Sample records for nootropic drug noopept

  1. [The original novel nootropic and neuroprotective agent noopept].

    PubMed

    Ostrovskaia, R U; Gudasheva, T A; Voronina, T A; Seredenin, S B

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes pharmacological properties of the new nootropic drug noopept created using an original approach based on the imitation of a nonpeptide nootrope structure by means of the short-peptide design. In particular, the structure of pyracetam was designed using dipeptide nootropes. Experimental investigations of noopept (N-phenylacetyl-L-polyglycine ethyl ester) showed that the new drug exceeds pyracetam both with respect to the effective dose level (1000 times lower for noopept than for pyracetam) and in the spectrum of mnemotropic activity. In contrast to pyracetam facilitating only the early stages of the memory process, noopept positively influences the memory consolidation and retrieval steps as well. The new drug produces an additional selective anxiolytic action. The pronounced neuroprotective effect of noopept was demonstrated both in vivo (in cases of various forms of brain ischemia) and in vitro (on various neuronal models). The drug action is based on the antioxidant effect, the antiinflammatory action, and the ability to inhibit the neurotoxicity of excess calcium and glutamate, and to improve the blood rheology. It was established for the first time that the activity of noopept is retained both upon parenteral introduction and upon peroral administration, which is a principal advantage of this proline-containing dipeptide over other, more complex peptides. This property provided a basis for the development of a medicinal form of noopept for peroral usage. At present, noopept tablets (noopept 5 and 10 mg) are under clinical assessment as a means of treating cognitive deficiency of cerebrovascular and post-traumatic origin.

  2. [The original nootropic and neuroprotective drug noopept potentiates the anticonvulsant activity of valproate in mice].

    PubMed

    Kravchenko, E V; Ponteleeva, I V; Trofimov, S S; Lapa, V I; Ostrovskaia, R U; Voronina, T A

    2009-01-01

    The influence of the original dipeptide drug noopept, known to possess nootrope, neuroprotector, and anxiolytic properties, on the anticonvulsant activity of the antiepileptic drug valproate has been studied on the model of corazole-induced convulsions in mice. Neither a single administration of noopept (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) nor its repeated introduction in 10 or 35 days enhanced the convulsant effect of corazole, which is evidence that noopept alone does not possess anticonvulsant properties. Prolonged (five weeks) preliminary administration of noopept enhanced the anticonvulsant activity of valproate. This result justifies the joint chronic administration of noopept in combination with valproate in order to potentiate the anticonvulsant effect of the latter drug. In addition, the administration of noopept favorably influences the cognitive functions and suppresses the development of neurodegenerative processes.

  3. Neuroprotective and nootropic drug noopept rescues α-synuclein amyloid cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xueen; Gharibyan, Anna L; Öhman, Anders; Liu, Yonggang; Olofsson, Anders; Morozova-Roche, Ludmilla A

    2011-12-16

    Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by α-synuclein (α-Syn)-containing Lewy body formation and selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. We have demonstrated the modulating effect of noopept, a novel proline-containing dipeptide drug with nootropic and neuroprotective properties, on α-Syn oligomerization and fibrillation by using thioflavin T fluorescence, far-UV CD, and atomic force microscopy techniques. Noopept does not bind to a sterically specific site in the α-Syn molecule as revealed by heteronuclear two-dimensional NMR analysis, but due to hydrophobic interactions with toxic amyloid oligomers, it prompts their rapid sequestration into larger fibrillar amyloid aggregates. Consequently, this process rescues the cytotoxic effect of amyloid oligomers on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells as demonstrated by using cell viability assays and fluorescent staining of apoptotic and necrotic cells and by assessing the level of intracellular oxidative stress. The mitigating effect of noopept against amyloid oligomeric cytotoxicity may offer additional benefits to the already well-established therapeutic functions of this new pharmaceutical. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Effect of the novel dipeptide nootropic agent noopept and its metabolite cyclo-L-prolylglycine on the transcallosal evoked potential in the rat brain].

    PubMed

    Molodavkin, G M; Borlikova, G G; Voronina, T A; Gudasheva, T A; Ostrovskaia, R U; Tushmalova, N A; Seredenin, S B

    2002-01-01

    The effect of new nootropic dipeptides--noopept (N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine, GVS-111) and its metabolite (cyclo-L-prolylglycine)--and a standard nootrope piracetam on the transcallosal evoked potential (TEP) in rat brain was studied. In the dose range from 150 to 300 mg/kg, piracetam increased the TEP amplitude, which exhibited a maximum after 1.5-2 h and then gradually decreased. Both noopept and cyclo-L-prolylglycine also increased the TEP amplitude, which attained a plateau and retained this level over the entire observation time (above 3.5 h). All the nootropes studied increased both components of the evoked potential. Piracetam and cyclo-L-prolylglycine led to an approximately equal increase in both waves, while noopept induced a somewhat greater increase in the negative TEP wave amplitude. It is suggested that the positive effect of noopept and cyclo-L-prolylglycine upon the interhemispheric signal transfer (indicated by the improved transcallosal response) can be considered as a potential neurophysiological basis for a positive drug influence on the behavioral level.

  5. Novel nootropic dipeptide Noopept increases inhibitory synaptic transmission in CA1 pyramidal cells.

    PubMed

    Kondratenko, Rodion V; Derevyagin, Vladimir I; Skrebitsky, Vladimir G

    2010-05-31

    Effects of newly synthesized nootropic and anxiolytic dipeptide Noopept on inhibitory synaptic transmission in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells were investigated using patch-clamp technique in whole-cell configuration. Bath application of Noopept (1 microM) significantly increased the frequency of spike-dependant spontaneous IPSCs whereas spike-independent mIPSCs remained unchanged. It was suggested that Noopept mediates its effect due to the activation of inhibitory interneurons terminating on CA1 pyramidal cells. Results of current clamp recording of inhibitory interneurons residing in stratum radiatum confirmed this suggestion. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Effects of nootropic drugs on behavior of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice in the exploratory cross-maze test].

    PubMed

    Vasil'eva, E V; Salimov, R M; Kovalev, G I

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory behavior, locomotor activity, and anxiety in inbred mice of C57BL/6 and BALB/c strains subchronically treated with placebo or various types of nootropic (cognition enhancing) drugs (piracetam, phenotropil, noopept, semax, pantogam, nooglutil) have been evaluated using the exploratory cross-maze test. It was found that BALB/c mice in comparison to C57BL/6 mice are characterized by greater anxiety and lower efficiency of exploratory behavior in the previously unfamiliar environment. All tested drugs clearly improved the exploratory behavior in BALB/c mice only. In BALB/c mice, piracetam, phenotropil, noopept, and semax also reduced anxiety, while phenotropil additionally increased locomotor activity. Thus, the nootropic drugs displayed clear positive modulation of spontaneous orientation in the mice strain with initially low exploratory efficiency (BALB/c) in the cross-maze test. Some drugs (pantogam, nooglutil) exhibited only nootropic properties, while the other drugs exhibited both nootropic effects on the exploratory activity and produced modulation of the anxiety level (piracetam, fenotropil, noopept, semax) and locomotor activity (fenotropil).

  7. Nootropic dipeptide noopept enhances inhibitory synaptic transmission in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Povarov, I S; Kondratenko, R V; Derevyagin, V I; Ostrovskaya, R U; Skrebitskii, V G

    2015-01-01

    Application of nootropic agent Noopept on hippocampal slices from Wistar rats enhanced the inhibitory component of total current induced by stimulation of Shaffer collaterals in CA1 pyramidal neurons, but did not affect the excitatory component. A direct correlation between the increase in the amplitude of inhibitory current and agent concentration was found. The substance did not affect the release of inhibitory transmitters from terminals in the pyramidal neurons, which indicated changes in GABAergic interneurons.

  8. [Preclinical study of noopept toxicity].

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, L P; Smol'nikova, N M; Alekseeva, S V; Nemova, E P; Sorokina, A V; Miramedova, M G; Kurapova, S P; Sidorina, E I; Kulakova, A V; Daugel'-Dauge, N O

    2002-01-01

    Within the framework of a preclinical investigation, the new nootrope drug noopept (N-phenyl-acetyl-L-propyl-glycine ethylate) was tested for chronic toxicity upon peroral administration in a dose of 10 or 100 mg/kg over 6 months in both male and female rabbits. The results of observations showed that noopept administered in this dose range induced no irreversible pathologic changes in the organs and systems studied and exhibited no allergenic, immunotoxic, and mutagen activity. The drug affected neither the generative function nor the antenatal or postnatal progeny development. Noopept produced a dose-dependent suppression of inflammation reaction to concanavalin A and stimulated the cellular and humoral immune response in mice.

  9. Efficiency of noopept in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.

    PubMed

    Ostrovskaya, R U; Ozerova, I V; Gudascheva, T A; Kapitsa, I G; Ivanova, E A; Voronina, T A; Seredenin, S B

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of new nootropic and neuroprotective drug Noopept (N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester) in various dosage regimens on the dynamics of glycemia, body weight, and pain sensitivity in rats receiving diabetogenic toxin streptozotocin. In experimental diabetic rats, Noopept alleviated glycemia and weight loss and normalized enhanced pain sensitivity. The normalizing effect of Noopept was most pronounced when it was administered as a preventive agent prior to injection of the toxin. Both preventive and therapeutic administration of Noopept (delayed injections included) significantly weakened the examined metabolic effects of diabetogenic toxin. Possible mechanisms of the antidiabetic action of Noopept are analyzed.

  10. [Studying specific effects of nootropic drugs on glutamate receptors in the rat brain].

    PubMed

    Firstova, Iu Iu; Vasil'eva, E V; Kovalev, G I

    2011-01-01

    The influence of nootropic drugs of different groups (piracetam, phenotropil, nooglutil, noopept, semax, meclofenoxate, pantocalcine, and dimebon) on the binding of the corresponding ligands to AMPA, NMDA, and mGlu receptors of rat brain has been studied by the method of radio-ligand binding in vitro. It is established that nooglutil exhibits pharmacologically significant competition with a selective agonist of AMPA receptors ([G-3H]Ro 48-8587) for the receptor binding sites (with IC50 = 6.4 +/- 0.2 microM), while the competition of noopept for these receptor binding sites was lower by an order of magnitude (IC50 = 80 +/- 5.6 microM). The heptapeptide drug semax was moderately competitive with [G-3H]LY 354740 for mGlu receptor sites (IC50 = 33 +/- 2.4 microM). Dimebon moderately influenced the specific binding of the ligand of NMDA receptor channel ([G-3H]MK-801) at IC50 = 59 +/- 3.6 microM. Nootropic drugs of the pyrrolidone group (piracetam, phenotropil) as well as meclofenoxate, pantocalcine (pantogam) in a broad rage of concentrations (10(-4)-10(-10) M) did not affect the binding of the corresponding ligands to glutamate receptors (IC50 100 pM). Thus, the direct neurochemical investigation was used for the first time to qualitatively characterize the specific binding sites for nooglutil and (to a lower extent) noopept on AMPA receptors, for semax on metabotropic glutamate receptors, and for dimebon on the channel region of NMDA receptors. The results are indicative of a selective action of some nootropes on the glutamate family.

  11. [Clinical and electroencephalographic characteristic of noopept in patients with mild cognitive impairment of posttraumatic and vascular origin].

    PubMed

    Bochkarev, V K; Teleshova, E S; Siuniakov, S A; Davydova, D V; Neznamov, G G

    2008-01-01

    An effect of a new nootropic drug noopept on the dynamics of main EEG rhythms and narrow-band spectral EEG characteristics in patients with cerebral asthenic and cognitive disturbances caused by traumas or vascular brain diseases has been studied. Noopept caused the EEG changes characteristic of the action of nootropics: the increase of alpha- and beta-rhythms power and reduction of delta-rhythms power. The reaction of alpha-rhythm was provided mostly by the dynamics of its low and medium frequencies (6,7-10,2 Hz), the changes of beta-rhythm were augmented in frontal and attenuated in occipital areas. The analysis of frequency and spatial structure of EEG changes reveals that noopept exerts a nonspecific activation and anxyolytic effect. The differences in EEG changes depending on the brain pathology were found. The EEG indices of nootropic effect of the drug were most obvious in cerebral vascular diseases. The EEG changes in posttraumatic brain lesion were less typical.

  12. Noopept stimulates the expression of NGF and BDNF in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Ostrovskaya, R U; Gudasheva, T A; Zaplina, A P; Vahitova, Ju V; Salimgareeva, M H; Jamidanov, R S; Seredenin, S B

    2008-09-01

    We studied the effect of original dipeptide preparation Noopept (N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester, GVS-111) with nootropic and neuroprotective properties on the expression of mRNA for neurotropic factors NGF and BDNF in rat hippocampus. Expression of NGF and BDNF mRNA in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus was studied by Northern blot analysis. Taking into account the fact that pharmacological activity of Noopept is realized after both acute and chronic treatment, we studied the effect of single and long-term treatment (28 days) with this drug. Expression of the studied neurotropic factors in the cerebral cortex was below the control after single administration of Noopept, while chronic administration caused a slight increase in BDNF expression. In the hippocampus, expression of mRNA for both neurotrophins increased after acute administration of Noopept. Chronic treatment with Noopept was not followed by the development of tolerance, but even potentiated the neurotrophic effect. These changes probably play a role in neuronal restoration. We showed that the nootropic drug increases expression of neurotrophic factors in the hippocampus. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that neurotrophin synthesis in the hippocampus determines cognitive function, particularly in consolidation and delayed memory retrieval. Published data show that neurotrophic factor deficiency in the hippocampus is observed not only in advanced Alzheimer's disease, but also at the stage of mild cognitive impairment (pre-disease state). In light of this our findings suggest that Noopept holds much promise to prevent the development of Alzheimer's disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Moreover, therapeutic effectiveness of Noopept should be evaluated at the initial stage of Alzheimer's disease.

  13. [Behavior of mice from different strains: modifications produced by noopept].

    PubMed

    Bel'nik, A P; Ostrovskaia, R U; Poletaeva, I I

    2007-01-01

    Genotype-dependent behavioral effects were demonstrated in BALB/c, C57BL/6J [Russian character: see text] DBA/2J mice after injections of nootropic drug Noopept. In an elevated plus maze, drug administration induced an increase in the number of enterings into bright arms in BALB/c mice, whereas the opposite effect was observed in C57BL/6J. After the Noopept administration, animals from all the three strains increased the number of active avoidance reactions in stress-inducing slip-funnel test. A significant intensification of exploration behavior was observed in a closed plus-maze in BALB/c and C57BL/6J. The Noopept affected weakly or had no effect on the behavior of DBA/2J mice.

  14. Dipeptide preparation Noopept prevents scopolamine-induced deficit of spatial memory in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Belnik, A P; Ostrovskaya, R U; Poletaeva, I I

    2007-04-01

    The effect of original nootropic preparation Noopept on learning and long-term memory was studied with BALB/c mice. Scopolamine (1 mg/kg) impaired long-term memory trace, while Noopept (0.5 mg/kg) had no significant effect. Noopept completely prevented the development of cognitive disorders induced by scopolamine (blockade of muscarinic cholinergic receptors). Our results confirmed the presence of choline-positive effect in dipeptide piracetam analogue Noopept on retrieval of learned skill of finding a submerged platform (spatial memory). We conclude that the effectiveness of this drug should be evaluated in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  15. [Platelet hyperreactivity and antiaggregatory properties of nootropic drugs under conditions of alloxan-induced diabetes in rats].

    PubMed

    Zhiliuk, V I; Levykh, A É; Mamchur, V I

    2012-01-01

    The effects of nootropic drugs (noopept, pentoxifylline, piracetam, pramiracetam, Ginkgo biloba extract, entrop, cerebrocurin and citicoline) on platelet aggregation in rats with experimental diabetes have been studied. It is established that all these drugs exhibit an inhibitory action of various degrees against platelet hyperreactivity under conditions of chronic hyperglycemia. The maximum universality of the antiaggregatory action is characteristic of pramiracetam, entrop and Ginkgo biloba extract.

  16. Noopept normalizes parameters of the incretin system in rats with experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ostrovskaya, R U; Zolotov, N N; Ozerova, I V; Ivanova, E A; Kapitsa, I G; Taraban, K V; Michunskaya, A M; Voronina, T A; Gudasheva, T A; Seredenin, S B

    2014-07-01

    Experiments on adult Wistar rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes showed that antihyperglycemic activity of an original nootropic and neuroprotective drug Noopept (N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester) is more pronounced under conditions of oral application than after intraperitoneal injection. These data provided a basis for studying the effect of Noopept on major indexes of the incretin system. Streptozotocin was shown to decrease the concentrations of incretin GLP-1 and insulin in the blood. Noopept had a normalizing effect on these parameters. This influence of Noopept was not related to the inhibition of a major enzyme metabolizing incretins (dipeptidyl peptidase IV). A reference drug sitagliptin also increased the contents of incretins and insulin, which was associated with the inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV. It is known that GLP-1 increases NGF expression in the insular system. Our results suggest that the increase in incretin activity contributes to the antiapoptotic effect of Noopept on pancreatic β cells. The mechanism for an increase in blood GLP-1 level after oral application of Noopept requires further investigations.

  17. [Anti-inflammatory properties of noopept (dipeptide nootropic agent GVS-111)].

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, L P; Miramedova, M G; Alekseeva, S V; Gudasheva, T A; Ostrovskaia, R U; Seredenin, S B

    2002-01-01

    It is established that single intravenous (0.5 and 5 mg/kg, p.o.) or single peroral (10, 50, 100 mg/kg) and prolonged peroral (5 mg/kg, over 10 days) administration of noopept produces a dose-dependent inhibition of the model inflammatory response to concanavaline A in CBA mice. Intravenously injected (5 mg/kg) noopept suppressed the acute nonimmune carrageenan-induced foot inflammation in rats by 62.2% within 3 h. The most pronounced antiinflammatory effect of dipeptide was observed on the model of adjuvant arthritis in rats, where the drug administered over 25 days in a daily dose of 0.5 mg/kg (i.m.) or 5 mg/kg (p.o.) significantly reduced the chronic immune inflammation (on the 12th day, by 94.0 and 74.1%, respectively). The in vitro experiments with neutrophilic leukocytes of F1(CBA.C57BL/6) mice treated with noopept in a single dose of 5 mg/kg (i.v.) showed a 5- to 6-fold suppression of the hemiluminescence stimulated by opsoinized zymosan or phorbolmyristate acetate. It is suggested that the antiinflammatory activity of noopept is probably related to its antioxidant properties.

  18. [Effects of noopept and cortexin on the behavior of matured rats treated with corticoliberin or 70-kDa heat shock proteins in early ontogeny].

    PubMed

    Shabanov, P D; Lebedev, A A; Stetsenko, V P; Lavrov, N V; Sablina, G V; Gudasheva, T A; Ostrovaskaia, R U

    2007-01-01

    Young Wistar rats aged 4 days were injected intraperitoneally with corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), which is an agent activating the stress system, or 70-kDa heat shock proteins (HSP-70)--intracellular shaperons, possessing antistress properties. In grown adult rats aged 90-100 days, the effects of nootropic drugs noopept and cortexin (1 mg/kg, i.p.) were assessed. The activation of stress or antistress systems with CRH or HSP-70 significantly altered the drug action. The effects were different in males and females and depended on animal gender. The spectrum of pharmacological activity of noopept and cortexin changed: noopept demonstrated preferable psychoactivating and antiaggressive effects, whereas cortexin showed mild anxiolytic and antidepressant activity. It is suggested that the behavioral effects of nootropes depend on the conditions of the stress system formation in early ontogeny.

  19. Effect of Noopept on Dynamics of Intracellular Calcium in Neurons of Cultured Rat Hippocampal Slices.

    PubMed

    Kolbaev, S N; Aleksandrova, O P; Sharonova, I N; Skrebitsky, V G

    2018-01-01

    A neuroprotective and nootropic drug Noopept increased the frequency of spontaneous calcium transients in neurons of CA1 radial layer in cultured rat hippocampal slices. In contrast, the drug exerted no significant effect on intracellular calcium concentration and its dynamics in neurons of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal layer.

  20. The nootropic and neuroprotective proline-containing dipeptide noopept restores spatial memory and increases immunoreactivity to amyloid in an Alzheimer's disease model.

    PubMed

    Ostrovskaya, Rita U; Gruden, Marina A; Bobkova, Natalya A; Sewell, Robert D E; Gudasheva, Tatyana A; Samokhin, Alexander N; Seredinin, Sergey B; Noppe, Wim; Sherstnev, Vladimir V; Morozova-Roche, Ludmilla A

    2007-08-01

    The effects of the novel proline-containing nootropic and neuroprotective dipeptide, noopept (GVS-111, N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester) were investigated in NMRI mice following olfactory bulbectomy. We have shown previously that these animals developed Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like behaviour, morphology and biochemistry including impairment of spatial memory, regional neuronal degeneration and elevated Abeta peptide brain levels. In the current investigation, spatial memory was assessed using the Morris water maze and serum antibodies to in vitro morphologically characterized amyloid structures of both Abeta((25-35)) peptide and equine lysozyme, as well as to neurotrophic glial factor S100b, were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Noopept (administered at a dose of 0.01 mg/kg for a period of 21 days and during a further 5 days training) restored spatial memory and increased serum antibody levels to oligomers of Abeta((25-35)) peptide but not to equine lysozyme amyloid or S100b protein in bulbectomized animals. The positive immunotropic effect of noopept to Abeta((25-35)) peptide prefibrillar aggregates was more marked in sham-operated compared to the bulbectomized subjects which were characterized by an overall suppression of immunoreactivity. Enhancement of the immune response to Abeta((25-35)) peptide prefibrils caused by noopept may attenuate the neurotoxic consequences of amyloid fibrillization and also be associated with an improvement in spatial memory in bulbectomized mice. These actions of noopept, combined with its previously reported neuroprotective and cholinomimetic properties, suggests that this dipeptide may well be useful for improving cognitive deficits induced by neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Original nootropic drug noopept prevents memory deficit in rats with muscarinic and nicotinic receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Radionova, K S; Belnik, A P; Ostrovskaya, R U

    2008-07-01

    Antiamnesic activity of Noopept was studied on the original three-way model of conditioned passive avoidance response, which allows studying spatial component of memory. Cholinoceptor antagonists of both types (scopolamine and mecamylamine) decreased entry latency and reduced the probability for selection of the safe compartment. Noopept abolished the antiamnesic effect of cholinoceptor antagonists and improved spatial preference.

  2. Early postnatal effects of noopept and piracetam on declarative and procedural memory of adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Trofimov, S S; Voronina, T A; Guzevatykh, L S

    2005-06-01

    We studied the effect of a new nootropic dipeptide Noopept and reference nootropic preparation piracetam injected subcutaneously on days 8-20 of life on learning of alternative feeding response in a 6-arm-maze in male and female rats. Early postnatal administration of Noopept disturbed the dynamics of learning by parameters of declarative and procedural memory. Piracetam impaired learning by parameters of procedural, but not declarative memory (only in males). Both preparations decreased the ratio of successfully learned males (but not females). The observed effects were not associated with changes in locomotor activity.

  3. [Noopept in the treatment of mild cognitive impairment in patients with stroke].

    PubMed

    Amelin, A V; Iliukhina, A Iu; Shmonin, A A

    2011-01-01

    Noopept is a neuroprotector and nootropics. Literature data revealed the treatment effect of noopept on mild cognitive impairment in patients with discirculatory encephalopathy. The present open prospective study included 60 patients with stroke treated with noopept during 12 months. Cognitive functions were assessed before and after treatment using neuropsychological tests. An analysis of MMSE scores and lateral and categorical associations revealed the significant improvement of cognitive functions after 2 months in patients of the main group compared to the controls. The global assessment of efficacy revealed the mild improvement in the main group while no changes were found in the control group. The results have demonstrated that noopept, used in dose 20 mg daily during 2 months, improves cognitive functions in stroke patients and has a high level of safety.

  4. [Comparative study of the long-term behavioral effects of noopept and piracetam in adult male rats and female rats in postnatal period].

    PubMed

    Voronina, T A; Guzevatykh, L S; Trofimov, S S

    2005-01-01

    Adult male and female rats were treated with the peptide nootrope drug noopept (daily dose, 0.1 mg/kg) and piracetam (200 mg/kg). In the period from 8th to 20th day, both drugs (cognitive enhancers) suppressed the horizontal and vertical activity and the anxiety in test animals as compared to the control group treated with 0.9 % aqueous NaCl solution. Early postnatal injections of the nootropes influenced neither the morphology development nor the behavior of adult female rats in the plus maze, extrapolational escape, passive avoidance, and pain sensitivity threshold tests. Animals in the "intact" group (having received neither drugs not physiological solution, that is, developing in a poor sensor environment), showed less pronounced habituation in the open field test as compared to the control and drug treated groups.

  5. [Genotype-dependent mice behavior in cognitive tasks. Effect of noopept].

    PubMed

    Bel'nik, A P; Ostrovskaia, R U; Poletaeva, I I

    2007-01-01

    The interstrain differences in performance of C57BL/6J, BALB/c and DBA/2J male mice in two cognitive tasks were found. Mice C57BL/6J showed good learning ability and preservation of memory traces tested 10 days after performance in a simplified version of Morris water maze. Mice BALB/c learned the task but, virtually, no long-term memory traces were revealed, whereas DBA/2J demonstrated poor learning. The effect of nootropic drug Noopept (GVS-111, N-phenil-acetyl-L-prolylglycin ethyl ether) was shown to be genotype-dependent. Its administration (0.5 mg/kg i.p., 15 min before learning) improved the long-term memory in Morris test in BALB/c mice but failed to produce any improvement in C57BL/6J. The ability of mice for extrapolation of the direction of stimulus movement differently changed after Noopept injections: the proportion of correct task solutions increased in C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice, whereas the performance of DBA/2J did not change.

  6. [On the mechanism of noopept action: decrease in activity of stress-induced kinases and increase in expression of neutrophines].

    PubMed

    Ostrovskaia, R U; Vakhitova, Iu V; Salimgareeva, M Kh; Iamidanov, R S; Sadovnikov, S V; Kapitsa, I G; Seredenin, S B

    2010-12-01

    The influence of noopept (N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester, GVS-111)--a drug combining the nootrope and neuroprotector properties--on the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and the level of NGF and BDNF gene and protein expression in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus has been studied in rats. Under conditions of chronic administration (28 days, 0.5 mg/day, i.p.), noopept decreased the activity of stress-induced kinases (SAPK/JNK 46/54 and pERK1/2) in rat hippocampus and increases the level of mRNA of the BDNF gene in both hypothalamus and hippocampus. The content of BDNF protein in the hypothalamus was also somewhat increased. In the context of notions about the activation of stress-induced kinases, as an important factor of amyloidogenesis and tau-protein deposition in brain tissue, and the role of deficiency of the neurotrophic factors in the development of neurodegenerative processes, the observed decrease in the activity of stress-activated MAPKs and increased expression of BDNF as a result of noopept administration suggest thatthis drug hasaspecific activity withrespect to some pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the Alzheimer disease.

  7. Noopept efficiency in experimental Alzheimer disease (cognitive deficiency caused by beta-amyloid25-35 injection into Meynert basal nuclei of rats).

    PubMed

    Ostrovskaya, R U; Belnik, A P; Storozheva, Z I

    2008-07-01

    Experiments on adult Wistar rats showed that injection of beta-amyloid25-35 (2 microg) into Meynert basal nuclei caused long-term memory deficiency which was detected 24 days after this injection by the memory trace retrieval in conditioned passive avoidance reflex (CPAR). The effects of noopept, an original nootropic and neuroprotective dipeptide, on the severity of this cognitive deficiency were studied. Preventive (for 7 days before the injury) intraperitoneal injections of noopept in a dose of 0.5 mg/kg completely prevented mnestic disorders under conditions of this model. Noopept exhibited a significant normalizing effect, if the treatment was started 15 days after the injury, when neurodegenerative changes in the basal nuclei, cortex, and hippocampus were still acutely pronounced. The mechanisms of this effect of the drug are studied, including, in addition to the choline-positive effect, its multicomponent neuroprotective effect and stimulation of production of antibodies to beta-amyloid25-35. Noopept efficiency in many models of Alzheimer disease, its high bioavailability and low toxicity suggest this dipeptide for further studies as a potential agent for the treatment of this condition (initial and moderate phases).

  8. [Interspecies differences of noopept pharmacokinetics].

    PubMed

    Boĭko, S S; Korotkov, S A; Zherdev, V P; Gudasheva, T A; Ostrovskaia, R U; Voronina, T A

    2004-01-01

    Significant interspecific differences in the pharmacokinetics of noopept are manifested by a decrease in the drug elimination rate on the passage from rats to rabbits and humans. Very intensive metabolism of noopept was observed upon intravenous administration in rats. In these animals, presystemic elimination mechanisms lead to the formation of a specific metabolite representing a product of drug biotransformation hydroxylated at the phenyl ring. In rabbits, unchanged noopept circulates in the blood for a longer time upon both intravenous and peroral introduction, biotransformation proceeds at a much slower rate, and no metabolites analogous to that found in rats are detected. The noopept pharmacokinetics in humans differs from that in animals by still slower elimination and considerable individual variability. No drug metabolites are found in the human blood plasma, probably because of a relatively small dose and low concentration.

  9. [The role of non-NMDA glutamate receptors in the EEG effects of chronic administration of noopept GVS-111 in awake rats].

    PubMed

    Kovalev, G I; Vorob'ev, V V

    2002-01-01

    Participation of the non-NMDA glutamate receptor subtype in the formation of the EEG frequency spectrum was studied in wakeful rats upon a long-term (10 x 0.2 mg/kg, s.c.) administration of the nootropic dipeptide GVS-111 (noopept or N-phenylacetyl-L-prolyglycine ethylate). The EEGs were measured with electrodes implanted into somatosensor cortex regions, hippocampus, and a cannula in the lateral ventricle. The acute reactions (characteristic of nootropes) in the alpha and beta ranges of EEG exhibited inversion after the 6th injection of noopept and almost completely vanished after the 9th injection. Preliminary introduction of the non-NMDA antagonist GDEE (glutamic acid diethyl ester) in a dose of 1 mumole into the lateral ventricle restored the EEG pattern observed upon the 6th dose of GVS-111. The role of glutamate receptors in the course of a prolonged administration of nootropes, as well as the possible mechanisms accounting for a difference in the action of GVS-111 and piracetam are discussed.

  10. Effects of nootropics on the EEG in conscious rats and their modification by glutamatergic inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vorobyov, Vasily; Kaptsov, Vladimir; Kovalev, Georgy; Sengpiel, Frank

    2011-05-30

    To study the effects of acute and repeated injections of nootropics and to learn how glutamate receptors might be involved in their mediation, the frequency spectra of cortical and hippocampal electroencephalogram (EEG) were analyzed in non-narcotized rats subcutaneously injected repeatedly with Piracetam (400mg/kg) or its analogue, Noopept (0.2mg/kg), after intracerebroventricular infusions of saline (5 μl) or the antagonists of NMDA and quisqualate/AMPA receptors: CPP (0.1 nmol) and GDEE (1 μmol), respectively. Piracetam increased alpha/beta1 EEG activity in the left frontal cortex, and alpha activity in both the right cortex and hippocampus, with a 10-min latency and 40-min duration. Noopept increased alpha/beta1 activity, with 30-min latency and 40-min duration in all brain areas. CPP pretreatment eliminated Piracetam EEG effects; reduced Noopept effects in the cortex and completely suppressed them in the hippocampus. After four injections of Piracetam, EEG effects were very small in the cortex, and completely lacking in the hippocampus, while GDEE pretreatment partially recovered them. The effect of Noopept in the alpha/beta1 ranges was replaced by increased beta2 activity after the eighth injection, while no effects were observed after the ninth one. GDEE pretreatment restored the effect of Noopept in the beta2 frequency range. These results demonstrate similarities in EEG effects and their mediatory mechanisms for Piracetam and its much more effective analogue, Noopept. Activation of NMDA receptors is involved in the effects of a single injection of the nootropics, whereas activation of quisqualate/AMPA receptors is associated with the decrease in their efficacy after repeated use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Noopept improves the spatial memory and stimulates prefibrillar beta-amyloid(25-35) antibody production in mice].

    PubMed

    Bobkova, N V; Gruden', M A; Samokhin, A N; Medvinskaia, N I; Morozova-Roch, L; Uudasheva, T A; Ostrovskaia, R U; Seredinin, S B

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the novel proline-containing nootropic and neuroprotective dipeptide noopept (GVS-111, N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester) were studied on NMRI mice upon olfactory bulbectomy, which had been previously shown to imitate the main morphological and biochemical signs of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The spatial memory was assessed using the Morris (water maze) test; the immunological status was characterized by ELISA with antibodies to prefibrillar beta-amyloid(25-35), S100b protein, and protofilaments of equine lysozyme, which are the molecular factors involved in the pathogenesis of AD. The control (sham-operated) animals during the Morris test preferred a sector where the safety platform was placed during the learning session. Bulbectomized animals treated with saline failed to recognize this sector, while bulbectomized animals treated with noopept (0.01 mg/kg for 21 days) restored this predominance, thus demonstrating the improvement of the spatial memory. These animals also demonstrated an increase in the level of antibodies to beta-amyloid(25-35)--the effect, which was more pronounced in the sham-operated than in bulbectomized mice. The latter demonstrated a profound decrease of immunological reactivity in a large number of tests. Noopept, stimulating the production of antibodies to beta-amyloid(25-35), can attenuate the well-known neurotoxic effects of beta-amyloid. The obtained data on the mnemotropic and immunostimulant effects noopept are indicative of good prospects for the clinical usage of this drug in the therapy of patients with neurodegenerative diseases.

  12. Neuroprotective effect of novel cognitive enhancer noopept on AD-related cellular model involves the attenuation of apoptosis and tau hyperphosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ostrovskaya, Rita U; Vakhitova, Yulia V; Kuzmina, Uliyana Sh; Salimgareeva, Milyausha Kh; Zainullina, Liana F; Gudasheva, Tatiana A; Vakhitov, Vener A; Seredenin, Sergey B

    2014-08-06

    Noopept (N-phenyl-acetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester) was constructed as a dipeptide analog of the standard cognition enhancer, piracetam. Our previous experiments have demonstrated the cognition restoring effect of noopept in several animal models of Alzheimer disease (AD). Noopept was also shown to prevent ionic disbalance, excitotoxicity, free radicals and pro-inflammatory cytokines accumulation, and neurotrophine deficit typical for different kinds of brain damages, including AD. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective action of noopept on cellular model of AD, Aβ 25-35-induced toxicity in PC12 cells and revealed the underlying mechanisms. The neuroprotective effect of noopept (added to the medium at 10 μM concentration, 72 hours before Аβ 25-35) was studied on Аβ 25-35-induced injury (5 μM for 24 h) in PC12 cells. The ability of drug to protect the impairments of cell viability, calcium homeostasis, ROS level, mitochondrial function, tau phosphorylation and neurite outgrowth caused by Аβ 25-35 were evaluated. Following the exposure of PC12 cells to Аβ 25-35 an increase of the level of ROS, intracellular calcium, and tau phosphorylation at Ser396 were observed; these changes were accompanied by a decrease in cell viability and an increase of apoptosis. Noopept treatment before the amyloid-beta exposure improved PC12 cells viability, reduced the number of early and late apoptotic cells, the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species and calcium and enhanced the mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, pretreatment of PC12 cell with noopept significantly attenuated tau hyperphosphorylation at Ser396 and ameliorated the alterations of neurite outgrowth evoked by Аβ25-35. Taken together, these data provide evidence that novel cognitive enhancer noopept protects PC12 cell against deleterious actions of Aβ through inhibiting the oxidative damage and calcium overload as well as suppressing the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway

  13. Neuroprotective effect of novel cognitive enhancer noopept on AD-related cellular model involves the attenuation of apoptosis and tau hyperphosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Noopept (N-phenyl-acetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester) was constructed as a dipeptide analog of the standard cognition enhancer, piracetam. Our previous experiments have demonstrated the cognition restoring effect of noopept in several animal models of Alzheimer disease (AD). Noopept was also shown to prevent ionic disbalance, excitotoxicity, free radicals and pro-inflammatory cytokines accumulation, and neurotrophine deficit typical for different kinds of brain damages, including AD. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective action of noopept on cellular model of AD, Aβ25–35-induced toxicity in PC12 cells and revealed the underlying mechanisms. Results The neuroprotective effect of noopept (added to the medium at 10 μM concentration, 72 hours before Аβ25–35) was studied on Аβ25–35-induced injury (5 μM for 24 h) in PC12 cells. The ability of drug to protect the impairments of cell viability, calcium homeostasis, ROS level, mitochondrial function, tau phosphorylation and neurite outgrowth caused by Аβ25–35 were evaluated. Following the exposure of PC12 cells to Аβ25–35 an increase of the level of ROS, intracellular calcium, and tau phosphorylation at Ser396 were observed; these changes were accompanied by a decrease in cell viability and an increase of apoptosis. Noopept treatment before the amyloid-beta exposure improved PC12 cells viability, reduced the number of early and late apoptotic cells, the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species and calcium and enhanced the mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, pretreatment of PC12 cell with noopept significantly attenuated tau hyperphosphorylation at Ser396 and ameliorated the alterations of neurite outgrowth evoked by Аβ25–35. Conclusions Taken together, these data provide evidence that novel cognitive enhancer noopept protects PC12 cell against deleterious actions of Aβ through inhibiting the oxidative damage and calcium overload as well as suppressing

  14. [Design of the novel dipeptide neuropsychotropic drug preparations].

    PubMed

    Gudasheva, T A; Skoldinov, A P

    2003-01-01

    The paper considers a new strategy in the field of neuropsychotropic dipeptide drug design, the main points being as follows: (i) determination of the structural elements of dipeptides, such as fragments of amino acid side radicals and peptide bonds, in nonpeptide drugs; (ii) design of peptide analogs topologically close to the drug; (iii) synthesis and activity testing of these analogs; (iv) determination of the corresponding endogenous neuropeptide among the known neuropeptides or identification of the new neuropeptides in the brain of experimental animals. Using this approach, new pyroglutamyl- and prolyl-containing dipeptides were obtained based on the structure of the well-known classical nootropic drug piracetam. The new drugs exhibit nootropic activity in doses 100-10,000 times lower than those of piracetam. The structure of most active pyroglutamyl dipeptide pGlu-Asn-NH2 coincides with that of the N-end fragment of the endogenous memory peptide AVP(4-9). Noopept (N-phenylacetylprolylglycine ethyl ester), patented in Russia and USA as a new nootropic drug, is currently under stage 2 of successful clinical trials. The main metabolite of noopept, cyclo-Pro-Gly, is identical to the endogenous dipeptide designed in this work and is most close analog of piracetam with respect to pharmacological activity. The universal character of the proposed strategy is demonstrated by the design of active dipeptide analogs of an atypical neuroleptic drug sulpiride. As a result, a potential dipeptide neuroleptic dilept was obtained, which has been patented in Russia and now passes broad preclinical trials.

  15. [The dynamics of behavioral and neuroreceptor effects after acute and long-term noopept administration in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice].

    PubMed

    Kovalev, G I; Kondrakhin, E A; Salimov, R M; Neznamov, G G

    2014-01-01

    The effect of acute, 7-fold and 14-fold noopept (1 mg/kg/day) administration on the dynamics of anxiolitic and nootropic behavioral effects in cross-maze, as well as their correlations with NMDA- and BDZ-receptor density was studied in inbred mice strains, differing in exploratory and emotional status--C57BL/6 and BALB/c. The dipeptide failed to affect the anxiety and exploration activity in C57BL/6 mice at each of 3 steps of experimental session. In this strain the B(max) values of [3H]-MK-801 and [3H]-Flunitrazepam binding changed only after single administration. In respect to BALB/c mice noopept induced both the anxiolitic and nootropic effects reaching their maximum on 7th day. In BALB/c strain the dynamics of hippocampal NMDA-receptor binding corresponds to the dynamics of exploratory efficacy whereas the dynamics of BDZ-receptors in prefrontal cortex was reciprocally to dynamics of anxiety level.

  16. Genotype-dependent characteristics of behavior in mice in cognitive tests. The effects of Noopept.

    PubMed

    Bel'nik, A P; Ostrovskaya, R U; Poletaeva, I I

    2009-01-01

    Male C57BL/6J, BALB/c, and DBA/2J mice showed differences in their abilities to perform two cognitive tests. C57BL/6J mice had good learning ability and memory trace retention (at 10 days) in a simplified Morris maze, while BALB/c mice had low levels of memory trace retention and DBA/2J mice had low learning ability in this test. I.p. administration of the nootropic agent Noopept (GVS-111, N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester) at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg 15 min before the start of the test induced significant improvements in long-term memory in this test in BALB/c mice but no further improvement in C57BL/6J mice, and had no effect in DBA/2J mice. On testing the ability to extrapolate the direction of movement of a stimulus, administration of Noopept increased the proportion of correct responses in C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice, but had no effect in DBA/2J mice.

  17. Establishing Natural Nootropics: Recent Molecular Enhancement Influenced by Natural Nootropic.

    PubMed

    Suliman, Noor Azuin; Mat Taib, Che Norma; Mohd Moklas, Mohamad Aris; Adenan, Mohd Ilham; Hidayat Baharuldin, Mohamad Taufik; Basir, Rusliza

    2016-01-01

    Nootropics or smart drugs are well-known compounds or supplements that enhance the cognitive performance. They work by increasing the mental function such as memory, creativity, motivation, and attention. Recent researches were focused on establishing a new potential nootropic derived from synthetic and natural products. The influence of nootropic in the brain has been studied widely. The nootropic affects the brain performances through number of mechanisms or pathways, for example, dopaminergic pathway. Previous researches have reported the influence of nootropics on treating memory disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. Those disorders are observed to impair the same pathways of the nootropics. Thus, recent established nootropics are designed sensitively and effectively towards the pathways. Natural nootropics such as Ginkgo biloba have been widely studied to support the beneficial effects of the compounds. Present review is concentrated on the main pathways, namely, dopaminergic and cholinergic system, and the involvement of amyloid precursor protein and secondary messenger in improving the cognitive performance.

  18. Establishing Natural Nootropics: Recent Molecular Enhancement Influenced by Natural Nootropic

    PubMed Central

    Adenan, Mohd Ilham; Hidayat Baharuldin, Mohamad Taufik

    2016-01-01

    Nootropics or smart drugs are well-known compounds or supplements that enhance the cognitive performance. They work by increasing the mental function such as memory, creativity, motivation, and attention. Recent researches were focused on establishing a new potential nootropic derived from synthetic and natural products. The influence of nootropic in the brain has been studied widely. The nootropic affects the brain performances through number of mechanisms or pathways, for example, dopaminergic pathway. Previous researches have reported the influence of nootropics on treating memory disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. Those disorders are observed to impair the same pathways of the nootropics. Thus, recent established nootropics are designed sensitively and effectively towards the pathways. Natural nootropics such as Ginkgo biloba have been widely studied to support the beneficial effects of the compounds. Present review is concentrated on the main pathways, namely, dopaminergic and cholinergic system, and the involvement of amyloid precursor protein and secondary messenger in improving the cognitive performance. PMID:27656235

  19. Cognitive enhancers (nootropics). Part 2: drugs interacting with enzymes.

    PubMed

    Froestl, Wolfgang; Muhs, Andreas; Pfeifer, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive enhancers (nootropics) are drugs to treat cognition deficits in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or aging. Cognition refers to a capacity for information processing, applying knowledge, and changing preferences. It involves memory, attention, executive functions, perception, language, and psychomotor functions. The term nootropics was coined in 1972 when memory enhancing properties of piracetam were observed in clinical trials. In the meantime, hundreds of drugs have been evaluated in clinical trials or in preclinical experiments. To classify the compounds, a concept is proposed assigning drugs to 19 categories according to their mechanism(s) of action, in particular drugs interacting with receptors, enzymes, ion channels, nerve growth factors, re-uptake transporters, antioxidants, metal chelators, and disease modifying drugs meaning small molecules, vaccines, and monoclonal antibodies interacting with amyloid-β and tau. For drugs whose mechanism of action is not known, they are either classified according to structure, e.g., peptides, or their origin, e.g., natural products. This review covers the evolution of research in this field over the last 25 years.

  20. Cognitive enhancers (nootropics). Part 1: drugs interacting with receptors.

    PubMed

    Froestl, Wolfgang; Muhs, Andreas; Pfeifer, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive enhancers (nootropics) are drugs to treat cognition deficits in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or aging. Cognition refers to a capacity for information processing, applying knowledge, and changing preferences. It involves memory, attention, executive functions, perception, language, and psychomotor functions. The term nootropics was coined in 1972 when memory enhancing properties of piracetam were observed in clinical trials. In the meantime, hundreds of drugs have been evaluated in clinical trials or in preclinical experiments. To classify the compounds, a concept is proposed assigning drugs to 18 categories according to their mechanism(s) of action, in particular drugs interacting with receptors, enzymes, ion channels, nerve growth factors, re-uptake transporters, antioxidants, metal chelators, and disease-modifying drugs meaning small molecules, vaccines, and monoclonal antibodies interacting with amyloid-β and tau. For drugs, whose mechanism of action is not known, they are either classified according to structure, e.g., peptides, or their origin, e.g., natural products. The review covers the evolution of research in this field over the last 25 years.

  1. [The antiamnestic effect of nootropic substances in rats].

    PubMed

    Iasnetsov, Vik V; Krylova, I N

    2013-01-01

    It has been established in experiments in rats that some nootropic substances (oxyracetam, aniracetam, nooglutil, mexidol, new 3-hydroxypyridine derivative SK-170, piracetam and noopept) produce marked antiamnestic effect on various models of amnesia (induced by microwave irradiation, acute hypoxia, and motion sickness). At the same time, meclophenoxate exhibited antiamnestic effect in the first and second models of amnesia, while 9-aminoacridine derivative HTOS-404 was only effective in the model of amnesia caused by microwave irradiation. The antiamnestic effect of nooglutil and SK-170 was caused to a significant degree by activation of non-NMDA receptors of excitatory amino acids (generally AMPA receptors), while the effect of mexidol was related to GABA(A) receptors.

  2. Immunopharmacological properties of noopept.

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, L P; Shipaeva, E V; Alekseeva, S V; Pronin, A V; Durnev, A D; Gudasheva, T A; Ostrovskaja, R U; Seredenin, S B

    2007-07-01

    Noopept, a peptide analog of piracetam, enhanced phagocytic activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages, stimulated humoral and cellular immune response to various antigens, and markedly increased spontaneous proliferative activity of splenocytes. In animals with secondary immune deficiency caused by cyclophosphamide, noopept exhibited immunocorrector properties.

  3. Proline-containing dipeptide GVS-111 retains nootropic activity after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Ostrovskaya, R U; Mirsoev, T K; Romanova, G A; Gudasheva, T A; Kravchenko, E V; Trofimov, C C; Voronina, T A; Seredenin, S B

    2001-10-01

    Experiments on rats trained passive avoidance task showed that N-phenyl-acetyl-L-prolyl-glycyl ethyl ester, peptide analog of piracetam (GVS-111, Noopept) after oral administration retained antiamnesic activity previously observed after its parenteral administration. Effective doses were 0.5-10 mg/kg. Experiments on a specially-developed model of active avoidance (massive one-session learning schedule) showed that GVS-111 stimulated one-session learning after single administration, while after repeated administration it increased the number of successful learners among those animals who failed after initial training. In this respect, GVS-111 principally differs from its main metabolite cycloprolylglycine and standard nootropic piracetam.

  4. Effectiveness of nootropic drugs with cholinergic activity in treatment of cognitive deficit: a review

    PubMed Central

    Colucci, Luisa; Bosco, Massimiliano; Ziello, Antonio Rosario; Rea, Raffaele; Amenta, Francesco; Fasanaro, Angiola Maria

    2012-01-01

    Nootropics represent probably the first “smart drugs” used for the treatment of cognitive deficits. The aim of this paper is to verify, by a systematic analysis of the literature, the effectiveness of nootropics in this indication. The analysis was limited to nootropics with cholinergic activity, in view of the role played by acetylcholine in learning and memory. Acetylcholine was the first neurotransmitter identified in the history of neuroscience and is the main neurotransmitter of the peripheral, autonomic, and enteric nervous systems. We conducted a systematic review of the literature for the 5-year period 2006–2011. From the data reported in the literature, it emerges that nootropics may be an effective alternative for strengthening and enhancing cognitive performance in patients with a range of pathologies. Although nootropics, and specifically the cholinergic precursors, already have a long history behind them, according to recent renewal of interest, they still seem to have a significant therapeutic role. Drugs with regulatory indications for symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, such as cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, often have transient effects in dementia disorders. Nootropics with a cholinergic profile and documented clinical effectiveness in combination with cognate drugs such as cholinesterase inhibitors or alone in patients who are not suitable for these inhibitors should be taken into account and evaluated further. PMID:27186129

  5. [Prevention of neuro- and cardiotoxic side effects of tuberculosis chemotherapy with noopept].

    PubMed

    Mordyk, A V; Lysov, A V; Kondria, A V; Gol'dzon, M A; Khlebova, N V

    2009-01-01

    The study evaluated clinical efficiency of noopept used to prevent adverse side effects of antituberculous agents. It included 60 patients with newly diagnosed respiratory tuberculosis. Those in group 1 (n = 30) received 10 mg of noopept twice daily during the first month. The treatment promoted functional normalization of vegetative nervous system and antioxidative systems, reduced manifestations of anxiety, decreased frequency of adverse neuro- and cardiotoxic responses to antituberculous drugs.

  6. Cognitive enhancers (nootropics). Part 3: drugs interacting with targets other than receptors or enzymes. disease-modifying drugs.

    PubMed

    Froestl, Wolfgang; Pfeifer, Andrea; Muhs, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive enhancers (nootropics) are drugs to treat cognition deficits in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or aging. Cognition refers to a capacity for information processing, applying knowledge, and changing preferences. It involves memory, attention, executive functions, perception, language, and psychomotor functions. The term nootropics was coined in 1972 when memory enhancing properties of piracetam were observed in clinical trials. In the meantime, hundreds of drugs have been evaluated in clinical trials or in preclinical experiments. To classify the compounds, a concept is proposed assigning drugs to 19 categories according to their mechanism(s) of action, in particular drugs interacting with receptors, enzymes, ion channels, nerve growth factors, re-uptake transporters, antioxidants, metal chelators, and disease modifying drugs, meaning small molecules, vaccines, and monoclonal antibodies interacting with amyloid-β and tau. For drugs, whose mechanism of action is not known, they are either classified according to structure, e.g., peptides, or their origin, e.g., natural products. The review covers the evolution of research in this field over the last 25 years.

  7. [Strategy for the development of dipeptide drugs].

    PubMed

    Gudasheva, T A

    2011-01-01

    The author describes an original approach to the development of dipeptide drugs based on the concept of the leading role of the beta-bend in the interaction of biologically active endogenous peptides with their receptors. The approach called "peptide-based drug design" includes both developments from the structure of a known psychotropic agent toward its topological peptide analog and developments from the active dipeptide site of a neuropeptide toward its mimetic. This strategy has been worked out at the V.V. Zakusov Research Institute of Pharmacology for 25 years. Results of investigations that discovered endogenous peptide prototypes of the known non-peptidic drugs (piracetam and sulpiride) are presented. They provided a basis for the creation of highly active non-toxic oral dipeptide preparations, such as nootrop Noopept, potential anti psychotic Dilept, and potential selective anxiolytic GB-115.

  8. Studies of long-term noopept and afobazol treatment in rats with learned helplessness neurosis.

    PubMed

    Uyanaev, A A; Fisenko, V P

    2006-08-01

    Long-lasting effects of new Russian psychotropic drugs Noopept and Afobazol on active avoidance conditioning and formation of learned helplessness neurosis were studied on an original experimental model in rats. Noopept eliminated the manifestations of learned helplessness after long-term (21-day) treatment by increasing the percent of trained animals. Afobazol was low effective in preventing manifestations of learned helplessness, but if used for a long time, it reduced the incidence of learned helplessness development by increasing the percent of untrained animals.

  9. Comparative activity of proline-containing dipeptide noopept and inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 sitagliptin in a rat model of developing diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ostrovskaya, R U; Ozerova, I V; Gudascheva, T A; Kapitsa, I G; Ivanova, E A; Voronina, T A; Seredenin, S B

    2014-01-01

    Developing diabetes was modeled on adult male Wistar rats by repeated intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin in a subdiabetogenic dose of 30 mg/kg for 3 days. Proline-containing dipeptide drug Noopept or a standard diabetic drug dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin was administered per os in a dose of 5 mg/kg before each injection of the toxin and then for 16 days after streptozotocin course. In active control group, spontaneously increase glucose level and reduced tolerance to glucose load (1000 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were observed on the next day after the third administration of toxin. Basal glucose level decreased by day 16, but glucose tolerance remained impaired. Noopept normalized the basal blood glucose level and tolerance to glucose load on the next day after administration of streptozotocin. The effect of Noopept persisted to the end of the experiment. At early terms of the experiment, sitagliptin was somewhat superior to Noopept by the effect on baseline glucose level, but was inferior by the influence on glucose tolerance.. By the end of the experiment, Noopept significantly (by 2 times) surpassed sitagliptin by its effect on glucose tolerance.

  10. Cognitive enhancers (Nootropics). Part 1: drugs interacting with receptors. Update 2014.

    PubMed

    Froestl, Wolfgang; Muhs, Andreas; Pfeifer, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Scientists working in the fields of Alzheimer's disease and, in particular, cognitive enhancers are very productive. The review "Cognitive enhancers (nootropics): drugs interacting with receptors" was accepted for publication in July 2012. Since then, new targets for the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease were identified. This update describes drugs interacting with 42 receptors versus 32 receptors in the first paper. Some compounds progressed in their development, while many others were discontinued. The present review covers the evolution of research in this field through March 2014.

  11. [An experimental study of the anti-inflammatory action of noopept and its effect on the level of cytokines].

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, S V; Kovalenko, L P; Tallerova, A V; Gudasheva, T A; Durnev, A D

    2012-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of noopept (dipeptide analog of piracetam) upon a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration at doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg in comparison to the reference drug diclofenac (10 mg/kg, i.p.) have been studied on a model of acute exudative inflammation induced by carrageenan in outbred rats and concanavalin A (Con A) in CBA mice. The level of cytokines was studied on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) model (single administration, 100 mg/kg, i.p.) with 5-day administration of noopept at a dose of 5 mg/kg (i.p., before endotoxin injection) in C57BL/6 mice. The administration of noopept led to a significant suppression of the inflammatory response to both carrageenan and Con A. The administration of Con A caused a 16-fold increase in the level of IL-6 interleukin in the blood serum of mice as compared to control. Noopept (5 mg/kg) reduced the level of IL-6 by a factor of 1.8 in the inflammatory response to Con A. The administration of LPS led to pronounced increase in the levels ofpro-inflammatory IL-6 and TNF-alpha in the blood serum of test mice as compared to intact animals. The course administration of noopept (5 mg/kg) significantly decreased the level of IL-6 and reduced by half the level of TNF-alpha.

  12. Molecular Mechanism Underlying the Action of Substituted Pro-Gly Dipeptide Noopept.

    PubMed

    Vakhitova, Y V; Sadovnikov, S V; Borisevich, S S; Ostrovskaya, R U; A Gudasheva, T; Seredenin, S B

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed in order to reveal the effect of Noopept (ethyl ester of N-phenylacetyl-Lprolylglycine, GVS-111) on the DNA-binding activity of transcriptional factors (TF) in HEK293 cells transiently transfected with luciferase reporter constructs containing sequences for CREB, NFAT, NF-κB, p53, STAT1, GAS, VDR, HSF1, and HIF-1. Noopept (10 μM) was shown to increase the DNA-binding activity of HIF-1 only, while lacking the ability to affect that of CREB, NFAT, NF-κB, p53, STAT1, GAS, VDR, and HSF1. Noopept provoked an additional increase in the DNA-binding activity of HIF-1 when applied in conditions of CoCl2-induced HIF- 1 stabilization. The degree of this HIF-positive effect of Noopept was shown to be concentration-dependent. Piracetam (1 mM) failed to affect significantly any of the TF under study. The results of molecular docking showed that Noopept (L-isomer), as well as its metabolite, L-isomer of N-phenyl-acetylprolyl, unlike its pharmacologically ineffective D-isomer, is able to bind to the active site of prolyl hydroxylase 2. Taking into account the important role of the genes activated by HIF-1 in the formation of an adaptive response to hypoxia, data on the ability of Noopept to provoke a selective increase in the DNA-binding activity of HIF-1 explain the wide spectrum of neurochemical and pharmacological effects of Noopept revealed before. The obtained data allow one to propose the HIF-positive effect as the primary mechanism of the activity of this Pro-Gly-containing dipeptide.

  13. Molecular Mechanism Underlying the Action of Substituted Pro-Gly Dipeptide Noopept

    PubMed Central

    Vakhitova, Y. V.; Sadovnikov, S. V.; Borisevich, S. S.; Ostrovskaya, R. U.; A.Gudasheva, T.; Seredenin, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed in order to reveal the effect of Noopept (ethyl ester of N-phenylacetyl-Lprolylglycine, GVS-111) on the DNA-binding activity of transcriptional factors (TF) in HEK293 cells transiently transfected with luciferase reporter constructs containing sequences for CREB, NFAT, NF-κB, p53, STAT1, GAS, VDR, HSF1, and HIF-1. Noopept (10 μM) was shown to increase the DNA-binding activity of HIF-1 only, while lacking the ability to affect that of CREB, NFAT, NF-κB, p53, STAT1, GAS, VDR, and HSF1. Noopept provoked an additional increase in the DNA-binding activity of HIF-1 when applied in conditions of CoCl2-induced HIF- 1 stabilization. The degree of this HIF-positive effect of Noopept was shown to be concentration-dependent. Piracetam (1 mM) failed to affect significantly any of the TF under study. The results of molecular docking showed that Noopept (L-isomer), as well as its metabolite, L-isomer of N-phenyl-acetylprolyl, unlike its pharmacologically ineffective D-isomer, is able to bind to the active site of prolyl hydroxylase 2. Taking into account the important role of the genes activated by HIF-1 in the formation of an adaptive response to hypoxia, data on the ability of Noopept to provoke a selective increase in the DNA-binding activity of HIF-1 explain the wide spectrum of neurochemical and pharmacological effects of Noopept revealed before. The obtained data allow one to propose the HIF-positive effect as the primary mechanism of the activity of this Pro-Gly-containing dipeptide. PMID:27099787

  14. [Effect of the novel nootropic and neuroprotective dipeptide noopept on the streptozotocin-induced model of sporadic Alzheimer disease in rats].

    PubMed

    Ostrovskaia, R U; Tsaplina, A P; Vakhitova, Iu V; Salimgareeva, M Kh; Iamidanov, R S

    2010-01-01

    Streptozotocin-intracerebroventricularly treated rats are proposed as an experimental model of sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD). Diabetogenic toxin streptozotocin (STZ) administered in both cerebral ventricles in a dose of 3 mg/kg decreases the expression of NGF and BDNF mainly in the hippocampus and increases the content of malonic dialdehyde (MDA)--a product of lipid peroxidation--in the brain tissues. These metabolic changes are accompanied by a pronounced cognitive deficiency, which is manifested by long-term memory deterioration in the passive avoidance test. These manifestations of pathology are not accompanied by hyperglycemia in the case of intraventricular STZ administration, in contrast to the systemic (in particular, intraperitoneal) route of introduction that causes a pronounced increase in the blood glucose level. These results are consistent with the existing notions that (i) STZ administered intraventricularly provokes a complex of changes imitating the sporadic AD and (ii) this disease can be considered as a manifestation of type-III diabetes. The new original cognition enhancing and neuroprotective dipeptide noopept decreases the aforementioned metabolic changes and the accompanying long-term deterioration of the memory. Previously, this systemically active dipeptide was shown to be capable of increasing expression of NGF and BDNF in the hippocampus, stimulating the antibody production to beta-amyloid, inhibiting the lipid peroxidation, activating the endogenous antioxidant systems, and decreasing the rate of glutamate release (cholinopositive effect). Taken together, these data indicate that noopept can be considered as a multipotent substance acting upon several important pathogenic chainsof the sporadic AD.

  15. Varsity Medical Ethics Debate 2015: should nootropic drugs be available under prescription on the NHS?

    PubMed

    Thorley, Emma; Kang, Isaac; D'Costa, Stephanie; Vlazaki, Myrto; Ayeko, Olaoluwa; Arbe-Barnes, Edward H; Swerner, Casey B

    2016-09-13

    The 2015 Varsity Medical Ethics debate convened upon the motion: "This house believes nootropic drugs should be available under prescription". This annual debate between students from the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, now in its seventh year, provided the starting point for arguments on the subject. The present article brings together and extends many of the arguments put forward during the debate. We explore the current usage of nootropic drugs, their safety and whether it would be beneficial to individuals and society as a whole for them to be available under prescription. The Varsity Medical Debate was first held in 2008 with the aim of allowing students to engage in discussion about ethics and policy within healthcare. The event is held annually and it is hoped that this will allow future leaders to voice a perspective on the arguments behind topics that will feature heavily in future healthcare and science policy. This year the Oxford University Medical Society at the Oxford Union hosted the debate.

  16. Dipeptide Piracetam Analogue Noopept Improves Viability of Hippocampal HT-22 Neurons in the Glutamate Toxicity Model.

    PubMed

    Antipova, T A; Nikolaev, S V; Ostrovskaya, P U; Gudasheva, T A; Seredenin, S B

    2016-05-01

    Effect of noopept (N-phenylacetyl-prolylglycine ethyl ester) on viability of neurons exposed to neurotoxic action of glutamic acid (5 mM) was studied in vitro in immortalized mouse hippocampal HT-22 neurons. Noopept added to the medium before or after glutamic acid improved neuronal survival in a concentration range of 10-11-10-5 M. Comparison of the effective noopept concentrations determined in previous studies on cultured cortical and cerebellar neurons showed that hippocampal neurons are more sensitive to the protective effect of noopept.

  17. The Nootropic Concept and Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilsher, Colin R.

    1986-01-01

    Studies with Nootropic psychoactive drugs (such as Piracetam) suggest that Piracetam lacks significant side effects; promotes memory and learning; and improves the reading ability of dyslexics, possibly by directly affecting the left-brain hemisphere. Results are contrasted with studies showing the lack of effectiveness of intensive teaching.…

  18. Design and study of piracetam-like nootropics, controversial members of the problematic class of cognition-enhancing drugs.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, Fulvio; Manetti, Dina; Romanelli, Maria Novella; Ghelardini, Carla

    2002-01-01

    Cognition enhancers are drugs able to facilitate attentional abilities and acquisition, storage and retrieval of information, and to attenuate the impairment of cognitive functions associated with head traumas, stroke, age and age-related pathologies. Development of cognition enhancers is still a difficult task because of complexity of the brain functions, poor predictivity of animal tests and lengthy and expensive clinical trials. After the early serendipitous discovery of first generation cognition enhancers, current research is based on a variety of working hypotheses, derived from the progress of knowledge in the neurobiopathology of cognitive processes. Among other classes of drugs, piracetam-like cognition enhancers (nootropics) have never reached general acceptance, in spite of their excellent tolerability and safety. In the present review, after a general discussion of the problems connected with the design and development of cognition enhancers, the class is examined in more detail. Reasons for the problems encountered by nootropics, compounds therapeutically available and those in development, their structure activity relationships and mechanisms of action are discussed. Recent developments which hopefully will lead to a revival of the class are reviewed.

  19. [Neuroprotective activity of the proline-containing dipeptide noopept on the model of brain ischemia induced by the middle cerebral artery occlusion].

    PubMed

    Gavrilova, S A; Us, K S; Ostrovskaia, R U; Koshelev, V B

    2006-01-01

    The influence of noopept (N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester, GVS-111) on the extent of ischemic cortical stroke was investigated in experiments on white mongrel male rats with ischemia induced by a combination of the middle cerebral artery occlusion with ipsilateral common carotid artery ligation. Animals were treated with noopept (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) according to the following schedule: 15 min and 2, 24, and 48 h after the occlusion. Test rats were decapitated 72 h after occlusion, brains were extracted and frozen, and thin brain slices were stained with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride. The slices were scanned and processed using Auc 1 computer program, which estimates the percentage of damaged area relative to that of the whole ipsilateral hemisphere. The conditions of coagulation the distal segment of middle cerebral artery were selected, which caused necrosis localized in the fronto-parietal and dorso-lateral regions of the brain cortex without any damage of subcortical structures. The extent of the brain damage in control group (treated by saline) was 18.6%, while that in the group treated with noopept was 12.2%, thus demonstrating a decrease in the infarction area by 34.5% (p < 05). The data on noopept efficacy on the model of the extensive ischemic injury of brain cortex show that this drug has good prospects for use in the neuroprotective treatment of stroke.

  20. Nootropic activity of tuber extract of Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb).

    PubMed

    Rao, N Venkata; Pujar, Basavaraj; Nimbal, S K; Shantakumar, S M; Satyanarayana, S

    2008-08-01

    Nootropic effect of alcoholic (ALE; 50, 75, 100 mg/kg) and aqueous (AQE; 100, 200, 400 mg/kg) extracts of P. tuberosa was evaluated by using Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), scopolamine-induced amnesia (SIA), diazepam-induced amnesia (DIA), clonidine-induced (NA-mediated) hypothermia (CIH), lithium-induced (5-HT mediated) head twitches (LIH) and haloperidol-induced (DA- mediated) catalepsy (HIC) models. Piracetam was used as the standard drug. A significant increase in inflexion ratio (IR) was recorded in EPM, SIA and DIA models. A significant reversal effect was observed on rectal temperature in CIH model, reduction of head twitches in LIH models. However no significant reduction in catalepsy scores in HIC models were observed with test extracts and standard piracetam. The results indicate that nootropic activity observed with ALE and AQE of tuber extracts of P. tuberosa could be through improved learning and memory either by augmenting the noradrenaline (NA) transmission or by interfering with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release. Further, the extracts neither facilitated nor blocked release of the dopamine (DA). Thus ALE and AQE elicited significant nootropic effect in mice and rats by interacting with cholinergic, GABAnergic, adrenergic and serotonergic systems. Phytoconstituents like flavonoids have been reported for their nootropic effect and these are present in both ALE and AQE extracts of tubers of P. tuberosa (Roxb) and these active principles may be responsible for nootropic activity.

  1. [Effects of nootropic drugs on hippocampal and cortical BDNF levels in mice with different exploratory behavior efficacy].

    PubMed

    Firstova, Iu Iu; Dolotov, O V; Kondrakhin, e A; Dubynina, E V; Grivennikov, I A; Kovalev, G I

    2009-01-01

    The influence of subchronic administration of nootropic drugs (piracetam, phenotropil, meclophenoxate, pantocalcine, semax, nooglutil) on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) content in hippocampal and cortical tissues in mice with different exploratory behavior--high efficacy (HE) against low efficacy (LE)--in cross-maze test has been studied. The initial BDNF concentration in hippocamp (but not in cortex) of control HE mice was higher than that in LE mice (LE, 0.091 +/- 0.005 pg/microg; HE, 0.177 +/- 0.005 pg/microg; p < 0.0005). After drug administration, changes in the BDNF level were only observed in the hippocamp of LE mice, where it reached (pg/microg) 0.115 +/- 0.004 (for piracetam); 0.119 +/- 0.006 (for phenotropil); 0.123 +/- 0.007 (for semax); and 0.122 +/- 0.009 (for meclophenoxate). In the LE mice cortex, the BDNF content increased only after piracetam and semax injections (to 0.083 +/- 0.003 and 0.093 +/- 0.008, respectively, vs. 0.071 +/- 0.003 pg/microg in the control group; p < 0.0005). No changes were observed in the cortex of HE mice. Thus, the obtained results demonstrate that clinically used drugs piracetam, phenotropil, meclophenoxate, and semax realize their nootrope effects, at least partially, via increase in hippocampal BDNF level, which is achieved only under conditions of cognitive deficiency.

  2. Impairment of learning and memory after photothrombosis of the prefrontal cortex in rat brain: effects of Noopept.

    PubMed

    Romanova, G A; Shakova, F M; Gudasheva, T A; Ostrovskaya, R U

    2002-12-01

    Experiments were performed on rats trained conditioned passive avoidance response. Acquisition and retention of memory traces were impaired after photothrombosis of the prefrontal cortex. The acyl-prolyl-containing dipeptide Noopept facilitated retention and retrieval of a conditioned passive avoidance response, normalized learning capacity in animals with ischemic damage to the cerebral cortex, and promoted finish training in rats with hereditary learning deficit. These results show that Noopept improves all three stages of memory. It should be emphasized that the effect of Noopept was most pronounced in animals with impaired mnesic function.

  3. [Comparative efficiency of nootropic drugs in complex treatment of patients with remote consequences of closed craniocereberal trauma].

    PubMed

    Hliebova, O S; Tkachenko, O V

    2008-01-01

    Main data of the research were data obtained after a complex treatment of 120 persons with late consequences of closed craniocereberal trauma (CCRCT). The treatment included administration of one of nootropic agents (noophen, aminolon or entropil), magnesium sulfate, group B vitamins. All patients have passed a complex examination: specially developed questionnaire, anamnesis gathering, neurologic status, neuropsychological status with the use of multiple-aspect scales and questionnaires, examination of fundus of eye, rheoencephalography, echoencephalography, brain MRT. Results of a complex examination proved positive effect of the use of nootropic agents, in particular noophen, entropil and aminolon in complex treatment of late consequences of closed craniocereberal trauma. For optimisation of the use of nootropic agents in the treatment of late consequences of closed craniocereberal trauma it is recommended to consider features of influence of nootropic agents on certain clinical aspects of the disease.

  4. Anti-stress and nootropic activity of drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system in rats based on indirect biochemical evidence.

    PubMed

    Anil Kumar, K V; Nagwar, Shrasti; Thyloor, Rama; Satyanarayana, Sreemantula

    2015-12-01

    Various stress hormones are responsible for bringing out stress-related changes and are implicated in learning and memory processes. The extensive clinical experience of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and direct renin inhibitor as antihypertensive agents provides anecdotal evidence of improvements in cognition. The neurochemical basis underlying the anti-stress and nootropic effects are unclear. This study was aimed to determine the effects of aliskiren, valsartan and their combination on the neuromediators of the central nervous system (CNS) and periphery as well as on cognitive function. Groups of rats were subjected to a forced swim stress for one hour after daily treatment with aliskiren, valsartan and their combination. The 24 h urinary excretion of vanillylmandellic acid (VMA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), 6-β-hydroxycortisol (6-β-OH) cortisol and homovanillic acid (HVA) was determined in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. Nootropic activity was studied using cook's pole climbing apparatus and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity by Ellman's method. Administration of aliskiren (10 mg/kg), valsartan (20 mg/kg) and their combination at a dose of 5 and 10 mg/kg respectively reduced the urinary metabolite levels. Further, all drugs showed significant improvement in scopolamine-impaired performance and produced inhibition of the AChE enzyme. The present study provides scientific support for the anti-stress and nootropic activities of aliskiren, valsartan and their combination. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. PASS assisted prediction and pharmacological evaluation of novel nicotinic analogs for nootropic activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Navneet; Ishar, Mohan Pal Singh; Gajbhiye, Asmita; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2011-07-15

    The aim of present study is to predict the probable nootropic activity of novel nicotine analogues with the help of computer program, PASS (prediction of activity spectra for substances) and evaluate the same. Two compounds from differently substituted pyridines were selected for synthesis and evaluation of nootropic activity based on their high probable activity (Pa) value predicted by PASS computer program. Evaluation of nootropic activity of compounds after acute and chronic treatment was done with transfer latency (TL) and step down latency (SDL) methods which showed significant nootropic activity. The effect on scopolamine induced amnesia was also observed along with their acetylcholine esterase inhibitory activity which also showed positive results which strengthened their efficacy as nootropic agents through involvement of cholinergic system. This nootropic effect was similar to the effect of nicotine and donepezil used as standard drugs. Muscle coordination and locomotor activity along with their addiction liability, safety and tolerability studies were also evaluated. These studies showed that these compounds are well tolerable and safe over a wide range of doses tested along with the absence of withdrawal effect which is present in nicotine due to its addiction liability. The study showed that these compounds are true nicotine analogs with desirable efficacy and safety profile for their use as effective nootropic agents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Meteoadaptogenic properties of peptide drugs in healthy volunteers].

    PubMed

    Shabanov, P D; Ganapol'skiĭ, V P; Aleksandrov, P V

    2007-01-01

    The meteoadaptogenic properties of a series of drugs with peptide (cortexin, noopept, dilept) and nonpeptide (vinpotropil) structure were investigated in a climate thermobarocomplex (Tabay, Japan) on a group of healthy volunteers aged 20-24. All the studied drugs produced a meteoadaptogenic action, the extent of which depended on the environmental test conditions (overcooling, overheating, hypobaric hypoxia). Vinpotropil, optimizing a physiological component of the functional state, can be recommended as a meteoadaptogen for both cold and hot climate as well as for hypobaric hypoxia, where it improved the psychological component of the functional state. Cortexin is qualified as an adaptogen and actoprotector only for hypobaric hypoxia conditions (uplands). Noopept, affecting positively a psychological component of the functional state, can be used for rapid adaptation to both cold and hot climate. In the hot climate, noopept also enhanced the physical work capacity. Dilept mostly elevated the psychological component of the functional state and can be considered as a psychomotor enhancer and adaptogen. Therefore, all the drugs studied (vinpotropil, cortexin, noopept and dilept) can be recommended as the agents producing activation, support and recovery of the physical and psychological efficiency under rapidly changing environment conditions.

  7. Effect of noopept and afobazole on the development of neurosis of learned helplessness in rats.

    PubMed

    Uyanaev, A A; Fisenko, V P; Khitrov, N K

    2003-08-01

    We studied the effects of new psychotropic preparations noopept and afobazole on acquisition of the conditioned active avoidance response and development of neurosis of learned helplessness in rats. Noopept in doses of 0.05-0.10 mg/kg accelerated acquisition of conditioned active avoidance response and reduced the incidence of learned helplessness in rats. Afobazole in a dose of 5 mg/kg produced an opposite effect, which is probably related to high selective anxiolytic activity of this preparation.

  8. [Hypoxia and memory. Specific features of nootropic agents effects and their use].

    PubMed

    Voronina, T A

    2000-01-01

    Hypoxia and hypoxic adaptation are powerful factors of controlling memory and behavior processes. Acute hypoxia exerts a differential impact on different deficits of mnestic and cognitive functions. Instrumental reflexes of active and passive avoidance, negative learning, behavior with a change in the stereotype of learning are more greatly damaged. Memory with spatial and visual differentiation and their rearrangement change to a lesser extent and conditional reflexes are not deranged. In this contract, altitude hypoxic adaptation enhances information fixation and increases the degree and duration of retention of temporary relations. Nootropic agents with an antihypoxic action exert a marked effect on hypoxia-induced cognitive and memory disorders and the magnitude of this effect depends on the ration of proper nootropic to antihypoxic components in the spectrum of the drugs' pharmacological activity. The agents that combine a prevailing antiamnestic effect and a marked and moderate antihypoxic action (mexidole, nooglutil, pyracetam, beglymin, etc.) are most effective in eliminating different hypoxia-induced cognitive and memory disorders, nootropic drugs that have a pronounced antiamnestic activity (centrophenoxine, etc.) and no antihypoxic component also restore the main types of mnestic disorders after hypoxia, but to a lesser extent.

  9. In Vitro Effects of Cognitives and Nootropics on Mitochondrial Respiration and Monoamine Oxidase Activity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Namrata; Hroudová, Jana; Fišar, Zdeněk

    2017-10-01

    Impairment of mitochondrial metabolism, particularly the electron transport chain (ETC), as well as increased oxidative stress might play a significant role in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Some effects of drugs used for symptomatic AD treatment may be related to their direct action on mitochondrial function. In vitro effects of pharmacologically different cognitives (galantamine, donepezil, rivastigmine, 7-MEOTA, memantine) and nootropic drugs (latrepirdine, piracetam) were investigated on selected mitochondrial parameters: activities of ETC complexes I, II + III, and IV, citrate synthase, monoamine oxidase (MAO), oxygen consumption rate, and hydrogen peroxide production of pig brain mitochondria. Complex I activity was decreased by galantamine, donepezil, and memantine; complex II + III activity was increased by galantamine. None of the tested drugs caused significant changes in the rate of mitochondrial oxygen consumption, even at high concentrations. Except galantamine, all tested drugs were selective MAO-A inhibitors. Latrepirdine, donepezil, and 7-MEOTA were found to be the most potent MAO-A inhibitors. Succinate-induced mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production was not significantly affected by the drugs tested. The direct effect of cognitives and nootropics used in the treatment of AD on mitochondrial respiration is relatively small. The safest drugs in terms of disturbing mitochondrial function appear to be piracetam and rivastigmine. The MAO-A inhibition by cognitives and nootropics may also participate in mitochondrial neuroprotection. The results support the future research aimed at measuring the effects of currently used drugs or newly synthesized drugs on mitochondrial functioning in order to understand their mechanism of action.

  10. [Nootropics and antioxidants in the complex therapy of symptomatic posttraumatic epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Savenkov, A A; Badalian, O L; Avakian, G N

    2013-01-01

    To study the possibility of application of nootropics and antioxidants in the complex antiepileptic therapy, we examined 75 patients with symptomatic focal posttraumatic epilepsy. A statistically significant reduction in the number of epileptic seizures, improvement of cognitive function and quality of life of the patients as well as a decrease in the severity of depression and epileptic changes in the EEG were identified. The potentiation of antiepileptic activity of basic drugs, normalization of brain's electrical activity and reduction in EEG epileptiform activity, in particular coherent indicators of slow-wave activity, were noted after treatment with the antioxidant mexidol. A trend towards the improvement of neuropsychological performance and quality of life was observed. There was a lack of seizure aggravation typical of many nootropic drugs. Thus, phenotropil and mexidol can be recommended for complex treatment of symptomatic posttraumatic epilepsy.

  11. Noopept reduces the postischemic functional and metabolic disorders in the brain of rats with different sensitivity to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Zarubina, I V; Shabanov, P D

    2009-03-01

    Chronic cerebral ischemia was induced by ligation of both common carotid arteries in Wistar rats, divided by sensitivity to hypoxia into highly sensitive and low-sensitive. Noopept (peptide preparation), injected (0.5 mg/kg) during 7 days after occlusion of the carotid arteries, reduced the neurological disorders in rats with high and low sensitivity to hypoxia and improved their survival during the postischemic period. Noopept normalized behavior disordered by cerebral ischemia (according to the open field and elevated plus maze tests), prevented accumulation of LPO products and inhibition of antioxidant systems in the brain of rats with high and low sensitivity to hypoxia. Hence, noopept exhibited a neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemia.

  12. Evaluation of nootropic potential of Ocimum sanctum Linn. in mice.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Hanumanthachar; Parle, Milind

    2006-02-01

    Dementia is one of the age related mental problems and a characteristic symptom of various neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Certain drugs like diazepam, barbiturates and alcohol disrupt learning and memory in animals and man. However, a new class of drugs known as nootropic agents is now used in situations where there is organic disorder in learning abilities. The present work was undertaken to assess the potential of O. sanctum extract as a nootropic and anti-amnesic agent in mice. Aqueous extract of dried whole plant of O. sanctum ameliorated the amnesic effect of scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg), diazepam (1 mg/kg) and aging induced memory deficits in mice. Elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigm served as the exteroceptive behavioral models. O. sanctum extract decreased transfer latency and increased step down latency, when compared to control (piracetam treated), scopolamine and aged groups of mice significantly. O. sanctum preparations could of beneficial in the treatment of cognitive disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

  13. [A method for reproducing amnesia in mice by the complex extremal exposure].

    PubMed

    Iasnetsov, V V; Provornova, N A

    2003-01-01

    It is suggested to reproduce a retrograde amnesia in mice by means of a complex extremal action: emaciating swim in cold water with simultaneous wheel rotation. It was found that nootropes such as pyracetam, mexidol, semax, nooglutil, acephen, and noopept fully or completely prevent from the amnesia development.

  14. [Peptidergic modulation of the hippocampus synaptic activity].

    PubMed

    Skrebitskiĭ, V G; Kondratenko, R V; Povarov, I S; Dereviagin, V I

    2011-11-01

    Effects of two newly synthesized nootropic and anxiolytic dipeptides: Noopept and Selank on inhibitory synaptic transmission in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells were investigated using patch-clamp technique in whole-cell configuration. Bath application of Noopept (1 microM) or Selank (2 microM) significantly increased the frequency of spike-dependent spontaneous m1PSCs, whereas spike-independent mlPSCs remained unchanged. It was suggested that both peptides mediated their effect sue to activation of inhibitory interneurons terminating on CA1 pyramidal cells. Results of current clamp recording of inhibitory interneurons residing in stratum radiatum confirmed this suggestion, at least for Noonent.

  15. Nootropic agents stimulate neurogenesis. Brain Cells, Inc.: WO2007104035.

    PubMed

    Taupin, Philippe

    2009-05-01

    The application is in the field of adult neurogenesis, neural stem cells and cellular therapy. It aims to characterize the activity of nootropic agents on adult neurogenesis in vitro. Nootropic agents are substances improving cognitive and mental abilities. AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate) and nootropic agents were assessed for the potential to differentiate human neural progenitor and stem cells into neuronal cells in vitro. They were also tested for their behavioural activity on the novel object recognition task. AMPA, piracetam, FK-960 and SGS-111 induce and stimulate neuronal differentiation of human-derived neural progenitor and stem cells. SGS-111 increases the number of visits to the novel object. The neurogenic activity of piracetam and SGS-111 is mediated through AMPA receptor. The neurogenic activity of SGS-111 may contribute and play a role in its nootropic activity. These results suggest that nootropic agents may elicit some of their effects through their neurogenic activity. The application claims the use of nootropic agents for their neurogenic activity and for the treatment of neurological diseases, disorders and injuries, by stimulating or increasing the generation of neuronal cells in the adult brain.

  16. Allosteric potentiation of quisqualate receptors by a nootropic drug aniracetam.

    PubMed

    Ito, I; Tanabe, S; Kohda, A; Sugiyama, H

    1990-05-01

    1. Allosteric potentiation of the ionotropic quisqualate (iQA) receptor by a nootropic drug aniracetam (1-p-anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone) was investigated using Xenopus oocytes injected with rat brain mRNA and rat hippocampal slices. 2. Aniracetam potentiates the iQA responses induced in Xenopus oocytes by rat brain mRNA in a reversible manner. This effect was observed above the concentrations of 0.1 mM. Kainate. N-methyl-D-aspartate and gamma-aminobutyric acid responses induced in the same oocytes were not affected. 3. The specific potentiation of iQA responses was accompanied by an increase in the conductance change of iQA and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) responses, but the affinity of receptors for agonist and the ion-selectivity of the channels (reversal potentials) were not changed. 4. Aniracetam reversibly potentiated the iQA responses recorded intracellularly from the pyramidal cells in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices. The excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in Schaffer collateral-commissural-CA1 synapses were also potentiated by aniracetam. 5. Population EPSPs recorded in the mossy fibre-CA3 synapses as well as Schaffer-commissural synapses were also potentiated by aniracetam. The amplitudes of the potentiation were not changed by the formation of long-term potentiation.

  17. [The role of synaptic transmission in memory and neurodegeneration processes and effects of neurotropic preparations].

    PubMed

    Voronina, T A

    2003-01-01

    Academician Zakusov, in his book Pharmacology of Central Synapses (Moscow, 1973), emphasized the central role of synaptic processes in regulation of various forms of behavior, memory, and psychotropic drug action. The paper considers most promising directions in the search for substances possessing nootropic and neuroprotector properties, many of which were developed at the Institute of Pharmacology based on the notion about synaptic processes. These investigations led to the creation of well-known drugs such as mexidole, noopept, nooglutyl, beglimin, etc. Special attention is devoted to the implementation and modern development of the ideas of Academician Zakusov. Recent data are presented on the role of neuropeptides, neurotrophins, and intracellular signaling mechanisms in synaptic plasticity, memory processes, and development of neurodegenerative states.

  18. Allosteric potentiation of quisqualate receptors by a nootropic drug aniracetam.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, I; Tanabe, S; Kohda, A; Sugiyama, H

    1990-01-01

    1. Allosteric potentiation of the ionotropic quisqualate (iQA) receptor by a nootropic drug aniracetam (1-p-anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone) was investigated using Xenopus oocytes injected with rat brain mRNA and rat hippocampal slices. 2. Aniracetam potentiates the iQA responses induced in Xenopus oocytes by rat brain mRNA in a reversible manner. This effect was observed above the concentrations of 0.1 mM. Kainate. N-methyl-D-aspartate and gamma-aminobutyric acid responses induced in the same oocytes were not affected. 3. The specific potentiation of iQA responses was accompanied by an increase in the conductance change of iQA and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) responses, but the affinity of receptors for agonist and the ion-selectivity of the channels (reversal potentials) were not changed. 4. Aniracetam reversibly potentiated the iQA responses recorded intracellularly from the pyramidal cells in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices. The excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in Schaffer collateral-commissural-CA1 synapses were also potentiated by aniracetam. 5. Population EPSPs recorded in the mossy fibre-CA3 synapses as well as Schaffer-commissural synapses were also potentiated by aniracetam. The amplitudes of the potentiation were not changed by the formation of long-term potentiation. PMID:1975272

  19. Neurocognitive Effect of Nootropic Drug Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Kaustubh S.; Tiwari, Nishant R.; Tiwari, Rakesh R.; Sharma, Rohan S.

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of the elderly. The rapid increase in its incidence has necessitated development of newer drugs. Ayurvedic herbal medications are increasingly researched due to their biosafety profile and usefulness in cognitive impairment. In this article, we critically reviewed one such Medhya Rasayana (nootropic drug) Brahmi-derived from extract of Bacopa monnieri (EBm). Studies have shown that EBm promotes free radical scavenger mechanisms and protects cells in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum against cytotoxicity and DNA damage implicated in AD. It also reduces lipoxygenase activity reducing lipid peroxidation, increases glutathione peroxidase and chelates iron. Administration of EBm was seen to protect the cholinergic neurons and reduce anticholinesterase activity comparable to donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine. It also reduces hippocampal β-amyloid deposition and stress-induced hippocampal damage. The neuroprotective effect of EBm is also due to nitric oxide-mediated cerebral vasodilation. EBm improved the total memory score and maximum improvement was seen in logical memory and paired associate learning in humans and reversed phenytoin-induced memory impairment in experimental model. EBm has not shown any serious clinical, neurological, hematological complications, or vital organs damage in experimental studies. Rats showed marked reduction in fertility; however, libido was unaffected. There is no experimental evidence of genotoxicity or teratogenesis by use of EBm. Mild nausea and gastrointestinal upset are seen in humans. Brahmi promises to be a novel agent in AD; however, further human trials are recommended to verify the efficacy and rule out any side effects as evidenced by the experimental models. PMID:28588366

  20. Towards better brain management: nootropics.

    PubMed

    Malik, Ruchi; Sangwan, Abhijeet; Saihgal, Ruchika; Jindal, Dharam Paul; Piplani, Poonam

    2007-01-01

    The learning and memory deficits have been recognized as severe and consistent neurological disorders associated with numerous neurodegenerative states. Research in this area has gained momentum only in the recent past after the biochemical and physiological basis of these processes have been understood. A considerable alteration in the neurotransmission is a consistent finding in cognitive disorders. Therefore, many therapeutic strategies to augment the concentration of neurotransmitters in brain such as cholinergic agents, biogenic amines and neuropeptides etc. have been evaluated in cognitive deficits. CNS modulators are the type of antiamnesics that act via modulation of the neurological processes underlying memory storage. These include psychostimulants, excitatory amino acids and most important of all "nootropics". Nootropics are a heterogeneous group of compounds of diverse chemical composition and biological function that allegedly facilitate learning and memory or overcome natural or induced cognitive impairments. The literature survey incorporated in this article hallmarks the success achieved in the design and development of potential nootropic agents. Additionally, this review is an attempt towards discussing various approaches available to enhance memory, along with the classification of the known memory enhancers, authors research work towards various structural modifications carried out and the biological screening.

  1. Piperazines as nootropic agents: New derivatives of the potent cognition-enhancer DM235 carrying hydrophilic substituents.

    PubMed

    Martino, Maria Vittoria; Guandalini, Luca; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Menicatti, Marta; Bartolucci, Gianluca; Dei, Silvia; Manetti, Dina; Teodori, Elisabetta; Ghelardini, Carla; Romanelli, Maria Novella

    2017-03-15

    The piperazine ring of the potent nootropic drug DM235 has been decorated with H-bond donor and acceptor groups (CH 2 OH, CH 2 OMe, CH 2 OCOMe, COOEt); the aim was to insert new functional groups, suitable for further chemical manipulation. The influence of these modifications on nootropic activity was assessed by means of the mouse passive avoidance test; some of the newly synthesized molecules (alcohol 7b, acetate 8b and ester 10d) showed interesting in vivo potency. This makes it possible to use these functional groups for adding other residues, in order to increase molecular diversity, or for anchoring a biotin group, to obtain compounds useful to capture the biological target. Moreover, the new compounds will improve our knowledge of structure activity relationships of this family of drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of piracetam, a nootropic agent, on rat brain monoamines and prostaglandins.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, S K; Upadhyay, S N; Jaiswal, A K; Bhattacharya, S

    1989-03-01

    Piracetam is the prototype of a new class of psychotropic drugs, the nootropic agents, which are claimed to selectively improve the higher telencephalic integrative activities. The effect of piracetam on rat brain monoamines and prostaglandins (PGs) was assessed so as to garner information on its mode of action. Two doses of the drug were used, a lower dose (20 mg/kg ip) and a higher dose (100 mg/kg, ip), the latter being known to exert a facilitatory effect on learning and memory. Piracetam produced a dose-related effect on rat brain serotonin (5HT) and noradrenaline (NA), with the lower dose inducing a decrease in 5HT levels and an increase in NA concentrations. The higher dose of piracetam produced the opposite effect. Dopamine (DA) levels were not significantly affected. The lower dose of the drug attenuated 5HT turnover and augmented that of NA, whereas the higher dose of piracetam produced the reverse effects, in clorgyline treated rats. The lower dose of piracetam produced a slight and statistically insignificant increase in rat brain PGE2 and PGF2 alpha. However, the higher dose of the drug produced marked increase in the levels of both the PGs. The observed biochemical effects may provide a basis for the nootropic effect of piracetam. However, they may also be due to the GA-BA-mimetic action of the drug, particularly those observed with the lower dose of piracetam.

  3. [Plant metabolites as nootropics and cognitives].

    PubMed

    Cervenka, F; Jahodár, L

    2006-09-01

    Nowadays several millions of people suffer from Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia. Etiology of these diseases is not known very well. There occur different levels of neurotransmitters, the level of acetylcholine in the brain is decreased and pathological changes affect the brain tissue. Organic and toxic damage of the brain, free radicals, and other changes participate in the development of these diseases. Drugs as nootropics, cognitives, and neuroprotectives are commonly used to treat these diseases. Some of these drugs have often side and undesirable effects. In recent years some natural substances (galanthamine, huperzine A, vinpocetine), and standardized plant extracts (Ginkgo biloba L., Centella asiatica L.) Urban, Bacopa monniera L., Evolvulus alsinoides L.) are often used. These plant preparations produce fewer undesirable effects and the same effectiveness as the classic therapy, or these preparations are used as a supplement to the classic therapy.

  4. [Evolution of the neuroprotection concept].

    PubMed

    Ostrovskaia, R U

    2003-01-01

    Although the modern concept of neuroprotection has been formulated quite recently, the basis of this approach was laid about four decades ago when Zakusov initiated the study of mechanisms involved in the neuroprotector action of GABA shunt metabolites (in particular, alpha-hydroxybutyric acid and succinic semialdehyde) during hypoxia. It was suggested to consider these agents as a system of endogenous neuroprotectors. The interest of Zakusov in endogenous regulators (including oligopeptides) had stimulated research in this direction and gave impact to the investigations of A. P. Skoldinov and T. A. Gudasheva initiated in the early 1980s. Proceeding from the original concept of the possibility of imitation of the action of neurotropic agents by their structural-conformational oligopeptide analogs, a number of biologically active stable dipeptides were obtained, based on pyroglutamate and proline, and high specific bioaccessibility of these dipeptides for the brain was established. Our investigations showed that these compounds not only possess nootropic activity (in a dose 1000 times lower than that of piracetam), but produce a pronounced neuroprotector action as well. Most thoroughly studied in this respect were substituted acyl-prolyl dipeptides, in particular, the drug noopept exhibiting a combined neuroprotector effect both in vitro and in vivo. Noopept decreases the extent of necrotic damage caused by photoinduced thrombosis of cortical blood vessels. It was established that the neuroprotector effect of noopept is related to its action upon the well-known "triad", whereby the drug reduces neurotoxic effects of excess extracellular calcium, glutamate, and free radicals. Two additional components of the neuroprotector action of noopept are related to the antiinflammatory and antithrombotic activity. The prospects of using direct and indirect action upon neurotrophin system for neuroprotection purposes are considered. Taking into account common secondary

  5. Nootropic nefiracetam inhibits proconvulsant action of peripheral-type benzodiazepines in epileptic mutant EL mice.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Yurie; Shiotani, Tadashi; Watabe, Shigeo; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Yoshii, Mitsunobu

    2004-10-01

    Piracetam and structurally related nootropics are known to potentiate the anticonvulsant effects of antiepileptic drugs. It remains to be seen, however, whether these nootropics inhibit proconvulsant actions of many toxic agents including Ro 5-4864, a specific agonist for peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors (PBR). The present study was designed to address this issue using EL mice, an animal model of epilepsy. In behavioral pharmacological experiments, EL mice were highly susceptible to convulsions induced by Ro 5-4864 (i.p.) in comparison with nonepileptic DDY mice. Nefiracetam administered orally to EL mice inhibited spontaneous seizures. In DDY mice, convulsions induced by Ro 5-4864 were prevented by nefiracetam when administered by i.v. injection. Aniracetam (i.v.) was partially effective, but piracetam and oxiracetam were ineffective as anticonvulsants. Binding assay for brain tissues revealed a higher density of mitochondrial PBR in EL mice compared with DDY mice. Binding of the PBR ligands Ro 5-4864 to either EL or DDY mouse brain was inhibited by micromolar concentrations of these nootropic agents in the sequence of nefiracetam > aniracetam > oxiracetam, piracetam. This rank order is identical to potency as anticonvulsants. These data suggest that nefiracetam may prevent toxic effects of PBR agonists through interacting with PBR.

  6. Synthesis and nootropic activity of some 2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol-1-one derivatives structurally related with piracetam.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Adelfo; Huerta, Leticia; Alfaro, Marisol; Navarrete, Andrés

    2010-11-01

    Three 2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol-1-ones structurally related with piracetam (=2-oxopyrrolidine-1-acetamide) have been synthesized and tested for their nootropic effects in the passive avoidance test in mice. Compounds (RS)-2, (R,R)-3, and (R,S)-3 were obtained in good yields in only two steps starting from methyl DL-phthaloylalanine. Compound (RS)-2 exhibited nootropic activity at lower doses than piracetam, used as reference drug, but it showed lower efficacy. Whereas diastereoisomers (R,R)-3 and (R,S)-3 were as potent as piracetam to revert amnesia induced by scopolamine, (R,S)-3 showed lower efficacy than (R,R)-3. Only (R,R)-3 showed myorelaxant effect at doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg; other compounds did not exhibit any anticonvulsant, sedative, myorelaxant, or impaired motor-coordination effect in mice. These synthesized 2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol-1-one derivatives constitute a new kind of nootropic compounds.

  7. Cannabis-induced impairment of learning and memory: effect of different nootropic drugs.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Salem, Neveen A; El-Sayed El-Shamarka, Marwa; Al-Said Ahmed, Noha; Seid Hussein, Jihan; El-Khyat, Zakaria A

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis sativa preparations are the most commonly used illicit drugs worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Cannabis sativa extract in the working memory version of the Morris water maze (MWM; Morris, 1984[43]) test and determine the effect of standard memory enhancing drugs. Cannabis sativa was given at doses of 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg (expressed as Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol) alone or co-administered with donepezil (1 mg/kg), piracetam (150 mg/ kg), vinpocetine (1.5 mg/kg) or ginkgo biloba (25 mg/kg) once daily subcutaneously (s.c.) for one month. Mice were examined three times weekly for their ability to locate a submerged platform. Mice were euthanized 30 days after starting cannabis injection when biochemical assays were carried out. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide, glucose and brain monoamines were determined. Cannabis resulted in a significant increase in the time taken to locate the platform and enhanced the memory impairment produced by scopolamine. This effect of cannabis decreased by memory enhancing drugs with piracetam resulting in the most-shorter latency compared with the cannabis. Biochemically, cannabis altered the oxidative status of the brain with decreased MDA, increased GSH, but decreased nitric oxide and glucose. In cannabis-treated rats, the level of GSH in brain was increased after vinpocetine and donepezil and was markedly elevated after Ginkgo biloba. Piracetam restored the decrease in glucose and nitric oxide by cannabis. Cannabis caused dose-dependent increases of brain serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine. After cannabis treatment, noradrenaline is restored to its normal value by donepezil, vinpocetine or Ginkgo biloba, but increased by piracetam. The level of dopamine was significantly reduced by piracetam, vinpocetine or Ginkgo biloba. These data indicate that cannabis administration is associated with impaired memory performance which is likely to involve decreased brain glucose

  8. Cannabis-induced impairment of learning and memory: effect of different nootropic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M.E.; Salem, Neveen A.; El-Sayed El-Shamarka, Marwa; Al-Said Ahmed, Noha; Seid Hussein, Jihan; El-Khyat, Zakaria A.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis sativa preparations are the most commonly used illicit drugs worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Cannabis sativa extract in the working memory version of the Morris water maze (MWM; Morris, 1984[43]) test and determine the effect of standard memory enhancing drugs. Cannabis sativa was given at doses of 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg (expressed as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) alone or co-administered with donepezil (1 mg/kg), piracetam (150 mg/ kg), vinpocetine (1.5 mg/kg) or ginkgo biloba (25 mg/kg) once daily subcutaneously (s.c.) for one month. Mice were examined three times weekly for their ability to locate a submerged platform. Mice were euthanized 30 days after starting cannabis injection when biochemical assays were carried out. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide, glucose and brain monoamines were determined. Cannabis resulted in a significant increase in the time taken to locate the platform and enhanced the memory impairment produced by scopolamine. This effect of cannabis decreased by memory enhancing drugs with piracetam resulting in the most-shorter latency compared with the cannabis. Biochemically, cannabis altered the oxidative status of the brain with decreased MDA, increased GSH, but decreased nitric oxide and glucose. In cannabis-treated rats, the level of GSH in brain was increased after vinpocetine and donepezil and was markedly elevated after Ginkgo biloba. Piracetam restored the decrease in glucose and nitric oxide by cannabis. Cannabis caused dose-dependent increases of brain serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine. After cannabis treatment, noradrenaline is restored to its normal value by donepezil, vinpocetine or Ginkgo biloba, but increased by piracetam. The level of dopamine was significantly reduced by piracetam, vinpocetine or Ginkgo biloba. These data indicate that cannabis administration is associated with impaired memory performance which is likely to involve decreased brain glucose

  9. Design, synthesis, and preliminary pharmacological evaluation of 1, 4-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-9-ones as a new class of highly potent nootropic agents.

    PubMed

    Manetti, D; Ghelardini, C; Bartolini, A; Bellucci, C; Dei, S; Galeotti, N; Gualtieri, F; Romanelli, M N; Scapecchi, S; Teodori, E

    2000-05-18

    Several 4-substituted 1,4-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-9-ones have been synthesized and tested in vivo on mouse passive avoidance test, to evaluate their nootropic activity. The results show that they represent a new class of nootropic drugs with a pharmacological profile very similar to that of piracetam, showing much higher potency with respect to the reference. Among the compounds studied, 7 (DM 232) shows outstanding potency, being active at the dose of 0. 001 mg kg(-1) sc.

  10. Nootropic, anxiolytic and CNS-depressant studies on different plant sources of shankhpushpi.

    PubMed

    Malik, Jai; Karan, Maninder; Vasisht, Karan

    2011-12-01

    Shankhpushpi, a well-known drug in Ayurveda, is extensively used for different central nervous system (CNS) effects especially memory enhancement. Different plants are used under the name shankhpushpi in different regions of India, leading to an uncertainty regarding its true source. Plants commonly used under the name shankhpushpi are: Convolvulus pluricaulis Chois., Evolvulus alsinoides Linn., both from Convolvulaceae, and Clitoria ternatea Linn. (Leguminosae). To find out the true source of shankhpushpi by evaluating and comparing memory-enhancing activity of the three above mentioned plants. Anxiolytic, antidepressant and CNS-depressant activities of these three plants were also compared and evaluated. The nootropic activity of the aqueous methanol extract of each plant was tested using elevated plus-maze (EPM) and step-down models. Anxiolytic, antidepressant and CNS-depressant studies were evaluated using EPM, Porsolt?s swim despair and actophotometer models, respectively. C. pluricaulis extract (CPE) at a dose of 100 mg/kg, p.o. showed maximum nootropic and anxiolytic activity (p < 0.001). E. alsinoides extract (EAE) and C. ternatea extract (CTE) showed maximum memory-enhancing and anxiolytic activity (p < 0.001) at 200 and 100?mg/kg, respectively. Amongst the three plants, EAE and CTE showed significant (p < 0.05), while CPE did not exhibit any antidepressant activity. All the three plants showed CNS-depressant action at higher dose levels. The above results showed all the three plants possess nootropic, anxiolytic and CNS-depressant activity. The results of memory-enhancing activity suggest C. pluricaulis to be used as true source of shankhpushpi.

  11. Cyclopropyl glycine and proline-containing preparation noopept evoke two types of membrane potential responses in synaptoneurosomes.

    PubMed

    Lutsenko, V K; Vukolova, M N; Gudasheva, T A

    2003-06-01

    Proline, cyclo(Pro-Gly), and acyl-prolyl-containing dipeptide GVS-111 decreased synaptoneurosome membrane potential in a Ca2+-free medium. The efficiency of these preparations decreased in the following order: GVS>cyclo(Pro-Gly)>proline. Depolarization responses induced by endogenous nootropic agent cyclo(Pro-Gly) was dose-dependent and saturable; the threshold concentration of cyclo(Pro-Gly) was 10(-9) M. In a Ca2+-containing medium GVS and cyclo(Pro-Gly) induced both hyperpolarizing and depolarizing membrane responses of synaptoneurosomes. Possible mechanisms underlying changes in the membrane potential of synaptoneurosomes induced by nootropic agents are discussed. It was interesting whether modulation of electrogenesis can improve memory and potentiate the neuroprotective effect of the test nootropic agents.

  12. Smart drugs for cognitive enhancement: ethical and pragmatic considerations in the era of cosmetic neurology.

    PubMed

    Cakic, V

    2009-10-01

    Reports in the popular press suggest that smart drugs or "nootropics" such as methylphenidate, modafinil and piracetam are increasingly being used by the healthy to augment cognitive ability. Although current nootropics offer only modest improvements in cognitive performance, it appears likely that more effective compounds will be developed in the future and that their off-label use will increase. One sphere in which the use of these drugs may be commonplace is by healthy students within academia. This article reviews the ethical and pragmatic implications of nootropic use in academia by drawing parallels with issues relevant to the drugs in sport debate. It is often argued that performance-enhancing drugs should be prohibited because they create an uneven playing field. However, this appears dubious given that "unfair" advantages are already ubiquitous and generally tolerated by society. There are concerns that widespread use will indirectly coerce non-users also to employ nootropics in order to remain competitive. However, to restrict the autonomy of all people for fear that it may influence the actions of some is untenable. The use of potentially harmful drugs for the purposes of enhancement rather than treatment is often seen as unjustified, and libertarian approaches generally champion the rights of the individual in deciding if these risks are acceptable. Finally, whether the prohibition of nootropics can be effectively enforced is doubtful. As nootropics use becomes widespread among students in the future, discussion of this issue will become more pressing in the years to come.

  13. Pharmacological validation of in-silico guided novel nootropic potential of Achyranthes aspera L.

    PubMed

    Gawande, Dinesh Yugraj; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2015-12-04

    Achyranthes aspera (A. aspera) has been used as a brain tonic in folk medicine. Although, ethnic use of medicinal plant has been basis for drug discovery from medicinal plants, but the available in-silico tools can be useful to find novel pharmacological uses of medicinal plants beyond their ethnic use. To validate in-silico prediction for novel nootropic effect of A. aspera by employing battery of tests in mice. Phytoconstituents of A. aspera reported in Dictionary of Natural Product were subjected to in-silico prediction using PASS and Pharmaexpert. The nootropic activity predicted for A. aspera was assessed using radial arm maze, passive shock avoidance and novel object recognition tests in mice. After behavioral evaluation animals were decapitated and their brains were collected and stored for estimation of glutamate levels and acetylcholinesterase activity. In-silico activity spectrum for majority of A. aspera phytoconstituents exhibited excellent prediction score for nootropic activity of this plant. A. aspera extract treatment significantly improved the learning and memory as evident by decreased working memory errors, reference memory errors and latency time in radial arm maze, step through latency in passive shock avoidance and increased recognition index in novel object recognition were observed, moreover significantly enhanced glutamate levels and reduced acetylcholinesterase activity in hippocampus and cortex were observed as compared to the saline treated group. In-silico and in-vivo results suggest that A. aspera plant may improve the learning and memory by modulating the brain glutamatergic and cholinergic neurotransmission. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nootropic activity of Crataeva nurvala Buch-Ham against scopolamine induced cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Atanu; Shashidhara, Shastry Chakrakodi; Saha, Santanu

    2015-01-01

    Loss of cognition is one of the age related mental problems and a characteristic symptom of neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s. Crataeva nurvala Buch-Ham, a well explored traditional Indian medicinal plant of Westernghats, is routinely used as folkloric medicine to treat various ailments in particular urolithiasis and neurological disorders associated with cognitive dysfunction. The objective of the study was to evaluate the nootropic activity of Crataeva nurvala Buch-Ham stem bark in different learning and memory paradigm viz. Elevated plus maze and Y-maze against scopolamine induced cognitive impairment. Moreover, to elucidate possible mechanism, we studied the influence of Crataeva nurvala ethanolic extract on central cholinergic activity via estimating the whole brain acetyl cholinesterase enzyme. Ethanolic extracts of Crataeva nurvala (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) were administered to adult Wistar rats for successive seven days and the acquisition, retention and retrieval of spatial recognition memory was determined against scopolamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) induced amnesia through exteroceptive behavioral models viz. Elevated plus maze and Y-maze models. Further, whole brain acetyl cholinesterase enzyme was estimated through Ellman’s method. Pretreatment with Crataeva nurvala ethanolic extract significantly improved spatial learning and memory against scopolamine induced amnesia. Moreover, Crataeva nurvala extract decreased rat brain acetyl cholinesterase activity in a dose dependent manner and comparable to the standard drug Piracetam. The results indicate that ethanolic extract of Crataeva nurvala might be a useful as nootropic agent to delay the onset and reduce the severity of symptoms associated with dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. The underlying mechanism of action of its nootropic potentiality might be attributed to its anticholinesterase property. PMID:27065767

  15. [Antihypoxic effect of 3-hydroxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives and their nootropic action in alloxan diabetes].

    PubMed

    Volchegorskiĭ, I A; Rassokhina, L M; Miroshnichenko, I Iu

    2011-01-01

    Relationship between the antihypoxic effect of 3-hydroxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives (emoxipine, reamberin and mexidol) and their effect on conditional learning, glycemia, and lipidemia was studied in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. In parallel, the analogous relationship was investigated for alpha-lipoic acid that is regarded as a "gold standard" in treatment of diabetic neuropathy. It was established that single administration of emoxipine and mexidol in mice in doses equivalent to therapeutic-range doses in humans produces antihypoxic effect manifested by increased resistance to acute hypoxic hypoxia in test animals. Alpha-lipoic acid is inferior to emoxipin and mexidol in the degree of antihypoxic action. Reamberin does not exhibit this effect. The introduction of emoxipin, reamberin, mexidol, and alpha-lipoic acid in rats with alloxan diabetes during 7 or 14 days in doses equivalent to therapeutic-range doses in humans corrects conditional learning disorders in direct relationship with the antihypoxic activity of these drugs. The development of the nootropic effect of emoxipin, mexidol, and alpha-lipoic acid is related to a decrease in hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in rats with alloxan diabetes. The nootropic action of reamberin is accompanied by a transient hypoglycemizing effect and aggravation of dyslipidemic disorders. The antihypoxic activity of investigated drugs determines the direction and expression of their lipidemic effect, but is not correlated with the hypoglycemizing action these drugs on test animals with alloxan diabetes.

  16. Efficacy of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors versus nootropics in Alzheimer's disease: a retrospective, longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tsolaki, M; Pantazi, T; Kazis, A

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of nootropics (piracetam, aniracetam, nimodopine and dihydroergicristine) versus acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChE-Is) (tacrine and donepezil) in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This is a retrospective study of 510 patients with Alzheimer's disease. To determine clinical efficacy of treatment, we used the mean change over time in scores for the following tests: the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); the Cambridge Cognitive Examination for the Elderly; and the Functional Rating Scale for Symptoms of Dementia. In all patients and in patients with severe Alzheimer's disease (baseline MMSE < 11), no significant differences were seen in the neuropsychological test scores between the two treatment groups. In patients with moderate dementia (baseline MMSE between 11 and 20), however, there was a significantly greater deterioration, as shown on the CAMCOG scale, after 12 months' treatment for patients receiving AChE-Is compared with those receiving nootropics (-4.38 for AChE-Is group versus 1.48 for nootropics group). For patients with mild dementia (baseline MMSE score between 21 and 26), there was a significantly greater deterioration on the MMSE scale for each time-point in the nootropics group compared with the AChE-Is group. In conclusion, we did not find any strong evidence that a difference in efficacy exists between AChE-Is and nootropics in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  17. The nootropic properties of ginseng saponin Rb1 are linked to effects on anxiety.

    PubMed

    Churchill, James D; Gerson, Jennifer L; Hinton, Kendra A; Mifek, Jennifer L; Walter, Michael J; Winslow, Cynthia L; Deyo, Richard A

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that crude ginseng extracts enhance performance on shock-motivated tasks. Whether such performance enhancements are due to memory-enhancing (nootropic) properties of ginseng, or to other non-specific effects such as an influence on anxiety has not been determined. In the present study, we evaluated both the nootropic and anxiolytic effects of the ginseng saponin Rb1. In the first experiment, 80 five-day-old male chicks received intraperitoneal injections of 0, 0.25, 2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg Rb1. Performance on a visual discrimination task was evaluated 15 minutes, 24 and 72 hours later. Acquisition of a visual discrimination task was unaffected by drug treatment, but the number of errors was significantly reduced in the 0.25 mg/kg group during retention trials completed 24 and 72 hours after injection. Animals receiving higher dosages showed trends towards enhancement initially, but demonstrated impaired performance when tested 72 hours later. Rb1 had no effect on response rates or body weight. In the second experiment, 64 five-day-old male chicks received similar injections of Rb1 (0, 0.25, 2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg) and separation distress was evaluated 15 minutes, 24 and 72 hours later. Rb1 produced a change in separation distress that depended on the dose and environmental condition under which distress was recorded. These data suggest that Rb1 can improve memory for a visual discrimination task and that the nootropic effect may be related to changes in anxiety.

  18. [Role of functional state of neuronal mitochondria of cerebral cortex in mechanisms of nootropic activity of neuroprotectors in rats with alloxan hyperglycemia].

    PubMed

    Zhiliuk, V I; Mamchur, V I; Pavlov, S V

    2015-01-01

    The influence of citicoline, phenylpiracetam, pentoxifylline and N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine on cognitive processes and functional state of mitochondria in the neocortex of alloxan-diabetic rats has been studied. The drug effects on cognitive processes were assessed using passive avoidance tests in the dark-light camera. Latent period and the number of animals with amnesia skill on 6th and 20th days of drug administration were recorded. Functional status of mitochondria was assessed by mitochondrial pore opening and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Y) on 20th day. It has been established that course administration of phenylpiracetam, citicoline and to a lesser extent N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine, but not pentoxifylline, improves the processes of learning and storing conditional skill. At the same time, the nootropic activity of studied drugs was comparable to their effect on the functional state of mitochondria in neocortical neurons in rats with chronic hyperglycemia. According to mitoprotective activity (prevention of opening of mitochondrial cyclosporin-A-sensitive pores and restoration of mitochondrial transmembrane potential), the maximum potential was observed for citicoline and phenylpiracetam, and the minimum--for pentoxifylline. The results point out the importance of mitoprotective properties in nootropic effects of studied drugs.

  19. Molecular simplification of 1,4-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-9-ones gives piperazine derivatives that maintain high nootropic activity.

    PubMed

    Manetti, D; Ghelardini, C; Bartolini, A; Dei, S; Galeotti, N; Gualtieri, F; Romanelli, M N; Teodori, E

    2000-11-16

    Several 4-substituted 1-acylpiperazines, obtained by molecular simplification of 4-substituted 1,4-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-9-ones, have been synthesized and tested in vivo on the mouse passive avoidance test, to evaluate their nootropic activity. The results show that, apparently, an N-acylpiperazine group can mimic the 2-pyrrolidinone ring of 1,4-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-9-one, as the compounds of the new series maintain high nootropic activity. Moreover molecular simplification produces more clear-cut structure-activity relationships with respect to the parent series. The mechanism of action also appears to be similar in the two series. In fact, although the molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated, the most potent compound of each class (DM232 and 13, DM235) is able to increase acetylcholine release in rat brain. Piperazine derivatives represent a new class of nootropic drugs with an in vivo pharmacological profile very similar to that of piracetam, showing much higher potency with respect to the reference compound. Among the compounds studied, 13 (DM235) shows outstanding potency, being active at a dose of 0.001 mg kg(-1) sc.

  20. [Nootropic and analgesic effects of Semax following different routes of administration].

    PubMed

    Manchenko, D M; Glazova, N Iu; Levitskaia, N G; Andreeva, L A; Kamenskiĭ, A A; Miasoedov, N F

    2010-10-01

    Heptapeptide Semax (MEHFPGP) is the fragment of ACTH(4-10) analogue with prolonged neurotropic activity. The aim of the present work was to study the Semax effects on learning capability and pain sensitivity in white rats following intraperitoneal and intranasal administration in different doses. Semax nootropic effects were studied in the test of acquisition of passive avoidance task. Pain sensitivity was estimated in Randall-Selitto paw-withdrawal test. It was shown that Semax exerts nootropic and analgesic activities following intraperitoneal administration. Analysis of dependence of these effects on dose resulted in different dose-response curves. Following intranasal administration, Semax was more potent in learning improvement compared to intraperitoneal administration. The peptide failed to affect the animal pain sensitivity following intranasal administration as opposed to intraperitoneal administration. The data obtained suggest different mechanisms and brain structures involved in realization of the nootropic and analgesic effects of Semax.

  1. Nootropic and anxiolytic activity of saponins of Albizzia lebbeck leaves.

    PubMed

    Une, H D; Sarveiya, V P; Pal, S C; Kasture, V S; Kasture, S B

    2001-01-01

    The effect of saponin containing, n-butanolic fraction (BF), extracted from dried leaves of Albizzia lebbeck, was studied on cognitive behavior and anxiety in albino mice. The elevated plus maze was used for assessment of both nootropic and anxiolytic activity. The nootropic activity was evaluated by recording the effect of BF (0, 10, 25, and 50 mg/kg) on the transfer latency, whereas anxiolytic activity was assessed by studying its effect on the duration of occupancy in the closed arm. Results showed significant improvement in the retention ability of the normal and amnesic mice as compared to their respective controls. Animals treated with BF (25 mg/kg) spent more time in the open arm in a dose-dependent manner. The BF was without any significant effect on motor coordination. However, it significantly inhibited passivity and hypothermia induced by baclofen (10 mg/kg), a GABA(B) agonist. The data emanated in the present study suggests involvement of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the nootropic and anxiolytic activity of saponins obtained from A. lebbeck.

  2. PASS-predicted design, synthesis and biological evaluation of cyclic nitrones as nootropics.

    PubMed

    Marwaha, Alka; Goel, R K; Mahajan, Mohinder P

    2007-09-15

    Out of 400 virtually designed imidazoline N-oxides, five cyclic nitrones were selected on the basis of PASS prediction as potent nootropics and were evaluated for their biological activities in albino mice. The selected N-alkyl and aryl-substituted nitrones were found to be excellent nootropics. A series of lead compounds acting as cognition enhancers have been provided, which can be further exploited in search of such New Chemical Entities (NCEs).

  3. Nootropic Effects of Filipendula Vulgaris Moench Water Extract Fractions.

    PubMed

    Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I; Amelchenko, V P

    2015-07-01

    Nootropic activity of water extract fractions from aerial parts of Filipendula vulgaris Moench was demonstrated on the models of hermetic volume hypoxia, conditioned passive avoidance response, open field test, and forced swimming with a load. The fractions stimulated hypoxic resistance, normalized orientation and exploratory behavior, improved conditioned response reproduction during testing after hypoxic injury, and increased exercise tolerance. Fractionation of the extract led to dissociation of the effect components, which suggests that individual constituents have specific characteristics. Ethylacetate fraction exhibited most pronounced nootropic activity and was superior to plant extract by some characteristics. The detected effects seemed to be caused by modulation of the hippocampus activity the under the effects of phenol and triterpene compounds.

  4. Nootropic activity of extracts from wild and cultivated Alfredia cernua.

    PubMed

    Mustafin, R N; Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I; Kuvacheva, N V; Amelchenko, V P

    2011-01-01

    Antihypoxic and nootropic activities of extracts from aerial parts of wild and cultivated Alfredia cernua (L.) Cass. were studied on the models of pressure chamber hypoxia, open field test, and passive avoidance conditioning. The extracts of Alfredia cernua promoted retention of the orientation reflex and passive avoidance conditioned response and normalized orientation and exploratory activities disordered as a result of hypoxic injury. The efficiency of the extracts was superior to that of piracetam by the effect on retention of passive avoidance response throughout the greater part of the experiment. Nootropic activity of cultivated Alfredia cernua was not inferior to that of the wild plant.

  5. Study of the protective effects of nootropic agents against neuronal damage induced by amyloid-beta (fragment 25-35) in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Sendrowski, Krzysztof; Sobaniec, Wojciech; Stasiak-Barmuta, Anna; Sobaniec, Piotr; Popko, Janusz

    2015-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder, in which progressive neuron loss, mainly in the hippocampus, is observed. The critical events in the pathogenesis of AD are associated with accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides in the brain. Deposits of Aβ initiate a neurotoxic "cascade" leading to apoptotic death of neurons. Aim of this study was to assess a putative neuroprotective effects of two nootropic drugs: piracetam (PIR) and levetiracetam (LEV) on Aβ-injured hippocampal neurons in culture. Primary cultures of rat's hippocampal neurons at 7 day in vitro were exposed to Aβ(25-35) in the presence or absence of nootropics in varied concentrations. Flow cytometry with Annexin V/PI staining was used for counting and establishing neurons as viable, necrotic or apoptotic. Additionally, release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) to the culture medium, as a marker of cell death, was evaluated. Aβ(25-35) caused concentration-dependent death of about one third number of hippocampal neurons, mainly through an apoptotic pathway. In drugs-containing cultures, number of neurons injured with 20 μM Aβ(25-35) was about one-third lesser for PIR and almost two-fold lesser for LEV. When 40 μM Aβ(25-35) was used, only LEV exerted beneficial neuroprotective action, while PIR was ineffective. Our results suggest the protective potential of both studied nootropics against Aβ-induced death of cultured hippocampal neurons with more powerful neuroprotective effects of LEV. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  6. Chromatographic behaviour predicts the ability of potential nootropics to permeate the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Farsa, Oldřich

    2013-01-01

    The log BB parameter is the logarithm of the ratio of a compound's equilibrium concentrations in the brain tissue versus the blood plasma. This parameter is a useful descriptor in assessing the ability of a compound to permeate the blood-brain barrier. The aim of this study was to develop a Hansch-type linear regression QSAR model that correlates the parameter log BB and the retention time of drugs and other organic compounds on a reversed-phase HPLC containing an embedded amide moiety. The retention time was expressed by the capacity factor log k'. The second aim was to estimate the brain's absorption of 2-(azacycloalkyl)acetamidophenoxyacetic acids, which are analogues of piracetam, nefiracetam, and meclofenoxate. Notably, these acids may be novel nootropics. Two simple regression models that relate log BB and log k' were developed from an assay performed using a reversed-phase HPLC that contained an embedded amide moiety. Both the quadratic and linear models yielded statistical parameters comparable to previously published models of log BB dependence on various structural characteristics. The models predict that four members of the substituted phenoxyacetic acid series have a strong chance of permeating the barrier and being absorbed in the brain. The results of this study show that a reversed-phase HPLC system containing an embedded amide moiety is a functional in vitro surrogate of the blood-brain barrier. These results suggest that racetam-type nootropic drugs containing a carboxylic moiety could be more poorly absorbed than analogues devoid of the carboxyl group, especially if the compounds penetrate the barrier by a simple diffusion mechanism.

  7. Antidepressant, psychostimulant, and nootropic effects of major and trace element composition.

    PubMed

    Afanasieva, O G; Suslov, N I; Shilova, I V

    2013-06-01

    The antidepressant, psychostimulant, and nootropic effects of a composition of major and trace elements including KCl, RbNO3, magnesium sulfate, and zinc sulfate were studied on the models of behavioural despair (Porsolt test) and conditioned passive avoidance test. The preparation was found to shorten the immobilization time in the Porsolt test and promote retention of the conditioned passive avoidance. The most pronounced psychostimulant effect of the substance was observed at a dose of 4.68 mg/kg and the most pronounced antidepressant effect was found at a dose of 18.72 mg/kg. Maximum nootropic activity of the preparation was found at a dose of 93.6 mg/kg.

  8. Delayed nootropic effects of arginine vasopressin after early postnatal chronic administration to albino rat pups.

    PubMed

    Kim, P A; Voskresenskaya, O G; Kamensky, A A

    2009-06-01

    Intranasal administration of arginine vasopressin (10 microg/kg) to albino rat pups had a strong nootropic effect during training with positive and negative reinforcement. This effect was different in animals of various age groups: training with positive reinforcement was improved in "adolescent" rats and pubertal animals, while during training with negative reinforcement, the nootropic effect of the peptide was more prolonged and persisted also in adult animals.

  9. [Electrophysiological correlates of efficacy of nootropic drugs in the treatment of consequences of traumatic brain injury in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Iznak, E V; Iznak, A F; Pankratova, E A; Zavadenko, N N; Guzilova, L S; Guzilova, Iu I

    2010-01-01

    To assess objectively a dynamics of brain functional state, EEG spectral power and peak latency of the P300 component of cognitive auditory evoked potentials have been analyzed in adolescents during the course of nootropic therapy of residual asthenic consequences of traumatic brain injury (ICD-10 F07.2). The study included 76 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, who have undergone severe closed head trauma with brain commotion 1/2--5 years ago. Patients have been divided into 3 groups treated during one month with cerebrolysin, piracetam or magne-B6, respectively. After the end of the nootropic therapy, 77% of patients treated with cerebrolysin as well as 50% of patients treated with piracetam and magne-B6 have demonstrated the positive dynamics of their brain functional state that manifested itself in the appearance of occipital EEG alpha rhythm or in the increase of its spectral power; in the normalization of alpha rhythm frequency; in the decrease in the spectral power of slow wave (theta and delta) EEG activity, in the amount (up to the disappearance) of paroxysmal EEG activity, in the EEG response to hyperventilation and in the shortening of the P300 peak latency. Such positive changes of neurophysiological parameters have been associated with the improvement of clinical conditions of patients and correlated significantly with the dynamics of psychometric scores of attention and memory.

  10. Chromatographic Behaviour Predicts the Ability of Potential Nootropics to Permeate the Blood-Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Farsa, Oldřich

    2013-01-01

    The log BB parameter is the logarithm of the ratio of a compound’s equilibrium concentrations in the brain tissue versus the blood plasma. This parameter is a useful descriptor in assessing the ability of a compound to permeate the blood-brain barrier. The aim of this study was to develop a Hansch-type linear regression QSAR model that correlates the parameter log BB and the retention time of drugs and other organic compounds on a reversed-phase HPLC containing an embedded amide moiety. The retention time was expressed by the capacity factor log k′. The second aim was to estimate the brain’s absorption of 2-(azacycloalkyl)acetamidophenoxyacetic acids, which are analogues of piracetam, nefiracetam, and meclofenoxate. Notably, these acids may be novel nootropics. Two simple regression models that relate log BB and log k′ were developed from an assay performed using a reversed-phase HPLC that contained an embedded amide moiety. Both the quadratic and linear models yielded statistical parameters comparable to previously published models of log BB dependence on various structural characteristics. The models predict that four members of the substituted phenoxyacetic acid series have a strong chance of permeating the barrier and being absorbed in the brain. The results of this study show that a reversed-phase HPLC system containing an embedded amide moiety is a functional in vitro surrogate of the blood-brain barrier. These results suggest that racetam-type nootropic drugs containing a carboxylic moiety could be more poorly absorbed than analogues devoid of the carboxyl group, especially if the compounds penetrate the barrier by a simple diffusion mechanism. PMID:23641330

  11. Unifi nootropics from the lab to the web: a story of academic (and industrial) shortcomings.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a review of the work of my former academic group of research in the past 15 years, in the field of cognition enhancers (also called nootropics) that identified two very potent molecules: Unifiram and Sunifiram that for a variety of reasons were not protected by a patent. Some 12 years after their disclosure (2000) I casually found that on the web, there were dozens of sites offering Unifiram and Sunifiram as drugs that improve cognition in healthy individuals even if only few preclinical studies were done and their long-term toxicity was unknown.

  12. Preparation of silica nanoparticles loaded with nootropics and their in vivo permeation through blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Jampilek, Josef; Zaruba, Kamil; Oravec, Michal; Kunes, Martin; Babula, Petr; Ulbrich, Pavel; Brezaniova, Ingrid; Opatrilova, Radka; Triska, Jan; Suchy, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier prevents the passage of many drugs that target the central nervous system. This paper presents the preparation and characterization of silica-based nanocarriers loaded with piracetam, pentoxifylline, and pyridoxine (drugs from the class of nootropics), which are designed to enhance the permeation of the drugs from the circulatory system through the blood-brain barrier. Their permeation was compared with non-nanoparticle drug substances (bulk materials) by means of an in vivo model of rat brain perfusion. The size and morphology of the nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The content of the drug substances in silica-based nanocarriers was analysed by elemental analysis and UV spectrometry. Microscopic analysis of visualized silica nanocarriers in the perfused brain tissue was performed. The concentration of the drug substances in the tissue was determined by means of UHPLC-DAD/HRMS LTQ Orbitrap XL. It was found that the drug substances in silica-based nanocarriers permeated through the blood brain barrier to the brain tissue, whereas bulk materials were not detected in the brain.

  13. Preparation of Silica Nanoparticles Loaded with Nootropics and Their In Vivo Permeation through Blood-Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Zaruba, Kamil; Kunes, Martin; Ulbrich, Pavel; Brezaniova, Ingrid; Triska, Jan; Suchy, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier prevents the passage of many drugs that target the central nervous system. This paper presents the preparation and characterization of silica-based nanocarriers loaded with piracetam, pentoxifylline, and pyridoxine (drugs from the class of nootropics), which are designed to enhance the permeation of the drugs from the circulatory system through the blood-brain barrier. Their permeation was compared with non-nanoparticle drug substances (bulk materials) by means of an in vivo model of rat brain perfusion. The size and morphology of the nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The content of the drug substances in silica-based nanocarriers was analysed by elemental analysis and UV spectrometry. Microscopic analysis of visualized silica nanocarriers in the perfused brain tissue was performed. The concentration of the drug substances in the tissue was determined by means of UHPLC-DAD/HRMS LTQ Orbitrap XL. It was found that the drug substances in silica-based nanocarriers permeated through the blood brain barrier to the brain tissue, whereas bulk materials were not detected in the brain. PMID:26075264

  14. [The influence of piracetam on behavior and brain receptors in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice: nootropic and anxiolytic effects].

    PubMed

    Kovalev, G I; Kondrakhin, E A; Salimov, R M; Neznamov, G G

    2013-01-01

    The influence of acute and long-term piracetam administration on the dynamics of rapid (non-specific, anxiolytic) and slow (specific, nootropic) behavioral drug effects, as well as on their interrelation with NMDA- and BDZ-receptors was studied in inbred mice strains differing in cognitive and emotional status--C57BL/6 and BALB/c. The BALB/c strain contained 17% less [3H]-flunitrazepam binding sites in frontal cortex and 22% less [3H]-MK801 binding sites in hippocampus as compared to those in C57BL/6 mice. Based on these data, BALB/c strain was used as a model of psychopathology, combining increased anxiety and cognitive deficit. Under the action of single, 7-fold, and 14-fold piracetam i.p. injections (200 mg/kg body weight, daily), a fast increase in NMDA-receptor density and slow escalation of the specific nootropic effect was observed in BALB/c mice. Non-specific anxiolytic effects in these mice increased for the first 1 - 7 days without any changes in BDZ-binding and then decreased to initial values accompanied by decrement of brain receptor concentration. Thus, in BALB/c mice, a slowly manifested specific nootropic action of piracetam develops, following an increase in NMDA receptor density, whereas the non-specific anxiolytic effect precedes the fast-paced changes in BDZ-binding site density.

  15. The fluorescence and resonance Rayleigh scattering spectra study on the interactions of palladium (II)-Nootropic chelate with Congo red and their analytical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fang; Peng, Jingdong; Liu, Shaopu; Peng, Huanjun; Pan, Ziyu; Bu, Lingli; Xiao, Huan; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2017-04-01

    A highly sensitive detection approach of resonance Rayleigh scattering spectra (RRS) is firstly applied to analyzing nootropic drugs including piracetam (PIR) and oxiracetam (OXI). In HCl-NaAc buffer solution (pH = 3.0), the OXI chelated with palladium (II) to form the chelate cation [Pd2·OXI]2 +, and then reacted with Congo red (CGR) by virtue of electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic force to form binary complex [Pd2·OXI]. CGR2, which could result in the great enhancement of RRS. The resonance Rayleigh scattering signal was recorded at λex = λem = 375 nm. This mixture complex not only has higher RRS, but also makes contribution to significant increase of fluorescence, and the same phenomena also were discovered in PIR. The enhanced RRS intensity is in proportion to the PIR and OXI concentration in the range of 0.03-3.0 μg mL- 1, and the detection limit (DL) of RRS method for PIR and OXI is 2.3 ng mL- 1 and 9.7 ng mL- 1. In addition, the DL of fluorescence method for PIR and OXI is 8.4 μg mL- 1 and 19.5 μg mL- 1. Obviously, the RRS is the highly sensitive method, and the recoveries of the two kinds of nootropic drugs were range from 100.4% to 101.8.0% with RSD (n = 5) from 1.1% to 3.1% by RRS method. This paper not only investigated the optimum conditions for detecting nootropics with using RRS method, but also focused on the reasons for enhancing RRS intensity and the reaction mechanism, which in order to firm and contract the resultant. Finally, The RRS method has been applied to detect nootropic drugs in human urine samples with satisfactory results. Fig. S2. The effect of ionic strength: Pd (II)-CGR system (curve a); Pd (II)-OXI-CGR system (curve b); Pd (II)-PIR- CGR system (curve c). Pd (II): 2.0 × 10- 4 mol L- 1; CGR: 1.0 × 10- 5 mol L- 1; OXI: 1.5 μg mL- 1; PIR: 2 μg mL- 1; NaCl: 1 mol L- 1. Fig. S3. The effect of time: Pd (II)-OXI-CGR system (curve a); Pd (II)-PIR-CGR system (curve b). Pd (II): 2.0 × 10- 4 mol L- 1; CGR: 1.0 × 10- 5 mol L- 1

  16. Modulating effect of the nootropic drug, piracetam on stress- and subsequent morphine-induced prolactin secretion in male rats.

    PubMed Central

    Matton, A.; Engelborghs, S.; Bollengier, F.; Finné, E.; Vanhaeist, L.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effect of the nootropic drug, piracetam on stress- and subsequent morphine-induced prolactin (PRL) secretion was investigated in vivo in male rats, by use of a stress-free blood sampling and drug administration method by means of a permanent indwelling catheter in the right jugular vein. 2. Four doses of piracetam were tested (20, 100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1), being given intraperitoneally 1 h before blood sampling; control rats received saline instead. After a first blood sample, rats were subjected to immobilization stress and received morphine, 6 mg kg-1, 90 min later. 3. Piracetam had no effect on basal plasma PRL concentration. 4. While in the non-piracetam-treated rats, stress produced a significant rise in plasma PRL concentration, in the piracetam-pretreated rats PRL peaks were attenuated, especially in the group given 100 mg kg-1 piracetam, where plasma PRL concentration was not significantly different from basal values. The dose-response relationship showed a U-shaped curve; the smallest dose had a minor inhibitory effect and the highest dose had no further effect on the PRL rise. 5. In unrestrained rats, morphine led to a significant elevation of plasma PRL concentration. After the application of immobilization stress it lost its ability to raise plasma PRL concentration in the control rats, but not in the piracetam-treated rats. This tolerance was overcome by piracetam in a significant manner but with a reversed dose-response curve; i.e. the smaller the dose of piracetam, the higher the subsequent morphine-induced PRL peak. 6. There is no simple explanation for the mechanism by which piracetam induces these contradictory effects. Interference with the excitatory amino acid system, which is also involved in opiate action, is proposed speculatively as a possible mediator of the effects of piracetam. PMID:8821540

  17. Influence of ring size on the cognition-enhancing activity of DM235 and MN19, two potent nootropic drugs.

    PubMed

    Guandalini, L; Martini, E; Di Cesare Mannelli, L; Dei, S; Manetti, D; Scapecchi, S; Teodori, E; Ghelardini, C; Romanelli, M N

    2012-03-01

    A series of analogs of DM235 and MN19, characterized by rings with different size, have been prepared and evaluated for their nootropic activity in the mouse passive-avoidance test. It was found that the optimal ring size for the analogs of DM235, showing endocyclic both amidic groups, is 6 or 7 atoms. For the compounds structurally related to MN19, carrying an exocyclic amide group, the piperidine ring is the moiety which gives the most interesting compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [The effect of the new nootropic dipeptide GVS-111 in different functional disorders of the escape reaction].

    PubMed

    Inozemtsev, A N; Trofimov, S S; Borlikova, G G; Firova, F A; Pragina, L L; Gudasheva, T A; Ostrovskaia, R U; Tushmalova, N A; Voronina, T A

    1998-01-01

    The authors studied the effect of a new nootropic agent with anxiolytic properties GVS-111 (ethyl ether N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine) on formation of the avoidance reaction (AR) in rats and its functional disorders which were induced by two methods. In one case the stereotype of the relations between the stimulus, reaction and its consequence which developed during the experiment were urgently disturbed: the change of the animal to the other half of the chamber in response to a conditioned stimulus did not lead to its cutting off and prevention of the electropain stimulation for three successive combinations (AR error). In another case the spatial stereotype of the experiment was altered by changing the place of the opening through which the animal avoided the stimulus (spatial remodeling). Intraperitoneal injection of GVS-111 (0.1 mg/kg/day) improved the learning, but the effect differed from experiment to experiment. Along with this, the dipeptide prevented AR disturbance during the error and quickened restoration of the habit in spatial remodeling. It was shown earlier that AR disorders during an error are prevented by anxiolytics and nootropic agents but during spatial remodeling only by nootropic agents. It may be assumed that the positive effect of GSV-111 on AR in functional disorders is due to its nootropic effect.

  19. The Effects of Anti-Dementia and Nootropic Treatments on the Mortality of Patients with Dementia: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen-Yi; Hu, Hsiao-Yun; Chow, Lok-Hi; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Huang, Nicole; Wang, Pei-Ning; Li, Chung-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the contribution of treatment on the mortality of dementia based on a population-based study. To investigate the effects of anti-dementia and nootropic treatments on the mortality of dementia using a population-based cohort study. 12,193 incident dementia patients were found from 2000 to 2010. Their data were compared with 12,193 age- and sex-matched non-dementia controls that were randomly selected from the same database. Dementia was classified into vascular (VaD) and degenerative dementia. Mortality incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated. The median survival time was 3.39 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.88-3.79) for VaD without medication, 6.62 years (95% CI: 6.24-7.21) for VaD with nootropics, 3.01 years (95% CI: 2.85-3.21) for degenerative dementia without medication, 8.11 years (95% CI: 6.30-8.55) for degenerative dementia with anti-dementia medication, 6.00 years (95% CI: 5.73-6.17) for degenerative dementia with nootropics, and 9.03 years (95% CI: 8.02-9.87) for degenerative dementia with both anti-dementia and nootropic medications. Compared to the non-dementia group, the HRs among individuals with degenerative dementia were 2.69 (95% CI: 2.55-2.83) without medication, 1.46 (95% CI: 1.39-1.54) with nootropics, 1.05 (95% CI: 0.82-1.34) with anti-dementia medication, and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.80-1.05) with both nootropic and anti-dementia medications. VaD with nootropics had a lower mortality (HR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.15-1.37) than VaD without medication (HR: 2.46, 95% CI: 2.22-2.72). Pharmacological treatments have beneficial effects for patients with dementia in prolonging their survival.

  20. Nootropic agents enhance the recruitment of fast GABAA inhibition in rat neocortex.

    PubMed

    Ling, Douglas S F; Benardo, Larry S

    2005-07-01

    It is widely believed that nootropic (cognition-enhancing) agents produce their therapeutic effects by augmenting excitatory synaptic transmission in cortical circuits, primarily through positive modulation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptors (AMPARs). However, GABA-mediated inhibition is also critical for cognition, and enhanced GABA function may be likewise therapeutic for cognitive disorders. Could nootropics act through such a mechanism as well? To address this question, we examined the effects of nootropic agents on excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs and IPSCs) recorded from layer V pyramidal cells in acute slices of somatosensory cortex. Aniracetam, a positive modulator of AMPA/kainate receptors, increased the peak amplitude of evoked EPSCs and the amplitude and duration of polysynaptic fast IPSCs, manifested as a greater total charge carried by IPSCs. As a result, the EPSC/IPSC ratio of total charge was decreased, representing a shift in the excitation-inhibition balance that favors inhibition. Aniracetam did not affect the magnitude of either monosynaptic IPSCs (mono-IPSCs) recorded in the presence of excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists, or miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) recorded in the presence of tetrodotoxin. However, the duration of both mono-IPSCs and mIPSCs was prolonged, suggesting that aniracetam also directly modulates GABAergic transmission. Cyclothiazide, a preferential modulator of AMPAR function, enhanced the magnitude and duration of polysynaptic IPSCs, similar to aniracetam, but did not affect mono-IPSCs. Concanavalin A, a kainate receptor modulator, had little effect on EPSCs or IPSCs, suggesting there was no contribution from kainate receptor activity. These findings indicate that AMPAR modulators strengthen inhibition in neocortical pyramidal cells, most likely by altering the kinetics of AMPARs on synaptically connected interneurons and possibly by modulating GABA(A) receptor responses

  1. Prosopis cineraria: a potential nootropic agent.

    PubMed

    Bithu, Bhawani Singh; Reddy, N Ranga; Prasad, Satyendra K; Sairam, Krishnamurthy; Hemalatha, S

    2012-10-01

    Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce (Leguminosae), a plant of the Thar Desert of India and Pakistan is used traditionally by local people for the treatment of memory disorders and to arrest wandering of the mind. The study includes scientific validation of P. cineraria for nootropic activity. To elucidate the possible mechanism, the anticholinesterase activity was also investigated in different parts of the brain. Methanol extract of P. cineraria stem bark (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight p.o.) was administered once in a day for 7 days to rats and these rats were then subjected to Morris water-maze (MWM) test for spatial reference memory (SRM) and spatial working memory (SWM) versions of memory testing. The inhibitory effect of the extract on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in discrete rat brain regions (prefrontal cortex [PFC], hippocampus [HIP] and amygdala [AMY]) was also investigated using acetyl thiocholine iodide and dithiobisnitrobenzoic acid reagent. The oral administrations of methanol extract of P. cineraria in all doses tested, significantly (p < 0.05) improved both spatial reference and working memories in the MWM test in terms of decrease in escape latency during SRM and increase in time spent in the target quadrant during SWM probe trial. A ceiling effect was observed at 400 mg/kg. Pre-treatment for 7 days significantly inhibited the activity of AChE in the HIP, PFC and AMY. The extract exerted significant nootropic activity in the MWM test which may be attributed to the inhibition of brain AChE.

  2. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 3,7-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-8-ones as potential nootropic and analgesic drugs.

    PubMed

    Martini, Elisabetta; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Bartolucci, Gianluca; Bertucci, Carlo; Dei, Silvia; Ghelardini, Carla; Guandalini, Luca; Manetti, Dina; Scapecchi, Serena; Teodori, Elisabetta; Romanelli, Maria Novella

    2011-04-14

    A series of cis and trans 3,7-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-8-ones has been synthesized and tested for their ability to revert scopolamine-induced amnesia in the mouse passive-avoidance test. The racemates of the most potent compounds 4 and 7 were separated and tested, but no enantioselectivity was found for the nootropic activity. Compounds 4 and 7 and their enantiomers displayed interesting antihyperalgesic activity in two models of neuropathic pain (streptozotocin-induced and oxalilplatin-induced neuropathy) in comparison with pregabalin.

  3. Piracetam and other structurally related nootropics.

    PubMed

    Gouliaev, A H; Senning, A

    1994-05-01

    Nearly three decades have now passed since the discovery of the piracetam-like nootropics, compounds which exhibit cognition-enhancing properties, but for which no commonly accepted mechanism of action has been established. This review covers clinical, pharmacokinetic, biochemical and behavioural results presented in the literature from 1965 through 1992 (407 references) of piracetam, oxiracetam, pramiracetam, etiracetam, nefiracetam, aniracetam and rolziracetam and their structural analogues. The piracetam-like nootropics are capable of achieving reversal of amnesia induced by, e.g., scopolamine, electroconvulsive shock and hypoxia. Protection against barbiturate intoxication is observed and some benefit in clinical studies with patients suffering from mild to moderate degrees of dementia has been demonstrated. No affinity for the alpha 1-, alpha 2-, beta-, muscarinic, 5-hydroxytryptamine-, dopamine, adenosine-A1-, mu-opiate, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) (except for nefiracetam (GABAA)), benzodiazepine and glutamate receptors has been found. The racetams possess a very low toxicity and lack serious side effects. Increased turnover of different neurotransmitters has been observed as well as other biochemical findings, e.g., inhibition of enzymes such as prolylendopeptidase. So far, no generally accepted mechanism of action has, however, emerged. We believe that the effect of the racetams is due to a potentiation of already present neurotransmission and that much evidence points in the direction of a modulated ion flux by, e.g., potentiated calcium influx through non-L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels, potentiated sodium influx through alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor gated channels or voltage-dependent channels or decreases in potassium efflux. Effects on carrier mediated ion transport are also possible.

  4. The Effects of Anti-Dementia and Nootropic Treatments on the Mortality of Patients with Dementia: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chen-Yi; Hu, Hsiao-Yun; Chow, Lok-Hi; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Huang, Nicole; Wang, Pei-Ning; Li, Chung-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the contribution of treatment on the mortality of dementia based on a population-based study. Objective To investigate the effects of anti-dementia and nootropic treatments on the mortality of dementia using a population-based cohort study. Methods 12,193 incident dementia patients were found from 2000 to 2010. Their data were compared with 12,193 age- and sex-matched non-dementia controls that were randomly selected from the same database. Dementia was classified into vascular (VaD) and degenerative dementia. Mortality incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated. Results The median survival time was 3.39 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.88–3.79) for VaD without medication, 6.62 years (95% CI: 6.24–7.21) for VaD with nootropics, 3.01 years (95% CI: 2.85–3.21) for degenerative dementia without medication, 8.11 years (95% CI: 6.30–8.55) for degenerative dementia with anti-dementia medication, 6.00 years (95% CI: 5.73–6.17) for degenerative dementia with nootropics, and 9.03 years (95% CI: 8.02–9.87) for degenerative dementia with both anti-dementia and nootropic medications. Compared to the non-dementia group, the HRs among individuals with degenerative dementia were 2.69 (95% CI: 2.55–2.83) without medication, 1.46 (95% CI: 1.39–1.54) with nootropics, 1.05 (95% CI: 0.82–1.34) with anti-dementia medication, and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.80–1.05) with both nootropic and anti-dementia medications. VaD with nootropics had a lower mortality (HR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.15–1.37) than VaD without medication (HR: 2.46, 95% CI: 2.22–2.72). Conclusion Pharmacological treatments have beneficial effects for patients with dementia in prolonging their survival. PMID:26098910

  5. [Peptidergic nootropic therapy in cerebral palsy associated with epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Kholin, A A; Zavadenko, N N; Il Ina, E S; Kolpakchi, L M; Fedonyuk, I D; Bembeeva, R C; Esipova, E S

    To assess the efficacy and safety of сortexin in the treatment of children with cerebral palsy (CP) combined with epilepsy. Eighty-four patients (55 boys and 29 girls), aged from 1 to 11 years, with CP combined with epilepsy received cortexin together with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Cortexin was administered in doses of 5-10 mg depending on the patient's age and body weight intramuscularly during hospitalization. Cortexin as add-on to AEDs reduced for more than two times the number of seizures, along with improvement of motor function, in 31 (36.9%) patients. The improvement of motor function, but without a significant decrease in epileptic seizures, was achieved in 15 (17.8%) of the patients. Reduction of epileptic seizures frequency (>2 times), but without a significant effect on motor function, was observed in 14 cases (16.7%). Twenty-three patients (27.4%) did not respond the therapy. The aggravation of epileptic seizures during cortexin therapy was observed in only 1 girl with West syndrome (1.2%), and this was significantly lower than the probability of seizures aggravation on AED. Polypeptide nootropic medication cortexin demonstrated efficacy and safety as adjunctive therapy in children with CP combined with epilepsy.

  6. A study to evaluate the effect of nootropic drug-piracetam on DNA damage in leukocytes and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sarika; Goswami, Poonam; Swarnkar, Supriya; Singh, Sheelendra Pratap; Wahajuddin; Nath, Chandishwar; Sharma, Sharad

    2011-11-27

    Piracetam is a nootropic drug that protects neurons in neuropathological and age-related diseases and the activation and modulation of peripheral blood cells in patients with neuropathological conditions is well known. Therefore, in the present study, in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro tests were conducted to investigate the effect of piracetam on leukocytes and macrophages. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes oxidative DNA damage; thus, in the present study, LPS was used as a tool to induce DNA damage. In vivo experiments were conducted on Sprague Dawley rats, and piracetam (600mg/kg, oral) was provided for five consecutive days. On the fifth day, a single injection of LPS (10mg/kg, i.p.) was administered. Three hours after LPS injection, blood leukocytes and peritoneal macrophages were collected and processed, and a variety of different assays were conducted. Ex vivo treatments were performed on isolated rat blood leukocytes, and in vitro experiments were conducted on rat macrophage cell line J774A.1. Cell viability and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and DNA damage were estimated in untreated (control) and piracetam-, LPS- and LPS+piracetam-treated leukocytes and macrophages. In vivo experiments revealed that rats pretreated with piracetam were significantly protected against LPS-induced increases in ROS levels and DNA damage. Ex vivo isolated leukocytes and J774A.1 cells treated with LPS exhibited augmented ROS levels and DNA damage, which were attenuated with piracetam treatment. Thus, the present study revealed the salutary effect of piracetam against LPS-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in leukocytes and macrophages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Selective suppression of the slow-inactivating potassium currents by nootropics in molluscan neurons.

    PubMed

    Bukanova, Julia V; Solntseva, Elena I; Skrebitsky, Vladimir G

    2002-09-01

    The role of the voltage-gated K+ channels in the effect of some nootropics was investigated. Earlier, the multiple effect of high concentrations of two nootropics, piracetam and its peptide analogue GVS-111 [Seredenin et al. (1995), US Patent No. 5,439,930], on Ca2+ and K+ currents of molluscan neurons was shown [Solntseva et al. (1997), General Pharmacology 29, 85-89]. In the present work, we describe the selective effect of low concentrations of these nootropics as well as vinpocetine on certain types of K+ current. The experiments were performed on isolated neurons of the land snail Helix pomatia using a two-microelectrode voltage-clamp method. The inward voltage-gated Ca2+ current (ICa) and three subtypes of the outward voltage-gated K+ current were recorded: Ca2+-dependent K+ current (IK(Ca)), delayed rectifying current (IKD), and fast-inactivating K+ current (IA). It has been found that I Ca was not changed in the presence of 30 microM vinpocetine, 100 microM piracetam or 10 nM GVS-111, while slow-inactivating, TEA-sensitive IK(Ca) and IKD were inhibited (IK(Ca) more strongly than IKD). In contrast, the fast-inactivating, 4-AP-sensitive K+ current (IA) was not diminished by low concentrations of piracetam and GVS-111, while vinpocetine even augmented it. A possible role of slow-inactivating subtypes of the K+ channels in the development of different forms of dementia is discussed.

  8. Evaluation of antibacterial, antioxidant and nootropic activities of Tiliacora racemosa Colebr. leaves: In vitro and in vivo approach.

    PubMed

    T, Vivek Kumar; M, Vishalakshi; M, Gangaraju; Das, Parijat; Roy, Pratiti; Banerjee, Anindita; Dutta Gupta, Sayan

    2017-02-01

    The antibacterial and antioxidant potential of Tiliacora racemosa leaf extracts in various solvents (methanolic, hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate) was determined. Additionally, the presence of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids in the plant prompted us to evaluate the nootropic activity of the methanolic extract in mice. Further, we seek to verify the nootropic effect by examining the anticholinesterase inhibition potential of the methanolic extract. The leaf extracts in various solvents were evaluated for their antibacterial and antioxidant activity by agar diffusion technique and α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method, respectively. The ex vivo acetylcholine esterase inhibitory activity of the methanolic extract was carried out by Ellman's method in male Wistar rats. The nootropic capacity of the methanolic extract was examined in Swiss albino mice by utilizing the diazepam induced acute amnesic model. The chloroform/n-hexane and ethyl acetate fraction showed promising antioxidant and antibacterial (Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria) property, respectively. The methanolic extract was able to diminish the amnesic effect induced by diazepam (1mg/kg i.p.) in mice. The extract also showed significant acetyl cholinesterase inhibition in rats. The findings prove that the memory enhancing capability is due to increased acetyl choline level at the nerve endings. The strong antioxidant nature and potential nootropic activity shown by the extract suggests its future usage in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Nootropic and antiamnestic effects of tenoten (pediatric formulation) in immature rat pups.

    PubMed

    Voronina, T A; Molodavkin, G M; Borodavkina, M V; Kheyfets, I A; Dugina, Yu L; Sergeeva, S A

    2009-09-01

    The antiamnestic effects of tenoten (pediatric formulation) was demonstrated on the model of scopolamine-induced amnesia of passive avoidance reflex and the nootropic effect of this preparation was demonstrated on the model of incomplete conditioning and in rat pups with experimental attention deficit syndrome. The efficiency of the preparation was comparable to that of piracetam and phenibut and even surpassed it by some parameters.

  10. Nootropic activity of Albizzia lebbeck in mice.

    PubMed

    Chintawar, S D; Somani, R S; Kasture, Veena S; Kasture, S B

    2002-08-01

    The effect of saponin containing n-butanolic fraction (BF) extracted from dried leaves of Albizzia lebbeck on learning and memory was studied in albino mice using passive shock avoidance paradigm and the elevated plus maze. Significant improvement was observed in the retention ability of the normal and amnesic mice as compared to their respective controls. We have also studied the effects of BF on the behavior influenced by serotonin (5-HT), noradrenaline and dopamine. The brain levels of serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and dopamine were also estimated to correlate the behavior with neurotransmitter levels. The brain concentrations of GABA and dopamine were decreased, whereas the 5-HT level was increased. The data indicate the involvement of monoamine neurotransmitters in the nootropic action of BF of A. lebbeck.

  11. Evaluation of anticonvulsant and nootropic effect of ondansetron in mice.

    PubMed

    Jain, S; Agarwal, N B; Mediratta, P K; Sharma, K K

    2012-09-01

    The role of serotonin receptors have been implicated in various types of experimentally induced seizures. Ondansetron is a highly selective 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT(3)) receptor antagonist used as antiemetic agent for chemotherapy-, and radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. The present study was carried out to examine the effect of ondansetron on electroshock, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures and cognitive functions in mice. Ondansetron was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) at doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg (single dose) to observe its effect on the increasing current electroshock seizure (ICES) test and PTZ-induced seizure test. In addition, a chronic study (21 days) was also performed to assess the effects of ondansetron on electroshock-induced convulsions and cognitive functions. The effect on cognition was assessed by elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigms. Phenytoin (25 mg/kg, i.p.) was used as a standard anticonvulsant drug and piracetam (200 mg/kg) was administered as a standard nootropic drug. The results were compared with an acute study, wherein it was found that the administration of ondansetron (1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg) significantly raised the seizure-threshold current as compared to control group in the ICES test. Similar results were observed after chronic administration of ondansetron. In PTZ test, ondansetron in all the three tested doses failed to show protective effect against PTZ-induced seizure test. Administration of ondansetron for 21 days significantly decreased the transfer latency (TL) and prolonged the step-down latency (SDL). The results of present study suggest the anticonvulsant and memory-enhancing effect of ondansetron in mice.

  12. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Thai traditional nootropic remedy and its herbal ingredients.

    PubMed

    Tappayuthpijarn, Pimolvan; Itharat, Arunporn; Makchuchit, Sunita

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD) is increasing every year in accordance with the increasing of elderly population and could pose significant health problems in the future. The use of medicinal plants as an alternative prevention or even for a possible treatment of the AD is, therefore, becoming an interesting research issue. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are well-known drugs commonly used in the treatment of AD. The aim of the present study was to screen for AChE inhibitory activity of the Thai traditional nootropic recipe and its herbal ingredients. The results showed that ethanolic extracts of four out of twenty-five herbs i.e. Stephania pierrei Diels. Kaempfera parviflora Wall. ex Baker, Stephania venosa (Blume) Spreng, Piper nigrum L at 0.1 mg/mL showed % AChE inhibition of 89, 64, 59, 50; the IC50 were 6, 21, 29, 30 microg/mL respectively. The other herbs as well as combination of the whole recipe had no synergistic inhibitory effect on AChE activity. However some plants revealed antioxidant activity. More research should have be performed on this local wisdom remedy to verify the uses in scientific term.

  13. Evaluation of nootropic and neuroprotective effects of low dose aspirin in rats.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arijit; Dhumal, V R; Tilak, A V; Das, Nina; Singh, Amarinder; Bondekar, Abhijit A

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the nootropic and neuroprotective effects of aspirin in Sprague Dawley rats. Retention of conditioned avoidance response (CAR) and central 5-HT-mediated behavior (lithium-induced head twitches) were assessed using repeated electroconvulsive shock (ECS) in rats. Rats were divided into eight groups: control (pretreated with distilled water), scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg i.p.), ECS (150 V, 50 Hz sinusoidal with intensity of 210 mA for 0.5 s) pretreated, aspirin (6.75 mg/kg orally) pretreated, combined scopolamine and aspirin pretreated, ondansetron (0.36 mg/kg orally) pretreated, combined ECS and ondansetron pretreated and combined ECS and aspirin pretreated groups. Data was analyzed by the chi-square test and ANOVA. Findings show that administration of single ECS daily for consecutive 8 days results in enhancement of 5-HT-mediated behavior (lithium-induced head twitches) and in disruption of the retention of CAR. Aspirin and ondansetron administration significantly increased the retention of conditioned avoidance response compared to control. Ondansetron and aspirin significantly prevented ECS-induced attenuation of the retention of conditioned avoidance response also. On the other hand, ondansetron and aspirin significantly retarded the ECS-induced enhancement of 5-HT-mediated behavior. Inhibition of the serotonergic transmission by aspirin is responsible for its nootropic and neuroprotective actions.

  14. Approaches to Measuring the Effects of Wake-Promoting Drugs: A Focus on Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Christopher J.; Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Wesnes, Keith A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives In clinical drug development, wakefulness and wake-promotion maybe assessed by a large number of scales and questionnaires. Objective assessment of wakefulness is most commonly made using sleep latency/maintenance of wakefulness tests, polysomnography and/or behavioral measures. The purpose of the present review is to highlight the degree of overlap in the assessment of wakefulness and cognition, with consideration of assessment techniques and the underlying neurobiology of both concepts. Design Reviews of four key areas were conducted: commonly used techniques in the assessment of wakefulness; neurobiology of sleep/wake and cognition; targets of wake promoting and/or cognition enhancing drugs; and ongoing clinical trials investigating wake promoting effects. Results There is clear overlap between the assessment of wakefulness and cognition. There are common techniques which may be used to assess both concepts; aspects of the neurobiology of both concepts may be closely related; and wake promoting drugs may have nootropic properties (and vice-versa). Clinical trials of wake promoting drugs often, though not routinely, assess aspects of cognition. Conclusions Routine and broad assessment of cognition in the development of wake promoting drugs may reveal important nootropic effects, which are not secondary to alertness/wakefulness, whilst existing cognitive enhancers may have under explored or unknown wake promoting properties. PMID:19565524

  15. Immunostimulant, cerebroprotective & nootropic activities of Andrographis paniculata leaves extract in normal & type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Radhika, P; Annapurna, A; Rao, S Nageswara

    2012-05-01

    A large number of plants have been recognized to be effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Persistent hyperglycaemia is associated with decreased function of immune system and cerebral ischaemia mainly due to increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Andrographis paniculata is a medicinal plant widely used in folk medicine for various purposes. In this study the effect of chronic administration (7 days) of methanolic extract of A. paniculata leaves was studied in rats with experimentally induced diabetes, nootropic and immunostimulant activities were evaluated. The effect of acute administration of methanolic extract of A. paniculata leaves was also studied for cerebroprotective activity. Type 2 diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ) (65 mg/kg) + nicotinamide (150 mg/kg). Various biochemical parameters were estimated using standard methods. A significant (P<0.05) increase in cognitive function was observed in both normal and type 2 diabetic rats. Nootropic activity in terms of per cent reduction in latency period was more in type 2 diabetic rats. A significant increase in blood lymphocyte count, splenic lymphocyte count and peritoneal macrophage count was observed in both normal and type 2 diabetic rats. Immunostimulant activity was observed more in type 2 diabetic rats. The per cent decrease in cerebral infarction was more in type 2 diabetic rats when compared to normal rats. The per cent increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels was more in type 2 diabetic rats. The antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of A. paniculata leaves was evident by decreased tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and increased SOD levels. These properties may be responsible for the observed cerebroprotective activity. The methanolic leaf extract of A. paniculata showed significant immunostimulant, cerebroprotective and nootropic activities in normal and type 2 diabetic rats.

  16. Immunostimulant, cerebroprotective & nootropic activities of Andrographis paniculata leaves extract in normal & type 2 diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Radhika, P.; Annapurna, A.; Rao, S. Nageswara

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: A large number of plants have been recognized to be effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Persistent hyperglycaemia is associated with decreased function of immune system and cerebral ischaemia mainly due to increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Andrographis paniculata is a medicinal plant widely used in folk medicine for various purposes. In this study the effect of chronic administration (7 days) of methanolic extract of A. paniculata leaves was studied in rats with experimentally induced diabetes, nootropic and immunostimulant activities were evaluated. The effect of acute administration of methanolic extract of A. paniculata leaves was also studied for cerebroprotective activity. Methods: Type 2 diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ) (65 mg/kg) + nicotinamide (150 mg/kg). Various biochemical parameters were estimated using standard methods. Results: A significant (P<0.05) increase in cognitive function was observed in both normal and type 2 diabetic rats. Nootropic activity in terms of per cent reduction in latency period was more in type 2 diabetic rats. A significant increase in blood lymphocyte count, splenic lymphocyte count and peritoneal macrophage count was observed in both normal and type 2 diabetic rats. Immunostimulant activity was observed more in type 2 diabetic rats. The per cent decrease in cerebral infarction was more in type 2 diabetic rats when compared to normal rats. The per cent increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels was more in type 2 diabetic rats. Interpretation & conclusions: The antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of A. paniculata leaves was evident by decreased tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and increased SOD levels. These properties may be responsible for the observed cerebroprotective activity. The methanolic leaf extract of A. paniculata showed significant immunostimulant, cerebroprotective and nootropic activities in normal and type 2 diabetic

  17. [Effect of nootropic agents on impulse activity of cerebral cortex neurons].

    PubMed

    Iasnetsov, V V; Pravdivtsev, V A; Krylova, I N; Kozlov, S B; Provornova, N A; Ivanov, Iu V; Iasnetsov, V V

    2001-01-01

    The effect of nootropes (semax, mexidol, and GVS-111) on the activity of individual neurons in various cerebral cortex regions was studied by microelectrode and microionophoresis techniques in cats immobilized by myorelaxants. It was established that the inhibiting effect of mexidol upon neurons in more than half of cases is prevented or significantly decreased by the GABA antagonists bicuculline and picrotoxin. The inhibiting effect of semax and GVS-111 upon neurons in more than half of cases is related to stimulation of the M-choline and NMDA receptors, respectively.

  18. Evaluation of nootropic and neuroprotective effects of low dose aspirin in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arijit; Dhumal, V. R.; Tilak, A. V.; Das, Nina; Singh, Amarinder; Bondekar, Abhijit A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the nootropic and neuroprotective effects of aspirin in Sprague Dawley rats. Materials and Methods: Retention of conditioned avoidance response (CAR) and central 5-HT-mediated behavior (lithium-induced head twitches) were assessed using repeated electroconvulsive shock (ECS) in rats. Rats were divided into eight groups: control (pretreated with distilled water), scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg i.p.), ECS (150 V, 50 Hz sinusoidal with intensity of 210 mA for 0.5 s) pretreated, aspirin (6.75 mg/kg orally) pretreated, combined scopolamine and aspirin pretreated, ondansetron (0.36 mg/kg orally) pretreated, combined ECS and ondansetron pretreated and combined ECS and aspirin pretreated groups. Data was analyzed by the chi-square test and ANOVA. Results: Findings show that administration of single ECS daily for consecutive 8 days results in enhancement of 5-HT-mediated behavior (lithium-induced head twitches) and in disruption of the retention of CAR. Aspirin and ondansetron administration significantly increased the retention of conditioned avoidance response compared to control. Ondansetron and aspirin significantly prevented ECS-induced attenuation of the retention of conditioned avoidance response also. On the other hand, ondansetron and aspirin significantly retarded the ECS-induced enhancement of 5-HT-mediated behavior. Conclusion: Inhibition of the serotonergic transmission by aspirin is responsible for its nootropic and neuroprotective actions. PMID:21701638

  19. Pharmacokinetics of new nootropic acylprolyldipeptide and its penetration across the blood-brain barrier after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Boiko, S S; Ostrovskaya, R U; Zherdev, V P; Korotkov, S A; Gudasheva, T A; Voronina, T A; Seredenin, S B

    2000-04-01

    Pharmacokinetics of GVS-111, a new acylprolyldipeptide with nootropic properties and its penetration across the blood-brain barrier were studied in rats using HPLC. It was found that the dipeptide is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, enters the circulation, and penetrates through the blood-brain barrier in an unmodified state.

  20. Novel nootropic drug sunifiram improves cognitive deficits via CaM kinase II and protein kinase C activation in olfactory bulbectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Shigeki; Tanaka, Tomoya; Tagashira, Hideaki; Narahashi, Toshio; Fukunaga, Kohji

    2013-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) shows degeneration of the cholinergic system in the medial septum, thereby eliciting down-regulation of the olfactory function in patients. We have previously reported that olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) mice show hippocampus-dependent memory impairment as assessed by memory-related behavioral tasks and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). In the present study, we focused whether novel pyrrolidone nootropic drug sunifiram improves both memory impairment and depression observed in OBX mice. OBX mice were administered once a day for 7-12 days with sunifiram (0.01-1.0mg/kg p.o.) from 10 days after operation with or without gavestinel (10mg/kg i.p.), which is glycine-binding site inhibitor of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). The spatial reference memory assessed by Y-maze and short-term memory assessed by novel object recognition task were significantly improved by sunifiram treatment in OBX mice. Sunifiram also restored hippocampal LTP injured in OBX mice without treatment with gavestinel. By contrast, sunifiram treatment did not ameliorate the depressive behaviors assessed by tail suspension task in OBX mice. Notably, sunifiram treatment restored CaMKIIα (Thr-286) autophosphorylation and GluR1 (Ser-831) phosphorylation in the hippocampal CA1 region from OBX mice to the levels of control mice. Likewise, sunifiram treatment improved PKCα (Ser-657) autophosphorylation and NR1 (Ser-896) phosphorylation to the control levels. Stimulation of CaMKII and PKC autophosphorylation by sunifiram was significantly inhibited by pre-treatment with gavestinel. However, sunifiram treatment did not affect the phosphorylation of CaMKIV (Thr-196) and ERK. Taken together, sunifiram ameliorates OBX-induced deficits of memory-related behaviors and impaired LTP in the hippocampal CA1 region via stimulation of glycine-binding site of NMDAR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of donepezil in patients with Alzheimer's disease previously untreated or treated with memantine or nootropic agents in Germany: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Tatjana; Ibach, Bernd; Schoenknecht, Peter; Kamleiter, Martin; Silver, Gabrielle; Schroeder, Johannes; Mielke, Ruediger

    2005-05-01

    This open-label, prospective, observational, Post-Marketing Surveillance (PMS) study assessed the efficacy and safety of donepezil in patients who had been switched from therapies currently used in Germany to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD), such as memantine and nootropics, due to insufficient efficacy or poor tolerability. A treatment-naive population was included as a comparator. Patients with AD were treated with donepezil and observed for a period of approximately 3 months. A cognitive assessment was made using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Quality of life (QoL) was assessed by the investigators who answered the question 'How did therapy with donepezil influence the QoL of the patient and/or his family over the observation period?' and was graded using three ratings: improved/unchanged/worsened. Adverse events (AEs) were also monitored. A total of 913 patients entered the study (mean +/- SD MMSE score 18.03 +/- 5.34). Efficacy assessments were analyzed for three groups: an overall group of patients who had received any form of prior AD drug therapy (N+ group; n = 709); a subgroup of patients from the N+ group who had received prior memantine therapy only (M+ group; n = 111) and patients who were drug treatment naive (N- group; n = 204). In the evaluable population donepezil improved MMSE scores by 2.21 +/- 3.47 points on average, with similar improvements observed in all three groups. QoL was judged to be improved in at least 70% of patients, again with similar results obtained for all three groups. Donepezil was well tolerated, with 85 of 913 (9.3%) patients reporting AEs. The most common AEs were those typically seen with cholinergic therapies (i.e., diarrhoea, vomiting and nausea). In this observational PMS study, donepezil was shown to be efficacious and well tolerated in patients who were being insufficiently treated with memantine or nootropic therapy. The magnitude of response was similar to that observed in patients who were previously

  2. Novel nootropic drug sunifiram enhances hippocampal synaptic efficacy via glycine-binding site of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Shigeki; Tanaka, Tomoya; Narahashi, Toshio; Fukunaga, Kohji

    2013-10-01

    Sunifiram is a novel pyrrolidone nootropic drug structurally related to piracetam, which was developed for neurodegenerative disorder like Alzheimer's disease. Sunifiram is known to enhance cognitive function in some behavioral experiments such as Morris water maze task. To address question whether sunifiram affects N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent synaptic function in the hippocampal CA1 region, we assessed the effects of sunifiram on NMDAR-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) by electrophysiology and on phosphorylation of synaptic proteins by immunoblotting analysis. In mouse hippocampal slices, sunifiram at 10-100 nM significantly enhanced LTP in a bell-shaped dose-response relationship which peaked at 10 nM. The enhancement of LTP by sunifiram treatment was inhibited by 7-chloro-kynurenic acid (7-ClKN), an antagonist for glycine-binding site of NMDAR, but not by ifenprodil, an inhibitor for polyamine site of NMDAR. The enhancement of LTP by sunifilam was associated with an increase in phosphorylation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisozazole-4-propionate receptor (AMPAR) through activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and an increase in phosphorylation of NMDAR through activation of protein kinase Cα (PKCα). Sunifiram treatments at 1-1000 nM increased the slope of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) in a dose-dependent manner. The enhancement was associated with an increase in phosphorylation of AMPAR receptor through activation of CaMKII. Interestingly, under the basal condition, sunifiram treatments increased PKCα (Ser-657) and Src family (Tyr-416) activities with the same bell-shaped dose-response curve as that of LTP peaking at 10 nM. The increase in phosphorylation of PKCα (Ser-657) and Src (Tyr-416) induced by sunifiram was inhibited by 7-ClKN treatment. The LTP enhancement by sunifiram was significantly inhibited by PP2, a Src family inhibitor. Finally, when pretreated with a high

  3. Piracetam and TRH analogues antagonise inhibition by barbiturates, diazepam, melatonin and galanin of human erythrocyte D-glucose transport

    PubMed Central

    Naftalin, Richard J; Cunningham, Philip; Afzal-Ahmed, Iram

    2004-01-01

    Nootropic drugs increase glucose uptake into anaesthetised brain and into Alzheimer's diseased brain. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, TRH, which has a chemical structure similar to nootropics increases cerebellar uptake of glucose in murine rolling ataxia. This paper shows that nootropic drugs like piracetam (2-oxo 1 pyrrolidine acetamide) and levetiracetam and neuropeptides like TRH antagonise the inhibition of glucose transport by barbiturates, diazepam, melatonin and endogenous neuropeptide galanin in human erythrocytes in vitro. The potencies of nootropic drugs in opposing scopolamine-induced memory loss correlate with their potencies in antagonising pentobarbital inhibition of erythrocyte glucose transport in vitro (P<0.01). Less potent nootropics, D-levetiracetam and D-pyroglutamate, have higher antagonist Ki's against pentobarbital inhibition of glucose transport than more potent L-stereoisomers (P<0.001). Piracetam and TRH have no direct effects on net glucose transport, but competitively antagonise hypnotic drug inhibition of glucose transport. Other nootropics, like aniracetam and levetiracetam, while antagonising pentobarbital action, also inhibit glucose transport. Analeptics like bemigride and methamphetamine are more potent inhibitors of glucose transport than antagonists of hypnotic action on glucose transport. There are similarities between amino-acid sequences in human glucose transport protein isoform 1 (GLUT1) and the benzodiazepine-binding domains of GABAA (gamma amino butyric acid) receptor subunits. Mapped on a 3D template of GLUT1, these homologies suggest that the site of diazepam and piracetam interaction is a pocket outside the central hydrophilic pore region. Nootropic pyrrolidone antagonism of hypnotic drug inhibition of glucose transport in vitro may be an analogue of TRH antagonism of galanin-induced narcosis. PMID:15148255

  4. Molecular determinants for drug-receptor interactions. Part 2. An ab initio molecular orbital and dipole moment study of the novel nootropic agent piracetam (2-oxopyrrolidin-1-ylacetamide)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumbroso, H.; Liégeois, C.; Pappalardo, G. C.; Grassi, A.

    From the ab initio molecular energies of the possible conformers and from a classical dipole moment analysis of 2-oxopyrrolidin-l-ylacetamide (μ = 4.02 D in dioxan at 30.0°C), the preferred conformation in solution of this novel nootropic agent has been determined. The exocyclic N-CH 2 bond is rotated in one sense by 90° and the exocyclic CH 2-C bond rotated in the same sense by 120° from the "planar" ( OO)- cis conformation. The structures of the two enantiomers in solution differ from that of the crystalline molecule.

  5. Nootropic and hypophagic effects following long term intake of almonds (Prunus amygdalus) in rats.

    PubMed

    Haider, S; Batool, Z; Haleem, D J

    2012-01-01

    Over a period of time researchers have become more interested in finding out the potential of various foods to maintain the general health and to treat diseases. Almonds are a very good source of many nutrients which may help to sharpen the memory and to reduce cardiovascular risk factors. The present study was conducted to evaluate the nootropic effects of almonds. Effect of oral intake of almond was also monitored on food intake and plasma cholesterol levels. Rats were given almond paste orally with the help of feeding tube for 28 days. Memory function in rats was assessed by Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and Radial Arm Maze (RAM). Brain tryptophan, 5-HT and 5-HIAA were estimated at the end of the treatment by HPLC-EC method. A significant improvement in learning and memory of almond treated rats compared to controls was observed. Almond treated rats also exhibited a significant decrease in food intake and plasma cholesterol levels while the change in growth rate (in terms of percentage) remained comparable between the two groups. Analysis of brain tryptophan (TRP) monoamines exhibited enhanced TRP levels and serotonergic turnover in rat brain following oral intake of almonds. The findings show that almonds possess significant hypophagic and nootropic effects. Results are discussed in context of enhanced 5-HT metabolism following almond administration.

  6. S-52, a novel nootropic compound, protects against β-amyloid induced neuronal injury by attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Zheng, Chun Yan; Qin, Guo Wei; Tang, Xi Can; Zhang, Hai Yan

    2012-10-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced oxidative DNA damage and mitochondrial dysfunction may initiate and contribute to the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study evaluated the neuroprotective effects of S-52, a novel nootropic compound, on Aβ-induced mitochondrial failure. In an established paradigm of moderate cellular injury induced by Aβ, S-52 was observed to attenuate the toxicity of Aβ to energy metabolism, mitochondrial membrane structure, and key enzymes in the electron transport chain and tricarboxylic acid cycle. In addition, S-52 also effectively inhibited reactive oxygen species accumulation dose dependently not only in Aβ-harmed cells but also in unharmed, normal cells. The role of S-52 as a scavenger of free radicals is involved in the antioxidative effect of this compound. The beneficial effects on mitochondria and oxidative stress extend the neuroprotective effects of S-52. The present study provides crucial information for better understanding the beneficial profiles of this compound and discovering novel potential drug candidates for AD therapy. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Neuropharmacological Review of the Nootropic Herb Bacopa monnieri

    PubMed Central

    Borowski, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This review synthesizes behavioral research with neuromolecular mechanisms putatively involved with the low-toxicity cognitive enhancing action of Bacopa monnieri (BM), a medicinal Ayurvedic herb. BM is traditionally used for various ailments, but is best known as a neural tonic and memory enhancer. Numerous animal and in vitro studies have been conducted, with many evidencing potential medicinal properties. Several randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have substantiated BM's nootropic utility in humans. There is also evidence for potential attenuation of dementia, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Current evidence suggests BM acts via the following mechanisms—anti-oxidant neuroprotection (via redox and enzyme induction), acetylcholinesterase inhibition and/or choline acetyltransferase activation, β-amyloid reduction, increased cerebral blood flow, and neurotransmitter modulation (acetylcholine [ACh], 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT], dopamine [DA]). BM appears to exhibit low toxicity in model organisms and humans; however, long-term studies of toxicity in humans have yet to be conducted. This review will integrate molecular neuroscience with behavioral research. PMID:23772955

  8. Neuropharmacological review of the nootropic herb Bacopa monnieri.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Sebastian; Borowski, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    This review synthesizes behavioral research with neuromolecular mechanisms putatively involved with the low-toxicity cognitive enhancing action of Bacopa monnieri (BM), a medicinal Ayurvedic herb. BM is traditionally used for various ailments, but is best known as a neural tonic and memory enhancer. Numerous animal and in vitro studies have been conducted, with many evidencing potential medicinal properties. Several randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have substantiated BM's nootropic utility in humans. There is also evidence for potential attenuation of dementia, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Current evidence suggests BM acts via the following mechanisms-anti-oxidant neuroprotection (via redox and enzyme induction), acetylcholinesterase inhibition and/or choline acetyltransferase activation, β-amyloid reduction, increased cerebral blood flow, and neurotransmitter modulation (acetylcholine [ACh], 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT], dopamine [DA]). BM appears to exhibit low toxicity in model organisms and humans; however, long-term studies of toxicity in humans have yet to be conducted. This review will integrate molecular neuroscience with behavioral research.

  9. [Effects of nootropic agents on visual functions and lacrimal antioxidative activity in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Davydova, N G; Kuznetsova, T P; Borisova, S A; Abdulkadyrova, M Zh

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an investigation of the effect of the nootropic agents pantogam and nooclerine on visual functions in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. These agents have been found to have a beneficial effect on the functional activity of the retina and optic nerve, light sensitivity, hemo- and hydrodynamics of the eye.

  10. Swedish Defence Research Abstracts 82/83-2 (Froe Foersvars Forsknings Referat 82/83-2).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    alarm (78) Carbon dioxide retention inside motorcycle helmets (79) Vibration and decompression gas bubbles (80) No effects of nootropic drugs on memory... nootropic drugs on memory and psychomotor performance during reduced air pressure (in English) S. Levander and others Report I from the Roche Clinical Unit

  11. The Combination of Antidepressant Duloxetine with Piracetam in Mice does not Produce Enhancement of Nootropic Activity.

    PubMed

    Kale, Pravin Popatrao; Addepalli, Veeranjaneyulu; Sarkar, Amrita; Patel, Sonam; Savai, Jay

    2014-09-01

    There is a strong association between depression and memory impairment. The present study aims to assess the nootropic activity of duloxetine and piracetam combination. Male Swiss Albino mice were divided randomly into 4 groups. Treatment of normal saline (10 ml/kg), duloxetine (10 mg/kg), piracetam (100 mg/kg), and duloxetine (5 mg/kg) plus piracetam (50 mg/kg) were given through intra-peritoneal route to group I-IV, respectively. Transfer latency in elevated plus maze (EPM) and time spent in target quadrant in Morris water maze (MWM) were recorded. Estimation of brain monoamines in hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and whole brain were done using HPLC with fluorescence detector. Piracetam treated group showed significant decrease in transfer latency in EPM and increase in time spent in target quadrant recorded in MWM. Combination treated group failed to produce statistically significant nootropic effect in both EPM and MWM. Combination treated group failed to increase brain monoamine levels when compared against duloxetine and piracetam treated groups, separately. But there was exception of significant increase in norepinephrine levels in hippocampi when compared against duloxetine treated group. Results indicate no cognitive benefits with piracetam plus duloxetine combination. These findings can be further probed with the aim of understanding the interaction between duloxetine and piracetam as a future endeavor.

  12. Presynaptic Modulation of the Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Synapse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-07

    al., 1987). In addition, the nootropic (cognitive enhancing) drug bifemaline has been shown to increase the magnitude of MF LTP (Satoh et al., 1988...Different susceptibilities of long-term potentiations in CA3 and CAl regions of guinea pig hippocampal slices to nootropic drugs. Neurosci. Lett., 1988; 93

  13. Astrocytes mediated the nootropic and neurotrophic effects of Sarsasapogenin-AA13 via upregulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Dong, Dong; Mao, Yu; Huang, Cui; Jiao, Qian; Pan, Hui; Ma, Lei; Wang, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Rhizoma Anemarrhena , a widely used traditional Chinese medicine, has previously been shown to have neuroprotective effect. Sarsasapogenin-AA13 (AA13) is a novel synthetic derivative of Sarsasapogenin, which is extracted from Rhizoma Anemarrhena . The aim of this study is to investigate the nootropic and neurotrophic effects of AA13 and underlying mechanisms. In vitro , cell viability of rat primary astrocytes treated with AA13 and neurons cultured with conditioned medium of AA13-treated rat primary astrocytes was tested by MTT assays. In vivo , a pharmacological model of cognitive impairment induced by scopolamine was employed and spatial memory of the mice was assessed by Morris water maze. This study found that AA13 increased cell viability of primary astrocytes and AA13-treated astrocyte-conditioned medium enhanced the survival rate of primary neurons. Interestingly, AA13 markedly enhanced the level of BDNF in astrocytes. Furthermore, AA13 (6 mg/kg) improved the cognitive deficits in animal models (p<0.05) and BDNF and PSD95 levels were increased in brain. Therefore, we hypothesize that AA13 exerts nootropic and neurotrophic activities through astrocytes mediated upregulation of BDNF secretion. The results suggest that AA13 could be a potential compound for cognitive impairment after further research.

  14. Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extract of Vitis vinifera (grape seed): an experimental study in rat model

    PubMed Central

    Sreemantula, Satyanarayana; Nammi, Srinivas; Kolanukonda, Rajabhanu; Koppula, Sushruta; Boini, Krishna M

    2005-01-01

    Background The aerial parts of Vitis vinifera (common grape or European grape) have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, the seed extract of V. vinifera was evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced rats. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic activity in rats and in-vitro antioxidant potential to correlate its antistress activity. Methods For the evaluation of antistress activity, groups of rats (n = 6) were subjected to forced swim stress one hour after daily treatment of V. vinifera extract. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were selected as non-invasive biomarkers to assess the antistress activity. The 24 h urinary excretion of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were determined by spectrophotometric methods in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. The nootropic activity of the extract as determined from acquisition, retention and retrieval in rats was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus. The in vitro antioxidant activity was determined based on the ability of V. vinifera to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. Results Daily administration of V. vinifera at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight one hour prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose dependent manner. However, no change in the urinary excretion of VMA and ascorbic acid was observed in normal animals at all the doses studied. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention and recovery in rats was observed to be dose dependent. The extract also produced significant inhibition of hydroxyl radicals in comparison to ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic), antioxidant and nootropic activities of V. vinifera seed extract and substantiate the traditional claims

  15. Cognitive enhancers (nootropics). Part 2: drugs interacting with enzymes. Update 2014.

    PubMed

    Froestl, Wolfgang; Muhs, Andreas; Pfeifer, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Scientists working in the field of Alzheimer's disease and, in particular, cognitive enhancers are very productive. The review on Drugs interacting with Enzymes was accepted in August 2012. However, this field is very dynamic. New potential targets for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease were identified. This update describes drugs interacting with 60 enzymes versus 43 enzymes in the first paper. Some compounds progressed in their development, while many others were discontinued. The present review covers the evolution of research in this field through April 2014.

  16. Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Formation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-14

    past year defined the cellular changes likely to be responsible for expression. The nootropic ("cognitive enhancing") drug aniracetam prolongs the open...modified glutamate receptors are responsible for LTP expression was obtained in the past year. Aniracetam , a drug that reversibly modulates the AMPA...as the substrate of LTP. Tests of this became possible with the discovery by Ito and co-workers Q’. Ph, si , 1990) that the nootropic drug aniracetam

  17. GVS-111 prevents oxidative damage and apoptosis in normal and Down's syndrome human cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Pelsman, Alejandra; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos; Gudasheva, Tatiana A; Seredenin, Sergei B; Ostrovskaya, Rita U; Busciglio, Jorge

    2003-05-01

    The neuroprotective activity of a novel N-acylprolyl-containing dipeptide analog of the nootropic 2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide (Piracetam) designated as GVS-111 (DVD-111/Noopept) was tested in two in vitro models of neuronal degeneration mediated by oxidative stress: normal human cortical neurons treated with H(2)O(2), and Down's syndrome (DS) cortical neurons. Incubation of normal cortical neurons with 50 microM H(2)O(2) for 1h resulted in morphological and structural changes consistent with neuronal apoptosis and in the degeneration of more than 60% of the neurons present in the culture. GVS-111 significantly increased neuronal survival after H(2)O(2)-treatment displaying a dose-dependent neuroprotective activity from 10nM to 100 microM, and an IC(50) value of 1.21+/-0.07 microM. GVS-111 inhibited the accumulation of intracellular free radicals and lipid peroxidation damage in neurons treated with H(2)O(2) or FeSO(4), suggesting an antioxidant mechanism of action. GVS-111 exhibited significantly higher neuroprotection compared to the standard cognition enhancer Piracetam, or to the antioxidants Vitamin E, propyl gallate and N-tert-butyl-2-sulpho-phenylnitrone (s-PBN). In DS cortical cultures, chronic treatment with GVS-111 significantly reduced the appearance of degenerative changes and enhanced neuronal survival. The results suggest that the neuroprotective effect of GVS-111 against oxidative damage and its potential nootropic activity may present a valuable therapeutic combination for the treatment of mental retardation and chronic neurodegenerative disorders.

  18. [The pharmacokinetics of the dipeptide analog of piracetam with nootropic activity GVS-111 and of its basic metabolites].

    PubMed

    Boĭko, S S; Zherdev, V P; Dvorianinov, A A; Gudasheva, T A; Ostrovskaia, R U; Voronina, T A; Rozantsev, G G; Seredenin, S B

    1997-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of a new nootropic dipeptide analog of piracetam-N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine (GWS-111) and its main metabolites were studied in rats by means of high performance liquid chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography. The compound under study showed a greater resistance to an enzymatic effect than natural neuropeptides. In addition to an unchanged compound three of its metabolites were found in the blood plasma of the rats. One of them, cyclo-Pro-Gly was an active metabolite of GWS-111.

  19. Nootropic activity of lipid-based extract of Bacopa monniera Linn. compared with traditional preparation and extracts.

    PubMed

    Lohidasan, Sathiyanarayanan; Paradkar, Anant R; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R

    2009-11-01

    The aim was to design an alternative solvent-free extraction method using the hydrophilic lipid Gelucire (polyethylene glycol glycerides) for herbal extraction and to confirm the efficacy of extraction using biological screening. Bacopa monniera Linn. (BM) was selected for the study. Conventional methanolic extract (MEBM), Ayurvedic ghrita (AGBM) and lipid extracts (LEBM) were prepared and standardised by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). Nootropic activity in rats was evaluated using the two-trial Y-maze test and the anterograde amnesia induced by scopolamine (1 mg/kg i.p.) determined by the conditioned avoidance response. The extracts were administered daily at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg orally. At the end of the conditioned avoidance response test, brain monoamine levels were estimated by HPLC. The LEBM, MEBM and AGBM contained 3.56%, 4.10% and 0.005% bacoside A, respectively. Significantly greater spatial recognition was observed with LEBM (P < 0.001 at 400 and 200 mg/kg) and MEBM (P < 0.001 at 400 mg/kg, P < 0.01 at 200 mg/kg) than AGBM. The conditioned avoidance response was significantly higher in the groups treated with high doses of LEBM and MEBM than AGBM. There were significant decreases in brain noradrenaline (P < 0.001) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (P < 0.01) levels and an increase in dopamine levels (P < 0.05) in the LEBM-treated groups compared with the stress control group. The proposed LEBM is solvent free, does not have the shortcomings associated with conventional extraction, and had comparable nootropic activity to the MEBM.

  20. Phenibut (β-Phenyl-γ-aminobutyric Acid) Dependence and Management of Withdrawal: Emerging Nootropics of Abuse.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Tania; Mgbako, Ofole; Katzman, Caroline; Grossman, Allison

    2018-01-01

    This case report describes the development of withdrawal from phenibut, a gamma-aminobutyric acid-receptor type B agonist. Although phenibut is not an FDA-approved medication, it is available through online retailers as a nootropic supplement. There are reports of dependence in patients that misuse phenibut. We report a case in which a patient experienced withdrawal symptoms from phenibut and was successfully treated with a baclofen taper. This case report highlights the development of phenibut use disorder with coingestion of alcohol and potential management for phenibut withdrawal. We believe clinicians must be aware of how phenibut dependence may present and how to manage the withdrawal syndrome.

  1. Nootropic, neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of phloretin in scopolamine induced amnesia in mice.

    PubMed

    Ghumatkar, Priya J; Patil, Sachin P; Jain, Pankaj D; Tambe, Rufi M; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2015-08-01

    Phloretin (PHL), a dihydrochalcone flavonoid usually present in the roots and leaves of apple tree. In vitro study on GT1-7 immortalized hypothalamic neurons exposed to amyloid beta (25-35), demonstrated that PHL significantly influenced membrane fluidity and potential. PHL also significantly decreased excitotoxicity by restoring the calcium homeostasis in the same. Thus, PHL proves to be a promising therapeutic moiety which should be further screened in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the nootropic, neuroprotective and neurotrophic roles of PHL in the subacute scopolamine induced amnesia in mice. In this study, mice were pretreated with PHL 2.5mg/kg, 5mg/kg, 10mg/kg and Donepezil (DON) 1mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p) for 14days. The last 7days of treatment regimen included daily injection of SCP 1.5mg/kg to induce cognitive deficits. Mice were subjected to behavioral analysis. Biochemical estimation of the brain homogenates for acetylcholinesterase and oxidative stress biomarkers were conducted. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis for the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was carried out particularly in the hippocampus. PHL was found to significantly improve the performance of mice in Morris water maze test (P<0.001) and significantly decreased the acetylcholinesterase activity (P<0.001) at all doses compared to SCP treated mice. Also, PHL significantly elevated the activity of antioxidant enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione levels (P<0.001) and decreased malonaldehyde levels (P<0.001) in comparison with the SCP group. Immunohistochemistry revealed that PHL treatment dose dependently improved BDNF levels in the hippocampus which were found to be significantly depleted (P<0.001) in the SCP group. Additionally, PHL (10mg/kg) significantly enhanced the spatial memory formation (P<0.05) and neurotrophicity (P<0.001) compared to DON (1mg/kg). The aforementioned research

  2. Substituted piperazines as nootropic agents: 2- or 3-phenyl derivatives structurally related to the cognition-enhancer DM235.

    PubMed

    Guandalini, Luca; Martino, Maria Vittoria; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Bartolucci, Gianluca; Melani, Fabrizio; Malik, Ruchi; Dei, Silvia; Floriddia, Elisa; Manetti, Dina; Orlandi, Francesca; Teodori, Elisabetta; Ghelardini, Carla; Romanelli, Maria Novella

    2015-04-15

    A series of 2-phenyl- or 3-phenyl piperazines, structurally related to DM235 and DM232, two potent nootropic agents, have been prepared and tested in the mouse passive-avoidance test, to assess their ability to revert scopolamine-induced amnesia. Although the newly synthesized molecules were less potent than the parent compounds, some useful information has been obtained from structure-activity relationships. A small but significant enantioselectivity has been found for the most potent compound 5a. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. X-ray and 1H-NMR spectroscopic studies of the structures and conformations of the new nootropic agents RU-35929, RU-47010 and RU-35965

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, Maria E.; Bandoli, Giuliano; Casellato, Umberto; Pappalardo, Giuseppe C.; Toja, Emilio

    1990-10-01

    The crystal and molecular structures of the nootropics (±)1-benzenesulphonyl-2-oxo-5-ethoxypyrrolidine ( 1), (±)1-(3-pyridinylsulphonyl)-2-oxo-5-ethoxypyrrolidine ( 2) and (±)1-benzenesulphonyl-2-oxo-5-isopropyloxypyrrolidine ( 3) have been determined by X-ray analysis. The solution conformation of 1, 2 and 3 has been investigated by 1H NMR spectroscopy. In the solid state, the main feature consists of the similar structural parameters and conformations, with the exception of the conformation adopted by the 5-ethoxy moiety which changes on passing from 1 to 2. The solid state overall enveloped conformation of the 2-pyrrolidinone ring for the three nootropics is found to be retained in solution on the basis of NMR evidence. Comparison between calculated and experimental coupling constant values shows that one of the two possible puckered opposite conformational isomers (half-chair shapes) occurs in solution. The relative pharmacological potencies of 1, 2 and 3 cannot therefore be interpreted in terms of the different conformation features presently detectable by available experimental methods.

  4. Comparison of Nootropic and Neuroprotective Features of Aryl-Substituted Analogs of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid.

    PubMed

    Tyurenkov, I N; Borodkina, L E; Bagmetova, V V; Berestovitskaya, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2016-02-01

    GABA analogs containing phenyl (phenibut) or para-chlorophenyl (baclofen) substituents demonstrated nootropic activity in a dose of 20 mg/kg: they improved passive avoidance conditioning, decelerated its natural extinction, and exerted antiamnestic effect on the models of amnesia provoked by scopolamine or electroshock. Tolyl-containing GABA analog (tolibut, 20 mg/kg) exhibited antiamnestic activity only on the model of electroshock-induced amnesia. Baclofen and, to a lesser extent, tolibut alleviated seizures provoked by electroshock, i.e. both agents exerted anticonvulsant effect. All examined GABA aryl derivatives demonstrated neuroprotective properties on the maximum electroshock model: they shortened the duration of coma and shortened the period of spontaneous motor activity recovery. In addition, these agents decreased the severity of passive avoidance amnesia and behavioral deficit in the open field test in rats exposed to electroshock. The greatest neuroprotective properties were exhibited by phenyl-containing GABA analog phenibut.

  5. Cognitive enhancers (Nootropics). Part 3: drugs interacting with targets other than receptors or enzymes. Disease-modifying drugs. Update 2014.

    PubMed

    Froestl, Wolfgang; Pfeifer, Andrea; Muhs, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Scientists working in the field of Alzheimer's disease and, in particular, cognitive enhancers, are very productive. The review "Drugs interacting with Targets other than Receptors or Enzymes. Disease-modifying Drugs" was accepted in October 2012. In the last 20 months, new targets for the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease were identified. Enormous progress was realized in the pharmacological characterization of natural products with cognitive enhancing properties. This review covers the evolution of research in this field through May 2014.

  6. The Brain Tourniquet: Physiological Isolation of Brain Regions Damaged by Traumatic Head Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-19

    brain slices were treated after injury with either a nootropic agent ( aniracetam , cyclothiazide, IDRA 21, or 1-BCP) or the antiepileptic drug...tourniquet approach. Four well-known nootropic agents were evaluated: aniracetam , a pyrrolidione analog that slows non-NMDA (AMPA/kainate) receptor...to improve cognition in rats [Stdubli et al., 1994], and has more potent effects than aniracetam in rat brain slices [Arai et al., 1994]. In

  7. [Dipeptide nootropic agent GVS-111 prevents accumulation of the lipid peroxidation products during immobilization].

    PubMed

    Lysenko, A V; Uskova, N I; Ostrovskaia, R U; Gudasheva, T A; Voronina, T A

    1997-01-01

    Immobilization of rats in a narrow plastic chamber for 24 h caused a sharp increase in the level of diene conjugates and the content of schiff bases in the synaptosomes of the brain cortex as well as accumulation of extraerythrocytic hemoglobin in blood serum. The dipeptide nootropic agent GVS-111 (ethyl ether of phenylacetylprolylglycine), when administered 15 and particularly 60 min before immobilization reduced the accumulation of these products of lipid peroxidation in the brain and blood. GVS-111 demonstrated these signs of its antioxidant effect after a single i.p. injection in doses of 0.12 and 0.5 mg/kg. Pyracetam produced a similar effect on the listed parameters in injection in a dose of 300 mg/kg for three successive days. The protective effect of the new pyracetam dipeptide analog GVS-111 in relation to activation of free-radical processes induced by immobilization is additional proof of the antistress action of this dipeptide.

  8. Nootropic potential of Ashwagandha leaves: Beyond traditional root extracts.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Renu; Konar, Arpita; Kaul, Sunil C

    2016-05-01

    Rapidly increasing aging population and environmental stressors are the two main global concerns of the modern society. These have brought in light rapidly increasing incidence of a variety of pathological conditions including brain tumors, neurodegenerative & neuropsychiatric disorders, and new challenges for their treatment. The overlapping symptoms, complex etiology and lack of full understanding of the brain structure and function to-date further complicate these tasks. On the other hand, several herbal reagents with a long history of their use have been asserted to possess neurodifferentiation, neuroregenerative and neuroprotective potentials, and hence been recommended as supplement to enhance and maintain brain health and function. Although they have been claimed to function by holistic approach resulting in maintaining body homeostasis and brain health, there are not enough laboratory studies in support to these and mechanism(s) of such beneficial activities remain largely undefined. One such herb is Ashwagandha, also called "Queen of Ayurveda" for its popular use in Indian traditional home medicine because of its extensive benefits including anticancer, anti-stress and remedial potential for aging and neurodegenerative pathologies. However, active principles and underlying mechanism(s) of action remain largely unknown. Here we provide a review on the effects of Ashwagandha extracts and active principles, and underlying molecular mechanism(s) for brain pathologies. We highlight our findings on the nootropic potential of Ashwagandha leaves. The effects of Ashwagandha leaf extracts are multidimensional ranging from differentiation of neuroblastoma and glioma cells, reversal of Alzheimer and Parkinson's pathologies, protection against environmental neurotoxins and enhancement of memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Brivaracetam: a rational drug discovery success story

    PubMed Central

    Rogawski, M A

    2008-01-01

    Levetiracetam, the α-ethyl analogue of the nootropic piracetam, is a widely used antiepileptic drug (AED) that provides protection against partial seizures and is also effective in the treatment of primary generalized seizure syndromes including juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Levetiracetam was discovered in 1992 through screening in audiogenic seizure susceptible mice and, 3 years later, was reported to exhibit saturable, stereospecific binding in brain to a ∼90 kDa protein, later identified as the ubiquitous synaptic vesicle glycoprotein SV2A. A large-scale screening effort to optimize binding affinity identified the 4-n-propyl analogue, brivaracetam, as having greater potency and a broadened spectrum of activity in animal seizure models. Recent phase II clinical trials demonstrating that brivaracetam is efficacious and well tolerated in the treatment of partial onset seizures have validated the strategy of the discovery programme. Brivaracetam is among the first clinically effective AEDs to be discovered by optimization of pharmacodynamic activity at a molecular target. PMID:18552880

  10. Receptor changes and LTP: an analysis using aniracetam, a drug that reversibly modifies glutamate (AMPA) receptors.

    PubMed

    Staubli, U; Ambros-Ingerson, J; Lynch, G

    1992-01-01

    The hypothesis that long-term potentiation (LTP) involves receptor modifications was tested with aniracetam, a nootropic drug that selectively increases currents mediated by the AMPA subclass of glutamate receptors. Aniracetam had different effects on the waveform of synaptic potentials in hippocampus before and after induction of LTP: (1) the drug caused a slight reduction (or delay) of the initial segment of the response after LTP; and (2) the facilitatory effects of aniracetam occurred at a later time point in the response after LTP than before. The interactions between LTP and aniracetam were still present when synaptic responses were greatly reduced by partial blockade of postsynaptic receptors and were not reproduced by increasing release or the number of stimulated synapses. A mathematical treatment of synaptic currents produced the following results: (1) if aniracetam facilitates AMPA receptor currents simply by reducing desensitization, then its complex interaction with LTP emerges when potentiation changes the kinetic and conductance properties of receptor channels; (2) if aniracetam also significantly increases conductance, then the experimental data can be reproduced by modeling LTP as an increase in channel conductance alone.

  11. Drug treatment of poststroke aphasia.

    PubMed

    Bakheit, A M O

    2004-03-01

    acute brain damage. An example of this is the nootropic agent piracetam. Extensive animal studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of this and other drugs on neural plasticity, but data on humans are still sparse. This review provides a critical analysis of the current evidence of the effectiveness of these drugs in the treatment of acute and chronic aphasia.

  12. [Effect of centrophenoxine, piracetam and aniracetam on the monoamine oxidase activity in different brain structures of rats].

    PubMed

    Stancheva, S L; Alova, L G

    1988-01-01

    In vitro studies of effects of some nootropic drugs (centrophenoxine, piracetam and aniracetam) on monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity in the rat striatum and hypothalamus, using tyramine, serotonin and beta-phenylethylamine as substrates, were carried out. At all concentrations used (5.10(-5)-1.10(-3) M) centrophenoxine inhibited total MAO, MAO A and MAO B in both brain structures. Piracetam activated striatal and hypothalamic total MAO, hypothalamic MAO A and MAO B but exerted a pronounced inhibitory effect on MAO A and MAO B activity in the striatum. Aniracetam inhibited total MAO and MAO A in both brain structures but activated striatal and hypothalamic MAO B. The different effects of centrophenoxine, piracetam and aniracetam on MAO activity in the brain structures support the view for the independent mode of action of nootropic drugs in spite of their similar molecular and metabolic activity.

  13. Classification and evaluation of the pharmacodynamics of psychotropic drugs by single-lead pharmaco-EEG, EEG mapping and tomography (LORETA).

    PubMed

    Saletu, B; Anderer, P; Saletu-Zyhlarz, G M; Arnold, O; Pascual-Marqui, R D

    2002-01-01

    Utilizing computer-assisted quantitative analyses of human scalp-recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) in combination with certain statistical procedures (quantitative pharmaco-EEG) and mapping techniques (pharmaco-EEG mapping), it is possible to classify psychotropic substances and objectively evaluate their bioavailability at the target organ: the human brain. Specifically, one may determine at an early stage of drug development whether a drug is effective on the central nervous system (CNS) compared with placebo, what its clinical efficacy will be like, at which dosage it acts, when it acts and the equipotent dosages of different galenic formulations. Pharmaco-EEG profiles and maps of neuroleptics, antidepressants, tranquilizers, hypnotics, psychostimulants and nootropics/cognition-enhancing drugs will be described in this paper. Methodological problems, as well as the relationships between acute and chronic drug effects, alterations in normal subjects and patients, CNS effects, therapeutic efficacy and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data will be discussed. In recent times, imaging of drug effects on the regional brain electrical activity of healthy subjects by means of EEG tomography such as low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) has been used for identifying brain areas predominantly involved in psychopharmacological action. This will be demonstrated for the representative drugs of the four main psychopharmacological classes, such as 3 mg haloperidol for neuroleptics, 20 mg citalopram for antidepressants, 2 mg lorazepam for tranquilizers and 20 mg methylphenidate for psychostimulants. LORETA demonstrates that these psychopharmacological classes affect brain structures differently.

  14. EEG topography and tomography (LORETA) in the classification and evaluation of the pharmacodynamics of psychotropic drugs.

    PubMed

    Saletu, Bernd; Anderer, Peter; Saletu-Zyhlarz, Gerda M

    2006-04-01

    By multi-lead computer-assisted quantitative analyses of human scalp-recorded electroencephalogram (QEEG) in combination with certain statistical procedures (quantitative pharmaco-EEG) and mapping techniques (pharmaco-EEG mapping or topography), it is possible to classify psychotropic substances and objectively evaluate their bioavailability at the target organ, the human brain. Specifically, one may determine at an early stage of drug development whether a drug is effective on the central nervous system (CNS) compared with placebo, what its clinical efficacy will be like, at which dosage it acts, when it acts and the equipotent dosages of different galenic formulations. Pharmaco-EEG maps of neuroleptics, antidepressants, tranquilizers, hypnotics, psychostimulants and nootropics/cognition-enhancing drugs will be described. Methodological problems, as well as the relationships between acute and chronic drug effects, alterations in normal subjects and patients, CNS effects and therapeutic efficacy will be discussed. Imaging of drug effects on the regional brain electrical activity of healthy subjects by means of EEG tomography such as low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) has been used for identifying brain areas predominantly involved in psychopharmacological action. This will be shown for the representative drugs of the four main psychopharmacological classes, such as 3 mg haloperidol for neuroleptics, 20 mg citalopram for antidepressants, 2 mg lorazepam for tranquilizers and 20 mg methylphenidate for psychostimulants. LORETA demonstrates that these psychopharmacological classes affect brain structures differently. By considering these differences between psychotropic drugs and placebo in normal subjects, as well as between mental disorder patients and normal controls, it may be possible to choose the optimum drug for a specific patient according to a key-lock principle, since the drug should normalize the deviant brain function. Thus, pharmaco

  15. [Asthenic syndrome in clinical course of acute period of brain concussion during complex treatment using nootropic agents].

    PubMed

    Tkachov, A V

    2008-01-01

    The comparative analysis of a complex examination of 108 persons aged from 16 till 60 years in acute period of closed craniocerebral injury (CCCT) has been done. Every participants have been divided into 2 groups depending on a nootrop medication they receive in a complex treatment. A control group consisted of 30 practically healthy people. Objective examination by means of tests was done on the 1-st, 10-th that 30-th day of treatment. Patients of 1-st (37 persons) group received piracetam in complex treatment and patients of the 2-nd group (71 persons) pramistar. Patients of the first group received a base treatment (analgetics, tranquilizers, vitamins of group B, magnesium sulfate, diuretic preparations) as well as piracetam at dosage 0.2, two tablets three times per day. The Patients of the 2-nd group received a base treatment as well as pramistar at dosage 0.6, one tablet 2 times per day. Specially developed multiaspects scales and questionnaires, MRT of the brain and EEG have been used for objectification of patient, complaints. During a complex clinico-neuropsychological examination it was found that all cases of concussion of the brain are accompanied by those or other asthenic disorders.

  16. [Analysis of the binding capacity of the benzodiazepine site of gabaa receptor in mice C57BL/6 and BALB/C pretreated with anxiolytics].

    PubMed

    Iarkova, M A

    2011-01-01

    The level of specific 3H-flunitrazepam binding in synaptosomal membranes of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice brain underwent to the stress of different types has been studied. Mild stress (Elevated Plus Maze) was shown to induce the decrease of benzodiazepine binding in BALB/c mice only, while the strong one (Exposure to a predator) was revealed to cause this decrease in both strains. Behavioral effects of different non-benzodiazepine drugs possessing anxiolytic properties (Afobazol, Ladasten and Noopept) was accompanied with the normalization of the level of benzodiazepine reception, reduced by the stress of both modalities.

  17. Piracetam and aniracetam antagonism of centrally active drug-induced antinociception.

    PubMed

    Galeotti, N; Ghelardini, C; Bartolini, A

    1996-04-01

    The effects of the nootropic drugs piracetam and aniracetam on antinociception induced by baclofen, bicuculline, and picrotoxin and on baclofen-induced muscle relaxation were studied in mice. Antinociception was investigated using both the hot plate (thermal stimulus) and abdominal constriction (chemical stimulus) tests. Both behaviour inhibition and muscle relaxation were observed by using the rota-rod test. Piracetam (30 mg/kg, IP) and aniracetam (10 mg/kg, PO) reduced baclofen, bicuculline, and picrotoxin antinociception without modifying analgesia induced by non-GABAergic drugs such as morphine, physostigmine, clomipramine, and diphenhydramine. In this concentration range, piracetam, and aniracetam were also able to reduce the inhibition of rota-rod performance. At higher doses piracetam (100 mg/kg, IP) and aniracetam (100 mg/kg, PO) were able to completely prevent baclofen antinociception. However, when prevention of GABAergic antinociception was complete, piracetam and aniracetam were able to block non-GABAergic antinociception also. comparing the effects of piracetam and aniracetam with those exerted by the GABAB antagonist CGP 35348, a reduction of non-GABAergic analgesia was also observed using higher doses of CGP 35348 (2.5 micrograms per mouse ICV). The present results indicate that piracetam and aniracetam, by preventing both of the investigated effects of baclofen, have some selectivity against GABAB-mediated inhibition. The well-known activity of piracetam and aniracetam on learning and memory might, therefore, depend, at least in part, on the removal of inhibitory GABAB mechanisms that impair attention and cognitive functions.

  18. Smart Drugs and Synthetic Androgens for Cognitive and Physical Enhancement: Revolving Doors of Cosmetic Neurology

    PubMed Central

    Frati, Paola; Kyriakou, Chrystalla; Del Rio, Alessandro; Marinelli, Enrico; Vergallo, Gianluca Montanari; Zaami, Simona; Busardò, Francesco P.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive enhancement can be defined as the use of drugs and/or other means with the aim to improve the cognitive functions of healthy subjects in particular memory, attention, creativity and intelligence in the absence of any medical indication. Currently, it represents one of the most debated topics in the neuroscience community. Human beings always wanted to use substances to improve their cognitive functions, from the use of hallucinogens in ancient civilizations in an attempt to allow them to better communicate with their gods, to the widespread use of caffeine under various forms (energy drinks, tablets, etc.), to the more recent development of drugs such as stimulants and glutamate activators. In the last ten years, increasing attention has been given to the use of cognitive enhancers, but up to now there is still only a limited amount of information concerning the use, effect and functioning of cognitive enhancement in daily life on healthy subjects. The first aim of this paper was to review current trends in the misuse of smart drugs (also known as Nootropics) presently available on the market focusing in detail on methylphenidate, trying to evaluate the potential risk in healthy individuals, especially teenagers and young adults. Moreover, the authors have explored the issue of cognitive enhancement compared to the use of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) in sports. Finally, a brief overview of the ethical considerations surrounding human enhancement has been examined. PMID:26074739

  19. Smart drugs and synthetic androgens for cognitive and physical enhancement: revolving doors of cosmetic neurology.

    PubMed

    Frati, Paola; Kyriakou, Chrystalla; Del Rio, Alessandro; Marinelli, Enrico; Vergallo, Gianluca Montanari; Zaami, Simona; Busardò, Francesco P

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive enhancement can be defined as the use of drugs and/or other means with the aim to improve the cognitive functions of healthy subjects in particular memory, attention, creativity and intelligence in the absence of any medical indication. Currently, it represents one of the most debated topics in the neuroscience community. Human beings always wanted to use substances to improve their cognitive functions, from the use of hallucinogens in ancient civilizations in an attempt to allow them to better communicate with their gods, to the widespread use of caffeine under various forms (energy drinks, tablets, etc.), to the more recent development of drugs such as stimulants and glutamate activators. In the last ten years, increasing attention has been given to the use of cognitive enhancers, but up to now there is still only a limited amount of information concerning the use, effect and functioning of cognitive enhancement in daily life on healthy subjects. The first aim of this paper was to review current trends in the misuse of smart drugs (also known as Nootropics) presently available on the market focusing in detail on methylphenidate, trying to evaluate the potential risk in healthy individuals, especially teenagers and young adults. Moreover, the authors have explored the issue of cognitive enhancement compared to the use of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) in sports. Finally, a brief overview of the ethical considerations surrounding human enhancement has been examined.

  20. [Preclinical prognosis of pyracetam and picamilon safety based on acute toxicity data].

    PubMed

    Bugaeva, L I; Spasov, A A; Verovskiĭ, V E; Iezhitsa, I N

    2003-01-01

    A comparative acute toxicity test of the nootropic drugs piracetam and picamilon was performed on rats. The study was based on the principles of integral evaluation of the drug effect upon the functional and behavioral state of animals. It was found that the conventional therapeutic index does not coincide with the actual therapeutic activity range. Piracetam and picamilon, while exhibiting significantly different toxicity, are characterized by approximately equal ranges of the therapeutic activity.

  1. A novel CaV2.2 channel inhibition by piracetam in peripheral and central neurons.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Martínez, Jorge; Arenas, Isabel; Vivas, Oscar; Rebolledo-Antúnez, Santiago; Vázquez-García, Mario; Larrazolo, Arturo; García, David E

    2012-10-01

    No mechanistic actions for piracetam have been documented to support its nootropic effects. Voltage-gated calcium channels have been proposed as a promising pharmacological target of nootropic drugs. In this study, we investigated the effect of piracetam on Ca(V)2.2 channels in peripheral neurons, using patch-clamp recordings from cultured superior cervical ganglion neurons. In addition, we tested if Ca(V)2.2 channel inhibition could be related with the effects of piracetam on central neurons. We found that piracetam inhibited native Ca(V)2.2 channels in superior cervical ganglion neurons in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC(50) of 3.4 μmol/L and a Hill coefficient of 1.1. GDPβS dialysis did not prevent piracetam-induced inhibition of Ca(V)2.2 channels and G-protein-coupled receptor activation by noradrenaline did not occlude the piracetam effect. Piracetam altered the biophysical characteristics of Ca(V)2.2 channel such as facilitation ratio. In hippocampal slices, piracetam and ω-conotoxin GVIA diminished the frequency of excitatory postsynaptic potentials and action potentials. Our results provide evidence of piracetam's actions on Ca(V)2.2 channels in peripheral neurons, which might explain some of its nootropic effects in central neurons.

  2. Classification and determination of cerebral biovailability of psychotropic drugs by quantitative "pharmaco-EEG" and psychometric investigations (studies with AX-A411-BS).

    PubMed

    Saletu, B; Grünberger, J; Linzmayer, L

    1977-10-01

    Utilizing computerized quantitative analysis of the human scalp recorded electroencephalogram (EEG), it is possible to classify psychotropic drugs. While neuroleptic compounds produce an increase of slow and decrease of fast activities, anxiolytic substances induce an augmentation of fast waves, decrease of alpha waves and--according to the sedative properties of the drug--an increase or decrease of slow waves. Antidepressants produce a concomitant augmentation of slow and fast activities as well as an attenuation of alpha waves. Nootropic substances attenuate slow activities, augment alpha and slow beta waves and decrease fast beta waves. The latter alterations are quite opposite to age-related changes. Since the main psychopharmacological classes seem to have characteristic pharmaco-EEG profiles, the method proved to be useful for determination of psychoactivity and cerebral bioavailability of newly developed substances as for instance AX-A411-BS, a new benzodiazepine. The latter substance was found to be CNS-active and was classified as anxiolytic. It induced dosedependent changes, which were barely visible in the 2nd hour post-drug, became quite obvious in the 4th hour and increased until the 8th hour after oral administration of one single dose. In the higher dosage range, slow activities came to the fore, indicating aoditional sedative properties. Psychometric tests measuring attention, psychomotor activity. mood, vigilance, extroversion, concentration aith a long-lasting effect. The implications of these methods are discussed.

  3. [Drug dependence test on a cerebral insufficiency improver, aniracetam].

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, A; Kubota, A; Hakkei, M; Nakamura, K

    1987-01-01

    Aniracetam, 1-p-anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone, is known to be a nootropic or cognitive activator. Aniracetam protects against memory and learning deficits without causing effects on motor function and the autonomic nervous system. A drug dependence study on aniracetam utilizing the intragastric route of administration was performed in male cynomolgus monkeys. The behavioral observation test after acute administration revealed that aniracetam at the dose of 25-400 mg/kg did not change the gross behavior. In the self-administration initiation test, animals were exposed to two or three unit doses of aniracetam and references for a total available period of 7 weeks. Aniracetam at the dose of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg/injection did not initiate self-administration in the respective group of 4, 4 and 2 animals. In the study with d-methamphetamine hydrochloride at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg/injection, 1 out of 4 animals started to consistently self-administer the drug. Self-administration of cocaine hydrochloride at the dose of 10 mg/kg/injection was confirmed in 3 out of 5 animals, and these 3 animals died from overdosing later. In the physical dependence direct induction test, animals received aniracetam (50 mg/kg) and sodium pentobarbital (25 mg/kg: the dose inducing intermediate CNS depression) intragastrically twice a day for 31 consecutive days. Abrupt withdrawal of aniracetam did not elicit abstinent signs (including changes in appetite and body weight) in all 6 animals, whereas withdrawal of pentobarbital produced typical abstinent behavioral signs and decreases in appetite and body weight. In conclusion, aniracetam was confirmed to develop neither physical dependence nor psychic dependence in cynomolgus monkeys.

  4. Prolongevity medicine: Antagonic-Stress drug in distress, geriatrics, and related diseases. II. Clinical review--2003.

    PubMed

    Riga, S; Riga, D; Schneider, F

    2004-06-01

    Distress and senescence, their reciprocal aggravating-quickening connections, and their related pathologies have a large worldwide impact on healthcare systems in this new millennium. For this reason, Antagonic-Stress (AS)--an advanced integrative therapy, with specific synergistic composition, and patented internationally--represents a significant strategy in health, aging, and longevity. Clinical research with AS proves the drug's efficacy in the management of distress (neurotic, stress-related, and affective disorders; behavioral syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors; mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance uses) and psychogeriatrics [organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders (OMD)]. Specific multiaxial psychopathological instruments and psychometric tests in multiple assessments used for gerontopsychiatry demonstrated strong improvements after AS administration in early-moderate stages of Alzheimer or vascular dementia, as well as in other OMD. In addition, comparative clinical studies evinced the superiority of AS (synergistic multitherapy) versus monotherapy [meclofenoxate (MF), piracetam (PA), pyritinol (PT), and nicergoline (NE), respectively]. These comparative clinical trials agreed closely with comparative preclinical research and confirmed AS synergistic homeostatic, adaptogenic, antioxidative, cerebrovascular, neurometabolic, and nootropic actions. Also, the AS protective actions against oxidative stress recommend this orthomolecular therapy in stress, aging, and free radical pathology.

  5. Nootropic nanocomplex with enhanced blood-brain barrier permeability for treatment of traumatic brain injury-associated neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeongmin; Choi, Eunshil; Shin, Seulgi; Lim, Sungsu; Kim, Dohee; Baek, Suji; Lee, Kang Pa; Lee, Jae Jun; Lee, Byeong Han; Kim, Bokyung; Jeong, Keunsoo; Baik, Ja-Hyun; Kim, Yun Kyung; Kim, Sehoon

    2018-06-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an intracranial injury which can induce immediate neuroinflammation and long-term neurological deficits. Methylene blue (MB) as a nootropic has a great potential to treat neurodegeneration after TBI because of its anti-inflmmatory and neuroprotective functions. However, its limited accumulation to the brain across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) remains a major hurdle to be overcome. In this paper, we present a polymer surfactant-encapsulated nanocomplex of MB as a delivery system with high BBB permeability for efficacious treatment of TBI-induced neurodegeneration. MB was formulated via electrostatically/hydrophobically directed assembly with fatty acid and Pluronic surfactant (F-127 or F-68) to construct nanocomplexes of two different colloidal sizes (<10 nm and ~108 nm in hydrodynamic diameter for NanoMB-127 and NanoMB-68, respectively). Compared to uncomplexed free MB, formulation into the ultrasmall nanocomplex (NanoMB-127) significantly enhanced the uptake of MB by blood-brain vascular endothelial bEnd3 cells in vitro, and indeed improved its BBB penetration upon systemic administration to normal mice in vivo. However, large-size NanoMB-68 showed negligible BBB crossing despite the efficient bEnd3 cell internalization in vitro, probably due to the unfavorable pharmacokinetic profile associated with its large particle size. By virtue of the efficient BBB penetration and cellular uptake, ultrasmall NanoMB-127 was shown to distinctively reduce the expression level of an inflammatory cytokine with no notable toxicity in vitro and also considerably prevent the neurodegeneration after TBI in mice at much lower doses than free MB. Overall, the Pluronic-supported nanocomplexation method allows efficient brain delivery of MB, offering a novel way of enhancing the efficacy of neurotherapeutics to treat brain diseases. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. [Functional-behavioral profile of new cyclic GABA analogs in acute toxicity tests].

    PubMed

    Bugaeva, L I; Spasov, A A; Verovskiĭ, V E

    2004-01-01

    The properties of karphedone and phepyrone--new phenyl derivatives of pyrrolidone possessing nootropic activity--were studied in the course of the acute toxicity tests on rats. The drug effects were evaluated in terms of their integral influence on the state and behavior of test animals. The real therapeutic range and the profit/risk ratio of karphedone were comparable with those of the reference drug pyracetam and exceeded by a factor of 1.3 the corresponding values for phepyrone (irrespective of the LD50 values). The results give grounds for the further preclinical investigation of karphedone.

  7. Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant, antistress, and nootropic activities of aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of ladies finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in mice.

    PubMed

    Doreddula, Sathish Kumar; Bonam, Srinivasa Reddy; Gaddam, Durga Prasad; Desu, Brahma Srinivasa Rao; Ramarao, Nadendla; Pandy, Vijayapandi

    2014-01-01

    Abelmoschus esculentus L. (ladies finger, okra) is a well-known tropical vegetable, widely planted from Africa to Asia and from South Europe to America. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vivo protective effect of the aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus against scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment using passive avoidance task and acute restraining stress-induced behavioural and biochemical changes using elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swimming test (FST) in mice. Our results demonstrated that the pretreatment of mice with aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus (200 mg/kg, p.o.) for seven days significantly (P < 0.01) attenuated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in the passive avoidance test. In addition, these extracts significantly reduced the blood glucose, corticosterone, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels elevated by acute restraint stress and also significantly increased the time spent in open arm in EPM and decreased the immobility time in FST. It has also been revealed that these extracts showed a significant antioxidant activity and no signs of toxicity or death up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg, p.o. These results suggest that the seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus L. possess antioxidant, antistress, and nootropic activities which promisingly support the medicinal values of ladies finger as a vegetable.

  8. Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant, Antistress, and Nootropic Activities of Aqueous and Methanolic Seed Extracts of Ladies Finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Doreddula, Sathish Kumar; Bonam, Srinivasa Reddy; Gaddam, Durga Prasad; Desu, Brahma Srinivasa Rao; Ramarao, Nadendla; Pandy, Vijayapandi

    2014-01-01

    Abelmoschus esculentus L. (ladies finger, okra) is a well-known tropical vegetable, widely planted from Africa to Asia and from South Europe to America. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vivo protective effect of the aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus against scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment using passive avoidance task and acute restraining stress-induced behavioural and biochemical changes using elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swimming test (FST) in mice. Our results demonstrated that the pretreatment of mice with aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus (200 mg/kg, p.o.) for seven days significantly (P < 0.01) attenuated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in the passive avoidance test. In addition, these extracts significantly reduced the blood glucose, corticosterone, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels elevated by acute restraint stress and also significantly increased the time spent in open arm in EPM and decreased the immobility time in FST. It has also been revealed that these extracts showed a significant antioxidant activity and no signs of toxicity or death up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg, p.o. These results suggest that the seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus L. possess antioxidant, antistress, and nootropic activities which promisingly support the medicinal values of ladies finger as a vegetable. PMID:25401145

  9. Molecular docking, spectroscopic studies and quantum calculations on nootropic drug.

    PubMed

    Uma Maheswari, J; Muthu, S; Sundius, Tom

    2014-04-05

    A systematic vibrational spectroscopic assignment and analysis of piracetam [(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetamide)] have been carried out using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectral data. The vibrational analysis was aided by an electronic structure calculation based on the hybrid density functional method B3LYP using a 6-311G++(d,p) basis set. Molecular equilibrium geometries, electronic energies, IR and Raman intensities, and harmonic vibrational frequencies have been computed. The assignments are based on the experimental IR and Raman spectra, and a complete assignment of the observed spectra has been proposed. The UV-visible spectrum of the compound was recorded and the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies and the maximum absorption wavelengths λmax were determined by the time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) method. The geometrical parameters, vibrational frequencies and absorption wavelengths were compared with the experimental data. The complete vibrational assignments are performed on the basis of the potential energy distributions (PED) of the vibrational modes in terms of natural internal coordinates. The simulated FT-IR, FT-Raman, and UV spectra of the title compound have been constructed. Molecular docking studies have been carried out in the active site of piracetam by using Argus Lab. In addition, the potential energy surface, HOMO and LUMO energies, first-order hyperpolarizability and the molecular electrostatic potential have been computed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Spontaneous and drug-induced remission of alcoholic organic brain syndrome: clinical, psychometric, and neurophysiological studies.

    PubMed

    Saletu, B; Saletu, M; Grünberger, J; Mader, R

    1983-09-01

    The spontaneous and drug-induced remission of alcoholic organic brain syndrome was studied in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Forty patients with alcoholic organic brain syndrome (OBS) were randomly assigned to a 6-week treatment with either placebo or piridoxilate, a reciprocal salt between two stereoisomers of the glyoxylic acid-substituted piridoxine. Clinical, psychometric, and computer-assisted spectral analyses of the electroencephalogram (EEG) were carried out in weeks 0, 2, 4, and 6. Piridoxale-5-phosphate (PLP) blood level determination and laboratory investigations were performed before therapy and also in weeks 4 and 6. Both groups of patients demonstrated significant clinical improvement over 6 weeks of treatment, but the improvement in the piridoxilate-treated group was significantly greater than that in the placebo group. This conclusion was also confirmed by psychometric tests demonstrating a greater improvement in attention, concentration, attention variability, tapping, visual and numerical memory, and aftereffect (Archimedean spiral) in the piridoxilate than in the placebo group. Spectral analysis of the EEG showed an increase in alpha and a decrease in fast beta activities in both groups, while delta activity was attenuated only in the piridoxilate-treated group. The latter was found to be significantly correlated with the improvement in psychopathology. The present data confirm previous predictions about the encephalotropic and psychotropic properties of piridoxilate; these predictions were based on pharmaco-EEG trials in the elderly that suggested vigilance-improving qualities of piridoxilate. The reversible alcoholic OBS appears to be a suitable model for the assessment of therapeutic efficacy of nootropic drugs.

  11. Pharmacological and neurophysiological aspects of space/motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucot, James B.; Crampton, George H.

    1991-01-01

    A motorized motion testing device modeled after a Ferris wheel was constructed to perform motion sickness tests on cats. Details of the testing are presented, and some of the topics covered include the following: xylazine-induced emesis; analysis of the constituents of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during motion sickness; evaluation of serotonin-1A (5-HT sub 1A) agonists; other 5HT receptors; antimuscarinic mechanisms; and antihistaminergic mechanisms. The ability of the following drugs to reduce motion sickness in the cats was examined: amphetamines, adenosinergic drugs, opioid antagonists, peptides, cannabinoids, cognitive enhancers (nootropics), dextromethorphan/sigma ligands, scopolamine, and diphenhydramine.

  12. Nootropic effect of meadowsweet (Filipendula vulgaris) extracts.

    PubMed

    Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I

    2015-03-01

    The effects of the extracts of the aboveground parts of Filipendula vulgaris Moench on the behavior and memory of mice after hypoxic injury and their physical performance in the open-field test were studied using the models of hypoxia in a sealed volume, conditioned passive avoidance response (CPAR), and forced swimming with a load. The extracts improved animal resistance to hypoxia, normalized orientation and exploration activities, promoted CPAR retention after hypoxic injury, and increased physical performance. Aqueous extract of meadowsweet had the most pronounced effect that corresponded to the effect of the reference drug piracetam. These effects were probably caused by modulation of hippocampal activity.

  13. Comparative study of the neuroprotective and nootropic activities of the carboxylate and amide forms of the HLDF-6 peptide in animal models of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bogachouk, Anna P; Storozheva, Zinaida I; Solovjeva, Olga A; Sherstnev, Vyacheslav V; Zolotarev, Yury A; Azev, Vyacheslav N; Rodionov, Igor L; Surina, Elena A; Lipkin, Valery M

    2016-01-01

    A comparative study of the neuroprotective and nootropic activities of two pharmaceutical substances, the HLDF-6 peptide (HLDF-6-OH) and its amide form (HLDF-6-NH2), was conducted. The study was performed in male rats using two models of a neurodegenerative disorder. Cognitive deficit in rats was induced by injection of the beta-amyloid fragment 25-35 (βA 25-35) into the giant-cell nucleus basalis of Meynert or by coinjection of βA 25-35 and ibotenic acid into the hippocampus. To evaluate cognitive functions in animals, three tests were used: the novel object recognition test, the conditioned passive avoidance task and the Morris maze. Comparative analysis of the data demonstrated that the neuroprotective activity of HLDF-6-NH2, evaluated by improvement of cognitive functions in animals, surpassed that of the native HLDF-6-OH peptide. The greater cognitive/ behavioral effects can be attributed to improved kinetic properties of the amide form of the peptide, such as the character of biodegradation and the half-life time. The effects of HLDF-6-NH2 are comparable to, or exceed, those of the reference compounds. Importantly, HLDF-6-NH2 exerts its effects at much lower doses than the reference compounds. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Nootropic activity of Celastrus paniculatus seed.

    PubMed

    Bhanumathy, M; Harish, M S; Shivaprasad, H N; Sushma, G

    2010-03-01

    The effect of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. (Celastraceae) seed aqueous extract on learning and memory was studied using elevated plus maze and passive avoidance test (sodium nitrite induced amnesia rodent model). The aqueous seed extract was administered orally in two different doses to rats (350 and 1050 mg/kg) and to mice (500 and 1500 mg/kg). The results were compared to piracetam (100 mg/kg, p.o.) used as a standard drug. Chemical hypoxia was induced by subcutaneous administration of sodium nitrite (35 mg/kg), immediately after acquisition training. In elevated plus maze and sodium nitrite-induced amnesia model, Celastrus paniculatus extract has showed statistically significant improvement in memory process when compared to control. The estimation of acetylcholinesterase enzyme in rat brain supports the plus maze and passive avoidance test by reducing acetylcholinesterase activity which helps in memory performance. The study reveals that the aqueous extract of Celastrus paniculatus seed has dose-dependent cholinergic activity, thereby improving memory performance. The mechanism by which Celastrus paniculatus enhances cognition may be due to increased acetylcholine level in rat brain.

  15. Candyflipping and Other Combinations: Identifying Drug–Drug Combinations from an Online Forum

    PubMed Central

    Chary, Michael; Yi, David; Manini, Alex F.

    2018-01-01

    Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) refer to synthetic compounds or derivatives of more widely known substances of abuse that have emerged over the last two decades. Case reports suggest that users combine substances to achieve desired psychotropic experiences while reducing dysphoria and unpleasant somatic effects. However, the pattern of combining NPS has not been studied on a large scale. Here, we show that posts discussing NPS describe combining nootropics with sedative-hypnotics and stimulants with plant hallucinogens or psychiatric medications. Discussions that mention sedative-hypnotics most commonly also mention hallucinogens and stimulants. We analyzed 20 years of publicly available posts from Lycaeum, an Internet forum dedicated to sharing information about psychoactive substance use. We used techniques from natural language processing and machine learning to identify NPS and correlate patterns of co-mentions of substances across posts. We found that conversations mentioning synthetic hallucinogens tended to divide into those mentioning hallucinogens derived from amphetamine and those derived from ergot. Conversations that mentioned synthetic hallucinogens tended not to mention plant hallucinogens. Conversations that mention bath salts commonly mention sedative-hypnotics or nootropics while more canonical stimulants are discussed with plant hallucinogens and psychiatric medications. All types of substances are frequently compared to MDMA, DMT, cocaine, or atropine when trying to describe their effects. Our results provide the largest analysis to date of online descriptions of patterns of polysubstance use and further demonstrate the utility of social media in learning about trends in substance use. We anticipate this work to lead to a more detailed analysis of the knowledge contained online about the patterns of usage and effects of novel psychoactive substances. PMID:29760666

  16. [The effect of bemitil on conditioned-reflex memory in normal rats and under stress exposures].

    PubMed

    Pragina, L L; Tushmalova, N A; Inozemtsev, A N; Smirnov, A V

    1999-01-01

    The authors studied the effect of the actoprotector bemitil on the conditional-reflex memory of rats and its functional disorder by disturbance of the cause-effect (abatement of the avoidance reaction) or space relations. Intraperitoneal injections of 1.8 mg/kg of bemitil were given daily 30 min before the experiment. The training of animals improved authentically from experiment to experiment. Thus, the drug, possesses the nootropic properties. Exposure to stressogenic factors of various depth demonstrated the stress-protective effect of bemitil.

  17. Relationship between changes in rat behavior and integral biochemical indexes determined by laser correlation spectroscopy after photothrombosis of the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Romanova, G A; Shakova, F M; Kovaleva, O I; Pivovarov, V V; Khlebnikova, N N; Karganov, M Yu

    2004-02-01

    Experiments on rats showed that Noopept improved retention and retrieval of conditioned passive avoidance response after phototrombosis of the prefrontal cortex (a procedure impairing retention of memory traces). The impairment of mnesic functions was accompanied by changes in integral biochemical indexes of the plasma determined by laser correlation spectroscopy. Treatment of behavioral disorders with Noopepet normalized biochemical indexes.

  18. Quantitative Determination of Vinpocetine in Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    French, John M T; King, Matthew D; McDougal, Owen M

    2016-05-01

    Current United States regulatory policies allow for the addition of pharmacologically active substances in dietary supplements if derived from a botanical source. The inclusion of certain nootropic drugs, such as vinpocetine, in dietary supplements has recently come under scrutiny due to the lack of defined dosage parameters and yet unproven short- and long-term benefits and risks to human health. This study quantified the concentration of vinpocetine in several commercially available dietary supplements and found that a highly variable range of 0.6-5.1 mg/serving was present across the tested products, with most products providing no specification of vinpocetine concentrations.

  19. Nefiracetam facilitates hippocampal neurotransmission by a mechanism independent of the piracetam and aniracetam action.

    PubMed

    Nomura, T; Nishizaki, T

    2000-07-07

    Nefiracetam, a nootropic (cognition-enhancing) agent, facilitated neurotransmission in the dentate gyrus of rat hippocampal slices in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations ranged from 1 nM to 1 microM, being evident at 60-min washing-out of the drug. The facilitatory action was blocked by the nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor antagonists, alpha-bungarotoxin and mecamylamine. A similar facilitation was induced by the other nootropic agents, piracetam and aniracetam, but the facilitation was not inhibited by nicotinic ACh receptor antagonists and it did not occlude the potentiation induced by nefiracetam. In the Xenopus oocyte expression systems, nefiracetam potentiated currents through a variety of neuronal nicotinic ACh receptors (alpha 3beta 2, alpha 3beta 4, alpha 4 beta 2, alpha 4 beta 4, and alpha 7) to a different extent. In contrast, neither piracetam nor aniracetam had any potentiating action on alpha 7 receptor currents. While aniracetam delayed the decay time of currents through the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor, GluR1, -2, -3, expressed in oocytes, nefiracetam or piracetam had no effect on the currents. Nefiracetam, thus, appears to facilitate hippocampal neurotransmission by functionally targeting nicotinic ACh receptors, independently of the action of piracetam and aniracetam.

  20. [Use of the new psychotropic preparation bemitil in treating asthenic disorders (clinico-pharmacological research)].

    PubMed

    Aleksandrovskiĭ, Iu A; Bobkov, Iu G; Neznamov, G G; Serebriakova, T V; Boĭko, S S

    1988-01-01

    In a series of 130 patients with asthenic conditions related to borderline forms of neuro-mental disturbances the authors compared clinico-pharmacological action of the actoprotector bemitil with that of nootropic drugs (piracetam and piridotol). The treatment with bemitil was either continuous or intermittent, being conducted according to the scheme elaborated in the course of the study. Bemitil proved to be more effective than piracetam and piriditol in relation to its influence on the manifestations of the asthenic symptom complex in general. Its application was characterized by a faster onset of the therapeutic effect and a peculiar mild psychostimulating action, primarily manifested in the impact on obligate manifestations of the asthenic disorders. The degree of the psychotropic action of the drug was found to be subject to changes depending on the scheme of its use.

  1. Agonist- and subunit-dependent potentiation of glutamate receptors by a nootropic drug aniracetam.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, K; Takeuchi, T; Ozawa, S

    1992-11-01

    GluR1 and GluR2 cDNAs encoding non-NMDA subtypes of glutamate receptor were isolated from a rat brain cDNA library by Boulter et al. (Science, 249 (1990) 1033-1037). Functional receptors activated by kainate, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) and glutamate were expressed in Xenopus oocytes injected with GluR1, GluR2 or a mixture of GluR1 and GluR2 RNAs. In GluR1-expressed oocytes, 1 mM aniracetam potentiated AMPA-induced currents by 99 +/- 10% (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 5) and glutamate-induced currents by 140 +/- 8% (n = 4), but little affected kainate-induced currents. Aniracetam was effective from a concentration of 0.1 mM, and it exhibited more conspicuous effects with the increase of the dose. In oocytes injected with GluR1 plus GluR2 RNAs, aniracetam more markedly potentiated current responses to AMPA and glutamate than those in oocytes injected with GluR1 RNA alone. For example, 1 mM aniracetam potentiated AMPA-induced currents by 396 +/- 76% (n = 4) and glutamate-induced currents by 970 +/- 65% (n = 5) in oocytes injected with 10% GluR1 and 90% GluR2 RNAs. In these oocytes, however, the potentiation of kainate-induced currents by 1 mM aniracetam was only 8 +/- 5% (n = 4). Thus, we conclude that the potentiation of the AMPA/kainate receptor by aniracetam depends on both species of agonists and subunit composition of the receptor.

  2. Piracetam and piracetam-like drugs: from basic science to novel clinical applications to CNS disorders.

    PubMed

    Malykh, Andrei G; Sadaie, M Reza

    2010-02-12

    There is an increasing interest in nootropic drugs for the treatment of CNS disorders. Since the last meta-analysis of the clinical efficacy of piracetam, more information has accumulated. The primary objective of this systematic survey is to evaluate the clinical outcomes as well as the scientific literature relating to the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, mechanism of action, dosing, toxicology and adverse effects of marketed and investigational drugs. The major focus of the literature search was on articles demonstrating evidence-based clinical investigations during the past 10 years for the following therapeutic categories of CNS disorders: (i) cognition/memory; (ii) epilepsy and seizure; (iii) neurodegenerative diseases; (iv) stroke/ischaemia; and (v) stress and anxiety. In this article, piracetam-like compounds are divided into three subgroups based on their chemical structures, known efficacy and intended clinical uses. Subgroup 1 drugs include piracetam, oxiracetam, aniracetam, pramiracetam and phenylpiracetam, which have been used in humans and some of which are available as dietary supplements. Of these, oxiracetam and aniracetam are no longer in clinical use. Pramiracetam reportedly improved cognitive deficits associated with traumatic brain injuries. Although piracetam exhibited no long-term benefits for the treatment of mild cognitive impairments, recent studies demonstrated its neuroprotective effect when used during coronary bypass surgery. It was also effective in the treatment of cognitive disorders of cerebrovascular and traumatic origins; however, its overall effect on lowering depression and anxiety was higher than improving memory. As add-on therapy, it appears to benefit individuals with myoclonus epilepsy and tardive dyskinesia. Phenylpiracetam is more potent than piracetam and is used for a wider range of indications. In combination with a vasodilator drug, piracetam appeared to have an additive beneficial effect on various

  3. Quantitative determination of vinpocetine in dietary supplements

    PubMed Central

    French, John M. T.; King, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    Current United States regulatory policies allow for the addition of pharmacologically active substances in dietary supplements if derived from a botanical source. The inclusion of certain nootropic drugs, such as vinpocetine, in dietary supplements has recently come under scrutiny due to the lack of defined dosage parameters and yet unproven short- and long-term benefits and risks to human health. This study quantified the concentration of vinpocetine in several commercially available dietary supplements and found that a highly variable range of 0.6–5.1 mg/serving was present across the tested products, with most products providing no specification of vinpocetine concentrations. PMID:27319129

  4. Study of the deposition process of vinpocetine on the surface of porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenshin, A. S.; Polkovnikova, Yu. A.; Seredin, P. V.

    Currently the most prospective way in pharmacotherapy is the obtaining of nanoparticles involving pharmaceutical substances. Application of porous inorganic materials on the basis of silicon is among the main features in solving of this problem. The present work is concerned with the problem of the deposition of pharmaceutical drug with nootropic activity - vinpocetine - into porous silicon. Silicon nanoparticles were obtained by electrochemical anodic etching of Si plates. The process of vinpocetine deposition was studied in dependence of the deposition time. As a result of the investigations it was found that infrared transmission spectra of porous silicon with the deposited vinpocetine revealed the absorption bands characteristic of vinpocetine substance.

  5. DrugBank: a knowledgebase for drugs, drug actions and drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Wishart, David S.; Knox, Craig; Guo, An Chi; Cheng, Dean; Shrivastava, Savita; Tzur, Dan; Gautam, Bijaya; Hassanali, Murtaza

    2008-01-01

    DrugBank is a richly annotated resource that combines detailed drug data with comprehensive drug target and drug action information. Since its first release in 2006, DrugBank has been widely used to facilitate in silico drug target discovery, drug design, drug docking or screening, drug metabolism prediction, drug interaction prediction and general pharmaceutical education. The latest version of DrugBank (release 2.0) has been expanded significantly over the previous release. With ∼4900 drug entries, it now contains 60% more FDA-approved small molecule and biotech drugs including 10% more ‘experimental’ drugs. Significantly, more protein target data has also been added to the database, with the latest version of DrugBank containing three times as many non-redundant protein or drug target sequences as before (1565 versus 524). Each DrugCard entry now contains more than 100 data fields with half of the information being devoted to drug/chemical data and the other half devoted to pharmacological, pharmacogenomic and molecular biological data. A number of new data fields, including food–drug interactions, drug–drug interactions and experimental ADME data have been added in response to numerous user requests. DrugBank has also significantly improved the power and simplicity of its structure query and text query searches. DrugBank is available at http://www.drugbank.ca PMID:18048412

  6. Neurite outgrowth of murine cerebellar granule cells can be enhanced by aniracetam with or without alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA).

    PubMed

    Fushiki, S; Matsumoto, K; Nagata, A

    1995-10-27

    To assess the neurotrophic effects of a nootropic drug, aniracetam, we studied neurite extension of mouse cerebellar granule cells in culture with low or with high K+ under different combinations of drugs and then immunohistochemically stained the cells with an antibody against L1, a neural cell adhesion molecule on cerebellar granule cells. Quantitative analyses using parameters of the total neurite length, maximal neurite length and number of branches disclosed that aniracetam, in the presence of high K+ and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA), significantly enhanced neurite extension of cultured granule neurons. Aniracetam alone also stimulated neurite extension of cerebellar granule cells at a longer period of culture with low K+ showing a bell-shaped dose response curve with maximal effects at 10 microM. Aniracetam may influence remodeling of the neural network after injury.

  7. [STUDYING SOME PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF NEW 3-HYDROXYPYRIDINE DERIVATIVE].

    PubMed

    Yasnetsov, V V; Tsublova, E G; Yasnetsov, Vic V; Skachilova, S Ya; Karsanova, S K; Ivanov, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    It was established that a new 3-hydroxypyridine (3-HP) derivative, 2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine L-aspartate (3-HP), in small doses (1 and 5 mg/kg) increased physical performance in treadmill and swimming tests on rats. The new substance showed greater or equal effects compared to the reference actoprotector drugs metaprot and ladasten in much higher doses. The gluconeogenesis inhibitor tryptophan significantly (74 ± 5%, p < 0.01) prevented this stimulatory effect of 3-HPA in the treadmill test on rats. 3-HPA at a higher dose (30 mg/kg) had marked antiamnesic effect on various models of amnesia in mice. It was more effective than reference drugs mexidol (another 3-HP derivative) in a dose of 30 mg/kg and nootropic drug piracetam in a dose of 200 mg/kg, but had equal effect with these drugs in doses of 50 and 800 mg/kg, respectively. 3-HPA (30 mg/kg per day) had neuroprotective effect in rats with brain ischemia and decreased the neurologic deficiency more effectively than mexidol (50 mg/kg per day).

  8. Probable Nootropicinduced Psychiatric Adverse Effects: A Series of Four Cases

    PubMed Central

    Ajaltouni, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The misuse of nootropics—any substance that may alter, improve, or augment cognitive performance, mainly through the stimulation or inhibition of certain neurotransmitters—may potentially be dangerous and deleterious to the human brain, and certain individuals with a history of mental or substance use disorders might be particularly vulnerable to their adverse effects. We describe four cases of probable nootropic-induced psychiatric adverse effects to illustrate this theory. To the best of our knowledge this has not been previously reported in the formal medical literature. We briefly describe the most common classes of nootropics, including their postulated or proven methods of actions, their desired effects, and their adverse side effects, and provide a brief discussion of the cases. Our objective is to raise awareness among physicians in general and psychiatrists and addiction specialists in particular of the potentially dangerous phenomenon of unsupervised nootropic use among young adults who may be especially vulnerable to nootropics’ negative effects. PMID:27222762

  9. The effect of Bacopa monnieri on gene expression levels in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Leung, How-Wing; Foo, Gabriel; Banumurthy, Gokulakrishna; Chai, Xiaoran; Ghosh, Sujoy; Mitra-Ganguli, Tora; VanDongen, Antonius M J

    2017-01-01

    Bacopa monnieri is a plant used as a nootropic in Ayurveda, a 5000-year-old system of traditional Indian medicine. Although both animal and clinical studies supported its role as a memory enhancer, the molecular and cellular mechanism underlying Bacopa's nootropic action are not understood. In this study, we used deep sequencing (RNA-Seq) to identify the transcriptome changes upon Bacopa treatment on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. We identified several genes whose expression levels were regulated by Bacopa. Biostatistical analysis of the RNA-Seq data identified biological pathways and molecular functions that were regulated by Bacopa, including regulation of mRNA translation and transmembrane transport, responses to oxidative stress and protein misfolding. Pathway analysis using the Ingenuity platform suggested that Bacopa may protect against brain damage and improve brain development. These newly identified molecular and cellular determinants may contribute to the nootropic action of Bacopa and open up a new direction of investigation into its mechanism of action.

  10. The effect of Bacopa monnieri on gene expression levels in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Gabriel; Banumurthy, Gokulakrishna; Chai, Xiaoran; Ghosh, Sujoy

    2017-01-01

    Bacopa monnieri is a plant used as a nootropic in Ayurveda, a 5000-year-old system of traditional Indian medicine. Although both animal and clinical studies supported its role as a memory enhancer, the molecular and cellular mechanism underlying Bacopa’s nootropic action are not understood. In this study, we used deep sequencing (RNA-Seq) to identify the transcriptome changes upon Bacopa treatment on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. We identified several genes whose expression levels were regulated by Bacopa. Biostatistical analysis of the RNA-Seq data identified biological pathways and molecular functions that were regulated by Bacopa, including regulation of mRNA translation and transmembrane transport, responses to oxidative stress and protein misfolding. Pathway analysis using the Ingenuity platform suggested that Bacopa may protect against brain damage and improve brain development. These newly identified molecular and cellular determinants may contribute to the nootropic action of Bacopa and open up a new direction of investigation into its mechanism of action. PMID:28832626

  11. Aniracetam does not alter cognitive and affective behavior in adult C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Elston, Thomas W; Pandian, Ashvini; Smith, Gregory D; Holley, Andrew J; Gao, Nanjing; Lugo, Joaquin N

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing community of individuals who self-administer the nootropic aniracetam for its purported cognitive enhancing effects. Aniracetam is believed to be therapeutically useful for enhancing cognition, alleviating anxiety, and treating various neurodegenerative conditions. Physiologically, aniracetam enhances both glutamatergic neurotransmission and long-term potentiation. Previous studies of aniracetam have demonstrated the cognition-restoring effects of acute administration in different models of disease. No previous studies have explored the effects of aniracetam in healthy subjects. We investigated whether daily 50 mg/kg oral administration improves cognitive performance in naïve C57BL/6J mice in a variety of aspects of cognitive behavior. We measured spatial learning in the Morris water maze test; associative learning in the fear conditioning test; motor learning in the accelerating rotarod test; and odor discrimination. We also measured locomotion in the open field test, anxiety through the elevated plus maze test and by measuring time in the center of the open field test. We measured repetitive behavior through the marble burying test. We detected no significant differences between the naive, placebo, and experimental groups across all measures. Despite several studies demonstrating efficacy in impaired subjects, our findings suggest that aniracetam does not alter behavior in normal healthy mice. This study is timely in light of the growing community of healthy humans self-administering nootropic drugs.

  12. Aniracetam Does Not Alter Cognitive and Affective Behavior in Adult C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Elston, Thomas W.; Pandian, Ashvini; Smith, Gregory D.; Holley, Andrew J.; Gao, Nanjing; Lugo, Joaquin N.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing community of individuals who self-administer the nootropic aniracetam for its purported cognitive enhancing effects. Aniracetam is believed to be therapeutically useful for enhancing cognition, alleviating anxiety, and treating various neurodegenerative conditions. Physiologically, aniracetam enhances both glutamatergic neurotransmission and long-term potentiation. Previous studies of aniracetam have demonstrated the cognition-restoring effects of acute administration in different models of disease. No previous studies have explored the effects of aniracetam in healthy subjects. We investigated whether daily 50 mg/kg oral administration improves cognitive performance in naïve C57BL/6J mice in a variety of aspects of cognitive behavior. We measured spatial learning in the Morris water maze test; associative learning in the fear conditioning test; motor learning in the accelerating rotarod test; and odor discrimination. We also measured locomotion in the open field test, anxiety through the elevated plus maze test and by measuring time in the center of the open field test. We measured repetitive behavior through the marble burying test. We detected no significant differences between the naive, placebo, and experimental groups across all measures. Despite several studies demonstrating efficacy in impaired subjects, our findings suggest that aniracetam does not alter behavior in normal healthy mice. This study is timely in light of the growing community of healthy humans self-administering nootropic drugs. PMID:25099639

  13. Cognition enhancers between treating and doping the mind.

    PubMed

    Lanni, Cristina; Lenzken, Silvia C; Pascale, Alessia; Del Vecchio, Igor; Racchi, Marco; Pistoia, Francesca; Govoni, Stefano

    2008-03-01

    Memory, attention and creativity represent three different cognitive domains, which are interconnected and contribute the "mental performance" of an individual. Modern neuroscience has investigated some of the neuronal circuits and of the neurotransmitters and molecular events underlying the above-mentioned cognitive functions. Within this renewed reference context, some of the properties of the components of the remedies to increase mental performance have been studied and validated in experimental models and, to date, these substances are named "smart drugs", "memory enhancing drugs" or "nootropic drugs" (from the Greek root noos for mind and tropein for toward). Recently pharmaceutical industries are increasingly focusing on the research for potential substances in this field: several "smart drugs" are in clinical trials and could be on the market in few years. Furthermore, a quick survey from Internet highlights the presence of a great variety of both approved and non-approved drugs, with some of them addressing to only medical and others to performance-oriented use, opening room to some reflections or speculations from scientific and ethical points of view. In order to point out the effect of nootropic drugs on cognition of healthy people, we reviewed the literature on drug enhancement of various cognitive functions, including memory, attention and creativity. As their simplest, memory is regarded as the ability to remember events or learned material, attention is the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on one aspect while ignoring distracters and creativity could be described as the ability to create products or ideas which are original and which possess a social usefulness. Reports from literature reveal that some medications currently available to patients with memory disorders may also increase performances in healthy people and that drugs designed for psychiatric disorders can also be used to enhance certain mental functions. However, the long

  14. Herb-drug, food-drug, nutrient-drug, and drug-drug interactions: mechanisms involved and their medical implications.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Janina Maria

    2002-06-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and iatrogenic diseases have been identified as significant factors responsible for patient morbidity and mortality. Significant studies on drug metabolism in humans have been published during the last few years, offering a deeper comprehension of the mechanisms underlying adverse drug reactions and interactions. More understanding of these mechanisms, and of recent advances in laboratory technology, can help to evaluate potential drug interactions when drugs are prescribed concurrently. Increasing knowledge of interindividual variation in drug breakdown capacity and recent findings concerning the influence of environment, diet, nutrients, and herbal products can be used to reduce ADRs and iatrogenic diseases. Reviewed data suggest that drug treatment should be increasingly custom tailored to suit the individual patient and that appropriately co-prescribed diet and herbal remedies, could increase drug efficacy and lessen drug toxicity. This review focuses mainly on recently published research material. The cytochrome p450 enzymes, their role in metabolism, and their mechanisms of action are reviewed, and their role in drug-drug interactions are discussed. Drug-food and drug-herb interactions have garnered attention. Interdisciplinary communication among medical herbalists, medical doctors, and dietetic experts needs to be improved and encouraged. Internet resources for obtaining current information regarding drug-drug, drug-herb, and drug-nutrient interactions are provided.

  15. Aniracetam (Ro 13-5057) in the treatment of senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT): results of a placebo controlled multicentre clinical study.

    PubMed

    Senin, U; Abate, G; Fieschi, C; Gori, G; Guala, A; Marini, G; Villardita, C; Parnetti, L

    1991-12-01

    One hundred and nine elderly patients suffering from mild to moderate cognitive impairment fulfilling NINCDS-ADRDA criteria for probable dementia of the Alzheimer type were treated for 6 months with a new nootropic drug, aniracetam (Ro 13-5057) in a double-blind randomized study versus placebo. The two treatment groups were comparable at baseline for demographic and behaviourial parameters and symptomatology. Patients underwent clinical, behaviourial and psychometric evaluation every other month. The aniracetam group differed significantly from the placebo group by the end of the study and also showed a statistically significant improvement versus baseline in the psychobehavioural parameters, while in the placebo group a steady deterioration was observed. Tolerability to aniracetam was excellent.

  16. Drugs@FDA: FDA Approved Drug Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cosmetics Tobacco Products Home Drug Databases Drugs@FDA Drugs@FDA: FDA Approved Drug Products Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Download Drugs@FDA Express for free Search by Drug Name, Active Ingredient, or Application Number Enter at ...

  17. Nuclear Receptors in Drug Metabolism, Drug Response and Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Chandra; Zuniga, Baltazar; Song, Chung Seog; Jiang, Shoulei; Cropper, Jodie; Park, Sulgi; Chatterjee, Bandana

    2016-01-01

    Orally delivered small-molecule therapeutics are metabolized in the liver and intestine by phase I and phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), and transport proteins coordinate drug influx (phase 0) and drug/drug-metabolite efflux (phase III). Genes involved in drug metabolism and disposition are induced by xenobiotic-activated nuclear receptors (NRs), i.e. PXR (pregnane X receptor) and CAR (constitutive androstane receptor), and by the 1α, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3-activated vitamin D receptor (VDR), due to transactivation of xenobiotic-response elements (XREs) present in phase 0-III genes. Additional NRs, like HNF4-α, FXR, LXR-α play important roles in drug metabolism in certain settings, such as in relation to cholesterol and bile acid metabolism. The phase I enzymes CYP3A4/A5, CYP2D6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2A6, CYP2J2, and CYP2E1 metabolize >90% of all prescription drugs, and phase II conjugation of hydrophilic functional groups (with/without phase I modification) facilitates drug clearance. The conjugation step is mediated by broad-specificity transferases like UGTs, SULTs, GSTs. This review delves into our current understanding of PXR/CAR/VDR-mediated regulation of DME and transporter expression, as well as effects of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and epigenome (specified by promoter methylation, histone modification, microRNAs, long non coding RNAs) on the expression of PXR/CAR/VDR and phase 0-III mediators, and their impacts on variable drug response. Therapeutic agents that target epigenetic regulation and the molecular basis and consequences (overdosing, underdosing, or beneficial outcome) of drug-drug/drug-food/drug-herb interactions are also discussed. Precision medicine requires understanding of a drug’s impact on DME and transporter activity and their NR-regulated expression in order to achieve optimal drug efficacy without adverse drug reactions. In future drug screening, new tools such as humanized mouse models and

  18. Piracetam and vinpocetine ameliorate rotenone-induced Parkinsonism in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zaitone, Sawsan A.; Abo-Elmatty, Dina M.; Elshazly, Shimaa M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of the nootropic drugs, piracetam (PIR) and vinpocetine (VIN), in rotenone-induced Parkinsonism in rats. Materials and Methods: Sixty male rats were divided into 6 groups of 10 rats each. The groups were administered vehicle, control (rotenone, 1.5 mg/kg/48 h/6 doses, s.c.), PIR (100 and 200 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and VIN (3 and 6 mg/kg/day, p.o.). The motor performance of the rats was evaluated by the open field and pole test. Striatal dopamine level, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were assayed. Histopathological study of the substantia nigra was also done. Results: Results showed that rotenone-treated rats exhibited bradykinesia and motor impairment in the open-field test. In addition, GSH level was decreased whereas MDA and TNF-α increased in striata of rotenone-treated rats as compared to vehicle-treated rats. Marked degeneration of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) neurons and depletion of striatal dopamine was also observed in the rotenone-treated rats. Treatment with PIR or VIN significantly reversed the locomotor deficits and increased striatal dopamine level. Treatment with VIN significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the striatal level of MDA and GSH in comparison to rotenone group whereas TNF-α production was found to be significantly decreased in PIR group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: VIN and PIR exhibit neuroprotective activity in rotenone-induced Parkinsonism. Hence, these nootropic agents may be considered as possible candidates in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. PMID:23248410

  19. Piracetam and vinpocetine ameliorate rotenone-induced Parkinsonism in rats.

    PubMed

    Zaitone, Sawsan A; Abo-Elmatty, Dina M; Elshazly, Shimaa M

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of the nootropic drugs, piracetam (PIR) and vinpocetine (VIN), in rotenone-induced Parkinsonism in rats. Sixty male rats were divided into 6 groups of 10 rats each. The groups were administered vehicle, control (rotenone, 1.5 mg/kg/48 h/6 doses, s.c.), PIR (100 and 200 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and VIN (3 and 6 mg/kg/day, p.o.). The motor performance of the rats was evaluated by the open field and pole test. Striatal dopamine level, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were assayed. Histopathological study of the substantia nigra was also done. Results showed that rotenone-treated rats exhibited bradykinesia and motor impairment in the open-field test. In addition, GSH level was decreased whereas MDA and TNF-α increased in striata of rotenone-treated rats as compared to vehicle-treated rats. Marked degeneration of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) neurons and depletion of striatal dopamine was also observed in the rotenone-treated rats. Treatment with PIR or VIN significantly reversed the locomotor deficits and increased striatal dopamine level. Treatment with VIN significantly (P<0.05) reduced the striatal level of MDA and GSH in comparison to rotenone group whereas TNF-α production was found to be significantly decreased in PIR group (P<0.05). VIN and PIR exhibit neuroprotective activity in rotenone-induced Parkinsonism. Hence, these nootropic agents may be considered as possible candidates in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  20. Personality, Drug Preference, Drug Use, and Drug Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Marc; Boyer, Bret; Kumar, V. K.; Prout, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between drug preference, drug use, drug availability, and personality among individuals (n = 100) in treatment for substance abuse in an effort to replicate the results of an earlier study (Feldman, Kumar, Angelini, Pekala, & Porter, 2007) designed to test prediction derived from Eysenck's (1957, 1967)…

  1. Potential drug-drug interactions between anti-cancer agents and community pharmacy dispensed drugs.

    PubMed

    Voll, Marsha L; Yap, Kim D; Terpstra, Wim E; Crul, Mirjam

    2010-10-01

    To identify the prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions between hospital pharmacy dispensed anti-cancer agents and community pharmacy dispensed drugs. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on the haematology/oncology department of the internal medicine ward in a large teaching hospital in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Prescription data from the last 100 patients treated with anti-cancer agents were obtained from Paracelsus, the chemotherapy prescribing system in the hospital. The community pharmacy dispensed drugs of these patients were obtained by using OZIS, a system that allows regionally linked pharmacies to call up active medication on any patient. Both medication lists were manually screened for potential drug-drug interactions by using several information sources on interactions, e.g. Pubmed, the Flockhart P450 table, Micromedex and Dutch reference books. Prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions between anti-cancer agents provided by the hospital pharmacy and drugs dispensed by the community pharmacy. Ninety-one patients were included in the study. A total of 31 potential drug-drug interactions were found in 16 patients, of which 15 interactions were clinically relevant and would have required an intervention. Of these interactions 1 had a level of severity ≥ D, meaning the potential drug-drug interaction could lead to long lasting or permanent damage, or even death. The majority of the interactions requiring an intervention (67%) had a considerable level of evidence (≥ 2) and were based on well-documented case reports or controlled interaction studies. Most of the potential drug-drug interactions involved the antiretroviral drugs (40%), proton pump inhibitors (20%) and antibiotics (20%). The anti-cancer drug most involved in the drug-drug interactions is methotrexate (33%). This study reveals a high prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions between anti-cancer agents provided by the hospital pharmacy and drugs dispensed by the

  2. Potential drug-drug and drug-disease interactions in well-functioning community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, J T; Perera, S; Newman, A B; Thorpe, J M; Donohue, J M; Simonsick, E M; Shorr, R I; Bauer, D C; Marcum, Z A

    2017-04-01

    There are few studies examining both drug-drug and drug-disease interactions in older adults. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of potential drug-drug and drug-disease interactions and associated factors in community-dwelling older adults. This cross-sectional study included 3055 adults aged 70-79 without mobility limitations at their baseline visit in the Health Aging and Body Composition Study conducted in the communities of Pittsburgh PA and Memphis TN, USA. The outcome factors were potential drug-drug and drug-disease interactions as per the application of explicit criteria drawn from a number of sources to self-reported prescription and non-prescription medication use. Over one-third of participants had at least one type of interaction. Approximately one quarter (25·1%) had evidence of had one or more drug-drug interactions. Nearly 10·7% of the participants had a drug-drug interaction that involved a non-prescription medication. % The most common drug-drug interaction was non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) affecting antihypertensives. Additionally, 16·0% had a potential drug-disease interaction with 3·7% participants having one involving non-prescription medications. The most common drug-disease interaction was aspirin/NSAID use in those with history of peptic ulcer disease without gastroprotection. Over one-third (34·0%) had at least one type of drug interaction. Each prescription medication increased the odds of having at least one type of drug interaction by 35-40% [drug-drug interaction adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1·35, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1·27-1·42; drug-disease interaction AOR = 1·30; CI = 1·21-1·40; and both AOR = 1·45; CI = 1·34-1·57]. A prior hospitalization increased the odds of having at least one type of drug interaction by 49-84% compared with those not hospitalized (drug-drug interaction AOR = 1·49, 95% CI = 1·11-2·01; drug-disease interaction AOR = 1·69, CI = 1·15-2

  3. Drug metabolism and hypersensitivity reactions to drugs.

    PubMed

    Agúndez, José A G; Mayorga, Cristobalina; García-Martin, Elena

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present review was to discuss recent advances supporting a role of drug metabolism, and particularly of the generation of reactive metabolites, in hypersensitivity reactions to drugs. The development of novel mass-spectrometry procedures has allowed the identification of reactive metabolites from drugs known to be involved in hypersensitivity reactions, including amoxicillin and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs such as aspirin, diclofenac or metamizole. Recent studies demonstrated that reactive metabolites may efficiently bind plasma proteins, thus suggesting that drug metabolites, rather than - or in addition to - parent drugs, may elicit an immune response. As drug metabolic profiles are often determined by variability in the genes coding for drug-metabolizing enzymes, it is conceivable that an altered drug metabolism may predispose to the generation of reactive drug metabolites and hence to hypersensitivity reactions. These findings support the potential for the use of pharmacogenomics tests in hypersensitivity (type B) adverse reactions, in addition to the well known utility of these tests in type A adverse reactions. Growing evidence supports a link between genetically determined drug metabolism, altered metabolic profiles, generation of highly reactive metabolites and haptenization. Additional research is required to developing robust biomarkers for drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions.

  4. Attitudes towards drug legalization among drug users.

    PubMed

    Trevino, Roberto A; Richard, Alan J

    2002-01-01

    Research shows that support for legalization of drugs varies significantly among different sociodemographic and political groups. Yet there is little research examining the degree of support for legalization of drugs among drug users. This paper examines how frequency and type of drug use affect the support for legalization of drugs after adjusting for the effects of political affiliation and sociodemographic characteristics. A sample of 188 drug users and non-drug users were asked whether they would support the legalization of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. Respondents reported their use of marijuana, crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines during the previous 30 days. Support for legalization of drugs was analyzed by estimating three separate logistic regressions. The results showed that the support for the legalization of drugs depended on the definition of "drug user" and the type of drug. In general, however, the results showed that marijuana users were more likely to support legalizing marijuana, but they were less likely to support the legalization of cocaine and heroin. On the other hand, users of crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines were more likely to support legalizing all drugs including cocaine and heroin.

  5. Drug-food and drug-nutrient interactions.

    PubMed

    Roe, D A

    1985-07-01

    This article analyzes the modifying effects on absorption rates, disposition, and therapeutic effects when drugs interact with both nutrient and non-nutrient food and beverage components. A classification of drug-nutrient interactions is presented and a profile of risk factors is developed. Drug absorption can be affected by food components through changes in gastric emptying time, filling of the gastrointestinal tract, adsorption of drug onto food components, interaction of drug with a food substance, changes in splanchnic blood flow, and bile release. Drugs may be metabolized faster when patients are on high protein-low carbohydrate diets. Adverse drug reactions can be precipitated by intake with specific foods or alcoholic beverages. In addition, certain drugs can produce nutritional toxicity or deficiencies. For example, the vitamin B6 requirements of oral contraceptive (OC) users are increased over those of nonusers; however, the subclinical deficiencies of folacin, riboflavin, and vitamins B12 and C that were associated with pre-1974 OCs have been lessened by recent reductions in OC's estrogen content. The major risk factor for drug-nutrient and drug-alcohol incompatibilities is lack of awareness on the part of the patient of the circumstances in which such a reaction is likely to occur. Patients with diagnoses of depression, anxiety-depression, phobic anxiety, Hodgkin's disease, tuberculosis, bacterial enteritis, giadiasis, trichomonal vaginitis, dermatophytosis, and alcoholism are at greatest risk. High-risk groups for drug-induced nutritional deficiencies are the elderly, alcoholics, pregnant women, epileptics, and cancer patients.

  6. Clustering drug-drug interaction networks with energy model layouts: community analysis and drug repurposing.

    PubMed

    Udrescu, Lucreţia; Sbârcea, Laura; Topîrceanu, Alexandru; Iovanovici, Alexandru; Kurunczi, Ludovic; Bogdan, Paul; Udrescu, Mihai

    2016-09-07

    Analyzing drug-drug interactions may unravel previously unknown drug action patterns, leading to the development of new drug discovery tools. We present a new approach to analyzing drug-drug interaction networks, based on clustering and topological community detection techniques that are specific to complex network science. Our methodology uncovers functional drug categories along with the intricate relationships between them. Using modularity-based and energy-model layout community detection algorithms, we link the network clusters to 9 relevant pharmacological properties. Out of the 1141 drugs from the DrugBank 4.1 database, our extensive literature survey and cross-checking with other databases such as Drugs.com, RxList, and DrugBank 4.3 confirm the predicted properties for 85% of the drugs. As such, we argue that network analysis offers a high-level grasp on a wide area of pharmacological aspects, indicating possible unaccounted interactions and missing pharmacological properties that can lead to drug repositioning for the 15% drugs which seem to be inconsistent with the predicted property. Also, by using network centralities, we can rank drugs according to their interaction potential for both simple and complex multi-pathology therapies. Moreover, our clustering approach can be extended for applications such as analyzing drug-target interactions or phenotyping patients in personalized medicine applications.

  7. Clustering drug-drug interaction networks with energy model layouts: community analysis and drug repurposing

    PubMed Central

    Udrescu, Lucreţia; Sbârcea, Laura; Topîrceanu, Alexandru; Iovanovici, Alexandru; Kurunczi, Ludovic; Bogdan, Paul; Udrescu, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing drug-drug interactions may unravel previously unknown drug action patterns, leading to the development of new drug discovery tools. We present a new approach to analyzing drug-drug interaction networks, based on clustering and topological community detection techniques that are specific to complex network science. Our methodology uncovers functional drug categories along with the intricate relationships between them. Using modularity-based and energy-model layout community detection algorithms, we link the network clusters to 9 relevant pharmacological properties. Out of the 1141 drugs from the DrugBank 4.1 database, our extensive literature survey and cross-checking with other databases such as Drugs.com, RxList, and DrugBank 4.3 confirm the predicted properties for 85% of the drugs. As such, we argue that network analysis offers a high-level grasp on a wide area of pharmacological aspects, indicating possible unaccounted interactions and missing pharmacological properties that can lead to drug repositioning for the 15% drugs which seem to be inconsistent with the predicted property. Also, by using network centralities, we can rank drugs according to their interaction potential for both simple and complex multi-pathology therapies. Moreover, our clustering approach can be extended for applications such as analyzing drug-target interactions or phenotyping patients in personalized medicine applications. PMID:27599720

  8. Exploring drug-target interaction networks of illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Atreya, Ravi V; Sun, Jingchun; Zhao, Zhongming

    2013-01-01

    Drug addiction is a complex and chronic mental disease, which places a large burden on the American healthcare system due to its negative effects on patients and their families. Recently, network pharmacology is emerging as a promising approach to drug discovery by integrating network biology and polypharmacology, allowing for a deeper understanding of molecular mechanisms of drug actions at the systems level. This study seeks to apply this approach for investigation of illicit drugs and their targets in order to elucidate their interaction patterns and potential secondary drugs that can aid future research and clinical care. In this study, we extracted 188 illicit substances and their related information from the DrugBank database. The data process revealed 86 illicit drugs targeting a total of 73 unique human genes, which forms an illicit drug-target network. Compared to the full drug-target network from DrugBank, illicit drugs and their target genes tend to cluster together and form four subnetworks, corresponding to four major medication categories: depressants, stimulants, analgesics, and steroids. External analysis of Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) second sublevel classifications confirmed that the illicit drugs have neurological functions or act via mechanisms of stimulants, opioids, and steroids. To further explore other drugs potentially having associations with illicit drugs, we constructed an illicit-extended drug-target network by adding the drugs that have the same target(s) as illicit drugs to the illicit drug-target network. After analyzing the degree and betweenness of the network, we identified hubs and bridge nodes, which might play important roles in the development and treatment of drug addiction. Among them, 49 non-illicit drugs might have potential to be used to treat addiction or have addictive effects, including some results that are supported by previous studies. This study presents the first systematic review of the network

  9. Exploring drug-target interaction networks of illicit drugs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Drug addiction is a complex and chronic mental disease, which places a large burden on the American healthcare system due to its negative effects on patients and their families. Recently, network pharmacology is emerging as a promising approach to drug discovery by integrating network biology and polypharmacology, allowing for a deeper understanding of molecular mechanisms of drug actions at the systems level. This study seeks to apply this approach for investigation of illicit drugs and their targets in order to elucidate their interaction patterns and potential secondary drugs that can aid future research and clinical care. Results In this study, we extracted 188 illicit substances and their related information from the DrugBank database. The data process revealed 86 illicit drugs targeting a total of 73 unique human genes, which forms an illicit drug-target network. Compared to the full drug-target network from DrugBank, illicit drugs and their target genes tend to cluster together and form four subnetworks, corresponding to four major medication categories: depressants, stimulants, analgesics, and steroids. External analysis of Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) second sublevel classifications confirmed that the illicit drugs have neurological functions or act via mechanisms of stimulants, opioids, and steroids. To further explore other drugs potentially having associations with illicit drugs, we constructed an illicit-extended drug-target network by adding the drugs that have the same target(s) as illicit drugs to the illicit drug-target network. After analyzing the degree and betweenness of the network, we identified hubs and bridge nodes, which might play important roles in the development and treatment of drug addiction. Among them, 49 non-illicit drugs might have potential to be used to treat addiction or have addictive effects, including some results that are supported by previous studies. Conclusions This study presents the first systematic

  10. Drug-Path: a database for drug-induced pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hui; Cui, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Some databases for drug-associated pathways have been built and are publicly available. However, the pathways curated in most of these databases are drug-action or drug-metabolism pathways. In recent years, high-throughput technologies such as microarray and RNA-sequencing have produced lots of drug-induced gene expression profiles. Interestingly, drug-induced gene expression profile frequently show distinct patterns, indicating that drugs normally induce the activation or repression of distinct pathways. Therefore, these pathways contribute to study the mechanisms of drugs and drug-repurposing. Here, we present Drug-Path, a database of drug-induced pathways, which was generated by KEGG pathway enrichment analysis for drug-induced upregulated genes and downregulated genes based on drug-induced gene expression datasets in Connectivity Map. Drug-Path provides user-friendly interfaces to retrieve, visualize and download the drug-induced pathway data in the database. In addition, the genes deregulated by a given drug are highlighted in the pathways. All data were organized using SQLite. The web site was implemented using Django, a Python web framework. Finally, we believe that this database will be useful for related researches. Database URL: http://www.cuilab.cn/drugpath PMID:26130661

  11. Drug-Path: a database for drug-induced pathways.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hui; Qiu, Chengxiang; Cui, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Some databases for drug-associated pathways have been built and are publicly available. However, the pathways curated in most of these databases are drug-action or drug-metabolism pathways. In recent years, high-throughput technologies such as microarray and RNA-sequencing have produced lots of drug-induced gene expression profiles. Interestingly, drug-induced gene expression profile frequently show distinct patterns, indicating that drugs normally induce the activation or repression of distinct pathways. Therefore, these pathways contribute to study the mechanisms of drugs and drug-repurposing. Here, we present Drug-Path, a database of drug-induced pathways, which was generated by KEGG pathway enrichment analysis for drug-induced upregulated genes and downregulated genes based on drug-induced gene expression datasets in Connectivity Map. Drug-Path provides user-friendly interfaces to retrieve, visualize and download the drug-induced pathway data in the database. In addition, the genes deregulated by a given drug are highlighted in the pathways. All data were organized using SQLite. The web site was implemented using Django, a Python web framework. Finally, we believe that this database will be useful for related researches. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Drug-disease and drug-drug interactions: systematic examination of recommendations in 12 UK national clinical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Dumbreck, Siobhan; Flynn, Angela; Nairn, Moray; Wilson, Martin; Treweek, Shaun; Mercer, Stewart W; Alderson, Phil; Thompson, Alex; Payne, Katherine; Guthrie, Bruce

    2015-03-11

    To identify the number of drug-disease and drug-drug interactions for exemplar index conditions within National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) clinical guidelines. Systematic identification, quantification, and classification of potentially serious drug-disease and drug-drug interactions for drugs recommended by NICE clinical guidelines for type 2 diabetes, heart failure, and depression in relation to 11 other common conditions and drugs recommended by NICE guidelines for those conditions. NICE clinical guidelines for type 2 diabetes, heart failure, and depression Potentially serious drug-disease and drug-drug interactions. Following recommendations for prescription in 12 national clinical guidelines would result in several potentially serious drug interactions. There were 32 potentially serious drug-disease interactions between drugs recommended in the guideline for type 2 diabetes and the 11 other conditions compared with six for drugs recommended in the guideline for depression and 10 for drugs recommended in the guideline for heart failure. Of these drug-disease interactions, 27 (84%) in the type 2 diabetes guideline and all of those in the two other guidelines were between the recommended drug and chronic kidney disease. More potentially serious drug-drug interactions were identified between drugs recommended by guidelines for each of the three index conditions and drugs recommended by the guidelines for the 11 other conditions: 133 drug-drug interactions for drugs recommended in the type 2 diabetes guideline, 89 for depression, and 111 for heart failure. Few of these drug-disease or drug-drug interactions were highlighted in the guidelines for the three index conditions. Drug-disease interactions were relatively uncommon with the exception of interactions when a patient also has chronic kidney disease. Guideline developers could consider a more systematic approach regarding the potential for drug-disease interactions, based on epidemiological

  13. Drug-Target Kinetics in Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Tonge, Peter J

    2018-01-17

    The development of therapies for the treatment of neurological cancer faces a number of major challenges including the synthesis of small molecule agents that can penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Given the likelihood that in many cases drug exposure will be lower in the CNS than in systemic circulation, it follows that strategies should be employed that can sustain target engagement at low drug concentration. Time dependent target occupancy is a function of both the drug and target concentration as well as the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters that describe the binding reaction coordinate, and sustained target occupancy can be achieved through structural modifications that increase target (re)binding and/or that decrease the rate of drug dissociation. The discovery and deployment of compounds with optimized kinetic effects requires information on the structure-kinetic relationships that modulate the kinetics of binding, and the molecular factors that control the translation of drug-target kinetics to time-dependent drug activity in the disease state. This Review first introduces the potential benefits of drug-target kinetics, such as the ability to delineate both thermodynamic and kinetic selectivity, and then describes factors, such as target vulnerability, that impact the utility of kinetic selectivity. The Review concludes with a description of a mechanistic PK/PD model that integrates drug-target kinetics into predictions of drug activity.

  14. Workplace drug testing and worker drug use.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Christopher S

    2007-04-01

    To examine the nature and extent of the association between workplace drug testing and worker drug use. Repeated cross-sections from the 2000 to 2001 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) and the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Multivariate logistic regression models of the likelihood of marijuana use are estimated as a function of several different workplace drug policies, including drug testing. Specific questions about penalty severity and the likelihood of detection are used to further evaluate the nature of the association. Individuals whose employers perform drug tests are significantly less likely to report past month marijuana use, even after controlling for a wide array of worker and job characteristics. However, large negative associations are also found for variables indicating whether a firm has drug education, an employee assistance program, or a simple written policy about substance use. Accounting for these other workplace characteristics reduces-but does not eliminate-the testing differential. Frequent testing and severe penalties reduce the likelihood that workers use marijuana. Previous studies have interpreted the large negative correlation between workplace drug testing and employee substance use as representing a causal deterrent effect of drug testing. Our results using more comprehensive data suggest that these estimates have been slightly overstated due to omitted variables bias. The overall pattern of results remains largely consistent with the hypothesis that workplace drug testing deters worker drug use.

  15. Workplace Drug Testing and Worker Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Christopher S

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine the nature and extent of the association between workplace drug testing and worker drug use. Data Sources Repeated cross-sections from the 2000 to 2001 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) and the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Study Design Multivariate logistic regression models of the likelihood of marijuana use are estimated as a function of several different workplace drug policies, including drug testing. Specific questions about penalty severity and the likelihood of detection are used to further evaluate the nature of the association. Principal Findings Individuals whose employers perform drug tests are significantly less likely to report past month marijuana use, even after controlling for a wide array of worker and job characteristics. However, large negative associations are also found for variables indicating whether a firm has drug education, an employee assistance program, or a simple written policy about substance use. Accounting for these other workplace characteristics reduces—but does not eliminate—the testing differential. Frequent testing and severe penalties reduce the likelihood that workers use marijuana. Conclusions Previous studies have interpreted the large negative correlation between workplace drug testing and employee substance use as representing a causal deterrent effect of drug testing. Our results using more comprehensive data suggest that these estimates have been slightly overstated due to omitted variables bias. The overall pattern of results remains largely consistent with the hypothesis that workplace drug testing deters worker drug use. PMID:17362218

  16. Pharmacodynamics and common drug-drug interactions of the third-generation antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Stefanović, Srđan; Janković, Slobodan M; Novaković, Milan; Milosavljević, Marko; Folić, Marko

    2018-02-01

    Anticonvulsants that belong to the third generation are considered as 'newer' antiepileptic drugs, including: eslicarbazepine acetate, lacosamide, perampanel, brivaracetam, rufinamide and stiripentol. Areas covered: This article reviews pharmacodynamics (i.e. mechanisms of action) and clinically relevant drug-drug interactions of the third-generation antiepileptic drugs. Expert opinion: Newer antiepileptic drugs have mechanisms of action which are not shared with the first and the second generation anticonvulsants, like inhibition of neurotransmitters release, blocking receptors for excitatory amino acids and new ways of sodium channel inactivation. New mechanisms of action increase chances of controlling forms of epilepsy resistant to older anticonvulsants. Important advantage of the third-generation anticonvulsants could be their little propensity for interactions with both antiepileptic and other drugs observed until now, making prescribing much easier and safer. However, this may change with new studies specifically designed to discover drug-drug interactions. Although the third-generation antiepileptic drugs enlarged therapeutic palette against epilepsy, 20-30% of patients with epilepsy is still treatment-resistant and need new pharmacological approach. There is great need to explore all molecular targets that may directly or indirectly be involved in generation of seizures, so a number of candidate compounds for even newer anticonvulsants could be generated.

  17. Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets.

    PubMed

    Lam, Max; Trampush, Joey W; Yu, Jin; Knowles, Emma; Davies, Gail; Liewald, David C; Starr, John M; Djurovic, Srdjan; Melle, Ingrid; Sundet, Kjetil; Christoforou, Andrea; Reinvang, Ivar; DeRosse, Pamela; Lundervold, Astri J; Steen, Vidar M; Espeseth, Thomas; Räikkönen, Katri; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Eriksson, Johan G; Giegling, Ina; Konte, Bettina; Roussos, Panos; Giakoumaki, Stella; Burdick, Katherine E; Payton, Antony; Ollier, William; Chiba-Falek, Ornit; Attix, Deborah K; Need, Anna C; Cirulli, Elizabeth T; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Stefanis, Nikos C; Avramopoulos, Dimitrios; Hatzimanolis, Alex; Arking, Dan E; Smyrnis, Nikolaos; Bilder, Robert M; Freimer, Nelson A; Cannon, Tyrone D; London, Edythe; Poldrack, Russell A; Sabb, Fred W; Congdon, Eliza; Conley, Emily Drabant; Scult, Matthew A; Dickinson, Dwight; Straub, Richard E; Donohoe, Gary; Morris, Derek; Corvin, Aiden; Gill, Michael; Hariri, Ahmad R; Weinberger, Daniel R; Pendleton, Neil; Bitsios, Panos; Rujescu, Dan; Lahti, Jari; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Keller, Matthew C; Andreassen, Ole A; Deary, Ian J; Glahn, David C; Malhotra, Anil K; Lencz, Todd

    2017-11-28

    Here, we present a large (n = 107,207) genome-wide association study (GWAS) of general cognitive ability ("g"), further enhanced by combining results with a large-scale GWAS of educational attainment. We identified 70 independent genomic loci associated with general cognitive ability. Results showed significant enrichment for genes causing Mendelian disorders with an intellectual disability phenotype. Competitive pathway analysis implicated the biological processes of neurogenesis and synaptic regulation, as well as the gene targets of two pharmacologic agents: cinnarizine, a T-type calcium channel blocker, and LY97241, a potassium channel inhibitor. Transcriptome-wide and epigenome-wide analysis revealed that the implicated loci were enriched for genes expressed across all brain regions (most strongly in the cerebellum). Enrichment was exclusive to genes expressed in neurons but not oligodendrocytes or astrocytes. Finally, we report genetic correlations between cognitive ability and disparate phenotypes including psychiatric disorders, several autoimmune disorders, longevity, and maternal age at first birth. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Indolealkylamines: biotransformations and potential drug-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ai-Ming

    2008-06-01

    Indolealkylamine (IAA) drugs are 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT or serotonin) analogs that mainly act on the serotonin system. Some IAAs are clinically utilized for antimigraine therapy, whereas other substances are notable as drugs of abuse. In the clinical evaluation of antimigraine triptan drugs, studies on their biotransformations and pharmacokinetics would facilitate the understanding and prevention of unwanted drug-drug interactions (DDIs). A stable, principal metabolite of an IAA drug of abuse could serve as a useful biomarker in assessing intoxication of the IAA substance. Studies on the metabolism of IAA drugs of abuse including lysergic acid amides, tryptamine derivatives and beta-carbolines are therefore emerging. An important role for polymorphic cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) in the metabolism of IAA drugs of abuse has been revealed by recent studies, suggesting that variations in IAA metabolism, pharmaco- or toxicokinetics and dynamics can arise from distinct CYP2D6 status, and CYP2D6 polymorphism may represent an additional risk factor in the use of these IAA drugs. Furthermore, DDIs with IAA agents could occur additively at the pharmaco/toxicokinetic and dynamic levels, leading to severe or even fatal serotonin toxicity. In this review, the metabolism and potential DDIs of these therapeutic and abused IAA drugs are described.

  19. Data-driven prediction of adverse drug reactions induced by drug drug interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-08

    currently on the market and for which drug-protein interaction information is available . These predictions are publicly accessible at http://avoid...associated with these ADRs via DDIs. We made the predictions publicly available via internet access. Keywords: Drug-drug interactions, Adverse drug reactions...ˆDeceased Department of Defense Biotechnology High Performance Computing Software Applications Institute, Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research

  20. 6-mercaptopurine and daunorubicin double drug liposomes-preparation, drug-drug interaction and characterization.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Vineet; Paul, Manash K; Mukhopadhyay, Anup K

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses and investigates the dual incorporation of daunorubicin (DR) and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) in liposomes for better chemotherapy. These drugs are potential candidates for interaction due to the quinone (H acceptor) and hydroxyl (H donor) groups on DR and 6-MP, respectively. Interactions between the two drugs in solution were monitored by UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. Interaction between the two drugs inside the liposomes was evaluated by HPLC (for 6-MP) and by fluorescence spectroscopy (for daunorubicin) after phospholipase-mediated liposome lysis. Our results provide evidence for the lack of interaction between the two drugs in solution and in liposomes. The entrapment efficiencies of 6-MP in the neutral Phosphatidyl choline (PC):Cholesterol (Chol):: 2:1 and anionic PC:Chol:Cardiolipin (CL) :: 4:5:1 single and double drug liposomes were found to be 0.4% and 1.5% (on average), respectively. The entrapment efficiencies of DR in the neutral and anionic double drug liposomes were found to be 55% and 31%, respectively. The corresponding entrapment of daunorubicin in the single drug liposomes was found to be 62% on average. Our thin layer chromatography (TLC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results suggest stability of lipid and liposomes, thus pointing plausible existence of double drug liposomes. Cytotoxicity experiments were performed by using both single drug and double drug liposomes. By comparing the results of phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy, it was observed that the double drug liposomes were internalized in the jurkat and Hut78 (highly resistant cell line) leukemia cells as viewed by the fluorescence of daunorubicin. The cytotoxicity was dose dependent and had shown a synergistic effect when double drug liposome was used.

  1. Multifunctional High Drug Loading Nanocarriers for Cancer Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Erlei

    2011-12-01

    Most anticancer drugs have poor water-solubility, rapid blood clearance, low tumor-selectivity and severe systemic toxicity to healthy tissues. Thus, polymeric nanocarriers have been widely explored for anticancer drugs to solve these problems. However, polymer nanocarriers developed to date still suffer drawbacks including low drug loading contents, premature drug release, slow cellular internalization, slow intracellular drug release and thereby low therapeutic efficiency in cancer thermotherapy. Accordingly, in this dissertation, functional nanocapsules and nanoparticles including high drug loading liposome-like nanocapsules, high drug loading phospholipid-mimic nanocapsules with fast intracellular drug release, high drug loading charge-reversal nanocapsules, TAT based long blood circulation nanoparticles and charge-reversal nuclear targeted nanoparticles are designed and synthesized. These functional carriers have advantages such as high drug loading contents without premature drug release, fast cellular internalization and intracellular drug release, nuclear targeted delivery and long blood circulation. As a result, all these drug carriers show much higher in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer activities.

  2. Interesting asian plants: their compounds and effects on electrophysiology and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2011-10-01

    There have been numerous non-scientific reports on the behavioural effects of Asian plants in humans who consumed these plants wholly or part thereof. Knowledge passed from generation to generation informs us of plants that increase effort and stamina, such as during paddy planting after the ingestion of Mitragyna speciosa Korth (ketum) as a tea supplement. Centella asiatica and Myristica fragrans are used as herbs to improve memory and to treat epilepsy, respectively. Zizyphus mauritiana is used to treat headache and burn pain, acts as an antitussive, and reduces rigor mortis immediately after death. These plants, which have been identified to exhibit analgaesic, muscle-relaxing, and nootropic effects, may contain important bio-compounds for medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical research in Malaysia. The electrophysiology properties of these plants and their effects on epilepsy, behaviour, and pain will lead Malaysia to future new drug discoveries.

  3. [Multicomponent antithrombotic effect of the neuroprotective prolyl dipeptide GVS-111 and its major metabolite cyclo-L-prolylglycine].

    PubMed

    Ostrovskaia, R U; Liapina, L A; Pastorova, V E; Mirzoev, T Kh; Gudasheva, T A; Seredenin, S B; Ashmarin, I P

    2002-01-01

    The experiments in vivo showed that the new nootropic prolyl-containing GVS-111 produces an antithrombotic effect, influencing various stages of the blood coagulation process. GVS-111 exhibits anticoagulant and fibrinolytic properties and enhances fibrin destabilization by reducing the XIIIa factor activity. These effects are manifested upon both intraperitoneal (1 mg/kg) and peroral (10 mg/kg) administration of GVS-111 (in both cases, a single daily treatment over a period of 10 days). The same effects (anticoagulant, fibrinolytic, antifibrin-stabilizing) were observed in in vitro experiments with both GVS-111 (10(-3)-10(-6) M) and its main metabolite cyclo-L-prolylglycine (up to 10(-10) M). In addition, the latter metabolite exhibited an antiaggregant effect. The antithrombotic activity of GVS-111, together with previously established neuroprotector properties, low toxicity, and the absence of complications, makes this compound a promising antistroke drug.

  4. Drug Interactions and Antiretroviral Drug Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Foy, Matthew; Sperati, C. John; Lucas, Gregory M.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the improved longevity afforded by combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV-infected individuals are developing several non-AIDS related comorbid conditions. Consequently, medical management of the HIV-infected population is increasingly complex, with a growing list of potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs). This article reviews some of the most relevant and emerging potential interactions between antiretroviral medications and other agents. The most common DDIs are those involving protease inhibitors or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors which alter the cytochrome P450 enzyme system and/or drug transporters such as p-glycoprotein. Of note are the new agents for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. These new classes of drugs and others drugs which are increasingly used in this patient population represent a significant challenge with regard to achieving the goals of effective HIV suppression and minimization of drug-related toxicities. Awareness of DDIs and a multidisciplinary approach are imperative in reaching these goals. PMID:24950731

  5. Drug Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss of consciousness Other conditions resulting from drug allergy Less common drug allergy reactions occur days or ... you take the drug. Drugs commonly linked to allergies Although any drug can cause an allergic reaction, ...

  6. Therapeutic drug monitoring of antimetabolic cytotoxic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Lennard, L

    1999-01-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring is not routinely used for cytotoxic agents. There are several reasons, but one major drawback is the lack of established therapeutic concentration ranges. Combination chemotherapy makes the establishment of therapeutic ranges for individual drugs difficult, the concentration-effect relationship for a single drug may not be the same as that when the drug is used in a drug combination. Pharmacokinetic optimization protocols for many classes of cytotoxic compounds exist in specialized centres, and some of these protocols are now part of large multicentre trials. Nonetheless, methotrexate is the only agent which is routinely monitored in most treatment centres. An additional factor, especially in antimetabolite therapy, is the existence of pharmacogenetic enzymes which play a major role in drug metabolism. Monitoring of therapy could include assay of phenotypic enzyme activities or genotype in addition to, or instead of, the more traditional measurement of parent drug or drug metabolites. The cytotoxic activities of mercaptopurine and fluorouracil are regulated by thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), respectively. Lack of TPMT functional activity produces life-threatening mercaptopurine myelotoxicity. Very low DPD activity reduces fluorouracil breakdown producing severe cytotoxicity. These pharmacogenetic enzymes can influence the bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, toxicity and efficacy of their substrate drugs. PMID:10190647

  7. Drug-drug interactions between anti-retroviral therapies and drugs of abuse in HIV systems.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Rao, P S S; Earla, Ravindra; Kumar, Anil

    2015-03-01

    Substance abuse is a common problem among HIV-infected individuals. Importantly, addictions as well as moderate use of alcohol, smoking, or other illicit drugs have been identified as major reasons for non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV patients. The literature also suggests a decrease in the response to ART among HIV patients who use these substances, leading to failure to achieve optimal virological response and increased disease progression. This review discusses the challenges with adherence to ART as well as observed drug interactions and known toxicities with major drugs of abuse, such as alcohol, smoking, methamphetamine, cocaine, marijuana, and opioids. The lack of adherence and drug interactions potentially lead to decreased efficacy of ART drugs and increased ART, and drugs of abuse-mediated toxicity. As CYP is the common pathway in metabolizing both ART and drugs of abuse, we discuss the possible involvement of CYP pathways in such drug interactions. We acknowledge that further studies focusing on common metabolic pathways involving CYP and advance research in this area would help to potentially develop novel/alternate interventions and drug dose/regimen adjustments to improve medication outcomes in HIV patients who consume drugs of abuse.

  8. How drug-like are 'ugly' drugs: do drug-likeness metrics predict ADME behaviour in humans?

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Timothy J; Macdonald, Simon J F

    2014-04-01

    Using a published drug-likeness score based on the calculated physicochemical properties of marketed oral drugs (quantitative estimate of drug-likeness, QED) and published human data, high-scoring and low-scoring drugs were compared to determine how well the score correlated with their actual pharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles in humans. Drugs with high QED scores exhibit higher absorption and bioavailability, are administered at lower doses and have fewer drug-drug interaction warnings, P-glycoprotein interactions and absorption issues due to a food effect. By contrast, the high-scoring drugs exhibit similar behaviour to low-scoring drugs with respect to free fraction in plasma, extent of gut-wall metabolism, first-pass hepatic extraction, elimination half-life, clearance, volume of distribution and frequency of dosing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A drug's life: the pathway to drug approval.

    PubMed

    Keng, Michael K; Wenzell, Candice M; Sekeres, Mikkael A

    2013-10-01

    In the United States, drugs and medical devices are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A drug must undergo rigorous testing prior to marketing to and medical use by the general public. The FDA grants marketing approval for drug products based on a comprehensive review of safety and efficacy data. This review article explains the history behind the establishment of the FDA and examines the historical legislation and approval processes for drugs, specifically in the fields of medical oncology and hematology. The agents imatinib (Gleevec, Novartis) and decitabine (Dacogen, Eisai) are used to illustrate both the current FDA regulatory process-specifically the orphan drug designation and accelerated approval process-and why decitabine failed to gain an indication for acute myeloid leukemia. The purpose and construct of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee are also discussed, along with examples of 2 renal cell cancer drugs-axitinib (Inlyta, Pfizer) and tivozanib-that used progression-free survival as an endpoint. Regulatory approval of oncology drugs is the cornerstone of the development of new treatment agents and modalities, which lead to improvements in the standard of cancer care. The future landscape of drug development and regulatory approval will be influenced by the new breakthrough therapy designation, and choice of drug will be guided by genomic insights.

  10. Detecting drug-drug interactions using a database for spontaneous adverse drug reactions: an example with diuretics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed

    van Puijenbroek, E P; Egberts, A C; Heerdink, E R; Leufkens, H G

    2000-12-01

    Drug-drug interactions are relatively rarely reported to spontaneous reporting systems (SRSs) for adverse drug reactions. For this reason, the traditional approach for analysing SRS has major limitations for the detection of drug-drug interactions. We developed a method that may enable signalling of these possible interactions, which are often not explicitly reported, utilising reports of adverse drug reactions in data sets of SRS. As an example, the influence of concomitant use of diuretics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on symptoms indicating a decreased efficacy of diuretics was examined using reports received by the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Foundation Lareb. Reports received between 1 January 1990 and 1 January 1999 of patients older than 50 years were included in the study. Cases were defined as reports with symptoms indicating a decreased efficacy of diuretics, non-cases as all other reports. Exposure categories were the use of NSAIDs or diuretics versus the use of neither of these drugs. The influence of the combined use of both drugs was examined using logistic regression analysis. The odds ratio of the statistical interaction term of the combined use of both drugs was increased [adjusted odds ratio 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-3.7], which may indicate an enhanced effect of concomitant drug use. The findings illustrate that spontaneous reporting systems have a potential for signal detection and the analysis of possible drug-drug interactions. The method described may enable a more active approach in the detection of drug-drug interactions after marketing.

  11. Drug delivery strategies for poorly water-soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Fahr, Alfred; Liu, Xiangli

    2007-07-01

    The drug candidates coming from combinatorial chemistry research and/or the drugs selected from biologically based high-throughput screening are quite often very lipophilic, as these drug candidates exert their pharmacological action at or in biological membranes or membrane-associated proteins. This challenges drug delivery institutions in industry or academia to develop carrier systems for the optimal oral and parenteral administration of these drugs. To mention only a few of the challenges for this class of drugs: their oral bioavailability is poor and highly variable, and carrier development for parenteral administration is faced with problems, including the massive use of surface-active excipients for solubilisation. Formulation specialists are confronted with an even higher level of difficulties when these drugs have to be delivered site specifically. This article addresses the emerging formulation designs for delivering of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  12. Аnticonvulsant effects of citicoline and diazepam at their combined application on model of the acute generalized convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazole in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, L V; Karpova, M N; Zinkovski, K A; Klishina, N Yu

    2016-01-01

    Studying of efficiency of the combined application of the citicoline possessing nootropic and anticonvulsive action and antiepileptic drug of diazepam on the acute generalized convulsions (AGC) caused by a convulsant pentylentetrazole (PTZ). Experiments are executed on the male Wistar rats (n = 68) weighing 160-190 g on the AGС model caused by of PTZ in a dose of 80 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.). For studying of efficiency of the combined use of drugs determined the minimum anticonvulsive action of a citicoline (Tserakson, «Nicomed Ferrer Internacional, S.A.») and diazepam (Relanium, Warsaw pharmaceutical plant of Polf AO, Warsaw, Poland). For this citicoline were administered i.p. in doses 500 and 300 mg/kg 1 hour before the PTZ and diazepam - in doses of 0,5 and 0,25 mg/kg 30 min before administration of PTZ. Control animals were injected with saline to the same extent and under the same experimental conditions. It is shown that the combined administration of a citicoline and diazepam in minimum active doses (300 and 0.25 mg/kg respectively), increases anticonvulsive properties of both drugs. The combined administration of citicoline with diazepam in minimally active doses enhances anticonvulsant properties of both drugs, thereby reducing the risk of development of side effects. In addition, the research may serve as experimental justification for the use of drugs in case of convulsions for the purpose beneficial effect on cognitive function and delays of progressing of neurodegenerative processes.

  13. e-Drug3D: 3D structure collections dedicated to drug repurposing and fragment-based drug design.

    PubMed

    Pihan, Emilie; Colliandre, Lionel; Guichou, Jean-François; Douguet, Dominique

    2012-06-01

    In the drug discovery field, new uses for old drugs, selective optimization of side activities and fragment-based drug design (FBDD) have proved to be successful alternatives to high-throughput screening. e-Drug3D is a database of 3D chemical structures of drugs that provides several collections of ready-to-screen SD files of drugs and commercial drug fragments. They are natural inputs in studies dedicated to drug repurposing and FBDD. e-Drug3D collections are freely available at http://chemoinfo.ipmc.cnrs.fr/e-drug3d.html either for download or for direct in silico web-based screenings.

  14. ABC multidrug transporters: target for modulation of drug pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Béatrice; Van Bambeke, Françoise

    2011-05-01

    Nine proteins of the ABC superfamily (P-glycoprotein, 7 MRPs and BCRP) are involved in multidrug transport. Being localised at the surface of endothelial or epithelial cells, they expel drugs back to the external medium (if located at the apical side [P-glycoprotein, BCRP, MRP2, MRP4 in the kidney]) or to the blood (if located at the basolateral side [MRP1, MRP3, MRP4, MRP5]), modulating thereby their absorption, distribution, and elimination. In the CNS, most transporters are oriented to expel drugs to the blood. Transporters also cooperate with Phase I/Phase II metabolism enzymes by eliminating drug metabolites. Their major features are (i) their capacity to recognize drugs belonging to unrelated pharmacological classes, and (ii) their redundancy, a single molecule being possibly substrate for different transporters. This ensures an efficient protection of the body against invasion by xenobiotics. Competition for transport is now characterized as a mechanism of interaction between co-administered drugs, one molecule limiting the transport of the other, potentially affecting bioavailability, distribution, and/or elimination. Again, this mechanism reinforces drug interactions mediated by cytochrome P450 inhibition, as many substrates of P-glycoprotein and CYP3A4 are common. Induction of the expression of genes coding for MDR transporters is another mechanism of drug interaction, which could affect all drug substrates of the up-regulated transporter. Overexpression of MDR transporters confers resistance to anticancer agents and other therapies. All together, these data justify why studying drug active transport should be part of the evaluation of new drugs, as recently recommended by the FDA.

  15. The DrugAge database of aging-related drugs.

    PubMed

    Barardo, Diogo; Thornton, Daniel; Thoppil, Harikrishnan; Walsh, Michael; Sharifi, Samim; Ferreira, Susana; Anžič, Andreja; Fernandes, Maria; Monteiro, Patrick; Grum, Tjaša; Cordeiro, Rui; De-Souza, Evandro Araújo; Budovsky, Arie; Araujo, Natali; Gruber, Jan; Petrascheck, Michael; Fraifeld, Vadim E; Zhavoronkov, Alexander; Moskalev, Alexey; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2017-06-01

    Aging is a major worldwide medical challenge. Not surprisingly, identifying drugs and compounds that extend lifespan in model organisms is a growing research area. Here, we present DrugAge (http://genomics.senescence.info/drugs/), a curated database of lifespan-extending drugs and compounds. At the time of writing, DrugAge contains 1316 entries featuring 418 different compounds from studies across 27 model organisms, including worms, flies, yeast and mice. Data were manually curated from 324 publications. Using drug-gene interaction data, we also performed a functional enrichment analysis of targets of lifespan-extending drugs. Enriched terms include various functional categories related to glutathione and antioxidant activity, ion transport and metabolic processes. In addition, we found a modest but significant overlap between targets of lifespan-extending drugs and known aging-related genes, suggesting that some but not most aging-related pathways have been targeted pharmacologically in longevity studies. DrugAge is freely available online for the scientific community and will be an important resource for biogerontologists. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. DrugBank 4.0: shedding new light on drug metabolism.

    PubMed

    Law, Vivian; Knox, Craig; Djoumbou, Yannick; Jewison, Tim; Guo, An Chi; Liu, Yifeng; Maciejewski, Adam; Arndt, David; Wilson, Michael; Neveu, Vanessa; Tang, Alexandra; Gabriel, Geraldine; Ly, Carol; Adamjee, Sakina; Dame, Zerihun T; Han, Beomsoo; Zhou, You; Wishart, David S

    2014-01-01

    DrugBank (http://www.drugbank.ca) is a comprehensive online database containing extensive biochemical and pharmacological information about drugs, their mechanisms and their targets. Since it was first described in 2006, DrugBank has rapidly evolved, both in response to user requests and in response to changing trends in drug research and development. Previous versions of DrugBank have been widely used to facilitate drug and in silico drug target discovery. The latest update, DrugBank 4.0, has been further expanded to contain data on drug metabolism, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) and other kinds of quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) information. These enhancements are intended to facilitate research in xenobiotic metabolism (both prediction and characterization), pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and drug design/discovery. For this release, >1200 drug metabolites (including their structures, names, activity, abundance and other detailed data) have been added along with >1300 drug metabolism reactions (including metabolizing enzymes and reaction types) and dozens of drug metabolism pathways. Another 30 predicted or measured ADMET parameters have been added to each DrugCard, bringing the average number of quantitative ADMET values for Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs close to 40. Referential nuclear magnetic resonance and MS spectra have been added for almost 400 drugs as well as spectral and mass matching tools to facilitate compound identification. This expanded collection of drug information is complemented by a number of new or improved search tools, including one that provides a simple analyses of drug-target, -enzyme and -transporter associations to provide insight on drug-drug interactions.

  17. Identifying Drug-Drug Interactions by Data Mining: A Pilot Study of Warfarin-Associated Drug Interactions.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Peter Wæde; Clemmensen, Line; Sehested, Thomas S G; Fosbøl, Emil Loldrup; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Køber, Lars; Gislason, Gunnar H; Andersson, Charlotte

    2016-11-01

    Knowledge about drug-drug interactions commonly arises from preclinical trials, from adverse drug reports, or based on knowledge of mechanisms of action. Our aim was to investigate whether drug-drug interactions were discoverable without prior hypotheses using data mining. We focused on warfarin-drug interactions as the prototype. We analyzed altered prothrombin time (measured as international normalized ratio [INR]) after initiation of a novel prescription in previously INR-stable warfarin-treated patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Data sets were retrieved from clinical work. Random forest (a machine-learning method) was set up to predict altered INR levels after novel prescriptions. The most important drug groups from the analysis were further investigated using logistic regression in a new data set. Two hundred and twenty drug groups were analyzed in 61 190 novel prescriptions. We rediscovered 2 drug groups having known interactions (β-lactamase-resistant penicillins [dicloxacillin] and carboxamide derivatives) and 3 antithrombotic/anticoagulant agents (platelet aggregation inhibitors excluding heparin, direct thrombin inhibitors [dabigatran etexilate], and heparins) causing decreasing INR. Six drug groups with known interactions were rediscovered causing increasing INR (antiarrhythmics class III [amiodarone], other opioids [tramadol], glucocorticoids, triazole derivatives, and combinations of penicillins, including β-lactamase inhibitors) and two had a known interaction in a closely related drug group (oripavine derivatives [buprenorphine] and natural opium alkaloids). Antipropulsives had an unknown signal of increasing INR. We were able to identify known warfarin-drug interactions without a prior hypothesis using clinical registries. Additionally, we discovered a few potentially novel interactions. This opens up for the use of data mining to discover unknown drug-drug interactions in cardiovascular medicine. © 2016 American Heart Association

  18. Designer drugs: the evolving science of drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Wanke, L A; DuBose, R F

    1998-07-01

    Drug discovery and design are fundamental to drug development. Until recently, most drugs were discovered through random screening or developed through molecular modification. New technologies are revolutionizing this phase of drug development. Rational drug design, using powerful computers and computational chemistry and employing X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship analysis, is creating highly specific, biologically active molecules by virtual reality modeling. Sophisticated screening technologies are eliminating all but the most active lead compounds. These new technologies promise more efficacious, safe, and cost-effective medications, while minimizing drug development time and maximizing profits.

  19. Drug expenditure and new drug introductions: the Swedish experience.

    PubMed

    Gerdtham, U G; Johannesson, M; Jönsson, B

    1993-09-01

    This article measures the impact of the switch to new and more expensive drugs on the aggregate drug expenditure (both prescription and nonprescription) in Sweden during the period 1974 to 1991, and also on the disaggregated expenditure for 3 medical areas: asthma, hypertension and peptic ulcer disease. During the period studied, nominal drug expenditure increased 6-fold. The retail price index of drugs and the number of prescribed drugs accounted for 51.6 and 5.8% of this increase, respectively. The remaining residual amount accounted for 42.6%. Since the price index of drugs increased more slowly than the overall net price index of goods and services, the relative price of drugs decreased dramatically by about 30%. This means that increases in prices of drugs cannot explain the increase in real inflation-adjusted drug expenditure. We also show that the residual increase can be partly explained by the introduction of new and more expensive drugs. It is therefore argued that economic evaluations which compare the extra costs induced by new drugs with the extra benefits should be undertaken to guide decisions about the prescription of new and more expensive drugs.

  20. Drug interactions between common illicit drugs and prescription therapies.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Wesley T; Stewart, David; Childress, Darrell

    2012-07-01

    The aim was to summarize the clinical literature on interactions between common illicit drugs and prescription therapies. Medline, Iowa Drug Information Service, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, EBSCO Academic Search Premier, and Google Scholar were searched from date of origin of database to March 2011. Search terms were cocaine, marijuana, cannabis, methamphetamine, amphetamine, ecstasy, N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, heroin, gamma-hydroxybutyrate, sodium oxybate, and combined with interactions, drug interactions, and drug-drug interactions. This review focuses on established clinical evidence. All applicable full-text English language articles and abstracts found were evaluated and included in the review as appropriate. The interactions of illicit drugs with prescription therapies have the ability to potentiate or attenuate the effects of both the illicit agent and/or the prescription therapeutic agent, which can lead to toxic effects or a reduction in the prescription agent's therapeutic activity. Most texts and databases focus on theoretical or probable interactions due to the kinetic properties of the drugs and do not fully explore the pharmacodynamic and clinical implications of these interactions. Clinical trials with coadministration of illicit drugs and prescription drugs are discussed along with case reports that demonstrate a potential interaction between agents. The illicit drugs discussed are cocaine, marijuana, amphetamines, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, heroin, and sodium oxybate. Although the use of illicit drugs is widespread, there are little experimental or clinical data regarding the effects of these agents on common prescription therapies. Potential drug interactions between illicit drugs and prescription drugs are described and evaluated on the Drug Interaction Probability Scale by Horn and Hansten.

  1. Design, Characterization, and Optimization of Controlled Drug Delivery System Containing Antibiotic Drug/s

    PubMed Central

    Shelate, Pragna; Dave, Divyang

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was design, characterization, and optimization of controlled drug delivery system containing antibiotic drug/s. Osmotic drug delivery system was chosen as controlled drug delivery system. The porous osmotic pump tablets were designed using Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken factorial design to find out the best formulation. For screening of three categories of polymers, six independent variables were chosen for Plackett-Burman design. Osmotic agent sodium chloride and microcrystalline cellulose, pore forming agent sodium lauryl sulphate and sucrose, and coating agent ethyl cellulose and cellulose acetate were chosen as independent variables. Optimization of osmotic tablets was done by Box-Behnken design by selecting three independent variables. Osmotic agent sodium chloride, pore forming agent sodium lauryl sulphate, and coating agent cellulose acetate were chosen as independent variables. The result of Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken design and ANOVA studies revealed that osmotic agent and pore former had significant effect on the drug release up to 12 hr. The observed independent variables were found to be very close to predicted values of most satisfactory formulation which demonstrates the feasibility of the optimization procedure in successful development of porous osmotic pump tablets containing antibiotic drug/s by using sodium chloride, sodium lauryl sulphate, and cellulose acetate as key excipients. PMID:27610247

  2. Intravascular Drug Release Kinetics Dictate Arterial Drug Deposition, Retention, and Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Brinda; Dooley, John F.; Kopia, Gregory; Edelman, Elazer R.

    2007-01-01

    Millions of patients worldwide have received drug-eluting stents to reduce their risk for in-stent restenosis. The efficacy and toxicity of these local therapeutics depend upon arterial drug deposition, distribution, and retention. To examine how administered dose and drug release kinetics control arterial drug uptake, a model was created using principles of computational fluid dynamics and transient drug diffusion-convection. The modeling predictions for drug elution were validated using empiric data from stented porcine coronary arteries. Inefficient, minimal arterial drug deposition was predicted when a bolus of drug was released and depleted within seconds. Month-long stent-based drug release efficiently delivered nearly continuous drug levels, but the slow rate of drug presentation limited arterial drug uptake. Uptake was only maximized when the rates of drug release and absorption matched, which occurred for hour-long drug release. Of the two possibly means for increasing the amount of drug on the stent, modulation of drug concentration potently impacts the magnitude of arterial drug deposition, while changes in coating drug mass affect duration of release. We demonstrate the importance of drug release kinetics and administered drug dose in governing arterial drug uptake and suggest novel drug delivery strategies for controlling spatio-temporal arterial drug distribution. PMID:17868948

  3. DrugBank 4.0: shedding new light on drug metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Law, Vivian; Knox, Craig; Djoumbou, Yannick; Jewison, Tim; Guo, An Chi; Liu, Yifeng; Maciejewski, Adam; Arndt, David; Wilson, Michael; Neveu, Vanessa; Tang, Alexandra; Gabriel, Geraldine; Ly, Carol; Adamjee, Sakina; Dame, Zerihun T.; Han, Beomsoo; Zhou, You; Wishart, David S.

    2014-01-01

    DrugBank (http://www.drugbank.ca) is a comprehensive online database containing extensive biochemical and pharmacological information about drugs, their mechanisms and their targets. Since it was first described in 2006, DrugBank has rapidly evolved, both in response to user requests and in response to changing trends in drug research and development. Previous versions of DrugBank have been widely used to facilitate drug and in silico drug target discovery. The latest update, DrugBank 4.0, has been further expanded to contain data on drug metabolism, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) and other kinds of quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) information. These enhancements are intended to facilitate research in xenobiotic metabolism (both prediction and characterization), pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and drug design/discovery. For this release, >1200 drug metabolites (including their structures, names, activity, abundance and other detailed data) have been added along with >1300 drug metabolism reactions (including metabolizing enzymes and reaction types) and dozens of drug metabolism pathways. Another 30 predicted or measured ADMET parameters have been added to each DrugCard, bringing the average number of quantitative ADMET values for Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs close to 40. Referential nuclear magnetic resonance and MS spectra have been added for almost 400 drugs as well as spectral and mass matching tools to facilitate compound identification. This expanded collection of drug information is complemented by a number of new or improved search tools, including one that provides a simple analyses of drug–target, –enzyme and –transporter associations to provide insight on drug–drug interactions. PMID:24203711

  4. 21 CFR 201.115 - New drugs or new animal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false New drugs or new animal drugs. 201.115 Section 201.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.115 New drugs or new animal...

  5. 21 CFR 201.115 - New drugs or new animal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false New drugs or new animal drugs. 201.115 Section 201.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.115 New drugs or new animal...

  6. 21 CFR 201.115 - New drugs or new animal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false New drugs or new animal drugs. 201.115 Section 201.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.115 New drugs or new animal...

  7. 21 CFR 201.115 - New drugs or new animal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false New drugs or new animal drugs. 201.115 Section 201.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.115 New drugs or new animal...

  8. 21 CFR 201.115 - New drugs or new animal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false New drugs or new animal drugs. 201.115 Section 201.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.115 New drugs or new animal...

  9. Influence of drug colour on perceived drug effects and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Tao, Da; Wang, Tieyan; Wang, Tieshan; Qu, Xingda

    2018-02-01

    A drug's physical characteristics, such as colour, could be factors influencing its therapeutic effects. It is not well understood whether people's expectations on drug effects and efficacy are affected by colour, especially among Chinese population. This study was conducted to examine people's expectations on drug effects and efficacy on the basis of drug colour, and to reveal possible gender differences in colour-related drug expectations. Participants (n = 224) were asked to classify seven single-coloured and six two-coloured capsules into one of four categories of drug effects, and to indicate the strength of drug efficacy. It is found that all the coloured capsules yielded non-chance distributions in classifications of drug effects, with six single-coloured and four two-coloured capsules associated with specific drug effects. Colour also conveyed differential strengths of drug efficacy in general and in relation to specific drug effects. There were gender differences in drug expectations for some colours and colour combinations. Practitioner Summary: Drug colour was found to have impacts on perceived drug effects and efficacy. The findings from the present study can be used by ergonomics practitioners to design appropriate drug colours in support of drug differentiation, therapeutic effects and medication adherence.

  10. Drug-drug interactions involving lysosomes: mechanisms and potential clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Logan, Randall; Funk, Ryan S; Axcell, Erick; Krise, Jeffrey P

    2012-08-01

    Many commercially available, weakly basic drugs have been shown to be lysosomotropic, meaning they are subject to extensive sequestration in lysosomes through an ion trapping-type mechanism. The extent of lysosomal trapping of a drug is an important therapeutic consideration because it can influence both activity and pharmacokinetic disposition. The administration of certain drugs can alter lysosomes such that their accumulation capacity for co-administered and/or secondarily administered drugs is altered. In this review the authors explore what is known regarding the mechanistic basis for drug-drug interactions involving lysosomes. Specifically, the authors address the influence of drugs on lysosomal pH, volume and lipid processing. Many drugs are known to extensively accumulate in lysosomes and significantly alter their structure and function; however, the therapeutic and toxicological implications of this remain controversial. The authors propose that drug-drug interactions involving lysosomes represent an important potential source of variability in drug activity and pharmacokinetics. Most evaluations of drug-drug interactions involving lysosomes have been performed in cultured cells and isolated tissues. More comprehensive in vivo evaluations are needed to fully explore the impact of this drug-drug interaction pathway on therapeutic outcomes.

  11. Drug Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

  12. A Drug-Centric View of Drug Development: How Drugs Spread from Disease to Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul

    2016-01-01

    Drugs are often seen as ancillary to the purpose of fighting diseases. Here an alternative view is proposed in which they occupy a spearheading role. In this view, drugs are technologies with an inherent therapeutic potential. Once created, they can spread from disease to disease independently of the drug creator’s original intentions. Through the analysis of extensive literature and clinical trial records, it can be observed that successful drugs follow a life cycle in which they are studied at an increasing rate, and for the treatment of an increasing number of diseases, leading to clinical advancement. Such initial growth, following a power law on average, has a degree of momentum, but eventually decelerates, leading to stagnation and decay. A network model can describe the propagation of drugs from disease to disease in which diseases communicate with each other by receiving and sending drugs. Within this model, some diseases appear more prone to influence other diseases than be influenced, and vice versa. Diseases can also be organized into a drug-centric disease taxonomy based on the drugs that each adopts. This taxonomy reflects not only biological similarities across diseases, but also the level of differentiation of existing therapies. In sum, this study shows that drugs can become contagious technologies playing a driving role in the fight against disease. By better understanding such dynamics, pharmaceutical developers may be able to manage drug projects more effectively. PMID:27124390

  13. A Drug-Centric View of Drug Development: How Drugs Spread from Disease to Disease.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul

    2016-04-01

    Drugs are often seen as ancillary to the purpose of fighting diseases. Here an alternative view is proposed in which they occupy a spearheading role. In this view, drugs are technologies with an inherent therapeutic potential. Once created, they can spread from disease to disease independently of the drug creator's original intentions. Through the analysis of extensive literature and clinical trial records, it can be observed that successful drugs follow a life cycle in which they are studied at an increasing rate, and for the treatment of an increasing number of diseases, leading to clinical advancement. Such initial growth, following a power law on average, has a degree of momentum, but eventually decelerates, leading to stagnation and decay. A network model can describe the propagation of drugs from disease to disease in which diseases communicate with each other by receiving and sending drugs. Within this model, some diseases appear more prone to influence other diseases than be influenced, and vice versa. Diseases can also be organized into a drug-centric disease taxonomy based on the drugs that each adopts. This taxonomy reflects not only biological similarities across diseases, but also the level of differentiation of existing therapies. In sum, this study shows that drugs can become contagious technologies playing a driving role in the fight against disease. By better understanding such dynamics, pharmaceutical developers may be able to manage drug projects more effectively.

  14. Club Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... uses. Other uses of these drugs are abuse. Club drugs are also sometimes used as "date rape" drugs, to make someone unable to say no to or fight back against sexual assault. Abusing these drugs can ...

  15. Drug Safety: Managing Multiple Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... you take the right pill at the right time. Resources To learn more about your drugs, visit: • www.ConsumerReportsHealth.org/BestBuyDrugs • www.medlineplus.gov This series is produced by Consumers Union and Consumer Reports ...

  16. Orphan drugs: trends and issues in drug development.

    PubMed

    Rana, Proteesh; Chawla, Shalini

    2018-04-12

    Research in rare diseases has contributed substantially toward the current understanding in the pathophysiology of the common diseases. However, medical needs of patients with rare diseases have always been neglected by the society and pharmaceutical industries based on their small numbers and unprofitability. The Orphan Drug Act (1983) was the first serious attempt to address the unmet medical needs for patients with rare diseases and to provide impetus for the pharmaceutical industry to promote orphan drug development. The process of drug development for rare diseases is no different from common diseases but involves significant cost and infrastructure. Further, certain aspect of drug research may not be feasible for the rare diseases. The drug-approving authority must exercise their scientific judgment and ensure due flexibility while evaluating data at various stages of orphan drug development. The emergence of patent cliff combined with the government incentives led the pharmaceutical industry to realize the good commercial prospects in developing an orphan drug despite the small market size. Indeed, many drugs that were given orphan designation ended up being blockbusters. The orphan drug market is projected to reach $178 billion by 2020, and the prospects of research and development in rare diseases appears to be quite promising and rewarding.

  17. Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs, including opioids Drug abuse also plays a role in many major social problems, such as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms ...

  18. Multi-target drugs: the trend of drug research and development.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jin-Jian; Pan, Wei; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2012-01-01

    Summarizing the status of drugs in the market and examining the trend of drug research and development is important in drug discovery. In this study, we compared the drug targets and the market sales of the new molecular entities approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration from January 2000 to December 2009. Two networks, namely, the target-target and drug-drug networks, have been set up using the network analysis tools. The multi-target drugs have much more potential, as shown by the network visualization and the market trends. We discussed the possible reasons and proposed the rational strategies for drug research and development in the future.

  19. Clinical Drug-Drug Pharmacokinetic Interaction Potential of Sucralfate with Other Drugs: Review and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sulochana, Suresh P; Syed, Muzeeb; Chandrasekar, Devaraj V; Mullangi, Ramesh; Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2016-10-01

    Sucralfate, a complex of aluminium hydroxide with sulfated sucrose, forms a strong gastrointestinal tract (GIT) mucosal barrier with excellent anti-ulcer property. Because sucralfate does not undergo any significant oral absorption, sucralfate resides in the GIT for a considerable length of time. The unabsorbed sucralfate may alter the pharmacokinetics of the oral drugs by impeding its absorption and reducing the oral bioavailability. Because of the increased use of sucralfate, it was important to provide a reappraisal of the published clinical drug-drug interaction studies of sucralfate with scores of drugs. This review covers several category of drugs such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, fluoroquinolones, histamine H2-receptor blockers, macrolides, anti-fungals, anti-diabetics, salicylic acid derivatives, steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and provides pharmacokinetic data summary along with study design, objectives and key remarks. While the loss of oral bioavailability was significant for the fluoroquinolone class, it generally varied for other classes of drugs, suggesting that impact of the co-administration of sucralfate is manageable in clinical situations. Given the technology advancement in formulation development, it may be in order feasible to develop appropriate formulation strategies to either avoid or minimize the absorption-related issues when co-administered with sucralfate. It is recommended that consideration of both in vitro and preclinical studies may be in order to gauge the level of interaction of a drug with sucralfate. Such data may aid in the development of appropriate strategies to navigate the co-administration of sucralfate with other drugs in this age of polypharmacy.

  20. Glutamatergic transmission in drug reward: implications for drug addiction.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Manoranjan S

    2015-01-01

    Individuals addicted to drugs of abuse such as alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, and heroin are a significant burden on healthcare systems all over the world. The positive reinforcing (rewarding) effects of the above mentioned drugs play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of the drug-taking habit. Thus, understanding the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse is critical to reducing the burden of drug addiction in society. Over the last two decades, there has been an increasing focus on the role of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in drug addiction. In this review, pharmacological and genetic evidence supporting the role of glutamate in mediating the rewarding effects of the above described drugs of abuse will be discussed. Further, the review will discuss the role of glutamate transmission in two complex heterogeneous brain regions, namely the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which mediate the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In addition, several medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration that act by blocking glutamate transmission will be discussed in the context of drug reward. Finally, this review will discuss future studies needed to address currently unanswered gaps in knowledge, which will further elucidate the role of glutamate in the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse.

  1. 21 CFR 201.2 - Drugs and devices; National Drug Code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drugs and devices; National Drug Code numbers. 201.2 Section 201.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.2 Drugs and devices; National Drug Code...

  2. 21 CFR 201.2 - Drugs and devices; National Drug Code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drugs and devices; National Drug Code numbers. 201.2 Section 201.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.2 Drugs and devices; National Drug Code...

  3. 21 CFR 201.2 - Drugs and devices; National Drug Code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs and devices; National Drug Code numbers. 201.2 Section 201.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.2 Drugs and devices; National Drug Code...

  4. 21 CFR 201.2 - Drugs and devices; National Drug Code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drugs and devices; National Drug Code numbers. 201.2 Section 201.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.2 Drugs and devices; National Drug Code...

  5. 21 CFR 201.2 - Drugs and devices; National Drug Code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs and devices; National Drug Code numbers. 201.2 Section 201.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.2 Drugs and devices; National Drug Code...

  6. Target-Independent Prediction of Drug Synergies Using Only Drug Lipophilicity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of compounds have been instrumental in selecting lead compounds with increased drug-likeness. However, the relationship between physicochemical properties of constituent drugs and the tendency to exhibit drug interaction has not been systematically studied. We assembled physicochemical descriptors for a set of antifungal compounds (“drugs”) previously examined for interaction. Analyzing the relationship between molecular weight, lipophilicity, H-bond donor, and H-bond acceptor values for drugs and their propensity to show pairwise antifungal drug synergy, we found that combinations of two lipophilic drugs had a greater tendency to show drug synergy. We developed a more refined decision tree model that successfully predicted drug synergy in stringent cross-validation tests based on only lipophilicity of drugs. Our predictions achieved a precision of 63% and allowed successful prediction for 58% of synergistic drug pairs, suggesting that this phenomenon can extend our understanding for a substantial fraction of synergistic drug interactions. We also generated and analyzed a large-scale synergistic human toxicity network, in which we observed that combinations of lipophilic compounds show a tendency for increased toxicity. Thus, lipophilicity, a simple and easily determined molecular descriptor, is a powerful predictor of drug synergy. It is well established that lipophilic compounds (i) are promiscuous, having many targets in the cell, and (ii) often penetrate into the cell via the cellular membrane by passive diffusion. We discuss the positive relationship between drug lipophilicity and drug synergy in the context of potential drug synergy mechanisms. PMID:25026390

  7. Food-Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bushra, Rabia; Aslam, Nousheen; Khan, Arshad Yar

    2011-01-01

    The effect of drug on a person may be different than expected because that drug interacts with another drug the person is taking (drug-drug interaction), food, beverages, dietary supplements the person is consuming (drug-nutrient/food interaction) or another disease the person has (drug-disease interaction). A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance affects the activity of a drug, i.e. the effects are increased or decreased, or they produce a new effect that neither produces on its own. These interactions may occur out of accidental misuse or due to lack of knowledge about the active ingredients involved in the relevant substances. Regarding food-drug interactions physicians and pharmacists recognize that some foods and drugs, when taken simultaneously, can alter the body's ability to utilize a particular food or drug, or cause serious side effects. Clinically significant drug interactions, which pose potential harm to the patient, may result from changes in pharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, or pharmacodynamic properties. Some may be taken advantage of, to the benefit of patients, but more commonly drug interactions result in adverse drug events. Therefore it is advisable for patients to follow the physician and doctors instructions to obtain maximum benefits with least food-drug interactions. The literature survey was conducted by extracting data from different review and original articles on general or specific drug interactions with food. This review gives information about various interactions between different foods and drugs and will help physicians and pharmacists prescribe drugs cautiously with only suitable food supplement to get maximum benefit for the patient. PMID:22043389

  8. Drug-Drug Interactions and Diagnostics for Drug Users With HIV and HIV/HCV Coinfections: Introduction.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, Jag H; Talal, Andrew H; Morse, Gene

    2017-03-01

    Substance use and pharmacologic treatment of co-occurring infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are associated with many adverse consequences including pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug-drug interactions (DDIs). The National Institute on Drug Abuse sponsored a 2-day conference on DDIs at which clinicians/scientists from government, academia, and the pharmaceutical industry presented the most current research findings to formulate a comprehensive overview of DDIs. Specific topics discussed included drug metabolism; drug interactions between medications used in the treatment of HIV, HCV, and substance use disorders; intrahepatic concentrations and methods of assessment of drugs in liver disease of varying etiologies and degrees of impairment; and minimally invasive sampling techniques for the assessment of intrahepatic drug concentrations, viral replication, and changes in gene expression in response to treatment. Finally, the speakers identified research targets and priorities on DDIs. Areas of emphasis included development of diagnostic assays for drug concentration assessment in different organs, an enhanced understanding of factors responsible for alterations in drug metabolism and excretion, and establishment of clinical trials and work groups to study DDIs. Our long-term objective is to broaden investigation in the field of DDIs in substance users. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  9. Pharmacokinetics and therapeutic drug monitoring of psychotropic drugs in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Pichini, Simona; Papaseit, Esther; Joya, Xavier; Vall, Oriol; Farré, Magí; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; de laTorre, Rafael

    2009-06-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in pediatrics (0-14 years) is especially important because the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs and drug pharmacokinetic profiles can be different from that of the adult population. In this context, several parameters like half-life of drug elimination from the body (t(1/2)), peak plasma concentration (Cmax), area under the curve, clearance (CL), Tmax, and dose/concentration relationship in children may differ from adults. Hence, the knowledge of pharmacokinetic parameters and therapeutic and toxic ranges of drug concentrations may help the clinicians to optimize drug treatment regimens in the pediatric population. TDM of psychotropic drugs requires particular attention for the pharmacological and clinical consequences of nonadequate dose use, lack in the compliance, and overdoses with possible toxic effects. Psychoactive drugs such as benzodiazepines, antiepileptic drugs, tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, antipsychotic drugs, psychostimulants (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder drugs), opioid analgesics, and antimigraine drugs are a heterogeneous group. These drugs are subject to interindividual variability, and therefore, the usefulness of TDM for these drugs has to be assessed individually. Because of the occurrence of comorbid pathologies, including psychiatric disorders, the use of combined pharmacotherapy is not uncommon. As a consequence, these patients may be at risk from a number of potential drug-drug interactions. The implementation of TDM in pediatric population is more difficult than in adults because some sampling procedures are invasive and cause discomfort in children, and additionally, they require the cooperation of the patient. Several examples will be provided where the use of alternative matrices, such as saliva, is proposed to minimize inconvenience and patient discomfort.

  10. Drug resistance mechanisms and novel drug targets for tuberculosis therapy.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Mahmudul; Hameed, H M Adnan; Mugweru, Julius; Chhotaray, Chiranjibi; Wang, Changwei; Tan, Yaoju; Liu, Jianxiong; Li, Xinjie; Tan, Shouyong; Ojima, Iwao; Yew, Wing Wai; Nuermberger, Eric; Lamichhane, Gyanu; Zhang, Tianyu

    2017-01-20

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) poses a significant challenge to the successful treatment and control of TB worldwide. Resistance to anti-TB drugs has existed since the beginning of the chemotherapy era. New insights into the resistant mechanisms of anti-TB drugs have been provided. Better understanding of drug resistance mechanisms helps in the development of new tools for the rapid diagnosis of drug-resistant TB. There is also a pressing need in the development of new drugs with novel targets to improve the current treatment of TB and to prevent the emergence of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This review summarizes the anti-TB drug resistance mechanisms, furnishes some possible novel drug targets in the development of new agents for TB therapy and discusses the usefulness using known targets to develop new anti-TB drugs. Whole genome sequencing is currently an advanced technology to uncover drug resistance mechanisms in M. tuberculosis. However, further research is required to unravel the significance of some newly discovered gene mutations in their contribution to drug resistance. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Brand-name drug, generic drug, orphan drug. Pharmacological therapy with biosimilar drugs - provision of due diligence in the treatment process.

    PubMed

    Zajdel, Justyna; Zajdel, Radosław

    2013-01-01

    Due diligence in the process of provision of healthcare services refers, among other elements, to the application of pharmacological therapy at a time which offers the greatest chance for a successful outcome of treatment, i.e. for achieving the optimum expected effect understood as an improvement in the patient's health, reduction of health risks or elimination of the disease. However, due diligence may also refer to actions aimed at ensuring that neither the patient nor the healthcare payer is required to incur unreasonable costs in the process of treatment. The validity of that statement stems not only from normative acts but also from ethical standards laid down in the Medical Code of Ethics (Article 57 section 2). It often happens that the provision of optimal treatment calls for deviations from the formal provisions included in Summary Product Characteristics (SPCs), and the application of drugs that are bioequivalent to reference drugs, which translates into a significant reduction of costs. The present study addresses the problem of acceptability of a specific form of drug substitution consisting in the replacement of a reference drug with a generic drug. Also explored are legal aspects associated with the possibility of therapy based on "off-label use". The study reviews normative acts existing in the Polish and EU legislation. It also provides a clear definition of orphan drug, which has made it possible to make a distinction and investigate mutual relations between the concepts of brand-name (reference) drug, orphan drug and generic drug.

  12. Understanding drugs in breast cancer through drug sensitivity screening.

    PubMed

    Uhr, Katharina; Prager-van der Smissen, Wendy J C; Heine, Anouk A J; Ozturk, Bahar; Smid, Marcel; Göhlmann, Hinrich W H; Jager, Agnes; Foekens, John A; Martens, John W M

    2015-01-01

    With substantial numbers of breast tumors showing or acquiring treatment resistance, it is of utmost importance to develop new agents for the treatment of the disease, to know their effectiveness against breast cancer and to understand their relationships with other drugs to best assign the right drug to the right patient. To achieve this goal drug screenings on breast cancer cell lines are a promising approach. In this study a large-scale drug screening of 37 compounds was performed on a panel of 42 breast cancer cell lines representing the main breast cancer subtypes. Clustering, correlation and pathway analyses were used for data analysis. We found that compounds with a related mechanism of action had correlated IC50 values and thus grouped together when the cell lines were hierarchically clustered based on IC50 values. In total we found six clusters of drugs of which five consisted of drugs with related mode of action and one cluster with two drugs not previously connected. In total, 25 correlated and four anti-correlated drug sensitivities were revealed of which only one drug, Sirolimus, showed significantly lower IC50 values in the luminal/ERBB2 breast cancer subtype. We found expected interactions but also discovered new relationships between drugs which might have implications for cancer treatment regimens.

  13. Neuropeptide S receptor ligands: a patent review (2005-2016).

    PubMed

    Ruzza, Chiara; Calò, Girolamo; Di Maro, Salvatore; Pacifico, Salvatore; Trapella, Claudio; Salvadori, Severo; Preti, Delia; Guerrini, Remo

    2017-03-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a 20-residue peptide and endogenous ligand of the NPS receptor (NPSR). This receptor was a formerly orphan GPCR whose activation increases calcium and cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels. The NPS/NPSR system is expressed in several brain regions where it controls important biological functions including locomotor activity, arousal and sleep, anxiety, food intake, memory, pain, and drug addiction. Areas covered: This review furnishes an updated overview of the patent literature covering NPSR ligands since 2005, when the first example of an NPSR antagonist was disclosed. Expert opinion: Several potent NPSR antagonists are available as valuable pharmacological tools despite showing suboptimal pharmacokinetic properties in vivo. The optimization of these ligands is needed to speed up their potential clinical advancement as pharmaceuticals to treat drug addiction. In order to support the design of novel NPSR antagonists, we performed a ligand-based conformational analysis recognizing some structural requirements for NPSR antagonism. The identification of small-molecule NPSR agonists now represents an unmet challenge to be addressed. These molecules will allow investigation of the beneficial effects of selective NPSR activation in a large panel of psychiatric disorders and to foresee their therapeutic potential as anxiolytics, nootropics, and analgesics.

  14. Exploring neuroprotective potential of Withania somnifera phytochemicals by inhibition of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors: An in silico study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gaurav; Patnaik, Ranjana

    2016-07-01

    N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) mediated excitotoxicity has been implicated in multi-neurodegenerative diseases. Due to lack of efficacy and adverse effects of NMDA receptor antagonists, search for herbal remedies that may act as therapeutic agents is an active area of research to combat these diseases. Withania somnifera (WS) is being used for centuries as a nerve tonic and Nootropic agents. The present study targets the in silico evaluation of the neuroprotective efficacy of W. somnifera phytochemicals by inhibition of NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity through allosteric inhibition of the GluN2B containing NMDARs. We predict Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) penetration, mutagenicity, drug-likeness and Human Intestinal Absorption properties of 25 WS phytochemicals. Further, molecular docking was performed to know whether these phytochemicals inhibit the GluN2B containing NMDARs or not. The results suggest that Anaferine, Beta-Sitosterol, Withaferin A, Withanolide A, Withanolide B and Withanolide D inhibit GluN2B containing NMDARs through allosteric mode similar to the well-known selective antagonist Ifenprodil. These phytochemicals have potential as an essentially useful oral drug to counter NMDARs mediated excitotoxicity and to treat multi-neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... drug abuse. And it's illegal, just like taking street drugs. Why Do People Abuse Prescription Drugs? Some people abuse prescription drugs ... common risk of prescription drug abuse is addiction . People who abuse ... as if they were taking street drugs. That's one reason most doctors won't ...

  16. [Orphan drugs].

    PubMed

    Golocorbin Kon, Svetlana; Vojinović, Aleksandra; Lalić-Popović, Mladena; Pavlović, Nebojsa; Mikov, Momir

    2013-01-01

    Drugs used for treatment of rare diseases are known worldwide under the term of orphan drugs because pharmaceutical companies have not been interested in "adopting" them, that is in investing in research, developing and producing these drugs. This kind of policy has been justified by the fact that these drugs are targeted for small markets, that only a small number of patients is available for clinical trials, and that large investments are required for the development of drugs meant to treat diseases whose pathogenesis has not yet been clarified in majority of cases. The aim of this paper is to present previous and present status of orphan drugs in Serbia and other countries. THE BEGINNING OF ORPHAN DRUGS DEVELOPMENT: This problem was first recognized by Congress of the United States of America in January 1983, and when the "Orphan Drug Act" was passed, it was a turning point in the development of orphan drugs. This law provides pharmaceutical companies with a series of reliefs, both financial ones that allow them to regain funds invested into the research and development and regulatory ones. Seven years of marketing exclusivity, as a type of patent monopoly, is the most important relief that enables companies to make large profits. There are no sufficient funds and institutions to give financial support to the patients. It is therefore necessary to make health professionals much more aware of rare diseases in order to avoid time loss in making the right diagnosis and thus to gain more time to treat rare diseases. The importance of discovery, development and production of orphan drugs lies in the number of patients whose life quality can be improved significantly by administration of these drugs as well as in the number of potential survivals resulting from the treatment with these drugs.

  17. Drug allergies

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... A drug allergy involves an immune response in the body that produces an allergic reaction to a medicine. The ...

  18. QSAR Modeling and Prediction of Drug-Drug Interactions.

    PubMed

    Zakharov, Alexey V; Varlamova, Ekaterina V; Lagunin, Alexey A; Dmitriev, Alexander V; Muratov, Eugene N; Fourches, Denis; Kuz'min, Victor E; Poroikov, Vladimir V; Tropsha, Alexander; Nicklaus, Marc C

    2016-02-01

    Severe adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are the fourth leading cause of fatality in the U.S. with more than 100,000 deaths per year. As up to 30% of all ADRs are believed to be caused by drug-drug interactions (DDIs), typically mediated by cytochrome P450s, possibilities to predict DDIs from existing knowledge are important. We collected data from public sources on 1485, 2628, 4371, and 27,966 possible DDIs mediated by four cytochrome P450 isoforms 1A2, 2C9, 2D6, and 3A4 for 55, 73, 94, and 237 drugs, respectively. For each of these data sets, we developed and validated QSAR models for the prediction of DDIs. As a unique feature of our approach, the interacting drug pairs were represented as binary chemical mixtures in a 1:1 ratio. We used two types of chemical descriptors: quantitative neighborhoods of atoms (QNA) and simplex descriptors. Radial basis functions with self-consistent regression (RBF-SCR) and random forest (RF) were utilized to build QSAR models predicting the likelihood of DDIs for any pair of drug molecules. Our models showed balanced accuracy of 72-79% for the external test sets with a coverage of 81.36-100% when a conservative threshold for the model's applicability domain was applied. We generated virtually all possible binary combinations of marketed drugs and employed our models to identify drug pairs predicted to be instances of DDI. More than 4500 of these predicted DDIs that were not found in our training sets were confirmed by data from the DrugBank database.

  19. Drug decriminalization and the price of illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Félix, Sónia; Portugal, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    This study is an empirical assessment of the impact of the drug decriminalization policy followed by Portugal in July 2001, on the price of illicit drugs. The analysis is performed using a difference-in-differences approach and the Synthetic Control Method in order to construct a synthetic control unit from a convex combination of countries. The results suggest that the prices of opiates and cocaine in the post-treatment period did not decrease in the sequence of the policy change. We conclude that the drug decriminalization policy seems to have caused no harm through lower illicit drugs prices, which would lead to higher drug usage and dependence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Drug-nutrient interactions.

    PubMed

    Trovato, A; Nuhlicek, D N; Midtling, J E

    1991-11-01

    Drug-nutrient interactions are a commonly overlooked aspect of the prescribing practices of physicians. As more pharmaceutical agents become available, attention should be focused on interactions of drugs with foods and nutrients. Although drug-nutrient interactions are not as common as drug-drug interactions, they can have an impact on therapeutic outcome. Drugs can affect nutritional status by altering nutrient absorption, metabolism, utilization or excretion. Food, beverages and mineral or vitamin supplements can affect the absorption and effectiveness of drugs. Knowledge of drug-nutrient interactions can help reduce the incidence of these effects. Physicians should question patients about their dietary habits so that patients can be informed about possible interactions between a prescribed drug and foods and nutrients.

  1. Potential risks resulting from fruit/vegetable-drug interactions: effects on drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Martínez-Arismendi, José Luis; Orozco-Bustos, Danae; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Torres, Eliseo; Burchiel, Scott W

    2011-05-01

    It has been well established that complex mixtures of phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables can be beneficial for human health. Moreover, it is becoming increasingly apparent that phytochemicals can influence the pharmacological activity of drugs by modifying their absorption characteristics through interactions with drug transporters as well as drug-metabolizing enzyme systems. Such effects are more likely to occur in the intestine and liver, where high concentrations of phytochemicals may occur. Alterations in cytochrome P450 and other enzyme activities may influence the fate of drugs subject to extensive first-pass metabolism. Although numerous studies of nutrient-drug interactions have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, no generalizations on the effect of nutrient-drug interactions on drug bioavailability are currently available. Several publications have highlighted the unintended consequences of the combined use of nutrients and drugs. Many phytochemicals have been shown to have pharmacokinetic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to commonly consumed fruits and vegetables with significant beneficial effects as nutrients and components in folk medicine. Here, we discuss the phytochemistry and pharmacokinetic interactions of the following fruit and vegetables: grapefruit, orange, tangerine, grapes, cranberry, pomegranate, mango, guava, black raspberry, black mulberry, apple, broccoli, cauliflower, watercress, spinach, tomato, carrot, and avocado. We conclude that our knowledge of the potential risk of nutrient-drug interactions is still limited. Therefore, efforts to elucidate potential risks resulting from food-drug interactions should be intensified in order to prevent undesired and harmful clinical consequences. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Perceived neighborhood illicit drug selling, peer illicit drug disapproval and illicit drug use among U.S. high school seniors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined associations between perceived neighborhood illicit drug selling, peer illicit drug disapproval and illicit drug use among a large nationally representative sample of U.S. high school seniors. Methods Data come from Monitoring the Future (2007–2011), an annual cross-sectional survey of U.S. high school seniors. Students reported neighborhood illicit drug selling, friend drug disapproval towards marijuana and cocaine use, and past 12-month and past 30-day illicit drug use (N = 10,050). Multinomial logistic regression models were fit to explain use of 1) just marijuana, 2) one illicit drug other than marijuana, and 3) more than one illicit drug other than marijuana, compared to “no use”. Results Report of neighborhood illicit drug selling was associated with lower friend disapproval of marijuana and cocaine; e.g., those who reported seeing neighborhood sales “almost every day” were less likely to report their friends strongly disapproved of marijuana (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.49) compared to those who reported never seeing neighborhood drug selling and reported no disapproval. Perception of neighborhood illicit drug selling was also associated with past-year drug use and past-month drug use; e.g., those who reported seeing neighborhood sales “almost every day” were more likely to report 30-day use of more than one illicit drug (AOR = 11.11, 95% CI: 7.47, 16.52) compared to those who reported never seeing neighborhood drug selling and reported no 30-day use of illicit drugs. Conclusions Perceived neighborhood drug selling was associated with lower peer disapproval and more illicit drug use among a population-based nationally representative sample of U.S. high school seniors. Policy interventions to reduce “open” (visible) neighborhood drug selling (e.g., problem-oriented policing and modifications to the physical environment such as installing and monitoring surveillance cameras) may

  3. 75 FR 18219 - Drug and Medical Device Forum on Food and Drug Administration Drug and Device Requirements and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0142] Drug and Medical Device Forum on Food and Drug Administration Drug and Device Requirements and Supplier Controls; Public Educational Forum AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public...

  4. Drug Facts Chat Day: NIH Experts Answer Students' Drug Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Drug Facts Chat Day: NIH Experts Answer Students' Drug Questions Past Issues / ... Drug Abuse during their first Drug Facts Chat Day. Photo courtesy of NIDA The questions poured in… ...

  5. 21 CFR 201.129 - Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use. 201.129 Section 201.129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use. A radioactive drug intended for administration...

  6. Brand-name drug, generic drug, orphan drug. Pharmacological therapy with biosimilar drugs – provision of due diligence in the treatment process

    PubMed Central

    Zajdel, Justyna

    2013-01-01

    Due diligence in the process of provision of healthcare services refers, among other elements, to the application of pharmacological therapy at a time which offers the greatest chance for a successful outcome of treatment, i.e. for achieving the optimum expected effect understood as an improvement in the patient's health, reduction of health risks or elimination of the disease. However, due diligence may also refer to actions aimed at ensuring that neither the patient nor the healthcare payer is required to incur unreasonable costs in the process of treatment. The validity of that statement stems not only from normative acts but also from ethical standards laid down in the Medical Code of Ethics (Article 57 section 2). It often happens that the provision of optimal treatment calls for deviations from the formal provisions included in Summary Product Characteristics (SPCs), and the application of drugs that are bioequivalent to reference drugs, which translates into a significant reduction of costs. The present study addresses the problem of acceptability of a specific form of drug substitution consisting in the replacement of a reference drug with a generic drug. Also explored are legal aspects associated with the possibility of therapy based on “off-label use”. The study reviews normative acts existing in the Polish and EU legislation. It also provides a clear definition of orphan drug, which has made it possible to make a distinction and investigate mutual relations between the concepts of brand-name (reference) drug, orphan drug and generic drug. PMID:24592133

  7. Heterocyclic Drug-polymer Conjugates for Cancer Targeted Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harmeet; Desai, Sapna D; Kumar, Virender; Rathi, Pooja; Singh, Jasbir

    2016-01-01

    New polymer therapeutics like polymer-drug conjugates (PDCs) are developing day by day. Heterocyclic drugs with excellent cytotoxic properties are available, but lack of their specificity makes them available to the normal cells also, which is the main cause of their toxicity. Drugs in the form of PDCs make delivery possible to the specific sites. Most of the PDCs are designed with the aim to either target and/or to get activated in specific cancer microenvironments. Therefore, the most exploited targets for cancer drug delivery are; cancer cell enzymes, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), multi-drug resistance (MDR) proteins, angiogenesis, apoptosis and cell membrane receptors (e.g., folates, transferrin, etc.). In this review, we will summarize PDCs of heterocyclic drugs, like doxorubicin (DOX), daunorubicin, paclitaxel (PTX), docetaxel (DTX), cisplatin, camptothecin (CPT), geldanamycin (GDM), etc., and some of their analogs for efficient delivery of drugs to cancer cells.

  8. [Customizing dosage drugs what contribution in therapeutic drug monitoring?].

    PubMed

    Abdessadek, Mohammed; Magoul, Rabia; Amarti, Afaf; El Ouezzani, Seloua; Khabbal, Youssef

    2014-01-01

    Drug response is often variable from an individual to another: the same dose of drug administered to different patients could cause variable pharmacological effects in nature and intensity. Those effects are often the result of variability in drugs pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination) which alter their bioavailability. In fact, two factors should be taken into account: the disease(s) from which the patient suffers, and the associated drugs, because many drug interactions may alter their pharmacokinetics causing consequently quite enough of different therapeutic effects. The choice of the assay of the drug subject in monitoring is crucial, it allows quantifying the in vivo dose of the drug and the quality of compliance thereof, the pharmacokinetic characteristics allows the clinician to adjust the dosage by different approaches so that plasma concentrations are included in the therapeutic range. Therapeutic monitoring aims to increase clinical efficacy and to minimize toxicity.

  9. 10 CFR 26.133 - Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites. 26.133... § 26.133 Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites. Subject to the provisions of § 26.31(d)(3)(iii), licensees and other entities may specify more stringent cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites than...

  10. 10 CFR 26.133 - Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites. 26.133... § 26.133 Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites. Subject to the provisions of § 26.31(d)(3)(iii), licensees and other entities may specify more stringent cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites than...

  11. 10 CFR 26.133 - Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites. 26.133... § 26.133 Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites. Subject to the provisions of § 26.31(d)(3)(iii), licensees and other entities may specify more stringent cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites than...

  12. Drug concentration heterogeneity facilitates the evolution of drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Kepler, T B; Perelson, A S

    1998-09-29

    Pathogenic microorganisms use Darwinian processes to circumvent attempts at their control through chemotherapy. In the case of HIV-1 infection, in which drug resistance is a continuing problem, we show that in one-compartment systems, there is a relatively narrow window of drug concentrations that allows evolution of resistant variants. When the system is enlarged to two spatially distinct compartments held at different drug concentrations with transport of virus between them, the range of average drug concentrations that allow evolution of resistance is significantly increased. For high average drug concentrations, resistance is very unlikely to arise without spatial heterogeneity. We argue that a quantitative understanding of the role played by heterogeneity in drug levels and pathogen transport is crucial for attempts to control re-emergent infectious disease.

  13. Scaffold Repurposing of Old Drugs Towards New Cancer Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haijun; Wu, Jianlei; Gao, Yu; Chen, Haiying; Zhou, Jia

    2016-01-01

    As commented by the Nobelist James Black that "The most fruitful basis of the discovery of a new drug is to start with an old drug", drug repurposing represents an attractive drug discovery strategy. Despite the success of several repurposed drugs on the market, the ultimate therapeutic potential of a large number of non-cancer drugs is hindered during their repositioning due to various issues including the limited efficacy and intellectual property. With the increasing knowledge about the pharmacological properties and newly identified targets, the scaffolds of the old drugs emerge as a great treasure-trove towards new cancer drug discovery. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the development of novel small molecules for cancer therapy by scaffold repurposing with highlighted examples. The relevant strategies, advantages, challenges and future research directions associated with this approach are also discussed.

  14. DrugE-Rank: improving drug-target interaction prediction of new candidate drugs or targets by ensemble learning to rank.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qingjun; Gao, Junning; Wu, Dongliang; Zhang, Shihua; Mamitsuka, Hiroshi; Zhu, Shanfeng

    2016-06-15

    Identifying drug-target interactions is an important task in drug discovery. To reduce heavy time and financial cost in experimental way, many computational approaches have been proposed. Although these approaches have used many different principles, their performance is far from satisfactory, especially in predicting drug-target interactions of new candidate drugs or targets. Approaches based on machine learning for this problem can be divided into two types: feature-based and similarity-based methods. Learning to rank is the most powerful technique in the feature-based methods. Similarity-based methods are well accepted, due to their idea of connecting the chemical and genomic spaces, represented by drug and target similarities, respectively. We propose a new method, DrugE-Rank, to improve the prediction performance by nicely combining the advantages of the two different types of methods. That is, DrugE-Rank uses LTR, for which multiple well-known similarity-based methods can be used as components of ensemble learning. The performance of DrugE-Rank is thoroughly examined by three main experiments using data from DrugBank: (i) cross-validation on FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) approved drugs before March 2014; (ii) independent test on FDA approved drugs after March 2014; and (iii) independent test on FDA experimental drugs. Experimental results show that DrugE-Rank outperforms competing methods significantly, especially achieving more than 30% improvement in Area under Prediction Recall curve for FDA approved new drugs and FDA experimental drugs. http://datamining-iip.fudan.edu.cn/service/DrugE-Rank zhusf@fudan.edu.cn Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Permissive Attitude Towards Drug Use, Life Satisfaction, and Continuous Drug Use Among Psychoactive Drug Users in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Cheung, N Wt; Cheung, Y W; Chen, X

    2016-06-01

    To examine the effects of a permissive attitude towards regular and occasional drug use, life satisfaction, self-esteem, depression, and other psychosocial variables in the drug use of psychoactive drug users. Psychosocial factors that might affect a permissive attitude towards regular / occasional drug use and life satisfaction were further explored. We analysed data of a sample of psychoactive drug users from a longitudinal survey of psychoactive drug abusers in Hong Kong who were interviewed at 6 time points at 6-month intervals between January 2009 and December 2011. Data of the second to the sixth time points were stacked into an individual time point structure. Random-effects probit regression analysis was performed to estimate the relative contribution of the independent variables to the binary dependent variable of drug use in the last 30 days. A permissive attitude towards drug use, life satisfaction, and depression at the concurrent time point, and self-esteem at the previous time point had direct effects on drug use in the last 30 days. Interestingly, permissiveness to occasional drug use was a stronger predictor of drug use than permissiveness to regular drug use. These 2 permissive attitude variables were affected by the belief that doing extreme things shows the vitality of young people (at concurrent time point), life satisfaction (at concurrent time point), and self-esteem (at concurrent and previous time points). Life satisfaction was affected by sense of uncertainty about the future (at concurrent time point), self-esteem (at concurrent time point), depression (at both concurrent and previous time points), and being stricken by stressful events (at previous time point). A number of psychosocial factors could affect the continuation or discontinuation of drug use, as well as the permissive attitude towards regular and occasional drug use, and life satisfaction. Implications of the findings for prevention and intervention work targeted at

  16. Discovery and explanation of drug-drug interactions via text mining.

    PubMed

    Percha, Bethany; Garten, Yael; Altman, Russ B

    2012-01-01

    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) can occur when two drugs interact with the same gene product. Most available information about gene-drug relationships is contained within the scientific literature, but is dispersed over a large number of publications, with thousands of new publications added each month. In this setting, automated text mining is an attractive solution for identifying gene-drug relationships and aggregating them to predict novel DDIs. In previous work, we have shown that gene-drug interactions can be extracted from Medline abstracts with high fidelity - we extract not only the genes and drugs, but also the type of relationship expressed in individual sentences (e.g. metabolize, inhibit, activate and many others). We normalize these relationships and map them to a standardized ontology. In this work, we hypothesize that we can combine these normalized gene-drug relationships, drawn from a very broad and diverse literature, to infer DDIs. Using a training set of established DDIs, we have trained a random forest classifier to score potential DDIs based on the features of the normalized assertions extracted from the literature that relate two drugs to a gene product. The classifier recognizes the combinations of relationships, drugs and genes that are most associated with the gold standard DDIs, correctly identifying 79.8% of assertions relating interacting drug pairs and 78.9% of assertions relating noninteracting drug pairs. Most significantly, because our text processing method captures the semantics of individual gene-drug relationships, we can construct mechanistic pharmacological explanations for the newly-proposed DDIs. We show how our classifier can be used to explain known DDIs and to uncover new DDIs that have not yet been reported.

  17. COPD - control drugs

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - control drugs; Bronchodilators - COPD - control drugs; Beta agonist inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Anticholinergic inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Long-acting inhaler - COPD - ...

  18. Illegal drugs in Grenada: arrests and drug treatment from 2001-2009.

    PubMed

    Fagorala, A

    2013-09-01

    Illegal drug use and abuse has increased in the Caribbean since the 1990s. In Grenada, statistical indicators such as admission rates to treatment facilities and drug arrests have provided evidence for the increased rates of illegal drug use and abuse. This study reviewed these statistical indicators and explored drug treatment options in Grenada from 2001 to 2009. A search of statistical records from the Drug Control Secretariat and the Grenada Drug Information Network/National Observatory on Drugs (GRENDIN/NOD) was performed. Literature review of relevant articles from search engines was used to support findings. Additionally, semi-structured interviews of key stakeholders from government and health agencies involved in drug prevention in Grenada were conducted to obtain information on recent developments surrounding drug arrests and treatments in Grenada. From 2001 to 2009, there were a 118% and a 23% increase in the arrest rate for males and females,respectively. There was also an increase in demand for drug treatment at the sole drug treatment facility. Preventive measures in schools and several forms of media programmes have raised awareness. However,drug use/abuse/activities still persist at a significant rate. Programmes that target improvement of treatment facilities and increased inter-agency collaboration may be successful in enhancing drug arrests and treatments.

  19. A review on therapeutic drug monitoring of immunosuppressant drugs.

    PubMed

    Mohammadpour, Niloufar; Elyasi, Sepideh; Vahdati, Naser; Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang; Shamsara, Jamal

    2011-11-01

    : Immunosuppressants require therapeutic drug monitoring because of their narrow therapeutic index and significant inter-individual variability in blood concentrations. This variability can be because of factors like drug-nutrient interactions, drug-disease interactions, renal-insufficiency, inflammation and infection, gender, age, polymorphism and liver mass. Drug monitoring is widely practiced especially for cyclosporine, tacrolimus, sirolimus and mycophenolic acid. CYCLOSPORINE: Therapeutic monitoring of immunosuppressive therapy with cyclosporine is a critical requirement because of intra- and inter-patient variability of drug absorption, narrow therapeutic window and drug induced nephrotoxicity. MYCOPHENOLIC ACID MPA: Some reasons for therapeutic drug monitoring of MPA during post-transplant period include: relationship between MPA pharmacokinetic parameters and clinical outcomes, Inter-patient pharmacokinetic variability for MPA despite fixed MMF doses, alternations of MPA pharmacokinetics during the first months after transplantation, drug- drug interaction and influence of kidney function on MPA pharmacokinetic. SIROLIMUS: A recent review of the pharmacokinetics of sirolimus suggested a therapeutic range of 5 to 10 μg l(-1) in whole blood. However, the only consensus guidelines published on the therapeutic monitoring of sirolimus concluded that there was not enough information available about the clinical use of the drug to make recommendations. TACROLIMUS: Sudies have shown, in kidney and liver transplant patients, significant associations of low tacrolimus concentrations with rejection and of high concentrations with nephrotoxicity. Although the feasibility of a limited sampling scheme to predict AUC has been demonstrated, as yet, trough, or pre-dose, whole blood concentration monitoring is still the method of choice.

  20. Drugs in hair. Part I. Metabolisms of major drug classes.

    PubMed

    White, R M

    2017-01-01

    Currently, hair can be reliably tested for the presence of drugs. However, one major drawback to the use of parent drugs is the question of potential external or environmental contamination. The analysis of metabolites to confirm the use of the parent drugs was proposed in this short review. The development of hair as a test matrix and the incorporation of xenobiotics, in general, into the hair matrix were discussed. What constitutes an appropriate metabolite for drug testing to mirror the use of a parent drug was proposed and discussed. The use of metabolites rather than parent drugs to indicate unequivocal use rather than external exposure was also discussed for amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, opiates (codeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone, oxymorphone), phencyclidine, fentanyl, benzodiazepines, and ethanol. This, however, was discussed in terms of class and/or individual drug. In addition, selection or potential selection of appropriate metabolites was reviewed. The actual incorporation of drug metabolites into hair versus the metabolism of drugs which was incorporated into hair were also considered. Copyright © 2017 Central Police University.

  1. In vitro characterization of transport and metabolism of the alkaloids: vincamine, vinpocetine and eburnamonine.

    PubMed

    Fandy, Tamer E; Abdallah, Inas; Khayat, Maan; Colby, David A; Hassan, Hazem E

    2016-02-01

    Vincamine, vinpocetine and eburnamonine are alkaloids known for their neuroprotective attributes, enhancement of cerebrovascular blood flow and antitumor effect of their derivatives. However, the relative metabolic stability of these alkaloids and their extrusion by the drug efflux transporters expressed at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are not clear. In this study, we developed rapid and sensitive methods for the detection of these alkaloids and investigated their relative metabolic stability and their interaction with drug efflux transporters. UPLC methods were developed to analyze metabolic in vitro samples. Intrinsic clearance was determined using rat liver microsomal enzymes. Drug-stimulated transporter activity was estimated by measuring inorganic phosphate released from ATP spectrophotometrically. The UPLC methods quantification level ranged from 0.02 to 0.025 µg/mL, indicating high sensitivity. The intrinsic clearance of eburnamonine was significantly less than both vincamine and vinpocetine. Different concentrations of the three drugs (4, 20 and 100 µM) induced minimal stimulation of the ATPase activity of the Bcrp and Pgp membrane transporters. The developed simple, sensitive and reliable UPLC analysis methods can be utilized in future in vitro and in vivo studies. The three alkaloids demonstrated minimal interaction with the drug efflux transporters Pgp and Bcrp, concordant with the ability of these alkaloids to cross the BBB. The relative metabolic stability of eburnamonine compared to the other alkaloids suggests the use of eburnamonine or its derivatives as lead compounds for the development of antitumor and nootropic agents that need to cross the BBB and produce their pharmacological effects in the CNS.

  2. [Club drugs].

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Diogo Frasquilho; Carmo, Ana Lisa; da Silva, Joaquim Alves; Navarro, Rita; Góis, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Club drugs are the following substances: Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA); Methamphetamine; Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD); Ketamine; Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and Flunitrazepam. These substances are mainly used by adolescents and young adults, mostly in recreational settings like dance clubs and rave parties. These drugs have diverse psychotropic effects, are associated with several degrees of toxicity, dependence and long term adverse effects. Some have been used for several decades, while others are relatively recent substances of abuse. They have distinct pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, are not easy to detect and, many times, the use of club drugs is under diagnosed. Although the use of these drugs is increasingly common, few health professionals feel comfortable with the diagnosis and treatment. The authors performed a systematic literature review, with the goal of synthesising the existing knowledge about club drugs, namely epidemiology, mechanism of action, detection, adverse reactions and treatment. The purpose of this article is creating in Portuguese language a knowledge data base on club drugs, that health professionals of various specialties can use as a reference when dealing with individual with this kind of drug abuse.

  3. Allosteric cross-talk in chromatin can mediate drug-drug synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhireksan, Zenita; Palermo, Giulia; Riedel, Tina; Ma, Zhujun; Muhammad, Reyhan; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Dyson, Paul J.; Davey, Curt A.

    2017-03-01

    Exploitation of drug-drug synergism and allostery could yield superior therapies by capitalizing on the immensely diverse, but highly specific, potential associated with the biological macromolecular landscape. Here we describe a drug-drug synergy mediated by allosteric cross-talk in chromatin, whereby the binding of one drug alters the activity of the second. We found two unrelated drugs, RAPTA-T and auranofin, that yield a synergistic activity in killing cancer cells, which coincides with a substantially greater number of chromatin adducts formed by one of the compounds when adducts from the other agent are also present. We show that this occurs through an allosteric mechanism within the nucleosome, whereby defined histone adducts of one drug promote reaction of the other drug at a distant, specific histone site. This opens up possibilities for epigenetic targeting and suggests that allosteric modulation in nucleosomes may have biological relevance and potential for therapeutic interventions.

  4. High-Throughput Cytochrome P450 Cocktail Inhibition Assay for Assessing Drug-Drug and Drug-Botanical Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guannan; Huang, Ke; Nikolic, Dejan

    2015-01-01

    Detection of drug-drug interactions is essential during the early stages of drug discovery and development, and the understanding of drug-botanical interactions is important for the safe use of botanical dietary supplements. Among the different forms of drug interactions that are known, inhibition of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes is the most common cause of drug-drug or drug-botanical interactions. Therefore, a rapid and comprehensive mass spectrometry–based in vitro high-throughput P450 cocktail inhibition assay was developed that uses 10 substrates simultaneously against nine CYP isoforms. Including probe substrates for CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and two probes targeting different binding sites of CYP3A4/5, this cocktail simultaneously assesses at least as many P450 enzymes as previous assays while remaining among the fastest due to short incubation times and rapid analysis using ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. The method was validated using known inhibitors of each P450 enzyme and then shown to be useful not only for single-compound testing but also for the evaluation of potential drug-botanical interactions using the botanical dietary supplement licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) as an example. PMID:26285764

  5. Study Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... to quit, they may have withdrawal symptoms like depression, thoughts of suicide, intense drug cravings, sleep problems, and fatigue. The health risks aren't the only downside to study drugs. Students caught with illegal prescription drugs may get suspended ...

  6. Drugs as instruments: a new framework for non-addictive psychoactive drug use.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christian P; Schumann, Gunter

    2011-12-01

    Most people who are regular consumers of psychoactive drugs are not drug addicts, nor will they ever become addicts. In neurobiological theories, non-addictive drug consumption is acknowledged only as a "necessary" prerequisite for addiction, but not as a stable and widespread behavior in its own right. This target article proposes a new neurobiological framework theory for non-addictive psychoactive drug consumption, introducing the concept of "drug instrumentalization." Psychoactive drugs are consumed for their effects on mental states. Humans are able to learn that mental states can be changed on purpose by drugs, in order to facilitate other, non-drug-related behaviors. We discuss specific "instrumentalization goals" and outline neurobiological mechanisms of how major classes of psychoactive drugs change mental states and serve non-drug-related behaviors. We argue that drug instrumentalization behavior may provide a functional adaptation to modern environments based on a historical selection for learning mechanisms that allow the dynamic modification of consummatory behavior. It is assumed that in order to effectively instrumentalize psychoactive drugs, the establishment of and retrieval from a drug memory is required. Here, we propose a new classification of different drug memory subtypes and discuss how they interact during drug instrumentalization learning and retrieval. Understanding the everyday utility and the learning mechanisms of non-addictive psychotropic drug use may help to prevent abuse and the transition to drug addiction in the future.

  7. Air Quality Inside Police Drug Safes and Drug Storage Areas.

    PubMed

    Doran, Gregory S; Deans, Ralph; De Filippis, Carlo; Kostakis, Chris; Howitt, Julia A

    2018-06-01

    Storage of drug-based evidence inside sealed safes may allow chemical vapors to accumulate, creating concerns of drug exposure by inhalation, or the possibility of cross-contamination of drug evidence. Air samples were taken from inside eight drug safes and one small storage room at nine city and country police stations, as well as a large centralized drug evidence storage vault, in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Sorbent tubes containing charcoal were used to determine whether any drug residues could be detected in the air, and to identify the types of chemicals present. Carbon traps were extracted and analyzed by LC-MS-MS for a suite of 22 licit and illicit drug residues and 2 metabolites. Carbon traps and SPME fibers were also analyzed by GC-MS for general volatile organic compound (VOC) residues. No detectable drug residues, either as airborne dust or vapor, were found in the safes, the storage room or the large central repository vault. No drugs were detected in any of the 34 urine samples collected at 8 of the 10 sampling locations, while only one of the five hair samples was positive for cocaine (9 pg/mg) provided by police exhibit officers at 3 of the 10 sampling locations. VOC analysis identified a variety of solvents associated with drug manufacture, plasticisers, personal care products and volatiles associated with plants such as cannabis. The results indicate that strong chemical odours emanating from drug safes are unlikely to be drug residues due to low volatility of drugs, and are more likely VOCs associated with their manufacture or from plant growing operations. Consideration should be given to the quality of air flow in rooms in which safes are housed and the use of air filtering inside safes to reduce the likelihood of VOC accumulation, and therefore the risk of human exposure.

  8. Vinpocetine reduces diclofenac-induced acute kidney injury through inhibition of oxidative stress, apoptosis, cytokine production, and NF-κB activation in mice.

    PubMed

    Fattori, Victor; Borghi, Sergio M; Guazelli, Carla F S; Giroldo, Andressa C; Crespigio, Jefferson; Bussmann, Allan J C; Coelho-Silva, Letícia; Ludwig, Natasha G; Mazzuco, Tânia L; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2017-06-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) represents a complex clinical condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Approximately, 19-33% AKI episodes in hospitalized patients are related to drug-induced nephrotoxicity. Although, considered safe, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as diclofenac have received special attention in the past years due to the potential risk of renal damage. Vinpocetine is a nootropic drug known to have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanisms of vinpocetine in a model of diclofenac-induced AKI. We observed that diclofenac increased proteinuria and blood urea, creatinine, and oxidative stress levels 24h after its administration. In renal tissue, diclofenac also increased oxidative stress and induced morphological changes consistent with renal damage. Moreover, diclofenac induced kidney cells apoptosis, up-regulated proinflammatory cytokines, and induced the activation of NF-κB in renal tissue. On the other hand, vinpocetine reduced diclofenac-induced blood urea and creatinine. In the kidneys, vinpocetine inhibited diclofenac-induced oxidative stress, morphological changes, apoptosis, cytokine production, and NF-κB activation. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that diclofenac-induced AKI increases NF-κB activation, and that vinpocetine reduces the nephrotoxic effects of diclofenac. Therefore, vinpocetine is a promising molecule for the treatment of diclofenac-induced AKI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrophobic Drug-Loaded PEGylated Magnetic Liposomes for Drug-Controlled Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardiansyah, Andri; Yang, Ming-Chien; Liu, Ting-Yu; Kuo, Chih-Yu; Huang, Li-Ying; Chan, Tzu-Yi

    2017-05-01

    Less targeted and limited solubility of hydrophobic-based drug are one of the serious obstacles in drug delivery system. Thus, new strategies to enhance the solubility of hydrophobic drug and controlled release behaviors would be developed. Herein, curcumin, a model of hydrophobic drug, has been loaded into PEGylated magnetic liposomes as a drug carrier platform for drug controlled release system. Inductive magnetic heating (hyperthermia)-stimulated drug release, in vitro cellular cytotoxicity assay of curcumin-loaded PEGylated magnetic liposomes and cellular internalization-induced by magnetic guidance would be investigated. The resultant of drug carriers could disperse homogeneously in aqueous solution, showing a superparamagnetic characteristic and could inductive magnetic heating with external high-frequency magnetic field (HFMF). In vitro curcumin release studies confirmed that the drug carriers exhibited no significant release at 37 °C, whereas exhibited rapid releasing at 45 °C. However, it would display enormous (three times higher) curcumin releasing under the HFMF exposure, compared with that without HFMF exposure at 45 °C. In vitro cytotoxicity test shows that curcumin-loaded PEGylated magnetic liposomes could efficiently kill MCF-7 cells in parallel with increasing curcumin concentration. Fluorescence microscopy observed that these drug carriers could internalize efficiently into the cellular compartment of MCF-7 cells. Thus, it would be anticipated that the novel hydrophobic drug-loaded PEGylated magnetic liposomes in combination with inductive magnetic heating are promising to apply in the combination of chemotherapy and thermotherapy for cancer therapy.

  10. [Drug-drug interactions: interactions between xenobiotics].

    PubMed

    Haen, E

    2014-04-01

    Drug-drug interactions (DDI) are a major topic in programs for continuous medical education (CME). Many physicians are afraid of being trapped into charges of malpractice; however, DDI cannot be avoided in many cases. They belong to routine medical practice and it is often impossible to avoid them. Moreover, they do not just occur between drugs but between any kind of foreign substance (xenobiotica), such as food (e.g. grapefruit juice, broccoli, barbecue) as well as legal (e.g. tobacco smoke, caffeine and alcohol) and illegal drugs. Therefore, the medical challenge is not just to avoid any interaction. Instead the physician faces the question of how to proceed with drug treatment in the presence of such interactions. Based on the medical education a physician has to judge first of all whether there is a risk for interactions in the prescription being planned for an individual patient. The classification of interactions proposed in this article (PD1-PD4, PK1-PK3) might help as a sort of check list. For more detailed information the physician can then consult one of the many databases available on the internet, such as PSIAConline (http://www.psiac.de) and MediQ (http://www.mediq.ch). Pharmacokinetic interactions can be easily assessed, monitored and controlled by therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Besides these tools it is important to keep in mind that nobody knows everything; even physicians do not know everything. So take pride in asking someone who might help and for this purpose AGATE offers a drug information service AID (http://www.amuep-agate.de). Just good for nothing, without being based on any kind of medical approach are computer programs that judge prescriptions without taking into account a patient's individual peculiarities. In case these types of programs produce red exclamation marks or traffic lights to underline their judgment, they might even work in a contrapuntal way by just eliciting insecurity and fear.

  11. Drug Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... harm it causes. Drug addiction can start with experimental use of a recreational drug in social situations, ... and interests K2, Spice and bath salts Two groups of synthetic drugs ... is no quality control and some ingredients may not be known. Synthetic ...

  12. Drug Discontinuation Effects Are Part of the Pharmacology of a Drug

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Most reviews of drug withdrawal effects focus on drugs of potential abuse such as opioids, benzodiazepines, etc. Abrupt discontinuation of many other drugs used in medicine cause withdrawal syndromes, some of which can be fatal. Discontinuation of a number of cardiovascular drugs can increase risk of cardiovascular events above that of people not taking these drugs. These include β-adrenergic receptor antagonists, aspirin, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), and heparin. Rebound hypertension occurs after abrupt cessation of many antihypertensive drugs. The possibility of discontinuation syndromes has usually been neglected until adverse clinical events force them to be noticed. Attention to the possibility of drug discontinuation effects is an important part of drug safety evaluation. PMID:21849624

  13. Drug Trafficking and Drug Use among Urban African American Early Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiaoming; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationships between drug trafficking (selling and delivering), cigarette and alcohol use, and illicit drug use among African-American adolescents. Found that drug trafficking is equally likely to occur with or without cigarette and alcohol use or illicit drug involvement, suggesting that intervention should extend to drug trafficking in…

  14. Could piracetam potentiate behavioural effects of psychostimulants?

    PubMed

    Slais, Karel; Machalova, Alena; Landa, Leos; Vrskova, Dagmar; Sulcova, Alexandra

    2012-08-01

    Press and internet reports mention abuse of nootropic drug piracetam (PIR) in combination with psychostimulants methamphetamine (MET) or 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). These combinations are believed to produce more profound desirable effects, while decreasing hangover. However, there is a lack of valid experimental studies on such drug-drug interactions in the scientific literature available. Our hypothesis proposes that a functional interaction exists between PIR and amphetamine psychostimulants (MET and MDMA) which can potentiate psychostimulant behavioural effects. Our hypothesis is supported by the results of our pilot experiment testing acute effects of drugs given to mice intraperitoneally (Vehicle, n=12; MET 2.5mg/kg, n=10; MDMA 2.5mg/kg, n=11; PIR 300 mg/kg, n=12; PIR+MET, n=12; PIR+MDMA, n=11) in the Open Field Test (Actitrack, Panlab, Spain). PIR given alone caused no significant changes in mouse locomotor/exploratory behaviour, whereas the same dose combined with either MET or MDMA significantly enhanced their stimulatory effects. Different possible neurobiological mechanism underlying drug-drug interaction of PIR with MET or MDMA are discussed, as modulation of dopaminergic, glutamatergic or cholinergic brain systems. However, the interaction with membrane phospholipids seems as the most plausible mechanism explaining PIR action on activities of neurotransmitter systems. Despite that our behavioural experiment cannot serve for explanation of the pharmacological mechanisms of these functional interactions, it shows that PIR effects can increase behavioural stimulation of amphetamine drugs. Thus, the reported combining of PIR with MET or MDMA by human abusers is not perhaps a coincidental phenomenon and may be based on existing PIR potential to intensify acute psychostimulant effects of these drugs of abuse. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Altered drug metabolism during pregnancy: Hormonal regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyunyoung

    2013-01-01

    Importance of the field Medication use during pregnancy is prevalent, but pharmacokinetic information of most drugs used during pregnancy is lacking in spite of known effects of pregnancy on drug disposition. Accurate pharmacokinetic information is essential for optimal drug therapy in mother and fetus. Thus, understanding how pregnancy influences drug disposition is important for better prediction of pharmacokinetic changes of drugs in pregnant women. Areas covered in this review Pregnancy is known to affect hepatic drug metabolism, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Physiological changes accompanying pregnancy are likely responsible for the reported alteration in drug metabolism during pregnancy. These include elevated concentrations of various hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, placental growth hormones and prolactin. This review covers how these hormones influence expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes, thus potentially responsible for altered drug metabolism during pregnancy. What the reader will gain The reader will gain a greater understanding of the altered drug metabolism in pregnant women and the regulatory effects of pregnancy hormones on expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Take home message In-depth studies in hormonal regulatory mechanisms as well as confirmatory studies in pregnant women are warranted for systematic understanding and prediction of the changes in hepatic drug metabolism during pregnancy. PMID:20367533

  16. Drugs and Diseases Interacting with Cigarette Smoking in US Prescription Drug Labelling.

    PubMed

    Li, Haibo; Shi, Qiang

    2015-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) draft guidance for industry on drug interaction studies recommends, but does not mandate, that both cigarette smokers and non-smokers can be used to study drug metabolism in clinical trials, and that important results related to smoking should be included in drug labelling to guide medication usage. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive review of drugs or diseases interacting with smoking, as presented in all US drug labelling. The 62,857 drug labels deposited in the FDA Online Label Repository were searched using the keywords 'smoke', 'smoker(s)', 'smoking', 'tobacco' and 'cigarette(s)' on 19 June 2014. The resultant records were refined to include only human prescription drug labelling, for manual examination. For 188 single-active-ingredient drugs and 36 multiple-active-ingredient drugs, the labelling was found to contain smoking-related information. The pharmacokinetics of 29 and 21 single-active-ingredient drugs were affected and unaffected, respectively, by smoking. For the remaining drugs, the provided information related to smoking affecting efficacy, safety or diseases but not pharmacokinetics. Depending on the nature of specific drugs, the perturbation in pharmacokinetic parameters in smokers ranged from 13 to 500%, in comparison with non-smokers. Dosage modifications in smokers are necessary for four drugs and may be necessary for six drugs, but are unnecessary for seven drugs although the pharmacokinetic parameters of four of them are affected by smoking. Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for 16 types of diseases or adverse drug reactions. For one single-active-ingredient contraceptive drug and 10 multiple-active-ingredient contraceptive drugs, a black box warning (the FDA's strongest safety warning) is included in the labelling for increased risks of heart attacks and strokes in female smokers, and "women are strongly advised not to smoke" when using these drugs. This study presents the first

  17. Hidden wholesale: The drug diffusing capacity of online drug cryptomarkets.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Judith; Décary-Hétu, David

    2016-09-01

    In spite of globalizing processes 'offline' retail drug markets remain localized and - in recent decades - typically 'closed', in which dealers sell primarily to known customers. We characterize drug cryptomarkets as 'anonymous open' marketplaces that allow the diffusion of drugs across locales. Where cryptomarket customers make stock-sourcing purchases for offline distribution, the cryptomarket may indirectly serve drug users who are not themselves cryptomarket customers, thereby increasing the drug diffusing capacity of these marketplaces. Our research aimed to identify wholesale activity on the first major cryptomarket, Silk Road 1. Data were collected 13-15 September 2013. A bespoke web crawler downloaded content from the first major drug cryptomarket, Silk Road 1. This generated data on 1031 vendors and 10,927 drug listings. We estimated monthly revenues to ascertain the relative importance of wholesale priced listings. Wholesale-level revenue generation (sales for listings priced over USD $1000.00) accounted for about a quarter of the revenue generation on SR1 overall. Ecstasy-type drugs dominated wholesale activity on this marketplace, but we also identified substantial wholesale transactions for benzodiazepines and prescription stimulants. Less important, but still generating wholesale revenue, were cocaine, methamphetamine and heroin. Although vendors on the marketplace were located in 41 countries, wholesale activity was confined to only a quarter of these, with China, the Netherlands, Canada and Belgium prominent. The cryptomarket may function in part as a virtual broker, linking wholesalers with offline retail-level distributors. For drugs like ecstasy, these marketplaces may link vendors in producer countries directly with retail level suppliers. Wholesale activity on cryptomarkets may serve to increase the diffusion of new drugs - and wider range of drugs - in offline drug markets, thereby indirectly serving drug users who are not cryptomarket

  18. Urine drug screen

    MedlinePlus

    Drug screen - urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence may indicate that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  19. Prescription drug coverage and effects on drug expenditures among elderly Medicare beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Huh, Soonim; Rice, Thomas; Ettner, Susan L

    2008-06-01

    To identify determinants of drug coverage among elderly Medicare beneficiaries and to investigate the impact of drug coverage on drug expenditures with and without taking selection bias into account. The primary data were from the 2000 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) Cost and Use file, linked to other data sources at the county or state-level that provided instrumental variables. Community-dwelling elderly Medicare beneficiaries who completed the survey were included in the study (N=7,525). A probit regression to predict the probability of having drug coverage and the effects of drug coverage on drug expenditures was estimated by a two-part model, assuming no correlation across equations. In addition, the discrete factor model estimated choice of drug coverage and expenditures for prescription drugs simultaneously to control for self-selection into drug coverage, allowing for correlation of error terms across equations. Findings indicated that unobservable characteristics leading elderly Medicare beneficiaries to purchase drug coverage also lead them to have higher drug expenditures on conditional use (i.e., adverse selection), while the same unobservable factors do not influence their decisions whether to use any drugs. After controlling for potential selection bias, the probability of any drug use among persons with drug coverage use was 4.5 percent higher than among those without, and drug coverage led to an increase in drug expenditures of $308 among those who used prescription drugs. Given significant adverse selection into drug coverage before the implementation of the Medicare Prescription Drug Improvement and Modernization Act, it is essential that selection effects be monitored as beneficiaries choose whether or not to enroll in this voluntary program.

  20. Food-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Lars E; Dalhoff, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Interactions between food and drugs may inadvertently reduce or increase the drug effect. The majority of clinically relevant food-drug interactions are caused by food-induced changes in the bioavailability of the drug. Since the bioavailability and clinical effect of most drugs are correlated, the bioavailability is an important pharmacokinetic effect parameter. However, in order to evaluate the clinical relevance of a food-drug interaction, the impact of food intake on the clinical effect of the drug has to be quantified as well. As a result of quality review in healthcare systems, healthcare providers are increasingly required to develop methods for identifying and preventing adverse food-drug interactions. In this review of original literature, we have tried to provide both pharmacokinetic and clinical effect parameters of clinically relevant food-drug interactions. The most important interactions are those associated with a high risk of treatment failure arising from a significantly reduced bioavailability in the fed state. Such interactions are frequently caused by chelation with components in food (as occurs with alendronic acid, clodronic acid, didanosine, etidronic acid, penicillamine and tetracycline) or dairy products (ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin), or by other direct interactions between the drug and certain food components (avitriptan, indinavir, itraconazole solution, levodopa, melphalan, mercaptopurine and perindopril). In addition, the physiological response to food intake, in particular gastric acid secretion, may reduce the bioavailability of certain drugs (ampicillin, azithromycin capsules, didanosine, erythromycin stearate or enteric coated, and isoniazid). For other drugs, concomitant food intake may result in an increase in drug bioavailability either because of a food-induced increase in drug solubility (albendazole, atovaquone, griseofulvin, isotretinoin, lovastatin, mefloquine, saquinavir and tacrolimus) or because of the secretion of

  1. The Tuberculosis Drug Discovery and Development Pipeline and Emerging Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Mdluli, Khisimuzi; Kaneko, Takushi; Upton, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The recent accelerated approval for use in extensively drug-resistant and multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis (MDR-TB) of two first-in-class TB drugs, bedaquiline and delamanid, has reinvigorated the TB drug discovery and development field. However, although several promising clinical development programs are ongoing to evaluate new TB drugs and regimens, the number of novel series represented is few. The global early-development pipeline is also woefully thin. To have a chance of achieving the goal of better, shorter, safer TB drug regimens with utility against drug-sensitive and drug-resistant disease, a robust and diverse global TB drug discovery pipeline is key, including innovative approaches that make use of recently acquired knowledge on the biology of TB. Fortunately, drug discovery for TB has resurged in recent years, generating compounds with varying potential for progression into developable leads. In parallel, advances have been made in understanding TB pathogenesis. It is now possible to apply the lessons learned from recent TB hit generation efforts and newly validated TB drug targets to generate the next wave of TB drug leads. Use of currently underexploited sources of chemical matter and lead-optimization strategies may also improve the efficiency of future TB drug discovery. Novel TB drug regimens with shorter treatment durations must target all subpopulations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis existing in an infection, including those responsible for the protracted TB treatment duration. This review summarizes the current TB drug development pipeline and proposes strategies for generating improved hits and leads in the discovery phase that could help achieve this goal. PMID:25635061

  2. Date Rape Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... High blood pressure Slurred speech Are these drugs legal in the United States? Some of these drugs ... High blood pressure Slurred speech Are these drugs legal in the United States? Some of these drugs ...

  3. Evaluation of the Triage TOX Drug Screen Assay for Detection of 11 Drugs of Abuse and Therapeutic Drugs.

    PubMed

    Bang, Hae In; Jang, Mi Ae; Lee, Yong Wha

    2017-11-01

    The demand for rapid and broad clinical toxicology screens is on the rise. Recently, a new rapid toxicology screening test, the Triage TOX Drug Screen (Alere Inc., USA), which can simultaneously detect 11 drugs of abuse and therapeutic drugs with an instrument-read cartridge, was developed. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of this new on-site immunoassay using 105 urine specimens; the results were compared with those obtained by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-TMS). Precision was evaluated according to the CLSI EP12-A2 for analyte concentrations near the cutoff, including C₅₀ and±30% of C₅₀, for each drug using standard materials. The C₅₀ specimens yielded 35-65% positive results and the±30% concentration range of all evaluated drugs encompassed the C₅-C₉₅ interval. The overall percent agreement of the Triage TOX Drug Screen was 92.4-100% compared with UPLC-TMS; however, the Triage TOX Drug Screen results showed some discordant cases including acetaminophen, amphetamine, benzodiazepine, opiates, and tricyclic antidepressants. The overall performance of the Triage TOX Drug Screen assay was comparable to that of UPLC-TMS for screening of drug intoxication in hospitals. This assay could constitute a useful screening method for drugs of abuse and therapeutic drugs in urine. © The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine.

  4. Genetic determinants of drug responsiveness and drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Caraco, Y

    1998-10-01

    Six cytochrome P450 enzymes mediate the oxidative metabolism of most drugs in common use: CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4. These enzymes have selective substrate specificity, and their activity is characterized by marked interindividual variation. Some of these systems (CYP2C19, CYP2D6) are polymorphically distributed; thus, a subset of the population may be genetically deficient in enzyme activity. Phenotyping procedures designed to identify subjects with impaired metabolism who may be at increased risk for drug toxicity have been developed and validated. This has been supplemented in recent years by the availability of genetic analysis and the identification of specific alleles that are associated with altered (i.e., reduced, deficient, or increased) enzyme activity. The potential of genotyping to predict pharmacodynamics holds great promise for the future because it does not involve the administration of exogenous compound and is not confounded by drug therapy. Drug interactions caused by the inhibition or induction of oxidative drug metabolism may be of great clinical importance because they may result in drug toxicity or therapeutic failure. Further understanding of cytochrome P450 complexity may allow, through a combined in vitro-in vivo approach, the reliable prediction and possible prevention of deleterious drug interactions.

  5. Substance use - prescription drugs

    MedlinePlus

    Substance use disorder - prescription drugs; Substance abuse - prescription drugs; Drug abuse - prescription drugs; Drug use - prescription drugs; Narcotics - substance use; Opioid - substance use; Sedative - substance ...

  6. Altered drug metabolism during pregnancy: hormonal regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyunyoung

    2010-06-01

    Medication use during pregnancy is prevalent, but pharmacokinetic information of most drugs used during pregnancy is lacking in spite of known effects of pregnancy on drug disposition. Accurate pharmacokinetic information is essential for optimal drug therapy in mother and fetus. Thus, understanding how pregnancy influences drug disposition is important for better prediction of pharmacokinetic changes of drugs in pregnant women. Pregnancy is known to affect hepatic drug metabolism, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Physiological changes accompanying pregnancy are probably responsible for the reported alteration in drug metabolism during pregnancy. These include elevated concentrations of various hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, placental growth hormones and prolactin. This review covers how these hormones influence expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), thus potentially responsible for altered drug metabolism during pregnancy. The reader will gain a greater understanding of the altered drug metabolism in pregnant women and the regulatory effects of pregnancy hormones on expression of DMEs. In-depth studies in hormonal regulatory mechanisms as well as confirmatory studies in pregnant women are warranted for systematic understanding and prediction of the changes in hepatic drug metabolism during pregnancy.

  7. Dealing with Drug Problems: Preventing and Treating Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... a drug even though you know it’s harmful is the hallmark of addiction. A drug doesn’t have to be illegal to cause this effect. People can become addicted to alcohol, nicotine, or even prescription drugs when they use them ...

  8. 10 CFR 26.163 - Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites. 26.163... the Department of Health and Human Services § 26.163 Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites. (a) Initial drug testing. (1) HHS-certified laboratories shall apply the following cutoff levels for initial...

  9. 10 CFR 26.163 - Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites. 26.163... the Department of Health and Human Services § 26.163 Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites. (a) Initial drug testing. (1) HHS-certified laboratories shall apply the following cutoff levels for initial...

  10. 10 CFR 26.163 - Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites. 26.163... the Department of Health and Human Services § 26.163 Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites. (a) Initial drug testing. (1) HHS-certified laboratories shall apply the following cutoff levels for initial...

  11. 10 CFR 26.163 - Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites. 26.163... the Department of Health and Human Services § 26.163 Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites. (a) Initial drug testing. (1) HHS-certified laboratories shall apply the following cutoff levels for initial...

  12. 10 CFR 26.163 - Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites. 26.163... the Department of Health and Human Services § 26.163 Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites. (a) Initial drug testing. (1) HHS-certified laboratories shall apply the following cutoff levels for initial...

  13. Drugs Most Frequently Involved in Drug Overdose Deaths: United States, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Warner, Margaret; Trinidad, James P; Bastian, Brigham A; Minino, Arialdi M; Hedegaard, Holly

    2016-12-01

    Objectives-This report identifies the specific drugs most frequently involved in drug overdose deaths in the United States from 2010 through 2014. Methods-The 2010-2014 National Vital Statistics System mortality files were linked to electronic files containing literal text information from death certificates. Drug overdose was defined using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision underlying cause-of-death codes X40-X44 (unintentional), X60-X64 (suicide), X85 (homicide), and Y10-Y14 (undetermined intent). Among deaths with an underlying cause of death of drug overdose, the literal text in three fields of the death certificate (i.e., the cause of death from Part I, significant conditions contributing to death from Part II, and a description of how the injury occurred from Box 43) were searched to identify drug mentions. Search term lists were developed using existing drug classification systems as well as from manual review of the literal text. The search term list was then used to identify the specific drugs involved in overdose deaths. Descriptive statistics were reported for drug overdose deaths involving the 10 most frequently mentioned drugs on death certificates. Tables and figures presenting information on the specific drugs involved in deaths are based on deaths with mention of at least one specific drug on the death certificate. Results-From 2010 through 2014, the number of drug overdose deaths per year increased 23%, from 38,329 in 2010 to 47,055 in 2014. During this time period, the percentage of drug overdose deaths involving at least one specific drug increased, from 67% in 2010 to 78% in 2014. Among drug overdose deaths with at least one drug specified on the death certificate, the 10 drugs most frequently involved in overdose deaths included the following opioids: heroin, oxycodone, methadone, morphine, hydrocodone, and fentanyl; the following benzodiazepines: alprazolam and diazepam; and the following stimulants: cocaine and

  14. Drug Use, the Drug Environment, and Child Physical Abuse and Neglect.

    PubMed

    Freisthler, Bridget; Wolf, Jennifer Price; Wiegmann, Wendy; Kepple, Nancy J

    2017-08-01

    Although drug use is considered a risk factor for child maltreatment, very little work has examined how the drug environment may affect physical abuse and neglect by parents. Utilizing information from a telephone survey with 2,597 respondents from 43 cities with valid police data on narcotics incidents, we analyzed the relationship between drug use, drug availability, and child maltreatment using multilevel models. City-level rates of drug abuse and dependence were related to more frequent physical abuse. Parents who use drugs in areas with greater availability of drugs reported more physical abuse and physical neglect. Emotional support was protective of all types of maltreatment. While most child welfare interventions focus on reducing parental drug use in order to reduce child abuse, these findings suggest environmental prevention or neighborhood strengthening approaches designed to reduce the supply of illicit drugs may also reduce child abuse through multiple mechanisms.

  15. Drug resistance in leishmaniasis: current drug-delivery systems and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Yasinzai, Masoom; Khan, Momin; Nadhman, Akhtar; Shahnaz, Gul

    2013-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex of diseases with numerous clinical manifestations for instance harshness from skin lesions to severe disfigurement and chronic systemic infection in the liver and spleen. So far, the most classical leishmaniasis therapy, despite its documented toxicities, remains pentavalent antimonial compounds. The arvailable therapeutic modalities for leishmaniasis are overwhelmed with resistance to leishmaniasis therapy. Mechanisms of classical drug resistance are often related with the lower drug uptake, increased efflux, the faster drug metabolism, drug target modifications and over-expression of drug transporters. The high prevalence of leishmaniasis and the appearance of resistance to classical drugs reveal the demand to develop and explore novel, less toxic, low cost and more promising therapeutic modalities. The review describes the mechanisms of classical drug resistance and potential drug targets in Leishmania infection. Moreover, current drug-delivery systems and future perspectives towards Leishmaniasis treatment are also covered.

  16. Drug affordability-potential tool for comparing illicit drug markets.

    PubMed

    Groshkova, Teodora; Cunningham, Andrew; Royuela, Luis; Singleton, Nicola; Saggers, Tony; Sedefov, Roumen

    2018-06-01

    The importance of illicit drug price data and making appropriate adjustments for purity has been repeatedly highlighted for understanding illicit drug markets. The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) has been collecting retail price data for a number of drug types alongside drug-specific purity information for over 15 years. While these data are useful for a number of monitoring and analytical purposes, they are not without their limitations and there are circumstances where additional adjustment needs to be considered. This paper reviews some conceptual issues and measurement challenges relevant to the interpretation of price data. It also highlights the issues with between-country comparisons of drug prices and introduces the concept of affordability of drugs, going beyond purity-adjustment to account for varying national economies. Based on a 2015 European data set of price and purity data across the heroin and cocaine retail markets, the paper demonstrates a new model for drug market comparative analysis; calculation of drug affordability is achieved by applying to purity-adjusted prices 2015 Price Level Indices (PLI, Eurostat). Available data allowed retail heroin and cocaine market comparison for 27 European countries. The lowest and highest unadjusted prices per gram were observed for heroin: in Estonia, Belgium, Greece and Bulgaria (lowest) and Finland, Ireland, Sweden and Latvia (highest); for cocaine: the Netherlands, Belgium and the United Kingdom (lowest) and Turkey, Finland, Estonia and Romania (highest). The affordability per gram of heroin and cocaine when taking into account adjustment for both purity and economy demonstrates different patterns. It is argued that purity-adjusted price alone provides an incomplete comparison of retail price across countries. The proposed new method takes account of the differing economic conditions within European countries, thus providing a more sophisticated tool for cross

  17. Pharmacogenomic biomarker information in drug labels approved by the United States food and drug administration: prevalence of related drug use.

    PubMed

    Frueh, Felix W; Amur, Shashi; Mummaneni, Padmaja; Epstein, Robert S; Aubert, Ronald E; DeLuca, Teresa M; Verbrugge, Robert R; Burckart, Gilbert J; Lesko, Lawrence J

    2008-08-01

    To review the labels of United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs to identify those that contain pharmacogenomic biomarker information, and to collect prevalence information on the use of those drugs for which pharmacogenomic information is included in the drug labeling. Retrospective analysis. The Physicians' Desk Reference Web site, Drugs@FDA Web site, and manufacturers' Web sites were used to identify drug labels containing pharmacogenomic information, and the prescription claims database of a large pharmacy benefits manager (insuring > 55 million individuals in the United States) was used to obtain drug utilization data. Pharmacogenomic biomarkers were defined, FDA-approved drug labels containing this information were identified, and utilization of these drugs was determined. Of 1200 drug labels reviewed for the years 1945-2005, 121 drug labels contained pharmacogenomic information based on a key word search and follow-up screening. Of those, 69 labels referred to human genomic biomarkers, and 52 referred to microbial genomic biomarkers. Of the labels referring to human biomarkers, 43 (62%) pertained to polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme metabolism, with CYP2D6 being most common. Of 36.1 million patients whose prescriptions were processed by a large pharmacy benefits manager in 2006, about 8.8 million (24.3%) received one or more drugs with human genomic biomarker information in the drug label. Nearly one fourth of all outpatients received one or more drugs that have pharmacogenomic information in the label for that drug. The incorporation and appropriate use of pharmacogenomic information in drug labels should be tested for its ability to improve drug use and safety in the United States.

  18. [Irrational use of drugs as a source of drug - induced diseases].

    PubMed

    Woroń, Jarosław; Porebski, Grzegorz; Kostka-Trabka, Elzbieta; Goszcz, Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    The irrational use of medication, by which we understand the administration of drugs for indications where their effectiveness has not been confirmed, the disregard of restrictions and warnings against their use, and the use of drug combinations which do not increase the therapeutic effect but to the contrary increase the risk of adverse drug reactions, is a serious problem encountered in paediatric pharmacotherapy. Each year the centres for monitoring of adverse drug reactions receive many reports, the analysis of which show that the reasons of occurrence of adverse drug reactions after drug administration, are specifically due to irrational use of medications. In order to prevent in an active way the occurrence, of adverse drug reactions following drug administration it is worthwhile to bring to attention the reasons for their occurrence which not infrequently bring about pathological effects. Our work which is based on reports received by the Regional Centre for Adverse Drug Reactions Monitoring in Krakow concerning the occurrence of adverse drug reactions in an attempt to bring to attention in our view important problems in current pharmacotherapy.

  19. Possible drug-drug interaction in dogs and cats resulted from alteration in drug metabolism: A mini review.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kazuaki; Shimoda, Minoru

    2015-05-01

    Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (in particular at metabolism) may result in fatal adverse effects in some cases. This basic information, therefore, is needed for drug therapy even in veterinary medicine, as multidrug therapy is not rare in canines and felines. The aim of this review was focused on possible drug-drug interactions in dogs and cats. The interaction includes enzyme induction by phenobarbital, enzyme inhibition by ketoconazole and fluoroquinolones, and down-regulation of enzymes by dexamethasone. A final conclusion based upon the available literatures and author's experience is given at the end of the review.

  20. Pharmacogenetics of drug-drug interaction and drug-drug-gene interaction: a systematic review on CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6.

    PubMed

    Bahar, Muh Akbar; Setiawan, Didik; Hak, Eelko; Wilffert, Bob

    2017-05-01

    Currently, most guidelines on drug-drug interaction (DDI) neither consider the potential effect of genetic polymorphism in the strength of the interaction nor do they account for the complex interaction caused by the combination of DDI and drug-gene interaction (DGI) where there are multiple biotransformation pathways, which is referred to as drug-drug-gene interaction (DDGI). In this systematic review, we report the impact of pharmacogenetics on DDI and DDGI in which three major drug-metabolizing enzymes - CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 - are central. We observed that several DDI and DDGI are highly gene-dependent, leading to a different magnitude of interaction. Precision drug therapy should take pharmacogenetics into account when drug interactions in clinical practice are expected.

  1. Smarter Drugs: How Protein Crystallography Revolutionizes Drug Design

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Smith, Clyde

    2005-04-26

    According to Smith, protein crystallography allows scientists to design drugs in a much more efficient way than the standard methods traditionally used by large drug companies, which can cost close to a billion dollars and take 10 to 15 years. 'A lot of the work can be compressed down,' Smith said. Protein crystallography enables researchers to learn the structure of molecules involved in disease and health. Seeing the loops, folds and placement of atoms in anything from a virus to a healthy cell membrane gives important information about how these things work - and how to encourage, sidestep or stopmore » their functions. Drug design can be much faster when the relationship between structure and function tells you what area of a molecule to target. Smith will use a timeline to illustrate the traditional methods of drug development and the new ways it can be done now. 'It is very exciting work. There have been some failures, but many successes too.' A new drug to combat the flu was developed in a year or so. Smith will tell us how. He will also highlight drugs developed to combat HIV, Tuberculosis, hypertension and Anthrax.« less

  2. HPMA Copolymer-Drug Conjugates with Controlled Tumor-Specific Drug Release.

    PubMed

    Chytil, Petr; Koziolová, Eva; Etrych, Tomáš; Ulbrich, Karel

    2018-01-01

    Over the past few decades, numerous polymer drug carrier systems are designed and synthesized, and their properties are evaluated. Many of these systems are based on water-soluble polymer carriers of low-molecular-weight drugs and compounds, e.g., cytostatic agents, anti-inflammatory drugs, or multidrug resistance inhibitors, all covalently bound to a carrier by a biodegradable spacer that enables controlled release of the active molecule to achieve the desired pharmacological effect. Among others, the synthetic polymer carriers based on N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers are some of the most promising carriers for this purpose. This review focuses on advances in the development of HPMA copolymer carriers and their conjugates with anticancer drugs, with triggered drug activation in tumor tissue and especially in tumor cells. Specifically, this review highlights the improvements in polymer drug carrier design with respect to the structure of a spacer to influence controlled drug release and activation, and its impact on the drug pharmacokinetics, enhanced tumor uptake, cellular trafficking, and in vivo antitumor activity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. [Drugs in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Danchev, N; Astrug, A; Tsankova, V; Nikolova, I

    2006-01-01

    The use of drugs in pregnancy is being discussed. The influence of different factors, both physiological and drug related (physicochemical characteristics, dose, duration of pharmacotherapy) on the processes of absorption, distribution, protein binding, metabolism and excretion are reviewed. The up-to-date classification of the drugs in relation to their effects on the fetus is presented. Special emphasize is given to drugs (antibiotics, cardio-vascular, psychotropic etc.) used for the treatment of acute and chronic conditions in the course of pregnancy. Drugs used for symptoms like pain, high temperature and constipation are also reviewed. Recommendations for the use of safer drugs in pregnancy are given. Drugs with proven teratogenic effects are presented.

  4. Drug Development Process

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Patients Home For Patients Learn About Drug and Device Approvals The Drug Development Process The Drug Development Process Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  5. DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for ‘Omics’ research on drugs

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Craig; Law, Vivian; Jewison, Timothy; Liu, Philip; Ly, Son; Frolkis, Alex; Pon, Allison; Banco, Kelly; Mak, Christine; Neveu, Vanessa; Djoumbou, Yannick; Eisner, Roman; Guo, An Chi; Wishart, David S.

    2011-01-01

    DrugBank (http://www.drugbank.ca) is a richly annotated database of drug and drug target information. It contains extensive data on the nomenclature, ontology, chemistry, structure, function, action, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, metabolism and pharmaceutical properties of both small molecule and large molecule (biotech) drugs. It also contains comprehensive information on the target diseases, proteins, genes and organisms on which these drugs act. First released in 2006, DrugBank has become widely used by pharmacists, medicinal chemists, pharmaceutical researchers, clinicians, educators and the general public. Since its last update in 2008, DrugBank has been greatly expanded through the addition of new drugs, new targets and the inclusion of more than 40 new data fields per drug entry (a 40% increase in data ‘depth’). These data field additions include illustrated drug-action pathways, drug transporter data, drug metabolite data, pharmacogenomic data, adverse drug response data, ADMET data, pharmacokinetic data, computed property data and chemical classification data. DrugBank 3.0 also offers expanded database links, improved search tools for drug–drug and food–drug interaction, new resources for querying and viewing drug pathways and hundreds of new drug entries with detailed patent, pricing and manufacturer data. These additions have been complemented by enhancements to the quality and quantity of existing data, particularly with regard to drug target, drug description and drug action data. DrugBank 3.0 represents the result of 2 years of manual annotation work aimed at making the database much more useful for a wide range of ‘omics’ (i.e. pharmacogenomic, pharmacoproteomic, pharmacometabolomic and even pharmacoeconomic) applications. PMID:21059682

  6. Drug policy, intravenous drug use, and heroin addiction in the UK.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, Jemell

    In order to fully understand and appreciate today's drug problem in the UK, the foundations of drug legislation and the history of drug evolution require exploration. This paper critically examines the history of drug policy and the growth of heroin addiction from the perspective of a novice researcher who works closely with intravenous drug users in relation to leg ulceration and wound care in the acute setting. Today's drug policy has come a long way in understanding the problems of heroin addiction and establishing services to meet intravenous drug users' needs and the needs of society. This paper highlights the early warning signs of drug addiction and growth within the UK from an early stage with key areas such as who the early users were and how addiction grew so rapidly between 1920 and 1960. Current policy and decision makers as well as clinicians and researchers in this field must understand the impacts of past policy and embed it within their decisions surrounding drug policy today.

  7. Computer-Assisted Drug Formulation Design: Novel Approach in Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Metwally, Abdelkader A; Hathout, Rania M

    2015-08-03

    We hypothesize that, by using several chemo/bio informatics tools and statistical computational methods, we can study and then predict the behavior of several drugs in model nanoparticulate lipid and polymeric systems. Accordingly, two different matrices comprising tripalmitin, a core component of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), and PLGA were first modeled using molecular dynamics simulation, and then the interaction of drugs with these systems was studied by means of computing the free energy of binding using the molecular docking technique. These binding energies were hence correlated with the loadings of these drugs in the nanoparticles obtained experimentally from the available literature. The obtained relations were verified experimentally in our laboratory using curcumin as a model drug. Artificial neural networks were then used to establish the effect of the drugs' molecular descriptors on the binding energies and hence on the drug loading. The results showed that the used soft computing methods can provide an accurate method for in silico prediction of drug loading in tripalmitin-based and PLGA nanoparticulate systems. These results have the prospective of being applied to other nano drug-carrier systems, and this integrated statistical and chemo/bio informatics approach offers a new toolbox to the formulation science by proposing what we present as computer-assisted drug formulation design (CADFD).

  8. Food and drug administration regulation of drugs that raise blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Blankfield, Robert P; Iftikhar, Imran H

    2015-01-01

    Although it is recognized that a systolic blood pressure (SBP) increase ≥ 2 mm Hg or a diastolic blood pressure (DBP) increase ≥ 1 mm Hg increases the risk of heart attacks and strokes in middle-aged adults, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) lacks an adequate policy for regulating medications that increase blood pressure (BP). Some FDA reviewers consider a clinically significant increase in BP to occur only if a drug raises SBP ≥ 20 mm Hg or if a drug raises DBP ≥ 10 to 15 mm Hg. In recent years, numerous drugs have been regulated or taken off the market due to cardiovascular safety concerns. The list includes rofecoxib (Vioxx), valdecoxib (Bextra), nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, sibutramine (Meridia), and phenylpropanolamine. It is probable that the hypertensive effect of these drugs explains why they increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Other drugs, notably serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors and drugs used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, were approved without cardiovascular safety data despite the fact that they raise BP comparable to valdecoxib and sibutramine. It is the responsibility of the FDA to ensure that drugs are properly labeled regarding risk. Even if a drug raises BP only modestly, FDA guidelines for new drug approvals should include a requirement for cardiovascular safety data. However, such guidelines will not address the problem of how to obtain cardiovascular safety data for the many already approved drugs that increase BP. The FDA should play a role in obtaining cardiovascular safety data for such drugs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Making drugs accessible.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Making drugs accessible for common HIV-associated illnesses in West Africa is discussed. HIV-positive people in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, could not afford drugs for treating their illnesses; thus, volunteers from La Bergerie-FUC, a Christian organization, have established a day care center for HIV-positive people. A French church supplies the drugs; oral rehydration salts are provided through the Ministry of Health. Since the organization did not have enough drugs to meet the needs of all its patients, two strategies were developed to improve its drug supply. The first strategy was to raise money to buy drugs through the support of a local NGO, the Initiative Privee et Communautaire de lutte contre le SIDA (IPC). IPC initially refused to support them, but, eventually agreed to fund drug purchasing as a pilot project. The second strategy was to look at ways of reducing the cost of drugs, which resulted in a list of essential drugs for HIV-associated infections. The list was approved by Care and Support Committee of the national AIDS program for use by other organizations. The organizations have created a national network to improve the delivery of community-based care and support services in Burkina Faso. Recently, the national AIDS program has asked this network to help them change the national essential drugs list to include essential drugs for treating common HIV-associated infections.

  10. Effect of drug law enforcement on drug market violence: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Werb, Dan; Rowell, Greg; Guyatt, Gordon; Kerr, Thomas; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    2011-03-01

    Violence is amongst the primary concerns of communities around the world and research has demonstrated links between violence and the illicit drug trade, particularly in urban settings. Given the growing emphasis on evidence-based policy-making, and the ongoing severe drug market violence in Mexico and other settings, we conducted a systematic review to examine the impacts of drug law enforcement on drug market violence. We conducted a systematic review using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Specifically, we undertook a search of English language electronic databases (Academic Search Complete, PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Web of Science, Sociological Abstracts, Social Service Abstracts, PAIS International and Lexis-Nexis), the Internet (Google, Google Scholar), and article reference lists, from database inception to January 24, 2011. Overall, 15 studies were identified that evaluated the impact of drug law enforcement on drug market violence, including 11 (73%) longitudinal analyses using linear regression, 2 (13%) mathematical drug market models, and 2 (13%) qualitative studies. Fourteen (93%) studies reported an adverse impact of drug law enforcement on levels of violence. Ten of the 11 (91%) studies employing longitudinal qualitative analyses found a significant association between drug law enforcement and drug market violence. Our findings suggest that increasing drug law enforcement is unlikely to reduce drug market violence. Instead, the existing evidence base suggests that gun violence and high homicide rates may be an inevitable consequence of drug prohibition and that disrupting drug markets can paradoxically increase violence. In this context, and since drug prohibition has not meaningfully reduced drug supply, alternative regulatory models will be required if drug supply and drug market violence are to be meaningfully reduced. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Characteristics and drug utilization patterns for heavy users of prescription drugs among the elderly: a Danish register-based drug utilization study.

    PubMed

    Øymoen, Anita; Pottegård, Anton; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) identify and characterize heavy users of prescription drugs among persons aged 60 years and above; (2) investigate the association of demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables with being a heavy drug user; and (3) study the most frequently used drugs among heavy drug users and development in use over time. This is a descriptive study. Heavy drug users were defined as the accumulated top 1 percentile who accounted for the largest share of prescription drug use measured in number of dispensed defined daily doses (DDDs). The nationwide Danish registers were used to obtain data. Multivariable logistic binary regression was used to determine which factors were associated with being a heavy drug user. Heavy drug users among persons aged 60 years and above accounted for 6.8, 6.0, and 5.5% of prescription drug use in 2002, 2007, and 2012, respectively. Male gender, those aged 60-69 years, being divorced, shorter education, low annual income, and recent hospitalization were all significantly associated with being in the top 1 percentile group of drug users (p < 0.05). The ten most frequently used drug classes among heavy drug users accounted for 75.4% of their use in 2012, and five of these were cardiovascular drugs. The development over time for the ten most used drug classes followed the same pattern among heavy drug users and in the general population. There is a skewed utilization of prescription drugs. Contrary to earlier findings, being male was associated with heavy prescription drug use both with respect to number of drugs used and drug expenditure.

  12. The use of drugs by UK recreational divers: illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Dowse, Marguerite St Leger; Shaw, Steve; Cridge, Christine; Smerdon, Gary

    2011-03-01

    Anecdotal observations suggest the use of illicit drugs takes place amongst recreational divers but, to date, there has been little open debate within the diving community concerning possible prevalence. This study investigated the prevalence and type of illicit drugs used by recreational divers in the United Kingdom (UK). Anonymous questionnaires were circulated via UK dive clubs, dive schools, dive shows and conferences. Questions incorporated diver and diving demographics and general health, which included anxiety, depression and panic attacks, alcohol use, smoking and illicit drug use since learning to dive and closest time to a dive. Questions pertaining to over-the-counter and prescription drug use were also asked. 479 divers responded (66% males and 34% females) in the age range 16 to 59 years. Of the respondents, 22% had used one or more illicit drug since learning to dive, reporting benzodiazepines, amphetamines, cocaine, ecstasy, LSD, cannabis, heroin, and 'magic mushrooms'. Illicit drugs had been used by 3.5% of respondents in the last 12 months, and 3% in the last month. Cannabis, cocaine and ecstasy use was reported within 6 hours of a dive. Logistic regression confirmed a relationship between illicit drug use and depression (P = 0.014), and also between illicit drug use and anxiety (P = 0.024). These data support anecdotal reports that recreational divers use a range of illicit drugs. The significant relationship between illicit drug use and depression and anxiety supports the literature in non-diving populations.

  13. Using a Drug Interaction Program (Drug Interactions Advisor™) in a Community Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, A. C.; Diehl, G. R.; Finlayson, W. B.

    1987-01-01

    To test the usefulness of a drugs-interaction program in a community hospital one hundred patients in three medical wards were surveyed with respect to their drug regime. The drugs listed for each patient were entered into Drug Interactions Advisor™ a commercial interactions program running on an Apple IIE. Interacting drugs were listed with the severity of the interaction in each case. Of one hundred patients fifty-one had drugs which could potentially interact and in fifty-one percent of cases a change in therapy would have been advised by Drug Interactions Advisor™. The completeness of the data base was assessed as to its inclusion of drugs actually given and it dealt with eighty-nine percent. The program was tested against ten known interactions and it identified six. Multiple drug therapy is a major problem nowadays and will increase with the aging of the population. Drug interactions programs exploit computer technology to make drug surveillance easier. Without computers such surveillance is difficult if not impossible.

  14. Participatory design for drug-drug interaction alerts.

    PubMed

    Luna, Daniel; Otero, Carlos; Almerares, Alfredo; Stanziola, Enrique; Risk, Marcelo; González Bernaldo de Quirós, Fernán

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of decision support systems, in the point of care, to alert drug-drug interactions has been shown to improve quality of care. Still, the use of these systems has not been as expected, it is believed, because of the difficulties in their knowledge databases; errors in the generation of the alerts and the lack of a suitable design. This study expands on the development of alerts using participatory design techniques based on user centered design process. This work was undertaken in three stages (inquiry, participatory design and usability testing) it showed that the use of these techniques improves satisfaction, effectiveness and efficiency in an alert system for drug-drug interactions, a fact that was evident in specific situations such as the decrease of errors to meet the specified task, the time, the workload optimization and users overall satisfaction in the system.

  15. Patterns of Drugs and Drug Metabolites Observed in Meconium: What Do They Mean?

    PubMed

    McMillin, Gwendolyn A; Wood, Kelly E; Strathmann, Frederick G; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2015-10-01

    Meconium drug testing is performed to detect potentially harmful drug exposures in a newborn. Interpretation of meconium drug testing results can be complicated based on the patterns and proportional concentrations of the drug(s) and/or drug metabolite(s) detected. The objective of this study was to analyze meconium drug testing patterns in a de-identified dataset from a national reference laboratory (n = 76,631) and in a subset of the data, wherein specimens originated at a single academic medical center for which detailed chart review was possible (n = 3635). Meconium testing was performed using 11 immunoassay-based drug screens. Specimens that were positive for one or more drug screens were reflexed to corresponding confirmation tests performed by gas chromatography or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection, targeted to identify and quantitate specific parent drug(s) and metabolite(s). The positivity rate was the highest for the cannabis metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (25.2%, n = 18,643), followed by opiates/oxycodone (23.2%, n = 17,778), amphetamine/methamphetamine (6.7%, n = 5134), cocaine metabolites (5.5%, n = 4205), methadone (5.3%, n = 4093), benzodiazepines (3.4%, n = 2603), barbiturates (1.1%, n = 834), propoxyphene (1.0%, n = 749), and phencyclidine (0.1%, n = 44). Based on documented pharmacy history, drugs administered to either the mother or newborn during the birth hospitalization were detected in meconium, providing evidence that drugs can be incorporated into meconium rapidly. Drugs administered directly to the newborn after birth were recovered in meconium as both parent drug and metabolites, providing evidence of neonatal metabolism. Overall, patterns observed in meconium exhibited many similarities to those patterns commonly reported with urine drug testing. Interpretation of meconium drug testing results requires comparison of results with clinical and analytical expectations, including maternal

  16. Effects of Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Used Drugs in the Past Drug Use Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search ... who aren't yet born. Drug use can hurt the body and the brain, sometimes forever. Drug use can also lead to addiction, a long-lasting brain disease in which people ...

  17. Aniracetam reduces glutamate receptor desensitization and slows the decay of fast excitatory synaptic currents in the hippocampus.

    PubMed Central

    Isaacson, J S; Nicoll, R A

    1991-01-01

    Aniracetam is a nootropic drug that has been shown to selectively enhance quisqualate receptor-mediated responses in Xenopus oocytes injected with brain mRNA and in hippocampal pyramidal cells [Ito, I., Tanabe, S., Kohda, A. & Sugiyama, H. (1990) J. Physiol. (London) 424, 533-544]. We have used patch clamp recording techniques in hippocampal slices to elucidate the mechanism for this selective action. We find that aniracetam enhances glutamate-evoked currents in whole-cell recordings and, in outside-out patches, strongly reduces glutamate receptor desensitization. In addition, aniracetam selectively prolongs the time course and increases the peak amplitude of fast synaptic currents. These findings indicate that aniracetam slows the kinetics of fast synaptic transmission and are consistent with the proposal [Trussell, L. O. & Fischbach, G. D. (1989) Neuron 3, 209-218; Tang, C.-M., Dichter, M. & Morad, M. (1989) Science 243, 1474-1477] that receptor desensitization governs the strength of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. PMID:1660156

  18. Aniracetam reduces glutamate receptor desensitization and slows the decay of fast excitatory synaptic currents in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, J S; Nicoll, R A

    1991-12-01

    Aniracetam is a nootropic drug that has been shown to selectively enhance quisqualate receptor-mediated responses in Xenopus oocytes injected with brain mRNA and in hippocampal pyramidal cells [Ito, I., Tanabe, S., Kohda, A. & Sugiyama, H. (1990) J. Physiol. (London) 424, 533-544]. We have used patch clamp recording techniques in hippocampal slices to elucidate the mechanism for this selective action. We find that aniracetam enhances glutamate-evoked currents in whole-cell recordings and, in outside-out patches, strongly reduces glutamate receptor desensitization. In addition, aniracetam selectively prolongs the time course and increases the peak amplitude of fast synaptic currents. These findings indicate that aniracetam slows the kinetics of fast synaptic transmission and are consistent with the proposal [Trussell, L. O. & Fischbach, G. D. (1989) Neuron 3, 209-218; Tang, C.-M., Dichter, M. & Morad, M. (1989) Science 243, 1474-1477] that receptor desensitization governs the strength of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain.

  19. Selective effects of aniracetam across receptor types and forms of synaptic facilitation in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Xiao, P; Staubli, U; Kessler, M; Lynch, G

    1991-10-01

    Aniracetam reversibly increased synaptic responses mediated by the AMPA but not the NMDA subclass of glutamate receptors in hippocampus and was considerably more potent than structurally similar nootropics. The drug had greater effects on field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in the dentate gyrus and CA1 region than it did in the CA3 region, suggesting that it differentiates between variants of the AMPA receptor. Ligand binding to glutamate receptors in synaptosomal membrane fractions was minimally changed by aniracetam. Finally, the percent facilitation produced by aniracetam in the CA1 region was not reduced by any of three treatments (4-aminopyridine, changes in extracellular calcium concentrations, paired-pulse stimulation) that affect release but, in accord with a previous report, was substantially decreased by long-term potentiation. These results support the conclusion that aniracetam selectively increases the conductance of a subgroup of synaptic AMPA receptors in hippocampus and suggest that receptor changes underlie the expression of long-term potentiation.

  20. Effects of piracetam on behavior and memory in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Leah; Stewart, Adam; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Utterback, Eli; Wu, Nadine; Dileo, John; Frank, Kevin; Hart, Peter; Howard, Harry; Kalueff, Allan V

    2011-04-25

    Piracetam, a derivative of γ-aminobutyric acid, exerts memory-enhancing and mild anxiolytic effects in human and rodent studies. To examine the drug's behavioral profile further, we assessed its effects on behavioral and endocrine (cortisol) responses of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio)--a novel model species rapidly gaining popularity in neurobehavioral research. Overall, acute piracetam did not affect zebrafish novel tank and light-dark box behavior at mild doses (25-400mg/L), but produced nonspecific behavioral inhibition at 700mg/L. No effects on cortisol levels or inter-/intra-session habituation in the novel tank test were observed for acute or chronic mild non-sedative dose of 200mg/L. In contrast, fish exposed to chronic piracetam at this dose performed significantly better in the cued learning plus-maze test. This observation parallels clinical and rodent literature on the behavioral profile of piracetam, supporting the utility of zebrafish paradigms for testing nootropic agents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Illicit Drug Use, Illicit Drug Use Disorders, and Drug Overdose Deaths in Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Areas - United States.

    PubMed

    Mack, Karin A; Jones, Christopher M; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2017-10-20

    Drug overdoses are a leading cause of injury death in the United States, resulting in approximately 52,000 deaths in 2015. Understanding differences in illicit drug use, illicit drug use disorders, and overall drug overdose deaths in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas is important for informing public health programs, interventions, and policies. Illicit drug use and drug use disorders during 2003-2014, and drug overdose deaths during 1999-2015. The National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) collects information through face-to-face household interviews about the use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco among the U.S. noninstitutionalized civilian population aged ≥12 years. Respondents include residents of households and noninstitutional group quarters (e.g., shelters, rooming houses, dormitories, migratory workers' camps, and halfway houses) and civilians living on military bases. NSDUH variables include sex, age, race/ethnicity, residence (metropolitan/nonmetropolitan), annual household income, self-reported drug use, and drug use disorders. National Vital Statistics System Mortality (NVSS-M) data for U.S. residents include information from death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Cases were selected with an underlying cause of death based on the ICD-10 codes for drug overdoses (X40-X44, X60-X64, X85, and Y10-Y14). NVSS-M variables include decedent characteristics (sex, age, and race/ethnicity) and information on intent (unintentional, suicide, homicide, or undetermined), location of death (medical facility, in a home, or other [including nursing homes, hospices, unknown, and other locations]) and county of residence (metropolitan/nonmetropolitan). Metropolitan/nonmetropolitan status is assigned independently in each data system. NSDUH uses a three-category system: Core Based Statistical Area (CBSA) of ≥1 million persons; CBSA of <1 million persons; and not a CBSA, which for simplicity were labeled large metropolitan

  2. Illicit Drug Use, Illicit Drug Use Disorders, and Drug Overdose Deaths in Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Areas-United States.

    PubMed

    Mack, Karin A; Jones, Christopher M; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2017-12-01

    Drug overdoses are a leading cause of injury death in the United States, resulting in approximately 52,000 deaths in 2015. Understanding differences in illicit drug use, illicit drug use disorders, and overall drug overdose deaths in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas is important for informing public health programs, interventions, and policies. Illicit drug use and drug use disorders during 2003-2014, and drug overdose deaths during 1999-2015. The National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) collects information through face-to-face household interviews about the use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco among the U.S. noninstitutionalized civilian population aged ≥12 years. Respondents include residents of households and noninstitutional group quarters (e.g., shelters, rooming houses, dormitories, migratory workers' camps, and halfway houses) and civilians living on military bases. NSDUH variables include sex, age, race/ethnicity, residence (metropolitan/nonmetropolitan), annual household income, self-reported drug use, and drug use disorders. National Vital Statistics System Mortality (NVSS-M) data for U.S. residents include information from death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Cases were selected with an underlying cause of death based on the ICD-10 codes for drug overdoses (X40-X44, X60-X64, X85, and Y10-Y14). NVSS-M variables include decedent characteristics (sex, age, and race/ethnicity) and information on intent (unintentional, suicide, homicide, or undetermined), location of death (medical facility, in a home, or other [including nursing homes, hospices, unknown, and other locations]) and county of residence (metropolitan/nonmetropolitan). Metropolitan/nonmetropolitan status is assigned independently in each data system. NSDUH uses a three-category system: Core Based Statistical Area (CBSA) of ≥1 million persons; CBSA of <1 million persons; and not a CBSA, which for simplicity were labeled large metropolitan

  3. Adverse drug event monitoring at the Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Syed Rizwanuddin

    2003-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible not only for approving drugs but also for monitoring their safety after they reach the market. The complete adverse event profile of a drug is not known at the time of approval because of the small sample size, short duration, and limited generalizability of pre-approval clinical trials. This report describes the FDA's postmarketing surveillance system, to which many clinicians submit reports of adverse drug events encountered while treating their patients. Despite its limitations, the spontaneous reporting system is an extremely valuable mechanism by which hazards with drugs that were not observed or recognized at the time of approval are identified. Physicians are strongly encouraged to submit reports of adverse outcomes with suspect drugs to the FDA, and their reports make a difference. The FDA is strengthening its postmarketing surveillance with access to new data sources that have the potential to further improve the identification, quantification, and subsequent management of drug risk.

  4. Adverse Drug Event Monitoring at the Food and Drug Administration

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Syed Rizwanuddin

    2003-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible not only for approving drugs but also for monitoring their safety after they reach the market. The complete adverse event profile of a drug is not known at the time of approval because of the small sample size, short duration, and limited generalizability of pre-approval clinical trials. This report describes the FDA's postmarketing surveillance system, to which many clinicians submit reports of adverse drug events encountered while treating their patients. Despite its limitations, the spontaneous reporting system is an extremely valuable mechanism by which hazards with drugs that were not observed or recognized at the time of approval are identified. Physicians are strongly encouraged to submit reports of adverse outcomes with suspect drugs to the FDA, and their reports make a difference. The FDA is strengthening its postmarketing surveillance with access to new data sources that have the potential to further improve the identification, quantification, and subsequent management of drug risk. PMID:12534765

  5. Drug allergy

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Allergic drug reactions occur when a drug, usually a low molecular weight molecule, has the ability to stimulate an immune response. This can be done in one of two ways. The first is by binding covalently to a self-protein, to produce a haptenated molecule that can be processed and presented to the adaptive immune system to induce an immune response. Sometimes the drug itself cannot do this but a reactive breakdown product of the drug is able to bind covalently to the requisite self-protein or peptide. The second way in which drugs can stimulate an immune response is by binding non-covalently to antigen presenting or antigen recognition molecules such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) or the T cell receptor. This is known as the p-I or pharmacological interaction hypothesis. The drug binding in this situation is reversible and stimulation of the response may occur on first exposure, not requiring previous sensitization. There is probably a dependence on the presence of certain MHC alleles and T cell receptor structures for this type of reaction to occur. PMID:22922763

  6. 21 CFR 310.502 - Certain drugs accorded new drug status through rulemaking procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for human use. (10) Parenteral drug products in plastic containers. (11) Sterilization of drugs by... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain drugs accorded new drug status through rulemaking procedures. 310.502 Section 310.502 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  7. 21 CFR 310.502 - Certain drugs accorded new drug status through rulemaking procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for human use. (10) Parenteral drug products in plastic containers. (11) Sterilization of drugs by... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain drugs accorded new drug status through rulemaking procedures. 310.502 Section 310.502 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  8. 21 CFR 310.502 - Certain drugs accorded new drug status through rulemaking procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for human use. (10) Parenteral drug products in plastic containers. (11) Sterilization of drugs by... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain drugs accorded new drug status through rulemaking procedures. 310.502 Section 310.502 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  9. 21 CFR 310.502 - Certain drugs accorded new drug status through rulemaking procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for human use. (10) Parenteral drug products in plastic containers. (11) Sterilization of drugs by... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certain drugs accorded new drug status through rulemaking procedures. 310.502 Section 310.502 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  10. 21 CFR 310.502 - Certain drugs accorded new drug status through rulemaking procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for human use. (10) Parenteral drug products in plastic containers. (11) Sterilization of drugs by... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certain drugs accorded new drug status through rulemaking procedures. 310.502 Section 310.502 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. [Drug delivery systems using nano-sized drug carriers].

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Masamichi; Okano, Teruo

    2005-07-01

    Nanotechnology has attracted great attention all over the world in recent several years and has led to the establishment of the novel technical field of "nanomedicine" through collaboration with advanced medical technology. Particularly, site-specific drug targeting using particle drug carrier systems has made substantial progress and been actively developed. This review explains the essential factors (size and chemical character) of drug carriers to allow long circulation in the bloodstream avoiding the reticuloendothelial system, and shows the present status and future perspective of several types of nano-carrier systems (water-soluble polymer, liposome and polymeric micelle). We also introduce the novel concept of multi-targeting system (combination of two or more targeting methodologies) for ideal drug therapies.

  12. Perception of Generic Prescription Drugs and Utilization of Generic Drug Discount Programs

    PubMed Central

    Omojasola, Anthony; Hernandez, Mike; Sansgiry, Sujit; Jones, Lovell

    2012-01-01

    Objective Our study aimed to assess patient’s perceptions of generic drugs and utilization of generic drug discount programs. Design, Setting and Participants A survey was administered to adult participants at community health centers and community-based organizations in Houston, Texas, USA (n=525). Main Outcome Measures Multivariate logistic regression was used to quantify the strength of association between generic drug perception and utilization of generic drug discount programs. Results Respondents who agreed that “Generic prescription drugs are as effective as brand name prescription drugs,” were 3 times as likely to utilize generic drug discount programs (AOR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.8–4.8, P<.001). Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, African Americans (OR: 10.2; 95% CI: 1.4–76.4) and Hispanics (OR: 10.3; 95% CI: 1.3–79.4) were 10 times as likely to agree that generic drugs have more side effects than brand name drugs. Conclusion Race/ethnicity had no impact in utilization of generic drug discount programs, despite racial disparities in perception toward generic drugs’ side effects and generic drugs being inferior to brand name drugs. PMID:23140080

  13. Rational drug design paradigms: the odyssey for designing better drugs.

    PubMed

    Kellici, Tahsin; Ntountaniotis, Dimitrios; Vrontaki, Eleni; Liapakis, George; Moutevelis-Minakakis, Panagiota; Kokotos, George; Hadjikakou, Sotiris; Tzakos, Andreas G; Afantitis, Antreas; Melagraki, Georgia; Bryant, Sharon; Langer, Thierry; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Mavromoustakos, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Due to the time and effort requirements for the development of a new drug, and the high attrition rates associated with this developmental process, there is an intense effort by academic and industrial researchers to find novel ways for more effective drug development schemes. The first step in the discovery process of a new drug is the identification of the lead compound. The modern research tendency is to avoid the synthesis of new molecules based on chemical intuition, which is time and cost consuming, and instead to apply in silico rational drug design. This approach reduces the consumables and human personnel involved in the initial steps of the drug design. In this review real examples from our research activity aiming to discover new leads will be given for various dire warnings diseases. There is no recipe to follow for discovering new leads. The strategy to be followed depends on the knowledge of the studied system and the experience of the researchers. The described examples constitute successful and unsuccessful efforts and reflect the reality which medicinal chemists have to face in drug design and development. The drug stability is also discussed in both organic molecules and metallotherapeutics. This is an important issue in drug discovery as drug metabolism in the body can lead to various toxic and undesired molecules.

  14. Adverse drug reactions and off-label drug use in paediatric outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Horen, Benjamin; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Lapeyre-mestre, Maryse

    2002-01-01

    Aims To investigate the potential relationship between off-label drug use and increased risk of adverse drug reactions in paediatric outpatients. Methods A prospective pharmacovigilance survey of drug prescribing in office based paediatricians was carried out in Haute-Garonne County (south west of France). Results The study involved a sample of 1419 children under 16 years old. Forty-two percent of patients were exposed to at least one off-label prescription. The incidence of adverse drug reactions was 1.41% (95% CI 0.79, 2.11). Off-label drug use was significantly associated with adverse drug reactions (relative risk 3.44; 95% CI 1.26, 9.38), particularly when it was due to an indication different than that defined in the Summary Product Characteristics (relative risk 4.42; 95% CI 1.60, 12.25). Conclusions Our data suggest an increasing risk of adverse drug reactions related to off-label drug use. This risk would be acceptable if further studies prove the potential benefit of such a drug use. PMID:12492616

  15. Drug-Drug Multicomponent Solid Forms: Cocrystal, Coamorphous and Eutectic of Three Poorly Soluble Antihypertensive Drugs Using Mechanochemical Approach.

    PubMed

    Haneef, Jamshed; Chadha, Renu

    2017-08-01

    The present study deals with the application of mechanochemical approach for the preparation of drug-drug multicomponent solid forms of three poorly soluble antihypertensive drugs (telmisartan, irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide) using atenolol as a coformer. The resultant solid forms comprise of cocrystal (telmisartan-atenolol), coamorphous (irbesartan-atenolol) and eutectic (hydrochlorothiazide-atenolol). The study emphasizes that solid-state transformation of drug molecules into new forms is a result of the change in structural patterns, diminishing of dimers and creating new facile hydrogen bonding network based on structural resemblance. The propensity for heteromeric or homomeric interaction between two different drugs resulted into diverse solid forms (cocrystal/coamorphous/eutectics) and become one of the interesting aspects of this research work. Evaluation of these solid forms revealed an increase in solubility and dissolution leading to better antihypertensive activity in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) salt-induced animal model. Thus, development of these drug-drug multicomponent solid forms is a promising and viable approach to addressing the issue of poor solubility and could be of considerable interest in dual drug therapy for the treatment of hypertension.

  16. Influence of multidrug resistance and drug transport proteins on chemotherapy drug metabolism.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Helena; McCann, Andrew; Clynes, Martin; Larkin, Annemarie

    2015-05-01

    Chemotherapy involving the use of anticancer drugs remains an important strategy in the overall management of patients with metastatic cancer. Acquisition of multidrug resistance remains a major impediment to successful chemotherapy. Drug transporters in cell membranes and intracellular drug metabolizing enzymes contribute to the resistance phenotype and determine the pharmacokinetics of anticancer drugs in the body. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters mediate the transport of endogenous metabolites and xenobiotics including cytotoxic drugs out of cells. Solute carrier (SLC) transporters mediate the influx of cytotoxic drugs into cells. This review focuses on the substrate interaction of these transporters, on their biology and what role they play together with drug metabolizing enzymes in eliminating therapeutic drugs from cells. The majority of anticancer drugs are substrates for the ABC transporter and SLC transporter families. Together, these proteins have the ability to control the influx and the efflux of structurally unrelated chemotherapeutic drugs, thereby modulating the intracellular drug concentration. These interactions have important clinical implications for chemotherapy because ultimately they determine therapeutic efficacy, disease progression/relapse and the success or failure of patient treatment.

  17. The Visibility of Illicit Drugs: Implications for Community-Based Drug Control Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Saxe, Leonard; Kadushin, Charles; Beveridge, Andrew; Livert, David; Tighe, Elizabeth; Rindskopf, David; Ford, Julie; Brodsky, Archie

    2001-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined differences between the visibility of drugs and drug use in more than 2100 neighborhoods, challenging an assumption about drug use in poor, minority, and urban communities. Methods. A telephone survey assessed substance use and attitudes across 41 communities in an evaluation of a national community-based demand reduction program. Three waves of data were collected from more than 42 000 respondents. Results. Measures of neighborhood disadvantage, population density, and proportion of minority residents explained more than 57% of the variance between census tracts in visibility of drug sales but less than 10% of tract-to-tract variance in drug use. Visible drug sales were 6.3 times more likely to be reported in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods than in the least disadvantaged, while illicit drug use was only 1.3 times more likely. Conclusions. The most disadvantaged neighborhoods have the most visible drug problems, but drug use is nearly equally distributed across all communities. Thus, efforts to address drug-related problems in poorer areas need to take into account the broader drug market served by these neighborhoods. PMID:11726381

  18. Dynamic enhancement of drug product labels to support drug safety, efficacy, and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Richard D; Horn, John R; Hassanzadeh, Oktie; Waard, Anita de; Schneider, Jodi; Luciano, Joanne S; Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Liakata, Maria

    2013-01-26

    Out-of-date or incomplete drug product labeling information may increase the risk of otherwise preventable adverse drug events. In recognition of these concerns, the United States Federal Drug Administration (FDA) requires drug product labels to include specific information. Unfortunately, several studies have found that drug product labeling fails to keep current with the scientific literature. We present a novel approach to addressing this issue. The primary goal of this novel approach is to better meet the information needs of persons who consult the drug product label for information on a drug's efficacy, effectiveness, and safety. Using FDA product label regulations as a guide, the approach links drug claims present in drug information sources available on the Semantic Web with specific product label sections. Here we report on pilot work that establishes the baseline performance characteristics of a proof-of-concept system implementing the novel approach. Claims from three drug information sources were linked to the Clinical Studies, Drug Interactions, and Clinical Pharmacology sections of the labels for drug products that contain one of 29 psychotropic drugs. The resulting Linked Data set maps 409 efficacy/effectiveness study results, 784 drug-drug interactions, and 112 metabolic pathway assertions derived from three clinically-oriented drug information sources (ClinicalTrials.gov, the National Drug File - Reference Terminology, and the Drug Interaction Knowledge Base) to the sections of 1,102 product labels. Proof-of-concept web pages were created for all 1,102 drug product labels that demonstrate one possible approach to presenting information that dynamically enhances drug product labeling. We found that approximately one in five efficacy/effectiveness claims were relevant to the Clinical Studies section of a psychotropic drug product, with most relevant claims providing new information. We also identified several cases where all of the drug-drug

  19. Potentially harmful drug-drug interactions in the elderly: a review.

    PubMed

    Hines, Lisa E; Murphy, John E

    2011-12-01

    Elderly patients are vulnerable to drug interactions because of age-related physiologic changes, an increased risk for disease associated with aging, and the consequent increase in medication use. The purpose of this narrative review was to describe findings from rigorously designed observational cohort and case-control studies that have assessed specific drug interactions in elderly patients. The PubMed and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts databases were searched for studies published in English over the past 10 years (December 2000-December 2010) using relevant Medical Subject Headings terms (aged; aged, 80 and over; and drug interactions) and search terms (drug interaction and elderly). Search strategies were saved and repeated through September 2011 to ensure that the most recent relevant published articles were identified. Additional articles were found using a search of review articles and reference lists of the identified studies. Studies were included if they were observational cohort or case-control studies that reported specific adverse drug interactions, included patients aged ≥65 years, and evaluated clinically meaningful end points. Studies were excluded if they used less rigorous observational designs, assessed pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties, evaluated drug-nutrient or drug-disease interactions or interactions of drug combinations used for therapeutic benefit (eg, dual antiplatelet therapy), or had inconclusive evidence. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Sixteen studies reported an elevated risk for hospitalization in older adults associated with adverse drug interactions. The drug interactions included: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and potassium-sparing diuretics, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, benzodiazepines or zolpidem and interacting medications, calcium channel blockers and macrolide antibiotics, digoxin and macrolide antibiotics, lithium and

  20. Do drug seizures predict drug-related emergency department presentations or arrests for drug use and possession?

    PubMed

    Wan, Wai-Yin; Weatherburn, Don; Wardlaw, Grant; Sarafidis, Vasilis; Sara, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Direct evidence of the effect of drug seizures on drug use and drug-related harm is fairly sparse. The aim of this study was to see whether seizures of heroin, cocaine and ATS predict the number of people arrested for use and possession of these drugs and the number overdosing on them. We examined the effect of seizure frequency and seizure weight on arrests for drug use and possession and on the frequency of drug overdose with autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) models. Granger causality tests were used to test for simultaneity. Over the short term (i.e. up to 4 months), increases in the intensity of high-level drug law enforcement (as measured by seizure weight and frequency) directed at ATS, cocaine and heroin did not appear to have any suppression effect on emergency department (ED) presentations relating to ATS, cocaine and heroin, or on arrests for use and/or possession of these drugs. A significant negative contemporaneous relationship was found between the heroin seizure weight and arrests for use and/or possession of heroin. However no evidence emerged of a contemporaneous or lagged relationship between heroin seizures and heroin ED presentations. The balance of evidence suggests that, in the Australian context, increases in the monthly seizure frequency and quantity of ATS, cocaine and heroin are signals of increased rather than reduced supply. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Prescription Drugs, Over-the-Counter Drugs, Supplements and Herbal Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... at risk? Zika virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how ... the-counter drugs, supplements and herbal products Prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, supplements and herbal products ...

  2. [Psychiatric polypharmacy: hazard through drug-drug-interaction and possibilities for prevention].

    PubMed

    Hahn, M; Braus, D F

    2012-09-01

    Psychiatric diseases and comorbidity have increased over the past years. Commonly used psychotropic drugs contain a high risk of drug interactions and adverse drug events (ADE). With a frequency of 10-12% psychotropic drugs are, among all pharmaceuticals, the most common cause of hospitalisation due to ADE. During a hospital stay the application of psychotropic drugs can also lead to adverse drug events--sometimes due to drug interactions. Currently, ADEs and drug interactions are the most frequent cause of death for in-patients (18% of all causes of death) with an overall mortality of 0.95%. As studies have shown, hospitals as well as insurers could save a considerable amount of resources by implementing a system with on-ward pharmacists, hereby reducing ADE and re-hospitalisation rates. In recent studies a large amount of current ADEs were rated as preventable. Patient impairment due to ADE is leading to an increase in liability cases with an expected 5% increase of compensation payments in 2011. To evaluate these ADE-related cases, a pharmaceutical assessment should be included in the expert trials, especially since a lack of awareness of medication errors is prevalent. When aiming towards a successful drug therapy, physicians must also consider that cheaper substances may often have an unfavourable drug interaction profile.

  3. [Consideration of drug absorption in customizing drug therapy].

    PubMed

    Walter-Sack, I; Haefeli, W E

    2000-09-01

    The rate and extent of drug absorption from the small intestine are related to the release of the active ingredient from a dosage form, its solubility in the liquid phase of gastrointestinal contents, and the transport of the dissolved compound or the intact dosage form from the stomach into the duodenum. With pharmaceutical preparations releasing the active compound within the stomach, and enteric-coated "micro"-formulations (micropellets), gastric emptying is possible during the interdigestive and the digestive period. Potential differences of drug absorption between fasting administration and intake during the digestive period are unpredictable, because they are related to the release characteristics of the dosage form. However, larger enteric-coated preparations like tablets can leave the stomach only with a phase 3 contraction of fasting motility; intake during the digestive period will result in gastric retention of this type of dosage form until all food has left the stomach and fasting motility is restored. Consequently the onset of drug absorption is delayed. This interaction between food and large enteric-coated dosage forms is predictable from pyloric function in relation to the gastric motility. As it occurs regularly, it can be taken into account when prescribing enteric-coated dosage forms. If concomitant intake of food and enteric-coated drugs is unavoidable, but a rapid onset of drug absorption is necessary, micropellets are the dosage form of choice. When the therapeutic effect is insufficient, drug dosage form and timing of drug administration should be checked before prescribing a different active compound.

  4. Adverse drug reactions induced by cardiovascular drugs in outpatients.

    PubMed

    Gholami, Kheirollah; Ziaie, Shadi; Shalviri, Gloria

    2008-01-01

    Considering increased use of cardiovascular drugs and limitations in pre-marketing trials for drug safety evaluation, post marketing evaluation of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) induced by this class of medicinal products seems necessary. To determine the rate and seriousness of adverse reactions induced by cardiovascular drugs in outpatients. To compare sex and different age groups in developing ADRs with cardiovascular agents. To assess the relationship between frequencies of ADRs and the number of drugs used. This cross-sectional study was done in cardiovascular clinic at a teaching hospital. All patients during an eight months period were evaluated for cardiovascular drugs induced ADRs. Patient and reaction factors were analyzed in detected ADRs. Patients with or without ADRs were compared in sex and age by using chi-square test. Assessing the relationship between frequencies of ADRs and the number of drugs used was done by using Pearson analysis. The total number of 518 patients was visited at the clinic. ADRs were detected in 105 (20.3%) patients. The most frequent ADRs were occurred in the age group of 51-60. The highest rate of ADRs was recorded to be induced by Diltiazem (23.5%) and the lowest rate with Atenolol (3%). Headache was the most frequent detected ADR (23%). Assessing the severity and preventability of ADRs revealed that 1.1% of ADRs were detected as severe and 1.9% as preventable reactions. Women significantly developed more ADRs in this study (chi square = 3.978, P<0.05). ADRs more frequently occurred with increasing age in this study (chi square = 15.871, P<0.05). With increasing the number of drugs used, the frequency of ADRs increased (Pearson=0.259, P<0.05). Monitoring ADRs in patients using cardiovascular drugs is a matter of importance since this class of medicines is usually used by elderly patients with critical conditions and underlying diseases.

  5. Dynamic enhancement of drug product labels to support drug safety, efficacy, and effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Out-of-date or incomplete drug product labeling information may increase the risk of otherwise preventable adverse drug events. In recognition of these concerns, the United States Federal Drug Administration (FDA) requires drug product labels to include specific information. Unfortunately, several studies have found that drug product labeling fails to keep current with the scientific literature. We present a novel approach to addressing this issue. The primary goal of this novel approach is to better meet the information needs of persons who consult the drug product label for information on a drug’s efficacy, effectiveness, and safety. Using FDA product label regulations as a guide, the approach links drug claims present in drug information sources available on the Semantic Web with specific product label sections. Here we report on pilot work that establishes the baseline performance characteristics of a proof-of-concept system implementing the novel approach. Claims from three drug information sources were linked to the Clinical Studies, Drug Interactions, and Clinical Pharmacology sections of the labels for drug products that contain one of 29 psychotropic drugs. The resulting Linked Data set maps 409 efficacy/effectiveness study results, 784 drug-drug interactions, and 112 metabolic pathway assertions derived from three clinically-oriented drug information sources (ClinicalTrials.gov, the National Drug File – Reference Terminology, and the Drug Interaction Knowledge Base) to the sections of 1,102 product labels. Proof-of-concept web pages were created for all 1,102 drug product labels that demonstrate one possible approach to presenting information that dynamically enhances drug product labeling. We found that approximately one in five efficacy/effectiveness claims were relevant to the Clinical Studies section of a psychotropic drug product, with most relevant claims providing new information. We also identified several cases where all of the drug-drug

  6. Drug Discovery Prospect from Untapped Species: Indications from Approved Natural Product Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Chu; Tao, Lin; Liu, Xin; Shi, Zhe; Zhang, Cun Long; Tan, Chun Yan; Chen, Yu Zong; Jiang, Yu Yang

    2012-01-01

    Due to extensive bioprospecting efforts of the past and technology factors, there have been questions about drug discovery prospect from untapped species. We analyzed recent trends of approved drugs derived from previously untapped species, which show no sign of untapped drug-productive species being near extinction and suggest high probability of deriving new drugs from new species in existing drug-productive species families and clusters. Case histories of recently approved drugs reveal useful strategies for deriving new drugs from the scaffolds and pharmacophores of the natural product leads of these untapped species. New technologies such as cryptic gene-cluster exploration may generate novel natural products with highly anticipated potential impact on drug discovery. PMID:22808057

  7. Drug-induced gynecomastia.

    PubMed

    Bowman, John D; Kim, Hyunah; Bustamante, Juan J

    2012-12-01

    Drugs account for about 20% of gynecomastia cases in men. As a number of factors can alter the estrogen:androgen ratio, several pathophysiologic mechanisms are associated with drugs causing this disorder. Antiandrogens, protease inhibitors, and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors are the most common drug causes of gynecomastia, whereas first-generation antipsychotics, spironolactone, verapamil, and cimetidine are less common causes. Other drugs have been reported rarely as causes. Treatment may involve switching to an alternative agent or may require surgery or irradiation if the causative agent cannot be discontinued. We reviewed the literature on drug-induced gynecomastia and provided another perspective by reviewing data from the United States Food and Drug Administration's Adverse Event Reporting System. Epidemiologic studies are needed to provide a more accurate description of the frequency of drug-induced gynecomastia. © 2012 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  8. Drug-nutrient interactions.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lingtak-Neander

    2013-07-01

    Drug-nutrient interactions are defined as physical, chemical, physiologic, or pathophysiologic relationships between a drug and a nutrient. The causes of most clinically significant drug-nutrient interactions are usually multifactorial. Failure to identify and properly manage drug-nutrient interactions can lead to very serious consequences and have a negative impact on patient outcomes. Nevertheless, with thorough review and assessment of the patient's history and treatment regimens and a carefully executed management strategy, adverse events associated with drug-nutrient interactions can be prevented. Based on the physiologic sequence of events after a drug or a nutrient has entered the body and the mechanism of interactions, drug-nutrient interactions can be categorized into 4 main types. Each type of interaction can be managed using similar strategies. The existing data that guide the clinical management of most drug-nutrient interactions are mostly anecdotal experience, uncontrolled observations, and opinions, whereas the science in understanding the mechanism of drug-nutrient interactions remains limited. The challenge for researchers and clinicians is to increase both basic and higher level clinical research in this field to bridge the gap between the science and practice. The research should aim to establish a better understanding of the function, regulation, and substrate specificity of the nutrient-related enzymes and transport proteins present in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as assess how the incidence and management of drug-nutrient interactions can be affected by sex, ethnicity, environmental factors, and genetic polymorphisms. This knowledge can help us develop a true personalized medicine approach in the prevention and management of drug-nutrient interactions.

  9. Predict drug permeability to blood–brain-barrier from clinical phenotypes: drug side effects and drug indications

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhen; Chen, Yang; Cai, Xiaoshu; Xu, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Motivation: Blood–Brain-Barrier (BBB) is a rigorous permeability barrier for maintaining homeostasis of Central Nervous System (CNS). Determination of compound’s permeability to BBB is prerequisite in CNS drug discovery. Existing computational methods usually predict drug BBB permeability from chemical structure and they generally apply to small compounds passing BBB through passive diffusion. As abundant information on drug side effects and indications has been recorded over time through extensive clinical usage, we aim to explore BBB permeability prediction from a new angle and introduce a novel approach to predict BBB permeability from drug clinical phenotypes (drug side effects and drug indications). This method can apply to both small compounds and macro-molecules penetrating BBB through various mechanisms besides passive diffusion. Results: We composed a training dataset of 213 drugs with known brain and blood steady-state concentrations ratio and extracted their side effects and indications as features. Next, we trained SVM models with polynomial kernel and obtained accuracy of 76.0%, AUC 0.739, and F1 score (macro weighted) 0.760 with Monte Carlo cross validation. The independent test accuracy was 68.3%, AUC 0.692, F1 score 0.676. When both chemical features and clinical phenotypes were available, combining the two types of features achieved significantly better performance than chemical feature based approach (accuracy 85.5% versus 72.9%, AUC 0.854 versus 0.733, F1 score 0.854 versus 0.725; P < e−90). We also conducted de novo prediction and identified 110 drugs in SIDER database having the potential to penetrate BBB, which could serve as start point for CNS drug repositioning research. Availability and Implementation: https://github.com/bioinformatics-gao/CASE-BBB-prediction-Data Contact: rxx@case.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27993785

  10. Adverse Drug Reactions Related to Drug Administration in Hospitalized Patients.

    PubMed

    Gallelli, Luca; Siniscalchi, Antonio; Palleria, Caterina; Mumoli, Laura; Staltari, Orietta; Squillace, Aida; Maida, Francesca; Russo, Emilio; Gratteri, Santo; De Sarro, Giovambattista

    2017-01-01

    Drug treatment may be related to the development of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). In this paper, we evaluated the ADRs in patients admitted to Catanzaro Hospital. After we obtained the approval by local Ethical Committee, we performed a retrospective study on clinical records from March 01, 2013 to April 30, 2015. The association between drug and ADR or between drug and drug-drug-interactions (DDIs) was evaluated using the Naranjo's probability scale and Drug Interaction Probability Scale (DIPS), respectively. During the study period, we analyzed 2870 clinical records containing a total of 11,138 prescriptions, and we documented the development of 770 ADRs. The time of hospitalization was significantly higher (P<0.05) in women with ADRs (12.6 ± 1.2 days) with respect to men (11.8± 0.83 days). Using the Naranjo score, we documented a probable association in 78% of these reactions, while DIPS revealed that about 22% of ADRs were related to DDIs. Patients with ADRs received 3052 prescriptions on 11,138 (27.4%) having a mean of 6.1±0.29 drugs that was significantly higher (P<0.01) with respect to patients not experiencing ADRs (mean of 3.4±0.13 drugs). About 19% of ADRs were not diagnosed and were treated as new diseases. Our results indicate that drug administration induces the development of ADRs also during the hospitalization, particularly in elderly women. Moreover, we also documented that ADRs in some patients are under-diagnosed, therefore, it is important to motivate healthcare to report the ADRs in order to optimize the patients' safety. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Drug rechallenge and treatment beyond progression—implications for drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kuczynski, Elizabeth A.; Sargent, Daniel J.; Grothey, Axel; Kerbel, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The established dogma in oncology for managing recurrent or refractory disease dictates that therapy is changed at disease progression, because the cancer is assumed to have become drug-resistant. Drug resistance, whether pre-existing or acquired, is largely thought to be a stable and heritable process; thus, reuse of therapeutic agents that have failed is generally contraindicated. Over the past few decades, clinical evidence has suggested a role for unstable, non-heritable mechanisms of acquired drug resistance pertaining to chemotherapy and targeted agents. There are many examples of circumstances where patients respond to reintroduction of the same therapy (drug rechallenge) after a drug holiday following disease relapse or progression during therapy. Additional, albeit limited, evidence suggests that, in certain circumstances, continuing a therapy beyond disease progression can also have antitumour activity. In this Review, we describe the anticancer agents used in these treatment strategies and discuss the potential mechanisms explaining the apparent tumour re-sensitization with reintroduced or continued therapy. The extensive number of malignancies and drugs that challenge the custom of permanently switching to different drugs at each line of therapy warrants a more in-depth examination of the definitions of disease progression and drug resistance and the resulting implications for patient care. PMID:23999218

  12. Drug Use among Seniors on Public Drug Programs in Canada, 2012.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Jeff; Hunt, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Seniors take more drugs than younger Canadians because, on average, they have a higher number of chronic conditions. Although taking multiple medications may be necessary to manage these conditions, it is important to consider the benefits and risks of each medication and the therapeutic goals of the patient. This article provides an in-depth look at the number and types of drugs used by seniors using drug claims data from the CIHI's National Prescription Drug Utilization Information System Database, representing approximately 70% of seniors in Canada. In 2012, almost two-thirds (65.9%) of seniors on public drug programs had claims for five or more drug classes, while 27.2% had claims for 10 or more, and 8.6% had claims for 15 or more. The most commonly used drug class was statins, used by nearly half (46.6%) of seniors. Nearly two-thirds (60.9%) of seniors living in long-term care (LTC) facilities had claims for 10 or more drug classes. Proton pump inhibitors were the most commonly used drug class among seniors living in LTC facilities (used by 37.0% of seniors in LTC facilities), while statins ranked seventh (29.8%).

  13. Drug allergy passport and other documentation for patients with drug hypersensitivity - An ENDA/EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group Position Paper.

    PubMed

    Brockow, K; Aberer, W; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M; Bavbek, S; Bircher, A; Bilo, B; Blanca, M; Bonadonna, P; Burbach, G; Calogiuri, G; Caruso, C; Celik, G; Cernadas, J; Chiriac, A; Demoly, P; Oude Elberink, J N G; Fernandez, J; Gomes, E; Garvey, L H; Gooi, J; Gotua, M; Grosber, M; Kauppi, P; Kvedariene, V; Laguna, J J; Makowska, J S; Mosbech, H; Nakonechna, A; Papadopolous, N G; Ring, J; Romano, A; Rockmann, H; Sargur, R; Sedlackova, L; Sigurdardottir, S; Schnyder, B; Storaas, T; Torres, M; Zidarn, M; Terreehorst, I

    2016-11-01

    The strongest and best-documented risk factor for drug hypersensitivity (DH) is the history of a previous reaction. Accidental exposures to drugs may lead to severe or even fatal reactions in sensitized patients. Preventable prescription errors are common. They are often due to inadequate medical history or poor risk assessment of recurrence of drug reaction. Proper documentation is essential information for the doctor to make sound therapeutic decision. The European Network on Drug Allergy and Drug Allergy Interest Group of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology have formed a task force and developed a drug allergy passport as well as general guidelines of drug allergy documentation. A drug allergy passport, a drug allergy alert card, a certificate, and a discharge letter after medical evaluation are adequate means to document DH in a patient. They are to be handed to the patient who is advised to carry the documentation at all times especially when away from home. A drug allergy passport should at least contain information on the culprit drug(s) including international nonproprietary name, clinical manifestations including severity, diagnostic measures, potential cross-reactivity, alternative drugs to prescribe, and where more detailed information can be obtained from the issuer. It should be given to patients only after full allergy workup. In the future, electronic prescription systems with alert functions will become more common and should include the same information as in paper-based documentation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Does Drug Testing Deter Drug Court Participants from Using Drugs or Alcohol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinpeter, Christine B.; Brocato, Jo; Koob, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates 3 drug-testing strategies implemented in 5 different jurisdictions with drug courts in Orange County, California. The purpose of the study was to determine whether the sweat patch acts as a deterrent and under what conditions it can be used to improve outcomes. Results indicated that although the use of the sweat patch did not…

  15. Drug abuse first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Medicines that are for treating a health problem ... about local resources. Alternative Names Overdose from drugs; Drug abuse first aid References Myck MB. Hallucinogens and drugs ...

  16. Molecularly precise dendrimer-drug conjugates with tunable drug release for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhuxian; Ma, Xinpeng; Murphy, Caitlin J; Jin, Erlei; Sun, Qihang; Shen, Youqing; Van Kirk, Edward A; Murdoch, William J

    2014-10-06

    The structural preciseness of dendrimers makes them perfect drug delivery carriers, particularly in the form of dendrimer-drug conjugates. Current dendrimer-drug conjugates are synthesized by anchoring drug and functional moieties onto the dendrimer peripheral surface. However, functional groups exhibiting the same reactivity make it impossible to precisely control the number and the position of the functional groups and drug molecules anchored to the dendrimer surface. This structural heterogeneity causes variable pharmacokinetics, preventing such conjugates to be translational. Furthermore, the highly hydrophobic drug molecules anchored on the dendrimer periphery can interact with blood components and alter the pharmacokinetic behavior. To address these problems, we herein report molecularly precise dendrimer-drug conjugates with drug moieties buried inside the dendrimers. Surprisingly, the drug release rates of these conjugates were tailorable by the dendrimer generation, surface chemistry, and acidity. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Drugs and the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This booklet explores various aspects of drug addiction, with a special focus on drugs' effects on the brain. A brief introduction presents information on the rampant use of drugs in society and elaborates the distinction between drug abuse and drug addiction. Next, a detailed analysis of the brain and its functions is given. Drugs target the more…

  18. [Melatonin as a universal stabilizing factor of mental activity].

    PubMed

    Arushanian, Ē B

    2011-01-01

    Pineal hormone melatonin stabilizes mental activity of man and animals due to its somnogenic, anxiolytic, antidepressant and nootropic properties. Melatonin effects are based on the synchronization of biological rhythms via the influence on the cerebral structures which control biological rhythms and emotions and normalize endocrine and immune state.

  19. Improving General Intelligence with a Nutrient-Based Pharmacological Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stough, Con; Camfield, David; Kure, Christina; Tarasuik, Joanne; Downey, Luke; Lloyd, Jenny; Zangara, Andrea; Scholey, Andrew; Reynolds, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive enhancing substances such as amphetamine and modafinil have become popular in recent years to improve acute cognitive performance particularly in environments in which enhanced cognition or intelligence is required. Nutraceutical nootropics, which are natural substances that have the ability to bring about acute or chronic changes in…

  20. Drug-therapy networks and the prediction of novel drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Spiro, Zoltan; Kovacs, Istvan A; Csermely, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A recent study in BMC Pharmacology presents a network of drugs and the therapies in which they are used. Network approaches open new ways of predicting novel drug targets and overcoming the cellular robustness that can prevent drugs from working. PMID:18710588

  1. A mass spectrometry imaging approach for investigating how drug-drug interactions influence drug blood-brain barrier permeability.

    PubMed

    Vallianatou, Theodosia; Strittmatter, Nicole; Nilsson, Anna; Shariatgorji, Mohammadreza; Hamm, Gregory; Pereira, Marcela; Källback, Patrik; Svenningsson, Per; Karlgren, Maria; Goodwin, Richard J A; Andrén, Per E

    2018-05-15

    There is a high need to develop quantitative imaging methods capable of providing detailed brain localization information of several molecular species simultaneously. In addition, extensive information on the effect of the blood-brain barrier on the penetration, distribution and efficacy of neuroactive compounds is required. Thus, we have developed a mass spectrometry imaging method to visualize and quantify the brain distribution of drugs with varying blood-brain barrier permeability. With this approach, we were able to determine blood-brain barrier transport of different drugs and define the drug distribution in very small brain structures (e.g., choroid plexus) due to the high spatial resolution provided. Simultaneously, we investigated the effect of drug-drug interactions by inhibiting the membrane transporter multidrug resistance 1 protein. We propose that the described approach can serve as a valuable analytical tool during the development of neuroactive drugs, as it can provide physiologically relevant information often neglected by traditional imaging technologies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Illicit Drug Use, Illicit Drug Use Disorders, and Drug Overdose Deaths in Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Areas — United States

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Christopher M.; Ballesteros, Michael F.

    2017-01-01

    Problem/Condition Drug overdoses are a leading cause of injury death in the United States, resulting in approximately 52,000 deaths in 2015. Understanding differences in illicit drug use, illicit drug use disorders, and overall drug overdose deaths in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas is important for informing public health programs, interventions, and policies. Reporting Period Illicit drug use and drug use disorders during 2003–2014, and drug overdose deaths during 1999–2015. Description of Data The National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) collects information through face-to-face household interviews about the use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco among the U.S. noninstitutionalized civilian population aged ≥12 years. Respondents include residents of households and noninstitutional group quarters (e.g., shelters, rooming houses, dormitories, migratory workers’ camps, and halfway houses) and civilians living on military bases. NSDUH variables include sex, age, race/ethnicity, residence (metropolitan/nonmetropolitan), annual household income, self-reported drug use, and drug use disorders. National Vital Statistics System Mortality (NVSS-M) data for U.S. residents include information from death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Cases were selected with an underlying cause of death based on the ICD-10 codes for drug overdoses (X40–X44, X60–X64, X85, and Y10–Y14). NVSS-M variables include decedent characteristics (sex, age, and race/ethnicity) and information on intent (unintentional, suicide, homicide, or undetermined), location of death (medical facility, in a home, or other [including nursing homes, hospices, unknown, and other locations]) and county of residence (metropolitan/nonmetropolitan). Metropolitan/nonmetropolitan status is assigned independently in each data system. NSDUH uses a three-category system: Core Based Statistical Area (CBSA) of ≥1 million persons; CBSA of <1 million persons; and

  3. 10 CFR 26.133 - Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites. 26.133 Section 26.133 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.133 Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites. Subject to the provisions of § 26.31(d)(3)(iii...

  4. 10 CFR 26.133 - Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites. 26.133 Section 26.133 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.133 Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites. Subject to the provisions of § 26.31(d)(3)(iii...

  5. Similarity-based modeling in large-scale prediction of drug-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Santiago; Uriarte, Eugenio; Santana, Lourdes; Lorberbaum, Tal; Hripcsak, George; Friedman, Carol; Tatonetti, Nicholas P

    2014-09-01

    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are a major cause of adverse drug effects and a public health concern, as they increase hospital care expenses and reduce patients' quality of life. DDI detection is, therefore, an important objective in patient safety, one whose pursuit affects drug development and pharmacovigilance. In this article, we describe a protocol applicable on a large scale to predict novel DDIs based on similarity of drug interaction candidates to drugs involved in established DDIs. The method integrates a reference standard database of known DDIs with drug similarity information extracted from different sources, such as 2D and 3D molecular structure, interaction profile, target and side-effect similarities. The method is interpretable in that it generates drug interaction candidates that are traceable to pharmacological or clinical effects. We describe a protocol with applications in patient safety and preclinical toxicity screening. The time frame to implement this protocol is 5-7 h, with additional time potentially necessary, depending on the complexity of the reference standard DDI database and the similarity measures implemented.

  6. Antiprotozoal Activity Profiling of Approved Drugs: A Starting Point toward Drug Repositioning

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Marcel; Mäser, Pascal; Tadoori, Leela Pavan; Ioset, Jean-Robert; Brun, Reto

    2015-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases cause significant morbidity and mortality and are a source of poverty in endemic countries. Only a few drugs are available to treat diseases such as leishmaniasis, Chagas’ disease, human African trypanosomiasis and malaria. Since drug development is lengthy and expensive, a drug repurposing strategy offers an attractive fast-track approach to speed up the process. A set of 100 registered drugs with drug repositioning potential for neglected diseases was assembled and tested in vitro against four protozoan parasites associated with the aforementioned diseases. Several drugs and drug classes showed in vitro activity in those screening assays. The results are critically reviewed and discussed in the perspective of a follow-up drug repositioning strategy where R&D has to be addressed with limited resources. PMID:26270335

  7. Drug Retention Times

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    None, None

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user. Based on anecdotal evidence, most people “party” during extended time away from the work environment. Therefore, the following scenarios were envisioned: (1) a person uses an illicit drug at a party on Saturday night (infrequent user); (2) a person uses a drug one time on Friday night and once again on Saturday night (infrequent user); and (3) a person uses a drugmore » on Friday night, uses a drug twice on Saturday night, and once again on Sunday (frequent user).« less

  8. 78 FR 46977 - Generic Drug User Fee-Abbreviated New Drug Application, Prior Approval Supplement, Drug Master...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... costs to total FDA costs of the review of human generic drug activities for the first 3 of the preceding... review of human generic drug activities. Since the first year of the Generic Drug User Fee Program has... activities other than PC&B (see section 744B(c)(1)(C) of the FD&C Act). Table 3 of this document provides the...

  9. Hydrogel-Based Drug Delivery Systems for Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Matthew; Betts, David; Suh, Amy; Bui, Kathryn; Kim, London Doyoung; Cho, Hyunah

    2015-11-13

    Hydrogels are three-dimensional materials that can withstand a great amount of water incorporation while maintaining integrity. This allows hydrogels to be very unique biomedical materials, especially for drug delivery. Much effort has been made to incorporate hydrophilic molecules in hydrogels in the field of drug delivery, while loading of hydrophobic drugs has not been vastly studied. However, in recent years, research has also been conducted on incorporating hydrophobic molecules within hydrogel matrices for achieving a steady release of drugs to treat various ailments. Here, we summarize the types of hydrogels used as drug delivery vehicles, various methods to incorporate hydrophobic molecules in hydrogel matrices, and the potential therapeutic applications of hydrogels in cancer.

  10. An acute, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study of 320 mg and 640 mg doses of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI 08) on multitasking stress reactivity and mood.

    PubMed

    Benson, Sarah; Downey, Luke A; Stough, Con; Wetherell, Mark; Zangara, Andrea; Scholey, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    Little research exists in humans concerning the anxiolytic, antidepressant, sedative, and adaptogenic actions the traditional Ayurvedic medicine Bacopa monnieri (BM) possesses in addition to its documented cognitive-enhancing effects. Preclinical work has identified a number of acute anxiolytic, nootropic, and adaptogenic effects of BM that may also co-occur in humans. The current double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study assessed the acute effects of a specific extract of BM (KeenMind® - CDRI 08) in normal healthy participants during completion of a multitasking framework (MTF). Seventeen healthy volunteers completed the MTF, at baseline, then 1 h and 2 h after consuming a placebo, 320 mg BM and 640 mg of BM. Treatments were separated by a 7-day washout with order determined by Latin Square. Outcome measures included cognitive outcomes from the MTF, with mood and salivary cortisol measured before and after each completion of the MTF. Change from baseline scores indicated positive cognitive effects, notably at both 1 h post and 2 h post BM consumption on the Letter Search and Stroop tasks, suggesting an earlier nootropic effect of BM than previously investigated. There were also some positive mood effects and reduction in cortisol levels, pointing to a physiological mechanism for stress reduction associated with BM consumption. It was concluded that acute BM supplementation produced some adaptogenic and nootropic effects that need to be replicated in a larger sample and in isolation from stressful cognitive tests in order to quantify the magnitude of these effects. The study was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12612000834853). Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Projecting future drug expenditures--2009.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, James M; Shah, Nilay D; Vermeulen, Lee C; Doloresco, Fred; Martin, Patrick K; Blake, Sharon; Matusiak, Linda; Hunkler, Robert J; Schumock, Glen T

    2009-02-01

    Drug expenditure trends in 2007 and 2008, projected drug expenditures for 2009, and factors likely to influence drug expenditures are discussed. Various factors are likely to influence drug expenditures in 2009, including drugs in development, the diffusion of new drugs, drug safety concerns, generic drugs, Medicare Part D, and changes in the drug supply chain. The increasing availability of important generic drugs and drug safety concerns continue to moderate growth in drug expenditures. The drug supply chain remains dynamic and may influence drug expenditures, particularly in specialized therapeutic areas. Initial data suggest that the Medicare Part D benefit has influenced drug expenditures, but the ultimate impact of the benefit on drug expenditures remains unclear. From 2006 to 2007, total U.S. drug expenditures increased by 4.0%, with total spending rising from $276 billion to $287 billion. Drug expenditures in clinics continue to grow more rapidly than in other settings, with a 9.9% increase from 2006 to 2007. Hospital drug expenditures increased at a moderate rate of only 1.6% from 2006 to 2007; through the first nine months of 2008, hospital drug expenditures increased by only 2.8% compared with the same period in 2007. In 2009, we project a 0-2% increase in drug expenditures in outpatient settings, a 1-3% increase in expenditures for clinic-administered drugs, and a 1-3% increase in hospital drug expenditures.

  12. Drug Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    NBOD2, a program developed at Goddard Space Flight Center to solve equations of motion coupled N-body systems is used by E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Co. to model potential drugs as a series of elements. The program analyses the vibrational and static motions of independent components in drugs. Information generated from this process is used to design specific drugs to interact with enzymes in designated ways.

  13. [New drug development by innovative drug administration--"change" in pharmaceutical field].

    PubMed

    Nagai, T

    1997-11-01

    New drug development can be made by providing products of higher "selectivity for the drug" for medical treatment. There are two ways for the approach to get higher "selectivity of drug": 1) discovery of new compounds with high selectivity of drug; 2) innovation of new drug administration, that is new formulation and/or method with high selectivity of drug by integration and harmonization of various hard/soft technologies. An extensive increase of biological information and advancement of surrounding science and technology may modify the situation as the latter overcomes the former in the 21 century. As the science and technology in the 21 century is said to be formed on "3H", that is, 1. hybrid; 2. hi-quality; 3. husbandry, the new drug development by innovative drug administration is exactly based on the science and technology of 3H. Its characteristic points are interdisciplinary/interfusion, international, of philosophy/ethics, and systems of hard/hard/heart. From these points of view, not only the advance of unit technology but also a revolution in thinking way should be "must" subjects. To organize this type of research well, a total research activity such as ROR (research on research) might take an important and efficient role. Here the key words are the "Optimization technology" and "Change in Pharmaceutical Fields." As some examples of new drug innovation, our trials on several topical mucosal adhesive dosage forms and parenteral administration of peptide drugs such as insulin and erythropoietin will be described.

  14. Prescription Drug Misuse Among Club Drug-Using Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2009-01-01

    Nonmedical prescription (Rx) drug use has recently increased, particularly among young adults. Using time-space sampling to generate a probability-based sample of club-going young adults (18–29), 400 subjects provided data on Rx drug misuse. Club-going young adults misuse Rx drugs at high rates. An overwhelming majority of the sample indicated lifetime use of pain killers, sedatives, and stimulants. A majority indicated recent pain killer use. Variations by gender and sexuality exist in this population. Young lesbian/bisexual women emerged as the group most likely to abuse Rx drugs. Research into the contexts influencing these patterns is imperative. PMID:17994483

  15. The role of drug profiles as similarity metrics: applications to repurposing, adverse effects detection and drug-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Santiago; Hripcsak, George

    2017-07-01

    Explosion of the availability of big data sources along with the development in computational methods provides a useful framework to study drugs' actions, such as interactions with pharmacological targets and off-targets. Databases related to protein interactions, adverse effects and genomic profiles are available to be used for the construction of computational models. In this article, we focus on the description of biological profiles for drugs that can be used as a system to compare similarity and create methods to predict and analyze drugs' actions. We highlight profiles constructed with different biological data, such as target-protein interactions, gene expression measurements, adverse effects and disease profiles. We focus on the discovery of new targets or pathways for drugs already in the pharmaceutical market, also called drug repurposing, in the interaction with off-targets responsible for adverse reactions and in drug-drug interaction analysis. The current and future applications, strengths and challenges facing all these methods are also discussed. Biological profiles or signatures are an important source of data generation to deeply analyze biological actions with important implications in drug-related studies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Drug Plan Coverage Rules

    MedlinePlus

    ... the first time Filling a prescription without your new plan card Costs for Medicare drug coverage Joining a health or drug plan How Part D works with other insurance Find health & drug plans Drug plan coverage rules Note Call your Medicare drug plan to find ...

  17. Drugs Approved for Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for rhabdomyosarcoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries. There may be drugs used in rhabdomyosarcoma that are not listed here.

  18. Drug policing assemblages: Repressive drug policies and the zonal banning of drug users in Denmark's club land.

    PubMed

    Søgaard, Thomas F; Houborg, Esben; Pedersen, Michael M

    2017-03-01

    Zonal banning of disorderly and intoxicated young people has moved to centre stage in debates about nightlife governance. Whereas existing research has primarily focused on the use of zonal banning orders to address problems of alcohol-related harm and disorder, this article highlights how zonal banning is also used to target drug-using clubbers in Denmark. Based on ethnographic observations and interviews with nightlife control agents in two Danish cities, the article aims to provide new insights into how the enforcement of national drug policies on drug-using clubbers, is shaped by plural nightlife policing complexes. The paper demonstrates how the policing of drug-using clubbers is a growing priority for both police and private security agents. The article also demonstrates how the enforcement of zonal bans on drug-using clubbers involves complex collaborative relations between police, venue owners and private security agents. The paper argues that a third-party policing perspective combined with assemblage theory is useful for highlighting how the enforcement of national drug policies and nightlife banning systems is shaped by their embeddedness in local 'drug policing assemblages' characterized by inter-agency relation-building, the creative combination of public and private (legal) resources and internal power struggles. It also provides evidence of how drug policing assemblages give rise to many different, and often surprising, forms of jurisdiction involving divergent performances of spaces-, objects- and authorities of governance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Drug interactions between hormonal contraceptives and psychotropic drugs: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Berry-Bibee, Erin N; Kim, Myong-Jin; Simmons, Katharine B; Tepper, Naomi K; Riley, Halley E M; Pagano, H Pamela; Curtis, Kathryn M

    2016-12-01

    To examine whether the co-administration of hormonal contraceptives (HC) and psychotropic drugs commonly used to treat anxiety and/or depression results in safety or efficacy concerns for either drug. We searched PubMed and Cochrane libraries for clinical or pharmacokinetic (PK) studies that examined co-administration of any HC with psychotropic drugs [selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), oral benzodiazepines, bupropion, mirtazapine, trazadone, buspirone, hydroxyzine, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), or atypical antipsychotics] in reproductive aged women. Of 555 articles identified, 22 articles (18 studies) met inclusion criteria. We identified 5 studies on SSRIs, four on TCAs, one on bupropion, three on atypical antipsychotics and five on oral benzodiazepines. No articles met inclusion criteria for SNRIs, mirtazapine, trazadone, buspirone, hydroxyzine or MAOIs. Overall, clinical studies did not demonstrate differences in unintended pregnancy rates when HCs were administered with and without psychotropic drugs or in psychotropic drug treatment outcomes when psychotropic drugs were administered with and without HCs. PK studies did not demonstrate changes in drug exposure related to contraceptive safety, contraceptive effectiveness or psychotropic drug effectiveness for most classes of psychotropic drugs. However, limited PK data raise concern for HCs increasing systemic exposure of amitriptyline and imipramine (both TCAs), theoretically posing safety concerns. Limited quality and quantity evidence on use of psychotropic drugs and HCs suggests low concern for clinically significant interactions, though no data exist specifically for non-oral formulations of HC. Given the high frequency of use for both HCs and psychotropic drugs among reproductive-age women in the US, this review highlights a need for further research in this area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc

  20. Vasodilators and nootropics as predictors of dementia and mortality in the PAQUID cohort.

    PubMed

    Dartigues, Jean-François; Carcaillon, Laure; Helmer, Catherine; Lechevallier, Nathalie; Lafuma, Antoine; Khoshnood, Babak

    2007-03-01

    To assess the effects of treatment for memory impairment and the Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on dementia, mortality, and survival without dementia. Prospective community-based cohort study. France. Three thousand five hundred thirty-four subjects aged 65 and older. Information on drug consumption was obtained by interview and visual assessment of patients' medicine chests. Active screening of dementia was performed every 2 years over a 13-year period. The independent effects of treatment for memory impairment and the Ginkgo biloba extract on the risks of dementia and death were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for potentially confounding factors (including comorbidities). The initial consumption of Ginkgo biloba did not modify the risk of dementia (relative risk (RR)=1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.84-1.60), whereas the consumption of other treatments for memory impairment was associated with a higher risk of dementia (RR=1.35, 95% CI=1.11-1.63). Subjects who took Ginkgo biloba had a significantly lower risk of mortality in the long term (RR=0.76, 95% CI=0.62-0.93), even after adjustment for potentially confounding factors. The initial consumption of treatment for memory impairment other than Ginkgo biloba did not modify the risk of mortality. These results suggest that treatment with EGb 761 may increase the probability of survival in the elderly population. These findings need to be corroborated and further assessed using randomized, controlled trials.

  1. Drug-Induced Hematologic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Mintzer, David M.; Billet, Shira N.; Chmielewski, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Drugs can induce almost the entire spectrum of hematologic disorders, affecting white cells, red cells, platelets, and the coagulation system. This paper aims to emphasize the broad range of drug-induced hematological syndromes and to highlight some of the newer drugs and syndromes. Methods. Medline literature on drug-induced hematologic syndromes was reviewed. Most reports and reviews focus on individual drugs or cytopenias. Results. Drug-induced syndromes include hemolytic anemias, methemoglobinemia, red cell aplasia, sideroblastic anemia, megaloblastic anemia, polycythemia, aplastic anemia, leukocytosis, neutropenia, eosinophilia, immune thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic syndromes, hypercoagulability, hypoprothrombinemia, circulating anticoagulants, myelodysplasia, and acute leukemia. Some of the classic drugs known to cause hematologic abnormalities have been replaced by newer drugs, including biologics, accompanied by their own syndromes and unintended side effects. Conclusions. Drugs can induce toxicities spanning many hematologic syndromes, mediated by a variety of mechanisms. Physicians need to be alert to the potential for iatrogenic drug-induced hematologic complications. PMID:19960059

  2. Consistency of psychotropic drug-drug interactions listed in drug monographs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinyue; Hatton, Randy C; Zhu, Yanmin; Hincapie-Castillo, Juan M; Bussing, Regina; Barnicoat, Marie; Winterstein, Almut G

    With an increasing prevalence of psychotropic polypharmacy, clinicians depend on drug-drug interaction (DDI) references to ensure safe regimens, but the consistency of such information is frequently questioned. To evaluate the consistency of psychotropic DDIs documented in Clinical Pharmacology (CP), Micromedex (MM), and Lexicomp (LC) and summarize consistent psychotropic DDIs. In May 2016, we extracted severe or major psychotropic DDIs for 102 psychotropic drugs, including central nervous system (CNS) stimulants, antidepressants, an antimanic agent (lithium), antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and anxiolytics-sedatives-hypnotics from CP, MM, and LC. We then summarized the psychotropic DDIs that were included in all 3 references and with evidence quality of "excellent" or "good" based on MM. We identified 1496, 938, and 1006 unique severe or major psychotropic DDIs from CP, MM, and LC, respectively. Common adverse effects related to psychotropic DDIs include increased or decreased effectiveness, CNS depression, neurotoxicity, QT prolongation, serotonin syndrome, and multiple adverse effects. Among these interactions, only 371 psychotropic DDIs were documented in all 3 references, 59 of which had "excellent" or "good" quality of evidence based on MM. The consistency of psychotropic DDI documentation across CP, MM, and LC is poor. DDI documentations need standards that would encourage consistency among drug information references. The list of the 59 DDIs may be useful in the assessment of psychotropic polypharmacy and highlighting DDI alerts in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT PSYCHOTROPIC DRUG-DRUG INTERACTIONS IN THE PRIMARY CARE SETTING

    PubMed Central

    English, Brett A.; Dortch, Marcus; Ereshefsky, Larry; Jhee, Stanford

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the growing numbers of patients seeking care for a wide range of psychiatric illnesses in the primary care setting has resulted in an increase in the number of psychotropic medications prescribed. Along with the increased utilization of psychotropic medications, considerable variability is noted in the prescribing patterns of primary care providers and psychiatrists. Because psychiatric patients also suffer from a number of additional medical comorbidities, the increased utilization of psychotropic medications presents an elevated risk of clinically significant drug interactions in these patients. While life-threatening drug interactions are rare, clinically significant drug interactions impacting drug response or appearance of serious adverse drug reactions have been documented and can impact long-term outcomes. Additionally, the impact of genetic variability on the psychotropic drug’s pharmacodynamics and/or pharmacokinetics may further complicate drug therapy. Increased awareness of clinically relevant psychotropic drug interactions can aid clinicians to achieve optimal therapeutic outcomes in patients in the primary care setting. PMID:22707017

  4. Repurposing Salicylanilide Anthelmintic Drugs to Combat Drug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Rajamuthiah, Rajmohan; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Conery, Annie L.; Kim, Wooseong; Jayamani, Elamparithi; Kwon, Bumsup; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium that has become the leading cause of hospital acquired infections in the US. Repurposing Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs for antimicrobial therapy involves lower risks and costs compared to de novo development of novel antimicrobial agents. In this study, we examined the antimicrobial properties of two commercially available anthelmintic drugs. The FDA approved drug niclosamide and the veterinary drug oxyclozanide displayed strong in vivo and in vitro activity against methicillin resistant S. aureus (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC): 0.125 and 0.5 μg/ml respectively; minimum effective concentration: ≤ 0.78 μg/ml for both drugs). The two drugs were also effective against another Gram-positive bacteria Enterococcus faecium (MIC 0.25 and 2 μg/ml respectively), but not against the Gram-negative species Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogenes. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of niclosamide and oxyclozanide were determined against methicillin, vancomycin, linezolid or daptomycin resistant S. aureus clinical isolates, with MICs at 0.0625-0.5 and 0.125-2 μg/ml for niclosamide and oxyclozanide respectively. A time-kill study demonstrated that niclosamide is bacteriostatic, whereas oxyclozanide is bactericidal. Interestingly, oxyclozanide permeabilized the bacterial membrane but neither of the anthelmintic drugs exhibited demonstrable toxicity to sheep erythrocytes. Oxyclozanide was non-toxic to HepG2 human liver carcinoma cells within the range of its in vitro MICs but niclosamide displayed toxicity even at low concentrations. These data show that the salicylanilide anthelmintic drugs niclosamide and oxyclozanide are suitable candidates for mechanism of action studies and further clinical evaluation for treatment of staphylococcal infections. PMID:25897961

  5. Adverse drug reactions and outcome of short course anti-tuberculosis drugs between single daily dose and split drug dose (BID) in pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Chuchottaworn, Charoen; Saipan, Benjawan; Kittisup, Chomnapa; Cheewakul, Krisana

    2012-08-01

    Standard six months short course regimen for treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis is very effective and is recommended as standard treatment. But this regimen composes of many drugs and causes high adverse drug reactions especially gastrointestinal irritation. Spitted administration of drugs to two times a day may reduce adverse drug reactions. To study adverse drug reactions and outcome of single daily versus split drug (two times a day) administration of standard six month short course regimen in newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis. Newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients of the Central Chest Institute of Thailand were randomized to receive standard six months regimen once daily or two times a day (split drug). Patients were followed-up every two weeks and a questionnaire was used to detect adverse drug reactions. Outcome of treatment was evaluated according to national tuberculosis treatment guideline. 122 pulmonary tuberculosis were eligible for the present study and 61 patients were enrolled to each group of once daily or split drug regimen. Pulmonary tuberculosis patients who received split drug regimen had a higher cure rate but not statistical significance because of lower transfer out rate. Adverse drug reactions were similar in both groups of patients who received once daily and split drug regimen. Although split drug group had lower gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions. Split drug regimen has the same cure rate of treatment as single daily regimen and same adverse drug reactions.

  6. DrugBank 5.0: a major update to the DrugBank database for 2018.

    PubMed

    Wishart, David S; Feunang, Yannick D; Guo, An C; Lo, Elvis J; Marcu, Ana; Grant, Jason R; Sajed, Tanvir; Johnson, Daniel; Li, Carin; Sayeeda, Zinat; Assempour, Nazanin; Iynkkaran, Ithayavani; Liu, Yifeng; Maciejewski, Adam; Gale, Nicola; Wilson, Alex; Chin, Lucy; Cummings, Ryan; Le, Diana; Pon, Allison; Knox, Craig; Wilson, Michael

    2018-01-04

    DrugBank (www.drugbank.ca) is a web-enabled database containing comprehensive molecular information about drugs, their mechanisms, their interactions and their targets. First described in 2006, DrugBank has continued to evolve over the past 12 years in response to marked improvements to web standards and changing needs for drug research and development. This year's update, DrugBank 5.0, represents the most significant upgrade to the database in more than 10 years. In many cases, existing data content has grown by 100% or more over the last update. For instance, the total number of investigational drugs in the database has grown by almost 300%, the number of drug-drug interactions has grown by nearly 600% and the number of SNP-associated drug effects has grown more than 3000%. Significant improvements have been made to the quantity, quality and consistency of drug indications, drug binding data as well as drug-drug and drug-food interactions. A great deal of brand new data have also been added to DrugBank 5.0. This includes information on the influence of hundreds of drugs on metabolite levels (pharmacometabolomics), gene expression levels (pharmacotranscriptomics) and protein expression levels (pharmacoprotoemics). New data have also been added on the status of hundreds of new drug clinical trials and existing drug repurposing trials. Many other important improvements in the content, interface and performance of the DrugBank website have been made and these should greatly enhance its ease of use, utility and potential applications in many areas of pharmacological research, pharmaceutical science and drug education. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. DenguePredict: An Integrated Drug Repositioning Approach towards Drug Discovery for Dengue.

    PubMed

    Wang, QuanQiu; Xu, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is a viral disease of expanding global incidence without cures. Here we present a drug repositioning system (DenguePredict) leveraging upon a unique drug treatment database and vast amounts of disease- and drug-related data. We first constructed a large-scale genetic disease network with enriched dengue genetics data curated from biomedical literature. We applied a network-based ranking algorithm to find dengue-related diseases from the disease network. We then developed a novel algorithm to prioritize FDA-approved drugs from dengue-related diseases to treat dengue. When tested in a de-novo validation setting, DenguePredict found the only two drugs tested in clinical trials for treating dengue and ranked them highly: chloroquine ranked at top 0.96% and ivermectin at top 22.75%. We showed that drugs targeting immune systems and arachidonic acid metabolism-related apoptotic pathways might represent innovative drugs to treat dengue. In summary, DenguePredict, by combining comprehensive disease- and drug-related data and novel algorithms, may greatly facilitate drug discovery for dengue.

  8. Drugs, money, and power: the Canadian drug shortage.

    PubMed

    Kaposy, Chris

    2014-03-01

    This article describes the shortage of generic injectable medications in Canada that affected hospitals in 2012. It traces the events leading up to the drug shortage, the causes of the shortage, and the responses by health administrators, pharmacists, and ethicists. The article argues that generic drug shortages are an ethical problem because health care organizations and governments have an obligation to avoid exposing patients to resource scarcity. The article also discusses some options governments could pursue in order to secure the drug supply and thereby fulfill their ethical obligations.

  9. The Drug Facts Box: Improving the communication of prescription drug information.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Lisa M; Woloshin, Steven

    2013-08-20

    Communication about prescription drugs ought to be a paragon of public science communication. Unfortunately, it is not. Consumers see $4 billion of direct-to-consumer advertising annually, which typically fails to present data about how well drugs work. The professional label--the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) mechanism to get physicians information needed for appropriate prescribing--may also fail to present benefit data. FDA labeling guidance, in fact, suggests that industry omit benefit data for new drugs in an existing class and for drugs approved on the basis of unfamiliar outcomes (such as depression rating scales). The medical literature is also problematic: there is selective reporting of favorable trials, favorable outcomes within trials, and "spinning" unfavorable results to maximize benefit and minimize harm. In contrast, publicly available FDA reviews always include the phase 3 trial data on benefit and harm, which are the basis of drug approval. However, these reviews are practically inaccessible: lengthy, poorly organized, and weakly summarized. To improve accessibility, we developed the Drug Facts Box: a one-page summary of benefit and harm data for each indication of a drug. A series of studies--including national randomized trials--demonstrates that most consumers understand the Drug Facts Box and that it improves decision-making. Despite calls from their own Risk Communication Advisory Committee and Congress (in the Affordable Care Act) to consider implementing boxes, the FDA announced it needs at least 3-5 y more to make a decision. Given its potential public health impact, physicians and the public should not have to wait that long for better drug information.

  10. 77 FR 71802 - Guidance on Investigational New Drug Applications for Positron Emission Tomography Drugs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ...] Guidance on Investigational New Drug Applications for Positron Emission Tomography Drugs; Availability... Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Drugs.'' The guidance is intended to assist manufacturers of PET drugs... ``Investigational New Drug Applications for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Drugs.'' The guidance summarizes the...

  11. [Designer drugs in Finland].

    PubMed

    Tacke, Ulrich; den Hollander, Bjørnar; Simojoki, Kaarlo; Korpi, Esa R; Pihlainen, Katja; Alho, Hannu

    2011-01-01

    Designer drugs are synthetic psychotropic drugs which are marketed as "legal drugs". Their emergence, rapid spreading and unpredictable effects have challenged the health and substance abuse care. The slow process of classification of an abusable drug has provided too many possibilities for spreading the designer drugs. Once a certain substance receives an illegal drugs classification, dealers and users usually move to another, slightly different molecule that is still legal. In Finland, the Narcotics Act has been amended to the effect that the addition of a new substance to the illegal drug list does not require an amendment to the law.

  12. Drug Retention Times

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

  13. "Asparagus Racemosus" Enhances Memory and Protects against Amnesia in Rodent Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojha, Rakesh; Sahu, Alakh N.; Muruganandam, A. V.; Singh, Gireesh Kumar; Krishnamurthy, Sairam

    2010-01-01

    "Asparagus Racemosus" (AR) is an Ayurvedic rasayana possessing multiple neuropharmacological activities. The adpatogenic and antidepressant activity of AR is well documented. The present study was undertaken to assess nootropic and anti-amnesic activities of MAR in rats. The Morris water maze (MWM) and elevated plus maze (EPM) models were employed…

  14. Drug policy: making effective drugs available without bankrupting the healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Laupacis, Andreas; Anderson, Geoffrey; O'Brien, Bernie

    2002-01-01

    To the extent possible, drug policy should be based upon good quality evidence. This must extend beyond the traditional focus on efficacy and safety in carefully selected patients, to evidence about real-world effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of drugs. This paper will consider methods of improving the quality of the evidence currently available, and the implications of requiring that evidence. Historically, there has been a direct link between research evidence and policy at the level of licensing - drugs are only made available after they have been shown to be safe and efficacious in well-designed and independently assessed research studies. We propose that this reliance on evidence be logically extended to cover the formulary inclusion and post-marketing surveillance aspects of modern prescription drug policy. More specifically we propose that the decision to initially list a drug on a benefit formulary be based on evidence from relevant head-to-head comparisons and well-designed cost-effectiveness analyses. This evidence would be produced by industry in cooperation with independent peer-reviewed funding agencies. Drugs could only be added to a formulary if they met specific predetermined criteria, and drugs could be removed as superior alternatives became available. The provincial governments are monopsony buyers of medicines, and they wield the power to determine public payer "market access'for medicines. This power (within and across provinces) could be used more effectively to negotiate price in the context of reimbursement. The effect of different methods of influencing prescribing (e.g., 'limited access?) upon drug utilization and patient outcomes should be rigorously assessed, including the randomization of groups of patients or communities to different strategies. We also propose that all drugs on the formulary would be subject to a well-designed post-marketing surveillance program. This program would build on the existing passive reporting of

  15. [Overpricing and affordability of drugs: the case of essential drugs in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Molina-Salazar, R E; Rivas-Vilchis, J E

    1998-01-01

    Accessibility and availability of drugs has been a matter of great concern for health services all over the world, especially for less developed countries. The World Health Organization has devoted considerable time to this matter, as evidenced in several documents and policies, such as model lists of essential drugs and the strategy "Health for All by the Year 2000". The WHO policy for essential drugs has been widely accepted, and the WHO List of Essential Drugs is now in the ninth revised edition. Although the essential drug policy has been well-accepted by health agencies and NGOs, the pharmaceutical industry has not proven willing to produce essential drugs at affordable prices. The purpose of this study is to examine price levels of essential drugs in Mexico. The evaluation was performed through a comparison of international and national prices for leading drugs in the respective therapeutic categories and included in the WHO model list of essential drugs. The study shows clearly that prices of essential brand-name drugs in Mexico are very high. Per capita consumption has remained stable despite a sharp decrease in the Mexican GDP since 1995. The article discusses the reasons for this and proposes measures to deal with the problem.

  16. Modeling of signaling crosstalk-mediated drug resistance and its implications on drug combination.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoqiang; Bao, Jiguang; You, Zhuhong; Chen, Xing; Cui, Jun

    2016-09-27

    The efficacy of pharmacological perturbation to the signaling transduction network depends on the network topology. However, whether and how signaling dynamics mediated by crosstalk contributes to the drug resistance are not fully understood and remain to be systematically explored. In this study, motivated by a realistic signaling network linked by crosstalk between EGF/EGFR/Ras/MEK/ERK pathway and HGF/HGFR/PI3K/AKT pathway, we develop kinetic models for several small networks with typical crosstalk modules to investigate the role of the architecture of crosstalk in inducing drug resistance. Our results demonstrate that crosstalk inhibition diminishes the response of signaling output to the external stimuli. Moreover, we show that signaling crosstalk affects the relative sensitivity of drugs, and some types of crosstalk modules that could yield resistance to the targeted drugs were identified. Furthermore, we quantitatively evaluate the relative efficacy and synergism of drug combinations. For the modules that are resistant to the targeted drug, we identify drug targets that can not only increase the relative drug efficacy but also act synergistically. In addition, we analyze the role of the strength of crosstalk in switching a module between drug-sensitive and drug-resistant. Our study provides mechanistic insights into the signaling crosstalk-mediated mechanisms of drug resistance and provides implications for the design of synergistic drug combinations to reduce drug resistance.

  17. Managing drugs safely.

    PubMed

    van den Anker, John N

    2005-02-01

    There is hard data to show that newborn infants are more likely than adults to experience adverse reactions to drugs. Paradoxically, drug-related legislation to ensure safe and effective drug use in humans neglected neonates until 2002, when the Best Pharmaceuticals Act for Children was signed into law in the USA. The situation for neonates should now catch up with that for adults and neonates will be prescribed more licensed drugs in the near future. If we are to be able to analyze the underlying system errors to improve the safe use of drugs in the studied patient population, reporting of adverse drug events and reactions needs to happen in a blame free environment. In addition, computerized physician order entry will certainly further improve the current situation by preventing errors in ordering, transcribing, verifying, and transmitting medication orders.

  18. YouTube, "Drug Videos" and Drugs Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Aims: This article reports on findings to emerge from a project examining YouTube "drug videos" in the light of an emerging literature on the relationship between YouTube and health education. The aim of this article is to describe the variety of discourses circulated by the "drug videos" available on YouTube and to consider…

  19. Microfluidic Devices for Drug Delivery Systems and Drug Screening

    PubMed Central

    Kompella, Uday B.; Damiati, Safa A.

    2018-01-01

    Microfluidic devices present unique advantages for the development of efficient drug carrier particles, cell-free protein synthesis systems, and rapid techniques for direct drug screening. Compared to bulk methods, by efficiently controlling the geometries of the fabricated chip and the flow rates of multiphase fluids, microfluidic technology enables the generation of highly stable, uniform, monodispersed particles with higher encapsulation efficiency. Since the existing preclinical models are inefficient drug screens for predicting clinical outcomes, microfluidic platforms might offer a more rapid and cost-effective alternative. Compared to 2D cell culture systems and in vivo animal models, microfluidic 3D platforms mimic the in vivo cell systems in a simple, inexpensive manner, which allows high throughput and multiplexed drug screening at the cell, organ, and whole-body levels. In this review, the generation of appropriate drug or gene carriers including different particle types using different configurations of microfluidic devices is highlighted. Additionally, this paper discusses the emergence of fabricated microfluidic cell-free protein synthesis systems for potential use at point of care as well as cell-, organ-, and human-on-a-chip models as smart, sensitive, and reproducible platforms, allowing the investigation of the effects of drugs under conditions imitating the biological system. PMID:29462948

  20. Drug-drug and food-drug pharmacokinetic interactions with new insulinotropic agents repaglinide and nateglinide.

    PubMed

    Scheen, André J

    2007-01-01

    This review describes the current knowledge on drug-drug and food-drug interactions with repaglinide and nateglinide. These two meglitinide derivatives, commonly called glinides, have been developed for improving insulin secretion of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. They are increasingly used either in monotherapy or in combination with other oral antihyperglycaemic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Compared with sulfonylureas, glinides have been shown to (i) provide a better control of postprandial hyperglycaemia, (ii) overcome some adverse effects, such as hypoglycaemia, and (iii) have a more favourable safety profile, especially in patients with renal failure. The meal-related timing of administration of glinides and the potential influence of food and meal composition on their bioavailability may be important. In addition, some food components (e.g. grapefruit juice) may cause pharmacokinetic interactions. Because glinides are metabolised via cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 isoenzyme, they are indeed exposed to pharmacokinetic interactions. In addition to CYP3A4, repaglinide is metabolised via CYP2C8, while nateglinide metabolism also involves CYP2C9. Furthermore, both compounds and their metabolites may undergo specialised transport/uptake in the intestine, another source of pharmacokinetic interactions. Clinically relevant drug-drug interactions are those that occur when glinides are administered together with other glucose-lowering agents or compounds widely coadministered to diabetic patients (e.g. lipid-lowering agents), with drugs that are known to induce (risk of lower glinide plasma levels and thus of deterioration of glucose control) or inhibit (risk of higher glinide plasma levels leading to hypoglycaemia) CYP isoenzymes concerned in their metabolism, or with drugs that have a narrow efficacy : toxicity ratio. Pharmacokinetic interactions reported in the literature appear to be more frequent and more important with repaglinide than with

  1. Injection Drug Users’ Involvement In Drug Economy: Dynamics of Sociometric and Egocentric Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl; Muth, Stephen Q.; Rudolph, Abby

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to examine the effect of social network cohesiveness on drug economy involvement, and to test whether this relationship is mediated by drug support network size in a sample of active injection drug users. Involvement in the drug economy was defined by self-report of participation in at least one of the following activities: selling drugs, holding drugs or money for drugs, providing street security for drug sellers, cutting/packaging/cooking drugs, selling or renting drug paraphernalia (e.g., pipes, tools, rigs), and injecting drugs in others’ veins. The sample consists of 273 active injection drug users in Baltimore, Maryland who reported having injected drugs in the last 6 months and were recruited through either street outreach or by their network members. Egocentric drug support networks were assessed through a social network inventory at baseline. Sociometric networks were built upon the linkages by selected matching characteristics, and k-plex rank was used to characterize the level of cohesiveness of the individual to others in the social network. Although no direct effect was observed, structural equation modeling indicated k-plex rank was indirectly associated with drug economy involvement through drug support network size. These findings suggest the effects of large-scale sociometric networks on injectors’ drug economy involvement may occur through their immediate egocentric networks. Future harm reduction programs for injection drug users (IDUs) should consider providing programs coupled with economic opportunities to those drug users within a cohesive network subgroup. Moreover, individuals with a high connectivity to others in their network may be optimal individuals to train for diffusing HIV prevention messages. PMID:25309015

  2. What Are Youth Asking About Drugs? A Report of NIDA Drug Facts Chat Day

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Cory M.; Hoefinger, Heidi; Linn-Walton, Rebecca; Aikins, Ross; Falkin, Gregory P.

    2016-01-01

    The current study analyzes a sample of questions about drugs asked online by youth who participated in the National Institute on Drug Abuse’s (NIDA) “Drug Facts Chat Day.” The types of drugs youth asked about were coded into 17 substance categories, and the topics they raised were coded into seven thematic categories. The top five queried drugs were marijuana (16.4%), alcohol (8.5%), tobacco (6%), cocaine (5.7), and pharmaceutical drugs (4.5%). The effects of drug use, experience of being high, the addictiveness of drugs, pharmacology, and drug sales were among the more common types of questions to emerge but varied depending on the substance. These findings show the types of information young people are seeking about drugs and have clear implications to inform youth drug education programs. PMID:26862133

  3. Interaction Patterns among Drug Dealers. Drug Abuse Information Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkyns, Robert L.; Hanneman, Gerhard J.

    Drug dealers are often popularly stereotyped as "pushers" who actively engage in enticing young people into the drug habit, but there have been no scientific studies of their behavior or their attitudes on drug abuse or public health. In an attempt to gain information about behavior characteristics and communication patterns of middle…

  4. The worldwide trend of using botanical drugs and strategies for developing global drugs.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kyungseop

    2017-03-01

    Natural product drugs, or botanical drugs, are drugs composed of natural substances which have constituents with healthenhancing or medicinal activities. In Korea, government-led projects brought attention to botanical drugs invigorating domestic botanical drug industry. Foreign markets, as well, are growing bigger as the significance of botanical drugs stood out. To follow along with the tendency, Korea puts a lot of effort on developing botanical drugs suitable for global market. However, standards for approving drug sales vary by countries. And also, thorough standardization, certification, clinical studies and data of these will be required as well as data confirming safety and effectiveness. Meanwhile, as an international exchange in botanical drug market continues, the importance of plant resources was emphasized. Thus countries' ownership of domestic natural resources became vital. Not only establishing a systematic method to secure domestic plant resources, but also cooperation with other countries on sharing natural resources is essential to procure natural resources effectively. Korea started to show visible results with botanical drugs, and asthma/COPD treatment made out of speedwell is one example. Sufficient investment and government's active support for basic infrastructure for global botanical drugs will bring Korea to much higher level of botanical drug development. [BMB Reports 2017; 50(3): 111-116].

  5. Using a drug facts box to communicate drug benefits and harms: two randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Lisa M; Woloshin, Steven; Welch, H Gilbert

    2009-04-21

    Direct-to-consumer prescription drug ads typically fail to provide fundamental information that consumers need to make informed decisions: data on how well the drug works. To see whether providing consumers with a drug facts box-a table quantifying outcomes with and without the drug-improves knowledge and affects judgments about prescription medications. Two randomized, controlled trials conducted between October 2006 and April 2007: a symptom drug box trial using direct-to-consumer ads for a histamine-2 blocker and a proton-pump inhibitor to treat heartburn, and a prevention drug box trial using direct-to-consumer ads for a statin and clopidogrel to prevent cardiovascular events. National sample of U.S. adults identified by random-digit dialing. Adults age 35 to 70 years who completed a mailed survey; the final samples comprised 231 participants with completed surveys in the symptom drug box trial (49% response rate) and 219 in the prevention drug box trial (46% response rate). In both trials, the control group received 2 actual drug ads (including both the front page and brief summary). The drug box group received the same ads, except that the brief summary was replaced by a drug facts box. Choice between drugs (primary outcome of the symptom drug box trial) and accurate perceptions of drug benefits and side effects (primary outcome of the prevention drug box trial). In the symptom drug box trial, 70% of the drug box group and 8% of the control group correctly identified the PPI as being "a lot more effective" than the histamine-2 blocker (P < 0.001), and 80% and 38% correctly recognized that the side effects of the 2 drugs were similar (P < 0.001). When asked what they would do if they had bothersome heartburn and could have either drug for free, 68% of the drug box group and 31% of the control group chose the proton-pump inhibitor, the superior drug (P < 0.001). In the prevention drug box trial, the drug box improved consumers' knowledge of the benefits and

  6. Drug Enforcement Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cannabis Plant Counterfeit Prescription Pills Containing Fentanyls: A Global Threat Public Drug Disposal: Search for an Authorized Drug Disposal Location RESOURCE CENTER Controlled Substances Act DEA Museum and Visitors Center Doing Business with DEA Drug Disposal Employee Assistance Program For ...

  7. 99 Films on Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, David O., Ed.

    This catalog describes and evaluates 16-millimeter films about various aspects of drug use. Among the subjects covered by the 99 films are the composition and effects of different drugs, reasons why people use drugs, life in the drug culture, the problem of law enforcement, and various means of dealing with drug users. Each film is synopsized. Two…

  8. Projecting future drug expenditures--2010.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, James M; Doloresco, Fred; Vermeulen, Lee C; Shah, Nilay D; Matusiak, Linda; Hunkler, Robert J; Schumock, Glen T

    2010-06-01

    Drug expenditure trends in 2008 and 2009, projected drug expenditures for 2010, and factors likely to influence drug expenditures are discussed. Various factors are likely to influence drug expenditures in 2010, including drugs in development, the diffusion of new drugs, generic drugs, health care reform, drug safety concerns, and comparative effectiveness research. The increasing availability of important generic drugs continues to moderate growth in drug expenditures. Health care reform initiatives, including the potential for biosimilars legislation, will influence drug expenditures in all settings. From 2007 to 2008, total U.S. drug expenditures increased by 1.8%, with total spending rising from $279.6 billion to $284.7 billion. Growth in drug expenditures in clinics declined to the lowest level in a decade, a 1.0% increase from 2007 to 2008. Hospital drug expenditures increased at a moderate rate of only 2.1% from 2007 to 2008; through the first nine months of 2009, hospital drug expenditures increased by 3.0% compared with the same period in 2008. In 2010, we project a 3-5% increase in drug expenditures in outpatient settings, a 6-8% increase in expenditures for clinic-administered drugs, and a 2-4% increase in hospital drug expenditures.

  9. Drugs Approved for Neuroblastoma

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for neuroblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  10. In Vitro Determination of Drug Transfer from Drug-Coated Balloons

    PubMed Central

    Seidlitz, Anne; Kotzan, Nadine; Nagel, Stefan; Reske, Thomas; Grabow, Niels; Harder, Claus; Petersen, Svea; Sternberg, Katrin; Weitschies, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Drug-coated balloons are medical devices designed to locally deliver drug to diseased segments of the vessel wall. For these dosage forms, drug transfer to the vessel wall needs to be examined in detail, since drug released into the blood is cleared from the site. In order to examine drug transfer, a new in vitro setup was developed combining the estimation of drug loss during advancement to the site of application in a model coronary artery pathway with a hydrogel compartment representing, as a very simplified model, the vessel wall. The transfer of fluorescent model substances as well as the drug paclitaxel from coated balloons to the simulated vessel wall was evaluated using this method. The model was suitable to quantify the fractions transferred to the hydrogel and also to qualitatively assess distribution patterns in the hydrogel film. In the case of fluorescein sodium, rhodamin b and paclitaxel, vast amounts of the coated substance were lost during the simulated passage and only very small fractions of about 1% of the total load were transferred to the gel. This must be attributed to good water solubility of the fluorescent substances and the mechanical instability of the paclitaxel coating. Transfer of the hydrophobic model substance triamterene was however nearly unaffected by the preliminary tracking procedure with transferred fractions ranging from 8% to 14%. Analysis of model substance distribution yielded inhomogeneous distributions indicating that the coating was not evenly distributed on the balloon surface and that a great fraction of the coating liquid did not penetrate the folds of the balloon. This finding is contradictory to the generally accepted assumption of a drug depot inside the folds and emphasizes the necessity to thoroughly characterize in vitro performance of drug-coated balloons to support the very promising clinical data. PMID:24391863

  11. Drugs Approved for Retinoblastoma

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for retinoblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  12. Drug Coverage (Part D)

    MedlinePlus

    ... insurance Find health & drug plans Drug coverage (Part D) How to get drug coverage Choose from 2 ... drug coverage. You can choose a Medicare Part D plan. Or, you can choose a Medicare Advantage ...

  13. Drug sampling in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Reid, Erika E; Alikhan, Ali; Brodell, Robert T

    2012-01-01

    The use of drug samples in a dermatology clinic is controversial. Drug samples are associated with influencing physician prescribing patterns often toward costlier drugs, increasing health care costs, increasing waste, inducing potential conflicts of interest, and decreasing the quality of patient education. On the other hand, they have the potential to help those in financial need, to improve adherence and convenience, and to expose patients to better drugs. Although some academic centers have banned drug samples altogether, many academic and private practices continue to distribute drug samples. Given the controversy of the topic, physicians who wish to distribute drug samples must do so in an ethical manner. We believe, when handled properly, drug sampling can be used in an ethical manner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Drug safety and the impact of drug warnings: An interrupted time series analysis of diabetes drug prescriptions in Germany and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Hostenkamp, Gisela; Fischer, Katharina Elisabeth; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2016-12-01

    To analyse the impact of drug safety warnings from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) on drug utilisation and their interaction with information released through national reimbursement bodies. Insurance claims data on anti-diabetic drug prescriptions in primary care in Germany and Denmark were analysed using interrupted time series analysis, with EMA drug warnings for thiazolidinediones (TZDs) in 2007 and 2011 as the intervention. Monthly drug utilisation data per substance in defined daily dosages (DDD) consumed per 1000 insurees were retrieved from the Danish national drug prescriptions register and one large statutory sickness fund in Germany. TZDs were generally reimbursed in Germany but restricted to individual reimbursement in Denmark. Consequently, utilisation of TZDs was much higher in Germany in 2007 compared with Denmark. For rosiglitazone, the drug warning had a significant impact on utilisation, reducing the number of DDD per 1000 insurees per day by -0.0105 in Denmark and -0.0312 in Germany (p-values<0.05). For pioglitazone, neither of the drug warnings had a significant effect on utilisation. The impact of EMA drug warnings differed across countries and might be mediated by information released through national reimbursement bodies and physician associations. Increasing complexity of new drugs and modified approval procedures require a strengthening of information exchange between drug regulation bodies and physicians to ensure patient safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Drug Facts Box: Improving the communication of prescription drug information

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Lisa M.; Woloshin, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Communication about prescription drugs ought to be a paragon of public science communication. Unfortunately, it is not. Consumers see $4 billion of direct-to-consumer advertising annually, which typically fails to present data about how well drugs work. The professional label—the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) mechanism to get physicians information needed for appropriate prescribing—may also fail to present benefit data. FDA labeling guidance, in fact, suggests that industry omit benefit data for new drugs in an existing class and for drugs approved on the basis of unfamiliar outcomes (such as depression rating scales). The medical literature is also problematic: there is selective reporting of favorable trials, favorable outcomes within trials, and “spinning” unfavorable results to maximize benefit and minimize harm. In contrast, publicly available FDA reviews always include the phase 3 trial data on benefit and harm, which are the basis of drug approval. However, these reviews are practically inaccessible: lengthy, poorly organized, and weakly summarized. To improve accessibility, we developed the Drug Facts Box: a one-page summary of benefit and harm data for each indication of a drug. A series of studies—including national randomized trials—demonstrates that most consumers understand the Drug Facts Box and that it improves decision-making. Despite calls from their own Risk Communication Advisory Committee and Congress (in the Affordable Care Act) to consider implementing boxes, the FDA announced it needs at least 3–5 y more to make a decision. Given its potential public health impact, physicians and the public should not have to wait that long for better drug information. PMID:23942130

  16. Facilitation of transscleral drug delivery by drug loaded magnetic polymeric particles.

    PubMed

    Mousavikhamene, Zeynab; Abdekhodaie, Mohammad J; Ahmadieh, Hamid

    2017-10-01

    A unique method was used to facilitate ocular drug delivery from periocular route by drug loaded magnetic sensitive particles. Injection of particles in periocular space along the eye axis followed by application of magnetic field in front of the eye would trigger the magnetic polymeric particles to move along the direction of magnetic force and reside against the outer surface of the sclera. This technique prevents removal of drug in the periocular space, observed in conventional transscleral drug delivery systems and hence higher amount of drug can enter the eye in a longer period of time. The experiments were performed by fresh human sclera and an experimental setup. Experimental setup was designed by side by side diffusion cell and hydrodynamic and thermal simulation of the posterior segment of the eye were applied. Magnetic polymeric particles were synthesized by alginate as a model polymer, iron oxide nanoparticles as a magnetic agent and diclofenac sodium as a model drug and characterized by SEM, TEM, DLS and FT-IR techniques. According to the SEM images, the size range of particles is around 60 to 800nm. The results revealed that the cumulative drug transfer from magnetic sensitive particles across the sclera improves by 70% in the presence of magnetic field. The results of this research show promising method of drug delivery to use magnetic properties to facilitate drug delivery to the back of the eye. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Drug-nutrient interactions.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J A

    1995-10-01

    Nutrition status plays a significant role in a drug's pharmacodynamics. Some disease states and other special conditions affect nutrient status and a drug's therapeutic efficacy. Many classes of drugs, including antimicrobials, hypoglycemics, and hypocholesterolemic agents, can be affected by the presence of food, with the geriatric patient particularly at risk. While a drug's pharmacokinetic profile can usually be predicted, it can be modified by nutrients and by certain pathophysiologic conditions, including aging, hepatic dysfunction, and micronutrients.

  18. Cell-Mediated Drugs Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Batrakova, Elena V.; Gendelman, Howard E.; Kabanov, Alexander V.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Drug targeting to sites of tissue injury, tumor or infection with limited toxicity is the goal for successful pharmaceutics. Immunocytes (including mononuclear phagocytes (dendritic cells, monocytes and macrophages), neutrophils, and lymphocytes) are highly mobile; they can migrate across impermeable barriers and release their drug cargo at sites of infection or tissue injury. Thus immune cells can be exploited as trojan horses for drug delivery. AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW This paper reviews how immunocytes laden with drugs can cross the blood brain or blood tumor barriers, to facilitate treatments for infectious diseases, injury, cancer, or inflammatory diseases. The promises and perils of cell-mediated drug delivery are reviewed, with examples of how immunocytes can be harnessed to improve therapeutic end points. EXPERT OPINION Using cells as delivery vehicles enables targeted drug transport, and prolonged circulation times, along with reductions in cell and tissue toxicities. Such systems for drug carriage and targeted release represent a novel disease combating strategy being applied to a spectrum of human disorders. The design of nanocarriers for cell-mediated drug delivery may differ from those used for conventional drug delivery systems; nevertheless, engaging different defense mechanisms into drug delivery may open new perspectives for the active delivery of drugs. PMID:21348773

  19. Discontinued drugs in 2012: cardiovascular drugs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong-Ping; Jiang, Hong-Min; Xiang, Bing-Ren

    2013-11-01

    The continued high rate of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has attracted wide concern and great attention of pharmaceutical industry. In order to reduce the attrition of cardiovascular drug R&D, it might be helpful recapitulating previous failures and identifying the potential factors to success. This perspective mainly analyses the 30 cardiovascular drugs dropped from clinical development in 2012. Reasons causing the termination of the cardiovascular drugs in the past 5 years are also tabulated and analysed. The analysis shows that the attrition is highest in Phase II trials and financial and strategic factors and lack of clinical efficacy are the principal reasons for these disappointments. To solve the four problems (The 'better than the Beatles' problem, the 'cautious regulator' problem, the 'throw money at it' tendency and the 'basic researchbrute force' bias) is recommended as the main measure to increase the number and quality of approvable products.

  20. [Are there any sex/gender differences in drug use and drug addiction?].

    PubMed

    Mendrek, Adrianna

    Drug use and drug addiction have been traditionally considered to be a male problem, however the gender gap has been decreasing over the past few decades. Thus, while the prevalence of alcohol, cannabis and nicotine dependence is still overall greater among men than among women, sex/gender differences in the abuse of stimulants and opiates seem to have disappeared. Moreover, women appear to be more prone to develop drug dependence, suffer more severe physical and psychological consequences of drug abuse, and have more difficulties quitting the habit. Numerous psychological, socio-cultural and biological factors have been implicated in these changing statistics. For example, while a large proportion of men initiate drug use to induce feelings of elation, energy or focus, women frequently start taking drugs to alleviate pre-existing mental health problems, including high levels of stress, feelings of alienation, depression, anxiety, or post-traumatic stress disorder. This maladaptive self-medication strategy often results in a faster transition to a habitual drug use and eventually a more severe dependence. In addition, the socio-cultural norms (particularly in the Western society) have changed dramatically over the past few decades. Thus, while there is still a more severe stigma and prejudice against women who use drugs (especially if they are pregnant of have children), overall there is much greater acceptance of women's drug use than it was several decades ago. Moreover, women have much greater access to various drugs of abuse than they used to have. Finally, over the past couple of decades new research started emerging pointing to some neurobiological factors that could also contribute to sex differences in drug addiction. Thus, there is now evidence that dopamine system, which for decades has been strongly implicated in drug reinforcement, is sexually dimorphic. The number of dopaminergic neurons, the density of the dopaminergic terminals, as well as

  1. Mexico's "ley de narcomenudeo" drug policy reform and the international drug control regime.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tim K; Werb, Daniel; Beletsky, Leo; Rangel, Gudelia; Arredondo, Jaime; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2014-11-14

    It has been over half a century since the landmark Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs was adopted, for the first time unifying international drug policy under a single treaty aimed at limiting use, manufacture, trade, possession, and trafficking of opiates, cannabis, and other narcotics. Since then, other international drug policy measures have been adopted, largely emphasizing enforcement-based approaches to reducing drug supply and use. Recently, in response to concerns that the historic focus on criminalization and enforcement has had limited effectiveness, international drug policies have begun to undergo a paradigm shift as countries seek to enact their own reforms to partially depenalize or deregulate personal drug use and possession. This includes Mexico, which in 2009 enacted national drug policy reform partially decriminalizing possession of small quantities of narcotics for personal consumption while also requiring drug treatment for repeat offenders. As countries move forward with their own reform models, critical assessment of their legal compatibility and effectiveness is necessary. In this commentary we conduct a critical assessment of the compatibility of Mexico's reform policy to the international drug policy regime and describe its role in the current evolving drug policy environment. We argue that Mexico's reform is consistent with flexibilities allowed under international drug treaty instruments and related commentaries. We also advocate that drug policy reforms and future governance efforts should be based on empirical evidence, emphasize harm reduction practices, and integrate evidence-based evaluation and implementation of drug reform measures.

  2. A Comparative Study of the Attitudes of College Students and Drug Treatment Center Residents Toward Drugs, Other Drug Users and Themselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; Mitchell, Sam

    1986-01-01

    Assessed the attitudes of college students and drug treatment center residents with histories of using marijuana and amphetamines. The drug treatment center residents tended to devalue themselves, drugs, and peers in the drug culture to a greater extent than the students. (Author/BL)

  3. Drug accumulation by means of noninvasive magnetic drug delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuzawa, M.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2011-11-01

    The medication is one of the most general treatment methods, but drugs diffuse in the normal tissues other than the target part by the blood circulation. Therefore, side effect in the medication, particularly for a drug with strong effect such as anti-cancer drug, are a serious issue. Drug Delivery System (DDS) which accumulates the drug locally in the human body is one of the techniques to solve the side-effects. Magnetic Drug Delivery System (MDDS) is one of the active DDSs, which uses the magnetic force. The objective of this study is to accumulate the ferromagnetic drugs noninvasively in the deep part of the body by using MDDS. It is necessary to generate high magnetic field and magnetic gradient at the target part to reduce the side-effects to the tissues with no diseases. The biomimetic model was composed, which consists of multiple model organs connected with diverged blood vessel model. The arrangement of magnetic field was examined to accumulate ferromagnetic drug particles in the target model organ by using a superconducting bulk magnet which can generate high magnetic fields. The arrangement of magnet was designed to generate high and stable magnetic field at the target model organ. The accumulation experiment of ferromagnetic particles has been conducted. In this study, rotating HTS bulk magnet around the axis of blood vessels by centering on the target part was suggested, and the model experiment for magnet rotation was conducted. As a result, the accumulation of the ferromagnetic particles to the target model organ in the deep part was confirmed.

  4. Evaluation of drug interaction microcomputer software: Dambro's Drug Interactions.

    PubMed

    Poirier, T I; Giudici, R A

    1990-01-01

    Dambro's Drug Interactions was evaluated using general and specific criteria. The installation process, ease of learning and use were rated excellent. The user documentation and quality of the technical support were good. The scope of coverage, clinical documentation, frequency of updates, and overall clinical performance were fair. The primary advantages of the program are the quick searching and detection of drug interactions, and the attempt to provide useful interaction data, i.e., significance and reference. The disadvantages are the lack of current drug interaction information, outdated references, lack of evaluative drug interaction information, and the inability to save or print patient profiles. The program is not a good value for the pharmacist but has limited use as a quick screening tool.

  5. Computational drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Ou-Yang, Si-sheng; Lu, Jun-yan; Kong, Xiang-qian; Liang, Zhong-jie; Luo, Cheng; Jiang, Hualiang

    2012-01-01

    Computational drug discovery is an effective strategy for accelerating and economizing drug discovery and development process. Because of the dramatic increase in the availability of biological macromolecule and small molecule information, the applicability of computational drug discovery has been extended and broadly applied to nearly every stage in the drug discovery and development workflow, including target identification and validation, lead discovery and optimization and preclinical tests. Over the past decades, computational drug discovery methods such as molecular docking, pharmacophore modeling and mapping, de novo design, molecular similarity calculation and sequence-based virtual screening have been greatly improved. In this review, we present an overview of these important computational methods, platforms and successful applications in this field. PMID:22922346

  6. [Generic drug substitution].

    PubMed

    Tamir, Orly; Halkin, Hillel; Shemer, Joshua

    2006-09-01

    The rapidly rising health care expenditures, attributed mainly to the high cost of prescription drugs, have led governments around the world to look to generics as a means of containing costs in the pharmaceutical market. Generic drugs provide a less expensive alternative to brand name drugs due to the elimination of the need to perform lengthy and costly clinical trials, as required for innovative drugs. Essentially, generic substitution of drugs may be performed only after showing unequivocally that the generic formulation is identical in its active ingredients, strength, and route of administration as its innovative counterpart, and that they are bioequivalent to each other. Although the two are in essence the same, generic substitution is occasionally a controversial matter.

  7. [Drug induced diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Morard, Isabelle; Hadengue, Antoine

    2008-09-03

    Diarrhea is a frequent adverse event involving the most frequently antibiotics, laxatives and NSAI. Drug induced diarrhea may be acute or chronic. It may be due to expected, dose dependant properties of the drug, to immuno-allergic or bio-genomic mechanisms. Several pathophysiological mechanisms have been described resulting in osmotic, secretory or inflammatory diarrhea, shortened transit time, or malabsorption. Histopathological lesions sometimes associated with drug induced diarrhea are usually non specific and include ulcerations, inflammatory or ischemic lesions, fibrous diaphragms, microscopic colitis and apoptosis. The diagnosis of drug induced diarrhea, sometimes difficult to assess, relies on the absence of other obvious causes and on the rapid disappearance of the symptoms after withdrawal of the suspected drug.

  8. Black Youths and Illegal Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Janice; Pearson, Patricia G.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the effect of drugs on black youths, discussing different types of drug involvement, reasons for drug involvement, extent and nature of involvement, drugs and crime, drugs and health issues, drug control strategies, and prevention. Policy implications include prioritizing drug prevention among black youths, providing alternatives to drug…

  9. Other Drugs of Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... People Abuse » Other Drugs of Abuse Other Drugs of Abuse Listen There are many other drugs of abuse, ... and Rehab Resources About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | About This Website Tools and Resources | Contact ...

  10. Projecting future drug expenditures--2012.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, James M; Li, Edward; Doloresco, Fred; Matusiak, Linda; Hunkler, Robert J; Shah, Nilay D; Vermeulen, Lee C; Schumock, Glen T

    2012-03-01

    Factors likely to influence drug expenditures, drug expenditure trends in 2010 and 2011, and projected drug expenditures for 2012 are discussed. Data were analyzed to provide drug expenditure trends for total drug expenditures and the hospital and clinic sectors. Data were obtained from the IMS Health National Sales Perspectives database. From 2009 to 2010, total U.S. drug expenditures increased by 2.7%, with total spending rising from $299.2 billion to $307.5 billion. Drug expenditures in clinics grew by 6.0% from 2009 to 2010. Hospital drug expenditures increased at the moderate rate of 1.5% from 2009 to 2010; through the first nine months of 2011, hospital drug expenditures increased by only 0.3% compared with the same period in 2010. The dominant trend over the past several years is substantial moderation in expenditure growth for widely used drugs, primarily due to the ongoing introduction and wide use of generic versions of high-cost, frequently used medications. At the end of 2010, generic drugs accounted for 78% of all retail prescriptions dispensed. Another pattern is substantial increases in expenditures for specialized medications, particularly in the outpatient setting as growth in prescription drug expenditures for clinic-administered drugs consistently outpaces growth in total expenditures. Various factors are likely to influence drug expenditures in 2012, including drugs in development, the diffusion of new drugs, generic drugs, drug shortages, and biosimilars. For 2012, we project a 3-5% increase in total drug expenditures across all settings, a 5-7% increase in expenditures for clinic-administered drugs, and a 0-2% increase in hospital drug expenditures.

  11. Co-Prescription Trends in a Large Cohort of Subjects Predict Substantial Drug-Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Jeffrey J.; Daly, Thomas M.; Liu, Xiong; Goldstein, Keith; Johnston, Joseph A.; Ryan, Timothy P.

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical prescribing and drug-drug interaction data underlie recommendations on drug combinations that should be avoided or closely monitored by prescribers. Because the number of patients taking multiple medications is increasing, a comprehensive view of prescribing patterns in patients is important to better assess real world pharmaceutical response and evaluate the potential for multi-drug interactions. We obtained self-reported prescription data from NHANES surveys between 1999 and 2010, and confirm the previously reported finding of increasing drug use in the elderly. We studied co-prescription drug trends by focusing on the 2009-2010 survey, which contains prescription data on 690 drugs used by 10,537 subjects. We found that medication profiles were unique for individuals aged 65 years or more, with ≥98 unique drug regimens encountered per 100 subjects taking 3 or more medications. When drugs were viewed by therapeutic class, it was found that the most commonly prescribed drugs were not the most commonly co-prescribed drugs for any of the 16 drug classes investigated. We cross-referenced these medication lists with drug interaction data from Drugs.com to evaluate the potential for drug interactions. The number of drug alerts rose proportionally with the number of co-prescribed medications, rising from 3.3 alerts for individuals prescribed 5 medications to 11.7 alerts for individuals prescribed 10 medications. We found 22% of elderly subjects taking both a substrate and inhibitor of a given cytochrome P450 enzyme, and 4% taking multiple inhibitors of the same enzyme simultaneously. By examining drug pairs prescribed in 0.1% of the population or more, we found low agreement between co-prescription rate and co-discussion in the literature. These data show that prescribing trends in treatment could drive a large extent of individual variability in drug response, and that current pairwise approaches to assessing drug-drug interactions may be inadequate for

  12. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use... Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary to... relating to the testing for the use of illegal drugs are not intended to prohibit the contractor from...

  13. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use... Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary to... relating to the testing for the use of illegal drugs are not intended to prohibit the contractor from...

  14. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use... Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary to... relating to the testing for the use of illegal drugs are not intended to prohibit the contractor from...

  15. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use... Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary to... relating to the testing for the use of illegal drugs are not intended to prohibit the contractor from...

  16. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use... Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary to... relating to the testing for the use of illegal drugs are not intended to prohibit the contractor from...

  17. Species differences in drug glucuronidation: Humanized UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 mice and their application for predicting drug glucuronidation and drug-induced toxicity in humans

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Ryoichi; Yoda, Emiko; Tukey, Robert H.

    2018-01-01

    More than 20% of clinically used drugs are glucuronidated by a microsomal enzyme UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT). Inhibition or induction of UGT can result in an increase or decrease in blood drug concentration. To avoid drug-drug interactions and adverse drug reactions in individuals, therefore, it is important to understand whether UGTs are involved in metabolism of drugs and drug candidates. While most of glucuronides are inactive metabolites, acyl-glucuronides that are formed from compounds with a carboxylic acid group can be highly toxic. Animals such as mice and rats are widely used to predict drug metabolism and drug-induced toxicity in humans. However, there are marked species differences in the expression and function of drug-metabolizing enzymes including UGTs. To overcome the species differences, mice in which certain drug-metabolizing enzymes are humanized have been recently developed. Humanized UGT1 (hUGT1) mice were created in 2010 by crossing Ugt1-null mice with human UGT1 transgenic mice in a C57BL/6 background. hUGT1 mice can be promising tools to predict human drug glucuronidation and acyl-glucuronide-associated toxicity. In this review article, studies of drug metabolism and toxicity in the hUGT1 mice are summarized. We further discuss research and strategic directions to advance the understanding of drug glucuronidation in humans. PMID:29079228

  18. Preclinical Determinants of Drug Choice under Concurrent Schedules of Drug Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Matthew L.; Negus, S. Stevens

    2012-01-01

    Drug self-administration procedures have played a critical role in the experimental analysis of psychoactive compounds, such as cocaine, for over 50 years. While there are numerous permutations of this procedure, this paper will specifically focus on choice procedures using concurrent schedules of intravenous drug self-administration. The aims of this paper are to first highlight the evolution of drug choice procedures and then review the subsequent preclinical body of literature utilizing these choice procedures to understand the environmental, pharmacological, and biological determinants of the reinforcing stimulus effects of drugs. A main rationale for this paper is our proposition that choice schedules are underutilized in investigating the reinforcing effects of drugs in assays of drug self-administration. Moreover, we will conclude with potential future directions and unexplored scientific space for the use of drug choice procedures. PMID:23243420

  19. Drugs in breast milk.

    PubMed

    Hervada, A R; Feit, E; Sagraves, R

    1978-09-01

    The amount of drug excreted into breast milk is dependent upon the lipid solubility of the medication, the mechanism of transport, the degree of ionization, and change in plasma pH. The higher the lipid solubility, the greater the concentration in human milk. The majority of drugs are transported into mammary blood capillaries by passive diffusion. The rest are transported by reverse pinocytosis. Once the drug has entered the epithelial cells of breast tissue, the drug molecules are excreted into the human milk by active transport, passive diffusion, or apocrine secretion. The amount of free (active) drug available for transport depends on the degree of protein binding the plasma pH. Another factor affecting excretion of drugs is the time when breast feeding occurs. In the 1st few days of life, when colostrum is present, water-soluble drugs pass through the breast more easily than afterwards when milk is produced. Then lipid-soluble drugs cross in higher concentrations. The effect on nursing infants is dependent on the amount excreted into the milk, the total amount absorbed by the infant, and the toxicity of the drug. The use of the following drugs in breast feeding mothers is reviewed: anticoagulants, antihypertensives and diuretics, antimicrobials, drugs affecting the central nervous system (alcohol, chloral hydrate, meprobamate, lithium, and aspirin), marijuana, other drugs (antihistamines, atropine, ergot alka