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Sample records for nopporo forest park

  1. Forest Park English Department Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Dick; Harris, Angela

    1999-01-01

    Provides a retrospective update of a 1974 profile of the English Department at St. Louis's Forest Park Community College. Describes the campus, English department, internal governance, courses taught, professional activities, and departmental spirit in relationship to its 1974 profile. (SC)

  2. Meteorite Shower in Park Forest, Illinois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2004-08-01

    Steven Simon (University of Chicago) and seven colleagues from the University of Chicago, the Planetary Studies Foundation, Harper College, Pacific Northwest National Lab, and the Field Museum in Chicago have classified the meteorite fragments that fell on Chicago's southern suburbs on the night of March 26, 2003. Described as ".. the most densely populated region to be hit by a meteorite shower in modern times," the village of Park Forest is at the center of the strewnfield and fortuitously also happens to be home to the Simon family, who answered scores of phone calls from neighboring meteorite finders. No injuries were reported though plenty of roofs, windows, walls, and cars were hit, and the police department took individual fusion-crusted fragments into custody as evidence. Its chemical and mineralogical compositions establish the Park Forest meteorite as an L5 chondrite, one of the most primitive groups of known meteorites. It is a strongly shocked monomict breccia (a term applied to a breccia made of one kind of rock) with light-colored clasts in a very dark matrix. The team measured cosmic radionuclides in Park Forest and found nearly zero cobalt-56 and high cobalt-60, values that indicate a large preatmospheric mass. They estimate the meteoroid was at least 900 kilograms and possibly as large as 7000 kilograms before it broke apart in the atmosphere, of which only about 30 kilograms of fragments have been recovered.

  3. Characterizing the forest fragmentation of Canada's national parks.

    PubMed

    Soverel, Nicholas O; Coops, Nicholas C; White, Joanne C; Wulder, Michael A

    2010-05-01

    Characterizing the amount and configuration of forests can provide insights into habitat quality, biodiversity, and land use. The establishment of protected areas can be a mechanism for maintaining large, contiguous areas of forests, and the loss and fragmentation of forest habitat is a potential threat to Canada's national park system. Using the Earth Observation for Sustainable Development of Forests (EOSD) land cover product (EOSD LC 2000), we characterize the circa 2000 forest patterns in 26 of Canada's national parks and compare these to forest patterns in the ecological units surrounding these parks, referred to as the greater park ecosystem (GPE). Five landscape pattern metrics were analyzed: number of forest patches, mean forest patch size (hectare), standard deviation of forest patch size (hectare), mean forest patch perimeter-to-area ratio (meters per hectare), and edge density of forest patches (meters per hectare). An assumption is often made that forests within park boundaries are less fragmented than the surrounding GPE, as indicated by fewer forest patches, a larger mean forest patch size, less variability in forest patch size, a lower perimeter-to-area ratio, and lower forest edge density. Of the 26 national parks we analyzed, 58% had significantly fewer patches, 46% had a significantly larger mean forest patch size (23% were not significantly different), and 46% had a significantly smaller standard deviation of forest patch size (31% were not significantly different), relative to their GPEs. For forest patch perimeter-to-area ratio and forest edge density, equal proportions of parks had values that were significantly larger or smaller than their respective GPEs and no clear trend emerged. In summary, all the national parks we analyzed, with the exception of the Georgian Bay Islands, were found to be significantly different from their corresponding GPE for at least one of the five metrics assessed, and 50% of the 26 parks were significantly

  4. The fall, recovery and classification of the Park Forest Meteorite

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Steve B.; Grossman, Larry; Clayton, Robert N.; Mayeda, T. K.; Schwade, J. R.; Sipiera, P. P.; Wacker, John F.; Wadhwa, M.

    2004-04-01

    On the night of March 26, 2003, a large meteorite broke up and fell upon the south suburbs of Chicago. The name Park Forest, for the village that is at the center of the strewnfield, has been approved by the Nomenclature Committee of the Meteoritical Society. Satellite data indicate that the bolide traveled from the southwest toward the northeast. The strewnfield has a southwest-northwest trend, however, probably due to the effects of strong weterly winds at high altitudes. Its very low Co-56 and very high Co-60 activities indicate that Park Forest had a preatmospheric mass that was at least ~900 kg and could bave been as large as ~7000 kg, of which only ~30 kg have been recovered. This paper describes initial measurements to identify and characterize the Park Forest meteorite, which is classified as an L5 chondrite.

  5. A Profile of Forest Park Community College Students, Fall 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinbach, Lana J.

    In fall 1974, Forest Park Community College (FPCC), a predominantly black, inner-city two-year college in St. Louis, Missouri, participated in the Cooperative Institutional Research Program, which is conducted annually to provide normative data on first-time freshmen students entering a national sample of colleges and universities. At FPCC, a…

  6. Prince William Forest Park American Beech , Approximately one mile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Prince William Forest Park American Beech , Approximately one mile from visitor’s center, south bank of the south fork of Quantico Creek, about 75 yards upstream from its confluence with Quantico Creek, Near Birch Bluff Trail, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  7. Structure of a forested urban park: implications for strategic management.

    PubMed

    Millward, Andrew A; Sabir, Senna

    2010-11-01

    Informed management of urban parks can provide optimal conditions for tree establishment and growth and thus maximize the ecological and aesthetic benefits that trees provide. This study assesses the structure, and its implications for function, of the urban forest in Allan Gardens, a 6.1 ha downtown park in the City of Toronto, Canada, using the Street Tree Resource Analysis Tool for Urban Forest Managers (STRATUM). Our goal is to present a framework for collection and analysis of baseline data that can inform a management strategy that would serve to protect and enhance this significant natural asset. We found that Allan Garden's tree population, while species rich (43), is dominated by maple (Acer spp.) (48% of all park trees), making it reliant on very few species for the majority of its ecological and aesthetic benefits and raising disease and pest-related concerns. Age profiles (using size as a proxy) showed a dominance of older trees with an inadequate number of individuals in the young to early middle age cohort necessary for short- to medium-term replacement. Because leaf area represents the single-most important contributor to urban tree benefits modelling, we calculated it separately for every park tree, using hemispheric photography, to document current canopy condition. These empirical measurements were lower than estimates produced by STRATUM, especially when trees were in decline and lacked full canopies, highlighting the importance of individual tree condition in determining leaf area and hence overall forest benefits. Stewardship of natural spaces within cities demands access to accurate and timely resource-specific data. Our work provides an uncomplicated approach to the acquisition and interpretation of these data in the context of a forested urban park.

  8. Stratigraphy of the upper Triassic Petrified Forest Member (Chinle Formation) in Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Murry, P.A. )

    1990-09-01

    The Petrified Forest Member of the Triassic Chinle Formation in a Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona may be divided into a lower and upper unit by means of the Sonsela Sandstone Bed. Analysis of fossil vertebrates indicates that the Sonsela Sandstone Bed and upper Petrified Forest Member are characterized by a fauna distinct from that within the lower portion of the Petrified Forest Member. These faunas are believed to be of Norian and Carnian age respectively. Utilizing fossil vertebrates and certain lithostratigraphic units, especially the Sonsela Sandstone Bed and black forest tuff, exposures may be correlated within and between the Rainbow Forest, Blue Mesa, and Painted Desert areas of Petrified Forest National Park.

  9. [Estimation for vegetation carbon storage in Tiantong National Forest Park].

    PubMed

    Guo, Chun-Zi; Wu, Yang-Yang; Ni, Jian

    2014-11-01

    Based on the field investigation and the data combination from literature, vegetation carbon storage, carbon density, and their spatial distribution were examined across six forest community types (Schima superba--Castanopsis fargesii community, S. superba--C. fargesii with C. sclerophylla community, S. superba--C. fargesii with Distylium myricoides community, Illicium lanceolatum--Choerospondias axillaris community, Liquidambar formosana--Pinus massoniana community and Hedyotis auricularia--Phylostachys pubescens community) in Tiantong National Forest Park, Zhejiang Province, by using the allometric biomass models for trees and shrubs. Results showed that: Among the six communities investigated, carbon storage and carbon density were highest in the S. superba--C. fargesii with C. sclerophylla community (storage: 12113.92 Mg C; density: 165.03 Mg C · hm(-2)), but lowest in the I. lanceolatum--C. axillaris community (storage: 680.95 Mg C; density: 101.26 Mg C · hm(-2)). Carbon storage was significantly higher in evergreen trees than in deciduous trees across six communities. Carbon density ranged from 76.08 to 144.95 Mg C · hm(-2), and from 0. 16 to 20. 62 Mg C · hm(-2) for evergreen trees and deciduous trees, respectively. Carbon storage was highest in stems among tree tissues in the tree layer throughout communities. Among vegetation types, evergreen broad-leaved forest had the highest carbon storage (23092.39 Mg C), accounting for 81.7% of the total carbon storage in all forest types, with a car- bon density of 126.17 Mg C · hm(-2). Total carbon storage for all vegetation types in Tiantong National Forest Park was 28254.22 Mg C, and the carbon density was 96.73 Mg C · hm(-2).

  10. [Dynamics of major forest vegetations in Tiantong National Forest Park during the last 30 years].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yang-Yang; Guo, Chun-Zi; Ni, Jian

    2014-06-01

    The study of vegetation succession and development is not only one of the hot spots of modern ecology, but also a key issue of the sustainable development of human society, especially under the circumstances of climate change and anthropogenic disturbance. A comparison of forest communities in the Tiantong National Forest Park (TNFP) in Zhejiang Province, eastern China from 1982 to 2012 was performed. Six forests in the park were investigated, including the typical evergreen broadleaved forest (EBLF, three sub-associations), evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest (EDBLMF), evergreen conifer forest (ECF) and bamboo forest (BF). Data from two field investigations in 1982 and 2012, respectively, were used to analyze the changes of species composition, community structure and species diversity during the past 30 years. The spatial pattern and community structure of the forest vegetation in the TNFP did not obviously change. The spatial distribution of plant communities did not significantly shifted. The proportion of young trees and individuals in small diameters increased. The regeneration status of communities was healthy and the natural regeneration ability of communities was enhanced. The species diversity of the TNFP forests showed an increasing trend in the tree layer and a decreasing trend in the shrub and herb layers. Meanwhile, the evergreen component increased. Along with the changed climate, forest vegetation in the TNFP was developing towards the forward succession. Species diversity, especially the trees, increased with the increase of temperature. This demonstrated that, on one hand, forest vegetation in Tiantong had been well protected; on the other hand, there was a potential positive relationship between the EBLF succession and climate change. PMID:25223006

  11. [Dynamics of major forest vegetations in Tiantong National Forest Park during the last 30 years].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yang-Yang; Guo, Chun-Zi; Ni, Jian

    2014-06-01

    The study of vegetation succession and development is not only one of the hot spots of modern ecology, but also a key issue of the sustainable development of human society, especially under the circumstances of climate change and anthropogenic disturbance. A comparison of forest communities in the Tiantong National Forest Park (TNFP) in Zhejiang Province, eastern China from 1982 to 2012 was performed. Six forests in the park were investigated, including the typical evergreen broadleaved forest (EBLF, three sub-associations), evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest (EDBLMF), evergreen conifer forest (ECF) and bamboo forest (BF). Data from two field investigations in 1982 and 2012, respectively, were used to analyze the changes of species composition, community structure and species diversity during the past 30 years. The spatial pattern and community structure of the forest vegetation in the TNFP did not obviously change. The spatial distribution of plant communities did not significantly shifted. The proportion of young trees and individuals in small diameters increased. The regeneration status of communities was healthy and the natural regeneration ability of communities was enhanced. The species diversity of the TNFP forests showed an increasing trend in the tree layer and a decreasing trend in the shrub and herb layers. Meanwhile, the evergreen component increased. Along with the changed climate, forest vegetation in the TNFP was developing towards the forward succession. Species diversity, especially the trees, increased with the increase of temperature. This demonstrated that, on one hand, forest vegetation in Tiantong had been well protected; on the other hand, there was a potential positive relationship between the EBLF succession and climate change.

  12. North Fork well, Shoshone National Forest, Park County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    A summary of the draft environmental impact statement for a proposed exploratory oil drilling operation in Shoshone National Forest in Wyoming describes the drilling equipment and support facilities required for the operation. Marathon Oil Company's purpose is to test the gas and oil potential of underlying geologic structures. Although Marathon plans a reclamation and revegetation program, there would be erosion during the operation. Noise from the drilling and helicopter activity would disrupt wildlife and vacationers in nearby Yellowstone Park. Confrontations with the grizzly bear population would increase. The legal mandate for the assessment was the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920.

  13. [Protection regionalization of Houshi Forest Park based on landscape sensitivity].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Li, Yue-hui; Hu, Yuan-man; Zhang, Jia-hui; Liu, Miao

    2009-03-01

    By using GIS technology, and selecting slope, relative distance to viewpoints, relative distance to tourism roads, visual probability of viewpoints, and visual probability of tourism roads as the indices, the landscape sensitivity of Houshi Forest Park was assessed, and an integrated assessment model was established. The AHP method was utilized to determine the weights of the indices, and further, to identify the integrated sensitivity class of the areas in the Park. Four classes of integrated sensitivity area were divided. Class I had an area of 297.24 hm2, occupying 22.9% of the total area of the Park, which should be strictly protected to maintain natural landscape, and prohibited any exploitation or construction. Class II had an area of 359.72 hm2, accounting for 27.8% of the total. The hills in this area should be kept from destroying to protect vegetation and water, but the simple byway and stone path could be built. Class III had an area reached up to 495.80 hm2, occupying 38.3% of the total, which could be moderately exploited, and artificial landscape was advocated to beautify and set off natural landscape. Class IV had the smallest area (142.80 hm2) accounting for 11% of the total, which had the greatest potential of exploitation, being possible to build large-scale integrated tourism facilities and travelling roads.

  14. Lessons about parks and poverty from a decade of forest loss and economic growth around Kibale National Park, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Naughton-Treves, Lisa; Alix-Garcia, Jennifer; Chapman, Colin A

    2011-08-23

    We use field data linked to satellite image analysis to examine the relationship between biodiversity loss, deforestation, and poverty around Kibale National Park (KNP) in western Uganda, 1996-2006. Over this decade, KNP generally maintained forest cover, tree species, and primate populations, whereas neighboring communal forest patches were reduced by half and showed substantial declines in tree species and primate populations. However, a bad decade for forest outside the park proved a prosperous one for most local residents. Panel data for 252 households show substantial improvement in welfare indicators (e.g., safer water, more durable roof material), with the greatest increases found among those with highest initial assets. A combination of regression analysis and matching estimators shows that although the poor tend to be located on the park perimeter, proximity to the park has no measureable effect on growth of productive assets. The risk for land loss among the poor was inversely correlated with proximity to the park, initial farm size, and decline in adjacent communal forests. We conclude the current disproportionate presence of poor households at the edge of the park does not signal that the park is a poverty trap. Rather, Kibale appears to provide protection against desperation sales and farm loss among those most vulnerable.

  15. Lessons about parks and poverty from a decade of forest loss and economic growth around Kibale National Park, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Naughton-Treves, Lisa; Alix-Garcia, Jennifer; Chapman, Colin A.

    2011-01-01

    We use field data linked to satellite image analysis to examine the relationship between biodiversity loss, deforestation, and poverty around Kibale National Park (KNP) in western Uganda, 1996–2006. Over this decade, KNP generally maintained forest cover, tree species, and primate populations, whereas neighboring communal forest patches were reduced by half and showed substantial declines in tree species and primate populations. However, a bad decade for forest outside the park proved a prosperous one for most local residents. Panel data for 252 households show substantial improvement in welfare indicators (e.g., safer water, more durable roof material), with the greatest increases found among those with highest initial assets. A combination of regression analysis and matching estimators shows that although the poor tend to be located on the park perimeter, proximity to the park has no measureable effect on growth of productive assets. The risk for land loss among the poor was inversely correlated with proximity to the park, initial farm size, and decline in adjacent communal forests. We conclude the current disproportionate presence of poor households at the edge of the park does not signal that the park is a poverty trap. Rather, Kibale appears to provide protection against desperation sales and farm loss among those most vulnerable. PMID:21873178

  16. Holocene changes in a park-forest vegetation mosaic in the Wind River Range, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, E.A. )

    1994-06-01

    The modern mod-elevation vegetation of the Rocky Mountains is a mosaic of conifer forests and open parks dominated by sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), grasses, and other herbs. It is not known how this pattern originated or how sensitive the balance between forest and park is to disturbance. Using pollen from sediments of five small ponds in Fish Creek Park, WY (elev. 2700 m), I reconstructed the last 8000 yrs of changes in the park-forest mosaic in an are about 16 km[sup 2]. Surface samples collected from 52 ponds in the Fish Creek Park area and from forest and park sites in Wyoming and Colorado indicate that park and forest pollen assemblages can be distinguished using multivariate statistical methods and conifer:herb pollen ratios. Fossil pollen from the five sediment cores shows that the distribution of the two vegetation types on the landscape has changed through the Holocene, and that the changes in vegetation are gradual. Past changes from park to forest have apparently occurred much more slowly than changes from forest to park, suggesting that areas subjected to recent clearcutting may remain unforested for centuries.

  17. Changes in determinants of deforestation and forest degradation in Popa Mountain Park, Central Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Htun, Naing Zaw; Mizoue, Nobuya; Yoshida, Shigejiro

    2013-02-01

    Implementing effective conservation requires an understanding of factors affecting deforestation and forest degradation. Previous studies have investigated factors affecting deforestation, while few studies have examined the determinants of both of deforestation and forest degradation for more than one period. To address this gap, this study examined factors influencing deforestation and forest degradation during 1989-2000 and 2000-2005 in the Popa Mountain Park, Myanmar. We applied multinomial logistic regression (MNL) using land cover maps derived from Landsat images as the dependent variables as well as spatial and biophysical factors as the independent variables. The MNL models revealed influences of the determinants on deforestation and forest degradation changes over time. For example, during 1989-2000, deforestation from closed forest was positively correlated to the distance from the park boundary and was negatively correlated with distance from villages, roads, the park circular road, slope, western aspect and elevation. On the other hand, during 2000-2005, deforestation of closed forest was positively correlated with distance from villages, roads, the park circular road, slope and western aspect, and negatively correlated with distance from the park boundary and elevation. Similar scenarios were observed for the deforestation of open forest and forest degradation of closed forest. The study also found most of the determinants influenced deforestation and forest degradation differently. The changes in determinants of deforestation and forest degradation over time might be attributable to the general decrease in resource availability and to the effect of conservation measures conducted by the park.

  18. LANDSAT applications by the Adirondack Park Agency for land cover analyses and forest cover change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banta, J. S.; Curran, R. P.

    1981-01-01

    The New York State Adirondack Park Agency is using LANDSAT imagery to provide current, consistent parkwide data on forest cover, forest change and other land cover characteristics for the Adirondack Park, an area of 9,375 sq. miles (24,280 sq km). Boundaries of the study area were digitized and the data were enhanced and geographically rectified. A classification scheme was devised which emphasized the basic land cover types of the Park: hardwoods, spruce-fir, pine, wet conifer, brushland, grassland, agricultural areas, exposed earth, urban areas, and water bodies. Cover type classifications for disturbed forest land were also chosen: cut hardwoods, regenerating hardwoods, and cut spruce fir. Field verification of 1978 classification revealed an accurate differentiation of forest types within types and between nonforested/forested areas. The classification accurately detects forest land disturbances; however, it is not always descriptive of the level of disturbance.

  19. Oak Park and River Forest High School Random Access Information Center; A PACE Program. Report II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Park - River Forest High School, Oak Park, IL.

    The specifications, planning, and initial development phases of the Random Access Center at the Oak Park and River Forest High School in Oak Park, Illinois, are described with particular attention to the ways that the five functional specifications and the five-part program rationale were implemented in the system design. Specifications, set out…

  20. Protocol for monitoring forest-nesting birds in National Park Service parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Deanna K.; Efford, Murray G.

    2013-01-01

    These documents detail the protocol for monitoring forest-nesting birds in National Park Service parks in the National Capital Region Network (NCRN). In the first year of sampling, counts of birds should be made at 384 points on the NCRN spatially randomized grid, developed to sample terrestrial resources. Sampling should begin on or about May 20 and continue into early July; on each day the sampling period begins at sunrise and ends five hours later. Each point should be counted twice, once in the first half of the field season and once in the second half, with visits made by different observers, balancing the within-season coverage of points and their spatial coverage by observers, and allowing observer differences to be tested. Three observers, skilled in identifying birds of the region by sight and sound and with previous experience in conducting timed counts of birds, will be needed for this effort. Observers should be randomly assigned to ‘routes’ consisting of eight points, in close proximity and, ideally, in similar habitat, that can be covered in one morning. Counts are 10 minutes in length, subdivided into four 2.5-min intervals. Within each time interval, new birds (i.e., those not already detected) are recorded as within or beyond 50 m of the point, based on where first detected. Binomial distance methods are used to calculate annual estimates of density for species. The data are also amenable to estimation of abundance and detection probability via the removal method. Generalized linear models can be used to assess between-year changes in density estimates or unadjusted count data. This level of sampling is expected to be sufficient to detect a 50% decline in 10 years for approximately 50 bird species, including 14 of 19 species that are priorities for conservation efforts, if analyses are based on unadjusted count data, and for 30 species (6 priority species) if analyses are based on density estimates. The estimates of required sample sizes are

  1. Forest Vegetation Monitoring Protocol for National Parks in the North Coast and Cascades Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, Andrea; Hutten, Karen M.; Boetsch, John R.; Acker, Steven A.; Rochefort, Regina M.; Bivin, Mignonne M.; Kurth, Laurie L.

    2009-01-01

    Plant communities are the foundation for terrestrial trophic webs and animal habitat, and their structure and species composition are an integrated result of biological and physical drivers (Gates, 1993). Additionally, they have a major role in geologic, geomorphologic and soil development processes (Jenny, 1941; Stevens and Walker, 1970). Throughout most of the Pacific Northwest, environmental conditions support coniferous forests as the dominant vegetation type. In the face of anthropogenic climate change, forests have a global role as potential sinks for atmospheric carbon (Goodale and others, 2002). Consequently, knowledge of the status of forests in the three large parks of the NCCN [that is, Mount Rainier (MORA), North Cascades (NOCA), and Olympic (OLYM) National Parks] is fundamental to understanding the condition of Pacific Northwest ecosystems. Diverse climate and soil properties across the Pacific Northwest result in a variety of forest types (Franklin and Dyrness, 1973; Franklin and others, 1988; Henderson and others, 1989, 1992). The mountainous terrain of Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks create steep elevational and precipitation gradients within and among the parks: collectively, these parks span from sea level to more than 4,200 m; and include areas with precipitation from 90 to more than 500 cm. The resulting forests range from coastal rainforests with dense understories and massive trees draped with epiphytes; to areas with drought-adapted Ponderosa pines; to high-elevation subalpine fir forests interspersed with meadows just below treeline (table 1). These forests, in turn, are the foundation for other biotic communities constituting Pacific Northwest ecosystems.

  2. The Multiplier Effect of the Development of Forest Park Tourism on Employment Creation in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuifa, Ke; Chenguang, Pan; Jiahua, Pan; Yan, Zheng; Ying, Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this article was employment creation by developing forest park tourism industries in China. Analysis of the statistical data and an input-output approach showed that 1 direct job opportunity in tourism industries created 1.15 other job opportunities. In the high, middle, and low scenarios, the total predicted employment in forest park…

  3. Motivations for recreating on farmlands, private forests, and state or national parks.

    PubMed

    Sotomayor, Sandra; Barbieri, Carla; Wilhelm Stanis, Sonja; Aguilar, Francisco X; Smith, Jordan W

    2014-07-01

    This study explores the importance of different motivations to visit three types of recreational settings--farms, private forests, and state or national parks. Data were collected via a mail-back questionnaire administered to a stratified random sample of households in Missouri (USA). Descriptive and inferential statistics reveal both similarities and discontinuities in motivations for visiting farms, private forests, and state or national parks for recreation. Being with family, viewing natural scenery, and enjoying the smells and sounds of nature were all highly important motivations for visiting the three types of settings. However, all 15 motivations examined were perceived to be significantly more important for visits to state or national parks than to farms or private forests. Findings suggest that individuals are more strongly motivated to recreate at state and national parks relative to farmlands or forests. Post hoc paired t tests comparing motivations between both agricultural settings (farms and private forests) revealed significant differences in eight different recreational motivations. Individuals tended to place more importance on the ability to use equipment and test their skills when considering recreating on private forests. Conversely, social motivations (e.g., doing something with the family) were more important when individuals were considering recreating on farmland. Collectively, the findings suggest individuals expect distinctly different outcomes from their visits to farmlands, private forests, or state or national parks. Consequently, all three types of recreational settings have competitive advantages that their managers could capitalize on when making decisions about how to attract new visitors or produce the most desirable experiences for current recreationists.

  4. Motivations for Recreating on Farmlands, Private Forests, and State or National Parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotomayor, Sandra; Barbieri, Carla; Wilhelm Stanis, Sonja; Aguilar, Francisco X.; Smith, Jordan W.

    2014-07-01

    This study explores the importance of different motivations to visit three types of recreational settings—farms, private forests, and state or national parks. Data were collected via a mail-back questionnaire administered to a stratified random sample of households in Missouri (USA). Descriptive and inferential statistics reveal both similarities and discontinuities in motivations for visiting farms, private forests, and state or national parks for recreation. Being with family, viewing natural scenery, and enjoying the smells and sounds of nature were all highly important motivations for visiting the three types of settings. However, all 15 motivations examined were perceived to be significantly more important for visits to state or national parks than to farms or private forests. Findings suggest that individuals are more strongly motivated to recreate at state and national parks relative to farmlands or forests. Post hoc paired t tests comparing motivations between both agricultural settings (farms and private forests) revealed significant differences in eight different recreational motivations. Individuals tended to place more importance on the ability to use equipment and test their skills when considering recreating on private forests. Conversely, social motivations (e.g., doing something with the family) were more important when individuals were considering recreating on farmland. Collectively, the findings suggest individuals expect distinctly different outcomes from their visits to farmlands, private forests, or state or national parks. Consequently, all three types of recreational settings have competitive advantages that their managers could capitalize on when making decisions about how to attract new visitors or produce the most desirable experiences for current recreationists.

  5. Ozone in Spain's national parks and protected forests.

    PubMed

    Sanz, María J; Sanz, Francisco; Calatayud, Vicent; Sanchez-Peña, Gerardo

    2007-01-01

    In general, it is difficult to measure air pollutant concentrations in remote areas, as they are mostly national parks and protected areas. Passive samplers provide an accurate and inexpensive method for measuring cumulative exposures of different air pollutants. They have been used to collect ozone data in both laboratory and field at different geographical scales. The objective of the present study is to fill the knowledge gap regarding air quality in remote areas of Spain, such as national parks and protected areas. Because there were no systematic data sets on the main air pollutants that could affect these areas, an air quality measurement network was established between 2001 and 2004 on 19 locations inside Spanish national parks and protected areas. The data collected suggest that ozone levels in mountainous areas are high enough to affect sensitive vegetation. Most of the locations registered moderate-to-high ozone levels, with important interannual variability. Altitudinal ozone gradients were observed in most of the parks with complex topography due to the establishment of local circulations that incorporate polluted air masses from polluted airsheds or even long-range transport (i.e., Canary Islands). Different latitude-dependent, yearly cycles were also observed, showing two, one, or no clear peaks depending on the region. These findings extend to the most southerly locations, except in the Canary Islands, where pollution transported from other regions in the upper transport layers probably led to the high concentrations observed.

  6. An estimating on of the economical value of Arsanjan Bonab Forest Park, Iran.

    PubMed

    Roosta, T; Scandari, S; Adeli, K; Roosta, H

    2010-07-01

    Using of amusement places always has been important for humankind. Therefore, assessment of value for this promenaded and usage of nature is necessary for future programming in management of natural resources. For this reason, this research will discuss an assessment of the promenaded value of Bonab Forest Park and determines a visitor's Willingness To Pay (WTP) for promenaded benefits obtained. In this study, two techniques are used for Contingent Valuation (CV) $ Travel Cost (TC) method by Dichotomous Choice (DC). For determination of visitor's willingness to pay simple average method was employed. Results indicate that 94.3% of visitors are willing to pay for promenaded values at the Bonab Forest Park. The mean value for willingness to pay for the value of the park is 0.38 $ for each person per month. Annual value for promenade in this park was calculated 3439.3 $ per hector. Other important results in this research show that forest park has promenaded value significantly and on the other hand, we can increase the usage, protection and numbers of tourists.

  7. An estimating on of the economical value of Arsanjan Bonab Forest Park, Iran.

    PubMed

    Roosta, T; Scandari, S; Adeli, K; Roosta, H

    2010-07-01

    Using of amusement places always has been important for humankind. Therefore, assessment of value for this promenaded and usage of nature is necessary for future programming in management of natural resources. For this reason, this research will discuss an assessment of the promenaded value of Bonab Forest Park and determines a visitor's Willingness To Pay (WTP) for promenaded benefits obtained. In this study, two techniques are used for Contingent Valuation (CV) $ Travel Cost (TC) method by Dichotomous Choice (DC). For determination of visitor's willingness to pay simple average method was employed. Results indicate that 94.3% of visitors are willing to pay for promenaded values at the Bonab Forest Park. The mean value for willingness to pay for the value of the park is 0.38 $ for each person per month. Annual value for promenade in this park was calculated 3439.3 $ per hector. Other important results in this research show that forest park has promenaded value significantly and on the other hand, we can increase the usage, protection and numbers of tourists. PMID:21717865

  8. A Report to the Faculty from the Office of Instruction, Forest Park Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Louis Community Coll. at Forest Park, MO.

    This annual report indicates the status of each department and division at Forest Park Community College, a predominantly black, inner-city, two-year college in St. Louis, Missouri. Each department or division reports its goals for 1974-75, assesses the level at which each goal was achieved, and presents its goals for 1975-76. The departments and…

  9. Using Government Documents to Obtain Information on National Parks, Monuments and Forests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerback, Mary; Yukawa, Masako

    1980-01-01

    Explains how to obtain information from United States Government publications through the use of depository libraries, purchase of government documents, and locating free government publications. Gives specific information source examples related to the geology of national parks, monuments, and forests. (GS)

  10. Forest Park Pilot Project. Child Development Associate Training Project Final Documentation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Louis Community Coll. at Forest Park, MO.

    The planning and implementation of a pilot CDA training project is described in this final report to the Office of Child Development by the Human Services Department, Social Science Division of the St. Louis Community College at Forest Park. Staff training, selection of candidates and curriculum development are emphasized early in the report. The…

  11. Restoration treatments in urban park forests drive long-term changes in vegetation trajectories.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lea R; Handel, Steven N

    2016-04-01

    Municipalities are turning to ecological restoration of urban forests as a measure to improve air quality, ameliorate urban heat island effects, improve storm water infiltration, and provide other social and ecological benefits. However, community dynamics following urban forest restoration treatments are poorly documented. This study examines the long-term effects of ecological restoration undertaken in New York City, New York, USA, to restore native forest in urban park natural areas invaded by woody non-native plants that are regional problems. In 2009 and 2010, we sampled vegetation in 30 invaded sites in three large public parks that were restored 1988-1993, and 30 sites in three large parks that were similarly invaded but had not been restored. Data from these matched plots reveal that the restoration treatment achieved its central goals. After 15-20 years, invasive species removal followed by native tree planting resulted in persistent structural and compositional shifts, significantly lower invasive species abundance, a more complex forest structure, and greater native tree recruitment. Together, these findings indicate that successional trajectories of vegetation dynamics have diverged between restored forests and invaded forests that were not restored. In addition, the data suggest that future composition of these urban forest patches will be novel assemblages. Restored and untreated sites shared a suite of shade-intolerant, quickly-growing tree species that colonize disturbed sites, indicating that restoration treatments created sites hospitable for germination and growth of species adapted to high light conditions and disturbed soils. These findings yield an urban perspective on the use of succession theory in ecological restoration. Models of ecological restoration developed in more pristine environments must be modified for use in cities. By anticipating both urban disturbances and ecological succession, management of urban forest patches can be

  12. Kelp forest monitoring 1994 annual report. Channel Islands National Park. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kushner, D.; Lerma, D.; Richards, D.

    1994-12-31

    The 1994 results of the Channel Islands Natonal Park Kelp Forest Monitoring Project are described in this report. Population dynamics of 68 taxa or categories of algae, fish, and invertebrates were measured at 16 permanent sites around the five islands within the park. Survey techniques utilized SCUBA and surface-supplied-air, and included quadrants, band transects, random point contacts, fish transects, video transects, size frequency measurements, artificial recruitment modules, and species list surveys. Temperature data was collected using temperature loggers deployed at each of the sixteen sites. Size frequency measurements were taken from artificial recruitment modules at ten sites. In 1994, 13 sites had giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, forests, one site was dominated by the aggregating red sea cucumber, Pachythyone rubra, one site was dominated by red sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus francisanus, and another by purple sea urchins, S. purpuratus. Wasting disease was observed in sea stars and wasting syndrome was apparent in sea urchins.

  13. Rarity and diversity in forest ant assemblages of Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lessard, J.-P.; Dunn, R.R.; Parker, C.R.; Sanders, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    We report on a systematic survey of the ant fauna occurring in hardwood forests in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. At 22-mixed hardwood sites, we collected leaf-litter ant species using Winkler samplers. At eight of those sites, we also collected ants using pitfall and Malaise traps. In total, we collected 53 ant species. As shown in other studies, ant species richness tended to decline with increasing elevation. Leaf-litter ant assemblages were also highly nested. Several common species were both locally abundant and had broad distributions, while many other species were rarely detected. Winkler samplers, pitfall traps, and Malaise traps yielded samples that differed in composition, but not richness, from one another. Taken together, our work begins to illuminate the factors that govern the diversity, distribution, abundance, and perhaps rarity of ants of forested ecosystems in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

  14. Scenario planning based on geomatics: a case study in Zijin mountain national forest park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingyang; He, Yanjie; Xu, Guangcai; Wu, Wenhao; Wang, Baozhong

    2007-06-01

    With the rapid development of forest tourism, it is crucial to coordinate the conflicting goals of a forest park by making a scientific plan. It is difficult to determine the complex relationship by means of traditional laboratory and field experiments on the scale of landscape. Zijin Mountain national forest park is taken as a case study area, while RS and GIS software ERDAS 8.7, ArcGis 9.0 are chosen as the spatial platforms of doing scenario planning. Three different periods remote sensing data in the years of 2000 (IKNOS), 2002(SPOT5), 2004 ( QuickBird ) are gathered, then supervised classification, neighborhood analysis are being done before three scenarios of national park in ten years are built based on Cellular Automation Model (CAM). Three spatial pattern index of mean patch area, shape index, patch density of each scenario are calculated by using the spatial pattern analysis program of Fragstats 3.3. After comparison of the three scenarios from two aspects of landscape spatial pattern and protection goals, an optimized planning is made and compared with the land classes in 2002. In the end of the paper, some problems concerned with the scenario making are discussed.

  15. Characterizing forest carbon stocks at tropical biome and landscape level in Mount Apo National Park, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubas, L. C.

    2012-12-01

    Forest resources sequester and store carbon, and serve as a natural brake on climate change. In the tropics, the largest source of greenhouse emission is from deforestation and forest degradation (Gibbs et al 2007). This paper attempts to compile sixty (60) existing studies on using remote sensing to measure key environmental forest indicators at two levels of scales: biome and landscape level. At the tropical forest biome level, there is not as much remote sensing studies that have been done as compared to other forest biomes. Also, existing studies on tropical Asia is still sparse compared to other tropical regions in Latin America and Africa. Biomass map is also produced for the tropical biome using keyhole macro language (KML) which is projected on Google Earth. The compiled studies showed there are four indicators being measured using remote sensors in tropical forest. These are biomass, landcover classification, deforestation and cloud cover. The landscape level will focus on Mount Apo National Park in the Philippines which is encompassing a total area of 54,974.87 hectares. It is one of the ten priority sites targeted in the World Bank-assisted Biodiversity Conservation Program. This park serves as the major watershed for the three provinces with 19 major rivers emanating from the montane formations. Only a small fraction of the natural forest that once covered the country remains. In spite of different policies that aim to reduce logging recent commercial deforestation, illegal logging and agricultural expansion pose an important threat to the remaining forest areas. In some locations in the country, these hotspots of deforestation overlap with the protected areas (Verburg et al 2006). The study site was clipped using ArcGIS from the forest biomass carbon density map produced by Gibbs and Brown (2007). Characterization on this national park using vegetation density, elevation, slope, land cover and precipitation will be conducted to determine factors that

  16. Kelp forest monitoring 1993 annual report. Channel Islands National Park. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kushner, D.; Walder, R.; Gorodezky, L.; Lerma, D.; Richards, D.

    1993-06-01

    The 1993 results of the Channel Islands National Park Kelp Forest Monitoring Project are described in this report. Population dynamics of 68 taxa or categories of algea, fish, and invertebrates were measured at 16 permanent sites around the five islands within the park. Survey techniques utilized SCUBA and surface-supplied-air, and included quadrats, band transects, random contacts, fish transects, video transects, size frequency measurements, artificial recruitment modules, and species list surveys. Temperature data was collected using Sea Data batheothermographs, and HOBOTEMP temperature loggers. Temperature loggers were installed at each of the sixteen sites. Size frequency measurements were taken from artifical recruitment modules at nine sites. In 1993, 13 sites had giant kelp, Macrocysts pyrifera, forests, one site was dominated by the aggregating red sea cucumber, pachythyone rubra, one site was dominated by red sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus, and another by purple sea urchins, S. purpuratus. The 13 sites with kelp forests consisted of 10 mature and three young kelp forests. Wasting disease was observed in sea stars and wasting syndrome was apparent in sea urchins. Sea urchins wasting syndrome appears to have caused mass mortality of purple sea urchins, S. purpuratus, at two Santa Barbara Island sites.

  17. Restoration treatments in urban park forests drive long-term changes in vegetation trajectories.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lea R; Handel, Steven N

    2016-04-01

    Municipalities are turning to ecological restoration of urban forests as a measure to improve air quality, ameliorate urban heat island effects, improve storm water infiltration, and provide other social and ecological benefits. However, community dynamics following urban forest restoration treatments are poorly documented. This study examines the long-term effects of ecological restoration undertaken in New York City, New York, USA, to restore native forest in urban park natural areas invaded by woody non-native plants that are regional problems. In 2009 and 2010, we sampled vegetation in 30 invaded sites in three large public parks that were restored 1988-1993, and 30 sites in three large parks that were similarly invaded but had not been restored. Data from these matched plots reveal that the restoration treatment achieved its central goals. After 15-20 years, invasive species removal followed by native tree planting resulted in persistent structural and compositional shifts, significantly lower invasive species abundance, a more complex forest structure, and greater native tree recruitment. Together, these findings indicate that successional trajectories of vegetation dynamics have diverged between restored forests and invaded forests that were not restored. In addition, the data suggest that future composition of these urban forest patches will be novel assemblages. Restored and untreated sites shared a suite of shade-intolerant, quickly-growing tree species that colonize disturbed sites, indicating that restoration treatments created sites hospitable for germination and growth of species adapted to high light conditions and disturbed soils. These findings yield an urban perspective on the use of succession theory in ecological restoration. Models of ecological restoration developed in more pristine environments must be modified for use in cities. By anticipating both urban disturbances and ecological succession, management of urban forest patches can be

  18. Comparison of breeding bird and vegetation communities in primary and secondary forests of Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simons, Theodore R.; Shriner, Susan A.; Farnsworth, George L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared breeding bird communities and vegetation characteristics at paired point locations in primary (undisturbed) and mature secondary forest (70-100 years old) sites in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA to understand how sites logged prior to creation of the park compare to undisturbed sites following 70 years of protection from human disturbance. We found that bird and vegetation communities are currently similar, but retain some differences in species composition. Rank abundance curves for primary and secondary forest bird communities showed very similar patterns of species dominance. Species composition was also similar on the two sites which shared 24 of the 25 most frequently recorded species. Nonetheless, comparisons of density estimates derived from distance sampling showed three bird species were more abundant on primary forest sites and that one bird species was significantly more abundant on secondary forest sites. Notably, comparisons based on raw counts (unadjusted for potential differences in detectability) produced somewhat different results. Analyses of vegetation samples for the paired sites also showed relative similarity, but with some differences between primary and secondary forests. Primary forest sites had more large trees (trees greater than 50 cm diameter at breast height) and late successional species. Primary forest sites had a denser tall shrub layer while secondary forest sites had a denser canopy layer. Nonetheless, tree species richness, basal area of live trees and number of standing snags did not differ between primary and secondary forest sites. Results indicate that breeding bird communities on sites within the park that were logged commercially 70 years ago are currently quite similar to bird communities on sites with no history of human disturbance. Similarities between the bird communities on previously disturbed and undisturbed sites in Great Smoky Mountains National Park may exceed those on more fragmented

  19. Development of LANDSAT Derived Forest Cover Information for Integration into Adirondack Park GIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, R. P.; Banta, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    Based upon observed changes in timber harvest practices partially attributable to forest biomass removable for energy supply purposes, the Adirondack Park Agency began in 1979 a multi-year project to implement a digital geographic information system (GIS). An initial developmental task was an inventory of forest cover information and analysis of forest resource change and availability. While developing the GIS, a pilot project was undertaken to evaluate the usefulness of LANDSAT derived land cover information for this purpose, and to explore the integration of LANDSAT data into the GIS. The prototype LANDSAT analysis project involved: (1) the use of both recent and historic data to derive land cover information for two dates; and (2) comparison of land cover over time to determine quantitative and geographic changes. The "recent data," 1978 full foliage data over portions of four LANDSAT scenes, was classified, using ground truth derived training samples in various forested and non-forested categories. Forested categories include the following: northern hardwoods, pine, spruce-fir, and pine plantation, while nonforested categories include wet-conifer, pasture, grassland, urban, exposed soil, agriculture, and water.

  20. [Evaluation of view points in forest park based on landscape sensitivity].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Li, Yue-hui; Hu, Yuan-man; Liu, Miao

    2008-11-01

    Based on topographical characteristics, five factors including comparative slope, comparative distance, mutual visibility, vision probability, and striking degree were chosen to assess the landscape sensitivity of major view points in Houshi National Forest Park. Spatial analysis in GIS was used for exploring the theory and method of landscape sensitivity of view points. The results showed that in the Park, there were totally 23 view points, but none of them reached up to class I. Among the 23 points, 10 were of class II , accounting for 43.5% of the total, 8 were of class III, accounting for 34.8%, and 5 were of classes IV and V, accounting for 21.7%. Around the view points of class II, the landscape should be strictly protected to maintain their natural feature; around the view points of class III, human-made landscape points should be developed according to the natural landscape feature, and wide tourism roads and small-size buildings could be constructed but the style of the buildings should be harmonious with surrounding nature landscape; while around the view points of classes IV and V, large-size multifunctional items and roads could be built to perfect the natural landscape. Through the multi-perspective and quantitative evaluation of landscape sensitivity, this study enriched the theory of landscape visual assessment and landscape apperception, and provided scientific base and direction for the planning and management of forest parks and other tourism areas.

  1. Kelp forest monitoring 1992 annual report. Channel Islands National Park. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, D.; Kushner, D.

    1992-12-31

    The 1992 results of the Channel Islands Natioanl Park Kelp Forest Monitoring Project are described in this report. Population dynamics of 68 taxa or categories of algae, fish, and invertebrates were measured at 16 permanent sites around the five islands within the park. Survey techniques utilized SCUBA and surface-supplied-air, and included quadrats, band transects, random point contacts, fish and video transects, photogrammetric plots, size frequency measurements, artifical recruitment habitats, and species list surveys. Some batheothermograph data was collected. In 1992, nine sites and healthy kelp forests while seven were mostly barren. The seven barren sites consisted of one that was dominated by the aggregated red sea cucumber, Pachythyone rubra, one was barren with high sedimentation, one was domainated by red sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus, and four sites were dominated by purple sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, three of which had signs of a developing kelp forest. Wasting disease was observed in sea stars and a wasting syndrome was observed in sea urchins. Fish recruitment appeared to be late this year. Size frequency measurements were taken from artificial recruitment modules (previously named `abalone recruitment modules`) at six of the sites.

  2. Afforestation contribution to Carbon and Nitrogen budgets of forest in a natural park in south Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Forests are important ecosystems because they provide wood products to society as well as many services (recreation, habitat functions, the regulation of water, erosion, and air quality). However, the society has recently focused its attention on forests for two reasons; sequestration of carbon, on the one hand, and provision of biomass for bioenergy, on the other, also illustrates the possible trade-off even within the theme of climate change mitigation. Due to this fact, the forest surface has increased in Spain, as well in Europe in the last decades. The area covered by forest represents 34% in Europe and 35.6% in Spain compared to the total surface. A powerful afforestation policy was carried out in Spain from the 40's decade in forward. The main objective was to increase the forest surface with trees. Two main actions were developed under these repopulations, the transformation of pasture land in forest, on the one hand, and the introduction of fast-growing tree species, on the second hand. Therefore, currently, there are a lot of forest areas in Spain in which the introduced species coexist with native. In addition, the spatial variation of soil properties is significantly influenced by some environmental factors such as topographic aspect that induced microclimate differences, topographic (landscape) positions, parent materials, and vegetation communities. Topographic aspect induces local variation in temperature and precipitation solar radiation and relative humidity, which along with chemical and physical composition of the substrate, are the main regulators of decomposition rates of organic matter. The aim of this study were, i) to evaluate the effect of afforestation policies on carbon and nitrogen budgets in a natural park in Spain and ii) to study the topographic aspect effect on the capacity of SOC and N storage. Our results show how the afforestated areas (in which there are simultaneously both, natural species and introduced species) had higher soil

  3. Kelp forest monitoring. Channel Islands National Park (1991 annual report). Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, D.; Kushner, D.; Avery, W.

    1993-06-01

    This document describes the 1991 progress of the Channel Islands National Park Kelp Forest Monitoring Project. Population dynamics of 68 indicator species of algae, fish, and invertebrates were measured at 16 permanent transect sites in 1991 by divers using SCUBA and surface-supply-air. Survey dives were conducted at seven other locations for comparisons and general information. In 1991, nine sites had healthy kelp forests. Five others had some kelp growing on or near the transect, but were dominated somewhat by sea urchins. White sea urchins were present in moderate to high numbers at four sites with declines at two sites and an increase at one. Juvenile fish recruitment was down in 1991; however, young-of-year rockfish were numerous at San Miguel Island and juvenile sheepland and garibaldi were common at Santa Barbra and Anacapa Islands. Abalone recruitment modules proved effective at concentrating juveniles of several species. This year was a poor recruitment year for abalone.

  4. US Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study: Sociological background and study plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Robin T.; Hartmann, Lawrence

    1990-01-01

    The background and sociological aspects of the combined U.S. Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study (WACOS) are presented. The WACOS broaches a new area of research by combining aspects of outdoor recreation sociology and aircraft noise response studies. The tasks faced create new challenges and require innovative solutions. Background information on the WACOS is presented with special emphasis on sociological considerations. At the time of this writing, no data have yet been collected, so this paper will present background information, related issues, and plans for data collection. Some recent studies indicate that managers of Forest Service wildernesses and National Park Service areas consider aircraft overflights to be a problem to their users in some areas. Additional relevant background research from outdoor recreation sociology is discussed, followed by presentation of the authors' opinions of the most salient sociological issues faced by this study. The goals and desired end products are identified next, followed by a review of the methods anticipated to be used to obtain these results. Finally, a discussion and conclusion section is provided.

  5. US Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study: Sociological background and study plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Robin T.; Hartmann, Lawrence

    1990-04-01

    The background and sociological aspects of the combined U.S. Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study (WACOS) are presented. The WACOS broaches a new area of research by combining aspects of outdoor recreation sociology and aircraft noise response studies. The tasks faced create new challenges and require innovative solutions. Background information on the WACOS is presented with special emphasis on sociological considerations. At the time of this writing, no data have yet been collected, so this paper will present background information, related issues, and plans for data collection. Some recent studies indicate that managers of Forest Service wildernesses and National Park Service areas consider aircraft overflights to be a problem to their users in some areas. Additional relevant background research from outdoor recreation sociology is discussed, followed by presentation of the authors' opinions of the most salient sociological issues faced by this study. The goals and desired end products are identified next, followed by a review of the methods anticipated to be used to obtain these results. Finally, a discussion and conclusion section is provided.

  6. Adapting to climate change at Olympic National Forest and Olympic National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halofsky, Jessica E.; Peterson, David L.; O'Halloran, Kathy A.; Hoffman, Catherine H.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change presents a major challenge to natural resource managers both because of the magnitude of potential effects of climate change on ecosystem structure, processes, and function, and because of the uncertainty associated with those potential ecological effects. Concrete ways to adapt to climate change are needed to help natural resource managers take the first steps to incorporate climate change into management and take advantage of opportunities to counteract the negative effects of climate change. We began a climate change adaptation case study at Olympic National Forest (ONF) in partnership with Olympic National Park (ONP) to determine how to adapt management of federal lands on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, to climate change. The case study began in the summer of 2008 and continued for 1½ years. The case study process involved science-based sensitivity assessments, review of management activities and constraints, and adaptation workshops in each of four focus areas (hydrology and roads, fish, vegetation, and wildlife). The process produced adaptation options for ONF and ONP, and illustrated the utility of place-based vulnerability assessment and science-management workshops in adapting to climate change. The case study process provides an example for other national forests, national parks, and natural resource agencies of how federal land management units can collaborate in the initial stages of climate change adaptation. Many of the ideas generated through this process can potentially be applied in other locations and in other agencies

  7. [Natural succession of vegetation in Tiantong National Forest Park, Zhejiang Province of East China: a simulation study].

    PubMed

    Lü, Na; Ni, Jian

    2013-01-01

    By using spatially explicit landscape model (LANDIS 6.0 PRO), and parameterized this model with the long-term research and observation data of Tiantong National Station of Forest Eco-system Observation and Research, this paper simulated the natural succession of evergreen broad-leaved forest in Tiantong National Forest park, Zhejiang Province in the future 500 years, analyzed the spatial distribution and age structure of dominant species and major landscapes, and explored the succession pattern of the evergreen broad-leaved forest. In the park, the species alternation mostly occurred before the stage of evergreen broad-leaved forest. Pinus massoniana, Quercus fabric, and Liquidambar formosana occupied a large proportion during the early succession, but gradually disappeared with the succession process. Schima superba and Castanopsis fargesii took the main advantage in late succession, and developed to the climax community. Under the conditions without disturbances, the community was mainly composed of young forests in the early succession, and of mature or over-mature forests in the late succession, implying the insufficient regeneration ability of the community. LANDIS model could be used for simulating the landscape dynamics of evergreen broad-leaved forest in eastern China. In the future research, both the model structure and the model parameters should be improved, according to the complexity and diversity of subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest.

  8. [Natural succession of vegetation in Tiantong National Forest Park, Zhejiang Province of East China: a simulation study].

    PubMed

    Lü, Na; Ni, Jian

    2013-01-01

    By using spatially explicit landscape model (LANDIS 6.0 PRO), and parameterized this model with the long-term research and observation data of Tiantong National Station of Forest Eco-system Observation and Research, this paper simulated the natural succession of evergreen broad-leaved forest in Tiantong National Forest park, Zhejiang Province in the future 500 years, analyzed the spatial distribution and age structure of dominant species and major landscapes, and explored the succession pattern of the evergreen broad-leaved forest. In the park, the species alternation mostly occurred before the stage of evergreen broad-leaved forest. Pinus massoniana, Quercus fabric, and Liquidambar formosana occupied a large proportion during the early succession, but gradually disappeared with the succession process. Schima superba and Castanopsis fargesii took the main advantage in late succession, and developed to the climax community. Under the conditions without disturbances, the community was mainly composed of young forests in the early succession, and of mature or over-mature forests in the late succession, implying the insufficient regeneration ability of the community. LANDIS model could be used for simulating the landscape dynamics of evergreen broad-leaved forest in eastern China. In the future research, both the model structure and the model parameters should be improved, according to the complexity and diversity of subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest. PMID:23718005

  9. Giardia in mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and domestic cattle in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Jennifer N; Miller, Woutrina A; Cranfield, Michael R; Ramer, Jan; Hassell, James; Noheri, Jean Bosco; Conrad, Patricia A; Gilardi, Kirsten V K

    2014-01-01

    Mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) are critically endangered primates surviving in two isolated populations in protected areas within the Virunga Massif of Rwanda, Uganda, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park in Uganda. Mountain gorillas face intense ecologic pressures due to their proximity to humans. Human communities outside the national parks, and numerous human activities within the national parks (including research, tourism, illegal hunting, and anti-poaching patrols), lead to a high degree of contact between mountain gorillas and wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. To assess the pathogen transmission potential between wildlife and livestock, feces of mountain gorillas, forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), and domestic cattle (Bos taurus) in Rwanda were examined for the parasites Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia was found in 9% of mountain gorillas, 6% of cattle, and 2% of forest buffalo. Our study represents the first report of Giardia prevalence in forest buffalo. Cryptosporidium-like particles were also observed in all three species. Molecular characterization of Giardia isolates identified zoonotic genotype assemblage B in the gorilla samples and assemblage E in the cattle samples. Significant spatial clustering of Giardia-positive samples was observed in one sector of the park. Although we did not find evidence for transmission of protozoa from forest buffalo to mountain gorillas, the genotypes of Giardia samples isolated from gorillas have been reported in humans, suggesting that the importance of humans in this ecosystem should be more closely evaluated.

  10. Ectomycorrhizal specificity patterns in a mixed Pinus contorta and Picea engelmannii forest in Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullings, K. W.; Vogler, D. R.; Parker, V. T.; Finley, S. K.

    2000-01-01

    We used molecular genetic methods to test two hypotheses, (i) that host plant specificity among ectomycorrhizal fungi would be common in a closed-canopy, mixed Pinus contorta-Picea engelmannii forest in Yellowstone National Park and (ii) that specificity would be more common in the early successional tree species, P. contorta, than in the invader, P. engelmannii. We identified 28 ectomycorrhizal fungal species collected from 27 soil cores. The proportion of P. engelmannii to P. contorta ectomycorrhizae was nearly equal (52 and 48%, respectively). Of the 28 fungal species, 18 composed greater than 95% of the fungal community. No species was associated exclusively with P. contorta, but four species, each found in only one core, and one species found in two cores were associated exclusively with P. engelmannii. These fungi composed less than 5% of the total ectomycorrhizae. Thus, neither hypothesis was supported, and hypothesized benefits of ectomycorrhizal specificity to both trees and fungi probably do not exist in this system.

  11. 75 FR 1587 - Medford-Park Falls Ranger District, Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, Park Falls Hardwoods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... final EIS is expected November 2010. ADDRESSES: Send written comments to District Ranger Bob Heimes, c/o... alternatives will be developed as the analysis progresses. Responsible Official Bob Heimes, Medford-Park...

  12. Impact of Wildfire on Levels of Mercury in Forested Watershed Systems - Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Brigham, Mark E.; Cannon, William F.

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition of mercury to remote lakes in mid-continental and eastern North America has increased approximately threefold since the mid-1800s (Swain and others, 1992; Fitzgerald and others, 1998; Engstrom and others, 2007). As a result, concerns for human and wildlife health related to mercury contamination have become widespread. Despite an apparent recent decline in atmospheric deposition of mercury in many areas of the Upper Midwest (Engstrom and Swain, 1997; Engstrom and others, 2007), lakes in which fish contain levels of mercury deemed unacceptable for human consumption and possibly unacceptable for fish-consuming wildlife are being detected with increasing frequency. In northern Minnesota, Voyageurs National Park (VNP) (fig. 1) protects a series of southern boreal lakes and wetlands situated on bedrock of the Precambrian Canadian Shield. Mercury contamination has become a significant resource issue within VNP as high concentrations of mercury in loons, bald eagle eaglets, grebes, northern pike, and other species of wildlife and fish have been found. The two most mercury-contaminated lakes in Minnesota, measured as methylmercury in northern pike (Esox lucius), are in VNP. Recent multidisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research demonstrated that the bulk of the mercury in lake waters, soils, and fish in VNP results from atmospheric deposition (Wiener and others, 2006). The study by Wiener and others (2006) showed that the spatial distribution of mercury in watershed soils, lake waters, and age-1 yellow perch (Perca flavescens) within the Park was highly variable. The majority of factors correlated for this earlier study suggested that mercury concentrations in lake waters and age-1 yellow perch reflected the influence of ecosystem processes that affected within-lake microbial production and abundance of methylmercury (Wiener and others, 2006), while the distribution of mercury in watershed soils seemed to be partially dependent on forest

  13. Distribution of black carbon in ponderosa pine forest floor and soils following the High Park wildfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boot, C. M.; Haddix, M.; Paustian, K.; Cotrufo, M. F.

    2015-05-01

    Biomass burning produces black carbon (BC), effectively transferring a fraction of the biomass C from an actively cycling pool to a passive C pool, which may be stored in the soil. Yet the timescales and mechanisms for incorporation of BC into the soil profile are not well understood. The High Park fire (HPF), which occurred in northwestern Colorado in the summer of 2012, provided an opportunity to study the effects of both fire severity and geomorphology on properties of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and BC in the Cache La Poudre River drainage. We sampled montane ponderosa pine forest floor (litter plus O-horizon) and soils at 0-5 and 5-15 cm depth 4 months post-fire in order to examine the effects of slope and burn severity on %C, C stocks, %N and BC. We used the benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA) method for quantifying BC. With regard to slope, we found that steeper slopes had higher C : N than shallow slopes but that there was no difference in BPCA-C content or stocks. BC content was greatest in the forest floor at burned sites (19 g BPCA-C kg-1 C), while BC stocks were greatest in the 5-15 cm subsurface soils (23 g BPCA-C m-2). At the time of sampling, unburned and burned soils had equivalent BC content, indicating none of the BC deposited on the land surface post-fire had been incorporated into either the 0-5 or 5-15 cm soil layers. The ratio of B6CA : total BPCAs, an index of the degree of aromatic C condensation, suggested that BC in the 5-15 cm soil layer may have been formed at higher temperatures or experienced selective degradation relative to the forest floor and 0-5 cm soils. Total BC soil stocks were relatively low compared to other fire-prone grassland and boreal forest systems, indicating most of the BC produced in this system is likely lost, either through erosion events, degradation or translocation to deeper soils. Future work examining mechanisms for BC losses from forest soils will be required for understanding the role BC plays in the global

  14. Regional Haze from Forest Fires and San Joaquin Valley Pollution: Aerosol Properties at Yosemite National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrico, C. M.; Day, D.; Heath, J.; Lee, T.; Herckes, P.; Engling, G.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Collett, J. L.; Bench, G.; Malm, W.

    2002-12-01

    The impact of forest fire smoke on air quality and visibility in national parks is a growing concern, particularly in light of EPA's new Regional Haze rule. The summer of 2002 proved to be a very active year for wildfires in the western U.S. with double the average acres burned. To improve understanding of smoke aerosols, an intensive campaign to measure aerosol chemical, physical, optical, and in particular hygroscopic properties, was conducted in Yosemite National Park in July-September 2002. High time resolution chemical measurements allowed speciation of major ions and carbon with 15 and 60 minute time resolution, respectively. Preliminary results show a predominant contribution of organic carbon with concentrations ranging from ~5-15 μgm-3 while major ions were dominated by sulfate, nitrate and ammonium and totaled approximately 2 μgm-3. Carbon isotopic analysis showed that during the haziest periods most carbon had a biogenic source. Soluble potassium and UV light absorption were observed to be useful indicators of smoke impact. During smoky periods, dry light scattering coefficients ranged from roughly 50-200 Mm-1, comparable to the most polluted US cities. Measurements using light scattering and diameter growth techniques both showed limited aerosol hygroscopicity. Diameter and light scattering growth factors ranged from roughly 1.05-1.2 and 1.1-1.5, respectively, at RH = 80%. Measurements of the aerosol dry size distribution during hazy periods showed a mode in the optically efficient size of several hundred nm in addition to a typical number concentration mode around 100 nm. In general, the aerosol properties at Yosemite were observed to have strong influences from smoke likely transported from massive regional wildfires as well as pollution likely from agricultural and population centers of Central California.

  15. Fire regimes, forest change, and self-organization in an old-growth mixed-conifer forest, Yosemite National Park, USA.

    PubMed

    Scholl, Andrew E; Taylor, Alan H

    2010-03-01

    Fire is recognized as a keystone process in dry mixed-conifer forests that have been altered by decades of fire suppression, Restoration of fire disturbance to these forests is a guiding principle of resource management in the U.S. National Park Service. Policy implementation is often hindered by a poor understanding of forest conditions before fire exclusion, the characteristics of forest changes since excluding fire, and the influence of topographic or self-organizing controls on forest structure. In this study the spatial and temporal characteristics of fire regimes and forest structure are reconstructed in a 2125-ha mixed-conifer forest. Forests were multi-aged, burned frequently at low severity and fire-return interval, and forest structure did not vary with slope aspect, elevation, or slope position. Fire exclusion has caused an increase in forest density and basal area and a compositional shift to shade-tolerant and fire-intolerant species. The median point fire-return interval and extent of a fire was 10 yr and 115 ha, respectively. The pre-Euro-American settlement fire rotation of 13 yr increased to 378 yr after 1905. The position of fire scars within tree rings indicates that 79% of fires burned in the midsummer to fall period. The spatial pattern of burns exhibited self-organizing behavior. Area burned was 10-fold greater when an area had not been burned by the previous fire. Fires were frequent and widespread, but patches of similar aged trees were < 0.2 ha, suggesting small fire-caused canopy openings. Managers need to apply multiple burns at short intervals for a sustained period to reduce surface fuels and create small canopy openings characteristic of the reference forest. By coupling explicit reference conditions with consideration of current conditions and projected climate change, management activities can balance restoration and risk management.

  16. Exploring the Connectivity of Ecological Corridors Between Low Elevation Mountains and Pingtung Linhousilin Forest Park of Taiwan by Least-Cost Path Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. L.; Liu, H. F.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, C. T.

    2016-06-01

    The primary purpose of this study was explored the variation of landscape process and its impact on the possibility of ecological corridors on Pingtung Linhousilin Forest Park. Developing the landscape change process in year 2002, 2005, 2012 and 2014 via the land-use definition of IPCC (forest land, cropland, grassland, wetlands, settlements and other land). In the landscape structure analysis, the cropland was gradually changed to forest land in this area. Moreover, the variation of gravity model showed that the interaction between Linhousilin Forest Park and low elevation mountains were gradually increased which means the function of ecological corridors has increased.

  17. Forest vegetation monitoring and foliar chemistry of red spruce and red maple at Acadia National Park in Maine.

    PubMed

    Wiersma, G Bruce; Elvir, Jose Alexander; Eckhoff, Janet D

    2007-03-01

    The USDA Forest Service Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) program indicators, including forest mensuration, crown condition classification, and damage and mortality indicators were used in the Cadillac Brook and Hadlock Brook watershed forests at Acadia National Park (ANP) along coastal Maine. Cadillac Brook watershed burned in a wildfire in 1947. Hadlock Brook watershed, undisturbed for several centuries, serves as the reference site. These two small watersheds have been gauged and monitored at ANP since 1998 as part of the Park Research and Intensive Monitoring of Ecosystems Network (PRIMENet). Forest vegetation at Hadlock Brook was dominated by late successional species such as Acer saccharum, Fagus grandifolia, Betula alleghaniensis, Acer rubrum and Picea rubens. Forest vegetation at Cadillac Brook, on the other hand, was younger and more diverse and included those species found in Hadlock as well as early successional species such as Betula papyrifera and Populus grandidentata. Differences in forest species composition and stand structure were attributed to the severe wildfire that affected the Cadillac Brook watershed. Overall, the forests at these ANP watersheds were healthy with a low percentage (

  18. A population estimate of blue-eyed black lemurs in Ankarafa Forest, Sahamalaza-Iles Radama National Park, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Volampeno, M Sylviane N; Masters, Judith C; Downs, Colleen T

    2010-01-01

    The critically endangered blue-eyed black lemur (Eulemur flavifrons) has one of the smallest distributions of any lemur, occurring only in the north-western forests of Madagascar. We report the results of a population estimate of this taxon in part of the Ankarafa Forest, Sahamalaza-Iles Radama National Park, a dry deciduous forest. We collected data between September 2007 and February 2008 using a total count method with marked individuals and known groups. In all, 228 individuals comprising 29 groups were counted. Group sizes ranged from 4 to 11 individuals with a mean of 8 ± 1.8. We estimated population density to be 1.0 individual/ha or 97.3 individuals/km(2) for our study area, which is higher than previous estimates reported for Ankarafa and other sites within the Sahamalaza Peninsula. Our mean group size, however, was similar to those determined in previous studies. Both group size and density of the blue-eyed black lemur were higher within the National Park than in previous studies outside the Park.

  19. [Termites (Isoptera) in forest ecosystems of Cat Tien National Park (Southern Vietnam)].

    PubMed

    Beliaeva, N V; Tiunov, A V

    2010-01-01

    The species composition and termite community populations were studied and the total land termites biomass was estimated in five forest habitats of Cat Tien National Park, Southern Vietnam. Twenty-four species of two families, Rhinotermitidae (1 species) and Termitidae (23 species), the predominant representatives of the subfamily Macrotermitinae, were found in mounds and in soil samples. On the test plots the density of termite mounds averaged 68 per hectare, primarily the mounds of three Macrotermes species. Destructive sampling allowed estimation of the caste composition and total community biomass based on six termite mounds of the prevailing species (Globitermes sulphureus, Microcerotermes burmanicus, Macrotermes carbonarius, M. gilvus, M. malaccensis, and Hypotermes obscuriceps). The total number of termites in the nests ranged from 65 000 to 3 150 000 individuals with the total biomass ranging from 185 to 2440 g live weight. The total abundance of nesting Macrotermes species alone could conservatively be estimated as 2.5 million individuals and 20.5 kg live weight per hectare. The number of soil- and litter-feeding termites averaged for the test plots was estimated at about 60 ind./m2. Four species dominating on the test plots (M. carbonarius, M. gilvus, M. malaccensis, and H. obscuriceps) belong to active tree litter feeders. PMID:20799645

  20. Petrified Forest National Park Invasive Plant Species Survey and Mapping; 2002-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Kathryn A.; Hunt, Randall; Arundel, Terry R.; Guertin, P.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a survey for invasive nonnative plant species at Petrified Forest National Park from 2002 through 2005. The survey employed a unique sampling design consisting of a grid of consecutive one-hectare cells as the sampling units. Our use of predetermined sampling units allowed all observations to be referenced to a fixed area with geographic coordinates that easily transferred to a geographic information system. Our field team surveyed 2,730 sampling units in three select areas for at least 1 year and 879 sampling units for 4 years. During this period we identified 40 different invasive plant species; more than half the invasive plants (22 species) were annual forbs and grasses. Four invasive plant species occurred in 25 percent or more of all sampling units observed in one or more years: Bromus tectorum, Erodium cicutarium, Salsola tragus, and Sisymbrium altissimum. Salsola tragus was the most abundant species in all years and occurred in more than 55 percent of all sampling units surveyed each year.

  1. Mixed conifer forest mortality and establishment before and after prescribed fire in Sequoia National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mutch, L.S.; Parsons, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Pre-and post-burn tree mortality rates, size structure, basal area, and ingrowth were determined for four 1.0 ha mixed conifer forest stands in the Log Creek and Tharp's Creek watersheds of Sequoia National Park. Mean annual mortality between 1986 and 1990 was 0.8% for both watersheds. In the fall of 1990, the Tharp's Creek watershed was treated with a prescribed burn. Between 1991 and 1995, mean annual mortality was 1.4% in the unburned Log Creek watershed and 17.2% in the burned Tharp's Creek watershed. A drought from 1987 to 1992 likely contributed to the mortality increase in the Log Creek watershed. The high mortality in the Tharp's Creek watershed was primarily related to crown scorch from the 1990 fire and was modeled with logistic regression for white fir (Abies concolor [Gord. and Glend.]) and sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana [Dougl.]). From 1989 to 1994, basal area declined an average of 5% per year in the burned Tharp's Creek watershed, compared to average annual increases of less than 1% per year in the unburned Log Creek watershed and in the Tharp's watershed prior to burning. Post-burn size structure was dramatically changed in the Tharp's Creek stands: 75% of trees ???50 cm and 25% of trees >50 cm were killed by the fire.

  2. [Termites (Isoptera) in forest ecosystems of Cat Tien National Park (Southern Vietnam)].

    PubMed

    Beliaeva, N V; Tiunov, A V

    2010-01-01

    The species composition and termite community populations were studied and the total land termites biomass was estimated in five forest habitats of Cat Tien National Park, Southern Vietnam. Twenty-four species of two families, Rhinotermitidae (1 species) and Termitidae (23 species), the predominant representatives of the subfamily Macrotermitinae, were found in mounds and in soil samples. On the test plots the density of termite mounds averaged 68 per hectare, primarily the mounds of three Macrotermes species. Destructive sampling allowed estimation of the caste composition and total community biomass based on six termite mounds of the prevailing species (Globitermes sulphureus, Microcerotermes burmanicus, Macrotermes carbonarius, M. gilvus, M. malaccensis, and Hypotermes obscuriceps). The total number of termites in the nests ranged from 65 000 to 3 150 000 individuals with the total biomass ranging from 185 to 2440 g live weight. The total abundance of nesting Macrotermes species alone could conservatively be estimated as 2.5 million individuals and 20.5 kg live weight per hectare. The number of soil- and litter-feeding termites averaged for the test plots was estimated at about 60 ind./m2. Four species dominating on the test plots (M. carbonarius, M. gilvus, M. malaccensis, and H. obscuriceps) belong to active tree litter feeders.

  3. Airborne Laser Scanning Quantification of Disturbances from Hurricanes and Lightning Strikes to Mangrove Forests in Everglades National Park, USA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Keqi; Simard, Marc; Ross, Michael; Rivera-Monroy, Victor H.; Houle, Patricia; Ruiz, Pablo; Twilley, Robert R.; Whelan, Kevin R. T.

    2008-01-01

    Airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) measurements derived before and after Hurricanes Katrina and Wilma (2005) were used to quantify the impact of hurricanes and lightning strikes on the mangrove forest at two sites in Everglades National Park (ENP). Analysis of LIDAR measurements covering 61 and 68 ha areas of mangrove forest at the Shark River and Broad River sites showed that the proportion of high tree canopy detected by the LIDAR after the 2005 hurricane season decreased significantly due to defoliation and breakage of branches and trunks, while the proportion of low canopy and the ground increased drastically. Tall mangrove forests distant from tidal creeks suffered more damage than lower mangrove forests adjacent to the tidal creeks. The hurricanes created numerous canopy gaps, and the number of gaps per square kilometer increased from about 400∼500 to 4000 after Katrina and Wilma. The total area of gaps in the forest increased from about 1∼2% of the total forest area to 12%. The relative contribution of hurricanes to mangrove forest disturbance in ENP is at least 2 times more than that from lightning strikes. However, hurricanes and lightning strikes disturb the mangrove forest in a related way. Most seedlings in lightning gaps survived the hurricane impact due to the protection of trees surrounding the gaps, and therefore provide an important resource for forest recovery after the hurricane. This research demonstrated that LIDAR is an effective remote sensing tool to quantify the effects of disturbances such as hurricanes and lightning strikes in the mangrove forest.

  4. Evaporation and transpiration differences among successional stages of Tropical Dry Forest, Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Rodríguez, César D.; Calvo-Alvarado, Julio

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal environments in the tropics show strong responses to changes in precipitation regimes. The monthly water availability is the main trigger for ecological responses as flowering, fructification, leaf sprouting and senescence. Among these environments, the tropical dry forests (TDF) depends directly on the soil water availability, defining the forest growing season despite the forest characteristics. However, within the same ecosystem is possible to find differences in the water fluxes due to forest age. The TDF located in Santa Rosa National Park (SRNP) in Costa Rica; shows a particular matrix of secondary forest patches varying in age, structure, and species composition allowing us to evaluate the water fluxes differences among successional stages of TDF. Three permanent plots of 1000.0 m2 were selected from the Tropi-Dry project. Each plot characterized a specific successional stage of this ecosystem varying in forest structure and age. Every location was equipped to measure the hourly soil water content and forest growth, while the meteorological conditions were collected by the meteorological station of the national park. The data was collected from December 2005 to June 2009 however, due to data gaps and quality control the data analysis includes only the hydrological years between 2006 and 2009. The soil water content was measured at three depths in each plot (10, 30 and 40 cm) to determine the real evapotranspiration from the forest. The precipitation along these three years shows strong variations registering 326.5 mm-1yr-1 in the first year up to 3004.0 mm-1yr-1 during the last year, these strong changes are influenced by the ENOS phenomena in the region. Regardless the precipitation amounts the evapotranspiration do not differ strongly on a yearly basis, were 726.7 mm-1yr-1, 675.1 mm-1yr-1 and 751.6 mm-1yr-1 were exported to the atmosphere by the early, intermediate and late stages of TDF secondary forest. The yearly strong differences in

  5. Computation and visualization of regional-scale forest disturbance and associated dissolved nitrogen export from Shenandoah National Park, Virginia.

    PubMed

    Eshleman, K N; Fiscus, D A; Castro, N M; Webb, J R; Deviney, J F

    2001-12-01

    Long-term watershed research conducted in Shenandoah National Park (SNP) in Virginia and elsewhere in the eastern U.S. indicates that annual export of dissolved nitrogen (N) from gaged forested watersheds to surface waters increases dramatically in response to vegetation disturbances. Dissolved N leakage is a common, well-documented response of small forested watersheds to logging in the larger region, while recent defoliation outbreaks of the gypsy moth ( Lymantria dispar) larva in the deciduous forests of SNP have been shown to generate similar biogeochemical responses. A recent modeling analysis further suggests that a parsimonious, empirical, unit N export response function (UNERF) model can explain large percentages of the temporal variation in annual N export from a group of small gaged forested watersheds in the years following disturbance. The empirical UNERF modeling approach is completely analogous to the unit hydrograph technique for describing storm runoff, with the model representing annual N export as a linear deterministic process both in space and in time. The purposes of this analysis are to (1) test the applicability of the UNERF model using quarterly streamwater nitrate data from a group of ungaged watersheds in SNP; (2) demonstrate a park-wide application of a regional UNERF model that references the geographic distributions of bedrock geology and the timing and extent of gypsy moth defoliation over the entire SNP area; and (3) visualize the temporal and spatial patterns in vegetation disturbance and annual dissolved N export through the use of computer animation software. During water year 1992, the year of peak defoliation, our modeling study suggests that park-wide export had transiently increased by 1700% from a baseline rate of about 0.1 kg/ha/year. SNP forests appear to be characteristic of other N-limited second-growth forests in the eastern U.S. that leak little N under undisturbed conditions, despite receiving relatively large inputs of

  6. Paleocene paleosols of the petrified forests of Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota: A Natural Experiment in compound pedogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fastovsky, D.E. ); McSweeney, K. )

    1991-02-01

    The Petrified Forest Plateau of Theodore Roosevelt National Park (TRNP) in western North Dakota provides an excellent setting for exploring the influence of ancient, exhumed land surfaces upon modern ones. Here, a sequence of Paleocene rocks preserves a succession of ancient terrestrial land surfaces characterized by fine-grained, laminated sedimentary rocks and organic-rich horizons. These exposures are dominantly finer-grained than the rest of the sedimentary rocks in the Park, and represent a region inferred to have been distal to the bulk of an aggradational fluvial system. Water was abundant in the Plateau region, and during much of the time the landscapes were submerged. At least twice, large forests developed in soils forming on floodplain sediments. These paleosols are characterized by organic surficial horizons and gleyed subsoils. Coniferous stumps from two successive forests constitute the Petrified Forest preserved in TRNP today. The modern environments of the Petrified Forest Plateau contrast sharply with those of the ancient; they are characterized by intense seasonality, semi-aridity, steep topography, a degradational land surface, and low organic productivity. Despite this, the modern soils show an imprint deriving from ancient environmental conditions that is as strong as any imprint from Holocene pedogenic processes; the soils that are presently forming retain much of the waterlogged features of the Paleocene soils. While it is clear that soils do respond to environments, it is also clear that the response may vary, depending upon the nature of the soil material and morphologies inherited. Here, the development of a gleyed morphology has proven largely irreversible.

  7. Serological Survey for Antibodies to Mosquito-Borne Bunyaviruses Among US National Park Service and US Forest Service Employees.

    PubMed

    Kosoy, Olga; Rabe, Ingrid; Geissler, Aimee; Adjemian, Jennifer; Panella, Amanda; Laven, Janeen; Basile, Alison J; Velez, Jason; Griffith, Kevin; Wong, David; Fischer, Marc; Lanciotti, Robert S

    2016-03-01

    Serum samples from 295 employees of Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM), Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO), and Grand Teton National Park with adjacent Bridger-Teton National Forest (GRTE-BTNF) were subjected to serological analysis for mosquito-borne bunyaviruses. The sera were analyzed for neutralizing antibodies against six orthobunyaviruses: La Crosse virus (LACV), Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV), snowshoe hare virus (SSHV), California encephalitis virus, and Trivittatus virus (TVTV) belonging to the California serogroup and Cache Valley virus (CVV) belonging to the Bunyamwera serogroup. Sera were also tested for immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies against LACV and JCV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The proportion of employees with neutralizing antibodies to any California serogroup bunyavirus was similar in all three sites, with the prevalence ranging from 28% to 36%. The study demonstrated a seroprevalence of 3% to CVV across the three parks. However, proportions of persons with antibodies to specific viruses differed between parks. Participants residing in the eastern regions had a higher seroprevalence to LACV, with 24% (18/75) GRSM employees being seropositive. In contrast, SSHV seroprevalence was limited to employees from the western sites, with 1.7% (1/60) ROMO and 3.8% (6/160) GRTE-BTNF employees being positive. Seroprevalence to JCV was noted in employees from all sites at rates of 6.7% in GRSM, 21.7% in ROMO, and 15.6% in GRTE-BTNF. One employee each from ROMO (1.7%) and GRTE-BTNF (1.9%) were positive for TVTV. This study also has illustrated the greater sensitivity and specificity of plaque reduction neutralization test compared to IgG ELISA in conducting serosurveys for LACV and JCV.

  8. Serological Survey for Antibodies to Mosquito-Borne Bunyaviruses Among US National Park Service and US Forest Service Employees.

    PubMed

    Kosoy, Olga; Rabe, Ingrid; Geissler, Aimee; Adjemian, Jennifer; Panella, Amanda; Laven, Janeen; Basile, Alison J; Velez, Jason; Griffith, Kevin; Wong, David; Fischer, Marc; Lanciotti, Robert S

    2016-03-01

    Serum samples from 295 employees of Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM), Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO), and Grand Teton National Park with adjacent Bridger-Teton National Forest (GRTE-BTNF) were subjected to serological analysis for mosquito-borne bunyaviruses. The sera were analyzed for neutralizing antibodies against six orthobunyaviruses: La Crosse virus (LACV), Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV), snowshoe hare virus (SSHV), California encephalitis virus, and Trivittatus virus (TVTV) belonging to the California serogroup and Cache Valley virus (CVV) belonging to the Bunyamwera serogroup. Sera were also tested for immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies against LACV and JCV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The proportion of employees with neutralizing antibodies to any California serogroup bunyavirus was similar in all three sites, with the prevalence ranging from 28% to 36%. The study demonstrated a seroprevalence of 3% to CVV across the three parks. However, proportions of persons with antibodies to specific viruses differed between parks. Participants residing in the eastern regions had a higher seroprevalence to LACV, with 24% (18/75) GRSM employees being seropositive. In contrast, SSHV seroprevalence was limited to employees from the western sites, with 1.7% (1/60) ROMO and 3.8% (6/160) GRTE-BTNF employees being positive. Seroprevalence to JCV was noted in employees from all sites at rates of 6.7% in GRSM, 21.7% in ROMO, and 15.6% in GRTE-BTNF. One employee each from ROMO (1.7%) and GRTE-BTNF (1.9%) were positive for TVTV. This study also has illustrated the greater sensitivity and specificity of plaque reduction neutralization test compared to IgG ELISA in conducting serosurveys for LACV and JCV. PMID:26855300

  9. Tracking changes of forest carbon density following mega-fires: comparison studies in the Yellowstone National Park and Boreal Forests of Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Feng; Huang, Chengquan; Huang, Chao; He, Hong; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2016-04-01

    Wildfires and post-fire management directly change C stored in biomass and soil pools, and can have indirect impacts on long-term C balance. Two mega fires occurred in the Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and the boreal forests of Northeast China in 1988 and 1987, respectively, making them ideal sites to examine and compare the effects of management and disturbances on regional carbon dynamics. In this study, we quantified effects of the 1988 Yellowstone fires on YNP carbon storages and fluxes. And then we tracked and modeled post-1988 forest carbon stocks change in YNP, and compared with simulation results of carbon stock changes in post-1987 fire boreal forests of Northeast China. Preliminary results show that in YNP, the mega fires in 1988 were responsible for an immediate loss of 900 g/m2 ecosystem average C density and it would take about a decade before the YNP ecosystem recover to the pre-fire average C condition. In boreal forests of Northeast China, fire reduced aboveground and belowground carbon by 230±60 g/m2 and 460±340 g/m2, respectively.

  10. Linking Attitudes, Policy, and Forest Cover Change in Buffer Zone Communities of Chitwan National Park, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Stapp, Jared R; Lilieholm, Robert J; Leahy, Jessica; Upadhaya, Suraj

    2016-06-01

    Deforestation in Nepal threatens the functioning of complex social-ecological systems, including rural populations that depend on forests for subsistence, as well as Nepal's biodiversity and other ecosystem services. Nepal's forests are particularly important to the nation's poorest inhabitants, as many depend upon them for daily survival. Two-thirds of Nepal's population relies on forests for sustenance, and these pressures are likely to increase in the future. This, coupled with high population densities and growth rates, highlights the importance of studying the relationship between human communities, forest cover trends through time, and forest management institutions. Here, we used surveys to explore how household attitudes associated with conservation-related behaviors in two rural communities-one that has experienced significant forest loss, and the other forest gain-compare with forest cover trends as indicated by satellite-derived forest-loss and -regeneration estimates between 2005 and 2013. Results found a significant difference in attitudes in the two areas, perhaps contributing to and reacting from current forest conditions. In both study sites, participation in community forestry strengthened support for conservation, forest conservation-related attitudes aligned with forest cover trends, and a negative relationship was found between economic status and having supportive forest conservation-related attitudes. In addition, on average, respondents were not satisfied with their district forest officers and did not feel that the current political climate in Nepal supported sustainable forestry. These findings are important as Nepal's Master Plan for the Forestry Sector has expired and the country is in the process of structuring a new Forestry Sector Strategy. PMID:26920157

  11. Linking Attitudes, Policy, and Forest Cover Change in Buffer Zone Communities of Chitwan National Park, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapp, Jared R.; Lilieholm, Robert J.; Leahy, Jessica; Upadhaya, Suraj

    2016-06-01

    Deforestation in Nepal threatens the functioning of complex social-ecological systems, including rural populations that depend on forests for subsistence, as well as Nepal's biodiversity and other ecosystem services. Nepal's forests are particularly important to the nation's poorest inhabitants, as many depend upon them for daily survival. Two-thirds of Nepal's population relies on forests for sustenance, and these pressures are likely to increase in the future. This, coupled with high population densities and growth rates, highlights the importance of studying the relationship between human communities, forest cover trends through time, and forest management institutions. Here, we used surveys to explore how household attitudes associated with conservation-related behaviors in two rural communities—one that has experienced significant forest loss, and the other forest gain—compare with forest cover trends as indicated by satellite-derived forest-loss and -regeneration estimates between 2005 and 2013. Results found a significant difference in attitudes in the two areas, perhaps contributing to and reacting from current forest conditions. In both study sites, participation in community forestry strengthened support for conservation, forest conservation-related attitudes aligned with forest cover trends, and a negative relationship was found between economic status and having supportive forest conservation-related attitudes. In addition, on average, respondents were not satisfied with their district forest officers and did not feel that the current political climate in Nepal supported sustainable forestry. These findings are important as Nepal's Master Plan for the Forestry Sector has expired and the country is in the process of structuring a new Forestry Sector Strategy.

  12. Comparing aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) presence and distribution between degraded and non-degraded forest within Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Farris, Zach J; Morelli, Toni Lyn; Sefczek, Timothy; Wright, Patricia C

    2011-01-01

    The aye-aye is considered the most widely distributed lemur in Madagascar; however, the effect of forest quality on aye-aye abundance is unknown. We compared aye-aye presence across degraded and non-degraded forest at Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. We used secondary signs (feeding sites, high activity sites) as indirect cues of aye-aye presence and Canarium trees as an indicator of resource availability. All 3 measured variables indicated higher aye-aye abundance within non-degraded forest; however, the differences across forest type were not significant. Both degraded and non-degraded forests showed a positive correlation between feeding sites and high activity sites. We found that Canarium, an important aye-aye food source, was rare and had limited dispersal, particularly across degraded forest. This preliminary study provides baseline data for aye-aye activity and resource utilization across degraded and non-degraded forests. PMID:21822021

  13. Landscape-scale effects of fire severity on mixed-conifer and red fir forest structure in Yosemite National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Van R.; Lutz, James A.; Roberts, Susan L.; Smith, Douglas F.; McGaughey, Robert J.; Povak, Nicholas A.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2013-01-01

    While fire shapes the structure of forests and acts as a keystone process, the details of how fire modifies forest structure have been difficult to evaluate because of the complexity of interactions between fires and forests. We studied this relationship across 69.2 km2 of Yosemite National Park, USA, that was subject to 32 fires ⩾40 ha between 1984 and 2010. Forests types included ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), white fir-sugar pine (Abies concolor/Pinus lambertiana), and red fir (Abies magnifica). We estimated and stratified burned area by fire severity using the Landsat-derived Relativized differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR). Airborne LiDAR data, acquired in July 2010, measured the vertical and horizontal structure of canopy material and landscape patterning of canopy patches and gaps. Increasing fire severity changed structure at the scale of fire severity patches, the arrangement of canopy patches and gaps within fire severity patches, and vertically within tree clumps. Each forest type showed an individual trajectory of structural change with increasing fire severity. As a result, the relationship between estimates of fire severity such as RdNBR and actual changes appears to vary among forest types. We found three arrangements of canopy patches and gaps associated with different fire severities: canopy-gap arrangements in which gaps were enclosed in otherwise continuous canopy (typically unburned and low fire severities); patch-gap arrangements in which tree clumps and gaps alternated and neither dominated (typically moderate fire severity); and open-patch arrangements in which trees were scattered across open areas (typically high fire severity). Compared to stands outside fire perimeters, increasing fire severity generally resulted first in loss of canopy cover in lower height strata and increased number and size of gaps, then in loss of canopy cover in higher height strata, and eventually the transition to open areas with few or no trees. However

  14. Park gazettement and integrated conservation and development as factors in community conflict at Bwindi Impenetrable Forest, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Baker, Julia; Milner-Gulland, E J; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2012-02-01

    Conflicts between protected-area managers and local people are common, but the drivers of conflict are rarely analyzed. This limits opportunities to identify strategies that reduce conflict and the magnitude of resulting threats to conservation. Integrated conservation and development (ICD) was adopted at Bwindi Impenetrable Forest, Uganda, to reduce conflict during gazettement of the national park, but the success of this approach remains contested. We retrieved documents of conflict written by park staff and local people from 1986 through 2000 (before, during, and after gazettement). We extracted data on 48 incidences of violent conflict and categorized them by gazettement period, area, instigator, and type to undertake a historical analysis of the triggers of violent conflict at Bwindi. Before and during gazettement, local villagers instigated most of the conflict incidents when law-enforcement efforts sought to halt commercial activities within Bwindi. No conflict arose from the arrest of villagers collecting subsistence resources during these periods. After gazettement, prohibitions on commercial activities continued to drive conflict even though villagers collecting subsistence resources were arrested more frequently than before gazettement, and local attitudes toward the park had improved following receipt of ICD benefits. Law-enforcement efforts targeted commercial activities to reduce this threat to Bwindi's mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), although the activities remained important income sources for people in villages near Bwindi. Losing commercial income following gazettement therefore appeared to be their primary motivation for instigating conflict with park rangers. Prohibitions on subsistence resource use triggered conflict less often. Our use of typologies for a multivariate conflict analysis demonstrates that by identifying differences between effects of conservation as drivers of conflict, conflict analysis can enable a more

  15. Avian response to fire in pine–oak forests of Great Smoky Mountains National Park following decades of fire suppression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Eli T.; Simons, Theodore R.

    2016-01-01

    Fire suppression in southern Appalachian pine–oak forests during the past century dramatically altered the bird community. Fire return intervals decreased, resulting in local extirpation or population declines of many bird species adapted to post-fire plant communities. Within Great Smoky Mountains National Park, declines have been strongest for birds inhabiting xeric pine–oak forests that depend on frequent fire. The buildup of fuels after decades of fire suppression led to changes in the 1996 Great Smoky Mountains Fire Management Plan. Although fire return intervals remain well below historic levels, management changes have helped increase the amount of fire within the park over the past 20 years, providing an opportunity to study patterns of fire severity, time since burn, and bird occurrence. We combined avian point counts in burned and unburned areas with remote sensing indices of fire severity to infer temporal changes in bird occurrence for up to 28 years following fire. Using hierarchical linear models that account for the possibility of a species presence at a site when no individuals are detected, we developed occurrence models for 24 species: 13 occurred more frequently in burned areas, 2 occurred less frequently, and 9 showed no significant difference between burned and unburned areas. Within burned areas, the top models for each species included fire severity, time since burn, or both, suggesting that fire influenced patterns of species occurrence for all 24 species. Our findings suggest that no single fire management strategy will suit all species. To capture peak occupancy for the entire bird community within xeric pine–oak forests, at least 3 fire regimes may be necessary; one applying frequent low severity fire, another using infrequent low severity fire, and a third using infrequently applied high severity fire.

  16. Understanding sources of carbon from a coastal mangrove forest: Shark River - Everglades National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palya, A. P.; Anderson, W. T.; Jaffe, R.; Swart, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical and subtropical estuaries, particularly those occupied by mangrove forests, sequester a large amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to be stored in biomass and ultimately in sediments. However, a significant portion of this carbon is lost as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) exported to the ocean. Therefore, the processes that transform and transport DOC within estuarine systems are an important part of the global carbon cycle. Analysis of stable carbon isotopes can provide insight on carbon dynamics in these coastal environments. Although DOC is the largest pool of reduced carbon in the ocean, few measurements of δ13C-DOC have been made for marine waters. Low DOC:DIC ratios and interference from large halide concentrations make such measurements difficult, time consuming, and costly. We have developed an approach that allows for the simultaneous measurement of DOC and δ13C-DOC in marine waters. By coupling a carbon analyzer utilizing a wet chemical oxidation technique to a high sensitivity cavity ring down spectrometer (WCO-CRDS), we are able to analyze δ13C-DOC of marine waters with DOC concentrations as low as 3 ppm C. Our approach uses an ambient atmospheric CO2 CRDS system originally designed to measure at 300 ppm (pCO2) which is an order-of-magnitude more sensitive than standard CRDS systems. This method for seawater analysis was developed by maximizing both the sample and sodium persulfate reagent volumes used in the oxidation reaction, as well as increasing the sodium persulfate concentration. Additionally, we operate the WCO-CRDS system using ultra high purity nitrogen as a carrier gas to prevent the oxidation of halides which reduces damage to the machines. These parameters allow for complete oxidation of the DOC in the sample, which was confirmed using two DOC standards mixed in an artificial seawater with a salinity around 30 g/L, and produces a sufficient volume of CO2 for detection and measurement by the CRDS. This configuration

  17. Revised Lithostratigraphy of the Sonsela Member (Chinle Formation, Upper Triassic) in the Southern Part of Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona

    PubMed Central

    Martz, Jeffrey W.; Parker, William G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent revisions to the Sonsela Member of the Chinle Formation in Petrified Forest National Park have presented a three-part lithostratigraphic model based on unconventional correlations of sandstone beds. As a vertebrate faunal transition is recorded within this stratigraphic interval, these correlations, and the purported existence of a depositional hiatus (the Tr-4 unconformity) at about the same level, must be carefully re-examined. Methodology/Principal Findings Our investigations demonstrate the neglected necessity of walking out contacts and mapping when constructing lithostratigraphic models, and providing UTM coordinates and labeled photographs for all measured sections. We correct correlation errors within the Sonsela Member, demonstrate that there are multiple Flattops One sandstones, all of which are higher than the traditional Sonsela sandstone bed, that the Sonsela sandstone bed and Rainbow Forest Bed are equivalent, that the Rainbow Forest Bed is higher than the sandstones at the base of Blue Mesa and Agate Mesa, that strata formerly assigned to the Jim Camp Wash beds occur at two stratigraphic levels, and that there are multiple persistent silcrete horizons within the Sonsela Member. Conclusions/Significance We present a revised five-part model for the Sonsela Member. The units from lowest to highest are: the Camp Butte beds, Lot's Wife beds, Jasper Forest bed (the Sonsela sandstone)/Rainbow Forest Bed, Jim Camp Wash beds, and Martha's Butte beds (including the Flattops One sandstones). Although there are numerous degradational/aggradational cycles within the Chinle Formation, a single unconformable horizon within or at the base of the Sonsela Member that can be traced across the entire western United States (the “Tr-4 unconformity”) probably does not exist. The shift from relatively humid and poorly-drained to arid and well-drained climatic conditions began during deposition of the Sonsela Member (low in the Jim Camp Wash beds), well

  18. Sustainability and economics: The Adirondack Park experience, a forest economic-ecological model, and solar energy policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Jon David

    The long-term sustainability of human communities will depend on our relationship with regional environments, our maintenance of renewable resources, and our successful disengagement from nonrenewable energy dependence. This dissertation investigates sustainability at these three levels, following a critical analysis of sustainability and economics. At the regional environment level, the Adirondack Park of New York State is analyzed as a potential model of sustainable development. A set of initial and ongoing conditions are presented that both emerge from and support a model of sustainability in the Adirondacks. From these conditions, a clearer picture emerges of the definition of regional sustainability, consequences of its adoption, and lessons from its application. Next, an economic-ecological model of the northern hardwood forest ecosystem is developed. The model integrates economic theory and intertemporal ecological concepts, linking current harvest decisions with future forest growth, financial value, and ecosystem stability. The results indicate very different economic and ecological outcomes by varying opportunity cost and ecosystem recovery assumptions, and suggest a positive benefit to ecological recovery in the forest rotation decision of the profit maximizing manager. The last section investigates the motives, economics, and international development implications of renewable energy (specifically photovoltaic technology) in rural electrification and technology transfer, drawing on research in the Dominican Republic. The implications of subsidizing a photovoltaic market versus investing in basic research are explored.

  19. Forest Conservation, Value Conflict, and Interest Formation in a Honduran National Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer, Max J.; Schelhas, John W.; Day, Leyla Ann

    2001-01-01

    We argue that attempts to superimpose park regulatory regimes on existing land uses in the tropics represent conflicts between alternative cultural models of natural resource management. The results of such conflicts are unique regulatory regimes emerging from distinctive processes that redefine the terms and limits of natural resource use. In…

  20. Tetrapisispora namnaonensis sp. nov., a novel ascomycetous yeast species isolated from forest soil of Nam Nao National Park, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sumpradit, Tawatchai; Limtong, Savitree; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Kawasaki, Hiroko; Seki, Tatsuji

    2005-07-01

    Twenty-one strains of a novel ascomycetous yeast species were isolated from soil collected in three kinds of natural forest, namely a dry dipterocarp forest, a mixed deciduous forest and a pine forest, in Nam Nao National Park, Phetchabun province, Thailand. The strains formed asci containing one to four ovoid to reniform ascospores, assimilated glucose, galactose and glycerol, fermented glucose and galactose vigorously and contained ubiquinone Q-6, indicating that they belonged to the genus Tetrapisispora. A comparative analysis of the small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) and the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit rDNA (LSU rDNA) of all available sequences for ascomycetous yeasts confirmed that the strains were phylogenetically related to the genus Tetrapisispora. All strains had identical nucleotide sequences in the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rDNA and differed from the nearest species, Tetrapisispora arboricola IFO 10925(T), by 6.4% nucleotide substitutions. The strains differed from Tetrapisispora arboricola by the ability to assimilate D-gluconic acid, the inability to grow on 50% glucose medium, the nuclear DNA base composition and deliquescent asci. The strains were differentiated from the other four species of Tetrapisispora on the basis of trehalose assimilation, the ability to grow on 50% glucose or 10% NaCl plus 5% glucose, vitamin requirement, the nuclear DNA base composition and the type of ascus. Based on the characteristics mentioned above, the strains are recognized as a single novel species of the genus Tetrapisispora and the name Tetrapisispora namnaonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TN1-01(T) (=TISTR 5828(T)=JCM 12664(T)=CBS 10093(T)).

  1. Suitable Habitats for Endangered Frugivorous Mammals: Small-Scale Comparison, Regeneration Forest and Chimpanzee Density in Kibale National Park, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bortolamiol, Sarah; Cohen, Marianne; Potts, Kevin; Pennec, Flora; Rwaburindore, Protase; Kasenene, John; Seguya, Andrew; Vignaud, Quentin; Krief, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Landscape patterns and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) densities in Kibale National Park show important variation among communities that are geographically close to one another (from 1.5 to 5.1 chimpanzees/km2). Anthropogenic activities inside the park (past logging activities, current encroachment) and outside its limits (food and cash crops) may impact the amount and distribution of food resources for chimpanzees (frugivorous species) and their spatial distribution within the park. Spatial and temporal patterns of fruit availability were recorded over 18 months at Sebitoli (a site of intermediate chimpanzee density and higher anthropic pressure) with the aim of understanding the factors explaining chimpanzee density there, in comparison to results from two other sites, also in Kibale: Kanyawara (low chimpanzee density) and Ngogo (high density, and furthest from Sebitoli). Because of the post-logging regenerating status of the forest in Sebitoli and Kanyawara, smaller basal area (BA) of fruiting trees most widely consumed by the chimpanzees in Kanyawara and Sebitoli was expected compared to Ngogo (not logged commercially). Due to the distance between sites, spatial and temporal fruit abundance in Sebitoli was expected to be more similar to Kanyawara than to Ngogo. While species functional classes consumed by Sebitoli chimpanzees (foods eaten during periods of high or low fruit abundance) differ from the two other sites, Sebitoli is very similar to Kanyawara in terms of land-cover and consumed species. Among feeding trees, Ficus species are particularly important resources for chimpanzees at Sebitoli, where their basal area is higher than at Kanywara or Ngogo. Ficus species provided a relatively consistent supply of food for chimpanzees throughout the year, and we suggest that this could help to explain the unusually high density of chimpanzees in such a disturbed site. PMID:25033459

  2. Data compilation and assessment for water resources in Pennsylvania state forest and park lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galeone, Daniel G.

    2011-01-01

    As a result of a cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (PaDCNR), available electronic data were compiled for Pennsylvania state lands (state forests and parks) to allow PaDCNR to initially determine if data exist to make an objective evaluation of water resources for specific basins. The data compiled included water-quantity and water-quality data and sample locations for benthic macroinvertebrates within state-owned lands (including a 100-meter buffer around each land parcel) in Pennsylvania. In addition, internet links or contacts for geographic information system coverages pertinent to water-resources studies also were compiled. Water-quantity and water-quality data primarily available through January 2007 were compiled and summarized for site types that included streams, lakes, ground-water wells, springs, and precipitation. Data were categorized relative to 35 watershed boundaries defined by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection for resource-management purposes. The primary sources of continuous water-quantity data for Pennsylvania state lands were the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Weather Service (NWS). The USGS has streamflow data for 93 surface-water sites located in state lands; 38 of these sites have continuous-recording data available. As of January 2007, 22 of these 38 streamflow-gaging stations were active; the majority of active gaging stations have over 40 years of continuous record. The USGS database also contains continuous ground-water elevation data for 32 wells in Pennsylvania state lands, 18 of which were active as of January 2007. Sixty-eight active precipitation stations (primarily from the NWS network) are located in state lands. The four sources of available water-quality data for Pennsylvania state lands were the USGS, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP), and

  3. Host and pathogen DNA identification in blood meals of nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks from forest parks and rural forests of Poland.

    PubMed

    Wodecka, Beata; Rymaszewska, Anna; Skotarczak, Bogumila

    2014-04-01

    DNA analysis of blood meals from unfed nymphal Ixodes ricinus allows for the identification of tick host and tick-borne pathogens in the host species. The recognition of host species for tick larvae and the reservoirs of Borrelia, Rickettsia and Anaplasma species were simultaneously carried out by analysis of the blood meals of 880 questing nymphal I. ricinus ticks collected in forest parks of Szczecin city and rural forests in northwestern Poland that are endemic areas for Lyme borreliosis. The results obtained from the study indicate that I. ricinus larvae feed not only on small or medium animals but also on large animals and they (i.e. roe deer, red deer and wild boars) were the most prevalent in all study areas as the essential hosts for larvae of I. ricinus. The composition of medium and small vertebrates (carnivores, rodents, birds and lizards) provided a more diverse picture depending on study site. The reservoir species that contain the most pathogens are the European roe deer Capreolus capreolus, in which two species of Rickettsia and two species of Borrelia were identified, and Sus scrofa, in which one Rickettsia and three Borrelia species were identified. Rickettsia helvetica was the most common pathogen detected, and other included species were the B. burgdorferi s.l. group and B. miyamotoi related to relapsing fever group. Our results confirmed a general association of B. garinii with birds but also suggested that such associations may be less common in the transmission cycle in natural habitats than what was thought previously.

  4. Playgrounds of the Nation: A Series of Projects on Outdoor Recreation and the Conservation of Forest Life Developed through a Study of State Parks and Forests for Elementary Schools. Bulletin, 1927, No. 20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Florence C.

    1927-01-01

    Recreational areas in the form of State parks and forests bear a close relationship to the welfare of the boys and girls of America. This bulletin is in accord with the plan of the bureau to offer, from time to time, to the elementary schools of the country certain subjects of study in the form of new materials of instructions so prepared that…

  5. Controls on mangrove forest-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchanges in western Everglades National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Jordan G.; Engel, Vic; Fuentes, Jose D.; Zieman, Joseph C.; O'Halloran, Thomas L.; Smith, Thomas J.; Anderson, Gordon H.

    2010-01-01

    We report on net ecosystem production (NEP) and key environmental controls on net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO2) between a mangrove forest and the atmosphere in the coastal Florida Everglades. An eddy covariance system deployed above the canopy was used to determine NEE during January 2004 through August 2005. Maximum daytime NEE ranged from -20 to -25 μmol (CO2) m-2 s-1 between March and May. Respiration (Rd) was highly variable (2.81 ± 2.41 μmol (CO2) m-2 s-1), reaching peak values during the summer wet season. During the winter dry season, forest CO2 assimilation increased with the proportion of diffuse solar irradiance in response to greater radiative transfer in the forest canopy. Surface water salinity and tidal activity were also important controls on NEE. Daily light use efficiency was reduced at high (>34 parts per thousand (ppt)) compared to low (d by ~0.9 μmol (CO2) m-2 s-1 and nighttime Rd by ~0.5 μmol (CO2) m-2 s-1. The forest was a sink for atmospheric CO2, with an annual NEP of 1170 ± 127 g C m-2 during 2004. This unusually high NEP was attributed to year-round productivity and low ecosystem respiration which reached a maximum of only 3 g C m-2 d-1. Tidal export of dissolved inorganic carbon derived from belowground respiration likely lowered the estimates of mangrove forest respiration. These results suggest that carbon balance in mangrove coastal systems will change in response to variable salinity and inundation patterns, possibly resulting from secular sea level rise and climate change.

  6. Occurrence of ticks and prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in three types of urban biotopes: forests, parks and cemeteries.

    PubMed

    Hornok, Sándor; Meli, Marina L; Gönczi, Enikő; Halász, Edina; Takács, Nóra; Farkas, Róbert; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare different urban biotopes for the occurrence of ixodid tick species, for the population density of Ixodes ricinus and for the prevalence rates of two emerging, zoonotic pathogens. Altogether 2455 ticks were collected from the vegetation on 30 places (forests, parks, cemeteries) of Budapest, Hungary. I. ricinus and Haemaphysalis concinna were collected in all three biotope types, but Dermacentor reticulatus only in parks and forests, and D. marginatus only in a forest. Highest population density of I. ricinus was observed in neglected parts of cemeteries. In females of this tick species the prevalence rates of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. were significantly lower in cemeteries, than in parks or forests. In conclusion, risks associated with the presence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens may be high in a city, but this depends on biotope types, due to habitat-related differences in the vegetation, as well as in the availability of tick hosts and pathogen reservoirs.

  7. Environmental control of stomatal conductance in forest trees of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    PubMed

    Patterson, M C; Samuelson, L; Somers, G; Mays, A

    2000-11-01

    To determine if stomatal conductance (g(s)) of forest trees could be predicted from measures of leaf microclimate, diurnal variability in in situ g(s) was measured in black cherry (Prunus serotina), red maple (Acer rubrum), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra). Relative to overstory trees, understory saplings exhibited little diurnal variability in g(s) and ozone uptake. Depending on species and site, up to 30% of diurnal and seasonal variation in g(s )of overstory trees was explained by photosynthetically active radiation and vapor pressure deficit. Daily maximum g(s) was significantly related to soil moisture in overstory northern red oak and black cherry (R(2) ranged from 33 to 65%). Although g(s) was not fully predicted using instantaneous measures of leaf microclimate, ozone uptake of large forest trees was reduced by low soil moisture. PMID:15092837

  8. Climate change influence on organic carbon remobilization, transport and burial in mangrove forests of Everglades National Park, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoak, J. M.; Breithaupt, J.; Smith, T. J.; Sanders, C. J.

    2013-05-01

    Mangrove ecosystems store large quantities of organic carbon (OC), burying it in their soils at a greater rate than terrestrial forests, thus providing an important negative climate change feedback. However, mangrove ecosystem response to climate change-induced stressors will determine if mangrove ecosystems continue to be a sink for OC. The threats of rising sea level outpacing mangrove forest soil accretion and the increased wave energy associated with this rise are two potential climate change stressors that may alter the carbon balance in mangrove ecosystems. The threat from wave energy is amplified during storm events, which may become more intense and/or frequent with climate change. Climate change-amplified storms could increasingly damage mangrove forests along the coastline, remobilizing and exposing previously buried OC to oxidation, and contribute to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We investigate the fate of this remobilized OC by examining soil cores from two sites within Everglades National Park. Soil accretion rates and OC burial rates within a storm surge deposit are compared to long-term rates (i.e., last 100 years). The sites are 4 and 10 km inland from the coast and data show these mangrove soils are accreting at a rate sufficient to keep pace with the current rate of sea-level rise. The accretion rates range from 2.5 to 3.6 mm yr-1 and are much greater within the storm surge deposit, reaching as high as 6.5 mm yr-1. We also discovered enhanced rates of OC burial within this same storm surge deposit which are approximately 2-fold greater than the long-term rates. Our findings indicate that these enhanced accretion and OC burial rates are due to inland transport of marine carbonate material and OC remobilized from along the coast during the storm. Furthermore, we find OC burial rates within the storm deposit at the site 10 km inland are substantially greater than the site 4 km inland, while mass accumulation rates show the opposite trend

  9. Extreme river response to climate-induced aggradation in a forested, montane basin, Carbon River, Mount Rainier National Park, Washington, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyeler, J. D.; Rossi, R. K.; Kennard, P. M.; Beason, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is drastically affecting the alpine landscape of Mount Rainier, encouraging glacial retreat, changes in snowpack thickness and longevity, and sediment delivery to downstream fluvial systems, leading to an extremely transport limited system and aggradation of the river valleys. River aggradation encourages devastating interactions between the pro-glacial braided fluvial systems and streamside floodplain ecosystems, in most places occupied by old-growth conifer forests. Current aggradation rates of the channels, bordered by late seral stage riparian forests, inhibit floodplain development, leading to an inverted relationship between perched river channels and lower-elevation adjacent floodplains. This disequilibrium creates a steeper gradient laterally towards the floodplains, rather than downstream; promoting flooding of streamside forest, removal and burial of vegetation with coarse alluvium, incision of avulsion channels, tree mortality, wood recruitment to channels, and ultimately widening the alluviated valley towards the glacially carved hillslopes. Aggradation and loss of streamside old-growth forest poses a significant problem to park infrastructure (e.g. roads, trails, and campgrounds) due to flood damage with as frequent as a two-year event. Other park rivers, the White River and Tahoma Creek, characterize two end-member cases. Despite an extremely perched channel, the White River is relatively stable; experiencing small avulsions while the old-growth streamside forest has remained mostly intact. These relatively small avulsions however severely impact park infrastructure, causing extensive flood damage and closure of the heavily trafficked state highway. Conversely debris flows on Tahoma Creek destroyed the streamside forest and migration across the valley is uninhibited. Mature streamside forests tend to oppose avulsions, sieving wood at the channel margins, promoting sediment deposition and deflection of erosive flows. Our study seeks to

  10. Effects of forest structure and composition on food availability for Varecia variegata at Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balko, E.A.; Underwood, H.B.

    2005-01-01

    We present a summary of a long-term field study that examined the effects of forest disturbance on the availability of palatable fruit and its utilization by V. variegata. Forest structure and tree species composition were measured in three adjacent study areas, with different histories of disturbance, in Ranomafana National Park (RNP), Madagascar. V. variegata abundance was monitored by frequent encounters with resident groups and periodic censuses conducted along trails. Finally, the abundance of mature fruit in species used by V. variegata was scored monthly at representative trees at several locations. V. variegata abundance was most consistent in the least anthropogenically disturbed site, while no established lemur groups were observed in the heavily logged site for over a decade post-harvest. Lemur abundance was variable in the selectively logged site. The presence of select food trees, particularly specimens with voluminous crowns capable of producing abundant fruit crops, appears to be key to the establishment and expansion of V variegata groups. Our analysis of year-long fruit utilization revealed a high degree of preference for several species of trees. Two species exhibited mature fruit in a low percentage of stems but were available for a protracted period of time, while two additional species showed high intraspecific fruiting synchrony and were available for a shorter period of time. These contrasting phenologies, rather than the individual tree species, may be most important to V. variegata due to their coincident timing of fruit maturation with key lemur life-history events. Any disturbance-natural or anthropogenic-that disrupts the phenology cycles of food trees has the potential to impact lemur abundance and dispersion. Intense disturbances, such as heavy logging or severe cyclones, have long-lasting impacts on fruit production, while selective logging or moderate cyclonic windthrow cause more transient impacts. V. variegata is adapted to deal

  11. Silvibacterium bohemicum gen. nov. sp. nov., an acidobacterium isolated from coniferous soil in the Bohemian Forest National Park.

    PubMed

    Lladó, Salvador; Benada, Oldrich; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Baldrian, Petr; García-Fraile, Paula

    2016-02-01

    During the course of a study assessing the bacterial diversity of a coniferous forest soil (pH 3.8) in the Bohemian Forest National Park (Czech Republic), we isolated strain S15(T) which corresponded to one of the most abundant soil OTUs. Strain S15(T) is represented by Gram-negative, motile, rod-like cells that are 0.3-0.5μm in diameter and 0.9-1.1μm in length. Its pH range for growth was 3-6, with optimal conditions found at approximately 4-5. It can grow at temperatures between 20°C and 28°C, with optimum growth at 22-24°C. Its respiratory quinone is MK-8, and its main fatty acid is iso-C15:0 (73.7%). The G+C DNA content was 58.2mol%. According to the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain S15(T) belongs to subdivision 1 of the phylum Acidobacteria, being affiliated to the cluster of Acidipila rosea AP8(T) and Acidobacterium capsulatum ATCC 51196(T). Analysis of the S15(T) genome revealed the presence of 404 genes that are involved in carbohydrate metabolism, which indicates the metabolic potential to degrade polysaccharides of plant and fungal origin. Based on genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the strain S15(T) represents a new genus and species within the family Acidobacteriaceae, for which the name Silvibacterium bohemicum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed (type strain S15(T)=LMG 28607(T)=CECT 8790(T)).

  12. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7.36 Section 7.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a)...

  13. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7.36 Section 7.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a)...

  14. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  15. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  16. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycles. That portion of...

  17. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  18. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  19. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  20. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  1. 36 CFR 7.47 - Carlsbad Caverns National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carlsbad Caverns National Park. 7.47 Section 7.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.47 Carlsbad Caverns National Park....

  2. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.15 Shenandoah National Park. (a)...

  3. 36 CFR 7.47 - Carlsbad Caverns National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carlsbad Caverns National Park. 7.47 Section 7.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.47 Carlsbad Caverns National Park....

  4. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.15 Shenandoah National Park. (a)...

  5. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  6. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  7. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.15 Shenandoah National Park. (a)...

  8. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.4 Grand Canyon National Park. (a)...

  9. 36 CFR 7.47 - Carlsbad Caverns National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carlsbad Caverns National Park. 7.47 Section 7.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.47 Carlsbad Caverns National Park....

  10. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  11. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  12. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  13. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  14. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycles. That portion of...

  15. 36 CFR 7.56 - Acadia National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acadia National Park. 7.56 Section 7.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.56 Acadia National Park. (a) Designated Snowmobile...

  16. 36 CFR 7.23 - Badlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Badlands National Park. 7.23 Section 7.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.23 Badlands National Park. (a) Commercial vehicles....

  17. 36 CFR 7.23 - Badlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Badlands National Park. 7.23 Section 7.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.23 Badlands National Park. (a) Commercial vehicles....

  18. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.15 Shenandoah National Park. (a)...

  19. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  20. 36 CFR 7.23 - Badlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Badlands National Park. 7.23 Section 7.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.23 Badlands National Park. (a) Commercial vehicles....

  1. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  2. 36 CFR 7.47 - Carlsbad Caverns National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carlsbad Caverns National Park. 7.47 Section 7.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.47 Carlsbad Caverns National Park....

  3. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  4. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  5. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1)...

  6. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  7. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  8. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  9. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Park. The National Park Service reserves the right to limit the number of such permits issued, or the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  10. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1)...

  11. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1)...

  12. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  13. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  14. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Park. The National Park Service reserves the right to limit the number of such permits issued, or the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  15. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Park. The National Park Service reserves the right to limit the number of such permits issued, or the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  16. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1)...

  17. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  18. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  19. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  20. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  1. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  2. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  3. 36 CFR 7.1 - Colonial National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Colonial National Historical Park. 7.1 Section 7.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.1 Colonial National Historical Park....

  4. 36 CFR 7.1 - Colonial National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Colonial National Historical Park. 7.1 Section 7.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.1 Colonial National Historical Park....

  5. 36 CFR 7.1 - Colonial National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Colonial National Historical Park. 7.1 Section 7.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.1 Colonial National Historical Park....

  6. 36 CFR 7.1 - Colonial National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Colonial National Historical Park. 7.1 Section 7.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.1 Colonial National Historical Park....

  7. 36 CFR 7.1 - Colonial National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Colonial National Historical Park. 7.1 Section 7.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.1 Colonial National Historical Park....

  8. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  9. 36 CFR 7.5 - Mount Rainier National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mount Rainier National Park. 7.5 Section 7.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.5 Mount Rainier National Park....

  10. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.15 Shenandoah National Park. (a)...

  11. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7.18 Section 7.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a)...

  12. 36 CFR 7.47 - Carlsbad Caverns National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carlsbad Caverns National Park. 7.47 Section 7.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.47 Carlsbad Caverns National Park....

  13. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7.36 Section 7.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a)...

  14. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycles. That portion of...

  15. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  16. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  17. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  18. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  19. 36 CFR 7.23 - Badlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Badlands National Park. 7.23 Section 7.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.23 Badlands National Park. (a) Commercial vehicles....

  20. 36 CFR 7.2 - Crater Lake National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crater Lake National Park. 7.2 Section 7.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.2 Crater Lake National Park. (a)...

  1. 36 CFR 7.56 - Acadia National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acadia National Park. 7.56 Section 7.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.56 Acadia National Park. (a) Designated Snowmobile...

  2. 36 CFR 7.84 - Channel Islands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Channel Islands National Park. 7.84 Section 7.84 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.84 Channel Islands National Park....

  3. 36 CFR 7.84 - Channel Islands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Channel Islands National Park. 7.84 Section 7.84 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.84 Channel Islands National Park....

  4. 36 CFR 7.84 - Channel Islands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Channel Islands National Park. 7.84 Section 7.84 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.84 Channel Islands National Park....

  5. 36 CFR 7.84 - Channel Islands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Channel Islands National Park. 7.84 Section 7.84 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.84 Channel Islands National Park....

  6. 36 CFR 7.84 - Channel Islands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Channel Islands National Park. 7.84 Section 7.84 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.84 Channel Islands National Park....

  7. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park....

  8. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park....

  9. Mass balances of mercury and nitrogen in burned and unburned forested watersheds at Acadia National Park, Maine, USA.

    PubMed

    Nelson, S J; Johnson, K B; Kahl, J S; Haines, T A; Fernandez, I J

    2007-03-01

    Precipitation and streamwater samples were collected from 16 November 1999 to 17 November 2000 in two watersheds at Acadia National Park, Maine, and analyzed for mercury (Hg) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, nitrate plus ammonium). Cadillac Brook watershed burned in a 1947 fire that destroyed vegetation and soil organic matter. We hypothesized that Hg deposition would be higher at Hadlock Brook (the reference watershed, 10.2 microg/m(2)/year) than Cadillac (9.4 microg/m(2)/year) because of the greater scavenging efficiency of the softwood vegetation in Hadlock. We also hypothesized the Hg and DIN export from Cadillac Brook would be lower than Hadlock Brook because of elemental volatilization during the fire, along with subsequently lower rates of atmospheric deposition in a watershed with abundant bare soil and bedrock, and regenerating vegetation. Consistent with these hypotheses, Hg export was lower from Cadillac Brook watershed (0.4 microg/m(2)/year) than from Hadlock Brook watershed (1.3 microg/m(2)/year). DIN export from Cadillac Brook (11.5 eq/ha/year) was lower than Hadlock Brook (92.5 eq/ha/year). These data show that approximately 50 years following a wildfire there was lower atmospheric deposition due to changes in forest species composition, lower soil pools, and greater ecosystem retention for both Hg and DIN.

  10. Great gray owls (Strix nebulosa) in Yosemite National Park: on the importance of food, forest structure, and human disturbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Riper, Charles; Fontaine, Joseph J.; van Wagtendonk, Jan W.

    2013-01-01

    We studied great gray owls (Strix nebulosa Forster) in Yosemite National Park, California, measuring variables that could potentially influence patterns of occurrence and conservation of this stateendangered species. We found that owl presence was closely tied to habitat (red fir (Abies magnified A. Murray) and the abundance of meadows), prey, and snags across the landscape. We also found that indicators of human recreational activities negatively influenced owl distribution and habitat use. Great gray owls appear to prefer mid-elevation red fir forest with meadows that are drier and more productive in terms of small mammal populations. That these areas also have the highest human activity presents a paradox, both for individual owls and for the future conservation and management of this California endangered species. The extent to which human recreation in natural areas affects animal behavior, species distribution, and productivity is a growing issue in natural area management. We present information that will allow land managers to better understand how existing natural resources, coupled with human recreation, influence the distribution and habitat use of the great gray owl.

  11. Brief communication: Endocranial volumes in an ontogenetic sample of chimpanzees from the Taï Forest National Park, Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Simon; Gunz, Philipp; Schwarz, Uta; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Boesch, Christophe

    2012-02-01

    Ontogenetic samples of endocranial volumes (EVs) from great apes and humans are critical for understanding the evolution of the brain growth pattern in the hominin lineage. However, high quality ontogenetic data are scarce, especially for nonhuman primates. Here, we provide original data derived from an osteological collection of a wild population of Pan troglodytes verus from the Taï Forest National Park, Ivory Coast. This sample is unique, because age, sex, and pedigree information are available for many specimens from behavioral observations in the wild. We scanned crania of all 30 immature specimens and 13 adult individuals using high-resolution computed tomography. We then created virtual casts of the bony braincase (endocasts) to measure EVs. We also measured cranial length, width, and height and attempted to relate cranial distances to EV via regression analysis. Our data are consistent with previous studies. The only neonate in the sample has an EV of 127 cm(3) or 34% of the adult mean. EV increases rapidly during early ontogeny. The average adult EV in this sample is 378.7 ± 30.1 cm(3) . We found sexual dimorphism in adults; males seem to be already larger than females before adult EV is attained. Regressions on cranial width and multiple regression provide better estimates for EV than regressions on cranial length or height. Increasing the sample size and compiling more high quality ontogenetic data of EV will help to reconcile ongoing discussions about the evolution of hominin brain growth.

  12. A reconnaissance of the effects of a forest fire on water quality in Kings Canyon National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, Ray J.; Ferreira, Rodger F.

    1976-01-01

    Following two forest fires in the Roaring River drainage basin, Kings Canyon National Park, Calif., water samples were collected from May to July 1974 to determine water-quality changes resulting from the fires. Field measurements included alkalinity , pH, specific conductance, temperature, and discharge. Samples were analyzed in the laboratory for major dissolved chemical constituents, selected plant nutrients, trace metals, suspended sediment, total organic carbon, and seston. Periphytic algae and benthic invertebrate samples were collected. A noticeable increase in the concentration of nitrogen was found in Roaring River immediately downstream from the Moraine Creek fire. The increase in the concentration of inorganic nitrogen compounds, however, was not great enough to pose a serious threat to the aquatic ecosystem. High total organic nitrogen concentrations may have been due, in part, to factors other than the effect of fire. The results of other water-quality measurements were typical of dilute Sierra Nevada streams and indicate that Roaring River was not adversely affected by the fires. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Geologic mapping as a method for the construction of a detailed and testable lithostratigraphic model for the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation of Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, L. A.; Martz, J. W.; Parker, W.; Raucci, J.; Umhoefer, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Upper Triassic Chinle Formation in Petrified Forest National Park represents some of the most intensively studied Upper Triassic strata in western North America. Five stratigraphic members are exposed within the park, from oldest to youngest: the Mesa Redondo, Blue Mesa, Sonsela, Petrified Forest, and Owl Rock Members. Despite numerous stratigraphic studies of the Chinle Formation and two attempts at mapping the park over the past sixty years, sandstone marker beds in the Sonsela Member at the north and south ends of the park were still poorly mapped and correlated. Studies in the years 2002 and 2006 claimed that two sandstones which previous workers had considered to lie at different stratigraphic levels (the Jasper Forest Bed and the Flattops One sandstones in the Martha’s Butte beds) were actually correlative. This correlation resulted in a three-part division of the Sonsela Member and had a major impact on vertebrate biostratigraphy. In a recent attempt to resolve confusions regarding Chinle Formation lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy, we have completely walked out lithologic contacts through most of the park. The resulting new geologic map, revised lithostratigraphic model, and associated data resolves the 2002 and 2006 miscorrelations by demonstrating that the Jasper Forest Bed capping Blue Mesa and Agate Mesa and Flattops One sandstones (Martha’s Butte beds) are stratigraphically distinct, resulting in a thicker and more complex five-part model for the Sonsela Member, and considerably modifying the vertebrate biostratigraphy. New geologic mapping also resulted in a detailed lithostratigraphic framework for the northern park which has previously been poorly understood, and several important new marker beds, including a purple-gray bed that represents the base of the Owl Rock Member. The revised geologic map is an ArcGIS product that includes an updated lithostratigraphic model for the Chinle Formation, fossil localities, and hyperlinks to labeled

  14. Chemistry and transport of soluble humic substances in forested watersheds of the Adirondack Park, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronan, Christopher S.; Aiken, George R.

    1985-08-01

    Studies were conducted in conjunction with the Integrated Lake-Watershed Acidification Study (ILWAS) to examine the chemistry and leaching patterns of soluble humic substances in forested watersheds of the Adirondack region. During the summer growing season, mean dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the ILWAS watersheds ranged from 21-32 mg C l-1 in O/A horizon leachates, from 5-7 mg C l-1 in B horizon leachates, from 2-4 mg C l-1 in groundwater solutions, from 6-8 mg C l-1 in first order streams, from 3-8 mg C l-1 in lake inlets, and from 2-7 mg C l-1 in lake outlets. During the winter, mean DOC concentrations dropped significantly in the upper soil profile. Soil solutions from mixed and coniferous stands contained as much as twice the DOC concentration of lysimeter samples from hardwood stands. Results of DOC fractionation analysis showed that hydrophobia and hydrophilic acids dominate the organic solute composition of natural waters in these watersheds. Charge balance and titration results indicated that the general acid-base characteristics of the dissolved humic mixture in these natural waters can be accounted for by a model organic acid having an averagepKa of 3.85, an average charge density of 4-5 μeq mg-1 C at ambient pH, and a total of 6-7 meq COOH per gram carbon.

  15. Chemistry and transport of soluble humic substances in forested watersheds of the Adirondack Park, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronan, C.S.; Aiken, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    Studies were conducted in conjunction with the Integrated Lake-Watershed Acidification Study (ILWAS) to examine the chemistry and leaching patterns of soluble humic substances in forested watersheds of the Adirondack region. During the summer growing season, mean dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the ILWAS watersheds ranged from 21-32 mg C l-1 in O/A horizon leachates, from 5-7 mg C l-1 in B horizon leachates, from 2-4 mg C l-1 in groundwater solutions, from 6-8 mg C l-1 in first order streams, from 3-8 mg C l-1 in lake inlets, and from 2-7 mg C l-1 in lake outlets. During the winter, mean DOC concentrations dropped significantly in the upper soil profile. Soil solutions from mixed and coniferous stands contained as much as twice the DOC concentration of lysimeter samples from hardwood stands. Results of DOC fractionation analysis showed that hydrophobia and hydrophilic acids dominate the organic solute composition of natural waters in these watersheds. Charge balance and titration results indicated that the general acid-base characteristics of the dissolved humic mixture in these natural waters can be accounted for by a model organic acid having an averagepKa of 3.85, an average charge density of 4-5 ??eq mg-1 C at ambient pH, and a total of 6-7 meq COOH per gram carbon. ?? 1985.

  16. [Soil microarthropods and macrofauna in monsoon tropical forests of Cat Tien and Bi Dup-Nui Ba National Parks, Southern Vietnam].

    PubMed

    Anichkin, A E; Beliaeva, N V; Dovgobrod, I G; Shveenkova, Iu B; Tiunov, A V

    2007-01-01

    The abundance, biomass, vertical distribution, and taxonomic composition of soil invertebrates (springtails, macrofauna, and termites) were studied in forest formations differing in edaphic and climatic conditions: lowland forests dominated by Lagerstroeomia spp. or Dipterocarpus spp. in the Cat Tien National Park and in a mountain pine (Pinus kesiya) forest on the Da Lat Plateau, southern Vietnam. In the lowland forests, springtails had a relatively low density (10000-12000 ind./m2), but their diversity was high (41-43 species in each forest). The density of large soil invertebrates (without ants and termites) reached 500-700 ind./m2 at a biomass of approximately 30 g/m2 (with earthworms accounting for up to 230 ind./m2 and 19-28 g/m2). Among termites, species of the genera Macrotermes and Odontotermes were dominant. Their total biomass in some areas exceeded 15-20 g/m2. In the mountain pine forest, the total biomass of soil macrofauna was approximately 11 g/m2, the abundance and diversity of springtails were low (7500 ind./m2, 28 species), and wood-destroying species of the genera Schedorhinotermes sp. and Coptotermes sp. dominated among termites.

  17. [Soil microarthropods and macrofauna in monsoon tropical forests of Cat Tien and Bi Dup-Nui Ba National Parks, Southern Vietnam].

    PubMed

    Anichkin, A E; Beliaeva, N V; Dovgobrod, I G; Shveenkova, Iu B; Tiunov, A V

    2007-01-01

    The abundance, biomass, vertical distribution, and taxonomic composition of soil invertebrates (springtails, macrofauna, and termites) were studied in forest formations differing in edaphic and climatic conditions: lowland forests dominated by Lagerstroeomia spp. or Dipterocarpus spp. in the Cat Tien National Park and in a mountain pine (Pinus kesiya) forest on the Da Lat Plateau, southern Vietnam. In the lowland forests, springtails had a relatively low density (10000-12000 ind./m2), but their diversity was high (41-43 species in each forest). The density of large soil invertebrates (without ants and termites) reached 500-700 ind./m2 at a biomass of approximately 30 g/m2 (with earthworms accounting for up to 230 ind./m2 and 19-28 g/m2). Among termites, species of the genera Macrotermes and Odontotermes were dominant. Their total biomass in some areas exceeded 15-20 g/m2. In the mountain pine forest, the total biomass of soil macrofauna was approximately 11 g/m2, the abundance and diversity of springtails were low (7500 ind./m2, 28 species), and wood-destroying species of the genera Schedorhinotermes sp. and Coptotermes sp. dominated among termites. PMID:18038627

  18. Effects of forest fire and fire-fighting operations on water chemistry in Tyresta National Park, Stockholm, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, H.; Edberg, F.; Borg, H.

    2003-05-01

    After a large forest fire in Tyresta National Park, Sweden, monitoring programs were started to study the consequences on the biology and chemistry in the burned area. To study the effects on the water chemistry, four brooks in the same water system were chosen for further studies. Samples were also taken in a limed lake downstream the brooks. The sites were sampled 10 times each year, starting the month after the fire, and a range of chemical analyses where performed. Pre-fire data exists for 2 of the brooks and the lake due to former studies in the area. In the brooks drastic changes of the water chemistry were seen immediately after the fire. pH in the brooks deereased with up to 2 pH-units from over 6 to about 4,5 and labile inorganic aluminium increased to over 400 μg/l in the most affected brooks. Other determined metals and nutrients in the brooks also increased. In the lake no changes in pH or aluminium were measured, but significant (p<0,01) increases of chloride, sulphate, magnesium, potassium, sodium, manganese, zinc and cadmium where observed. The water chemical effects may be explained by release of e.g. hydrogen- and aluminium ions through burning of organic matter in the acidified soil, but also by the large amounts of brackish water used during the fire-fighting operations. The extent of the effects from the fire are yet to be seen, as the concentrations of many water chemical variables still are increased three years after the fire.

  19. Mapping tropical forest biomass with radar and spaceborne LiDAR in Lopé National Park, Gabon: overcoming problems of high biomass and persistent cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchard, E. T. A.; Saatchi, S. S.; White, L. J. T.; Abernethy, K. A.; Jeffery, K. J.; Lewis, S. L.; Collins, M.; Lefsky, M. A.; Leal, M. E.; Woodhouse, I. H.; Meir, P.

    2012-01-01

    Spatially-explicit maps of aboveground biomass are essential for calculating the losses and gains in forest carbon at a regional to national level. The production of such maps across wide areas will become increasingly necessary as international efforts to protect primary forests, such as the REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) mechanism, come into effect, alongside their use for management and research more generally. However, mapping biomass over high-biomass tropical forest is challenging as (1) direct regressions with optical and radar data saturate, (2) much of the tropics is persistently cloud-covered, reducing the availability of optical data, (3) many regions include steep topography, making the use of radar data complex, (5) while LiDAR data does not suffer from saturation, expensive aircraft-derived data are necessary for complete coverage. We present a solution to the problems, using a combination of terrain-corrected L-band radar data (ALOS PALSAR), spaceborne LiDAR data (ICESat GLAS) and ground-based data. We map Gabon's Lopé National Park (5000 km2) because it includes a range of vegetation types from savanna to closed-canopy tropical forest, is topographically complex, has no recent contiguous cloud-free high-resolution optical data, and the dense forest is above the saturation point for radar. Our 100 m resolution biomass map is derived from fusing spaceborne LiDAR (7142 ICESat GLAS footprints), 96 ground-based plots (average size 0.8 ha) and an unsupervised classification of terrain-corrected ALOS PALSAR radar data, from which we derive the aboveground biomass stocks of the park to be 78 Tg C (173 Mg C ha-1). This value is consistent with our field data average of 181 Mg C ha-1, from the field plots measured in 2009 covering a total of 78 ha, and which are independent as they were not used for the GLAS-biomass estimation. We estimate an uncertainty of ±25% on our carbon stock value for the park. This error term

  20. Influence of Sea-Level Rise and Storms on Soil Accretion Rates in the Mangrove Forests of Everglades National Park, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoak, J. M.; Breithaupt, J.; Smith, T., III; Sanders, C. J.; Peterson, L. C.

    2014-12-01

    Mangrove forests provide a range of valuable ecosystem services including sequestering large quantities of organic carbon (OC) in their soils at rates higher than other forests. Whether or not mangrove soils continue to be a sink for OC will be determined by the mangrove ecosystems' response to climate change-induced stressors. The threats of rising sea level outpacing mangrove forest soil accretion and increased wave energy associated with this rise may become the primary climate change-induced stressors on mangrove ecosystems. The threat from wave energy is amplified during storm events, which could increasingly damage mangrove forests along the coastline. However, storms may enhance accretion rates at some sites due to delivery of storm surge material, which could increase the system's ability to keep pace with sea-level rise (SLR). To investigate these processes we measure soil accretion rates over the last 100 years (via 210Pb dating) within the mangrove forests of Everglades National Park, which are situated within the largest contiguous mangrove forest in North America. Accretion rates range from 2 to 2.8 mm per year for sites within 10 km of the Gulf of Mexico. These rates match (within error) or exceed SLR over the last 100 years. Sites farther inland than 10 km have slightly lower accretion rates. Throughout the system organic matter accumulation is the most important source material contributing to accretion. The more seaward sites also show an important contribution from carbonate material. Soil cores from the most seaward sites exhibited visual laminations and Ca peaks (determined via x-ray fluorescence). These are indicators of storm surge deposits. While higher sea level might produce more damage and loss of mangrove forest along open water (e.g., Gulf of Mexico), our findings suggest some sites will have enhanced accretion rates due to supplementation with storm surge material.

  1. Killing of a pearl-spotted owlet (Glaucidium perlatum) by male red colobus monkeys (Procolobus tephrosceles) in a forest fragment near Kibale National Park, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Tony L; Gillespie, Thomas R; Rwego, Innocent B; Kaganzi, Clovis

    2006-10-01

    Adult male red colobus (Procolobus tephrosceles) were observed capturing and killing an owl (Glaucidium perlatum) in the Rurama forest fragment near Kibale National Park in western Uganda. The owl was not subsequently eaten by the colobus, their conspecifics, or the other primates present during the attack. Because the incident was preceded by an agonistic encounter with a raptor, the event is best interpreted as a misdirected antipredator behavior. Although antipredator behaviors are not unknown in red colobus, this is the first such incident directed against a raptor to be documented. PMID:16892411

  2. 36 CFR 14.10 - Areas of National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Areas of National Park System. 14.10 Section 14.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Nature of Interest § 14.10 Areas of National Park System. (a) The Act of March...

  3. 36 CFR 14.10 - Areas of National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Areas of National Park System. 14.10 Section 14.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Nature of Interest § 14.10 Areas of National Park System. (a) The Act of March...

  4. 36 CFR 14.10 - Areas of National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Areas of National Park System. 14.10 Section 14.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Nature of Interest § 14.10 Areas of National Park System. (a) The Act of March...

  5. 36 CFR 14.10 - Areas of National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas of National Park System. 14.10 Section 14.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Nature of Interest § 14.10 Areas of National Park System. (a) The Act of March...

  6. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Archives at College Park. The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road,...

  7. 36 CFR 7.78 - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. 7.78 Section 7.78 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.78 Harpers Ferry...

  8. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL... Road from the park boundary in the west one-half of Sec. 33, T. 40 S., R. 11 W., Salt Lake Base...

  9. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL... Road from the park boundary in the west one-half of Sec. 33, T. 40 S., R. 11 W., Salt Lake Base...

  10. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL... Road from the park boundary in the west one-half of Sec. 33, T. 40 S., R. 11 W., Salt Lake Base...

  11. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  12. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky...

  13. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky...

  14. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  15. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky...

  16. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  17. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  18. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky...

  19. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  20. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky...

  1. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Archives at College Park. The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road,...

  2. 36 CFR 7.78 - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. 7.78 Section 7.78 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.78 Harpers Ferry...

  3. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Archives at College Park. The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road,...

  4. 36 CFR 7.78 - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. 7.78 Section 7.78 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.78 Harpers Ferry...

  5. 36 CFR 7.78 - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. 7.78 Section 7.78 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.78 Harpers Ferry...

  6. 36 CFR 7.78 - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. 7.78 Section 7.78 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.78 Harpers Ferry...

  7. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Archives at College Park. The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road,...

  8. 36 CFR 14.10 - Areas of National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas of National Park System. 14.10 Section 14.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Nature of Interest § 14.10 Areas of National Park System. (a) The Act of March...

  9. Fog reduces transpiration in tree species of the Canarian relict heath-laurel cloud forest (Garajonay National Park, Spain).

    PubMed

    Ritter, Axel; Regalado, Carlos M; Aschan, Guido

    2009-04-01

    The ecophysiologic role of fog in the evergreen heath-laurel 'laurisilva' cloud forests of the Canary Islands has not been unequivocally demonstrated, although it is generally assumed that fog water is important for the survival and the distribution of this relict paleoecosystem of the North Atlantic Macaronesian archipelagos. To determine the role of fog in this ecosystem, we combined direct transpiration measurements of heath-laurel tree species, obtained with Granier's heat dissipation probes, with micrometeorological and artificial fog collection measurements carried out in a 43.7-ha watershed located in the Garajonay National Park (La Gomera, Canary Islands, Spain) over a 10-month period. Median ambient temperature spanned from 7 to 15 degrees C under foggy conditions whereas higher values, ranging from 9 to 21 degrees C, were registered during fog-free periods. Additionally, during the periods when fog water was collected, global solar radiation values were linearly related (r2=0.831) to those under fog-free conditions, such that there was a 75+/-1% reduction in median radiation in response to fog. Fog events greatly reduced median diurnal tree transpiration, with rates about 30 times lower than that during fog-free conditions and approximating the nighttime rates in both species studied (the needle-like leaf Erica arborea L. and the broadleaf Myrica faya Ait.). This large decrease in transpiration in response to fog was independent of the time of the day, tree size and species and micrometeorological status, both when expressed on a median basis and in cumulative terms for the entire 10-month measuring period. We conclude that, in contrast to the turbulent deposition of fog water droplets on the heath-laurel species, which may be regarded as a localized hydrological phenomenon that is important for high-altitude wind-exposed E. arborea trees, the cooler, wetter and shaded microenvironment provided by the cloud immersion belt represents a large-scale effect

  10. Fog reduces transpiration in tree species of the Canarian relict heath-laurel cloud forest (Garajonay National Park, Spain).

    PubMed

    Ritter, Axel; Regalado, Carlos M; Aschan, Guido

    2009-04-01

    The ecophysiologic role of fog in the evergreen heath-laurel 'laurisilva' cloud forests of the Canary Islands has not been unequivocally demonstrated, although it is generally assumed that fog water is important for the survival and the distribution of this relict paleoecosystem of the North Atlantic Macaronesian archipelagos. To determine the role of fog in this ecosystem, we combined direct transpiration measurements of heath-laurel tree species, obtained with Granier's heat dissipation probes, with micrometeorological and artificial fog collection measurements carried out in a 43.7-ha watershed located in the Garajonay National Park (La Gomera, Canary Islands, Spain) over a 10-month period. Median ambient temperature spanned from 7 to 15 degrees C under foggy conditions whereas higher values, ranging from 9 to 21 degrees C, were registered during fog-free periods. Additionally, during the periods when fog water was collected, global solar radiation values were linearly related (r2=0.831) to those under fog-free conditions, such that there was a 75+/-1% reduction in median radiation in response to fog. Fog events greatly reduced median diurnal tree transpiration, with rates about 30 times lower than that during fog-free conditions and approximating the nighttime rates in both species studied (the needle-like leaf Erica arborea L. and the broadleaf Myrica faya Ait.). This large decrease in transpiration in response to fog was independent of the time of the day, tree size and species and micrometeorological status, both when expressed on a median basis and in cumulative terms for the entire 10-month measuring period. We conclude that, in contrast to the turbulent deposition of fog water droplets on the heath-laurel species, which may be regarded as a localized hydrological phenomenon that is important for high-altitude wind-exposed E. arborea trees, the cooler, wetter and shaded microenvironment provided by the cloud immersion belt represents a large-scale effect

  11. [Characteristics of rain season atmospheric PM2.5 concentration and its water-soluble ions contents in forest parks along an urban-rural gradient in Guangzhou City of South China].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yi-Hua; Xi, Dan; Tong, Fu-Chun; Kuang, Yuan-Wen; Li, Jiong; Chen, Bu-Feng; Shi, Xin; Pei, Nan-Cai; Huang, Jun-Biao; Pan, Yong-Jun

    2013-10-01

    During the rainy season (April-September) of 2012, the atmospheric particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 mm (PM2.5) were sampled from the forest parks in the urban area, suburban area, and rural area of Guangzhou City. The mass concentration of PM2.5 and its water-soluble ions (SO4(2-), NO3-, NO2-, Cl-, F-, Na+, NH4+, Ca2+, K+, and Mg2+) contents were also measured. In the forest parks in the urban area, suburban area, and rural area, the diurnal variation of PM2.5 mass concentration was 21.8-161.7, 19.4-156.3, and 17.2-66.5 microg x m(-3), with an arithmetic average being 55.9, 49.8, and 44.4 microg x m(-3), respectively. SO4(2-), Na+, and NH4+ were the main components of water-soluble ions in the PM2.5, and the SO4(2-) had the highest content and decreased gradually from urban to rural forest parks. The contribution of the SO2 and NOx in the PM2.5 from coal combustion to the forest parks was larger than that from vehicle exhaust, but presented a decreasing trend from urban to rural forest parks, indicating that vehicle exhaust had a greater contribution to the atmospheric SO2 and NOx in the urban forest park. In the sampling period, the contribution of sea salt to the water soluble fractions (especially K+) of the PM2.5 was greater for the suburban forest park than for the other two parks. The equivalent concentration of the NH4+ in the PM2.5 was far less than those of the SO4(2-) and NO3-, with a neutralization ratio being much lower than 1.0, which suggested that the PM2.5 had a higher acidity. The PM2.5 acidity had an increasing trend from rural to urban forest parks.

  12. [Characteristics of rain season atmospheric PM2.5 concentration and its water-soluble ions contents in forest parks along an urban-rural gradient in Guangzhou City of South China].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yi-Hua; Xi, Dan; Tong, Fu-Chun; Kuang, Yuan-Wen; Li, Jiong; Chen, Bu-Feng; Shi, Xin; Pei, Nan-Cai; Huang, Jun-Biao; Pan, Yong-Jun

    2013-10-01

    During the rainy season (April-September) of 2012, the atmospheric particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 mm (PM2.5) were sampled from the forest parks in the urban area, suburban area, and rural area of Guangzhou City. The mass concentration of PM2.5 and its water-soluble ions (SO4(2-), NO3-, NO2-, Cl-, F-, Na+, NH4+, Ca2+, K+, and Mg2+) contents were also measured. In the forest parks in the urban area, suburban area, and rural area, the diurnal variation of PM2.5 mass concentration was 21.8-161.7, 19.4-156.3, and 17.2-66.5 microg x m(-3), with an arithmetic average being 55.9, 49.8, and 44.4 microg x m(-3), respectively. SO4(2-), Na+, and NH4+ were the main components of water-soluble ions in the PM2.5, and the SO4(2-) had the highest content and decreased gradually from urban to rural forest parks. The contribution of the SO2 and NOx in the PM2.5 from coal combustion to the forest parks was larger than that from vehicle exhaust, but presented a decreasing trend from urban to rural forest parks, indicating that vehicle exhaust had a greater contribution to the atmospheric SO2 and NOx in the urban forest park. In the sampling period, the contribution of sea salt to the water soluble fractions (especially K+) of the PM2.5 was greater for the suburban forest park than for the other two parks. The equivalent concentration of the NH4+ in the PM2.5 was far less than those of the SO4(2-) and NO3-, with a neutralization ratio being much lower than 1.0, which suggested that the PM2.5 had a higher acidity. The PM2.5 acidity had an increasing trend from rural to urban forest parks. PMID:24483086

  13. Spider diversity (Arachnida: Araneae) in Atlantic Forest areas at Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-González, Abel; Baptista, Renner L. C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background There has never been any published work about the diversity of spiders in the city of Rio de Janeiro using analytical tools to measure diversity. The only available records for spider communities in nearby areas indicate 308 species in the National Park of Tijuca and 159 species in Marapendi Municipal Park. These numbers are based on a rapid survey and on an one-year survey respectively. New information This study provides a more thorough understanding of how the spider species are distributed at Pedra Branca State Park. We report a total of 14,626 spider specimens recorded from this park, representing 49 families and 373 species or morphospecies, including at least 73 undescribed species. Also, the distribution range of 45 species was expanded, and species accumulation curves estimate that there is a minimum of 388 (Bootstrap) and a maximum of 468 species (Jackknife2) for the sampled areas. These estimates indicates that the spider diversity may be higher than observed. PMID:26929710

  14. Alpine Forest. Mount Mitchell State Park: An Environmental Education Learning Experience Designed for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Jack L., Jr.

    This curriculum guide was developed to provide environmental education through a series of hands-on activities for the classroom and the outdoor setting of Mount Mitchell State Park, North Carolina. This activity packet, designed for grades 4 through 6, meets established curriculum objectives of the North Carolina Department of Public…

  15. Alpine Forest. Mount Mitchell State Park: An Environmental Education Learning Experience Designed for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Jack L., Jr.; Beazley, Lea J.; Cook, Carrie

    This curriculum packet was developed to provide environmental education through a series of hands-on activities for the classroom and the outdoor setting of Mount Mitchell State Park, North Carolina. Designed for grades 3 through 6, the packet meets established curriculum objectives of the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction's Standard…

  16. Assessing fire effects on forest spatial structure using a fusion of Landsat and airborne LiDAR data in Yosemite National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Van R.; North, Malcolm P.; Lutz, James A.; Churchill, Derek J.; Roberts, Susan L.; Smith, Douglas F.; McGaughey, Robert J.; Kane, Jonathan T.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2014-01-01

    Mosaics of tree clumps and openings are characteristic of forests dominated by frequent, low- and moderate-severity fires. When restoring these fire-suppressed forests, managers often try to reproduce these structures to increase ecosystem resilience. We examined unburned and burned forest structures for 1937 0.81 ha sample areas in Yosemite National Park, USA. We estimated severity for fires from 1984 to 2010 using the Landsat-derived Relativized differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR) and measured openings and canopy clumps in five height strata using airborne LiDAR data. Because our study area lacked concurrent field data, we identified methods to allow structural analysis using LiDAR data alone. We found three spatial structures, canopy-gap, clump-open, and open, that differed in spatial arrangement and proportion of canopy and openings. As fire severity increased, the total area in canopy decreased while the number of clumps increased, creating a patchwork of openings and multistory tree clumps. The presence of openings > 0.3 ha, an approximate minimum gap size needed to favor shade-intolerant pine regeneration, increased rapidly with loss of canopy area. The range and variation of structures for a given fire severity were specific to each forest type. Low- to moderate-severity fires best replicated the historic clump-opening patterns that were common in forests with frequent fire regimes. Our results suggest that managers consider the following goals for their forest restoration: 1) reduce total canopy cover by breaking up large contiguous areas into variable-sized tree clumps and scattered large individual trees; 2) create a range of opening sizes and shapes, including ~ 50% of the open area in gaps > 0.3 ha; 3) create multistory clumps in addition to single story clumps; 4) retain historic densities of large trees; and 5) vary treatments to include canopy-gap, clump-open, and open mosaics across project areas to mimic the range of patterns found for each

  17. Duration of fuels reduction following prescribed fire in coniferous forests of U.S. national parks in California and the Colorado Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Lalemand, Laura; Keifer, MaryBeth; Kane, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Prescribed fire is a widely used forest management tool, yet the long-term effectiveness of prescribed fire in reducing fuels and fire hazards in many vegetation types is not well documented. We assessed the magnitude and duration of reductions in surface fuels and modeled fire hazards in coniferous forests across nine U.S. national parks in California and the Colorado Plateau. We used observations from a prescribed fire effects monitoring program that feature standard forest and surface fuels inventories conducted pre-fire, immediately following an initial (first-entry) prescribed fire and at varying intervals up to >20 years post-fire. A subset of these plots was subjected to prescribed fire again (second-entry) with continued monitoring. Prescribed fire effects were highly variable among plots, but we found on average first-entry fires resulted in a significant post-fire reduction in surface fuels, with litter and duff fuels not returning to pre-fire levels over the length of our observations. Fine and coarse woody fuels often took a decade or longer to return to pre-fire levels. For second-entry fires we found continued fuels reductions, without strong evidence of fuel loads returning to levels observed immediately prior to second-entry fire. Following both first- and second-entry fire there were increases in estimated canopy base heights, along with reductions in estimated canopy bulk density and modeled flame lengths. We did not find evidence of return to pre-fire conditions during our observation intervals for these measures of fire hazard. Our results show that prescribed fire can be a valuable tool to reduce fire hazards and, depending on forest conditions and the measurement used, reductions in fire hazard can last for decades. Second-entry prescribed fire appeared to reinforce the reduction in fuels and fire hazard from first-entry fires.

  18. Sediment accretion and organic carbon burial relative to sea-level rise and storm events in two mangrove forests in Everglades National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smoak, Joseph M.; Breithaupt, Joshua L.; Smith, Thomas J.; Sanders, Christian J.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to examine how sediment accretion and organic carbon (OC) burial rates in mangrove forests respond to climate change. Specifically, will the accretion rates keep pace with sea-level rise, and what is the source and fate of OC in the system? Mass accumulation, accretion and OC burial rates were determined via 210Pb dating (i.e. 100 year time scale) on sediment cores collected from two mangrove forest sites within Everglades National Park, Florida (USA). Enhanced mass accumulation, accretion and OC burial rates were found in an upper layer that corresponded to a well-documented storm surge deposit. Accretion rates were 5.9 and 6.5 mm yr−1 within the storm deposit compared to overall rates of 2.5 and 3.6 mm yr−1. These rates were found to be matching or exceeding average sea-level rise reported for Key West, Florida. Organic carbon burial rates were 260 and 393 g m−2 yr−1 within the storm deposit compared to 151 and 168 g m−2 yr−1 overall burial rates. The overall rates are similar to global estimates for OC burial in marine wetlands. With tropical storms being a frequent occurrence in this region the resulting storm surge deposits are an important mechanism for maintaining both overall accretion and OC burial rates. Enhanced OC burial rates within the storm deposit could be due to an increase in productivity created from higher concentrations of phosphorus within storm-delivered sediments and/or from the deposition of allochthonous OC. Climate change-amplified storms and sea-level rise could damage mangrove forests, exposing previously buried OC to oxidation and contribute to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, the processes described here provide a mechanism whereby oxidation of OC would be limited and the overall OC reservoir maintained within the mangrove forest sediments.

  19. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Vehicle Use. Motorized vehicles are prohibited in Salt Creek Canyon above Peekaboo campsite. (b)...

  20. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Vehicle Use. Motorized vehicles are prohibited in Salt Creek Canyon above Peekaboo campsite. (b)...

  1. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Vehicle Use. Motorized vehicles are prohibited in Salt Creek Canyon above Peekaboo campsite. (b)...

  2. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Vehicle Use. Motorized vehicles are prohibited in Salt Creek Canyon above Peekaboo campsite. (b)...

  3. Spatial variation in the potential response of the Rocky Mountain National Park forest tundra ecotone to climatic change

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, W.L.; Weisberg, P.J. |

    1995-06-01

    The current structure of the forest tundra ecotone landscape and its tree populations constrain the potential response of the ecotone to climatic change. Our objectives were to characterize the major kinds of ecotone composition and environment and identify how tree regeneration varies in relation to environment. We analyzed the structure of ecotone landscapes using the r.le GIS programs. In the field, we sampled tree seedling density at 125 stratified random sampling locations. Ecotones vary from short (500 m), low diversity, two zone ecotones (closed forest and tundra) common on southerly facing, moderate, granitic slopes to long (3500 m), high diversity, four zone ecotones with multiple disturbances and permanent features found on till. Seedling densities are currently highest in mesic environments, particularly in patch forest openings and in willow wetlands in the krummholz zone. The environmental factors that influence landscape structure are not the same as those correlated with seedling density, but certain types of ecotone typically contain (or lack) environments with high seedling densities. If current seedlings attain tree height, the patch forest zone in some ecotones will become closed forest.

  4. Evaluating post-fire forest resilience using GIS and multi-criteria analysis: an example from Cape Sounion National Park, Greece.

    PubMed

    Arianoutsou, Margarita; Koukoulas, Sotirios; Kazanis, Dimitrios

    2011-03-01

    Forest fires are one of the major causes of ecological disturbance in the mediterranean climate ecosystems of the world. Despite the fact that a lot of resources have been invested in fire prevention and suppression, the number of fires occurring in the Mediterranean Basin in the recent decades has continued to markedly increase. The understanding of the relationship between landscape and fire lies, among others, in the identification of the system's post-fire resilience. In our study, ecological and landscape data are integrated with decision-support techniques in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) framework to evaluate the risk of losing post-fire resilience in Pinus halepensis forests, using Cape Sounion National Park, Central Greece, as a pilot case. The multi-criteria decision support approach has been used to synthesize both bio-indicators (woody cover, pine density, legume cover and relative species richness and annual colonizers) and geo-indicators (fire history, parent material, and slope inclination) in order to rank the landscape components. Judgments related to the significance of each factor were incorporated within the weights coefficients and then integrated into the multicriteria rule to map the risk index. Sensitivity analysis was very critical for assessing the contribution of each factor and the sensitivity to subjective weight judgments to the final output. The results of this study include a final ranking map of the risk of losing resilience, which is very useful in identifying the "risk hotspots", where post-fire management measures should be applied in priority. PMID:21298266

  5. Evaluating post-fire forest resilience using GIS and multi-criteria analysis: an example from Cape Sounion National Park, Greece.

    PubMed

    Arianoutsou, Margarita; Koukoulas, Sotirios; Kazanis, Dimitrios

    2011-03-01

    Forest fires are one of the major causes of ecological disturbance in the mediterranean climate ecosystems of the world. Despite the fact that a lot of resources have been invested in fire prevention and suppression, the number of fires occurring in the Mediterranean Basin in the recent decades has continued to markedly increase. The understanding of the relationship between landscape and fire lies, among others, in the identification of the system's post-fire resilience. In our study, ecological and landscape data are integrated with decision-support techniques in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) framework to evaluate the risk of losing post-fire resilience in Pinus halepensis forests, using Cape Sounion National Park, Central Greece, as a pilot case. The multi-criteria decision support approach has been used to synthesize both bio-indicators (woody cover, pine density, legume cover and relative species richness and annual colonizers) and geo-indicators (fire history, parent material, and slope inclination) in order to rank the landscape components. Judgments related to the significance of each factor were incorporated within the weights coefficients and then integrated into the multicriteria rule to map the risk index. Sensitivity analysis was very critical for assessing the contribution of each factor and the sensitivity to subjective weight judgments to the final output. The results of this study include a final ranking map of the risk of losing resilience, which is very useful in identifying the "risk hotspots", where post-fire management measures should be applied in priority.

  6. Classification of savanna tree species, in the Greater Kruger National Park region, by integrating hyperspectral and LiDAR data in a Random Forest data mining environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidoo, L.; Cho, M. A.; Mathieu, R.; Asner, G.

    2012-04-01

    The accurate classification and mapping of individual trees at species level in the savanna ecosystem can provide numerous benefits for the managerial authorities. Such benefits include the mapping of economically useful tree species, which are a key source of food production and fuel wood for the local communities, and of problematic alien invasive and bush encroaching species, which can threaten the integrity of the environment and livelihoods of the local communities. Species level mapping is particularly challenging in African savannas which are complex, heterogeneous, and open environments with high intra-species spectral variability due to differences in geology, topography, rainfall, herbivory and human impacts within relatively short distances. Savanna vegetation are also highly irregular in canopy and crown shape, height and other structural dimensions with a combination of open grassland patches and dense woody thicket - a stark contrast to the more homogeneous forest vegetation. This study classified eight common savanna tree species in the Greater Kruger National Park region, South Africa, using a combination of hyperspectral and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)-derived structural parameters, in the form of seven predictor datasets, in an automated Random Forest modelling approach. The most important predictors, which were found to play an important role in the different classification models and contributed to the success of the hybrid dataset model when combined, were species tree height; NDVI; the chlorophyll b wavelength (466 nm) and a selection of raw, continuum removed and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) bands. It was also concluded that the hybrid predictor dataset Random Forest model yielded the highest classification accuracy and prediction success for the eight savanna tree species with an overall classification accuracy of 87.68% and KHAT value of 0.843.

  7. 36 CFR 910.33 - Off-street parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off-street parking. 910.33... DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards Uniformly Applicable to the Development Area § 910.33 Off-street parking. (a) Off-street parking as a principal use is prohibited, although off-street parking as an accessory use in...

  8. 36 CFR 223.110 - Delegation to regional forester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Delegation to regional forester. 223.110 Section 223.110 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  9. 36 CFR 223.216 - Special Forest Products definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special Forest Products definitions. 223.216 Section 223.216 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  10. 36 CFR 223.277 - Forest botanical products definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Forest botanical products definition. 223.277 Section 223.277 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  11. 36 CFR 223.277 - Forest botanical products definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Forest botanical products definition. 223.277 Section 223.277 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  12. 36 CFR 223.216 - Special Forest Products definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special Forest Products definitions. 223.216 Section 223.216 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  13. 36 CFR 223.277 - Forest botanical products definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Forest botanical products definition. 223.277 Section 223.277 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  14. 36 CFR 223.216 - Special Forest Products definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special Forest Products definitions. 223.216 Section 223.216 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  15. 36 CFR 223.216 - Special Forest Products definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special Forest Products definitions. 223.216 Section 223.216 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  16. 36 CFR 223.277 - Forest botanical products definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Forest botanical products definition. 223.277 Section 223.277 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  17. 36 CFR 223.110 - Delegation to regional forester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Delegation to regional forester. 223.110 Section 223.110 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  18. 36 CFR 223.110 - Delegation to regional forester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Delegation to regional forester. 223.110 Section 223.110 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  19. 36 CFR 223.110 - Delegation to regional forester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Delegation to regional forester. 223.110 Section 223.110 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  20. Lead in vegetation, forest floor material, and soils of the spruce-fir zone, Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Bogle, M.A.; Turner, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Based on a survey during 1982, lead concentrations in vegetation, litter and soils of the spruce-fir zone of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park are generally less than values reported for similar sites in the northeastern United States and western Europe. As expected, lead concentrations increased with increasing age of spruce and fir foliage, and with increasing degree of decomposition of litter. Fir bole wood was higher in lead than spruce bole wood, but both species were far below acutely phytotoxic levels. Although the results of this study indicated no immediate cause for concern, periodic monitoring of lead and other metals in the spruce-fir zone should be continued to provide early detection of significant changes. 32 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  1. 36 CFR 6.8 - National Park Service solid waste responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false National Park Service solid waste responsibilities. 6.8 Section 6.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.8...

  2. 36 CFR 3.9 - May I operate my personal watercraft (PWC) in park waters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I operate my personal watercraft (PWC) in park waters? 3.9 Section 3.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... regulation. Special regulations may only be promulgated in the 21 parks listed in the following table:...

  3. 36 CFR 3.9 - May I operate my personal watercraft (PWC) in park waters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I operate my personal watercraft (PWC) in park waters? 3.9 Section 3.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... regulation. Special regulations may only be promulgated in the 21 parks listed in the following table:...

  4. 36 CFR 3.9 - May I operate my personal watercraft (PWC) in park waters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I operate my personal watercraft (PWC) in park waters? 3.9 Section 3.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... regulation. Special regulations may only be promulgated in the 21 parks listed in the following table:...

  5. 36 CFR 3.9 - May I operate my personal watercraft (PWC) in park waters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May I operate my personal watercraft (PWC) in park waters? 3.9 Section 3.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... regulation. Special regulations may only be promulgated in the 21 parks listed in the following table:...

  6. 36 CFR 3.9 - May I operate my personal watercraft (PWC) in park waters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I operate my personal watercraft (PWC) in park waters? 3.9 Section 3.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... regulation. Special regulations may only be promulgated in the 21 parks listed in the following table:...

  7. 36 CFR 4.10 - Travel on park roads and designated routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Travel on park roads and designated routes. 4.10 Section 4.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.10 Travel on park roads and designated routes....

  8. 36 CFR 7.87 - Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park. 7.87 Section 7.87 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.87 Kaloko-Honokohau...

  9. 36 CFR 7.87 - Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park. 7.87 Section 7.87 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.87 Kaloko-Honokohau...

  10. 36 CFR 3.16 - May I swim or wade in park waters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May I swim or wade in park waters? 3.16 Section 3.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.16 May I swim or wade in park waters? Swimming or wading...

  11. 36 CFR 4.10 - Travel on park roads and designated routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Travel on park roads and designated routes. 4.10 Section 4.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.10 Travel on park roads and designated routes....

  12. 36 CFR 3.16 - May I swim or wade in park waters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I swim or wade in park waters? 3.16 Section 3.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.16 May I swim or wade in park waters? Swimming or wading...

  13. 36 CFR 7.87 - Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park. 7.87 Section 7.87 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.87 Kaloko-Honokohau...

  14. 36 CFR 7.87 - Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park. 7.87 Section 7.87 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.87 Kaloko-Honokohau...

  15. 36 CFR 3.16 - May I swim or wade in park waters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I swim or wade in park waters? 3.16 Section 3.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.16 May I swim or wade in park waters? Swimming or wading...

  16. 36 CFR 7.87 - Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park. 7.87 Section 7.87 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.87 Kaloko-Honokohau...

  17. 36 CFR 4.10 - Travel on park roads and designated routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Travel on park roads and designated routes. 4.10 Section 4.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.10 Travel on park roads and designated routes....

  18. 36 CFR 3.16 - May I swim or wade in park waters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I swim or wade in park waters? 3.16 Section 3.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.16 May I swim or wade in park waters? Swimming or wading...

  19. 36 CFR 3.16 - May I swim or wade in park waters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I swim or wade in park waters? 3.16 Section 3.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.16 May I swim or wade in park waters? Swimming or wading...

  20. Limiting factors of four rare plant species in `Ōla`A Forest of Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanDeMark, Joshua R.; Pratt, Linda W.; Euaparadorn, Melody

    2010-01-01

    In conclusion, 2 of the 3 regularly-monitored rare plant species of `Ōla`a Forest appeared to have more than 1 limiting factor inhibiting the natural increase in their populations, while for P. floribunda the most important factor was high seedling mortality. Most plants of the monitored C. giffardii population appeared to be hybrids, probably with the more common species C. lysiosepala. Seed germination rates were low, and natural seedlings were not observed. Pollinators were not seen in many hours of observation, indicating that cross pollination is a rare or uncommon event. The re-introduced population of P. floribunda had relatively low mortality, and reproduction was successful with high rates of fruit formation from abundant flowers. Seed germination rates were high, and a soil seed bank was detected. Natural seedling recruitment was observed, but high seedling mortality indicated that this life stage was the most vulnerable in the species. The population of S. alba was small and the vine life form precluded an accurate estimate of the number of adult plants in `Ōla`a Forest. Natural dormancy was likely a factor in the observed low rate of seed germination. No soil seed bank was detected, and alien rodents were implicated as seed predators. Natural recruitment was observed at multiple sites in `Ōla`a, but seedling mortality was high. The cause of seedling mortality was not identified.

  1. dNBR imagery and xeric pine-oak forest stand characteristics for fires of different severity in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abla, Scott A.

    Fire suppression has changed forest structure and composition on xeric sites in the southern Appalachians from open, pine-oak dominated stands to closed canopy, mixed hardwood stands. Improved understanding of fire-related tools and ecological responses will improve effectiveness of fire management aimed at restoring pre-fire suppression forest communities on these xeric sites. Although occurrence of fire is known to be related to ecosystem functioning, vegetation responses to multi-severity fires are not as well understood in the southern Appalachians. Additionally, the relationship between satellite imagery and ground-based methods for designating burn severity (post-fire term describing fire severity) are not established for the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). The purpose of my study was to (1) determine if burn severity designations were consistent between satellite imagery and ground-based methods, and (2) evaluate vegetation responses to different burn severities on xeric sites dominated by pine (Pinus) and oak ( Quercus) species in the GSMNP. Plots were randomly located using satellite-based (dNBR) burn severity maps. For part (1) of my study these sites were ground-truthed using the FIREMON Composite Burn Index (CBI). Initial scatter plots between CBI and dNBR indicated a saturated growth relationship and square-root transformed dNBR data were overall strongly correlated to ground-based ratings (CBI) for 169 total plots (p<0.001, R2=0.90). Strong relationships were found between CBI and dNBR across different xeric forest types and time since burn categories. For part (2) of my study, variables related to stand regeneration were measured at the ground, mid-story, and overstory layers across different burn severities for 48 plots. Differences in post-fire forest structure and composition across burn severity classifications were tested using analyses of variance and relationships between stand variables were evaluated using linear regression

  2. Sedimentology of onshore tsunami deposits of the Indian Ocean tsunami, 2004 in the mangrove forest of the Curieuse Marine National Park, Seychelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nentwig, V.; Bahlburg, H.; Monthy, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Seychelles were severely affected by the December 26, 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean. Since the tsunami history of small islands often remains unclear due to a young historiography we conducted a study of onshore tsunami deposits on the Seychelles in order to understand the scale of impact of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and potential predecessors. As part of this project we found and studied onshore tsunami deposits in the mangrove forest at Old Turtle Pond bay on the east coast of Curieuse Island. The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused a change of habitat due to sedimentation of an extended sand sheet in the mangrove forest. We present results of the first detailed sedimentological study of onshore tsunami deposits of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami conducted on the Seychelles. The Curieuse mangrove forest at Old Turtle Pond bay is part of the Curieuse Marine National Park. It is thus protected from anthropogenic interference. Towards the sea it was shielded until the tsunami by a 500 m long and 1.5 m high causeway which was set up in 1909 as a sediment trap. The causeway was destroyed by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. The silt to fine sand sized and organic rich mangrove soil was subsequently covered by carbonate fine to medium sand (1.5 to 2.1 Φ) containing coarser carbonate shell debris which had been trapped outside the mangrove bay before the tsunami. The tsunami deposited a sand sheet which is organized into different lobes. They extend landwards to different inundation distances as a function of morphology. Maximum inundation distance is 200 m. The sediments often cover the pneumatophores of the mangroves. No landward fining trend of the sand sheet has been observed. On the different sand lobes carbonate-cemented sandstone debris ranging in size from 0.5 up to 12 cm occurs. Also numerous mostly fragmented shells of bivalves and molluscs were distributed on top of the sand lobes. Intact bivalve shells were mostly positioned with the convex side upwards

  3. Emergency assessment of post-fire debris-flow hazards for the 2013 Rim Fire, Stanislaus National Forest and Yosemite National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staley, Dennis M.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire can significantly alter the hydrologic response of a watershed to the extent that even modest rainstorms can produce dangerous flash floods and debris flows. In this report, empirical models are used to predict the probability and magnitude of debris-flow occurrence in response to a 10-year rainstorm for the 2013 Rim fire in Yosemite National Park and the Stanislaus National Forest, California. Overall, the models predict a relatively high probability (60–80 percent) of debris flow for 28 of the 1,238 drainage basins in the burn area in response to a 10-year recurrence interval design storm. Predictions of debris-flow volume suggest that debris flows may entrain a significant volume of material, with 901 of the 1,238 basins identified as having potential debris-flow volumes greater than 10,000 cubic meters. These results of the relative combined hazard analysis suggest there is a moderate likelihood of significant debris-flow hazard within and downstream of the burn area for nearby populations, infrastructure, wildlife, and water resources. Given these findings, we recommend that residents, emergency managers, and public works departments pay close attention to weather forecasts and National-Weather-Service-issued Debris Flow and Flash Flood Outlooks, Watches and Warnings and that residents adhere to any evacuation orders.

  4. Interpretation of concentration-discharge patterns in acid-neutralizing capacity during storm flow in three small, forested catchments in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, K.C.; Chanat, J.G.; Hornberger, G.M.; Webb, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Episodic concentration-discharge (c-Q) plots are a popular tool for interpreting the hydrochemical response of small, forested catchments. Application of the method involves assuming an underlying conceptual model of runoff processes and comparing observed c-Q looping patterns with those predicted by the model. We analyzed and interpreted c-Q plots of acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) for 133 storms collected over a 7-year period from three catchments in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. Because of their underlying lithologies the catchments represent a gradient in both hydrologic and geochemical behavior, ranging from a flashy, acidic, poorly buffered catchment to a moderate, neutral, well-buffered catchment. The relative frequency of observed anticlockwise c-Q loops in each catchment decreased along this gradient. Discriminant function analysis indicated that prestorm base flow ANC was an important predictor of loop rotation direction; however, the strength of the predictive relationship decreased along the same gradient. The trends were consistent with several equally plausible three-component mixing models. Uncertainty regarding end-member timing and relative volume and possible time variation in end-member concentrations were key factors precluding identification of a unique model. The inconclusive results obtained on this large data set suggest that identification of underlying runoff mechanisms on the basis of a small number of c-Q plots without additional supporting evidence is likely to be misleading.

  5. Holocene vegetation history and fire regimes of Pseudotsuga menziesii forests in the Gulf Islands National Park Reserve, southwestern British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Jennifer D.; Lacourse, Terri

    2013-05-01

    Pollen analysis of a 9.03-m-long lake sediment core from Pender Island on the south coast of British Columbia was used to reconstruct the island's vegetation history over the last 10,000 years. The early Holocene was characterized by open mixed woodlands with abundant Pseudotsuga menziesii and a diverse understory including Salix and Rosaceae shrubs and Pteridium aquilinum ferns. The establishment of Quercus garryana savanna-woodland with P. menziesii and Acer macrophyllum followed deposition of the Mazama tephra until ~ 5500 cal yr BP, when these communities gave way to modern mixed P. menziesii forest. Charcoal analyses of the uppermost sediments revealed low charcoal accumulation over the last 1300 years with a mean fire return interval (mFRI) of 88 years. Fires were more frequent (mFRI = 50 yr) during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) with warm, dry conditions facilitating a higher fire frequency than during the Little Ice Age, when fires were infrequent. Given the projected warming for the next 50-100 years, land managers considering the reintroduction of fire to the Gulf Islands National Park Reserve may want to consider using the mFRI of the MCA as a baseline reference in prescribed burning strategies.

  6. Cathemerality in wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) in the spiny forest of Tsimanampetsotsa National Park: camera trap data and preliminary behavioral observations.

    PubMed

    LaFleur, Marni; Sauther, Michelle; Cuozzo, Frank; Yamashita, Nayuta; Jacky Youssouf, Ibrahim Antho; Bender, Richard

    2014-04-01

    Cathemerality consists of discrete periods of activity during both the day and night. Though uncommon within Primates, cathemerality is prevalent in some lemur genera, such as Eulemur, Hapalemur, and Prolemur. Several researchers have also reported nighttime activity in Lemur catta, yet these lemurs are generally considered "strictly diurnal". We used behavioral observations and camera traps to examine cathemerality of L. catta at the Tsimanampetsotsa National Park, Madagascar. Nighttime activity occurred throughout the study period (September 2010-April 2011), and correlated with warm overnight temperatures but not daytime temperatures. Animals spent 25% of their daytime active behaviors on the ground, but appeared to avoid the ground at night, with only 5% of their time on the ground. Furthermore, at night, animals spent the majority of their active time feeding (53% nighttime, 43% daytime). These findings imply that both thermoregulation and diet play a role in the adaptive significance of cathemerality. Additionally, predator avoidance may have influenced cathemerality here, in that L. catta may limit nighttime activity as a result of predation threat by forest cats (Felis sp.) or fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox). Further data are needed on cathemeral lemurs generally, but particularly in L. catta if we are to fully understand the evolutionary mechanisms of cathemerality in the Lemuridae. PMID:24165866

  7. 36 CFR 910.33 - Off-street parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Off-street parking. 910.33 Section 910.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA...

  8. 36 CFR 910.33 - Off-street parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Off-street parking. 910.33 Section 910.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA...

  9. Parks Directory of the United States. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Darren, Ed.

    This directory offers a comprehensive outdoor education reference source on more than 4,700 parks, forests, wildlife refuges, and recreation areas administered by the National Park Service, the U.S. Forest Service, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and by state park agencies. The Directory provides alphabetized, descriptive information on each…

  10. 36 CFR 910.33 - Off-street parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Off-street parking. 910.33 Section 910.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL...; (2) Places of public assemblage other than hotels: (i.e., arena, armory, theater,...

  11. 36 CFR 212.2 - Forest transportation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Forest transportation program. 212.2 Section 212.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Administration of the Forest Transportation System § 212.2 Forest...

  12. Depositional history of the Late Triassic Chinle fluvial system at the Petrified Forest National Park: U-Pb geochronology, regional correlation and insights into early dinosaur evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramezani, J.; Fastovsky, D. E.; Bowring, S. A.; Hoke, G. D.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding patterns of biotic evolution and climate change in deep time requires a reliable temporal framework. The Colorado Plateau contains a rich record of both, but is lacking in reliable age data. High-precision U-Pb geochronology has the power to resolve subtle differences among mixed populations of volcanic zircon contained in tuffaceous sedimentary rocks. We report maximum depositional ages for interbedded tuffaceous rocks collected within a highly refined stratigraphic context from the Late Triassic Chinle Formation as exposed in the Petrified Forest National Park, AZ, USA. The results provide unprecedented insights into the depositional history of the Chinle fluvial system, as well as key data on the biostratigraphy of Late Triassic land vertebrate faunas. Our geochronological results indicate that the Blue Mesa, Sonsela and Petrified Forest Members of Chinle Formation, with a cumulative thickness of ca. 293 meters, were deposited during a period in excess of 17 m.y. that spans nearly the entire Norian stage of the Late Triassic. The underlying Mesa Redondo Member may extend into Carnian and the overlying Owl Rock Member into Rhaetian. Different stratigraphic intervals within the section are characterized by drastically different average sediment accumulation rates; the highest rates are found in the Sonsela Member and most likely reflect missing time due to erosion associated with extensive channeling preserved in this unit. The new Chinle geochronology demonstrates that the common practice of basin-wide correlation of fluvial strata based on lithostratigraphic criteria is prone to serious errors. A mid-Norian age for the Adamanian to Revueltian land vertebrate faunachron boundary, as suggested by the revised Late Triassic timescale, is no longer compatible with the idea that the faunachron boundary is coincident with the Carnian-Norian Stage boundary. Our new temporal constraints for the Chinle along with limited available age data from the South

  13. Influence of forest management on the changes of organic soil properties in border part of Kragle Mokradlo Peatland (Stolowe Mountains National Park, Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogacz, A.; Roszkowicz, M.

    2009-04-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this work was to determine the properties of organic soils modified by man, muddy and fluvial process. Peat horizons were analyzed and classified by types - and species of peat. Three profiles of shallow peat and peaty gley soils identified. Investigation showed that organic soil developed on a sandy weathered sandstone base according to oligotrophic type of sites. Organic horizons were mixed with sand and separated by sandy layers. Those soils were classified as Sapric Histosols Dystric or Sapric Gleysols Histic (WRB 2006). The throphism of organic soil in this object resulted from both natural factors and anthropo-pedogenesis. key words: peat deposit, organic soils, soil properties, muddy process, sandy layers INTRODUCTION The areas of Stolowe Mountains National Park were influenced by forestry management. Many peatlands in the Park area were drained for forestry before World War II. Several amelioration attempts were undertaken as early as in the nineteenth century. The system of forest roads were built on drained areas. The Kragle Mokradlo Peatland is located in the Skalniak plateau. The object is cut by a melioration ditch. This ditch has been recently blocked to rewet the objects. Several forest roads pass in the close neighbourhood of investigated areas. In a border part of Kragle Mokradlo Peatlands, we can observe artificial spruce habitat. Investigated object represents shallow peat soil developed on sandy basement. The early investigations showed that peaty soils were also covered by sandstone - related deposits, several dozen centimeter thick (BOGACZ 2000). Those layers was developed from sandstone weathered material transported by wind and water. The aim of presented works was to determine the stage of evolution of organic soils on the base on their morphological, physical and chemical properties. MATERIAL AND METHODS Peat soils in different locations (3 profiles, 18 samples) were selected for examination. Peat samples were collected

  14. Orangutan behavior in Kutai National Park after drought and fire damage: Adjustments to short- and long-term natural forest regeneration.

    PubMed

    Russon, Anne E; Kuncoro, Purwo; Ferisa, Agnes

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to develop a long-term picture of orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus morio) behavioral adjustments to damaged masting forest around Mentoko, Kutai National Park, Indonesia. Mentoko is regenerating from two severe burnings and is one of few areas where orangutans were well-studied before and early after damage. We studied orangutans' feeding ecology, diet, and activity budgets 12-15 years after the second burning then compared our findings with earlier pre- and post-damage ones to assess the changes and factors involved. By our study, we predicted (1) improved feeding ecology compared to early in regeneration, (2) behavior diverging from the normal foraging strategy and (3) behavior shifting toward pre-damage patterns with improving feeding ecology. Data were behavioral observations on 42 orangutans (422 full day follows, 3,522 hr) and tree plot measures of feeding ecology. Findings were consistent with the first and third predictions but not the second: (1) feeding ecology had improved (plant food abundance was near per-damage levels, but species composition had changed); (2) foraging strategies showed no divergence from normal (fallback-preferred food switches in diet and activity budget adjustments were both normal, notably travel did not reduce), (3) diet and activity budgets had reverted to near pre-damage values by our study. Differently than post-damage studies on other orangutans but consistent with those on other primates, our comparisons showed behavioral adjustments were flexible, multiple vs. single, and influenced by multiple factors. Factors likely involved at Mentoko include type and spatial configuration of damage, duration of regeneration, and P. p. morio's recognized resilience. Findings have value for orangutan and nature conservation in showing that recovery to near-normal levels from severe habitat damage is possible within ca 15 years and in adding to understanding of the factors and processes that contribute to recovery. PMID

  15. Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) Mortality and Population Regeneration in the Cactus Forest of Saguaro National Park: Seventy-Five Years and Counting.

    PubMed

    Orum, Thomas V; Ferguson, Nancy; Mihail, Jeanne D

    2016-01-01

    Annual census data spanning seventy-five years document mortality and regeneration in a population of saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) in the Cactus Forest of the Rincon Mountain District of Saguaro National Park near Tucson, AZ. On 6 four-hectare plots, each saguaro was censused and a methodical search for new saguaros was conducted annually each year from 1942 through 2016, with the exception of 1955. Regeneration has been episodic with 828 plants established from 1959 through 1993 compared with 34 plants established between 1942 and 1958 and only three plants established after 1993. The years preceding 1959 and following 1993, include some of the driest decades in centuries in southern Arizona. While woodcutting and cattle grazing are believed to be among the causes of decades of failed regeneration prior to 1958, neither of these factors contributed to the failed regeneration following 1993. The height structure of the population from 1942 to 2016 shifted dramatically from a population dominated by large saguaros (> 5.4 m tall) in the first three decades of the study to a population dominated by small saguaros (< 1.8 m tall) in the most recent two decades. Mortality is shown to be strongly age dependent. In the year following the 2011 catastrophic freeze, 21 of 59 plants older than 80 years died compared with zero deaths in 270 plants between the ages of 29 and 80 years. Saguaros under 40 years old, growing under small shrubs or in the open, have a lower probability of survival than better protected saguaros. Long-term population monitoring is essential to understanding the complex impacts of human and environmental factors on the population dynamics of long-lived species.

  16. Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) Mortality and Population Regeneration in the Cactus Forest of Saguaro National Park: Seventy-Five Years and Counting

    PubMed Central

    Orum, Thomas V.; Ferguson, Nancy; Mihail, Jeanne D.

    2016-01-01

    Annual census data spanning seventy-five years document mortality and regeneration in a population of saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) in the Cactus Forest of the Rincon Mountain District of Saguaro National Park near Tucson, AZ. On 6 four-hectare plots, each saguaro was censused and a methodical search for new saguaros was conducted annually each year from 1942 through 2016, with the exception of 1955. Regeneration has been episodic with 828 plants established from 1959 through 1993 compared with 34 plants established between 1942 and 1958 and only three plants established after 1993. The years preceding 1959 and following 1993, include some of the driest decades in centuries in southern Arizona. While woodcutting and cattle grazing are believed to be among the causes of decades of failed regeneration prior to 1958, neither of these factors contributed to the failed regeneration following 1993. The height structure of the population from 1942 to 2016 shifted dramatically from a population dominated by large saguaros (> 5.4 m tall) in the first three decades of the study to a population dominated by small saguaros (< 1.8 m tall) in the most recent two decades. Mortality is shown to be strongly age dependent. In the year following the 2011 catastrophic freeze, 21 of 59 plants older than 80 years died compared with zero deaths in 270 plants between the ages of 29 and 80 years. Saguaros under 40 years old, growing under small shrubs or in the open, have a lower probability of survival than better protected saguaros. Long-term population monitoring is essential to understanding the complex impacts of human and environmental factors on the population dynamics of long-lived species. PMID:27505437

  17. Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) Mortality and Population Regeneration in the Cactus Forest of Saguaro National Park: Seventy-Five Years and Counting.

    PubMed

    Orum, Thomas V; Ferguson, Nancy; Mihail, Jeanne D

    2016-01-01

    Annual census data spanning seventy-five years document mortality and regeneration in a population of saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) in the Cactus Forest of the Rincon Mountain District of Saguaro National Park near Tucson, AZ. On 6 four-hectare plots, each saguaro was censused and a methodical search for new saguaros was conducted annually each year from 1942 through 2016, with the exception of 1955. Regeneration has been episodic with 828 plants established from 1959 through 1993 compared with 34 plants established between 1942 and 1958 and only three plants established after 1993. The years preceding 1959 and following 1993, include some of the driest decades in centuries in southern Arizona. While woodcutting and cattle grazing are believed to be among the causes of decades of failed regeneration prior to 1958, neither of these factors contributed to the failed regeneration following 1993. The height structure of the population from 1942 to 2016 shifted dramatically from a population dominated by large saguaros (> 5.4 m tall) in the first three decades of the study to a population dominated by small saguaros (< 1.8 m tall) in the most recent two decades. Mortality is shown to be strongly age dependent. In the year following the 2011 catastrophic freeze, 21 of 59 plants older than 80 years died compared with zero deaths in 270 plants between the ages of 29 and 80 years. Saguaros under 40 years old, growing under small shrubs or in the open, have a lower probability of survival than better protected saguaros. Long-term population monitoring is essential to understanding the complex impacts of human and environmental factors on the population dynamics of long-lived species. PMID:27505437

  18. Orangutan behavior in Kutai National Park after drought and fire damage: Adjustments to short- and long-term natural forest regeneration.

    PubMed

    Russon, Anne E; Kuncoro, Purwo; Ferisa, Agnes

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to develop a long-term picture of orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus morio) behavioral adjustments to damaged masting forest around Mentoko, Kutai National Park, Indonesia. Mentoko is regenerating from two severe burnings and is one of few areas where orangutans were well-studied before and early after damage. We studied orangutans' feeding ecology, diet, and activity budgets 12-15 years after the second burning then compared our findings with earlier pre- and post-damage ones to assess the changes and factors involved. By our study, we predicted (1) improved feeding ecology compared to early in regeneration, (2) behavior diverging from the normal foraging strategy and (3) behavior shifting toward pre-damage patterns with improving feeding ecology. Data were behavioral observations on 42 orangutans (422 full day follows, 3,522 hr) and tree plot measures of feeding ecology. Findings were consistent with the first and third predictions but not the second: (1) feeding ecology had improved (plant food abundance was near per-damage levels, but species composition had changed); (2) foraging strategies showed no divergence from normal (fallback-preferred food switches in diet and activity budget adjustments were both normal, notably travel did not reduce), (3) diet and activity budgets had reverted to near pre-damage values by our study. Differently than post-damage studies on other orangutans but consistent with those on other primates, our comparisons showed behavioral adjustments were flexible, multiple vs. single, and influenced by multiple factors. Factors likely involved at Mentoko include type and spatial configuration of damage, duration of regeneration, and P. p. morio's recognized resilience. Findings have value for orangutan and nature conservation in showing that recovery to near-normal levels from severe habitat damage is possible within ca 15 years and in adding to understanding of the factors and processes that contribute to recovery.

  19. 36 CFR 1280.12 - Is parking available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 1280.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA... the building. (b) The National Archives at College Park. The National Archives at College Park has... groups visiting the National Archives at College Park are encouraged to use public transportation or...

  20. 36 CFR 1280.12 - Is parking available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 1280.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA... the building. (b) The National Archives at College Park. The National Archives at College Park has... groups visiting the National Archives at College Park are encouraged to use public transportation or...

  1. 36 CFR 1280.12 - Is parking available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 1280.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA... the building. (b) The National Archives at College Park. The National Archives at College Park has... groups visiting the National Archives at College Park are encouraged to use public transportation or...

  2. 36 CFR 1280.12 - Is parking available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 1280.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA... the building. (b) The National Archives at College Park. The National Archives at College Park has... groups visiting the National Archives at College Park are encouraged to use public transportation or...

  3. 36 CFR 1280.12 - Is parking available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 1280.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA... the building. (b) The National Archives at College Park. The National Archives at College Park has... groups visiting the National Archives at College Park are encouraged to use public transportation or...

  4. 36 CFR 7.3 - Glacier National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Glacier National Park. 7.3... REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.3 Glacier National Park. (a) Fishing. (1) Fishing... food, drink, or lodging for sale may be operated on any privately owned lands within Glacier...

  5. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or carrying away of water, hot or cold, from any of the springs, fountains, or other sources of... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a)...

  6. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or carrying away of water, hot or cold, from any of the springs, fountains, or other sources of... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a)...

  7. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or carrying away of water, hot or cold, from any of the springs, fountains, or other sources of... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a)...

  8. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or carrying away of water, hot or cold, from any of the springs, fountains, or other sources of... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a)...

  9. Avian disease and mosquito vectors in the Kahuku unit of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and Ka`u Forest Reserve

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaudioso, Jacqueline; Lapointe, Dennis; Atkinson, Carter T.; Egan, Ariel N.

    2015-01-01

    While avian disease has been well-studied in windward forests of Hawai‘i Island, there have been few studies in leeward Ka‘u. We surveyed four altitudinal sites ranging from 1,200 to 2,200 m asl in the Kahuku Unit of Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park (Kahuku) and three altitudinal sites ranging from 1,200 to 1,500 m asl in the Ka‘u Forest Reserve (Ka‘u) for the prevalence of avian disease and presence of mosquitoes. We collected blood samples from native and non-native forest birds and screened for avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) using PCR diagnostics. We examined birds for signs of avian pox (Avipoxvirus sp.), knemidokoptic mange (Knemidokoptes jamaicensis) and feather ectoparasites. We also trapped adult mosquitoes (Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes japonicus japonicus) and surveyed for available larval habitat. Between September, 2012 and October, 2014, we completed 3,219 hours of mist-netting in Kahuku capturing 515 forest birds and 3,103 hours of mist-netting in Ka‘u capturing 270 forest birds. We screened 750 blood samples for avian malaria. Prevalence of avian malaria in all species was higher in Ka‘u than Kahuku when all sites were combined for each tract. Prevalence of avian malaria in resident Hawai‘i ‘amakihi (Chlorodrepanis virens) was greatest at the lowest elevation sites in Kahuku (26%; 1,201 m asl) and Ka‘u (42%; 1,178 m asl) and in general, prevalence decreased with increasing elevation and geographically from east to west. Significantly higher prevalence was seen in Ka‘u at comparable low and mid elevation sites but not at comparable high elevation sites. The overall presumptive pox prevalence was 1.7% (13/785) for both tracts, and it was higher in native birds than non-native birds, but it was not significant. Presumptive knemidokoptic mange was detected at two sites in lower elevation Kahuku, with prevalence ranging from 2‒4%. The overall prevalence of ectoparasites (Analges and Proctophyllodes spp.) was 6.7% (53

  10. Influence of forest management on the changes of organic soil properties in border part of Kragle Mokradlo Peatland (Stolowe Mountains National Park, Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogacz, A.; Roszkowicz, M.

    2009-04-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this work was to determine the properties of organic soils modified by man, muddy and fluvial process. Peat horizons were analyzed and classified by types - and species of peat. Three profiles of shallow peat and peaty gley soils identified. Investigation showed that organic soil developed on a sandy weathered sandstone base according to oligotrophic type of sites. Organic horizons were mixed with sand and separated by sandy layers. Those soils were classified as Sapric Histosols Dystric or Sapric Gleysols Histic (WRB 2006). The throphism of organic soil in this object resulted from both natural factors and anthropo-pedogenesis. key words: peat deposit, organic soils, soil properties, muddy process, sandy layers INTRODUCTION The areas of Stolowe Mountains National Park were influenced by forestry management. Many peatlands in the Park area were drained for forestry before World War II. Several amelioration attempts were undertaken as early as in the nineteenth century. The system of forest roads were built on drained areas. The Kragle Mokradlo Peatland is located in the Skalniak plateau. The object is cut by a melioration ditch. This ditch has been recently blocked to rewet the objects. Several forest roads pass in the close neighbourhood of investigated areas. In a border part of Kragle Mokradlo Peatlands, we can observe artificial spruce habitat. Investigated object represents shallow peat soil developed on sandy basement. The early investigations showed that peaty soils were also covered by sandstone - related deposits, several dozen centimeter thick (BOGACZ 2000). Those layers was developed from sandstone weathered material transported by wind and water. The aim of presented works was to determine the stage of evolution of organic soils on the base on their morphological, physical and chemical properties. MATERIAL AND METHODS Peat soils in different locations (3 profiles, 18 samples) were selected for examination. Peat samples were collected

  11. 36 CFR 3.18 - May I snorkel or underwater dive in park waters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I snorkel or underwater dive in park waters? 3.18 Section 3.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.18 May I snorkel or underwater dive in...

  12. 36 CFR 3.18 - May I snorkel or underwater dive in park waters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May I snorkel or underwater dive in park waters? 3.18 Section 3.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.18 May I snorkel or underwater dive in...

  13. 36 CFR 3.18 - May I snorkel or underwater dive in park waters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I snorkel or underwater dive in park waters? 3.18 Section 3.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.18 May I snorkel or underwater dive in...

  14. 36 CFR 3.18 - May I snorkel or underwater dive in park waters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I snorkel or underwater dive in park waters? 3.18 Section 3.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.18 May I snorkel or underwater dive in...

  15. 36 CFR 3.18 - May I snorkel or underwater dive in park waters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I snorkel or underwater dive in park waters? 3.18 Section 3.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.18 May I snorkel or underwater dive in...

  16. Alterations caused to soil organic matter by post-fire rehabilitation actions in a pine forest from doñana national park (southwest Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Pérez, José A.; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Granged, Arturo J. P.; González-Vila, Francisco J.

    2016-04-01

    Post-fire rehabilitation actions and recovery attempts of burned soils include a range of management practices (tillage, tree logging, reforestation …), in some cases producing an additional damage to that directly caused by fire. Among negative impacts derived from unappropriated rehab practices are the increase soil erosion, loss of soil fertility and alterations in the hydrological cycle. Analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) is an appropriate technique to study organic matter characteristics within complex matrices. Here this technique is used to study the alterations caused by burning and post-fire rehab plans to soil organic matter (SOM). Fire and post-fire rehab actions impact on SOM is studied in a sandy soil under pine (Pinus pinea) forest that was affected by a severe fire in August 2012 in Doñana National Park (SW Spain). Bulk samples as well as its sieved soil fractions (coarse, 1-2 mm, and fine, <0.05 mm) collected from an undisturbed burned area (B) and in an adjacent burned area after rehab practices (BR) (logging and extraction of burned trees) were studied. An additional adjacent unburned (UB) area was used as a control. Conspicuous differences among bulk samples from the B, BR and UB control areas were found in the relative proportions of the main molecular families obtained by analytical pyrolysis, including alkane/alkene pairs, unspecific aromatic compounds (UAC), peptides, methoxyphenols, fatty acids, carbohydrates, N-compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The B site SOM showed lower proportion of lignin methoxyphenols and higher of UAC and PAH than the SOM from the UB site. This indicates that fire produced methoxyphenol de-functionalization, increasing the proportion of recalcitrant compounds. With respect to soil size fractions, in all cases, the coarse fraction showed a high content of carbohydrate-derived compounds and methoxyphenols followed by fatty acids, in line with inputs of new litter from stressed post-fire vegetation

  17. 36 CFR 13.952 - May a snowmachine be used in that portion of the park formerly known as Mt. McKinley National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... that portion of the park formerly known as Mt. McKinley National Park (Old Park)? 13.952 Section 13.952 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve Snowmachine...

  18. Vegetation Structure, Tree Volume and Biomass Estimation using Terrestrial Laser Scanning Remote Sensing: A Case Study of the Mangrove Forests in the Everglades National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feliciano, E. A.; Wdowinski, S.; Potts, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    Mangrove forests are being threatened by accelerated climate change, sea level rise and coastal projects. Carbon/above ground biomass (AGB) losses due to natural or human intervention can affect global warming. Thus, it is important to monitor AGB fluctuations in mangrove forests similar to those inhabiting the Everglades National Park (ENP). Tree volume and tree wood specific density are two important measurements for the estimation of AGB (mass = volume * density). Wood specific density is acquired in the laboratory by analyzing stem cores acquired in the field. However, tree volume is a challenging task because trees resemble tapered surfaces. The majority of published studies estimate tree volume and biomass using allometric equations, which describe the size, shape, volume or AGB of a given population of trees. However, these equations can be extremely general and might not give a representative value of volume or AGB for a specific tree species. In order to have precise biomass estimations, other methodologies for tree volume estimation are needed. To overcome this problem, we use a state-of-the-art remote sensing tool known as ground-based LiDAR a.k.a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS), which can be used to precisely measure vegetation structure and tree volume from its 3-D point cloud. We surveyed three mangrove communities: (Rhizophora mangle, Laguncuria racemosa and Avicennia germinans) in three different sites along Shark River Slough (SRS), which is the primary source of water to the ENP. Our sites included: small-, intermediate- and tall- size mangroves. Our ground measurements included both: traditional forestry surveys and TLS surveys for tree attributes (tree height and diameter at breast height (DBH)) comparison. These attributes are used as input to allometric equations for the estimation of tree volume and AGB. A total of 25 scans were collected in 2011 with a Leica ScanStation C10 TLS. The 3-D point cloud acquired from the TLS data revealed that

  19. The effect of fire on mercury cycling in the soils of forested watersheds: Acadia National Park, Maine, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amirbahman, A.; Ruck, P.L.; Fernandez, I.J.; Haines, T.A.; Kahl, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    This study compares mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) distribution in the soils of two forested stream watersheds at Acadia National Park, Maine, U.S.A. Cadillac Brook watershed, which burned in 1947, has thin soils and predominantly deciduous vegetation. It was compared to the unburned Hadlock Brook watershed, with thicker soil and predominantly coniferous vegetation. Soils in both watersheds were primarily well drained. The fire had a significant impact on the Cadillac watershed, by raising the soil pH, altering the vegetation, and reducing carbon and Hg pools. Total Hg content was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in Hadlock soils (0.18 kg Hg ha-1) compared to Cadillac soils (0. 13 kg Hg ha-1). Hadlock O horizon had an average Hg concentration of 134??48 ng Hg g-1 dry weight, compared to 103??23 ng Hg g-1 dry weight in Cadillac O horizon. Soil pH was significantly higher in all soil horizons at Cadillac compared to Hadlock soils. This difference was especially significant in the O horizon, where Cadillac soils had an average pH of 3.41??0.22 compared to Hadlock soils with an average pH of 2.99??0.13. To study the mobilization potential of Hg in the O horizons of the two watersheds, batch adsorption experiments were conducted, and the results were modeled using surface complexation modeling. The results of Hg adsorption experiments indicated that the dissolved Hg concentration was controlled by the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. The adsorption isotherms suggest that Hg is more mobile in the O horizon of the unburned Hadlock watershed because of higher solubility of organic carbon resulting in higher DOC concentrations in that watershed. Methylmercury concentrations, however, were consistently higher in the burned Cadillac O horizon (0.20??0.13 ng Hg g-1 dry weight) than in the unburned Hadlock O horizon (0.07??0.07 ng Hg g-1 dry weight). Similarly, Cadillac soils possessed a higher MeHg content (0.30 g MeHg ha-1) than Hadlock soils (0.16 g Me

  20. 36 CFR 261.54 - National Forest System roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false National Forest System roads. 261.54 Section 261.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.54 National Forest System roads. When provided...

  1. 36 CFR 261.54 - National Forest System roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false National Forest System roads. 261.54 Section 261.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.54 National Forest System roads. When provided...

  2. 36 CFR 230.6 - Landowner forest stewardship plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Landowner forest stewardship plan. 230.6 Section 230.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Stewardship Incentive Program § 230.6 Landowner forest...

  3. 36 CFR 261.21 - National Forest primitive areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false National Forest primitive areas. 261.21 Section 261.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.21 National Forest primitive areas. The following...

  4. 36 CFR 261.55 - National Forest System trails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false National Forest System trails. 261.55 Section 261.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.55 National Forest System trails. When provided...

  5. 36 CFR 293.17 - National Forest Primitive Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false National Forest Primitive Areas. 293.17 Section 293.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.17 National Forest Primitive Areas. (a) Within those areas...

  6. 36 CFR 261.57 - National Forest wilderness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National Forest wilderness. 261.57 Section 261.57 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.57 National Forest wilderness. When provided by...

  7. 36 CFR 261.54 - National Forest System roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false National Forest System roads. 261.54 Section 261.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.54 National Forest System roads. When provided...

  8. 36 CFR 261.18 - National Forest Wilderness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false National Forest Wilderness. 261.18 Section 261.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.18 National Forest Wilderness. The following are prohibited in...

  9. 36 CFR 261.18 - National Forest Wilderness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Forest Wilderness. 261.18 Section 261.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.18 National Forest Wilderness. The following are prohibited in...

  10. 36 CFR 261.55 - National Forest System trails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false National Forest System trails. 261.55 Section 261.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.55 National Forest System trails. When provided...

  11. 36 CFR 261.57 - National Forest wilderness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false National Forest wilderness. 261.57 Section 261.57 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.57 National Forest wilderness. When provided by...

  12. 36 CFR 293.17 - National Forest Primitive Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National Forest Primitive Areas. 293.17 Section 293.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.17 National Forest Primitive Areas. (a) Within those areas...

  13. 36 CFR 261.21 - National Forest primitive areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Forest primitive areas. 261.21 Section 261.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.21 National Forest primitive areas. The following...

  14. 36 CFR 261.18 - National Forest Wilderness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false National Forest Wilderness. 261.18 Section 261.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.18 National Forest Wilderness. The following are prohibited in...

  15. 36 CFR 261.55 - National Forest System trails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National Forest System trails. 261.55 Section 261.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.55 National Forest System trails. When provided...

  16. 36 CFR 261.57 - National Forest wilderness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false National Forest wilderness. 261.57 Section 261.57 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.57 National Forest wilderness. When provided by...

  17. 36 CFR 261.57 - National Forest wilderness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false National Forest wilderness. 261.57 Section 261.57 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.57 National Forest wilderness. When provided by...

  18. 36 CFR 261.55 - National Forest System trails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false National Forest System trails. 261.55 Section 261.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.55 National Forest System trails. When provided...

  19. 36 CFR 261.21 - National Forest primitive areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false National Forest primitive areas. 261.21 Section 261.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.21 National Forest primitive areas. The following...

  20. 36 CFR 261.21 - National Forest primitive areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National Forest primitive areas. 261.21 Section 261.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.21 National Forest primitive areas. The following...

  1. 36 CFR 261.18 - National Forest Wilderness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National Forest Wilderness. 261.18 Section 261.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.18 National Forest Wilderness. The following are prohibited in...

  2. 36 CFR 261.54 - National Forest System roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National Forest System roads. 261.54 Section 261.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.54 National Forest System roads. When provided...

  3. 36 CFR 261.54 - National Forest System roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Forest System roads. 261.54 Section 261.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.54 National Forest System roads. When provided...

  4. 36 CFR 261.55 - National Forest System trails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Forest System trails. 261.55 Section 261.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.55 National Forest System trails. When provided...

  5. 36 CFR 261.21 - National Forest primitive areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false National Forest primitive areas. 261.21 Section 261.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.21 National Forest primitive areas. The following...

  6. 36 CFR 293.17 - National Forest Primitive Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false National Forest Primitive Areas. 293.17 Section 293.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.17 National Forest Primitive Areas. (a) Within those areas...

  7. 36 CFR 261.18 - National Forest Wilderness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false National Forest Wilderness. 261.18 Section 261.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.18 National Forest Wilderness. The following are prohibited in...

  8. 36 CFR 293.17 - National Forest Primitive Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Forest Primitive Areas. 293.17 Section 293.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.17 National Forest Primitive Areas. (a) Within those areas...

  9. 36 CFR 293.17 - National Forest Primitive Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false National Forest Primitive Areas. 293.17 Section 293.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.17 National Forest Primitive Areas. (a) Within those areas...

  10. Yellowstone Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Thirteen years after devastating forest fires burned over 1.6 million acres in Yellowstone National Park, the scars are still evident. In this simulated natural color ASTER image, burned areas appear gray, in contrast to the dark green of unburned forests. The image covers an area of 60 x 63 km. This image was acquired on July 2, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic decision-makers so as to better life here, while developing the

  11. 36 CFR 9.83 - Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activities in National Park System units. 9.83 Section 9.83 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. (a) To facilitate compliance with this Subpart... agreeable schedule of AMRAP projects and activities in Alaska units of the National Park System....

  12. 36 CFR 9.83 - Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... activities in National Park System units. 9.83 Section 9.83 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. (a) To facilitate compliance with this Subpart... agreeable schedule of AMRAP projects and activities in Alaska units of the National Park System....

  13. 36 CFR 9.83 - Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activities in National Park System units. 9.83 Section 9.83 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. (a) To facilitate compliance with this Subpart... agreeable schedule of AMRAP projects and activities in Alaska units of the National Park System....

  14. 36 CFR 9.83 - Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... activities in National Park System units. 9.83 Section 9.83 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. (a) To facilitate compliance with this Subpart... agreeable schedule of AMRAP projects and activities in Alaska units of the National Park System....

  15. 36 CFR 9.83 - Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... activities in National Park System units. 9.83 Section 9.83 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. (a) To facilitate compliance with this Subpart... agreeable schedule of AMRAP projects and activities in Alaska units of the National Park System....

  16. Long-term reproductive behaviour of woody plants across seven Bornean forest types in the Gunung Palung National Park (Indonesia): suprannual synchrony, temporal productivity and fruiting diversity.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Charles H; Curran, Lisa M; Marshall, Andrew J; Leighton, Mark

    2007-10-01

    For 68 months, we observed the reproductive behaviour of 7288 woody plants (172 figs, 1457 climbers and 5659 trees) spanning major soil and elevational gradients. Two 2-3 month community-wide supra-annual fruiting events were synchronized across five forest types, coinciding with ENSO events. At least 27 genera in 24 families restricted their reproduction to these events, which involved a substantial proportion of tree diversity (> 80% of phylogenetic diversity). During these events, mean reproductive levels (8.5%) represented an almost four-fold increase compared with other months. These patterns indicate a strong behavioural advantage to this unusual reproductive behaviour. Montane forest experienced a single, separate fruiting peak while the peat swamp forest did not participate. Excluding these events, no temporal reproductive pattern was detectable, at either the landscape or forest type. These phenological patterns have major implications for the conservation of frugivore communities, with montane and swamp forests acting as 'keystone' forests.

  17. Park It!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2010-01-01

    Many artists visit national parks to draw, paint and take photographs of some of the most amazing scenery on earth. Raw nature is one of the greatest inspirations to an artist, and artists can be credited for helping inspire the government to create the National Park System. This article features Thomas Moran (1837-1926), one of the artists who…

  18. 36 CFR 223.217 - Authority to dispose of special forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authority to dispose of special forest products. 223.217 Section 223.217 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS,...

  19. 36 CFR 223.241 - Disposal of seized special forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of seized special forest products. 223.241 Section 223.241 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS,...

  20. 36 CFR 223.241 - Disposal of seized special forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of seized special forest products. 223.241 Section 223.241 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS,...

  1. 36 CFR 223.241 - Disposal of seized special forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of seized special forest products. 223.241 Section 223.241 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS,...

  2. 36 CFR 223.217 - Authority to dispose of special forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority to dispose of special forest products. 223.217 Section 223.217 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products §...

  3. 36 CFR 223.241 - Disposal of seized special forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of seized special forest products. 223.241 Section 223.241 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS,...

  4. 36 CFR 223.241 - Disposal of seized special forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of seized special forest products. 223.241 Section 223.241 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products Award...

  5. 36 CFR 223.217 - Authority to dispose of special forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Authority to dispose of special forest products. 223.217 Section 223.217 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS,...

  6. 36 CFR 223.217 - Authority to dispose of special forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authority to dispose of special forest products. 223.217 Section 223.217 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS,...

  7. 36 CFR 223.217 - Authority to dispose of special forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Authority to dispose of special forest products. 223.217 Section 223.217 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS,...

  8. Forest Fire Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucca, Carol; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a model that integrates high school science with the needs of the local scientific community. Describes how a high school ecology class conducted scientific research in fire ecology that benefited the students and a state park forest ecologist. (MKR)

  9. 36 CFR 1280.86 - When are the public areas available for events in the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When are the public areas available for events in the National Archives at College Park? 1280.86 Section 1280.86 Parks, Forests, and... Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives at College Park,...

  10. 36 CFR 3.3 - Am I required to obtain a permit to operate a vessel in a park area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Am I required to obtain a permit to operate a vessel in a park area? 3.3 Section 3.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.3 Am I required to...

  11. 36 CFR 1280.86 - When are the public areas available for events in the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true When are the public areas available for events in the National Archives at College Park? 1280.86 Section 1280.86 Parks, Forests, and... Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives at College Park,...

  12. 36 CFR 3.3 - Am I required to obtain a permit to operate a vessel in a park area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Am I required to obtain a permit to operate a vessel in a park area? 3.3 Section 3.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.3 Am I required to...

  13. 36 CFR 3.3 - Am I required to obtain a permit to operate a vessel in a park area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Am I required to obtain a permit to operate a vessel in a park area? 3.3 Section 3.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.3 Am I required to...

  14. 36 CFR 3.3 - Am I required to obtain a permit to operate a vessel in a park area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Am I required to obtain a permit to operate a vessel in a park area? 3.3 Section 3.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.3 Am I required to...

  15. 36 CFR 1280.86 - When are the public areas available for events in the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When are the public areas available for events in the National Archives at College Park? 1280.86 Section 1280.86 Parks, Forests, and... Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives at College Park,...

  16. 36 CFR 3.3 - Am I required to obtain a permit to operate a vessel in a park area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Am I required to obtain a permit to operate a vessel in a park area? 3.3 Section 3.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.3 Am I required to...

  17. Forests of Stone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidow, Beth

    1992-01-01

    Presents a geological tour of Arizona's Petrified Forest National Park, cited as containing the greatest record of life in the Triassic Period. Discusses ancient ecosystems, fossil records, geologic formations, petroglyphs, the Anasazi settlements, Painted Desert, and other park features. Includes an illustration of the fossilization process,…

  18. Mosquito Communities and Avian Malaria Prevalence in Silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) Within Forest Edge and Interior Habitats in a New Zealand Regional Park.

    PubMed

    Gudex-Cross, David; Barraclough, Rosemary K; Brunton, Dianne H; Derraik, José G B

    2015-09-01

    Forest fragmentation and agricultural development are important anthropogenic landscape alterations affecting the disease dynamics of malarial parasites (Plasmodium spp.), largely through their effects on vector communities. We compared vector abundance and species composition at two forest edge sites abutting pastureland and two forest interior sites in New Zealand, while simultaneously assessing avian malaria prevalence in silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis). Twenty-two of 240 (9.2%) individual silvereyes captured across all sites tested positive for avian malaria, and Plasmodium prevalence was nearly identical in edge and interior habitats. A total of 580 mosquito specimens were trapped across all sites. These comprised five different species: the introduced Aedes notoscriptus and Culex quinquefasciatus; the native A. antipodeus, C. asteliae and C. pervigilans. The known avian malaria vector C. quinquefasciatus was only recorded in the forest edge (mostly at ground level). In contrast, the probable vector C. pervigilans was abundant and widespread in both edge and interior sites. Although frequently caught in ground traps, more C. pervigilans specimens were captured in the canopy. This study shows that avian malaria prevalence among silvereyes appeared to be unaffected by forest fragmentation, at least at the scale assessed. Introduced mosquito species were almost completely absent from the forest interior, and thus our study provides further circumstantial evidence that native mosquito species (in particular C. pervigilans) play an important role in avian malaria transmission in New Zealand.

  19. 36 CFR 261.6 - Timber and other forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620, et seq.), or its implementing regulations at 36 CFR 223.185-223.203... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timber and other forest products. 261.6 Section 261.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  20. 36 CFR 261.6 - Timber and other forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620, et seq.), or its implementing regulations at 36 CFR 223.185-223.203... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timber and other forest products. 261.6 Section 261.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. 36 CFR 261.6 - Timber and other forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620, et seq.), or its implementing regulations at 36 CFR 223.185-223.203... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timber and other forest products. 261.6 Section 261.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. 36 CFR 13.954 - Where can I operate a snowmachine in Denali National Park and Preserve?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... snowmachine in Denali National Park and Preserve? 13.954 Section 13.954 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.954 Where can I operate...

  3. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... within new additions to the National Park System. 6.6 Section 6.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System. (a) An...

  4. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... within new additions to the National Park System. 6.6 Section 6.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System. (a) An...

  5. 36 CFR 13.954 - Where can I operate a snowmachine in Denali National Park and Preserve?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... snowmachine in Denali National Park and Preserve? 13.954 Section 13.954 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.954 Where can I operate...

  6. 36 CFR 13.954 - Where can I operate a snowmachine in Denali National Park and Preserve?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... snowmachine in Denali National Park and Preserve? 13.954 Section 13.954 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.954 Where can I operate...

  7. 36 CFR 13.954 - Where can I operate a snowmachine in Denali National Park and Preserve?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... snowmachine in Denali National Park and Preserve? 13.954 Section 13.954 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.954 Where can I operate...

  8. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... within new additions to the National Park System. 6.6 Section 6.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System. (a) An...

  9. 36 CFR 13.954 - Where can I operate a snowmachine in Denali National Park and Preserve?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... snowmachine in Denali National Park and Preserve? 13.954 Section 13.954 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.954 Where can I operate...

  10. A ground electromagnetic survey used to map sulfides and acid sulfate ground waters at the abandoned Cabin Branch Mine, Prince William Forest Park, northern Virginia gold-pyrite belt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, Jeffrey C.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND: Prince William Forest Park is situated at the northeastern end of the Virginia Gold-Pyrite belt northwest of the town of Dumfries, VA. The U. S. Marine Corps Reservation at Quantico borders the park on the west and south, and occupies part of the same watershed. Two abandoned mines are found within the park: the Cabin Branch pyrite mine, a historic source of acid mine drainage, and the Greenwood gold mine, a source of mercury contamination. Both are within the watershed of Quantico Creek (Fig.1). The Cabin Branch mine (also known as the Dumfries mine) lies about 2.4 km northwest of the town of Dumfries. It exploited a 300 meter-long, lens-shaped body of massive sulfide ore hosted by metamorphosed volcanic rocks; during its history over 200,000 tons of ore were extracted and processed locally. The site became part of the National Capitol Region of the National Park Service in 1940 and is currently managed by the National Park Service. In 1995 the National Park Service, in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals, and Energy reclaimed the Cabin Branch site. The Virginia Gold-Pyrite belt, also known as the central Virginia volcanic-plutonic belt, is host to numerous abandoned metal mines (Pavlides and others, 1982), including the Cabin Branch deposit. The belt itself extends from its northern terminus near Cabin Branch, about 50 km south of Washington, D.C., approximately 175 km to the southwest into central Virginia. It is underlain by metamorphosed volcanic and clastic (non-carbonate) sedimentary rocks, originally deposited approximately 460 million years ago during the Ordovician Period (Horton and others, 1998). Three kinds of deposits are found in the belt: volcanic-associated massive sulfide deposits, low-sulfide quartz-gold vein deposits, and gold placer deposits. The massive sulfide deposits such as Cabin Branch were historically mined for their sulfur, copper, zinc, and lead contents, but also yielded byproduct

  11. 36 CFR 261.56 - Use of vehicles off National Forest System roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of vehicles off National Forest System roads. 261.56 Section 261.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... National Forest System roads. When provided by an order, it is prohibited to possess or use a vehicle...

  12. 36 CFR 261.56 - Use of vehicles off National Forest System roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of vehicles off National Forest System roads. 261.56 Section 261.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... National Forest System roads. When provided by an order, it is prohibited to possess or use a vehicle...

  13. 36 CFR 222.51 - National Forests in 16 Western States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false National Forests in 16 Western States. 222.51 Section 222.51 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing Fees § 222.51 National Forests in 16 Western States. (a) Grazing fees...

  14. 36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans. 221.3 Section 221.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING § 221.3 Disposal of national forest...

  15. 36 CFR 261.12 - National Forest System roads and trails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false National Forest System roads and trails. 261.12 Section 261.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.12 National Forest System roads and trails. The...

  16. 36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans. 221.3 Section 221.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING § 221.3 Disposal of national forest...

  17. 36 CFR 223.278 - Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the sale of forest botanical products shall be governed under 36 CFR part 223 Subpart G. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees. 223.278 Section 223.278 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST...

  18. 36 CFR 261.56 - Use of vehicles off National Forest System roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of vehicles off National Forest System roads. 261.56 Section 261.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... National Forest System roads. When provided by an order, it is prohibited to possess or use a vehicle...

  19. 36 CFR 261.12 - National Forest System roads and trails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Forest System roads and trails. 261.12 Section 261.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.12 National Forest System roads and trails. The...

  20. 36 CFR 261.12 - National Forest System roads and trails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false National Forest System roads and trails. 261.12 Section 261.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.12 National Forest System roads and trails. The...

  1. 36 CFR 223.278 - Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the sale of forest botanical products shall be governed under 36 CFR part 223 Subpart G. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees. 223.278 Section 223.278 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST...

  2. 36 CFR 222.51 - National Forests in 16 Western States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National Forests in 16 Western States. 222.51 Section 222.51 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing Fees § 222.51 National Forests in 16 Western States. (a) Grazing fees...

  3. 36 CFR 261.56 - Use of vehicles off National Forest System roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of vehicles off National Forest System roads. 261.56 Section 261.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... National Forest System roads. When provided by an order, it is prohibited to possess or use a vehicle...

  4. 36 CFR 261.12 - National Forest System roads and trails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National Forest System roads and trails. 261.12 Section 261.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.12 National Forest System roads and trails. The...

  5. 36 CFR 223.278 - Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the sale of forest botanical products shall be governed under 36 CFR part 223 Subpart G. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees. 223.278 Section 223.278 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST...

  6. 36 CFR 222.51 - National Forests in 16 Western States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false National Forests in 16 Western States. 222.51 Section 222.51 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing Fees § 222.51 National Forests in 16 Western States. (a) Grazing fees...

  7. 36 CFR 261.12 - National Forest System roads and trails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false National Forest System roads and trails. 261.12 Section 261.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.12 National Forest System roads and trails. The...

  8. 36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans. 221.3 Section 221.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING § 221.3 Disposal of national forest...

  9. 36 CFR 261.56 - Use of vehicles off National Forest System roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... National Forest System roads. When provided by an order, it is prohibited to possess or use a vehicle off... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of vehicles off National Forest System roads. 261.56 Section 261.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE,...

  10. Park Smart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Parking Garage Automation System (PGAS) is based on a technology developed by a NASA-sponsored project called Robot sensorSkin(TM). Merritt Systems, Inc., of Orlando, Florida, teamed up with NASA to improve robots working with critical flight hardware at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The system, containing smart sensor modules and flexible printed circuit board skin, help robots to steer clear of obstacles using a proximity sensing system. Advancements in the sensor designs are being applied to various commercial applications, including the PGAS. The system includes a smartSensor(TM) network installed around and within public parking garages to autonomously guide motorists to open facilities, and once within, to free parking spaces. The sensors use non-invasive reflective-ultrasonic technology for high accuracy, high reliability, and low maintenance. The system is remotely programmable: it can be tuned to site-specific requirements, has variable range capability, and allows remote configuration, monitoring, and diagnostics. The sensors are immune to interference from metallic construction materials, such as rebar and steel beams. Inside the garage, smart routing signs mounted overhead or on poles in front of each row of parking spots guide the motorist precisely to free spaces.

  11. 36 CFR 1280.88 - How do I request to use NARA public areas in the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I request to use NARA public areas in the National Archives at College Park? 1280.88 Section 1280.88 Parks, Forests, and Public... Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives at College Park, Md §...

  12. 36 CFR 1280.88 - How do I request to use NARA public areas in the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I request to use NARA public areas in the National Archives at College Park? 1280.88 Section 1280.88 Parks, Forests, and Public... Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives at College Park, Md §...

  13. 36 CFR 1280.87 - Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives at College Park? 1280.87 Section 1280.87 Parks, Forests... College Park, Md § 1280.87 Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives...

  14. 36 CFR 1280.87 - Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives at College Park? 1280.87 Section 1280.87 Parks, Forests... College Park, Md § 1280.87 Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives...

  15. 36 CFR 1280.88 - How do I request to use NARA public areas in the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I request to use NARA public areas in the National Archives at College Park? 1280.88 Section 1280.88 Parks, Forests, and Public... Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives at College Park, Md §...

  16. 36 CFR 1280.87 - Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives at College Park? 1280.87 Section 1280.87 Parks, Forests... College Park, Md § 1280.87 Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives...

  17. Land cover and land use mapping of the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, South Africa: comparison of oblique and orthogonal random forest algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassa, Zaakirah; Bob, Urmilla; Szantoi, Zoltan; Ismail, Riyad

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the popularity of tree-based ensemble methods for land cover classification has increased significantly. Using WorldView-2 image data, we evaluate the potential of the oblique random forest algorithm (oRF) to classify a highly heterogeneous protected area. In contrast to the random forest (RF) algorithm, the oRF algorithm builds multivariate trees by learning the optimal split using a supervised model. The oRF binary algorithm is adapted to a multiclass land cover and land use application using both the "one-against-one" and "one-against-all" combination approaches. Results show that the oRF algorithms are capable of achieving high classification accuracies (>80%). However, there was no statistical difference in classification accuracies obtained by the oRF algorithms and the more popular RF algorithm. For all the algorithms, user accuracies (UAs) and producer accuracies (PAs) >80% were recorded for most of the classes. Both the RF and oRF algorithms poorly classified the indigenous forest class as indicated by the low UAs and PAs. Finally, the results from this study advocate and support the utility of the oRF algorithm for land cover and land use mapping of protected areas using WorldView-2 image data.

  18. The impact of disturbance and ensuing forestry practices on Collembola in monitored stands of windthrown forest in the Tatra National Park (Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Čuchta, Peter; Miklisová, Dana; Kováč, Lubomír

    2013-06-01

    Soil Collembola communities were investigated in spruce forest stands of the High Tatra Mts that had been heavily damaged by a windstorm in November 2004 and subsequently by a wildfire in July 2005. The study focused on the impact of these disturbances and forestry practices on collembolan community distribution and structure 4 years after the disturbance. Four different treatments were selected for this study: intact forest stands (REF), non-extracted windthrown stands (NEX), clear-cut windthrown stands (EXT) and burnt windthrown stands (FIR). From a total of 7,820 individuals, 72 species were identified. The highest total abundance mean was recorded in FIR stands followed by NEX and EXT stands and, surprisingly, the lowest in REF stands. The highest total species richness was observed in REF stands, followed by NEX stands and FIR stands and the lowest in EXT stands. In REF and NEX stands, the most abundant species were Folsomia penicula and Tetracanthella fjellbergi, while in heavily damaged stands, the most abundant was Anurophorus laricis. The ordination method used demonstrated a significant influence of treatment on the abundance of Collembola. ANOVA used confirmed significant differences for all dominant species between treatments. The present study shows the negative impact of windthrow on Collembola communities as reflected in decreased species richness and abundance. However, disturbance by fire caused a considerable increase in collembolan abundance 3 years after the event. Moreover, we show that clearing of windthrown spruce forests after a windstorm is less favourable for communities of soil collembolans and slows down the recovery process.

  19. Egmont National Park, New Zealand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The lush forests of Egmont National Park, on New Zealand's North Island, contrast with the pasturelands outside the circular park boundaries. The unique shape of the park results from its first protection in 1881, which specified that a forest reserve would extend in a 9.6 km radius from the summit of Mt. Taranaki (named Mt. Egmont by Captain Cook). The park covers about 33,500 hectares and Mt. Egmont stands at 2518 m. The volcano began forming 70,000 years ago, and last erupted in 1755. A series of montane habitats occur in procession up the flanks of the volcano-from rainforest, to shrubs, to alpine, and finally snow cover. Image STS110-726-6, was taken by Space Shuttle crewmembers on 9 April 2002 using a Hasselblad film camera. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  20. USA: Glacier National Park, Biosphere Reserve and GLORIA Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Lee, Cathy; Schaaf, Thomas; Simmonds, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The area now managed as Glacier National Park was first set aside as a Forest Reserve in 1897 and then designated as a national park in 1910, six years before a national park service was created to oversee the growing number of parks that the US Congress was establishing. Waterton National Park was created by Canada immediately north of the US–Canada border during the same period. In 1932, a joint lobbying effort by private citizens and groups convinced both the United States and Canada to establish the world’s first trans-boundary park to explicitly underscore and symbolize the neighbourly relationship between these two countries. This became the world’s first ‘peace’ park and was named Waterton–Glacier International Peace Park. The combined park is managed collaboratively on many issues but each national park is separately funded and operates under different national statutes and laws. It was, however, jointly named a Biosphere Reserve in 1976 and a World Heritage Site in 1995. There have been recent efforts to significantly increase the size of Waterton National Park by adding publicly owned forests on the western side of the continental divide in British Columbia, Canada. For the purposes of this chapter, I will emphasize the US portion of the Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park and refer to it as the Glacier Mountain Biosphere Reserve (MBR).

  1. 36 CFR 1280.64 - What entrance should I use to enter the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... normal business hours described in 36 CFR 1253.2. Commercial deliveries must be made at the loading dock... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What entrance should I use to enter the National Archives at College Park? 1280.64 Section 1280.64 Parks, Forests, and Public...

  2. 36 CFR 1280.64 - What entrance should I use to enter the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... normal business hours described in 36 CFR 1253.2. Commercial deliveries must be made at the loading dock... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What entrance should I use to enter the National Archives at College Park? 1280.64 Section 1280.64 Parks, Forests, and Public...

  3. 36 CFR 1280.64 - What entrance should I use to enter the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... normal business hours described in 36 CFR 1253.2. Commercial deliveries must be made at the loading dock... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What entrance should I use to enter the National Archives at College Park? 1280.64 Section 1280.64 Parks, Forests, and Public...

  4. 36 CFR 223.113 - Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans. 223.113 Section 223.113 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST...

  5. 36 CFR 261.3 - Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false report to a Forest officer. 261.3 Section 261.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  6. 36 CFR 261.3 - Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false report to a Forest officer. 261.3 Section 261.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  7. 36 CFR 261.3 - Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false report to a Forest officer. 261.3 Section 261.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  8. 36 CFR 223.113 - Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans. 223.113 Section 223.113 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST...

  9. 36 CFR 223.113 - Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans. 223.113 Section 223.113 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST...

  10. 36 CFR 261.3 - Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false report to a Forest officer. 261.3 Section 261.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  11. 36 CFR 223.113 - Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans. 223.113 Section 223.113 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST...

  12. 36 CFR 212.2 - Forest transportation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Forest transportation program... TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Administration of the Forest Transportation System § 212.2 Forest transportation... public at the headquarters of that administrative unit. (b) Forest transportation atlas. A...

  13. 36 CFR 212.2 - Forest transportation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Forest transportation program... TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Administration of the Forest Transportation System § 212.2 Forest transportation... public at the headquarters of that administrative unit. (b) Forest transportation atlas. A...

  14. 36 CFR 212.2 - Forest transportation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Forest transportation program... TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Administration of the Forest Transportation System § 212.2 Forest transportation... public at the headquarters of that administrative unit. (b) Forest transportation atlas. A...

  15. 36 CFR 212.2 - Forest transportation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Forest transportation program... TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Administration of the Forest Transportation System § 212.2 Forest transportation... public at the headquarters of that administrative unit. (b) Forest transportation atlas. A...

  16. A socio-ecological assessment aiming at improved forest resource management and sustainable ecotourism development in the mangroves of Tanbi Wetland National Park, The Gambia, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayana, Behara; Bhanderi, Preetika; Debry, Mélanie; Maniatis, Danae; Foré, Franka; Badgie, Dawda; Jammeh, Kawsu; Vanwing, Tom; Farcy, Christine; Koedam, Nico; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2012-07-01

    Although mangroves dominated by Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle are extending over 6000 ha in the Tanbi Wetland National Park (TWNP) (The Gambia), their importance for local populations (both peri-urban and urban) is not well documented. For the first time, this study evaluates the different mangrove resources in and around Banjul (i.e., timber, non-timber, edible, and ethnomedicinal products) and their utilization patterns, including the possibility of ecotourism development. The questionnaire-based results have indicated that more than 80% of peri-urban population rely on mangroves for timber and non-timber products and consider them as very important for their livelihoods. However, at the same time, urban households demonstrate limited knowledge on mangrove species and their ecological/economic benefits. Among others, fishing (including the oyster-Crassostrea cf. gasar collection) and tourism are the major income-generating activities found in the TWNP. The age-old practices of agriculture in some parts of the TWNP are due to scarcity of land available for agriculture, increased family size, and alternative sources of income. The recent focus on ecotourism (i.e., boardwalk construction inside the mangroves near Banjul city) received a positive response from the local stakeholders (i.e., users, government, and non-government organizations), with their appropriate roles in sharing the revenue, rights, and responsibilities of this project. Though the guidelines for conservation and management of the TWNP seem to be compatible, the harmony between local people and sustainable resource utilization should be ascertained. PMID:22351596

  17. A socio-ecological assessment aiming at improved forest resource management and sustainable ecotourism development in the mangroves of Tanbi Wetland National Park, The Gambia, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayana, Behara; Bhanderi, Preetika; Debry, Mélanie; Maniatis, Danae; Foré, Franka; Badgie, Dawda; Jammeh, Kawsu; Vanwing, Tom; Farcy, Christine; Koedam, Nico; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2012-07-01

    Although mangroves dominated by Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle are extending over 6000 ha in the Tanbi Wetland National Park (TWNP) (The Gambia), their importance for local populations (both peri-urban and urban) is not well documented. For the first time, this study evaluates the different mangrove resources in and around Banjul (i.e., timber, non-timber, edible, and ethnomedicinal products) and their utilization patterns, including the possibility of ecotourism development. The questionnaire-based results have indicated that more than 80% of peri-urban population rely on mangroves for timber and non-timber products and consider them as very important for their livelihoods. However, at the same time, urban households demonstrate limited knowledge on mangrove species and their ecological/economic benefits. Among others, fishing (including the oyster-Crassostrea cf. gasar collection) and tourism are the major income-generating activities found in the TWNP. The age-old practices of agriculture in some parts of the TWNP are due to scarcity of land available for agriculture, increased family size, and alternative sources of income. The recent focus on ecotourism (i.e., boardwalk construction inside the mangroves near Banjul city) received a positive response from the local stakeholders (i.e., users, government, and non-government organizations), with their appropriate roles in sharing the revenue, rights, and responsibilities of this project. Though the guidelines for conservation and management of the TWNP seem to be compatible, the harmony between local people and sustainable resource utilization should be ascertained.

  18. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites... NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System. (a) An...

  19. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.5 Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? (a) The operator of a...

  20. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.5 Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? (a) The operator of a...

  1. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.5 Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? (a) The operator of a...

  2. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.5 Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? (a) The operator of a...

  3. 36 CFR 1280.86 - When are the public areas available for events in the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... available for events in the National Archives at College Park? 1280.86 Section 1280.86 Parks, Forests, and... Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives at College Park, Md § 1280.86 When are the public areas available for events in the National Archives at College Park?...

  4. 36 CFR 1280.86 - When are the public areas available for events in the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... available for events in the National Archives at College Park? 1280.86 Section 1280.86 Parks, Forests, and... Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives at College Park, Md § 1280.86 When are the public areas available for events in the National Archives at College Park?...

  5. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites... NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System. (a) An...

  6. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section 13.1130 Parks, Forests, and... Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? Yes—Commercial fishing is...

  7. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section 13.1130 Parks, Forests, and... Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? Yes—Commercial fishing is...

  8. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section 13.1130 Parks, Forests, and... Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? Yes—Commercial fishing is...

  9. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section 13.1130 Parks, Forests, and... Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? Yes—Commercial fishing is...

  10. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section 13.1130 Parks, Forests, and... Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? Yes—Commercial fishing is...

  11. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.5 Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? (a) The operator of a...

  12. AmeriFlux US-CPk Chimney Park

    SciTech Connect

    Ewers, Brent; Pendall, Elise

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-CPk Chimney Park. Site Description - High elevation, primarily lodge-pole pine forest with high amounts of Mountain Pine Bark Beetle mortality

  13. National Environmental Research Parks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The National Environmental Research Parks are outdoor laboratories that provide opportunities for environmental studies on protected lands that act as buffers around Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The research parks are used to evaluate the environmental consequences of energy use and development as well as the strategies to mitigate these effects. They are also used to demonstrate possible environmental and land-use options. The seven parks are: Fermilab National Environmental Research Park; Hanford National Environmental Research Park; Idaho National Environmental Research Park; Los Alamos National Environmental Research Park; Nevada National Environmental Research Park; Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park; and Savannah River National Environmental Research Park. This document gives an overview of the events that led to the creation of the research parks. Its main purpose is to summarize key points about each park, including ecological research, geological characteristics, facilities, and available databases.

  14. 36 CFR 223.278 - Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be governed under 36 CFR part 223 Subpart G. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees. 223.278 Section 223.278 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST...

  15. 36 CFR 222.32 - Use of non-Forest Service personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of non-Forest Service personnel. 222.32 Section 222.32 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.32 Use of...

  16. 36 CFR 222.32 - Use of non-Forest Service personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of non-Forest Service personnel. 222.32 Section 222.32 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.32 Use of...

  17. 36 CFR 222.72 - Use of non-Forest Service personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of non-Forest Service personnel. 222.72 Section 222.72 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.72 Use of...

  18. 36 CFR 222.32 - Use of non-Forest Service personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of non-Forest Service personnel. 222.32 Section 222.32 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.32 Use of...

  19. 36 CFR 222.72 - Use of non-Forest Service personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of non-Forest Service personnel. 222.72 Section 222.72 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.72 Use of...

  20. Feeding ecology of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) inhabiting a forest-mangrove-savanna-agricultural matrix at Caiquene-Cadique, Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau.

    PubMed

    Bessa, Joana; Sousa, Cláudia; Hockings, Kimberley J

    2015-06-01

    With rising conversion of "natural" habitat to other land use such as agriculture, nonhuman primates are increasingly exploiting areas influenced by people and their activities. Despite the conservation importance of understanding the ways in which primates modify their behavior to human pressures, data are lacking, even for well-studied species. Using systematically collected data (fecal samples, feeding traces, and direct observations), we examined the diet and feeding strategies of an unhabituated chimpanzee community (Pan troglodytes verus) at Caiquene-Cadique in Guinea-Bissau that inhabit a forest-savanna-mangrove-agricultural mosaic. The chimpanzees experienced marked seasonal variations in the availability of plant foods, but maintained a high proportion of ripe fruit in the diet across months. Certain wild species were identified as important to this community including oil-palm (Elaeis guineensis) fruit and flower. Honey was frequently consumed but no other insects or vertebrates were confirmed to be eaten by this community. However, we provide indirect evidence of possible smashing and consumption of giant African snails (Achatina sp.) by chimpanzees at this site. Caiquene-Cadique chimpanzees were confirmed to feed on nine different agricultural crops, which represented 13.6% of all plant species consumed. Consumption of fruit and nonfruit crops was regular, but did not increase during periods of wild fruit scarcity. Crop consumption is an increasing and potentially problematic behavior, which can impact local people's tolerance toward wildlife. To maximize the potential success of any human-wildlife coexistence strategy (e.g., to reduce primate crop feeding), knowledge of primate behavior, as well as multifaceted social dimensions of interactions, is critical. PMID:25800459

  1. Feeding ecology of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) inhabiting a forest-mangrove-savanna-agricultural matrix at Caiquene-Cadique, Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau.

    PubMed

    Bessa, Joana; Sousa, Cláudia; Hockings, Kimberley J

    2015-06-01

    With rising conversion of "natural" habitat to other land use such as agriculture, nonhuman primates are increasingly exploiting areas influenced by people and their activities. Despite the conservation importance of understanding the ways in which primates modify their behavior to human pressures, data are lacking, even for well-studied species. Using systematically collected data (fecal samples, feeding traces, and direct observations), we examined the diet and feeding strategies of an unhabituated chimpanzee community (Pan troglodytes verus) at Caiquene-Cadique in Guinea-Bissau that inhabit a forest-savanna-mangrove-agricultural mosaic. The chimpanzees experienced marked seasonal variations in the availability of plant foods, but maintained a high proportion of ripe fruit in the diet across months. Certain wild species were identified as important to this community including oil-palm (Elaeis guineensis) fruit and flower. Honey was frequently consumed but no other insects or vertebrates were confirmed to be eaten by this community. However, we provide indirect evidence of possible smashing and consumption of giant African snails (Achatina sp.) by chimpanzees at this site. Caiquene-Cadique chimpanzees were confirmed to feed on nine different agricultural crops, which represented 13.6% of all plant species consumed. Consumption of fruit and nonfruit crops was regular, but did not increase during periods of wild fruit scarcity. Crop consumption is an increasing and potentially problematic behavior, which can impact local people's tolerance toward wildlife. To maximize the potential success of any human-wildlife coexistence strategy (e.g., to reduce primate crop feeding), knowledge of primate behavior, as well as multifaceted social dimensions of interactions, is critical.

  2. Protected areas: mixed success in conserving East Africa's evergreen forests.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Marion; Burgess, Neil D; Swetnam, Ruth D; Platts, Philip J; Willcock, Simon; Marchant, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In East Africa, human population growth and demands for natural resources cause forest loss contributing to increased carbon emissions and reduced biodiversity. Protected Areas (PAs) are intended to conserve habitats and species. Variability in PA effectiveness and 'leakage' (here defined as displacement of deforestation) may lead to different trends in forest loss within, and adjacent to, existing PAs. Here, we quantify spatial variation in trends of evergreen forest coverage in East Africa between 2001 and 2009, and test for correlations with forest accessibility and environmental drivers. We investigate PA effectiveness at local, landscape and national scales, comparing rates of deforestation within park boundaries with those detected in park buffer zones and in unprotected land more generally. Background forest loss (BFL) was estimated at -9.3% (17,167 km(2)), but varied between countries (range: -0.9% to -85.7%; note: no BFL in South Sudan). We document high variability in PA effectiveness within and between PA categories. The most successful PAs were National Parks, although only 26 out of 48 parks increased or maintained their forest area (i.e. Effective parks). Forest Reserves (Ineffective parks, i.e. parks that lose forest from within boundaries: 204 out of 337), Nature Reserves (six out of 12) and Game Parks (24 out of 26) were more likely to lose forest cover. Forest loss in buffer zones around PAs exceeded background forest loss, in some areas indicating leakage driven by Effective National Parks. Human pressure, forest accessibility, protection status, distance to fires and long-term annual rainfall were highly significant drivers of forest loss in East Africa. Some of these factors can be addressed by adjusting park management. However, addressing close links between livelihoods, natural capital and poverty remains a fundamental challenge in East Africa's forest conservation efforts.

  3. Protected areas: mixed success in conserving East Africa's evergreen forests.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Marion; Burgess, Neil D; Swetnam, Ruth D; Platts, Philip J; Willcock, Simon; Marchant, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In East Africa, human population growth and demands for natural resources cause forest loss contributing to increased carbon emissions and reduced biodiversity. Protected Areas (PAs) are intended to conserve habitats and species. Variability in PA effectiveness and 'leakage' (here defined as displacement of deforestation) may lead to different trends in forest loss within, and adjacent to, existing PAs. Here, we quantify spatial variation in trends of evergreen forest coverage in East Africa between 2001 and 2009, and test for correlations with forest accessibility and environmental drivers. We investigate PA effectiveness at local, landscape and national scales, comparing rates of deforestation within park boundaries with those detected in park buffer zones and in unprotected land more generally. Background forest loss (BFL) was estimated at -9.3% (17,167 km(2)), but varied between countries (range: -0.9% to -85.7%; note: no BFL in South Sudan). We document high variability in PA effectiveness within and between PA categories. The most successful PAs were National Parks, although only 26 out of 48 parks increased or maintained their forest area (i.e. Effective parks). Forest Reserves (Ineffective parks, i.e. parks that lose forest from within boundaries: 204 out of 337), Nature Reserves (six out of 12) and Game Parks (24 out of 26) were more likely to lose forest cover. Forest loss in buffer zones around PAs exceeded background forest loss, in some areas indicating leakage driven by Effective National Parks. Human pressure, forest accessibility, protection status, distance to fires and long-term annual rainfall were highly significant drivers of forest loss in East Africa. Some of these factors can be addressed by adjusting park management. However, addressing close links between livelihoods, natural capital and poverty remains a fundamental challenge in East Africa's forest conservation efforts. PMID:22768074

  4. The New Forest Suicide Prevention Initiative (NFSPI).

    PubMed

    King, Elizabeth; Frost, Neil

    2005-01-01

    A retrospective suicide study revealed that the Forestry Commission car parks in the New Forest in southern England were a previously unrecognized magnet for nonlocal suicides, attracting as high a proportion of "visitors" (35/43 in 1993-97) as among suicides who jumped from the cliffs at the infamous Beachy Head (39/48 in 1993-97). Over 95% of the car park suicides died from car exhaust gas poisoning. A multiagency initiative aimed to reduce the number of suicides in the 140 New Forest car parks where restricting access was impossible, and environmental issues paramount. Signs displaying the Samaritans' national telephone number were erected in the 26 car parks in which 50% of the car park suicides had occurred. Numbers, location, and residence of all car park deaths were monitored for 3 years. Corresponding changes in other forest registration districts were also monitored. During the 3-year intervention period the number of car park suicides fell significantly from 10/year, 1988-1997, to 3.3/year. The average annual total number of suicides in the New Forest registration district also decreased. No significant changes were found in comparable forest districts. The number of suicides in the New Forest car parks remained low during the 2 years following the evaluation.

  5. 36 CFR 7.8 - Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sequoia and Kings Canyon... THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.8 Sequoia and Kings Canyon... and Kings Canyon National Parks. (i) Facilities. (a) Subject to the provisions of paragraph...

  6. 36 CFR 7.8 - Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sequoia and Kings Canyon... THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.8 Sequoia and Kings Canyon... and Kings Canyon National Parks. (i) Facilities. (a) Subject to the provisions of paragraph...

  7. 36 CFR 7.8 - Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sequoia and Kings Canyon... THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.8 Sequoia and Kings Canyon... and Kings Canyon National Parks. (i) Facilities. (a) Subject to the provisions of paragraph...

  8. 36 CFR 1280.85 - What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and organizations? 1280.85 Section 1280.85 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES USE...

  9. 36 CFR 1280.85 - What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and organizations? 1280.85 Section 1280.85 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES USE...

  10. 36 CFR 1280.85 - What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and organizations? 1280.85 Section 1280.85 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES USE...

  11. The quandary of local people—Park relations in Nepal's Royal Chitwan National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepal, Sanjay K.; Weber, Karl E.

    1995-11-01

    This paper analyzes five major causes of park-people conflicts that have occurred in Nepal's Royal Chitwan National Park. The causes include illegal transactions of forest products from the park, livestock grazing in the park, illegal hunting and fishing, crop damage, and threats to human and animal life caused by wild animals from the park. The conflicts indicate a reciprocal relationship between the park and local people. They reflect the attitudes of local people and representatives of the park authority whose priorities and objectives largely diverge. The results show that people settled adjacent to the park are heavily dependent on its resources. Even in places where some, albeit few alternative sources exist, local people continue to trespass the park boundary as these sources are inadequate to ensure the fulfillment of local people's resource needs. Illegal transactions of resources continue throughout the year; however, they are less intense during summer due to flooding caused by the Rapti River, which forms the park boundary towards the northern section where this study is conducted. The frequency of local people's visits to the park is mainly determined by their age, distance between homesteads and park, and volume of crop loss caused by wild animals. Crop damage is the function of size of landholding, distance, and frequency of crop raid. Local people claim that they have no intention of letting their livestock graze in the park; however, the dense vegetation of the park attracts livestock grazing on riverbanks just outside the open park boundary. Many head of livestock are killed by carnivores of the park. Human casualties are mainly caused by sloth bear ( Melursus ursinus), tiger ( Panthera tigris), wild pig ( Sug scrofa), and rhinoceros ( Rhinoceros unicornis). There had been some earlier attempts to reconcile the conflicts by offering local people different kinds of compensations; however, these were unsuccessful measures. An integrated approach is

  12. 36 CFR 228.63 - Removal under terms of a timber sale or other Forest Service contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Removal under terms of a timber sale or other Forest Service contract. 228.63 Section 228.63 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods...

  13. 36 CFR 213.2 - Authority for Chief, Forest Service, to group, define, and name national grasslands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authority for Chief, Forest Service, to group, define, and name national grasslands. 213.2 Section 213.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ADMINISTRATION OF LANDS UNDER TITLE III OF THE...

  14. 36 CFR 228.63 - Removal under terms of a timber sale or other Forest Service contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Removal under terms of a timber sale or other Forest Service contract. 228.63 Section 228.63 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods...

  15. 36 CFR 213.2 - Authority for Chief, Forest Service, to group, define, and name national grasslands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Authority for Chief, Forest Service, to group, define, and name national grasslands. 213.2 Section 213.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ADMINISTRATION OF LANDS UNDER TITLE III OF THE...

  16. 36 CFR 213.2 - Authority for Chief, Forest Service, to group, define, and name national grasslands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Authority for Chief, Forest Service, to group, define, and name national grasslands. 213.2 Section 213.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ADMINISTRATION OF LANDS UNDER TITLE III OF THE...

  17. 75 FR 45656 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Siuslaw National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Siuslaw National Forest, Waldport, OR AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is.... Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Siuslaw National Forest, Waldport, OR. The human remains...

  18. 36 CFR 213.2 - Authority for Chief, Forest Service, to group, define, and name national grasslands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authority for Chief, Forest Service, to group, define, and name national grasslands. 213.2 Section 213.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ADMINISTRATION OF LANDS UNDER TITLE III OF THE...

  19. 36 CFR 228.63 - Removal under terms of a timber sale or other Forest Service contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Removal under terms of a timber sale or other Forest Service contract. 228.63 Section 228.63 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods...

  20. 36 CFR 211.6 - Cooperation in forest investigations or the protection, management, and improvement of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., 5 CFR part 2635, and applicable Department of Agriculture regulations, in determining if a conflict... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperation in forest... Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ADMINISTRATION...

  1. Proceedings of the first biennial conference of research in Colorado Plateau National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowlands, Peter G.; van Riper, Charles; Sogge, Mark K.

    1993-01-01

    The 19 papers in this volume were selected from the 46 presentations given at the First Biennial Conference on Research in Colorado Plateau National Parks. The overall theme for this meeting was research, inventory, and monitoring in National Park Service units on the Colorado Plateau. The conference, held in Flagstaff Arizona, on 22-25 July 1991, was sponsored by the National Park Service Cooperative Park Studies Unit, Northern Arizona University, and the Petrified Forest, Zion, and Grand Canyon natural history associations.

  2. 36 CFR 230.6 - Landowner forest stewardship plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Landowner forest stewardship... STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Stewardship Incentive Program § 230.6 Landowner forest stewardship...) of this subpart, eligible landowners shall have an approved landowner forest stewardship plan....

  3. 36 CFR 13.930 - Do I need a permit to operate a motor vehicle on the Denali Park road west of the Savage River?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve Motor Vehicle Permits § 13.930 Do I... 14.8) and continues to the former Mt. McKinley National Park boundary north of Wonder Lake (mile 87.9)....

  4. 36 CFR 13.930 - Do I need a permit to operate a motor vehicle on the Denali Park road west of the Savage River?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve Motor Vehicle Permits § 13.930 Do I... 14.8) and continues to the former Mt. McKinley National Park boundary north of Wonder Lake (mile 87.9)....

  5. 36 CFR 13.930 - Do I need a permit to operate a motor vehicle on the Denali Park road west of the Savage River?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve Motor Vehicle Permits § 13.930 Do I... 14.8) and continues to the former Mt. McKinley National Park boundary north of Wonder Lake (mile 87.9)....

  6. 36 CFR 13.930 - Do I need a permit to operate a motor vehicle on the Denali Park road west of the Savage River?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve Motor Vehicle Permits § 13.930 Do I... 14.8) and continues to the former Mt. McKinley National Park boundary north of Wonder Lake (mile 87.9)....

  7. 36 CFR 1280.88 - How do I request to use NARA public areas in the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... public areas in the National Archives at College Park? 1280.88 Section 1280.88 Parks, Forests, and Public... Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives at College Park, Md § 1280.88 How do I request to use NARA public areas in the National Archives at College Park? (a)...

  8. 36 CFR 1280.88 - How do I request to use NARA public areas in the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... public areas in the National Archives at College Park? 1280.88 Section 1280.88 Parks, Forests, and Public... Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives at College Park, Md § 1280.88 How do I request to use NARA public areas in the National Archives at College Park? (a)...

  9. 36 CFR 1280.85 - What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and organizations? 1280.85 Section 1280.85... Archives at College Park, Md § 1280.85 What space in the National Archives at College Park is available...

  10. 36 CFR 1280.85 - What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and organizations? 1280.85 Section 1280.85... Archives at College Park, Md § 1280.85 What space in the National Archives at College Park is available...

  11. 36 CFR 1254.86 - May I use a personal paper-to-paper copier at the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-paper copier at the National Archives at College Park? 1254.86 Section 1254.86 Parks, Forests, and... § 1254.86 May I use a personal paper-to-paper copier at the National Archives at College Park? (a) At the National Archives at College Park facility NARA approves a limited number of researchers to bring in...

  12. 36 CFR 1254.86 - May I use a personal paper-to-paper copier at the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-paper copier at the National Archives at College Park? 1254.86 Section 1254.86 Parks, Forests, and... § 1254.86 May I use a personal paper-to-paper copier at the National Archives at College Park? (a) At the National Archives at College Park facility NARA approves a limited number of researchers to bring in...

  13. 36 CFR 1254.86 - May I use a personal paper-to-paper copier at the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-paper copier at the National Archives at College Park? 1254.86 Section 1254.86 Parks, Forests, and... § 1254.86 May I use a personal paper-to-paper copier at the National Archives at College Park? (a) At the National Archives at College Park facility NARA approves a limited number of researchers to bring in...

  14. 36 CFR 1254.86 - May I use a personal paper-to-paper copier at the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-paper copier at the National Archives at College Park? 1254.86 Section 1254.86 Parks, Forests, and... § 1254.86 May I use a personal paper-to-paper copier at the National Archives at College Park? (a) At the National Archives at College Park facility NARA approves a limited number of researchers to bring in...

  15. 36 CFR 1254.86 - May I use a personal paper-to-paper copier at the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-paper copier at the National Archives at College Park? 1254.86 Section 1254.86 Parks, Forests, and... § 1254.86 May I use a personal paper-to-paper copier at the National Archives at College Park? (a) At the National Archives at College Park facility NARA approves a limited number of researchers to bring in...

  16. 36 CFR 13.930 - Do I need a permit to operate a motor vehicle on the Denali Park road west of the Savage River?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve Motor Vehicle Permits § 13.930 Do I... 14.8) and continues to the former Mt. McKinley National Park boundary north of Wonder Lake (mile 87.9)....

  17. Monitoring parks through remote sensing: studies in Nepal and Honduras.

    PubMed

    Nagendra, Harini; Tucker, Catherine; Carlson, Laura; Southworth, Jane; Karmacharya, Mukunda; Karna, Birendra

    2004-11-01

    The effectiveness of parks as management regimes is hotly contested. Much of the current discussion centered around comparisons of management regimes can be traced to a dearth of cross-site quantitative evaluations. Remote sensing provides a particularly effective tool for this purpose, yet analysis of remotely sensed data requires fieldwork to interpret human activities and the socioeconomic and political contexts that relate to land cover change. This paper examines the effect of establishment of the Celaque National Park, Honduras, and the Royal Chitwan National Park buffer zone, Nepal, on limiting deforestation. In Celaque, the park itself has been largely successful in maintaining forest cover. However, recent changes in land use patterns have led to increasing pressure on the park boundaries, exacerbated by the lack of involvement of local residents. In the Royal Chitwan National Park, in contrast, participatory approaches towards co-management have been implemented over the past decade in the park buffer zone. With significant incomes derived from ecotourism, complete protection of the buffer zone forest has been adopted, leading to significant regrowth of tree cover. However, local decision-making power is limited, and buffer zone management has largely proven successful due to the investment and support provided by international donor agencies. These two case studies demonstrate the utility of remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems analysis in providing a spatiotemporal perspective for assessing management policies. They also demonstrate the importance of fieldwork to provide a nuanced understanding of the socioeconomic and institutional conditions affecting the outcomes of forest management regimes.

  18. Parks In Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Sally-Jo

    1998-01-01

    More than 50 National Park Service (NPS) sites interpret Native cultures or early Native contact with Europeans. In about 30 of those, American Indians, Alaska Natives, or Native Hawaiians, in partnership with the NPS, present their own heritage and issues. Describes Native-run aspects of Sitka National Historical Park, Glacier National Park, and…

  19. 36 CFR 1280.64 - What entrance should I use to enter the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... normal business hours described in 36 CFR 1253.2. Commercial deliveries must be made at the loading dock... enter the National Archives at College Park? 1280.64 Section 1280.64 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... enter the National Archives at College Park? You may enter the National Archives at College...

  20. 36 CFR 1280.64 - What entrance should I use to enter the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... normal business hours described in 36 CFR 1253.2. Commercial deliveries must be made at the loading dock... enter the National Archives at College Park? 1280.64 Section 1280.64 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... enter the National Archives at College Park? You may enter the National Archives at College...

  1. Protected Areas: Mixed Success in Conserving East Africa’s Evergreen Forests

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Marion; Burgess, Neil D.; Swetnam, Ruth D.; Platts, Philip J.; Willcock, Simon; Marchant, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In East Africa, human population growth and demands for natural resources cause forest loss contributing to increased carbon emissions and reduced biodiversity. Protected Areas (PAs) are intended to conserve habitats and species. Variability in PA effectiveness and ‘leakage’ (here defined as displacement of deforestation) may lead to different trends in forest loss within, and adjacent to, existing PAs. Here, we quantify spatial variation in trends of evergreen forest coverage in East Africa between 2001 and 2009, and test for correlations with forest accessibility and environmental drivers. We investigate PA effectiveness at local, landscape and national scales, comparing rates of deforestation within park boundaries with those detected in park buffer zones and in unprotected land more generally. Background forest loss (BFL) was estimated at −9.3% (17,167 km2), but varied between countries (range: −0.9% to −85.7%; note: no BFL in South Sudan). We document high variability in PA effectiveness within and between PA categories. The most successful PAs were National Parks, although only 26 out of 48 parks increased or maintained their forest area (i.e. Effective parks). Forest Reserves (Ineffective parks, i.e. parks that lose forest from within boundaries: 204 out of 337), Nature Reserves (six out of 12) and Game Parks (24 out of 26) were more likely to lose forest cover. Forest loss in buffer zones around PAs exceeded background forest loss, in some areas indicating leakage driven by Effective National Parks. Human pressure, forest accessibility, protection status, distance to fires and long-term annual rainfall were highly significant drivers of forest loss in East Africa. Some of these factors can be addressed by adjusting park management. However, addressing close links between livelihoods, natural capital and poverty remains a fundamental challenge in East Africa’s forest conservation efforts. PMID:22768074

  2. National park development in China: conservation or commercialization?

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangyu; Innes, John L; Wu, Sara W; Krzyzanowski, Judi; Yin, Yongyuan; Dai, Shuanyou; Zhang, Xiaoping; Liu, Sihui

    2012-05-01

    The rapid development of parks and ecotourism in China has attracted worldwide attention, not only for the beauty of the landscape that the parks are protecting but also for their abundant and often unique biodiversity. However, in some areas, the development of ecotourism has actually led to the degradation of local ecological, economic, and social systems. Using National Forest Parks for demonstration, this article analyzes the current political, institutional, legal, environmental, and economic issues concerning National Parks in China, and examines their potential future development. Although the intention of National Park systems in China is to raise environmental quality, and to protect biodiversity and social livelihoods, their success has varied. Future success will be measured by their capacity to reduce poverty, to promote long-term rehabilitation of wildlife habitats, and to simultaneously protect Chinese culture and biodiversity. PMID:22038320

  3. National park development in China: conservation or commercialization?

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangyu; Innes, John L; Wu, Sara W; Krzyzanowski, Judi; Yin, Yongyuan; Dai, Shuanyou; Zhang, Xiaoping; Liu, Sihui

    2012-05-01

    The rapid development of parks and ecotourism in China has attracted worldwide attention, not only for the beauty of the landscape that the parks are protecting but also for their abundant and often unique biodiversity. However, in some areas, the development of ecotourism has actually led to the degradation of local ecological, economic, and social systems. Using National Forest Parks for demonstration, this article analyzes the current political, institutional, legal, environmental, and economic issues concerning National Parks in China, and examines their potential future development. Although the intention of National Park systems in China is to raise environmental quality, and to protect biodiversity and social livelihoods, their success has varied. Future success will be measured by their capacity to reduce poverty, to promote long-term rehabilitation of wildlife habitats, and to simultaneously protect Chinese culture and biodiversity.

  4. Ecosystems of national parks.

    PubMed

    Houston, D B

    1971-05-14

    The preservation and maintenance of natural park ecosystems, with modern man's being restricted to generally nonconsumptive uses of the park, represents one end of a spectrum of land use that extends through exploitation of natural ecosystems to the development of simplified agricultural ecosystems. Criteria for management of a park ecosystem must, of necessity, differ from criteria for other uses of land, since park management involves preventing or compensating for the influence of man. The objectives for natural areas appear to be ecologically feasible if it is recognized that these areas have a finite capacity for absorbing man's consumptive and disruptive influences. The interpretation of ecosystems to park visitors provides an opportunity to contribute to an environmental ethic that extends beyond the park environment.

  5. Climate Change in Voyageurs National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeley, M. W.

    2011-12-01

    Voyageurs National Park was created in 1975. This beautifully forested and lake-dominated landscape shared between Minnesota and Canada has few roads and must be seen by water. The islands and Kabetogama Peninsula are part of the Canadian Shield, some of the oldest exposed rock in the world. Voyageurs National Park boasts many unique landscape and climatic attributes, and like most mid-latitude regions of the northern hemisphere climate change is in play there. The statistical signals of change in the climate record are evident from both temperature and precipitation measurements. The history of these measurements goes back over 100 years. Additionally, studies and measurements of the lakes and general ecosystem already show some consequences of these climate changes. Mean temperature measurements are generally warmer than they once were, most notably in the winter season. Minimum temperatures have changed more than maximum temperatures. Precipitation has trended upward, but has also changed in character with greater frequency and contribution from thunderstorm rainfalls across the park. In addition variability in annual precipitation has become more amplified, as the disparity between wet and dry years has grown wider. Some changes are already in evidence in terms of bird migration patterns, earlier lake ice-out dates, warmer water temperatures with more algal blooms, decline in lake clarity, and somewhat longer frost-free seasons. Climate change will continue to have impacts on Voyageurs National Park, and likely other national parks across the nation. Furthermore scientists may find that the study, presentation, and discussion about climate impacts on our national parks is a particularly engaging way to educate citizens and improve climate literacy as we contemplate what adaptation and mitigation policies should be enacted to preserve the quality of our national parks for future generations.

  6. Parks, Recreation and Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ching-Hua; Payne, Laura; Orsega-Smith, Elizabeth; Godbey, Geoffrey

    2003-01-01

    Reviews what current research says about the holistic health benefits of park and recreation services, focusing on: health benefits according to park users; physical activities in parks; stress reduction benefits of park use; social support, self-determination, and stress reduction; observing nature in parks and associated benefits; and the…

  7. 5. VIEW OF NORTH PARK AVENUE TRAILHEAD PARKING AREA FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF NORTH PARK AVENUE TRAILHEAD PARKING AREA FACING SOUTHEAST. - Arches National Park Main Entrance Road, Beginning at U.S. Highway 191, approximately 6 miles north of Moab, Moab, Grand County, UT

  8. Saltfjellet-Svartisen Park, Norway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Arctic Circle cuts through the western coast of Norway and the Saltfjellet-Svartisen National Park. This area features many glacial fjords, alpine mountain formations with glacier tongues, as well as gently sloping mountain plateaus and forested lowland valleys. The largest city here is Mo I Rana, (just off the image to the east) with a population of 25,000 (26th most populous city in Norway). Once supported entirely by the town's steel mill, the area has developed into a tourist center.

    The image covers an area of 51 x 57 km, was acquired on August 23, 2006, and is located near 66.6 degrees north latitude, 13 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  9. 36 CFR 261.6 - Timber and other forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620, et seq.), or its implementing regulations at 36 CFR 223.185-223.203... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timber and other forest... PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.6 Timber and other forest products. Link to an amendment published...

  10. 36 CFR 261.6 - Timber and other forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620, et seq.), or its implementing regulations at 36 CFR 223.185-223.203... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timber and other forest... PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.6 Timber and other forest products. Link to an amendment published...

  11. Splendor In The Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anthony Wayne

    1979-01-01

    Civilization is more and more intruding on the esthetic and recreational resources of the National Park System. Increased attention must be paid to controlling noise, pollution, and even the effects of urban lighting which detract from the enjoyment of the parks. (RE)

  12. Oregon's first wind park

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The bringing on-line of the 1.25 MW wind park at Whiskey Run, Oregon, is reported. The park features twenty-five 50 KW wind turbine generators and is expected to produce about three million kilowatt-hours per year for the Pacific Power and Light system.

  13. 36 CFR 3.19 - May I operate a submersible within park waters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I operate a submersible..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.19 May I operate a submersible within park waters? The use of manned or unmanned submersibles may only occur in accordance with a permit issued...

  14. 36 CFR 3.19 - May I operate a submersible within park waters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May I operate a submersible..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.19 May I operate a submersible within park waters? The use of manned or unmanned submersibles may only occur in accordance with a permit issued...

  15. 36 CFR 3.19 - May I operate a submersible within park waters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I operate a submersible..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.19 May I operate a submersible within park waters? The use of manned or unmanned submersibles may only occur in accordance with a permit issued...

  16. 36 CFR 3.19 - May I operate a submersible within park waters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I operate a submersible..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.19 May I operate a submersible within park waters? The use of manned or unmanned submersibles may only occur in accordance with a permit issued...

  17. 36 CFR 3.19 - May I operate a submersible within park waters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I operate a submersible..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.19 May I operate a submersible within park waters? The use of manned or unmanned submersibles may only occur in accordance with a permit issued...

  18. 36 CFR 4.10 - Travel on park roads and designated routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... designated for off-road motor vehicle use. (b) Routes and areas designated for off-road motor vehicle use... designated for off-road motor vehicle use, from 1/2 hour after sunset to 1/2 hour before sunrise, without... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel on park roads...

  19. Conservation Education and the Attitudes of Local Communities Living Adjacent to Mt. Elgon National Park, Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oonyu, Joseph C.

    2009-01-01

    A study of attitudes of 328 people living around Mt. Elgon National Park showed that more than three-quarters had favorable attitudes toward the conservation of the Park's forest and wildlife resources. They also had favorable attitudes toward the conservation education efforts of various agencies that operated in the area, particularly those of…

  20. 36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... timber according to management plans. 221.3 Section 221.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING § 221.3 Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans. (a) Management plans for national forest timber resources shall be...