary patterns using principal components analysis of a 63-item food frequency questionnaire: the "traditional dietary pattern", rich in rice and kimchi; the "processed food pattern", with more meat, instant noodles, soda, and processed foods; the "healthy dietary pattern", high in grains, vegetables, fruits, and seaweeds; and the "drinking dietary pattern", mainly drinking coffee and alcohol. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for AD were calculated according to dietary patterns after adjusting for potential confounders with incorporation of sample weights for the complex sample design. The "meat and processed food" pattern was associated with a significant 1.57 fold higher OR for atopic dermatitis than the low consumption group. Further analysis revealed that the increased atopic dermatitis was most closely associated with instant noodles. In contrast, the groups with high intake of rice and kimchi exhibited lower ORs, 0.38 and 0.43 folds, compared to the low intake group. Consuming instant noodles, meat and processed foods was associated with increased prevalence of atopic dermatitis, whereas consuming rice and kimchi, and coffee was associated with decreased prevalence of atopic dermatitis.

  8. Randomized controlled trial of oatmeal consumption versus noodle consumption on blood lipids of urban Chinese adults with hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in China and worldwide. Whole grain oats can reduce risk of CVD by reducing total and LDL-cholesterol, major risk factors for CVD. While this association has been established in many populations, data from Asian populations is limited. Thus, this study investigated the impact of oat consumption on cholesterol levels in Chinese adults. Male and female data from this work were previously published separately in mandarin in two Chinese journals. The combined male and female data were reanalyzed and are presented here. Methods A randomized, controlled, parallel-arm study was conducted at Beijing Hospital, Beijing china. Subjects were adults (men and women) with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. The oat group (n=85) consumed 100grams of instant oat cereal versus the control group (n=81) who consumed 100grams of wheat flour-based noodles daily for 6weeks. Laboratory and anthropometric measurements were conducted at baseline and at the end of the 6-week intervention. Results Dietary fiber intake increased significantly in the oat group compared to the control group at the end of the 6-week intervention. Total-, LDL-cholesterol and waist circumference decreased significantly in the oat group compared to the control. HDL-cholesterol decreased significantly in the control group versus the oat group. There were no significant changes in blood pressure, other anthropometric or laboratory measures between the two groups at the end of the intervention. Conclusions Instant oatmeal consumed daily for 6 weeks significantly increased fiber intake and decreased major risk factors for CVD in Chinese adults with hypercholesterolemia. Increased consumption of whole grains, including oats, should continue to be encouraged. PMID:22866937

  9. Randomized controlled trial of oatmeal consumption versus noodle consumption on blood lipids of urban Chinese adults with hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Li, Lixiang; Song, Pengkun; Wang, Chunrong; Man, Qingqing; Meng, Liping; Cai, Jenny; Kurilich, Anne

    2012-08-06

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in China and worldwide. Whole grain oats can reduce risk of CVD by reducing total and LDL-cholesterol, major risk factors for CVD. While this association has been established in many populations, data from Asian populations is limited. Thus, this study investigated the impact of oat consumption on cholesterol levels in Chinese adults. Male and female data from this work were previously published separately in mandarin in two Chinese journals. The combined male and female data were reanalyzed and are presented here. A randomized, controlled, parallel-arm study was conducted at Beijing Hospital, Beijing china. Subjects were adults (men and women) with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. The oat group (n=85) consumed 100 grams of instant oat cereal versus the control group (n=81) who consumed 100 grams of wheat flour-based noodles daily for 6 weeks. Laboratory and anthropometric measurements were conducted at baseline and at the end of the 6-week intervention. Dietary fiber intake increased significantly in the oat group compared to the control group at the end of the 6-week intervention. Total-, LDL-cholesterol and waist circumference decreased significantly in the oat group compared to the control. HDL-cholesterol decreased significantly in the control group versus the oat group. There were no significant changes in blood pressure, other anthropometric or laboratory measures between the two groups at the end of the intervention. Instant oatmeal consumed daily for 6 weeks significantly increased fiber intake and decreased major risk factors for CVD in Chinese adults with hypercholesterolemia. Increased consumption of whole grains, including oats, should continue to be encouraged.

  10. Instant noodles: processing, quality, and nutritional aspects.

    PubMed

    Gulia, Neelam; Dhaka, Vandana; Khatkar, B S

    2014-01-01

    Noodles are one of the staple foods consumed in many Asian countries. Instant noodles have become internationally recognized food, and worldwide consumption is on the rise. The properties of instant noodles like taste, nutrition, convenience, safety, longer shelf-life, and reasonable price have made them popular. Quality factors important for instant noodles are color, flavor, and texture, cooking quality, rehydration rates during final preparation, and the presence or absence of rancid taste after extended storage. Microstructure of dough and noodles has been studied to understand the influence of ingredients and processing variables on the noodle quality by employing scanning electron microscopy. Applications of newer techniques like confocal laser scanning microscopy and epifluorescence light microscopy employed to understand the microstructure changes in dough and noodles have also been discussed. Sincere efforts of researchers are underway to improve the formulation, extend the shelf life, and promote universal fortification of instant noodles. Accordingly, many researchers are exploring the potential of noodle fortification as an effective public health intervention and improve its nutritional properties. This review focuses on the functionality of ingredients, unit operations involved, quality criteria for evaluation, recent trends in fortification, and current knowledge in relation to instant noodles.

  11. Noodles stay hotter longer.

    PubMed

    Shalom, Avshalom; Bryant, Amy; Smith-Meek, Melissa; Parsons, Lana R; Munster, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    During a 10-year period, a high incidence of burns from prepared noodle soup was noticed at the Baltimore Regional Burn Center. Because of the perceived severity of these burns, we took a more systematic look at the burns resulting from this type of soup to determine its effect on patient hospitalization and also examined the properties of the soup itself. All medical records of pediatric patients admitted to the Center between 1989 and 1999 with scald burns from various types of soup were retrospectively reviewed and divided into the Noodle Soup group, and the Other Soup group. The scald burns were compared as well as the physical properties of prepared noodle soup and tap water. Of 27 pediatric admissions for soup burns, 10 were from noodle soup and 17 from other types. Difference in average age and average total percentage of body surface area affected was not significant for the burns from either type of soup. However, the average length of stay for patients with noodle soup burns was significantly longer than for those with other types of soup burns (P < .010). Also, the cooling curve for noodle soup is much slower than for normal tap water. Noodle soup causes a significantly longer hospital stay than other types of soup. Because the boiling temperature of water and noodle soup is about the same, but the cooling curve of noodle soup is much slower, noodle soup may present a greater danger to children than other types of soup.

  12. Folates in Asian noodles: III. Fortification, impact of processing, and enhancement of folate intakes.

    PubMed

    Bui, Lan T T; Small, Darryl M

    2007-06-01

    Asian noodles, a widely consumed staple food, were evaluated as potential vehicles for fortification with folic acid. Samples of white salted, yellow alkaline, and instant noodles, prepared under controlled laboratory conditions, were fortified and folates were measured at each stage of processing using a microbiological assay. Although the 3 styles showed differing patterns of retention, overall losses were slightly more than 40% and were similar for all styles. White salted and yellow alkaline noodles showed no significant decrease in total folate content during production. In contrast, significant losses occurred for instant noodles during steaming and deep-frying of the noodle strands. In all cases, substantial losses occurred during subsequent cooking of the dried noodles. Fortification at a rate of 50% of the reference value per serving resulted in retention of folate at levels corresponding to 30% following cooking, whereas unfortified noodles contributed less than 4% per serving. It is concluded that fortifying Asian noodles provides an effective means for enhancing folate intake.

  13. Meet the Noodle People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kananen, Mary King

    1995-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity for children to build and take home a basic model of the human skeletal system. Describes how to make "noodle people" from ordinary materials including pasta, pipe cleaners, straws, and margarine tub lids. (NB)

  14. Meet the Noodle People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kananen, Mary King

    1995-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity for children to build and take home a basic model of the human skeletal system. Describes how to make "noodle people" from ordinary materials including pasta, pipe cleaners, straws, and margarine tub lids. (NB)

  15. A comparison of food and nutrient intake between instant noodle consumers and non-instant noodle consumers in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Juyeon; Lee, Jung-Sug; Jang, Young Ai; Chung, Hae Rang; Kim, Jeongseon

    2011-10-01

    Instant noodles are widely consumed in Asian countries. The Korean population consumed the largest quantity of instant noodles in the world in 2008. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between instant noodles and nutritional status in Koreans. The objective of this study was to examine the association between instant noodle consumption and food and nutrient intake in Korean adults. We used dietary data of 6,440 subjects aged 20 years and older who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The average age of the instant noodle consumers (INC) was 36.2 and that of the non-instant noodle consumers (non-INC) was 44.9; men consumed more instant noodles than women (P < 0.001). With the exception of cereals and grain products, legumes, seaweeds, eggs, and milk and dairy products, INC consumed significantly fewer potatoes and starches, sugars, seeds and nuts, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, seasonings, beverages, meats, fishes, and oils and fats compared with those in the non-INC group. The INC group showed significantly higher nutrient intake of energy, fat, sodium, thiamine, and riboflavin; however, the INC group showed a significantly lower intake of protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, vitamin A, niacin, and vitamin C compared with those in the non-INC group. This study revealed that consuming instant noodles may lead to excessive intake of energy, fats, and sodium but may also cause increased intake of thiamine and riboflavin. Therefore, nutritional education helping adults to choose a balanced meal while consuming instant noodles should be implemented. Additionally, instant noodle manufacturers should consider nutritional aspects when developing new products.

  16. A comparison of food and nutrient intake between instant noodle consumers and non-instant noodle consumers in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Juyeon; Lee, Jung-Sug; Jang, Young Ai; Chung, Hae Rang

    2011-01-01

    Instant noodles are widely consumed in Asian countries. The Korean population consumed the largest quantity of instant noodles in the world in 2008. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between instant noodles and nutritional status in Koreans. The objective of this study was to examine the association between instant noodle consumption and food and nutrient intake in Korean adults. We used dietary data of 6,440 subjects aged 20 years and older who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The average age of the instant noodle consumers (INC) was 36.2 and that of the non-instant noodle consumers (non-INC) was 44.9; men consumed more instant noodles than women (P < 0.001). With the exception of cereals and grain products, legumes, seaweeds, eggs, and milk and dairy products, INC consumed significantly fewer potatoes and starches, sugars, seeds and nuts, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, seasonings, beverages, meats, fishes, and oils and fats compared with those in the non-INC group. The INC group showed significantly higher nutrient intake of energy, fat, sodium, thiamine, and riboflavin; however, the INC group showed a significantly lower intake of protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, vitamin A, niacin, and vitamin C compared with those in the non-INC group. This study revealed that consuming instant noodles may lead to excessive intake of energy, fats, and sodium but may also cause increased intake of thiamine and riboflavin. Therefore, nutritional education helping adults to choose a balanced meal while consuming instant noodles should be implemented. Additionally, instant noodle manufacturers should consider nutritional aspects when developing new products. PMID:22125682

  17. Social Stratification and Consumption Patterns in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Kemal

    2006-01-01

    In this article, by analyzing consumption practices of Turkish households, I attempted to identify whether there are distinctions between different social classes in Turkey. Stated another way, I assessed and explored the impact of socio-economic forces on consumption patterns, taste and lifestyle. In doing so, I tested empirically, two…

  18. Social Stratification and Consumption Patterns in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Kemal

    2006-01-01

    In this article, by analyzing consumption practices of Turkish households, I attempted to identify whether there are distinctions between different social classes in Turkey. Stated another way, I assessed and explored the impact of socio-economic forces on consumption patterns, taste and lifestyle. In doing so, I tested empirically, two…

  19. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-01-01

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010–2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future. PMID:27649236

  20. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-09-13

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010-2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future.

  1. Microbial Transglutaminase in Noodle and Pasta Processing.

    PubMed

    Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi; Yousefi, Shima; Chronakis, Ioannis S

    2017-08-31

    Nowadays, there is an aggressive rate in consumption of noodles and pasta products throughout the world. Consumer acceptability and preference of these functional products can be promoted by the discovery of novel knowledge to improve their formulation and quality. The development of fortified-formulations for noodles and pasta products based on microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) can guarantee the shelf life extension with minimum quality losses. The current review focuses on recent trends and future prospects of MTGase utilization in the structural matrix of noodles and pasta products and represents the quality changes of cooking loss, texture, microstructure, color and sensory attributes of the MTGase-incorporated products. Digestibility, nutritional and health aspects of the MTGase-enriched formulations are also reviewed with a vision toward physical functions and safety outcomes of MTGases isolated from new microbial sources. The high potential of MTGase in developing commercial noodles and pasta products is successfully demonstrated. MTGase by modifying the crystallinity or molecular structure via covalent crosslinks between protein molecules strengthens the doughs stability and the textural characteristics of final products with the low- or high-protein flour. Compared with the control samples, the MTGase-supplemented products indicate slower digestion rates and better sensory and cooking properties without any remarkable color instability.

  2. Food deserts in Korea? A GIS analysis of food consumption patterns at sub-district level in Seoul using the KNHANES 2008-2012 data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dohyeong; Lee, Chang Kil; Seo, Dong Yeon

    2016-10-01

    The concept of "food deserts" has been widely used in Western countries as a framework to identify areas with constrained access to fresh and nutritious foods, providing guidelines for targeted nutrition and public health programs. Unlike the vast amount of literature on food deserts in a Western context, only a few studies have addressed the concept in an East Asian context, and none of them have investigated spatial patterns of unhealthy food consumption from a South Korean perspective. We first evaluated the applicability of food deserts in a Korean setting and identified four Korean-specific unhealthy food consumption indicators, including insufficient food consumption due to financial difficulty, limited consumption of fruits and vegetables, excessive consumption of junk food, and excessive consumption of instant noodles. The KNHANES 2008-2012 data in Seoul were analyzed with stratified sampling weights to understand the trends and basic characteristics of these eating patterns in each category. GIS analyses were then conducted for the data spatially aggregated at the sub-district level in order to create maps identifying areas of concern regarding each of these indicators and their combinations. Despite significant reduction in the rate of food insufficiency due to financial difficulty, the rates of excessive consumption of unhealthy foods (junk food and instant noodles) as well as limited consumption of fruits and vegetables have increased or remained high. These patterns tend to be found among relatively younger and more educated groups, regardless of income status. A GIS-based analysis demonstrated several hotspots as potential "food deserts" tailored to the Korean context based on the observed spatial patterns of undesirable food consumption. These findings could be used as a guide to prioritize areas for targeted intervention programs to facilitate healthy food consumption behaviors and thus improve nutrition and food-related health outcomes.

  3. Food deserts in Korea? A GIS analysis of food consumption patterns at sub-district level in Seoul using the KNHANES 2008-2012 data

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dohyeong; Seo, Dong Yeon

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The concept of "food deserts" has been widely used in Western countries as a framework to identify areas with constrained access to fresh and nutritious foods, providing guidelines for targeted nutrition and public health programs. Unlike the vast amount of literature on food deserts in a Western context, only a few studies have addressed the concept in an East Asian context, and none of them have investigated spatial patterns of unhealthy food consumption from a South Korean perspective. SUBJECTS/METHODS We first evaluated the applicability of food deserts in a Korean setting and identified four Korean-specific unhealthy food consumption indicators, including insufficient food consumption due to financial difficulty, limited consumption of fruits and vegetables, excessive consumption of junk food, and excessive consumption of instant noodles. The KNHANES 2008-2012 data in Seoul were analyzed with stratified sampling weights to understand the trends and basic characteristics of these eating patterns in each category. GIS analyses were then conducted for the data spatially aggregated at the sub-district level in order to create maps identifying areas of concern regarding each of these indicators and their combinations. RESULTS Despite significant reduction in the rate of food insufficiency due to financial difficulty, the rates of excessive consumption of unhealthy foods (junk food and instant noodles) as well as limited consumption of fruits and vegetables have increased or remained high. These patterns tend to be found among relatively younger and more educated groups, regardless of income status. CONCLUSIONS A GIS-based analysis demonstrated several hotspots as potential "food deserts" tailored to the Korean context based on the observed spatial patterns of undesirable food consumption. These findings could be used as a guide to prioritize areas for targeted intervention programs to facilitate healthy food consumption behaviors and thus

  4. Noodling for Mollusks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukkestad, Kathryn; Curran, Mary Carla

    2012-01-01

    Mollusks, such as mussels and snails, are a great group to noodle because they are prevalent in banks and bottoms of river basins and in sandy beach habitats. Furthermore, their shells are easy to come by and safe to handle. There are six classes within the phylum Mollusca. In the activities described in this article, the authors focus on the…

  5. Noodling for Mollusks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukkestad, Kathryn; Curran, Mary Carla

    2012-01-01

    Mollusks, such as mussels and snails, are a great group to noodle because they are prevalent in banks and bottoms of river basins and in sandy beach habitats. Furthermore, their shells are easy to come by and safe to handle. There are six classes within the phylum Mollusca. In the activities described in this article, the authors focus on the…

  6. Know Your Noodles! Assessing Variations in Sodium Content of Instant Noodles across Countries.

    PubMed

    Farrand, Clare; Charlton, Karen; Crino, Michelle; Santos, Joseph; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Rodrigo; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Webster, Jacqui

    2017-06-16

    Reducing salt intake is a cost-effective public health intervention to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease (NCDs). Ultra-processed foods contribute ~80% of dietary salt in high income countries, and are becoming prominent in low-middle income countries. Instant noodle consumption is particularly high in the Asia Pacific region. The aim of this study was to compare the sodium content of instant noodles sold worldwide to identify potential for reformulation. Analysis was undertaken for 765 instant noodle products from 10 countries using packaged food composition databases of ultra-processed foods compiled by the Global Food Monitoring Group (GFMG) and national shop survey data. Sodium levels were high and variable, within and between countries. Instant noodles in China had the highest mean sodium content (1944 mg/100 g; range: 397-3678/100 g) compared to New Zealand (798 mg/100 g; range: 249-2380 mg/100 g). Average pack size ranged from 57 g (Costa Rica) to 98 g (China). The average packet contributed 35% to 95% of the World Health Organization recommended daily salt intake of <5 g. Forty-one percent of products met the Pacific Island (PICs) regional sodium targets, 37% met the South Africa 2016 targets, and 62% met the UK 2017 targets. This study emphasises a need for stronger regulation and closer monitoring to drive rigorous reformulation of salt in ultra-processed foods.

  7. Know Your Noodles! Assessing Variations in Sodium Content of Instant Noodles across Countries

    PubMed Central

    Farrand, Clare; Charlton, Karen; Crino, Michelle; Santos, Joseph; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Rodrigo; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Webster, Jacqui

    2017-01-01

    Reducing salt intake is a cost-effective public health intervention to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease (NCDs). Ultra-processed foods contribute ~80% of dietary salt in high income countries, and are becoming prominent in low-middle income countries. Instant noodle consumption is particularly high in the Asia Pacific region. The aim of this study was to compare the sodium content of instant noodles sold worldwide to identify potential for reformulation. Analysis was undertaken for 765 instant noodle products from 10 countries using packaged food composition databases of ultra-processed foods compiled by the Global Food Monitoring Group (GFMG) and national shop survey data. Sodium levels were high and variable, within and between countries. Instant noodles in China had the highest mean sodium content (1944 mg/100 g; range: 397–3678/100 g) compared to New Zealand (798 mg/100 g; range: 249–2380 mg/100 g). Average pack size ranged from 57 g (Costa Rica) to 98 g (China). The average packet contributed 35% to 95% of the World Health Organization recommended daily salt intake of <5 g. Forty-one percent of products met the Pacific Island (PICs) regional sodium targets, 37% met the South Africa 2016 targets, and 62% met the UK 2017 targets. This study emphasises a need for stronger regulation and closer monitoring to drive rigorous reformulation of salt in ultra-processed foods. PMID:28621720

  8. Consumption patterns and perception analyses of hangwa.

    PubMed

    Kwock, Chang Geun; Lee, Min A; Park, So Hyun

    2012-03-01

    Hangwa is a traditional food, corresponding to the current consumption trend, in need of marketing strategies to extend its consumption. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze consumers' consumption patterns and perception of Hangwa to increase consumption in the market. A questionnaire was sent to 250 consumers by e-mail from Oct 8∼23, 2009 and the data from 231 persons were analyzed in this study. Statistical, descriptive, paired samples t-test, and importance-performance analyses were conducted using SPSS WIN 17.0. According to the results, Hangwa was purchased mainly 'for present' (39.8%) and the main reasons for buying it were 'traditional image' (33.3%) and 'taste' (22.5%). When importance and performance of attributes considered in purchasing Hangwa were evaluated, performance was assessed to be lower than importance for all attributes. The attributes in the first quadrant with a high importance and a high performance were 'a sanitary process', 'a rigorous quality mark' and 'taste', which were related with quality of the products. In addition, those with a high importance but a low performance were 'popularization through advertisement', 'promotion through mass media', 'conversion of thought on traditional foods', 'a reasonable price' and 'a wide range of price'. In conclusion, Hangwa manufacturers need to diversify products and extend the expiration date based on technologies to promote its consumption. In terms of price, Hangwa should become more available by lowering the price barrier for consumers who are sensitive to price.

  9. Effect of Wheat Flour Noodles with Bombyx mori Powder on Glycemic Response in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Wanhee; Kim, JiEun; Kim, Do-Yeon; Lim, Hyunjung; Choue, Ryowon

    2016-01-01

    Recent trial results suggest that the consumption of a low glycemic index (GI) diet is beneficial in the prevention of high blood glucose levels. Identifying active hypoglycemic substances in ordinary foods could be a significant benefit to the management of blood glucose. It has been hypothesized that noodles with Bombyx mori powder are a low GI food. We evaluated GI and changes in postprandial glucose levels following consumption of those noodles and compared them with those following consumption of plain wheat flour noodles (control) and glucose (reference) in healthy subjects. Thirteen males (age: 34.2±4.5 years, body mass index: 23.2±1.1 kg/m2) consumed 75 g carbohydrate portions of glucose and the 2 kinds of noodle after an overnight fast. Capillary blood was measured at time 0 (fasting), 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min from the start of each food intake. The GI values were calculated by taking the ratio of the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (IAUC) for the noodles and glucose. There was a significant difference in postprandial glucose concentrations at 30 and 45 min between the control noodles and the noodles with Bombyx mori powder: the IAUC and GI for the noodles with Bombyx mori powder were significantly lower than those for glucose and plain wheat flour noodles. The wheat flour noodles with Bombyx mori powder could help prevent an increase in postprandial glucose response and possibly provide an alternative to other carbohydrate staple foods for glycemic management. PMID:27752491

  10. Effect of Wheat Flour Noodles with Bombyx mori Powder on Glycemic Response in Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Suk, Wanhee; Kim, JiEun; Kim, Do-Yeon; Lim, Hyunjung; Choue, Ryowon

    2016-09-01

    Recent trial results suggest that the consumption of a low glycemic index (GI) diet is beneficial in the prevention of high blood glucose levels. Identifying active hypoglycemic substances in ordinary foods could be a significant benefit to the management of blood glucose. It has been hypothesized that noodles with Bombyx mori powder are a low GI food. We evaluated GI and changes in postprandial glucose levels following consumption of those noodles and compared them with those following consumption of plain wheat flour noodles (control) and glucose (reference) in healthy subjects. Thirteen males (age: 34.2±4.5 years, body mass index: 23.2±1.1 kg/m(2)) consumed 75 g carbohydrate portions of glucose and the 2 kinds of noodle after an overnight fast. Capillary blood was measured at time 0 (fasting), 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min from the start of each food intake. The GI values were calculated by taking the ratio of the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (IAUC) for the noodles and glucose. There was a significant difference in postprandial glucose concentrations at 30 and 45 min between the control noodles and the noodles with Bombyx mori powder: the IAUC and GI for the noodles with Bombyx mori powder were significantly lower than those for glucose and plain wheat flour noodles. The wheat flour noodles with Bombyx mori powder could help prevent an increase in postprandial glucose response and possibly provide an alternative to other carbohydrate staple foods for glycemic management.

  11. [Consumption pattern and recommended intakes of sugar].

    PubMed

    Quiles i Izquierdo, Joan

    2013-07-01

    Sugars are sweet-flavored carbohydrates that provide energy to the body. The adult brain uses about 140 g of glucose per day, amount which can represent up to 50 of the total number of carbohydrates consumed. In our country the sugar in food consumption pattern remains constant, while the consumption of soft drinks has increased in the past four years. The national survey of dietary intake of Spain (ENIDE, 2010-11) estimated that 20% of calories intake comes from carbohydrates called sugars. Sugar consumption has been associated with various pathologies (diabetes, obesity, tooth decay, cardiovascular disease) but these relationships are not consistent enough. Food information through nutritional labeling, including sugars present in food, pretend to protect the consumer health and to guarantee their right to information so they can make their own decisions with criterion. In view of different appraisals and existing studies, and above all, in the absence of a solid scientific evidence that concrete data on which make recommendations, the best nutritional advice for the general population could be a diet varied and balanced with food and nutrients from different sources, combining such a diet with exercise and physical activity. More specifically in terms of moderate consumption of sugar in the previous context of varied and balanced diet is perfectly compatible.

  12. Consumption Patterns and Perception Analyses of Hangwa

    PubMed Central

    Kwock, Chang Geun; Lee, Min A; Park, So Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Hangwa is a traditional food, corresponding to the current consumption trend, in need of marketing strategies to extend its consumption. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze consumers’ consumption patterns and perception of Hangwa to increase consumption in the market. A questionnaire was sent to 250 consumers by e-mail from Oct 8∼23, 2009 and the data from 231 persons were analyzed in this study. Statistical, descriptive, paired samples t-test, and importance-performance analyses were conducted using SPSS WIN 17.0. According to the results, Hangwa was purchased mainly ‘for present’ (39.8%) and the main reasons for buying it were ‘traditional image’ (33.3%) and ‘taste’ (22.5%). When importance and performance of attributes considered in purchasing Hangwa were evaluated, performance was assessed to be lower than importance for all attributes. The attributes in the first quadrant with a high importance and a high performance were ‘a sanitary process’, ‘a rigorous quality mark’ and ‘taste’, which were related with quality of the products. In addition, those with a high importance but a low performance were ‘popularization through advertisement’, ‘promotion through mass media’, ‘conversion of thought on traditional foods’, ‘a reasonable price’ and ‘a wide range of price’. In conclusion, Hangwa manufacturers need to diversify products and extend the expiration date based on technologies to promote its consumption. In terms of price, Hangwa should become more available by lowering the price barrier for consumers who are sensitive to price. PMID:24471065

  13. Dietary consumption patterns and laryngeal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Vlastarakos, Petros V; Vassileiou, Andrianna; Delicha, Evie; Kikidis, Dimitrios; Protopapas, Dimosthenis; Nikolopoulos, Thomas P

    2016-06-01

    .001; OR: 0.27). We found no difference in the overall consumption of fruits and vegetables between the LC patients and controls; however, the LC patients did have a greater consumption of cooked tomatoes and cooked root vegetables (p = 0.039 for both), and the controls had more consumption of leeks (p = 0.042) and, among controls younger than 65 years, cooked beans (p = 0.037). Lemon (p = 0.037), squeezed fruit juice (p = 0.032), and watermelon (p = 0.018) were also more frequently consumed by the controls. Other differences at the micronutrient level included greater consumption by the LC patients of retinol (p = 0.044), polyunsaturated fats (p = 0.041), and linoleic acid (p = 0.008); LC patients younger than 65 years also had greater intake of riboflavin (p = 0.045). We conclude that the differences in dietary consumption patterns between LC patients and controls indicate a possible role for lifestyle modifications involving nutritional factors as a means of decreasing the risk of laryngeal cancer.

  14. The impact of protein cross-linking induced by alkali on the quality of buckwheat noodles.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Na; Wei, Xiao-Ming; Zhu, Ke-Xue

    2017-04-15

    The impact of alkali addition on the dough rheological properties and quality of buckwheat noodles was investigated. Farinograph measurements showed that the addition of alkali increased the water absorption and development time of the dough. Dynamic rheological properties analysis showed that alkali addition enhanced G' and G″ of dough. In addition, the texture properties of buckwheat noodles improved by the increase of the hardness and tensile force. Furthermore, an obvious decrease in the intensity of the protein bands with lower molecular weights was observed in SDS-PAGE patterns and the extractability of protein in sodium dodecyl sulfate containing medium (SDSEP) decreased, which demonstrated that alkali addition promoted the degree of protein polymerization in the buckwheat noodles. CLSM analysis showed alkali addition produced a tight and continuous protein network in buckwheat noodles. The protein cross-linking induced by alkali improved rheological properties of dough and texture properties of buckwheat noodles.

  15. 21 CFR 139.150 - Noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Noodle products. 139.150 Section 139.150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... § 139.150 Noodle products. (a) Noodle products are the class of food each of which is prepared by drying...

  16. 21 CFR 139.150 - Noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Noodle products. 139.150 Section 139.150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... § 139.150 Noodle products. (a) Noodle products are the class of food each of which is prepared by drying...

  17. 21 CFR 139.150 - Noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Noodle products. 139.150 Section 139.150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... § 139.150 Noodle products. (a) Noodle products are the class of food each of which is prepared by drying...

  18. 21 CFR 139.150 - Noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Noodle products. 139.150 Section 139.150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... § 139.150 Noodle products. (a) Noodle products are the class of food each of which is prepared by drying...

  19. Food consumption patterns of Inuit women.

    PubMed

    Lawn, J; Langner, N; Brulé, D; Thompson, N; Lawn, P; Hill, F

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate nutrient intake and food consumption patterns of Inuit women of child-bearing age, a 24-hour diet recall and general health and food frequency questionnaire was administered to 688 Inuit women aged 15-44 in six isolated communities. Data were analyzed using the 1991 Canadian Nutrient File. Mean intakes of essential nutrients were expressed as percentages of Health Canada's 1990 Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). Chi-square tests were used to determine relationships between categorical variables. Folacin intake ranged from 49% to 95% of the RNI in most communities (median = 76%) and was only 37% of the RNI for pregnant and 54% for lactating women. Mean calcium intake for pregnant and lactating women averaged 55% and 47% of the RNI, respectively. Average vitamin A intakes ranged from 26% to 87% of the RNI (median = 65%), with intake for pregnant Inuit women and lactating women 79% and 54% of the RNI, respectively. Country food was the major source of protein and iron, and store foods the major source of calories, calcium, folacin, and vitamin A. Low intakes of folacin, calcium, and vitamin A, especially among pregnant and lactating women, place Inuit women of childbearing age at risk. Women on social assistance are nutritionally vulnerable.

  20. 21 CFR 139.165 - Enriched vegetable noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched vegetable noodle products. 139.165... Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.165 Enriched vegetable noodle products. (a) Each of the noodle products... a vegetable ingredient in compliance with the requirements prescribed for vegetable noodle products...

  1. 21 CFR 139.160 - Vegetable noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetable noodle products. 139.160 Section 139.160... Noodle Products § 139.160 Vegetable noodle products. (a) Vegetable noodle products are the class of food... quantity that the solids thereof are not less than 3 percent by weight of the finished vegetable noodle...

  2. Patterns of alcohol consumption after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Tang, H; Boulton, R; Gunson, B; Hubscher, S; Neuberger, J

    1998-01-01

    Background—Uncertainty exists about the extent and consequences of a return to alcohol consumption after liver transplantation for alcoholic liver disease (ALD). 
Aims—To determine the prevalence and consequences of alcohol consumption in patients transplanted for ALD. 
Methods—A retrospective case controlled study of all patients transplanted for ALD at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, between 1987 and 1996. 
Results—Seventy patients with ALD were transplanted, of which 59 survived more than three months; 56 were interviewed. Twenty eight had consumed some alcohol after transplantation; for the nine "heavy drinkers" (HD), the median time to resumption of alcohol intake was six months and for the 19 "moderate drinkers" (MD) it was eight months. There was no significant difference in episodes of acute rejection or compliance with medication between those who were abstinent, MD, or HD. Histological evidence of liver injury was common in ALD patients who had returned to drink. Mild fatty change was found in 1/11 biopsy specimens from abstinent patients but moderate to severe fatty change and ballooned hepatocytes were seen in 3/5 MD and 2/5 HD specimens. Two HD patients had early fibrosis. One HD patient has died of alcohol related complications. 
Conclusions—Moderate to heavy alcohol consumption occurs in patients transplanted for ALD. Patient recall of abstinence advice is unreliable, and patients return to alcohol mainly within the first year after liver transplantation. Return to alcohol consumption after liver transplantation is associated with rapid development of histological liver injury including fibrosis. 

 Keywords: alcohol consumption; liver transplantation PMID:9771419

  3. Predicting vehicle fuel consumption patterns using floating vehicle data.

    PubMed

    Du, Yiman; Wu, Jianping; Yang, Senyan; Zhou, Liutong

    2017-09-01

    The status of energy consumption and air pollution in China is serious. It is important to analyze and predict the different fuel consumption of various types of vehicles under different influence factors. In order to fully describe the relationship between fuel consumption and the impact factors, massive amounts of floating vehicle data were used. The fuel consumption pattern and congestion pattern based on large samples of historical floating vehicle data were explored, drivers' information and vehicles' parameters from different group classification were probed, and the average velocity and average fuel consumption in the temporal dimension and spatial dimension were analyzed respectively. The fuel consumption forecasting model was established by using a Back Propagation Neural Network. Part of the sample set was used to train the forecasting model and the remaining part of the sample set was used as input to the forecasting model. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. The Russian food, alcohol and tobacco consumption patterns during transition.

    PubMed

    Rizov, Marian; Herzfeld, Thomas; Huffman, Sonya K

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents evidence on the impact of individual characteristics as well as regional macroeconomic factors on changes in fat, protein, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and on diet's diversity during the transition period 1994 - 2004 in Russia. The results from estimating first difference demand functions using Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) data suggest that individual characteristics such as initial consumption patterns, gender, education, household income, and access to a garden plot all have a significant impact on the consumption behaviour. Regarding the macroeconomic variables, inflation has a significant impact on alcohol and tobacco consumption, while unemployment significantly impacts only smoking behaviour. Russian consumers respond to own prices of fat and protein as well as to own prices of alcohol and tobacco but to a lesser extent. Analysis of subsamples based on different initial consumption patterns reveals significant heterogeneity in consumption responses.

  5. Food consumption patterns in elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Moffat, Tina; Galloway, Tracey

    2008-01-01

    Food consumption was investigated in children attending three elementary schools in urban Hamilton, Ontario. Dietary data were collected from 92 children in grades 2 to 4 through 24-hour dietary recalls (39% participation rate). Servings of four food groups were compared with recommended daily servings in Canada's Food Guide. The majority of students did not consume the recommended five daily servings of vegetables and fruit. On average, they consumed a high number of servings of "other foods," which were not included in the four food groups. More than 50% of the students did not consume the recommended daily servings of milk products, and only a small proportion (21%) drank milk during school lunch. We recommend that primary school educators promote the consumption of vegetables and fruits and milk products at school, either through healthy snack programs or educational programs.

  6. Evaluation the quality characteristics of wheat flour and shelf-life of fresh noodles as affected by ozone treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Wang, Bi-Wen; Guo, Xiao-Na; Peng, Wei; Zhou, Hui-Ming

    2012-12-15

    In this study, the effects of ozone treatment on the microorganism mortality in wheat flour and shelf-life of fresh noodles were investigated, as well as the physicochemical properties of wheat flour and textural qualities of cooked noodles. Results showed that the total plate count (TPC) can be largely reduced in wheat flour exposed to ozone gas for 30 min and 60 min. Whiteness of flour and noodle sheet, dough stability, and peak viscosity of wheat starch were all increased by ozone treatment. Free cysteine content in wheat flour was shown to decrease significantly (P<0.05) as the treatment time increased and remarkable protein aggregates were observed in both reduced and non-reduced SDS-PAGE patterns. In addition, ozone treated noodles were generally higher in firmness, springiness, and chewiness, while lower in adhesiveness. Microbial growth and darkening rate of fresh noodles made from ozone treated flour were delayed significantly.

  7. Some implications of changing patterns of mineral consumption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menzie, W. David; DeYoung, Jr., John H.; Steblez, Walter G.

    2003-01-01

    DeYoung and Menzie (1999) examined the relations among population, Gross Domestic Product, and mineral consumption (aluminum, cement, copper, and salt) for Japan, Korea, and the United States between 1965 and 1995. They noted the extremely rapid growth of consumption in Korea between 1975 and 1995. Concomitantly, Korea's population growth rate declined. This paper extends that earlier work by examining patterns of consumption of these same commodities in the twenty most populous countries for the period 1970 through 1995. Developed countries, such as France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, show patterns of consumption that are stable (cement, copper, and salt) or grow slowly (aluminum). Some developing countries, including China, Thailand, and Turkey, show more rapid growth of consumption, especially of cement, copper, and aluminum. These changing patterns of mineral consumption in developing countries have important implications -- if they continue, there could be major increases in world mineral consumption and major increases in environmental residuals from mineral production and use. If China reaches the level of consumption of copper of developed countries, world consumption could reach levels more than twice that of 1995 (10.5 million tons).

  8. Patterns of food consumption among vegetarians and non-vegetarians

    PubMed Central

    Orlich, Michael J.; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Sabaté, Joan; Fan, Jing; Singh, Pramil N.; Fraser, Gary E.

    2014-01-01

    Vegetarian dietary patterns have been reported to be associated with a number of favourable health outcomes in epidemiological studies, including the Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2). Such dietary patterns may vary and need further characterisation regarding foods consumed. The aims of the present study were to characterise and compare the food consumption patterns of several vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets. Dietary intake was measured using an FFQ among more than 89 000 members of the AHS-2 cohort. Vegetarian dietary patterns were defined a priori, based on the absence of certain animal foods in the diet. Foods were categorised into fifty-eight minor food groups comprising seventeen major food groups. The adjusted mean consumption of each food group for the vegetarian dietary patterns was compared with that for the non-vegetarian dietary pattern. Mean consumption was found to differ significantly across the dietary patterns for all food groups. Increased consumption of many plant foods including fruits, vegetables, avocados, non-fried potatoes, whole grains, legumes, soya foods, nuts and seeds was observed among vegetarians. Conversely, reduced consumption of meats, dairy products, eggs, refined grains, added fats, sweets, snack foods and non-water beverages was observed among vegetarians. Thus, although vegetarian dietary patterns in the AHS-2 have been defined based on the absence of animal foods in the diet, they differ greatly with respect to the consumption of many other food groups. These differences in food consumption patterns may be important in helping to explain the association of vegetarian diets with several important health outcomes. PMID:25247790

  9. Patterns of food consumption among vegetarians and non-vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Orlich, Michael J; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Sabaté, Joan; Fan, Jing; Singh, Pramil N; Fraser, Gary E

    2014-11-28

    Vegetarian dietary patterns have been reported to be associated with a number of favourable health outcomes in epidemiological studies, including the Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2). Such dietary patterns may vary and need further characterisation regarding foods consumed. The aims of the present study were to characterise and compare the food consumption patterns of several vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets. Dietary intake was measured using an FFQ among more than 89 000 members of the AHS-2 cohort. Vegetarian dietary patterns were defined a priori, based on the absence of certain animal foods in the diet. Foods were categorised into fifty-eight minor food groups comprising seventeen major food groups. The adjusted mean consumption of each food group for the vegetarian dietary patterns was compared with that for the non-vegetarian dietary pattern. Mean consumption was found to differ significantly across the dietary patterns for all food groups. Increased consumption of many plant foods including fruits, vegetables, avocados, non-fried potatoes, whole grains, legumes, soya foods, nuts and seeds was observed among vegetarians. Conversely, reduced consumption of meats, dairy products, eggs, refined grains, added fats, sweets, snack foods and non-water beverages was observed among vegetarians. Thus, although vegetarian dietary patterns in the AHS-2 have been defined based on the absence of animal foods in the diet, they differ greatly with respect to the consumption of many other food groups. These differences in food consumption patterns may be important in helping to explain the association of vegetarian diets with several important health outcomes.

  10. Exploring future patterns of meat consumption.

    PubMed

    Mathijs, Erik

    2015-11-01

    The nutrition transition encompasses a set of major shifts in human diet and nutritional status, throughout history and that is influenced by a wide range of factors such as income, technical change, urbanisation and culture. High-income societies are witnessing a shift towards diets with more fat, sugar, processed foods and less fibre, leading to a sharp increase in non-communicable diseases, such as obesity. This trend can also be observed among the middle classes of emerging countries. However, increasing evidence suggests that a final shift is occurring, following behavioural change towards consuming higher-quality fats, more whole grains, fruit and vegetables, and particularly less meat. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, an assessment is made of where different countries are located in the different phases of the nutrition transition. Second, a qualitative investigation is made into the factors enhancing and hindering the latest phase of the transition-particularly towards less meat consumption-taking into account cultural differences between consumer groups across countries. The analysis of both objectives generates insights into possible future scenarios of meat consumption.

  11. Analysis of Final Energy Consumption Patterns in 10 Arab Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hinti, I.; Al-Ghandoor, A.

    2009-08-01

    This study presents an analysis of the energy consumption patterns in 10 Arab countries: Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria. Commonalities and variations between these countries are discussed and explained through key economic and energy indicators, and the relationship between the overall final energy consumption per capita and the GDP per capita is examined. The distribution of the final energy consumption across different sectors is also analysed, and the patterns of consumption in the industrial, transportation, and residential sectors are discussed with focus on the types of energy consumed, and the main drivers of this consumption. The findings and the conclusions of this study are believed to be beneficial to the national energy policy planners in identifying possible strengths, weaknesses, and areas of emphasis and improvement in their strategic energy plans.

  12. MMPI Response Patterns and Alcohol Consumption in DUI Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutker, Patricia B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Although men arrested for driving under the influence of intoxicants shared mild antisocial tendencies, profile patterns associated with higher levels of self-reported drinking were isolated. The relationship between higher levels of estimated alcohol consumption and patterns of elevated levels of depression and social deviance were most…

  13. MMPI Response Patterns and Alcohol Consumption in DUI Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutker, Patricia B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Although men arrested for driving under the influence of intoxicants shared mild antisocial tendencies, profile patterns associated with higher levels of self-reported drinking were isolated. The relationship between higher levels of estimated alcohol consumption and patterns of elevated levels of depression and social deviance were most…

  14. Delineating the protein changes in Asian noodles induced by vacuum mixing.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Peng, Jing; Guo, Xiao-Na; Amza, Tidjani; Peng, Wei; Zhou, Hui-Ming

    2014-01-15

    In this study, the effect of vacuum mixing on Asian noodle qualities was investigated based on protein components changes and gluten formation. The results showed that the proportion of salt-soluble proteins decreased in vacuum mixed noodles while alcohol and alkali soluble proteins increased. The free sulfyhydryl content decreased significantly (P<0.05) in low protein (LP) noodles while slight and not significant (P>0.05) decrease was detected in high protein (HP) samples. Remarkable protein aggregates were observed in non-reduced SDS-PAGE patterns for LP noodles. The changes in secondary structure were reflected by the increase in α-helix and β-sheet as well as the decrease in β-turns. Furthermore, vacuum mixing conferred a more continuous and compact microstructure to both HP and LP noodle sheets as well as an increased breaking force and extensibility. In addition, less deterioration in noodle structure and water migration was observed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for vacuum mixed samples during storage.

  15. Instant noodles made with fortified wheat flour to improve micronutrient intake in Asia: a review of simulation, nutrient retention and sensory studies.

    PubMed

    Bronder, Kayla L; Zimmerman, Sarah L; van den Wijngaart, Annoek; Codling, Karen; Johns, Kirsten Ag; Pachón, Helena

    2017-03-01

    Consumption of foods made with wheat flour, particularly instant noodles, is increasing in Asia. Given this trend, fortifying wheat flour with vitamins and minerals may improve micronutrient intake in the region. The objective of this review was to understand what is known about fortifying wheat flour used to make instant noodles. A literature review of seven databases was performed using the search terms "noodle" and ("Asian" or "instant"). Grey literature was requested through a food fortification listserv. Articles were title screened first for relevance and duplicity, with exclusion criteria applied during the second round of abstract-level screening. This review considered studies examining simulation, retention, sensory, bioavailability, efficacy, and effectiveness of instant noodles made with fortified wheat flour. Fourteen relevant documents were reviewed for simulation (n=1), retention (n=11), and sensory studies (n=3). The documents revealed that instant noodles produced from fortified wheat flour have potential to improve nutrient intakes, have high retention of most nutrients, and provoke no or minimal changes in sensory characteristics. The available literature indicates that using fortified wheat flour for instant noodle production results in retention of the added nutrients, except thiamin, with no significant sensory change to the final product. Given the rising consumption of instant noodles, production of this item with fortified wheat flour has potential to improve nutrient intakes in Asia. This review provides a resource for the design of a wheat flour fortification program in countries where a large proportion of wheat flour is consumed as instant noodles.

  16. 21 CFR 139.160 - Vegetable noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Noodle Products § 139.160 Vegetable noodle products. (a) Vegetable noodle products are the class of food... shape and size prescribed for egg macaroni by § 139.150(c). (d) Vegetable egg spaghetti is the vegetable noodle product the units of which conform to the specifications of shape and size prescribed for...

  17. 21 CFR 139.160 - Vegetable noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Noodle Products § 139.160 Vegetable noodle products. (a) Vegetable noodle products are the class of food... shape and size prescribed for egg macaroni by § 139.150(c). (d) Vegetable egg spaghetti is the vegetable noodle product the units of which conform to the specifications of shape and size prescribed for...

  18. 21 CFR 139.180 - Wheat and soy noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wheat and soy noodle products. 139.180 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.180 Wheat and soy noodle products. (a) Wheat and soy noodle products are the... wheat and soy ingredients used (the soy flour used is made from heat-processed, dehulled soybeans, with...

  19. 21 CFR 139.180 - Wheat and soy noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheat and soy noodle products. 139.180 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.180 Wheat and soy noodle products. (a) Wheat and soy noodle products are the... wheat and soy ingredients used (the soy flour used is made from heat-processed, dehulled soybeans, with...

  20. 21 CFR 139.180 - Wheat and soy noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheat and soy noodle products. 139.180 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.180 Wheat and soy noodle products. (a) Wheat and soy noodle products are the... wheat and soy ingredients used (the soy flour used is made from heat-processed, dehulled soybeans, with...

  1. 21 CFR 139.180 - Wheat and soy noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wheat and soy noodle products. 139.180 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.180 Wheat and soy noodle products. (a) Wheat and soy noodle products are the... wheat and soy ingredients used (the soy flour used is made from heat-processed, dehulled soybeans, with...

  2. Understanding and Changing Food Consumption Behavior Among Children: The Comprehensive Child Consumption Patterns Model.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Jayne K; Noar, Seth M; Thayer, Linden

    2015-01-01

    Current theoretical models attempting to explain diet-related weight status among children center around three individual-level theories. Alone, these theories fail to explain why children are engaging or not engaging in health-promoting eating behaviors. Our Comprehensive Child Consumption Patterns model takes a comprehensive approach and was developed specifically to help explain child food consumption behavior and addresses many of the theoretical gaps found in previous models, including integration of the life course trajectory, key influencers, perceived behavioral control, and self-regulation. Comprehensive Child Consumption Patterns model highlights multiple levels of the socioecological model to explain child food consumption, illustrating how negative influence at multiple levels can lead to caloric imbalance and contribute to child overweight and obesity. Recognizing the necessity for multi-level and system-based interventions, this model serves as a template for holistic, integrated interventions to improve child eating behavior, ultimately impacting life course health development.

  3. Caloric beverage consumption patterns in Mexican children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mexico has seen a very steep increase in child obesity level. Little is known about caloric beverage intake in this country as well as all other countries outside a few high income countries. This study examines overall patterns and trends in all caloric beverages from two nationally representative surveys from Mexico. Methods The two nationally representative dietary intake surveys (1999 and 2006) from Mexico are used to study caloric beverage intake in 17, 215 children. The volume (ml) and caloric energy (kcal) contributed by all beverages consumed by the sample subjects were measured. Results are weighted to be nationally representative. Results The trends from the dietary intake surveys showed very large increases in caloric beverages among pre-school and school children. The contribution of whole milk and sugar-sweetened juices was an important finding. Mexican pre-school children consumed 27.8% of their energy from caloric beverages in 2006 and school children consumed 20.7% of their energy from caloric beverages during the same time. The three major categories of beverage intake are whole milk, fruit juice with various sugar and water combinations and carbonated and noncarbonated sugared-beverages. Conclusion The Mexican government, greatly concerned about obesity, has identified the large increase in caloric beverages from whole milk, juices and soft drinks as a key target and is initiating major changes to address this problem. They have already used the data to shift 20 million persons in their welfare and feeding programs from whole to 1.5% fat milk and in a year will shift to nonfat milk. They are using these data to revise school beverage policies and national regulations and taxation policies related to an array of less healthful caloric beverages. PMID:20964842

  4. Cultural, socioeconomic and nutritional determinants of functional food consumption patterns.

    PubMed

    Mullie, P; Guelinckx, I; Clarys, P; Degrave, E; Hulens, M; Vansant, G

    2009-11-01

    The aim of our research was to describe cultural, socioeconomic and nutritional determinants associated with functional food consumption. Cross-sectional design in 5000 military men. Using mailed questionnaires, the functional food consumption frequency was recorded. Margarines fortified with phytosterols or phytostanols were used on a daily basis by 26.3% of the responders. Only 4.7% took a daily portion of probiotics, whereas 14.0% consumed one or more portions of nuts a week. One man out of three consumed one cup of tea daily, whereas 10.2% consumed one glass of red wine daily. Three or more portions of fruit a day were consumed by 19.1%, and two or more portions of vegetables a day by 26.6%. Only 12.3% consumed a portion of fatty fish weekly. After adjustment for age, body mass index, physical activity, use of vitamin supplements, smoking, marital status, cultural background, educational and income level, the daily consumption of fortified margarines increased with age. The consumption of fermented dairy products increased with physical activity and with the use of vitamin supplements. The consumption of fortified margarines, nuts, tea and fatty fish was strongly influenced by cultural background, with higher consumptions for Flemish-speaking men compared with French-speaking persons. Daily consumption of red wine was higher in French-speaking men and in higher educated men. Finally, functional food consumption was associated with a healthy dietary pattern. Age, physical activity, level of education, use of vitamin supplements and cultural background are predictors of functional food consumption patterns.

  5. Do Alcohol Consumption Patterns of Adolescents Differ by Beverage Type?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley; Jobli, Edessa C.; Moore, Michele J.; DiClemente, Carlo C.; Heather, Dore S.; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2006-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to explore the alcohol consumption patterns of adolescents by beverage type. A total of 705 primarily 9th grade students were recruited to participate in this study in the spring of 2002. Alcoholic beverage use differed significantly across gender and ethnicity on a number of beverage-specific drinking…

  6. Do Alcohol Consumption Patterns of Adolescents Differ by Beverage Type?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley; Jobli, Edessa C.; Moore, Michele J.; DiClemente, Carlo C.; Heather, Dore S.; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2006-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to explore the alcohol consumption patterns of adolescents by beverage type. A total of 705 primarily 9th grade students were recruited to participate in this study in the spring of 2002. Alcoholic beverage use differed significantly across gender and ethnicity on a number of beverage-specific drinking…

  7. A Study of Prospective Teachers' Consumption Patterns on Special Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saglam, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify prospective teachers' consumption patterns on special days. The sample was comprised of 29 prospective teachers (22 females and 7 males) who studied Primary School Teaching in the Faculty of Education at Sakarya University during the 2014-2015 Academic Year. The study was designed as a phenomenological…

  8. CONSUMPTION PATTERNS OF SUGAR SWEETENED BEVERAGES IN THE UNITED STATES

    PubMed Central

    Han, Euna; Powell, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Few previous studies investigated consumption distributions of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) over time and individual-level associations despite recent interest in SSBs regarding obesity control. Objective To assess consumption patterns and individual-level associations. Design Trend and cross-sectional analyses of 24-hour dietary recall data and demographic characteristics and socioeconomic status (SES) drawn from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2000, 2001–2002, 2003–2004, 2005–2006, and 2007–2008). Participants/setting Children (2–11 years, N=8,627), adolescents (12–19 years, N=8,922), young adults (20–34 years, N=5,933), and middle-aged and elder adults (≥35 years, N=16,456). Statistical analyses performed Age-stratified regression analyses for SSBs overall and by subtypes. Results The prevalence of heavy total SSB consumption (≥500 kcal/day) increased among children (4% to 5%) although it decreased among adolescents (22% to 16%) and young adults (29% to 20%). Soda was the most heavily-consumed SSB in all age groups except for children. Prevalence of soda consumption decreased, whereas heavy sports/energy drink consumption tripled (4% to 12%) among adolescents. Black children and adolescents showed a higher odds of heavy fruit drink consumption (OR=1.71 and 1.67) than whites. Low-income children had a higher odds of heavy total SSB consumption (OR=1.93) and higher caloric intake from total SSBs and fruit drinks (by 23 and 27 kcal/day) than high-income children. Adolescents with low- versus high-educated parents had a higher odds of heavy total SSB consumption (OR=1.28) and higher caloric intake from total SSBs and soda (by 27 and 21 kcal/day). Low- versus high-SES was associated with a higher odds of heavy consumption of total SSBs, soda, and fruit drinks among adults. Conclusions Prevalence of soda consumption fell but non-traditional SSBs rose. Heterogeneity of heavy consumption by SSB types across

  9. Innu food consumption patterns: traditional food and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Atikessé, Laura; de Grosbois, Sylvie Boucher; St-Jean, Mélissa; Penashue, Basile Mashen; Benuen, Manipia

    2010-01-01

    Food consumption patterns of an Innu community were described and the benefits of traditional food (TF) were investigated in relation to body mass index (BMI). A cross-sectional study was conducted using food frequency and 24-hour recall questionnaires to evaluate consumption patterns (n=118) and to assess energy and nutrient intakes from TF and store-bought food (SBF) (n=161). Body mass index was calculated with a sub-sample of 45 participants. Mean yearly TF meal consumption was significantly related to age (p=0.05). Participants reporting high TF and low SBF consumption presented with a normal body weight (BMI=24.1) at the lower quartile and a slightly overweight status (BMI=25.8) at the median. Mean values for protein and carbohydrate intake were higher than the Dietary Reference Intakes, whereas dietary fibre intake was below these guidelines for both genders. Store-bought food provided higher levels of energy and nutrients, except for protein. Although Innu consume high amounts of TF and SBF, a lack of some essential nutrients was observed. Because TF intake was related to a tendency toward a lower BMI, a combined, targeted diet could be proposed. Health services could reinforce the importance of TF consumption and promote traditional dietary practices that offer advantages at many levels.

  10. Food consumption patterns of elementary schoolchildren in New York City.

    PubMed

    Melnik, T A; Rhoades, S J; Wales, K R; Cowell, C; Wolfe, W S

    1998-02-01

    To examine food consumption patterns and related characteristics of schoolchildren. A representative survey involving a household questionnaire and child interview to conduct a nonquantitative 24-hour dietary recall. Indexes were developed to score the diets based on the Food Guide Pyramid and 5 A Day for Better Health recommendations. Six hundred ninety-three 2nd-grade students and 704 5th-grade students from public and private schools in New York City. Weighted means and gender-adjusted analysis of covariance models were used to account for a complex survey design in calculating variance estimates. Compared with a maximum of 50, the mean Food Guide Pyramid index score was 29.2 for 2nd-grade students and 30.4 for 5th-grade students. The mean 5 A Day consumption score was 3.4 and 3.6 servings of fruits and vegetables daily for 2nd and 5th graders, respectively. Measures of food consumption were significantly related to socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, skipping meals, and participating in school lunch for both grades, and with meal preparation for 5th graders. The Food Guide Pyramid and 5 A Day recommendations provide guidelines for food selection beginning in childhood. Knowledge and skills training are needed to improve food consumption patterns as children consume foods away from home and as they take on greater responsibility for meal preparation and food selection.

  11. [Soft drink consumption patterns in a Mexican population].

    PubMed

    Maupomé-Carvantes, G; Sánchez-Reyes, V; Laguna-Ortega, S; Andrade-Delgado, L C; Diez de Bonilla-Calderón, J

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate soft drink consumption patterns in the Mexican population, the authors conducted a survey among people over 10 years of age in Mexico City (september-october 1993). Also, pH levels of commonly available beverages were measured using standard laboratory techniques. Results indicated that each one of the 33 soft drink brands and 15 brands of juices and beverages available, had markedly acidic pH values (between 2.46 and 3.96). Out of the 2,008 respondents (55.3% male, 44.7% female; response rate, 90.1%), 1,657 (82.5%) admitted drinking soft drinks daily, while 351 (17.5%) said they did not drink this type of beverages. Even though high consumption was frequent in all age groups, self-reported consumption was partially associated to age, being higher in the younger groups. The mean number of soft drinks ingested per day was reported to be 1.7, SD 1.3, and 9.3 per week SD 9.9. Self-reported consumption appeared to be independent of schooling level. Even though the largest proportion of non-consumers was found in the group that considered soft drinks to be a very important contributing factor to caries development, most interviewees agreed that soft drinks consumption was an important cariogenic factor. This attributed role was more prominent among interviewees with a higher level of schooling.

  12. Within-day drinking water consumption patterns: results from a drinking water consumption survey.

    PubMed

    Barraj, Leila; Scrafford, Carolyn; Lantz, Jennifer; Daniels, Carrie; Mihlan, Gary

    2009-05-01

    Data currently available on drinking water intakes do not support dietary exposure estimates for contaminants that have acute effects lasting less than 24 h. Realistic exposure estimates for these types of contaminants in drinking water require detailed information on amounts and time of consumption for each drinking occasion during a day. A nationwide water consumption survey was conducted to address how often, when, and how much water is consumed at specific times during the day. The survey was conducted in two waves, to represent two seasons, and the survey instrument consisted of 7-day water consumption diaries. Data on total daily amounts consumed, number of drinking occasions per day, amounts consumed per drinking occasion, and intervals between drinking occasions show larger between-subjects variation than within-subject variation. Statistically significant associations were also observed between drinking water consumption patterns and participants' ages and sex and geographical regions in which these participants live. The number of drinking occasions on a given day varied from 0 to 19, with the majority of respondents reporting 6 or less drinking occasions per day. The average interval between drinking occasions varied from 1 to 17 h, with 57% of the person-days reporting average intervals at least 3 h apart. The mean amount consumed per drinking occasion showed little association with the number of drinking occasions and fluctuated between 8 and 10 oz. To our knowledge, this survey is the only source of information on within-day patterns (i.e., when and how much) of drinking water consumption for a nationally representative sample of the US population. The detailed water consumption data from this survey can be used to support less than 24-h dietary exposure estimates for contaminants in drinking water.

  13. Drinking water consumption patterns of residents in a Canadian community.

    PubMed

    Jones, A Q; Dewey, C E; Doré, K; Majowicz, S E; McEwen, S A; Waltner-Toews, D

    2006-03-01

    A cross-sectional survey using computer-assisted telephone interviewing was performed to assess the drinking water consumption patterns in a Canadian community, and to examine the associations between these patterns and various demographic characteristics. The median amount of water consumed daily was four 250 ml servings (1.01), although responses were highly variable (0 to 8.01). Bottled water consumption was common, and represented the primary source of drinking water for approximately 27% of respondents. Approximately 49% of households used water treatment devices to treat their tap water. The observed associations between some demographic characteristics and drinking water consumption patterns indicated potential differences in risk of exposure to waterborne hazards in the population. Our results lend support to the federal review of the bottled water regulations currently in progress in Canada. Additionally, they may lend support to a provincial/territorial government review of bottled water regulations, and both federal and provincial/territorial level reviews of the water treatment device industry. Further investigation of the use of alternative water sources and the perceptions of drinking water in Canada is also needed to better understand, and subsequently address, concerns among Canadians.

  14. Sweets consumption of preschool children--extent, context, and consumption patterns.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Sven; Jerusalem, Moran; Mente, Johannes; De Bock, Freia

    2013-06-01

    Sweets consumption is one of the risk factors of caries, especially among children. The aim of our study was to explore the extent and context of preschoolers' sweets consumption and to identify high-risk groups. The baseline cross-sectional data used originated from a nutritional intervention study encompassing 879 parental surveys, which were obtained in 52 kindergartens in Baden-Württemberg-the third largest federal state in Germany-between September and March 2009. Our outcome variable "sweets consumption" was operationalized using food-frequency items and analyzed by testing the influence of sociodemographic, educational, cultural, and family context covariates. Most preschoolers consumed sweets every day-on average 9.7 ± 6.2 times per week. Most popular were cookies, gummy bears, and chocolate. Sweets consumption did not correlate significantly with sociodemographic factors like age and sex but rather was associated with cultural and contextual factors such as immigrant background, parental education, specific nutritional knowledge levels, and access arrangements in the home. The consumption patterns identified are a result of high availability and parental influence (factors such as parents' knowledge levels, interest in, and habits regarding their child's nutrition). Dental practitioners should place more emphasis on gathering information from young patients regarding excessive and frequent consumption of sweets and consequently on trying to educate the children and their parents on oral health risks associated with such consumption. Particular attention is to be paid to children of Turkish and Arabic decent, as they have been shown to consume above-average amounts of sweets.

  15. 21 CFR 139.180 - Wheat and soy noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheat and soy noodle products. 139.180 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.180 Wheat and soy noodle products. (a) Wheat and soy noodle products are the...), except that soy flour is added in a quantity not less than 12.5 percent of the combined weight of...

  16. Patterns and behaviors of snus consumption in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Digard, Helena; Errington, Graham; Richter, Audrey; McAdam, Kevin

    2009-10-01

    Snus is an oral snuff consisting of moist finely ground tobacco which is available in a loose form or with portions of the tobacco sealed in small sachets termed "pouches." The product has a long history of use in Sweden. Currently, there is very little published information on levels of consumption and usage behaviors for snus in Sweden. The objective of this study was to obtain data on the frequency and duration of loose and pouched snus consumption in Sweden and investigate usage behaviors. Telephone surveys of snus users randomly selected from telephone directories in all regions of Sweden were conducted in 2007 and 2008. In total, 2,914 respondents answered questions on snus usage, including the types of products used and the quantity and frequency of use. The majority of respondents (96%) used either pouched or loose snus alone. A minority (12.6%) reported dual use of smokeless and combustible tobacco products. Average daily consumption was 11-12 g for pouched snus and 29-32 g for loose snus. The typical duration of use of each pouch/portion was 60-70 min. This survey has provided new insights into contemporary snus use in Sweden, such as the marked differences in daily consumption between loose and pouched snus, length of time that snus users typically keep pouches in the mouth, differential patterns of use in males and females, and the simultaneous use of multiple pouches in a small proportion of users.

  17. Drinking water consumption patterns in Canadian communities (2001-2007).

    PubMed

    Roche, S M; Jones, A Q; Majowicz, S E; McEwen, S A; Pintar, K D M

    2012-03-01

    A pooled analysis of seven cross-sectional studies from Newfoundland and Labrador, Waterloo and Hamilton Regions, Ontario and Vancouver, East Kootenay and Northern Interior Regions, British Columbia (2001 to 2007) was performed to investigate the drinking water consumption patterns of Canadians and to identify factors associated with the volume of tap water consumed. The mean volume of tap water consumed was 1.2 L/day, with a large range (0.03 to 9.0 L/day). In-home water treatment and interactions between age and gender and age and bottled water use were significantly associated with the volume of tap water consumed in multivariable analyses. Approximately 25% (2,221/8,916) of participants were classified as bottled water users, meaning that 75% or more of their total daily drinking water intake was bottled. Approximately 48.6% (4,307/8,799) of participants used an in-home treatment method to treat their tap water for drinking purposes. This study provides a broader geographic perspective and more current estimates of Canadian water consumption patterns than previous studies. The identified factors associated with daily water consumption could be beneficial for risk assessors to identify individuals who may be at greater risk of waterborne illness.

  18. A survey of energy drink consumption patterns among college students.

    PubMed

    Malinauskas, Brenda M; Aeby, Victor G; Overton, Reginald F; Carpenter-Aeby, Tracy; Barber-Heidal, Kimberly

    2007-10-31

    Energy drink consumption has continued to gain in popularity since the 1997 debut of Red Bull, the current leader in the energy drink market. Although energy drinks are targeted to young adult consumers, there has been little research regarding energy drink consumption patterns among college students in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine energy drink consumption patterns among college students, prevalence and frequency of energy drink use for six situations, namely for insufficient sleep, to increase energy (in general), while studying, driving long periods of time, drinking with alcohol while partying, and to treat a hangover, and prevalence of adverse side effects and energy drink use dose effects among college energy drink users. Based on the responses from a 32 member college student focus group and a field test, a 19 item survey was used to assess energy drink consumption patterns of 496 randomly surveyed college students attending a state university in the Central Atlantic region of the United States. Fifty one percent of participants (n = 253) reported consuming greater than one energy drink each month in an average month for the current semester (defined as energy drink user). The majority of users consumed energy drinks for insufficient sleep (67%), to increase energy (65%), and to drink with alcohol while partying (54%). The majority of users consumed one energy drink to treat most situations although using three or more was a common practice to drink with alcohol while partying (49%). Weekly jolt and crash episodes were experienced by 29% of users, 22% reported ever having headaches, and 19% heart palpitations from consuming energy drinks. There was a significant dose effect only for jolt and crash episodes. Using energy drinks is a popular practice among college students for a variety of situations. Although for the majority of situations assessed, users consumed one energy drink with a reported frequency of 1 - 4 days per

  19. A survey of energy drink consumption patterns among college students

    PubMed Central

    Malinauskas, Brenda M; Aeby, Victor G; Overton, Reginald F; Carpenter-Aeby, Tracy; Barber-Heidal, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Background Energy drink consumption has continued to gain in popularity since the 1997 debut of Red Bull, the current leader in the energy drink market. Although energy drinks are targeted to young adult consumers, there has been little research regarding energy drink consumption patterns among college students in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine energy drink consumption patterns among college students, prevalence and frequency of energy drink use for six situations, namely for insufficient sleep, to increase energy (in general), while studying, driving long periods of time, drinking with alcohol while partying, and to treat a hangover, and prevalence of adverse side effects and energy drink use dose effects among college energy drink users. Methods Based on the responses from a 32 member college student focus group and a field test, a 19 item survey was used to assess energy drink consumption patterns of 496 randomly surveyed college students attending a state university in the Central Atlantic region of the United States. Results Fifty one percent of participants (n = 253) reported consuming greater than one energy drink each month in an average month for the current semester (defined as energy drink user). The majority of users consumed energy drinks for insufficient sleep (67%), to increase energy (65%), and to drink with alcohol while partying (54%). The majority of users consumed one energy drink to treat most situations although using three or more was a common practice to drink with alcohol while partying (49%). Weekly jolt and crash episodes were experienced by 29% of users, 22% reported ever having headaches, and 19% heart palpitations from consuming energy drinks. There was a significant dose effect only for jolt and crash episodes. Conclusion Using energy drinks is a popular practice among college students for a variety of situations. Although for the majority of situations assessed, users consumed one energy drink with a

  20. [Changes in the patterns of food consumption in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Tagle, M A

    1988-09-01

    Food consumption patterns have suffered important although not generalized changes in recent years. A series of factors favor these changes, such as variations in family income, rural-urban migration, increase of tertiary activities related to foods, and exposure to commercial propaganda. All of these factors, when compared among them, do not have the same impact or validity. Thus, while the first two induce changes in the food pattern, the last two guide the consumer to certain food products. Modernization of the food pattern in Latin America and the Caribbean has been inspired by the USA food pattern of the previous decade, which from the nutritional and economic points of view, does not prove to be desirable. The average USA diet is rich in both saturated and mono- and polyunsaturated fats, as well as in refined sugar and all types of additives. It is poor in carbohydrates, particular in those of the complex type; most of its protein is of animal origin. It may also be rich in salt and poor in fiber, as it is made up by well-diversified industrialized foods in their presentation, manufactured and marketed by a highly industrialized production-distribution capitalized structure. The adopted model is not in correspondence with out countries' natural resources; it produces a displacement of the consumption patterns based on autochthonous and/or traditional components, and induces an increase in food imports. Since Latin American countries are of poor economic resources, and the model renders expensive products, these are absorbed by the socioeconomic group able to pay for them and/or--intermittently--as a high-cost product by calorie delivered, by the poor groups who are most in need, a situation which would imply serious damage on the quality and quantity of their diet. Changes in food habits and in food consumption patterns are related to a certain socio-demographic process which cannot be stopped. Consequently, this process should be carefully analyzed and

  1. History of yogurt and current patterns of consumption.

    PubMed

    Fisberg, Mauro; Machado, Rachel

    2015-08-01

    Yogurt has been a part of the human diet for several millennia and goes by many names throughout the world. The word "yogurt" is believed to have come from the Turkish word "yoğurmak," which means to thicken, coagulate, or curdle. While references to the health-promoting properties of yogurt date back to 6000 BC in Indian Ayurvedic scripts, it was not until the 20th century that Stamen Grigorov, a Bulgarian medical student, attributed the benefits to lactic acid bacteria. Today, most yogurt is fermented milk that is acidified with viable and well-defined bacteria (Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophiles). While patterns of yogurt consumption vary greatly from country to country, consumption is generally low. In the United States and Brazil, for example, only 6% of the population consume yogurt on a daily basis. Low consumption of yogurt represents a missed opportunity to contribute to a healthy lifestyle, as yogurt provides a good to excellent source of highly bioavailable protein and an excellent source of calcium as well as a source of probiotics that may provide a range of health benefits. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Root System Water Consumption Pattern Identification on Time Series Data.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Manuel; Pope, Christopher

    2017-06-16

    In agriculture, soil and meteorological sensors are used along low power networks to capture data, which allows for optimal resource usage and minimizing environmental impact. This study uses time series analysis methods for outliers' detection and pattern recognition on soil moisture sensor data to identify irrigation and consumption patterns and to improve a soil moisture prediction and irrigation system. This study compares three new algorithms with the current detection technique in the project; the results greatly decrease the number of false positives detected. The best result is obtained by the Series Strings Comparison (SSC) algorithm averaging a precision of 0.872 on the testing sets, vastly improving the current system's 0.348 precision.

  3. Hair mercury concentrations and fish consumption patterns in Florida residents.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Adam M; Jensen, Emily L; Bossart, Gregory D; Reif, John S

    2014-06-26

    Mercury exposure through the consumption of fish and shellfish represents a significant public health concern in the United States. Recent research has demonstrated higher seafood consumption and subsequent increased risk of methylmercury exposure among subpopulations living in coastal areas. The identification of high concentrations of total mercury in blood and skin among resident Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), a coastal estuary in Florida, alerted us to a potential public health hazard in the contiguous human population. Therefore, we analyzed hair mercury concentrations of residents living along the IRL and ascertained their sources and patterns of seafood consumption. The total mean mercury concentration for 135 residents was 1.53 ± 1.89 µg/g. The concentration of hair mercury among males (2.02 ± 2.38 µg/g) was significantly higher than that for females (0.96 ± 0.74 µg/g) (p < 0.01). Log transformed hair mercury concentration was significantly associated with the frequency of total seafood consumption (p < 0.01). Individuals who reported consuming seafood once a day or more were 3.71 (95% CI 0.84-16.38) times more likely to have a total hair mercury concentration over 1.0 µg/g, which corresponds approximately to the U.S. EPA reference dose, compared to those who consumed seafood once a week or less. Hair mercury concentration was also significantly higher among individuals who obtained all or most of their seafood from local recreational sources (p < 0.01). The elevated human mercury concentrations mirror the elevated concentrations observed in resident dolphins in the same geographical region. The current study is one of the first to apply the concept of a sentinel animal to a contiguous human population.

  4. Hair Mercury Concentrations and Fish Consumption Patterns in Florida Residents

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Adam M.; Jensen, Emily L.; Bossart, Gregory D.; Reif, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury exposure through the consumption of fish and shellfish represents a significant public health concern in the United States. Recent research has demonstrated higher seafood consumption and subsequent increased risk of methylmercury exposure among subpopulations living in coastal areas. The identification of high concentrations of total mercury in blood and skin among resident Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), a coastal estuary in Florida, alerted us to a potential public health hazard in the contiguous human population. Therefore, we analyzed hair mercury concentrations of residents living along the IRL and ascertained their sources and patterns of seafood consumption. The total mean mercury concentration for 135 residents was 1.53 ± 1.89 µg/g. The concentration of hair mercury among males (2.02 ± 2.38 µg/g) was significantly higher than that for females (0.96 ± 0.74 µg/g) (p < 0.01). Log transformed hair mercury concentration was significantly associated with the frequency of total seafood consumption (p < 0.01). Individuals who reported consuming seafood once a day or more were 3.71 (95% CI 0.84–16.38) times more likely to have a total hair mercury concentration over 1.0 µg/g, which corresponds approximately to the U.S. EPA reference dose, compared to those who consumed seafood once a week or less. Hair mercury concentration was also significantly higher among individuals who obtained all or most of their seafood from local recreational sources (p < 0.01). The elevated human mercury concentrations mirror the elevated concentrations observed in resident dolphins in the same geographical region. The current study is one of the first to apply the concept of a sentinel animal to a contiguous human population. PMID:24972033

  5. Women's patterns of everyday occupations and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Christina; Eklund, Mona; Sundh, Valter; Thundal, Kajsa-Lena; Spak, Fredrik

    2012-05-01

    Earlier studies on women's health and drinking and the contemporary associated risk factors have highlighted the need for more complex approaches in understanding the pathways into women's problem drinking. Research, from both social science and from occupational therapy models, has underlined the importance of deconstructing the often dichotomized way of investigating women's daily lives (such as in paid and unpaid work or in work and leisure) when discussing factors from the daily life environment and their impact on health issues. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between women's patterns of everyday occupation and alcohol consumption using the broader concept of occupation from occupational therapy models. This was a cross-sectional study from the latest wave (2000) of a population-based project, Women and Alcohol in Gothenburg (WAG). The study group consisted of 851 women, aged 20-55 years. Using an individually oriented method, two-step clustering, three distinct patterns of everyday occupations were identified. Significant associations with problematic alcohol consumption were found in the clusters, characterized by lower engagement in leisure activities and a larger amount of spare time. The need for new preventive approaches, including investigating the importance of having engaging leisure activities, is discussed.

  6. Patterns in Vegetable Consumption: Implications for Tailored School Meal Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlowski, Marietta; Lee, Miryoung; Spears, William; Narayan, Roopsi; Pobocik, Rebecca S.; Kennel, Julie; Krafka, Erin; Patton, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Vegetable consumption is a challenging behavioral target; consumption rates are below recommended levels and when interventions produce improvements, increases in vegetable consumption are typically a fraction of the change in fruit consumption. We describe vegetable consumption within Ohio school meals and examine how fruit selection,…

  7. Methylxanthine composition and consumption patterns of cocoa and chocolate products.

    PubMed

    Shively, C A; Tarka, S M

    1984-01-01

    This chapter has compiled and evaluated the current information on the methylxanthine composition of cocoa and various chocolate foods and beverages, as well as the consumption pattern for these commodities. Although the earliest recorded reference to cacao was in 1502, it was not until 1876 that milk chocolate was invented, an event that formed the backbone of the chocolate industry today. The consumption of cocoa throughout the world has been influenced by a number of factors, and the period of peak consumption occurred during the early to mid-1960s when these factors were highly favorable. The greatest consumption of cocoa in metric tons over the past 10 yr has been in the United States, although the highest per capita consumer during this period was Switzerland. The African continent has been historically the primary producer of raw cocoa, with the Ivory Coast currently being the largest individual supplier. Limited marketing survey data is available for the consumption of methylxanthines in chocolate foods and beverages. In children and teenagers, the major dietary source of caffeine was found to be tea, followed by soft drinks and coffee, respectively. Although chocolate foods and beverages ranked the lowest of these dietary sources to provide caffeine, they do constitute the major source of dietary theobromine. Cacao is the major natural source of the xanthine base theobromine. Small amounts of caffeine are present in the bean along with trace amounts of theophylline. The methylxanthine content of beans varies with the varietal type, and is influenced by the fermentation process. Chocolate liquor is a semifinished product commonly called "baking" or "cooking" chocolate. The average theobromine and caffeine content of liquors has been reported at 1.2% and 0.21%, respectively. Cocoa powder, which is prepared after removal of the cocoa butter, contains about 1.9% theobromine and 0.21% caffeine. Chocolate beverages comprise the most widely studied category of

  8. ERICA: patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; França-Santos, Debora; Magliano, Erika da Silva; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We investigated adolescents who participated in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This is a cross-sectional, national and school-based study, which surveyed adolescents of 1,247 schools from 124 Brazilian municipalities. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire with a section on alcoholic beverages consumption. Measures of relative frequency (prevalence), and their 95% confidence intervals, were estimated for the following variables: use of alcohol beverages in the last 30 days, frequency of use, number of glasses or doses consumed in the period, age of the first use of alcohol, and most consumed type of drink. Data were estimated for country and macro-region, sex, and age group. The module survey of the Stata program was used for data analysis of complex sample. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents, who accounted for 72.9% of eligible students. About 1/5 of adolescents consumed alcohol at least once in the last 30 days and about 2/3 in one or two occasions during this period. Among the adolescents who consumed alcoholic beverages, 24.1% drank it for the first time before being 12 years old, and the most common type of alcoholic beverages consumed by them were drinks based on vodka, rum or tequila, and beer. CONCLUSIONS There is a high prevalence of alcohol consumption among adolescents, as well as their early onset of alcohol use. We also identified a possible change in the preferred type of alcoholic beverages compared with previous research.

  9. ERICA: patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; França-Santos, Debora; Magliano, Erika da Silva; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We investigated adolescents who participated in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This is a cross-sectional, national and school-based study, which surveyed adolescents of 1,247 schools from 124 Brazilian municipalities. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire with a section on alcoholic beverages consumption. Measures of relative frequency (prevalence), and their 95% confidence intervals, were estimated for the following variables: use of alcohol beverages in the last 30 days, frequency of use, number of glasses or doses consumed in the period, age of the first use of alcohol, and most consumed type of drink. Data were estimated for country and macro-region, sex, and age group. The module survey of the Stata program was used for data analysis of complex sample. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents, who accounted for 72.9% of eligible students. About 1/5 of adolescents consumed alcohol at least once in the last 30 days and about 2/3 in one or two occasions during this period. Among the adolescents who consumed alcoholic beverages, 24.1% drank it for the first time before being 12 years old, and the most common type of alcoholic beverages consumed by them were drinks based on vodka, rum or tequila, and beer. CONCLUSIONS There is a high prevalence of alcohol consumption among adolescents, as well as their early onset of alcohol use. We also identified a possible change in the preferred type of alcoholic beverages compared with previous research. PMID:26910550

  10. Instant hot noodles: do they need to burn?

    PubMed

    Wu, C; Tan, A L; Maze, D A E; Holland, A J A

    2013-03-01

    Scalds and contact burns in children may occur as the result of spillage of hot food and drinks, including instant hot noodles. This study sought to determine the frequency of noodle burns in children and investigate the thermal properties of instant hot noodles. Data on instant hot noodle burns in children were retrieved from the New South Wales Severe Burn Injury Database between 2005 and 2010. Five widely available brands of instant hot noodles, including three cup and two packet varieties, were prepared following the manufacturer's instructions. For each preparation the initial temperature after cooking was recorded, together with the time to cool to 50°C. 291 children sustained instant hot noodle burns over the 6 year study period, representing 5.4% of all children referred to our burns unit. Over a third received inadequate first aid. Cup noodles cooked with boiling water reached the highest temperature of over 80°C and took the longest time to cool to 50°C: on average 52.3 min. Cup noodles in smaller, narrower containers achieved higher post-cooking temperatures compared to noodles in wider, bowel shaped containers. Packet noodles cooked in a Microwave oven attained lower peak temperatures and shorter cooling times compared to cup noodles. Although relatively uncommon in children, instant hot noodle burns often received inadequate first aid. When cooked according to manufacturer's instructions, noodles generally exceeded temperatures sufficient to cause a burn. Consumers and parents need to be aware of the risks of burn when preparing these foods. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cassini "Noodle" Mosaic of Saturn

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-24

    This mosaic of images combines views captured by NASA's Cassini spacecraft as it made the first dive of the mission's Grand Finale on April 26, 2017. It shows a vast swath of Saturn's atmosphere, from the north polar vortex to the boundary of the hexagon-shaped jet stream, to details in bands and swirls at middle latitudes and beyond. The mosaic is a composite of 137 images captured as Cassini made its first dive toward the gap between Saturn and its rings. It is an update to a previously released image product. In the earlier version, the images were presented as individual movie frames, whereas here, they have been combined into a single, continuous mosaic. The mosaic is presented as a still image as well as a video that pans across its length. Imaging scientists referred to this long, narrow mosaic as a "noodle" in planning the image sequence. The first frame of the mosaic is centered on Saturn's north pole, and the last frame is centered on a region at 18 degrees north latitude. During the dive, the spacecraft's altitude above the clouds changed from 45,000 to 3,200 miles (72,400 to 8374 kilometers), while the image scale changed from 5.4 miles (8.7 kilometers) per pixel to 0.6 mile (1 kilometer) per pixel. The bottom of the mosaic (near the end of the movie) has a curved shape. This is where the spacecraft rotated to point its high-gain antenna in the direction of motion as a protective measure before crossing Saturn's ring plane. The images in this sequence were captured in visible light using the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera. The original versions of these images, as sent by the spacecraft, have a size of 512 by 512 pixels. The small image size was chosen in order to allow the camera to take images quickly as Cassini sped over Saturn. These images of the planet's curved surface were projected onto a flat plane before being combined into a mosaic. Each image was mapped in stereographic projection centered at 55 degree north latitude. A movie is

  12. Determination of the moisture content of instant noodles: interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Hakoda, Akiko; Kasama, Hirotaka; Sakaida, Kenichi; Suzuki, Tadanao; Yasui, Akemi

    2006-01-01

    Determination of the moisture content of instant noodles, currently under discussion by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) requires 2 methods: one for fried noodles and the other for nonfried noodles. The method to determine the moisture content of fried noodles by drying at 105 degrees C for 2 h used in the Japanese Agricultural Standard (JAS) system of Japan can be applied to this purpose. In the present study, the JAS method for fried noodles was modified to be suitable for nonfried noodles by extending the drying time to 4 h. An interlaboratory study was conducted to evaluate interlaboratory performance statistics for these 2 methods. Ten participating laboratories each analyzed 5 test materials of fried and nonfried noodles as blind duplicates. After removal of outliers statistically, the repeatability (RSDr) and the reproducibility (RSD(R)) of these methods were 1.6-2.6 and 3.9-4.8% for fried noodles, and 0.3-1.5 and 1.3-2.9% for nonfried noodles, respectively.

  13. Television and children's consumption patterns. A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Coon, K A; Tucker, K L

    2002-10-01

    The recent increase in childhood obesity has, among other things, focused attention on the role that television may play. This paper summarizes results of studies published in peer review journals since 1970 with data pertaining to the relationship between television use and children's food intake. Studies fall into four categories: content analyses; effects of television advertising on children's food behaviors; television and pediatric obesity, with effects on children's dietary intake and physical activity; and television use and children's food consumption patterns. Content analyses have shown that food is the most frequently advertised product category on children's TV. The majority of these ads target highly sweetened products, but more recently, the proportion from fast food meal promotions has been growing. Controlled studies on children's choices have consistently shown that children exposed to advertising choose advertised food products at significantly higher rates than do those not exposed. Purchase request studies have documented associations between number of hours of TV watched and number of requests from the child to the mother for specific food items, as well as the presence of those items in the home. Greater TV use has been associated with higher intakes of energy, fat, sweet and salty snacks, and carbonated beverages and lower intakes of fruit and vegetables. Several large studies have documented associations between number of hours of TV watched and both the prevalence and incidence of obesity. The combination of lifestyle factors that accompany heavy television use appear to place children at risk of obesity and poor nutritional status.

  14. Biorefinery of instant noodle waste to biofuels.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoguang; Lee, Sang Jun; Yoo, Hah Young; Choi, Han Suk; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2014-05-01

    Instant noodle waste, one of the main residues of the modern food industry, was employed as feedstock to convert to valuable biofuels. After isolation of used oil from the instant noodle waste surface, the starch residue was converted to bioethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae K35 with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The maximum ethanol concentration and productivity was 61.1g/l and 1.7 g/lh, respectively. After the optimization of fermentation, ethanol conversion rate of 96.8% was achieved within 36 h. The extracted oil was utilized as feedstock for high quality biodiesel conversion with typical chemical catalysts (KOH and H2SO4). The optimum conversion conditions for these two catalysts were estimated; and the highest biodiesel conversion rates were achieved 98.5% and 97.8%, within 2 and 3h, respectively. The high conversion rates of both bioethanol and biodiesel demonstrate that novel substrate instant noodle waste can be an attractive biorefinery feedstock in the biofuels industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Suitability of instant noodles for iron fortification to combat iron-deficiency anemia among primary schoolchildren in rural Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le, Huong Thi; Brouwer, Inge D; de Wolf, Corine A; van der Heijden, Lidwien; Nguyen, Khan Cong; Kok, Frans J

    2007-09-01

    Anemia is a significant public health problem among schoolchildren in Vietnam. Food fortification is considered one of the most sustainable long-term strategies to control iron-deficiency anemia in Vietnam. The success of a food-fortification program depends on the choice of the food vehicle. The aim of the present study was to identify an appropriate vehicle for iron fortification to be used in a school-feeding program aimed at improving the iron and anemia status of schoolchildren in rural Vietnam. Children 6 to 8 years of age in two primary schools in Tam Nong District, Phu Tho Province, and their parents were included in this study. The study consisted of three substudies: a food-consumption study with 24-hour recalls of two nonconsecutive days; a food-beliefs study, with focus group discussions, a pile-sorting test, and a food attributes and differences exercise; and a food-acceptance study using noodles and biscuits fortified with sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA). The average number of meals consumed daily was 3.2 +/- 0.4, and the average intakes of energy and iron were 1,218 +/- 406 kcal and 7.5 +/- 4.0 mg, respectively. Compared with biscuits and instant rice soup, instant noodles were consumed more frequently and in larger portion sizes and are more acceptable as children's food in the culture of the local people. The iron level of the fortified product did not affect the mean consumption of noodles, but a higher level of iron was associated with a lower mean consumption of biscuits (p < .05). The production process did not affect the NaFeEDTA level in noodles; however, during preparation at least 70% of the iron is leaked into the soup. Instant noodles are a suitable vehicle for iron fortification for use in school-based intervention to improve iron-deficiency anemia among primary schoolchildren in rural Vietnam.

  16. GENDER AND ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION: PATTERNS FROM THE MULTINATIONAL GENACIS PROJECT

    PubMed Central

    Wilsnack, Richard W.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Kristjanson, Arlinda F.; Vogeltanz-Holm, Nancy D.; Gmel, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Aims To evaluate multinational patterns of gender- and age-specific alcohol consumption. Design and participants Large general-population surveys of men’s and women’s drinking behavior (N’s > 900) in 35 countries in 1997–2007 used a standardized questionnaire (25 countries) or measures comparable to those in the standardized questionnaire. Measurements Data from men and women in three age groups (18–34, 35–49, 50–65) showed the prevalence of drinkers, former drinkers, and lifetime abstainers; and the prevalence of high-frequency, high-volume, and heavy episodic drinking among current drinkers. Analyses examined gender ratios for prevalence rates and the direction of changes in prevalence rates across age groups. Findings Drinking per se and high-volume drinking were consistently more prevalent among men than among women, but lifetime abstention from alcohol was consistently more prevalent among women. Among respondents who had ever been drinkers, women in all age groups were consistently more likely to have stopped drinking than men were. Among drinkers, the prevalence of high-frequency drinking was consistently greatest in the oldest age group, particularly among men. Unexpectedly, the prevalence of drinking per se did not decline consistently with increasing age, and declines in high-volume and heavy episodic drinking with increasing age were more typical in Europe and English-speaking countries. Conclusions As expected, men still exceed women in drinking and high-volume drinking, although gender ratios vary. Better explanations are needed for why more women than men quit drinking, and why aging does not consistently reduce drinking and heavy drinking outside Europe and English-speaking countries. PMID:19686518

  17. Caffeine Consumption Patterns and Beliefs of College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlvain, Gary E.; Noland, Melody P.; Bickel, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background: Caffeine consumption by young people has increased dramatically over the last decade through increased coffee consumption and "energy drinks." In higher amounts, caffeine causes many adverse effects that are cause for concern. Purpose: Purposes of this study were to determine: (1) the amount of caffeine consumed by a sample…

  18. College Student Perceptions on Campus Alcohol Policies and Consumption Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Brenda L.; Roberts, Katherine J.; Donnelly, Joseph W.; Rutledge, Imani N.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental strategies for colleges and universities to reduce alcohol consumption among their students include the development and enforcement of campus alcohol policies. This study examines students' knowledge and attitudes toward campus alcohol policies and how they relate to alcohol consumption and alcohol social norms. A sample of 422…

  19. College Student Perceptions on Campus Alcohol Policies and Consumption Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Brenda L.; Roberts, Katherine J.; Donnelly, Joseph W.; Rutledge, Imani N.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental strategies for colleges and universities to reduce alcohol consumption among their students include the development and enforcement of campus alcohol policies. This study examines students' knowledge and attitudes toward campus alcohol policies and how they relate to alcohol consumption and alcohol social norms. A sample of 422…

  20. Aging and Generational Patterns of Alcohol Consumption among Mexican Americans, Cuban Americans and Mainland Puerto Ricans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Sandra A.; Markides, Kyriakos S.

    1994-01-01

    Used data from Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to describe life-course patterns of alcohol consumption among Mexican Americans, Cuban Americans, and Puerto Ricans residing in mainland United States. Found age differences in patterns of consumption among Mexican American and Puerto Rican males that reflect aging effects. Found…

  1. Lifestyle, dietary habits and consumption pattern of male university students according to the frequency of commercial beverage consumptions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyemin; Han, Sung Nim; Song, Kyunghee; Lee, Hongmie

    2011-04-01

    Because excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may reduce the quality of nutritional intake, this study examined the consumption patterns of commercial beverages, lifestyle, dietary habits, and perception of sweet taste. Participants were 407 male university students in Kyeonggido, Korea, and information was collected by self-administered questionnaire. Among them, 58 nonsmokers volunteered to participate in the taste test. Participants were divided into three groups according to the frequency of commercial beverage consumptions: 120 rare (< 1 serving/week), 227 moderate (1-3 servings/week) and 133 frequent (> 3 servings/week) consumption groups. More subjects from the rare consumption group chose water, tea, and soy milk, and more from the frequent consumption group chose carbonated soft drinks and coffee (P = 0.031) as their favorite drinks. Frequent consumption group consumed fruit juice, coffee, and sports and carbonated soft drinks significantly more often (P = 0.002, P = 0.000, P = 0.000, respectively), but not milk and tea. Frequent consumption group consumed beverages casually without a specific occasion (P = 0.000) than rare consumption group. Frequent drinking of commercial beverages was associated with frequent snacking (P = 0.002), meal skipping (P = 0.006), eating out (P = 0.003), eating delivered foods (P = 0.000), processed foods (P = 0.001), and sweets (P = 0.002), and drinking alcoholic beverages (P = 0.029). Frequent consumption group tended to have a higher threshold of sweet taste without reaching statistical significance. The results provide information for developing strategies for evidence-based nutrition education program focusing on reducing consumption of unnecessary sugar-sweetened commercial beverages.

  2. Lifestyle, dietary habits and consumption pattern of male university students according to the frequency of commercial beverage consumptions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyemin; Han, Sung Nim; Song, Kyunghee

    2011-01-01

    Because excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may reduce the quality of nutritional intake, this study examined the consumption patterns of commercial beverages, lifestyle, dietary habits, and perception of sweet taste. Participants were 407 male university students in Kyeonggido, Korea, and information was collected by self-administered questionnaire. Among them, 58 nonsmokers volunteered to participate in the taste test. Participants were divided into three groups according to the frequency of commercial beverage consumptions: 120 rare (< 1 serving/week), 227 moderate (1-3 servings/week) and 133 frequent (> 3 servings/week) consumption groups. More subjects from the rare consumption group chose water, tea, and soy milk, and more from the frequent consumption group chose carbonated soft drinks and coffee (P = 0.031) as their favorite drinks. Frequent consumption group consumed fruit juice, coffee, and sports and carbonated soft drinks significantly more often (P = 0.002, P = 0.000, P = 0.000, respectively), but not milk and tea. Frequent consumption group consumed beverages casually without a specific occasion (P = 0.000) than rare consumption group. Frequent drinking of commercial beverages was associated with frequent snacking (P = 0.002), meal skipping (P = 0.006), eating out (P = 0.003), eating delivered foods (P = 0.000), processed foods (P = 0.001), and sweets (P = 0.002), and drinking alcoholic beverages (P = 0.029). Frequent consumption group tended to have a higher threshold of sweet taste without reaching statistical significance. The results provide information for developing strategies for evidence-based nutrition education program focusing on reducing consumption of unnecessary sugar-sweetened commercial beverages. PMID:21556226

  3. Using pool noodles to teach mitosis and meiosis.

    PubMed

    Locke, John; McDermid, Heather E

    2005-05-01

    Although mitosis and meiosis are fundamental to understanding genetics, students often find them difficult to learn. We suggest using common "pool noodles" as teaching aids to represent chromatids in classroom demonstrations. Students use these noodles to demonstrate the processes of synapsis, segregation, and recombination. Student feedback has been overwhelmingly positive.

  4. Relationship of various flour properties with noodle making characteristics among durum wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder; Kaur, Seeratpreet; Katyal, Mehak; Virdi, Amardeep Singh; Kaur, Davinder; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2015-12-01

    The grain, flour, dough and noodle making properties of Indian durum wheat varieties were evaluated. Varieties having higher grain weight had lower hardness and higher yellow pigment content. Gluten performance index showed positive correlation with α-helix and negative with intermolecular+antiparallel-β-sheets in gluten. The proportion of extracted polymeric proteins was related to dough strength. Elastic (G') and loss (G″) modulus of dough were positively correlated to intermolecular+antiparallel-β-sheets and negatively with β-turn+ β-sheets proportion of dough and gluten. PDW291 with exceptionally higher G' and G″ and best noodle making properties showed the presence 90 kDa and 88 kDa polypeptides corresponding to 14+15 and type 2 banding pattern.

  5. [Methodological issues in the measurement of alcohol consumption: the importance of drinking patterns].

    PubMed

    Valencia Martín, José L; González, M José; Galán, Iñaki

    2014-08-01

    Measurement of alcohol consumption is essential for proper investigation of its effects on health. However, its estimation is extremely complex, because of the diversity of forms of alcohol consumption and their highly heterogeneous classification. Moreover, each form may have different effects on health; therefore, not considering the most important drinking patterns when estimating alcohol intake could mask the important role of consumption patterns in these effects. All these issues make it very difficult to compare the results of different studies and to establish consistent associations for understanding the true effects of alcohol consumption, both overall and specific to each drinking pattern. This article reviews the main methods and sources of information available in Spain for estimating the most important aspects of alcohol consumption, as well as the most frequent methodological problems encountered in the measurement and classification of drinking patterns.

  6. Water and food consumption patterns of U.S. adults from 1999 to 2001.

    PubMed

    Popkin, Barry M; Barclay, Denis V; Nielsen, Samara J

    2005-12-01

    High water consumption has been proposed as an aid to weight control and as a means of reducing the energy density of the diet. This study examines the relationship between water consumption and other drinking and eating patterns. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2001, with responses from 4755 individuals > or =18 years of age, provides the data for this cross-sectional analysis. A cluster analysis was performed using z-scores of specific food and beverage consumption to examine patterns. A multinomial logit analysis was used to examine sociodemographic characteristics of each dietary pattern and to examine the effects of water consumption on the likelihood of consuming a non-dairy caloric beverage. All results were weighted to be nationally representative and controlled for design effects. Within the sample, 87% consumed water, with an average daily consumption of 51.9 oz (1.53 liters) per consumer. Water consumers drank fewer soft/fruit drinks and consumed 194 fewer calories per day. Water consumers (potentially a self-selected sample) consumed more fruits, vegetables, and low- and medium-fat dairy products. Four distinct unhealthy dietary patterns were found that included little or no water consumption. Older and more educated persons used healthier food patterns. Mexican dietary patterns were much healthier than dietary patterns of blacks. Water consumption potentially is a dietary component to be promoted, but much more must be understood about its role in a healthy diet. Because high water consumption is linked with healthier eating patterns-patterns more likely to be followed by higher-educated, older adults-the target of water promotion and healthy diet options should focus on younger and less educated adults.

  7. Utilization Patterns of Coagulation Factor Consumption for Patients with Hemophilia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Ok; Yu, Su-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Hemophilia is a serious rare disease that requires continuous management and treatment for which the medicine is costly at the annual average of 100 million KRW for an individual. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in the utilization of coagulation factor (CF) used for hemophilia treatment using the National Health Insurance database from 2010 to 2013 in Korea and compare the utilization of CF with other countries. The consumption of CF per capita (IU) in Korea was not more than other countries with similar income to Korea. However, CF usage per patient IU was higher because the prevalence rate of hemophilia in Korea was lower than in other countries while the number of serious patients was much more. Therefore, it is difficult to say that the consumption of hemophilia medicine in Korea is higher than that in other countries. The consumption and cost of hemophilia medicine in Korea is likely to increase due to the increased utilization of expensive bypassing agents and the widespread use of prophylaxis for severe hemophilia. Even during the research period, it increased slightly and other countries show a similar trend. Thus, hemophilia patient management should accompany active monitoring on the health and cost outcomes of pharmaceutical treatment in the future. This study is expected to contribute to further insight into drug policies for other countries that face similar challenges with high price pharmaceuticals.

  8. Exploring maternal patterns of dietary caffeine consumption before conception and during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Bell, Erin M; Browne, Marilyn L; Druschel, Charlotte M; Romitti, Paul A

    2014-12-01

    We describe patterns of dietary caffeine consumption before and after pregnancy recognition in a cohort of women who recently gave birth. This study included 8,347 mothers of non-malformed liveborn control infants who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study during 1997-2007. Maternal self-reported consumption of beverages (caffeinated coffee, tea, and soda) and chocolate the year before pregnancy was used to estimate caffeine intake. The proportions of prepregnancy caffeine consumption stratified by maternal characteristics are reported. In addition, patterns of reported change in consumption before and after pregnancy were examined by maternal and pregnancy characteristics. Adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated to assess factors most associated with change in consumption. About 97 % of mothers reported any caffeine consumption (average intake of 129.9 mg/day the year before pregnancy) and soda was the primary source of caffeine. The proportion of mothers reporting dietary caffeine intake of more than 300 mg/day was significantly increased among those who smoked cigarettes or drank alcohol. Most mothers stopped or decreased their caffeinated beverage consumption during pregnancy. Young maternal age and unintended pregnancy were associated with increases in consumption during pregnancy. Dietary caffeine consumption during pregnancy is still common in the US. A high level of caffeine intake was associated with known risk factors for adverse reproductive outcomes. Future studies may improve the maternal caffeine exposure assessment by acquiring additional information regarding the timing and amount of change in caffeine consumption after pregnancy recognition.

  9. Geography of Food Consumption Patterns between South and North China.

    PubMed

    Song, Fangfang; Cho, Mi Sook

    2017-05-05

    The geographical environment, food culture, and dietary habits are substantially different between the southern and northern regions in China. We investigated the associations with dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome between Chinese adult from the southern and northern regions (North: 1249; South: 1849) using data from the Chinese Health and Nutrition 2009 survey. Respectively, four dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis in each of the two regions. Using factor analysis, each dietary pattern of factor score was calculated for three groups by tertile (T1 < T2 < T3). In the northern region, the association between the Alcohol and Western pattern and the risk of abdominal obesity (OR: 1.31; 95%: 1.01, 1.68) (OR: Odds Ratio), hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 1.35; 95%: 1.05, 1.74), high fasting blood glucose (OR: 1.37; 95%: 1.05, 1.80), and hypertension (OR: 1.55; 95%: 1.45, 1.99) was increased compared T1 to T3. In the southern region, the Convenience Food pattern was positively associated with hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 1.53; 95%: 1.03, 2.26), low high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (OR: 1.96; 95%: 1.12, 3.43), and metabolic syndrome (OR: 1.79; 95%: 1.03, 3.11). The Alcohol dietary pattern was positively associated with high fasting blood glucose (OR: 1.83, 95%: 1.13, 2.97). There are some dietary pattern differences in the two regions. It is necessary to consider the factors of food culture and food intake habits in order to provide nutrition education to Chinese individuals from different regions in the future.

  10. Global Patterns in Human Consumption of Net Primary Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Bounoua, Lahouari; Ricketts, Taylor; Loucks, Colby; Harriss, Robert; Lawrence William T.

    2004-01-01

    The human population and its consumption profoundly affect the Earth's ecosystems. A particularly compelling measure of humanity's cumulative impact is the fraction of the planet's net primary production that we appropriate for our Net primary production-the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through photosynthesis-can be measured in units of elemental carbon and represents the primary food energy source for the world's ecosystems. Human appropriation of net primary production, apart from leaving less for other species to use, alters the composition of the atmosphere, levels of biodiversity, flows within food webs and the provision of important primary production required by humans and compare it to the total amount generated on the landscape. We then derive a spatial ba!mce sheet of net primary production supply and demand for the world. We show that human appropriation of net primary production varies spatially from almost zero to many times the local primary production. These analyses reveal the uneven footprint of human consumption and related environmental impacts, indicate the degree to which human populations depend on net primary production "imports" and suggest policy options for slowing future growth of human appropriation of net primary production.

  11. Global Patterns in Human Consumption of Net Primary Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Bounoua, Lahouari; Ricketts, Taylor; Loucks, Colby; Harriss, Robert; Lawrence William T.

    2004-01-01

    The human population and its consumption profoundly affect the Earth's ecosystems. A particularly compelling measure of humanity's cumulative impact is the fraction of the planet's net primary production that we appropriate for our Net primary production-the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through photosynthesis-can be measured in units of elemental carbon and represents the primary food energy source for the world's ecosystems. Human appropriation of net primary production, apart from leaving less for other species to use, alters the composition of the atmosphere, levels of biodiversity, flows within food webs and the provision of important primary production required by humans and compare it to the total amount generated on the landscape. We then derive a spatial ba!mce sheet of net primary production supply and demand for the world. We show that human appropriation of net primary production varies spatially from almost zero to many times the local primary production. These analyses reveal the uneven footprint of human consumption and related environmental impacts, indicate the degree to which human populations depend on net primary production "imports" and suggest policy options for slowing future growth of human appropriation of net primary production.

  12. Global patterns in human consumption of net primary production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Bounoua, Lahouari; Ricketts, Taylor; Loucks, Colby; Harriss, Robert; Lawrence, William T.

    2004-06-01

    The human population and its consumption profoundly affect the Earth's ecosystems. A particularly compelling measure of humanity's cumulative impact is the fraction of the planet's net primary production that we appropriate for our own use. Net primary production-the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through photosynthesis-can be measured in units of elemental carbon and represents the primary food energy source for the world's ecosystems. Human appropriation of net primary production, apart from leaving less for other species to use, alters the composition of the atmosphere, levels of biodiversity, energy flows within food webs and the provision of important ecosystem services. Here we present a global map showing the amount of net primary production required by humans and compare it to the total amount generated on the landscape. We then derive a spatial balance sheet of net primary production `supply' and `demand' for the world. We show that human appropriation of net primary production varies spatially from almost zero to many times the local primary production. These analyses reveal the uneven footprint of human consumption and related environmental impacts, indicate the degree to which human populations depend on net primary production `imports' and suggest policy options for slowing future growth of human appropriation of net primary production.

  13. Global patterns in human consumption of net primary production.

    PubMed

    Imhoff, Marc L; Bounoua, Lahouari; Ricketts, Taylor; Loucks, Colby; Harriss, Robert; Lawrence, William T

    2004-06-24

    The human population and its consumption profoundly affect the Earth's ecosystems. A particularly compelling measure of humanity's cumulative impact is the fraction of the planet's net primary production that we appropriate for our own use. Net primary production--the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through photosynthesis--can be measured in units of elemental carbon and represents the primary food energy source for the world's ecosystems. Human appropriation of net primary production, apart from leaving less for other species to use, alters the composition of the atmosphere, levels of biodiversity, energy flows within food webs and the provision of important ecosystem services. Here we present a global map showing the amount of net primary production required by humans and compare it to the total amount generated on the landscape. We then derive a spatial balance sheet of net primary production 'supply' and 'demand' for the world. We show that human appropriation of net primary production varies spatially from almost zero to many times the local primary production. These analyses reveal the uneven footprint of human consumption and related environmental impacts, indicate the degree to which human populations depend on net primary production 'imports' and suggest policy options for slowing future growth of human appropriation of net primary production.

  14. 75. The Pekin Noodle Parlor was built in 1909 at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    75. The Pekin Noodle Parlor was built in 1909 at 115-119 South Main Street. Originally it housed a gambling room and saloon in the east section of the ground floor, and a Chinese herb doctor's office in the north. The noodle parlor was on the second floor. The storefront has not been altered, and features a decorative wooden entablature. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  15. Employment, Production and Consumption model: Patterns of phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavička, H.; Lin, L.; Novotný, J.

    2010-04-01

    We have simulated the model of Employment, Production and Consumption (EPC) using Monte Carlo. The EPC model is an agent based model that mimics very basic rules of industrial economy. From the perspective of physics, the nature of the interactions in the EPC model represents multi-agent interactions where the relations among agents follow the key laws for circulation of capital and money. Monte Carlo simulations of the stochastic model reveal phase transition in the model economy. The two phases are the phase with full unemployment and the phase with nearly full employment. The economy switches between these two states suddenly as a reaction to a slight variation in the exogenous parameter, thus the system exhibits strong non-linear behavior as a response to the change of the exogenous parameters.

  16. Patterns in consumption of potentially erosive beverages among adolescent school children in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Gambon, Dien L; Brand, Henk S; Boutkabout, Chaimae; Levie, Deborah; Veerman, Enno C I

    2011-10-01

    To determine the frequency of intake and patterns in consumption of potentially erosive beverages in school children in the Netherlands. A cross-sectional, single centre study was performed among 502 school children in Rotterdam, in age varying between 12 and 19 years. Data on consumption of soft drinks, energy drinks, sports drinks and alcopops were obtained through a self-reported questionnaire. Gender- and age-related differences in consumption were analysed with Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Associations between variables were investigated with Chi-square tests and Spearman's rank order correlation analysis. Boys consumed soft drinks, energy drinks and sports drinks more frequently than girls, and on average also consumed higher amounts of these drinks. No gender-related differences were observed in alcopop consumption. Consumption of all drinks was most frequent at 14- or 15-year of age, with the exception of alcopops which was most frequent by 16-year-old school children. Significant positive associations were observed between the consumption of soft drinks, energy drinks and/or sports drinks. Alcopop consumption was only associated with consumption of energy drinks. Consumption of soft drinks, energy drinks, sports drinks and alcopops by school children is related to age and gender. The significant positive associations between the consumption of these drinks suggest that a subgroup of school children exists with a high cumulative intake of these potentially erosive drinks. © 2011 FDI World Dental Federation.

  17. Changes in textural properties of Japanese tenobe somen noodles during storage.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Mina; Masuda, Tetsuya; Tani, Fumito; Kitabatake, Naofumi

    2011-01-01

    Tenobe somen (TS) noodles are traditional Japanese wheat-based noodles that are produced manually using a sophisticated method called tenobe (literally, "hand stretched"). In the tension test, both the tensile strength and extensibility of TS noodles were greater than those of machine-made (MS) noodles. In the biting test, the chewy texture of TS noodles was realized in the analysis of the force-deformation curves of each type of somen noodles. The creep test indicated a clear difference between the external and internal elasticity of TS noodles. The texture of TS noodles appeared to change dramatically during storage in the rainy season. In addition, firm and chewy textures of TS noodles stored for 20 mo were observed. Similar to the results from our previous study, TS noodles exhibited significantly higher dityrosine content than the flour used for their manufacture. However, the increase in the dityrosine content during the manufacturing process was not observed in the case of MS noodles. Although clear textural differences were observed between TS noodles stored for 0 and 20 mo, the dityrosine contents of TS noodles at each stage were not largely different.

  18. Soft drinks consumption and child behaviour problems: the role of food insecurity and sleep patterns.

    PubMed

    King, Christian

    2017-02-01

    To examine whether the association between soft drinks consumption and child behaviour problems differs by food security status and sleep patterns in young children. Cross-sectional observational data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), which collected information on food insecurity, soft drinks consumption, sleep patterns and child behaviour problems. Bivariate and multivariate ordinary least-squares regression analyses predicting child behaviour problems and accounting for socio-economic factors and household characteristics were performed. Twenty urban cities in the USA with a population of 200 000 or more. Parental interviews of 2829 children who were about 5 years old. Soft drinks consumption was associated with aggressive behaviours, withdrawn and attention problems for children aged 5 years. However, the association differed by food security status. The association was mostly statistically insignificant among food-secure children after accounting for socio-economic and demographic characteristics. On the other hand, soft drinks consumption was associated with behaviour problems for food-insecure children even after accounting for these factors. However, after accounting for child sleep patterns, the association between soft drinks consumption and child behaviour problems became statistically insignificant for food-insecure children. The negative association between soft drinks consumption and child behaviour problems could be explained by sleep problems for food-insecure children. Since about 21 % of households with children are food insecure, targeted efforts to reduce food insecurity would help improve dietary (reduce soft drinks consumption) and health behaviours (improve sleep) and reduce child behaviour problems.

  19. Food consumption patterns and economic growth. Increasing affluence and the use of natural resources.

    PubMed

    Gerbens-Leenes, P W; Nonhebel, S; Krol, M S

    2010-12-01

    This study analyzes relationships between food supply, consumption and income, taking supply, meat and dairy, and consumption composition (in macronutrients) as indicators, with annual per capita GDP as indicator for income. It compares food consumption patterns for 57 countries (2001) and gives time trends for western and southern Europe. Cross-sectional and time series relationships show similar patterns of change. For low income countries, GDP increase is accompanied by changes towards food consumption patterns with large gaps between supply and actual consumption. Total supply differs by a factor of two between low and high income countries. People in low income countries derive nutritional energy mainly from carbohydrates; the contribution of fats is small, that of protein the same as for high income countries and that of meat and dairy negligible. People in high income countries derive nutritional energy mainly from carbohydrates and fat, with substantial contribution of meat and dairy. Whenever and wherever economic growth occurs, food consumption shows similar change in direction. The European nutrition transition happened gradually, enabling agriculture and trade to keep pace with demand growth. Continuation of present economic trends might cause significant pressure on natural resources, because changes in food demand occur much faster than in the past, especially in Asia.

  20. Prevalence of alcohol consumption and pattern of use among the elderly in the WHO European Region.

    PubMed

    Nuevo, Roberto; Chatterji, Somnath; Verdes, Emese; Naidoo, Nirmala; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Miret, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol-related problems are relevant in the elderly, particularly in developed countries, but there is a lack of cross-country comparisons. The present work aims to examine the frequency and patterns of alcohol consumption in older adults across different European countries, and to analyze the relationship between socioeconomic status and gender with alcohol consumption. General population-based household surveys of randomly selected adults over 60 years of age in 14 European countries. 10,119 subjects [mean age: 70.4 (SD = 7.1)], 61.9% women. There are marked differences in alcohol consumption across countries. Except for three countries from eastern regions, most people in all countries present moderate consumption regarding the amount of alcohol and pattern of use. However, there are marked gender differences, with a higher intake in men (effect sizes ranging from 0.57 to 1.27), although these differences are relatively proportional across countries. Finally, a higher socioeconomic status is positively related (B = 0.845, 95% CI: 0.30/1.40) with alcohol consumption after controlling for gender, age, health-functioning status and the country's development level. There are marked differences in consumption of alcohol in the elderly between the different countries, and male gender, as well as a higher SES, were associated with higher alcohol consumption. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Socio-cultural and economic factors affecting food consumption patterns in the Arab countries.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, A O

    1993-04-01

    Several factors have been found to determine the dietary habits of the people in the Arab world. Food consumption pattern has dramatically changed in some Arab countries as a result of sudden increase in income from oil revenue. It is believed that food subsidy policy has adversely affected the food habits in the Gulf states by encouraging the intake of fat, sugar, rice, wheat flour and meat. Socio-cultural factors such as religion, beliefs, food preferences, gender discrimination, education and women's employment all have a noticeable influence on food consumption patterns in this region. Mass media, especially televised food advertisements, play an important role in modifying the dietary habits. The migration movement, particularly that which was carried out during the 70s has a great impact on the food practices in many Arab countries. Comprehensive studies on social, cultural and economic factors associated with food consumption patterns in the Arab region are highly recommended.

  2. [Changes in the food and beverage consumption pattern in Argentina, 1996-2013].

    PubMed

    Zapata, María Elisa; Rovirosa, Alicia; Carmuega, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    The dietary pattern of the population has shifted in recent years as a result of cultural changes and modifications in food accessibility. In order to describe the changes in food and beverage consumption patterns in the last two decades in Argentina, the National Survey of Household Expenditure [Encuesta Nacional de Gastos de los Hogares] was analyzed for the periods 1996-1997, 2004-2005 and 2012-2013. The average apparent consumption of food and beverages in grams or milliliters of net weight per adult equivalent was estimated for each period. The variation in the amount of food and beverages available for consumption between 1996 and 2013 shows that the structure of the dietary pattern has changed, appearing to indicate shifts in the ways of buying, preparing and consuming foods related to greater convenience and accessibility and less time spent on food preparation.

  3. [FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERN AT A FAMILY LEVEL OF URBAN AREAS OF ANZOÁTEGUI, VENEZUELA].

    PubMed

    Ekmeiro Salvador, Jesús; Moreno Rojas, Rafael; García Lorenzo, María; Cámara Martos, Fernando

    2015-10-01

    In order to assess the qualitative pattern of food consumption in urban families of Anzoátegui, Venezuela, 300 domestic groups that combined a total of 1 163 people were studied. The domestic dietary pattern was addressed by the method of qualitative frequency of food consumption, which applied a structured survey that yielded the usual frequency of intake of a food or food group over a given period. The information was obtained through an interview with the person responsible for the procurement of food in every home, and included basic data for the socioeconomic and nutritional profile of the families studied. The qualitative analysis of the diet was obtained by comparing the different food groups that constitute the actual consumption pattern of the population studied, with official feeding guidelines suggested for the Venezuelan population. The present study showed that the qualitative pattern of food consumption in the urban population evaluated is characterized by slightly adjusted to the promotion of health and control of diet-related diseases. The family food proved to be far from the guidelines established by the dietary guidelines for Venezuela and consumption patterns are fairly homogeneous in the different socioeconomic strata. The foods most consumed daily were salt, coffee, dressing and precooked corn flour as well as beef, chicken and the higher weekly food consumption pastas. 90% of the food consumed daily is technologically processed. The results contribute to increase knowledge about the food situation of the Venezuelan population, and technically could direct the efforts of the authorities to reconcile the development of the productive sector and food supply, whereas a pattern qualitatively inadequate intake directly affects the individual biological functioning, and results in the collective conditioning of unfavorable health states.

  4. Ground beef consumption patterns in the United States, FoodNet, 2006 through 2007.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ethel V; Holt, Kristin G; Mahon, Barbara E; Ayers, Tracy; Norton, Dawn; Gould, L Hannah

    2012-02-01

    Infection resulting from foodborne pathogens, including Escherichia coli O157:H7, is often associated with consumption of raw or undercooked ground beef. However, little is known about the frequency of ground beef consumption in the general population. The objective of this study was to describe patterns of self-reported ground beef and pink ground beef consumption using data from the 2006 through 2007 FoodNet Population Survey. From 1 July 2006 until 30 June 2007, residents of 10 FoodNet sites were contacted by telephone and asked about foods consumed within the previous week. The survey included questions regarding consumption of ground beef patties both inside and outside the home, the consumption of pink ground beef patties and other types of ground beef inside the home, and consumption of ground beef outside the home. Of 8,543 survey respondents, 75.3% reported consuming some type of ground beef in the home. Of respondents who ate ground beef patties in the home, 18.0% reported consuming pink ground beef. Consumption of ground beef was reported most frequently among men, persons with incomes from $40,000 to $75,000 per year, and persons with a high school or college education. Ground beef consumption was least often reported in adults ≥65 years of age. Men and persons with a graduate level education most commonly reported eating pink ground beef in the home. Reported consumption of ground beef and pink ground beef did not differ by season. Ground beef is a frequently consumed food item in the United States, and rates of consumption of pink ground beef have changed little since previous studies. The high rate of consumption of beef that has not been cooked sufficiently to kill pathogens makes pasteurization of ground beef an important consideration, especially for those individuals at high risk of complications from foodborne illnesses such as hemolytic uremic syndrome.

  5. Associations between Rice, Noodle, and Bread Intake and Sleep Quality in Japanese Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Yoneyama, Satoko; Sakurai, Masaru; Nakamura, Koshi; Morikawa, Yuko; Miura, Katsuyuki; Nakashima, Motoko; Yoshita, Katsushi; Ishizaki, Masao; Kido, Teruhiko; Naruse, Yuchi; Nogawa, Kazuhiro; Suwazono, Yasushi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that a diet with a high-glycemic index is associated with good sleep quality. Therefore, we investigated the association of sleep quality with the intake of 3 common starchy foods with different glycemic indexes–rice, bread, and noodles–as well as the dietary glycemic index in a Japanese population. Methods The participants were 1,848 men and women between 20 and 60 years of age. Rice, bread, and noodle consumption was evaluated using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Sleep quality was evaluated by using the Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and a global score >5.5 was considered to indicate poor sleep. Results Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for poor sleep across the quintiles of rice consumption were 1.00 (reference), 0.68 (0.49–0.93), 0.61 (0.43–0.85), 0.59 (0.42–0.85), and 0.54 (0.37–0.81) (p for trend = 0.015); those for the quintiles of noodle consumption were 1.00 (reference), 1.25 (0.90–1.74), 1.05 (0.75–1.47), 1.31 (0.94–1.82), and 1.82 (1.31–2.51) (p for trend = 0.002). Bread intake was not associated with sleep quality. A higher dietary glycemic index was significantly associated with a lower risk of poor sleep (p for trend = 0.020). Conclusion A high dietary glycemic index and high rice consumption are significantly associated with good sleep in Japanese men and women, whereas bread intake is not associated with sleep quality and noodle consumption is associated with poor sleep. The different associations of these starchy foods with sleep quality might be attributable to the different glycemic index of each food. PMID:25127476

  6. Alcohol consumption patterns and attitudes toward drink-drive behaviours and road safety enforcement strategies.

    PubMed

    Stephens, A N; Bishop, C A; Liu, S; Fitzharris, M

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol contributes to approximately 30% of all serious crashes. While the majority of drivers acknowledge the risks associated with drink-driving, a significant proportion of the population continue to engage in this behaviour. Attitudes towards drink-driving as well as personal alcohol consumption patterns are likely to underpin a driver's decision to drink-drive. These associations were explored in the current study. A large (N=2994) cross-sectional online survey of a representative sample of drivers in Australia was conducted. Participants provided information about their own alcohol consumption patterns, drink-driving behaviour as well as attitudes towards drink-driving (own and others) and enforcement strategies. Alcohol consumption patterns differed according to age, gender and work status. Drivers who reported drink-driving behaviour and had high risk alcohol consumption patterns were less likely to agree that drink-driving leads to increased crash risk and more likely to agree they drink and drive when they believed they could get away with it. In contrast, drivers who did not report drink-driving and had low risk consumption patterns were more likely to report that the enforcement strategies are too lenient. Binary logistic regression showed that high risk alcohol consumption patterns and agreement from drivers that they drink and drive when they believe they can get away with it had the strongest associations with drink-driving. These findings highlight the relationships between one's drinking patterns, drink-drive behaviour and attitudes towards drink-driving and drink-driving enforcement CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The patterns of associations that emerged suggest that drink-driving is the expression of a broader health issue for the most "at-risk" cohort of drinkers. The decision to drink and drive may result from a need borne from an alcohol dependent lifestyle exacerbated by a social acceptability of the behaviour and positive attitudes towards

  7. Association between yogurt consumption, dietary patterns, and cardio-metabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Hubert; Thifault, Élisabeth; Garneau, Véronique; Tremblay, Angelo; Drapeau, Vicky; Pérusse, Louis; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2016-03-01

    To examine whether yogurt consumption is associated with a healthier dietary pattern and with a better cardio-metabolic risk profile among healthy individuals classified on the basis of their body mass index (BMI). A 91-item food frequency questionnaire, including data on yogurt consumption, was administered to 664 subjects from the INFOGENE study. After principal component analysis, two factors were retained, thus classified as the Prudent and Western dietary patterns. Yogurt was a significant contributor to the Prudent dietary pattern. Moreover, yogurt consumption was associated with lower body weight, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist circumference and tended to be associated with a lower BMI. Consumers had lower levels of fasting total cholesterol and insulin. Consumers of yogurt had a positive Prudent dietary pattern mean score, while the opposite trend was observed in non-consumers of yogurt. Overweight/obese individuals who were consumers of yogurts exhibited a more favorable cardio-metabolic profile characterized by lower plasma triglyceride and insulin levels than non-consumers within the same range of BMI. There was no difference in total yogurt consumption between normal-weight individuals and overweight/obese individuals. However, normal-weight subjects had more daily servings of high-fat yogurt and less daily servings of fat-free yogurt compared to overweight/obese individuals. Being a significant contributor to the Prudent dietary pattern, yogurt consumption may be associated with healthy eating. Also, yogurt consumption may be associated with lower anthropometric indicators and a more beneficial cardio-metabolic risk profile in overweight/obese individuals.

  8. The relation between acculturation and alcohol consumption patterns among older Asian and Hispanic immigrants.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Ami N; Kim, Giyeon

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relation between acculturation and alcohol consumption patterns among older Asian and Hispanic immigrants in the state of California. Data were obtained from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey and included Asian (n = 1264) and Hispanic (n = 571) adults aged 60 and older who were born outside of the US. Outcome variables included presence of past year alcohol consumption, past year binge drinking, and number of binge drinking days. Acculturation was measured with items pertaining to English use and proficiency. Hierarchical multiple or logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each racial/ethnic group and each dependent variable. Alcohol consumption was found in less than half of the sample for both Asians (43.2%) and Hispanics (39.2%). Binge drinking was found in 3.1% of Asians and 8.4% of Hispanics. Acculturation was significantly related to past year alcohol consumption for Hispanics, past year binge drinking for Asians, and binge drinking days for Asians, such that higher level of acculturation predicted a greater likelihood of alcohol consumption but decreased likelihood of binge drinking and fewer binge drinking days. The results indicate that acculturation may be related to alcohol consumption patterns for older immigrants. This suggests future needs to develop an in-depth understanding of the health behaviors of these immigrant elderly groups.

  9. The changing pattern of alcohol consumption in England and Wales 1978-85.

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, G C; Morgan, D D

    1987-01-01

    An alcohol consumption survey of 926 people aged 18 or over in England and Wales was conducted by Gallup in 1985. The results were compared with those obtained in a similar survey conducted by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys in 1978. Overall alcohol consumption remained virtually unchanged. Men showed little difference in drinking habits, except for the 18-24 age group, who seemed to be drinking less. For women mean alcohol consumption in 1985 was similar to that in 1978, but more women were not drinking at all so the mean alcohol consumption per drinker had risen. As with earlier work, this study showed that social class had little influence on alcohol consumption, while being married seemed to have a moderating effect. A variable regional pattern of alcohol intake was found. In a separate analysis under-age drinking was common among 16-17 year olds (65%). Their pattern of drinking was similar to that of other age groups, except for those over 65 years, who drank less. Change in alcohol intake in the UK over the seven years was in the middle of the range of values for other European countries. The stable UK overall consumption was perhaps due to the constant relative price of alcohol. PMID:3119051

  10. Effect of additives and steaming on quality of air dried noodles.

    PubMed

    Gatade, Abhijeet Arun; Sahoo, Akshaya Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Texture is the most important property for consumer acceptance in cooked noodles. The air dried noodles are known to have higher cooking loss and cooking time, to that of instant fried noodles. But the fat content of instant fried noodles is more. In the present work attempts were made to optimize the moisture content so as to obtain a smooth dough for extruded noodle preparation and develop air dried noodles of low fat content with lesser cooking loss and cooking time. To meet the objectives, the effect of various additives and steaming treatment on cooking quality, sensory attributes, textural properties and microstructure of noodles were studied. Dough prepared by addition of 40 ml water to 100 g flour resulted into formation of a soft dough, leading to production of noodles of improved surface smoothness and maximum yield. The use of additives (5 g oil, 0.2 g guar gum, 2 g gluten and 1 ml of 1 % kansui solution for 100 g of flour) and steaming treatment showed significant effect on noodles quality, with respect to cooking characteristics, sensory attributes and textural properties. The microstructure images justified the positive correlation between the effects of ingredients with steaming and quality parameters of noodles. Air dried noodles with reduced cooking loss (~50 % reduction) with marginal reduction in cooking time was developed, which were having similar characteristics to that of instant fried noodles. Compared to the instant fried noodle, the prepared air dried noodle was having substantially reduced fat content (~70 % reduction). Thus the present study will be useful for guiding extrusion processes for production of air dried noodles having less cooking time and low fat content.

  11. Fish consumption pattern among adults of different ethnics in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Tengku Mohamad, Tengku Rozaina; Ling, Cheong Yoon; Daud, Siti Fatimah; Hussein, Nasriyah Che; Abdullah, Nor Aini; Shaharudin, Rafiza; Sulaiman, Lokman Hakim

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component for risk assessment of contaminants in fish. A few studies on food consumption had been conducted in Malaysia, but none of them focused specifically on fish consumption. The objectives of this study were to document the meal pattern among three major ethnics in Malaysia with respect to fish/seafood consumption, identify most frequently consumed fish and cooking method, and examine the influence of demographic factors on pattern of fish consumption among study subjects. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 2008 and May 2009 to investigate patterns of fish consumption among Malaysian adults in Peninsular Malaysia. Adults aged 18 years and above were randomly selected and fish consumption data were collected using a 3-day prospective food diary. Results A total of 2,675 subjects, comprising male (44.2%) and female (55.7%) participants from major ethnics (Malays, 76.9%; Chinese, 14.7%; Indians, 8.3%) with a mean age of 43.4±16.2 years, were involved in this study. The results revealed 10 most frequently consumed marine fish in descending order: Indian mackerel, anchovy, yellowtail and yellow-stripe scads, tuna, sardines, torpedo scad, Indian and short-fin scads, pomfret, red snapper, and king mackerel. Prawn and squid were also among the most preferred seafood by study subjects. The most frequently consumed freshwater fish were freshwater catfish and snakehead. The most preferred cooking style by Malaysians was deep-fried fish, followed by fish cooked in thick and/or thin chili gravy, fish curry, and fish cooked with coconut milk mixed with other spices and flavorings. Overall, Malaysians consumed 168 g/day fish, with Malay ethnics’ (175±143 g/day) consumption of fish significantly (p<0.001) higher compared with the other two ethnic groups (Chinese=152±133 g/day, Indians=136±141 g/day). Conclusion Fish consumption was significantly associated with

  12. Fish consumption patterns and mercury exposure levels among women of childbearing age in Duval County, Florida.

    PubMed

    Traynor, Sharleen; Kearney, Greg; Olson, David; Hilliard, Aaron; Palcic, Jason; Pawlowicz, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of fish containing methylmercury can pose serious health concerns including neurotoxic effects in adults and toxicity to the fetuses of mothers exposed during pregnancy. In the study described in this article, the authors examined fish consumption patterns and measured hair mercury levels of women of childbearing age in a coastal county in Florida. Women from the community participated in a risk factor assessment survey (N = 703). Hair samples (n = 698) were collected and analyzed for mercury. The authors identified 74.8% below detection limit; 25.2% had detectable limits of mercury, while 7% exceeded 1 pg/g. Hair mercury levels increased with fish consumption and age. Race, income, and education levels were also associated with increased hair mercury levels. Women of Asian/Pacific Islander origin had the highest levels. Although reported fish consumption exceeded the recommendations for women of childbearing age, the study population had lower mercury levels than other comparative studies in Florida and at national levels.

  13. Consumption patterns of sugar-sweetened beverages in the United States.

    PubMed

    Han, Euna; Powell, Lisa M

    2013-01-01

    Few previous studies have investigated consumption distributions of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) over time and individual-level associations despite recent interest in SSBs regarding obesity control. To assess consumption patterns and individual-level associations. Trend and cross-sectional analyses of 24-hour dietary recall data and demographic characteristics and socioeconomic status (SES) drawn from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2005-2006, and 2007-2008) data. Children (aged 2 to 11 years, n=8,627), adolescents (aged 12 to 19 years, n=8,922), young adults (aged 20 to 34 years, n=5,933), and middle-aged and elder adults (aged ≥35 years, n=16,456). Age-stratified regression analyses for SSBs overall and by subtypes. The prevalence of heavy total SSB consumption (≥500 kcal/day) increased among children (4% to 5%) although it decreased among adolescents (22% to 16%) and young adults (29% to 20%). Soda was the most heavily consumed SSB in all age groups except for children. Prevalence of soda consumption decreased, whereas heavy sports/energy drink consumption tripled (4% to 12%) among adolescents. Black children and adolescents showed higher odds of heavy fruit drink consumption (odds ratios 1.71 and 1.67) than whites. Low-income children had a higher odds of heavy total SSB consumption (odds ratio 1.93) and higher energy intake from total SSBs and fruit drinks (by 23 and 27 kcal/day) than high-income children. Adolescents with low- vs high-educated parents had higher odds of heavy total SSB consumption (odds ratio 1.28) and higher energy intake from total SSBs and soda (by 27 and 21 kcal/day). Low vs high SES was associated with a higher odds of heavy consumption of total SSBs, soda, and fruit drinks among adults. Prevalence of soda consumption fell, but consumption of nontraditional SSBs rose. Heterogeneity of heavy consumption by SSB types across racial/ethnic subpopulations and higher odds of heavy SSB

  14. Do changes in per capita consumption mirror changes in drinking patterns?

    PubMed

    Smart, R G; Suurvali, H M; Mann, R E

    2000-07-01

    The goal of this study was to examine how well per capita alcohol consumption figures derived from beverage sales data relate to changes over time in survey-based measures of drinking patterns. It was expected that strong associations would be found among these various measures of consumption. Data from 12 household surveys conducted in Ontario between 1977 and 1997 provided information on: percentages of drinkers; daily drinkers; those drinking five or more drinks at a sitting weekly; those reporting two or more alcohol-related harms; and average number of drinks per week. These variables were then correlated with per capita consumption. Significant correlations were found only between per capita consumption and percentage of daily drinkers, and between percentage of drinkers and average number of drinks per week. The relationship of per capita consumption to survey measures of drinking is weak. The absence of consistent associations over time between per capita consumption and survey measures may be attributable to the small number of available data points or to increases in unrecorded consumption. Further research is needed to verify and explain these results.

  15. Effect of banana pulp and peel flour on physicochemical properties and in vitro starch digestibility of yellow alkaline noodles.

    PubMed

    Ramli, Saifullah; Alkarkhi, Abbas F M; Shin Yong, Yeoh; Min-Tze, Liong; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2009-01-01

    The present study describes the utilization of banana--Cavendish (Musa acuminata L., cv cavendshii) and Dream (Musa acuminata colla. AAA, cv 'Berangan')--pulp and peel flours as functional ingredients in yellow alkaline noodles. Noodles were prepared by partial substitution of wheat flour with ripe banana pulp or peel flours. In most cases, the starch hydrolysis index, predicted glycaemic index (pGI) and physicochemical properties of cooked noodles were affected by banana flour addition. In general, the pGI values of cooked noodles were in the order; banana peel noodles < banana pulp noodles < control noodles. Since the peel flour was higher in total dietary fibre but lower in resistant starch contents than the pulp flour, the low pGI of banana peel noodles was mainly due to its high dietary fibre content. In conclusion, banana pulp and peel flour could be useful for controlling starch hydrolysis of yellow noodles, even though some physicochemical properties of the noodles were altered.

  16. Ethanol Sensitization during Adolescence or Adulthood Induces Different Patterns of Ethanol Consumption without Affecting Ethanol Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Carrara-Nascimento, Priscila F.; Hoffmann, Lucas B.; Contó, Marcos B.; Marcourakis, Tania; Camarini, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    In previous study, we demonstrated that ethanol preexposure may increase ethanol consumption in both adolescent and adult mice, in a two-bottle choice model. We now questioned if ethanol exposure during adolescence results in changes of consumption pattern using a three-bottle choice procedure, considering drinking-in-the-dark and alcohol deprivation effect as strategies for ethanol consumption escalation. We also analyzed aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity as a measurement of ethanol metabolism. Adolescent and adult Swiss mice were treated with saline (SAL) or 2.0 g/kg ethanol (EtOH) during 15 days (groups: Adolescent-SAL, Adolescent-EtOH, Adult-SAL and Adult-EtOH). Five days after the last injection, mice were exposed to the three-bottle choice protocol using sucrose fading procedure (4% + sucrose vs. 8%–15% ethanol + sucrose vs. water + sucrose) for 2 h during the dark phase. Sucrose was faded out from 8% to 0%. The protocol was composed of a 6-week acquisition period, followed by four withdrawals and reexposures. Both adolescent and adult mice exhibited ethanol behavioral sensitization, although the magnitude of sensitization in adolescents was lower than in adults. Adolescent-EtOH displayed an escalation of 4% ethanol consumption during acquisition that was not observed in Adult-EtOH. Moreover, Adult-EtOH consumed less 4% ethanol throughout all the experiment and less 15% ethanol in the last reexposure period than Adolescent-EtOH. ALDH activity varied with age, in which older mice showed higher ALDH than younger ones. Ethanol pretreatment or the pattern of consumption did not have influence on ALDH activity. Our data suggest that ethanol pretreatment during adolescence but not adulthood may influence the pattern of ethanol consumption toward an escalation in ethanol consumption at low dose, without exerting an impact on ALDH activity. PMID:28386220

  17. Food Consumption Patterns of Nigerian Adolescents and Effect on Body Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olumakaiye, M. F.; Atinmo, Tola; Olubayo-Fatiregun, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Association between nutritional status of adolescents and food consumption pattern. Design: Data on number of meals and snacks consumed daily were collected using structured questionnaires. Nutritional status was assessed as weight-for-age body mass index score less than fifth percentile of the National Center for Health…

  18. Are Breakfast Consumption Patterns Associated with Weight Status and Nutrient Adequacy in African-American Children?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of the present study was to assess whether weight status, nutrient intake and dietary adequacy were associated with breakfast consumption patterns. A representative sample of the US population was used in a secondary analysis of nutrient intake/diet quality and weight status by breakfa...

  19. Food Consumption Patterns in Mediterranean Adolescents: Are There Differences between Overweight and Normal-Weight Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Brussee, Sandra E.; Drichoutis, Andreas C.; Kalea, Anastasia Z.; Yiannakouris, Nikolaos; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To quantify food consumption (based on food group classification) during several time periods in a sample of adolescents and to identify potential differences in food patterns between normal-weight and overweight participants. Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants were classified as normal weight and overweight/obese. Dietary…

  20. Food Consumption Patterns of Nigerian Adolescents and Effect on Body Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olumakaiye, M. F.; Atinmo, Tola; Olubayo-Fatiregun, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Association between nutritional status of adolescents and food consumption pattern. Design: Data on number of meals and snacks consumed daily were collected using structured questionnaires. Nutritional status was assessed as weight-for-age body mass index score less than fifth percentile of the National Center for Health…

  1. Time trends and patterns of reported egg consumption in the U.S. by sociodemographic characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eggs have the potential to contribute essential nutrients to nutritionally vulnerable populations on limited food budgets. Further research is needed to better understand patterns of egg consumption across diverse sociodemographic groups in order to inform clinical practice and industry decision-mak...

  2. Food Consumption Patterns in Mediterranean Adolescents: Are There Differences between Overweight and Normal-Weight Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Brussee, Sandra E.; Drichoutis, Andreas C.; Kalea, Anastasia Z.; Yiannakouris, Nikolaos; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To quantify food consumption (based on food group classification) during several time periods in a sample of adolescents and to identify potential differences in food patterns between normal-weight and overweight participants. Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants were classified as normal weight and overweight/obese. Dietary…

  3. Culinary archaeology: Millet noodles in Late Neolithic China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Houyuan; Yang, Xiaoyan; Ye, Maolin; Liu, Kam-Biu; Xia, Zhengkai; Ren, Xiaoyan; Cai, Linhai; Wu, Naiqin; Liu, Tung-Sheng

    2005-10-13

    Noodles have been a popular staple food in many parts of the world for at least 2,000 years, although it is debatable whether the Chinese, the Italians or the Arabs invented them first. Here we analyse a prehistoric sample of noodles contained in a well preserved, sealed earthenware bowl discovered in the Late Neolithic archaeological site of Lajia in northwestern China. We identify millet as the source of the abundant seed-husk phytoliths and starch grains present in the vessel. This shows that the conversion of ground millet flour into dough that could be repeatedly stretched into long, thin strands for the preparation of boiled noodles was already established in this region 4,000 years ago.

  4. Physical Characteristics of Coleus tuberosus Flour and Noodle in Various Arenga Starch Substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miftakhussolikhah; Ariani, D.; Angwar, M.; Kevin, J.

    2017-04-01

    Coleus tuberosus is one of local commodities in Indonesia which contains high carbohydrate. However, its utilization does note maximally. Therefore, C. tuberosus made into flour by grater method, and then used for noodle making with arenga strach as substituting material. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of C. tuberosus flour substitution in noodle preparation from arenga starch on its textural and sensory properties. In this study, noodle was made in some variations which were 100% arenga starch; 75% arenga starch:25% C. tuberosus flour; 50% arenga starch:50% C. tuberosus flour; 25% arenga starch:75% C. tuberosus flour and 100% C. tuberosus flour. Characterization of noodle were investigated including water content, strength, tensile strength, strain at break and stickiness. Sensory evaluation was conducted to analyse consumers acceptance. Noodle was compared with two commercial products. The result showed that arenga starch substitution in C. tuberosus noodle affect textural properties of noodle. The higher concentration of C. tuberosus flour caused tensile strength and strain at break getting low. The water content and stickiness were increased as the C. tuberosus flour substitution ratio increase. None of the noodle resulted from C. tuberosus flour and arenga starch mixture was exactly as same as maize and rice commercial noodles. However 25% of C.tuberosus noodle has better characteristics than other C.tuberosus noodles.

  5. Cooking characterization of Coleus tuberosus noodle in various arenga starch substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miftakhussolikhah, Ariani, Dini; Angwar, Mukhamad; Jeremia Kevin M., M.

    2017-01-01

    Coleus tuberosus is one of local commodities in Indonesia which contains high carbohydrate. However, its utilization isn't done maximally. Therefore, C. tuberosus made into flour by grater method, and then be used for noodle making with arenga strach as substituting material. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of C. tuberosus flour substitution in the noodle preparation from arenga starch on its cooking properties. In this study, noodle was made in some variations which were 100% arenga starch; 75% arenga starch:25% C. tuberosus flour; 50% arenga starch:50% C. tuberosus flour; 25% arenga starch:75% C. tuberosus flour and 100% C. tuberosus flour. Characterization of noodle were investigated including water content, cooking time, cooking loss, swelling index, and expansion ratio Noodle was compared with two commercial products. The result showed that arenga starch substitution in C. tuberosus noodle affect cooking properties of noodle. The higher concentration of C. tuberosus flour caused swelling index and expansion ratio getting low. The water content, cooking loss and cooking time were increased as the C. tuberosus flour substitution ratio increase. None of the noodle resulted from C. tuberosus flour and arenga starch mixture was exactly as same as maize and rice commercial noodles. However 25% of C.tuberosus noodle has better characteristics than other C.tuberosus noodles.

  6. Relationship of dough thermomechanical properties with oil uptake, cooking and textural properties of instant fried noodles.

    PubMed

    Gulia, Neelam; Khatkar, B S

    2014-04-01

    Instant noodles were prepared from fifteen diverse wheat cultivars varying widely in their flour quality and dough rheology. Dough thermomechanical parameters obtained by Mixolab and flour analytical properties were correlated with the quality of instant noodles including oil uptake, cooking quality and textural attributes. The Mixolab parameters dough development time and dough stability showed significant positive correlation with cooking time, cooked weight, overall acceptability, hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness of noodles, while negatively correlated with oil uptake and cooking loss, therefore, exhibiting a marked positive effect on quality of instant noodles. Lower protein breakdown represented by C2 torque was also positively related with overall acceptability, hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness of noodles. Stickiness/adhesiveness of noodles was revealed to be mainly conferred by falling number values (R (2 )= 0.671) and damaged starch (R (2 )= 0.523) content of wheat flour samples. Flour samples with lesser values of protein content, sodium dodecyl sulphate sedimentation volume, thermal stability of proteins, dough stability and dough development time were found to be linked with poor noodle quality. Medium strong flours performed better in noodle making, while weaker flours demonstrated poor noodle quality. Dough rheology of good noodle making flours was characterized with higher dough development time, dough stability, C2, C3, C4 as well as C5 values. Noodles with higher overall acceptability showed a more continuous and uniform protein starch matrix in comparison to the poor counterparts.

  7. A Survey of Energy Drink Consumption Patterns Among College Students at a Mostly Hispanic University.

    PubMed

    Cabezas-Bou, Ernesto; De León-Arbucias, Jeidiel; Matos-Vergara, Nikol; Álvarez-Bagnarol, Yocasta; Ortega-Guzmán, Jesús; Narváez-Pérez, Karla; Cruz-Bermúdez, Nelson D; Díaz-Ríos, Manuel

    2016-12-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine energy drink (ED) consumption patterns among Hispanic college students. We measured the prevalence and frequency of ED consumption according to gender, degree programs, and specific university-related and social situations. In addition, we assessed the frequency of consumption of EDs mixed with alcoholic beverages. Methods: A total of 508 college students from the University of Puerto Rico, the largest Hispanic institution of higher education statewide, completed an online questionnaire. Results: Twenty-one percent of participants reported consuming EDs with the majority consuming EDs either occasionally (every 2-3 months) or at least once or twice a month. Men were found to be more likely to consume EDs than women. Undergraduate students were found less likely to consume EDs than graduate students. Most students consumed EDs while studying and during social activities. More than one-third of participants that consume EDs admitted mixing them with an alcoholic beverage. Graduate students were found to consume EDs mixed with alcohol more often. Conclusions: The majority of students consumed EDs occasionally and while studying. Most side effects reported after consuming EDs were similar to previous findings. The higher consumption of EDs and of EDs mixed with alcohol by students in graduate programs could be explained by a higher and more complex study load requiring longer periods of wakefulness and concentration. Future studies looking at the consumption patterns of EDs in more competitive graduate programs such as medical and/or dentistry school should be considered.

  8. Fish Consumption Patterns and Mercury Advisory Knowledge Among Fishers in the Haw River Basin

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Jill E.; Hoffman, Kate; Wing, Steve; Lowman, Amy

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fish consumption has numerous health benefits, with fish providing a source of protein as well as omega-3 fatty acids. However, some fish also contain contaminants that can impair human health. In North Carolina, the Department of Health and Human Services has issued fish consumption advisories due to methylmercury contamination in fish. Little is known about local fishers’ consumption patterns and advisory adherence in North Carolina. METHODS We surveyed a consecutive sample of 50 fishers (74.6% positive response rate) who reported eating fish caught from the Haw River Basin or Jordan Lake. They provided information on demographic characteristics, species caught, and the frequency of local fish consumption. Additionally, fishers provided information on their knowledge of fish consumption advisories and the impact of those advisories on their fishing and fish consumption patterns. RESULTS The majority of participants were male (n = 44) and reported living in central North Carolina. Catfish, crappie, sunfish, and large-mouth bass were consumed more frequently than other species of fish. Of the fishers surveyed, 8 reported eating more than 1 fish meal high in mercury per week, which exceeds the North Carolina advisory recommendation. Most participants (n = 32) had no knowledge of local fish advisories, and only 4 fishers reported that advisories impacted their fishing practices. LIMITATIONS We sampled 50 fishers at 11 locations. There is no enumeration of the dynamic population of fishers and no way to assess the representativeness of this sample. CONCLUSIONS Additional outreach is needed to make local fishers aware of fish consumption advisories and the potential health impacts of eating high-mercury fish, which may also contain other persistent and bioaccumulative toxins. PMID:26763238

  9. Fish Consumption Patterns and Mercury Advisory Knowledge Among Fishers in the Haw River Basin.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jill E; Hoffman, Kate; Wing, Steve; Lowman, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Fish consumption has numerous health benefits, with fish providing a source of protein as well as omega-3 fatty acids. However, some fish also contain contaminants that can impair human health. In North Carolina, the Department of Health and Human Services has issued fish consumption advisories due to methylmercury contamination in fish. Little is known about local fishers' consumption patterns and advisory adherence in North Carolina. We surveyed a consecutive sample of 50 fishers (74.6% positive response rate) who reported eating fish caught from the Haw River Basin or Jordan Lake. They provided information on demographic characteristics, species caught, and the frequency of local fish consumption. Additionally, fishers provided information on their knowledge of fish consumption advisories and the impact of those advisories on their fishing and fish consumption patterns. The majority of participants were male (n = 44) and reported living in central North Carolina. Catfish, crappie, sunfish, and large-mouth bass were consumed more frequently than other species of fish. Of the fishers surveyed, 8 reported eating more than 1 fish meal high in mercury per week, which exceeds the North Carolina advisory recommendation. Most participants (n = 32) had no knowledge of local fish advisories, and only 4 fishers reported that advisories impacted their fishing practices. We sampled 50 fishers at 11 locations. There is no enumeration of the dynamic population of fishers and no way to assess the representativeness of this sample. Additional outreach is needed to make local fishers aware of fish consumption advisories and the potential health impacts of eating high-mercury fish, which may also contain other persistent and bioaccumulative toxins. ©2016 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  10. Food consumption patterns and their effect on water requirement in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2008-06-01

    It is widely recognized that food consumption patterns significantly impact water requirements. The aim of this paper is to quantify how food consumption patterns influence water requirements in China. The findings show that per capita water requirement for food (CWRF) has increased from 255 m3 cap-1y-1 in 1961 to 860 m3 cap-1 y-1 in 2003, largely due to an increase in the consumption of animal products in recent decades. Although steadily increasing, the CWRF of China is still much lower than that of many developed countries. The total water requirement for food (TWRF) has been determined as 1127 km3 y-1 in 2003. Three scenarios are proposed to project future TWRF, representing low, medium, and high levels of modernization (S1, S2, and S3, respectively). Analysis of these three scenarios indicates that TWRF will likely continue to increase in the next three decades. An additional amount of water ranging between 407 and 515 km3 y-1 will be required in 2030 compared to the TWRF in 2003. This will undoubtedly put high pressure on China's already scarce water resources. We conclude that the effect of the food consumption patterns on China's water resources is substantial both in the recent past and in the near future. China will need to strengthen "green water" management and to take advantage of "virtual water" import to meet the additional TWRF.

  11. Food consumption patterns and their effect on water requirement in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2008-01-01

    It is widely recognized that food consumption patterns significantly impact water requirements. The aim of this paper is to quantify how food consumption patterns influence water requirements in China. The findings show that per capita water requirement for food (CWRF) has increased from 250 m3 cap-1 y-1 in 1961 to 780 m3 cap-1 y-1 in 2003, largely due to an increase in the consumption of animal products in recent decades. Although steadily increasing, the CWRF of China is still much lower than that of many developed countries. The total water requirement for food (TWRF) has been determined as 1023 km3 y-1 in 2003. Three scenarios are proposed to project future TWRF, representing low, medium, and high levels of modernization (S1, S2, and S3, respectively). Analysis of these three scenarios indicates that TWRF will reach a maximum between 2020 and 2025, after which it is expected to decline. According to S2, the shift in food consumption patterns together with population growth may lead to an additional amount of required water of 114 km3 y-1 in 2025, even after taking technological advances into consideration. This will undoubtedly put high pressure on China's already scarce water resources. China needs to strengthen "green water" management and to take advantage of "virtual water" import to meet the additional TWRF.

  12. Ten-year patterns of alcohol consumption and drinking problems among older women and men.

    PubMed

    Moos, Rudolf H; Schutte, Kathleen; Brennan, Penny; Moos, Bernice S

    2004-07-01

    This study focused on changes in 10-year patterns of alcohol consumption among older women and men, late-life and life history predictors of drinking problems, and gender differences in these predictors. A sample of late-middle-aged community residents (N = 1291) who had consumed alcohol in the past year or shortly before was surveyed at baseline and 1 year, 4 years and 10 years later. At each contact point, participants completed an inventory that assessed their alcohol consumption, drinking problems and health-related and life context factors. Participants also provided information about their life history of drinking. Over the 10 years, the proportion of individuals who consumed alcohol declined. Among individuals who continued to drink, women and men showed comparable declines in alcohol consumption, minor concomitants of alcohol consumption and drinking problems. In addition to the amount of alcohol consumption, smoking, friends' approval of drinking and avoidance coping consistently predicted late-life drinking problems. With respect to life history factors, heavy drinking, drinking problems and increased drinking in response to life events were related to a higher likelihood of late-life drinking problems; obtaining help from family members and friends and, among men, participation in Alcoholics Anonymous, were related to a lower likelihood of problems. Older women and men show comparable declines in alcohol consumption and drinking problems. Specific late-life social context and coping variables, and life history indices, are risk factors for late-life drinking problems among both women and men.

  13. Urban anglers in the Great Lakes region: Fish consumption patterns, influences, and responses to advisory messages.

    PubMed

    Bruce Lauber, T; Connelly, Nancy A; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Knuth, Barbara A

    2017-07-15

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and many state advisory programs consider urban anglers at high risk of being exposed to contaminants through fish consumption because the urban poor may be dependent on fish they catch for food and lack access to non-contaminated fishing sites. Past research has supported this characterization of urban anglers, but most studies have been site-specific and limited to subsets of urban anglers. We used a mail survey and focus groups to (a) explore how urban anglers living in the Great Lakes region of the United States differed from rural and suburban anglers and (b) characterize their fishing patterns, fish consumption, factors influencing their fish consumption, and response to fish consumption advisory messages. Although we detected some differences between licensed urban, suburban, and rural anglers, their magnitude was not striking. Lower income urban anglers tended to consume less purchased and sport-caught fish than higher income urban anglers and were not at high risk as a group. Nevertheless, focus group data suggested there may be subpopulations of urban anglers, particularly from immigrant populations, that consume higher amounts of potentially contaminated fish. Although urban anglers in general may not require a special approach for communicating fish consumption advice, subpopulations within this group may be best targeted by using community-based programs to communicate fish consumption advice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Determinants and patterns of soft drink consumption in young adults: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Hattersley, Libby; Irwin, Melissa; King, Lesley; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2009-10-01

    To explore knowledge, attitudes and behaviours regarding caloric soft drinks in a group of young adults attending university and to identify opportunities for a health promotion intervention aimed at reducing consumption. In-depth, semi-structured focus groups segmented by gender. Sydney, Australia. Undergraduate University of Sydney students aged 18-30 years (n 35). Social and environmental cues, intrinsic qualities of beverages and personal health beliefs were identified as important influences on consumption. Social cues included settings in which alcohol is usually consumed, socialising with friends, and family influences. Environmental cues included purchasing of fast foods, and ready availability, preferential pricing and promotion of caloric beverages. Reinforcing intrinsic qualities of caloric soft drinks included taste, sugar and caffeine content, and their association with treats and rewards. Major gender differences as well as variations in individual readiness for behaviour change were observed. Raising awareness of the sugar content of various beverages and the potential health impacts associated with their consumption was considered important. The findings provide new insights with important implications for policy and practice, and suggest that there is considerable scope for promoting awareness in this group. Carefully designed social marketing campaigns highlighting the health issues and addressing social and environmental cues relating to caloric soft drink consumption are required. There is a need for gender-differentiated intervention programmes which are both informational and appealing to young adults. Further research is warranted, particularly to investigate beverage consumption relating to fast-food meal deals and young adults' consumption patterns in more depth.

  15. Consumption Patterns and In Vitro Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to Fluoroquinolones▿

    PubMed Central

    Simoens, Steven; Verhaegen, Jan; van Bleyenbergh, Pascal; Peetermans, Willy E.; Decramer, Marc

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes patterns of consumption of fluoroquinolones and documents the in vitro resistances of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates to fluoroquinolones in the ambulatory care setting in Belgium over time. The volume of fluoroquinolone consumption has fallen consistently since 2003. Fluoroquinolones were used primarily for their registered indications (i.e., urinary tract infections and lower respiratory tract infections). The MIC distributions of moxifloxacin and levofloxacin in S. pneumoniae isolates remained stable during 2004 to 2009, and the level of resistance to moxifloxacin and levofloxacin was low (≤1%). PMID:21464243

  16. Consumption patterns and in vitro resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to fluoroquinolones.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Steven; Verhaegen, Jan; van Bleyenbergh, Pascal; Peetermans, Willy E; Decramer, Marc

    2011-06-01

    This article analyzes patterns of consumption of fluoroquinolones and documents the in vitro resistances of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates to fluoroquinolones in the ambulatory care setting in Belgium over time. The volume of fluoroquinolone consumption has fallen consistently since 2003. Fluoroquinolones were used primarily for their registered indications (i.e., urinary tract infections and lower respiratory tract infections). The MIC distributions of moxifloxacin and levofloxacin in S. pneumoniae isolates remained stable during 2004 to 2009, and the level of resistance to moxifloxacin and levofloxacin was low (≤1%).

  17. Selected beverage consumption patterns among Mormon and non-Mormon populations from the same geographic location.

    PubMed

    Weathersbee, P S; Olsen, L K; Lodge, J R

    1977-07-01

    This study presents data from a mail questionnaire survey designed to determine the daily beverage consumption patterns of Mormon and non-Mormon households in Utah and southern Idaho. Mormons differed significantly from their non-Mormon counterparts in both their low intake of coffee, tea, and beer, and increased daily consumption of milk and water. A high percentage of Mormons adhere to Church doctrin in their beverage intake habits and the results would appear to substantiate previous preliminary studies of the dietary habits in this religious group.

  18. Consumption patterns of sweetened food and drink products in a Catholic Middle Eastern Canadian community.

    PubMed

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Receveur, Olivier; Cargo, Margaret; Daniel, Mark

    2014-02-01

    The present study describes the consumption patterns of sweetened food and drink products in a Catholic Middle Eastern Canadian community and examines its associations with physical activity, sedentary behaviours and BMI. A two-stage cross-sectional design was used. In Stage 1 (n 42), 24 h recalls enabled the identification of sweetened products. In Stage 2 (n 192), an FFQ was administered to measure the daily consumption of these products and to collect sociodemographic and behavioural data. Sweetened products were defined as processed culinary ingredients and ultra-processed products for which total sugar content exceeded 20% of total energy. Three Catholic Middle Eastern churches located in Montreal, Canada. Normoglycaemic men and women (18-60 years old). Twenty-six sweetened products represented an average consumption of 75·4 g total sugars/d or 15·1% of daily energy intake (n 190, 56% women). Soft drinks, juices, sweetened coffee, chocolate, cookies, cakes and muffins were the main sources of consumption and mostly consumed between meals. Age (exp (β) = 0·99; P < 0·01), physical activity (exp (β) = 1·08; P < 0·01) and recreational computer use (exp (β) = 1·17; P < 0·01) were independently associated with sweetened product consumption. The association between sweetened product consumption and physical activity was U-shaped. BMI was not significantly associated with sweetened product consumption but all participants regardless of BMI were above the WHO recommendation for free sugars. Being physically active and spending less time using a computer may favour a reduced consumption of sweetened products. Very active individuals may, however, overconsume such products.

  19. Food consumption patterns of Balearic Islands' adolescents depending on their origin.

    PubMed

    Llull, Rosa; Bibiloni, Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade, the immigrant population of the Balearic Islands archipelago (Spain), in the Mediterranean, has risen to 22% of its total population. The aim of this study was to assess food consumption patterns among Balearic Islands' adolescents depending on their origin. A population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands (2007-2008; n = 1,231; 12-17 years old). Dietary assessment was based on a 145-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Food consumption differences between the adolescents' point of origin and time of arrival were been studied, as well as average daily meals and snacks. The adolescents' origin and number of years living in the Balearic Islands were also assessed. Native adolescents and immigrants from other Mediterranean countries showed healthier food consumption patterns than their peers from non-Mediterranean countries. Immigrant adolescents adapted their eating patterns to native dietary patterns increasingly, the longer they lived in the Balearic Islands.

  20. Food Consumption Patterns: Findings from the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS).

    PubMed

    Norimah, A K; Safiah, M; Jamal, K; Haslinda, Siti; Zuhaida, H; Rohida, S; Fatimah, S; Norazlin, Siti; Poh, B K; Kandiah, M; Zalilah, M S; Wan Manan, W M; Fatimah, S; Azmi, M Y

    2008-03-01

    This study reports the food consumption patterns of adults aged 18 to 59 years in the Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey (MANS) carried out between October 2002 and December 2003. A total of 6,742 subjects comprising 3,274 men and 3,468 women representing the northern, central , southern and east coast of Peninsular Malaysia as well as Sabah and Sarawak were interviewed. A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) which consisted of 126 food items was used to evaluate the food consumption pattern (habitual food intake) of the respondents during the previous one- year period. The results demonstrate that nasi putih (cooked rice) was consumed by 97% of the population twice daily (average 2½ plates per day). Other food items consumed daily were marine fish, (one medium fish per day), green leafy vegetables (one cup per day) and sweetened condensed milk (three teaspoons per day. The mean frequencies for daily intake of rice, leafy vegetables, marine fish, local kuih, anchovy (ikan bilis) and biscuits were significantly higher among the rural compared to the urban adults. In contrast, more urban dwellers consumed chicken and eggs more frequently than their rural counterparts. More men than women consumed chicken and eggs more frequently. Malaysian adults showed a satisfactory habit of drinking plain water, with 99% drinking at least six glasses of plain water daily. Other beverages such as tea (47%), coffee (28%), chocolate-based drinks (23%) and cordial syrup (11%) were also consumed on daily basis, however, in a smaller proportion of the population. There were differences in the prevalence of daily consumption of foods when comparing urban and rural population, and also between men and women. The prevalence of daily consumption of marine fish among rural and urban adults was 51% and 34% respectively. For sweetened condensed milk, men and women consumed 43% and 28% respectively; however, more women drank full cream milk than men. Between the age groups, 21

  1. Breakfast consumption and physical activity in adolescents: daily associations and hourly patterns123

    PubMed Central

    van Sluijs, Esther MF; Ridgway, Charlotte L; Steele, Rebekah M; Prynne, Celia J; Stephen, Alison M; Bamber, Diane J; Dunn, Valerie J; Goodyer, Ian M; Ekelund, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Background: The association between breakfast consumption and physical activity (PA) is inconclusive. Objective: We aimed to investigate daily associations and hourly patterns of PA and breakfast consumption in British adolescents. Design: Daily PA [accelerometry-derived moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA)] and breakfast consumption (diet diary) were measured simultaneously over 4 d in 860 adolescents (boys: 43.4%; mean ± SD age: 14.5 ± 0.5 y). Associations between MVPA and breakfast consumption were assessed by using a multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression separately by sex and for weekends and weekdays. Hourly patterns of MVPA by breakfast consumption status were displayed graphically, and differences were tested by using ANOVA. Multilevel linear regression was used to investigate differences in log MVPA on days when 570 inconsistent breakfast consumers ate or skipped breakfast. Results: On weekends, boys and girls with higher MVPA were more likely to eat breakfast [OR (95% CI): boys, 1.78 (1.30, 2.45) (P < 0.001); girls, 2.30 (1.66, 3.08) (P < 0.001)] when adjusted for socioeconomic status, percentage of body fat, and total energy intake. Peak hourly MVPA differed for breakfast consumers compared with nonconsumers on weekends (P < 0.001). Inconsistent breakfast consumers did more MVPA on days when they ate breakfast [exponentiated β coefficients (95% CIs): 1.2 (1.0, 1.5) on weekdays and 1.4 (1.1, 1.8) on weekends for boys and 1.6 (1.3, 2.1) on weekends for girls; all P < 0.03]. Conclusions: Eating breakfast was associated with higher MVPA on weekends. The time of peak MVPA differed between breakfast consumers and nonconsumers on weekends. Breakfast consumption at weekends is worth additional investigation to potentially inform PA promotion in adolescents. PMID:24284440

  2. Using Pool Noodles to Teach Mitosis and Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Locke, John; McDermid, Heather E.

    2005-01-01

    Although mitosis and meiosis are fundamental to understanding genetics, students often find them difficult to learn. We suggest using common “pool noodles” as teaching aids to represent chromatids in classroom demonstrations. Students use these noodles to demonstrate the processes of synapsis, segregation, and recombination. Student feedback has been overwhelmingly positive. PMID:15781711

  3. Iterating 'addiction': Residential relocation and the spatio-temporal production of alcohol and other drug consumption patterns.

    PubMed

    Dilkes-Frayne, Ella; Fraser, Suzanne; Pienaar, Kiran; Kokanovic, Renata

    2017-06-01

    Addiction is generally understood to be characterised by a persistent pattern of regular, heavy alcohol and other drug consumption. Current models of addiction tend to locate the causes of these patterns within the body or brain of the individual, sidelining relational and contextual factors. Where space and place are acknowledged as key factors contributing to consumption, they tend to be conceived of as static or fixed, which limits their ability to account for the fluid production and modulation of consumption patterns over time. In this article we query individualised and decontextualised understandings of the causes of consumption patterns through an analysis of accounts of residential relocation from interviews undertaken for a large research project on experiences of addiction in Australia. In conducting our analysis we conceptualise alcohol and other drug consumption patterns using Karen Barad's notions of intra-action and spatio-temporality, which allow for greater attention to be paid to the spatial and temporal dimensions of the material and social processes involved in generating consumption patterns. Drawing on 60 in-depth interviews conducted with people who self-identified as experiencing an alcohol and other drug addiction, dependence or habit, our analysis focuses on the ways in which participant accounts of moving enacted space and time as significant factors in how patterns of consumption were generated, disrupted and maintained. Our analysis explores how consumption patterns arose within highly localised relations, demonstrating the need for understandings of consumption patterns that acknowledge the indivisibility of space and time in their production. In concluding, we argue for a move away from static conceptions of place towards a more dynamic conception of spatio-temporality, and suggest the need to consider avenues for more effectively integrating place and time into strategies for generating preferred consumption patterns and initiating

  4. [Psychosocial stress at work and alcohol consumption patterns in offshore oil workers].

    PubMed

    Vidal, Jahina Moura; Abreu, Angela Mendes; Portela, Luciana Fernandes

    2017-07-13

    The objectives were to assess the association between psychosocial stress at work and alcohol consumption patterns in offshore oil workers. This was a cross-sectional study of 210 workers on offshore oil rigs in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from July to September 2014. The data collection instrument was a self-completed multidimensional questionnaire. Exposure to stress was measured by the demand-control model and alcohol consumption pattern was measured with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Statistical analyses were based on the multivariate logistic regression model. Participants' mean age was 32.9 years (SD ± 8.1 years). Most were married (62.9%) and reported having a religion (84.5%); 15.2% reported abusive levels of alcohol consumption, 20.3% had finished university, and 56.6% had fewer than 5 years of offshore experience. All the participants were subject to 12-hour daily shifts for 15 days followed by 15 days off, and 62.4% worked on fixed shifts. The multivariate analyses showed that workers exposed to workplace stress (OR = 3.30; 95%CI: 1.18-9.27) had higher odds of alcohol abuse when compared to unexposed workers. The results help elucidate what is still a controversial issue in the literature, i.e., the relationship between psychosocial stress and alcohol consumption, and point to the need for further studies.

  5. Effects of Great Lakes fish consumption on brain PCB pattern, concentration, and progressive-ratio performance

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, P.; Pagano, J.; Sargent, D.; Darvill, T.; Lonky, E.; Reihman, J.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of consumption of Great Lakes fish on progressive ratio performance, and on the pattern and concentrations of brain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE), and mirex in the rat. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a 30% diet of either Lake Ontario salmon (LAKE), Pacific Ocean salmon, or lab chow control for 20 or 65 days. Following the treatment regimen, half the rats from each group were sacrificed immediately for gas chromatographic analysis of organochlorine contaminants, and the other half were tested on a multiple fixed-ratio-progressive-ratio reinforcement schedule and then sacrificed for analysis. Consumption of Lake Ontario fish resulted in significantly higher levels of brain PCBs, DDE, and mirex relative to controls, but still well within human exposure ranges. Consumption of Lake Ontario fish for 20 or 65 days produced an average brain PCB concentration of 457 and 934 ng/g fat, respectively. Consumption of laboratory rat chow or Pacific Ocean salmon for 20 or 65 days produced an average brain PCB concentration of 240, 464, and 441 ng/g fat, respectively. Moreover, both LAKE-fed groups showed a much more heavily chlorinated pattern of brain PCBs than all control groups, as evidenced by both significant increases in the most heavily chlorinated PCB congeners and significant increases in the average chlorine biphenyl.

  6. A Preliminary Examination of Monthly Consumption Patterns of Petroleum in European Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczor, R. W.; Losey, L. M.; Gregg, J. S.; Andres, R. J.; Marland, G.

    2004-12-01

    Previous studies of carbon dioxide emissions from petroleum products in European countries have shown changes with time that can be correlated with demand on annual and monthly time scales. This study will build on these previous studies by including additional European countries. This study will also aim to identify the factors that determine the pattern of monthly consumption in countries that span 35 degrees in latitude and various socioeconomic foundations (e.g., mean monthly temperature and hence heating/cooling needs, lifestyle choices, national policy decisions, etc.). This work should increase our understanding of the magnitude and pattern of sub-annual variations in emissions of greenhouse gases from petroleum consumption in Europe.

  7. Synthesis of Seafood Catch, Distribution, and Consumption Patterns in the Gulf of Mexico Region

    SciTech Connect

    Steimle and Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16

    The purpose of this task was to gather and assemble information that will provide a synthesis of seafood catch, distribution and consumption patterns for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) region. This task was part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored project entitled ''Environmental and Economic Assessment of Discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations.'' Personal interviews were conducted with a total of 905 recreational fishermen and 218 commercial fishermen (inclusive of shrimpers, crabbers, oystermen and finfishermen) in Louisiana and Texas using survey questionnaires developed for the study. Results of these interviews detail the species and quantities caught, location of catch, mode of fishing, distribution of catch, family consumption patterns and demographics of the fishermen.

  8. Short communication: Patterns of dairy consumption in free-living children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Green, Benjamin P; Turner, Louise; Stevenson, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2015-06-01

    According to national survey data, dairy food consumption has fallen in recent years and declines further with age, especially from childhood to adolescence. Dietary surveys typically rely on retrospective dietary assessment methods and use broad age groupings (4-10 yr; 11-18 yr), making it challenging to differentiate between middle-childhood and adolescence. Consequently, there is a need to assess dairy food consumption during middle-childhood and adolescence using more robust dietary assessment tools. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe and compare patterns of dairy consumption throughout middle-childhood and adolescence. Dairy food consumption was assessed during school term-time over 4 consecutive days, including 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days, in a sample of free-living children (9-11 yr, n=40) and adolescents (15-18 yr, n=35). For children, free-living dairy intake was evaluated through parental-weighed food records, and for adolescents, a combined weighed self-reported food record and 24-h dietary recall technique was utilized. Food records were explored to determine types, amounts, and frequency of dairy food consumption, and were analyzed for differences between middle-childhood and adolescence using a between group 2×2 (age×sex) ANOVA. Descriptive data suggested that milk was the most popular dairy product consumed by both children and adolescents. Statistical analysis revealed a main effect for sex on total milk consumption (mL) and number of daily milk portions consumed. No interaction or main effect was present for any other variable. The present study indicates that independent of age, boys consumed greater amounts of milk compared with girls. Contrary to existing literature, findings suggest no difference in milk-based dairy consumption between middle-childhood and adolescence.

  9. Alcohol consumption patterns, diet and body weight in 10 European countries.

    PubMed

    Sieri, S; Krogh, V; Saieva, C; Grobbee, D E; Bergmann, M; Rohrmann, S; Tjønneland, A; Ferrari, P; Chloptsios, Y; Dilis, V; Jenab, M; Linseisen, J; Wallström, P; Johansson, I; Chirlaque, M D; Sanchez, M J; Niravong, M; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Welch, A A; Allen, N E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; van der Schouw, Y T; Sacerdote, C; Panico, S; Parr, C L; Braaten, T; Olsen, A; Jensen, M K; Bingham, S; Riboli, E; Slimani, N

    2009-11-01

    Europe has the highest level of alcohol consumption in the world. As drinking patterns are important determinants of the beneficial and harmful effects of alcohol consumption, we investigated alcohol consumption in relation to nutrient intake, place of consumption, education and body weight in a sample of adults from 10 European countries. A 24-h dietary recall interview was conducted on 13 025 men and 23 009 women, aged 35-74 years, from 27 centres participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Means and standard errors of alcohol consumption, adjusted for age, were calculated, stratified by gender and centre. In many centres, higher level drinkers (males consuming >24 g of ethanol/day, equivalent to >2 standard drinks and females consuming >12 g of ethanol/day equivalent to >1 standard drink) obtained more energy from fat and protein and less from sugar than did abstainers. The proportion of energy from starch tended to be higher for male and lower for female higher level drinkers than for abstainers. Female higher level drinkers had a lower body mass index than did abstainers, whereas male higher level drinkers generally weighed more. Male higher level drinkers were less educated than abstainers in Mediterranean countries, but were more educated elsewhere. Female higher level drinkers were usually more educated than were abstainers. Outside the home, consumption (both genders) tended to be at friends' homes, particularly among men in Northern and Central Europe, and in bars in Spain. This study reveals clear geographical differences in drinking habits across Europe, and shows that the characteristics of different alcohol consumption categories also vary.

  10. Rheological properties of somen noodles--a traditional Japanese wheat product.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Mina; Kitabatake, Naofumi

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the rheological properties of the Japanese wheat product tenobe somen noodles manufactured using a unique traditional process-"Te-nobe (hand-stretched)." In an extension test, the maximum resistance to extension (R(max)) and extensibility until rupture (Erup) of boiled somen noodles were measured on a Texture Analyzer in the tension test mode and compared with those of machine-made somen noodles. The R(max) and Erup values per unit cross-sectional area were significantly higher for boiled tenobe somen noodles than for machine-made somen noodles, clearly indicating the higher resistance to extension and extensibility of the former. A compression test performed using the Texture Analyzer in the biting-test mode revealed that although the maximum force of compression (F(max)) was lower for boiled tenobe somen noodles than for machine-made somen noodles, the former had more characteristic texture than the latter, which was shown by comparing the force-deformation curve of each somen noodle. Scanning electron microscopy revealed differences between dried tenobe and machine-made somen noodles, which may reflect their rheological differences. Lateral and sectional micrographs of tenobe somen noodles showed regular arrays of starch granules and gluten networks, and some air spaces. Tenobe somen noodles exhibited significantly higher dityrosine content than the flour used for their manufacture, indicating that tyrosine residues in gluten proteins cross-link during the manufacturing process; however, the dityrosine content in tenobe somen noodles were not higher than that in machine-made somen noodles.

  11. Quality characteristics, structural changes, and storage stability of semi-dried noodles induced by moderate dehydration: understanding the quality changes in semi-dried noodles.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Sun, Qing-Jie; Amza, Tidjani; Guo, Xiao-Na; Zhou, Hui-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Based on the critical water content (for noodle deterioration) concluded previously, high-temperature-short-time (HTST; 105-135°C) and medium-temperature-long-time (MTLT; 45-75°C) dehydrations were introduced in this study to produce semi-dried noodles. The effects of HTST and MTLT on the quality parameters of semi-dried noodles, as well as noodle structure, storage stability, and changes in starch and protein components were thoroughly investigated. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and birefringent analysis presented few starch gelatinization (approximately 30%) in HTST dehydrated noodles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed more compact noodle surface, with uniform pores in the cross section, probably due to enhanced protein-starch combination after HTST dehydration. Meanwhile, HTST induced protein polymerizations in semi-dried noodles, mainly by -SH-S-S interchange, and resulted in significantly (P<0.05) reduced cooking loss. Furthermore, HTST noodles showed higher microbial and color stability. Shelf-life of dehydrated samples at 120°C was extended to 5days from 1day of the control.

  12. Alcohol Consumption Patterns and Sexual Risk Behavior among Female Sex Workers in two South Indian Communities

    PubMed Central

    Heravian, Anisa; Solomon, Raja; Krishnan, Gopal; Vasudevan, CK; Krishnan, AK; Osmand, Thomas; Ekstrand, Maria L.

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV transmission in India is primarily heterosexual and there is a concentrated HIV epidemic among female sex workers (FSWs). Earlier reports demonstrate that many FSWs consume alcohol regularly before sexual encounters. This qualitative study is part of a larger quantitative study designed to assess alcohol consumption patterns among female sex workers and their association with sexual risk taking. Here we investigate the environmental influence, reasons for and consequences of consuming alcohol in the FSW population. Methods Trained staff from two Non-Governmental Organizations in Andhra Pradesh and Kerala conducted semi-structured interviews with 63 FSWs in Chirala, Andhra Pradesh (n=35) and Calicut, Kerala (n=28) following extensive formative research, including social mapping and key informant interviews, to assess drinking patterns and sexual risk behaviors. Results FSWs reported consuming alcohol in multiple contexts: sexual, social, mental health and self-medication. Alcohol consumption during sexual encounters with clients was usually forced, but some women drank voluntarily. Social drinking took place in public locations such as bars and in private locations including deserted buildings, roads and inside autorickshaws (motorcycle taxis). Consequences of alcohol consumption included failure to use condoms and to collect payments from clients, violence, legal problems, gastrointestinal side effects, economic loss and interference with family responsibilities. Conclusion FSWs consume alcohol in multilevel contexts. Alcohol consumption during transactional sex is often forced and can lead to failure to use condoms. Social drinkers consume alcohol with other trusted FSWs for entertainment and to help cope with psychosocial stressors. There are multiple reasons for and consequences of alcohol consumption in this population and future interventions should target each specific aspect of alcohol use. PMID:22608567

  13. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption among Pregnant African-American Women in Washington, D.C

    PubMed Central

    Thornberry, Jutta S.; Bhaskar, Brinda; Rodan, Margaret R.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The objective of this paper is to describe the patterns and associated behaviors related to alcohol consumption among a selected sample of pregnant women seeking prenatal care in inner city Washington D.C. Women receiving prenatal care at one of nine sites completed an anonymous, alcohol-screening questionnaire. Questions were from the TWEAK and AUDIT as well as quantity/frequency questions about the amount, type, and pattern of alcohol consumption. Women were determined to be at no, low, moderate or high risk for alcohol consumption during pregnancy. For comparisons of risk levels of drinking, bivariate associations were examined using Fisher’s Exact Tests. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were also computed. Although 31% of current/recent drinkers stated that they continued to drink during pregnancy, responses to quantity/frequency questions revealed that 42% continued to do so. Women who were high compared to moderate risk acknowledged that others were worried [OR=4.0, 95% CI=1.5,10.6], drinking upon rising [OR=6.7, 95% CI=1.8,26.9], a need to reduce drinking [OR=3.2, 95% CI=1.3,8.1] and in the past five years having fractures [OR=4.2, 95% CI=1.0,17.8] or traffic crash injury(-ies) [OR=3.4, 95% CI=1.0,12.2]. Women in the high/moderate compared to low risk group were more likely to have been injured in a fight or assault [OR=2.7,95% CI=1.3,5.6]. This study validated the usefulness of our questionnaire in identifying women who were at risk for alcohol consumption during pregnancy across a range of consumption levels. Using our screening tool, women were willing to disclose their drinking habits. This low cost method identifies and allows for targeting of interventions. PMID:21649675

  14. Urodynamic patterns of normal male micturition: influence of water consumption on urine production and detrusor function.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Frank; Shin, Peter; Jorgensen, Troels Munch; Djurhuus, Jens C; Constantinou, Chritos E

    2002-10-01

    Urodynamic characterization of normal male micturition can be a useful standard in the analysis of data on patients complaining of voiding dysfunction. The validity of such a standard is based on the need to obtain baseline parameters of pressure flow values, an important consideration when evaluating prostatic obstruction and its treatment. While current numerical pressure flow values provide a useful summary of the voiding sequence, a more complete analysis of the pattern of normal voiding may reveal more functionally useful information concerning micturition. We establish basic experimental conditions that simulate normal voiding of physiologically produced urine by the kidneys measured at intervals representing real stages of bladder filling. We report the results of an investigation designed to study consecutive micturitions at bladder volumes determined by water consumption and endogenous circadian rhythm. Our particular focus is to examine critically the urodynamic pattern of pressure flow and obtain evidence to support the hypothesis that fluid consumption has an important role in detrusor function. Urodynamic studies were conducted on 39 asymptomatic male volunteers with a mean age of 25.8 years (range 21 to 31) and mean weight of 75.5 kg. (range 63 to 95). Volunteers were divided into 2 groups according to water consumption regimen of 30 ml./kg. daily (17 patients, group 1) and 60 ml./kg. daily (12, group 2). Bladder pressure was monitored via a suprapubic catheter and abdominal pressure was measured via a rectal balloon using an ambulatory system. Average duration of each monitoring period was 20.5 hours. Detrusor pressure and flow rate records from each subject were identified, and consecutive filling and voiding phases were averaged during the entire monitoring period using the onset of micturition as a time marker. The average pattern of pressure, flow rate, cumulative volume and contractility curves for each subject, as well each for group, was

  15. Food consumption patterns in a mediterranean region: does the mediterranean diet still exist?

    PubMed

    Tur, Josep A; Romaguera, Dora; Pons, Antoni

    2004-01-01

    To assess the food consumption patterns in the adult population of a Mediterranean region: the Balearic Islands (BI). A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in the BI between 1999 and 2000. A random sample (n = 1,200) of the adult population (16-65 years) was interviewed. Dietary habits were assessed by means of 24-hour recall during 2 non-consecutive days, the first in the warm season and the second in the cold season, and a quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements were also obtained. Current food patterns in the BI are characterized by a prominent consumption of dairy products, vegetables, fruit, bread, soft drinks and meat. According to the dietary guidelines for the Spanish population, only appropriate consumption of olive oil and other fats, dairy products, nuts, and soft drinks have been achieved. Intakes of fruit, vegetables, fish, eggs, pulses, cereals and potatoes are below desirable levels. On the other side, intakes of sugary products, sweets and cakes are higher than desirable. Alcohol intake, in the context of the Mediterranean diet, can be considered as acceptable. The dietary patterns observed among the BI population are in harmony with the actual dietary trends in Spain and other Mediterranean countries. Mediterranean dietary habits still exist, but a progressive departure from the traditional Mediterranean diet is being observed mainly in younger generations. It would be desirable to increase the consumption of fish, vegetables, fruit, cereals and pulses and decrease the intake of food sources containing saturated fat. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Quantifying the Seafood Consumption Patterns of Recreational Anglers in Charleston and Berkeley Counties, South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Perkinson, Matthew T.; Faith, Trevor D.; Vahey, Grace M.; Vena, John E.; Williams, Edith M.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to provide self-reported data on the frequency of fish consumption and shellfish consumption in Charleston and Berkeley (CB) counties, South Carolina. While commercial fishing and recreational fishing have played an important role in the culture and history of the area, information on the specific patterns of consumption by recreational anglers has been previously unavailable. The pilot data presented here will help determine the feasibility of a large-scale survey of seafood consumption in coastal South Carolina. The study’s sampling frame consisted of CB county anglers who had purchased a recreational saltwater fishing license for the 2005/2006 year with oversampling in North Charleston. Survey recipients were asked to provide information on fish consumption and shellfish consumption, general angling habits, perception of water and fishing quality, and demographics. Of the 2500 individuals who were sent questionnaires, about one-fourth responded. Respondents were generally white, middle, or upper class and highly educated. The majority fished by boat and most often ate flounder, spotted sea trout, and red drum. Most respondents ate shrimp several times a month and also supplemented their recreational catch with seafood purchased from grocery stores, markets, and restaurants. Almost all respondents had eaten some seafood in the last year, and more than one-fourth ate seafood twice a week or more. Most anglers responded positively about the area’s fishing and water qualities, but many referred to areas where they would hesitate to eat their catch. Further research may need to incorporate direct distribution of surveys to underrepresented groups and financial incentives to encompass a more diverse population of anglers. PMID:27891049

  17. Analysis of Patterns of Bushmeat Consumption Reveals Extensive Exploitation of Protected Species in Eastern Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Richard K. B.; Keane, Aidan; Rakotoarivelo, Andrinajoro R.; Rakotomboavonjy, Victor; Randrianandrianina, Felicien H.; Razafimanahaka, H. Julie; Ralaiarimalala, Sylvain R.; Jones, Julia P. G.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the patterns of wild meat consumption from tropical forests is important for designing approaches to address this major threat to biodiversity and mitigate potential pathways for transmission of emerging diseases. Bushmeat consumption has been particularly poorly studied in Madagascar, one of the world's hottest biodiversity hotspots. Studying bushmeat consumption is challenging as many species are protected and researchers must consider the incentives faced by informants. Using interviews with 1154 households in 12 communes in eastern Madagascar, as well as local monitoring data, we investigated the importance of socio-economic variables, taste preference and traditional taboos on consumption of 50 wild and domestic species. The majority of meals contain no animal protein. However, respondents consume a wide range of wild species and 95% of respondents have eaten at least one protected species (and nearly 45% have eaten more than 10). The rural/urban divide and wealth are important predictors of bushmeat consumption, but the magnitude and direction of the effect varies between species. Bushmeat species are not preferred and are considered inferior to fish and domestic animals. Taboos have provided protection to some species, particularly the Endangered Indri, but we present evidence that this taboo is rapidly eroding. By considering a variety of potential influences on consumption in a single study we have improved understanding of who is eating bushmeat and why. Evidence that bushmeat species are not generally preferred meats suggest that projects which increase the availability of domestic meat and fish may have success at reducing demand. We also suggest that enforcement of existing wildlife and firearm laws should be a priority, particularly in areas undergoing rapid social change. The issue of hunting as an important threat to biodiversity in Madagascar is only now being fully recognised. Urgent action is required to ensure that heavily hunted

  18. Quantifying the Seafood Consumption Patterns of Recreational Anglers in Charleston and Berkeley Counties, South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Perkinson, Matthew T; Faith, Trevor D; Vahey, Grace M; Vena, John E; Williams, Edith M

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to provide self-reported data on the frequency of fish consumption and shellfish consumption in Charleston and Berkeley (CB) counties, South Carolina. While commercial fishing and recreational fishing have played an important role in the culture and history of the area, information on the specific patterns of consumption by recreational anglers has been previously unavailable. The pilot data presented here will help determine the feasibility of a large-scale survey of seafood consumption in coastal South Carolina. The study's sampling frame consisted of CB county anglers who had purchased a recreational saltwater fishing license for the 2005/2006 year with oversampling in North Charleston. Survey recipients were asked to provide information on fish consumption and shellfish consumption, general angling habits, perception of water and fishing quality, and demographics. Of the 2500 individuals who were sent questionnaires, about one-fourth responded. Respondents were generally white, middle, or upper class and highly educated. The majority fished by boat and most often ate flounder, spotted sea trout, and red drum. Most respondents ate shrimp several times a month and also supplemented their recreational catch with seafood purchased from grocery stores, markets, and restaurants. Almost all respondents had eaten some seafood in the last year, and more than one-fourth ate seafood twice a week or more. Most anglers responded positively about the area's fishing and water qualities, but many referred to areas where they would hesitate to eat their catch. Further research may need to incorporate direct distribution of surveys to underrepresented groups and financial incentives to encompass a more diverse population of anglers.

  19. Time Trends and Patterns of Reported Egg Consumption in the U.S. by Sociodemographic Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Zach; Johnson, LuAnn K; Roemmich, James N; Juan, WenYen; Jahns, Lisa

    2017-03-28

    Eggs have the potential to contribute essential nutrients to nutritionally vulnerable populations on limited food budgets. Further research is needed to better understand patterns of egg consumption across diverse sociodemographic groups in order to inform clinical practice to improve nutrient adequacy. Data on demographics and egg intake of 29,694 U.S. adults were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2012. The National Cancer Institute's usual intake methodology was used to estimate the distribution of egg intake. Linear and logistic regression models were used to test for time trends in egg consumption and for differences between sociodemographic groups. The proportion of the U.S. population, overall (21%-22%; p = 0.311) and by sociodemographic group (p > 0.05 for all groups), that reported consuming eggs remained unchanged from 2001 to 2012. Mean egg consumption increased overall from 23.0 (95% CI, 20.8-25.2) g/day in 2001-2002 to 25.5 (22.7-28.4) g/day in 2011-2012 (p = 0.012), but not among food insecure individuals (p = 0.816) and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants (p = 0.399). No differences in the odds of egg consumption were observed by income level, food security status, or SNAP participation status (p > 0.05 for all groups). Given the nutritional benefits of eggs, as well as their low cost and culinary versatility, the results presented here have important implications for reducing disparities in health outcomes and diet quality, in particular among food insecure individuals and SNAP participants. Further research is needed to examine factors that influence egg consumption and associated nutrient intake, and to identify potential barriers to increasing egg consumption, such as egg price changes, across diverse sociodemographic groups.

  20. Analysis of patterns of bushmeat consumption reveals extensive exploitation of protected species in eastern Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Richard K B; Keane, Aidan; Rakotoarivelo, Andrinajoro R; Rakotomboavonjy, Victor; Randrianandrianina, Felicien H; Razafimanahaka, H Julie; Ralaiarimalala, Sylvain R; Jones, Julia P G

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the patterns of wild meat consumption from tropical forests is important for designing approaches to address this major threat to biodiversity and mitigate potential pathways for transmission of emerging diseases. Bushmeat consumption has been particularly poorly studied in Madagascar, one of the world's hottest biodiversity hotspots. Studying bushmeat consumption is challenging as many species are protected and researchers must consider the incentives faced by informants. Using interviews with 1154 households in 12 communes in eastern Madagascar, as well as local monitoring data, we investigated the importance of socio-economic variables, taste preference and traditional taboos on consumption of 50 wild and domestic species. The majority of meals contain no animal protein. However, respondents consume a wide range of wild species and 95% of respondents have eaten at least one protected species (and nearly 45% have eaten more than 10). The rural/urban divide and wealth are important predictors of bushmeat consumption, but the magnitude and direction of the effect varies between species. Bushmeat species are not preferred and are considered inferior to fish and domestic animals. Taboos have provided protection to some species, particularly the Endangered Indri, but we present evidence that this taboo is rapidly eroding. By considering a variety of potential influences on consumption in a single study we have improved understanding of who is eating bushmeat and why. Evidence that bushmeat species are not generally preferred meats suggest that projects which increase the availability of domestic meat and fish may have success at reducing demand. We also suggest that enforcement of existing wildlife and firearm laws should be a priority, particularly in areas undergoing rapid social change. The issue of hunting as an important threat to biodiversity in Madagascar is only now being fully recognised. Urgent action is required to ensure that heavily hunted

  1. Sugar consumption pattern of 13-year-old school children in Belgaum city, Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Hegde, P P; Ashok Kumar, B R; Ankola, A

    2005-01-01

    To determine the sugar consumption pattern of the school children in Belgaum city and to organize for a diet-counseling program. Easy availability of sugar containing food and high consumption of these sweets if continued unabated, the dental caries among children would become a major public health problem. In this instance, Dietary counseling can be just appropriate to inhibit the carious process. 342 school children aged 13 years, from four schools in Belgaum city participated in the study. The pattern of sugar consumption was assessed using a 4-day diet diary. Analysis was done according to the method described by Nizel and Papas (Nutrition in clinical dentistry, 1989, 277) and the variables were: the sweet score, At meal sugar exposure (AMSE), Between meal sugar exposure (BMSE) and Total sugar exposure (TSE). The mean, standard deviation and/or frequency were calculated for all variables. Student's t-test was used to statistically analyze the gender difference. The mean ± SD of the recorded variables were: sweet score 31 ± 12.78/day, AMSE 0.88 ± 0.33/day, BMSE 3.95 ± 0.87/day, and TSE 4.83 ± 0.96/day. No statistical significant gender difference with respect to the variables was observed. 'Tell Show And Do' Diet counseling session will perhaps have a greater impact as compared to the most common strategy of simply exhorting the children to eat less sugar.

  2. Beverage consumption patterns of children born at different risk of obesity.

    PubMed

    Kral, Tanja V E; Stunkard, Albert J; Berkowitz, Robert I; Stallings, Virginia A; Moore, Reneé H; Faith, Myles S

    2008-08-01

    Increased intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and fruit juice has been associated with overweight in children. This study prospectively assessed beverage consumption patterns and their relationship with weight status in a cohort of children born at different risk for obesity. Participants were children born at low risk (n = 27) or high risk (n = 22) for obesity based on maternal prepregnancy BMI (kg/m(2)). Daily beverage consumption was generated from 3-day food records from children aged 3-6 years and coded into seven beverage categories (milk, fruit juice, fruit drinks, caloric and non-caloric soda, soft drinks including and excluding fruit juice). Child anthropometric measures were assessed yearly. High-risk children consumed a greater percentage of daily calories from beverages at age 3, more fruit juice at ages 3 and 4, more soft drinks (including fruit juice) at ages 3-5, and more soda at age 6 compared to low-risk children. Longitudinal analyses showed that a greater 3-year increase in soda intake was associated with an increased change in waist circumference, whereas a greater increase in milk intake was associated with a reduced change in waist circumference. There was no significant association between change in intake from any of the beverage categories and change in BMI z-score across analyses. Children's familial predisposition to obesity may differentially affect their beverage consumption patterns. Future research should examine the extent to which dietary factors may play a role in pediatric body fat deposition over time.

  3. Patterns of media use and alcohol brand consumption among underage drinking youth in the United States.

    PubMed

    Borzekowski, Dina L G; Ross, Craig S; Jernigan, David H; DeJong, William; Siegel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether underage drinkers with varied media use patterns differentially consume popular brands of alcohol. A survey was conducted with a national online panel of 1,032 underage youth 13-20 years of age who had consumed at least 1 drink in the past 30 days. A latent class analysis identified four distinct media use patterns. Further analyses explored whether these media use groups differentially consumed the most frequently used alcohol brands. The results showed that past 30-day consumption of specific alcohol brands differed significantly across the four media use clusters, even after controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, household income, U.S. geographic region, frequency of parent's alcohol overconsumption, cigarette smoking, and seatbelt use. This study shows that youth use media in different ways, and this differential use is significantly associated with the consumption of specific alcohol brands. The media clusters revealed in this analysis may inform future research about the association between specific alcohol media exposures and individual brand consumption.

  4. Developmental patterns of O2 consumption, heart rate and O2 pulse in unturned eggs.

    PubMed

    Pearson, J T; Haque, M A; Hou, P C; Tazawa, H

    1996-01-01

    The effects of failure to turn eggs on the developmental patterns of oxygen consumption (MO2), heart rate (fH) and O2 pulse during the second half of incubation of individual chicken eggs were examined. The MO2 of unturned eggs increased at a significantly lower rate than the control toward the end of prenatal incubation, and the plateau MO2 between day 17 and 19 was significantly lower than the control. Lack of turning also resulted in significant changes in the developmental patterns of fH and O2 pulse. It is suggested that the effects of lack of egg-turning on the developmental patterns of MO2 may be attributable to lower embryonic growth rate in addition to impairment of gas exchange through the chorioallantoic gas exchanger.

  5. Fish consumption patterns and hair mercury levels in children and their mothers in 17 EU countries.

    PubMed

    Castaño, Argelia; Cutanda, Francisco; Esteban, Marta; Pärt, Peter; Navarro, Carmen; Gómez, Silvia; Rosado, Montserrat; López, Ana; López, Estrella; Exley, Karen; Schindler, Birgit K; Govarts, Eva; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Koch, Holger; Angerer, Jürgen; Den Hond, Elly; Schoeters, Greet; Sepai, Ovnair; Horvat, Milena; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Aerts, Dominique; Joas, Anke; Biot, Pierre; Joas, Reinhard; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A; Diaz, Gema; Pirard, Catherine; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Cerna, Milena; Gutleb, Arno C; Ligocka, Danuta; Reis, Fátima M; Berglund, Marika; Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Halzlová, Katarína; Charlier, Corinne; Cullen, Elizabeth; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Krsková, Andrea; Jensen, Janne F; Nielsen, Jeanette K; Schwedler, Gerda; Wilhelm, Michael; Rudnai, Peter; Középesy, Szilvia; Davidson, Fred; Fischer, Mark E; Janasik, Beata; Namorado, Sónia; Gurzau, Anca E; Jajcaj, Michal; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Larsson, Kristin; Lehmann, Andrea; Crettaz, Pierre; Lavranos, Giagkos; Posada, Manuel

    2015-08-01

    The toxicity of methylmercury (MeHg) in humans is well established and the main source of exposure is via the consumption of large marine fish and mammals. Of particular concern are the potential neurodevelopmental effects of early life exposure to low-levels of MeHg. Therefore, it is important that pregnant women, children and women of childbearing age are, as far as possible, protected from MeHg exposure. Within the European project DEMOCOPHES, we have analyzed mercury (Hg) in hair in 1799 mother-child pairs from 17 European countries using a strictly harmonized protocol for mercury analysis. Parallel, harmonized questionnaires on dietary habits provided information on consumption patterns of fish and marine products. After hierarchical cluster analysis of consumption habits of the mother-child pairs, the DEMOCOPHES cohort can be classified into two branches of approximately similar size: one with high fish consumption (H) and another with low consumption (L). All countries have representatives in both branches, but Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Portugal and Sweden have twice as many or more mother-child pairs in H than in L. For Switzerland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovenia and Slovakia the situation is the opposite, with more representatives in L than H. There is a strong correlation (r=0.72) in hair mercury concentration between the mother and child in the same family, which indicates that they have a similar exposure situation. The clustering of mother-child pairs on basis of their fish consumption revealed some interesting patterns. One is that for the same sea fish consumption, other food items of marine origin, like seafood products or shellfish, contribute significantly to the mercury levels in hair. We conclude that additional studies are needed to assess and quantify exposure to mercury from seafood products, in particular. The cluster analysis also showed that 95% of mothers who consume once per week fish only, and no other marine products

  6. The Role of Wheat and Egg Constituents in the Formation of a Covalent and Non-covalent Protein Network in Fresh and Cooked Egg Noodles.

    PubMed

    Lambrecht, Marlies A; Rombouts, Ine; Nivelle, Mieke A; Delcour, Jan A

    2017-01-01

    Noodles of constant protein content and flour-to-egg protein ratio were made with whole egg, egg white, or egg yolk. The optimal cooking time, water absorption, and cooking loss of salted whole egg noodles was respectively lower and higher than of egg white and egg yolk noodles. However, cooked whole egg noodles showed the best Kieffer-rig extensibility. Differences in noodle properties were linked to protein network formation. Disulfide bonds in whole egg noodles developed faster and to a larger extent during cooking than in egg yolk noodles but slower and to a lower extent than in egg white noodles. The balance between the rate of protein cross-linking and starch swelling determines cooked noodle properties. Ionic and hydrophobic protein interactions increase the optimum cooking time and total work in Kieffer-rig extensibility testing of fresh noodles. Hydrogen bonds and covalent cross-links are probably the main determinants of the extensibility of cooked noodles.

  7. Patterns and trends of beverage consumption among children and adults in Great Britain, 1986-2009.

    PubMed

    Ng, Shu Wen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jebb, Susan A; Popkin, Barry M

    2012-08-01

    Many dietary recommendations include reduction of excessive intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and other energy-rich beverages such as juices and alcohol. The present study examines surveys of both individual dietary intake data and household food expenditure surveys to provide a picture of patterns and trends in beverage intake and purchases in Great Britain from 1986 to 2009, and estimates the potential for pricing policy to promote more healthful beverage purchase patterns. In 2008-9, beverages accounted for 21, 14 and 18 % of daily energy intake for children aged 1·5-18 and 4-18 years, and adults (19-64 years), respectively. Since the 1990s, the most important shifts have been a reduction in consumption of high-fat dairy products and an increased consumption of fruit juices and reduced-fat milk among preschoolers, children and adolescents. Among adults, consumption of high-fat milk beverages, sweetened tea and coffee and other energy-containing drinks fell, but reduced-fat milk, alcohol (particularly beer) and fruit juice rose. In testing taxation as an option for shifting beverage purchase patterns, we calculate that a 10 % increase in the price of SSB could potentially result in a decrease of 7·5 ml/capita per d. A similar 10 % tax on high-fat milk is associated with a reduction of high-fat milk purchases by 5 ml/capita per d and increased reduced-fat milk purchase by 7 ml/capita per d. This analysis implies that taxation or other methods of shifting relative costs of these beverages could be a way to improve beverage choices in Great Britain.

  8. PATTERNS AND TRENDS OF BEVERAGE CONSUMPTION AMONG CHILDREN AND ADULTS IN GREAT BRITAIN, 1986–2009

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Shu Wen; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Jebb, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    Many dietary recommendations include reduction of excessive intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and other energy-rich beverages such as juices and alcohol. This study examines surveys of both individual dietary intake data and household food expenditures surveys to provide a picture of patterns and trends in beverage intake and purchases in Great Britain from 1986 to 2009, and estimates the potential for pricing policy to promote more healthful beverage purchase patterns. In 2008/09, beverages accounted for 21%, 14% and 18% of daily energy intake for children aged 1.5–18y, 4–18y, and adults (19–64y) respectively. Since the 1990s, the most important shifts are a reduction in consumption of high-fat dairy products and an increased consumption of fruit juices and reduced-fat milk among preschoolers, children and adolescents. Among adults consumption of high-fat milk beverages, sweetened tea and coffee and other energy-containing drinks fell, but reduced-fat milk, alcohol (particularly beer), and fruit juice rose. In testing taxation as an option for shifting beverage purchase patterns, we calculate that a 10% increase in the price of SSBs could potentially result in a decrease of 7.5 ml/capita/day. A similar 10% tax on high-fat milk is associated with a reduction of high-fat milk purchases by 5 ml/capita/day and increased reduced-fat milk purchase by 7 ml/capita/day. This analysis implies that taxation or other methods of shifting relative costs of these beverages could be a way to improve beverage choices in Great Britain. PMID:22186747

  9. Determination of the acid value of instant noodles: interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Hakoda, Akiko; Sakaida, Kenichi; Suzuki, Tadanao; Yasui, Akemi

    2006-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was performed to evaluate the method for determining the acid value of instant noodles, based on the Japanese Agricultural Standard (JAS), with extraction of lipid using petroleum ether at a volume of 100 mL to the test portion of 25 g. Thirteen laboratories participated and analyzed 5 test samples as blind duplicates. Statistical treatment revealed that the repeatability (RSDr) of acid value was <6.5%, and the reproducibility (RSDR) of acid value was <9.6%. The HorRat values (RSDR/predicted RSDR) were 1.2-1.8, where the RSDR and the predicted RSDR were obtained in terms of free fatty acids in the noodles per unit weight, using the equation [acid value = percent free fatty acids (as oleic) x 1.99] and the extracted lipid contents. This method was shown to have acceptable precision by the present study.

  10. Production of bioethanol and biodiesel using instant noodle waste.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoguang; Lee, Ja Hyun; Yoo, Hah Young; Shin, Hyun Yong; Thapa, Laxmi Prasad; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2014-08-01

    Instant noodle manufacturing waste was used as feedstock to convert it into two products, bioethanol and biodiesel. The raw material was pretreated to separate it into two potential feedstocks, starch residues and palm oil, for conversion to bioethanol and biodiesel, respectively. For the production of bioethanol, starch residues were converted into glucose by α-amylase and glucoamylase. To investigate the saccharification process of the pretreated starch residues, the optimal pretreatment conditions were determined. The bioethanol conversion reached 98.5 % of the theoretical maximum by Saccharomyces cerevisiae K35 fermentation after saccharification under optimized pretreatment conditions. Moreover, palm oil, isolated from the instant noodle waste, was converted into valuable biodiesel by use of immobilized lipase (Novozym 435). The effects of four categories of alcohol, oil-to-methanol ratio, reaction time, lipase concentration and water content on the conversion process were investigated. The maximum biodiesel conversion was 95.4 %.

  11. Food consumption and buying patterns of students from a Philippine university fastfood mall.

    PubMed

    Patricia, M; Azanza, V

    2001-11-01

    A consumer survey was conducted in a university fastfood mall to determine the food consumption and buying patterns of Philippine university students. The survey established that a typical fastfood consumer in the test university foodmall is female between 16 and 22 years old, with a purchasing capability of < or = US$1.79 for a complete meal, and who generally frequents the mall only once a day during weekdays. Wholesomeness, affordability and variety of the foods were the general basis for satisfaction of the typical student consumer.

  12. Dietary Patterns, Alcohol Consumption and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Shu, Long; Si, Cai-Juan; Yu, Xiao-Long; Liao, Dan; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Lun; Zheng, Pei-Fen

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies reported the potential associations between dietary patterns and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in adulthood, however a consistent perspective has not been established to date. Herein, we carried out this meta-analysis to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of CHD. MEDLINE and EBSCO were searched for relevant articles published up to April 2015. A total of 35 articles (reporting 37 original studies) met the inclusion criteria and were included in the present meta-analysis. The decreased risk of CHD was shown for the highest compared with the lowest categories of healthy/prudent dietary patterns (odds ratio (OR) = 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60, 0.75; p < 0.00001) and alcohol consumption (OR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.78; p < 0.00001). There was evidence of an increased risk of CHD in the highest compared with the lowest categories of the unhealthy/Western-type dietary patterns (OR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.01; p = 0.02). The results of this meta-analysis indicate that different dietary patterns may be associated with the risk of CHD. PMID:26262641

  13. Dietary Patterns, Alcohol Consumption and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Adults: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Shu, Long; Si, Cai-Juan; Yu, Xiao-Long; Liao, Dan; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Lun; Zheng, Pei-Fen

    2015-08-07

    Previous studies reported the potential associations between dietary patterns and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in adulthood, however a consistent perspective has not been established to date. Herein, we carried out this meta-analysis to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of CHD. MEDLINE and EBSCO were searched for relevant articles published up to April 2015. A total of 35 articles (reporting 37 original studies) met the inclusion criteria and were included in the present meta-analysis. The decreased risk of CHD was shown for the highest compared with the lowest categories of healthy/prudent dietary patterns (odds ratio (OR) = 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60, 0.75; p < 0.00001) and alcohol consumption (OR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.78; p < 0.00001). There was evidence of an increased risk of CHD in the highest compared with the lowest categories of the unhealthy/Western-type dietary patterns (OR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.01; p = 0.02). The results of this meta-analysis indicate that different dietary patterns may be associated with the risk of CHD.

  14. [Changes in food consumption pattern among Chilean school children after the implementation of a healthy kiosk].

    PubMed

    Bustos, Nelly; Kain, Juliana; Leyton, Bárbara; Vio, Fernando

    2011-09-01

    In Chilean school there is a kiosk that sells a large number of high-calorie products. The aim of this study was to determine the barriers that children have for buying healthy food and evaluate changes in the pattern of food purchases during a school year at a school where a "Healthy Space" was created. We designed implemented and assessed changes in food purchases by developing a "Healthy Space" which included a kiosk that incorporated a range of healthy food at affordable prices. The staff in charge of the kiosk was trained and we generate communication and marketing strategies to promote the consumption of healthy food. A validated survey to determine food purchases was applied to 9-12 year-old children from both schools at baseline and follow up 8 months later. The total number of schoolchildren was 477 (291 from the intervention and 115 from the control school). There weren't significant differences in the amount of money available to buy food between children of both schools. There was a significant increase in the purchase of fruit, milk, yoghurt, soft drinks and light juices, dried seeds, healthy sandwiches and non-fat ice cream (p < 0.05) of school children from the intervention school. At the control school, no change in consumption was observed. The increase in the supply of affordable healthy food, including communication and marketing strategies, significantly increases the consumption of these products among school children.

  15. Mediterranean food consumption patterns: low environmental impacts and significant health-nutrition benefits.

    PubMed

    Aboussaleh, Y; Capone, R; Bilali, H El

    2017-06-29

    The Mediterranean dietary patterns comply better with recommended nutrient and micronutrient intakes. The Mediterranean diet (MD) was associated with reduced mortality and lower risk for metabolic chronic diseases. It has also low ecological, carbon and water footprints due to its high share of plant-based foods. In fact, the share of plant-based dietary energy is higher in the Mediterranean than in Northern Europe. The Mediterranean hotspot is a major centre of plant and crop diversity. Mediterranean people gather and consume about 2300 plant species. This review paper aims at highlighting the nutrition-health benefits of the MD and analysing the main environmental impacts of the Mediterranean food consumption patterns. There is a growing body of scientific evidence that the MD has significant health-nutrition benefits and low environmental footprints, so there is urgent need to reverse the ongoing erosion of the MD heritage and to promote it as a sustainable diets model.

  16. Research on trading patterns of large users' direct power purchase considering consumption of clean energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guojun, He; Lin, Guo; Zhicheng, Yu; Xiaojun, Zhu; Lei, Wang; Zhiqiang, Zhao

    2017-03-01

    In order to reduce the stochastic volatility of supply and demand, and maintain the electric power system's stability after large scale stochastic renewable energy sources connected to grid, the development and consumption should be promoted by marketing means. Bilateral contract transaction model of large users' direct power purchase conforms to the actual situation of our country. Trading pattern of large users' direct power purchase is analyzed in this paper, characteristics of each power generation are summed up, and centralized matching mode is mainly introduced. Through the establishment of power generation enterprises' priority evaluation index system and the analysis of power generation enterprises' priority based on fuzzy clustering, the sorting method of power generation enterprises' priority in trading patterns of large users' direct power purchase is put forward. Suggestions for trading mechanism of large users' direct power purchase are offered by this method, which is good for expand the promotion of large users' direct power purchase further.

  17. Water Use in Los Angeles, California: Consumption Patterns, Ecosystem Response and Impact on Regional Water Budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogue, T. S.

    2014-12-01

    The City of Los Angeles relies heavily on external water sources, primarily the Eastern Sierra, Northern California and the Colorado River, and approximately 90% of the City's water supply is snowpack dependent. In recent years, water conservation measures have been implemented in response to regional drought, which include a tiered pricing structure and watering restrictions. As a result of implemented conservation policies, Los Angeles reported the lowest water consumption per capita per day in 2011 among cities over 1 million people in the U.S. This presentation will highlight our ongoing work to better understand the coupling between humans, ecosystems and water across the City of Los Angeles, especially during the recent drought period. Our work is unique in that we integrate social, ecological, and hydrologic data, including ten years of residential water consumption data for the entire city of Los Angeles, extensive groundwater well data, socio-economic information and remote sensing to evaluate relationships as well as spatial and temporal patterns. Developed statistical models demonstrated that Single-Family Residential (SFR) water use across the City is primarily driven by household income, landscape greenness, water rates and water volume allocation,, with higher consumption rates in the northern, warmer and more affluent parts, and lower consumption rates in the less affluent neighborhoods near Downtown. Landscape use also varies greatly across the city, averaging 50% of total SFR. Our evaluation of conservation efforts shows that the combination of mandatory watering restrictions and price increase led to a water reduction of 23%, while voluntary restrictions led to only a 6% reduction in water use. Relationships of water use to ecosystems (greenness) and groundwater variability were also evaluated and will be highlighted. Our ultimate goal is to improve predictions of human-water interactions in order to drive policy change and guide future demand

  18. Patterns and predictors of fast food consumption after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, Adam C; Chan, Paul S; Gosch, Kensey L; Buchanan, Donna M; Spertus, John A

    2011-04-15

    Although fast food is affordable and convenient, it is also high in calories, saturated fat, and sodium. The frequency of fast food intake at the time of and after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is modifiable. However, patterns of fast food intake and characteristics associated with its consumption in patients with AMI are unknown. The aim of this study was to study fast food consumption at the time of AMI and 6 months later in 2,481 patients from the prospective, 24-center Translational Research Investigating Underlying Disparities in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients' Health Status (TRIUMPH) study of patients with AMI. Fast food intake was categorized as frequent (weekly or more often) or infrequent (less than weekly). Multivariate log-binomial regression was used to identify patient characteristics associated with frequent fast food intake 6 months after AMI. At baseline, 884 patients (36%) reported frequent fast food intake, which decreased to 503 (20%) 6 months after discharge (p <0.001). Male gender, white race, lack of college education, current employment, and dyslipidemia were independently associated with frequent fast food intake 6 months after AMI. In contrast, older patients and those who underwent coronary bypass surgery were less likely to eat fast food frequently. Documentation of discharge dietary counseling was not associated with 6-month fast food intake. In conclusion, fast food consumption by patients with AMI decreased 6 months after the index hospitalization, but certain populations, including younger patients, men, those currently working, and less educated patients were more likely to consume fast food, at least weekly, during follow-up. Novel interventions that go beyond traditional dietary counseling may be needed to address continued fast food consumption after AMI in these patients.

  19. Mediterranean countries' food consumption and sourcing patterns:An Ecological Footprint viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Galli, Alessandro; Iha, Katsunori; Halle, Martin; El Bilali, Hamid; Grunewald, Nicole; Eaton, Derek; Capone, Roberto; Debs, Philipp; Bottalico, Francesco

    2017-02-01

    Securing food for growing populations while minimizing environmental externalities is becoming a key topic in the current sustainability debate. This is particularly true in the Mediterranean region, which is characterized by scarce natural resources and increasing climate-related impacts. This paper focuses on the pressure Mediterranean people place on the Earth ecosystems because of their food consumption and sourcing patterns and then explores ways in which such pressure can be reduced. To do so, it uses an Ecological-Footprint-Extended Multi-Regional Input-Output (EF-MRIO) approach applied to 15 Mediterranean countries. Results indicate that food consumption is a substantial driver of the region's ecological deficit, whereby demand for renewable resources and ecosystems services outpaces the capacity of its ecosystems to provide them. Portugal, Malta and Greece are found to have the highest per capita food Footprints (1.50, 1.25 and 1.22 global hectares (gha), respectively), while Slovenia, Egypt and Israel have the lowest (0.63, 0.64 and 0.79gha, respectively). With the exception of France, all Mediterranean countries rely on the biocapacity of foreign countries to satisfy their residents' demand for food. By analyzing the effect of shifting to a calorie-adequate diet or changing dietary patterns, we finally point out that the region's Ecological Footprint - and therefore its ecological deficit - could be reduced by 8% to 10%.

  20. Exploring spatiotemporal water and energy consumption patterns within the U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, D.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2011-12-01

    Crises or conflicts often arise when a sustained supply of water and energy resources fails to meet demand. Projected population, economic growth, and land development, coupled with natural and anthropogenic climate change, will likely exacerbate current problems of matching resource demand with supply. Research to understand water and energy drivers is complicated by the interconnectivity and intricate relationship between water and energy resources. Although we know socio-economic, climatic, and geographic variables influence water and energy resource consumption, how these many contributing variables play a role in the supply and demand of water and energy is not well understood. In our work, we compile data on climate (e.g., temperature, precipitation, and humidity), water and electricity use, population, economic activity, and land use to form a relatively complete dataset for the United States. Using dimension reduction techniques (e.g. empirical orthogonal functions), we explore this high-dimensional dataset to extract patterns and reveal hidden dynamics. The resulting patterns of the first few composite factors, displayed on contour maps to spatially contextualize the variables, concisely show the dominant modes of water and energy consumption variables. The temporal evolution of the main factors indicates the influence of various controls on the water-energy nexus.

  1. Effects of fortified lysine on the amino acid profile and sensory qualities of deep-fried and dried noodles.

    PubMed

    Polpuech, C; Chavasit, V; Srichakwal, P; Paniangvait, P

    2011-08-01

    Lysine fortification of wheat flour has been used toward reducing protein energy malnutrition in developing countries. The feasibility of fortifying instant noodles with lysine was evaluated based on sensory qualities and the residual lysine content. Fifty grams of deep-fried and dried instant noodles were fortified with 0.23 and 0.21 g lysine, respectively. The production temperatures used for deep-frying were 165-175 degrees C and for drying, 80-105 degrees C; these are the temperatures used in the industrial production of both kinds of noodles. Lysine fortification was then performed at the local factories using the commercial production lines and packaging for both types of instant noodles. Both fortified and unfortified deep-fried and dried instant noodles were stored at 50 degrees C under fluorescent light for 2 and 4 months, respectively. The fortified products were tested for residual lysine content and sensory qualities as compared with unfortified noodles. The results show fortified products from the tested processing temperatures were all accepted. After storage, significant losses of lysine were not found in both types of noodles analysed. The lysine-fortified noodles had amino acid scores of 102% and 122%, respectively. After 2 months, the sensory quality of fortified deep-fried noodles was still acceptable; however, the dried noodles turned to an unacceptable dark colour. This study shows that it is feasible to fortify deep-fried instant noodles with lysine, though lysine fortification exhibited an undesirable colour in the dried instant noodles after storage.

  2. Beverage Consumption Patterns of Children Born at Different Risk of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kral, Tanja V.E.; Stunkard, Albert J.; Berkowitz, Robert I.; Stallings, Virginia A.; Moore, Reneé H.; Faith, Myles S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Increased intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and fruit juice has been associated with overweight in children. Objective This study prospectively assessed beverage consumption patterns and their relationship with weight status in a cohort of children born at different risk for obesity. Methods and Procedures Participants were children born at low risk (n = 27) or high risk (n = 22) for obesity based on maternal prepregnancy BMI (kg/m2). Daily beverage consumption was generated from 3-day food records from children aged 3–6 years and coded into seven beverage categories (milk, fruit juice, fruit drinks, caloric and noncaloric soda, soft drinks including and excluding fruit juice). Child anthropometric measures were assessed yearly. Results High-risk children consumed a greater percentage of daily calories from beverages at age 3, more fruit juice at ages 3 and 4, more soft drinks (including fruit juice) at ages 3–5, and more soda at age 6 compared to low-risk children. Longitudinal analyses showed that a greater 3-year increase in soda intake was associated with an increased change in waist circumference, whereas a greater increase in milk intake was associated with a reduced change in waist circumference. There was no significant association between change in intake from any of the beverage categories and change in BMI z-score across analyses. Discussion Children’s familial predisposition to obesity may differentially affect their beverage consumption patterns. Future research should examine the extent to which dietary factors may play a role in pediatric body fat deposition over time. PMID:18535546

  3. [Patterns of drug consumption and the occurrence of adverse drug reactions among students of public health].

    PubMed

    Plichta, Danuta; Doryńska, Agnieszka; Spiewak, Radosław

    2012-04-01

    The research of drug consumption is focused mainly upon the elderly, while the knowledge of drug consumption patterns among young people remains insufficient. Public health students (PHS) seem of particular interest as future opinion leaders and drug policy makers. The aim of the study was to analyze opinions and patterns of drug consumption, and adverse drug reactions (ADR) in this group. 130 PHS took part in the anonymous questionnaire survey. All students admitted to using some drug at least once in their lives. While purchasing over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, 51.6% students trusted their own knowledge and experience. Women more often relied on a pharmacist's recommendation (47.2% vs 21.7% men; p = 0.045), while men were more influenced by advertising (34.8% vs 12.3% women, p = 0.008). Strict adherence to recommended dosage of OTC and prescription drugs (Rx) was declared by 41.1% and 71.9% students, respectively. Every fourth student (24.8%) admitted to having purchased a Rx drug at least once without having the prescription. Past episodes of ADR to OTC were reported by 7.8% students and to Rx by 38.4% (p < 0.001). Respectively 27.2% and 34.4% students were never, or hardly ever asked about past ADR by prescribing physicians. According to 89.2% students, drug advertising should be subject to regulation and policing, and 66.1% considered it inaccurate and unreliable. Forty-five percent of students had an OTC drug on them while responding the questionnaire, 20.0% had a prescription drug. Students of public health seem to be notorious consumers of drugs and their attitude seems not fully rational.

  4. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption among Male Adults at a Slum in Kolkata, India

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Amrita; Mukherjee, Shuvankar

    2012-01-01

    Globally, alcohol-abuse is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Consumption of alcohol has increased in India in the recent decades. It is imperative to know the patterns of alcohol consumption among different types of consumers to launch a well-planned nationwide programme for the prevention and control of this devastating social pathology. This community-based, cross-sectional study was undertaken to identify the patterns of alcohol intake among different types of alcohol consumers and to assess the clinical signs of chronic harmful alcohol-use. A predesigned, pretested, semi-structured alcohol-use disorders identification test (AUDIT) questionnaire was used for interviewing males, aged >18 years, selected by random sampling from an updated household list of a randomly-selected sector of the service area of the Urban Health Centre in Chetla, Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Written informed consents were obtained from all the respondents. Relevant clinical examination for chronic harmful alcohol-use was done according to the AUDIT clinical screening procedures. The results revealed that 65.8% (150/228) were current consumers of alcohol; 14% were alcohol-dependents; 8% were hazardous or harmful consumers, and 78% were non-hazardous non-harmful consumers. The mean age of the respondents at the initiation of drinking alcohol was 20.8+5.9 years. Eighty-six percent of dependents (n=21) took both Indian-made foreign liquor and locally-made alcoholic beverages. The proportions of alcohol consumers who drank alone among alcohol-dependents, hazardous or harmful consumers, and non-hazardous non-harmful consumers were 71.4%, 50%, and 7.7% respectively, and the difference was significant (p<0.01). Forty-one percent of the consumers drank at public places and workplaces, which may be socially harmful. About 38% of the dependents purchased alcohol from unlicensed liquor shops. Only 16% expressed concerns for their drinking habit mainly to the past illness. The proportion of

  5. Pre-college matriculation risk profiles and alcohol consumption patterns during the first semesters of college.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Jerod L; Turrisi, Rob; Cleveland, Michael J; Ray, Anne E; Lu, Shou-En

    2014-10-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption represents a significant concern on U.S. college campuses, and there is a need to identify students who may be at risk for engaging in risky alcohol use. The current study examined how variables measured prior to college matriculation, specifically alcohol-related decision-making variables drawn from the Theory of Reasoned Action (i.e., alcohol expectancies, attitudes, and normative beliefs), were associated with patterns of alcohol use prior to and throughout the first semesters of college. Participants were 392 undergraduate students (56% female) from a large Northeastern U.S. university. Decision-making variables were assessed prior to college matriculation, and alcohol use was measured with five assessments before and throughout freshman and sophomore semesters. Latent profile analysis was used to identify types of students with distinct patterns of decision-making variables. These decision-making profiles were subsequently linked to distinct patterns of alcohol use using latent transition analysis. Four distinct decision-making profiles were found and were labeled "Anti-Drinking," "Unfavorable," "Mixed," and "Risky." Five drinking patterns were observed and included participants who reported consistently low, moderate, or high rates of alcohol use. Two patterns described low or non-drinking at the pre-college baseline with drinking escalation during the measurement period. Students' likelihood of following the various drinking patterns varied according to their decision-making. Findings suggest the early identification of at-risk students may be improved by assessing decision-making variables in addition to alcohol use. The findings also have implications for the design of early identification assessments to identify at-risk college students and for the targeting of alcohol prevention efforts to students based on their alcohol-related attitudes and beliefs.

  6. Pre-College Matriculation Risk Profiles and Alcohol Consumption Patterns during the First Semesters of College

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Jerod L.; Turrisi, Rob; Cleveland, Michael J.; Ray, Anne E.; Lu, Shou-En

    2013-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption represents a significant concern on U.S. college campuses and there is a need to identify students who may be at risk for engaging in risky alcohol use. The current study examined how variables measured prior to college matriculation, specifically alcohol-related decision-making variables drawn from the Theory of Reasoned Action (i.e., alcohol expectancies, attitudes, and normative beliefs), were associated with patterns of alcohol use prior to and throughout the first semesters of college. Participants were 392 undergraduate students (56% female) from a large Northeastern U.S. university. Decision-making variables were assessed prior to college matriculation and alcohol use was measured with 5 assessments before and throughout freshman and sophomore semesters. Latent profile analysis was used to identify types of students with distinct patterns of decision-making variables. These decision-making profiles were subsequently linked to distinct patterns of alcohol use using latent transition analysis. Four distinct decision-making profiles were found and were labeled “Anti-Drinking”, “Unfavorable”, “Mixed”, and “Risky”. Five drinking patterns were observed and included participants who reported consistently low, moderate, or high rates of alcohol use. Two patterns described low or non-drinking at the pre-college baseline with drinking escalation during the measurement period. Students' likelihood of following the various drinking patterns varied according to their decision-making. Findings suggest the early identification of at-risk students may be improved by assessing decision-making variables in addition to alcohol use. The findings also have implications for the design of early identification assessments to identify at-risk college students and for the targeting of alcohol prevention efforts to students based on their alcohol-related attitudes and beliefs. PMID:23928750

  7. Chapter III: Polyphenol Oxidase and Darkening of Asian Noodles – Measurement and Improvement

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Noodles made from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are major food products around the world but are especially important to the peoples and cultures of eastern Asia. As noted in other chapters, an almost limitless variety of noodle styles are manufactured in which the most important ingredient is wheat...

  8. Gluten-free starch noodles from sweet potato with reduced starch digestibility and enhanced protein content.

    PubMed

    Menon, Renjusha; Padmaja, G; Jyothi, A N; Asha, V; Sajeev, M S

    2016-09-01

    Sweet potato starch (SPS) noodles despite being gluten-free, has low nutritional value as it lacks proteins, minerals, vitamins etc. The objective of this study was to develop gluten-free starch noodles from sweet potato with enhanced protein content through fortification with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and to study the effect of protein fortification and blending SPS with banana (BS), cassava (CS) and mung bean (MBS) starches and annealed cassava starch (ACS) in reducing the starch digestibility. The highest protein retention in cooked noodles was obtained for 20 % WPC fortification, while the lowest starch digestibility was observed for 40 % BS fortified noodles followed by 50 % ACS fortified noodles. The highest resistant starch (RS) retention was for BS and ACS fortified noodles, which also had medium glycemic index of 66.3 (BS) and 67.2 (ACS). High sensory scores were obtained for the BS and 20 % WPC fortified noodles. The study showed that protein and/or BS fortification with SPS could enhance the acceptability as well as functional value of SPS noodles.

  9. Effects of recombinant lipoxygenase on the rheological properties of dough and the quality of noodles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Shuang; Bie, Xiaomei; Zhao, Haizhen; Lu, Fengxia; Lu, Zhaoxin

    2016-07-01

    The effects of purified recombinant lipoxygenase (ana-rLOX) on the rheological properties of dough and the quality of noodles made from wheat flour with low protein content (Yanmai 15) were studied. The addition of ana-rLOX increased dough stability time, decreased the degree of softening within 12 min, enhanced the resistance to extension, and increased the extensibility with 135 min of resting time. The mechanical spectra of the dough showed an increase in both storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) with increasing ana-rLOX levels. The L(*) values of the noodle sheets increased by 2.34 compared with the control after storing for 1 h at room temperature. The textural parameters of noodles improved after ana-rLOX addition, including hardness, gumminess, chewiness and springiness. The wheat flour treated with the ana-rLOX had a higher cooking yield and lower cooking loss for the resulting noodles. The scanning electron microscopy results revealed that gluten was formed in the noodle samples that were treated with ana-rLOX. In this study, ana-rLOX was applied to noodles during the noodle-making process, and both dough rheological characteristics and noodle quality were improved. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Prevalence and patterns of alcohol consumption among Royal Thai Army personnel.

    PubMed

    Viravathana, Nantaporn

    2009-02-01

    To determine the prevalence and patterns of alcohol consumption among the army personnel. A cross-sectional study was carried out during the annual health examination between 2000 and 2001 in two army units located in the central region of Thailand. A total of 843 active duty army personnel participated in the present study. Data on demographic characteristics, smoking status and alcohol consumption were collected using a self-rating questionnaire. Drinking patterns during the past year were measured in the following aspects: frequency, quantity, binge drinking and beverage preference. Eight hundred and thirty-one (98.6%) studied personnel provided complete information and were included in the analysis. All were males with the mean age of 37.2 +/- 7.7 years. Five hundred and ninety-three (71.4%) study personnel were current drinkers. The majority of 57.5% drank at least five drinks per drinking day. With regard to the frequency of drinking, 10.7% reported that they drank as often as daily or nearly every day. Additionally, 22.7% had five drinks or more per drinking day at least weekly. Up to 28.2% had binge drinking or episodic heavy drinking practices. The most common type of alcoholic beverage for drinkers was mixed spirit and beer (30.7%). Only three (0.4%) personnel reported drinking wine. The results suggest that alcohol abuse becomes a significant problem among the army personnel. Most drinking patterns established among the army personnel are more likely to be harmful and unsafe to their health than beneficial effects. Thus, there is an urgent need to initiate appropriate action to prevent the harm from alcohol use and to protect the military performance and readiness.

  11. Changing patterns of tobacco consumption in Mozambique: evidence from a migrant study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Maputo, the Mozambique capital, contrasts with the rest of the country with regard to its sociodemographic characteristics and patterns of tobacco exposure. We conducted a migrant study to compare the prevalence of manufactured-cigarette smoking and traditional forms of tobacco use among dwellers in the capital who were also born in Maputo City (MC/MC) with those born in southern (SP/MC) and northern (NP/MC) provinces, and additionally with inhabitants in the latter regions. Methods In 2003, a representative sample of 12,902 Mozambicans aged 25-64 years was evaluated. We computed age- and education-adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) with 95%-confidence intervals (95%CI) using Poisson regression. Results The prevalence of any type of tobacco consumption among Maputo City inhabitants born in other provinces contrasted with the pattern observed in locally born inhabitants (SP/MC vs. MC/MC: men, PR, 0.61; 95%CI, 0.44-0.85; women, PR, 0.38, 95%CI, 0.18-0.79; NP/MC vs. MC/MC: men, PR, 0.66; 95%CI, 0.34-1.29; women, PR, 4.56, 95%CI, 1.78-11.69); the prevalence among city inhabitants born in other provinces resembled the pattern seen in inhabitants of their provinces of origin. Traditional forms of tobacco consumption among men were rare in Maputo City, which is in stark contrast to the situation in other provinces. Conclusions Cultural background, affordability, and availability of different types of tobacco in urban Mozambique need to be considered when developing strategies to control the tobacco epidemic. PMID:21575253

  12. Reproductive State and Rank Influence Patterns of Meat Consumption in Wild Female Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Margaret A.; Gilby, Ian C.; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.; Pusey, Anne; Markham, A. Catherine; Murray, Carson M.

    2015-01-01

    An increase in faunivory is a consistent component of human evolutionary models. Animal matter is energy- and nutrient-dense and can provide macronutrients, minerals, and vitamins that are limited or absent in plant foods. For female humans and other omnivorous primates, faunivory may be of particular importance during the costly periods of pregnancy and early lactation. Yet, because animal prey is often monopolizable, access to fauna among group-living primates may be mediated by social factors such as rank. Wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) across Africa habitually consume insects and/or vertebrates. However, no published studies have examined patterns of female chimpanzee faunivory during pregnancy and early lactation relative to non-reproductive periods, or by females of different rank. In this study, we assessed the influence of reproductive state and dominance rank on the consumption of fauna (meat and insects) by female chimpanzees of Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Using observational data collected over 38 years, we tested (a) whether faunivory varied by reproductive state, and (b) if high-ranking females spent more time consuming fauna than lower-ranking females. In single-factor models, pregnant females consumed more meat than lactating and baseline (meaning not pregnant and not in early lactation) females, and high-ranking females consumed more meat than lower-ranking females. A two-factor analysis of a subset of well-sampled females identified an interaction between rank and reproductive state: lower-ranking females consumed more meat during pregnancy than lower-ranking lactating and baseline females did. High-ranking females did not significantly differ in meat consumption between reproductive states. We found no relationships between rank or reproductive state with insectivory. We conclude that, unlike insectivory, meat consumption by female chimpanzees is mediated by both reproductive state and social rank. We outline several possible mechanisms for

  13. Reproductive state and rank influence patterns of meat consumption in wild female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii).

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Robert C; Stanton, Margaret A; Gilby, Ian C; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Pusey, Anne; Markham, A Catherine; Murray, Carson M

    2016-01-01

    An increase in faunivory is a consistent component of human evolutionary models. Animal matter is energy- and nutrient-dense and can provide macronutrients, minerals, and vitamins that are limited or absent in plant foods. For female humans and other omnivorous primates, faunivory may be of particular importance during the costly periods of pregnancy and early lactation. Yet, because animal prey is often monopolizable, access to fauna among group-living primates may be mediated by social factors such as rank. Wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) across Africa habitually consume insects and/or vertebrates. However, no published studies have examined patterns of female chimpanzee faunivory during pregnancy and early lactation relative to non-reproductive periods, or by females of different rank. In this study, we assessed the influence of reproductive state and dominance rank on the consumption of fauna (meat and insects) by female chimpanzees of Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Using observational data collected over 38 years, we tested (a) whether faunivory varied by reproductive state, and (b) if high-ranking females spent more time consuming fauna than lower-ranking females. In single-factor models, pregnant females consumed more meat than lactating and baseline (meaning not pregnant and not in early lactation) females, and high-ranking females consumed more meat than lower-ranking females. A two-factor analysis of a subset of well-sampled females identified an interaction between rank and reproductive state: lower-ranking females consumed more meat during pregnancy than lower-ranking lactating and baseline females did. High-ranking females did not significantly differ in meat consumption between reproductive states. We found no relationships between rank or reproductive state with insectivory. We conclude that, unlike insectivory, meat consumption by female chimpanzees is mediated by both reproductive state and social rank. We outline possible mechanisms for these

  14. [Food consumption patterns of children 4 to 14 years old in Valencia, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    del Real, Sara Irene; Fajardo, Zuleida; Solano, Liseti; Concepción Páez, María; Sánchez, Armando

    2005-09-01

    Results from a nutritional assessment are presented to establish the usual food consumption pattern of 438 children between 4-14 years of age, from a low income urban community in Valencia, Venezuela. Food intake data were collected through multiple 24 hours recalls and converted to individual food item weight in grams. Amounts of energy, macronutrients, iron, calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin C were estimated to compare them to national references. The food pattern was established according to intake frequency per food item and per food groups. Arepa was the most commonly consumed food item, and a main source of kilocalories, protein, carbohydrates, iron, and vitamin A. Unlike coffee, fruits were not among the most commonly consumed foods. Black beans were the main source of protein. Cookies and sodas were among the major sources of energy. Energy and nutrient intake were adequate, except for calcium (67% in preschoolers y 43% in school-aged children). Preschoolers' diet showed a better adequacy for all nutrients (p < 0.005), except for iron which was significantly higher in school-aged children. Since children below 15 years old are still forming food behaviors and habits, they are an ideal group to develop nutritional education strategies to modify harmful patterns such as high intake of sodas, and low intakes of calcium rich foods.

  15. Alcohol mixed with energy drinks are robustly associated with patterns of problematic alcohol consumption among young adult college students.

    PubMed

    Snipes, Daniel J; Jeffers, Amy J; Green, Brooke A; Benotsch, Eric G

    2015-02-01

    Young adults are a population at great risk for problematic health behaviors. Alcohol mixed with energy drink (AmED) consumption is a relatively popular health risk behavior among young adults. AmED consumption continues to illustrate negative outcomes in the research literature, having been linked with other substance use, high-risk sexual behavior, and sexual victimization. Limited research to date has examined associations between AmED consumption and patterns of alcohol dependence. Undergraduate college students (n=757) filled out an online survey which assessed their drinking habits in the past week and month, including their consumption of AmED beverages, personality characteristics, substance use, and problematic alcohol consumption via the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). A minority of participants reported AmED consumption in both the past month (11.6%) and past week (9.7%). Compared to their alcohol-only drinking counterparts, AmED consumers scored significantly higher on measures of impulsivity, and lower on anxiety sensitivity when compared to their alcohol-only drinking counterparts. In multivariate analyses, AmED consumption was robustly associated with patterns of alcohol dependence (AUDIT score≥8) among young adult college students, while controlling for energy drink use, alcohol use, personality factors, substance use, and demographic variables. AmED consumption in the past month is robustly associated with problematic alcohol consumption. The present study describes harmful outcomes associated with AmED consumption, and extends the literature on the combined effects of alcohol and energy drinks on young adult risk behaviors. Further research needs to address causal mechanisms for the AmED and problematic alcohol consumption relation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Patterns of tobacco consumption in food facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Mandil, Ahmed; Yamani, Mohammad; BinSaeed, Abdulaziz; Ahmad, Shaffi; Younis, Afnan; Al-Mutlaq, Ahmad; Al-Baqmy, Omar; Al-Rajhi, Abdulaziz

    2014-01-01

    AIM: This study aimed at assessing prevailing patterns and risk factors of tobacco consumption among clients, food handlers and employers of food facilities, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional approach to a representative sample of food facilities in Riyadh was used. A sample of 3000 participants included clients (75%); food handlers/hospitality workers (20 %) and employers (5 %). Participants were reached at restaurants, food courts or cafes. A modified version of the WHO-CDC-Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire was used for data collection. RESULTS: The prevalence of tobacco use at food facilities was found to be 40.3 %, of which 74% were customers, 18.8% were food handlers and 7.2% were managers. The consumption of tobacco was higher at restaurants (39.9%), but lowest at food courts of shopping malls. Water pipe (55.3%) was the main consumption type, followed by cigarettes (42.6%) and chewing tobacco (2.1%). Multivariate analysis showed that gender (male), marital status (single), and type of food facility (Estaraha and café/coffee shop) were independent risk factors associated with tobacco use at food facilities. CONCLUSION: Tobacco use is very common in food facilities in Riyadh as reflected by results of our study, especially among single males Saudis. We should build on success encountered in banning smoking in airports, airplanes, shopping malls, market places, educational institutions and healthcare facilities, extending the ban to include food facilities as well. This is important for the health of non-smokers as well as smokers themselves. PMID:24987478

  17. Food consumption patterns in the Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada: a cross-sectional telephone survey

    PubMed Central

    Nesbitt, Andrea; Majowicz, Shannon; Finley, Rita; Pollari, Frank; Pintar, Katarina; Marshall, Barbara; Cook, Angela; Sargeant, Jan; Wilson, Jeff; Ribble, Carl; Knowles, Lewinda

    2008-01-01

    Background The demographics and lifestyles of Canadians are changing, thereby influencing food choices and food preparation in the home. Although different dietary practices are associated with increased risk of foodborne illness, our ability to evaluate food consumption trends and assess risks associated with foodborne illness is limited by lack of data on current eating habits and consumer food safety practices. The objective of this study was to describe, for the first time, the food consumption patterns in a Canadian-based population from a food safety perspective, in order to establish baseline data on actual food intake of individuals. Method A cross-sectional telephone survey of 2,332 randomly selected residents of Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada (C-EnterNet pilot site) was conducted between November 2005 and March 2006. Food intake was assessed using a 7-day dietary recall method. Results Certain food items were consumed more than others among the same food groups, and consumption of many food items varied by gender and age. Specific foods considered high-risk for the transmission of certain enteric pathogens were significantly more likely to be consumed by males (i.e. unpasteurized juice, bean sprouts, and undercooked meat) and elderly individuals (i.e. undercooked eggs). The majority of households prepared and consumed most meals at home, allocating an average of 44 minutes to prepare a meal. Conclusion Baseline data on actual food intake is useful to public health professionals and food safety risk assessors for developing communication messages to consumers and in foodborne outbreak investigations. PMID:18950509

  18. Food-consumption patterns in central West Africa, 1961 to 2000, and challenges to combating malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Honfoga, B G; van den Boom, G J

    2003-06-01

    We discuss food-consumption patterns in Central West Africa from 1961 to 2000 and some implications for combating malnutrition. The availability of food in the region improved in the 1960s, declined sharply in the 1970s and the early 1980s, and has shown a modest positive trend since the mid-1980s. Notwithstanding obvious progress over the past decades and in the region as a whole, food availability today remains below the required levels for large parts of the population and appears unstable over time, particularly in the Sahelian zone. On average, diets in this zone contain fewer than 2,200 kcal, compared with almost 2,500 kcal in the coastal zone. Conversely, protein deficiency is more common in the coastal zone, where a typical diet contains only 45 g of protein, compared with 60 g in the Sahelian zone. Furthermore, consumption is showing a dietary shift toward cereals, while yield growth lags far behind population growth. The associated import dependency and pressure on land seem to gain significance regardless of the region's agro-ecological capacity to increase and to substitute cereal imports for locally produced food. Moreover, food consumption appears responsive to income changes (calorie-income elasticity ranges from 0.25 to 0.62), while, in turn, it has a significant impact on nutritional outcomes (stunting-calorie elasticity of -1.42). We conclude that combating malnutrition requires first broad-spectrum income growth, and next specific policies that promote the yield and the contribution to diets of nutritious food produced within the region.

  19. Alcohol and energy drinks: a pilot study exploring patterns of consumption, social contexts, benefits and harms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Young people around the world are increasingly combining alcohol with energy drinks (AEDs). However, as yet, limited research has been conducted examining this issue, particularly in terms of exploring patterns of consumption, social practices and the cultural contexts of AED consumption. We sought to understand how AEDs are used and socially constructed among young people. Methods We conducted 25 hours of observation in a variety of pubs, bars and nightclubs, as well as in-depth interviews with ten young people who regularly consumed AEDs during a session of alcohol use. Results In this pilot study, participants were highly organised in their AED consumption practices and reported rarely altering this routine. Some young people consumed upwards of eight AEDs on a typical night, and others limited their use to between three and five AEDs to avoid unpleasant consequences, such as sleep disturbances, severe hangovers, heart palpitations and agitation. Wakefulness and increased energy were identified as the primary benefits of AEDs, with taste, reduced and increased intoxication, and sociability reported as additional benefits. Young AED users were brand sensitive and responded strongly to Red Bull imagery, as well as discounted AEDs. Finally, some young people reported substituting illicit stimulants with energy drinks. Conclusions Combining energy drinks with alcohol is now a normalised phenomenon and an integral and ingrained feature of the night-time economy. Despite this, many young people are unaware of recommended daily limits or related harms. While some young people consume AEDs to feel less drunk (consistent with motivations for combining alcohol with illicit stimulants), others report using AEDs to facilitate intoxication. While preliminary, our findings have relevance for potential policy and regulatory approaches, as well as directions for future research. PMID:22824297

  20. Alcohol and energy drinks: a pilot study exploring patterns of consumption, social contexts, benefits and harms.

    PubMed

    Pennay, Amy; Lubman, Dan I

    2012-07-23

    Young people around the world are increasingly combining alcohol with energy drinks (AEDs). However, as yet, limited research has been conducted examining this issue, particularly in terms of exploring patterns of consumption, social practices and the cultural contexts of AED consumption. We sought to understand how AEDs are used and socially constructed among young people. We conducted 25 hours of observation in a variety of pubs, bars and nightclubs, as well as in-depth interviews with ten young people who regularly consumed AEDs during a session of alcohol use. In this pilot study, participants were highly organised in their AED consumption practices and reported rarely altering this routine. Some young people consumed upwards of eight AEDs on a typical night, and others limited their use to between three and five AEDs to avoid unpleasant consequences, such as sleep disturbances, severe hangovers, heart palpitations and agitation. Wakefulness and increased energy were identified as the primary benefits of AEDs, with taste, reduced and increased intoxication, and sociability reported as additional benefits. Young AED users were brand sensitive and responded strongly to Red Bull imagery, as well as discounted AEDs. Finally, some young people reported substituting illicit stimulants with energy drinks. Combining energy drinks with alcohol is now a normalised phenomenon and an integral and ingrained feature of the night-time economy. Despite this, many young people are unaware of recommended daily limits or related harms. While some young people consume AEDs to feel less drunk (consistent with motivations for combining alcohol with illicit stimulants), others report using AEDs to facilitate intoxication. While preliminary, our findings have relevance for potential policy and regulatory approaches, as well as directions for future research.

  1. Patterns of tobacco consumption in food facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Mandil, Ahmed; Yamani, Mohammad; BinSaeed, Abdulaziz; Ahmad, Shaffi; Younis, Afnan; Al-Mutlaq, Ahmad; Al-Baqmy, Omar; Al-Rajhi, Abdulaziz

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed at assessing prevailing patterns and risk factors of tobacco consumption among clients, food handlers and employers of food facilities, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional approach to a representative sample of food facilities in Riyadh was used. A sample of 3000 participants included clients (75%); food handlers/hospitality workers (20 %) and employers (5 %). Participants were reached at restaurants, food courts or cafes. A modified version of the WHO-CDC-Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire was used for data collection. The prevalence of tobacco use at food facilities was found to be 40.3 %, of which 74% were customers, 18.8% were food handlers and 7.2% were managers. The consumption of tobacco was higher at restaurants (39.9%), but lowest at food courts of shopping malls. Water pipe (55.3%) was the main consumption type, followed by cigarettes (42.6%) and chewing tobacco (2.1%). Multivariate analysis showed that gender (male), marital status (single), and type of food facility (Estaraha and café/coffee shop) were independent risk factors associated with tobacco use at food facilities. Tobacco use is very common in food facilities in Riyadh as reflected by results of our study, especially among single males Saudis. We should build on success encountered in banning smoking in airports, airplanes, shopping malls, market places, educational institutions and healthcare facilities, extending the ban to include food facilities as well. This is important for the health of non-smokers as well as smokers themselves.

  2. Consumption patterns of sweet drinks in a population of Australian children and adolescents (2003–2008)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intake of sweet drinks has previously been associated with the development of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. The present study aimed to assess the consumption pattern of sweet drinks in a population of children and adolescents in Victoria, Australia. Methods Data on 1,604 children and adolescents (4–18 years) from the comparison groups of two quasi-experimental intervention studies from Victoria, Australia were analysed. Sweet drink consumption (soft drink and fruit juice/cordial) was assessed as one day’s intake and typical intake over the last week or month at two time points between 2003 and 2008 (mean time between measurement: 2.2 years). Results Assessed using dietary recalls, more than 70% of the children and adolescents consumed sweet drinks, with no difference between age groups (p = 0.28). The median intake among consumers was 500 ml and almost a third consumed more than 750 ml per day. More children and adolescents consumed fruit juice/cordial (69%) than soft drink (33%) (p < 0.0001) and in larger volumes (median intake fruit juice/cordial: 500 ml and soft drink: 375 ml). Secular changes in sweet drink consumption were observed with a lower proportion of children and adolescents consuming sweet drinks at time 2 compared to time 1 (significant for age group 8 to <10 years, p = 0.001). Conclusion The proportion of Australian children and adolescents from the state of Victoria consuming sweet drinks has been stable or decreasing, although a high proportion of this sample consumed sweet drinks, especially fruit juice/cordial at both time points. PMID:22966937

  3. Consumption patterns of sweet drinks in a population of Australian children and adolescents (2003-2008).

    PubMed

    Jensen, Britt W; Nichols, Melanie; Allender, Steven; de Silva-Sanigorski, Andrea; Millar, Lynne; Kremer, Peter; Lacy, Kathleen; Swinburn, Boyd

    2012-09-12

    Intake of sweet drinks has previously been associated with the development of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. The present study aimed to assess the consumption pattern of sweet drinks in a population of children and adolescents in Victoria, Australia. Data on 1,604 children and adolescents (4-18 years) from the comparison groups of two quasi-experimental intervention studies from Victoria, Australia were analysed. Sweet drink consumption (soft drink and fruit juice/cordial) was assessed as one day's intake and typical intake over the last week or month at two time points between 2003 and 2008 (mean time between measurement: 2.2 years). Assessed using dietary recalls, more than 70% of the children and adolescents consumed sweet drinks, with no difference between age groups (p = 0.28). The median intake among consumers was 500 ml and almost a third consumed more than 750 ml per day. More children and adolescents consumed fruit juice/cordial (69%) than soft drink (33%) (p < 0.0001) and in larger volumes (median intake fruit juice/cordial: 500 ml and soft drink: 375 ml). Secular changes in sweet drink consumption were observed with a lower proportion of children and adolescents consuming sweet drinks at time 2 compared to time 1 (significant for age group 8 to <10 years, p = 0.001). The proportion of Australian children and adolescents from the state of Victoria consuming sweet drinks has been stable or decreasing, although a high proportion of this sample consumed sweet drinks, especially fruit juice/cordial at both time points.

  4. Food consumption patterns of infants and toddlers: where are we now?

    PubMed

    Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Deming, Denise M; Reidy, Kathleen C; Fox, Mary Kay; Condon, Elizabeth; Briefel, Ronette R

    2010-12-01

    To describe current infant-feeding practices and current food group consumption patterns of infants and toddlers and to compare 2008 data with 2002 data to identify shifts in these practices and food consumption over time. The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008 is a cross-sectional survey of a national random sample of US children from birth up to age 4 years. Data for three age subgroups (infants 4 to 5.9 months and 6 to 11.9 months and toddlers 12 to 23.9 months) were used from the 2002 (n=2,884) and 2008 surveys (n=1,596). All analyses use sample weights that reflect the US population aged 4 to 24 months. Descriptive statistics (means, proportions, and standard errors) and t tests were calculated using SUDAAN (release 9, 2005, Research Triangle Park Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC). These data show a higher percentage of infants receiving breast milk from 4 to 11.9 months of age with a concurrent decreasing percentage of infants receiving formula, which is significantly different from data for the 9- to 11.9-month-old age group. The use of complementary foods also appears to be delayed in FITS 2008: There is a significantly lower proportion of infants consuming infant cereal at 9 to 11.9 months in FITS 2008 compared to 2002 data. Fruit and vegetable consumption remains lower than desired. Significant reductions in the percentage of infants and toddlers consuming any desserts or candy, sweetened beverages, and salty snacks were seen in 2008. The findings presented here provide important insights to the content of messages and types of interventions that are still needed to improve the diets of infants and toddlers. Copyright © 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Driving under the influence of alcohol in Cali, Colombia: prevalence and consumption patterns, 2013.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco J; Herrera-López, Martha L; Ortega-Lenis, Delia; Medina-Murillo, Jhon J; Fandiño-Losada, Andrés; Jaramillo-Molina, Ciro; Naranjo-Lujan, Salome; Izquierdo, Edda P; Vanlaar, Ward; Gutiérrez-Martínez, María I

    2016-01-01

    This study's goal was to establish the prevalence of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) and alcohol consumption patterns among drivers in Cali, Colombia, in 2013. A cross-sectional study based on a roadside survey using a stratified and multi-stage sampling design was developed. Thirty-two sites were chosen randomly for the selection of drivers who were then tested for blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and asked to participate in the survey. The prevalence of DUI was 0.88% (95% confidence intervals [95% CI] 0.26%-1.49%) with a lower prevalence when BAC was increasing. In addition, a higher prevalence was found during non-typical checkpoint hours (1.28, 95% CI -0.001%-0.03%). The overall prevalence is considered high, given the low alcohol consumption and vehicles per capita. Prevention measures are needed to reduce DUI during non-typical checkpoints and ongoing studies are required to monitor the trends and enable the assessment of interventions.

  6. Survey into the seafood consumption preferences and patterns in the portuguese population. Gender and regional variability.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Carlos; Lourenço, Helena; Costa, Sara; Gonçalves, Susana; Nunes, Maria Leonor

    2013-05-01

    With the purpose of achieving a deeper knowledge of one of the most important seafood markets in Europe, a survey into the seafood consumption preferences and patterns in the Portuguese population was carried out. A thorough, comprehensive, and simple questionnaire was developed. Consumers were asked to state their preferences towards fish products, their consumption frequencies, the average meal portion, and the usual culinary treatments. Respondents provided personal data: gender, age, geographical location, education level, weight, height, and health condition. This paper presents the first part of the study's results, focusing mainly on the gender and regional variables. Portuguese consumers prefer wild to cultured fish as well as fat to lean fish. Chilled fish is preferred over frozen, salted/dried, canned, and smoked fish, being the latter the least preferred. Soaked cod, hake, and canned tuna are the most eaten seafood products. Men prefer to a greater extent wild and smoked fish. Men consume more cephalopods and sardine and women eat more frequently hake, pink cusk-eel, and redfish. Coastal populations prefer wild fish. Algarve (southern Portugal) consumers exhibit a stronger tendency to wild and whole fish and consume more sardine and sole. Madeira archipelago consumers are particularly fond of black scabbard fish.

  7. Food choice and meal consumption pattern among undergraduate students in two universities in Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Otemuyiwa, Israel O; Adewusi, Steve R A

    2012-10-01

    The food choices and meal consumption patterns of undergraduate students from two Nigerian universities, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (OAU) and Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko (AAU) (n = 402; 199 male and 203 female; overall mean age 23) were studied. The result indicated that 60% of the students (58% male and 62% female) consumed the recommended minimum number of servings of cereal, 50% of the males and 35% of the females in the carbohydrate category while 35% of the males and 42% of the females consumed enough from the meat group. More female students (40%) consumed adequate quantities of fruits and vegetables than their male counterparts (20%) while the consumption of milk and milk substitutes was low (10% male and 25% female). Most students ate twice a day substituting snacks for the third meal. More female students (48%) exceeded their energy requirement than their male counterparts (28%) while 60%, 85% and 40% did not meet the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for protein, calcium and iron respectively. Body Mass Index (BMI) classification indicated that 29% of the students were overweight, 6% were obese while 13% of the male students were underweight. The unhealthy eating habits of Nigerian university students seemed to be a reflection of poor funding.

  8. Household Food Expenditure Patterns, Food Nutrient Consumption and Nutritional Vulnerability in Nigeria: Implications for Policy.

    PubMed

    Akerele, Dare

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the patterns of food spending, food nutrient consumption, and nutrient deficiency profiles of households in Nigeria using a cross-sectional nationwide household survey data. Food nutrients were estimated from food expenditure data while the nutrient deficiency profiles were assessed adapting Foster et al. (1984) poverty index. The study established widespread nutritional deficiencies with low-income household cohorts bearing a greater burden of the deficiencies. Protein-protein deficiency appears to be much more prevalent in urban than rural areas. However, the deficiency of micro-nutrients seems to diffuse across urban-rural divides of the country with deficiency of calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin C appearing to be more pronounced in rural areas while phosphorous, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, and vitamin B3 deficiencies seem to be higher in urban settings. Pro-poor income growth strategies and sensitively guided urban-rural food and nutrition interventions are advocated for improved food consumption and nutritional deficiency reduction.

  9. Not just a fallback food: global patterns of insect consumption related to geography, not agriculture.

    PubMed

    Lesnik, Julie J

    2017-07-08

    Insects as food are often viewed as fallback resources and associated with marginal environments. This study investigates the relationship between insect consumption and noncultivated landscapes as well as with other independent variables including latitude, area, population, and gross domestic product. Data were obtained from online databases including the World List of Edible Insects, the World Bank, and the World Factbook. A logistic regression model found that latitude could correctly predict the presence of edible insects 80% of the time and that arable land and gross domestic product showed no effect. Spearman rank-order correlation with number of insect species found significant relationships between area and population (but not density) and per capita gross domestic product as well as latitude. Further analysis of latitude using paired Mann-Whitney tests identified a general gradient pattern in reduction of edible insects with increased latitude. Results suggest that insect consumption represents a dynamic human-environment interaction, whereby insects are utilized in some of the world's lushest environments as well as areas where people have had great impact on the ecosystem. The concept that insects are a fallback food is an oversimplification that is likely rooted in Western bias against this food source. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Could Watching TV Be Good for You? Examining How Media Consumption Patterns Relate to Salivary Cortisol.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Robin L; Prestin, Abby; So, Jiyeon

    2016-11-01

    This research explores whether media diet influences health, not through its effects on cognition and behavior but rather through its effects on biomarkers of stress, which are implicated in a host of acute and chronic illnesses. Two hundred and forty young adults completed assessments of their media consumption habits followed at least 2 days later by measures of the stress-related hormone cortisol. Results suggest that frequency of consuming different media and genres may decrease cortisol under certain conditions and increase them under others. Further, the patterns of results were wholly different from those found for perceived stress. The implications of these findings for health-related media effects and theoretical development are discussed.

  11. The effects of media exposure on alcohol consumption patterns in African American males.

    PubMed

    Miller, Vanessa; Lykens, Kristine; Quinn, James

    2007-06-01

    The study examined the role of media exposure, ethnicity, mood/affect, socio-demographic factors and religion on alcohol consumption patterns. Secondary analysis of the General Social Survey (GSS), 1972-2002 cumulative data file was used to provide quantitative estimates of the relationship between media exposure, ethnicity, mood/affect, socio-demographic factors and religion. The sample consisted of (n = 13,742) White subjects and (n = 2,192) African American subjects. Watching television and reading the newspaper were significant predictors of alcohol use. Watching television had a positive significant effect on alcohol use and abuse; but only in the absence of religiosity. Race did not have a significant effect on alcohol use or abuse. The survey year had significant effects on media use. This research has significant policy implications in explaining predictors of alcohol use and abuse as well as protective factors for this behavior.

  12. Consumption of Two Healthy Dietary Patterns Restored Microbiota Dysbiosis in Obese Patients With Metabolic Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Haro, Carmen; García-Carpintero, Sonia; Rangel-Zúñiga, Oriol A; Alcalá-Díaz, Juan F; Landa, Blanca B; Clemente, José C; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; López-Miranda, José; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco; Camargo, Antonio

    2017-09-20

    The consumption of two healthy diets (Mediterranean (MED) and low-fat (LF) diets) may restore the gut microbiome dysbiosis in obese patients depending on the degree of metabolic dysfunction. We analyzed the differences in bacterial community at baseline and after 2 years of dietary intervention of 106 subjects from the CORDIOPREV study, 33 of whom were obese patients with severe metabolic disease (5 criteria for metabolic syndrome) (MetS-OB), 32 obese patients without metabolic dysfunction (2 or less criteria for metabolic syndrome) (NonMetS-OB) and 41 non-obese subjects (NonMetS-NonOB). Our study showed a marked dysbiosis in people with severe metabolic disease (Met-OB), compared with obese people without MetS (NonMetS-OB) and non-obese people (NonMetS-NonOB). This disbiotic pattern was reversed by consumption of both MED (35% of calories as fat (22% MUFA fat, 6% PUFA fat and <10% saturated fat) or LF (<30% total fat (<10% saturated fat, 12%-14% MUFA fat and 6-8% PUFA fat) diets, whereas no significant microbiota changes were observed in NonMetS-NonOB and NonMetS-OB groups. Our results suggest that the chronic intake of two healthy dietary patterns partially restores the gut microbiome dysbiosis in obese patients with coronary heart disease, depending on the degree of metabolic dysfunction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Breakfast Eating Pattern and Ready-to-Eat Cereals Consumption among Schoolchildren in Kuala Lumpur

    PubMed Central

    KOO, Hui-Chin; ABDUL JALIL, Siti Nurain; Ruzita, ABD TALIB

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies from the West have demonstrated that ready-to-eat cereals (RTECs) are a common form of breakfast and more likely to be consumed by children. This study aimed to investigate the breakfast eating pattern and RTECs consumption among schoolchildren in Kuala Lumpur. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 382 schoolchildren, aged 10 and 11 years old, were recruited from seven randomly selected primary schools in Kuala Lumpur. Information on socio-demographics, breakfast eating patterns, and perceptions of RTECs and dietary intake (24-hour dietary recalls) were obtained. Results: Among the respondents, only 22% of them consumed breakfast on a regular basis. The most commonly eaten food by children at breakfast was bread (27.2%), followed by biscuits (22.2%) and RTECs (20.5%). The majority of them (93%) reported that they consumed RTECs sometimes during the week. Chocolate RTECs (34.1%), corn flake RTECs (30.3%), and RTECs coated with honey (25.1%) were the most popular RTECs chosen by children. Respondents who consumed RTECs showed a significantly higher intake in calories, carbohydrate, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B3, folate, vitamin C, calcium, iron, and fibre (P < 0.05), compared to those who skipped breakfast and those who had breakfast foods other than RTECs. Conclusion: The lower levels of breakfast consumption among schoolchildren in Kuala Lumpur need serious attention. RTEC is a nutritious food which is well accepted by a majority of the schoolchildren in Kuala Lumpur. Nutrition intervention should be conducted in the future to include a well-balanced breakfast with the utilisation of RTECs for schoolchildren. PMID:25892948

  14. LC-MS/MS determination of acrylamide in instant noodles from supermarkets in the Hebei province of China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Xin; Zhang, Gui-Xiang; Yang, Li-Xue; He, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) concentrations in instant noodles (90 samples, covering 10 different brands) from Hebei Province of China were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The instant noodles were sampled from the southern and northern areas of Hebei Province (Shijiazhuang and Tangshan, respectively). The average content of AA for all 10 instant noodle brands was 6-145 µg/kg. The average content of AA in fried instant noodles was 4.47 times of those in non-fried ones, indicating the influence of the frying process. The average content of AA in instant noodles from Shijiazhuang was 1.64 times that of the samples from Tangshan (56 µg/kg). Eighty-four percent of the instant noodle samples in Hebei were contaminated with AA, with an average content of 80 µg/kg. These observations will be helpful for evaluating individual exposure to AA from instant noodles in China.

  15. Do managed alcohol programs change patterns of alcohol consumption and reduce related harm? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Vallance, Kate; Stockwell, Tim; Pauly, Bernie; Chow, Clifton; Gray, Erin; Krysowaty, Bonnie; Perkin, Kathleen; Zhao, Jinhui

    2016-05-09

    Managed alcohol programs (MAPs) are a harm reduction strategy for people with severe alcohol dependence and unstable housing. MAPs provide controlled access to alcohol usually alongside accommodation, meals, and other supports. Patterns of alcohol consumption and related harms among MAP participants and controls from a homeless shelter in Thunder Bay, Ontario, were investigated in 2013. Structured interviews were conducted with 18 MAP and 20 control participants assessed as alcohol dependent with most using non-beverage alcohol (NBA). Qualitative interviews were conducted with seven participants and four MAP staff concerning perceptions and experiences of the program. Program alcohol consumption records were obtained for MAP participants, and records of police contacts and use of health services were obtained for participants and controls. Some participants' liver function test (LFT) results were available for before and after MAP entry. Compared with periods off the MAP, MAP participants had 41 % fewer police contacts, 33 % fewer police contacts leading to custody time (x (2) = 43.84, P < 0.001), 87 % fewer detox admissions (t = -1.68, P = 0.06), and 32 % fewer hospital admissions (t = -2.08, P = 0.03). MAP and control participants shared similar characteristics, indicating the groups were broadly comparable. There were reductions in nearly all available LFT scores after MAP entry. Compared with controls, MAP participants had 43 % fewer police contacts, significantly fewer police contacts (-38 %) that resulted in custody time (x (2) = 66.10, P < 0.001), 70 % fewer detox admissions (t = -2.19, P = 0.02), and 47 % fewer emergency room presentations. NBA use was significantly less frequent for MAP participants versus controls (t = -2.34, P < 0.05). Marked but non-significant reductions were observed in the number of participants self-reporting alcohol-related harms in the domains of home life, legal issues, and

  16. Patterns and predictors of nut consumption: results from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel C; Tey, Siew Ling; Gray, Andrew R; Chisholm, Alexandra; Smith, Claire; Fleming, Elizabeth; Blakey, Charlie; Parnell, Winsome

    2014-12-28

    Regular nut consumption is associated with reduced CVD risk. Insight into nut consumption patterns provides important information to help design strategies to encourage intake. The present study aimed to describe nut consumption in terms of the percentage of consumers, mean grams eaten among the population and nut consumers, and to identify the predictors of nut consumption. Data from the 24 h dietary recalls of the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (n 4721) were used to measure nut consumption. On the recall day, the percentages of consumers of whole nuts, nut butters and nuts from hidden sources were 6.9% (n 240), 7.2% (n 346) and 19.2% (n 732), respectively (28.9% (n 1167) combined (total)). The mean grams consumed by the population were relatively low for whole nuts (2.8 g/d), nut butters (0.9 g/d), nuts from hidden sources (1.5 g/d) and total nuts (5.2 g/d). Among consumers, the mean daily grams of whole nuts, nut butters, nuts from hidden sources and total nuts eaten were 40.3, 12.9, 7.8 and 17.9 g/d, respectively. Those aged 15-18 years had the lowest whole nut consumption, but had the highest nut butter consumption. The consumption of total nuts was positively associated with education and socio-economic status, while whole nut consumption was inversely associated with BMI. In conclusion, the low percentage of nut consumers is of concern and new strategies to increase nut consumption are required. Future public health initiatives should be mindful of these patterns and predictors. In particular, different forms of nuts may appeal to different age and socio-economic groups.

  17. Comparison of Antimicrobial Consumption Patterns in the Swiss and Danish Cattle and Swine Production (2007–2013)

    PubMed Central

    Carmo, Luís P.; Nielsen, Liza R.; Alban, Lis; Müntener, Cedric R.; Schüpbach-Regula, Gertraud; Magouras, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Veterinary antimicrobial consumption patterns vary considerably across Europe. These differences are not only limited to the total amount consumed but are also observed with regards to the relative proportion of the various antimicrobial classes used. Currently, most of the data on veterinary antimicrobials are reported at sales level without any information on the consumption by different animal species. This hinders a proper comparison of antimicrobial consumption at the species level between countries. However, it is imperative to improve our understanding on antimicrobial usage patterns at the species level, as well as on the drivers contributing to those differences. This will allow for development of tailored interventions with the lowest possible risk for human health, while ensuring effective treatment of diseased livestock. An important step to attain such an objective is to perform detailed comparisons of the antimicrobial consumption in each species between countries. We compared antimicrobial consumption estimates for cattle and pigs in Switzerland and Denmark, in order to distinguish species-specific patterns and trends in consumption from 2007 to 2013. Swiss data were obtained from a previous study that assessed methodologies to stratify antimicrobial sales per species; Danish antimicrobial consumption estimates were assembled from Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme reports. A decrease in antimicrobial consumption in milligrams per kilogram of biomass was observed for both countries (4.5% in Denmark and 34.7% in Switzerland) when comparing 2013 to 2007. For pigs and cattle, the overall consumption per kilogram of biomass of most antimicrobial classes was higher in Switzerland than in Denmark. Large variations in the relative consumption of different antimicrobial classes were also evident. Sulfonamides/trimethoprim and tetracyclines were consumed in a higher proportion in Switzerland than in Denmark, whereas

  18. An emerging adolescent health risk: caffeinated energy drink consumption patterns among high school students.

    PubMed

    Azagba, Sunday; Langille, Donald; Asbridge, Mark

    2014-05-01

    To examine the prevalence, patterns, and correlates of energy drink use among adolescents, and determine whether more frequent use of energy drinks is associated with poorer health and behavioral outcomes. Data were from a 2012 cross-sectional survey of 8210 students in grades 7, 9, 10 and 12 attending public schools in Atlantic Canada. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine correlates of energy drink use patterns, including substance use, sensation seeking, risk of depression, and socioeconomic status. Nearly two-thirds of survey respondents (62%) reported consuming energy drinks at least once in the previous year, with about 20% reporting use once or more per month. Sensation seeking, depression, and substance use were all higher among energy drink users relative to non-users, and in higher frequency users relative to lower frequency users. The prevalence of energy drink consumption among high school students was high. The association of energy drinks with other potential negative health and behavioral outcomes suggests that use of these products may represent a marker for other activities that may negatively affect adolescent development, health and well-being. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutritional status and food consumption patterns of young children living in Western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bridge, A; Kipp, W; Raine, K; Konde-Lule, J

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to compare the nutritional status and food consumption patterns of children under five years. Quantitative, exploratory, cross sectional study. Kabarole district, western Uganda. Kabarole district is a rural district with subsistence farming as the main income. Two hundred and five children between 12 and 72 months of age living in AIDS affected homes versus children living in non-AIDS affected homes were examined. Fifty-five percent of all children were stunted and 20.5% were underweight. There was no difference in the prevalence of malnutrition between children living in AIDS affected homes versus non-AIDS affected homes. Only children between 12-35 months suffered from a daily deficit in caloric intake. The older children consumed the basic recommended daily intake (RDI) for protein, fat, iron and vitamin A. Due to frequent disease episodes and limitations in the estimations of individual total energy expenditure, the results are likely underestimations of the children's true nutritional requirements. The type of foods given to children in AIDS affected homes and controls were quite similar. Young children in Kabarole district suffer from severe chronic malnutrition rates, but rates and feeding patterns are not different in AIDS affected versus non AIDS affected homes.

  20. Influence of food consumption patterns and Galician lifestyle on human gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Castro-Penalonga, María; Roca-Saavedra, Paula; Miranda, Jose Manuel; Porto-Arias, Jose Julio; Nebot, Carolina; Cardelle-Cobas, Alejandra; Franco, Carlos Manuel; Cepeda, Alberto

    2017-06-17

    The proportion of different microbial populations in the human gut is an important factor that in recent years has been linked to obesity and numerous metabolic diseases. Because there are many factors that can affect the composition of human gut microbiota, it is of interest to have information about what is the composition of the gut microbiota in different populations in order to better understand the possibilities for improving nutritional management. A group of 31 volunteers were selected according to established inclusion and exclusion criteria and were asked about their diet history, lifestyle patterns, and adherence to the Southern European Atlantic Diet. Fecal samples were taken and subsequently analyzed by real-time PCR. The results indicated different dietary patterns for subjects who consumed a higher amount of fruits, vegetables, legumes, and fish and a lower amount of bakery foods and precooked foods and snacks compared to Spanish consumption data. Most participants showed intermediate or high adherence to Southern European Atlantic Diet, and an analysis of gut microbiota showed high numbers of total bacteria and Actinobacteria, as well as high amounts of bacteria belonging to the genera Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. A subsequent statistical comparison also revealed differences in gut microbiota depending on the subject's body weight, age, or degree of adherence to the Southern European Atlantic Diet.

  1. Organic food consumption during pregnancy is associated with different consumer profiles, food patterns and intake: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Simões-Wüst, Ana Paula; Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina; van Dongen, Martien Cjm; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Thijs, Carel

    2017-08-01

    To find out how the consumption of organic food during pregnancy is associated with consumer characteristics, dietary patterns and macro- and micronutrient intakes. Cross-sectional description of consumer characteristics, dietary patterns and macro- and micronutrient intakes associated with consumption of organic food during pregnancy. Healthy, pregnant women recruited to a prospective cohort study at midwives' practices in the southern part of the Netherlands; to enrich the study with participants adhering to alternative lifestyles, pregnant women were recruited through various specific channels. Participants who filled in questionnaires on food frequency in gestational week 34 (n 2786). Participant groups were defined based on the share of organic products within various food types. Consumers of organic food more often adhere to specific lifestyle rules, such as vegetarianism or anthroposophy, than do participants who consume conventional food only (reference group). Consumption of organic food is associated with food patterns comprising more products of vegetable origin (soya/vegetarian products, vegetables, cereal products, bread, fruits, and legumes) and fewer animal products (milk and meat), sugar and potatoes than consumed in conventional diets. These differences translate into distinct intakes of macro- and micronutrients, including higher retinol, carotene, tocopherol and folate intakes, lower intakes of vitamin D and B12 and specific types of trans-fatty acids in the organic groups. These differences are seen even in groups with low consumption of organic food. Various consumer characteristics, specific dietary patterns and types of food intake are associated with the consumption of organic food during pregnancy.

  2. Dehydration of Traditional Dried Instant Noodle (Mee Siput) Using Controlled Temperature & Humidity Dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, K. A.; Yusof, M. S.; Yusoff, Wan Fauziah Wan; Zulafif Rahim, M.; Hassan, S.; Rahman, M. Qusyairi. A.; Karim, M. A. Abd

    2017-05-01

    Drying process is an essential step to produce instant noodles. Yet, the industries especially Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), is seeking for an efficient method to dry the noodles. This paper discusses the performance of an invented drying system which employed heating and humidifying process. The drying system was tested using 30 kilogram of the raw noodle known as “Mee Siput”. Temperature controlled system were used in the study to control the temperature of the drying process and prevent the dried noodles from damage by maintaining the temperature of lower than 80°C. The analysis shows that the system was drastically decreased the humidity from 80% to 40% just after 200 minutes of the drying process. The complete dehydration time of noodle has also decreased to only 4 hours from 16 hours when using traditional drying system without sacrificed the good quality of the dried noodle. In overall, the invented system believed to increase the production capacity of the noodle, reduce cost of production which would highly beneficial for Small Medium Industries (SMEs) in Malaysia.

  3. Folates in Asian noodles: II. A comparison of commercial samples and the impact of cooking.

    PubMed

    Bui, Lan T T; Small, Darryl M

    2007-06-01

    The folate contents of 26 commercial noodle samples were investigated. The impact of ingredients, pH, and cooking on folate content was studied for the 3 predominant styles of noodles: white salted, yellow alkaline, and instant. Some variability was found in the proportion of folate present in the free form and the noodles generally had low total folate contents. The pH values of the samples covered a wide range, varying from 3.7 to 10.3; however, the results did not provide strong evidence for a relationship between pH and folate content for any of the noodle styles studied. Higher folate levels were typically found in yellow alkaline samples compared to white salted and instant noodles. The storage of noodles in dry or moist forms did not appear to influence total folate contents, and subsequent losses during cooking depended upon the time of exposure to elevated temperatures. The enzymatic treatment of samples was particularly important for cooked noodles, indicating that folates were bound or entrapped during this process.

  4. Effects of various iron fortificants on sensory acceptability and shelf-life stability of instant noodles.

    PubMed

    Kongkachuichai, Ratchanee; Kounhawej, Arunwadee; Chavasit, Visith; Charoensiri, Rin

    2007-06-01

    Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional problem in Thailand and many developing countries. One of the most sustainable and cost-effective strategies for combating iron deficiency is fortification of staple foods with iron. In this study, the feasibility of fortifying instant noodles with different forms of iron fortificants (ferrous sulfate [FS], ferric sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [NaFeEDTA], and encapsulated H-reduced elemental iron [EEI] was evaluated, and the fortified noodles were compared with unfortified noodles for changes in physical, chemical, and sensory qualities. Wheat flour used to make instant noodles was fortified to produce a concentration of 5 mg of iron per 50-g serving of instant noodles (one-third of the Thai recommended dietary intake). Analytical data showed that the iron contents were close to 5 mg per serving of noodles fortified with FS, NaFeEDTA, or EEI (5.27 +/- 0.10, 4.27 +/- 0.07, and 5.26 +/- 0.47 mg, respectively). The color quality (measured by L*, lightness, and b* yellowness) of the raw dough sheet and of uncooked and cooked instant noodles fortified with FS was lower than that of the unfortified, but color quality was not changed by the addition of NaFeEDTA. The overall sensory acceptability scores of unfortified and fortified noodles were about 6 ("like slightly"). No metallic odor was observed. During 3 months of storage at room temperature, the iron fortificants did not affect the peroxide level, color, or sensory qualities of the product. Iron fortification of wheat flour used to make instant noodles is feasible. NaFeEDTA is the preferred fortificant because of its nonsignificant effect on the color and sensory quality of the products.

  5. Changes in alcohol consumption patterns following the introduction of credit cards in Ontario liquor stores.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, S A; Wells, S L; Giesbrecht, N; West, P M

    1999-05-01

    In 1994, regulatory changes were introduced in Ontario, Canada, permitting the purchase of alcoholic beverages with credit cards at government-operated liquor stores. Two objectives of this study were: (1) to compare the characteristics of credit card shoppers with non credit card shoppers at liquor stores, and (2) to assess whether changes occurred in alcohol consumption patterns among shoppers following the introduction of credit cards. Random digit dialing was used to interview 2,039 telephone participants prior to the introduction of credit cards (Time 1); 1,401 of these subjects were contacted 1 year later (Time 2). Independent sample t tests were used to compare credit card shoppers with shoppers not using credit cards, and paired t tests were performed to assess whether drinking behaviors changed from Time 1 to Time 2. The credit card shoppers were more likely than the non credit card shoppers to be highly educated (p < .001) and to have high incomes (p < .05). Credit card shoppers drank an average of 6.3 drinks over the previous week compared with 4.0 drinks among non credit card shoppers (p < .01). Although the overall amount of alcohol consumed among credit card shoppers dropped from 6.7 drinks at Time 1 to 6.3 at Time 2 (NS), credit card shoppers reported drinking significantly more often after credit cards were introduced (p < .05). The results suggest that credit cards may not present public health problems since significant increases in alcohol consumption among credit card shoppers were not found.

  6. Changing NPP consumption patterns in the Holocene: from Megafauna "liberated" NPP to "ecological bankruptcy"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, C.

    2015-12-01

    There have been vast changes in how net primary production (NPP) is consumed by humans and animals during the Holocene beginning with a potential increase in availability following the Pleistocene megafauna extinctions. This was followed by the development of agriculture which began to gradually restrict availability of NPP for wild animals. Finally, humans entered the industrial era using non-plant based energies to power societies. Here I ask the following questions about these three energy transitions: 1. How much NPP energy may have become available following the megafauna extinctions? 2. When did humans, through agriculture and domestic animals, consume more NPP than wild mammals in each country? 3. When did humans and wild mammals use more energy than was available in total NPP in each country? To answer this last question I calculate NPP consumed by wild animals, crops, livestock, and energy use (all converted to units of MJ) and compare this with the total potential NPP (also in MJ) for each country. We develop the term "ecological bankruptcy" to refer to the level of consumption where not all energy needs can be met by the country's NPP. Currently, 82 countries and a net population of 5.4 billion are in the state of ecologically bankruptcy, crossing this threshold at various times over the past 40 years. By contrast, only 52 countries with a net population of 1.2 billion remain ecologically solvent. Overall, the Holocene has seen remarkable changes in consumption patterns of NPP, passing through three distinct phases. Humans began in a world where there was 1.6-4.1% unclaimed NPP to consume. From 1700-1850, humans began to consume more than wild animals (globally averaged). At present, >82% of people live in countries where not even all available plant matter could satisfy our energy demands.

  7. Sauces, spices, and condiments: definitions, potential benefits, consumption patterns, and global markets.

    PubMed

    García-Casal, Maria Nieves; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Malavé, Heber Gómez-

    2016-09-01

    Spices and condiments are an important part of human history and nutrition, and have played an important role in the development of most cultures around the world. According to the Codex Alimentarius, the category of salts, spices, soups, sauces, salads, and protein products includes substances added to foods to enhance aroma and taste. Spices have been reported to have health benefits as antioxidant, antibiotic, antiviral, anticoagulant, anticarcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory agents. Health claims about the benefits of condiments for disease prevention or health improvement need to be science based and extensively supported by evidence; data on their preventive or protective potential in humans are currently limited. The condiments market has been growing continuously over the last few years, with the quantity of products sold under the category of sauces, dressings, and condiments during the period 2008-2013 increasing from 31,749,000 to 35,795,000 metric tons. About 50 of the 86 spices produced in the world are grown in India. From 2008 to 2013, the United States was the largest importer of spices, followed by Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Russia. The main buyers of fish sauce are Vietnam and Thailand, with purchases of 333,000 and 284,000 metric tons in 2013, respectively. The sauces and condiments category is dynamic, with large differences in consumption in habits and practices among countries. This paper aims to establish definitions and discuss potential health benefits, consumption patterns, and global markets for sauces, spices, and condiments. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Retrospective analysis of synthetic cannabinoids in serum samples--epidemiology and consumption patterns.

    PubMed

    Jaenicke, Nathalie J; Pogoda, Werner; Paulke, Alexander; Wunder, Cora; Toennes, Stefan W

    2014-09-01

    Herbal mixtures contain synthetic cannabinoids, which can cause severe intoxications. Due to the great variety and the changing spectrum of substances on the drug market, prevalence data are limited, and data on prevalence rates of synthetic cannabinoids in forensic cases are not available. The present study was performed to survey the prevalence of synthetic cannabinoids in cases of traffic and criminal offences in the German state Hesse in 2010. The applied analytical method covered all synthetic cannabinoids on the drug market at that time, and with 20% of the blood samples (422 out of 2201) a representative number was reanalyzed. In twelve samples synthetic cannabinoids were identified and a prevalence of 2.8% was estimated. Consumption patterns showed predominantly cases of multi-drug consumption (10 cases); the combination with cannabis or alcohol was frequent (four cases each). The observed deficits were moderate with the exception of aggravation of paranoia in one case. The symptoms were either compatible with the effects of cannabinoid agonists or attributable to alcohol or other drugs found in the blood samples. Our current analytical strategy is to perform such analyses only in cases where use is suspected or where symptoms are not explained by routine toxicological analyses. Hence, the positive rate is rather low highlighting the need to keep up with the developments on the drug market and to establish sensitive screening methods covering a broad range of substances that can be updated fast, e.g., relying on collections of mass spectrometric reference data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in childhood food consumption patterns: a cause for concern in light of increasing body weights.

    PubMed

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Keller, Kathleen L; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2003-12-01

    Childhood obesity is currently at its highest: recent statistics show that 16% of children between the ages of 6 and 11 y are overweight [> or =95th percentile of body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) for age] and that an additional 14.3% are at risk of becoming overweight (> or =85th percentile but < 95th percentile of BMI for age). As children's body weights have increased, so has their consumption of fast foods and soft drinks. The proportion of foods that children consumed from restaurants and fast food outlets increased by nearly 300% between 1977 and 1996. Children's soft drink consumption has also increased during those years, and now soft drinks provide soft drink consumers 188 kcal/d beyond the energy intake of nonconsumers. These changes in food intakes among children may partly explain the rise in childhood obesity observed in the past few years. Although the mechanism of appetite regulation will not be explored in this report, it is hypothesized that the greater energy intakes in children who consume large amounts of soft drinks and fast foods are not compensated for by increased physical activity or decreased energy intakes. Furthermore, overweight and obesity in childhood may predispose persons to morbidity in adulthood. Blood pressure and fasting insulin and cholesterol concentrations are higher in overweight children than in normal-weight children. This review focuses on current food patterns and eating habits of children, in an attempt to explain their increasing BMI. In addition, a critical review of food service and political practices regarding food choices for children at school is included.

  10. Efficiency of breakfast consumption patterns of ninth graders: nutrient-to-cost comparisons.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Theresa A; McQuarrie, Allan; Fastnaught, Christine; O'Neil, Carol E

    2002-02-01

    To assess the efficiency of breakfast consumption patterns in terms of nutrient-to-cost comparisons. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were collected and food items named were priced (prices from local grocery stores and restaurants were averaged). Three breakfast consumption groups were identified: restaurant foods (fast foods), ready-to-eat (RTE) cereal, and other foods. Subjects consisted of 567 ninth-grade students (57% female, 86% white, mean age 14.8 years) in New Orleans, La. Analysis of variance techniques were used to test statistical significance for total nutrient intake levels, intake levels of nutrients per 1,000 kcal, and nutrient intake levels per dollar spent. Groupings were determined using the Duncan test or pairwise comparisons. Five percent of students ate a fast-food breakfast, 30% ate RTE cereal, and 65% ate other breakfasts. The mean cost of the breakfast meals was significantly (P<.0001) higher for the fast-food breakfast than for the RTE cereal breakfast and the other breakfast (fast>other=RTE). For every dollar spent, the RTE cereal and other breakfasts provided significantly more energy, carbohydrate, fiber, sugar, and protein than the fast-food breakfast. The other breakfast provided significantly (P<.001) more total and saturated fat per dollar than the fast-food or RTE cereal breakfasts. The RTE cereal breakfast provided significantly (P<.001) more, per dollar spent, of folic acid, iron, niacin, vitamins A and D, and zinc than the other 2 breakfast meals. The importance consumers place on taste, cost, and convenience continues to influence types of foods consumed. Yet, their food choices may not be as efficient in terms of the nutrients obtained per dollar spent. With the increasing demands being placed on families and the decreasing amount of time being spent on food preparation, nutrition education programs should continue to promote a higher level of efficient food choices.

  11. Analysis of Household Electricity Consumption Patterns and Economy of Water Heating Shifting and Saving Bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosin, Argo; Moller, Taavi; Lehtla, Madis; Hoimoja, Hardi

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses household electricity consumption based on an object in Estonia. Energy consumption of workday and holiday by loads (including high and low tariff energy consumption) is discussed. The final part describes the evaluation of profitability of common investments of consumption shifting and replacing inefficient devices with more efficient ones. Additionally it describes shifting problems and shifting equipment profitability in real-time tariff system.

  12. Comparing patterns of ecosystem service consumption and perceptions of range management between ethnic herders in Inner Mongolia and Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, L.; Ochirbat, B.; Lv, Y.; Wei, Y. J.; Liu, X. L.; Chen, J. Q.; Yao, Z. J.; Li, F.

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystems in the Central Asian Plateau, which includes the Mongolian Plateau, are becoming increasingly sensitive to human interventions, leading to deterioration of already fragile ecosystems. The goal of this paper is to illustrate human dependence on an ecosystem by identifying patterns of resource consumption in this region and investigating the knowledge and perceptions of herders living in these ecosystems. Data on consumption in the two regions were collected using structured questionnaires delivered to a total of 252 herders from Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia. Meat and other animal products remain the dominant food items for most households, accompanied by various vegetables and cereals. This unbalanced diet leads to excessive consumption of protein and fat from animal sources. The major energy sources used by herders are fuelwood, animal dung, crop residues, and dry grass, but consumption patterns differed between the two areas. Mongolian herders rely more heavily on livestock for meeting their consumption needs than herders in Inner Mongolia. Herder knowledge and perceptions of ecosystem conditions and consumption of resources differed between Mongolia and Inner Mongolia, reflecting the influence of different state policies. The data reported and the conclusions drawn are relevant for developing resource management policies for the Mongolian Plateau, but also provide useful insights for any region where livestock production dominates the use of rangeland resources.

  13. Eating patterns and type 2 diabetes risk in older women: breakfast consumption and eating frequency123

    PubMed Central

    Mekary, Rania A; Giovannucci, Edward; Cahill, Leah; Willett, Walter C; van Dam, Rob M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the association between eating patterns and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk in women. Objective: The objective was to examine prospectively associations between regular breakfast consumption, eating frequency, and T2D risk in women. Design: Eating pattern was assessed in 2002 in a cohort of 46,289 US women in the Nurses’ Health Study who were free of T2D, cardiovascular disease, or cancer and were followed for 6 y. We used Cox proportional hazards analysis to evaluate associations with incident T2D. Results: We documented 1560 T2D cases during follow-up. After adjustment for known risk factors for T2D—except for body mass index (BMI), a potential mediator—women who consumed breakfast irregularly (0–6 times/wk) were at higher risk of T2D than were women who consumed breakfast daily (RR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.44). This association was moderately attenuated after adjustment for BMI (RR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.35). In comparison with women who ate 3 times/d, the RRs were 1.09 (0.84, 1.41) for women who ate 1–2 times/d, 1.13 (1.00, 1.27) for women who ate 4–5 times/d, and 0.99 (0.81, 1.21) for women who ate ≥6 times/d. Among irregular breakfast consumers, women with a higher eating frequency (≥4 times/d) had a significantly greater T2D risk (RR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.23, 1.75) than did women who consumed breakfast daily and ate 1–3 times/d. Adjustment for BMI attenuated this association (RR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.48). Conclusion: Irregular breakfast consumption was associated with a higher T2D risk in women, which was partially but not entirely mediated by BMI. PMID:23761483

  14. Patterns of Food Consumption are Associated with Obesity, Self-Reported Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Five American Indian Communities.

    PubMed

    Trude, Angela C B; Kharmats, Anna; Jock, Brittany; Liu, Debra; Lee, Katherine; Martins, Paula Andrea; Pardilla, Marla; Swartz, Jaqueline; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between dietary patterns and chronic disease is underexplored in indigenous populations. We assessed diets of 424 American Indian (AI) adults living in 5 rural AI communities. We identified four food patterns. Increased prevalence for cardiovascular disease was highly associated with the consumption of unhealthy snacks and high fat-food patterns (OR 3.6, CI=1.06, 12.3; and OR 6.0, CI=1.63, 22.1), respectively. Moreover, the food-consumption pattern appeared to be different by community setting (p<.05). We recommend culturally appropriate community-intervention programs to promote healthy behavior and to prevent diet-related chronic diseases in this high-risk population.

  15. Associations between children's television advertising exposure and their food consumption patterns: a household diary-survey study.

    PubMed

    Buijzen, Moniek; Schuurman, Joris; Bomhof, Elise

    2008-01-01

    In a diary-survey study in 234 households with children aged 4-12 years, we investigated the associations between children's exposure to food advertising and their consumption of (a) advertised food brands, (b) advertised energy-dense food product categories, and (c) food products overall. Relations were examined using multiple hierarchical regression analysis, while controlling for various child (i.e., age, sex, television viewing time) and family variables (i.e., family income and consumption-related communication styles). Results showed that children's exposure to food advertising was significantly related to their consumption of advertised brands (beta=.21) and energy-dense product categories (beta=.19). The relation between advertising exposure and overall food consumption only held in lower-income families (beta=.19). In addition, consumption-related family communication was an important moderator of the relations between advertising and the food consumption variables. Socio-oriented family communication (i.e., striving for harmony and conformity) was particularly successful in reducing these relations. In conclusion, consistent with communication theories predicting spill-over effects of advertising, the impact of television food advertising exceeded the advertised brand and generalized to more generic unhealthy consumption patterns. Theoretical and societal consequences, as well as the important role of the family are discussed.

  16. Changing patterns of meat consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in Australia: Will kangaroo meat make a difference?

    PubMed Central

    Ratnasiri, Shyama; Bandara, Jayatilleke

    2017-01-01

    The Australian per capita consumption of ruminant meat such as beef and lamb has declined over the last two decades. Over the same period, however, per capita consumption of non-ruminant meat such as chicken and pork has continued to increase. Furthermore, it is now observed that the human consumption of kangaroo meat is on the rise. This study investigates the implications of these changes in meat consumption patterns on Green House Gases (GHGs) emission mitigation in Australia using a Vector Auto Regression (VAR) forecasting approach. Our results suggest that the increase will continue in non-ruminant meat consumption and this will not only offset the decline in ruminant meat consumption, but will also raise the overall per capita meat consumption by approximately 1% annually. The per capita GHGs emissions will likely decrease by approximately 2.3% per annum, due to the inclusion of non-ruminant meat in Australian diets. The GHGs emissions can further be reduced if the average Australian consumer partially replaces ruminant meat with kangaroo meat. PMID:28196141

  17. Changing patterns of meat consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in Australia: Will kangaroo meat make a difference?

    PubMed

    Ratnasiri, Shyama; Bandara, Jayatilleke

    2017-01-01

    The Australian per capita consumption of ruminant meat such as beef and lamb has declined over the last two decades. Over the same period, however, per capita consumption of non-ruminant meat such as chicken and pork has continued to increase. Furthermore, it is now observed that the human consumption of kangaroo meat is on the rise. This study investigates the implications of these changes in meat consumption patterns on Green House Gases (GHGs) emission mitigation in Australia using a Vector Auto Regression (VAR) forecasting approach. Our results suggest that the increase will continue in non-ruminant meat consumption and this will not only offset the decline in ruminant meat consumption, but will also raise the overall per capita meat consumption by approximately 1% annually. The per capita GHGs emissions will likely decrease by approximately 2.3% per annum, due to the inclusion of non-ruminant meat in Australian diets. The GHGs emissions can further be reduced if the average Australian consumer partially replaces ruminant meat with kangaroo meat.

  18. Magnitude of muscle activity of the lumbar multifidus using the Core-Noodle device with varied upper extremity postures.

    PubMed

    Murao, Masanobu; Tsuboi, Miki; Nakajima, Masaaki

    2016-08-10

    Lumbar Multifidus (LM) exercise is a treatment in patients with low back pain. We designed a new exercise using device ``Core-Noodle'' (Copyright has been observed in Japan). The purpose of this study was to record the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the lumbar multifidus during a novel exercise. Twenty-one healthy young volunteers performed the LM exercise using Core-Noodle in three conditions: no-weight (NW), 1 kg weight (1W), 2 kg-weight (2W). This exercise was performed in supine with left shoulder abduct 90 degrees and right shoulder flexed 90 degrees. EMG activity was recorded from surface electrodes on the LM and the thoracic part of the iliocostalis lumborum (ICLT), and normalized to values derived from maximal isometric trials (%MVIC). In addition, the ratio of the LM to ICLT (L/G ratio) was calculated to compare selectivity of LM activity. One-way ANOVA and Bonferroni method were used to draw comparisons among the three conditions. Muscle activation of LM was gradually increased in proportion to the loading dose. L/G ratio increased by weight loading significantly, but slightly decreased at 2W. The results suggest that characteristic EMG patterns of LM ``selective contraction'' and ``adjustment of load'' are obtained concurrently.

  19. Alcohol consumption and risky drinking patterns in Malaysia: findings from NHMS 2011.

    PubMed

    Mutalip, Mohd Hatta B Abdul; Kamarudin, Rozanim Bt; Manickam, Mala; Abd Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Bt; Saari, Riyanti Bt

    2014-01-01

    To identify the characteristics of current drinker and risky alcohol-drinking pattern by profiles in Malaysia. We analyzed data from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011. It was a cross-sectional population-based with two stages stratified random sampling design. A validated Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test Malay questionnaire was used to assess the alcohol consumption and its alcohol related harms. Analysis of complex survey data using Stata Version 12 was done for descriptive analysis on alcohol use and risky drinking by socio-demography profiles. Logistic regression analysis was used to measure the association of risky drinking status with the socio-demography characteristics. The prevalence of current alcohol use was 11.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 10.5, 12.7], among them 23.6% (95% CI: 21.0, 26.4) practiced risky drinking. The onset for alcohol drinking was 21 years old (standard deviation 7.44) and majority preferred Beer. Males significantly consumed more alcohol and practiced risky drinking. Current alcohol use was more prevalent among urbanites, Chinese, those with high household income, and high education. Conversely, risky drinking was more prevalent among rural drinkers, Bumiputera Sabah and Sarawak, low education and low household income. The estimated odds of risky drinking increased by a factor of 3.5 among Males while a factor of 2.7 among Bumiputera Sabah and Sarawak. Education status and household income was not a significant predictor to risky drinking. There was an inverse drinking pattern between current drinker and risky drinking by the socio-demography profiles. Initiating early screening and focused intervention might avert further alcohol related harms and dependence among the risky drinkers. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  20. The influence of sociodemographic factors on patterns of fruit and vegetable consumption in Canadian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Riediger, Natalie Diane; Shooshtari, Shahin; Moghadasian, Mohammed Hassan

    2007-09-01

    Poor dietary habits may increase risk for obesity and chronic diseases among Canadian adolescents. The aims of the present study were to: (a) establish the patterns of fruit and vegetable intake by Canadian adolescents, and (b) identify the impact of sociodemographic factors-including age, household income, household education, ethnicity, living arrangement, and location-on the pattern of fruit and vegetable intake in this population. This is a cross-sectional study using the data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.1, Public Use File. The survey used questions similar to a food frequency questionnaire. Total fruit and vegetable intake of 18,524 Canadian adolescents (12 to 19 years old) was cross-tabulated between two age groups (12 to 14 years old [n=7,410] and 15 to 19 years old [n=11,114]) by sex, level of household education, total household income, ethnicity, living arrangement, and geographical location. The data revealed that a 38.3% of Canadian adolescents in this study consumed fruits and vegetables five to 10 times per day; fewer older adolescents (15- to 19-year-olds) reported eating fruits and vegetables at that frequency as compared with the younger subgroup (12- to 14-year-olds) (P<0.001). Household education and income independently had a significant (P<0.001) positive impact on fruit and vegetable consumption. Females reported a significantly (P<0.05) higher frequency of intake than did males. Adolescents living in homes with only one parent reported a significantly (P<0.005) lower frequency of intake, as compared with adolescents living with two parents. These results may help to identify adolescent groups at risk for poor eating habits and support the implementation of programs to encourage higher fruit and vegetable intakes.

  1. The "Roles" of the Game: The Influence of News Consumption Patterns on the Role Conceptions of Journalism Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandoc, Edson C., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    This study is based on a survey of 364 undergraduate journalism students and looks at how news consumption patterns influence the journalistic role conceptions that students hold. This study finds that students rated the interpreter role as most important. Students who prioritized the interpreter role also tend to get their news from online…

  2. The "Roles" of the Game: The Influence of News Consumption Patterns on the Role Conceptions of Journalism Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandoc, Edson C., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    This study is based on a survey of 364 undergraduate journalism students and looks at how news consumption patterns influence the journalistic role conceptions that students hold. This study finds that students rated the interpreter role as most important. Students who prioritized the interpreter role also tend to get their news from online…

  3. Water consumption patterns and factors contributing to water consumption in arsenic affected population of rural West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M Amir; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Murrill, Matthew; Das, Bhaskar; Roy, Bimol; Dey, Shankar; Maity, Debasish; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2013-10-01

    A direct water intake study was conducted for one year, involving 423 individuals from three arsenic (As) affected villages of West Bengal, India. Average direct water intake per person and per unit body weight was found to be 3.12±1.17 L/day and 78.07±47.08 mL/kg/day (± SD), respectively. Average direct water intakes for adult males, adult females and children (age <15 years) were 3.95, 3.03 and 2.14 L/day, respectively. Significant sex differentials were observed between ages 16-55 years. For all participants, a sharp increase in water intake up to 15 years of age was observed followed by a plateau at a higher intake level. Significant monthly, seasonal, regional, and occupational variability was also observed. Another study involving 413 subjects determined the amount of indirect water intake. Average indirect water intake per person was 1.80±0.64 L/day; for adult males, adult females and children, intake was 2.15, 1.81, and 1.10 L/day, respectively. Average total (direct + indirect) water intake was 4.92 L/person/day; for adult males, adult females and children, total intake was 6.10, 4.84, and 3.24 L/person/day, respectively. The overall contribution of indirect water intake to total water consumption was 36.6% for all participants. This study additionally elucidated several factors that contribute to variable water intake, which can lead to better risk characterization of subpopulations and water contaminant ingestion. The study reveals that the water intake rates in the three studied populations in West Bengal are greater than the assumed water intake rates utilized by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the establishment of drinking water quality guidelines; therefore, these assumed intake values may be inappropriate for the study population as well as similar ones.

  4. Water consumption patterns and factors contributing to water consumption in arsenic affected population of rural West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, M. Amir; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Murrill, Matthew; Das, Bhaskar; Roy, Bimol; Dey, Shankar; Maity, Debasish; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2014-01-01

    A direct water intake study was conducted for one year, involving 423 individuals from arsenic (As) affected villages of West-Bengal, India. Average direct water intake per person was found to be 3.12±1.17 L/day and 78.07±47.08 mL/kg/day (±SD). Average direct water intakes for adult males, adult females and children (age <15 years) were 3.95, 3.03 and 2.14 L/day, respectively. Significant sex differentials were observed between ages 16–55 years. For all participants, a sharp increase in water intake up to age 15 years was observed followed by a plateau at a higher intake level. Significant monthly, seasonal, regional, and occupational variability was also observed. Another study involving 413 subjects determined the amount of indirect water intake. Average indirect water intake per person was 1.80±0.64 L/day; for adult males, females and children, intake was 2.15, 1.81, and 1.10 L/day, respectively. Average total (direct + indirect) water intake was 4.92 L/person/day; for adult males, females and children total intake was 6.10, 4.84, and 3.24 L/person/day, respectively. The overall contribution of indirect water intake to total water consumption is 36.6% for all participants. This study additionally elucidated several factors that contribute to variable water intake, which can lead to better risk characterization of subpopulations and water contaminant ingestion. The study reveals that the water intake rates in the three studied populations in West Bengal are greater than the assumed water intake rates utilized by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the establishment of drinking water quality guidelines; therefore, these assumed intake values may be inappropriate for the study population as well as similar ones. PMID:22858413

  5. Characteristic of Arenga Starch-Taro (Colocasia esculanta L.) Flour Noodle with Addition of Beetroot Extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herawati, E. R. N.; Ariani, D.; Miftakhussolikhah; Elfanti, M. P.; Pranoto, Y.

    2017-04-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculanta L.) flour can be mixed with arenga starch in noodle making with 25% taro flour and 75% arenga starch as the best proportion. Addition of beetroot extract as red natural color may improve consumer preference and change the noodle characteristic. This research purpose is to know the effect of addition of beetroot extract on the noodle characteristic. Coloring extraction was done using 5 variances of beetroot (0.4; 0.6; 0.8; 1; and 1.2 g (fresh weight/ml water). Then, noodle was made and characteristic including physical and sensory properties were evaluated. The result showed that coloring extracts addition decreased the break compression, elongation, and tensile strength of arenga starch-taro flour sohun. Beetroot extract addition increased the red color and didn’t change sensory properties significantly.

  6. Instant noodles as an antifriction device: making the BOP with PPP in PNG.

    PubMed

    Errington, Frederick; Fujikura, Tatsuro; Gewertz, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Focusing primarily, but not exclusively, on urban and periurban Papua New Guinea (PNG), we discuss the significance of instant ramen noodles to those now known as the “bottom of the pyramid” (BOP). Although instant noodles are remarkable in that they are eaten by virtually everyone in the world, albeit in different amounts and for different reasons, they are marketed in PNG specifically as a “popularly positioned product” (PPP) for the BOP. Cheap, convenient, tasty, filling, and shelf stable, they are a modern addition to Sidney Mintz's classic “proletarian hunger killers” of sugar, tea, and coffee. But, we argue, instant noodles have a distinctive contemporary role: they do more than sustain the poor; they transform them into the aspiring consumers of the BOP. As such, instant noodles can be viewed as an antifriction device, greasing the skids of capitalism as it extends its reach.

  7. Using GoNoodle to Introduce Health Concepts in the K-5 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces readers to the GoNoodle platform for incorporating physical activity throughout the school day, and describes how one of the features, Ultimate Champ Training, can be used to teach health concepts in the elementary school classroom.

  8. Using GoNoodle to Introduce Health Concepts in the K-5 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces readers to the GoNoodle platform for incorporating physical activity throughout the school day, and describes how one of the features, Ultimate Champ Training, can be used to teach health concepts in the elementary school classroom.

  9. Short communication: Nutrient consumption patterns of Lactobacillus acidophilus KLDS 1.0738 in controlled pH batch fermentations.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xuepeng; Liu, Gefei; Sun, Xiaomei; Chen, Hongyu; Sun, Jiahui; Feng, Zhen

    2017-07-01

    This work focused on elucidating the nutrient consumption patterns of Lactobacillus acidophilus to guide the design of media for high-cell-density culture. We investigated the nutrient consumption patterns of L. acidophilus KLDS 1.0738 in chemically defined media in controlled pH batch fermentations. The most abundantly consumed amino acids, vitamins, ions, and purines and pyrimidines were Glu and Gly, pyridoxine and nicotinamide, K(+) and PO4(3-), and guanine and uracil, respectively. The highest consumption rates for amino acids, vitamins, ions, and purines and pyrimidines were Asp and Arg, folic acid and pyridoxine, Fe(2+) and Mn(2+), and uracil and thymine, respectively. Furthermore, most of the amino acids, as well as guanine, thymine, pyridoxine, folic acid, nicotinamide, Mg(2+), PO4(3-), and K(+) had the highest bioavailability from the end of the lag growth phase to the mid-exponential growth phase. The overall consumption of glucose, adenine nucleotides, 2'-deoxyguanosine monohydrate, calcium pantothenate, Fe(2+) and Mn(2+) decreased with increasing average growth rate, indicating more effective use of these nutritional components at a higher average growth rate, as biomass yield based on nutritional component consumption increased. Our findings help to formulate complex media for high-cell-density cultivation and provide a theoretical basis for L. acidophilus feeding strategies. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of protein on darkening in yellow alkaline noodles.

    PubMed

    Asenstorfer, Robert E; Appelbee, Marie J; Mares, Daryl J

    2010-04-14

    Darkening in yellow alkaline noodles (YAN) was examined over a 24 h period in noodles made from 4 wheat varieties, including varieties with different levels of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, selected to cover a range of protein levels. Noodles were made in the presence and absence of the PPO inhibitor, tropolone. The darkening was divided into two time periods: 0-4 h and 4-24 h. The first four hours was described by a composite rate equation, and this period was subdivided into two stages. The rate of darkening in the first stage was independent of both protein concentration and PPO activity. The amount of darkening (c), however, was highly dependent on protein concentration during this stage (-tropolone, r = 0.902; +tropolone, r = 0.905), but independent of PPO activity. The first stage darkening was a zero order reaction where additional protein does not increase the reaction rate, but when the protein supply has been depleted, the reaction stops. The rate of darkening during the first stage (k'(1) = 5.6 +/- 1.0) was similar to the rate of change in the protein structure (k'(1) = 6.5 +/- 1.3) as measured using the amide II band by infrared spectroscopy. This suggested that the first stage of darkening represents changes in light reflectance and absorbance caused by changes in hydrogen bonding rather than changes in covalent bonding. During the second stage of darkening, both the rate (k'(2)) and amount of darkening (DeltaL*(4h-c)) were significantly correlated with protein concentration (-tropolone, r = 0.465; +tropolone, r = 0.813), and in the absence of tropolone the amount of darkening was increased by PPO activity. The amount of darkening (DeltaL*(24h-4h)) during the second time period (4-24 h) (or third stage) was significantly correlated in the presence of tropolone (r = 0.375) and in the absence of tropolone (r = 0.428) with protein concentration. However, compared with earlier stages the response of non-PPO darkening during the third stage to change

  11. Functional properties of chitosan-xylose Maillard reaction products and their application to semi-dried noodle.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ke-Xue; Li, Jie; Li, Man; Guo, Xiao-Na; Peng, Wei; Zhou, Hui-Ming

    2013-02-15

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the antimicrobial, antioxidant and darkening inhibitory activities of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) prepared from chitosan and xylose, and their effects on the preservation and quality of semi-dried noodles. The development of brown color and UV absorbance changes indicated the proceeding of Maillard reaction. The antimicrobial activity, reducing power, DPPH radical scavenging activity, copper-chelating activity and PPO inhibitory effects of chitosan-xylose conjugates increased with the reaction. Addition of MRPs could improve the textural and cooking quality of semi-dried noodles. Incorporation of 0.35% MRPs (6 h) into semi-dried noodle resulted in an extension of shelf life for more than 7 days than the control noodles (at room temperature). The discoloration caused by the addition of MRPs was limited, and MRPs could inhibit darkening of the noodle effectively. Results suggested that the MRPs could be used as a novel promising preservative for semi-dried noodles.

  12. Associations between sleeping habits and food consumption patterns among 10-11-year-old children in Finland.

    PubMed

    Westerlund, Lisa; Ray, Carola; Roos, Eva

    2009-11-01

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is of special concern. Inverse associations between sleep length and overweight have been found in children. Short sleeping hours result in hormonal changes, which increase perceived hunger and appetite. This could affect food intake, and consequently lead to overweight. The aim is to find out whether there is an association between adequate sleep and food consumption among 10-11-year-old school children in Finland. One thousand two hundred and sixty-five children (response rate 79 %), aged 9-11, from thirty-one schools filled in a questionnaire about their health behaviour. Inadequate sleep was measured as short sleeping hours during school nights and weekend nights, difficulties in waking up in the morning and tiredness during the day. Food consumption patterns were measured by two consumption indices, energy-rich foods and nutrient-dense foods, based on a short FFQ (sixteen items). Inadequate sleep is associated with food consumption patterns. Boys with shorter sleep duration during school nights, and who were felt tired during the day, were more likely to consume energy-rich foods. Girls with shorter sleep duration during school nights consumed more likely energy-rich foods and less likely nutrient-dense foods. Adjusting for physical activity and screen time weakened the explored associations. The associations with energy-rich foods were stronger for boys than for girls. Sleeping habits are associated with food consumption patterns. Shorter sleep duration during school nights in school children is associated with higher consumption of energy-rich foods.

  13. Overweight adolescents eat what? And when? Analysis of consumption patterns to guide dietary message development for intervention.

    PubMed

    Smith, K L; Straker, L M; Kerr, D A; Smith, A J

    2015-02-01

    Little is known about overweight adolescent dietary consumption patterns, with challenges to collecting meaningful data making it difficult to develop targeted obesity interventions. The present study aimed to examine the timing and consumption of fruit, vegetables and junk food by time of the day and day of the week. Overweight adolescents (n = 61), aged 12-16 years, completed 3-day food records. Negative binomial and binary logistic regression using generalised estimating equations were used to compare the amount and likelihood of the consumption of each food group between time periods. Overweight adolescent girls were more likely to eat fruit on weekdays than weekends [odds ratio (OR) = 5.0. P < 0.001], as were boys (OR = 2.5, P = 0.034). Adolescents consumed more fruit at school than other meals [girls: incident rate ratio (IRR) = 7.5, P < 0.001; boys: IRR = 4.0, P = 0.050]. Weekday dinner was the meal where girls were most likely to consume vegetables (OR = 3.0, P = 0.009) and when boys consumed the most vegetables (IRR = 30.9, P = 0.006). Fast food consumption was most likely for girls at dinner on the weekend (OR = 9.6, P = 0.042), whereas fast food intake for boys increased overall on the weekend (IRR = 3.6, P = 0.001). Intake of 'other junk' (e.g. crisps) peaked during school hours for girls (IRR = 7.2, P < 0.001) and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption increased for boys on the weekend (IRR = 3.3, P = 0.001). Overall, trends in fruit intake showed opposing times for high and low consumption compared to vegetable intake. These results represent the next step in using time of day and day of week consumption patterns to develop targeted, evidence-based dietary messages for interventions in overweight adolescents. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  14. The Association between Food Group Consumption Patterns and Early Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Non-Diabetic Healthy People.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Rimkyo; Yoon, So Ra; Kim, Oh Yoen

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the association between dietary habits/food group consumption patterns and early risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS), a main cause for metabolic disease. Study participants were recruited from the health promotion center in Dong-A University Hospital and public advertisement. Study subjects (n = 243, 21-80 years) were categorized into three groups: Super-healthy (MetS risk factor [MetS RF] = 0, n = 111), MetS-risk carriers (MetS RF = 1-2, n = 96), and MetS (MetS RF ≥ 3, n = 27). Higher regularity in dietary habits (breakfast-everyday, regular eating time, non-frequent overeating, and non-frequent eating-out) was observed in the Super-healthy group than in the MetS-risk carriers, and particularly in the MetS subjects. The relationship between food group consumption patterns and MetS-risk related parameters were investigated with adjustment for confounding factors. Fruit consumption was positively associated with HDL-cholesterol, and tended to be negatively associated with waist circumference, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, and insulin resistance (IR). The consumption of low-fat meats and fish, and vegetables was negatively associated with hs-CRP. Specifically, the consumption of sea-foods belonging to the low-fat fish was negatively associated with fasting glucose, hs-CRP, and interleukin (IL)-6. Anchovy/dried white baits consumption was negatively associated with fasting insulin and IR. Green-yellow vegetables consumption was negatively associated with fasting insulin, IR, and hs-CRP. On the other hand, sugars and fast-foods were positively associated with LDL-cholesterol. Additionally, fast-foods consumption was positively associated with hs-CRP and IL-6 levels. In conclusion, dietary habits/food group consumption patterns are closely associated with MetS-risk related parameters in Koreans. It may suggest useful information to educate people to properly select healthy foods for early prevention of MetS.

  15. The Association between Food Group Consumption Patterns and Early Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Non-Diabetic Healthy People

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Rimkyo; Yoon, So Ra

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the association between dietary habits/food group consumption patterns and early risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS), a main cause for metabolic disease. Study participants were recruited from the health promotion center in Dong-A University Hospital and public advertisement. Study subjects (n = 243, 21–80 years) were categorized into three groups: Super-healthy (MetS risk factor [MetS RF] = 0, n = 111), MetS-risk carriers (MetS RF = 1–2, n = 96), and MetS (MetS RF ≥ 3, n = 27). Higher regularity in dietary habits (breakfast-everyday, regular eating time, non-frequent overeating, and non-frequent eating-out) was observed in the Super-healthy group than in the MetS-risk carriers, and particularly in the MetS subjects. The relationship between food group consumption patterns and MetS-risk related parameters were investigated with adjustment for confounding factors. Fruit consumption was positively associated with HDL-cholesterol, and tended to be negatively associated with waist circumference, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, and insulin resistance (IR). The consumption of low-fat meats and fish, and vegetables was negatively associated with hs-CRP. Specifically, the consumption of sea-foods belonging to the low-fat fish was negatively associated with fasting glucose, hs-CRP, and interleukin (IL)-6. Anchovy/dried white baits consumption was negatively associated with fasting insulin and IR. Green-yellow vegetables consumption was negatively associated with fasting insulin, IR, and hs-CRP. On the other hand, sugars and fast-foods were positively associated with LDL-cholesterol. Additionally, fast-foods consumption was positively associated with hs-CRP and IL-6 levels. In conclusion, dietary habits/food group consumption patterns are closely associated with MetS-risk related parameters in Koreans. It may suggest useful information to educate people to properly select healthy foods for early prevention of MetS. PMID:28770180

  16. Influence of different substrate moistures on wood consumption and movement patterns of Microcerotermes crassus and Coptotermes gestroi (Blattodea: Termitidae, Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Wong, Nellie; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2010-04-01

    Moisture is an important physical factor for the survival of termites. The effects of different moisture levels (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25%) of a sand substrate on the behavior of laboratory groups of Microcerotermes crassus Snyder and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) (Blattodea: Termitidae: Rhinotermitidae) were evaluated. Moisture content of sand affected wood consumption and influenced termite distribution across a moisture gradient for M. crassus. Changing the moisture parameters affected the location preference of C. gestroi, but the effect on wood consumption was not significant. Nonetheless, M. crassus and C. gestroi showed a similar distribution pattern of association with particular moisture levels.

  17. FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS OF THE OZYORSK POPULATION IN 1948-1966, IMPORTANT FOR ESTIMATING PERORAL COMPONENT OF INTERNAL EXPOSURE DOSES

    SciTech Connect

    Mokrov, Y.; Martyushov, V. Z.; Stukalov, Pavel M.; Ivanov, I. A.; Beregich, D. A.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2008-06-01

    Results of reconstruction of food consumption patterns are presented for the residents of Ozyorsk for the period of 1948-1966. The reconstruction was performed on the basis analysis of the archive data. The given period of time is characterized by maximum releases into the atmosphere from the Mayak PA sources, and, therefore, it is considered to be the most significant period for calculating peroral component contribution to effective exposure doses to the population. The paper describes main foodstuff suppliers (regions) and their economic indices, as well as delivery rates and consumption rates for most important foodstuffs (primarily whole milk).

  18. Bioactives-retained non-glutinous noodles from nixtamalized Dent and Flint maize.

    PubMed

    Das, Amit K; Bhattacharya, Sila; Singh, Vasudeva

    2017-02-15

    Nixtamalization is a well-known pre-treatment technique in the tortilla industry. Nixtamalized maize (nixtamal) is known for its modified physicochemical as well as nutritional attributes. In the present study, two types of nixtamalization processes (traditional and ecological) were employed for the development of whole-grain-maize-based noodles using Dent and Flint maize genotypes. Results showed that ecological nixtamalization had resulted in better cooking and textural qualities of noodles compared to the one prepared traditionally. Dent maize noodles from traditional and ecological nixtamalization had lower retention of phenolics (40 and 64%, respectively) whereas, Flint maize noodles retained 50 and 66% phenolics, respectively. Dent maize noodles had undergone phenolics loss of 5-6% on cooking while those of Flint maize lost only 2%. Ecological nixtamalization maintained the pH of the cooking liquor within an acidic-neutral range and yielded noodle with higher retention of phenolics whereas, the traditional process negatively affected the antioxidant compounds and their properties.

  19. Effects of Ground, Concentrated, and Powdered Beef on the Quality of Noodle Products

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin Young

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the effects of beef on the quality characteristics, such as color, texture profile, water absorption ratio, volume, turbidity, and sensory evaluation, of noodle products. Various types of beef were added to the flour at a mixture ratio of ground beef (BG) 10, 15, 20, 25%; concentrated beef (BC) 9, 11, 13, 15%; and powdered beef (BP) 1, 3, 5, 7%. Each treatment was analyzed and compared with a 100% flour noodle as a control. With increasing BG, BC, and BP ratios, the L and b values for color decreased, while the a value increased, from that in the control. The hardness of the noodles treated with BG increased with increasing mixture ratios, but hardness decreased in the BC and BP treatments with increasing mixture ratios (p<0.05). The noodles with the largest beef composition in the mixtures of each treatment exhibited the highest turbidity scores, which was believed to be because the solid contents would be transferred to the soup during heating. In the sensory evaluation of cooked noodles, the BG 10%, BC 9%, and BP 1% treatments exhibited the best color. In an overall preference test, 20% of BG and 3% of BP could be added to the noodles. The best palatability was exhibited by the BG 10%, BC 13%, and BP 3% treatments. PMID:26761675

  20. Dietary Patterns and Alcohol Consumption During Pregnancy: Secondary Analysis of Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    PubMed

    Coathup, Victoria; Northstone, Kate; Gray, Ron; Wheeler, Simon; Smith, Lesley

    2017-06-01

    Large general population surveys show that heavy regular and episodic alcohol consumption are associated with lower intakes of fruits and vegetables, and higher intakes of processed and fried meat. This is of particular concern regarding pregnant women, as both alcohol intake and inadequate maternal nutrition are independently associated with adverse fetal outcomes. The current study aimed to determine associations between maternal dietary patterns and alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Women were participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, and provided details of alcohol consumption at 18 weeks' gestation and diet at 32 weeks' gestation (n = 9,839). Dietary patterns were derived from the food frequency questionnaire data using principal components analysis. Associations between alcohol consumption and dietary patterns were determined using multiple linear regression, adjusted for various sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. After adjustment, drinking ≥1 unit/d during the first trimester (β = 0.23 [95% CI: 0.08, 0.38]; p = 0.002) and binge drinking (≥4 units in 1 day) during the first half of pregnancy (β = 0.14 [95% CI: 0.07, 0.21]; p < 0.0001) were associated with greater adherence to the "Processed" dietary pattern (high intakes of processed meat and low intakes of fruit and vegetables). Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption (≤1 drink/d) during the first trimester was associated with greater adherence to the "Health conscious" dietary pattern (high intakes of fruit, vegetables, whole grains, and fish) (β = 0.09 [95% CI: 0.04, 0.14]; p < 0.0001). Two important components of health behavior during pregnancy appear to be related: greater consumption of processed foods associated with heavier alcohol consumption, and healthier dietary choices associated with light-to-moderate alcohol intake. Potential synergistic effects of these behaviors may have implications for maternal and fetal health and warrant

  1. Consequences of increased antibacterial consumption and change in pattern of antibacterial use in Danish hospitals.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Ulrich S; Skjøt-Rasmussen, Line; Olsen, Stefan S; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Hammerum, Anette M

    2009-04-01

    Antibacterial consumption is increasing in many countries around the world, and it is increasingly recognized as the main reason for the emergence of resistance. This study was implemented to analyse antibacterial consumption in public hospitals in Denmark during 2001-07 as a follow-up on a prior analysis and furthermore, to investigate the consequences of the occurrence of resistance. National data on the consumption of antibacterials for systemic use in Danish public hospitals were obtained from 2001 through 2007. Consumption data were compared with antimicrobial resistance in all isolates recorded from either blood samples (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) or urine samples (E. coli) submitted for susceptibility testing to the participating Departments of Clinical Microbiology during 2001-07. The consumption of combinations of penicillins including beta-lactamase inhibitors, cephalosporins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones continued to increase from 19.2% of the total consumption in hospitals in Denmark in 2001 to 38.2% in 2007. Quinolone resistance in E. coli isolates from blood and urine samples increased significantly from 2001 through 2007. Furthermore, multiresistant K. pneumoniae emerged. The consumption of 'broad-spectrum' antibacterial agents has continued to increase in Danish hospitals. At the same time, an increasing resistance in clinical isolates towards the same antibacterial agents has been observed. However, more detailed information on the specific consumption of the antibacterial agents might help to restrict or reverse the increasing use of 'broad-spectrum' antibacterial agents and perhaps also the increasing antimicrobial resistance.

  2. Living Room vs. Concert Hall: Patterns of Music Consumption in Flanders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roose, Henk; Stichele, Alexander Vander

    2010-01-01

    In this article we probe the interplay between public and private music consumption using a large-scale survey of the Flemish population in Belgium. We analyze whether public and private music consumption have different correlates and to what extent there is convergence between the genres that people listen to at home and at concerts. Results show…

  3. A Naturalistic Experiment on Alcohol Availability Patterns of Consumption and the Context for Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraushaar, Kevin; Alsop, Brent

    Reduced alcohol availability following the closure of the sole hotels in two rural towns afforded a naturalistic experiment to study the effects of alcohol availability and context for drinking on consumption. Measures of consumption derived from interviews, total dollars of liquor sales, and police drink-driving data were compared across two…

  4. Comparison of patterns and knowledge of benefits and warnings of fish consumption between parents and children.

    PubMed

    Herdt-Losavio, Michele L; Lin, Shao; Chen, Ming; Luo, Ming; Tang, Jianzhong; Hwang, Syni-An

    2014-07-01

    We examined generational differences in fish consumption and knowledge of benefits/warnings of fish consumption among parents and children. This cross-sectional study gathered self-administered questionnaire data, including demographics, fish consumption behavior (including specific fish species) and knowledge of fish consumption warnings and benefits. Fish were later grouped into four categories by potential mercury contamination. Descriptive statistics were conducted for all variables comparing all adults and children. Benefit/risk knowledge variables were also descriptively analyzed among parent-child pairs only. Multivariate Poisson regression was conducted on pairs to assess risk factors for children eating higher mercury fish. 421 adults and 207 children (171 adult-child pairs) participated (family response rate: 71%). Slightly more adults (97.6%) ate fish in the last year than children (92.3%); however, there was no difference between consumption of fish by category of potential mercury contamination. Both adults (44%) and children (45%) ate high-mercury fish. In 71% of parent-child pairs, both the parent and the child knew of benefits of consuming fish; only 31% knew of warnings. Parental consumption of high or moderately-high-mercury fish was related to the child's consumption of fish in the same category. Parents and children need additional education to make better choices about fish consumption. Education should target the family and include specifics about benefits and risks.

  5. Living Room vs. Concert Hall: Patterns of Music Consumption in Flanders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roose, Henk; Stichele, Alexander Vander

    2010-01-01

    In this article we probe the interplay between public and private music consumption using a large-scale survey of the Flemish population in Belgium. We analyze whether public and private music consumption have different correlates and to what extent there is convergence between the genres that people listen to at home and at concerts. Results show…

  6. [Spatial pattern evolution of carbon emission intensity from energy consumption in China].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yun-Tai; Huang, Xian-Jin; Zhong, Tai-Yang; Peng, Jia-Wen

    2011-11-01

    Using Theil index and spatial autocorrelation analysis methods, the characteristics, regional disparity and spatial pattern evolution of carbon emission intensity from energy consumption were analyzed on national, regional and provincial level from 1999 to 2007 in China. The results indicate that: (1) total energy carbon emission in China has increased from 0.91Gt in 1999 to 1.83Gt in 2007, while carbon emission intensity has decreased from 0.83 t x (10(4) yuan) (-1) to 0.79 t x (10(4) yuan) (-1); (2) carbon emission intensity of eight major economic blocks showed the trend of three-level differentiation, with that of northeast regions, the middle reaches of Yellow River regions and northwest regions above 1.0 t x (10(4) yuan)(-1); northern coastal regions, the middle reaches of Yangtze River regions and southwest regions 0.7-1.0 t x (10(4) yuan) (-1); eastern and northern regions 0.32-0.51 t x (10(4) yuan) (-1); (3) Theil index analysis indicates that the within-region carbon emission intensities were similar, and the expanding total disparity of carbon emission intensity was primarily due to between-region inequalities. (4) spatial autocorrelation analysis shows that Global Moran's I has increased from 0.19 to 0.25, indicating that there were positive spatial correlations among provincial regions in China, and regions of similar carbon emission intensity agglomerated in space. The "cold spot" areas of carbon emission intensity were relatively stable, while the "hot spot" areas has gradually shifted from northwest regions to the middle reaches of Yellow River regions and northeast regions. (5) spatial disparity of carbon emission intensity is closely related to factors such as regional resources endowment, economic development, industrial structure and energy utilization efficiency. The study of regional disparity and spatial autocorrelation provides insight into spatial heterogeneity and spatial pattern evolution of carbon emission intensity in China, and also

  7. The growth pattern and fuel life cycle analysis of the electricity consumption of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    To, W M; Lai, T M; Lo, W C; Lam, K H; Chung, W L

    2012-06-01

    As the consumption of electricity increases, air pollutants from power generation increase. In metropolitans such as Hong Kong and other Asian cities, the surge of electricity consumption has been phenomenal over the past decades. This paper presents a historical review about electricity consumption, population, and change in economic structure in Hong Kong. It is hypothesized that the growth of electricity consumption and change in gross domestic product can be modeled by 4-parameter logistic functions. The accuracy of the functions was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient, mean absolute percent error, and root mean squared percent error. The paper also applies the life cycle approach to determine carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions for the electricity consumption of Hong Kong. Monte Carlo simulations were applied to determine the confidence intervals of pollutant emissions. The implications of importing more nuclear power are discussed.

  8. Cooking behavior and starch digestibility of NUTRIOSE® (resistant starch) enriched noodles from sweet potato flour and starch.

    PubMed

    Menon, Renjusha; Padmaja, G; Sajeev, M S

    2015-09-01

    The effect of a resistant starch source, NUTRIOSE® FB06 at 10%, 15% and 20% in sweet potato flour (SPF) and 5% and 10% in sweet potato starch (SPS) in reducing the starch digestibility and glycaemic index of noodles was investigated. While NUTRIOSE (10%) significantly reduced the cooking loss in SPF noodles, this was enhanced in SPS noodles and guar gum (GG) supplementation reduced CL of both noodles. In vitro starch digestibility (IVSD) was significantly reduced in test noodles compared to 73.6g glucose/100g starch in control SPF and 65.9 g in SPS noodles. Resistant starch (RS) was 54.96% for NUTRIOSE (15%)+GG (1%) fortified SPF noodles and 53.3% for NUTRIOSE (5%)+GG (0.5%) fortified SPS noodles, as against 33.8% and 40.68%, respectively in SPF and SPS controls. Lowest glycaemic index (54.58) and the highest sensory scores (4.23) were obtained for noodles with 15% NUTRIOSE+1% GG.

  9. The pattern of fruit and vegetable consumption among Saudi university students.

    PubMed

    Al-Otaibi, Hala Hazam

    2013-12-24

    The positive benefits of consumption fruit and vegetable are well documented in studies of health and body weight maintain. A cross sectional study was conducted utilized street based survey among 960 female students at King Faisal University in AL-Hasa, Saudi Arabia, to investigate the daily consumption of fruits and vegetables and the psychosocial factors related to the consumption. Seventy-eight percent of students consuming <5 servings/day of fruit and vegetable with only 22% of them consuming >=5 servings/day, majority of them are in the normal BMI category. For psychosocial factors the higher consumption group more knowledgeable about the daily consumption of fruit and vegetable, and had more confidence in eating fruit and vegetables under difficult circumstances with significant differences between the groups (P=0.000, P=0.045; respectively). Self efficacy was significantly predictor for recommended daily fruit and vegetable consumption (?=0.303, SE=0.023, P=0.000), but perceived barriers and knowledge not predictor for recommended daily consumption. The results of this study can be useful to design an intervention to promote fruit and vegetable intake among this target group.

  10. Bread consumption patterns in a Swedish national dietary survey focusing particularly on whole-grain and rye bread

    PubMed Central

    Sandvik, Pernilla; Kihlberg, Iwona; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Marklinder, Ingela; Nydahl, Margaretha

    2014-01-01

    Background Bread types with high contents of whole grains and rye are associated with beneficial health effects. Consumer characteristics of different bread consumption patterns are however not well known. Objective To compare bread consumption patterns among Swedish adults in relation to selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors. For selected consumer groups, the further aim is to investigate the intake of whole grains and the context of bread consumption, that is, where and when it is consumed. Design Secondary analysis was performed on bread consumption data from a national dietary survey (n=1,435). Respondents were segmented into consumer groups according to the type and amount of bread consumed. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to study how selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors were associated with the consumer groups. Selected consumption groups were compared in terms of whole-grain intake and consumption context. Consumption in different age groups was analysed more in detail. Results One-third of the respondents consumed mainly white bread. Socio-demographic, geographic, and healthy-lifestyle-related factors were associated with the bread type consumed. White bread consumption was associated with younger age groups, less education, children in the family, eating less fruit and vegetables, and more candy and snacks; the opposite was seen for mainly whole-grain bread consumers. Older age groups more often reported eating dry crisp bread, whole-grain bread, and whole-grain rye bread with sourdough whereas younger respondents reported eating bread outside the home, something that also mainly white bread eaters did. Low consumers of bread also consumed less whole grain in total. Conclusions Traditional bread consumption structures were observed, as was a transition among young consumers who more often consumed fast food bread and bread outside the home, as well as less rye and whole

  11. Who 'likes' alcohol? Young Australians' engagement with alcohol marketing via social media and related alcohol consumption patterns.

    PubMed

    Carrotte, Elise R; Dietze, Paul M; Wright, Cassandra J; Lim, Megan S

    2016-10-01

    To describe patterns of 'liking' alcohol marketing social media pages, and determine related alcohol consumption patterns among young Australians. Participants were 1,001 Australians aged 15-29 years who completed a cross-sectional online survey. Logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression were used. A quarter (249/1001, 24.9%) liked at least one of the alcohol marketing social media pages, most commonly brands of spirits, cider and alcohol retailers. Underage participants were as likely as older participants to report liking these pages. Alcohol marketing social media use was significantly and independently associated with male gender, living outside a major city, ever using illegal drugs and early age of first alcohol consumption (all p<0.05). Alcohol marketing social media use (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-2.8, p=<0.001) was independently associated with higher categories on the AUDIT-C, indicating riskier alcohol consumption. Liking or following alcohol marketing pages is common regardless of age, and associated with riskier alcohol consumption, among young Australians. There is a need to develop strategies to reduce the exposure to, and potential impact of, alcohol marketing social media pages on young Australians, and ensure these pages are neither accessible to nor targeting underage social media users. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  12. Drinking water consumption patterns in British Columbia: an investigation of associations with demographic factors and acute gastrointestinal illness.

    PubMed

    Jones, A Q; Majowicz, S E; Edge, V L; Thomas, M K; MacDougall, L; Fyfe, M; Atashband, S; Kovacs, S J

    2007-12-15

    A cross-sectional telephone survey was performed in the province of British Columbia, Canada, to investigate drinking water consumption patterns and their associations with various demographic characteristics and acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI). Water consumption included plain water and water used in the preparation of cold beverages. The median amount of water consumed daily was four-250 mL servings (1.0 L), although responses were highly variable (0 to 9.0 L). Alternative water use was common: bottled water was the primary source of drinking water (i.e. >or=75% of the total daily water intake) for 23% of respondents and 47% of households used in-home water treatment methods. Approximately 10% of respondents reported an episode of AGI (vomiting or diarrhea) in the previous 4-week period. Such illness was associated with age (continuous variable in years, OR=-0.98), sex (male vs. female, OR=0.8) and the amount of water consumed (continuous variable in 250-mL servings, OR=1.06); however, a causal relationship with water consumption cannot be established based on this study alone. Overall, the associations of drinking water patterns with age, sex, education, and household income serve as important reminders to researchers and public health professionals of the non-uniform nature of drinking water consumption, and indicate potential differences in exposure to waterborne hazards in this population.

  13. The impact of alcohol consumption on patterns of union formation in Russia 1998–2010: An assessment using longitudinal data

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Katherine; Kenward, Michael G.; Grundy, Emily; Leon, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, 1998–2010, we investigated the extent to which patterns of alcohol consumption in Russia are associated with the subsequent likelihood of entry into cohabitation and marriage. Using discrete-time event history analysis we estimated for 16–50 year olds the extent to which the probabilities of entry into the two types of union were affected by the amount of alcohol drunk and the pattern of drinking, adjusted to allow for social and demographic factors including income, employment, and health. The results show that individuals who did not drink alcohol were less likely to embark on either cohabitation or marriage, that frequent consumption of alcohol was associated with a greater chance of entering unmarried cohabitation than of entering into a marriage, and that heavy drinkers were less likely to convert their relationship from cohabitation to marriage. PMID:25320843

  14. Changes in Distribution of Carbon Sources and Sinks Due to Spatial Patterns of Harvesting and Human Consumption.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisk, J.; Shevliakova, E.; Hurtt, G. C.; Frolking, S.

    2008-12-01

    Harvesting and consumption of plant biomass have major effects on the distribution of CO2 fluxes. Carbon sinks can be created where food and fiber are grown and sources where they are consumed or decomposed. Here, we used the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) land model, LM3V, land- use reconstructions from the Global Land-use Model (GLM), and population estimates to predict the patterns of CO2 flux resulting from wood and crop growth and distributed consumption. LM3V vegetation dynamics were forced by the GLM scenarios of land-use transitions between natural and secondary vegetation, croplands and pasture. Harvest estimates were reconciled with data from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Harvested biomass was distributed and consumed based on population and socio-economic status indicators. Our analysis indicates that patterns of harvesting and subsequent spatial redistribution of plant biomass have significant implications for the distribution of CO2 sources and sinks.

  15. Coffee consumption patterns in Korean adults: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2011).

    PubMed

    Je, Youjin; Jeong, Seonghyun; Park, Taeyoung

    2014-01-01

    We examined coffee consumption patterns over the past decade among Korean adults. This study was based on seven different cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2001 and 2011 (17,367 men and 23,591 women aged 19-103 y, mean 48.1 y). Information on frequency and type of coffee consumption was derived from frequency questionnaires or 24-hour recalls. For the study period, the prevalence of daily coffee consumption increased by 20.3% (from 54.6 to 65.7%; p<0.001). For those who consumed 2 or more cups of coffee daily, it dramatically increased by 48.8% (from 29.1 to 43.3%; p<0.001). The instant coffee mix was consumed the most frequently by Korean adults, and it was on the increasing trend among people who were middle aged or older (>=40 y), while it was on the slowdown in young men or on the declining trend in young women. Brewed coffee consumption had an increasing trend by all age groups in recent years. Especially, there was a rapid increase in brewed coffee consumption among young women (strongly) and young men. The instant coffee mix that contains non-dairy creamer and/or sugar still takes up a significant portion of coffee consumption in Korea, which may result in weight gain and insulin resistance, and potential benefits of coffee may be offset. Given high prevalence of coffee consumption in Korea, nutrition education should be conducted to help people (especially the elderly) to make healthy coffee drinking habits.

  16. Dynamics of radioactive cesium (134Cs and 137Cs) during the milling of contaminated Japanese wheat cultivars and during the cooking of udon noodles made from wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Keitarou; Kameya, Hiromi; Nei, Daisuke; Kakihara, Yoshiteru; Hagiwara, Shoji; Okadome, Hiroshi; Tanji, Katsuo; Todoriki, Setsuko; Matsukura, Ushio; Kawamoto, Ghinichi

    2012-10-01

    The fate of radioactive cesium ((134)Cs plus (137)Cs) during the milling of contaminated Japanese wheat cultivars harvested in FY2011, and during the cooking of Japanese udon noodles made from the wheat flour, was investigated. Grain samples containing various radioactive cesium concentrations (36.6 to 772 Bq/kg [dry weight]) were milled using a laboratory-scale test mill to produce eight fractions: three break flours (1B, 2B, and 3B), three reduction flours (1M, 2M, and 3M), bran, and shorts. The concentrations of radioactive cesium were found to be highest in the bran fractions of all the samples tested, with 2.3- to 2.5-fold higher values than that of the whole grain. Shorts contained radioactive cesium levels similar to that of the whole grain. In contrast, radioactive cesium concentrations in other fractions were found to be less than half the concentration in whole grain. The average processing factor (PF) value calculated for patent flour (0.401 ± 0.048), made from the mixture of 1B, 2B, 1M, and 2M for human consumption, or for low-grade flour (0.467 ± 0.045), made from the mixture of 3B and 3M, was found to be less than 0.5; whereas the average PF value (2.07 ± 0.232) for feed bran (mixture of bran and shorts), which has been used mainly as livestock feed in Japan, was over 2.0. Boiling udon noodles (made from patent flour) resulted in a substantial reduction (>70 % of initial amount) of radioactive cesium. Moreover, radioactive cesium was reduced further (<10 % of the initial amount) in the subsequent rinsing process, and the PF value of boiled noodles was recorded as 0.194. These results demonstrated that patent flour containing radioactive cesium can be made safe for human consumption by adopting the standard limit for radioactive cesium in wheat grain and that radioactive cesium in udon noodles is substantially reduced by cooking.

  17. Disruptive Potential of the Internet to Transform Illicit Drug Markets and Impact on Future Patterns of Drug Consumption.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, P; Mounteney, J

    2017-02-01

    The internet facilitates rapid and covert communication, knowledge transfer, and has the potential to disrupt and transform drug market models and associated consumption patterns. Innovation and new trends diffuse rapidly through this medium and new operational models are emerging. Although the online drug markets currently only account for a small share of all drug transactions, the potential of the surface and deep web to provide a new platform for drug sale and exchanges is considerable.

  18. Changes in cigarette consumption patterns among Brazilian smokers between 1989 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Szklo, André Salem; Levy, David; Souza, Mirian Carvalho de; Szklo, Moysés; Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Perez, Cristina; Almeida, Liz Maria de

    2012-11-01

    The assessment of temporal differences in cigarette consumption may help in understanding whether a smoking population is becoming more resistant to quitting over time. We calculated absolute differences in average cigarette consumption, stratified by birth cohort and age group. Data were obtained from random samples from two Brazilian national household surveys (1989, N = 12,782; 2008, N = 6,675). A linear regression model was used to adjust estimates by gender, educational level, and place of residence. Birth cohort analysis found that average daily cigarette consumption increased for individuals born after 1964 and decreased for those born before 1955 (adjusted p-values < 0.001). Age-specific analysis found that the remaining smoking population aged 64 years-old or less decreased cigarette consumption between 1989 and 2008 (adjusted p-values < 0.001). Brazil's anti-tobacco policy changes and rapid economic growth may be principally related to temporal changes in cigarette consumption for most age groups, rather than to a change in the relationship between age and cigarette consumption.

  19. Assessment of pattern for consumption and awareness regarding energy drinks among medical students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Energy drink is a type of beverage which contains stimulant drugs chiefly caffeine and marketed as mental and physical stimulator. Coffee, tea, soft drinks and other caffeinated beverages are not considered as energy drinks. Purpose of our study was to evaluate the awareness of medical students regarding energy drinks and their pattern and reason of energy drinks consumption. Methods This was a cross sectional and observational study conducted during the period of January – December 2012 at four Medical Colleges (Dow Medical College, Sindh Medical College, Jinnah Medical College and Liaquat National Medical College) of Karachi, Pakistan. Over all 900 M.B.B.S students were invited to participate after taking written consent but viable questionnaire was submitted by 866 students, estimated response rate of 96%. All data was entered and analyzed through SPSS version 19. Result Out of 866 participants, majority were females 614 (70.9%) and only 252 (28.5%) were males, with a mean age of 21.43 ± 1.51 years. Energy drinks users were 350 (42.89%) and non users were 516 (59.58%). Only 102 (29.3%) users and 159 (30.7%) non users know the correct definition of Energy drinks. Regarding awareness, mostly user and non users thought that usage of energy drinks had been on rise due to its usefulness in reducing sleep hours [users193 (43.9%), nonusers 247 (56.1%) (p < 0.05)], for studying or completing major projects [users184 (45.0%), nonusers 225 (55.0%) (p < 0.05)] and for refreshment purposes [users179 (44.9%), nonusers 220 (55.1%) (p < 0.05)]. Two main reasons of not using energy drinks by non-users were “awareness from its side effects” 247 (47.8%) and “have no specific reason” 265 (51.3%). Most common side effects reported by users were fatigue 111 (31.7%) and weight gain 102 (29.4%). Conclusion In sum, the fact that despite serious side effects of weight gaining and fatigue, practice of consuming energy drinks is highly prevalent among medical

  20. Assessment of pattern for consumption and awareness regarding energy drinks among medical students.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Hafiz Muhammad; Mughal, Anum; Edhi, Muhammad Muzzammil; Saleem, Shafaq; Rao, Masood Hussain; Aftab, Anum; Hanif, Maliha; Ahmed, Alina; Khan, Agha Muhammad Hammad

    2013-01-01

    Energy drink is a type of beverage which contains stimulant drugs chiefly caffeine and marketed as mental and physical stimulator. Coffee, tea, soft drinks and other caffeinated beverages are not considered as energy drinks. Purpose of our study was to evaluate the awareness of medical students regarding energy drinks and their pattern and reason of energy drinks consumption. This was a cross sectional and observational study conducted during the period of January - December 2012 at four Medical Colleges (Dow Medical College, Sindh Medical College, Jinnah Medical College and Liaquat National Medical College) of Karachi, Pakistan. Over all 900 M.B.B.S students were invited to participate after taking written consent but viable questionnaire was submitted by 866 students, estimated response rate of 96%. All data was entered and analyzed through SPSS version 19. Out of 866 participants, majority were females 614 (70.9%) and only 252 (28.5%) were males, with a mean age of 21.43 ± 1.51 years. Energy drinks users were 350 (42.89%) and non users were 516 (59.58%). Only 102 (29.3%) users and 159 (30.7%) non users know the correct definition of Energy drinks. Regarding awareness, mostly user and non users thought that usage of energy drinks had been on rise due to its usefulness in reducing sleep hours [users193 (43.9%), nonusers 247 (56.1%) (p < 0.05)], for studying or completing major projects [users184 (45.0%), nonusers 225 (55.0%) (p < 0.05)] and for refreshment purposes [users179 (44.9%), nonusers 220 (55.1%) (p < 0.05)]. Two main reasons of not using energy drinks by non-users were "awareness from its side effects" 247 (47.8%) and "have no specific reason" 265 (51.3%). Most common side effects reported by users were fatigue 111 (31.7%) and weight gain 102 (29.4%). In sum, the fact that despite serious side effects of weight gaining and fatigue, practice of consuming energy drinks is highly prevalent among medical students, particularly because they are ever

  1. Children's food consumption patterns have changed over two decades (1973-1994): The Bogalusa heart study.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Theresa A; Demory-Luce, Debby; Yang, Su-Jau; Baranowski, Tom; Zakeri, Issa; Berenson, Gerald

    2004-07-01

    To evaluate types of foods and amounts consumed by 10-year-old children during the period from 1973 to 1994. One 24-hour dietary recall was collected on each child who participated in one of seven separate cross-sectional surveys of 10-year-olds.Subjects/Setting Dietary intake data was collected on 1,584 10-year-old children (65% Euro American, 35% African American), in Bogalusa, LA, from 1973 to 1994 using SAS 8.0 (1999, SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC). Statistical analyses performed Data were analyzed to calculate descriptive statistics. Pearson's chi(2) test was used for testing equality of percentage of each food group consumed across the seven surveys. Cochran-Armitage trend test and general linear models were used to test for trends, adjusting for total energy intake, ethnicity, and sex. The percentage of children consuming, and the mean gram amount consumed, significantly decreased for fats/oils (P<.0001), desserts (P<.0001), candy (P<.0001), eggs (P<.001), and milk (P<.0001). In contrast, the percentage of children consuming, and the mean gram amount consumed, significantly increased for fruits/fruit juices (P<.01), mixed meats (P<.01), poultry (P<.0001), and cheese (P<.0001). Despite a significant decrease in the percentage of children consuming vegetables (P<.01) and beef (P<.01), the mean gram amount consumed did not change. The percentage of children consuming breads/grains, pork, and snacks did not change, but the mean gram amount of salty snacks (P<.001) significantly increased and the amount of breads/grains (P<.01) and pork (P<.01) significantly decreased. The percentage of children consuming sweetened beverages (P<.01) and condiments (P<.001) decreased while the mean gram amount consumed increased (P<.05) and (P<.0001). The mean gram amount of lunch and dinner consumed increased (P<.0001) but snacks decreased (P<.0001), resulting in no change in total gram amount consumed in a 24-hour period. Trends in food consumption patterns of children should be

  2. A study of consumers' perceptions and prediction of consumption patterns for generic health functional foods

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Nam E; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Lee, Yeon Kyoung; Lee, Hye Young

    2011-01-01

    The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) revised the Health Functional Food Act in 2008 and extended the form of health functional foods to general food types. Therefore, this study was performed to investigate consumers' perceptions of the expanded form of health functional food and to predict consumption patterns. For this study, 1,006 male and female adults aged 19 years and older were selected nationwide by multi-stage stratified random sampling and were surveyed in 1:1 interviews. The questionnaire survey was conducted by Korea Gallup. The subjects consisted of 497 (49.4%) males and 509 (50.6%) females. About 57.9% of the subjects recognized the KFDA's permission procedures for health functional foods. Regarding the health functional foods that the subjects had consumed, red ginseng products were the highest (45.3%), followed by nutritional supplements (34.9%), ginseng products (27.9%), lactobacillus-containing products (21.0%), aloe products (20.3%), and Japanese apricot extract products (18.4%). Opinions on expanding the form of health functional foods to general food types scored 4.7 points on a 7-point scale, showing positive responses. In terms of the effects of medicine-type health functional foods versus generic health functional foods, the highest response was 'same effects if the same ingredients are contained' at a rate of 34.7%. For intake frequency by food type, the response of 'daily consistent intake' was 31.7% for capsules, tablets, and pills, and 21.7% for extracts. For general food types, 'daily consistent intake' was 44.5% for rice and 22.8% for beverages, which were higher rates than those for medicine types. From the above results, consumers had positive opinions of the expansion of health functional foods to generic forms but are not expected to maintain accurate intake frequencies or amounts. Thus, continuous promotion and education are needed for proper intake of generic health functional foods. PMID:21994526

  3. University Binge Drinking Patterns and Changes in Patterns of Alcohol Consumption among Chinese Undergraduates in a Hong Kong University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jean H.; Chan, Karli W. C.; Chow, Julie K. W.; Fung, K. P.; Fong, Ben Y. F.; Cheuk, Ka Kin; Griffiths, Sian M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine patterns of binge drinking and changes in drinking patterns among Chinese university students. Participants and Methods: Responses to an anonymous questionnaire were compared between a random sample of 411 second year Chinese undergraduate students in 2006 and 2,630 first year students from the previous year. Students…

  4. University Binge Drinking Patterns and Changes in Patterns of Alcohol Consumption among Chinese Undergraduates in a Hong Kong University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jean H.; Chan, Karli W. C.; Chow, Julie K. W.; Fung, K. P.; Fong, Ben Y. F.; Cheuk, Ka Kin; Griffiths, Sian M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine patterns of binge drinking and changes in drinking patterns among Chinese university students. Participants and Methods: Responses to an anonymous questionnaire were compared between a random sample of 411 second year Chinese undergraduate students in 2006 and 2,630 first year students from the previous year. Students…

  5. ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION WITH FAMILY PATTERN RELATED TO STRONG PERSONALITIES: A CASE-CONTROL STUDY IN MARRIED ROMANIAN STUDENTS.

    PubMed

    Petrescu, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    In the study conducted the aim was to investigate strong personalities (SP) related to alcohol consumption in married students from Romania. Consisted in 2 samples: a case-sample (23 alcohol consumer students with a family pattern of weekly consumption, 47.8% male and 52.2% female, aged 21-29 years) and a control-sample (42 no-alcohol consumer students without a family pattern of consumption, 26.2% male and 73.8% female, aged 21-29 years), selected from a sample of 176 married students. An observational inquiry (case-control) consisted in applying 2 questionnaires: Health Questionnaire (60 items, 7: Q43-Q49 -alcohol consumption) and Strong Personalities Questionnaire (88 items, alpha-Crohnbach index-0.823). Statistical analysis was performed by the aid of SPSS 20 Program. For alcohol consumer students with weekly pattern of consumption the main reason of alcohol consumption was curiosity (60.9%) and the most frequent consumed alcohol was beer (38.6%, 500-3000 ml/week). Personalities' profiles revealed V-hyperthymic, III-hyperperseverant and X-emotive strong personalities (SP) as being symptomatic (over 50% symptomatic level-SL) for both samples, with a difference (control-case) for X-emotive SP (71.7% students--57.1% students, respectively). I-demonstrative, VII-cyclothymic and IV-unruly SP presented a difference between case (symptomatic: 61.8%; 61.8% and 61.8% students, respectively) and control (symptomatic: 36.8%; 37.5% and 45% students, respectively) samples. A statistically significant difference case-control samples was demonstrated for I-Demonstrative (item S29: chi square chi2 = 10.65; Sig.0.002; gamma correlation gamma=0.73; Sig.0.002) and for X-emotive (item S25: chi2 = 8.76; gamma = -0.66; Sig.0.003) SP. In conclusion, a relation SP-alcohol consumption in married students is suggested.

  6. A rodent model of low- to moderate-dose ethanol consumption during pregnancy: patterns of ethanol consumption and effects on fetal and offspring growth.

    PubMed

    Probyn, Megan E; Zanini, Simone; Ward, Leigh C; Bertram, John F; Moritz, Karen M

    2012-01-01

    It is unknown whether low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption adversely affects postnatal health. The aim of the present study was to develop a rodent model of low-moderate-dose prenatal ethanol (EtOH) exposure. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a liquid diet with or without 6% v/v EtOH throughout gestation and the pattern of dietary consumption determined. Fetal bodyweights and hepatic alcohol-metabolising gene expression were measured on embryonic Day (E) 20 and offspring growth studied until 1 year. At E8 the plasma EtOH concentration was 0.03%. There was little difference in dietary consumption between the two treatment groups. At E20, EtOH-exposed fetuses were significantly lighter than controls and had significantly decreased ADH4 and increased CYP2E1 gene expression. Offspring killed on postnatal Day (PN) 30 did not exhibit any growth deficits. Longitudinal repeated measures of offspring growth demonstrated slower growth in males from EtOH-fed dams between 7 and 12 months of age; a cohort of male pups killed at 8 months of age had a reduced crown-rump length and kidney weight. In conclusion, a liquid diet of 6% v/v EtOH fed to pregnant dams throughout gestation caused a 3-8% reduction in fetal growth and brain sparing, with growth differences observed in male offspring later in life. This model will be useful for future studies on the effects of low-moderate EtOH on the developmental origins of health and disease.

  7. An unsuspected cause of meal-time morbidity: instant noodle scald burns.

    PubMed

    Koltz, Peter F; Wasicek, Philip; Mays, Chester; Bell, Derek E

    2013-01-01

    Observational analysis revealed a concerning frequency of scald burns secondary to instant noodles. A literature review reveals studies with small sample sizes of pediatric populations and analysis of container engineering. The adult cohort, treatments, and short-term outcomes have been neglected. Considering these deficiencies, we reviewed our institution's experience with burns secondary to instant noodles. Patient encounters due to instant noodle burns from January 1, 2007, through May 15, 2011, were reviewed. Demographics, burn characteristics, treatment, length of stay, number of operative interventions, and complications were analyzed. Eight hundred fifty-two patients were seen (460 were admitted) for scald burns of all pathogenesis. Of these, 121 (14%) were seen for burns secondary to noodles (63 men and 58 women). Of these, 48 were older than age 4 (group 1), and 73 were younger than age 4 (group 2). TBSA was 2.34 in group 1 and 1.64 in group 2 (P = .04). The most commonly burned areas in group 1 were extremities (n = 43) and in group 2 were chest (n = 32) and extremities (n = 31). Seven patients in group 1 and two patients in group 2 required operative intervention. Length of stay in groups 1 and 2 were 3.5 and 6 days, respectively. Noodle scald burns cause morbidity at all ages. Pediatric burns due to noodles are frequently managed conservatively but more often necessitate inpatient treatment. The nonpediatric population has larger TBSA and requires more frequent operative intervention. The morbidity of noodle burns is significant. Increased public education and container re-engineering is warranted.

  8. Effect of whole wheat flour on the quality, texture profile, and oxidation stability of instant fried noodles.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xinlei; Zhou, Sumei; Yi, Cuiping; Wang, Li; Qian, Haifeng; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Xiguang

    2017-05-04

    The effects of whole wheat flour (WWF) on pasting properties of instant fried noodle dry mix and quality of final product were investigated in this research. Refined wheat flour in the recipe for instant-fried noodle was replaced by WWF at different levels. The peak and final viscosities were significantly and negatively correlated to WWF substitution level. With increasing WWF level, the hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, and resilience values of instant fried noodles decreased by 11.63, 16.23, 16.67, 20.00%, respectively. WWF darkened noodle's surface color and increased its oil content (26.63%). A porous and less uniformed structure of the WWF instant fried noodles was observed by a scanning electron microscope. Moreover, the WWF incorporation lowered peroxide values of the instant fried noodles during storage. In conclusion, even though the oil content increased, WWF was helpful to inhibit the oil oxidation and produce instant fried noodles with softer texture and less sticky surface. Refined wheat flour in the recipe for instant-fried noodle was replaced by whole wheat flour (WWF), which is rich in dietary fibers, vitamins, and other bioactive compounds. The addition of WWF delayed the retrogradation tendency of starch in the dry mix. WWF-added instant noodles had softer texture, less sticky surface, and lower peroxide value. Based on the results of this study, the refined wheat flour in the recipe for instant-fried noodle could be partially replaced by WWF to make noodles with better texture profile and higher consumer acceptance. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Delineating the physico-chemical, structural, and water characteristic changes during the deterioration of fresh noodles: Understanding the deterioration mechanisms of fresh noodles.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Ma, Meng; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Guo, Xiao-Na; Zhou, Hui-Ming

    2017-02-01

    In this study, changes in fresh noodles during storage were evaluated at the physico-chemical, structural, and molecular levels. An increase in TPC and decrease in L(∗) value mostly occurred during the first 24h; the pH value significantly decreased (P<0.05) and proteins were partially depolymerized with the deterioration of fresh noodles, as evidenced by free amino acid determination and SDS-PAGE. Changes were also detected in the pasting and viscosity properties of the starch component. Moreover, the water sorption isotherm of fresh noodles decreased during storage, and the NMR transverse relaxation peak shifted right with an increased peak area between 10 and 100ms. MRI images showed that with increased storage time, the original structure was damaged and water distribution became non-uniform and migrated to the surface. TPC, pH, and L(∗) value were selected as the visualized parameters to characterize the fresh noodle deterioration, based on the correlation and factor analyses.

  10. Fungistatic activity of flaxseed in potato dextrose agar and a fresh noodle system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yingying; Hall, Clifford; Wolf-Hall, Charlene; Manthey, Frank

    2008-02-10

    Although numerous researchers have studied flaxseed as a food ingredient for its health benefits, flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) has never been considered as a food preservative. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of flaxseed flour (FF) concentration (0, 6, 9, 12, and 15% wt/wt), cultivar ('Omega' and brown) and source (four seed companies located in Minnesota and North Dakota) on flaxseed fungistatic activity. Fungal radial growth was used to assess the fungistatic activity of FF in both potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium and a fresh noodle system. Strains of Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium graminearum, and a Penicillium sp. isolated from molded noodles were used as the test microorganisms. Results showed that growth of F. graminearum was completely inhibited at all FF concentrations in PDA, and the inhibition of the other three test microorganisms increased with increasing FF concentrations. In the model noodle system, FF concentration at 9% or higher significantly reduced the mold count of fresh noodle during storage. In the inoculated noodle system, 6% FF addition was sufficient to significantly inhibit the growth of F. graminearum and A. flavus, whereas 9% FF concentrations showed fungistatic activity against P. chrysogenum and the Penicillium sp. isolate. Differences in the degree of mold inhibition were found among FFs obtained from different sources and cultivars. Results suggested that flaxseed possesses fungistatic activity and could be used as a multifunctional food ingredient.

  11. Patterns of Consumption of Beer and Wine, Retail Availability, and DUI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Larry L.; Holman, C. B.

    1991-01-01

    Examined effectiveness of public policies designed to curtail alcohol consumption by restricting physical availability of alcoholic beverages. Gave particular attention to impact of prohibiting concurrent sales of alcohol and gasoline at gasoline minimarts in California. Findings revealed that restriction on physical availability of alcohol had…

  12. Cultural Consumption Patterns in South Africa: An Investigation of the Theory of Cultural Omnivores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowball, J. D.; Jamal, M.; Willis, K. G.

    2010-01-01

    Contrary to Bourdieu's theory ("Distinction: A social critique of the judgment of taste". Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press (1984)) that cultural consumption of so-called "high" versus popular culture is determined by socio-economic class, Peterson ("Poetics" 21:243-258, 1992; "Poetics"…

  13. Modifying the snack food consumption patterns of inner city high school students: the Great Sensations Study.

    PubMed

    Coates, T J; Barofsky, I; Saylor, K E; Simons-Morton, B; Huster, W; Sereghy, E; Straugh, S; Jacobs, H; Kidd, L

    1985-03-01

    The Great Sensations Program is a nutrition-education project developed for high school students. It was designed to (a) decrease students' consumption of salty snacks and (b) increase students' consumption of fresh fruit snacks. The overall programs were designed following principles of social learning: informative instruction, participatory classroom activities, personal goal setting, feedback, and reinforcement. The program was delivered in six lessons during regular health-education classes. A parental involvement program consisted of mailers and telephone calls to parents to teach them to encourage changes in student snacking habits. A schoolwide program was designed to provide out-of-class peer support for student modifications in salty snack foods. The program was evaluated in one high school using a 2 X 2 design. A second high school served as a no-treatment control. Program assessments were made at both schools before and after the classes, at the end of the school year, and the following fall the next school year following summer vacation. The schoolwide media program was effective in decreasing consumption of salty snack foods and in increasing consumption of target snack foods. However, only those students receiving classroom instruction maintained those changes until the end of the school year. No changes were maintained across summer vacation. These outcomes suggest that school programs developed using principles of social learning may be effective in facilitating important behavior changes at home and at school.

  14. Patterns of Consumption of Beer and Wine, Retail Availability, and DUI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Larry L.; Holman, C. B.

    1991-01-01

    Examined effectiveness of public policies designed to curtail alcohol consumption by restricting physical availability of alcoholic beverages. Gave particular attention to impact of prohibiting concurrent sales of alcohol and gasoline at gasoline minimarts in California. Findings revealed that restriction on physical availability of alcohol had…

  15. From Coffee to Tea: Shifting Patterns of Consumption in Qajar Iran.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthee, Rudi

    1996-01-01

    Traces the changes in consumer habits for tea and coffee in Iran from the early 15th century (introduction of the beverages) to the late 19th century. Consumption often was tied to regional differentiation and social stratification. Shifting trade routes, especially those involving Russia and England also produced changes. (MJP)

  16. From Coffee to Tea: Shifting Patterns of Consumption in Qajar Iran.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthee, Rudi

    1996-01-01

    Traces the changes in consumer habits for tea and coffee in Iran from the early 15th century (introduction of the beverages) to the late 19th century. Consumption often was tied to regional differentiation and social stratification. Shifting trade routes, especially those involving Russia and England also produced changes. (MJP)

  17. Cultural Consumption Patterns in South Africa: An Investigation of the Theory of Cultural Omnivores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowball, J. D.; Jamal, M.; Willis, K. G.

    2010-01-01

    Contrary to Bourdieu's theory ("Distinction: A social critique of the judgment of taste". Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press (1984)) that cultural consumption of so-called "high" versus popular culture is determined by socio-economic class, Peterson ("Poetics" 21:243-258, 1992; "Poetics"…

  18. Effect of carbapenem consumption patterns on the molecular epidemiology and carbapenem resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Mózes, Julianna; Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Gorácz, Orsolya; Miszti, Cecília; Kardos, Gábor

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the molecular epidemiology of Acinetobacter baumannii in the University of Debrecen in relation to antibiotic consumption. Overall and ward-specific antibiotic consumption was measured by the number of defined daily doses (DDD) per 100 bed-days between 2002 and 2012. Consumption was analysed against the number of A. baumannii positive patients per 100 bed-days, number of isolates per positive sample, and proportion of carbapenem resistant A. baumannii, using time-series analysis. Altogether 160 A. baumannii isolates from different wards were collected and analysed. Carbapenemase genes bla(OXA-23-like), bla(OXA-24-like), bla(OXA-48-like), bla(OXA-51-like), bla(OXA-58-like) and integrons were sought by PCR. Relatedness of isolates was assessed by PFGE. Prevalence and carbapenem resistance of A. baumannii were statistically associated with carbapenem consumption. Prevalence data followed carbapenem usage with three quarterly lags (r = 0.51-0.53, P<0.001), and meropenem and ertapenem, but not imipenem usage, affected prevalence. Colistin usage, in turn, lagged behind prevalence with one lag (r = 0.68-0.70, P<0.001). Six clusters were identified; the neurology ward with the lowest carbapenem consumption was associated with the carbapenem-susceptible cluster, as well as with the carbapenem-susceptible isolates in the cluster with variable susceptibility. Wards with high carbapenem usage almost exclusively harboured isolates from carbapenem-resistant clusters. All clusters were dominated by isolates of one or two wards, but most wards were represented in multiple clusters. Increases in prevalence and carbapenem resistance of A. baumannii were associated with usage of meropenem and ertapenem but not of imipenem, which led to the spread of multiple clones in the University.

  19. Associations between food consumption patterns and saliva composition: Specificities of eating difficulties children.

    PubMed

    Morzel, Martine; Truntzer, Caroline; Neyraud, Eric; Brignot, Hélène; Ducoroy, Patrick; Lucchi, Géraldine; Canlet, Cécile; Gaillard, Ségolène; Nicod, Florian; Nicklaus, Sophie; Peretti, Noël; Feron, Gilles

    2017-05-01

    Identifying objective markers of diet would be beneficial to research fields such as nutritional epidemiology. As a preliminary study on the validity of using saliva for this purpose, and in order to explore the relationship between saliva and diet, we focused on clearly contrasted groups of children: children with eating difficulties (ED) receiving at least 50% of their energy intake through artificial nutrition vs healthy controls (C). Saliva of ED and C children was analyzed by various methods (targeted biochemical analyses, 2-D electrophoresis coupled to MS, (1)H NMR) and their diet was characterized using food frequency questionnaires, considering 148 food items grouped into 13 categories. Complete datasets were obtained for 16 ED and 16 C subjects (median age 4.7y and 5.0y, respectively) and the statistical link between salivary and dietary characteristics was studied by Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA). Overall, ED children showed as expected lower consumption frequency scores and higher food selectivity. The two groups of children differed in "diet/saliva" associations. Some distinctive salivary variables were common to both groups of children. For example, carbonic anhydrase 6 and the consumption frequency of biscuits & sweets and drinks were positively associated with the MFA axis 1 in C children, but oppositely associated in ED children. Specifically for ED children, abundant salivary proteins (cystatins, amylase, amylase fragments) and some metabolites (amino acids, galactose, lactate) correlated with axis 1, together with the consumption frequency of sauces & seasonings, bread & cereal products, ready-to-eat meals, fish, biscuits & sweets, drinks and potatoes. Specifically for C children, several proteins (serum albumin, haptoglobin, Igκ, apolipoprotein A-1, α-1 antitrypsin) correlated with axis 1, together with the consumption frequency of biscuits & sweets, milk & dairy products, drinks, fruit, meat and vegetables. This study demonstrates that the

  20. Chemical characteristic and functional properties of arenga starch-taro (Colocasia esculanta L.) flour noodle with turmeric extracts addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ervika Rahayu N., H.; Ariani, Dini; Miftakhussolikhah, E., Maharani P.; Yudi, P.

    2017-01-01

    Arenga starch-taro (Colocasia esculanta L.) flour noodle is an alternative carbohydrate source made from 75% arenga starch and 25% taro flour, but it has a different color with commercial noodle product. The addition of natural color from turmeric may change the consumer preference and affect chemical characteristic and functional properties of noodle. This research aims to identify chemical characteristic and functional properties of arenga starch-taro flour noodle with turmeric extract addition. Extraction was performed using 5 variances of turmeric rhizome (0.06; 0.12; 0.18; 0.24; and 0.30 g (fresh weight/ml water). Then, noodle was made and chemical characteristic (proximate analysis) as well as functional properties (amylose, resistant starch, dietary fiber, antioxidant activity) were then evaluated. The result showed that addition of turmeric extract did not change protein, fat, carbohydrate, amylose, and resistant starch content significantly, while antioxidant activity was increased (23,41%) with addition of turmeric extract.

  1. Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drinks: Consumption Patterns and Motivations for Use in U.S. College Students

    PubMed Central

    Marczinski, Cecile A.

    2011-01-01

    Binge drinking in college students is widespread and known to cause significant harms and health hazards for the drinker. One factor that may be exacerbating hazardous drinking in young people is the new popular trend of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED). However, rates of AmED use and motivations for AmED consumption in college students have not been well established. In this study, 706 undergraduate college students from a university in the United States participated in a web-based survey that queried self-reported alcohol, energy drink, and AmED use. In addition, motivations for using AmEDs were assessed. The results indicated that for all participants, 81% reported that they have tried at least one energy drink in the past and 36% reported consumption of at least one energy drink in the past 2 weeks. Alcohol consumption patterns were similar to findings from U.S. national surveys of college drinking, as 37% of respondents were classified as binge drinkers and 23% abstained from drinking. In the whole sample (including the alcohol abstainers), 44% reported trying AmED at least once and 9% reported AmED consumption at least once in the past 2 weeks. 78% of respondents agreed with the statement that AmEDs appeal to underage drinkers. When AmED users were asked about various motivations for consuming AmEDs, users reported that they consumed these beverages to get drunk and reduce sedation compared to alcohol alone. In conclusion, the consumption of AmEDs is common in U.S. college students. Motivations for using AmEDs include the reduction of the sedative effects of alcohol, an important interoceptive cue that one should stop drinking. PMID:21909303

  2. Alcohol mixed with energy drinks: consumption patterns and motivations for use in U.S. college students.

    PubMed

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2011-08-01

    Binge drinking in college students is widespread and known to cause significant harms and health hazards for the drinker. One factor that may be exacerbating hazardous drinking in young people is the new popular trend of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED). However, rates of AmED use and motivations for AmED consumption in college students have not been well established. In this study, 706 undergraduate college students from a university in the United States participated in a web-based survey that queried self-reported alcohol, energy drink, and AmED use. In addition, motivations for using AmEDs were assessed. The results indicated that for all participants, 81% reported that they have tried at least one energy drink in the past and 36% reported consumption of at least one energy drink in the past 2 weeks. Alcohol consumption patterns were similar to findings from U.S. national surveys of college drinking, as 37% of respondents were classified as binge drinkers and 23% abstained from drinking. In the whole sample (including the alcohol abstainers), 44% reported trying AmED at least once and 9% reported AmED consumption at least once in the past 2 weeks. 78% of respondents agreed with the statement that AmEDs appeal to underage drinkers. When AmED users were asked about various motivations for consuming AmEDs, users reported that they consumed these beverages to get drunk and reduce sedation compared to alcohol alone. In conclusion, the consumption of AmEDs is common in U.S. college students. Motivations for using AmEDs include the reduction of the sedative effects of alcohol, an important interoceptive cue that one should stop drinking.

  3. Wastewater-based assessment of regional and temporal consumption patterns of illicit drugs and therapeutic opioids in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Krizman, Ivona; Senta, Ivan; Ahel, Marijan; Terzic, Senka

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive study of spatial and temporal consumption patterns of the selected illicit drugs (heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, MDMA, methamphetamine, cannabis) and therapeutic opioids (codeine, methadone) has been performed in six Croatian cities by applying wastewater-based epidemiology. The investigated cities (Bjelovar, Vinkovci, Varazdin, Karlovac, Zadar and Zagreb) varied widely in the population size (27,000-688,000 inhabitants) as well as in the number of registered drug consumers included in compulsory and voluntary medical treatment and rehabilitation programs (30-513 persons/100,000 inhabitants of age 15-64). The most consumed illicit drugs were cannabis (10-70doses/day/1000 inhabitants), heroin (<0.2-10doses/day/1000 inhabitants) and cocaine (0.2-8.7doses/day/1000 inhabitants), while the consumption of amphetamine-type drugs was much lower (<0.01-4.4doses/day/1000 inhabitants). Enhanced consumption of illegal drugs was generally associated with larger urban centers (Zagreb and Zadar) however comparatively high consumption rate of cocaine, MDMA and methadone was determined in some smaller cities as well. The overall average dose number of 3 major illegal stimulants (cocaine, MDMA, amphetamine) was rather similar to the number of corresponding heroin doses, which is in disagreement with a comparatively much higher proportion of heroin users in the total number of registered drug users in Croatia. Furthermore, the illicit drug consumption pattern in the large continental city (Zagreb) was characterized by a significant enhancement of the consumption of all stimulants during the weekend, which could not be confirmed neither for the coastal city of Zadar nor for the remaining small continental cities. On the other hand, the city of Zadar exhibited a significant increase of stimulant drug usage during summer vacation period, as a result of pronounced seasonal changes of the population composition and lifestyle in coastal tourist centers. The obtained results

  4. [Alcohol consumption patterns and behaviour among people using the health care system in Lower-Normandy].

    PubMed

    Grimbert, I; Collignon, A; Lezin, B; Bigot, I; Thouin, A

    2004-09-01

    A national study on the prevalence of excessive alcohol consumption behaviour was undertaken throughout France. The results presented in this paper are those from Lower-Normandy. Two surveys were carried out: one among patients of general practitioners, and another among those in hospitals. The following data were specifically examined: the CAGE test score, the use of alcohol, the level of dependence, the conclusion of the care provider and the patient's profile. The results show that the frequency of excessive alcohol consumption in Lower-Normandy remains slightly higher than the national average. However, a significant reduction, which has been confirmed by the decrease in mortality rates, has been obtained within the last two decades. But nevertheless, the fight must continue and with on-going determination, and this aspect must rely more heavily upon general practitioners.

  5. World meat consumption patterns: An overview of the last fifty years (1961-2011).

    PubMed

    Sans, P; Combris, P

    2015-11-01

    Driven by economic development and urbanisation, protein consumption has surged worldwide over the last 50years, rising from 61g per person per day in 1961 to 80g per person per day in 2011 [Corrected]. This contribution analyses the apparent convergence of dietary models worldwide with respect to the proportion of ABP and especially meat in intake. By using FAO data for 183 countries over the period 1961-2011, the authors show the connection between annual per capita GDP and the level of ABP (R2=0.62) and meat consumption (R2=0.62). They emphasise the surge in ABP intake in emerging countries (China, Brazil) which has partly replaced plant protein. However, for similar degrees of economic development, the composition of ABPs and the position of meat within this category vary significantly among countries, suggesting that historical, geographical, cultural and religious factors may be involved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Microstructural, textural, and sensory properties of whole-wheat noodle modified by enzymes and emulsifiers.

    PubMed

    Niu, Meng; Hou, Gary G; Kindelspire, Julie; Krishnan, Padmanaban; Zhao, Siming

    2017-05-15

    With the utilization of enzymes including endoxylanase, glucose oxidase (GOX) and transglutaminase (TG), and emulsifiers comprising sodium stearoyl lactate (SSL) and soy lecithin, the microstructural, textural, and sensory properties of whole-wheat noodle (WWN) were modified. The development time and stability of whole-wheat dough (WWD) were enhanced by TG due to the formation of a more compact gluten network, and by SSL resulting from the enhanced gluten strength. Microstructure graphs by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) verified that TG and SSL promoted the connectivity of gluten network and the coverage of starch granules in WWN. TG increased the hardness and elasticity of cooked WWN, while two emulsifiers increased the noodle cohesiveness. Additionally, TG and SSL improved the sensory properties of noodle such as bite, springiness, and mouth-feel. The results suggest that TG and SSL are effective ingredients in enhancing the gluten strength of WWD and improving the qualities of WWN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Occurrence of deoxynivalenol in wheat flour, instant noodle and biscuits commercialised in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Adriana Palma de; Lamardo, Leda Conceição Antonia; Shundo, Luzia; Silva, Simone Alves da; Navas, Sandra Aparecida; Alaburda, Janete; Ruvieri, Valter; Sabino, Myrna

    2016-12-01

    A total of 134 samples, consisting of 58 wheat flour, 40 instant noodle and 36 biscuits, were analysed for the presence of deoxynivalenol (DON). The samples were obtained from retail markets of the city of São Paulo during the period 2010-2014. DON was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and immunoaffinity sample clean-up. Method validation followed international guidelines. The LOD and LOQ were 60 and 200 µg kg(-1), respectively, considering the three different types of samples analysed. The lowest recovery found in this study was 91.8% with RSD 4.5% for instant noodles. DON was detected in 91.4%, 97.5% and 97.2% of samples wheat flour, instant noodles and biscuits, respectively, resulting in a total of 94.8% with levels ranging from LOD to 1720.0 µg kg(-1).

  8. Effect of gelatinized-retrograded and extruded starches on characteristics of cookies, muffins and noodles.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shagun; Singh, Narpinder; Katyal, Mehak

    2016-05-01

    The effect of substitution of wheat flour with gelatinized-retrograded starch (GRS) and extruded starch (ES) at 10 and 20 % levels on characteristics of cookies, muffins and noodles was evaluated. Cookies made by substitution of flour with GRS or ES were lighter in color, showed higher spread ratio and resistant starch (RS) content. Muffins made by substitution of flour with GRS or ES were lighter in color, showed less height, specific volume and gas cells and higher RS content. Muffins containing GRS were less firm while those made by incorporating ES showed higher firmness than those made without substitution. Noodles made with substitution of flour with GRS or ES showed higher RS content and reduced water uptake, gruel solid loss, hardness and adhesiveness. Cookies and noodles prepared with and without substitution of flour with GRS or ES did not show any significant differences in terms of overall acceptability scores.

  9. Confounding by dietary pattern of the inverse association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Epidemiology of dietary components and disease risk limits interpretability due to potential residual confounding by correlated dietary components. Dietary pattern analyses by factor analysis or partial least squares may overcome the limitation. To examine confounding by dietary pattern as well as ...

  10. Generalizability of dietary patterns of the inverse association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Epidemiology of dietary components and disease risk limits interpretability due to potential residual confounding by correlated dietary components. Dietary pattern analyses by factor analysis or partial least squares may overcome this limitation. To examine confounding by dietary pattern as well as ...

  11. Confounding by dietary patterns of the inverse association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Epidemiology of dietary components and disease risk limits interpretability due to potential residual confounding by correlated dietary components. Dietary pattern analyses by factor analysis or partial least squares may overcome this limitation. To examine confounding by dietary pattern as well as ...

  12. Trends and patterns of caffeine consumption among US teenagers and young adults, NHANES 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Tran, N L; Barraj, L M; Bi, X; Jack, M M

    2016-08-01

    Caffeine consumption among US teenagers (13-17y), young adults (18-24y) and adults (25-29y) for a 10 year period was examined using NHANES 2003-12. Of the 85% who consume caffeine 84% consume caffeinated beverages. This percentage remained constant despite new caffeine sources. Less than 7.1% of the population consume energy drinks. While mean caffeine intake among teenage caffeine consumers decreased from 62 to 55 mg/day (p-value = 0.018) over the 10-year period, no discernable trend was observed for other age groups. Caffeine intake from energy drinks increased, and was only statistically significant for age 18-24y accounting for <9% of total caffeine intake. Mean caffeine intake per consumption occasion was equivalent between coffee and energy drinks for teenagers and young adults. During a 30-min period mean caffeine consumption was similar when an energy drink was the only consumption event or when it occurred with other caffeinated beverage products suggestive of a substitution effect. Linear regression models of caffeine intake from energy drinks against caffeine from coffee, tea and soda among energy drink consumers in the upper 50th percentile shows a statistically significant inverse relationship (R2 = 28%, coffee: β = -0.35, p < 0.001; tea: β = -0.44, p < 0.001; soda: β = -0.22, p = 0.036) and further supports the substitution concept. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Phytonutrient intakes in relation to European fruit and vegetable consumption patterns observed in different food surveys.

    PubMed

    Tennant, David R; Davidson, Julia; Day, Andrea J

    2014-10-14

    Fruit and vegetables make an important contribution to health, partly due to the composition of phytonutrients, such as carotenoids and polyphenols. The aim of the present study was to quantify the intake of fruit and vegetables across different European countries using food consumption data of increasing complexity: food balance sheets (FBS); the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Comprehensive Database; individual food consumption data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS). Across Europe, the average consumption of fruit and vegetables ranged from 192 to 824 g/d (FBS data). Based on EFSA data, nine out of fourteen countries consumed < 400 g/d (recommended by the WHO), although even in the highest-consuming countries such as Spain, 36 % did not reach the target intake. In the UK, the average consumption of fruit and vegetables was 310 g/d (NDNS data). Generally, phytonutrient intake increased in accordance with fruit and vegetable intake across all European countries with the exception of lycopene (from tomatoes), which appeared to be higher in some countries that consumed less fruit and vegetables. There were little differences in the average intake of flavanols, flavonols and lycopene in those who did or did not meet the 400 g/d recommendation in the UK. However, average intakes of carotenoid, flavanone, anthocyanidin and ellagic acid were higher in those who consumed >400 g/d of fruit and vegetables compared with those who did not. Overall, intakes of phytonutrients are highly variable, suggesting that while some individuals obtain healthful amounts, there may be others who do not gain all the potential benefits associated with phytonutrients in the diet.

  14. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihye; Yu, Areum; Choi, Bo Youl; Nam, Jung Hyun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Dong Hoon; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2015-05-29

    The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination-Korean version) was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The "MFDF" dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the "WNC" dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44-0.94). The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults.

  15. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jihye; Yu, Areum; Choi, Bo Youl; Nam, Jung Hyun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Dong Hoon; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination–Korean version) was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The “MFDF” dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the “WNC” dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44–0.94). The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults. PMID:26035243

  16. Associations of reward sensitivity with food consumption, activity pattern, and BMI in children.

    PubMed

    De Decker, Annelies; Sioen, Isabelle; Verbeken, Sandra; Braet, Caroline; Michels, Nathalie; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2016-05-01

    In the current study, the associations of reward sensitivity with weight related behaviors and body mass index were investigated in a general population sample of 443 Flemish children (50.3% boys) aged 5.5-12 years. Cross-sectional data on palatable food consumption frequency, screen time, physical activity, parental education level and measured length and weight were collected. The Drive subscale of the 'Behavioral Inhibition Scale/Behavioral Activation Scale' was used as a short method to measure reward sensitivity. A significant positive association of reward sensitivity with the fast food and sweet drink consumption frequency was found. Furthermore, a significant positive association of reward sensitivity with the z-score of body mass index was demonstrated, which explained additional variance to the variance explained by palatable food consumption frequency, screen time, physical activity and parental education level. Hence, the assessment of reward sensitivity may have an added value to the assessment of weight-related behavior indicators when evaluating the determinants of overweight in a child. In sum, children high in reward sensitivity might be more attracted to fast food and sweet drinks, and hence, might be more vulnerable to develop unfavorable food habits and overweight. These findings suggest that considering inter-individual differences in reward sensitivity is of importance in future childhood obesity prevention campaigns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Consumption of hair dye products by the French women population: Usage pattern and exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Bernard, A; Houssin, A; Ficheux, A S; Wesolek, N; Nedelec, A S; Bourgeois, P; Hornez, N; Batardière, A; Misery, L; Roudot, A C

    2016-02-01

    Only few published data are available in the literature about consumption and exposure, for hair dye products. The aim of this study was to assess the use of 10 different hair dye products in French Women with a focus on consumption of hair dye in different places of use (at home and at the hairdressers) in order to assess the corresponding dermal exposures. The assessment was performed on a total of 4237 women older than 15 years old, thanks to three national web surveys. The percentage of hair dye users among the French women population was about 64%.The mean frequency of use ranged between 2.23 and 14.22 times per year depending on the studied product and age category of women. This study provided the first data available for exposure to hair dye products with mean exposures ranging between 1.48 and 6.49 mg/kg bw/day depending on the product studied and age category of women. Moreover, consumption data obtained in this study might be useful to perform safety assessment of hair dye products thanks to the knowledge of the age categories of the population having the highest percentage of users and/or frequency of use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The fast food and obesity link: consumption patterns and severity of obesity.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Ginny; Sunil, Thankam S; Hinojosa, Pedro

    2012-05-01

    Rates of extreme forms of obesity are rapidly rising, as is the use of bariatric surgery for its treatment. The aim of the present study was to examine selected behavioral factors associated with severity of obesity among preoperative bariatric surgery patients in the San Antonio area, focusing specifically on the effects of fast food consumption. We used ordered logistic regression to model behavioral and attitudinal effects on obesity outcomes among 270 patients. These outcomes were based on the severity of obesity and were measured on the basis of body mass index. Our results indicated that, among the behavioral factors, fast food consumption exerted the largest influence on higher levels of obesity. These remained after controlling for several social and demographic characteristics. Our findings suggest that higher rates of fast food consumption are connected to the increasing rates of severe obesity. Given that morbid and super morbid obesity rates are growing at a more advanced pace than moderate obesity, it is necessary to explore the behavioral characteristics associated with these trends.

  19. Diet, health and the nutrition transition: some impacts of economic and socio-economic factors on food consumption patterns in the Kingdom of Tonga.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mike; Sinclair, Robert C; Fusimalohi, Caroline; Liava'a, Viliami

    2002-09-01

    An essential element of the "health transition" is the emergence of disease patterns associated with changes in dietary regimes. The consumption of nutritionally poor (imported) foods in the Pacific is associated with increasing rates of diet related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). An oft-made assumption is that changes in consumption patterns are related to food preference (specifically preferences for high fat and/or dense carbohydrate foods). Recent work in the Kingdom of Tonga suggests that the "common-sense" association between food preference and food consumption is incorrect. The results of a large survey (n=430) indicate availability is the key factor in consumption, and that food preference, knowledge of the nutritional values of foods, and frequency of consumption are not correlated. Further analysis shows there are significant differences in consumption patterns between persons of higher and lower socio-economic status; perception of availability and frequency of consumption are a function of economic and social position--specifically access to cash. These results underline the salience of economic factors; the rise in NCDs is correlated with the increasing importance of the cash economy (not cultural values or ignorance of nutritional issues). In the absence of economic solutions, current consumption patterns will continue.

  20. Deep-time patterns of tissue consumption by terrestrial arthropod herbivores.

    PubMed

    Labandeira, Conrad C

    2013-04-01

    A survey of the fossil record of land-plant tissues and their damage by arthropods reveals several results that shed light on trophic trends in host-plant resource use by arthropods. All 14 major plant tissues were present by the end of the Devonian, representing the earliest 20% of the terrestrial biota. During this interval, two types of time lags separate the point between when tissues first originated from their earliest consumption by herbivorous arthropods. For epidermis, parenchyma, collenchyma and xylem, live tissue consumption was rapid, occurring on average 10 m.y. after the earliest tissue records. By contrast, structural tissues (periderm, sclerenchyma), tissues with actively dividing cells (apical, lateral, intercalary meristems), and reproductive tissues (spores, megagametophytes, integuments) experienced approximately a 9-fold (92 m.y.) delay in arthropod herbivory, extending well into the Carboniferous Period. Phloem similarly presents a delay of 85 m.y., but this incongruously long lag-time may be attributed to the lack of preservation of this tissue in early vascular plants. Nevertheless, the presence of phloem can be indicated from planar spaces adjacent well-preserved xylem, or inferred from a known anatomy of the same plant taxon in better preserved material, especially permineralisations. The trophic partitioning of epidermis, parenchyma, phloem and xylem increases considerably to the present, probably a consequence of dietary specialization or consumption of whole leaves by several herbivore functional feeding groups. Structural tissues, meristematic tissues and reproductive tissues minimally have been consumed throughout the fossil record, consistent with their long lags to herbivory during the earlier Paleozoic. Neither angiosperm dominance in floras nor global environmental perturbations had any discernible effect on herbivore trophic partitioning of plant tissues.

  1. Deep-time patterns of tissue consumption by terrestrial arthropod herbivores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labandeira, Conrad C.

    2013-04-01

    A survey of the fossil record of land-plant tissues and their damage by arthropods reveals several results that shed light on trophic trends in host-plant resource use by arthropods. All 14 major plant tissues were present by the end of the Devonian, representing the earliest 20 % of the terrestrial biota. During this interval, two types of time lags separate the point between when tissues first originated from their earliest consumption by herbivorous arthropods. For epidermis, parenchyma, collenchyma and xylem, live tissue consumption was rapid, occurring on average 10 m.y. after the earliest tissue records. By contrast, structural tissues (periderm, sclerenchyma), tissues with actively dividing cells (apical, lateral, intercalary meristems), and reproductive tissues (spores, megagametophytes, integuments) experienced approximately a 9-fold (92 m.y.) delay in arthropod herbivory, extending well into the Carboniferous Period. Phloem similarly presents a delay of 85 m.y., but this incongruously long lag-time may be attributed to the lack of preservation of this tissue in early vascular plants. Nevertheless, the presence of phloem can be indicated from planar spaces adjacent well-preserved xylem, or inferred from a known anatomy of the same plant taxon in better preserved material, especially permineralisations. The trophic partitioning of epidermis, parenchyma, phloem and xylem increases considerably to the present, probably a consequence of dietary specialization or consumption of whole leaves by several herbivore functional feeding groups. Structural tissues, meristematic tissues and reproductive tissues minimally have been consumed throughout the fossil record, consistent with their long lags to herbivory during the earlier Paleozoic. Neither angiosperm dominance in floras nor global environmental perturbations had any discernible effect on herbivore trophic partitioning of plant tissues.

  2. The Epidemiology of Sleep Quality, Sleep Patterns, Consumption of Caffeinated Beverages, and Khat Use among Ethiopian College Students.

    PubMed

    Lemma, Seblewengel; Patel, Sheila V; Tarekegn, Yared A; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Berhane, Yemane; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate sleep habits, sleep patterns, and sleep quality among Ethiopian college students; and to examine associations of poor sleep quality with consumption of caffeinated beverages and other stimulants. Methods. A total of 2,230 undergraduate students completed a self-administered comprehensive questionnaire which gathered information about sleep complaints, sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics,and theuse of caffeinated beverages and khat. We used multivariable logistic regression procedures to estimate odds ratios for the associations of poor sleep quality with sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Results. Overall 52.7% of students were classified as having poor sleep quality (51.8% among males and 56.9% among females). In adjusted multivariate analyses, caffeine consumption (OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.25-1.92), cigarette smoking (OR = 1.68; 95% CI: 1.06-2.63), and khat use (OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.09-2.71) were all associated with increased odds of long-sleep latency (>30 minutes). Cigarette smoking (OR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.11-2.73) and khat consumption (OR = 1.91; 95% CI: 1.22-3.00) were also significantly associated with poor sleep efficiency (<85%), as well as with increased use of sleep medicine. Conclusion. Findings from the present study demonstrate the high prevalence of poor sleep quality and its association with stimulant use among college students. Preventive and educational programs for students should include modules that emphasize the importance of sleep and associated risk factors.

  3. Consumption and the constitution of age: expenditure patterns on clothing, hair and cosmetics among post-war 'baby boomers'.

    PubMed

    Twigg, Julia; Majima, Shinobu

    2014-08-01

    The article addresses debates around the changing nature of old age, using U.K. data on spending on dress and related aspects of appearance by older women to explore the potential role of consumption in the reconstitution of aged identities. Based on pseudo-cohort analysis of Family Expenditures Survey, it compares spending patterns on clothing, cosmetics and hairdressing, 1961-2011. It concludes that there is little evidence for the 'baby boomers' as a strategic or distinctive generation. There is evidence, however, for increased engagement by older women in aspects of appearance: shopping for clothes more frequently; more involved in the purchase of cosmetics; and women over 75 are now the most frequent attenders at hairdressers. The roots of these patterns, however, lie more in period than cohort effects, and in the role of producer-led developments such as mass cheap fashion and the development of anti-ageing products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of the consumption pattern of magnesium from magnesium-rich mineral water on magnesium bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Sabatier, Magalie; Grandvuillemin, Antoine; Kastenmayer, Peter; Aeschliman, Jean-Marc; Bouisset, Florilène; Arnaud, Maurice J; Dumoulin, Gilles; Berthelot, Alain

    2011-08-01

    It is generally considered that the absorption of Mg is inversely related to the ingested dose. The objective of the present study was to determine if the mode of administration (bolus v. consumption throughout the day) could influence Mg bioavailability from Mg-rich natural mineral water comparing the same nutritional Mg amount (126 mg). Using a 2 d cross-over design, twelve healthy men were asked to drink 1·5 litres Mg-rich mineral water either as 2 × 750 ml or 7 × 212 ml throughout the day. Two stable isotopes ((25)Mg and (26)Mg) were used to label the water in order to distinguish both regimens. Fractional apparent Mg absorption was determined by faecal monitoring and Mg retention was determined by measuring urinary excretion of Mg isotopes. Higher Mg absorption (50·7 (SD 12·7) v. 32·4 (SD 8·1) %; P = 0·0007) and retention (47·5 (SD 12·9) v. 29·0 (SD 7·5) %; P = 0·0008) from Mg-rich mineral water were observed when it was consumed in seven servings compared with larger servings. Thus, regular water consumption throughout the day is an effective way to increase Mg bioavailability from Mg-rich mineral water.

  5. Risk assessment of methylmercury in five European countries considering the national seafood consumption patterns.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Domingo, José L; Sloth, Jens J; Marques, António; Verbeke, Wim

    2017-06-01

    Although seafood is a nutritious protein source, due to marine environmental pollution, seafood may also be a source of contaminants. The results obtained within the FP7-ECsafeSEAFOOD-project show that among the range of studied environmental contaminants certainly methylmercury (MeHg) requires deeper investigation. This paper presents the results of a probabilistic risk assessment for MeHg based on: (1) primary concentration data, as well as secondary data from published papers, and (2) primary species-specific consumption data collected in five European countries (Belgium, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain). The results indicated that in the southern European countries, larger subgroups of the population (up to 11% in Portugal) are potentially at risk for a MeHg exposure above the Tolerable Weekly Intake (TWI) value, while this risk is much lower in Ireland and Belgium. This research confirms the substantial contribution of tuna to MeHg exposure in each of the countries. Also hake, cod, sea bream, sea bass and octopus are identified as important contributors. From this study, it is concluded that a country-specific seafood consumption advice is needed. Policy makers may adopt the results of this study in order to develop consumer advices that optimise health benefits versus potential health risks by providing species-specific information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Danish fat tax-Effects on consumption patterns and risk of ischaemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Bødker, Malene; Pisinger, Charlotta; Toft, Ulla; Jørgensen, Torben

    2015-08-01

    To examine the effects on consumption and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) of the Danish fat tax, effective from October 2011 to January 2013. We used comprehensive retail outlet data on the sale of twelve foodstuff categories targeted by the fat tax. Data covered January 2010 to July 2013. IHD risk was assessed by modelling first the effect of changes in intake of monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and saturated fat and dietary cholesterol on serum cholesterol and subsequently modelling the resulting changes in risk of IHD using two different methods. The total sale of the included foodstuffs decreased by 0.9%. The fat tax was associated with marginal changes in population risk of IHD. One estimate suggests an increased population risk of IHD by 0.2% and the other estimate suggests that the risk of IHD decreased by 0.3%. The Danish fat tax had a marginal effect on population consumption of fat and risk of IHD. Fat taxes have to be carefully designed to prevent possible adverse effects from outweighing its beneficial effects on health outcomes. Policymakers must therefore be more ambitious in relation to food taxes, e.g. by implementing more comprehensive tax-subsidy schemes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fast Food Consumption Pattern and Its Association with Overweight Among High School Boys in Mangalore City of Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Nelliyanil, Maria; Rai, Sharada; Y.P., Raghavendra Babu; Kotian, Shashidhar M.; Ghosh, Tanima; Singh, Manisha

    2015-01-01

    Context Fast foods are quite popular among children owing to taste, appearance and hype created by mass media. However, the increased incidence of lifestyle disorders seen now-a-days at an early age could be attributed to fast foods. Aim This study was done to assess the awareness of health hazards, consumption pattern of fast foods and to find out its association with overweight among high school students. Settings and Design This cross-sectional study was done among boys of 3 private schools in Mangalore city in March 2012. Materials and Methods Data was collected using a semi-structured self-administered questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Chi-square test, one-way ANOVA and binary logistic regression analysis was used for analysis. P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant association. Results Mean age of boys was 13.5±0.9 years. Out of 300 participants, 41(13.7%) were overweight and 8 (2.7%) were obese. 292(97.3%) were fast food users of which 42(14.4%) consumed it every day. Majority of participants were introduced to fast foods through television commercials 193(64.3%). 73(57%) developed this habit as they were bored with home food. Awareness of harmful effects of fast food consumption was known to 186(62%) students and this was found to be associated with the perceived need to control its usage (p<0.001). Parental consumption of fast foods was found to influence fast food consumption among children (p=0.024). As many as 68(22.7%) and 206(68.7%) children were not eating vegetables and fruits respectively every day. Increased frequency of fast food consumption in a week was found to be associated with overweight or obesity among children after adjusting the effects of confounders (p=0.003). Conclusion Awareness on health hazards of fast foods needs to be taught at schools so as to minimize its consumption. Parents have to set an example themselves by not eating fast foods and improving home food to support discouragement of fast foods. This

  8. Fast Food Consumption Pattern and Its Association with Overweight Among High School Boys in Mangalore City of Southern India.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Nitin; Nelliyanil, Maria; Rai, Sharada; Y P, Raghavendra Babu; Kotian, Shashidhar M; Ghosh, Tanima; Singh, Manisha

    2015-05-01

    Fast foods are quite popular among children owing to taste, appearance and hype created by mass media. However, the increased incidence of lifestyle disorders seen now-a-days at an early age could be attributed to fast foods. This study was done to assess the awareness of health hazards, consumption pattern of fast foods and to find out its association with overweight among high school students. This cross-sectional study was done among boys of 3 private schools in Mangalore city in March 2012. Data was collected using a semi-structured self-administered questionnaire. Chi-square test, one-way ANOVA and binary logistic regression analysis was used for analysis. P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant association. Mean age of boys was 13.5±0.9 years. Out of 300 participants, 41(13.7%) were overweight and 8 (2.7%) were obese. 292(97.3%) were fast food users of which 42(14.4%) consumed it every day. Majority of participants were introduced to fast foods through television commercials 193(64.3%). 73(57%) developed this habit as they were bored with home food. Awareness of harmful effects of fast food consumption was known to 186(62%) students and this was found to be associated with the perceived need to control its usage (p<0.001). Parental consumption of fast foods was found to influence fast food consumption among children (p=0.024). As many as 68(22.7%) and 206(68.7%) children were not eating vegetables and fruits respectively every day. Increased frequency of fast food consumption in a week was found to be associated with overweight or obesity among children after adjusting the effects of confounders (p=0.003). Awareness on health hazards of fast foods needs to be taught at schools so as to minimize its consumption. Parents have to set an example themselves by not eating fast foods and improving home food to support discouragement of fast foods. This would minimize life style disorders among children to a greater extent.

  9. Changing dietary patterns in the Canadian Arctic: frequency of consumption of foods and beverages by inuit in three Nunavut communities.

    PubMed

    Sheehy, Tony; Kolahdooz, Fariba; Roache, Cindy; Sharma, Sangita

    2014-06-01

    Inuit in Arctic regions are experiencing a rapid diet and lifestyle transition. There are limited data on food consumption patterns among this unique population, raising concerns about assessing the risk for the development of diet-related chronic diseases. To assess the current frequency of consumption of foods and beverages among Inuit in Nunavut, Arctic Canada. A cross-sectional dietary study was conducted among randomly selected Inuit adults from three communities in Nunavut using a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The participants were 175 women and 36 men with median (IQR) ages of 41.0 (32.5-48.5) and 40.1 (30.0-50.0) years, respectively. The mean and median frequencies of consumption over a 30-day period were computed for 147 individual food items and grouped as foods or beverages. The 30 most frequently consumed foods were identified. Non-nutrient-dense foods (i.e., high-fat and high-sugar foods) were the most frequently consumed food group (median intake, 3.4 times/day), followed by grains (2.0 times/day) and traditional meats (1.7 times/day). The frequency of consumption of fruits (0.7 times/day) and vegetables (0.4 times/day) was low. The median values for the three most frequently consumed food items were sugar or honey (once/day), butter (0.71 times/day), and Coffee-mate (0.71 times/day). Apart from water, coffee, and tea, the most frequently consumed beverages were sweetened juices (0.71 times/day) and regular pop (soft drinks) (0.36 times/day). This study showed that non-nutrient-dense foods are consumed most frequently in these Inuit communities. The results have implications for dietary quality and provide useful information on current dietary practices to guide nutritional intervention programs.

  10. Specific patterns of food consumption and preparation are associated with diabetes and obesity in a Native Canadian community.

    PubMed

    Gittelsohn, J; Wolever, T M; Harris, S B; Harris-Giraldo, R; Hanley, A J; Zinman, B

    1998-03-01

    We examined the relationship between usual patterns of food intake, fattiness of food preparation and consumption, and diabetes and obesity status in a Native Canadian reserve in northwestern Ontario. Patterns of intake were estimated using a 34-item food frequency instrument. Scales and scores were developed using factor analysis procedures and were tested for reliability using coefficient alpha. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes status was determined by administering a 75-g glucose tolerance test. A number of the food groups appear to have a protective effect in regard to IGT and diabetes, including vegetables [odds ratio (OR) = 0.41, confidence interval (CI) = 0.18-0.91], breakfast foods (OR = 0.41, CI = 0.18-0. 93) and hot meal foods (OR = 0.29, CI = 0.11-0.78). Most of these foods are relatively high in fiber and low in fat. High consumption of junk foods and the bread and butter group was associated with substantial increases in risk for diabetes (OR = 2.40, CI = 1.13-5. 10; OR = 2.22, CI = 1.22-4.41, respectively). These foods tend to be high in simple sugars, low in fiber and high in fat. More fatty methods of food preparation are also associated with increased risk for diabetes in this population (OR = 2.58, CI = 1.11-6.02). This information has been incorporated into an ongoing community-based diabetes prevention program in the community.

  11. Survey of temperature and consumption patterns of fresh-cut leafy green salads: risk factors for listeriosis.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, E; Pérez-Rodríguez, F; Valero, A; García-Gimeno, R M; Zurera, G

    2007-10-01

    Increasing demand for fresh-cut or ready-to-eat fruits and vegetables, developed to meet the consumer need for quick and convenient products, has prompted extensive research into their microbiological quality, safety, processing, and packaging. The microbial ecology of Listeria monocytogenes is recognized as a major safety concern for fresh-cut produce. A survey was performed to collect information on consumption patterns of fresh-cut leafy green salads and the temperature of domestic refrigerators. Salad consumption was low-moderate: 24.3% of respondents never purchased fresh-cut leafy green salads; of those who reported buying these products, 7.41% did so more than twice a week, 17.28% once or twice a week, 29.63% once or twice a month, and 45.68% occasionally. Saving time and convenience were the advantages most widely reported by consumers. A total of 9.9% of respondents did not always respect the "use-by" date of fresh-cut salads, a negative practice that could contribute to the risk of listeriosis. Temperatures reported in domestic refrigerators were compatible with the growth of L. monocytogenes on ready-to-eat salads. Variations in average temperature followed a normal distribution, N(6.62, 2.56), while the variability of temperature variance was described by a gamma distribution, G(2.00, 1.00). As expected, when a time of day-temperature profile was plotted over a 24-h period, changes corresponding to the transition between day and night were observed. Knowledge of consumption patterns and consumer hygiene practices is essential, first in assessing the risk of listeriosis (risk assessment) and second in taking measures to manage that risk (risk management).

  12. Influence of wheat germ and β-glucan on some chemical and sensory properties of Turkish noodle.

    PubMed

    Aktaş, Kübra; Bilgiçli, Nermin; Levent, Hacer

    2015-09-01

    Wheat flour used in Turkish noodle (erişte) production was replaced with wheat germ (0, 10, 20 and 30 %) and β-glucan (0 and 4 %). Noodle samples were analyzed for their moisture, ash, protein, fat, mineral contents, color values and sensory properties. Cooking properties as volume increase (VI), weight increase (WI) and cooking loss (CL) were also determined. Wheat germ increased the ash, protein, fat and mineral contents of the noodles. β-glucan had an improving effect especially on Ca, Fe, Mg and P contents of noodle samples. While wheat germ raised VI values of the noodle, β-glucan had a negative effect on VI. The CL of noodle samples varied between 5.8 % and 7.3 %. Decreasing sensory scores obtained at high level of wheat germ with and without β-glucan. The present results showed that wheat germ and β-glucan have a good potential for increasing nutritional quality of noodle.

  13. Nutritional Assessment for Primary School Children in Tehran: An Evaluation of Dietary Pattern with Emphasis on Snacks and Meals Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Maryam; Dadkhah-Piraghaj, Monireh; Abtahi, Mitra; Abdollahi, Morteza; Houshiarrad, Anahita; Kimiagar, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: In order to provide better advice for prevention of obesity and eating disorders among children, there is a need to have more knowledge of their dietary patterns. This study examined meal and snacking patterns of primary school children in Tehran. Methods: A total of 761 male and female primary school children from all educational areas in Tehran were recruited in a cross-sectional survey. The data was collected by interviewing the students and their mothers or caregivers. Information on food consumption patterns was collected by one 24-h-recall and one snack-oriented food frequency questionnaire which covered a period of 1 month. Means, standard deviations, frequencies, percentages, energy and nutrient analyzes and nutrient densities were reported. Results: All of the students snacked at least once on the day of the survey. Snacks provided 38% of total energy intake by the students. Fruits and sweet snacks were consumed by almost all of the students during a week. Energy and most nutrient intakes from meals were greater than those consumed from snacks. Snacks had a higher density of fiber, carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamin C, riboflavin and thiamin and had a lower density of protein, fat and niacin, compared with main meals. Salty snacks such as extruded cheese curls (Cheetos) and chips were not consumed so often. Conclusions: Results provide detailed information about dietary patterns, which in turn enable development of targeted messages and/or interventions to improve nutritional status of school children. PMID:24932393

  14. [Use of the Grade of Membership method to identify consumption patterns and eating behaviors among adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Alves, Luciana Correia; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Leite, Iuri da Costa; Machado, Carla Jorge

    2011-02-01

    To identify food patterns and eating behaviors among adolescents and to describe the prevalence rates, this study applied the Grade of Membership method to data from a survey on health risk factors among adolescent students in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (N = 1,632). The four profiles generated were: "A" (12.1%) more frequent consumption of all foods labeled as healthy, less frequent consumption of unhealthy foods, and healthy eating behaviors; "B" (45.8%) breakfast and three meals a day as a habit, less frequent consumption of fruits and vegetables and of five markers of unhealthy diet; "C" (22.8%) lack of healthy eating behaviors, less frequent consumption of vegetables, fruit, milk, cold cuts, cookies, and soft drinks; and "D" (19.3%) more frequent consumption of all unhealthy foods and less frequent consumption of fruits and vegetables. The results indicate the need for interventions to promote healthy eating in this age group.

  15. Multivariate analysis of dietary patterns in 939 Swiss adults: sociodemographic parameters and alcohol consumption profiles.

    PubMed

    Gex-Fabry, M; Raymond, L; Jeanneret, O

    1988-09-01

    A dietary survey of 939 Swiss adults, randomly selected from the population of Geneva and its surrounding communities, was performed according to the history method. A factor analysis, using average weekly intakes for 33 food variables, reveals three principal components of the diet: satiating capacity, healthfulness and culinary complexity. These characteristics, together with the energy content of the diet, were analysed for differences according to sex, age, relative weight index, birthplace, marital status and occupation. All of these sociodemographic variables influence some dimension of dietary habits. Alcohol consumption is positively associated with satiating, protein rich diets, but energy intake from foods does not significantly differ between various groups of abstainers and drinkers. Although the energy contribution of alcoholic beverages is globally additive, we suggest that cultural and societal norms may modulate the relationship of alcohol and diet.

  16. Trends and correlates in meat consumption patterns in the US adult population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youfa; Beydoun, May A; Caballero, Benjamin; Gary, Tiffany L; Lawrence, Robert

    2010-09-01

    Few studies have examined recent shifts in meat consumption (MC), differences among US population groups, and the influence of psychosocial-behavioural factors. Nationally representative data collected for US adults aged >or=18 years in the 1988-1994 and 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) and Diet and Health Knowledge Survey (DHKS) were used. We found a U-shaped trend in MC, a decrease between 1988-1994 and 1994-1996, and an increase from 1994-1996 to 1999-2004. NHANES 1988-1994 and 1999-2004 indicate that MC did not change significantly, particularly for all meat, red meat, poultry and seafood. Between 1994-1996 and 1999-2004, average MC, including red meat, poultry, seafood and other meat products, increased in men. Women's total MC decreased, mainly due to decreased red meat and other meat products, except for increased seafood. Noticeable differences existed in the changes across population groups. Black men had the largest increase in consumption of total meat, poultry and seafood; Mexican American men had the smallest increase in poultry, seafood and other meat products. In 1999-2004, ethnic differences in MC became greater in women than among women in 1994-1996. Associations between MC and energy intake changed over time. Perceived benefit of dietary quality and food label use were associated with reduced red MC. Noticeable differences exist in the shifts in MC across population groups and surveys. MC increased in men but decreased in women in recent years.

  17. Trends and correlates in meat consumption patterns in the US adult population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Youfa; Beydoun, May A; Caballero, Benjamin; Gary, Tiffany L; Lawrence, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Objective Few studies have examined recent shifts in meat consumption (MC), differences among US population groups, and the influence of psychosocial–behavioural factors. Design Nationally representative data collected for US adults aged ≥18 years in the 1988–1994 and 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the 1994–1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) and Diet and Health Knowledge Survey (DHKS) were used. Results We found a U-shaped trend in MC, a decrease between 1988–1994 and 1994–1996, and an increase from 1994–1996 to 1999–2004. NHANES 1988–1994 and 1999–2004 indicate that MC did not change significantly, particularly for all meat, red meat, poultry and seafood. Between 1994–1996 and 1999–2004, average MC, including red meat, poultry, seafood and other meat products, increased in men. Women’s total MC decreased, mainly due to decreased red meat and other meat products, except for increased seafood. Noticeable differences existed in the changes across population groups. Black men had the largest increase in consumption of total meat, poultry and seafood; Mexican American men had the smallest increase in poultry, seafood and other meat products. In 1999–2004, ethnic differences in MC became greater in women than among women in 1994–1996. Associations between MC and energy intake changed over time. Perceived benefit of dietary quality and food label use were associated with reduced red MC. Conclusions Noticeable differences exist in the shifts in MC across population groups and surveys. MC increased in men but decreased in women in recent years. PMID:20188005

  18. Relationship between Patterns of Alcohol Consumption and Gastrointestinal Symptoms among Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Reding, Kerryn W.; Cain, Kevin C.; Jarrett, Monica E.; Eugenio, Margaret D.; Heitkemper, Margaret M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Heavy alcohol intake may exacerbate gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); however, the role of alcohol in IBS is unclear. Objectives We investigated prospective associations between daily patterns of alcohol intake and next day's GI symptoms using daily diaries. Method In an observational study of women aged 18–48 years with IBS and healthy controls, participants recorded daily GI symptoms, alcohol intake, caffeine intake, and cigarette smoking for approximately one month. GI symptoms included abdominal pain, abdominal bloating, intestinal gas, diarrhea, constipation, nausea, stomach pain, heartburn, and indigestion. Binge drinking was defined as 4+ alcohol-containing drinks/ day. Results Patterns of alcohol intake did not differ between IBS patients and controls. While patterns of drinking were associated with GI symptoms among women with IBS, this was not the case with healthy controls. The strongest associations for IBS patients were between binge drinking and the next day's GI symptoms (e.g., diarrhea , p=0.006; nausea, p=0.01; stomach pain, p=0.009; and indigestion, p=0.004), whereas moderate and light drinking either were not associated or weakly associated with GI symptoms. Associations between alcohol intake and GI symptoms were stronger for women with IBS-diarrhea than for IBS-constipation or IBS-mixed. Effects of binge drinking on GI symptoms were strongest when comparing between individuals (rather than within individuals). Conclusion Our findings indicate that IBS symptoms differ according to the pattern of alcohol intake among IBS patients, suggesting that the pattern of drinking may in part explain the inconsistent findings between alcohol and IBS symptoms. PMID:23295280

  19. Relationship between patterns of alcohol consumption and gastrointestinal symptoms among patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reding, Kerryn W; Cain, Kevin C; Jarrett, Monica E; Eugenio, Margaret D; Heitkemper, Margaret M

    2013-02-01

    Heavy alcohol intake may exacerbate gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); however, the role of alcohol in IBS is unclear. We investigated prospective associations between daily patterns of alcohol intake and next day's GI symptoms using daily diaries. In an observational study of women aged 18-48 years with IBS and healthy controls, participants recorded daily GI symptoms, alcohol intake, caffeine intake, and cigarette smoking for ≈ 1 month. GI symptoms included abdominal pain, abdominal bloating, intestinal gas, diarrhea, constipation, nausea, stomach pain, heartburn, and indigestion. Binge drinking was defined as 4+ alcohol-containing drinks/day. Patterns of alcohol intake did not differ between IBS patients and controls. Although patterns of drinking were associated with GI symptoms among women with IBS, this was not the case with the healthy controls. The strongest associations for IBS patients were between binge drinking and the next day's GI symptoms (e.g., diarrhea, P=0.006; nausea, P=0.01; stomach pain, P=0.009; and indigestion, P=0.004), whereas moderate and light drinking either were not associated or weakly associated with GI symptoms. Associations between alcohol intake and GI symptoms were stronger for women with IBS-diarrhea than for IBS-constipation or IBS-mixed. Effects of binge drinking on GI symptoms were strongest when comparing between individuals (rather than within individuals). Our findings indicate that IBS symptoms differ according to the pattern of alcohol intake among IBS patients, suggesting that the pattern of drinking may in part explain the inconsistent findings between alcohol and IBS symptoms.

  20. Trends and patterns of antibiotic consumption in Shanghai municipality, China: a 6 year surveillance with sales records, 2009-14.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hai; Dyar, Oliver James; Rosales-Klintz, Senia; Zhang, Jianzhong; Tomson, Göran; Hao, Mo; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the trends and patterns of total antibiotic use in Shanghai from 2009 to 2014. Sales records were collected from a minimum of 160 hospitals and 241 primary healthcare settings and used as a proxy for consumption. Antibiotic sales expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day (DID) were calculated. We compared patterns of antibiotic use in the Shanghai municipality, populated by 24 million inhabitants, with European countries using indicators from the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC). Total antibiotic use was highest at 25.9 DID in 2010, fell to 17.8 DID in 2012 and remained stable thereafter. The majority of this reduction occurred over 6 months in 2011. In 2014, two-thirds of the antibiotic sales were to hospitals (serving both inpatients and outpatients) and one-third to primary healthcare institutions. Cephalosporins accounted for 50.2% of total DID, followed by macrolides (18.2%), quinolones (16.0%) and penicillins (7.3%). A fifth of all antibiotics were used in parenteral form. We have successfully used aggregated sales data to monitor antibiotic usage across a large urban population over a 6 year period. A rapid, substantial and sustained reduction in antibiotic usage across the entire health system occurred. This coincided with several interventions across hierarchies in the health sector, including a national campaign. The patterns of antibiotic use indicate persistent preferences for cephalosporins, macrolides, quinolones and parenteral preparations. Further efforts are needed to investigate and improve the quality of antibiotic use. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Prevalence and Pattern of Alcohol Consumption using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in Rural Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar S, Ganesh; K C, Premarajan; L, Subitha; E, Suguna; Vinayagamoorthy; Kumar, Veera

    2013-08-01

    There is a paucity of information on prevalence and pattern of alcohol consumption in India. To assess the prevalence and pattern of alcohol consumption in a rural area of Tamil Nadu, India. A community based, cross sectional study was conducted among 946 subjects who were aged 10 years and above, in rural Tamil Nadu, India. Data on alcohol use was collected by using 'Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test' (AUDIT) scale. Data on pattern and associated factors like socio-demographic details, smoking, tobacco chewing and chronic diseases were collected by using a structured questionnaire. Data was analysed by univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis and information was depicted in percentages or proportions. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Overall, the prevalence of alcohol use was found to be 9.4%. Prevalence was more among males (16.8%) as compared to that among females (1.3%). Mean age at initiation was 25.3 +9.0 years. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that middle age (15-44 years) (OR=3.56), male gender (OR=11.23), illiteracy (OR=6.16), lower education levels (OR=2.57) and smoking (OR=17.78) were independently associated with alcohol use. Among those who used alcohol, 29.2% (26) were possible hazardous drinkers, 33.7%(30) had a probable alcohol dependence and 56.2% (50) had experienced harmful effects, based on AUDIT item analysis. Prevalence of alcohol use is high, especially among males. Health educational interventions among those who are at a higher risk and management of alcohol dependent subjects, may help in reducing the burden of alcohol use in this area.

  2. A Prospective Evaluation of Opioid Utilization After Upper-Extremity Surgical Procedures: Identifying Consumption Patterns and Determining Prescribing Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nayoung; Matzon, Jonas L; Abboudi, Jack; Jones, Christopher; Kirkpatrick, William; Leinberry, Charles F; Liss, Frederic E; Lutsky, Kevin F; Wang, Mark L; Maltenfort, Mitchell; Ilyas, Asif M

    2016-10-19

    Although adequate management of postoperative pain with oral analgesics is an important aspect of surgical procedures, inadvertent overprescribing can lead to excess availability of opioids in the community for potential diversion. The purpose of our study was to prospectively evaluate opioid consumption following outpatient upper-extremity surgical procedures to determine opioid utilization patterns and to develop prescribing guidelines. All patients undergoing outpatient upper-extremity surgical procedures over a consecutive 6-month period had the following prospective data collected: patient demographic characteristics, surgical details, anesthesia type, and opioid prescription and consumption patterns. Analysis of variance and post hoc comparisons were performed using t tests, with the p value for multiple pairwise tests adjusted by the Bonferroni correction. A total of 1,416 patients with a mean age of 56 years (range, 18 to 93 years) were included in the study. Surgeons prescribed a mean total of 24 pills, and patients reported consuming a mean total of 8.1 pills, resulting in a utilization rate of 34%. Patients undergoing soft-tissue procedures reported requiring fewer opioids (5.1 pills for 2.2 days) compared with fracture surgical procedures (13.0 pills for 4.5 days) or joint procedures (14.5 pills for 5.0 days) (p < 0.001). Patients who underwent wrist surgical procedures required a mean number of 7.5 pills for 3.1 days and those who underwent hand surgical procedures required a mean number of 7.7 pills for 2.9 days, compared with patients who underwent forearm or elbow surgical procedures (11.1 pills) and those who underwent upper arm or shoulder surgical procedures (22.0 pills) (p < 0.01). Procedure type, anatomic location, anesthesia type, age, and type of insurance were also all significantly associated with reported opioid consumption (p < 0.001). In this large, prospective evaluation of postoperative opioid consumption, we found that patients are

  3. Physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of Chinese noodles in relation to optimal cooking time.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaoting; Sui, Zhongquan

    2016-03-01

    Changes in the physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of white salted noodles (WSN) at different cooking stage were investigated. The noodles were dried in fresh air and then cooked for 2-12 min by boiling in distilled water to determine the properties of cooking quality, textural properties and optical characteristic. For starch digestibility, dry noodles were milled and sieved into various particle size classes ranging from 0.5 mm to 5.0 mm, and hydrolyzed by porcine pancreatic α-amylase. The optimal cooking time of WSN determined by squeezing between glasses was 6 min. The results showed that the kinetics of solvation of starch and protein molecules were responsible for changes of the physicochemical properties of WSN during cooking. The susceptibility of starch to α-amylase was influenced by the cooking time, particle size and enzyme treatment. The greater value of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and lower value of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) were reached at the optimal cooking stage ranging between 63.14-71.97%, 2.47-10.74% and 23.94-26.88%, respectively, indicating the susceptibility on hydrolysis by enzyme was important in defining the cooked stage. The study suggested that cooking quality and digestibility were not correlated but the texture greatly controls the digestibility of the noodles.

  4. Staple foods consumption and irritable bowel syndrome in Japanese adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhaoqiu; Huang, Cong; Guo, Yinting; Niu, Kaijun; Momma, Haruki; Kobayashi, Yoritoshi; Fukudo, Shin; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrates can cause gastrointestinal symptoms due to incomplete absorption in the small bowel. Thus, high-carbohydrate diets may induce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This observational and cross-sectional study assessed the association between consumption of several carbohydrate-enriched staple foods, such as rice, Japanese wheat noodles, Chinese noodles, bread, pasta, and buckwheat noodles, and the prevalence of IBS in Japanese adults. One thousand and eighty-two (837 men) Japanese adult employees aged 19-85 were included in this cross-sectional study conducted in 2011. IBS diagnosis was based on the Rome III criteria. Consumption of staple foods was assessed using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire, and divided into three categories (low, middle, high) depending on their distribution. In the multivariate analysis, daily consumption of rice (odds ratios [ORs] and [95% confidence interval (CI)]: middle, 1.36 [0.93-1.99]; high, 1.67 [1.12-2.49]; P for trend = 0.01), bread (middle, 1.88 [1.28-2.75]; high, 1.63 [1.10-2.41]; P for trend = 0.01), pasta (middle, 1.47 [1.01-2.15]; high, 1.68 [1.12-2.52]; P for trend = 0.01), and buckwheat noodles (middle, 1.76 [1.18-2.61]; high, 1.98 [1.31-3.00]; P for trend = 0.001) were associated with higher prevalence of IBS after adjustment for socio-demographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle-related factors. Buckwheat noodles, but not other staple foods, retained an association with the prevalence of IBS even after adjustment for daily intake of carbohydrates or plant proteins. This cross-sectional study demonstrated that the consumption of staple foods, such as rice, bread, pasta, and buckwheat noodles is associated with the prevalence of IBS. Of these, the consumption of buckwheat noodles, but not other staple foods, is associated with IBS independent of carbohydrate or plant protein contents.

  5. Benefits of breakfast meals and pattern of consumption on satiety-related sensations in women.

    PubMed

    Berti, Cristiana; Riso, Patrizia; Brusamolino, Antonella; Porrini, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects on satiety-related sensations of seven isoenergetic cereal-based breakfasts and two fruit products (salad and juice) consumed within breakfast or as a midmorning snack. Nine healthy women participated to 11 sessions following a randomized repeated-measures design. Subjects were asked to consume seven breakfasts consisting of a standard beverage and a different cereal-based product, and also fruit salad or apricot juice consumed within breakfast or as a midmorning snack. Satiety, desire-to-eat and perceived characteristics of products consumed were monitored on Visual Analog Scales from 8:30 am until lunch. Ratings registered and areas under the curve of sensations were analyzed by repeated-measures ANOVA. All breakfast meals maintained the satiety-related sensations at lunch time higher than basal values. The best satiety control was obtained when the fruit salad was consumed as a midmorning snack. Consequently, regular consumption of breakfast and of whole fruit as midmorning snack may be a valid strategy to achieve appetite control.

  6. Prevalence and distribution patterns of amphetamine and methamphetamine consumption in a federal state in southwestern Germany using wastewater analysis.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Markus R; Vollerthun, Tina; Hasselbach, Ralf

    2015-11-01

    Wastewater analysis is a new approach developed to estimate drug (of abuse) consumption in large communities, such as cities or even whole countries. This paper presents data on the loads of amphetamine and methamphetamine measured in ten wastewater treatment plants in different parts of a German federal state. It provides an estimation of the intensity of the consumption and a comparison to other regions in Germany and Europe. Consumption of amphetamine and methamphetamine was estimated by analysis of drug residues in composite 24h samples of wastewater after mechanical treatment over one week by liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Samples were collected from the inlet of ten wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in the federal state of Saarland, representing bigger cities (>200,000 inhabitants), medium sized cities (>50,000 inhabitants), small cities (>25,000 inhabitants), and villages (<25,000 inhabitants). In each WWTP, samples were taken daily for seven consecutive days in July 2014. We observed differences of amphetamine versus methamphetamine loads (expressed as mg/day/1000 inhabitants): Amphetamine loads were much higher in all tested WWTPs indicating a low prevalence of methamphetamine abuse in the federal state of Saarland at the tested period. These findings are in line with previous reports about the distribution of amphetamine and methamphetamine in Germany and Europe. The approach confirms that wastewater analysis can provide valuable data about the abuse pattern of drugs of abuse in cities and larger areas. It can be useful for planning interventions aimed at specific areas and substances. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of binge-pattern alcohol consumption on orthodontic tooth movement

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo, Cristiano Miranda; Johann, Aline Cristina Batista Rodrigues; Camargo, Elisa Souza; Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess tissue changes during orthodontic movement after binge-pattern ethanol 20% exposure. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (n = 54) were divided into two groups. The control group (CG) received 0.9% saline solution, while the experimental group (EG) received 20% ethanol in 0.9% saline solution (3 g/kg/day). On the 30th day, a force of 25 cN was applied with a nickel-titanium closed coil spring to move the maxillary right first molar mesially. The groups were further divided into three subgroups (2, 14 and 28 days). Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and picrosirius were used to assess bone resorption and neoformation, respectively. Data were compared by two-way ANOVA, Tukey's HSD, Games-Howell and chi-square test. Significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: There was a decrease in the number of osteoclasts in EG at day 28. The percentage of collagen showed no interaction between group and time. CONCLUSION: Binge-pattern 20% ethanol promoted less bone resorption at the end of tooth movement, thereby suggesting delay in tooth movement. PMID:25628085

  8. Food consumption patterns and nutrition transition in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Lipoeto, Nur Indrawaty; Geok Lin, Khor; Angeles-Agdeppa, Imelda

    2013-09-01

    The present study was done to confirm the relationship between changes in food patterns and nutrition transition in three South-East Asian countries, namely the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. This was a cross-sectional study conducted between August 2008 and August 2009 using three methods: interviews, focus group discussions and analyses of government reports. The study was conducted in rural and urban areas in Manila and Calabanga (Philippines), Selangor and Kuala Selangor (Malaysia), and Padang, Pariaman Tanah Datar and Limapuluh Kota (West Sumatra, Indonesia). Adults aged 18 to 77 years. The results showed that Filipinos, Malaysians and Indonesians have retained many aspects of their traditional diets. In fact, most participants in the study considered Western-style and franchise fast foods as snack or recreational foods to be consumed once in a while only. However, a significant difference was noted between urban and rural areas in food varieties consumed. Participants in urban areas consumed more varieties of traditional foods owing to their availability and the participants’ food purchasing power. Although traditional food patterns were maintained by most of the participants, more sugar and vegetable oils were consumed and added to the traditional recipes. The rapid nutrition transition in this region may be due, instead, to increasing food availability and food purchasing power, rather than to a shift in food preferences towards modern Western foods.

  9. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption in Spanish University Alumni: Nine Years of Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Patricia; Moure-Rodríguez, Lucía; López-Caneda, Eduardo; Rial, Antonio; Cadaveira, Fernando; Caamaño-Isorna, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to empirically identify different profiles of Spanish university alumni, based on their alcohol use over 9 years, and to further characterize them. A cohort study was carried out between 2005 and 2015 among university students (Compostela Cohort-Spain; n2015 = 415). Alcohol consumption was measured using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT). A two-stage cluster analysis, based on their AUDIT total scores was carried out separately for males and females. The further characterization of every profile was based on demographic data, age at onset of alcohol use, positive alcohol-related expectancies, tobacco and cannabis use, as well as their answers to some European Addiction Severity Index items. Five different clusters were identified: Low users (29.2%), Moderated users (37.2%), At-risk users (14.2%), Decreasing users (13.2%) and Large users (6.2%) for females, and Low users (34.4%), At-risk users (25.6%), High-risk users (15.6%), Decreasing users (14.4%) and Large users (10.0%) for males. Being a cannabis user or a smoker was positively associated to those more hazardous clusters in both genders. Regarding females, significant differences in the age of onset and high positive expectancies were found. However, there were few significant differences among the groups in relation to their employment status and social relations. The results reveal the existence of different typologies of alcohol users among university alumni, with differences among males and females. Modifying positive expectancies, limiting access to alcohol at a young age, and reducing uses of other substances uses are key to promote healthier alcohol use profiles and to prevent hazardous uses. PMID:28555119

  10. Patterns of Canopy and Surface Layer Consumption in a Boreal Forest Fire from Repeat Airborne Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alonzo, Michael; Morton, Douglas C.; Cook, Bruce D.; Andersen, Hans-Erik; Babcock, Chad; Pattison, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Fire in the boreal region is the dominant agent of forest disturbance with direct impacts on ecosystem structure, carbon cycling, and global climate. Global and biome-scale impacts are mediated by burn severity, measured as loss of forest canopy and consumption of the soil organic layer. To date, knowledge of the spatial variability in burn severity has been limited by sparse field sampling and moderate resolution satellite data. Here, we used pre- and post-fire airborne lidar data to directly estimate changes in canopy vertical structure and surface elevation for a 2005 boreal forest fire on Alaskas Kenai Peninsula. We found that both canopy and surface losses were strongly linked to pre-fire species composition and exhibited important fine-scale spatial variability at sub-30m resolution. The fractional reduction in canopy volume ranged from 0.61 in lowland black spruce stands to 0.27 in mixed white spruce and broad leaf forest. Residual structure largely reflects standing dead trees, highlighting the influence of pre-fire forest structure on delayed carbon losses from above ground biomass, post-fire albedo, and variability in understory light environments. Median loss of surface elevation was highest in lowland black spruce stands (0.18 m) but much lower in mixed stands (0.02 m), consistent with differences in pre-fire organic layer accumulation. Spatially continuous depth-of-burn estimates from repeat lidar measurements provide novel information to constrain carbon emissions from the surface organic layer and may inform related research on post-fire successional trajectories. Spectral measures of burn severity from Landsat were correlated with canopy (r = 0.76) and surface (r = -0.71) removal in black spruce stands but captured less of the spatial variability in fire effects for mixed stands (canopy r = 0.56, surface r = -0.26), underscoring the difficulty in capturing fire effects in heterogeneous boreal forest landscapes using proxy measures of burn severity

  11. The impact of the Persian Gulf crisis on household energy consumption and expenditure patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, L.; Poyer, D.; Teotia, A.

    1994-09-01

    The Iraqi invasion of the Kingdom of Kuwait on August 2, 1990, and the subsequent war between Iraq and an international alliance led by the United States triggered first immediate and then fluctuating world petroleum prices. Increases in petroleum prices and in U.S. petroleum imports resulted in increases in the petroleum prices paid by U.S. residential, commercial, and industrial consumers. The result was an immediate price shock that reverberated throughout the U.S. economy. The differential impact of these price increases and fluctuations on poor and minority households raised immediate, significant, and potentially long-term research, policy, and management issues for a variety of federal, state, and local government agencies, including the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Among these issues are (1) the measurement of variations in the impact of petroleum price changes on poor, nonpoor, minority, and majority households; (2) how to use the existing policy resources and policy innovation to mitigate regressive impacts of petroleum price increases on lower-income households; and (3) how to pursue such policy mitigation through government agencies severely circumscribed by tax and expenditure limitations. Few models attempt to assess household energy consumption and energy expenditure under various alternative price scenarios and with respect to the inclusion of differential household choices correlated with such variables as race, ethnicity, income, and geographic location. This paper provides a preliminary analysis of the nature and extent of potential impacts of petroleum price changes attributable to the Persian Gulf War and its aftermath on majority, black, and Hispanic households and on overlapping poor and nonpoor households. At the time this was written, the Persian Gulf War had concluded with Iraq`s total surrender to all of the resolutions and demands of the United Nations and United States.

  12. Beverage Consumption Patterns and Micronutrient and Caloric Intake from Beverages in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Venci, Brittany; Hodac, Nicole; Lee, Seung-Yeon; Shidler, Marcelle; Krikorian, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine total water intake and patterns of beverage consumption, and its contribution to total daily micronutrients and calories in older adults with mild memory decline. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was used with 60 independent community-dwelling older adults (71.7 ± 5.4 years) with mild cognitive impairment, who were mostly female, well-educated, and white. Three-day food records were analyzed using the Nutrition Data Systems for Research. Descriptive statistics were conducted for a summary of demographics, the average intakes of beverages, and the contribution of beverages to total calorie and micronutrient intakes. Total daily water intake was 53.6 ± 26.7 fl oz and milk, plain water, and tea/coffee were beverages consumed most frequently. Beverage consumption contributed substantially to the intake of vitamin D (29.4%), calcium (26.4%), riboflavin (22.0%), magnesium (18.9%), and vitamin C (18.1%), but constituted only ∼12.5% of total energy. These findings suggest that nutrient-dense beverages play a fundamental role in overall micronutrient intake, despite comprising a small component of daily caloric intake. Incorporating adequate amounts of such beverages in meals and snacks may help older adults meet their nutrient recommendations.

  13. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption and Related Behaviors in Brazil: Evidence from the 2013 National Health Survey (PNS 2013)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study uses data from a nationally representative household survey (the 2013 National Health Survey, n = 62,986) to describe patterns of alcohol consumption and related behaviors among Brazilian adults. Analyses include descriptive and multivariable Poisson regression for self-reports in the past 30 days of: drinking any alcohol, binge drinking, binge drinking 4 or more times, and driving after drinking (DD); as well as age of alcohol consumption initiation. Results show that current drinking prevalence was 26%, with an average age of initiation of 18.7 years. Binge drinking was reported by 51% of drinkers, 43% of whom reported binge drinking 4 or more times. Drinking and driving was reported by nearly one quarter of those who drive a car/motorcycle. Current drinking was more likely among males, ages 25–34, single, urban, and those with more education. Binge drinking was more likely among males, older age groups, and people who started drinking before 18. Drinking and driving was higher among males, those with more education, and rural residents. Those who binge-drink were nearly 70% more likely to report DD. All behaviors varied significantly among Brazilian states. Given their potential health consequences, the levels of injurious alcohol behaviors observed here warrant increased attention from Brazilian policymakers and civil society. PMID:26230389

  14. Null Mutation of 5α-Reductase Type I Gene Alters Ethanol Consumption Patterns in a Sex-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, Jeffrey D.; Kaufman, Moriah N.; Finn, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    The neuroactive steroid allopregnanolone (ALLO) is a positive modulator of GABAA receptors, and manipulation of neuroactive steroid levels via injection of ALLO or the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride alters ethanol self-administration patterns in male, but not female, mice. The Srd5a1 gene encodes the enzyme 5α-reductase-1, which is required for the synthesis of ALLO. The current studies investigated the influence of Srd5a1 deletion on voluntary ethanol consumption in male and female wildtype (WT) and knockout (KO) mice. Under a continuous access condition, 6 and 10 % ethanol intake was significantly greater in KO versus WT females, but significantly lower in KO versus WT males. In 2-h limited access sessions, Srd5a1 deletion retarded acquisition of 10 % ethanol intake in female mice, but facilitated it in males, versus respective WT mice. The present findings demonstrate that the Srd5a1 gene modulates ethanol consumption in a sex-dependent manner that is also contingent upon ethanol access condition and concentration. PMID:25416204

  15. Predicting burn severity and patterns of biomass consumption in support of national-scale carbon assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, H.; Hawbaker, T. J.; Rollins, M. G.; Volegmann, J. E.; Yang, L.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is prototyping a methodology to conduct an assessment of current carbon stocks and fluxes, and potential increases for ecological carbon sequestration under a range of climate change, policy and economic scenarios, as required by Section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. Disturbances, especially fire, are recognized as having a critical role in carbon dynamics and EISA explicitly requires accounting for their potential impacts. The quantity of carbon released from fires and post-fire carbon sequestration rates are both related to burn severity. However, models explaining and predicting patterns of burn severity are lacking, but needed for long-term assessments quantifying how carbon dynamics will change in response to climate change and future disturbance regimes. To address this knowledge gap, we first quantified changes in field-measured biomass pools according to vegetation types and burn severity categories. We then, constructed statistical models predicting burn severity based on a suite of topographic, climate, and biophysical variables. We selected fires from the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) database that burned between 1989 and 2007 across representative ecosystems of the U.S. The MTBS data were combined with plot data from the LANDFIRE field reference database where pre- and post-disturbance measurements were made to summarize changes in biomass pools by burn severity and vegetation type. Second, we built statistical models relating the burn severity patterns to LANDFIRE vegetation types, satellite-derived land surface phenology, topographic, and climate variables. We found that the burn severity data captured disturbance-driven changes in above-ground biomass pools well. In the predictive models, vegetation type and fuel loading (measured through land surface phenology) explained the largest amount of variability in burn severity patters; however, climate and topography also had

  16. FOOD ACQUISITION AND INTRA-HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS: A STUDY OF LOW AND MIDDLE INCOME URBAN HOUSEHOLDS IN DELHI, INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, MR; Taylor, FC; Agrawal, S; Prabhakaran, D; Ebrahim, S

    2014-01-01

    Background Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI) households in Delhi. Methods Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS) surveillance study. Data were derived from 20 questionnaires administered to women responsible for food preparation, four key-informant-interviews, and 20 in-depth interviews with household heads during September-November 2011. STATA and ATLAS.ti software were used for data analysis. Results Half of the households spent at least two-thirds of their income on food. The major expenditures were on vegetables (22% of total food expenditure), milk and milk products (16%), and cereal and related products (15%). Income, food prices, food preferences, and seasonal variation influenced food expenditure. Adults usually ate two to three times a day while children ate more frequently. Eating sequence was based on the work pattern within the household and cultural beliefs. Contrary to previous evidence, there was no gender bias in intra-household food distribution. Women considered food acquisition, preparation and distribution part of their self-worth and played a major role in food related issues in the household. Conclusion Women’s key roles in food acquisition, preparation and intra household food consumption should be considered in formulating food policies and programs. PMID:25473147

  17. Challenges in sodium intake reduction and meal consumption patterns among participants with metabolic syndrome in a dietary trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary guidelines suggest limiting daily sodium intake to <2,300 mg for the general population, and <1,500 mg/d for those with certain cardiovascular risk factors. Despite these recommendations, few Americans are able to achieve this goal. Identifying challenges in meeting these guidelines is integral for successful compliance. This analysis examined patterns and amount of daily sodium intake among participants with metabolic syndrome enrolled in a one-year dietary intervention study. Methods Two hundred forty participants with metabolic syndrome enrolled in a dietary intervention trial to lose weight and improve dietary quality. Three 24-hour dietary recalls were collected at each visit which provided meal patterns and nutrient data, including sodium intake. A secondary data analysis was conducted to examine sodium consumption patterns at baseline and at one-year study visits. Sodium consumption patterns over time were examined using linear mixed models. Results The percentage of meals reported eaten in the home at both baseline and one-year follow-up was approximately 69%. Follow-up for the one-year dietary intervention revealed that the participants who consumed sodium greater than 2,300 mg/d declined from 75% (at baseline) to 59%, and those that consumed higher than 1,500 mg/d declined from 96% (at baseline) to 85%. Average sodium intake decreased from 2,994 mg at baseline to 2,558 mg at one-year (P < 0.001), and the sodium potassium ratio also decreased from 1.211 to 1.047 (P < 0.001). Sodium intake per meal varied significantly by meal type, location, and weekday, with higher intake at dinner, in restaurants, and on weekends. At-home lunch and dinner sodium intake decreased (P < 0.05), while dinner sodium intake at restaurant/fast food chains increased from baseline to one-year (P < 0.05). Conclusion Sodium intake for the majority of participants exceeded the recommended dietary guidelines. Findings support actions that

  18. Maternal patterns of postpartum alcohol consumption by age: a longitudinal analysis of adult urban mothers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiwei; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Petras, Hanno

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate a) longitudinal patterns of maternal postpartum alcohol use as well as its variation by maternal age at child birth and b) within maternal age groups, the association between other maternal characteristics and alcohol use patterns for the purposes of informed prevention design. Study sample consists of 3397 mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study representing medium and large US urban areas. Maternal drinking and binge drinking were measured at child age 1, 3, and 5 years. We conducted separate longitudinal latent class analysis within each of the three pre-determined maternal age groups (ages 20-25, n = 1717; ages 26-35, n = 1367; ages 36+, n = 313). Results revealed different class structures for maternal age groups. While two classes (NB [non-binge]-drinkers and LL [low-level]-drinkers) were identified for mothers in each age group, a third class (binge drinkers) was separately distinguished for the two older age groups. Whereas binge drinking rates appear to remain stable over the 5 years postdelivery for mothers who gave birth in their early twenties, mothers ages 26 and older increasingly engaged in binge drinking over time, surpassing the binge drinking behavior of younger mothers. Depression significantly increases the odds of being a NB-drinker for the 20-25 age group and that of being a binge drinker for the 36+ age group, whereas smoking during pregnancy is associated with subsequent binge drinking only for mothers ages 20-25. Findings highlight the importance of distinguishing risk factors by maternal age groups for drinking while parenting a young child, to inform the design of intervention strategies tailored to mothers of particular ages.

  19. Patterns of canopy and surface layer consumption in a boreal forest fire from repeat airborne lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonzo, Michael; Morton, Douglas C.; Cook, Bruce D.; Andersen, Hans-Erik; Babcock, Chad; Pattison, Robert

    2017-05-01

    Fire in the boreal region is the dominant agent of forest disturbance with direct impacts on ecosystem structure, carbon cycling, and global climate. Global and biome-scale impacts are mediated by burn severity, measured as loss of forest canopy and consumption of the soil organic layer. To date, knowledge of the spatial variability in burn severity has been limited by sparse field sampling and moderate resolution satellite data. Here, we used pre- and post-fire airborne lidar data to directly estimate changes in canopy vertical structure and surface elevation for a 2005 boreal forest fire on Alaska’s Kenai Peninsula. We found that both canopy and surface losses were strongly linked to pre-fire species composition and exhibited important fine-scale spatial variability at sub-30 m resolution. The fractional reduction in canopy volume ranged from 0.61 in lowland black spruce stands to 0.27 in mixed white spruce and broadleaf forest. Residual structure largely reflects standing dead trees, highlighting the influence of pre-fire forest structure on delayed carbon losses from aboveground biomass, post-fire albedo, and variability in understory light environments. Median loss of surface elevation was highest in lowland black spruce stands (0.18 m) but much lower in mixed stands (0.02 m), consistent with differences in pre-fire organic layer accumulation. Spatially continuous depth-of-burn estimates from repeat lidar measurements provide novel information to constrain carbon emissions from the surface organic layer and may inform related research on post-fire successional trajectories. Spectral measures of burn severity from Landsat were correlated with canopy (r = 0.76) and surface (r = -0.71) removal in black spruce stands but captured less of the spatial variability in fire effects for mixed stands (canopy r = 0.56, surface r = -0.26), underscoring the difficulty in capturing fire effects in heterogeneous boreal forest landscapes using proxy measures of burn

  20. Effects of a dietary intervention promoting the adoption of a Mediterranean food pattern on fast-food consumption among healthy French-Canadian women.

    PubMed

    Bédard, Alexandra; Goulet, Julie; Riverin, Mélissa; Lamarche, Benoît; Lemieux, Simone

    2010-12-01

    It is expected that a dietary intervention based on the traditional Mediterranean food pattern should be associated with a reduction in fast-food consumption but this has never been tested before. We assessed the impact of a 12-week dietary intervention, promoting the adoption of a Mediterranean food pattern, on fast-food consumption among seventy-one healthy women aged between 30 and 65 years. The dietary intervention consisted of two group sessions and seven individual sessions with a dietitian. To determine the Mediterranean dietary score (MedScore) and fast-food consumption, an FFQ was administered. During the 12-week intervention, the MedScore significantly increased (from 21.1 (SD 3.6) units at baseline to 28.6 (SD 4.4) units at week 12, P < 0.0001), while the fast-food consumption significantly decreased (from 51.7 (SD 46.4) g/d at baseline to 20.5 (SD 18.2) g/d at week 12, P < 0.0001). Moreover, women who had a higher consumption of fast food at baseline decreased their fast-food consumption to the most (r - 0.50, P < 0.0001). When four subgroups were formed on the basis of median values of Medscore and fast-food consumption changes, it was found that only the subgroup of women which increased the most their MedScore and decreased the most their fast-food consumption experienced a significant decrease in BMI (P < 0.01). In conclusion, a dietary intervention promoting the Mediterranean food pattern led to a decrease in fast-food consumption among healthy women even if it was not a specific target of the intervention. Dietary strategies for increasing intake of healthy foods may be a useful approach for decreasing intake of less healthy foods.

  1. Mycotoxin co-occurrence in rice, oat flakes and wheat noodles used as staple foods in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Johana; Van Camp, John; Mestdagh, Frédéric; Donoso, Silvana; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    The co-occurrence of aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁), B₂ (AFB₂), G₁ (AFG₁) and G₂ (AFG₂), ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B₁ (FB₁), zearalenone (ZEN), and HT-2 and T-2 toxins in the main Ecuadorian staple cereals (rice, oat flakes, and yellow and white wheat noodles) was evaluated. A ultra high performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/TOFMS) method was developed and validated to screen for the presence of these mycotoxins in those cereal matrices. Matrix-matched calibration curves were used to compensate for ion suppression and extraction losses and the recovery values were in agreement with the minimum requirements of Regulation 401/2006/EC (70-110%). For most mycotoxins, the LODs obtained allowed detection in compliance with the maximum permitted levels set in Regulation EC/2006/1881, with the exception of OTA in all cereals and AFB1 in yellow noodles. Extra target analysis of OTA in oat flakes and wheat noodles was performed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. High rates of contamination were observed in paddy rice (23% DON, 23% FB₁, 7% AFB₁, 2% AFG₁ and 2% AFG₂), white wheat noodles (33% DON and 5% OTA) and oat flakes (17% DON, 2% OTA and 2% AFB₁), whereas the rates of contamination were lower in polished rice (2% AFG₁ and 4% HT-2 toxin) and yellow noodles (5% DON). Low rates of co-occurrence of several mycotoxins were observed only for white wheat noodles (5%) and paddy rice (7%). White noodles were contaminated with DON and/or OTA, while combinations of AFG₁, AFB₁, DON and FB₁ were found in paddy rice. Yellow noodles were contaminated with DON only; oat flakes contained DON, OTA or AFB₁, and polished rice was contaminated with AFG₁ and HT-2 toxin.

  2. Personality and Alcohol Expectancies Discriminate Alcohol Consumption Patterns in Female College Students.

    PubMed

    Pilatti, Angelina; Cupani, Marcos; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2015-07-01

    To characterize patterns of alcohol use in a sample of Argentinean female college students according to personality traits and alcohol expectancies. Data from 298 female college students (M age = 18.27 years; SD = 1.37 years) from the city of Cordoba, Argentina were analysed using multinomial regression. Three drinking categories were identified, abstainers, moderate drinkers and regular drinkers with heavy episodic drinking, and these were differentiated by three personality traits [extraversion, disinhibition (DIS) and experience seeking (ES)] and three alcohol expectancies dimensions (sociability, risk/aggression and negative mood). Regular drinkers with heavy episodic drinking and moderate drinkers had, compared to abstainers, higher scores in extroversion and alcohol expectancies for social facilitation, and lower scores in alcohol expectancies for risk and aggression. Regular drinkers with heavy episodic drinking exhibited, compared to moderate drinkers, higher scores in ES, DIS, extroversion, alcohol expectancies for social facilitation and negative mood alcohol expectancies; as well as lower scores in risk and aggression alcohol expectancies. College women in Argentina with problematic alcohol drinking can be distinguished from those drinking moderately. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  3. Trends in the consumption of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications in Castilla y León (Spain): changes in the consumption pattern following the introduction of extended release methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Treceño, Carlos; Martín Arias, Luis H; Sáinz, Maria; Salado, Inés; García Ortega, Pilar; Velasco, Veronica; Jimeno, Natalia; Escudero, Antonio; Velasco, Alfonso; Carvajal, Alfonso

    2012-04-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most diagnosed behavioural disorder in children and adolescents; prevalence has been estimated around 5%. Studies have shown an increase in the use of ADHD medications during the last years. The aim of the present study was to learn the pattern and the evolution of ADHD medication consumption in Castilla y León (Spain). Consumption data for the period 1992-2009 were obtained from databases containing information upon consumption and cost of medications dispensed by pharmacies at the expense of the Spanish National Health System. The data were expressed in defined daily doses (DDDs) per 1000 inhabitants per day (DDD/1000 inhabitants/day). A model to forecast consumption was built. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medication consumption increased in Castilla y León from 0.1 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day in 1992 to 1.5 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day in 2009; expected consumption will reach 2.5 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day by 2013. The drugs accounting for this increase were mainly made up of methylphenidate preparations (1.4 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day in 2009). From 1992 to 1999, there was a slight reduction in methylphenidate use; following amphetamine withdrawal, the consumption of stimulants began to increase, and figures showed a sharp rise after marketing of extended-release formulations in 2003. There has been an enormous increase in ADHD medication consumption in Castilla y León in the last few years; increase rocketed when extended-release methylphenidate was marketed. A rapid increase in the consumption is a warning on possible overdiagnosis and inappropriate prescription. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Drinking water consumption patterns among adults-SMS as a novel tool for collection of repeated self-reported water consumption.

    PubMed

    Säve-Söderbergh, Melle; Toljander, Jonas; Mattisson, Irene; Åkesson, Agneta; Simonsson, Magnus

    2017-06-14

    Studies have shown that the average drinking water consumption ranges between 0.075 and 3 L/day for adults with both national and regional differences. For exposure assessment of drinking water hazards, country-specific drinking water consumption data including sources of the consumed water may therefore be warranted. To estimate the amount and source of drinking water consumed among adults in Sweden, we collected self-reported estimates using both traditional methods (telephone interviews, web questionnaire) and a novel method (Short Message Service, SMS questionnaires) in a population from an average sized Swedish municipality. Monthly SMS questionnaires were sent out during one year to obtain longitudinal information as well. SMS showed to be a promising tool for collecting self-reported consumption, as most citizens could participate and the method showed high response rate. Data collected via the SMS questionnaire shows an average consumption of cold tap water of 4.9 glasses/24 h (one glass=200 ml), while the average estimates of cold tap water collected by the traditional methods range from 4.5 to 7.0 glasses/24 h. For statistical distributions, the mean daily consumption of cold tap water for the population was best fitted to a gamma distribution. About 70% of the cold tap water is consumed at home. Based on the results from the SMS study, we suggest using 1 l/day for the average adult population and 2.5 l/day for high consumers for risk assessment of cold tap water consumption. As 46% of the tap water consumed is heated, we suggest using 1.85 l/day for total tap water consumption.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 14 June 2017; doi:10.1038/jes.2017.8.

  5. Patterns of food and nutrient consumption in northern Iran, a high-risk area for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Islami, Farhad; Malekshah, Akbar Fazeltabar; Kimiagar, Masoud; Pourshams, Akram; Wakefield, Jon; Goglani, Goharshad; Rakhshani, Nasser; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Salahi, Rasoul; Semnani, Shahryar; Saadatian-Elahi, Mitra; Abnet, Christian C; Kamangar, Farin; Dawsey, Sanford M; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2009-01-01

    Our objectives were to investigate patterns of food and nutrient consumption in Golestan province, a high-incidence area for esophageal cancer (EC) in northern Iran. Twelve 24-h dietary recalls were administered during a 1-yr period to 131 healthy participants in a pilot cohort study. We compare here nutrient intake in Golestan with recommended daily allowances (RDAs) and lowest threshold intakes (LTIs). We also compare the intake of 27 food groups and nutrients among several population subgroups using mean values from the 12 recalls. Rural women had a very low level of vitamin intake, which was even lower than LTIs (P < 0.01). Daily intake of vitamins A and C was lower than LTI in 67% and 73% of rural women, respectively. Among rural men, the vitamin intakes were not significantly different from LTIs. Among urban women, the vitamin intakes were significantly lower than RDAs but were significantly higher than LTIs. Among urban men, the intakes were not significantly different from RDAs. Compared to urban dwellers, intake of most food groups and nutrients, including vitamins, was significantly lower among rural dwellers. In terms of vitamin intake, no significant difference was observed between Turkmen and non-Turkmen ethnics. The severe deficiency in vitamin intake among women and rural dwellers and marked differences in nutrient intake between rural and urban dwellers may contribute to the observed epidemiological pattern of EC in Golestan, with high incidence rates among women and people with low socioeconomic status and the highest incidence rate among rural women.

  6. Patterns of alcohol consumption and ischaemic heart disease in culturally divergent countries: the Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction (PRIME)

    PubMed Central

    Ducimetière, Pierre; Evans, Alun; Montaye, Michèle; Haas, Bernadette; Bingham, Annie; Yarnell, John; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Kee, Frank; Bongard, Vanina; Ferrières, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of alcohol intake patterns on ischaemic heart disease in two countries with contrasting lifestyles, Northern Ireland and France. Design Cohort data from the Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction (PRIME) were analysed. Weekly alcohol consumption, incidence of binge drinking (alcohol >50 g on at least one day a week), incidence of regular drinking (at least one day a week, and alcohol <50 g if on only one occasion), volume of alcohol intake, frequency of consumption, and types of beverage consumed were assessed once at inclusion. All coronary events that occurred during the 10 year follow-up were prospectively registered. The relation between baseline characteristics and incidence of hard coronary events and angina events was assessed by Cox’s proportional hazards regression analysis. Setting One centre in Northern Ireland (Belfast) and three centres in France (Lille, Strasbourg, and Toulouse). Participants 9778 men aged 50-59 free of ischaemic heart disease at baseline, who were recruited between 1991 and 1994. Main outcome measures Incident myocardial infarction and coronary death (“hard” coronary events), and incident angina pectoris. Results A total of 2405 men from Belfast and 7373 men from the French centres were included in the analyses, 1456 (60.5%) and 6679 (90.6%) of whom reported drinking alcohol at least once a week, respectively. Among drinkers, 12% (173/1456) of men in Belfast drank alcohol every day compared with 75% (5008/6679) of men in France. Mean alcohol consumption was 22.1 g/day in Belfast and 32.8 g/day in France. Binge drinkers comprised 9.4% (227/2405) and 0.5% (33/7373) of the Belfast and France samples, respectively. A total of 683 (7.0%) of the 9778 participants experienced ischaemic heart disease events during the 10 year follow-up: 322 (3.3%) hard coronary events and 361 (3.7%) angina events. Annual incidence of hard coronary events per 1000 person years was 5.63 (95

  7. Scaling the amplitudes of the circadian pattern of resting oxygen consumption, body temperature and heart rate in mammals.

    PubMed

    Mortola, Jacopo P; Lanthier, Clement

    2004-09-01

    We questioned whether the amplitudes of the circadian pattern of body temperature (T(b)), oxygen consumption (V (O(2))) and heart rate (HR) changed systematically among species of different body weight (W). Because bodies of large mass have a greater heat capacitance than those of smaller mass, if the relative amplitude (i.e., amplitude/mean value) of metabolic rate was constant, one would expect the T(b) oscillation to decrease with the increase in the species W. We compiled data of T(b), V (O(2)) and HR from a literature survey of over 200 studies that investigated the circadian pattern of these parameters. Monotremata, Marsupials and Chiroptera, were excluded because of their characteristically low metabolic rate and T(b). The peak-trough ratios of V (O(2)) (42 species) and HR (35 species) averaged, respectively, 1.57+/-0.08, and 1.35+/-0.07, and were independent of W. The daily high values of T(b) did not change, while the daily low T(b) values slightly increased, with the species W; hence, the high-low T(b) difference (57 species) decreased with W (3.3 degrees C.W(-0.13)). However, the decrease in T(b) amplitude with W was much less than expected from physical principles, and the high-low T(b) ratio remained significantly above unity even in the largest mammals. Thus, it appears that in mammals, despite the huge differences in physical characteristics, the amplitude of the circadian pattern is a fixed (for V (O(2)) and HR), or almost fixed (for T(b)), fraction of the 24-h mean value. Presumably, the amplitudes of the oscillations are controlled parameters of physiological significance.

  8. Food insecurity and household eating patterns among vulnerable American-Indian families: associations with caregiver and food consumption characteristics.

    PubMed

    Mullany, Britta; Neault, Nicole; Tsingine, Danielle; Powers, Julia; Lovato, Ventura; Clitso, Lena; Massey, Sheree; Talgo, Adrienne; Speakman, Kristen; Barlow, Allison

    2013-04-01

    To identify factors associated with food insecurity and household eating patterns among American-Indian families with young children. Cross-sectional survey among households with young children that were receiving emergency food services. We collected information on food insecurity levels, household eating patterns, experiences with commercial and community food sources and demographics, and used multivariate regression techniques to examine associations among these variables. Four Southwestern American-Indian reservation communities. A total of 425 parents/caregivers of young children completed the survey. Twenty-nine per cent of children and 45 % of adults from households participating in the survey were classified as 'food insecure'. Larger household size was associated with increased food insecurity and worse eating patterns. Older respondents were more likely than younger respondents to have children with food insecurity (relative risk = 2·19, P < 0·001) and less likely to have healthy foods available at home (relative risk = 0·45, P < 0·01). Consumption of food from food banks, gas station/convenience stores or fast-food restaurants was not associated with food insecurity levels. Respondents with transportation barriers were 1·46 times more likely to be adult food insecure than respondents without transportation barriers (P < 0·001). High food costs were significantly associated with greater likelihoods of adult (relative risk = 1·47, P < 0·001) and child (relative risk = 1·65, P < 0·001) food insecurity. Interventions for American-Indian communities must address challenges such as expense and limited transportation to accessing healthy food. Results indicate a need for services targeted to older caregivers and larger households. Implications for innovative approaches to promoting nutrition among American-Indian communities, including mobile groceries and community gardening programmes, are discussed.

  9. Food patterns and dietary quality associated with organic food consumption during pregnancy; data from a large cohort of pregnant women in Norway.

    PubMed

    Torjusen, Hanne; Lieblein, Geir; Næs, Tormod; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Brantsæter, Anne Lise

    2012-08-06

    Little is known about the consumption of organic food during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to describe dietary characteristics associated with frequent consumption of organic food among pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). The present study includes 63 808 women who during the years 2002-2007 answered two questionnaires, a general health questionnaire at gestational weeks 15 and a food frequency questionnaire at weeks 17-22. The exploration of food patterns by Principal component analyses (PCA) was followed by ANOVA analyses investigating how these food patterns as well as intake of selected food groups were associated with consumption of organic food. The first principal component (PC1) identified by PCA, accounting for 12% of the variation, was interpreted as a 'health and sustainability component', with high positive loadings for vegetables, fruit and berries, cooking oil, whole grain bread and cereal products and negative loadings for meat, including processed meat, white bread, and cakes and sweets. Frequent consumption of organic food, which was reported among 9.1% of participants (n = 5786), was associated with increased scores on the 'health and sustainability component' (p < 0.001). The increase in score represented approximately 1/10 of the total variation and was independent of sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. Participants with frequent consumption of organic food had a diet with higher density of fiber and most nutrients such as folate, beta-carotene and vitamin C, and lower density of sodium compared to participants with no or low organic consumption. The present study showed that pregnant Norwegian women reporting frequent consumption of organically produced food had dietary pattern and quality more in line with public advice for healthy and sustainable diets. A methodological implication is that the overall diet needs to be included in future studies of potential health

  10. Food patterns and dietary quality associated with organic food consumption during pregnancy; data from a large cohort of pregnant women in Norway

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the consumption of organic food during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to describe dietary characteristics associated with frequent consumption of organic food among pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Methods The present study includes 63 808 women who during the years 2002–2007 answered two questionnaires, a general health questionnaire at gestational weeks 15 and a food frequency questionnaire at weeks 17-22. The exploration of food patterns by Principal component analyses (PCA) was followed by ANOVA analyses investigating how these food patterns as well as intake of selected food groups were associated with consumption of organic food. Results The first principal component (PC1) identified by PCA, accounting for 12% of the variation, was interpreted as a ‘health and sustainability component’, with high positive loadings for vegetables, fruit and berries, cooking oil, whole grain bread and cereal products and negative loadings for meat, including processed meat, white bread, and cakes and sweets. Frequent consumption of organic food, which was reported among 9.1% of participants (n = 5786), was associated with increased scores on the ‘health and sustainability component’ (p < 0.001). The increase in score represented approximately 1/10 of the total variation and was independent of sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. Participants with frequent consumption of organic food had a diet with higher density of fiber and most nutrients such as folate, beta-carotene and vitamin C, and lower density of sodium compared to participants with no or low organic consumption. Conclusion The present study showed that pregnant Norwegian women reporting frequent consumption of organically produced food had dietary pattern and quality more in line with public advice for healthy and sustainable diets. A methodological implication is that the overall diet needs to be

  11. The spillover effect of National Health Insurance on household consumption patterns: evidence from a natural experiment in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Ji-Tian; Lu, Jui-Fen Rachel

    2014-06-01

    While providing financial risk protection was one of the major aims of introducing a National Health Insurance (NHI) program in Taiwan in 1995, one may also wonder how the households may exploit resources freed up and available to them as a result of reduced exposure to risk due to health insurance. This paper aims at studying and evaluating the impact of social insurance on these differing household consumption patterns. A differences-in-differences estimation model was applied to a sample of 17,899 households from the 1993-2000 Taiwan Survey of Family Income and Expenditure to assess the NHI's impact. This effect was evaluated by the changes in the proportion of the consumption expenditure devoted to medical items and non-medical items in the post-NHI period (1996-2000) compared to the pre-NHI period (1993-1994). Our study found that spending related to the improvement of housing conditions (rental and water bills) had the most significant increase, 1.87% (in the share). Furthermore, examining the NHI impact across socioeconomic status (SES) strata (in terms of income and education levels), our study found that households with the lowest SES experienced the largest increase in spending share (2.16%) for rental and water bills, and the least drop (0.64%) on education items. Recognizing how households can exploit the potential benefits associated with NHI provision could enable the government to devise specific policy tools to facilitate better targeting of investment decisions with limited resources available for less well-off households. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. How may a shift towards a more sustainable food consumption pattern affect nutrient intakes of Dutch children?

    PubMed

    Temme, Elisabeth H M; Bakker, Helena M E; Seves, S Marije; Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Dekkers, Arnold L; van Raaij, Joop M A; Ocké, Marga C

    2015-09-01

    Food has a considerable environmental impact. Diets with less meat and dairy reduce environmental impact but may pose nutritional challenges for children. The current modelling study investigates the impact of diets with less or no meat and dairy products on nutrient intakes. Energy and nutrient intakes were assessed for observed consumption patterns (reference) and two replacement scenarios with data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey - Young Children (2005-2006). In the replacement scenarios, 30 % or 100 % of the consumed dairy and meat (in grams) was replaced by plant-derived foods with similar use. The Netherlands. Children (n 1279) aged 2-6 years. Partial and full replacement of meat and dairy foods by plant-derived foods reduced SFA intake by 9 % and 26 %, respectively, while fibre intake was 8 % and 29 % higher. With partial replacement, micronutrient intakes were similar, except for lower vitamin B12 intake. After full meat and dairy replacement, mean intakes of Ca, Zn and thiamin decreased by 5-13 %, and vitamin B12 intake by 49 %, while total intake of Fe was higher but of lower bioavailability. With full replacement, the proportion of girls aged 4-6 years with intakes below recommendations was 15 % for thiamin, 10 % for vitamin B12 and 6 % for Zn. Partial replacement of meat and dairy by plant-derived foods is beneficial for children's health by lowering SFA intake, increasing fibre content and maintaining similar micronutrient intakes. When full replacements are made, attention is recommended to ensure adequate thiamin, vitamin B12 and Zn intakes.

  13. CHILD PHYSICAL AND SEXUAL ABUSE: A COMPREHENSIVE LOOK AT ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION PATTERNS, CONSEQUENCES AND DEPENDENCE FROM THE NATIONAL ALCOHOL SURVEY

    PubMed Central

    Lown, E. Anne; Nayak, Madhabika B.; Korcha, Rachael A.; Greenfield, Thomas. K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous research has documented a relationship between child sexual abuse and alcohol dependence. This paper extends that work by providing a comprehensive description of past year and lifetime alcohol consumption patterns, consequences and dependence among women reporting either child physical and sexual abuse in a national sample of women. Methods This study used survey data from 3,680 women who participated in the 2005 U.S. National Alcohol Survey. Information on physical and sexual child abuse and its characteristics were assessed in relation to 8 past year and lifetime alcohol consumption measures. Results Child physical or sexual abuse was significantly associated with past year and lifetime alcohol consumption measures. In multivariate analyses, controlling for age, marital status, employment status, education, ethnicity and parental alcoholism or problem drinking, women reporting child sexual abuse vs. no abuse were more likely to report past year heavy episodic drinking (ORadj=1.7; 95% CI 1.0–2.9), alcohol dependence (ORadj=7.2; 95% CI 3.2–16.5), and alcohol consequences (ORadj=3.6; 95% CI 1.8–7.3). Sexual abuse (vs. no abuse) was associated with a greater number of past year drinks (124 vs. 74 drinks respectively, p=.002). Sexual child abuse was also associated with lifetime alcohol related consequences (ORadj=3.5; 95% CI 2.6–4.8), and dependence (ORadj=3.7; 95% CI 2.6–5.3). Physical child abuse was associated with 4 of 8 alcohol measures in multivariate models. Both physical and sexual child abuse were associated with getting into fights, health, legal, work and family alcohol related consequences. Alcohol related consequences and dependence were more common for women reporting sexual abuse compared to physical abuse, 2 or more physical abuse perpetrators, non-parental and non-family physical abuse perpetrators and women reporting injury related to the abuse. Conclusion Both child physical and sexual abuse were associated with many

  14. Antimicrobial consumption, costs and resistance patterns: a two year prospective study in a Romanian intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Axente, Carmen; Licker, Monica; Moldovan, Roxana; Hogea, Elena; Muntean, Delia; Horhat, Florin; Bedreag, Ovidiu; Sandesc, Dorel; Papurica, Marius; Dugaesescu, Dorina; Voicu, Mirela; Baditoiu, Luminita

    2017-05-22

    Due to the vulnerable nature of its patients, the wide use of invasive devices and broad-spectrum antimicrobials used, the intensive care unit (ICU) is often called the epicentre of infections. In the present study, we quantified the burden of hospital acquired pathology in a Romanian university hospital ICU, represented by antimicrobial agents consumption, costs and local resistance patterns, in order to identify multimodal interventional strategies. Between 1(st) January 2012 and 31(st) December 2013, a prospective study was conducted in the largest ICU of Western Romania. The study group was divided into four sub-samples: patients who only received prophylactic antibiotherapy, those with community-acquired infections, patients who developed hospital acquired infections and patients with community acquired infections complicated by hospital-acquired infections. The statistical analysis was performed using the EpiInfo version 3.5.4 and SPSS version 20. A total of 1596 subjects were enrolled in the study and the recorded consumption of antimicrobial agents was 1172.40 DDD/ 1000 patient-days. The presence of hospital acquired infections doubled the length of stay (6.70 days for patients with community-acquired infections versus 16.06/14.08 days for those with hospital-acquired infections), the number of antimicrobial treatment days (5.47 in sub-sample II versus 11.18/12.13 in sub-samples III/IV) and they increased by 4 times compared to uninfected patients. The perioperative prophylactic antibiotic treatment had an average length duration of 2.78 while the empirical antimicrobial therapy was 3.96 days in sample II and 4.75/4.85 days for the patients with hospital-acquired infections. The incidence density of resistant strains was 8.27/1000 patient-days for methicilin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 7.88 for extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and 4.68/1000 patient-days for multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Some of the most

  15. Adolescent consumption of sports and energy drinks: linkages to higher physical activity, unhealthy beverage patterns, cigarette smoking, and screen media use.

    PubMed

    Larson, Nicole; Dewolfe, Jessica; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    To examine patterns of adolescent sports and energy drink (SED) consumption and identify behavioral correlates. Data were drawn from Eating and Activity in Teens, a population-based study. Adolescents from 20 middle and high schools in Minneapolis/St Paul, MN completed classroom-administered surveys. A total of 2,793 adolescents (53.2% girls) in grades 6-12. Beverage patterns; breakfast frequency; moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA); media use; sleep; and cigarette smoking. Linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between health behaviors and SED consumption, adjusting for demographics. Over a third of adolescents consumed sports drinks and 14.7% consumed energy drinks at least once a week. Among boys and girls, both sports and energy drink consumption were related to higher video game use; sugar-sweetened beverage and fruit juice intake; and smoking (P < .05). Sports drink consumption was also significantly related to higher MVPA and organized sport participation for both genders (P < .01). Although sports drink consumption was associated with higher MVPA, adolescents should be reminded of recommendations to consume these beverages only after vigorous, prolonged activity. There is also a need for future interventions designed to reduce SED consumption, to address the clustering of unhealthy behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Adolescent Consumption of Sports and Energy Drinks: Linkages to Higher Physical Activity, Unhealthy Beverage Patterns, Cigarette Smoking, and Screen Media Use

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nicole; DeWolfe, Jessica; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine patterns of adolescent sports and energy drink (SED) consumption and identify behavioral correlates. Design Data were drawn from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), a population-based study. Setting Adolescents from 20 middle and high schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota completed classroom-administered surveys. Participants 2,793 adolescents (53.2% girls) in grades 6–12. Variables Measured Beverage patterns; breakfast frequency; moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA); media use; sleep; and cigarette smoking. Analysis Linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between health behaviors and SED consumption, adjusting for demographics. Results Over a third of adolescents consumed sports drinks and 14.7% consumed energy drinks at least once a week. Among boys and girls, both sports and energy drink consumption were related to higher video game use; sugar-sweetened beverage and fruit juice intake; and smoking (P<0.05). Sports drink consumption was also significantly related to higher MVPA and organized sport participation for both genders (P<0.01). Conclusions and Implications Although sports drink consumption was associated with higher MVPA, adolescents should be reminded of recommendations to consume these beverages only following vigorous, prolonged activity. There is also a need for future interventions designed to reduce SED consumption to address the clustering of unhealthy behaviors. PMID:24809865

  17. Dietary pattern classifications with nutrient intake and health-risk factors in Korean men.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Eun; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Son, Say Jin; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Juyoung; Park, Chan; Lee, Lilha; Erickson, Kent L; Jung, In-Kyung

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to identify dietary patterns in Korean men and to determine the associations among dietary patterns, nutrient intake, and health-risk factors. Using baseline data from the Korean Health and Genome Study, dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis of data from a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and associations between these dietary patterns and health-risk factors were analyzed. Three dietary patterns were identified: 1) the "animal-food" pattern (greater intake of meats, fish, and dairy products), 2) the "rice-vegetable" pattern (greater intake of rice, tofu, kimchi, soybean paste, vegetables, and seaweed), and 3) the "noodle-bread" pattern (greater intake of instant noodles, Chinese noodles, and bread). The animal-food pattern (preferred by younger people with higher income and education levels) had a positive correlation with obesity and hypercholesterolemia, whereas the rice-vegetable pattern (preferred by older people with lower income and educational levels) was positively associated with hypertension. The noodle-bread pattern (also preferred by younger people with higher income and education levels) had a positive association with abdominal obesity and hypercholesterolemia. This study identifies three unique dietary patterns in Korean men, which are independently associated with certain health-risk factors. The rice-vegetable dietary pattern, modified for a low sodium intake, might be a healthy dietary pattern for Korean men. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of mixing time on the structural characteristics of noodle dough under vacuum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Xing, Yanan; Zhang, Yingquan; Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Xuju; Wei, Yimin

    2015-12-01

    The structural characteristics of noodle dough under different vacuum mixing times were investigated using three flour samples by texture profile analysis (TPA), SEM, FTIR micro-imaging, and by measuring the glutenin macropolymer and free -SH content. The sheeted dough mixed for 8 min presented better textural properties and a more compact and even microstructure. Insufficient mixing resulted in an uneven distribution and an inadequately developed gluten network, especially for weak-gluten flour (Jimai 22). Excessive mixing was detrimental to the developed dough network and decreased the uniformity of component spatial distribution. Furthermore, excessive mixing led to a decrease in GMP content as well as the increase in free -SH content. Flours with different protein characteristics behaved differently. The TPA, microstructure and free -SH content of dough of Zhengmai 366 was less affected by mixing time than that of Jimai 22, suggesting that strong-gluten flour has better noodle dough mixing tolerance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reduced Availability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Diet Soda Has a Limited Impact on Beverage Consumption Patterns in Maine High School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whatley Blum, Janet E.; Davee, Anne-Marie; Beaudoin, Christina M.; Jenkins, Paul L.; Kaley, Lori A.; Wigand, Debra A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine change in high school students' beverage consumption patterns pre- and post-intervention of reduced availability of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and diet soda in school food venues. Design: A prospective, quasi-experimental, nonrandomized study design. Setting: Public high schools. Participants: A convenience sample from…

  20. Reduced Availability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Diet Soda Has a Limited Impact on Beverage Consumption Patterns in Maine High School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whatley Blum, Janet E.; Davee, Anne-Marie; Beaudoin, Christina M.; Jenkins, Paul L.; Kaley, Lori A.; Wigand, Debra A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine change in high school students' beverage consumption patterns pre- and post-intervention of reduced availability of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and diet soda in school food venues. Design: A prospective, quasi-experimental, nonrandomized study design. Setting: Public high schools. Participants: A convenience sample from…

  1. How Do College Students Estimate Their Drinking? Comparing Consumption Patterns among Quantity-Frequency, Graduated Frequency, and Timeline Follow-Back Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishburne, John W.; Brown, Janice M.

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study was designed to compare several commonly used measures of alcohol use among college students in order to appreciate how estimations of college drinking may be affected by the type of assessment tool used. Consumption patterns of 42 college student drinkers were compared using a quantity-frequency measure, a graduated…

  2. The effect of trunk coordination exercise on dynamic postural control using a Core Noodle.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yuki; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nakajima, Masaaki

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the influence of trunk coordination exercise on dynamic postural control relative to postural sway. The effects of trunk coordination exercises were examined using a Core Noodle for the postural sway in healthy students who were assigned to an exercise or control group. The independent variable was the extent of exposure to Core Noodle exercise, and the dependent variable was dynamic postural control. A stabilometer, which measures dynamic postural control, was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the exercises. In addition, center of gravity movements were assessed using a Gravicorder G-620 stabilometer in which the subject was asked to shift their center of gravity between 2 circles on a computer monitor. Pre- and post-intervention dynamic postural control was statistically evaluated between the exercise group and control group using the Mann-Whitney test. Finally, we investigated the application of these exercises for a stroke patient. For post-intervention, the envelop area, mean length of the pathways between 2 circles, and the number of circles were significantly higher in the exercise group. Trunk coordination exercise performed Core Noodle may be used to enhance the dynamic postural balance of healthy young adults, and it can also be adapted for stroke patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ethanol production potential from fermented rice noodle wastewater treatment using entrapped yeast cell sequencing batch reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siripattanakul-Ratpukdi, Sumana

    2012-03-01

    Fermented rice noodle production generates a large volume of starch-based wastewater. This study investigated the treatment of the fermented rice noodle wastewater using entrapped cell sequencing batch reactor (ECSBR) compared to traditional sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The yeast cells were applied because of their potential to convert reducing sugar in the wastewater to ethanol. In present study, preliminary treatment by acid hydrolysis was performed. A yeast culture, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with calcium alginate cell entrapment was used. Optimum yeast cell loading in batch experiment and fermented rice noodle treatment performances using ECSBR and SBR systems were examined. In the first part, it was found that the cell loadings (0.6-2.7 × 108 cells/mL) did not play an important role in this study. Treatment reactions followed the second-order kinetics with the treatment efficiencies of 92-95%. In the second part, the result showed that ECSBR performed better than SBR in both treatment efficiency and system stability perspectives. ECSBR maintained glucose removal of 82.5 ± 10% for 5-cycle treatment while glucose removal by SBR declined from 96 to 40% within the 5-cycle treatment. Scanning electron microscopic images supported the treatment results. A number of yeast cells entrapped and attached onto the matrix grew in the entrapment matrix.

  4. Contribution of beef consumption to nutrient intake, diet quality, and food patterns in the diets of the US population.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Theresa A; O'Neil, Carol E; Zanovec, Michael; Keast, Debra R; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between the nutrient contribution of beef, in its lowest and highest fat forms, and diet quality and food patterns in individuals 4+years of age. Beef consumers were categorized into three groups (lowest lean/highest fat [LLHF]; middle lean/middle fat content; and highest lean/lowest fat [HLLF]) based on the lean and fat content of beef consumed. Compared to non-beef consumers, HLLF consumers had higher intakes of vitamins B(6) and B(12), iron, zinc, and potassium. Non-beef consumers had higher intakes of thiamin, folate, calcium, and magnesium than HLLF beef consumers. The HLLF group had significantly higher intakes of vitamins A, C, B(6), and B(12); niacin; phosphorus; magnesium; iron; zinc; and potassium, protein and lower intakes of total energy; total fat; SFA; MUFA; total carbohydrates. There was no difference in diet quality between HLLF beef consumers and non-beef consumers. Moderate consumption of lean beef contributes to intakes of selected nutrients and diet quality was similar to non-beef consumers.

  5. "Vintage meds": a netnographic study of user decision-making, home preparation, and consumptive patterns of laudanum.

    PubMed

    Van Hout, Marie Claire; Hearne, Evelyn

    2015-04-01

    Reviews have commented on rising clandestine manufacture of opiate drug solutions for injecting, and to a lesser extent for oral use. Very little is known about user attempts to culture poppy seeds, widely available on the internet for manufacture of long acting medium-high potency oral solutions, both as poppy seed tea or as opium tincture (laudanum). A netnographic research methodology aimed to provide online consumer insight into user sourcing and decision influences, experiences of home manufacture of laudanum, utilization of opium tincture recipes, and consumptive patterns. A systematic internet search was conducted using the terms: "Laudanum," "Opium tincture," and "Tincture of Opium" in combination with "forum." Following screening of 810 forum threads with exclusion criteria and removal of duplicates, 75 fora threads on 6 online drug fora were analyzed using the empirical phenomenological psychological method. Four themes were generated. Findings illustrated the underpinning of user reminiscing about Victorian use of standardized laudanum, long duration shelf life, and medicinal use for opiate withdrawals with intentions to prepare. Preparation of famous recipes and use of authentic storage bottles boosted nostalgia. Participants appeared well versed in kitchen chemistry processes. Discussions centered on type and amount of alcohol used, use of additives to promote palatability and intoxication effect, homogenization of poppy seeds, and double extraction using opium tincture. Lack of detail available on intoxication experiences, with tentative dosage advised. Development of targeted and credible "counterpublic" harm reduction initiatives situated within online consumerism of communal drug knowledge is warranted.

  6. Patterns of alcohol consumption and myocardial infarction risk: observations from 52 countries in the INTERHEART case-control study.

    PubMed

    Leong, Darryl P; Smyth, Andrew; Teo, Koon K; McKee, Martin; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Pais, Prem; Liu, Lisheng; Anand, Sonia S; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-07-29

    Although moderate alcohol use is associated with protection against myocardial infarction (MI), it is not known whether this effect is generalizable to populations worldwide. It is also uncertain whether differences in the pattern of alcohol use (and in particular heavy episodic consumption) between different regions negate any beneficial effect. We included 12 195 cases of first MI and 15 583 age- and sex-matched controls from 52 countries. Current alcohol use was associated with a reduced risk of MI (compared with nonusers: adjusted odds ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.94; P=0.001); however, the strength of this association was not uniform across different regions (region-alcohol interaction P<0.001). Heavy episodic drinking (≥6 drinks) within the preceding 24 hours was associated with an increased risk of MI (odds ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.9; P=0.01). This risk was particularly elevated in older individuals (for age >65 years: odds ratio, 5.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-18; P=0.008). In most participants, low levels of alcohol use are associated with a moderate reduction in the risk of MI; however, the strength of this association may not be uniform across different countries. An episode of heavy drinking is associated with an increased risk of acute MI in the subsequent 24 hours, particularly in older individuals. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Reproducibility and Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Dietary Consumption via the Dietary Pattern Method in a Chinese Rural Population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xudong; Wang, Xiaorong; Lin, Sihao; Song, Qingkun; Lao, Xiangqian; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to assess the reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that was developed to assess the overall dietary consumption via dietary pattern method in a rural population in southwest China. Methods A total of 179 participants aged between 40 and 70 years old were included in this study. Participants administered FFQ at baseline (FFQ1) and one year later (FFQ2) to assess the reproducibility. Six 3-day 24-hour recalls (24HRs) were completed between the administrations of two FFQs to determine the validity. Dietary patterns from three separate dietary sources were derived by using principle component factor analysis. Comparisons between dietary pattern scores were made by using Pearson or intraclass correlation coefficient, cross-classification analysis, weighted kappa (κ) statistic and Bland-Altman analysis. The de-attenuated method was adopted to correct the monthly and seasonally variation and the partial correlation analysis was used correct the influence by total energy intake. Results Two major dietary factors, labeled as prudent pattern and processed food pattern, were identified. The prudent pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of wheat, rice, fresh vegetables, bean products, nuts, red meat, white meat and fresh eggs; and the processed food pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of pickled vegetables, preserved vegetables and salted meat. Between Two FFQs, intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.57 for prudent pattern and 0.55 for processed food pattern, partial Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.51 for the prudent pattern and 0.56 for the processed food pattern; weighted κ statistic ranged from 0.45 (for the prudent pattern) to 0.56 (for the processed food pattern). Between FFQs and 24HRs, de-attenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.54 to 0.78 for the prudent pattern and from 0.55 to 0.61 for the processed food pattern; partial Pearson correlation

  8. Reproducibility and Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Dietary Consumption via the Dietary Pattern Method in a Chinese Rural Population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xudong; Wang, Xiaorong; Lin, Sihao; Song, Qingkun; Lao, Xiangqian; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that was developed to assess the overall dietary consumption via dietary pattern method in a rural population in southwest China. A total of 179 participants aged between 40 and 70 years old were included in this study. Participants administered FFQ at baseline (FFQ1) and one year later (FFQ2) to assess the reproducibility. Six 3-day 24-hour recalls (24HRs) were completed between the administrations of two FFQs to determine the validity. Dietary patterns from three separate dietary sources were derived by using principle component factor analysis. Comparisons between dietary pattern scores were made by using Pearson or intraclass correlation coefficient, cross-classification analysis, weighted kappa (κ) statistic and Bland-Altman analysis. The de-attenuated method was adopted to correct the monthly and seasonally variation and the partial correlation analysis was used correct the influence by total energy intake. Two major dietary factors, labeled as prudent pattern and processed food pattern, were identified. The prudent pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of wheat, rice, fresh vegetables, bean products, nuts, red meat, white meat and fresh eggs; and the processed food pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of pickled vegetables, preserved vegetables and salted meat. Between Two FFQs, intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.57 for prudent pattern and 0.55 for processed food pattern, partial Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.51 for the prudent pattern and 0.56 for the processed food pattern; weighted κ statistic ranged from 0.45 (for the prudent pattern) to 0.56 (for the processed food pattern). Between FFQs and 24HRs, de-attenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.54 to 0.78 for the prudent pattern and from 0.55 to 0.61 for the processed food pattern; partial Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.41 to 0

  9. Impact of Warfarin on Atrial-Fibrillation Outcomes Related to Economic Consumption Patterns: Hospitalization, Cost, and Mortality may be Predictable and Modifiable at the Population Level.

    PubMed

    Kim, Michael H; Cai, Qiang; Xu, Liou; Puckrein, Gary A

    2016-09-01

    Warfarin reduces atrial fibrillation (AF)-related strokes and may impact mortality, hospitalizations, and costs. This study investigated the possibility that patterns of warfarin consumption are associated with the frequency of acute events. Annual cost profiles of 9.2 million Medicare beneficiaries with AF were analyzed to identify patterns of benefits consumption from 2000 through 2010. Beneficiaries were divided into five consumption clusters based upon their annual cost profiles, ranging from crisis consumers at the high end to low consumers. Resource-utilization patterns and outcome differences were calculated between AF beneficiaries who received warfarin and those who did not. Propensity score-matched analysis was performed to reduce selection bias. The annual percentages of beneficiaries and expenditures that differentiated each cluster showed stable patterns. Warfarin use influenced consumption patterns and outcomes. The most important financial difference between higher and lower consumers was inpatient cost. AF beneficiaries on warfarin had lower annual cost profiles and had a higher propensity to persist in or migrate to consumption clusters with comparatively small reimbursement claims and lower hospitalization risks. AF beneficiaries not on warfarin had higher cost and mortality. These data signal that a nontrivial portion of acute events (hospitalization and mortality) are amenable to medical intervention (warfarin). When acute events are amenable to medical intervention and occur at a higher frequency because guidelines have not been applied evenly across affected populations, it is appropriate to define those occurrences as disparities associated with systemic failure in evidence-based medicine. Quality-improvement initiatives that reduce therapeutic disparities may result in lower cost and improved outcomes. No funding or sponsorship was received for this study or publication of this article.

  10. A dietary pattern characterized by high consumption of whole-grain cereals and low-fat dairy products and low consumption of refined cereals is positively associated with plasma adiponectin levels in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Yiannakouris, Nikos; Melistas, Labros; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Malagaris, Ioannis; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2008-06-01

    In light of the potential beneficial effects of adiponectin on insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular risk, it is becoming increasingly important to identify all modifiable factors, including dietary patterns, that may affect circulating adiponectin concentrations. The aim of the present study was to explore potential associations between dietary patterns and plasma adiponectin levels using principal component analysis (PCA) in a sample of apparently healthy adult Mediterranean women. Two hundred twenty women were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric and body composition measurements were performed in all subjects. Blood samples were taken, and adiponectin concentrations were measured. Food intake was evaluated by 3-day food diaries, and PCA was used for the identification of the participants' dietary patterns. The PCA identified 10 dietary components explaining 82% of the total variance in food intake. Bivariate correlation between circulating adiponectin levels and dietary components revealed a positive significant association only with the first component that was characterized by high intake of whole-grain cereals and low-fat dairy products as well as low intake of refined cereals (P = .04). This association remained unchanged after controlling for potential confounders (standardized beta coefficient = 0.18, P = .03). A dietary pattern characteristic of consumption of alcoholic beverages was found to be marginally related to adiponectin levels in the multivariate model (standardized beta coefficient = 0.14, P = .10). Our data indicate that a dietary pattern characterized by a high consumption of whole-grain cereals and low-fat dairy products is modestly positively associated with adiponectin concentrations.

  11. [Effects of soil wetting pattern on the soil water-thermal environment and cotton root water consumption under mulched drip irrigation].

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-wei; Li, Ming-si; Liu, Dong; Lyu, Mou-chao; Jia, Yan-hui

    2015-08-01

    Abstract: To explore the effects of soil wetting pattern on soil water-thermal environment and water consumption of cotton root under mulched drip irrigation, a field experiment with three drip intensities (1.69, 3.46 and 6.33 L · h(-1)), was carried out in Shihezi, Xinjiang Autonomous Region. The soil matric potential, soil temperature, cotton root distribution and water consumption were measured during the growing period of cotton. The results showed that the main factor influencing the soil temperature of cotton under plastic mulch was sunlight. There was no significant difference in the soil temperature and root water uptake under different treatments. The distribution of soil matrix suction in cotton root zone under plastic mulch was more homogeneous under ' wide and shallow' soil wetting pattern (W633). Under the 'wide and shallow' soil wetting pattern, the average difference of cotton root water consumption between inner row and outer row was 0.67 mm · d(-1), which was favorable to the cotton growing trimly at both inner and outer rows; for the 'narrow and deep' soil wetting pattern (W169), the same index was 0.88 mm · d(-1), which was unfavorable to cotton growing uniformly at both inner and outer rows. So, we should select the broad-shallow type soil wetting pattern in the design of drip irrigation under mulch.

  12. Reduced availability of sugar-sweetened beverages and diet soda has a limited impact on beverage consumption patterns in Maine high school youth.

    PubMed

    Blum, Janet E Whatley; Davee, Anne-Marie; Beaudoin, Christina M; Jenkins, Paul L; Kaley, Lori A; Wigand, Debra A

    2008-01-01

    To examine change in high school students' beverage consumption patterns pre- and post-intervention of reduced availability of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and diet soda in school food venues. A prospective, quasi-experimental, nonrandomized study design. Public high schools. A convenience sample from control (n = 221) and intervention (n = 235) high schools. Schools aimed to reduce (n = 4) or not change (n = 3) availability of SSB and diet soda in food venues for 1 school year. Subjects' beverage servings/day was determined from a food frequency questionnaire pre- and post-intervention. Two-by-two mixed analysis of variance model compared pre- to post-intervention servings/day between control and intervention subjects, stratified by gender. Consumption of SSB decreased in both intervention and control boys (F = 53.69, P < .05) and girls (F = 22.87, P < .05). Intervention girls decreased diet soda consumption as compared to control girls (F = 6.57, P < .05). Reducing availability of SSB in schools did not result in a greater decrease in SSB consumption by intervention as compared to control subjects. The impact of reducing availability of SSB at school may be limited. A better understanding of beverage consumption patterns may be needed to determine the efficacy of school food policies on those youth susceptible to obesity.

  13. Patterns of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption amongst young people aged 13-15 years during the school day in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Laura Kate; Wills, Wendy J

    2017-09-01

    There is currently little research regarding sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption patterns of young people though adolescents are thought to be frequent consumers of these drinks. There is no research regarding the other foods and drinks consumed alongside SSBs by young people. The aim of this paper is to explore the patterns of SSB purchase and consumption amongst young people aged 13-15 years. A purchasing recall questionnaire (PRQ) was administered online in seven case study schools with 535 young people aged 13-15 years. Nutrient composition (kilocalories, fat, saturated fat, sodium and sugar) was also calculated for food/drink purchases. Chi-Square and Wilcoxon-Mann Whitney tests were conducted to examine patterns of SSB consumption and sugar/kilocalories consumption for SSB consumers and non-consumers. SSB consumers were significantly more likely to consume a drink at mid-morning break. Fewer consumed food at mid-morning break, ate food before school or ate food at lunchtime, but this was not statistically significant. A higher percentage of SSB consumers consumed 'unhealthy' food and drinks in comparison to young people who did not consume a SSB. Both median lunchtime sugar consumption (40.7 g vs 10.2 g) and median sugar as a percentage of Kcals (39% vs 14%) were significantly higher for SSB purchasers in comparison to non-purchasers. The analysis highlights that SSB purchasers consume significantly more sugar at lunchtime than non-purchasers. However, both purchasers and non-purchasers exceeded WHO (2015) recommendations that sugar consumption be halved to form no more than 5% of daily energy intake. This study provides new insights for public health stakeholders and schools. Multifaceted and inventive strategies relevant to young people will be required to achieve the new WHO recommendations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Extraction of rutin from Tartary buckwheat milling fractions and evaluation of its thermal stability in an instant fried noodle system.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yong Jin; Lee, Suyong

    2015-06-01

    Extraction conditions of rutin from buckwheat milling fractions were established and a rutin-enriched material (REM, 31.8g/100g of rutin) was successfully obtained by the ultrasonic-assisted ethanol method (steaming, 16-150 mesh particle size, 70% ethanol, and ultrasonication at 40°C for 30min). When REM was applied to instant fried noodles (1% and 2% by weight of wheat flour) for rutin fortification, the levels of rutin in the noodles were determined to be about 250-500mg/100g which corresponded to the recommended daily dose of rutin. While frying temperatures (150-190°C) and times (1-3min) did not negatively affect the level of rutin in the instant fried noodles, the distinct loss of rutin was observed after cooking. Furthermore, REM did not significantly affect the oil uptake and mechanical property of instant fried noodles. The strong antioxidant activity of rutin in REM contributed to retarding the oxidative deterioration of the noodles during storage.

  15. Energy drinks consumption pattern, perceived benefits and associated adverse effects amongst students of University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alsunni, Ahmed A; Badar, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    There are safety concerns about energy drinks alongside marketing claims of physiological and behavioural benefits. There is no scientific data about usage of energy drinks in Saudi Arabia. This study determined consumption patterns of energy drinks as well as perceived benefits and side effects amongst students at a Saudi university. This study was carried out in students of University of Dammam from October to December 2010. A questionnaire about energy drink use, reasons for use, benefits and side effects experienced was distributed amongst the university students. Frequencies of responses and differences between male and female students were analysed. A total of 412 students (282 males and 130 females) responded, out of whom 54.60% males and 26.15% female students were energy drink users. Mean age at first use was significantly (p<0.05) less in female students. Inspirations for first time use were friends (both genders) and curiosity (males mainly). Most students did not have a fixed frequency of use. The commonest reasons for use were company of friends, to keep awake, for more energy and for better performance in driving, sports or exams. Amongst many the commonest (p<0.05) benefit reported was ability to stay awake longer. The students reported a number of adverse effects. Increased urination and insomnia were the commonest in males and females respectively. Only 36.70% males and 14.28% females never experienced an adverse effect. A significant proportion of students at university of Dammam use energy drinks, they have reported a number of effects (perceived as benefits) along with a variety of adverse effects.

  16. Alcohol consumption and smoking and their associations with socio-demographic characteristics, dietary patterns, and perceived academic stress in Puerto Rican college students.

    PubMed

    González, Anaisa M; Cruz, Sonia Y; Ríos, Josué L; Pagán, Ideliz; Fabián, Carla; Betancourt, Jesmari; Rivera-Soto, Winna T; González, Michael J; Palacios, Cristina

    2013-06-01

    College students often use different strategies, such as consuming alcohol and smoking, to cope with stress. We examined the associations between self-perceived academic stress, alcohol consumption, smoking, and dietary patterns in graduate students. A representative stratified sample of 275 students from each school of the Medical Science Campus of the University of Puerto Rico (UPR-MSC) completed a 48-item questionnaire that solicited the following: socio-demographic data, estimates of self-perceived stress, estimates of the frequency of alcohol consumption and the type(s) of alcohol consumed, details regarding smoking habits, and information associated with diet (i.e., dietary patterns). Fisher's exact test and the Chi2 test were used to assess the associations between the different study variables. Only 3% were considered smokers (defined as > 1 cigarettes per day), with the greatest number of smokers among those aged 21-30 y (p<0.05). Smoking habits was not associated with academic load/stress or with dietary pattern. Most smokers reported that their main reason for using cigarettes was to cope with stress. About 70% of the students were considered drinkers (defined as > 0 drink/day), with a higher proportion found among women (63.5%), among those aged 21-30 years (90.6%), and among those with a low or moderate household income (p<0.05). Alcohol intake was significantly associated with academic stress, with a greater proportion of drinkers reporting experiencing moderate levels of academic stress (p<0.05), but it was not associated with dietary patterns or academic load (p>0.05). Most subjects classified as drinkers reported that alcohol consumption was not (in their experience) an effective strategy for the management of stress (81%). Alcohol consumption was only associated with academic stress. No associations were found between smoking habits and academic stress/load and dietary patterns.

  17. Growth patterns, chemical composition and oxygen consumption in early juvenile Hyas araneus (Decapoda: Majidae) reared in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anger, K.; Harms, J.; Christiansen, M. E.; Süsens, U.; Wilmes, B.

    1992-03-01

    Early (instar I and II) juveniles of the spider crab Hyas araneus were reared under constant conditions (12 °C, 32‰S) in the laboratory, and their growth, biochemical composition, and respiration were studied. Every second day, dry weight (W), ash-free dry weight (AFW), and contents of ash, organic and inorganic carbon (C), nitrogen (N), hydrogen (H), protein, chitin, lipid, and carbohydrates were measured, as well as oxygen consumption. Changes in the absolute amounts of W. AFW, and C, N, and H during the moulting cycle are described with various regression equations as functions of age within a given instar. These patterns of growth differ in part from those that have been observed during previous studies in larval stages of the same and some other decapod species, possibly indicating different growth strategies in larvae and juveniles. There were clear periodic changes in ash (% of W) and inorganic C (as % of total C), with initially very low and then steeply increasing values in postmoult, a maximum in intermoult, and decreasing figures during the premoult phase of each moulting cycle. Similar patterns were observed in the chitin fraction, reaching a maximum of 16% of W (31% of AFW). Ash, inorganic C, and chitin represent the major components of the exoskeleton and hence, changes in their amounts are associated with the formation and loss of cuticle material. Consequently, a high percentage of mineral matter was lost with the exuvia (76% of the late premoult [LPM] ash content, 74% of inorganic C), but relatively small fractions of LPM organic matter (15% of AFW, 11% of organic C, 5 6% of N and H). These cyclic changes in the cuticle caused an inverse pattern of variation in the percentage values (% of W) of AFW, organic C, N, H, and biochemical constituents other than chitin. When these measures of living biomass were related to, exclusively, the organic body fraction (AFM), much less variation was found during individual moulting cycles, with values of

  18. Study on the effect of different concentration of Spirulina platensis paste added into dried noodle to its quality characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustini, T. W.; Ma'ruf, W. F.; Widayat; Wibowo, B. A.; Hadiyanto

    2017-02-01

    High nutritional content of microalgae S. platensis is very good for human health especially for its protein and β-carotene. These compounds can be used for improving quality of food from nutritional point of view. This study was designed to observe the effect of different concentration of S. platensis paste to dried noodle quality based on physical, chemical and sensory perspectives. Material used in this study was S. platensis powder obtained from CV Neoalgae, Sukoharjo. The best treatment observed from preliminary study was then used for further study and compared to control treatment (without added S. platensis paste). The dried noodle resulted was then analyzed for elasticity, chemical (β-carotene, water, protein, ash, fat and carbohydrate) and sensory (hedonic). Parametric data obtained were analyzed using t-Test while non-parametric data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis followed by Multiple Comparison test. The study showed that dried noodle added with 9% S. platensis paste give significant effect (P<0.05) on elasticity; β-carotene, water, protein, ash, fat and carbohydrate and also sensory (hedonic). Dried noodle without added S. platensis paste has lower in β-carotene and protein compared to that of added S. platensis paste with the value of 0.06 mg/100 gr and 17.51 mg/100gr (β-carotene) and 8.88% and 38.6% (protein), respectively. Those, chemical composition of dried noodle added with S. platensis comply with Indonesian National Standard in term of protein, water, and ash content with sensory of 7.26 ≤ μ ≤ 7.63. Addition of S. platensis can significantly increase the nutritional of dried noodle especially protein (by 4 times) and β-carotene.

  19. Is food-related lifestyle (FRL) able to reveal food consumption patterns in non-Western cultural environments? Its adaptation and application in urban China.

    PubMed

    Grunert, Klaus G; Perrea, Toula; Zhou, Yanfeng; Huang, Guang; Sørensen, Bjarne T; Krystallis, Athanasios

    2011-04-01

    Research related to food-related behaviour in China is still scarce, one reason being the fact that food consumption patterns in East Asia do not appear to be easily analyzed by models originating in Western cultures. The objective of the present work is to examine the ability of the food related lifestyle (FRL) instrument to reveal food consumption patterns in a Chinese context. Data were collected from 479 respondents in 6 major Chinese cities using a Chinese version of the FRL instrument. Analysis of reliability and dimensionality of the scales resulted in a revised version of the instrument, in which a number of dimensions of the original instrument had to be omitted. This revised instrument was tested for statistical robustness and used as a basis for the derivation of consumer segments. Construct validity of the instrument was then investigated by profiling the segments in terms of consumer values, attitudes and purchase behaviour, using frequency of consumption of pork products as an example. Three consumer segments were identified: concerned, uninvolved and traditional. This pattern replicates partly those identified in Western cultures. Moreover, all three segments showed consistent value-attitude-behaviour profiles. The results also suggest which dimensions may be missing in the instrument in a more comprehensive instrument adapted to Chinese conditions, most notably a broader treatment of eating out activities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Changing beverage consumption patterns have resulted in fewer liquid calories in the diets of US children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Mesirow, Maurissa S C; Welsh, Jean A

    2015-04-01

    Beverage consumption patterns have been linked to obesity and chronic disease risk. Although the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has decreased recently, little is known about the parallel trends in intake of other beverages. To describe recent trends in consumption of all commonly consumed beverages among US children aged 2 to 19 years. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls from 18,541 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2001-2010 were used to assess beverage intake, including SSBs (ie, sodas, fruit-flavored drinks, sport and energy drinks, fruit juices, coffees/teas, and other [nondairy] sugar-sweetened drinks); milks (ie, plain whole, reduced fat, and low-/nonfat, sweetened, other milks/milk-based drinks, and milk alternatives); 100% juices (ie, fruit, and vegetable/mixed without added sugar); low-/no-calorie beverages (ie, unsweetened or artificially sweetened: sodas, coffees/teas, flavored waters, diet sport/energy drinks, and other low/no-calorie drinks); alcohol-containing; and plain water (during 2005-2010 only). Weighted mean intakes (percent total energy and total ounces) and consumption prevalence were estimated. Regression models and analytical procedures that account for the complex sampling methods were used to test trends. Between 2001-2002 and 2009-2010, total daily beverage consumption (excluding water) decreased from 24.4% to 21.1% energy (32.0 to 27.9 oz). Significant decreases (P<0.05) occurred in sugar-sweetened sodas (13.5% to 10.2% energy), whole milk (2.7% to 1.6% energy), fruit juices with sugar added (2.3% to 2.1% energy), and fruit-flavored drinks (1.6% to 0.8% energy). Significant increases occurred for sweetened coffees/teas, energy drinks, sport drinks, and unsweetened juices though the contribution of each to total energy intake remained <1%. Low-/no-calorie drink consumption also increased, rising from 0.2 to 1.3 oz/day. Changing beverage consumption patterns reflect positive trends in

  1. Consumption of a healthy dietary pattern results in significant reductions in C-reactive protein levels in adults: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Neale, E P; Batterham, M J; Tapsell, L C

    2016-05-01

    Consumption of healthy dietary patterns has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Dietary intervention targets disease prevention, so studies increasingly use biomarkers of underlying inflammation and metabolic syndrome progression to examine the diet-health relationship. The extent to which these biomarkers contribute to the body of evidence on healthy dietary patterns is unknown. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of healthy dietary patterns on biomarkers associated with adiposity, insulin resistance, and inflammation in adults. A systematic search of Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (all years to April 2015) was conducted. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials; effects of dietary patterns assessed on C-reactive protein (CRP), total adiponectin, high-molecular-weight adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, adiponectin:leptin, resistin, or retinol binding protein 4. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to assess the weighted mean differences in change or final mean values for each outcome. Seventeen studies were included in the review. These reflected research on dietary patterns associated with the Mediterranean diet, Nordic diet, Tibetan diet, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. Consumption of a healthy dietary pattern was associated with significant reductions in CRP (weighted mean difference, -0.75 [-1.16, -0.35]; P = .0003). Non-significant changes were found for all other biomarkers. This analysis found evidence for favorable effects of healthy dietary patterns on CRP, with limited evidence for other biomarkers. Future research should include additional randomized controlled trials incorporating a greater range of dietary patterns and biomarkers.

  2. Reserve Drug Indent Form and Its Impact on Antimicrobial Consumption and Sensitivity Pattern in the Medical Intensive Care Unit of a Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Anitha, K.B.; Rai, Mohandas; Fernandes, Anisha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: A world without effective antibiotics is a terrifying but a real prospect. Overuse or misuse especially of newer and higher antimicrobials (AM) is of particular concern, as this contributes to development of resistance among microorganisms. To check this trend, the Reserve Drug Indent Form (RDIF) was introduced in our hospital and its impact on AM consumption, cost of therapy and the sensitivity pattern was studied in the medical intensive care unit (MICU). Materials and Methods: A retrospective descriptive study in the medical ICU of a tertiary care hospital from July 2012 to August 2013. From March 2013, RDIF was made mandatory to be filled up prior to prescribing reserve antimicrobials. AM consumption (expressed as DDD/100 bed days) and sensitivity pattern (expressed in percentage) six months prior to and six months after implementation of the form were analysed. Results: The total Reserve AM consumption was 125.79 per 100 bed days during the study period. Average occupancy index was 0.50 and length of ICU stay was 6 days. The total consumption reduced from 85.55/100 to 40.24/100 bed days after the introduction of the RDIF. However, Imipenem usage increased from 11.35/100 to 23.94/100 bed days, which can be attributed to sensitivity profile to Imipenem (82.1%) compared to Meropenem (65.7%). Cost of therapy reduced from Rs 6,27,951 to 4,20,469. Conclusion: Reserve AM consumption showed a declining trend after introduction of the RDIF. Hence, the RDIF served as an important tool to combat inappropriate use, reducing the cost burden and also helped to improve the sensitivity to reserve drugs. PMID:25859466

  3. The costs of food at home and away from home and consumption patterns among U.S. adolescents.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Han, Euna

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the associations of prices of food at home groceries, prices of fast food away from home and the availability of food stores and restaurants with the number of days over the past week that adolescents consumed fruit and fruit juices, vegetables, meat, nonmeat protein, dairy, grains, and sweets. Individual-level data on adolescents were drawn from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics combined at the zip code level with external economic contextual data. Multivariate regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between food consumption categories and the economic contextual factors. Regressions were also estimated by households' poverty status. Fast food and food at home prices were not significantly associated with any of the food consumption categories in the full sample. However, among poor adolescents, higher fast food prices were associated with higher levels of nonmeat protein consumption. Food store outlet availability was found to have very small significant associations with some food consumption categories but no significant associations were found for restaurant outlets. Food away from home prices, such as fast food prices and supermarket and grocery store availability, were associated with some food consumption categories among low-income youths and related policies deserve further examination. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. "Doing Difference" and Fast Food Consumption: Patterns Among a Sample of White and African American Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Wade, Jeannette M

    2017-06-22

    Previous research has demonstrated that frequent consumption of fast food is linked to obesity and that trends in both are disparate across race and sex categories. Contextualizing race- and sex-related factors that structure fast food consumption in emerging adulthood is a much-needed contribution to social research. Specifically, this study uses the "doing difference" framework, to examine the frequency of fast food consumption in a sample of White and African American (18-25 years old). According to the framework, social inequalities are reproduced through dramaturgical performances of race, class, and gender. Results of this suggest that feminine gender orientation and education serve as protective factors, while African American race and male sex serve as risk factors. African American women emerged as especially high risk given their higher prevalence of traditionally masculine traits.

  5. Assessing the effects of changing demographic and consumption patterns on sea tenure regimes in the Roviana Lagoon, Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Aswani, Shankar

    2002-06-01

    This paper investigates how sea tenure institutions in the Roviana Lagoon, Solomon Islands, mediate among population, consumption, and the environment. The focus is on explaining how growth in population and consumption alter sea tenure regimes, and the factors that shape either their institutional robustness or vulnerability. The paper also addresses the regional differences among sea tenure institutional arrangements, the processes that are producing them, and the social and environmental outcomes of these institutions as they engage external forces and internal changes. A major question is how existing forms of sea tenure respond comparatively when faced with parallel demographic and economic transformations? Two villages representing different sea tenure arrangements within the Roviana Lagoon are compared. Results show that inhabitants in these villages perceive their systems of sea tenure governance similarly; yet their managerial responses to changes brought about by growth in population and consumption differ, and the responses produce contrasting environmental effects.

  6. Future US energy demands based upon traditional consumption patterns lead to requirements which significantly exceed domestic supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Energy consumption in the United States has risen in response to both increasing population and to increasing levels of affluence. Depletion of domestic energy reserves requires consumption modulation, production of fossil fuels, more efficient conversion techniques, and large scale transitions to non-fossile fuel energy sources. Widening disparity between the wealthy and poor nations of the world contributes to trends that increase the likelihood of group action by the lesser developed countries to achieve political and economic goals. The formation of anticartel cartels is envisioned.

  7. Future US energy demands based upon traditional consumption patterns lead to requirements which significantly exceed domestic supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Energy consumption in the United States has risen in response to both increasing population and to increasing levels of affluence. Depletion of domestic energy reserves requires consumption modulation, production of fossil fuels, more efficient conversion techniques, and large scale transitions to non-fossile fuel energy sources. Widening disparity between the wealthy and poor nations of the world contributes to trends that increase the likelihood of group action by the lesser developed countries to achieve political and economic goals. The formation of anticartel cartels is envisioned.

  8. Effect of partial substitution of gluten-free flour mixtures with chia (Salvia hispanica L.) flour on quality of gluten-free noodles.

    PubMed

    Levent, Hacer

    2017-06-01

    In this study, chia seed flour (CSF) was used in gluten-free noodle formulation at different levels (0, 10, 20 and 30%, w/w) with and without diacetyl tartaric esters of mono (and di) glycerides (DATEM). Chemical, nutritional, sensory properties and cooking quality of gluten-free noodle samples were investigated. Protein, fat, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of gluten-free noodles increased by 1.7, 5.5, 2.6 and 2.0 times at 30% usage level of CSF as compared to control sample. Phytic acid and phytate phosphorus content increased from 168.30 mg/100 g and 47.46 mg/100 g to 1057.69 mg/100 g and 298.27 mg/100 g, respectively with CSF usage. Increase of CSF level in gluten-free noodle samples caused an expected increase in the amounts of Ca, P, K, Mg, Fe and Zn. Noodle samples containing CSF showed darker colour than control. Significant increase was observed in volume increase and weight increase values with CSF addition. DATEM reduced cooking loss values of noodle samples. The use of CSF improved the gluten-free noodles taste and odor score. As a result, 20% of CSF with DATEM can be used in gluten-free noodle formulation with acceptable sensory attributes of raw and cooked samples. The present results showed that CSF had a good potential to improve the nutritional quality of noodle.

  9. Patterns of domestic violence and alcohol consumption among women and the effectiveness of a brief intervention in a household setting: a protocol study.

    PubMed

    Gebara, Carla Ferreira de Paula; Ferri, Cleusa Pinheiro; Lourenço, Lelio Moura; Vieira, Marcel de Toledo; Bhona, Fernanda Monteiro de Castro; Noto, Ana Regina

    2015-09-24

    Domestic violence and harmful alcohol consumption are considered major public health problems worldwide. These phenomena often co-occur, and they share several risk factors. Nevertheless, few in-depth studies have supported integrated interventions for both phenomena, in particular among Latin American women. This project will study the consumption of alcoholic beverages among women and its relationship with patterns of domestic violence; furthermore, it will assess the effect of a brief intervention (BI) aimed at modifying these behaviors using a community household sample. This project is divided into two studies. Study 1 will employ a cross-sectional observational design and will be conducted using a household sample of adult women (approximate sample size = 1600) to assess harmful alcohol consumption and domestic violence patterns. Study 2, will be a randomized clinical trial based on specific cases from Study 1, assessing the effect of a brief intervention on women who exhibit harmful levels of alcohol consumption (AUDIT ≥ 8). Approximately 73 women will be assigned to one of two groups, either a treated group (TG) or a control group (CG). A sociodemographic questionnaire, a questionnaire concerning general health and substance use, and four other standardized instruments (i.e., the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test [AUDIT; used to investigate problems related to alcohol consumption], the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D; used to measure depressive symptoms], and the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales and Parent-child Conflict Tactics Scales [CTS2 and CTSPC; used to obtain information on violence among couples and between parents and children, respectively]) will be used to collect data. The study protocol will employ a household survey of a representative sample from a neighborhood in a middle income country, where well-conducted household surveys remain rare. The present work represents a step toward a better

  10. Seasonal patterns in growth, blood consumption, and effects on hosts by parasitic-phase sea lampreys in the Great Lakes: an individual-based model approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Cochran, Philip A.; Bergstedt, Roger A.

    2003-01-01

    An individual-based model (IBM) was developed for sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The IBM was then calibrated to observed growth, by season, for sea lampreys in northern Lake Huron under two different water temperature regimes: a regime experienced by Seneca-strain lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and a regime experienced by Marquettestrain lake trout. Modeling results indicated that seasonal blood consumption under the Seneca regime was very similar to that under the Marquette regime. Simulated mortality of lake trout directly due to blood removal by sea lampreys occurred at nearly twice the rate during August and September under the Marquette regime than under the Seneca regime. However, cumulative sea lamprey-induced mortality on lake trout over the entire duration of the sea lamprey's parasitic phase was only 7% higher for the Marquette regime compared with the Seneca regime. Thus, these modeling results indicated that the strain composition of the host (lake trout) population was not important in determining total number of lake trout deaths or total blood consumption attributable to the sea lamprey population, given the sea lamprey growth pattern. Regardless of water temperature regime, both blood consumption rate by sea lampreys and rate of sea lamprey-induced mortality on lake trout peaked in late October. Elevated blood consumption in late October appeared to be unrelated to changes in water temperature. The IBM approach should prove useful in optimizing control of sea lampreys in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  11. Do Not "Let Them Eat Cake": Correlation of Food-Consumption Patterns among Rural Primary School Children from Welfare and Non-Welfare Households.

    PubMed

    Terry, Daniel; Ervin, Kaye; Soutter, Erin; Spiller, Renata; Dalle Nogare, Nicole; Hamilton, Andrew John

    2016-12-28

    Physical and financial access impacts food choice and consumption, while educational attainment, employment, income, gender, and socioeconomic status are also influential. Within this context, the aim of the paper is to examine the association between various foods consumed and eating patterns of children between low and higher income households. A paper-based survey was completed by parents/carers of children in 41 primary schools in rural and regional areas of Victoria. Data collected included demographics and the consumption of fruit, vegetable, and other foods including drinks. Ordinal data were analysed using Spearman's rank-order correlation. The main findings were that children who consumed more fruit and vegetables tended to have a higher intake of healthy drinks (plain milk and water) as well as a lower intake of unhealthy snacks and drinks (sugar sweetened drinks). Those who perceived that fruit and vegetables cost too much reported greater consumption of unhealthy snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages, which was more prominent in low-income households. Changing food consumption behaviours requires a complex systems-based approach that addresses more than just individual issues variables. A participatory approach that works with local communities and seeks to build an understanding of unique challenges within sub-groups has potential for embedding long-lasting and meaningful change in eating behaviours.

  12. Do Not “Let Them Eat Cake”: Correlation of Food-Consumption Patterns among Rural Primary School Children from Welfare and Non-Welfare Households

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Daniel; Ervin, Kaye; Soutter, Erin; Spiller, Renata; Dalle Nogare, Nicole; Hamilton, Andrew John

    2016-01-01

    Physical and financial access impacts food choice and consumption, while educational attainment, employment, income, gender, and socioeconomic status are also influential. Within this context, the aim of the paper is to examine the association between various foods consumed and eating patterns of children between low and higher income households. A paper-based survey was completed by parents/carers of children in 41 primary schools in rural and regional areas of Victoria. Data collected included demographics and the consumption of fruit, vegetable, and other foods including drinks. Ordinal data were analysed using Spearman’s rank-order correlation. The main findings were that children who consumed more fruit and vegetables tended to have a higher intake of healthy drinks (plain milk and water) as well as a lower intake of unhealthy snacks and drinks (sugar sweetened drinks). Those who perceived that fruit and vegetables cost too much reported greater consumption of unhealthy snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages, which was more prominent in low-income households. Changing food consumption behaviours requires a complex systems-based approach that addresses more than just individual issues variables. A participatory approach that works with local communities and seeks to build an understanding of unique challenges within sub-groups has potential for embedding long-lasting and meaningful change in eating behaviours. PMID:28036055

  13. Alcohol consumption patterns among adolescents are related to family structure and exposure to drunkenness within the family: results from the SEYLE project.

    PubMed

    Rüütel, Erik; Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Airi; Värnik, Peeter; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina W; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Poštuvan, Vita; Sáiz, Pilar A; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-12-01

    There is expedient evidence showing that differences in adolescent alcohol consumption and other risk-behaviour depend on both family structure and family member drunkenness exposure. Data were obtained among adolescents (N = 12,115, mean age 14.9 ± 0.89) in Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy,Romania, Slovenia and Spain within the European Union'ss 7th Framework Programme funded project, 'Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE)’. The current study reveals how adolescents' alcohol consumption patterns are related to their family structure and having seen their family member drunk. The results revealed statistically significant differences in adolescent alcohol consumption depending on whether the adolescent lives in a family with both birth parents, in a single-parent family or in a family with one birth parent and one step-parent. The study also revealed that the abstaining from alcohol percentage among adolescents was greater in families with both birth parents compared to other family types. The study also showed that the more often adolescents see their family member drunk the more they drink themselves. There is no difference in adolescent drinking patterns whether they see their family member drunk once a month or once a week. This study gives an insight on which subgroups of adolescents are at heightened risk of alcohol abuse and that decrease of family member drunkenness may have positive effects on the drinking habits of their children.

  14. Alcohol Consumption Patterns among Adolescents are Related to Family Structure and Exposure to Drunkenness within the Family: Results from the SEYLE Project

    PubMed Central

    Rüütel, Erik; Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Airi; Värnik, Peeter; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina W.; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Poštuvan, Vita; Sáiz, Pilar A.; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    There is expedient evidence showing that differences in adolescent alcohol consumption and other risk-behaviour depend on both family structure and family member drunkenness exposure. Data were obtained among adolescents (N = 12,115, mean age 14.9 ± 0.89) in Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain within the European Union’s 7th Framework Programme funded project, ‘Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE)’. The current study reveals how adolescents’ alcohol consumption patterns are related to their family structure and having seen their family member drunk. The results revealed statistically significant differences in adolescent alcohol consumption depending on whether the adolescent lives in a family with both birth parents, in a single-parent family or in a family with one birth parent and one step-parent. The study also revealed that the abstaining from alcohol percentage among adolescents was greater in families with both birth parents compared to other family types. The study also showed that the more often adolescents see their family member drunk the more they drink themselves. There is no difference in adolescent drinking patterns whether they see their family member drunk once a month or once a week. This study gives an insight on which subgroups of adolescents are at heightened risk of alcohol abuse and that decrease of family member drunkenness may have positive effects on the drinking habits of their children. PMID:25493392

  15. Candy consumption patterns, effects on health, and behavioral strategies to promote moderation: summary report of a roundtable discussion.

    PubMed

    Duyff, Roberta L; Birch, Leann L; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Johnson, Susan L; Mattes, Richard D; Murphy, Mary M; Nicklas, Theresa A; Rollins, Brandi Y; Wansink, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Nearly all Americans (97%) report eating candy at least once per year; yet, on a given day, only approximately one-fourth of the US population aged ≥2 y consumes candy. Among all Americans, candy contributes a relatively small proportion of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat to the total diet, and recent research suggests that current levels of candy consumption are not associated with risk of weight gain and cardiovascular disease in children and adults. Providing guidance for the consumption of candy in moderation requires an understanding of various behavioral health-related factors that influence candy consumption. A roundtable of behavioral nutrition experts, researchers, and nutrition educators met to discuss recent data on intakes of candy, health outcomes associated with usual candy intake, and the impact of behavioral strategies, including restriction, education, and environmental awareness, on modifying eating behaviors to achieve moderate intakes of candy. Restricting access to palatable foods, whether self-imposed or by parental control, may have potentially negative consequences. Techniques and insight into how to adopt "moderation" in candy consumption, from effective parental practices to environmental strategies that facilitate behavior change without a high degree of effort, were identified as important next steps toward sustainable dietary guidance related to the role of candy and other treats in a healthy lifestyle. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Gender, Alcohol Consumption Patterns, and Engagement in Sexually Intimate Behaviors among Adolescents and Young Adults in Nha Trang, Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaljee, Linda M.; Green, Mackenzie S.; Zhan, Min; Riel, Rosemary; Lerdboon, Porntip; Lostutter, Ty W.; Tho, Le Huu; Luong, Vo Van; Minh, Truong Tan

    2011-01-01

    A randomly selected cross-sectional survey was conducted with 880 youth (16 to 24 years) in Nha Trang City to assess relationships between alcohol consumption and sexual behaviors. A timeline followback method was employed. Chi-square, generalized logit modeling and logistic regression analyses were performed. Of the sample, 78.2% male and 56.1%…

  17. Candy Consumption Patterns, Effects on Health, and Behavioral Strategies to Promote Moderation: Summary Report of a Roundtable Discussion12

    PubMed Central

    Duyff, Roberta L; Birch, Leann L; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Johnson, Susan L; Mattes, Richard D; Murphy, Mary M; Nicklas, Theresa A; Rollins, Brandi Y; Wansink, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Nearly all Americans (97%) report eating candy at least once per year; yet, on a given day, only approximately one-fourth of the US population aged ≥2 y consumes candy. Among all Americans, candy contributes a relatively small proportion of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat to the total diet, and recent research suggests that current levels of candy consumption are not associated with risk of weight gain and cardiovascular disease in children and adults. Providing guidance for the consumption of candy in moderation requires an understanding of various behavioral health-related factors that influence candy consumption. A roundtable of behavioral nutrition experts, researchers, and nutrition educators met to discuss recent data on intakes of candy, health outcomes associated with usual candy intake, and the impact of behavioral strategies, including restriction, education, and environmental awareness, on modifying eating behaviors to achieve moderate intakes of candy. Restricting access to palatable foods, whether self-imposed or by parental control, may have potentially negative consequences. Techniques and insight into how to adopt “moderation” in candy consumption, from effective parental practices to environmental strategies that facilitate behavior change without a high degree of effort, were identified as important next steps toward sustainable dietary guidance related to the role of candy and other treats in a healthy lifestyle. PMID:25593156

  18. Gender, Alcohol Consumption Patterns, and Engagement in Sexually Intimate Behaviors among Adolescents and Young Adults in Nha Trang, Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaljee, Linda M.; Green, Mackenzie S.; Zhan, Min; Riel, Rosemary; Lerdboon, Porntip; Lostutter, Ty W.; Tho, Le Huu; Luong, Vo Van; Minh, Truong Tan

    2011-01-01

    A randomly selected cross-sectional survey was conducted with 880 youth (16 to 24 years) in Nha Trang City to assess relationships between alcohol consumption and sexual behaviors. A timeline followback method was employed. Chi-square, generalized logit modeling and logistic regression analyses were performed. Of the sample, 78.2% male and 56.1%…

  19. Clustering eating habits: frequent consumption of different dietary patterns among the Italian general population in the association with obesity, physical activity, sociocultural characteristics and psychological factors.

    PubMed

    Denoth, Francesca; Scalese, Marco; Siciliano, Valeria; Di Renzo, Laura; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2016-06-01

    (a) To identify clusters of eating patterns among the Italian population aged 15-64 years, focusing on typical Mediterranean diet (Med-diet) items consumption; (b) to examine the distribution of eating habits, as identified clusters, among age classes and genders; (c) evaluate the impact of: belonging to a specific eating cluster, level of physical activity (PA), sociocultural and psychological factors, as elements determining weight abnormalities. Data for this cross-sectional study were collected using self-reporting questionnaires administered to a sample of 33,127 subjects participating in the Italian population survey on alcohol and other drugs (IPSAD(®)2011). The cluster analysis was performed on a subsample (n = 5278 subjects) which provided information on eating habits, and adapted to identify categories of eating patterns. Stepwise multinomial regression analysis was performed to evaluate the associations between weight categories and eating clusters, adjusted for the following background variables: PA levels, sociocultural and psychological factors. Three clusters were identified: "Mediterranean-like", "Western-like" and "low fruit/vegetables". Frequent consumption of Med-diet patterns was more common among females and elderly. The relationship between overweight/obesity and male gender, educational level, PA, depression and eating disorders (p < 0.05) was confirmed. Belonging to a cluster other than "Mediterranean-like" was significantly associated with obesity. The low consumption of Med-diet patterns among youth, and the frequent association of sociocultural, psychological issues and inappropriate lifestyle with overweight/obesity, highlight the need for an interdisciplinary approach including market policies, to promote a wider awareness of the Mediterranean eating habit benefits in combination with an appropriate lifestyle.

  20. Application of near-infrared spectroscopy to predict sweetpotato starch thermal properties and noodle quality*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Guo-quan; Huang, Hua-hong; Zhang, Da-peng

    2006-01-01

    Sweetpotato starch thermal properties and its noodle quality were analyzed using a rapid predictive method based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). This method was established based on a total of 93 sweetpotato genotypes with diverse genetic background. Starch samples were scanned by NIRS and analyzed for quality properties by reference methods. Results of statistical modelling indicated that NIRS was reasonably accurate in predicting gelatinization onset temperature (T o) (standard error of prediction SEP=2.014 °C, coefficient of determination RSQ=0.85), gelatinization peak temperature (T p) (SEP=1.371 °C, RSQ=0.89), gelatinization temperature range (T r) (SEP=2.234 °C, RSQ=0.86), and cooling resistance (CR) (SEP=0.528, RSQ=0.89). Gelatinization completion temperature (T c), enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔH), cooling loss (CL) and swelling degree (SWD), were modelled less well with RSQ between 0.63 and 0.84. The present results suggested that the NIRS based method was sufficiently accurate and practical for routine analysis of sweetpotato starch and its noodle quality. PMID:16691642

  1. HPLC and UPLC methods for the determination of zearalenone in noodles, cereal snacks and infant formula.

    PubMed

    Ok, Hyun Ee; Choi, Sung-Wook; Kim, Meehye; Chun, Hyang Sook

    2014-11-15

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) were compared to validate a method for determination of zearalenone (ZON) in noodles, cereal snacks, and infant formulas. The limits of detection and quantification in HPLC and UPLC were found to be 4.0 and 13.0 μg kg(-1) and 2.5 and 8.3 μg kg(-1), respectively. The average recoveries of ZON by HPLC and UPLC ranged from 79.1% to 105.3% and from 85.1% to 114.5%, respectively. The measurement uncertainties of the two methods for ZON determination were within the maximum standard uncertainty. The two methods showed that the levels of ZON in 163 naturally contaminated samples ranged from 4.3 to 8.3 μg kg(-1) by HPLC and 3.1 to 17.6 μg kg(-1) by UPLC. These findings indicate that either method is suitable for the determination of ZON in noodles, cereal snacks, and infant formulas, but UPLC gives faster results with better sensitivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of near-infrared spectroscopy to predict sweetpotato starch thermal properties and noodle quality.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guo-quan; Huang, Hua-hong; Zhang, Da-peng

    2006-06-01

    Sweetpotato starch thermal properties and its noodle quality were analyzed using a rapid predictive method based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). This method was established based on a total of 93 sweetpotato genotypes with diverse genetic background. Starch samples were scanned by NIRS and analyzed for quality properties by reference methods. Results of statistical modelling indicated that NIRS was reasonably accurate in predicting gelatinization onset temperature (T(o)) (standard error of prediction SEP=2.014 degrees C, coefficient of determination RSQ=0.85), gelatinization peak temperature (T(p)) (SEP=1.371 degrees C, RSQ=0.89), gelatinization temperature range (T(r)) (SEP=2.234 degrees C, RSQ=0.86), and cooling resistance (CR) (SEP=0.528, RSQ=0.89). Gelatinization completion temperature (T(c)), enthalpy of gelatinization (DeltaH), cooling loss (CL) and swelling degree (SWD), were modelled less well with RSQ between 0.63 and 0.84. The present results suggested that the NIRS based method was sufficiently accurate and practical for routine analysis of sweetpotato starch and its noodle quality.

  3. Micronutrient Fortified Condiments and Noodles to Reduce Anemia in Children and Adults—A Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Sascha; Tecklenburg, Linda; Eichler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies impose a considerable burden of disease on many middle and low income countries. Several strategies have been shown to be effective in improving micronutrient deficiencies. However, the impact of fortified condiments as well as fortified noodles is less well documented. We aimed to investigate existing evidence on the impact of micronutrient fortified condiments and noodles on hemoglobin, anemia, and functional outcomes in children and adults (age: 5 to 50 years). We conducted a literature review in electronic databases. In addition, we screened the homepages of relevant organizations and journals. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT). Of 1046 retrieved studies, 14 RCT provided data for the meta-analysis. Micronutrient fortification of condiments and noodles increased hemoglobin concentrations by 0.74 g/dL (95%-confidence intervals (95%-CI): 0.56 to 0.93; 12 studies) and 0.3 g/dL (95%-CI: 0.12 to 0.48; 1 study), respectively. Micronutrient fortification also led to a reduced risk of having anemia (risk ratio 0.59 (95%-CI 0.44 to 0.80)). Ferritin concentrations increased with fortified condiments. Functional outcomes were rarely assessed and showed mixed results. The use of micronutrient fortified condiments can be a strategy to reduce anemia in children and adults due to micronutrient deficiencies. The effect of fortified noodles seems to be smaller. PMID:26891319

  4. Physicochemical and rheological properties of starch and flour from different durum wheat varieties and their relationships with noodle quality.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amritpal; Shevkani, Khetan; Katyal, Mehak; Singh, Narpinder; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2016-04-01

    Starch and flour properties of different Indian durum wheat varieties were evaluated and related to noodle-making properties. Flours were evaluated for pasting properties, protein characteristics (extractable as well as unextractable monomeric and polymeric proteins) and dough rheology (farinographic properties), while starches were evaluated for granule size, thermal, pasting, and rheological properties. Flour peak and final viscosities related negatively to the proportion of monomeric proteins but positively to that of polymeric proteins whereas opposite relations were observed for dough rheological properties (dough-development time and stability). Starches from varieties with higher proportion of large granules showed the presence of less stable amylose-lipids and had more swelling power, peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity than those with greater proportion of small granules. Noodle-cooking time related positively to the proportion of monomeric proteins and starch gelatinization temperatures but negatively to that of polymeric proteins and amylose content. Varieties with more proteins resulted in firmer noodles. Noodle-cohesiveness related positively to the proportion of polymeric proteins and amylose-lipids complexes whereas springiness correlated negatively to amylose content and retrogradation tendency of starches.

  5. Micronutrient Fortified Condiments and Noodles to Reduce Anemia in Children and Adults--A Literature Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hess, Sascha; Tecklenburg, Linda; Eichler, Klaus

    2016-02-15

    Micronutrient deficiencies impose a considerable burden of disease on many middle and low income countries. Several strategies have been shown to be effective in improving micronutrient deficiencies. However, the impact of fortified condiments as well as fortified noodles is less well documented. We aimed to investigate existing evidence on the impact of micronutrient fortified condiments and noodles on hemoglobin, anemia, and functional outcomes in children and adults (age: 5 to 50 years). We conducted a literature review in electronic databases. In addition, we screened the homepages of relevant organizations and journals. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT). Of 1046 retrieved studies, 14 RCT provided data for the meta-analysis. Micronutrient fortification of condiments and noodles increased hemoglobin concentrations by 0.74 g/dL (95%-confidence intervals (95%-CI): 0.56 to 0.93; 12 studies) and 0.3 g/dL (95%-CI: 0.12 to 0.48; 1 study), respectively. Micronutrient fortification also led to a reduced risk of having anemia (risk ratio 0.59 (95%-CI 0.44 to 0.80)). Ferritin concentrations increased with fortified condiments. Functional outcomes were rarely assessed and showed mixed results. The use of micronutrient fortified condiments can be a strategy to reduce anemia in children and adults due to micronutrient deficiencies. The effect of fortified noodles seems to be smaller.

  6. Sleep Quality, Sleep Patterns and Consumption of Energy Drinks and Other Caffeinated Beverages among Peruvian College Students

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Sixto E.; Martinez, Claudia; Oriol, Raphaelle A.; Yanez, David; Castañeda, Benjamín; Sanchez, Elena; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate sleep quality in relation to lifestyle characteristics including consumption of energy drinks and other caffeinated beverages among Peruvian college students. Methods A total of 2,458 college students were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire that collected information about a variety of behaviors including consumption of energy drinks, caffeinated and alcoholic beverages. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep quality. Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for poor sleep quality in relation to lifestyle characteristics. Results A total of 965 males and 1,493 female students were enrolled in the study. 52.0% of males and 58.4% of females experienced poor sleep quality (p=0.002). Females (OR=1.28; 95% CI 1.08–1.51) and those who reported consuming ≥ 3 stimulant beverages per week (OR=1.88; 95% CI 1.42–2.50) had higher odds of poor sleep quality. Students who consumed 1–19 alcoholic beverages monthly (OR=1.90; 95% CI 1.46–2.49) had a higher odds of long sleep latency. Consumption of ≥ 3 stimulant beverages per week was associated with daytime dysfunction due to sleep loss (OR=1.45; 95% CI 1.10–1.90), short sleep duration (OR= 1.49; 95% CI 1.14–1.94), and use of sleep medication (OR= 2.10; 95% CI 1.35–3.28). Conclusions Consumption of energy drinks, other caffeinated beverages and alcoholic beverages are risk factors of poor sleep quality. Increased awareness of these associations should promote interventions to improve students’ lifestyle habits, including consumption of alcoholic and caffeinated beverages, and overall health. PMID:25243056

  7. Alcohol consumption pattern and risk of Barrett's oesophagus and erosive oesophagitis: an Italian case-control study.

    PubMed

    Filiberti, Rosa A; Fontana, Vincenzo; De Ceglie, Antonella; Blanchi, Sabrina; Grossi, Enzo; Della Casa, Domenico; Lacchin, Teresa; De Matthaeis, Marina; Ignomirelli, Orazio; Cappiello, Roberta; Rosa, Alessandra; Foti, Monica; Laterza, Francesco; D'Onofrio, Vittorio; Iaquinto, Gaetano; Conio, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge about the association between alcohol and Barrett's oesophagus and reflux oesophagitis is conflicting. In this case-control study we evaluated the role of specific alcoholic beverages (red and white wine, beer and liquors) in 339 Barrett's oesophagus and 462 oesophagitis patients compared with 619 endoscopic controls with other disorders, recruited in twelve Italian endoscopic units. Data on alcohol and other individual characteristics were obtained from structured questionnaires. No clear, monotonic significant dose-response relationship was pointed out for red wine. However, a generalised U-shaped trend of Barrett's oesophagus/oesophagitis risk due to red wine consumption particularly among current drinkers was found. Similar results were also found for white wine. Liquor/spirit consumption seemed to bring about a 1·14-2·30 risk excess, although statistically non-significant, for current Barrett's oesophagus/oesophagitis drinkers. Statistically significant decreasing dose-response relationships were found in Barrett's oesophagus for frequency and duration of beer consumption. Similar, but less clear downward tendencies were also found for oesophagitis patients. In conclusion, although often not statistically significant, our data suggested a reduced risk of Barrett's oesophagus and oesophagitis with a low/moderate intake of wine and beer consumption. A non-significant increased risk of Barrett's oesophagus/oesophagitis was observed with a higher intake of any type of heavy alcohol consumption, but no conclusion can be drawn owing to the high number of non-spirit drinkers and to the small number of drinkers at higher alcohol intake levels.

  8. Early Ethanol and Water Consumption: Accumulating Experience Differentially Regulates Drinking Pattern and Bout Parameters in Male Alcohol Preferring (P) vs. Wistar and Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Azarov, Alexey V.; Woodward, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol-preferring (P) rats develop high ethanol intake over several weeks of water/10% ethanol (10E) choice drinking. However, it is not yet clear precisely what components of drinking behavior undergo modification to achieve higher intake. Our concurrent report compared precisely measured daily intake in P vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Here we analyze their drinking patterns and bouts to clarify microbehavioral components that are common to rats of different origin, vs. features that are unique to each. Under sole-fluid conditions P, Wistar and SD rats all consumed water at a high initial rate followed by a slow maintenance phase, but 10E - in a distinctly different step-like pattern of evenly distributed bouts. During choice period, 10E vs. water patterns for P rat appeared as an overlap of sole-fluid patterns. The SD rat choice patterns resembled sole-fluid patterns but were less regular. Choice patterns in Wistar differed from both P and SD rats, by consisting of intermixed small frequent episodes of drinking both 10E and water. Wistar and SD rats increased choice ethanol intake by elevating the number of bouts. A key finding was that P rat increased choice ethanol intake through a gradual increase of the bout size and duration, but kept bout number constant. This supports the hypothesis that genetic selection modifies microbehavioral machinery controlling drinking bout initiation, duration, and other pattern features. Precision analysis of drinking patterns and bouts allows differentiation between genetic lines, and provides a venue for study of localized circuit and transmitter influences mediating mesolimbic control over ethanol consumption. PMID:24095931

  9. Early ethanol and water consumption: accumulating experience differentially regulates drinking pattern and bout parameters in male alcohol preferring (P) vs. Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Azarov, Alexey V; Woodward, Donald J

    2014-01-17

    Alcohol-preferring (P) rats develop high ethanol intake over several weeks of water/10% ethanol (10E) choice drinking. However, it is not yet clear precisely what components of drinking behavior undergo modification to achieve higher intake. Our concurrent report compared precisely measured daily intake in P vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Here we analyze their drinking patterns and bouts to clarify microbehavioral components that are common to rats of different genetic backgrounds, vs. features that are unique to each. Under sole-fluid conditions P, Wistar and SD rats all consumed water at a high initial rate followed by a slow maintenance phase, but 10E - in a distinctly different step-like pattern of evenly distributed bouts. During choice period, 10E vs. water patterns for P rat appeared as an overlap of sole-fluid patterns. The SD rat choice patterns resembled sole-fluid patterns but were less regular. Choice patterns in Wistar differed from both P and SD rats, by consisting of intermixed small frequent episodes of drinking both 10E and water. Wistar and SD rats increased choice ethanol intake by elevating the number of bouts. A key finding was that P rat increased choice ethanol intake through a gradual increase of the bout size and duration, but kept bout number constant. This supports the hypothesis that genetic selection modifies microbehavioral machinery controlling drinking bout initiation, duration, and other pattern features. Precision analysis of drinking patterns and bouts allows differentiation between genetic lines, and provides a venue for study of localized circuit and transmitter influences mediating mesolimbic control over ethanol consumption. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved

  10. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns.

    PubMed

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Kosinski, Karen C; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N; Ayamgah, Gilbert A; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M; Plummer, Jeanine D; Naumova, Elena N

    2016-07-15

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public standpipes of four PWSs in Ghana in order to assess clean water demand relative to other available water sources. Low water consumption was evident in all study towns, which manifested temporally and spatially. Temporal variability in water consumption that is negatively correlated with rainfall is an indicator of rainwater preference when it is available. Furthermore, our findings show that standpipes in close proximity to alternative water sources such as streams and hand-dug wells suffer further reductions in water consumption. Qualitative data suggest that consumer demand in the study towns appears to be driven more by water quantity, accessibility, and perceived aesthetic water quality, as compared to microbiological water quality or price. In settings with chronic under-utilization of improved water sources, increasing water demand through household connections, improving water quality with respect to taste and appropriateness for laundry, and educating residents about health benefits of using piped water should be prioritized. Continued consumer demand and sufficient revenue generation are important attributes of a water service that ensure its function over time. Our findings suggest that analyzing water consumption of existing metered PWSs in combination with qualitative approaches may enable more efficient planning of community-based water supplies and support sustainable development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Post-deepwater horizon blowout seafood consumption patterns and community-specific levels of concern for selected chemicals among children in Mobile County, Alabama.

    PubMed

    Sathiakumar, Nalini; Tipre, Meghan; Turner-Henson, Anne; Chen, Ligong; Leader, Mark; Gohlke, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the study was to characterize risk pertaining to seafood consumption patterns following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, among school children (K to 4th grade) residing in close proximity to the Gulf of Mexico in Mobile County, Alabama. Responses on seafood consumption pattern including the type of seafood and intake rate during the pre and post oil spill periods, from parents of 55 school children from three schools located <20mile radius from the Gulf of Mexico shoreline (coastal group) were compared with those from parents of 55 children from three schools located ≥20miles away from the shoreline (inland group). We also estimated levels of concern (LOCs) in seafood for selected chemicals found in crude oil including heavy metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (DOSS), the primary compound in dispersants. The coastal group ate more seafood consisting primarily of crustaceans (62% vs. 42%, p=0.04) and fin fish (78% vs. 58%, p=0.02) from the Gulf of Mexico compared to the inland group, while the inland group ate more fin fish not found in the Gulf of Mexico (62% vs. 33%, p<0.01). In the post-oil spill time period, both groups substantially reduced their consumption of sea food. On average, the coastal group ate ≥2 seafood meals per week, while the inland group ate ≤1 meal per week; these frequency patterns persisted in the post oil-spill period. Comparison of the estimated LOCs with contaminant levels detected in the seafood tested by the Food and Drug Administration and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, post-oil spill, found that the levels of PAHs, arsenic, and DOSS in seafood were 1-2 orders of magnitude below the LOCs calculated in our study. Levels of methyl mercury (MeHg) in the seafood tested pre- and post- oil spill were higher than the estimated LOCs suggesting presence of higher levels of MeHg in seafood independent of the oil spill. In sum, the study found higher than average

  12. Consumption patterns and levels among households with HIV positive members and economic impoverishment due to medical spending in Pune city, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Varun; Krishnaswamy, Divya; Mulay, Sanjeevanee

    2015-01-01

    HIV infection poses a serious threat to the economy of a household. Out of pocket (OOP) health spending can be prohibitive and can drag households below poverty level. Based on the data collected from a cross-sectional survey of 401 households with HIV+ members in Pune city, India, this paper examines the consumption levels and patterns among households, and comments on the economic impoverishment resulting from OOP medical spending. Analysis reveals that households with HIV members spend a major portion of their monthly consumption expenditure on food items. Medical expenditure constitutes a large portion of their total consumption spending. Expenditure on children's education constitutes a minor proportion of total monthly spending. A high proportion of medical expenditure has a bearing on the economic condition of households with HIV members. Poverty increases by 20% among the studied HIV households when OOP health spending is adjusted. It increases 18% among male-headed households and 26% among female-headed households. The results reiterate the need of greater support from the government in terms of accessibility and affordability of health care to save households with HIV members from economic catastrophe.

  13. Non-Fatal Injury in Thailand From 2005 to 2013: Incidence Trends and Links to Alcohol Consumption Patterns in the Thai Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wakabayashi, Mami; Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Banwell, Cathy; Kelly, Matthew; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; McKetin, Rebecca; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Background We analyzed population-based injury trends and the association between injury and alcohol consumption patterns in Thailand, a middle-income country undergoing rapid social change. Methods A nationwide cohort of 42 785 Thai adult Open University students, who were aged 15 to 87 years at enrolment, participated in cross-sectional assessments at baselin