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Sample records for nord barcelona 1993-2002

  1. Aircraft-assisted pilot suicides in the United States, 1993-2002.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Russell J; Johnson, Robert D; Whinnery, James E; Forster, Estrella M

    2007-01-01

    Our laboratory was interested in epidemiological and toxicological findings from aircraft-assisted pilot suicides. Between 1993-2002 there were 3,648 fatal aviation accidents. The NTSB determined that 16 were aircraft-assisted suicides; 15 from intentional crashing of an aircraft and 1 from exiting the aircraft while in-flight. All pilots involved in these aircraft-assisted suicides were male, with a median age of 40 years. Seven of the 14 pilots for which specimens were available were positive for disqualifying substances. Based on the few cases conclusively attributed to suicide, death by the intentional crashing of an aircraft appears to be an infrequent and uncommon event. PMID:17453693

  2. Spatial and temporal distribution of rabies in northern Tanzania in the period of 1993-2002.

    PubMed

    Swai, E S; Moshy, W E; Kaaya, J E; Mtui, P F

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out to investigate the occurrence and distribution patterns of rabies cases in northern Tanzania. Data on laboratory confirmed brain samples and associated case reports submitted to the Arusha Veterinary Investigation Centre, for a period of ten years (1993-2002) was retrieved and reviewed. A total of 98 suspected rabies brain specimens from different animal species and geographical areas were submitted and processed during the period under review. Rabies was confirmed using Fluorescent Antibody Technique test. Of the 98 brain specimens processed, 65 (66.3%) were confirmed to be rabies cases. Canine rabies accounted for 73.8% of the cases and was diagnosed in dogs (43), jackals (4) and hyenas (1). Rabies in wildlife accounted for 5 out of 48 canine confirmed cases. Most of the cases were from Arusha Municipality (20) followed by Arumeru (19), Ngorongoro (9) and Moshi (8) districts. Rabies positive cases in other animal species were in the following order of frequencies: bovine (9 out of 11); feline (5 out of 10); equine (1 out of 2); caprine (2 out of 2). One porcine brain specimen was rabies negative. The high proportion of rabies positive cases confirmed suggests the level of their endemicity in the northern regions of Tanzania. Moreover, the findings highlights the need for sustained surveillance and institution of control measures among dog population and awareness creation particularly among general public and children whom are at high risk of contracting rabies because of their close contact with dogs. PMID:20737833

  3. Paediatrics in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Midulla, Fabio; Lombardi, Enrico; Rottier, Bart; Lindblad, Anders; Grigg, Jonathan; Bohlin, Kajsa; Rusconi, Franca; Pohunek, Petr; Eber, Ernst

    2014-08-01

    This update will describe the paediatric highlights from the 2013 European Respiratory Society (ERS) annual congress in Barcelona, Spain. Abstracts from the seven groups of the ERS Paediatric Assembly (Respiratory Physiology and Sleep, Asthma and Allergy, Cystic Fibrosis, Respiratory Infection and Immunology, Neonatology and Paediatric Intensive Care, Respiratory Epidemiology, and Bronchology) have been chosen by group officers and are presented in the context of current literature.

  4. Physical Science in Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca-Rosell, Antoni; Roqué, Xavier

    2013-12-01

    We provide a tour of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, following four routes through the city and one elsewhere in the city and beyond, focusing on sites of importance in physics. Route 1 covers the Old Town, its Gothic Quarter, Plaça del Rei, Plaça de Sant Jaume, and Jewish Quarter. Route 2 identifies sites on and close to La Rambla, the main promenade in the city. Route 3 goes from the medieval shipyards to the Board of Commerce to Citadel Park. Route 4 concentrates on the Extension ( Eixample) and covers the restored University, the Industrial University, and the new campus of the University of Barcelona. Elsewhere in the city and beyond are the Fabra Observatory; the Plaça de les Glòries with its large steel sculpture depicting the meridian arc from Dunkirk to Barcelona; Montjuïc, the site of the National Art Museum of Catalonia; and the National Museum of Science and Technology in Terrassa.

  5. Paralympics--Barcelona 1992.

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, J; Stirk, A; Thomas, A; Geary, F

    1994-01-01

    The British Team at the 9th Paralympic Games in September 1992 in Barcelona comprised 151 men and 54 women athletes in a total of 15 sports. They were supported by a staff of 86 including a 12-strong medical team. The athletes were selected from the National Championships of the five disability organizations: British Wheelchair Sports Federation; British Blind Sport; Cerebral Palsy Sport; British Amputee Sports Association; and the British Les Autres Sports Association. This article outlines the organization and experience of the medical support team. The injury/illness profile was similar to those in able bodied sport. The team went on to achieve 40 gold, 47 silver and 41 bronze medals, maintaining third place on the medal table as achieved in Seoul in 1988. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8044485

  6. NEWS: GIREP in Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    2000-11-01

    The 18th biannual conference of GIREP was held in Barcelona from 27 August to 1 September 2000. GIREP stands for Groupe International de Recherche sur l'Enseignement de la Physique. Some 400 delegates from 53 countries attended the conference, whose main concern was Physics Teacher Education beyond 2000. All contributions had to made in English. A conference like this needs to be singularly interesting to keep delegates away from the sunsoaked attractions and delights of one of the most exciting cities in the world - even if some of the excitement comes from wondering whether or not you are going to get your pocket picked. A typical conference day begins with two or three plenary lectures in the morning, with the afternoon given over to a set of nine parallel sessions. These sessions consisted of tightly timetabled 20 minute talks or other types of presentation. This meant that even the most dedicated delegate could get to little more than 10% of the over 200 sessions that were on offer in the afternoons. The event was organized by Catalonian locals working at the conference site, the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, and was superbly smooth. The list of organizations supporting the conference is too long to record, but ranged from the European Commission to Barcelona Science Museum. The UK can boast (if that is the right word) just 11 paid-up members of GIREP, which at about £10 per annum is hardly an expensive club - next year it goes up to 20 Euros - and the fee is worth it for the excellently produced book or CD-ROM of the conference proceedings. These contain a great deal of wisdom, plus the fair amount of infuriating rubbish that tends to be generated by educational research. I write here with all the prejudices of an aged ex-teacher, of course. The first morning lecture was given by Jon Ogborn, who used his recent work as organizer of the IoP post-16 Initiative to give some details of the Advancing Physics AS and A2 and make some general points about

  7. First Barcelona Conference on Epigenetics and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Palau, Anna; Perucho, Manuel; Esteller, Manel; Buschbeck, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The Barcelona Conference on Epigenetics and Cancer (BCEC) entitled “Challenges, opportunities and perspectives” took place November 21–22, 2013 in Barcelona. The 2013 BCEC is the first edition of a series of annual conferences jointly organized by five leading research centers in Barcelona. These centers are the Institute of Predictive and Personalized Medicine of Cancer (IMPPC), the Biomedical Campus Bellvitge with its Program of Epigenetics and Cancer Biology (PEBC), the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), the Institute for Biomedical Research (IRB), and the Molecular Biology Institute of Barcelona (IBMB). Manuel Perucho and Marcus Buschbeck from the Institute of Predictive and Personalized Medicine of Cancer put together the scientific program of the first conference broadly covering all aspects of epigenetic research ranging from fundamental molecular research to drug and biomarker development and clinical application. In one and a half days, 23 talks and 50 posters were presented to a completely booked out audience counting 270 participants. PMID:24413145

  8. Royal Academy of Sciences and Arts of Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual, Ramon

    2013-05-01

    In 1764 (almost 250 years ago), a group of educated citizen of Barcelona decided to organize a "Physico-Mathematical Conference" to follow the progress of science and technology. Several years earlier, in 1717, and as a consequence of the Catalonia's stance against King Philip V at the beginning of the 18th century, the Catalan universities (including the University of Barcelona) were moved to Cervera, a town in the interior of Catalonia, where they remained until 1842.

  9. Teaching Religion in Public Schools: Review of Warren A. Nord, "Does God Make a Difference?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Walter

    2013-01-01

    In this review of Warren Nord's "Does God Make a Difference? Taking Religion Seriously in Our Schools and Universities," Walter Feinberg provides a detailed analysis of Nord's argument that the study of religion should be constitutionally mandated as a corrective to the overwhelmingly secular course of study offered in…

  10. [Nurses helping nurses with psychological disorders in Barcelona].

    PubMed

    Quintanilla, Galo

    2016-05-01

    In Barcelona, in Spain, the Retorn programme is breaking a taboo. It has been especially designed to help practising nurses suffering from addiction or psychological disorders. The care and follow-up are provided by a multi-disciplinary team in a clinic which caters for all types of health professionals, in complete confidentiality. PMID:27155277

  11. Paris-Barcelona: Invisible Interactions in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Ana; Martinez, Isabel

    1992-01-01

    Studied whether school culture is represented in common aspects within schools in different countries for one deaf child in Barcelona (Spain), one refugee child in Paris (France), and some of their classmates. Identical characteristics of student interactions found in both schools, and the importance of these interactions are discussed. (SLD)

  12. Geodetic infrastructure at the Barcelona harbour for sea level monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, Juan Jose; Gili, Josep; Lopez, Rogelio; Tapia, Ana; Pros, Francesc; Palau, Vicenc; Perez, Begona

    2015-04-01

    The presentation is directed to the description of the actual geodetic infrastructure of Barcelona harbour with three tide gauges of different technologies for sea level determination and contribution to regional sea level rise and understanding past and present sea level rise in the Barcelona harbour. It is intended that the overall system will constitute a CGPS Station of the ESEAS (European Sea Level) and TIGA (GPS Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring) networks. At Barcelona harbour there is a MIROS radar tide gauge belonging to Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours).The radar sensor is over the water surface, on a L-shaped structure which elevates it a few meters above the quay shelf. 1-min data are transmitted to the ENAGAS Control Center by cable and then sent each 1 min to Puertos del Estado by e-mail. The information includes wave forescast (mean period, significant wave height, sea level, etc.This sensor also measures agitation and sends wave parameters each 20 min. There is a GPS station Leica Geosystems GRX1200 GG Pro and antenna AX 1202 GG. The Control Tower of the Port of Barcelona is situated in the North dike of the so-called Energy Pier in the Barcelona harbor (Spain). This tower has different kind of antennas for navigation monitoring and a GNSS permanent station. As the tower is founded in reclaimed land, and because its metallic structure, the 50 m building is subjected to diverse movements, including periodic fluctuations due to temperature changes. In this contribution the 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 the necessary monitoring campaigns are described. In the framework of a Spanish Space Project, the instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge Datamar 2000C from Geonica S.L. in June 2014 near an acoustic tide gauge from the Barcelona Harbour installed in 2013. Precision levelling has been made several times in the last two years because the tower is founded in reclaimed land and

  13. Requirement of norD for Brucella suis Virulence in a Murine Model of In Vitro and In Vivo Infection

    PubMed Central

    Loisel-Meyer, Séverine; Jiménez de Bagüés, Maria Pilar; Bassères, Eugénie; Dornand, Jacques; Köhler, Stephan; Liautard, Jean-Pierre; Jubier-Maurin, Véronique

    2006-01-01

    A mutant of Brucella suis bearing a Tn5 insertion in norD, the last gene of the operon norEFCBQD, encoding nitric oxide reductase, was unable to survive under anaerobic denitrifying conditions. The norD strain exhibited attenuated multiplication within nitric oxide-producing murine macrophages and rapid elimination in mice, hence demonstrating that norD is essential for Brucella virulence. PMID:16495577

  14. Survey of microfungi in the Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord (Germany).

    PubMed

    Jensen, M; Nerat, N; Ale-Agha, N

    2011-01-01

    During an excursion in the Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord in 2009 and 2010 we were able to collect and identify more than 100 specimens of microfungi on different parts of cultivated and wild plant species. We found parasitic and saprophytic microfungi on trees, bushes and herbaceous plants. Some of them have been observed only rarely until now. Most of the collected microfungi species belong to the classes of Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes - for example Leptosphaeria modesta (Desm.) Rabenh. on Knautia cf. arvensis (L.) Coult., Ramularia urticae Ces. on Urtica dioica L., Stigmina glomerulosa (Sacc.) S. Hughes on Juniperus communis L., Pseudomassaria corni (Sowerby) Arx on Cornus alba L., Mollisia discolor (Mont.) W. Phillips on Cornus alba L., Botryosphaeria quercuum (Schwein.) Sacc. on Quercus robur L., Peronospora cytisi Rostr. on Laburnum anagyroides Med., Microsphaera guarinonii Briosi and Cavara on Laburnum anagyroides Med., Brachysporium dingleyae S. Hughes on Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl and Rhododendron spec., Mamiania fimbriata (Pers.) Ces. and De Not. on Carpinus betulus L., Atopospora betulina (Fr.) Petr. on Betula pendula Roth, Septoria robiniae (Lib.) Desm. (=Phloeospora robiniae (Lib.) Höhn.) on Robinia pseudoacacia L., Chalara hughesii Nag Raj and W.B. Kendr. on Quercus robur L.. All specimens are located in the Herbarium ESS, Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha.

  15. Social inequalities in health related behaviours in Barcelona

    PubMed Central

    Borrell, C.; Dominguez-Berjon, F.; Pasarin, M; Ferrando, J.; Rohlfs, I.; Nebot, M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—This study describes social class inequalities in health related behaviours (tobacco and alcohol consumption, physical activity) among a sample of general population over 14 years old in Barcelona.
DESIGN—Cross sectional study (Barcelona Health Interview Survey).
SETTING—Barcelona city (Spain).
PARTICIPANTS—A representative stratified sample of the non-institutionalised population resident in Barcelona was obtained. This study refers to the 4171 respondents aged over 14.
DATA—Social class was obtained from a Spanish adaptation of the British Registrar General classification. In addition, sociodemographic variables such as family structure and employment status were used. As health related behaviours tobacco consumption, alcohol consumption, usual physical activity and leisure time physical activity were analysed. Age adjusted percentages were compared by social class. Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression models.
MAIN RESULTS—Women in the upper social classes were more likely to smoke, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for social class V in reference to social class I was 0.36 (95% confidence intervals (95%CI): 0.19, 0.67), while the opposite occurred among men although it was not statistically significant in multivariate analysis. Smoking cessation was more likely among men in the higher classes (OR for class V 0.41, 95%CI: 0.18, 0.90). Excessive alcohol consumption among men showed no differences between classes, while among women it was greater in the upper classes. Engaging in usual physical activity classified as "light or none" in men decreased with lowering social class (OR class IVa: 0.55 and OR class IVb: 0.47). Women of social classes IV and V were less likely to have two or more health risk behaviours (OR for class V 0.33, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.62).
CONCLUSION—Health damaging behaviours are differentially distributed among social classes in Barcelona. Health policies should take into account these

  16. Cancer mortality by educational level in the city of Barcelona

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, E; Borrell, C

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between educational level and mortality from cancer in the city of Barcelona. The data were derived from a record linkage between the Barcelona Mortality Registry and the Municipal Census. The relative risks (RR) of death and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) according to level of education were derived from Poisson regression models. For all malignancies, men in the lowest educational level had a RR of death of 1.21 (95% CI 1.13–1.29) compared with men with a university degree, whereas for women a significant decreasing in risk was observed (RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.74–0.90). Among men, significant negative trends of increasing risk according to level of education were present for cancer of the mouth and pharynx (RR 1.70 for lowest vs. highest level of education), oesophagus (RR 2.14), stomach (RR 1.99), larynx (RR 2.56) and lung (RR 1.35). Among women, cervical cancer was negatively related to education (RR 2.62), whereas a positive trend was present for cancers of the colon (RR 0.76), pancreas (RR 0.59), lung (RR 0.55) and breast (RR 0.65). The present study confirms for the first time, at an individual level, the existence of socioeconomic differences in mortality for several cancer sites in Barcelona, Spain. There is a need to implement health programmes and public health policies to reduce these inequities. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10027350

  17. Improving irrigation management in L'Horta Nord (Valencia, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Seva, Nuria; San Bautista, Alberto; López-Galarza, Salvador; Maroto, Jose Vicente; Pascual, Bernardo

    2014-05-01

    L'Horta Nord is an important irrigation district in Valencia (Spain), especially for vegetable crops. The traditional cropping pattern in the region consists of a rotation of chufa with crops such as potato, onion, lettuce, escarole and red cabbage, being all these crops furrow irrigated. Currently, the quality of the water used is acceptable, water is not expensive and there are no limitations on supply. Consequently, growers are not aware of the volumes of water used, application efficiencies, nor water productivity for any of the crops cited. The European Framework Directive 2000/60, based on the precautionary principle, considers preventive action for measures to be taken; moreover, drought periods are becoming more frequent and extended, and water is being diverted to other uses. Thus, water use is an issue to improve. In this sense, the current situation of the irrigation in the area is analysed using chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. var. sativus Boeck.) as representative of the crops, since most of the crops in the area have shallow root systems, as chufa, which are irrigated in similar patterns. In order to analyse the irrigation performance of the traditional chufa crop as well as to achieve more sustainable results, different studies have been carried out, during the last decade. Efforts have been directed to increase water productivity, increasing yield and minimising the volumes of water applied. Different planting configurations and different irrigation thresholds, not only in furrow irrigation but also in drip irrigation, are examples of how the irrigation performance could be improved. Herein is presented a two-year study, comparing, in both furrow and drip irrigation, two irrigation schedules based on the volumetric soil water content, which was continuously monitored using capacitance sensors. Yield was significantly affected by the growing season, the irrigation system and by the irrigation schedule, and by the second order interactions of the

  18. Evidence of earliest human occurrence in Europe: the site of Pirro Nord (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzarello, Marta; Marcolini, Federica; Pavia, Giulio; Pavia, Marco; Petronio, Carmelo; Petrucci, Mauro; Rook, Lorenzo; Sardella, Raffaele

    2007-02-01

    Some flint lithic artifacts were discovered in the fissure fillings of the well-known Pirro Nord site (Apulia, Southern Italy). The lithic industry, composed by three cores and some flakes, has been found to be associated to an Early Pleistocene vertebrate fossil assemblage. The fossil association contains a wide range of micromammals, including Allophaiomys ruffoi and Episoriculus gibberodon and large mammals including Bison degiulii and Equus altidens together with African elements as the gelada baboon Theropithecus and the saber-toothed cat Megantereon whitei. It defines the latest Villafranchian chronological unit (Pirro Nord Faunal Unit) in the Western European mammal biochronology. The lithic industry of Pirro Nord represents the oldest occurrence of the genus Homo in Europe as it is attributable to a chronological interval between 1.3 and 1.7 Ma. This supports the hypothesis that the genus Homo, with Oldowaian technology, extended its range in Europe, probably from western Asia, during the first half of the Early Pleistocene. The new discovery from Pirro Nord changes the chronology of the first arrival of hominids in Europe and offers new perspectives in the debate about the human dispersal in the Early Pleistocene.

  19. Service-Learning in Physical Education Teacher Training. Physical Education in the Modelo Prison, Barcelona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lleixà, Teresa; Ríos, Merche

    2015-01-01

    In the Psychiatric Unit of the Modelo Prison, Barcelona, a physical education programme is carried out annually with the participation of University of Barcelona (UB) students. In this context, we carried out a study based on service-learning parameters. The aim of the study was twofold: to determine the impact on inmates of the physical education…

  20. Kepler in Curricula of the Agrarian Engineering School of Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillet, Jaume Fabregat

    In the Agrarian Engineering school of Barcelona, within the subject of Mathematics some references to history are included, particularly about several great scientists, like Kepler who is famous for his astronomical laws, but he was occupied by other subjects for example he wrote about wine barrels. It is interesting to introduce students to dynamic aspects of science and not only to program an ordered mathematical knowledge of physical systems or, worse, only to offer a collection of numerical recipes or only presenting the foundation of theory; it is important to promote relationships between technical topics and other lateral matters. To instigate an integral education, students did a brief study entitled "Kepler, mathematics and agriculture"; students were guided to link Kepler with agriculture through astronomy.

  1. A thorny question: the taxonomic identity of the Pirro Nord cervical vertebrae revisited.

    PubMed

    Alba, David M; Colombero, Simone; Delfino, Massimo; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Pavia, Marco; Rook, Lorenzo

    2014-11-01

    The past geographic distribution of the genus Theropithecus (Primates: Cercopithecidae) is mainly restricted to Africa. Outside that continent, the earliest reported records of this genus consist of a calcaneus of cf. Theropithecus sp. from 'Ubeidiya (Israel, 1.6-1.2 Ma [millions of years ago]), as well as three associated cervical vertebrae from Pirro Nord (Italy, 1.7-1.3 Ma) attributed to Theropithecus sp. The attribution of the Pirro Nord vertebrae to this genus has been disputed on morphometric grounds, although their assignment to a large-bodied cercopithecid has remained undisputed. Here we report unpublished cervical vertebral specimens with a similar morphology and, given their significance for the paleobiogeography of Theropithecus (purportedly representing its earliest European record), we re-evaluate their taxonomic attribution. In particular, we reconsider the possibility that they belong to another non-primate mammal recorded at this site. Based on both qualitative and metric morphological comparisons, we strongly favor an alternative attribution of the cervical vertebrae from Pirro Nord to the large porcupine Hystrix refossa, which is widely documented at the site by both dentognathic and other postcranial remains. We therefore conclude that the dispersal of Theropithecus out of Africa before ca. 1 Ma (when it is recorded by dental remains from Cueva Victoria, Spain) is currently based only on the calcaneus from 'Ubeidiya tentatively attributed to this genus.

  2. A thorny question: the taxonomic identity of the Pirro Nord cervical vertebrae revisited.

    PubMed

    Alba, David M; Colombero, Simone; Delfino, Massimo; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Pavia, Marco; Rook, Lorenzo

    2014-11-01

    The past geographic distribution of the genus Theropithecus (Primates: Cercopithecidae) is mainly restricted to Africa. Outside that continent, the earliest reported records of this genus consist of a calcaneus of cf. Theropithecus sp. from 'Ubeidiya (Israel, 1.6-1.2 Ma [millions of years ago]), as well as three associated cervical vertebrae from Pirro Nord (Italy, 1.7-1.3 Ma) attributed to Theropithecus sp. The attribution of the Pirro Nord vertebrae to this genus has been disputed on morphometric grounds, although their assignment to a large-bodied cercopithecid has remained undisputed. Here we report unpublished cervical vertebral specimens with a similar morphology and, given their significance for the paleobiogeography of Theropithecus (purportedly representing its earliest European record), we re-evaluate their taxonomic attribution. In particular, we reconsider the possibility that they belong to another non-primate mammal recorded at this site. Based on both qualitative and metric morphological comparisons, we strongly favor an alternative attribution of the cervical vertebrae from Pirro Nord to the large porcupine Hystrix refossa, which is widely documented at the site by both dentognathic and other postcranial remains. We therefore conclude that the dispersal of Theropithecus out of Africa before ca. 1 Ma (when it is recorded by dental remains from Cueva Victoria, Spain) is currently based only on the calcaneus from 'Ubeidiya tentatively attributed to this genus. PMID:25042286

  3. Air pollution and urinary thioether excretion in children of Barcelona

    SciTech Connect

    Mallol, J.; Nogues, M.R. )

    1991-06-01

    The polluted environment found in highly industrialized areas and in big cities contains a great quantity of electrophilic (EC) and proelectrophilic (PEC) compounds, which largely contribute to the development of several pathological processes in humans. EC and PEC can be coupled to the cysteine moiety of glutathione spontaneously or by the glutathione S-transferase system (GST), giving nontoxic metabolites that can be eliminated as urinary thioethers (UT). Therefore one approach to establishing the degree of impact of EC and PEC on the human body is the analysis of UT in the population living in polluted environments. The work presented here has been carried out in the city of Barcelona with a group of 50 children living in a polluted area, over a 12-mo period. Our results demonstrate that UT are significantly higher when the amounts of air pollutants (AP) increase; although the level of contamination never exceeded the established safe limits, UT reached values similar to those found in people smoking more than 10 cigarettes/d. These results may contribute to establishing the maximal levels of contamination compatible with a healthy life, on the basis of patterns of true salubrity rather than on political and economic criteria.

  4. Sensitivity analysis of permeability parameters for flows on Barcelona networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rarità, Luigi; D'Apice, Ciro; Piccoli, Benedetto; Helbing, Dirk

    We consider the problem of optimizing vehicular traffic flows on an urban network of Barcelona type, i.e. square network with streets of not equal length. In particular, we describe the effects of variation of permeability parameters, that indicate the amount of flow allowed to enter a junction from incoming roads. On each road, a model suggested by Helbing et al. (2007) [11] is considered: free and congested regimes are distinguished, characterized by an arrival flow and a departure flow, the latter depending on a permeability parameter. Moreover we provide a rigorous derivation of the model from fluid dynamic ones, using recent results of Bretti et al. (2006) [3]. For solving the dynamics at nodes of the network, a Riemann solver maximizing the through flux is used, see Coclite et al. (2005) [4] and Helbing et al. (2007) [11]. The network dynamics gives rise to complicate equations, where the evolution of fluxes at a single node may involve time-delayed terms from all other nodes. Thus we propose an alternative hybrid approach, introducing additional logic variables. Finally we compute the effects of variations on permeability parameters over the hybrid dynamics and test the obtained results via simulations.

  5. Drugs of abuse in urban groundwater. A case study: Barcelona.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, A.; Mastroianni, N.; Vazquez-Suñe, E.; Carrera, J.; Tubau, I.; Pujades, E.; Postigo, C.; Lopez de Alda, M.; Barceló, D.

    2012-04-01

    This study is concerned with drugs of abuse (DAs) and their metabolites in urban groundwater at field scale in relation to (1) the spatial distribution of the groundwater samples, (2) the depth of the groundwater sample, (3) the presence of DAs in recharge sources, and (4) the identification of processes affecting the fate of DAs in groundwater. To this end, urban groundwater samples were collected in the city of Barcelona and a total of 21 drugs were analyzed including cocainics, amphetamine-like compounds, opioids, lysergics and cannabinoids and the prescribed drugs benzodiazepines. Overall, the highest groundwater concentrations and the largest number of detected DAs were found in zones basically recharged by a river that receives large amounts of effluents from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). In contrast, the urbanized areas yielded not only lower concentrations but also a much smaller number of drugs, which suggests a local origin. In fact, cocaine and its metabolite were dominant in more prosperous neighbourhoods, whereas the cheaper (MDMA) was the dominant DA in poorer districts. Concentrations of DAs estimated mainly from the waste water fraction in groundwater samples were consistently higher than the measured ones, suggesting that DAs undergo removal processes in both reducing and oxidizing conditions.

  6. Aims of teachers' psychometry: intelligence testing in Barcelona (1920).

    PubMed

    Mülberger, Annette; Balltondre, Mònica; Graus, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    After World War I, members of the teaching profession in Spain were interested in appropriating psychological measurement and bringing it within the expertise of their occupational field, with the intention of upgrading their profession. As professionals devoted to the child, educators attempted to explore the infantile psyche using intelligence tests, with the intention of making scientific contributions to the field of psychology. In the present article we take as a key event one particular application enacted by a Catalan teacher, and insert that case study into the complex local scientific and educational context. It was a context in which the professional interests of teachers competed with those of school physicians, psychologists, and pedologists, at a time when important changes in pedagogical methods and school systems were under way. In the hand of teachers, intelligence testing was mainly seen as a malleable method on which to base daily educational practice on a more individualized and scientific basis. The historical analysis of the case turned out to be instrumental in the identification of common features and particularities attributable to specific local needs. In a society where public schooling competed with private schools, the results of mental testing were used to demonstrate publicly the excellent intellectual level of children attending a public graded primary school in Barcelona. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Staphylococcus aureus NorD, a Putative Efflux Pump Coregulated with the Opp1 Oligopeptide Permease, Contributes Selectively to Fitness In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yanpeng; Fu, Yingmei; Lee, Jean C.

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus readily infects humans, causing infections from mild superficial skin infections to lethal bacteremia and endocarditis. Transporters produced by S. aureus allow the pathogen to adapt to a variety of settings, including survival at sites of infection and in the presence of antibiotics. The native functions of many transporters are unknown, but their potential dual contribution to fitness and antimicrobial resistance highlights their importance in staphylococcal infections. Here, we show that S. aureus NorD, a newly recognized efflux pump of the major facilitator superfamily, contributes to fitness in a murine subcutaneous abscess model. In community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) strain MW2, norD was selectively upregulated 36-fold at the infection site relative to growth in vitro, and the norD mutant demonstrated significant fitness impairment in abscesses, with fitness 20- to 40-fold lower than that of the parent MW2 strain. Plasmid-encoded NorD could complement the fitness defect of the MW2 norD mutant. Chromosomal norD expression is polycistronic with the upstream oligopeptide permease genes (opp1ABCDF), which encode an ABC oligopeptide transporter. Both norD and opp1 were upregulated in abscesses and iron-restricted culture medium and negatively regulated by Fur, but only NorD contributed to fitness in the murine abscess model. PMID:23042988

  8. French validation of the Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Joe; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Marco-Pallares, Josep; Tillmann, Barbara; Zeitouni, Anthony; Lehmann, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire (BMRQ) questionnaire investigates the main facets of music experience that could explain the variance observed in how people experience reward associated with music. Currently, only English and Spanish versions of this questionnaire are available. The objective of this study is to validate a French version of the BMRQ. Methods. The original BMRQ was translated and adapted into an international French version. The questionnaire was then administered through an online survey aimed at adults aged over 18 years who were fluent in French. Statistical analyses were performed and compared to the original English and Spanish version for validation purposes. Results. A total of 1,027 participants completed the questionnaire. Most responses were obtained from France (89.4%). Analyses revealed that congruence values between the rotated loading matrix and the ideal loading matrix ranged between 0.88 and 0.96. Factor reliabilities of subscales (i.e., Musical Seeking, Emotion Evocation, Mood Regulation, Social Reward and Sensory-Motor) also ranged between 0.88 and 0.96. In addition, reliability of the overall factor score (i.e., Music reward) was 0.91. Finally, the internal consistency of the overall scale was 0.85. The factorial structure obtained in the French translation was similar to that of the original Spanish and English samples. Conclusion. The French version of the BMRQ appears valid and reliable. Potential applications of the BMRQ include its use as a valuable tool in music reward and emotion research, whether in healthy individuals or in patients suffering from a wide variety of cognitive, neurologic and auditory disorders. PMID:27019776

  9. French validation of the Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Marco-Pallares, Josep; Tillmann, Barbara; Zeitouni, Anthony; Lehmann, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire (BMRQ) questionnaire investigates the main facets of music experience that could explain the variance observed in how people experience reward associated with music. Currently, only English and Spanish versions of this questionnaire are available. The objective of this study is to validate a French version of the BMRQ. Methods. The original BMRQ was translated and adapted into an international French version. The questionnaire was then administered through an online survey aimed at adults aged over 18 years who were fluent in French. Statistical analyses were performed and compared to the original English and Spanish version for validation purposes. Results. A total of 1,027 participants completed the questionnaire. Most responses were obtained from France (89.4%). Analyses revealed that congruence values between the rotated loading matrix and the ideal loading matrix ranged between 0.88 and 0.96. Factor reliabilities of subscales (i.e., Musical Seeking, Emotion Evocation, Mood Regulation, Social Reward and Sensory-Motor) also ranged between 0.88 and 0.96. In addition, reliability of the overall factor score (i.e., Music reward) was 0.91. Finally, the internal consistency of the overall scale was 0.85. The factorial structure obtained in the French translation was similar to that of the original Spanish and English samples. Conclusion. The French version of the BMRQ appears valid and reliable. Potential applications of the BMRQ include its use as a valuable tool in music reward and emotion research, whether in healthy individuals or in patients suffering from a wide variety of cognitive, neurologic and auditory disorders. PMID:27019776

  10. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality in Barcelona: 1992–2003

    PubMed Central

    Puigpinós, Rosa; Borrell, Carme; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Azlor, Enric; Pasarín, M Isabel; Serral, Gemma; Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Fernández, Esteve

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to assess trends in cancer mortality by educational level in Barcelona from 1992 to 2003. Methods The study population comprised Barcelona inhabitants aged 20 years or older. Data on cancer deaths were supplied by the system of information on mortality. Educational level was obtained from the municipal census. Age-standardized rates by educational level were calculated. We also fitted Poisson regression models to estimate the relative index of inequality (RII) and the Slope Index of Inequalities (SII). All were calculated for each sex and period (1992–1994, 1995–1997, 1998–2000, and 2001–2003). Results Cancer mortality was higher in men and women with lower educational level throughout the study period. Less-schooled men had higher mortality by stomach, mouth and pharynx, oesophagus, larynx and lung cancer. In women, there were educational inequalities for cervix uteri, liver and colon cancer. Inequalities of overall and specific types of cancer mortality remained stable in Barcelona; although a slight reduction was observed for some cancers. Conclusion This study has identified those cancer types presenting the greatest inequalities between men and women in recent years and shown that in Barcelona there is a stable trend in inequalities in the burden of cancer. PMID:19166582

  11. Latino Trajectories in Barcelona: A Longitudinal Ethnographic Study of Latin American Adolescents in Catalonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corona, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    The ethnographic research presented in this paper consists of two parts developed chronologically. The first part is based on a study (Corona, V., Nussbaum, L., & Unamuno, V. [2012]. The emergence of new linguistic repertoires among Barcelona's youth of Latin American origin. "International Journal of Bilingual Education and…

  12. Rationality as Rhetorical Strategy at the Barcelona Disputation, 1263: A Cautionary Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bizzell, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Often, composition teachers present public debate as if it occurs on a rhetorically level playing field, with victory going to the person who argues most logically. Real-world contestants are seldom so equal in power. We can enrich our pedagogy by studying such encounters; example: the 1263 disputation at Barcelona between Rabbi Nachmanides and…

  13. Schooling Effects on Undergraduate Performance: Evidence from the University of Barcelona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora, Toni; Escardibul, Josep-Oriol

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes the effects of several factors related to high school, such as the kind of school (public or private), the type of education (general or vocational), school location and peers on undergraduate performance from students of the University of Barcelona (Spain). Particular attention is given to the functional form and to the…

  14. Teaching and Learning in the Virtual Campus: The Case of the University of Barcelona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil, Juana M. Sancho; Sanchez, Joan-Anton

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on a research project aimed at analysing the teaching and learning models explicit and implicit in the different uses of e-learning platforms. From qualitative analysis of the interview with the coordinator of the Virtual Campus of the University of Barcelona (VC-UB) and the focus group with the 8 lecturers, emerged both the…

  15. Socioeconomic position and excess mortality during the heat wave of 2003 in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Borrell, Carme; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Garcia-Olalla, Patrícia; Caylà, Joan A; Benach, Joan; Muntaner, Carles

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether the excess of mortality which occurred in Barcelona during the summer of 2003 was dependent on age, gender and educational level. We included all deaths among Barcelona residents 20 years of age and older that occurred in the city during the months of June, July and August of 2003 and also during the same months of the five preceding years. Poisson regression models were fitted to obtain the risk of death in 2003 with respect to the period 1998-2002. The relative risk (RR) of mortality during the summer of 2003, compared to the summers of the previous 5 years, was higher for women than for men and among older ages. Although an increase among women was observed in all educational groups, in some age groups the increase was larger for people with less than primary education. The excess number of deaths was higher for those with less education. These results suggest that age, gender and educational level were important determinants of excess mortality in the 2003 Barcelona heat wave. PMID:17048085

  16. Surveys of microfungi in a former industrial area in Duisburg-Nord.

    PubMed

    Feige, G B; Ale-Agha, N; Dachowski, M; Kricke, R

    2002-01-01

    One hundred and forty microfungi (Ascomycetes and Deuteromycetes) were collected in the "Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord" located in North Rhine-Westphalia. New hosts for rarely found fungi are recorded for the first time. New for Germany are Massaria inquinans (Tode) De Not. and Nitschkia grevillei (Rhem) Nannf. on Acer pseudoplatanus L., Pirottaea nigrostriata Graddon on Artemisia vulgaris L., Ceratopycnis clematidis Höhn. on Clematis vitalba L., Dasyscyphus aff. humuli (W. Phillips) Dennis on Humulus lupulus L. and Leptosphaeria derasa (Berk. & Br.) Auersw. on Senecio inaequidens DC. New for North Rhine-Westphalia are Chaetosphaerella phaeostroma (Durieu & Mont.) E. Müller & Booth and Phomopsis platanoides (Cooke) Died. on Acer pseudoplatanus L., Microsphaeropsis pseudaspera Sutton, Mycosphaerella osborniae D. Hawksw. & Sivan. and Phomopsis oblita Sacc. on Artemisia vulgaris L., Leptosphaeria acuta (Fr.) P. Karst. and Leptosphaeria doliolum (Pers.) Ces. & De Not. on Bryonia dioica Jacq., Ophiobolus erythrosporus (Riess) G. Winter and Pleospora herbarum (Pers.) Rabenh. ex Ces. & De Not. on Dipsacus sylvestris (Huds), Keissleriella ocellata (Niessl) Bose on Hypericum perforatum L., Dactylaria aff. graminicola on Lolium perenne L., Siroplacodium aff. atrum on Oenothera beinnis L., Diatrypella favacea (Fr.) Sacc. on Prunus spec., Hapalosphaeria deformans (Syd.) Syd. and Microdiscula rubicola (Bres.) Höhn. on Rubus fructicosus agg. L., Cryptodiaporthe salicina (Pers.) Wehm. on Salix alba L. and Pleurophoma pleurospora (Sacc.) Höhn. on Salix caprea L.

  17. Socioeconomic factors and mortality in urban settings: the case of Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Borrell, C; Arias, A

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--This study aimed to describe the relationship between health and socioeconomic indicators in the 38 neighbourhoods of the city of Barcelona, Spain. DESIGN--Mortality data for 1983-89 and socioeconomic data for each of the 38 neighbourhoods of Barcelona were used. Mortality indicators used were the comparative mortality figure, the ratio of potential years of life lost, and life expectancy at birth. Socioeconomic indicators were the percentage of unemployed, the percentage of illiteracy, monthly telephone usage, the average power and age of cars, and the average rateable value of buildings and of land. The statistical correlation between socioeconomic indicators and mortality indicators was studied by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. SETTING--The 38 neighbourhoods of Barcelona, Spain. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--The comparative mortality figure ranged from 87.41-152.43 and the ratio of potential years of life lost from 74.94-237.31 in both sexes. Both the absolute difference and the ratio of the value for the neighbourhood with lowest mortality and that with highest mortality were larger when premature mortality was examined. Life expectancy at birth ranged from 64.77-75.32 years in men and 75.04-81.51 in women. All correlations between mortality and socioeconomic indicators were high and statistically significant: the higher the unemployment and illiteracy levels and the older the cars, the greater the comparative mortality figure and ratio of potential years of life lost, and the lower the life expectancy (negative correlations). Conversely, the higher the telephone use, the more powerful the cars, and the greater the rateable value, the lower the mortality (negative correlations) and the greater the life expectancy. These correlations were greater in males than in females. The highest correlations were with illiteracy. CONCLUSIONS--This study has detected significant differences in mortality in a large town in the Mediterranean region

  18. Qualité et comportement de l'aquifère crayeux sur le littoral Nord-Pas-de-Calais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louche, Barbara; Crampon, Norbert; Bracq, Pierre

    1998-10-01

    Along the Nord-Pas-de-Calais coast, the chalk aquifer is in contact with the sea and the aquiferous Quaternary formations forming the coastal plain ('Bas-Champs' and sand-dunes). To obtain information on the behaviour of the chalk aquifer in the 'Bas-Champs' area, a hydrochemical analysis has been carried out on the available drillings and completed by a geophysical survey. The results thereby obtained provide a much clearer image of the phenomena governing the groundflows and their interactions around the littoral limit of the chalk aquifer.

  19. PCB residues in the adipose tissue of the population of Barcelona (Spain)

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Catalan, J.; Sabroso, M.; To-Figueras, J.; Planas, J.; Corbella, J. )

    1991-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of aryl halides widely distributed in the environment. Although production has virtually ceased, and most industrial applications (capacitors, transformers, hydraulic fluids, lubricants, etc) are severely restricted, they are one of the most ubiquitous and persistent environmental pollutants. Several toxic effects caused by PCBs have been described including: liver enlargement, hepatomegalocytosis, acne, lymphoid atrophy, immunosuppression, tumor promotion, porphyria. This work continues the authors' previous reports about organochlorine residues in human tissues of some Spanish populations, that showed high levels of some residues, specially of hexachlorobenzene (HCB). PCBs pattern and concentration in the adipose tissue of the inhabitants of an urban and industrial area (Barcelona) were determined.

  20. Child exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants in schools in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Rivas, I; Viana, M; Moreno, T; Pandolfi, M; Amato, F; Reche, C; Bouso, L; Àlvarez-Pedrerol, M; Alastuey, A; Sunyer, J; Querol, X

    2014-08-01

    Proximity to road traffic involves higher health risks because of atmospheric pollutants. In addition to outdoor air, indoor air quality contributes to overall exposure. In the framework of the BREATHE study, indoor and outdoor air pollution was assessed in 39 schools in Barcelona. The study quantifies indoor and outdoor air quality during school hours of the BREATHE schools. High levels of fine particles (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), equivalent black carbon (EBC), ultrafine particle (UFP) number concentration and road traffic related trace metals were detected in school playgrounds and indoor environments. PM2.5 almost doubled (factor of 1.7) the usual urban background (UB) levels reported for Barcelona owing to high school-sourced PM2.5 contributions: [1] an indoor-generated source characterised mainly by organic carbon (OC) from organic textile fibres, cooking and other organic emissions, and by calcium and strontium (chalk dust) and; [2] mineral elements from sand-filled playgrounds, detected both indoors and outdoors. The levels of mineral elements are unusually high in PM2.5 because of the breakdown of mineral particles during playground activities. Moreover, anthropogenic PM components (such as OC and arsenic) are dry/wet deposited in this mineral matter. Therefore, PM2.5 cannot be considered a good tracer of traffic emissions in schools despite being influenced by them. On the other hand, outdoor NO2, EBC, UFP, and antimony appear to be good indicators of traffic emissions. The concentrations of NO2 are 1.2 times higher at schools than UB, suggesting the proximity of some schools to road traffic. Indoor levels of these traffic-sourced pollutants are very similar to those detected outdoors, indicating easy penetration of atmospheric pollutants. Spatial variation shows higher levels of EBC, NO2, UFP and, partially, PM2.5 in schools in the centre than in the outskirts of Barcelona, highlighting the influence of traffic emissions. Mean child exposure to

  1. Epidemiology of imported malaria among children and young adults in Barcelona (1990-2008)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasing international travel and migration is producing changes in trends in infectious diseases, especially in children from many European cities. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology and determine the trends of imported malaria in patients under 20 years old in the city of Barcelona, Spain, during an 18-year period. Methods The study included malaria cases that were laboratory confirmed and reported to the malaria register at the Public Health Agency of Barcelona from 1990 to 2008, residing in Barcelona and less than 20 years old. Patients were classified as natives (born in Spain) or immigrants. Differences in the distribution of demographic, clinical characteristics, and incidence per 100,000 person-year evolution were analysed. Natives and immigrants were compared by logistic regression by calculating the odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) and Chi-square for a linear trend (p < 0.05). Results Of the total 174 cases, 143 (82.1%) were immigrants, 100 (57.5%) were female, 121 (69.5%) Plasmodium falciparum, and 108 (62.1%) were visiting friends and relatives (VFR) as the reason for travel. Among the immigrants, 99 (67.8%) were from Equatorial Guinea. Immigrant cases more frequently travelled to Africa than natives (p = 0.02). The factors associated with imported malaria among immigrant residents was travelling for VFR (OR: 6.2 CI 1.9-20.2) and age 15-19 (OR: 3.7 CI 1-13.3). The incidence increased from 1990 to 1999 (p < 0.001) and decreased from 2000 to 2008 (p = 0.01), although the global linear trend was not statistically significant (p = 0.41). The fatality rate was 0.5%. Conclusions The majority of cases of malaria in population less than 20 years in Barcelona were immigrants, travelling to Africa for VFR and Plasmodium falciparum was most frequently detected. The trend analysis of the entire study period did not show a statistically significant decline. It is recommended to be aware of malaria, especially

  2. [Thirty Years of Health Surveillance of Foods in Barcelona: The "ICSA" Food Quality Research Program].

    PubMed

    Fontcuberta-Famadas, Mireia; Rodellar-Torras, Santiago; Portaña-Tudela, Samuel; Durán-Neira, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The Food Health Quality Research Program (Investigación de la Calidad Sanitaria de los Alimentos [ICSA]) of the Public Health Agency of Barcelona (Agencia de Salud Pública de Barcelona [ASPB]) was initiated in 1984 to carry out surveillance of certain chemical and microbiological parameters related to the sanitary and safety of foods sold in the city. The present article analyzes the importance of health surveillance and provides details of the uses of the ICSA program. The main aim of this program is to evaluate whether marketed foods comply with the absence and/or established tolerance levels of specific parameters. Nevertheless, the program is able to incorporate or suppress parameters or foods that pose emerging dangers or interests not represented in current legislation. Besides, the program not only obtains a view of the parameters studied at a specific time period in each report, but also accumulates data over time, allowing risk assessment, calculation of dietary intake of contaminants, analysis of tendencies, and evaluation of the effectiveness of regulations to reduce contaminants. The program can also help in the planning of food control programs. The information obtained is disseminated nationally and internationally and is included in dossiers of contaminants issued by national and European health agencies. This demonstrates that a locally-developed surveillance system can have a wider scope and broader objectives and can provide useful information for managers, administrations, economic operators and consumers.

  3. Widening social inequalities in mortality: the case of Barcelona, a southern European city.

    PubMed Central

    Borrell, C; Plasència, A; Pasarin, I; Ortún, V

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse trends in mortality inequalities in Barcelona between 1983 and 1994 by comparing rates in those electoral wards with a low socioeconomic level and rates in the remaining wards. DESIGN: Mortality trends study. SETTING: The city of Barcelona (Spain). SUBJECTS: The study included all deaths among residents of the two groups of city wards. Details were obtained from death certificates. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age standardised mortality rates, age standardised rates of years of potential life lost, and age specific mortality rates in relation to cause of death, sex, and year were computed as well as the comparative mortality figure and the ratio of standardised rates of years of potential life lost. RESULTS: Rates of premature mortality increased from 5691.2 years of potential life lost per 100,000 inhabitants aged 1 to 70 years in 1983 to 7606.2 in 1994 in the low socioeconomic level wards, and from 3731.2 to 4236.9 in the other wards, showing an increase in inequalities over the 12 years, mostly due to AIDS and drug overdose as causes of death. Conversely, cerebrovascular disease showed a reduction in inequality over the same period. Overall mortality in the 15-44 age group widened the gap between both groups of wards. CONCLUSION: AIDS and drug overdose are emerging as the causes of death that are contributing to a substantial increase in social inequality in terms of premature mortality, an unreported observation in European urban areas. PMID:9519129

  4. Quantification of thermal bioclimate for the management of urban design in Mediterranean climate of Barcelona, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Algeciras, José Abel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    In order to contribute to the sustainability of the outdoor environment, knowledge about the urban thermal bioclimate should be transferred into climatic guidelines for planning. The general framework of this study responds to the need of analyzing thermal bioclimate in Mediterranean climate regions and its influence as an urban design factor. The paper analyzes the background of the urban climate and thermal bioclimate conditions in Barcelona (Spain), through the effect of shade conditions and wind speed variations. Simulations of shade and wind speed variations were performed to evaluate changes in thermal bioclimate due to modifications in urban morphology. Air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation for the period from January, 2001 to January, 2015 were used to calculate physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) using the RayMan model. The results demonstrate that shade is the most important strategy to improve urban microclimatic conditions. In Barcelona, human thermal comfort conditions can be improved by shade and wind speed increase in terms of PET above 23 °C and by a wind speed decrease for thresholds of PET below 18 °C. Heat stress situations can be mitigated by shade and wind speed increase in conditions above 35 and 45 °C, respectively. The results of the study are an important contribution for urban planners, due to their possibilities and potential for the description of microclimatic conditions in Mediterranean climate regions. The knowledge is useful for improved human thermal comfort conditions, from the suitable configuration of urban form and architecture.

  5. Quantification of thermal bioclimate for the management of urban design in Mediterranean climate of Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Algeciras, José Abel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    In order to contribute to the sustainability of the outdoor environment, knowledge about the urban thermal bioclimate should be transferred into climatic guidelines for planning. The general framework of this study responds to the need of analyzing thermal bioclimate in Mediterranean climate regions and its influence as an urban design factor. The paper analyzes the background of the urban climate and thermal bioclimate conditions in Barcelona (Spain), through the effect of shade conditions and wind speed variations. Simulations of shade and wind speed variations were performed to evaluate changes in thermal bioclimate due to modifications in urban morphology. Air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation for the period from January, 2001 to January, 2015 were used to calculate physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) using the RayMan model. The results demonstrate that shade is the most important strategy to improve urban microclimatic conditions. In Barcelona, human thermal comfort conditions can be improved by shade and wind speed increase in terms of PET above 23 °C and by a wind speed decrease for thresholds of PET below 18 °C. Heat stress situations can be mitigated by shade and wind speed increase in conditions above 35 and 45 °C, respectively. The results of the study are an important contribution for urban planners, due to their possibilities and potential for the description of microclimatic conditions in Mediterranean climate regions. The knowledge is useful for improved human thermal comfort conditions, from the suitable configuration of urban form and architecture.

  6. [Thirty Years of Health Surveillance of Foods in Barcelona: The "ICSA" Food Quality Research Program].

    PubMed

    Fontcuberta-Famadas, Mireia; Rodellar-Torras, Santiago; Portaña-Tudela, Samuel; Durán-Neira, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The Food Health Quality Research Program (Investigación de la Calidad Sanitaria de los Alimentos [ICSA]) of the Public Health Agency of Barcelona (Agencia de Salud Pública de Barcelona [ASPB]) was initiated in 1984 to carry out surveillance of certain chemical and microbiological parameters related to the sanitary and safety of foods sold in the city. The present article analyzes the importance of health surveillance and provides details of the uses of the ICSA program. The main aim of this program is to evaluate whether marketed foods comply with the absence and/or established tolerance levels of specific parameters. Nevertheless, the program is able to incorporate or suppress parameters or foods that pose emerging dangers or interests not represented in current legislation. Besides, the program not only obtains a view of the parameters studied at a specific time period in each report, but also accumulates data over time, allowing risk assessment, calculation of dietary intake of contaminants, analysis of tendencies, and evaluation of the effectiveness of regulations to reduce contaminants. The program can also help in the planning of food control programs. The information obtained is disseminated nationally and internationally and is included in dossiers of contaminants issued by national and European health agencies. This demonstrates that a locally-developed surveillance system can have a wider scope and broader objectives and can provide useful information for managers, administrations, economic operators and consumers. PMID:26388339

  7. Barcelona conference on epigenetics and cancer: 50 years of histone acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Salvia, Montserrat; Simó-Riudalbas, Laia; Ausió, Juan; Esteller, Manel

    2015-01-01

    The Barcelona Conference on Epigenetics and Cancer (BCEC) was held in Barcelona, Spain, on October 1st and 2nd, 2014. The meeting was co-organized by the Cancer Epigenetics and Biology Program (PEBC-IDIBELL) and B·Debate, an initiative of Biocat, with the support of "la Caixa" Foundation. The scientific committee was comprised of leading scientists in the field of epigenetics: Dr. Manel Esteller, director of PEBC-IDIBELL, Dr. Alejandro Vaquero and Dr. Esteban Ballestar, from PEBC-IDIBELL, Juan Ausió from the University of Victoria (Canada), and Marcus Buschbeck, from the Institute of Predictive and Personalized Medicine of Cancer (IMPPC), as BCEC series coordinator. This meeting was the second edition of the BCEC series, which was launched by 5 leading Barcelonan institutes to bring together leading investigators in the fields of epigenetics and chromatin research. The topics discussed during the meeting included the current challenges, opportunities, and perspectives surrounding the study of histone modifications (focusing in acetylation), chromatin structure and gene expression, and the involvement of histone acetylation in physiology and diseases, such as cancer or neurological diseases. PMID:25942103

  8. "The Best School for My Child?" Positions, Dispositions and Inequalities in School Choice in the City of Barcelona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alegre, Miquel Angel; Benito, Ricard

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the discourses and practices employed by families involved in school choice processes in the city of Barcelona (Spain). It draws upon a study conducted by the authors in 2008/09, and it is based on surveys completed by a representative sample made up of 3245 families, as well as 60 in-depth interviews with families with…

  9. Regulating the Writing Process in the Teacher Training Practicum Guided by Feedback at the University of Barcelona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidiella, Maria-Cinta Portillo; Garcia, Elena Cano

    2016-01-01

    This is a longitudinal study that focuses on blog-writing for the purpose of self-assessing competencies, and which was carried out within the practicum of a degree course in Primary Education Teaching at the University of Barcelona. Over the course of three academic years, students and a teacher have used a Platform 2.0 program, specially created…

  10. Virtual University Teaching: Contributions to Innovation in Higher Education. The Case of "Online Geography" at the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosco, Alejandra; Rodriguez-Gomez, David

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a case study, "Online Geography," carried out at the "Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona" (UAB), the basic feature of which was to implement a Learning Management System for university teaching. This experience resulted in the incorporation of curricular improvements which could be considered compatible with the processes of…

  11. Quality Assessment for Placement Centres: A Case Study of the University of Barcelona's Faculty of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freixa Niella, Montse; Vilà Baños, Ruth; Rubio Hurtado, M. José

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to identify the factors that could be used for quality assessments of the placement centres used by the University of Barcelona's Faculty of Education. To achieve this, a multiple case study method (bachelor's degrees in Education, Social Education and Social Work) was used, which was based on a survey…

  12. Final Documents of the International Congress of Educating Cities (1st, Barcelona, Spain, November 26-30, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcelona Council (Spain).

    The First International Congress of Educating Cities in Barcelona (Spain) considered education in its broadest sense, beyond the school system. An introduction by P. Figueras Bellot is provided. The following are the English translations of the Spanish titles of the presentations given by representatives of international and government…

  13. Nuclear Power for Catalonia: The Role of the Official Chamber of Industry of Barcelona, 1953-1962

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salom, Francesc X. Barca

    2005-01-01

    Between 1939 and 1959, the regime led by General Franco pursued a policy of economic self-sufficiency. This policy inflicted great injury on Spanish science and industry, not least in Catalonia, and in its capital, Barcelona. In response, Catalan industry looked to a future made more promising by the advent of nuclear power. This paper describes…

  14. A management system for accidental water pollution risk in a harbour: The Barcelona case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grifoll, Manel; Jordà, Gabriel; Espino, Manuel; Romo, Javier; García-Sotillo, Marcos

    2011-10-01

    Water quality degradation in harbour domains can have an important negative impact from an economic, touristic and environmental point of view. In that sense, water quality management is becoming a main concern for harbour managers. In this paper, we present the research behind the initiative started in Spanish harbours to control water quality degradation due to accidental pollution. This management system is already operationally running in the Barcelona harbour (NW Mediterranean Sea). The system is based on a recent published risk assessment, which takes into account not only the different activities in the harbour and their inherent risk of accident but also the physical behaviour of harbour waters. In this methodology, a key element is to get hydrodynamic forecasts. Thus, the system is composed of a hierarchy of nested hydrodynamic models covering from the basin scale to the harbour scale and a module that computes the different parameters needed for risk assessment. Special emphasis is made on describing the steps followed for system implementation because such implementation is far from a mere technical problem. The first step is to identify the main forcing factors for the harbour hydrodynamics from both field data and numerical experiments, which has never been done before for the Barcelona harbour. Wind and shelf currents are suggested as the main forcing factors for the harbour circulation. The second step is to identify the requirements that a numerical model must fulfil in order to properly solve the Barcelona harbour's hydrodynamics. A high resolution (< 50 m) three dimensional model able to prognostically calculate temperature and salinity evolution; full air-sea coupling is needed as well. The third step is to investigate the best operational strategy. We have found that small errors in the initial density profiles are acceptable for surface current forecasts but not for deep circulation. A cold start must be avoided and a 72 h spin-up is

  15. The Barcelona Sleepiness Index: A New Instrument to Assess Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Sleep Disordered Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Guaita, Marc; Salamero, Manel; Vilaseca, Isabel; Iranzo, Alex; Montserrat, Josep M.; Gaig, Carles; Embid, Cristina; Romero, Montserrat; Serradell, Mònica; León, Carme; de Pablo, Joan; Santamaria, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To develop the Barcelona Sleepiness Index (BSI), an interviewer-administered instrument for assessing excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) that correlates well with objective measures of EDS and which is sensitive to change with treatment. Methods: (1) Generation of a preliminary item list: Fifty-three consecutive SDB patients complaining of EDS and their bed partners were interviewed using a focus group methodology to generate a list of situations prone to cause sleepiness. Sixty different consecutive SDB patients were then evaluated using cognitive interviews to refine this list. (2) Construct validity: The maintenance of wakefulness test (MWT), the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) and the sustained attention to response task (SART) test were used in an additional 98 consecutive SDB patients with and without EDS. The item combination that best correlated with the objective tests constituted the BSI. Cutoff values were determined to differentiate between patients with and without EDS. (3) Sensitivity to change: Thirty patients requiring continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) were evaluated after satisfactory treatment. Results: A combination of two items, “in the morning, when relaxing” and “in the afternoon, standing inactive, in a public place,” presented the highest correlations with the MWT (r: −0.50, p < 0.001), the MSLT (r: −0.21, p = 0.07), and the SART (r: 0.27, p < 0.02) and constituted the BSI. The BSI significantly correlated with oxyhemoglobin saturation measures (nadir SpO2: r: −0.28, p = 0.01; CT 85: r: 0.23, p = 0.04) and showed a high sensitivity to change with CPAP treatment (t: 3.4, p = 0.002). A score of 2 or more identified patients with objective EDS (sensitivity = 64.9%, specificity = 72.1%). Conclusion: The Barcelona Sleepiness Index is a simple, brief instrument for measuring subjective EDS in SDB. Citation: Guaita M, Salamero M, Vilaseca I, Iranzo A, Montserrat JM

  16. Implementation of CGPS at Estartit, Ibiza and Barcelona harbours for sea level monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J. J.; Ortiz Castellon, M.; Martinez-Garcia, M.; Perez, B.; Bosch, E.; Termens, A.; Martinez de Oses, X.

    2009-12-01

    The determination of global and regional mean sea level variations with accura-cies better than 1 mm/yr is a critical problem, the resolution of which is central to the current debate on climate change and its impact on the environment. Highly accurate time series from both satellite altimetry and tide gauges are needed. Measuring the sea surface height with in-situ tide gauges and GPS receivers pro-vides an efficient way to control the long term stability of the radar altimeters and other applications as the vertical land motion and studies of sea level change. L’Estartit tide gauge is a classical floating tide gauge set up in l’Estartit harbour (NE Spain) in 1990. Data are taken in graphics registers from which each two hours the mean value is recorded in an electronic support and delivered to the Permanent Service for Mean Sea level (PSMSL). Periodic surveying campaigns along the year are carried out for monitoring possible vertical movement of the geodetic benchmark adjacent to the tide gauge. Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours) installed the tide gauge station at Ibiza har-bour in January 2003 and a near GPS reference station. The station belongs to the REDMAR network, composed at this moment by 21 stations distributed along the whole Spanish waters, including also the Canary islands (http://www.puertos.es). The tide gauge also belongs to the ESEAS (European Sea Level) network. A description of the actual infrastructure at Ibiza, Barcelona and l’Estartit har-bours is presented.The main objective is the implementation of these harbours as a precise geodetic areas for sea level monitoring and altimeter calibration. Actually is a CGPS with a radar tide gauge from Puertos del Estado and a GPS belonging to Puerto de Barcelona. A precise levelling has been made by the Cartographic Insti-tute of Catalonia, ICC. The instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge Datamar 3000C device and a

  17. Geodetic Infrastructure in the Ibiza and Barcelona Harbours for Sea Level Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J. J.; Gili, J.; Lopez, R.; Tapia, A.; Perez, B.; Pros, F.

    2013-12-01

    The presentation is directed to the description of the actual situation and relevant information of the geodetic infrastructure of Ibiza and Barcelona sites for sea level determination and contribution to regional sea level rise. Time series are being analysed for mean sea level variations www.puertos.es. .In the framework of a Spanish Space Project, the instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge Datamar 2000C from Geonica s.l. near an acoustic tide gauge. Puertos del Estado installed in 2007 a MIROS radar tide gauge and the Barcelona Harbour Authority a GPS referente station in the roof of the new Control Tower situated in the Energy Pier. The radar sensor is over the water surface, on a L-shaped structure which elevates it a few meters above the quay shelf. 1-min data are transmitted to the ENAGAS Control Center by cable and then sent each 1 min to Puertos del Estado by e-mail. There is a GPS station Leica Geosystems GRX1200 GG Pro and antenna 1202. Precision levelling has been made several times in the last two years because the tower is founded in reclaimed land. The measured settlement rate is about 1cm/year that may be could mask the values registered by the tide gauge. A description of the actual infrastructure at Ibiza harbour at Marina de Botafoch, is presented and its applications to sea level monitoring and altimeter calibration in support of the main CGPS at Ibiza harbour. It is described the geometrical precision levelling made in June 2013 between the radar tide gauge and the GPS station. In particular, the CGPS located at Ibiza harbour is essential for its application to the marine campaign Baleares 2013, near Ibiza island. The main objective is to determine the altimeter bias for Jason-2, about 9:09 UTC September 15, 2013, and Saral/AltiKa, about 05:30 UTC September 16, UTC. These activities has been received funding of the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion under Spanish

  18. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in airborne particulate samples collected in Barcelona (Spain).

    PubMed

    Vallés, I; Camacho, A; Ortega, X; Serrano, I; Blázquez, S; Pérez, S

    2009-02-01

    Results for naturally occurring (7)Be, (210)Pb, (40)K, (214)Bi, (214)Pb, (212)Pb, (228)Ac and (208)Tl and anthropogenic (137)Cs in airborne particulate matter in the Barcelona area during the period from January 2001 to December 2005 are presented and discussed. The (212)Pb and (208)Tl, (214)Bi and (214)Pb, (7)Be and (210)Pb radionuclide levels showed a significant correlation with each other, with correlation coefficients of 0.99, 0.78 and 0.69, respectively, suggesting similar origin/behaviour of these radionuclides in the air. Caessium-137 and Potassium-40 were transported to the air as resuspended particle from the soil. The (7)Be and (210)Pb concentrations showed similar seasonal variations, with a tendency for maximum concentrations during the summer months. An inverse relationship was observed between the (7)Be, (210)Pb, (40)K and (137)Cs concentrations and weekly rainfall, indicating washout of atmospheric aerosols carrying these radionuclides.

  19. Initial distribution assessment of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Barcelona, Spain, area.

    PubMed

    Roiz, D; Eritja, R; Molina, R; Melero-Alcibar, R; Lucientes, J

    2008-05-01

    The invasive species Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse 1894) (Diptera: Culicidae) has reached several European countries, including Albania, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, France, Greece, Israel, Italy, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland, The Netherlands, and recently Spain (Med. Vet. Entomol. 20: 150-152, 2006). Here, we present the initial characterization of the distribution of Ae. albopictus in the municipality of Sant Cugat del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain, where it was found for the first time in the Iberian Peninsula. An ovitrap sampling campaign was developed from September to December 2004 to assess the spatial distribution and abundance of Ae. albopictus to evaluate the potential of an eradication attempt. The population of Ae. albopictus in the whole area was shown to be widespread within the municipality, and it included at least another one neighboring town, so authorities were advised to develop large-scale control measures. Some indirect evidence was collected on the introduction means and date. PMID:18533426

  20. Occurrence of 95 pharmaceuticals and transformation products in urban groundwaters underlying the metropolis of Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    López-Serna, Rebeca; Jurado, Anna; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Carrera, Jesus; Petrović, Mira; Barceló, Damià

    2013-03-01

    The present paper presents the occurrence of 72 pharmaceuticals and 23 transformation products (TPs) in groundwaters (GWs) underlying the city of Barcelona, Spain. Thirty-one samples were collected under different districts, and at different depths. Aquifers with different geologic features and source of recharge were included, i.e., natural bank filtration, infiltration from wastewater and water supply pipes, rainfall recharge, etc. Antibiotics were the most frequently found compounds detected at levels reaching 1000 ng L(-1). Natural bank filtration from the river that receives large amounts of effluents from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs), turned out being the most influencing source of contamination, thus GW showed high range of compounds and concentrations as high as or even higher than in the river itself. In general, TPs were found at lower concentrations than the corresponding parent compounds, with some exceptions, such as 4OH propranolol and enalaprilat.

  1. Papillomavirus research update: highlights of the Barcelona HPV 2000 international papillomavirus conference

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, F; Rohan, T; Schneider, A; Frazer, I; Pfister, H; Castellsague, X; de Sanjose, S; Moreno, V; Puig-Tintore, L; Smith, P; Munoz, N; zur Hausen, H

    2001-01-01

    The 18th international papillomavirus conference took place in Barcelona, Spain in July 2000. The HPV clinical workshop was jointly organised with the annual meeting of the Spanish Association of Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy. The conference included 615 abstracts describing ongoing research in epidemiology, diagnosis/screening, treatment/prognosis, immunology/human immunodeficiency virus, vaccine development/trials, transformation/progression, replication, transcription/translation, viral protein functions, and viral and host interactions. This leader summarises the highlights presented at the conference (the full text of the abstracts and lectures can be found at www.hpv2000.com). Relevant material in Spanish can be found at www.aepcc.org. Key Words: papillomavirus • epidemiology • immunology • biology • screening PMID:11253126

  2. An observational study of the 7 September 2005 Barcelona tornado outbreak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, J.; Pascual, R.; Rigo, T.; Pineda, N.; López, J. M.; Arús, J.; Gayà, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an observational study of the tornado outbreak that took place on the 7 September 2005 in the Llobregat delta river, affecting a densely populated and urbanised area and the Barcelona International airport (NE Spain). The site survey confirmed at least five short-lived tornadoes. Four of them were weak (F0, F1) and the other one was significant (F2 on the Fujita scale). They started mostly as waterspouts and moved later inland causing extensive damage estimated in 9 million Euros, three injured people but fortunately no fatalities. Large scale forcing was provided by upper level diffluence and low level warm air advection. Satellite and weather radar images revealed the development of the cells that spawned the waterspouts along a mesoscale convergence line in a highly sheared and relatively low buoyant environment. Further analysis indicated characteristics that could be attributed indistinctively to non-supercell or to mini-supercell thunderstorms.

  3. Climate Change and Health in the Urban Context: The Experience of Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Villalbí, Joan R; Ventayol, Irma

    2016-07-01

    Climate change poses huge challenges for public health, and cities are at the forefront of this process. The purpose of this paper is to present the issues climate change poses for public health in the city of Barcelona, how they are being addressed, and what are the current major challenges, trying to contribute to the development of a baseline understanding of the status of adaptation in cities from a public health perspective. The major issues related to climate change faced by the city are common to other urban centers in a Mediterranean climate: heat waves, water availability and quality, air quality, and diseases transmitted by vectors, and all are reviewed in detail with empirical data. They are not a potential threat for the future, but have actually challenged the city services and infrastructure over the last years, requiring sustainable responses and rigorous planning. PMID:27387343

  4. Quantification of thermal bioclimate for the management of urban design in Mediterranean climate of Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Algeciras, José Abel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    In order to contribute to the sustainability of the outdoor environment, knowledge about the urban thermal bioclimate should be transferred into climatic guidelines for planning. The general framework of this study responds to the need of analyzing thermal bioclimate in Mediterranean climate regions and its influence as an urban design factor. The paper analyzes the background of the urban climate and thermal bioclimate conditions in Barcelona (Spain), through the effect of shade conditions and wind speed variations. Simulations of shade and wind speed variations were performed to evaluate changes in thermal bioclimate due to modifications in urban morphology. Air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation for the period from January, 2001 to January, 2015 were used to calculate physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) using the RayMan model. The results demonstrate that shade is the most important strategy to improve urban microclimatic conditions. In Barcelona, human thermal comfort conditions can be improved by shade and wind speed increase in terms of PET above 23 °C and by a wind speed decrease for thresholds of PET below 18 °C. Heat stress situations can be mitigated by shade and wind speed increase in conditions above 35 and 45 °C, respectively. The results of the study are an important contribution for urban planners, due to their possibilities and potential for the description of microclimatic conditions in Mediterranean climate regions. The knowledge is useful for improved human thermal comfort conditions, from the suitable configuration of urban form and architecture. PMID:26694490

  5. Barcelona Rocks, a mobile app to learn geology in your city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, Adelina; Cabrera, Lluis; Alias, Gemma; Aulinas, Meritxell; Becerra, Margarita; Casadellà, Jordi; Clotet, Roger; Delclós, Xavier; Fernández-Turiel, José-Luis; Tarragó, Marta; Travé, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Barcelona Rocks is an application for personal mobile devices suitable for secondary and high school students as well as the general public without a solid background in Earth Sciences. The main objective of this app is to teach Geology using as learning resource our city façades and pavements. Additionally, Barcelona Rocks provides a short explanation about the significance of the appearance of the different rock types at the different historical periods of the city. Although it has been designed as a playful learning resource for secondary school students, the level of knowledge also allows bringing some basic concepts and principles of Earth Sciences to the general public, irrespective of age. This app is intended to provide the degree of interactivity and entertainment required by the different individual users and aims to: (i) Explain the techniques and experiments that allow the user to identify the different rocks, as well as their genesis. (ii) Introduce geology to the youngest users in a more attractive and entertaining way, providing also some information regarding the use of the different ornamental rocks during the different historical periods of the city: roman, medieval, etc. (iii) Provide historical and architectural information of the selected buildings in order to improve the city's historical architectural knowledge of the users. (iv) Show the non-expert public the importance of their country's geology. (v) Develop of outreach and dissemination resources taking advantage of the versatile and potent mobile application format using also the content as support material for science courses, seminars, or social learning events. (vi) Encourage new generations of Earth Scientists (vii) Promote science and scientific culture of the society, integrating culture and innovation as essential for the emergence of new scientific and technological vocations, promoting critical thinking, understanding of the scientific method and the social interest in science

  6. Group B Streptococci Causing Neonatal Infections in Barcelona Are a Stable Clonal Population: 18-Year Surveillance▿

    PubMed Central

    Martins, E. R.; Andreu, A.; Correia, P.; Juncosa, T.; Bosch, J.; Ramirez, M.; Melo-Cristino, J.

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed 212 group B streptococci (GBS) from newborns with invasive infections in the area of Barcelona, Spain, between 1992 and 2009, with the aim of documenting changes in the prevalences of serotypes, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic lineages and evaluating their associations with either early-onset disease (EOD) or late-onset disease (LOD). Serotypes III (n = 118) and Ia (n = 47) together accounted for nearly 78% of the isolates. All isolates carried an alpha or alpha-like protein gene, and specific associations between genes and serotypes, such as serotype Ib and bca, serotype II and bca, serotype III and rib, and serotype V and alp3, reflected the presence of particular genetic lineages. Macrolide resistance (14.2%) was significantly associated with serotype V. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) clustering was an excellent predictor of serotype and antibiotic resistance. The combination of PFGE and multilocus sequence typing revealed a large number of genetically distinct lineages. Still, specific lineages were dominant in our collection, particularly the serotype III/ST17/rib lineage, which had enhanced potential to cause LOD. Serotype Ia was concentrated in a single PFGE cluster composed of two genetic lineages: ST23/eps and ST24/bca. The ST24/bca sublineage of serotype Ia, which is found infrequently elsewhere, may be emerging as an important cause of neonatal invasive infections in the Mediterranean region. In spite of the introduction of prophylaxis, resulting in a pronounced decline in the frequency of EOD, the study revealed a remarkably stable clonal structure of GBS causing neonatal infections in Barcelona over a period of 18 years. PMID:21697333

  7. Metaevaluation of National Weatherization Assistance Program Based on State Studies, 1993-2002

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, L

    2003-04-02

    The National Weatherization Assistance Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and implemented by state and local agencies throughout the United States, weatherizes homes for low-income residents in order to increase their energy efficiency and lower utility bills. Research staff members at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have performed two previous metaevaluations of this program (Berry, 1997; Schweitzer and Berry, 1999). Both of these earlier metaevaluations involved synthesizing the results from individual studies of state weatherization efforts completed during a several year period. This report is the third in a series of metaevaluations of state-level studies. It is built on the foundation developed by the previous two metaevaluations. The purpose of this report, like that of the two earlier ORNL metaevaluations, is to provide a current estimate of the average national energy savings per home weatherized for the Weatherization Assistance Program based on the relevant state-level studies. All three of the metaevaluations, including this one, were designed to be updates to the findings of a national evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program, which examined a representative national sample of several thousand structures weatherized in 1989 (Brown, Berry, Balzer, and Faby 1993). Although the first and second metaevaluations used separate sets of state-level studies, completed during different time periods, there was little difference in their findings about the typical national energy savings per weatherized home for homes that heat with natural gas. Our initial analysis efforts for this report involved repeating the same procedures that had been used in the previous two reports. In particular, we collected and examined only the state-level evaluations that had become available between September of 1998 and August of 2002. Once again, we found little difference in the average energy savings estimates per weatherized home that were produced with this third set of the most recently available state-level evaluations.

  8. Ten Talks: Celebrating the Creative Process. Friends of the Library Annual Lecture Series, 1993-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Linda, Ed.

    Each spring, the Friends of the Library of the University of Waterloo Library invite the campus community to join in an event celebrating the creative process. The event reflects the day-to-day work of the library staff: bringing together information from a diverse range of disciplines for the purpose of creating new knowledge. This book includes…

  9. Factors affecting groundwater quality in the Valley and Ridge aquifers, eastern United States, 1993-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Gregory C.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Lindsey, Bruce D.; Gross, Eliza L.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical and microbiological analyses of water from 230 wells and 35 springs in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province, sampled between 1993 and 2002, indicated that bedrock type (carbonate or siliciclastic rock) and land use were dominant factors influencing groundwater quality across a region extending from northwestern Georgia to New Jersey. The analyses included naturally occurring compounds (major mineral ions and radon) and anthropogenic contaminants [pesticides and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)], and contaminants, such as nitrate and bacteria, which commonly increase as a result of human activities. Natural factors, such as topographic position and the mineral composition of underlying geology, act to produce basic physical and geochemical conditions in groundwater that are reflected in physical properties, such as pH, temperature, specific conductance, and alkalinity, and in chemical concentrations of dissolved oxygen, radon, and major mineral ions. Anthropogenic contaminants were most commonly found in water from wells and springs in carbonate-rock aquifers. Nitrate concentrations exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels in 12 percent of samples, most of which were from carbonate-rock aquifers. Escherichia coli (E. coli), pesticide, and VOC detection frequencies were significantly higher in samples from sites in carbonate-rock aquifers. Naturally occurring elements, such as radon, iron, and manganese, were found in higher concentrations in siliciclastic-rock aquifers. Radon levels exceeded the proposed maximum contaminant level of 300 picocuries per liter in 74 percent of the samples, which were evenly distributed between carbonate- and siliciclastic-rock aquifers. The land use in areas surrounding wells and springs was another significant explanatory variable for the occurrence of anthropogenic compounds. Nitrate and pesticide concentrations were highest in samples collected from sites in agricultural areas and lowest in samples collected from sites in undeveloped areas. Volatile organic compounds were detected most frequently and in highest concentrations in samples from sites in urban areas, and least frequently in agricultural and undeveloped areas. No volatile organic compound concentrations and concentrations from only one pesticide, dieldrin, exceeded human-health benchmarks.

  10. Twenty years of socioeconomic inequalities in premature mortality in Barcelona: The influence of population and neighbourhood changes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Gotsens, Mercè; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Mehdipanah, Roshanak; Borrell, Carme

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse trends in socioeconomic inequalities in premature mortality in Barcelona from 1992 to 2011, accounting for population changes. We conducted a repeated cross-sectional study of the Barcelona population (25-64 years) using generalized linear mixed models for trend analysis, and found that socioeconomic inequalities in premature mortality persisted between neighbourhoods, but tended to diminish. However, the reduction in inequality was related to an increase in the number of foreign-born individuals mainly in socioeconomic disadvantaged neighbourhoods, in which the decrease in premature mortality was more marked. To study trends in geographical inequalities in mortality, it is essential to understand demographic changes occurred in different places related to local levels of deprivation. PMID:27105035

  11. Building a panel data set on fuel stations located in the Spanish regional areas of Madrid and Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Balaguer, Jacint; Ripollés, Jordi

    2016-06-01

    The data described in this article were collected daily over the period June 10, 2010, to November 25, 2012, from the website of the Spanish Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism. The database includes information about fuel stations regarding to their prices (both gross and net of taxes), brand, location (latitude and longitude), and postal code in the Spanish provinces of Madrid and Barcelona. Moreover, obtaining the postal codes has allowed us to select those stations that are operating within the metropolitan areas of Madrid and Barcelona. By considering those fuel stations that uninterruptedly provided prices during the entire period, the data can be especially useful to explore the dynamics of prices in fuel markets. This is the case of Balaguer and Ripollés (2016), "Asymmetric fuel price responses under heterogeneity" [1], who, taking into account the presence of the potential heterogeneity of the behaviour of fuel stations, used this statistical information to perform an analysis on asymmetric fuel price responses.

  12. Long term effects of traffic noise on mortality in the city of Barcelona, 2004-2007.

    PubMed

    Barceló, Maria Antònia; Varga, Diego; Tobias, Aurelio; Diaz, Julio; Linares, Cristina; Saez, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Numerous studies showing statistically significant associations between environmental noise and adverse health effects already exist for short-term (over one day at most) and long-term (over a year or more) noise exposure, both for morbidity and (albeit to a lesser extent) mortality. Recently, several studies have shown this association to be independent from confounders, mainly those of air pollutants. However, what has not been addressed is the problem of misalignment (i.e. the exposure data locations and health outcomes have different spatial locations). Without any explicit control of such misalignment inference is seriously compromised. Our objective is to assess the long-term effects of traffic noise on mortality in the city of Barcelona (Spain) during 2004-2007. We take into account the control of confounding, for both air pollution and socioeconomic factors at a contextual level and, in particular, we explicitly address the problem of misalignment. We employed a case-control design with individual data. We used deaths resulting from myocardial infarction, hypertension, or Type II diabetes mellitus in Barcelona between 2004 and 2007 as cases for the study, while for controls we used deaths (likewise in Barcelona and over the same period of time) resulting from AIDS or external causes (e.g. accidental falls, accidental poisoning by psychotropic drugs, drugs of abuse, suicide and self-harm, or injuries resulting from motor vehicle accidents). The controls were matched with the cases by sex and age. We used the annual average equivalent A-weighted sound pressure levels for daytime (7-21h), evening-time (21-23h) and night-time (23-7h), and controlled for the following confounders: i) air pollutants (NO2, PM10 and benzene), ii) material deprivation (at a census tract level) and iii) land use and other spatial variables. We explicitly controlled for heterogeneity (uneven distribution of both response and environmental exposures within an area), spatial dependency

  13. A Mediterranean case study of flood evolution: the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llasat, Maria Carmen; Gilabert, Joan; Llasat-Botija, Montserrat; Cortès, Maria; Marcos, Raül; Martín-Vide, Juan Pedro; Turco, Marco; Falcón, Lluis

    2016-04-01

    Flood risk changes in Mediterranean Region integrate multiple factors, some of them related with the hazard (i.e. rainfall intensity), the vulnerability and exposure (i.e. population or assets), feedback processes that affect both hazard and vulnerability (i.e. urbanization of flood prone areas), mitigation and adaptation measures (i.e. rainwater tanks or early warning systems), and the available information used to estimate flood events (i.e. newspapers or gauged data). Flood events in the West Mediterranean region are usually produced as a consequence of very intense and local precipitation, mainly recorded on late summer and autumn that can give place to flash-floods in little torrential rivers (usually non-permanent flows) or urban floods. The Metropolitan Area of Barcelona (AMB), Spain, constitutes a good paradigm of a Mediterranean coast region, with strong urbanization of flood prone areas and high population density in an area crossed by numerous streams. The AMB is constituted by 36 municipalities with a total population above 3.200.000 inhabitants in an extension of 636 km². The major part of the population is concentrated between the Besós River and the Llobregat River, the Littoral Range and the Mediterranean Sea. Although both rivers have experienced catastrophic flood events (i.e. 25 September 1962, 815 deaths; 19-23 September 1971, 19 deaths; October 1987, 8 deaths), the most frequent situation is related with floods in non-permanent streams. Their main impacts are consequence of drainage and runoff problems and can affect both urban and rural areas. This contribution explores the evolution of land uses, population and precipitation from the middle of the 20th century until now, and how these changes have affected (or not), the flood risk. To do it, daily and sub-daily rainfall series, discharge series for the Llobregat and Besós Rivers, population data and land use changes have been analyzed. Future precipitation projections provided by an

  14. Long term effects of traffic noise on mortality in the city of Barcelona, 2004-2007.

    PubMed

    Barceló, Maria Antònia; Varga, Diego; Tobias, Aurelio; Diaz, Julio; Linares, Cristina; Saez, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Numerous studies showing statistically significant associations between environmental noise and adverse health effects already exist for short-term (over one day at most) and long-term (over a year or more) noise exposure, both for morbidity and (albeit to a lesser extent) mortality. Recently, several studies have shown this association to be independent from confounders, mainly those of air pollutants. However, what has not been addressed is the problem of misalignment (i.e. the exposure data locations and health outcomes have different spatial locations). Without any explicit control of such misalignment inference is seriously compromised. Our objective is to assess the long-term effects of traffic noise on mortality in the city of Barcelona (Spain) during 2004-2007. We take into account the control of confounding, for both air pollution and socioeconomic factors at a contextual level and, in particular, we explicitly address the problem of misalignment. We employed a case-control design with individual data. We used deaths resulting from myocardial infarction, hypertension, or Type II diabetes mellitus in Barcelona between 2004 and 2007 as cases for the study, while for controls we used deaths (likewise in Barcelona and over the same period of time) resulting from AIDS or external causes (e.g. accidental falls, accidental poisoning by psychotropic drugs, drugs of abuse, suicide and self-harm, or injuries resulting from motor vehicle accidents). The controls were matched with the cases by sex and age. We used the annual average equivalent A-weighted sound pressure levels for daytime (7-21h), evening-time (21-23h) and night-time (23-7h), and controlled for the following confounders: i) air pollutants (NO2, PM10 and benzene), ii) material deprivation (at a census tract level) and iii) land use and other spatial variables. We explicitly controlled for heterogeneity (uneven distribution of both response and environmental exposures within an area), spatial dependency

  15. The Geographic Information System techniques impact analyze of Office's Properties in Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, P. A.; Biere, R. A.; Moix, M. B.

    2007-05-01

    The changes in the characteristics and needs in the cities structures means new challenges in the space to the economics activities. The increasing predominance of the tertiary industry, of offices or I+D buildings, like an effect of the economic transformation implies new forms, new technical characteristics and similar alternatives locations accordant with a changing demand. The project that is presented here, is developed by the Centre of Land Policy and Valuations of the University Polytechnic of Catalonia for the company "Servicios de Geo-marketing Inmobiliario S.L.' (SGMI, Real State Geo- marketing Services S.L.) The process consists in the generation of a geographic information system to the analyses of the characteristics office's buildings of Barcelona in the sense to introduce the property office's buildings of Barcelona into a database for the geo-marketing. This application allows the access to the necessary information of technical and constructive characteristics of the office's buildings, summoned by the most emblematic or central locations to the best technical level in their constructions towards facilitating the maximum knowledge the citizen in order to assure the choice according to the needs for every profile of demand. The work has consisted basically in defining the technical criteria of evaluation of the building, to systematize those characteristics in some indicators (variable) capable of expressing the level of quality of every variable, to establish a system measurement of greater to smaller value explained to the quality. Systematizing the collection of information of a total of 683 buildings of Barcelona and of some municipalities of its periphery, through a visit to every building, to process the data obtained to a database and to standardize the value of quality for every indicator and set of indicators towards determining a final qualification, obtained from the different physical, constructive and qualitative characteristics of

  16. Risk perception of sexually transmitted infections and HIV in Nigerian commercial sex workers in Barcelona: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Coma Auli, Núria; Mejía-Lancheros, Cília; Berenguera, Anna; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine in detail the risk perception of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV, and the contextual circumstances, in Nigerian commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Barcelona. Design A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. Setting Raval area in Barcelona. Participants 8 CSWs working in Barcelona. Methods A phenomenological study was carried out with Nigerian CSWs in Barcelona. Sampling was theoretical, taking into account: different age ranges; women with and without a partner; women with and without children; and women participating or not in STI/HIV-prevention workshops. Information was obtained by means of eight semistructured individual interviews. An interpretative content analysis was conducted by four analysts. Results Illegal immigrant status, educational level, financial situation and work, and cultural context had mixed effects on CSW knowledge of, exposure to, and prevention and treatment of STI and HIV. CSWs were aware of the higher risk of STI associated with their occupation. They identified condoms as the best preventive method and used them during intercourse with clients. They also implemented other preventive behaviours such as personal hygiene after intercourse. Control of sexual services provided, health education and healthcare services had a positive effect on decreasing exposure and better management of STI/HIV. Conclusions Nigerian CSWs are a vulnerable group because of their poor socioeconomic status. The perception of risk in this group and their preventive behaviours are based on personal determinants, beliefs and experiences from their home country and influences from the host country. Interventions aimed at CSWs must address knowledge gaps, risk behaviours and structural elements. PMID:26078307

  17. Implementation of Barcelona, L'estartit and Ibiza Sites for Altimeter Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J. J.; Gili, J.; Lopez, R.; Tapia, A.; Bosch, E.; Perez, B.; Pros, F.

    2012-12-01

    A marine campaign to compute the sea surface data along the Spanish Mediterranean coastline and Balearic Islands is being prepared for 2013. Jason-2 (period ~10 days) and Saral/AltiKa (period of 35 days and expected launch in 2012) altimetric data and on-board GPS data will be used. Many GPS Buoy sessions along the ship route will be performed.Sea height estimates (instantaneous and mean sea levels) will be compared. Recently some geodetic improvements has been made in specific coastal spanish sites in the NW Mediterranean Sea for monitoring sea level. The goal is to maintain and improve the quality of the observation of the sea level change in the three sites. The information is coming from Puertos del Estado www.puertos.es L'Estartit tide gauge has been co-located with geodetic techniques (GPS measurements of XU, Utilitary Network, and XdA, Levelling Network,) and it is tied to the SPGIC (Integrated Geodetic Positioning System of Catalonia) project of the Cartographic Institute of Catalunya (ICC). In the past three calibration campaigns for Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1 in March 1999, August 2000 and July 2002 near Cape of Begur. At Barcelona harbour there is one MIROS radar tide gauge belonging to Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours).The radar sensor is over the water surface, on a L-shaped structure which elevates it a few meters above the quay shelf. 1-min data are transmitted to the ENAGAS Control Center by cable and then sent each 1 min to Puertos del Estado by e-mail. The information includes wave forescast (mean period, significant wave height, sea level, etc.This sensor also measures agitation and sends wave parameters each 20 min. There is a GPS station Leica Geosystems GRX1200 GG Pro and antenna 1202. Bathymetric campaigns inside the harbour have been made. At Ibiza site new measurements and levelling between the GPS reference station and a Radar MIROS, both from Puertos del Estado, has been made recently. A calibration campaign for Jason-1 was made in

  18. Green and Blue Spaces and Behavioral Development in Barcelona Schoolchildren: The BREATHE Project

    PubMed Central

    Amoly, Elmira; Forns, Joan; López-Vicente, Mónica; Basagaña, Xavier; Julvez, Jordi; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Sunyer, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Green spaces have been associated with improved mental health in children; however, available epidemiological evidence on their impact on child behavioral development is scarce. Objectives: We investigated the impact of contact with green spaces and blue spaces (beaches) on indicators of behavioral development and symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in schoolchildren. Methods: This study was based on a sample of 2,111 schoolchildren (7–10 years of age) from 36 schools in Barcelona in 2012. We obtained data on time spent in green spaces and beaches and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires (SDQ) from parents, and ADHD/DSM-IV questionnaires from teachers. Surrounding greenness was abstracted as the average Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in buffers of 100 m, 250 m, and 500 m around each home address. Proximity to green spaces was defined as living within 300 m of a major green space (≥ 0.05 km2). We applied quasi-Poisson mixed-effects models (with school random effect) to separately estimate associations between indicators of contact with green spaces and SDQ and ADHD total and subscale scores. Results: We generally estimated beneficial associations between behavioral indicators and longer time spent in green spaces and beaches, and with residential surrounding greenness. Specifically, we found statistically significant inverse associations between green space playing time and SDQ total difficulties, emotional symptoms, and peer relationship problems; between residential surrounding greenness and SDQ total difficulties and hyperactivity/inattention and ADHD/DSM-IV total and inattention scores; and between annual beach attendance and SDQ total difficulties, peer relationship problems, and prosocial behavior. For proximity to major green spaces, the results were not conclusive. Conclusion: Our findings support beneficial impacts of contact with green and blue spaces on behavioral development in schoolchildren

  19. A geological model for the management of subsurface data in the urban environment of Barcelona and surrounding area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Ángel Marazuela, Miguel; Velasco, Violeta; Diviu, Marc; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés; Álvarez-Marrón, Joaquina

    2016-09-01

    The overdevelopment of cities since the industrial revolution has shown the need to incorporate a sound geological knowledge in the management of required subsurface infrastructures and in the assessment of increasingly needed groundwater resources. Additionally, the scarcity of outcrops and the technical difficulty to conduct underground exploration in urban areas highlights the importance of implementing efficient management plans that deal with the legacy of heterogeneous subsurface information. To deal with these difficulties, a methodology has been proposed to integrate all the available spatio-temporal data into a comprehensive spatial database and a set of tools that facilitates the analysis and processing of the existing and newly added data for the city of Barcelona (NE Spain). Here we present the resulting actual subsurface 3-D geological model that incorporates and articulates all the information stored in the database. The methodology applied to Barcelona benefited from a good collaboration between administrative bodies and researchers that enabled the realization of a comprehensive geological database despite logistic difficulties. Currently, the public administration and also private sectors both benefit from the geological understanding acquired in the city of Barcelona, for example, when preparing the hydrogeological models used in groundwater assessment plans. The methodology further facilitates the continuous incorporation of new data in the implementation and sustainable management of urban groundwater, and also contributes to significantly reducing the costs of new infrastructures.

  20. A new Lower Pleistocene archeological site in Europe (Vallparadís, Barcelona, Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Kenneth; Garcia, Joan; Carbonell, Eudald; Agustí, Jordi; Bahain, Jean-Jaques; Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Burjachs, Francesc; Cáceres, Isabel; Duval, Mathieu; Falguères, Christophe; Gómez, Manuel; Huguet, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Here we report the discovery of a new late Lower Pleistocene site named Vallparadís (Barcelona, Spain) that produced a rich archeological and paleontological sequence dated from the upper boundary of the Jaramillo subchron to the early Middle Pleistocene. This deposit contained a main archeological layer with numerous artifacts and a rich macromammalian assemblage, some of which bore cut marks, that could indicate that hominins had access to carcasses. Paleomagnetic analysis, electron spin resonance-uranium series (ESR-US), and the biostratigraphic chronological position of the macro- and micromammal and lithic assemblages of this layer reinforce the proposal that hominins inhabited Europe during the Lower Pleistocene. The archeological sequence provides key information on the successful adaptation of European hominins that preceded the well-known fossil population from Atapuerca and succeeded the finds from Orce basin. Hence, this discovery enables us to close a major chronological gap in the early prehistory of Iberia. According to the information in this paper and the available data from these other sites, we propose that Mediterranean Western Europe was repeatedly and perhaps continuously occupied during the late Matuyama chron. PMID:20231433

  1. Follow-up study of heroin-addicted persons admitted for treatment in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Guardia Serecigni, J; Masip Vidal, J; Viladrich Segues, M C

    1988-01-01

    A follow-up study of 73 heroin-addicted persons three years after their first visit for treatment in 1981 to the Department of the Prevention of Drug Dependence and Guidance and Treatment of Drug Dependent Persons at Barcelona, Spain, was compared to a study of the same persons carried out after one year. The comparison showed that after one year 37 per cent of the cases had a favourable and 36 per cent an unfavourable outcome; for 27 per cent of the cases, information was lacking. After three years, 56 per cent showed a favourable and 30.3 per cent an unfavourable outcome; for 13.7 per cent information was lacking. Certain factors, such as a longer duration of treatment, a change in residence from an urban to a rural environment and treatment in a therapeutic community, were found to have enhanced the likelihood of achieving favourable results. Detoxification when not supplemented with supportive measures aimed at rehabilitation had a poor outcome.

  2. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 7th International LISA Symposium, Barcelona, Spain, 16-20 June 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Alberto; Sopuerta, Carlos F.

    2009-07-01

    In June 2006 the LISA International Science Team (LIST) accepted the bid presented by the Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC) to host the 7th International LISA Symposium. This was during its 11th meeting at the University of Maryland, just before the 6th edition of the Symposium started in NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The 7th International LISA Symposium took place at the city of Barcelona, Spain, from 16-20 June 2008, in the premises of CosmoCaixa, a modern Science Museum located in the hills near Tibidabo. Almost 240 delegates registered for the event, a record breaking figure compared to previous editions of the Symposium. Many of the most renowned world experts in LISA, Gravitational Wave Science, and Astronomy, as well as Engineers, attended LISA 7 and produced state-of-the-art presentations, while everybody benefited from the opportunity to have live discussions during the week in a friendly environment. The programme included 31 invited plenary lectures in the mornings, and 8 parallel sessions in the afternoons. These were classified into 7 major areas of research: LISA Technology, LISA PathFinder, LISA PathFinder Data Analysis, LISA Data Analysis, Gravitational Wave sources, Cosmology and Fundamental Physics with LISA and Other Gravitational Wave Detectors. 138 abstracts for communications were received, of which a selection was made by the session convenors which would fit time constraints. Up to 63 posters completed the scientific programme. More details on the programme, including some of the talks, can be found at the Symposium website: http://www.ice.cat/research/LISA_Symposium. There was however a remarkable add-on: Professor Clifford Will delivered a startling presentation to the general public, who completely filled the Auditori—the main Conference Room, 320 seats—and were invited to ask questions to the speaker who had boldly guided them through the daunting world of Black Holes, Waves of Gravity, and other Warped Ideas of

  3. SMOS validation using SSS data from Barcelona World Race and Argo profilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umbert, M.; Ballabrera, J.; Fernandez, P.; Salat, J.; Salvador, J.

    2012-04-01

    The organisers of the Barcelona World Race (BWR), the Institute of Marine Sciences (ICM-CSIC) and the Maritime Catalan Forum (FMC) agreed on equiping the FMC boat, participating in the race, with a SeaBird MiniCTD. The idea was for the first time to explore how such oceanic races could help to monitor surface temperature and salinity all around the world ocean in real time. The boat spent 112 days to complete the rond trip, sending 12-30 real-time samples/day via ARGOS satellites, using a transmitter developed at the ICM. Data was also stored in the instrument, at 192 samples/day to allow further final global analyses. In the SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) satellite mission processing chain, sea surface salinity (SSS) values are retrieved from brightness temperature data at level 2 (L2). Global maps of SSS are being generated at level 3 (L3) using spatial and temporal weighted averages. Finally, improved representations of the SSS field are obtained at level 4 (L4) where satellite data is blended with data from other sensors. In the present study, validation of L2, L3 and L4 products using data from BWR and ARGO buoys is presented, covering the race period from January to April 2011. Differences between these two sets of data are also investigated as the uppermost robust measurements from Argo profilers have larger depths than the ones associated to the BWR boat.

  4. Predictive optimal control of sewer networks using CORAL tool: application to Riera Blanca catchment in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Puig, V; Cembrano, G; Romera, J; Quevedo, J; Aznar, B; Ramón, G; Cabot, J

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the global control of the Riera Blanca catchment in the Barcelona sewer network using a predictive optimal control approach. This catchment has been modelled using a conceptual modelling approach based on decomposing the catchments in subcatchments and representing them as virtual tanks. This conceptual modelling approach allows real-time model calibration and control of the sewer network. The global control problem of the Riera Blanca catchment is solved using a optimal/predictive control algorithm. To implement the predictive optimal control of the Riera Blanca catchment, a software tool named CORAL is used. The on-line control is simulated by interfacing CORAL with a high fidelity simulator of sewer networks (MOUSE). CORAL interchanges readings from the limnimeters and gate commands with MOUSE as if it was connected with the real SCADA system. Finally, the global control results obtained using the predictive optimal control are presented and compared against the results obtained using current local control system. The results obtained using the global control are very satisfactory compared to those obtained using the local control. PMID:19700825

  5. Examination of various biomarkers measuring genotoxic endpoints from Barcelona airport personnel.

    PubMed

    Pitarque, M; Creus, A; Marcos, R; Hughes, J A; Anderson, D

    1999-04-01

    Three different biomarkers: sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE), micronuclei (MN), and the Comet assay, were used to evaluate different kinds of genetic damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes from 34 male workers at Barcelona airport, exposed to low levels of hydrocarbons and jet fuel derivatives. The control group consisted of 11 unexposed men. We also investigated the ras p21 protein levels in plasma, in order to evaluate whether the ras gene could serve as a suitable potential marker of carcinogenic pollution in occupationally exposed cohorts. SCE and MN analyses failed to detect any statistically significant increase in the airport workers when compared with the controls, and in fact, the frequency of binucleated cells with MN in the exposed group was significantly lower than that obtained in the control. However, slight but significant differences in the mean comet length and genetic damage index were observed between the exposed and control groups when using the Comet assay. There were no statistically significant differences between both groups in p21 plasma levels. Smoking was shown to affect significantly both SCE and high frequency cells (HFC) in the exposed group.

  6. The impact of future summer temperature on public health in Barcelona and Catalonia, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, Bart; Barrera-Gómez, Jose; Ballester, Joan; Basagaña, Xavier; Sunyer, Jordi

    2012-11-01

    Several epidemiological studies have reported associations between increases in summer temperatures and risks of premature mortality. The quantitative implications of predicted future increases in summer temperature, however, have not been extensively characterized. We have quantified these effects for the four main cities in Catalonia, Spain (Barcelona, Tarragona, Lleida, Girona). We first used case-crossover analysis to estimate the association between temperature and mortality for each of these cities for the period 1983 to 2006. These exposure-response (ER) functions were then combined with local measures of current and projected changes in population, mortality and temperature for the years 2025 and 2050. Predicted daily mean temperatures were based on the A1B greenhouse gas emission, "business-as-usual" scenario simulations derived from the ENSEMBLES project. Several different ER functions were examined and significant associations between temperature and mortality were observed for all four cities. For these four cities, the age-specific piecewise linear model predicts 520 (95%CI 340, 720) additional annual deaths attributable to the change in temperature in 2025 relative to the average from the baseline period of 1960-1990. For 2050, the estimate increases to 1,610 deaths per year during the warm season. For Catalonia as a whole, the point estimates for those two years are 720 and 2,330 deaths per year, respectively, or about 2 and 3% of the warm season. In comparing these predicted impacts with current causes of mortality, they clearly represent significant burdens to public health in Catalonia.

  7. Migrainous cerebral infarction in the Sagrat Cor Hospital of Barcelona stroke registry.

    PubMed

    Arboix, A; Massons, J; García-Eroles, L; Oliveres, M; Balcells, M; Targa, C

    2003-06-01

    Nine of 2000 consecutive stroke patients included in the Sagrat Cor Hospital of Barcelona Stroke Registry over a 10-year period fulfilled the strictly defined International Headache Society criteria for migrainous stroke and in whom other causes of stroke were ruled out. They accounted for 13% of all first-ever ischaemic stroke of unusual cause. Migrainous stroke was more common in women (67%) and in patients aged 45 years or younger (78%) compared to the remaining ischaemic strokes of unusual cause. No patient died during hospital stay and 67% were symptom-free at discharge. In the multivariate analysis, nausea or vomiting (odds ratio (OR) 8.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.49-47.21) and age (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.91-0.99) were predictors of migrainous stroke. Migrainous stroke is a rare entity. Vascular risk factors are uncommon and the prognosis is generally good. Patients with migrainous stroke present some different clinical features from other ischaemic strokes of unusual aetiology.

  8. [Contribution to the knowledge of intestinal protozoa infestation in the hospital population of Barcelona (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Portús, M; Prats, G

    1981-03-10

    This report concerns the analysis of 650 fecal samples submitted for parasitic investigation to the Microbiology Service of the Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau of Barcelona. The samples were analyzed by the technique of fixation and direct observation of Sapero and Lawless (MIFD), and with the biphasic concentration method of Blagg et al (MIFC). Intestinal protozoa were detected in 183 samples (28.2%), with a total of 232 protozoosis uncovered. The specific analysis gave the following results: Giardia lamblia, 10.9%; Dientamoeba fragilis, 7.8%; Entamoeba coli, 4.6%; Endolimax nana, 4.5%; Entamoeba hartmanni, 4.0%; Iodamoeba buetschlii, 2.9%; Entamoeba histolytica, 0.7%; Chilomastix mesnili, 0.2%; Trichomonas hominis, 0.2%. The results obtained by the two methods have been compared, observing the highest number of positive results with MIFD technique. Especial mention is made of the higher incidence of Dientamoeba fragilis in samples positive for Oxyuris further studies being needed to establish the basis for the relationship between both species of parasites. PMID:7206888

  9. Biomedical practices from a patient perspective. Experiences of Polish female migrants in Barcelona, Berlin and London.

    PubMed

    Main, Izabella

    2016-08-01

    This paper focuses on the diversity in patients' experience of bio-medicine and contrasts it with the normative view characteristic of health professionals. Ethnographic fieldwork among Polish migrant women in London, Barcelona and Berlin included interviews about their experiences with local healthcare and health professionals. Themes drawn from the narratives are differences between the cities in terms of communication between patients and health professionals, respect for patients' choices and dignity, attitudes to pregnancy and birth (different levels of medicalization), and paediatric care. It is argued that patients continuously negotiate among their own views and expectations based on previous experiences and knowledge from personal communication; internet forums and publications; and the offer of medical services in the countries of their settlement. Patients experience pluralism of therapeutic traditions within and outside bio-medicine. In turn, representatives of bio-medicine are rarely aware of other medical practices and beliefs and this leads to various misunderstandings. By highlighting the pluralism of medical practices in European countries and the increasing mobility of patients, this case study has useful implications for medical anthropologists and health professionals in a broader Western context, such as raising sensitivity to different communication strategies and a diversity of curing traditions and expectations. PMID:27258327

  10. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in airborne particulate samples collected in Barcelona (Spain).

    PubMed

    Vallés, I; Camacho, A; Ortega, X; Serrano, I; Blázquez, S; Pérez, S

    2009-02-01

    Results for naturally occurring (7)Be, (210)Pb, (40)K, (214)Bi, (214)Pb, (212)Pb, (228)Ac and (208)Tl and anthropogenic (137)Cs in airborne particulate matter in the Barcelona area during the period from January 2001 to December 2005 are presented and discussed. The (212)Pb and (208)Tl, (214)Bi and (214)Pb, (7)Be and (210)Pb radionuclide levels showed a significant correlation with each other, with correlation coefficients of 0.99, 0.78 and 0.69, respectively, suggesting similar origin/behaviour of these radionuclides in the air. Caessium-137 and Potassium-40 were transported to the air as resuspended particle from the soil. The (7)Be and (210)Pb concentrations showed similar seasonal variations, with a tendency for maximum concentrations during the summer months. An inverse relationship was observed between the (7)Be, (210)Pb, (40)K and (137)Cs concentrations and weekly rainfall, indicating washout of atmospheric aerosols carrying these radionuclides. PMID:19027201

  11. Glyphosate transport through weathered granite soils under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions--Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Candela, Lucila; Caballero, Juan; Ronen, Daniel

    2010-05-15

    The transport of Glyphosate ([N-phosphonomethyl] glycine), AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid, CH(6)NO(3)P), and Bromide (Br(-)) has been studied, in the Mediterranean Maresme area of Spain, north of Barcelona, where groundwater is located at a depth of 5.5m. The unsaturated zone of weathered - granite soils was characterized in adjacent irrigated and non-irrigated experimental plots where 11 and 10 boreholes were drilled, respectively. At the non irrigated plot, the first half of the period was affected by a persistent and intense rainfall. After 69 days of application residues of Glyphosate up to 73.6 microgg(-1) were detected till a depth of 0.5m under irrigated conditions, AMPA, analyzed only in the irrigated plot was detected till a depth of 0.5m. According to the retardation coefficient of Glyphosate as compared to that of Br(-) for the topsoil and subsoil (80 and 83, respectively) and the maximum observed migration depth of Br(-) (2.9 m) Glyphosate and AMPA should have been detected till a depth of 0.05 m only. Such migration could be related to the low content of organic matter and clays in the soils; recharge generated by irrigation and heavy rain, and possible preferential solute transport and/or colloidal mediated transport.

  12. Biomedical practices from a patient perspective. Experiences of Polish female migrants in Barcelona, Berlin and London.

    PubMed

    Main, Izabella

    2016-08-01

    This paper focuses on the diversity in patients' experience of bio-medicine and contrasts it with the normative view characteristic of health professionals. Ethnographic fieldwork among Polish migrant women in London, Barcelona and Berlin included interviews about their experiences with local healthcare and health professionals. Themes drawn from the narratives are differences between the cities in terms of communication between patients and health professionals, respect for patients' choices and dignity, attitudes to pregnancy and birth (different levels of medicalization), and paediatric care. It is argued that patients continuously negotiate among their own views and expectations based on previous experiences and knowledge from personal communication; internet forums and publications; and the offer of medical services in the countries of their settlement. Patients experience pluralism of therapeutic traditions within and outside bio-medicine. In turn, representatives of bio-medicine are rarely aware of other medical practices and beliefs and this leads to various misunderstandings. By highlighting the pluralism of medical practices in European countries and the increasing mobility of patients, this case study has useful implications for medical anthropologists and health professionals in a broader Western context, such as raising sensitivity to different communication strategies and a diversity of curing traditions and expectations.

  13. Hepatic resection beyond barcelona clinic liver cancer indication: When and how

    PubMed Central

    Garancini, Mattia; Pinotti, Enrico; Nespoli, Stefano; Romano, Fabrizio; Gianotti, Luca; Giardini, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the main common primary tumour of the liver and it is usually associated with cirrhosis. The barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) classification has been approved as guidance for HCC treatment algorithms by the European Association for the Study of Liver and the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease. According to this algorithm, hepatic resection should be performed only in patients with small single tumours of 2-3 cm without signs of portal hypertension (PHT) or hyperbilirubinemia. BCLC classification has been criticised and many studies have shown that multiple tumors and large tumors, as wide as those with macrovascular infiltration and PHT, could benefit from liver resection. Consequently, treatment guidelines should be revised and patients with intermediate/advanced stage HCC, when technically resectable, should receive the opportunity to be treated with radical surgical treatment. Nevertheless, the surgical treatment of HCC on cirrhosis is complex: The goal to be oncologically radical has always to be balanced with the necessity to minimize organ damage. The aim of this review was to analyze when and how liver resection could be indicated beyond BCLC indication. In particular, the role of multidisciplinary approach to assure a proper indication, of the intraoperative ultrasound for intra-operative restaging and resection guidance and of laparoscopy to minimize surgical trauma have been enhanced. PMID:27099652

  14. Monitoring Water Quality in the Coastal Zone of Barcelona with the ARGUS video system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasco, D.; Estrada, M.; Guillen, J.; Palanques, A.; Segura, M. M.

    2003-04-01

    Water turbidity and Harmful Algal Blooms are two important parameters in defining water quality in Mediterranean water from the point of view of the tourist industry. Existing observations suggest a dominant effect of freshwater discharge and wind on those parameters, yet it still remains a challenge to establish a significant relationship due to the typical high variability and short life scale of those parameters in the Mediterranean Region. A monitoring program has been recently undertaken by the Institut Ciències del Mar, in which hourly images are taken automatically with an ARGUS video system from the near shore waters in front of Barcelona. The reasoning behind, is that both turbidity and algal blooms have a clear optical signal in the clear Mediterranean waters and the system will gathered higher time resolution data and information on the spatial and temporal characteristics of the local distribution of those variables. In this paper we present the results of the first year data gathering and discuss their interpretation in terms of direct surface measurements, and local meteorological data.

  15. A small area analysis estimating the prevalence of addiction to opioids in Barcelona, 1993

    PubMed Central

    Brugal, M. T.; Domingo-Salvany, A.; Maguire, A.; Cayla, J. A.; Villalbi, J. R.; Hartnoll, R.

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the distribution of opioid use prevalence in small areas and its relation with socioeconomic indicators. DESIGN: Capture-recapture was applied using data from the Barcelona Drug Information System for 1993 (treatment demands, hospital emergency room visits, deaths from heroin acute adverse reaction and pre-trial prison admissions). To avoid dependence between sources, a log-linear regression model with interactions was fitted. For small neighbourhoods, where capture-recapture estimates were not obtainable, the Heroin Problem Index (HPI) was used to predict prevalence rates from a regression model. The correlation between estimated opioid use prevalence by neighbourhoods and their socioeconomic level was computed. MAIN RESULTS: The city's estimated prevalence was 12.9 opioid addicts per 1000 inhabitants aged 15 to 44 years (95% CI: 10.1, 17.2), which represents 9176 persons. The highest rate was found in the inner city neighbourhood. Comparing rates obtained for each neighbourhood with their unemployment rates, a high correlation coefficient was obtained (r = 0.80, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The main contribution of this study is that of combining capture-recapture with the HPI to produce small area prevalence estimates, which would not have been possible using only one method. Areas with higher socioeconomic status showed proportionally low addiction prevalences, but in depressed areas, prevalences varied widely.   PMID:10562867

  16. Prevalence and determinants of alcohol consumption among schoolchildren in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Villalbi, J R; Comin, E; Nebot, M; Murillo, C

    1991-03-01

    The pattern of use of alcoholic beverages and factors influencing it among Barcelona schoolchildren were studied; 2,255 fifth and eighth grade students from 71 schools completed a self-administered questionnaire. Between fifth-eighth grades, important changes take place in attitudes--strongly opposed to alcohol among the younger, much more moderate among the older. Family celebrations such as Christmas or birthdays are the earliest source of exposure to alcohol, at which one-third of fifth grade students and two-thirds of eighth grade students drink. In eighth grade, though daily consumption is relatively rare (4.4% for boys), a considerable proportion have been drunk at least once (16% of girls and 19% of boys) or have had four or more drinks in a row, while a small but significant proportion (2.5%) have been drunk two or more times in the last six months. A discriminant analysis uncovered some features predicting this "higher risk" use of alcohol: age and gender (being a boy in eighth grade), lower socioeconomic status, higher weekly allowance available for personal expenses, a pattern of usual consumption by both the father and friends, smoking regularly, and having a moderate or high physical activity level, as well as holding opinions in favor of drinking.

  17. Insomnia Symptoms and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Healthy Individuals: The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT)

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Linn B.; Laugsand, Lars E.; Wisløff, Ulrik; Nes, Bjarne M.; Vatten, Lars; Janszky, Imre

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Previous studies have found an inverse association between insomnia and self–reported physical activity, but it is not clear whether insomnia is associated with cardiorespiratory fitness. Our aim was to investigate different insomnia symptoms in relation to the gold standard measure of cardiorespiratory fitness, i.e., peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). Design: Cross-sectional population study. Setting: Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway. Participants: The group comprised 3,489 men and women who were free from cardiovascular or pulmonary diseases, cancer, and sarcoidosis and who did not use antihypertensive medication. They were included in the fully adjusted model when assessing all insomnia symptoms simultaneously. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: For insomnia, the participants reported how often they had experienced sleep problems during the past 3 months, including difficulties falling asleep at night, repeated awakenings during the night, early awakenings without being able to go back to sleep, and daytime sleepiness. Response options were “never/almost never,” “sometimes” or “several times a wk.” To measure cardiorespiratory fitness, the participants were asked to walk or run on a treadmill with increasing speed and/or incline until exhaustion, and VO2peak was recorded. We found a modest inverse and graded association of the insomnia symptoms with VO2peak. The association was independent of self-reported physical activity and was apparent for all insomnia symptoms except for early awakenings. We found a dose-response relation for a cumulative combination of insomnia symptoms and VO2peak for experiencing zero, one to two, or three to four symptoms (P for trend < 0.001). Conclusions: We found a modest inverse association of insomnia with VO2peak independent of the conventional cardiovascular risk factors and self-reported physical activity. Citation: Strand LB; Laugsand LE; Wisløff U; Nes BM; Vatten L; Janszky I. Insomnia

  18. Establishment of the measurement uncertainty of 11-nor-D9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in hair.

    PubMed

    Han, Eunyoung; Yang, Wonkyung; Lee, Sooyeun; Kim, Eunmi; In, Sangwhan; Choi, Hwakyung; Lee, Sangki; Chung, Heesun; Song, Joon Myong

    2011-03-20

    The quantitative analysis of 11-nor-D(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCCOOH) in hair requires a sensitive method to detect a low-pg level. Before applying the method to real hair samples, the method was validated; in this study, we examined the uncertainty obtained from around the cut-off level of THCCOOH in hair. We calculated the measurement uncertainty (MU) of THCCOOH in hair as follows: specification of the measurand, identification of parameters using "cause and effect" diagrams, quantification of the uncertainty contributions using three factors, the uncertainty of weighing the hair sample, the uncertainty from calibrators and the calibration curve, and the uncertainty of the method precision. Finally, we calculated the degrees of freedom and the expanded uncertainty (EU). The concentration of THCCOOH in the hair sample with its EU was (0.60 ± 0.1) × 10(-4)ng/mg. The relative uncertainty percent for the measurand 0.60 × 10(-4)ng was 9.13%. In this study, we also selected different concentrations of THCCOOH in real hair samples and then calculated the EU, the relative standard uncertainty (RSU) of the concentration of THCCOOH in the test sample [u(r)(c0)], the relative uncertainty percent, and the effective degree of freedom (v(eff)). When the concentrations of THCCOOH approached the cut-off level, u(r)(c0) and the relative uncertainty percent increased but absolute EU and v(eff) decreased.

  19. Vertical and horizontal variability of PM10 source contributions in Barcelona during SAPUSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brines, Mariola; Dall'Osto, Manuel; Amato, Fulvio; Cruz Minguillón, María; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier

    2016-06-01

    During the SAPUSS campaign (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies) PM10 samples at 12-hour resolution were simultaneously collected at four monitoring sites located in the urban agglomerate of Barcelona (Spain). A total of 221 samples were collected from 20 September to 20 October 2010. The Road Site (RS) site and the Urban Background (UB) site were located at street level, whereas the Torre Mapfre (TM) and the Torre Collserola (TC) sites were located at 150 m a.s.l. by the sea side within the urban area and at 415 m a.s.l. 8 km inland, respectively. For the first time, we are able to report simultaneous PM10 aerosol measurements, allowing us to study aerosol gradients at both horizontal and vertical levels. The complete chemical composition of PM10 was determined on the 221 samples, and factor analysis (positive matrix factorisation, PMF) was applied. This resulted in eight factors which were attributed to eight main aerosol sources affecting PM10 concentrations in the studied urban environment: (1) vehicle exhaust and wear (2-9 µg m-3, 10-27 % of PM10 mass on average), (2) road dust (2-4 µg m-3, 8-12 %), (3) mineral dust (5 µg m-3, 13-26 %), (4) aged marine (3-5 µg m-3, 13-20 %), (5) heavy oil (0.4-0.6 µg m-3, 2 %), (6) industrial (1 µg m-3, 3-5 %), (7) sulfate (3-4 µg m-3, 11-17 %) and (8) nitrate (4-6 µg m-3, 17-21 %). Three aerosol sources were found to be enhanced at the ground levels (confined within the urban ground levels of the city) relative to the upper levels: (1) vehicle exhaust and wear (2.8 higher), (2) road dust (1.8 higher) and (3) local urban industries/crafts workshops (1.6 higher). Surprisingly, the other aerosol sources were relatively homogeneous at both horizontal and vertical levels. However, air mass origin and meteorological parameters also played a key role in influencing the variability of the factor concentrations. The mineral dust and aged marine factors were found to be a mixture of natural and

  20. Vertical and horizontal variability of PM10 source contributions in Barcelona during SAPUSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brines, M.; Dall'Osto, M.; Amato, F.; Minguillón, M. C.; Karanasiou, A.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.

    2015-11-01

    During the SAPUSS campaign (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies) PM10 samples at twelve hours resolution were simultaneously collected at four monitoring sites located in the urban agglomerate of Barcelona (Spain). A total of 221 samples were collected from 20 September to 20 October 2010. The Road Site (RS) site and the Urban Background (UB) site were located at street level, whereas the Torre Mapfre (TM) and the Torre Collserola (TC) sites were located at 150 m a.s.l. by the sea side within the urban area and at 415 m a.s.l. 8 km inland, respectively. For the first time, we are able to report simultaneous PM10 aerosol measurements allowing us to study aerosol gradients at both horizontal and vertical levels. The complete chemical composition of PM10 was determined on the 221 samples, and factor analysis (Positive Matrix Factorisation, PMF) was applied. This resulted in eight factors which were attributed to eight main aerosol sources affecting PM10 concentrations in the studied urban environment: (1) vehicle exhaust and wear (2-9 μg m-3, 10-27 % of PM10 mass on average), (2) road dust (2-4 μg m-3, 8-12 %), (3) mineral dust (5 μg m-3, 13-26 %), (4) aged marine (3-5 μg m-3, 13-20 %), (5) heavy oil (0.4-0.6 μg m-3, 2 %), (6) industrial (1 μg m-3, 3-5 %), (7) sulphate (3-4 μg m-3, 11-17 %) and (8) nitrate (4-6 μg m-3, 17-21 %). Three aerosol sources were found enhanced at the ground levels (confined within the urban ground levels of the city) relative to the upper levels: (1) vehicle exhaust and wear (2.8 higher), (2) road dust (1.8 higher) and (3) local urban industries/crafts workshops (1.6 higher). Surprisingly, the other aerosol sources were relatively homogeneous at both horizontal and vertical levels. However, air mass origin and meteorological parameters also played a key role in influencing the variability of the factors concentrations. The mineral dust and aged marine factors were found to be a mixture of natural and

  1. GPR velocity and frequency analysis in industrial archaeology. Study of the EUETIB buildings (Barcelona, Sapin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Gracia, V.; González Drigo, R.; Vendrell, D.

    2003-04-01

    The Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) analysis of some modernist buildings of the Technical Industrial School of Barcelona allow us to obtain valuable information of the underground constructions, corresponding to ancient structures of the preceding factory. The actual school is building on the modernist industrial complex. Many changes in the structure were carried out to adapt the structure to its actual use. The obtained GPR data was compared with the information, documents and photographies from the historical archives of the Diputación of Barcelona (Spain). To obtain accurate results and right interpretations, velocity analysis is performed in the different studied areas. The velocity values are used to convert accurately the two-way travel time into depth. The aim of those velocity estimations is obtain the minimum error in the final interpretations of the profiles. The velocity analysis is carried out using two different methods: calculating velocity using the reflection in anomalous bodies into the medium at a known depth, and calculating velocity from the hyperbolic events of the radargrams, caused by finite anomalies of the medium. The present tubes and conductions which are in use nowadays, have known depths. Then, velocity is obtained from the two-way travel time obtained for the reflected wave in that anomalous body. This method allow us to known velocities in areas where those elements are presented, which are mainly in the ground under the streets of the school. The reflection produced in unknown bodies which have finite dimensions, is obtained as an hyperbolic event. The averaged velocity of the medium over these bodies is calculated from the equation of the hyperbola. This method was used mainly where known elements were not presents in the ground. These areas are mainly the buildings of the school. Experimental velocities are understand as the averaged velocity of ray-path. The obtained values are applied to each area, to calculate depths of the

  2. Monitoring Sea Level by Tide Gauges and GPS at Barcelona and Estartit Harbours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Benjamin, J. J.; Gili, J.; Lopez, R.; Tapia, A.; Bosch, E.; Perez, B.; Pros, F.

    2012-04-01

    Sea level is an environmental variable which is widely recognised as being important in many scientific disciplines as a control parameter for coastal dynamical processes or climate processes in the coupled atmosphere-ocean systems, as well as engineering applications. A major source of sea-level data are the national networks of coastal tide gauges, in Spain belonging to different institutions as the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN), Puertos del Estado (PE), Instituto Hidrográfico de la Marina (IHM), etc. The tide gauge of l'Estartit is a traditional floating gauge placed 21 years ago and has an accuracy of ± 2 mm. Since 1996, l'Estartit tide gauge has been co-located with geodetic techniques (GPS measurements of XU, Utilitary Network, and XdA, Levelling Network,) and it is tied to the SPGIC (Integrated Geodetic Positioning System of Catalonia) project of the Cartographic Institute of Catalunya (ICC). In 2006, due to the work for the expansion of the harbour, the tide gauge had to be moved. Before the work started, appropiate GPS measurements were carried out in order to ensure the connection of the tide gauge data. During October 2006 and May 2008, the tide gauge was inactive and it has been moved on to a new location inside the harbour. In June 2008, new GPS and levelling measures have been done in order to tie the new location into SPGIC project and to co-locate old data respect the new one. Although l'Estartit does not have a GPS permanent station, it is possible to build a virtual one from the service "CATNET web" of the ICC. "CATNET web" is a data distribution system of a virtual GPS permanent station via web. From the coordinates where you want to place the virtual station, the time interval and the measurement rate, the system generates a RINEX file under the requested conditions. At Barcelona harbour there is one MIROS radar tide gauge belonging to Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours). It is placed at the dock 140 of the ENAGAS Building.The radar

  3. A travel mode comparison of commuters' exposures to air pollutants in Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Fruin, Scott; Westerdahl, Dane; Martinez, David; Ripoll, Anna; Kubesch, Nadine; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Daily commutes may contribute disproportionately to overall daily inhalations of urban air contaminants. Understanding factors that explain variability of exposures during travel, and especially differences across transportation modes, is essential to accurately assess health impacts of traffic emissions and to develop effective mitigating measures. We evaluated exposures and inhaled doses of air pollution and assessed factors that contributed to their variability in different travel modes in Barcelona. Black carbon (BC), ultrafine particles (UFP), carbon monoxide (CO), fine particle mass (PM2.5) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured and compared across walk, bike, bus, and car modes for a total of 172 trips made on two different round trip routes. On average, the car mode experienced highest concentrations for all contaminants. In pairwise t-tests between concurrent mode runs, statistically significant differences were found for cars compared to walking and biking. Car-to-walk or car-to-bike concentration ratios ranged from 1.3 for CO2 to 25 for CO and were 2-3 for PM2.5, BC, and UFP. In multivariate analyses, travel mode explained the greatest variability in travel exposures, from 8% for PM2.5 to 70% for CO. Different modal patterns emerged when estimating daily inhaled dose, with active commuters' two to three times greater total inhalation volume during travel producing about equal UFP and BC daily inhaled doses to car commuters and 33-50% higher UFP and BC doses compared to bus commuters. These findings, however, are specific to the bike and pedestrian lanes in this study being immediately adjacent to the roadways measured. Dedicated bike or pedestrian routes away from traffic would lead to lower active travel doses.

  4. Barcelona 2002: law, ethics, and human rights. Using the law to improve access to treatments.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Richard; Parmar, Sharan; Divan, Vivek; Berger, Jonathan

    2002-12-01

    The XIII International AIDS Conference in Durban, South Africa in July 2000 focused worldwide attention on the problem of accessing treatments in developing countries. In the interim, thanks to the work of activists - from demonstrations to court cases, and from acts of public courage by people living with HIV/AIDS to ongoing lobbying of politicians and trade negotiators - some very significant developments have occurred. But the reality is that the vast majority of people living with HIV/AIDS still lack access to affordable, quality medicines. This article, a summary of a paper presented at "Putting Third First: Vaccines, Access to Treatments and the Law," a satellite meeting held at Barcelona on 5 July 2002 and organized by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, the AIDS Law Project, South Africa, and the Lawyers Collective HIV/AIDS Unit, India, explores three approaches for improving access. In the first part, Richard Elliott provides an overview of the state of the right to health as embodied in international human rights law; comments on the experience to date in litigating claims to the right to health; and identifies potential strategies activists can adopt to advance recognition of the right to health. In the second part, Sharan Parmar and Vivek Divan describe price-control and drug-financing mechanisms used by industrialized countries to increase the affordability of medicines; and discuss how some of these mechanisms could be adapted for use in developing countries. Finally, Jonathan Berger describes the use of litigation in the courts by the Treatment Action Campaign in South Africa. PMID:14743817

  5. Everyday politics, social practices and movement networks: daily life in Barcelona's social centres.

    PubMed

    Yates, Luke

    2015-06-01

    The relations between everyday life and political participation are of interest for much contemporary social science. Yet studies of social movement protest still pay disproportionate attention to moments of mobilization, and to movements with clear organizational boundaries, tactics and goals. Exceptions have explored collective identity, 'free spaces' and prefigurative politics, but such processes are framed as important only in accounting for movements in abeyance, or in explaining movement persistence. This article focuses on the social practices taking place in and around social movement spaces, showing that political meanings, knowledge and alternative forms of social organization are continually being developed and cultivated. Social centres in Barcelona, Spain, autonomous political spaces hosting cultural and educational events, protest campaigns and alternative living arrangements, are used as empirical case studies. Daily practices of food provisioning, distributing space and dividing labour are politicized and politicizing as they unfold and develop over time and through diverse networks around social centres. Following Melucci, such latent processes set the conditions for social movements and mobilization to occur. However, they not only underpin mobilization, but are themselves politically expressive and prefigurative, with multiple layers of latency and visibility identifiable in performances of practices. The variety of political forms - adversarial, expressive, theoretical, and routinized everyday practices, allow diverse identities, materialities and meanings to overlap in movement spaces, and help explain networks of mutual support between loosely knit networks of activists and non-activists. An approach which focuses on practices and networks rather than mobilization and collective actors, it is argued, helps show how everyday life and political protest are mutually constitutive.

  6. Serotype 5 Pneumococci Causing Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Outbreaks in Barcelona, Spain (1997 to 2011)

    PubMed Central

    Rolo, Dora; Fenoll, Asunción; Fontanals, Dionísia; Larrosa, Nieves; Giménez, Montserrat; Grau, Immaculada; Pallarés, Román; Liñares, Josefina

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the clinical and molecular epidemiology of invasive serotype 5 (Ser5) pneumococcal isolates in four teaching hospitals in the Barcelona, Spain, area (from 1997 to 2011). Among 5,093 invasive pneumococcal isolates collected, 134 (2.6%) Ser5 isolates were detected. Although the overall incidence of Ser5-related invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was low (0.25 cases/100,000 inhabitants), three incidence peaks were detected: 0.63/100,000 in 1999, 1.15/100,000 in 2005, and 0.37/100,000 in 2009. The rates of Ser5 IPD were higher among young adults (18 to 64 years old) and older adults (>64 years old) in the first two peaks, whereas they were higher among children in 2009. The majority (88.8%) of the patients presented with pneumonia. Comorbid conditions were present in young adults (47.6%) and older adults (78.7%), the most common comorbid conditions being chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (20.6% and 38.3%, respectively) and cardiovascular diseases (11.1% and 38.3%, respectively). The mortality rates were higher among older adults (8.5%). All Ser5 pneumococci tested were fully susceptible to penicillin, cefotaxime, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin. The resistance rates were 48.5% for co-trimoxazole, 6.7% for chloramphenicol, and 6% for tetracycline. Two major related sequence types (STs), ST1223 (n = 65) and ST289 (n = 61), were detected. The Colombia5-ST289 clone was responsible for all the cases in the Ser5 outbreak in 1999, whereas the ST1223 clone accounted for 73.8% and 61.5% of the isolates in 2005 and 2009, respectively. Ser5 pneumococci are a frequent cause of IPD outbreaks in the community and involve children and adults with or without comorbidities. The implementation of the new pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCV10 and PCV13) might prevent such outbreaks. PMID:23966486

  7. Imaging the Shallow Subsurface for a New Underground Subway Line in Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, D.; Flecha, I.; Palomeras, I.; Vazquez-Sune, E.; Font-Capo, J.; Carbonell, R.; Perez-Estaun, A.

    2006-12-01

    A detailed characterization of the shallow subsurface by seismic techniques has been used to aid horizontal drilling of tunnels for a new subway line in Barcelona (Spain). Seismic data acquisition in densely populated cities is very difficult. The street layout determines the geometry of the seismic data acquisition experiments. The instrumentation (source and receivers) can not always be located on the surface projection of the tunnel trace, therefore, pseudo 3D acquisition is required deploying the instrumentation were it is possible. Furthermore, the shallow subsurface features extremely heterogeneous "weathered" layer of variable thickness (building foundations, sewage system, water supply conductions, etc), and the background noise is very high (car traffic, electricity lines, etc). Relatively old cities also lack a detailed geological control of the subsurface. The seismic data was acquired using as source a 8 s long Vibroseis sweep which provided relatively good S/N ratio. The shallow subsurface featured an extremely heterogeneous weathered layer characterized by very low seismic velocities (1000-1300 m/s) of variable thickness that made difficult to interpret the seismic reflection images at target depth. The first-arrival seismic tomography revealed as a key tool to clearly differentiate the different rock volumes characterized by different physical properties, especially the contact between the weathered layer and the more competent rock. Several high velocity anomalies (up to 5500 m/s) were observed at tunnel depth that were correlated with sub vertical porphyric dykes. This were surrounded by low velocity anomalies that correspond to fault systems that cut and displace dykes. The tomographic velocity models also provide a new image of an important Miocene fault, quite different to the previous geological section derived from the core interpretation.

  8. Different exposure of infants and adults to ultrafine particles in the urban area of Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Canchucaja, Lizzeth; d'Orazzio, Valentina; Manich, Andrea; Joya, Xavier; Vall, Oriol

    2015-01-01

    Air pollutants have been linked with a number of adverse health effects. Children are especially sensitive, particularly when they get close to the exhaust emissions of the vehicles on the street. The objective of this study was to measure the different exposure of infants and adults to ultrafine particles (UFP) as a surrogate marker of air pollution and of risk of deleterious health effects. Two different portable P-TRAK were used to measure simultaneously exposure to UFPs at different heights, one corresponding to the height of an infant in a stroller (0.55 m) and the other one to the height of the face of an adult pedestrian (1.70 m). Measurements were taken on three different streets with high traffic density in Barcelona, in 10 consecutive days during spring, with two sampling sessions of 1 h each day, moving afoot and taking into account temperature, humidity, and wind speed. Fifty-two thousand and eight (52,008) paired values were obtained, and the results showed about 10% higher levels of UFP concentration at 0.55 m (48,198 ± 25,296 pt/cm(3)) compared to 1.70 m (43,151 ± 22,517 pt/cm(3)). Differences between working and nonworking days were observed. Concentration patterns and variation by days of the week and time periods were related to traffic intensity. This study revealed that infants transported by stroller in urban areas are more exposed to air pollution than walking adults. As infants are more vulnerable and UFP have more effects on their health, measures should be taken to protect this population when it is transported in the street.

  9. Urban air quality comparison for bus, tram, subway and pedestrian commutes in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Teresa; Reche, Cristina; Rivas, Ioar; Cruz Minguillón, Maria; Martins, Vânia; Vargas, Concepción; Buonanno, Giorgio; Parga, Jesus; Pandolfi, Marco; Brines, Mariola; Ealo, Marina; Sofia Fonseca, Ana; Amato, Fulvio; Sosa, Garay; Capdevila, Marta; de Miguel, Eladio; Querol, Xavier; Gibbons, Wes

    2015-10-01

    Access to detailed comparisons in air quality variations encountered when commuting through a city offers the urban traveller more informed choice on how to minimise personal exposure to inhalable pollutants. In this study we report on an experiment designed to compare atmospheric contaminants inhaled during bus, subway train, tram and walking journeys through the city of Barcelona. Average number concentrations of particles 10-300 nm in size, N, are lowest in the commute using subway trains (N<2.5×10(4) part. cm(-3)), higher during tram travel and suburban walking (2.5×10(4) cm(-3)5.0×10(4) cm(-3)), with extreme transient peaks at busy traffic crossings commonly exceeding 1.0×10(5) cm(-3) and accompanied by peaks in Black Carbon and CO. Subway particles are coarser (mode 90 nm) than in buses, trams or outdoors (<70 nm), and concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and Black Carbon are lower in the tram when compared to both bus and subway. CO2 levels in public transport reflect passenger numbers, more than tripling from outdoor levels to >1200 ppm in crowded buses and trains. There are also striking differences in inhalable particle chemistry depending on the route chosen, ranging from aluminosiliceous at roadsides and near pavement works, ferruginous with enhanced Mn, Co, Zn, Sr and Ba in the subway environment, and higher levels of Sb and Cu inside the bus. We graphically display such chemical variations using a ternary diagram to emphasise how "air quality" in the city involves a consideration of both physical and chemical parameters, and is not simply a question of measuring particle number or mass. PMID:26277386

  10. Urban air quality comparison for bus, tram, subway and pedestrian commutes in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Teresa; Reche, Cristina; Rivas, Ioar; Cruz Minguillón, Maria; Martins, Vânia; Vargas, Concepción; Buonanno, Giorgio; Parga, Jesus; Pandolfi, Marco; Brines, Mariola; Ealo, Marina; Sofia Fonseca, Ana; Amato, Fulvio; Sosa, Garay; Capdevila, Marta; de Miguel, Eladio; Querol, Xavier; Gibbons, Wes

    2015-10-01

    Access to detailed comparisons in air quality variations encountered when commuting through a city offers the urban traveller more informed choice on how to minimise personal exposure to inhalable pollutants. In this study we report on an experiment designed to compare atmospheric contaminants inhaled during bus, subway train, tram and walking journeys through the city of Barcelona. Average number concentrations of particles 10-300 nm in size, N, are lowest in the commute using subway trains (N<2.5×10(4) part. cm(-3)), higher during tram travel and suburban walking (2.5×10(4) cm(-3)5.0×10(4) cm(-3)), with extreme transient peaks at busy traffic crossings commonly exceeding 1.0×10(5) cm(-3) and accompanied by peaks in Black Carbon and CO. Subway particles are coarser (mode 90 nm) than in buses, trams or outdoors (<70 nm), and concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and Black Carbon are lower in the tram when compared to both bus and subway. CO2 levels in public transport reflect passenger numbers, more than tripling from outdoor levels to >1200 ppm in crowded buses and trains. There are also striking differences in inhalable particle chemistry depending on the route chosen, ranging from aluminosiliceous at roadsides and near pavement works, ferruginous with enhanced Mn, Co, Zn, Sr and Ba in the subway environment, and higher levels of Sb and Cu inside the bus. We graphically display such chemical variations using a ternary diagram to emphasise how "air quality" in the city involves a consideration of both physical and chemical parameters, and is not simply a question of measuring particle number or mass.

  11. Barcelona 2002: law, ethics, and human rights. Using the law to improve access to treatments.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Richard; Parmar, Sharan; Divan, Vivek; Berger, Jonathan

    2002-12-01

    The XIII International AIDS Conference in Durban, South Africa in July 2000 focused worldwide attention on the problem of accessing treatments in developing countries. In the interim, thanks to the work of activists - from demonstrations to court cases, and from acts of public courage by people living with HIV/AIDS to ongoing lobbying of politicians and trade negotiators - some very significant developments have occurred. But the reality is that the vast majority of people living with HIV/AIDS still lack access to affordable, quality medicines. This article, a summary of a paper presented at "Putting Third First: Vaccines, Access to Treatments and the Law," a satellite meeting held at Barcelona on 5 July 2002 and organized by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, the AIDS Law Project, South Africa, and the Lawyers Collective HIV/AIDS Unit, India, explores three approaches for improving access. In the first part, Richard Elliott provides an overview of the state of the right to health as embodied in international human rights law; comments on the experience to date in litigating claims to the right to health; and identifies potential strategies activists can adopt to advance recognition of the right to health. In the second part, Sharan Parmar and Vivek Divan describe price-control and drug-financing mechanisms used by industrialized countries to increase the affordability of medicines; and discuss how some of these mechanisms could be adapted for use in developing countries. Finally, Jonathan Berger describes the use of litigation in the courts by the Treatment Action Campaign in South Africa.

  12. Everyday politics, social practices and movement networks: daily life in Barcelona's social centres.

    PubMed

    Yates, Luke

    2015-06-01

    The relations between everyday life and political participation are of interest for much contemporary social science. Yet studies of social movement protest still pay disproportionate attention to moments of mobilization, and to movements with clear organizational boundaries, tactics and goals. Exceptions have explored collective identity, 'free spaces' and prefigurative politics, but such processes are framed as important only in accounting for movements in abeyance, or in explaining movement persistence. This article focuses on the social practices taking place in and around social movement spaces, showing that political meanings, knowledge and alternative forms of social organization are continually being developed and cultivated. Social centres in Barcelona, Spain, autonomous political spaces hosting cultural and educational events, protest campaigns and alternative living arrangements, are used as empirical case studies. Daily practices of food provisioning, distributing space and dividing labour are politicized and politicizing as they unfold and develop over time and through diverse networks around social centres. Following Melucci, such latent processes set the conditions for social movements and mobilization to occur. However, they not only underpin mobilization, but are themselves politically expressive and prefigurative, with multiple layers of latency and visibility identifiable in performances of practices. The variety of political forms - adversarial, expressive, theoretical, and routinized everyday practices, allow diverse identities, materialities and meanings to overlap in movement spaces, and help explain networks of mutual support between loosely knit networks of activists and non-activists. An approach which focuses on practices and networks rather than mobilization and collective actors, it is argued, helps show how everyday life and political protest are mutually constitutive. PMID:25597324

  13. Adjuvant sorafenib after heptectomy for Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer-stage C hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Feng; Wu, Li-Li; Lau, Wan-Yee; Huan, Hong-Bo; Wen, Xu-Dong; Ma, Kuan-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Wu; Bie, Ping

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy and safety of adjuvant sorafenib after curative resection for patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC)-stage C hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Thirty-four HCC patients, classified as BCLC-stage C, received adjuvant sorafenib for high-risk of tumor recurrence after curative hepatectomy at a tertiary care university hospital. The study group was compared with a case-matched control group of 68 patients who received curative hepatectomy for HCC during the study period in a 1:2 ratio. RESULTS: The tumor recurrence rate was markedly lower in the sorafenib group (15/34, 44.1%) than in the control group (51/68, 75%, P = 0.002). The median disease-free survival was 12 mo in the study group and 10 mo in the control group. Tumor number more than 3, macrovascular invasion, hilar lymph nodes metastasis, and treatment with sorafenib were significant factors of disease-free survival by univariate analysis. Tumor number more than 3 and treatment with sorafenib were significant risk factors of disease-free survival by multivariate analysis in the Cox proportional hazards model. The disease-free survival and cumulative overall survival in the study group were significantly better than in the control group (P = 0.034 and 0.016, respectively). CONCLUSION: Our study verifies the potential benefit and safety of adjuvant sorafenib for both decreasing HCC recurrence and extending disease-free and overall survival rates for patients with BCLC-stage C HCC after curative resection. PMID:27340354

  14. The potential impacts of electric vehicles on air quality in the urban areas of Barcelona and Madrid (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soret, A.; Guevara, M.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    This work analyses the potential air quality improvements resulting from three fleet electrification scenarios (∼13, 26 and 40%) by replacing conventional vehicles with Electric Battery Vehicles (EBVs), Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs). This study has been performed for the cities of Barcelona and Madrid (Spain), where road transport is the primary emission source. In these urban areas, several air quality problems are present, mainly related to NO2 and particulate matter. The WRF-ARW/HERMESv2/CMAQ model system has been applied at high spatial (1 × 1 km2) and temporal (1 h) resolution. The results show that fleet electrification offers a potential for emission abatement, especially related to NOx and CO. Regarding the more ambitious scenario (∼40% fleet electrification), reductions of 11% and 17% of the total NOx emissions are observed in Barcelona and Madrid respectively. These emissions reductions involve air quality improvements in NO2 maximum hourly values up to 16%: reductions up to 30 and 35 μg m-3 in Barcelona and Madrid, respectively. Furthermore, an additional scenario has been defined considering electric generation emissions associated with EBVs and PHEVs charging from a combined-cycle power plant. These charging emissions would produce slight NO2 increases in the downwind areas of <3 μg m-3. Thus, fleet electrification would improve urban air quality even when considering emissions associated with charging electric vehicles. However, two further points should be considered. First, fleet electrification cannot be considered a unique solution, and other management strategies may be defined. This is especially important with respect to particulate matter emissions, which are not significantly reduced by fleet electrification (<5%) due to the high weight of non-exhaust emissions. Second, a significant introduction of electric vehicles (26-40%) involving all vehicle categories is required to improve urban

  15. Risk perception of sexually transmitted infections and HIV in Nigerian commercial sex workers living in Barcelona: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Coma Auli, Núria; Mejía-Lancheros, Cília; Berenguera, Anna; Mayans, Martí Vall; Lasagabaster, Maider Arando; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV are a serious global public health issue. These diseases are largely preventable, as they are directly and indirectly associated with potentially modifiable factors, including socioeconomic conditions. Sexual transmission is responsible for over 75% of new HIV infections worldwide. Moreover, commercial sex workers and their clients are two of the groups at the highest risk of acquiring and transmitting these infectious diseases, due to an extensive number of sexual encounters and the various factors related to commercial sex situations. This qualitative study aims to deepen the understanding of the risk perception of STIs and HIV and their associated factors in Nigerian commercial sex workers in the city of Barcelona. Methods and analysis This is a qualitative, descriptive, interpretive study based on a social constructivist and phenomenological perspective conducted on a saturated sample of Nigerian commercial sex workers in the city of Barcelona. Data will be collected through semistructured individual and triangular group interviews. Information will be examined using a sociological discourse analysis, allowing us to understand the social and individual factors related to the risk perception of STIs and HIV in commercial sex workers. Discussion Qualitative studies are an important element in identifying individual, social and contextual factors directly or indirectly related to the health/disease process. This qualitative study will provide essential knowledge to improve health promotion, prevention strategies and effective management of STIs both for commercial sex workers and their clients. Ethics This study has been approved by the clinical research ethics committee (CEIC) of IDIAP Jordi Gol in Barcelona, 2012. PMID:23901029

  16. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approaches to Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Understanding the Barcelona Clínic Liver Cancer Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Soldera, Jonathan; Balbinot, Silvana Sartori; Balbinot, Raul Angelo; Cavalcanti, Andreza Gautério

    2016-01-01

    Each year, hepatocellular carcinoma is diagnosed in more than half a million people worldwide and it is the fifth most common cancer in men and the seventh most common cancer in women. This article reviews the Barcelona-Clínic Liver Cancer protocol for the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of this disease, and four cases are presented for the discussion of the therapeutic approach. Understanding the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to this disease is essential, especially if we keep in mind the quintessential basics of prevention and early detection. PMID:27812296

  17. CGPS Implementation and Lidar/Laser Altimeter Experiences at l'Estartit, Ibiza and Barcelona Harbours for Sea Level Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J.; Schutz, B.; Urban, T.; Ortiz Castellon, M.; Martinez-Garcia, M.; Ruiz, A.; Perez, B.; Rodriguez-Velasco, G.

    2008-12-01

    In the framework of a Spanish Space Project, the instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge and with a continuous GPS station nearby. The radar tide gauge is a Datamar 3000C device and a Thales Navigation Internet-Enabled GPS Continuous Geodetic Reference Station (iCGRS) with a choke ring antenna. It is intended that the overall system will constitute a CGPS Station of the ESEAS (European Sea Level) and TIGA (GPS Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring) networks. Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours) installed the tide gauge station at Ibiza harbour in January 2003. The station belongs to the REDMAR network, composed at this moment by 21 stations distributed along the whole Spanish waters, including also the Canary islands. The tide gauge also belongs to the ESEAS (European Sea Level) network. At the Barcelona harbour they have installed a radar tide gauge near a GPS station belonging to Puerto de Barcelona. L'Estartit floating tide gauge was set up in 1990. Data are taken in graphics registers from each two hours the mean value is recorded in an electronic support. L'Estartit tide gauge series provides good quality information about the changes in the sea heights at centimeter level, that is the magnitude of the common tides in the Mediterranean. Two airborne calibration campaigns carrying an Optech Lidar ALTM-3025 (ICC) were made on June 16, 2007 with a Partenavia P-68 and October 12, 2007, with a Cessna Caravan 208B flying along two ICESat target tracks including crossover near l'Estartit. The validation of this new technology LIDAR may be useful to fill coastal areas where satellite radar altimeters are not measuring due to the large footprint and the resulting gaps of about 15-30 km within the coastline. Measurements with a GPS Buoy at l'Estartit harbour were made during the June experience and a GPS reference station was installed in Aiguablava. On October 12, 2007, another LIDAR campaign was

  18. Variability of levels and composition of PM10 and PM2.5 in the Barcelona metro system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, X.; Moreno, T.; Karanasiou, A.; Reche, C.; Alastuey, A.; Viana, M.; Font, O.; Gil, J.; de Miguel, E.; Capdevila, M.

    2012-06-01

    From an environmental perspective, the underground metro system is one of the cleanest forms of public transportation in urban agglomerations. Current studies report contradicting results regarding air quality in the metro systems: whereas some reveal poor air quality, others report PM levels which are lower or of the same order of magnitude than those measured in traffic sites above ground level. The present work assesses summer and winter indoor air quality and passenger exposure in the Barcelona metro, focusing on PM levels and their metal contents. In addition, the impact on indoor air quality of platform screen door systems (automated systems consisting of closed rail track and platforms) is evaluated, to determine whether these systems reduce passenger exposure to PM when compared with conventional systems (open tracks and platforms). In the Barcelona metro PM levels inside the trains in summer are amongst the lowest reported for worldwide metro systems (11-32 μg m-3 PM2.5). This is most likely due to the air conditioning system working in all carriages of the Barcelona metro during the whole year. Levels were considerably higher on the platforms, reaching mean levels of 46 and 125 μg m3 in the new (L9) and old (L3) lines, respectively. PM10 data are also reported in the present study, but comparison with other metro systems is difficult due to the scarcity of data compared with PM2.5. Results showed distinct PM daily cycles, with a drastic increase from 06:00 to 07:00 a.m., a diurnal maximum from 07:00 to 10:00 p.m., and marked decrease between 10:00 p.m. and 05:00 a.m. The elements with the highest enrichment were those associated with wheel or brake abrasion products (Ba, Fe, Cu, Mn, Cr, Sb, As, Mo, Co, Sr, among others). Laminar hematite (Fe2O3) was the dominant particle type, being mainly originated by mechanical abrasion of the rail track and wheels. Regarding passenger exposure to PM, the contribution of commuting by metro was estimated to account

  19. Variability of levels and composition of PM10 and PM2.5 in the Barcelona metro system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, X.; Moreno, T.; Karanasiou, A.; Reche, C.; Alastuey, A.; Viana, M.; Font, O.; Gil, J.; de Miguel, E.; Capdevila, M.

    2012-03-01

    From an environmental perspective, the underground metro system is one of the cleanest forms of public transportation in urban agglomerations. Current studies report contradicting results regarding air quality in the metro systems: whereas some reveal poor air quality, others report PM levels which are lower or of the same order of magnitude than those measured in traffic sites above ground level. The present work assesses summer indoor air quality and passenger exposure in the Barcelona metro, focusing on PM levels and their metal contents. In addition, the impact on indoor air quality of platform screen door systems (automated systems consisting of closed rail track and platforms) is evaluated, to determine whether these systems reduce passenger exposure to PM when compared with conventional systems (open tracks and platforms). In the Barcelona metro, PM levels inside the trains in summer are amongst the lowest reported for worldwide metro systems (11-32 μPM2.5 m-3). This is most probably due to the air conditioning system working in all carriages of the Barcelona metro during the whole year. On the platforms, levels were considerably higher, reaching mean levels of 59 and 88 μgPM2.5 m-3 in the new (L9) and old (L3) lines, respectively. PM10 data are also reported in the present study, but comparison with other metro systems is more difficult due to the scarcity of data compared with PM2.5. Results showed clear PM daily cycles, with a drastic increase from 06:00 to 07:00 a.m., a diurnal maximum from 07:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m., and marked decreases between 10:00 p.m. and 05:00 a.m. The elements with the highest enrichment are those associated with wheel or brake abrasion products (Ba, Fe, Cu, Mn, Cr, Sb, As, Mo, Co, Sr, among others). Laminar hematite (Fe2O3) was the dominant particle type, being mainly originated by mechanical abrasion of the rail track and wheels. Regarding passenger exposure to PM inside the metro system, the contribution of commuting by metro

  20. [In search of the ideal surgical treatment for lymphedema. Report of 2nd European Conference on supermicrosurgery (Barcelona - March 2012)].

    PubMed

    Rausky, J; Robert, N; Binder, J-P; Revol, M

    2012-12-01

    Since more than 50 years, many surgeons all around the world try to find the perfect surgical technique to treat limb lymphedemas. Decongestive physiotherapy associated with the use of a compressive garment has been the primary choice for lymphedema treatment. Many different surgical techniques have been developed, however, to date, there is no consensus on surgical procedure. Most surgical experts of lymphedema met in the second European Conference on supermicrosurgery, organized on March 1st and 2nd 2012, in San Pau Hospital, Barcelona. Together they tried to clarify these different options and ideally a strategy for using these techniques.

  1. Validation of a modified version of the Gijon's social-familial evaluation scale (SFES): the "Barcelona SFES Version", for patients with cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Caselles, P; Miralles, R; Arellano, M; Torres, R M; Aguilera, A; Pi-Figueras, M; Cervera, A M

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to validate an abbreviated version of the Gijon's social-familial evaluation scale (SFES) (Barcelona-SFES version), on patients with cognitive impairment. A group of 34 patients with cognitive impairment, admitted to an intermediate-long-term-care facility, were analyzed. Mean age was 80.2 +/- 7.4 years. Gijón's SFES was abbreviated and only the first three item groups corresponding to family conditions, social contacts and assistance from the social network were selected. Barcelona-SFES version had a range score between 3 to 15 points, in which low scores identify older patients who live with their family, have good contacts, and participate in community activities. In contrast, high scores identify older persons who live alone and have poor social support and little participation with community activities. Three social risk categories were established according to the Barcelona-SFES score: low social risk (>/= 7 points), intermediate social risk (8-9 points) and high social points). Validation criteria used in the present study were: predictive value of Barcelona-SFES score of post-discharge destination (home or institution), and patient's (or family's) request for a definitive institutionalization in a nursing home. There were 9 patients with low social risk (26.4 %), 8 with intermediate social risk (23.5 %) and 17 with high social risk (50 %). A significant relationship between Barcelona-SFES scores and post-discharge destination was found. Eighty percent of patients discharged to an institution(nursing and residential homes), they had high social risk SFES scores (>/= 10) Also, a significant correlation was found between the number of patients for which a definitive institutionalization request was performed and the Barcelona-SFES scores. Fifteen (88.2 %) of the 18 patients for whom the request was done, were in the high social risk group. The lowest scores from SFES were predictive of home discharge, while the highest scores were predictive of a

  2. Developpement D'un Modele Climatique Regional: Fizr Simulation des Conditions de Janvier de la Cote Ouest Nord Americaine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyette, Stephane

    1995-11-01

    Le sujet de cette these concerne la modelisation numerique du climat regional. L'objectif principal de l'exercice est de developper un modele climatique regional ayant les capacites de simuler des phenomenes de meso-echelle spatiale. Notre domaine d'etude se situe sur la Cote Ouest nord americaine. Ce dernier a retenu notre attention a cause de la complexite du relief et de son controle sur le climat. Les raisons qui motivent cette etude sont multiples: d'une part, nous ne pouvons pas augmenter, en pratique, la faible resolution spatiale des modeles de la circulation generale de l'atmosphere (MCG) sans augmenter a outrance les couts d'integration et, d'autre part, la gestion de l'environnement exige de plus en plus de donnees climatiques regionales determinees avec une meilleure resolution spatiale. Jusqu'alors, les MCG constituaient les modeles les plus estimes pour leurs aptitudes a simuler le climat ainsi que les changements climatiques mondiaux. Toutefois, les phenomenes climatiques de fine echelle echappent encore aux MCG a cause de leur faible resolution spatiale. De plus, les repercussions socio-economiques des modifications possibles des climats sont etroitement liees a des phenomenes imperceptibles par les MCG actuels. Afin de circonvenir certains problemes inherents a la resolution, une approche pratique vise a prendre un domaine spatial limite d'un MCG et a y imbriquer un autre modele numerique possedant, lui, un maillage de haute resolution spatiale. Ce processus d'imbrication implique alors une nouvelle simulation numerique. Cette "retro-simulation" est guidee dans le domaine restreint a partir de pieces d'informations fournies par le MCG et forcee par des mecanismes pris en charge uniquement par le modele imbrique. Ainsi, afin de raffiner la precision spatiale des previsions climatiques de grande echelle, nous developpons ici un modele numerique appele FIZR, permettant d'obtenir de l'information climatique regionale valide a la fine echelle spatiale

  3. Alcohol use and spousal mental distress in a population sample: the nord-trøndelag health study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is a widely held notion that alcohol abuse is related to mental distress in the spouse. Research has substantiated this notion by showing a tendency for spouses of alcohol abusers to experience more mental distress than spouses of non-abusers. However, the picture seems to be more complex, as some results do not show a significant effect or even less mental distress among spouses of alcohol abusers with the highest alcohol consumption. The present study investigates the association between spousal mental distress and both a high consumption of alcohol and having experienced alcohol related problems. Methods Norwegian population-based questionnaire data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 2) were analyzed. In total 11,584 couples were eligible for analysis. Alcohol consumption was measured by numerical indicators of alcohol amount and frequency of drinking, whereas alcohol-related problems (i.e. having been criticized for excessive drinking) were measured by the CAGE Alcohol Screening Questionnaire. Multivariate hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Results Results revealed that alcohol consumption was significantly associated with a decrease in spousal mental distress, whereas alcohol-related problems were associated with an increase in spousal mental distress when adjusted for each other. Interaction effects indicated that couples discordant for drinking problems experienced more mental distress than spouses concordant for drinking problems. Conclusions The results of our study indicate that alcohol-related problems constitute a clear risk factor for spousal mental distress. On the other hand, a high consumption of alcohol per se was related to lower levels of spousal mental distress, after adjusting for the alcohol-related problems perceived by the alcohol consumer him/herself. All effect sizes were small, but the trends were clear, challenging the notion that a high consumption of alcohol is exclusively and under all

  4. Polymorphisme de l'apolipoprotéine E dans la population du nord du Maroc: fréquence et influence sur les paramètres lipidiques

    PubMed Central

    Benyahya, Fatiha; Barakat, Amina; Ghailani, Naima; Bennani, Mohcine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail est de déterminer les fréquences alléliques et génotypiques des sites polymorphes situés dans le gène de l'apolipoprotéine E (apo E) ainsi que leur impact sur les paramètres cliniques et lipidiques dans un échantillon de la population du nord du Maroc cliniquement diagnostiqué ADH. Méthodes Le génotype de l'apo E a été analysé par séquençage direct chez 46 patients cliniquement diagnostiqués ADH selon les critères standards. Résultats Les fréquences des allèles epsilon 3, epsilon 2 et epsilon 4 ont été respectivement 78.3%, 2.2% et 19.6%. La fréquence de l'allèle epsilon 4 est très élevée chez la population du nord du Maroc en comparaison avec les populations des autres régions marocaines. Elle est similaire à celle rapportée dans les pays de l'Europe du nord. Les taux du cholestérol total, du cholestérol LDL ainsi que la présence des xanthomes et les maladies cardiovasculaires ne différent pas entre les génotypes de l'apoE. En revanche, les résultats ont montré une influence de l'allèle epsilon4 sur le taux des triglycérides chez les sujets obèses. Conclusion Le génotype de l'apoE ne peut expliquer le phénotype clinique et biochimique présenté par des patients du Nord du Maroc cliniquement diagnostiqués ADH. PMID:24396563

  5. Oral health care activities performed by caregivers for institutionalized elderly in Barcelona-Spain

    PubMed Central

    Cornejo-Ovalle, Marco; Costa-de-Lima, Kenio; Pérez, Glória; Borrell, Carme; Casals-Peidro, Elías

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the frequency of brushing teeth and cleaning of dentures, performed by caregivers, for institutionalized elderly people. Methods: A cross-sectional study in a sample of 196 caregivers of 31 health centers in Barcelona. The dependent variables were frequency of dental brushing and frequency of cleaning of dentures of the elderly by caregivers. The independent variables were characteristics of caregivers and institutions. We performed bivariate and multivariate descriptive analyses. Robust Poisson regression models were fitted to determine factors associated with the dependent variables and to assess the strength of the association. Results: 83% of caregivers were women, 79% worked on more than one shift, 42% worked only out of necessity, 92% were trained to care for elderly persons, 67% were trained in oral hygiene care for the elderly, and 73% recognized the existence of institutional protocols on oral health among residents. The variables explaining the lower frequency of brushing teeth by caregivers for the elderly, adjusted for the workload, were: no training in the care of elderly persons (PRa 1.7 CI95%: 1.6-1.8), not fully agreeing with the importance of oral health care of the elderly (PRa 2.5 CI95%: 1.5-4.1) and not knowing of the existence of oral health protocols (PRa 1.8 CI95%: 1.2-2.6). The variables that explain the lower frequency of cleaning dentures, adjusted for the workload, were lack of training in elderly care (PRa 1.7 CI95%: 1.3-1.9) and not knowing of the existence of protocols (PRa 3.7 CI95%: 1.6-8.7). Conclusion: The majority of caregivers perform activities of oral health care for the elderly at least once per day. The frequency of this care depends mainly on whether caregivers are trained to perform these activities, the importance given to oral health, the workload of caregivers and the existence of institutional protocols on oral health of institutionalized elderly persons. Key words:Institutionalized elderly

  6. Spatial variability of trace elements and sources for improved exposure assessment in Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguillón, María Cruz; Cirach, Marta; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Tsai, Ming; de Hoogh, Kees; Jedynska, Aleksandra; Kooter, Ingeborg M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Querol, Xavier

    2014-06-01

    Trace and major elements concentrations in PM10 and PM2.5 were measured at 20 sites spread in the Barcelona metropolitan area (1 rural background, 6 urban background, 13 road traffic sites) and at 1 reference site. Three 2-week samples per site and size fraction were collected during 2009 using low volume samplers, adding a total of 120 samples. Collected samples were analysed for elemental composition using Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF). EC, OC, and hopanes and steranes concentrations in PM2.5 were determined. Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF) model was used for a source apportionment analysis. The work was performed as part of the ESCAPE project. Elements were found in concentrations within the usual range in Spanish urban areas. Mineral elements were measured in higher concentrations during the warm season, due to enhanced resuspension; concentrations of fueloil combustion elements were also higher in summer. Elements in higher concentration at the traffic sites were: Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Sn, Zn and Zr. Spatial variations related to non-traffic sources were observed for concentrations of Br, Cl, K, and Na (sea salt origin) and Ni, V and S (shipping emissions), which were higher at the coastal sites, as well as for Zn and Pb, higher at sites closer to industrial facilities. Five common sources for PM10 and PM2.5 were identified by PMF: road traffic (with tracers Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo and Zn); fueloil combustion (Ni and V); secondary sulphate; industry (Pb and Zn); and mineral source (Al, Ca, Mg, Si, Sr and Ti). A marine aerosol source, a mixture of sea salt with aged anthropogenic aerosols, was found only in PM10. EC, hopanes and steranes concentrations correlate strongly with the PM10 road traffic source contributions, being hence all attributed to the same source. OC may arise from other sources in addition to road traffic and have a high contribution of secondary OC. Significant spatial and temporal variation in the PM2.5 and PM10 elemental

  7. Improving the modeling of road dust levels for Barcelona at urban scale and street level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, Fulvio; Zandveld, Peter; Keuken, Menno; Jonkers, Sander; Querol, Xavier; Reche, Cristina; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; Schaap, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    Road dust emission is an emerging issue in air quality due to the lack of remediation measures in contrast to vehicle exhaust emissions. The evidence of receptor modeling studies allows for quantifying impact on a few receptors, but the high cost of PM chemical speciation data and the questionable representativeness of single monitoring sites, limit considerably the development of population exposure estimates and epidemiologic studies based on georeferenced data. This study attempts to initiate and promote urban-scale dispersion modeling for road dust emissions, which will allow for a more robust estimate of population exposure and health outcomes. The TNO URBIS (URBan Information System) model was applied in the city of Barcelona, implementing a Gaussian line source and a street canyon dispersion model, together with new experimental estimates of road dust emission factors and algorithm to describe the time variability. Annual, daily and hourly road dust contributions were simulated and validated against observation of PM10, mineral dust and hourly PM2.5-10 concentrations. Results show that road dust contributed 9-15% to PM10 levels at background sites, and 23-44% at traffic sites. Highest contributions were modeled in the commercial/residential district where most of population live and work (Eixample) structured by 120 m wide square blocks, separated by roads with >10,000 vehicles per day. Street level contributions rise up to 20 μg/m3 (96% of roads) and an additional 3% of roads within 20-40 μg/m3. Hourly simulations of road dust contributions revealed to benefit from the implementation of the new emission module (Amato et al., 2012), able to describe the exponential recovery of road dust emission potential after rain events, when compared to common approach such as the use of constant emission factor or an ON/OFF approach. Correlation coefficients with observed data varied from 0.61, 0.58 and 0.43 for annual, daily and hourly means, respectively, revealing

  8. Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in institutionalized elderly in Barcelona (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Glòria; de Lima, Kenio C.; Casals-Peidro, Elías; Borrell, Carme

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the oral health status and the factors associated with oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in people aged 65 and older institutionalized in Barcelona in 2009. Study Design: Cross sectional study in 194 elderly. The dependent variable was poor OHRQoL, according to the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI). The independent variables were socio-demographic data, last dental visit, subjective and objective oral health status. Robust Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with OHRQoL as well as the strengths of association (Prevalence Ratios with respective confidence intervals at 95%). Results: According to GOHAI, 94 women (68.1%) and 36 men (64.3%) had poor OHRQoL. The average DMFT index (number of decayed, missing and filled teeth) was 22.8, with mean 10.2 remaining teeth. According to the Community Periodontal Index only 1.9% were healthy. 33.8% of the sample (35.5% of women and 30.4% of men) presented edentulism, 54.2% needed upper dental prostheses (51.1% of women and 60.7% of men) and 64.7% needed lower ones (61.6% of women and 71.4% of men). Only 7.2% had visited a dentist in the past year (8.8% of women and 3.6% of men). After fitting several multivariate adjusted robust Poisson regression models, poor OHRQoL was found to be associated to self-reporting problems with teeth or gums, self-reporting poor opinion about teeth/gums/denture and also associated to functional edentulism, needing upper denture, but not to socio-demographic factors or time since last dental visit. Conclusions: The study population has poor objective oral health. A high percentage has poor OHRQoL associated to subjective and objective oral health conditions. Dental care is required and these services should be included in the Spanish National Health System. Key words:Oral health, homes for the aged, elderly, self-assessment, quality of life, geriatric oral health assessment index

  9. Community health workers improve contact tracing among immigrants with tuberculosis in Barcelona

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The important increase in immigration during recent years has changed the epidemiology and control strategies for tuberculosis (TB) in many places. This study evaluates the effectiveness of intervention with community health workers (CHW) to improve contact tracing among immigrants. Methods The study included all TB cases detected by the Barcelona TB Program from 2000 to 2005 and compared a period without CHW intervention (2000-2002) to a period with CHW intervention (2003-2005). The influence on contact tracing of sex, age, hospital of diagnosis, district of residence, birthplace, HIV, homeless and CHW intervention was analysed by logistic regression. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results 960 foreign born TB cases were detected, 388 in the intervention period. Contact tracing was performed on 65,7% of 201 smear-positive cases during the pre-intervention period compared to 81.6% of 152 smear-positive TB cases during the intervention period (p < 0.001). Risk factors associated with incomplete contact tracing of smear-positive index cases included being diagnosed in two hospitals without contact tracing TB unit (OR = 3.5; CI:1.4-8.9) and (OR = 4.6; CI:1.6-13.5) respectively, birth place in India-Pakistan (OR = 4.4; CI:1.9-10.3) or North Africa (OR = 4.3; CI:1.8-10.5), having an unknown residence (OR = 5.4; CI:1.6-18.0), being HIV-infected (OR = 6.1; CI:2.5-14.8) or homeless (OR = 3.3; CI:1.3-8.2), and the absence of CHW intervention (OR = 2.4; CI:1.3-4.3). Conclusions The effectiveness of contact tracing for TB control in areas with high immigration can be improved by incorporating CHWs who act as translators, cultural mediators and facilitators who accompany cases and contacts through treatment and follow-up. PMID:22394990

  10. Building a panel data set on fuel stations located in the Spanish regional areas of Madrid and Barcelona

    PubMed Central

    Balaguer, Jacint; Ripollés, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    The data described in this article were collected daily over the period June 10, 2010, to November 25, 2012, from the website of the Spanish Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism. The database includes information about fuel stations regarding to their prices (both gross and net of taxes), brand, location (latitude and longitude), and postal code in the Spanish provinces of Madrid and Barcelona. Moreover, obtaining the postal codes has allowed us to select those stations that are operating within the metropolitan areas of Madrid and Barcelona. By considering those fuel stations that uninterruptedly provided prices during the entire period, the data can be especially useful to explore the dynamics of prices in fuel markets. This is the case of Balaguer and Ripollés (2016), “Asymmetric fuel price responses under heterogeneity” [1], who, taking into account the presence of the potential heterogeneity of the behaviour of fuel stations, used this statistical information to perform an analysis on asymmetric fuel price responses. PMID:26933671

  11. Principal sequence pattern analysis of episodes of excess mortality due to heat in the Barcelona metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, Juan Carlos; Aran, Montserrat; Raso, José Miguel; Pérez-Zanón, Nuria

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study is to classify the synoptic sequences associated with excess mortality during the warm season in the Barcelona metropolitan area. To achieve this purpose, we undertook a principal sequence pattern analysis that incorporates different atmospheric levels, in an attempt at identifying the main features that account for dynamic and thermodynamic atmospheric processes. The sequence length was determined by the short-term displacement between temperature and mortality. To detect this lag, we applied the cross-correlation function to the residuals obtained from the modelling of the daily temperature and mortality series of summer. These residuals were estimated by means of an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model. A 7-day sequence emerged as the basic temporal unit for evaluating the synoptic background that triggers the temperature related to excess mortality in the Barcelona metropolitan area. The principal sequence pattern analysis distinguished three main synoptic patterns: two dynamic configurations produced by southern fluxes related to an Atlantic low, which can be associated with heat waves recorded in southern Europe, and a third pattern identified by a stagnation situation associated with the persistence of a blocking anticyclone over Europe, related to heat waves recorded in northern and central western Europe.

  12. Building a panel data set on fuel stations located in the Spanish regional areas of Madrid and Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Balaguer, Jacint; Ripollés, Jordi

    2016-06-01

    The data described in this article were collected daily over the period June 10, 2010, to November 25, 2012, from the website of the Spanish Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism. The database includes information about fuel stations regarding to their prices (both gross and net of taxes), brand, location (latitude and longitude), and postal code in the Spanish provinces of Madrid and Barcelona. Moreover, obtaining the postal codes has allowed us to select those stations that are operating within the metropolitan areas of Madrid and Barcelona. By considering those fuel stations that uninterruptedly provided prices during the entire period, the data can be especially useful to explore the dynamics of prices in fuel markets. This is the case of Balaguer and Ripollés (2016), "Asymmetric fuel price responses under heterogeneity" [1], who, taking into account the presence of the potential heterogeneity of the behaviour of fuel stations, used this statistical information to perform an analysis on asymmetric fuel price responses. PMID:26933671

  13. Retrospective space-time cluster analysis of whooping cough, re-emergence in Barcelona, Spain, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Solano, Rubén; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; Simón, Fernando; Lafuente, Sarah; Simón, Pere; Rius, Cristina; Gorrindo, Pilar; Toledo, Diana; Caylà, Joan A

    2014-05-01

    A retrospective, space-time study of whooping cough cases reported to the Public Health Agency of Barcelona, Spain between the years 2000 and 2011 is presented. It is based on 633 individual whooping cough cases and the 2006 population census from the Spanish National Statistics Institute, stratified by age and sex at the census tract level. Cluster identification was attempted using space-time scan statistic assuming a Poisson distribution and restricting temporal extent to 7 days and spatial distance to 500 m. Statistical calculations were performed with Stata 11 and SatScan and mapping was performed with ArcGis 10.0. Only clusters showing statistical significance (P <0.05) were mapped. The most likely cluster identified included five census tracts located in three neighbourhoods in central Barcelona during the week from 17 to 23 August 2011. This cluster included five cases compared with the expected level of 0.0021 (relative risk = 2436, P <0.001). In addition, 11 secondary significant space-time clusters were detected with secondary clusters occurring at different times and localizations. Spatial statistics is felt to be useful by complementing epidemiological surveillance systems through visualizing excess in the number of cases in space and time and thus increase the possibility of identifying outbreaks not reported by the surveillance system.

  14. Potential formation of bromophenols in Barcelona's tap water due to daily salt mine discharges and occasional phenol spills

    SciTech Connect

    Ventura, F.; Rivera, J.

    1986-02-01

    The presence of phenol and chlorinated phenols in drinking water has been shown to affect both taste and odor and to cause negative effects on health. The priority pollutants list issued by E.P.A. includes eleven of these compounds as suspected carcinogens. Little attention has been focussed on the presence of bromophenols. The presence of volatile brominated organic compounds has been demonstrated when bromide is present, due to chlorination. Similarly, brominated phenols might be formed during chlorination in the water works. More than 3 million inhabitants in the area of Barcelona drink water taken from Llobregat river. Quality of this raw water is strongly influenced by high contents of bromide coming from salt mines located in the upper course of the river. Phenol and phenolic compounds are usually found in raw water in the ppb range but occasional spills may increase the phenol content up to parts per million. This study shows the possibility of formation of bromophenols during normal chlorination conditions at Barcelona's water works plant.

  15. [Two surgery schools: Madrid and Barcelona. Ribera Sans and Salvador Cardenal (150th anniversary of their birth)].

    PubMed

    Vázquez de Quevedo, Francisco

    2003-01-01

    Two eminent Spanish surgeons from the positivism period were born 150 years ago: Ribera Sans and Salvador Cardenal. To mark this anniversary I have studied their written work and their contribution to Spanish surgery as pioneers. Each school had its own place although they kept certain parallelism. Ribera worked in Madrid as a professor for 23 years and had many disciples. He initiated digestive, pediatric and thoracic surgery. He was a professor at San Carlos just like the surgeons: San Martín and Guedea. He was director of the Niño Jesús Hospital and a R. A. N. M. academic. Cardenal is a distinguished surgeon who carried out his work in Barcelona. He extended the use of the antiseptic method in Spanish surgery. He became Director of the Sagrado Corazón Hospital. He was also named Honorary professor of surgery and a member of the Royal School of Surgery in England, and R. A. Barcelona. His work was closely related to Dr. Ferrán's. His son was León Cardenal.

  16. Semi-open environmental conditions during phases of hominin occupation at the Eemian Interglacial basin site Neumark-Nord 2 and its wider environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, Eduard; Bakels, Corrie

    2015-06-01

    Neandertal occupation of Eemian environments in Europe is well attested by several archaeological sites dating to this interglacial period. Does this mean that Neandertals were living in closed forest environments? Due to the potential variability of Eemian environments in space and time, it is necessary to study environmental records that can be correlated with phases of hominin presence, as reflected in the archaeological record. Such a perspective can be obtained from the small basin locality Neumark-Nord 2, as it contains an extensive and detailed environmental record, as well as a large archaeological record consisting of several distinct find levels. Analysis shows that hominin presence is predominantly associated with semi-open environmental conditions. A review of the data from the neighbouring Neumark-Nord 1 basin shows that semi-open environments were also characterizing the wider environment during phases of hominin presence at both basin localities. Large herbivores attracted to the water in these basins may have played an important role in the vegetation openness, probably in conjunction with (local) climatic conditions. The relationship between hominin presence and semi-open environments is explained as Neandertals exploiting the large herbivores aggregating around these freshwater localities, while the more varied vegetation would also have provided them with edible plant foods. Other Eemian sites from freshwater contexts provide evidence for semi-open conditions as well.

  17. Species of Root-knot Nematodes and Fungal Egg Parasites Recovered from Vegetables in Almería and Barcelona, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Verdejo-Lucas, S.; Ornat, C.; Sorribas, F. J.; Stchiegel, A.

    2002-01-01

    Intensive vegetable production areas were surveyed in the provinces of Almería (35 sites) and Barcelona (22 sites), Spain, to determine the incidence and identity of Meloidogyne spp. and of fungal parasites of nematode eggs. Two species of Meloidogyne were found in Almería—M. javanica (63% of the samples) and M. incognita (31%). Three species were found in Barcelona, including M. incognita (50%), M. javanica (36%), and M. arenaria (14%). Solanaceous crops supported larger (P < 0.05) nematode numbers than cucurbit crops in Almería but not in Barcelona. Fungal parasites were found in 37% and 45% of the sites in Almería and Barcelona, respectively, but percent parasitism was never greater than 5%. Nine fungal species were isolated from single eggs of the nematode. The fungi included Verticillium chlamydosporium, V. catenulatum, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Fusarium spp., Acremonium strictum, Gliocladium roseum, Cylindrocarpon spp., Engiodontium album, and Dactylella oviparasitica. Two sterile fungi and five unidentified fungi also were isolated from Meloidogyne spp. eggs. PMID:19265964

  18. Analytical considerations in the use of capture-recapture to estimate prevalence: case studies of the estimation of opiate use in the metropolitan area of Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Domingo-Salvany, A; Hartnoll, R L; Maguire, A; Brugal, M T; Albertín, P; Caylà, J A; Casabona, J; Suelves, J M

    1998-10-15

    Capture-recapture, an indirect method widely used to estimate undetected populations, has been criticized because it causes problems due to a lack of compliance with several important assumptions and model selection strategies. This paper expands on the problems encountered when applying this methodology to drug abuse estimations, specifically the prevalence of opiate use in the metropolitan area of Barcelona, Spain, in 1993. Three samples of opiate users (from hospital emergency rooms, treatment centers, and prisons) were available in the area studied; an additional sample (mortality data) was analyzed for the city of Barcelona. Log-linear models that provided a good fit were considered, to which further model selection strategies were applied. A total of 3,207 unique individuals aged 15-44 years were identified in the three samples from the greater Barcelona area; the mortality sample from the city of Barcelona contained an additional 83 individuals. Heterogeneity was observed in different age, sex, and residence area subgroups. Population estimates differed widely according to the log-linear model chosen. Minimum Akaike's information criterion model and saturated model estimates were used to produce population prevalence rates. The main problems the authors encountered in this study were related to population definition, source heterogeneity, and assessment of an adequate model, a problem associated with sample size. PMID:9786228

  19. Mutual Learning for Sustainability: Relationships between the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) and Regional Centre of Expertise (RCE) Barcelona from a Systems Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer-Balas, D.; Buckland, H.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) and RCE-Barcelona in the context of two organisations with a strategic aim to further Education for Sustainable Development. A special emphasis is put in the role that UPC has had in the creation and development of this project,…

  20. Geochemical signature and phytoremediation of urban soil: a case in Barcelona city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Bocanegra, Javier; Roca, Núria; Febrero, Anna; Bort, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    The cleanup of contaminated places with heavy metals is necessary, but environmental remediation strategies are often expensive and energy consuming. Thus, it is important to develop low-cost and environmentally friendly strategies. Phytoremediation-based technologies could provide a long-lasting solution. The study area is located in Sants, a neighbourhood in Barcelona city (Catalonia, Spain). This place was an industrial area in the last century, which was occupied by a metal smelting industry. Nowadays, the neighbours want to cultivate vegetables in this location, but the history of this area suggests that the soil is polluted by elevated concentrations of heavy metals. The aim of this work was to determine heavy metal concentration in: a) soil, to know the degree of the soil pollution; b) roots and leaves of two plant species, Brassica juncea as an accumulator plant and Solanum lycopersicum as a crop plant, to know the capacity of each species to accumulate metals, and c) drainage water, to evaluate the heavy metal mobility. The main pollutants are Cu, Pb and Zn with topsoil total concentrations about 1355, 2230 and 6239 mg•kg-1, respectively. The established background upper limits in this area in mg•kg-1 were: Cu 145, Pb 91 and Zn 326. The same soil elements for available fractions, extracted with DTPA, were slightly elevated (9.6, 5.8 and 6.7 % of total concentration). The environmental pollution implies great extractability, suggesting the plants in these soils have facility with potentially toxic elements absorption. Instead, the concentrations in subsoil are lower than in topsoil. The concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn in the plants' leaves are greater in B. juncea 170 ± 52.7, 137 ± 46.3 and 2365 ± 860.4 mg•kg-1, than in S. lycopersicum 102.5 ± 7.1, 22.5 ± 1.3 and 1002 ± 85.2 mg•kg-1 respectively. Furthermore, they are also greater in roots than in leaves. All of them are lower than the threshold to be considered like a hyperaccumulator species

  1. Characterization of the inorganic aerosol in Barcelona site during DAURE 2009 field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza, Javier; Gómez-Moreno, Francisco J.; Aránzazu Revuelta, M.; Coz, Esther; Moreno, Natalia; Pujadas, Manuel; Artíñano, Begoña.

    2010-05-01

    Inorganic compounds account for a significant mass of the ambient aerosol. However this contribution varies with time and aerosol size fraction, depending on the influence of source emissions and ambient conditions, which can be relevant in the formation processes of secondary species. Time series of particulate nitrate, 10 m time resolution, have been obtained during the February-March and July 2009 DAURE (Determination of the sources of atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and Rural Environments in the western Mediterranean) field campaigns in the urban area of Barcelona by means of an R&P8400N monitor. Meteorological conditions during these periods were relevant for the photochemical formation and accumulation of secondary species. Ambient concentrations were higher in winter, specially coinciding with development of atmospheric stagnant episodes that enhanced the accumulation of pollutants including particulate nitrate that reached concentrations of 25 µgm-3 in some occasions, day or night, under these conditions. High humidity periods favored in occasions the formation of nitrates at submicronic scale. Variations in wind direction resulted in transport of particulate nitrate from near emission areas. Size segregated aerosol was sampled during the winter campaign with a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) using eleven size stages with aluminum substrates and a quartz fiber backup filter. Samples were collected twice per day for day/night periods. The first sampling period tried to collect secondary aerosol as it started after the early morning emission period. The second sample collected the night aerosol and the emission period. Soluble ions (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and calcium) were later analyzed by IC. The nitrate mass was concentrated in two modes, the accumulation one around 0.75 µm and the coarse one around 3.90 µm. The sulfate and ammonium masses were concentrated in the accumulation mode, around 0.50 µm, although a small peak close to 5 µm

  2. Ozone attributed to Madrid and Barcelona on-road transport emissions: Characterization of plume dynamics over the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Víctor; Pay, María T; Baldasano, José M

    2016-02-01

    Despite the ~30% emission decrease of the main tropospheric ozone (O3) precursors in Spain in the 2001-2012 period, the O3 concentration in summer still exceeds the target value for the protection of the human health of the Air Quality Directive (2008/50/EC). On-road transport is the main anthropogenic contributor to O3 precursor's emissions in Madrid and Barcelona metropolitan areas (65%/59% of NOx, 40%/33% of NMVOC, and 67%/85% of CO emissions) but this contribution to O3 formation is not well understood. The present work aims at increasing the understanding on the role of on-road transport emissions from main Spanish urban areas in O3 dynamics over Spain under typical circulation types. For that purpose, the Integrated Source Apportionment Method is used within the CALIOPE modelling system (WRF/CMAQ/HERMES/BSC-DREAM8b). The results indicate that the daily maximum O3 concentration attributed to the on-road transport emissions from Madrid (O3T-MAD) and Barcelona metropolitan areas (O3T-BCN) contribute up to 24% and 8% to total O3 concentration, respectively, within an area of influence of 200 km. The contribution of O3T-MAD and O3T-BCN is particularly significant (up to 80-100 μg m(-3) in an hour) to the O3 concentration peak during the central hours of the day in the high O3 concentration season (April-September). The maximum O3T-MAD concentration is calculated within the metropolitan area of Madrid but the plume, channelled by the Tajo and the Henares valleys, affects large areas of the Iberian Peninsula. The O3T-BCN plume is more driven by sea-land and mountain-valley breezes than by the synoptic advection and its maximum concentration is usually registered over the Mediterranean Sea. The O3 concentration transported long-range to the Iberian Peninsula is significant in the area of influence of Madrid and Barcelona, being maxima under cold (70-96%) and minima in warm circulation types (35-70%). PMID:26615485

  3. Working toward cancer and healthy living education around the world: the experience at La Salle Campus Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Tallulah

    2012-01-01

    Health education, especially in the earlier stages of life, is essential for the development of healthy habits for life. Though healthy living messages must first be delivered locally, our goal is to distribute these messages globally using new technology and communications mediums. The La Salle schools, with a global network of primary, secondary, and higher education institutions have the capacity to reach thousands of children. La Salle Campus Barcelona, in collaboration with St. Jude Children's Research Hospital and Hospital Sant Joan de Déu , has started to carry out educational activities in schools in Catalonia, as well as supporting the design of video games teaching healthy habits and preparing videos about a healthy lifestyle, with the goal of reaching children around the world.

  4. HIV vaccine trial willingness among injection and non-injection drug users in two urban centres, Barcelona and San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Etcheverry, M Florencia; Lum, Paula J; Evans, Jennifer L; Sanchez, Emilia; de Lazzari, Elisa; Mendez-Arancibia, Eva; Sierra, Ernesto; Gatell, José M; Page, Kimberly; Joseph, Joan

    2011-02-24

    Being able to recruit high-risk volunteers who are also willing to consider future participation in vaccine trials are critical features of vaccine preparedness studies. We described data from two cohorts of injection- and non-injection drug users in Barcelona, Spain [Red Cross centre] and in San Francisco, USA, [UFO-VAX study] at high risk of HIV/HCV infection to assess behaviour risk exposure and willingness to participate in future preventive HIV vaccine trials. We successfully identified drug-using populations that would be eligible for future HIV vaccine efficacy trials, based on reported levels of risk during screening and high levels of willingness to participate. In both groups, Red Cross and UFO-VAX respectively, HCV infection was highly prevalent at baseline (41% and 34%), HIV baseline seroprevalence was 4.2% and 1.5%, and high levels of willingness were seen (83% and 78%). PMID:21241735

  5. HIV vaccine trial willingness among injection and non-injection drug users in two urban centres, Barcelona and San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Etcheverry, M Florencia; Lum, Paula J; Evans, Jennifer L; Sanchez, Emilia; de Lazzari, Elisa; Mendez-Arancibia, Eva; Sierra, Ernesto; Gatell, José M; Page, Kimberly; Joseph, Joan

    2011-02-24

    Being able to recruit high-risk volunteers who are also willing to consider future participation in vaccine trials are critical features of vaccine preparedness studies. We described data from two cohorts of injection- and non-injection drug users in Barcelona, Spain [Red Cross centre] and in San Francisco, USA, [UFO-VAX study] at high risk of HIV/HCV infection to assess behaviour risk exposure and willingness to participate in future preventive HIV vaccine trials. We successfully identified drug-using populations that would be eligible for future HIV vaccine efficacy trials, based on reported levels of risk during screening and high levels of willingness to participate. In both groups, Red Cross and UFO-VAX respectively, HCV infection was highly prevalent at baseline (41% and 34%), HIV baseline seroprevalence was 4.2% and 1.5%, and high levels of willingness were seen (83% and 78%).

  6. Contribution of ecosystem services to air quality and climate change mitigation policies: the case of urban forests in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Baró, Francesc; Chaparro, Lydia; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Langemeyer, Johannes; Nowak, David J; Terradas, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    Mounting research highlights the contribution of ecosystem services provided by urban forests to quality of life in cities, yet these services are rarely explicitly considered in environmental policy targets. We quantify regulating services provided by urban forests and evaluate their contribution to comply with policy targets of air quality and climate change mitigation in the municipality of Barcelona, Spain. We apply the i-Tree Eco model to quantify in biophysical and monetary terms the ecosystem services "air purification," "global climate regulation," and the ecosystem disservice "air pollution" associated with biogenic emissions. Our results show that the contribution of urban forests regulating services to abate pollution is substantial in absolute terms, yet modest when compared to overall city levels of air pollution and GHG emissions. We conclude that in order to be effective, green infrastructure-based efforts to offset urban pollution at the municipal level have to be coordinated with territorial policies at broader spatial scales.

  7. The Barcelona Dust Forecast Center: The first WMO regional meteorological center specialized on atmospheric sand and dust forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basart, Sara; Terradellas, Enric; Cuevas, Emilio; Jorba, Oriol; Benincasa, Francesco; Baldasano, Jose M.

    2015-04-01

    The World Meteorological Organization's Sand and Dust Storm Warning Advisory and Assessment System (WMO SDS-WAS, http://sds-was.aemet.es/) project has the mission to enhance the ability of countries to deliver timely and quality sand and dust storm forecasts, observations, information and knowledge to users through an international partnership of research and operational communities. The good results obtained by the SDS-WAS Northern Africa, Middle East and Europe (NAMEE) Regional Center and the demand of many national meteorological services led to the deployment of operational dust forecast services. On June 2014, the first WMO Regional Meteorological Center Specialized on Atmospheric Sand and Dust Forecast, the Barcelona Dust Forecast Center (BDFC; http://dust.aemet.es/), was publicly presented. The Center operationally generates and distributes predictions for the NAMEE region. The dust forecasts are based on the NMMB/BSC-Dust model developed at the Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC-CNS). The present contribution will describe the main objectives and capabilities of BDFC. One of the activities performed by the BDFC is to establish a protocol to routinely exchange products from dust forecast models as dust load, dust optical depth (AOD), surface concentration, surface extinction and deposition. An important step in dust forecasting is the evaluation of the results that have been generated. This process consists of the comparison of the model results with multiple kinds of observations (i.e. AERONET and MODIS) and is aimed to facilitate the understanding of the model capabilities, limitations, and appropriateness for the purpose for which it was designed. The aim of this work is to present different evaluation approaches and to test the use of different observational products in the evaluation system.

  8. Indoor/outdoor relationships and mass closure of quasi-ultrafine, accumulation and coarse particles in Barcelona schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, M.; Rivas, I.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Sunyer, J.; Álvarez-Pedrerol, M.; Bouso, L.; Sioutas, C.

    2014-05-01

    The mass concentration, chemical composition and sources of quasi-ultrafine (quasi-UFP, PM0.25), accumulation (PM0.25-2.5) and coarse mode (PM2.5-10) particles were determined in indoor and outdoor air at 39 schools in Barcelona (Spain). Quasi-UFP mass concentrations measured (25.6 μg m-3 outdoors, 23.4 μg m-3 indoors) are significantly higher than those reported in other studies, and characterised by higher carbonaceous and mineral matter contents and a lower proportion of secondary inorganic ions. Results suggest that quasi-UFPs in Barcelona are affected by local sources in the schools, mainly human activity (e.g. organic material from textiles, etc., contributing 23-46% to total quasi-UFP mass) and playgrounds (in the form of mineral matter, contributing about 9% to the quasi-UFP mass). The particle size distribution patterns of toxicologically relevant metals and major aerosol components was characterised, displaying two modes for most elements and components, and one mode for inorganic salts (ammonium nitrate and sulfate) and elemental carbon (EC). Regarding metals, Ni and Cr were partitioned mainly in quasi-UFPs and could thus be of interest for epidemiological studies, given their high redox properties. Exposure of children to quasi-UFP mass and chemical species was assessed by comparing the concentrations measured at urban background and traffic areas schools. Finally, three main indoor sources across all size fractions were identified by assessing indoor / outdoor ratios (I / O) of PM species used as their tracers: human activity (organic material), cleaning products, paints and plastics (Cl- source), and a metallic mixed source (comprising combinations of Cu, Zn, Co, Cd, Pb, As, V and Cr). Our results support the need to enforce targeted legislation to determine a minimum "safe" distance between major roads and newly built schools to reduce exposure to traffic-derived metals in quasi-UFPs.

  9. Field Evidence of Social Influence in the Expression of Political Preferences: The Case of Secessionists Flags in Barcelona

    PubMed Central

    Parravano, Antonio; Noguera, José A.; Hermida, Paula; Tena-Sánchez, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Models of social influence have explored the dynamics of social contagion, imitation, and diffusion of different types of traits, opinions, and conducts. However, few behavioral data indicating social influence dynamics have been obtained from direct observation in “natural” social contexts. The present research provides that kind of evidence in the case of the public expression of political preferences in the city of Barcelona, where thousands of citizens supporting the secession of Catalonia from Spain have placed a Catalan flag in their balconies and windows. Here we present two different studies. 1) During July 2013 we registered the number of flags in 26% of the electoral districts in the city of Barcelona. We find that there is a large dispersion in the density of flags in districts with similar density of pro-independence voters. However, by comparing the moving average to the global mean we find that the density of flags tends to be fostered in electoral districts where there is a clear majority of pro-independence vote, while it is inhibited in the opposite cases. We also show that the distribution of flags in the observed districts deviates significantly from that of an equivalent random distribution. 2) During 17 days around Catalonia’s 2013 national holiday we observed the position at balcony resolution of the flags displayed in the facades of a sub-sample of 82 blocks. We compare the ‘clustering index’ of flags on the facades observed each day to thousands of equivalent random distributions. Again we provide evidence that successive hangings of flags are not independent events but that a local influence mechanism is favoring their clustering. We also find that except for the national holiday day the density of flags tends to be fostered in facades located in electoral districts where there is a clear majority of pro-independence vote. PMID:25961562

  10. NORD's Patient Assistance Programs

    MedlinePlus

    ... rarediseases.org Fax: 1-203-349-3277 CARNITOR® Medication Assistance (L-Carnitine or levo carnitine) Conditions: Primary systemic carnitine deficiency, inborn errors of metabolism resulting in secondary carnitine deficiency, carnitine ...

  11. Blood pressure reference values in adolescents: methodological aspects and suggestions for Northern Europe tables based on the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study II.

    PubMed

    Munkhaugen, John; Lydersen, Stian; Widerøe, Tor-Erik; Hallan, Stein

    2008-10-01

    The secular weight increase in European and US adolescents and the increasing use of oscillometric devices pose a problem to decide on normative blood pressure levels. We studied how biological and statistical aspects influence standards, and suggest new Northern Europe reference tables. All adolescents of Nord-Trøndelag county, Norway, aged 13-18 years were invited to the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study II (1995-1997), and the participation rate was 90% (n = 7682 after excluding 278 chronically ill patients). Blood pressure was measured with an oscillometric device (Criticare 507N, Criticare Systems Inc., Waukesha, Wisconsin, USA). We found that overweight introduced a systematic bias in blood pressure results (+3-5 mmHg). In addition to the well known differences with age and sex, we found evident 95th percentile differences in systolic blood pressure between the tallest and shortest individuals, ranging from 3-17 mmHg, and postpubertal status increased systolic blood pressure by 2-4 mmHg. We also found that a polynomial regression model with ln(blood pressure) as the dependent variable better accounted for the higher variation in blood pressure in subgroups with higher mean blood pressure. The suggested reference tables have a similar 50th percentile to British oscillometric data (1-4 mmHg above), whereas our 95th percentiles were 4-7 mmHg above. Compared with US sphygmomanometric data, our values range 5-12 and 10-16 mmHg above, respectively. We conclude that all blood pressure reference tables for adolescents should be region specific and based on normal-weight individuals. In addition to age and sex, height, puberty, type of measurement device and different variances in different age groups should also be accounted for.

  12. PREFACE: Lectures from the European RTN Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Fields, Barcelona, 12-16 January 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Jorge G.

    2005-04-01

    This issue of Classical and Quantum Gravity contains the proceedings of the RTN European Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Fields, which was held at the University of Barcelona, Spain, between 12-16 January 2004. The School was part of the RTN programme The Quantum Structure of Spacetime and the Geometric Nature of Fundamental Interactions of the European Union. It was attended by 181 registered participants. The lectures contain a pedagogical introduction to topics in string theory which are currently under active investigation. They were targeted mainly at students near the end of their PhD, and young postdocs and researchers. The topics were carefully selected to cover phenomenological aspects of string theory, covered by the lectures by A Uranga (Intersecting Brane Worlds) and U Danielsson (String Theory and Cosmology), as well as more fundamental and theoretical issues, covered by N Nekrasov (Non-perturbative Aspects of Supersymmetric Gauge Theories), P Townsend (Branes in Field Theory, not included in these proceedings) and Jaume Gomis (Tachyon Condensation: Towards Time Dependent Backgrounds and Holography). We must thank the lecturers for their admirable exposition of these interesting subjects. We hope that the readers of these proceedings receive these lectures with the same enthusiasm as they were received by all students and physicists that attended the School. Following the tradition of the RTN schools there were, in addition to the lectures, five workgroups on more specialized subjects, which aimed to discuss scientific problems of general interest to our network, facilitate communication between the various groups and, hopefully, help start new collaborations. They were Integrable Structures of the Gauge/String Correspondence led by G Arutyunov and B Stefanski Closed Timelike Curves in Supergravity and String Theory led by N Drukker and L Maoz Black Objects in Higher Dimensional General Relativity and Supergravity led by H Elvang and T

  13. Enzymatic and metabolic characterization of the phosphoglycerate kinase deficiency associated with chronic hemolytic anemia caused by the PGK-Barcelona mutation.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Bajo, María José; Repiso, Ada; la Ossa, Pablo Pérez de; Bañón-Maneus, Elisenda; de Atauri, Pedro; Climent, Fernando; Corrons, Joan-Lluís Vives; Cascante, Marta; Carreras, José

    2011-03-15

    Recently, we reported a new mutation of phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), called PGK-Barcelona, which causes chronic hemolytic anemia associated with progressive neurological impairment. We found a 140T→A substitution that produces an Ile46Asn change located at the N-domain of the enzyme and we suggested that the decrease of the PGK activity is probably related to a loss of enzyme stability. In this paper, by analyzing whole hemolysates and cloned enzymes, we show that both enzymes possess similar kinetic properties (although some differences are observed in the Km values) and the same electrophoretic mobility. However, PGK-Barcelona has higher thermal instability. Therefore, we confirm that the decrease of the red blood cell (RBC) PGK activity caused by the PGK-Barcelona mutation is more closely related to a loss of enzyme stability than to a decrease of enzyme catalytic function. Furthermore, we have measured the levels of glycolytic metabolites and adenine nucleotides in the RBC from controls and from the patient. The increase of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate and the decrease of ATP RBC levels are the only detected metabolic changes that could cause hemolytic anemia. PMID:21269848

  14. EDITORIAL: Proceedings of the 7th International LISA Symposium, Barcelona, Spain, 16-20 June 2008 Proceedings of the 7th International LISA Symposium, Barcelona, Spain, 16-20 June 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Alberto; Sopuerta, Carlos F.

    2009-05-01

    In June 2006 the LISA International Science Team (LIST) accepted the bid presented by the Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC) to host the 7th International LISA Symposium. This was during its 11th meeting at the University of Maryland, just before the 6th edition of the symposium started at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The 7th International LISA Symposium took place in the city of Barcelona, Spain, 16-20 June, 2008, in the premises of CosmoCaixa, a modern science museum located in the hills near Tibidabo. Almost 240 delegates registered for the event, a record breaking figure compared to previous editions of the symposium. Many of the most renowned world experts in LISA, gravitational wave science, and astronomy, as well as engineers, attended LISA #7 and produced state of the art presentations, while everybody benefited from the opportunity to have live discussions during the week in a friendly environment. The programme included 31 invited plenary lectures in the mornings, and eight parallel sessions in the afternoons. These were classified into seven major areas of research: LISA Technology, LISA PathFinder, LISA PathFinder Data Analysis, LISA Data Analysis, Gravitational Wave Sources, Cosmology and Fundamental Physics with LISA and Other Gravitational Wave Detectors. Abstracts for 138 communications were received, from which a selection was made by the session convenors which would fit time constraints. Up to 63 posters completed the scientific programme. More details on the programme, including some of the talks, can be found at the symposium website:http://www.ice.cat/research/LISA_Symposium. There was, however, a remarkable add-on: Professor Clifford Will delivered a startling presentation to the general public, who completely filled the Auditori—the main conference room, 320 seats—and were invited to ask questions to the speaker who boldly guided them through the daunting world of Black Holes, Waves of Gravity, and other Warped Ideas

  15. Summary of sediment data from the Yampa river and upper Green river basins, Colorado and Utah, 1993-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, John G.; Anders, Steven P.

    2004-01-01

    The water resources of the Upper Colorado River Basin have been extensively developed for water supply, irrigation, and power generation through water storage in upstream reservoirs during spring runoff and subsequent releases during the remainder of the year. The net effect of water-resource development has been to substantially modify the predevelopment annual hydrograph as well as the timing and amount of sediment delivery from the upper Green River and the Yampa River Basins tributaries to the main-stem reaches where endangered native fish populations have been observed. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Division of Wildlife and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, began a study to identify sediment source reaches in the Green River main stem and the lower Yampa and Little Snake Rivers and to identify sediment-transport relations that would be useful in assessing the potential effects of hydrograph modification by reservoir operation on sedimentation at identified razorback spawning bars in the Green River. The need for additional data collection is evaluated at each sampling site. Sediment loads were calculated at five key areas within the watershed by using instantaneous measurements of streamflow, suspended-sediment concentration, and bedload. Sediment loads were computed at each site for two modes of transport (suspended load and bedload), as well as for the total-sediment load (suspended load plus bedload) where both modes were sampled. Sediment loads also were calculated for sediment particle-size range (silt-and-clay, and sand-and-gravel sizes) if laboratory size analysis had been performed on the sample, and by hydrograph season. Sediment-transport curves were developed for each type of sediment load by a least-squares regression of logarithmic-transformed data. Transport equations for suspended load and total load had coefficients of determination of at least 0.72 at all of the sampling sites except Little Snake River near Lily, Colorado. Bedload transport equations at the five sites had coefficients of determination that ranged from 0.40 (Yampa River at Deerlodge Park, Colorado) to 0.80 (Yampa River above Little Snake River near Maybell, Colorado). Transport equations for silt and clay-size material had coefficients of determination that ranged from 0.46 to 0.82. Where particle-size data were available (Yampa River at Deerlodge Park, Colorado, and Green River near Jensen, Utah), transport equations for the smaller particle sizes (fine sand) tended to have higher coefficients of determination than the equations for coarser sizes (medium and coarse sand, and very coarse sand and gravel). Because the data had to be subdivided into at least two subsets (rising-limb, falling-limb and, occasionally, base-flow periods), the seasonal transport equations generally were based on relatively few samples. All transport equations probably could be improved by additional data collected at strategically timed periods.

  16. Occurrence and sources of brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants in dust from different indoor environments in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Cristale, Joyce; Hurtado, Alba; Gómez-Canela, Cristian; Lacorte, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the simultaneous presence of eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), nine new brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) and ten organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) was investigated in dust samples collected from different indoor environments (homes, schools, theatres, a university and a Research Institute) in Barcelona, Spain. OPFRs were detected at the highest concentrations followed by PBDEs. ∑OPFRs ranged from 2053 to 72,090ngg(-1) and tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) was the most abundant compound. BDE-209 was the main PBDE congener detected (up to 14,990ngg(-1)), while other PBDEs ranged from 2.6 to 118ngg(-1). Among the studied NBFRs, decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE - up to 4432ngg(-1)) followed by bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP - up to 508ngg(-1)) were detected at the highest concentration, whereas a lower detection frequency was observed for 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), pentabromotoluene (PBT) and hexabromobenzene (HBB). The levels and profile of flame retardants (FRs) were characteristic of each environment, where theatres followed by homes presented the highest concentrations and schools had the lowest levels. Principal Component Analysis permitted to identify the main sources and distribution of all FRs, according to specific uses in each environment. The simultaneous presence of all FR families in indoor dust points to the need to monitor these compounds to minimize human exposure.

  17. Barcelona 2002: law, ethics, and human rights. Advancing research and access to HIV vaccines: a framework for action.

    PubMed

    Avrett, Sam

    2002-12-01

    In light of the continuing spread of HIV infection and the devastating impact of the disease on lives, communities, and economies, particularly in the developing world, the investment in new treatments, vaccines, and microbicides has clearly been inadequate. Efforts must be intensified to develop effective HIV vaccines and to ensure that they are accessible to people in all parts of the world. This article is a summary of a paper by Sam Avrett presented at "Putting Third First: Vaccines, Access to Treatments and the Law," a satellite meeting held at Barcelona on 5 July 2002 and organized by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, the AIDS Law Project, South Africa, and the Lawyers Collective HIV/AIDS Unit, India. In the article, Avrett calls for immediate action to increase commitment and funding for HIV vaccines, enhance public support and involvement, accelerate vaccine development, and plan for the eventual delivery of the vaccines. The article briefly outlines steps that governments need to take to implement each of these objectives. The article also provides a menu of potential actions for vaccine advocates to consider as they lobby governments. PMID:14743820

  18. Food-borne zoonotic pathogens and antimicrobial resistance of indicator bacteria in urban wild boars in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Gonzalez, Nora; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Porrero, Concepción M; Mateos, Ana; Domínguez, Lucas; Lavín, Santiago; Serrano, Emmanuel

    2013-12-27

    Wildlife is increasingly abundant in urban environments, but little is known about the zoonotic pathogens carried by these populations. Urban wild boars are of particular concern because this species is well-known as a pathogen reservoir, and thus, we studied selected zoonotic pathogens in urban wild boars in Barcelona, Spain (n=41). Salmonella enterica was found in 5.00% (95% CI 0.61-16.91) and Campylobacter coli in 4.88% (95% CI 0.6-16.53) of the animals. E. coli O157:H7 and C. jejuni were not found. Other thermophilic Campylobacter were moderately prevalent (19.51%, 95% CI 8.82-34.87). Additionally, we screened for antimicrobial resistance in indicator bacteria: resistance was most frequent in Enterococcus faecium (95% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent), followed by Enterococcus faecalis (50%) and Escherichia coli (10%). For the first time resistance to linezolid in bacteria carried by wildlife is reported. These findings pose a concern for public health, and thus, further research is needed on wildlife in urban environments.

  19. Managing the identification of the mortal victims run over by a train in the Castelldefels railway accident (Barcelona).

    PubMed

    Barbería, Eneko; Martin-Fumadó, Carles; Galtés, Ignasi; Subirana-Domenech, Mercé; Puigbarraca-Sol, Lourdes; Vidal-Gutiérrez, Claudina; Valverde-Villarreal, Juan Luis; Castellà-García, Josep; Medallo-Muñiz, Jordi

    2015-09-01

    The identification of disaster victims is the formal, organized process of identifying multiple bodies after an incident with multiple victims. The appropriate management of these incidents, particularly of the bodies, is one of the most crucial aspects of disaster response and its importance has led to the evolution of the concept of Disaster Victim Management. The aim of this study is to report how the process of identifying the 12 mortal victims of a railway accident in June 2010 in Castelldefels (Barcelona) was managed. The methodology used complied with the National Protocol for medical forensic and scientific police response to mass casualty incidents. The family assistance center also served as an ante mortem (AM) office. Despite the fragmentation of the bodies, all the victims were identified satisfactorily. The main problems observed during the management of the disaster were due to the state of the bodies, which raised many doubts as to the number of fatalities. The experience prompted a proposal to establish some recommendations on limiting the number of fragments to be analyzed genetically. We would like to stress the importance of setting up a Data Integration Center which brought together all the participating institutions, and collected and supervised all the different identification reports in a single comprehensive text addressed to the competent legal authority. PMID:26026775

  20. Evaluating the environmental performance of urban parks in Mediterranean cities: an example from the Barcelona metropolitan region.

    PubMed

    Parés-Franzi, Marc; Saurí-Pujol, David; Domene, Elena

    2006-11-01

    In a context of increasing urban sprawl and water scarcity common to other Mediterranean cities, this article focuses on the urban parks in the Region of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) to examine how these parks are distributed in this region and to assess whether their design and management follow criteria adapted to Mediterranean environmental conditions, especially in what concerns water use. In order to evaluate the environmental performance of these parks, we selected four factors possibly influencing the adoption of park management practices at the local scale: urban density, population size of the municipality, municipal income per capita, and political orientation of the city council. After determining the location and area of urban parks in the region, we correlated these four explanatory factors with several management tasks extracted from two different samples of parks (one of 315 parks and another of 125 parks) and a survey of 86 city councils. Results show that, in general, urban parks were more frequent in large, dense, and left/green municipalities but that environmentally sound practices were more common in small and low-density municipalities. We conclude that changes in certain practices (especially the substitution of high water demanding species) could improve significantly the environmental performance of public spaces in large urban areas with Mediterranean climates. Our observations may be pertinent for other cities interested in the provision of environmental public goods such as parks that necessitate water for irrigation.

  1. Occurrence and sources of brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants in dust from different indoor environments in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Cristale, Joyce; Hurtado, Alba; Gómez-Canela, Cristian; Lacorte, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the simultaneous presence of eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), nine new brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) and ten organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) was investigated in dust samples collected from different indoor environments (homes, schools, theatres, a university and a Research Institute) in Barcelona, Spain. OPFRs were detected at the highest concentrations followed by PBDEs. ∑OPFRs ranged from 2053 to 72,090ngg(-1) and tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) was the most abundant compound. BDE-209 was the main PBDE congener detected (up to 14,990ngg(-1)), while other PBDEs ranged from 2.6 to 118ngg(-1). Among the studied NBFRs, decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE - up to 4432ngg(-1)) followed by bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP - up to 508ngg(-1)) were detected at the highest concentration, whereas a lower detection frequency was observed for 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), pentabromotoluene (PBT) and hexabromobenzene (HBB). The levels and profile of flame retardants (FRs) were characteristic of each environment, where theatres followed by homes presented the highest concentrations and schools had the lowest levels. Principal Component Analysis permitted to identify the main sources and distribution of all FRs, according to specific uses in each environment. The simultaneous presence of all FR families in indoor dust points to the need to monitor these compounds to minimize human exposure. PMID:27179204

  2. Lead exposure in the general population of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona: blood levels and related factors.

    PubMed

    Solé, E; Ballabriga, A; Dominguez, C

    1998-12-11

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on 254 individuals not occupationally exposed to lead to determine the degree of lead exposure in the general population of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. Blood lead levels (BPb) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) by haemofluorimetry. Blood lead levels were analysed with respect to individuals' age, sex, area of residence, the season of the year the blood was drawn and ZPP. Mean blood lead in our series was 0.22 +/- 0.011 mumol/l (mean +/- S.E.); no significant differences were found with respect to area of residence, sex or season. A linear relationship was observed between BPb and individuals' age (BPb = 0.08 + 0.05 x age; r = 0.37). The prevalence of lead intoxication (BPb > 0.48 mumol/l) was 7.1%. No linear relationship was observed between BPb and ZPP. ZPP determination does not appear to be a good screening method for lead intoxication since it presents low specificity and sensitivity values with an area below the ROC curve similar to the null value line (area below the curve = 0.5052, IC 95% = 0.443-0.568). We conclude that lead exposure does not constitute a serious health problem in the area studied, since BPb levels found are far below the toxic limit and the prevalence of intoxication is similar to that reported in other studies conducted in other developed countries.

  3. Second European Round Table on the Future Management of HIV: 10-11 October 2014, Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Rokx, Casper; Richman, Douglas D; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela; Silvestri, Guido; Lunzen, Jan; Khoo, Saye; Lichterfeld, Mathias; Altfeld, Marcus; Perno, Carlo Federico; Hunt, Peter W; Mallon, Paddy; Rockstroh, Jürgen K; Pozniak, Anton L; Clotet, Bonaventura; Boucher, Charles Ab

    2015-07-01

    The Second European Round Table on the Future Management of HIV took place in Barcelona, 10-11 October 2014 and focused on the HIV-1 reservoir, strategies for HIV cure and primary HIV infection (PHI). Important issues in the HIV-1 reservoir research field are the validity of reservoir measurement techniques and the potential of new drugs to target latently infected cells. Current HIV-1 cure concepts are based on theoretical assumptions of biologically plausible mechanisms, supported by several clinical observations. Three main potential strategies are under investigation in order to achieve a sterilising cure or maintain HIV-1 remission: latency reversal resulting in antigen expression and viral cytolysis or immune targeted cell-death; immunological control of the reservoir; or replacement of the complete autologous haematopoietic and lymphoid stem-cell repertoire by transplantation. An interesting opportunity for restricting the size of the reservoir entails the early initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) during PHI. In terms of the reservoir, early treatment limits its size, alters its composition, and restricts the genetic variability of integrated proviral HIV-1 DNA. The challenges ahead involve the identification of patients undergoing seroconversion to HIV-1 and the prompt initiation of treatment. How the seemingly beneficial impact of early treatment will make cure more feasible, and whether the positive effects of the cure efforts outweigh the potentially negative impact of life-long ART, are important aspects of future collaborative research prospects.

  4. Origin of inorganic and organic components of PM2.5 in subway stations of Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Minguillón, María Cruz; van Drooge, Barend L; Reche, Cristina; Amato, Fulvio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Centelles, Sonia; Querol, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The present work assesses indoor air quality in stations of the Barcelona subway system. PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms of 4 subway stations were measured during two different seasons and the chemical composition was determined. A Positive Matrix Factorization analysis was performed to identify and quantify the contributions of major PM2.5 sources in the subway stations. Mean PM2.5 concentrations varied according to the stations design and seasonal periods. PM2.5 was composed of haematite, carbonaceous aerosol, crustal matter, secondary inorganic compounds, trace elements, insoluble sulphate and halite. Organic compounds such as PAHs, nicotine, levoglucosan and aromatic musk compounds were also identified. Subway PM2.5 source comprised emissions from rails, wheels, catenaries, brake pads and pantographs. The subway source showed different chemical profiles for each station, but was always dominated by Fe. Control actions on the source are important for the achievement of better air quality in the subway environment. PMID:26189044

  5. Prospective study of asbestos-related diseases incidence cases in primary health care in an area of Barcelona province

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Asbestos related diseases include a number of conditions due to inhalation of asbestos fibres at work, at home or in the environment, such as pleural mesothelioma, asbestosis and calcified pleural plaques. Few epidemiological studies have established the incidence of asbestos related diseases in our area. The present proposal is based on a retrospective study externally funded in 2005 that is currently taking place in the same area and largely carried out by the same research team. The aim of the study is to achieve a comprehensive and coordinated detection of all new cases of Asbestos Related Diseases presenting to primary care practitioners. Methods/design This is a multicentre, multidisciplinary and pluri-institutional prospective study. Setting 12 municipalities in the Barcelona province within the catchment area of the health facilities that participate in the study. Sample This is a population based study, of all patients presenting with diseases caused by asbestos in the study area. Measurements A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire will be filled in by the trained researchers after interviewing the patients and examining their clinical reports. Discussion Data on the incidence of the different Asbestos Related Diseases in this area will be obtained and the most plausible exposure source and space-time-patient profile will be described. The study will also improve the standardization of patient management, the coordination between health care institutions and the development of preventive activities related with asbestos exposure and disease. PMID:20412567

  6. Do we need full mesoscale models to simulate the urban heat island? A study over the city of Barcelona.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Díez, Markel; Ballester, Joan; De Ridder, Koen; Hooyberghs, Hans; Lauwaet, Dirk; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    As most of the population lives in urban environments, the simulation of the urban climate has become an important part of the global climate change impact assessment. However, due to the high resolution required, these simulations demand a large amount of computational resources. Here we present a comparison between a simplified fast urban climate model (UrbClim) and a widely used full mesoscale model, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, over the city of Barcelona. In order to check the advantages and disadvantages of each approach, both simulations were compared with station data and with land surface temperature observations retrieved by satellites, focusing on the urban heat island. The effect of changing the UrbClim boundary conditions was studied too, by using low resolution global reanalysis data (70 km) and a higher resolution forecast model (15 km). Finally, a strict comparison of the computational resources consumed by both models was carried out. Results show that, generally, the performance of the simple model is comparable to or better than the mesoscale model. The exception are the winds and the day-to-day correlation in the reanalysis driven run, but these problems disappear when taking the boundary conditions from a higher resolution global model. UrbClim was found to run 133 times faster than WRF, using 4x times higher resolution and, thus, it is an efficient solution for running long climate change simulations over large city ensembles.

  7. Barcelona 2002: law, ethics, and human rights. Global battle cry: health is a right, not a commodity.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Irene

    2002-12-01

    Health is a fundamental right, not a commodity to be sold at a profit, argues Irene Fernandez in the second Jonathan Mann Memorial Lecture delivered on 8 July 2002 to the XIV International AIDS Conference in Barcelona. Ms Fernandez had to obtain a special permit from the Malaysian government to attend the Conference because she is on trial for having publicly released information about abuse, torture, illness, corruption, and death in Malaysian detention camps for migrants. This article, based on Ms Fernandez' presentation, describes how the policies of the rich world have failed the poor world. According to Ms Fernandez, the policies of globalization and privatization of health care have hindered the ability of developing countries to respond to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The article decries the hypocrisy of the industrialized nations in increasing subsidies to farmers while demanding that the developing world open its doors to Western goods. It points out that the rich nations have failed to live up their foreign aid commitments. The article concludes that these commitments--and the other promises made in the last few years, such as those in the United Nations' Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS--can only become a reality if they are translated into action.

  8. Second European Round Table on the Future Management of HIV: 10-11 October 2014, Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Rokx, Casper; Richman, Douglas D; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela; Silvestri, Guido; Lunzen, Jan; Khoo, Saye; Lichterfeld, Mathias; Altfeld, Marcus; Perno, Carlo Federico; Hunt, Peter W; Mallon, Paddy; Rockstroh, Jürgen K; Pozniak, Anton L; Clotet, Bonaventura; Boucher, Charles Ab

    2015-01-01

    The Second European Round Table on the Future Management of HIV took place in Barcelona, 10-11 October 2014 and focused on the HIV-1 reservoir, strategies for HIV cure and primary HIV infection (PHI). Important issues in the HIV-1 reservoir research field are the validity of reservoir measurement techniques and the potential of new drugs to target latently infected cells. Current HIV-1 cure concepts are based on theoretical assumptions of biologically plausible mechanisms, supported by several clinical observations. Three main potential strategies are under investigation in order to achieve a sterilising cure or maintain HIV-1 remission: latency reversal resulting in antigen expression and viral cytolysis or immune targeted cell-death; immunological control of the reservoir; or replacement of the complete autologous haematopoietic and lymphoid stem-cell repertoire by transplantation. An interesting opportunity for restricting the size of the reservoir entails the early initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) during PHI. In terms of the reservoir, early treatment limits its size, alters its composition, and restricts the genetic variability of integrated proviral HIV-1 DNA. The challenges ahead involve the identification of patients undergoing seroconversion to HIV-1 and the prompt initiation of treatment. How the seemingly beneficial impact of early treatment will make cure more feasible, and whether the positive effects of the cure efforts outweigh the potentially negative impact of life-long ART, are important aspects of future collaborative research prospects. PMID:27482415

  9. Spatial Variation of Aerosol Chemical Composition and Organic Components Identified by Positive Matrix Factorization in the Barcelona Region.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Claudia; DeCarlo, Peter F; Heringa, Maarten F; Chirico, Roberto; Richter, René; Crippa, Monica; Querol, Xavier; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S H

    2015-09-01

    The spatial distribution of PM1 components in the Barcelona metropolitan area was investigated using on-road mobile measurements of atmospheric particle- and gas-phase compounds during the DAURE campaign in March 2009. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) applied to organic aerosol (OA) data yielded 5 factors: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), cooking OA (COA), biomass burning OA (BBOA), and low volatility and semivolatile oxygenated OA (LV-OOA and SV-OOA). The area under investigation (∼500 km(2)) was divided into six zones (city center, harbor, industrial area, precoastal depression, 2 mountain ranges) for measurements and data analysis. Mean zonal OA concentrations are 4.9-9.5 μg m(-3). The area is heavily impacted by local primary emissions (HOA 14-38%, COA 10-18%, BBOA 10-12% of OA); concentrations of traffic-related components, especially black carbon, are biased high due to the on-road nature of the measurements. The formation of secondary OA adds more than half of the OA burden outside the city center (SV-OOA 14-40%, LV-OOA 17-42% of OA). A case study of one measurement drive from the shore to the precoastal mountain range furthest downwind of the city center indicates the importance of nonfossil over anthropogenic secondary OA based on OA/CO. PMID:26237368

  10. Managing the identification of the mortal victims run over by a train in the Castelldefels railway accident (Barcelona).

    PubMed

    Barbería, Eneko; Martin-Fumadó, Carles; Galtés, Ignasi; Subirana-Domenech, Mercé; Puigbarraca-Sol, Lourdes; Vidal-Gutiérrez, Claudina; Valverde-Villarreal, Juan Luis; Castellà-García, Josep; Medallo-Muñiz, Jordi

    2015-09-01

    The identification of disaster victims is the formal, organized process of identifying multiple bodies after an incident with multiple victims. The appropriate management of these incidents, particularly of the bodies, is one of the most crucial aspects of disaster response and its importance has led to the evolution of the concept of Disaster Victim Management. The aim of this study is to report how the process of identifying the 12 mortal victims of a railway accident in June 2010 in Castelldefels (Barcelona) was managed. The methodology used complied with the National Protocol for medical forensic and scientific police response to mass casualty incidents. The family assistance center also served as an ante mortem (AM) office. Despite the fragmentation of the bodies, all the victims were identified satisfactorily. The main problems observed during the management of the disaster were due to the state of the bodies, which raised many doubts as to the number of fatalities. The experience prompted a proposal to establish some recommendations on limiting the number of fragments to be analyzed genetically. We would like to stress the importance of setting up a Data Integration Center which brought together all the participating institutions, and collected and supervised all the different identification reports in a single comprehensive text addressed to the competent legal authority.

  11. Source tracing of fluvial suspended sediments by magnetic and geochemical particle characterization: example of the Canche watershed (Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patault, Edouard; Alary, Claire; Franke, Christine; Gauthier, Arnaud; Abriak, Nor-Edine

    2016-04-01

    In France, erosion by water run-off is estimated to 1.5 t ha-1yr-1 and can exceed 10 t ha-1yr-1 in large growing areas, such as the North of France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais). In this region, the Canche watershed (1294 km2) sustains heavy loss of fertile soils. The land use is mainly dominated by arable lands (80%) and in 2013, 104 kt of suspended sediment transited to the estuary. As demonstrated in literature, agricultural soil erosion leads to the gradual disappearance and depletion of fertile soil, which constitute a non-renewable resource at human time scale. Additionally, water erosion can significantly damage the aquatic habitat and can be responsible for the input of nutrients, bacteria, pesticides, heavy metals and radionuclides into surface waters. Conscious of these effects, many programs have emerged in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais to reduce erosion. This study presents a combination of environmental magnetic proxy parameters and geochemical analyses on sediments and suspended particulate matter. The aim is to develop effective tools to trace erosion by water run-off and quantify this process. In order to identify the respective sediment sources in the Canche watershed, sediment trap samples of suspended particulate matter were recovered at key positions along the Canche watershed. The preliminary results show that magnetic concentration (Mrs) shows typical values for the agricultural soils in the region, but these variations in magnetic concentrations and total irons concentrations are not always correlated, which may be explained by the iron speciation. In calculating the so-called S-ratio for each sample we can distinguish changes in magneto-mineralogy (and thus iron speciation) from magnetite-dominated assemblages in the mainstream Canche (naturel background signal) to high-coercivity-dominated assemblages in the tributaries, typical for soil erosion material rich in hematite/goethite. In combination with the element concentrations from ICP analyses, this proxy

  12. Source tracing of fluvial suspended sediments by magnetic and geochemical particle characterization: example of the Canche watershed (Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patault, Edouard; Alary, Claire; Franke, Christine; Gauthier, Arnaud; Abriak, Nor-Edine

    2016-04-01

    In France, erosion by water run-off is estimated to 1.5 t ha‑1yr‑1 and can exceed 10 t ha‑1yr‑1 in large growing areas, such as the North of France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais). In this region, the Canche watershed (1294 km2) sustains heavy loss of fertile soils. The land use is mainly dominated by arable lands (80%) and in 2013, 104 kt of suspended sediment transited to the estuary. As demonstrated in literature, agricultural soil erosion leads to the gradual disappearance and depletion of fertile soil, which constitute a non-renewable resource at human time scale. Additionally, water erosion can significantly damage the aquatic habitat and can be responsible for the input of nutrients, bacteria, pesticides, heavy metals and radionuclides into surface waters. Conscious of these effects, many programs have emerged in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais to reduce erosion. This study presents a combination of environmental magnetic proxy parameters and geochemical analyses on sediments and suspended particulate matter. The aim is to develop effective tools to trace erosion by water run-off and quantify this process. In order to identify the respective sediment sources in the Canche watershed, sediment trap samples of suspended particulate matter were recovered at key positions along the Canche watershed. The preliminary results show that magnetic concentration (Mrs) shows typical values for the agricultural soils in the region, but these variations in magnetic concentrations and total irons concentrations are not always correlated, which may be explained by the iron speciation. In calculating the so-called S-ratio for each sample we can distinguish changes in magneto-mineralogy (and thus iron speciation) from magnetite-dominated assemblages in the mainstream Canche (naturel background signal) to high-coercivity-dominated assemblages in the tributaries, typical for soil erosion material rich in hematite/goethite. In combination with the element concentrations from ICP analyses

  13. Implementation of the Barcelona Basic Model into TOUGH-FLAC for simulations of the geomechanical behavior of unsaturated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, J.; Ijiri, Y.; Yamamoto, H.

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents the implementation of the Barcelona Basic Model (BBM) into the TOUGH-FLAC simulator analyzing the geomechanical behavior of unsaturated soils. We implemented the BBM into TOUGH-FLAC by (1) extending an existing FLAC{sup 3D} module for the Modified Cam-Clay (MCC) model in FLAC{sup 3D} and (2) adding computational routines for suction-dependent strain and net stress (i.e., total stress minus gas pressure) for unsaturated soils. We implemented a thermo-elasto-plastic version of the BBM, wherein the soil strength depends on both suction and temperature. The implementation of the BBM into TOUGH-FLAC was verified and tested against several published numerical model simulations and laboratory experiments involving the coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) behavior of unsaturated soils. The simulation tests included modeling the mechanical behavior of bentonite-sand mixtures, which are being considered as back-fill and buffer materials for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel. We also tested and demonstrated the use of the BBM and TOUGH-FLAC for a problem involving the coupled THM processes within a bentonite-backfilled nuclear waste emplacement tunnel. The simulation results indicated complex geomechanical behavior of the bentonite backfill, including a nonuniform distribution of buffer porosity and density that could not be captured in an alternative, simplified, linear-elastic swelling model. As a result of the work presented in this paper, TOUGH-FLAC with BBM is now fully operational and ready to be applied to problems associated with nuclear waste disposal in bentonite-backfilled tunnels, as well as other scientific and engineering problems related to the mechanical behavior of unsaturated soils.

  14. The Effects of Particulate Matter Sources on Daily Mortality: A Case-Crossover Study of Barcelona, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Aurelio; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Amato, Fulvio; Pey, Jorge; Pérez, Noemí; Sunyer, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dozens of studies link acute exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution with premature mortality and morbidity, but questions remain about which species and sources in the vast PM mixture are responsible for the observed health effects. Although a few studies exist on the effects of species and sources in U.S. cities, European cities—which have a higher proportion of diesel engines and denser urban populations—have not been well characterized. Information on the effects of specific sources could aid in targeting pollution control and in articulating the biological mechanisms of PM. Objectives: Our study examined the effects of various PM sources on daily mortality for 2003 through 2007 in Barcelona, a densely populated city in the northeast corner of Spain. Methods: Source apportionment for PM ≤ 2.5 μm and ≤ 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5 and PM10) using positive matrix factorization identified eight different factors. Case-crossover regression analysis was used to estimate the effects of each factor. Results: Several sources of PM2.5, including vehicle exhaust, fuel oil combustion, secondary nitrate/organics, minerals, secondary sulfate/organics, and road dust, had statistically significant associations (p < 0.05) with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Also, in some cases relative risks for a respective interquartile range increase in concentration were higher for specific sources than for total PM2.5 mass. Conclusions: These results along with those from our multisource models suggest that traffic, sulfate from shipping and long-range transport, and construction dust are important contributors to the adverse health effects linked to PM. PMID:21846610

  15. Do Young Heroin Users in Madrid, Barcelona and Seville have Sufficient Knowledge of the Risk Factors for Unintentional Opioid Overdose?

    PubMed Central

    Barrio, Gregorio; Brugal, M. Teresa; de la Fuente, Luis; Ballesta, Rosario; Bravo, María J.; Silva, Teresa C.; Rodríguez-Martos, Alicia

    2006-01-01

    To identify the self-perceived reasons for unintentional opioid overdose of young heroin users in three Spanish cities and their agreement with objective risk factors for overdose. Computer-Assisted Personal Interviews (CAPI) were held with 991 street-recruited current heroin users aged 18–30. The general reasons for overdose and the reasons for the last overdose suffered were explored with open-ended (OEQs) and pre-coded questions (PCQs). Limited knowledge of overdose risk factors was defined as mention of fewer than two objective risk factors for unintentional overdose in the OEQ. Univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression methods were used. 77.8% (Seville), 64.9% (Madrid) and 57.2% (Barcelona) of participants have limited knowledge of overdose risk factors. Residence in Seville and not having attended courses or meetings on overdoses were significantly associated with limited knowledge, after adjusting for other factors. The most frequently identified general reasons in OEQ or PCQ were using heroin in large amounts (66.8%), together with tranquilizers (62.0%), adulterated (60.7%), or purer than usual (57.6%). Most reasons were selected more frequently in PCQ than in OEQ, especially rapid injection of the entire dose and using heroin shortly after using tranquilizers or alcohol, by injection, or after a period of abstinence. The results were similar for overdoses suffered by participants. Most young heroin users do not have sufficient knowledge of overdose risk factors, especially the use of heroin by injection, after a period of abstinence, or together with alcohol or methadone. Specific informational or educational programs adapted to the local context are critically needed. PMID:16739049

  16. Total and metallothionein-bound cadmium in the liver and the kidney of a population in Barcelona (Spain)

    SciTech Connect

    Torra, M.; To-Figueras, J.; Brunet, M.; Rodamilans, M.; Corbella, J. )

    1994-10-01

    Since the beginning of XXth century environmental pollution by cadmium has been increasing in most European countries due to industrial and agricultural emissions. Among the heavy metals of environmental concern, cadmium is one of the most widespread with variable but significant concentrations normally found in tobacco smoke, food, drinking water, and soils. Cadmium has a broad spectrum of toxic effects in man. After ingestion and absorption a significant fraction of the metal accumulates in tissues with an estimated half-life of about 10 years in humans. Kidney is the main target organ of both accumulation and toxicity with nephrotoxic effects being better understood. In recent years the possible nephrotoxic effects of cadmium at low concentrations on the general population have been a major concern. Toxic effects of cadmium on renal function cause increased proteinuria, aminoaciuria, glucosuria and decreased phosphate tubular reabsorption. Early signs of renal toxicity include an increase in the urinary excretion of low-molecular-weight (LMWP) proteins which are normally reabsorbed by tubular cells. Since nephrotoxicity is in most cases an irreversible process, great efforts are actually being made to develop biological markers for the early detection of structural or functional changes at various sites of the renal parenchyma. This study evaluates the concentration of cadmium in the kidney and the liver in the urban general population of Barcelona. Cadmium bound to metallothionein (MT) was also assessed in both tissues since it is well known that this protein plays a crucial role in cadmium kinetics and toxicity. The metallothionein is a low molecular weight protein with high cysteine and metal content. It serves a homeostatic function for the essential metals, and also a detoxification function for metals such as cadmium and mercury. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Chagas Disease among the Latin American Adult Population Attending in a Primary Care Center in Barcelona, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Roca, Carme; Pinazo, María Jesús; López-Chejade, Paolo; Bayó, Joan; Posada, Elizabeth; López-Solana, Jordi; Gállego, Montserrat; Portús, Montserrat; Gascón, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims The epidemiology of Chagas disease, until recently confined to areas of continental Latin America, has undergone considerable changes in recent decades due to migration to other parts of the world, including Spain. We studied the prevalence of Chagas disease in Latin American patients treated at a health center in Barcelona and evaluated its clinical phase. We make some recommendations for screening for the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed an observational, cross-sectional prevalence study by means of an immunochromatographic test screening of all continental Latin American patients over the age of 14 years visiting the health centre from October 2007 to October 2009. The diagnosis was confirmed by serological methods: conventional in-house ELISA (cELISA), a commercial kit (rELISA) and ELISA using T cruzi lysate (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics) (oELISA). Of 766 patients studied, 22 were diagnosed with T. cruzi infection, showing a prevalence of 2.87% (95% CI, 1.6–4.12%). Of the infected patients, 45.45% men and 54.55% women, 21 were from Bolivia, showing a prevalence in the Bolivian subgroup (n = 127) of 16.53% (95% CI, 9.6–23.39%). All the infected patients were in a chronic phase of Chagas disease: 81% with the indeterminate form, 9.5% with the cardiac form and 9.5% with the cardiodigestive form. All patients infected with T. cruzi had heard of Chagas disease in their country of origin, 82% knew someone affected, and 77% had a significant history of living in adobe houses in rural areas. Conclusions We found a high prevalence of T. cruzi infection in immigrants from Bolivia. Detection of T. cruzi–infected persons by screening programs in non-endemic countries would control non-vectorial transmission and would benefit the persons affected, public health and national health systems. PMID:21572511

  18. The relationship between health promoting resources and work participation in a sample reporting musculoskeletal pain from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, HUNT 3, Norway

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is one of the most frequent causes of sick leave from work, and is a common and potentially disabling condition. This study is based on the salutogenic perspective and investigates the relationship between personal, social, and functional health resources and work participation in a population reporting MSP. Method Analysis was performed on cross sectional data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, HUNT 3, in Norway. The sample of n= 6702 was extracted from HUNT 3, including a total of N= 50807 participants. Self-reported health (SRH) and, personal, social, and functional resources were assessed by a questionnaire. Reported sick leave was collected by interview at the point of time when the data were collected, from October 2006 until June 2008. Results Logistic regression analysis demonstrated statistically significant differences between the work group and sick leave group in self-rated health, work support, work control, work load, and feeling strong, and the model predicted 68% of the cases correctly. Females had a lower statistically significant probability (B= −.53) to be in the work group then men when suffering from MSP, with odds of 41%. Conclusion There was a statistically significant relationship between health promoting resources such as SRH, feeling strong, absence of neuroticism, work load, work control, and work participation in MSP population. PMID:23509959

  19. Emissions variation in urban areas resulting from the introduction of natural gas vehicles: application to Barcelona and Madrid greater areas (Spain).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, María; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro; Baldasano, José M

    2009-05-01

    On-road traffic is the major contributor to pollutant emissions in urban areas. Nowadays different emission abatement strategies are being tested in order to improve urban air quality (e.g. the European Commission currently promotes the use of natural gas as an alternative fuel). Several feasible scenarios regarding the introduction of natural gas vehicles (NGV) are studied in the two main cities of Spain (Barcelona and Madrid) by using the HERMES emission model. The most suitable emission factors to NGV are selected among those available in the literature. The account of emissions in the base case scenario estimated for a typical summertime polluted day of the year 2004 reflects that in Barcelona 86% of primary pollutants come from on-road traffic compared to 93% in Madrid, because of the heavier industrial activity in the former. The introduction of NGV in urban zones would have a positive effect on emissions, whose extent largely depends on the substituted fleets and the conurbation characteristics. Maximum reductions in NO(x) emissions in Madrid are attributed to the substitution of 10% of the oldest diesel and petrol cars, while in Barcelona the change of 50% of the oldest commercial light vehicles becomes more effective. PM(2.5) and SO(2) emissions can be significatively reduced with the introduction of NGV instead of the oldest commercial light vehicles. The substitution of conventional fuels by natural gas must reach around 4% to achieve significative reductions in traffic emissions (larger than 5%). This work focuses on air quality issues, therefore GHG emissions are not included, nevertheless this kind of associated impact has to be considered by the decision makers. Assessing the efficacy of environmental improvement strategies entails a realistic design of emission scenarios and their evaluation. The detailed emission account provides a fundamental basis for the air quality modelling and its comparison among scenarios.

  20. Integrated Health Care Barcelona Esquerra (Ais-Be): A Global View of Organisational Development, Re-Engineering of Processes and Improvement of the Information Systems. The Role of the Tertiary University Hospital in the Transformation.

    PubMed

    Font, David; Escarrabill, Joan; Gómez, Mónica; Ruiz, Rafael; Enfedaque, Belén; Altimiras, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Health Area "Barcelona Esquerra" (Área Integral de Salud de Barcelona Esquerra - AIS-BE), which covers a population of 524,000 residents in Barcelona city, is running a project to improve healthcare quality and efficiency based on co-ordination between the different suppliers in its area through the participation of their professionals. Endowed with an Organisational Model that seeks decision-taking that starts out from clinical knowledge and from Information Systems tools that facilitate this co-ordination (an interoperability platform and a website) it presents important results in its structured programmes that have been implemented such as the Reorganisation of Emergency Care, Screening for Colorectal Cancer, the Onset of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Teledermatology and the Development of Cross-sectional Healthcare Policies for Care in Chronicity. PMID:27616964

  1. Integrated Health Care Barcelona Esquerra (Ais-Be): A Global View of Organisational Development, Re-Engineering of Processes and Improvement of the Information Systems. The Role of the Tertiary University Hospital in the Transformation.

    PubMed

    Font, David; Escarrabill, Joan; Gómez, Mónica; Ruiz, Rafael; Enfedaque, Belén; Altimiras, Xavier

    2016-05-23

    The Integrated Health Area "Barcelona Esquerra" (Área Integral de Salud de Barcelona Esquerra - AIS-BE), which covers a population of 524,000 residents in Barcelona city, is running a project to improve healthcare quality and efficiency based on co-ordination between the different suppliers in its area through the participation of their professionals. Endowed with an Organisational Model that seeks decision-taking that starts out from clinical knowledge and from Information Systems tools that facilitate this co-ordination (an interoperability platform and a website) it presents important results in its structured programmes that have been implemented such as the Reorganisation of Emergency Care, Screening for Colorectal Cancer, the Onset of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Teledermatology and the Development of Cross-sectional Healthcare Policies for Care in Chronicity.

  2. Integrated Health Care Barcelona Esquerra (Ais-Be): A Global View of Organisational Development, Re-Engineering of Processes and Improvement of the Information Systems. The Role of the Tertiary University Hospital in the Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Escarrabill, Joan; Gómez, Mónica; Ruiz, Rafael; Enfedaque, Belén; Altimiras, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Health Area “Barcelona Esquerra” (Área Integral de Salud de Barcelona Esquerra – AIS-BE), which covers a population of 524,000 residents in Barcelona city, is running a project to improve healthcare quality and efficiency based on co-ordination between the different suppliers in its area through the participation of their professionals. Endowed with an Organisational Model that seeks decision-taking that starts out from clinical knowledge and from Information Systems tools that facilitate this co-ordination (an interoperability platform and a website) it presents important results in its structured programmes that have been implemented such as the Reorganisation of Emergency Care, Screening for Colorectal Cancer, the Onset of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Teledermatology and the Development of Cross-sectional Healthcare Policies for Care in Chronicity. PMID:27616964

  3. Near-surface and columnar measurements with a micro pulse lidar of atmospheric pollen in Barcelona, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicard, Michaël; Izquierdo, Rebeca; Alarcón, Marta; Belmonte, Jordina; Comerón, Adolfo; Baldasano, José Maria

    2016-06-01

    We present for the first time continuous hourly measurements of pollen near-surface concentration and lidar-derived profiles of particle backscatter coefficients and of volume and particle depolarization ratios during a 5-day pollination event observed in Barcelona, Spain, between 27 and 31 March 2015. Daily average concentrations ranged from 1082 to 2830 pollen m-3. Platanus and Pinus pollen types represented together more than 80 % of the total pollen. Maximum hourly pollen concentrations of 4700 and 1200 m-3 were found for Platanus and Pinus, respectively. Every day a clear diurnal cycle caused by the vertical transport of the airborne pollen was visible on the lidar-derived profiles with maxima usually reached between 12:00 and 15:00 UT. A method based on the lidar polarization capabilities was used to retrieve the contribution of the pollen to the total aerosol optical depth (AOD). On average the diurnal (09:00-17:00 UT) pollen AOD was 0.05, which represented 29 % of the total AOD. Maximum values of the pollen AOD and its contribution to the total AOD reached 0.12 and 78 %, respectively. The diurnal means of the volume and particle depolarization ratios in the pollen plume were 0.08 and 0.14, with hourly maxima of 0.18 and 0.33, respectively. The diurnal mean of the height of the pollen plume was found at 1.24 km with maxima varying in the range of 1.47-1.78 km. A correlation study is performed (1) between the depolarization ratios and the pollen near-surface concentration to evaluate the ability of the former parameter to monitor pollen release and (2) between the depolarization ratios as well as pollen AOD and surface downward solar fluxes, which cause the atmospheric turbulences responsible for the particle vertical motion, to examine the dependency of the depolarization ratios and the pollen AOD upon solar fluxes. For the volume depolarization ratio the first correlation study yields to correlation coefficients ranging 0.00-0.81 and the second to

  4. Source apportionment of indoor, outdoor and personal PM2.5 exposure of pregnant women in Barcelona, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguillón, M. C.; Schembari, A.; Triguero-Mas, M.; de Nazelle, A.; Dadvand, P.; Figueras, F.; Salvado, J. A.; Grimalt, J. O.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Querol, X.

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to air pollution has been shown to adversely affect foetal development in the case of pregnant women. The present study aims to investigate the PM composition and sources influencing personal exposure of pregnant women in Barcelona. To this end, indoor, outdoor and personal exposure measurements were carried out for a selection of 54 pregnant women between November 2008 and November 2009. PM2.5 samples were collected during two consecutive days and then analysed for black smoke (BS), major and trace elements, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations. Personal information such as commuting patterns and cosmetics use was also collected. PM2.5 concentrations were higher for personal samples than for indoor and outdoor environments. Indoor, outdoor and personal BS and sulphate concentrations were strongly correlated, although some specific indoor and outdoor sulphate sources may exist. Average trace elements concentrations were similar indoor, outdoor and for personal exposure, but the correlations were moderate for most of them. Most of the PAHs concentrations showed strong correlations indoor-outdoor. A source apportionment analysis of the PM composition data by means of a Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) resulted in the identification of six sources for the outdoor and indoor environments: secondary sulphate, fueloil + sea salt (characterized by V, Ni, Na and Mg), mineral, cigarette (characterized by K, Ce, Cd, benzo(k)fluoranthene and benzo(ghi)perylene), road traffic (characterized by BS and low weight PAHs), and industrial (characterized by Pb, Sn, Cu, Mn and Fe). For personal exposure two specific sources were found: cosmetics (characterized by abundance of Ca, Li, Ti and Sr and the absence of Al) and train/subway (characterized by Fe, Mn, Cu and Ba). The contribution of the sources varied widely among women, especially for cigarette (from zero to up to 4 μg m-3), train/subway (up to more than 6 μg m-3) and cosmetics (up to more

  5. Restricting Access to Health Care to Immigrants in Barcelona: A Mixed-Methods Study With Immigrants Who Have Experienced an Infectious Disease.

    PubMed

    Castano, Jenny; Ospina, Jesús E; Caylà, Joan A; Greer, Scott L

    2016-01-01

    Austerity policies implemented in Spain in response to the ongoing economic crisis may have detrimental consequences for the health of immigrant populations and for public health in general. A mixed-methods study by the Public Health Agency of Barcelona and the University of Michigan indicates that the Real Decreto-ley 16/2012 (RDL) threatens the health of individuals and the population, especially in the case of infectious diseases. The study sought to determine the percentage of foreign-born persons with an infectious disease who had an Individual Health Card (IHC) prior to the RDL and to determine whether foreign-born persons with an infectious disease in Barcelona encountered problems accessing health care after the RDL. Results indicate that immigrants used the IHC to seek medical attention for infectious diseases and chronic conditions. Results also show that 66% of respondents, including 54% of unemployed respondents, 3% of respondents working without contracts, and those in informal employment (9%), may be at risk of losing at least part of their health coverage. Universal health care access in Spain has been crucial for the control of communicable diseases among immigrant populations. Reducing access to a significant percentage of the total population may have deleterious effects on public health. PMID:27076652

  6. Restricting Access to Health Care to Immigrants in Barcelona: A Mixed-Methods Study With Immigrants Who Have Experienced an Infectious Disease.

    PubMed

    Castano, Jenny; Ospina, Jesús E; Caylà, Joan A; Greer, Scott L

    2016-01-01

    Austerity policies implemented in Spain in response to the ongoing economic crisis may have detrimental consequences for the health of immigrant populations and for public health in general. A mixed-methods study by the Public Health Agency of Barcelona and the University of Michigan indicates that the Real Decreto-ley 16/2012 (RDL) threatens the health of individuals and the population, especially in the case of infectious diseases. The study sought to determine the percentage of foreign-born persons with an infectious disease who had an Individual Health Card (IHC) prior to the RDL and to determine whether foreign-born persons with an infectious disease in Barcelona encountered problems accessing health care after the RDL. Results indicate that immigrants used the IHC to seek medical attention for infectious diseases and chronic conditions. Results also show that 66% of respondents, including 54% of unemployed respondents, 3% of respondents working without contracts, and those in informal employment (9%), may be at risk of losing at least part of their health coverage. Universal health care access in Spain has been crucial for the control of communicable diseases among immigrant populations. Reducing access to a significant percentage of the total population may have deleterious effects on public health.

  7. Influences of natural emission sources (wildfires and Saharan dust) on the urban organic aerosol in Barcelona (Western Mediterranean Basis) during a PM event.

    PubMed

    van Drooge, Barend L; Lopez, Jordi F; Grimalt, Joan O

    2012-11-01

    The urban air quality in Barcelona in the Western Mediterranean Basin is characterized by overall high particulate matter (PM) concentrations, due to intensive local anthropogenic emissions and specific meteorological conditions. Moreover, on several days, especially in summer, natural PM sources, such as long-range transported Saharan dust from Northern Africa or wildfires on the Iberian Peninsula and around the Mediterranean Basin, may influence the levels and composition of the organic aerosol. In the second half of July 2009, daily collected PM(10) filter samples in an urban background site in Barcelona were analyzed on organic tracer compounds representing several emission sources. During this period, an important PM peak event was observed. Individual organic compound concentrations increased two to five times during this event. Although highest increase was observed for the organic tracer of biomass burning, the contribution to the organic aerosol was estimated to be around 6 %. Organic tracers that could be related to Saharan dust showed no correlation with the PM and OC levels, while this was the case for those related to fossil fuel combustion from traffic emissions. Moreover, a change in the meteorological conditions gave way to an overall increase of the urban background contamination. Long-range atmospheric transport of organic compounds from primary emissions sources (i.e., wildfires and Saharan dust) has a relatively moderate impact on the organic aerosol in an urban area where the local emissions are dominating.

  8. Seasonal variation of atmospheric particle number concentrations, new particle formation and atmospheric oxidation capacity at the high Arctic site Villum Research Station, Station Nord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Quynh T.; Glasius, Marianne; Sørensen, Lise L.; Jensen, Bjarne; Skov, Henrik; Birmili, Wolfram; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Kristensson, Adam; Nøjgaard, Jacob K.; Massling, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    This work presents an analysis of the physical properties of sub-micrometer aerosol particles measured at the high Arctic site Villum Research Station, Station Nord (VRS), northeast Greenland, between July 2010 and February 2013. The study focuses on particle number concentrations, particle number size distributions and the occurrence of new particle formation (NPF) events and their seasonality in the high Arctic, where observations and characterization of such aerosol particle properties and corresponding events are rare and understanding of related processes is lacking.A clear accumulation mode was observed during the darker months from October until mid-May, which became considerably more pronounced during the prominent Arctic haze months from March to mid-May. In contrast, nucleation- and Aitken-mode particles were predominantly observed during the summer months. Analysis of wind direction and wind speed indicated possible contributions of marine sources from the easterly side of the station to the observed summertime particle number concentrations, while southwesterly to westerly winds dominated during the darker months. NPF events lasting from hours to days were mostly observed from June until August, with fewer events observed during the months with less sunlight, i.e., March, April, September and October. The results tend to indicate that ozone (O3) might be weakly anti-correlated with particle number concentrations of the nucleation-mode range (10-30 nm) in almost half of the NPF events, while no positive correlation was observed. Calculations of air mass back trajectories using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model for the NPF event days suggested that the onset or interruption of events could possibly be explained by changes in air mass origin. A map of event occurrence probability was computed, indicating that southerly air masses from over the Greenland Sea were more likely linked to those events.

  9. Source apportionment of submicron organic aerosol at an urban background and a road site in Barcelona, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alier, M.; van Drooge, B. L.; Dall'Osto, M.; Querol, X.; Grimalt, J. O.; Tauler, R.

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates the contribution of potential sources to the sub-micron (PM1) organic aerosol (OA) simultaneously detected at an urban background (UB) and a road site (RS) in Barcelona during the 30 days of the intensive field campaign of SAPUSS (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies, September-October 2010). 103 filters at 12 h sampling time resolution were collected at both sites. Thirty-six neutral and polar organic compounds of known emission sources and photo-chemical transformation processes were analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The concentrations of the trace chemical compounds analyzed are herein presented and discussed. Additionally, OA source apportionment was performed by Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) and six OA components were identified at both sites: two were of primary anthropogenic OA origin, three of secondary OA origin while a sixth one was not clearly defined. Primary organics from emissions of local anthropogenic activities (Urban primary organic aerosol, Urban POA) contributed for 43% (1.5 μg OC m-3) and 18% (0.4 μg OC m-3) to OA in RS and UB, respectively. A secondary primary source - biomass burning (BBOA) - was found in all the samples (average values 7% RS; 12% UB; 0.3 μg OC m-3), but this component was substantially contributing to OA only when the sampling sites were under influence of regional air mass circulation. Three Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) components (describing overall 60% of the variance) were observed in the urban ambient PM1. Products of isoprene oxidation (SOA ISO), i.e. 2-methylglyceric acid, C5 alkene triols and 2-methyltetrols, showed the highest abundance at both sites when the city was under influence of inland air masses. The overall concentrations of SOA ISO were similar at both sites (0.4 and 0.3 μg m-3, 16% and 7%, at UB and RS, respectively). By contrast, a SOA biogenic component attributed to α-pinene oxidation (SOA

  10. Source apportionment of submicron organic aerosol at an urban background and a road site in Barcelona (Spain) during SAPUSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alier, M.; van Drooge, B. L.; Dall'Osto, M.; Querol, X.; Grimalt, J. O.; Tauler, R.

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the contribution of potential sources to the submicron (PM1) organic aerosol (OA) simultaneously detected at an urban background (UB) and a road site (RS) in Barcelona during the 30 days of the intensive field campaign of SAPUSS (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies, September-October 2010). A total of 103 filters at 12 h sampling time resolution were collected at both sites. Thirty-six neutral and polar organic compounds of known emission sources and photo-chemical transformation processes were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The concentrations of the trace chemical compounds analyzed are herein presented and discussed. Additionally, OA source apportionment was performed by multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) and six OA components were identified at both sites: two were of primary anthropogenic OA origin and three of secondary OA origin, while a sixth one was not clearly defined. Primary organics from emissions of local anthropogenic activities (urban primary organic aerosol, or POA Urban), mainly traffic emissions but also cigarette smoke, contributed 43% (1.5 μg OC m-3) and 18% (0.4 μg OC m-3) to OA at RS and UB, respectively. A secondary primary source - biomass burning (BBOA) - was found in all the samples (average values 7% RS; 12% UB; 0.3 μg OC m-3), but this component was substantially contributing to OA only when the sampling sites were under influence of regional air mass circulation (REG.). Three secondary organic aerosol (SOA) components (describing overall 60% of the variance) were observed in the urban ambient PM1. Products of isoprene oxidation (SOA ISO) - i.e. 2-methylglyceric acid, C5 alkene triols and 2-methyltetrols - showed the highest abundance at both sites when the city was under influence of inland air masses. The overall concentrations of SOA ISO were similar at both sites (0.4 and 0.3 μg m-3, or 16% and 7%, at UB and RS, respectively

  11. Radiofrequency ablation versus resection for Barcelona clinic liver cancer very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhen-Xin; Xiang, Pu; Gong, Jian-Ping; Cheng, Nan-Sheng; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Aim To compare the long-term survival outcomes of radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2015), Embase (1974 to March 15, 2015), PubMed (1950 to March 15, 2015), Web of Science (1900 to March 15, 2015), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (1978 to March 15, 2015) were searched to identify relevant trials. Only trials that compared radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early stage (≤2 cm) or early stage (≤3 cm) HCC according to the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging system were considered for inclusion in this review. The primary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates, and the secondary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates. Review Manager 5.3 was used to perform a cumulative meta-analysis. Possible publication bias was examined using a funnel plot. A random-effects model was applied to summarize the various outcomes. Results Six studies involving 947 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=528) to liver resection (n=419) for single BCLC very early HCC. In these six studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (risk ratio [RR] =0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83–0.98, P=0.01; RR =0.84, 95% CI: 0.75–0.95, P=0.004; RR =0.77, 95% CI: 0.60–0.98, P=0.04; and RR =0.70, 95% CI: 0.52–0.94, P=0.02, respectively). Ten studies involving 2,501 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=1,476) to liver resection (n=1,025) for single BCLC early HCC. In these ten studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were also significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (RR =0.93, 95% CI: 0.88–0

  12. Personalized respiratory medicine: exploring the horizon, addressing the issues. Summary of a BRN-AJRCCM workshop held in Barcelona on June 12, 2014.

    PubMed

    Agustí, Alvar; Antó, Josep Maria; Auffray, Charles; Barbé, Ferran; Barreiro, Esther; Dorca, Jordi; Escarrabill, Joan; Faner, Rosa; Furlong, Laura I; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Gea, Joaquim; Lindmark, Bertil; Monsó, Eduard; Plaza, Vicente; Puhan, Milo A; Roca, Josep; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan; Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Sanz, Ferran; Serrano, Luis; Sharpe, James; Sibila, Oriol; Silverman, Edwin K; Sterk, Peter J; Sznajder, Jacob I

    2015-02-15

    This Pulmonary Perspective summarizes the content and main conclusions of an international workshop on personalized respiratory medicine coorganized by the Barcelona Respiratory Network ( www.brn.cat ) and the AJRCCM in June 2014. It discusses (1) its definition and historical, social, legal, and ethical aspects; (2) the view from different disciplines, including basic science, epidemiology, bioinformatics, and network/systems medicine; (3) the bottlenecks and opportunities identified by some currently ongoing projects; and (4) the implications for the individual, the healthcare system and the pharmaceutical industry. The authors hope that, although it is not a systematic review on the subject, this document can be a useful reference for researchers, clinicians, healthcare managers, policy-makers, and industry parties interested in personalized respiratory medicine.

  13. Impact of Glucose-Lowering Agents on the Risk of Cancer in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. The Barcelona Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Simó, Rafael; Plana-Ripoll, Oleguer; Puente, Diana; Morros, Rosa; Mundet, Xavier; Vilca, Luz M.; Hernández, Cristina; Fuentes, Inmaculada; Procupet, Adriana; Tabernero, Josep M.; Violán, Concepción

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study is to evaluate the impact of glucose-lowering agents in the risk of cancer in a large type 2 diabetic population. Methods A nested case-control study was conducted within a defined cohort (275,164 type 2 diabetic patients attending 16 Primary Health Care Centers of Barcelona). Cases (n = 1,040) comprised those subjects with any cancer diagnosed between 2008 and 2010, registered at the Cancer Registry of Hospital Vall d'Hebron (Barcelona). Three control subjects for each case (n = 3,120) were matched by age, sex, diabetes duration, and geographical area. The treatments analyzed (within 3 years prior to cancer diagnosis) were: insulin glargine, insulin detemir, human insulin, fast-acting insulin and analogues, metformin, sulfonylureas, repaglinide, thiazolidinediones, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and alpha glucosidase inhibitors. Conditional logistic regressions were used to calculate the risk of cancer associated with the use of each drug adjusted by age, BMI, dose and duration of treatment, alcohol use, smoking habit, and diabetes duration. Results No differences were observed between case and control subjects for the proportion, dose or duration of exposure to each treatment. None of the types of insulin and oral agents analyzed showed a significant increase in the risk of cancer. Moreover, no cancer risk was observed when glargine was used alone or in combination with metformin. Conclusions Our results suggest that diabetes treatment does not influence the risk of cancer associated with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, an eventual increase of cancer should not be a reason for biasing the selection of any glucose-lowering treatment in type 2 diabetic population. PMID:24278227

  14. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Jacobaea maritima (L.) Pelser & Meijden and Jacobaea maritima subsp. bicolor (Willd.) B. Nord. & Greuter (Asteraceae) collected wild in Croatia and Sicily, respectively.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Antonella; Venditti, Alessandro; Senatore, Felice; Bruno, Maurizio; Formisano, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the chemical compositions of the essential oils from aerial parts (JmA) and radices (JmR) of Jacobaea maritima (L.) Pelser & Meijden, collected in Croatia, and of Jacobaea maritima subsp. bicolor (Willd.) B. Nord. & Greuter, collected in Sicily, were evaluated by using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components of the essential oil from J. maritima, both in JmA and JmR, were pentacosane (15.7%), heptacosane (13.1%) and nonacosane (8.1%) whereas the essential oil from J. maritima subsp. bicolor was characterised by the presence of hexadecanoic acid (14.6%), caryophyllene oxide (9.3%) and hexahydrofarnesylacetone (6.5%). The comparison of the essential oil with other studied oils of the genus Jacobaea is discussed.

  15. [An approach to the history of scientific documentation in Catalonia. The activity of María Serrallach Juliá (1905-1992) in the Seminary of Chemistry of the University of Barcelona (1937-1984)].

    PubMed

    Olagüe de Ros, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes a study of Maria Serrallach Juliá (1905-1992), one of the first specialised librarians in Spain. Between 1937 and 1975, she directed the Seminary of Chemistry of the University of Barcelona (initials in Spanish, SQUB), the name given to the space that resulted from the merger of the libraries of the Faculties of Pharmacy and Chemistry of the University. Serrallach turned the SQUB into a modern scientific documentation centre offering services that were practically non-existent in the rest of Spain. The publications and educational activity of Serrallach are also analysed. The history of the SQUB is studied until 1984, when SQUB was transformed into the Library of the Faculties of Physics and Chemistry of the University of Barcelona.

  16. Impact of harbour emissions on ambient PM10 and PM2.5 in Barcelona (Spain): Evidences of secondary aerosol formation within the urban area.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Noemí; Pey, Jorge; Reche, Cristina; Cortés, Joaquim; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier

    2016-11-15

    With the objective of estimating the impact of harbour activities on ambient PM10 and PM2.5 levels at the urban area of Barcelona, a one year long monitoring campaign was carried out in the context of the European APICE project (MED-FEDER-EC). This campaign was simultaneously conducted at the port and a central urban background site. A detailed PM10 and PM2.5 chemical speciation analysis was carried out with samples from both sites. Subsequently, a source apportionment analysis by means of the PMF receptor model was performed. Six common factors were identified, explaining local to regional emission sources (fuel oil combustion, industrial emissions, mineral-road dust resuspension, and road traffic emissions) and aerosol formation/transformation processes (secondary aerosols including ammonium sulphate and organic aerosols, and a mixed source accounting for aged sea spray and secondary nitrate). Around 50-55% PM10 and PM2.5 measured at the port was attributed to harbour activities: mineral matter from road dust and construction works of a new port area, vehicle traffic and fuel oil combustion. The estimated contribution of harbour emissions to the urban background reached 9-12% for PM10 and 11-15% for PM2.5 and is linked to primary emissions from fuel oil combustion but also to the formation of secondary aerosols. It becomes relevant to highlight the significantly higher contribution of secondary aerosols at the urban background when compared with the harbour site. Our hypothesis points to the fast formation of secondary ammonium sulphate within the city, after the reaction of SO2/H2SO4 transported by sea breezes with NH3, which is emitted in large amounts in Barcelona; and also to the enhanced formation of secondary organic aerosols within the city. This study broadens our knowledge on atmospheric phenomenology in urban Mediterranean cities and claims for effective abatement strategies focused on maritime practises, in agreement with the driving axis of the APICE

  17. Impact of harbour emissions on ambient PM10 and PM2.5 in Barcelona (Spain): Evidences of secondary aerosol formation within the urban area.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Noemí; Pey, Jorge; Reche, Cristina; Cortés, Joaquim; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier

    2016-11-15

    With the objective of estimating the impact of harbour activities on ambient PM10 and PM2.5 levels at the urban area of Barcelona, a one year long monitoring campaign was carried out in the context of the European APICE project (MED-FEDER-EC). This campaign was simultaneously conducted at the port and a central urban background site. A detailed PM10 and PM2.5 chemical speciation analysis was carried out with samples from both sites. Subsequently, a source apportionment analysis by means of the PMF receptor model was performed. Six common factors were identified, explaining local to regional emission sources (fuel oil combustion, industrial emissions, mineral-road dust resuspension, and road traffic emissions) and aerosol formation/transformation processes (secondary aerosols including ammonium sulphate and organic aerosols, and a mixed source accounting for aged sea spray and secondary nitrate). Around 50-55% PM10 and PM2.5 measured at the port was attributed to harbour activities: mineral matter from road dust and construction works of a new port area, vehicle traffic and fuel oil combustion. The estimated contribution of harbour emissions to the urban background reached 9-12% for PM10 and 11-15% for PM2.5 and is linked to primary emissions from fuel oil combustion but also to the formation of secondary aerosols. It becomes relevant to highlight the significantly higher contribution of secondary aerosols at the urban background when compared with the harbour site. Our hypothesis points to the fast formation of secondary ammonium sulphate within the city, after the reaction of SO2/H2SO4 transported by sea breezes with NH3, which is emitted in large amounts in Barcelona; and also to the enhanced formation of secondary organic aerosols within the city. This study broadens our knowledge on atmospheric phenomenology in urban Mediterranean cities and claims for effective abatement strategies focused on maritime practises, in agreement with the driving axis of the APICE

  18. Bioinformatics Analysis Reveals Distinct Molecular Characteristics of Hepatitis B-Related Hepatocellular Carcinomas from Very Early to Advanced Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Stages.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fan-Yun; Wei, Xiao; Zhou, Kai; Hu, Wei; Kou, Yan-Bo; You, Hong-Juan; Liu, Xiao-Mei; Zheng, Kui-Yang; Tang, Ren-Xian

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)is the fifth most common malignancy associated with high mortality. One of the risk factors for HCC is chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The treatment strategy for the disease is dependent on the stage of HCC, and the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging system is used in most HCC cases. However, the molecular characteristics of HBV-related HCC in different BCLC stages are still unknown. Using GSE14520 microarray data from HBV-related HCC cases with BCLC stages from 0 (very early stage) to C (advanced stage) in the gene expression omnibus (GEO) database, differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including common DEGs and unique DEGs in different BCLC stages, were identified. These DEGs were located on different chromosomes. The molecular functions and biology pathways of DEGs were identified by gene ontology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, and the interactome networks of DEGs were constructed using the NetVenn online tool. The results revealed that both common DEGs and stage-specific DEGs were associated with various molecular functions and were involved in special biological pathways. In addition, several hub genes were found in the interactome networks of DEGs. The identified DEGs and hub genes promote our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of HBV-related HCC through the different BCLC stages, and might be used as staging biomarkers or molecular targets for the treatment of HCC with HBV infection. PMID:27454179

  19. Comprehensive monitoring of the occurrence of 22 drugs of abuse and transformation products in airborne particulate matter in the city of Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Mastroianni, Nicola; Postigo, Cristina; López de Alda, Miren; Viana, Mar; Rodríguez, Aureli; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier; Barceló, Damià

    2015-11-01

    In recent years monitoring the presence of psychotropic compounds in wastewater has been proposed as a tool to estimate community drug use. Measurement of drugs of abuse (DAs) in airborne particulate is currently being explored as an additional tool to evaluate drug use patterns in time and space, and identify potential emission sources. In this study, we comprehensively monitor the occurrence of 22 licit and illicit DAs and transformation products, belonging to 6 different chemical groups, in airborne particulate matter (PM10) in the city of Barcelona. In order to study spatial and temporal variations, samples were collected from 12 different selected locations on one weekday (Wednesday) and one weekend day (Saturday), during five consecutive weeks. A previously developed analytical methodology, based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination, was adapted for analysis of the target compounds with satisfactory performance, ensuring reliability of results. Among the investigated compounds, cannabinol (CBN), cocaine (COC), and methamphetamine (MA) were found to be the most ubiquitous and abundant compounds in PM10 with concentrations ranging from 0.7pg/m(3) (MA) to 6020pg/m(3) (CBN). Significant differences in total DA concentrations in PM10 were observed across sampling days and locations. DA emissions were identified in highly densely populated areas, where popular commercial and nightlife zones are located. Psychoactive effects due to inhalation of measured concentrations are probably negligible; however, potential health effects due to chronic exposure have not been explored yet.

  20. Occurrence of emerging contaminants, priority substances (2008/105/CE) and heavy metals in treated wastewater and groundwater at Depurbaix facility (Barcelona, Spain).

    PubMed

    Teijon, Gloria; Candela, Lucila; Tamoh, Karim; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2010-08-01

    The presence of 170 pharmaceuticals, personal care products, priority substances according to the 2008/105EU Directive and four metals (Cd, Ni, Hg, Pb) have been investigated at the Llobregat delta, south of Barcelona (Spain). In the area, reclaimed water is destined to satisfy environmental uses, irrigation and the construction of a hydraulic barrier against seawater intrusion in the deep aquifer of the delta. A monitoring survey was undertaken of water samples from a tertiary wastewater treatment plant (Depurbaix), treated waste water with an additional treatment of ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, and UV disinfection (WWATP, for the hydraulic barrier injection). Groundwater samples from the aquifer receiving recharge were also investigated. The pharmaceutical group of substances was detected in sampled waters at concentrations rarely exceeding a few microg/L, among the compounds Caffeine, Nicotine and Galaxolide (musk fragrance) were found to be present in more than 60% of the samples. Diuron was the only priority substance detected. The four metals were always present in a variable concentration. After the WWATP treatment the majority of analytes are removed from tertiary treated wastewater or their concentration is reduced below 0.1 microg/L. Monitoring revealed a widespread occurrence of analysed compounds in groundwater. Among them Codeine (analgesic), Ibuprofen (anti-inflammatory), Iopamidol, Iopromide (contrast agent) and Paraxanthine (metabolite of caffeine) have only been detected in groundwater, and are not present in water currently being injected in the deep aquifer.

  1. Bioinformatics Analysis Reveals Distinct Molecular Characteristics of Hepatitis B-Related Hepatocellular Carcinomas from Very Early to Advanced Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Stages

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei; Kou, Yan-Bo; You, Hong-Juan; Liu, Xiao-Mei; Zheng, Kui-Yang; Tang, Ren-Xian

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)is the fifth most common malignancy associated with high mortality. One of the risk factors for HCC is chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The treatment strategy for the disease is dependent on the stage of HCC, and the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging system is used in most HCC cases. However, the molecular characteristics of HBV-related HCC in different BCLC stages are still unknown. Using GSE14520 microarray data from HBV-related HCC cases with BCLC stages from 0 (very early stage) to C (advanced stage) in the gene expression omnibus (GEO) database, differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including common DEGs and unique DEGs in different BCLC stages, were identified. These DEGs were located on different chromosomes. The molecular functions and biology pathways of DEGs were identified by gene ontology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, and the interactome networks of DEGs were constructed using the NetVenn online tool. The results revealed that both common DEGs and stage-specific DEGs were associated with various molecular functions and were involved in special biological pathways. In addition, several hub genes were found in the interactome networks of DEGs. The identified DEGs and hub genes promote our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of HBV-related HCC through the different BCLC stages, and might be used as staging biomarkers or molecular targets for the treatment of HCC with HBV infection. PMID:27454179

  2. Exploring the interaction between O₃ and NOx pollution patterns in the atmosphere of Barcelona, Spain using the MCR-ALS method.

    PubMed

    Malik, Amrita; Tauler, Roma

    2015-06-01

    This work focuses on understanding the behaviour and patterns of three atmospheric pollutants namely, nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) along with their mutual interactions in the atmosphere of Barcelona, North Spain. Hourly samples were collected for NO, NO2 and O3 from the same city location for three consecutive years (2010-2012). The study explores the seasonal, annual and weekday-weekend variations in their diurnal profiles along with the possible identification of their source and mutual interactions in the region. Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) was applied to the individual datasets of these pollutants, as well as to all of them simultaneously (augmented mode) to resolve the profiles related to their source and variation patterns in the atmosphere. The analysis of the individual datasets confirmed the source pattern variations in the concerned pollutant's profiles; and the resolved profiles for augmented datasets suggested for the mutual interaction of the pollutants along with their patterns variations, simultaneously. The study suggests vehicular pollution as the major source of atmospheric nitrogen oxides and presence of weekend ozone effect in the region.

  3. Analysis of ethyl sulfate in raw wastewater for estimation of alcohol consumption and its correlation with drugs of abuse in the city of Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Mastroianni, Nicola; Lopez de Alda, Miren; Barcelo, Damia

    2014-09-19

    The increasing, generalized consumption of alcohol, especially among young people, generates great concern in our society due to its negative consequences on public health and safety. Besides the traditional, official methods employed for estimation of alcohol consumption, the monitoring of ethyl sulfate (EtS), a urinary biomarker of alcohol ingestion, in raw wastewater has been recently proposed as an additional tool to estimate alcohol use at community level through the so-called sewage epidemiology approach. In the presented study, a fast and reliable analytical method based on ion-pair liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been optimized and further applied to the analysis of EtS in seven 24h composite samples collected along one week at the inlet of a large sewage treatment plant (STP) located in the Barcelona area. EtS was measured in the entire set of analysed samples, with concentrations ranging from 5.5 to 33μg/L, which correspond to an absolute alcohol consumption of around 11,000 (Wednesday) to 25,000 (Sunday) kg/day. The average per capita absolute alcohol consumption calculated was 18mL/day/inhabitant. Moreover, the levels of EtS measured throughout the week showed high correlation with those of some recreational illicit drugs and metabolites, namely, cocaethylene (r(2)=0.9391, n=5), benzoylecgonine (r(2)=0.9252, n=7), ecstasy (r(2)=0.8950, n=7), amphetamine (r(2)=0.8707, n=7) and cocaine (r(2)=0.6425, n=7), measured in the same samples. This study confirms that the analysis of EtS in raw wastewater can be a useful tool for the estimation of alcohol consumption in an anonymous, fast and economic way, and indicates that consumption of alcohol and some illicit drugs occurs often together. PMID:25103281

  4. Analysis of ethyl sulfate in raw wastewater for estimation of alcohol consumption and its correlation with drugs of abuse in the city of Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Mastroianni, Nicola; Lopez de Alda, Miren; Barcelo, Damia

    2014-09-19

    The increasing, generalized consumption of alcohol, especially among young people, generates great concern in our society due to its negative consequences on public health and safety. Besides the traditional, official methods employed for estimation of alcohol consumption, the monitoring of ethyl sulfate (EtS), a urinary biomarker of alcohol ingestion, in raw wastewater has been recently proposed as an additional tool to estimate alcohol use at community level through the so-called sewage epidemiology approach. In the presented study, a fast and reliable analytical method based on ion-pair liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been optimized and further applied to the analysis of EtS in seven 24h composite samples collected along one week at the inlet of a large sewage treatment plant (STP) located in the Barcelona area. EtS was measured in the entire set of analysed samples, with concentrations ranging from 5.5 to 33μg/L, which correspond to an absolute alcohol consumption of around 11,000 (Wednesday) to 25,000 (Sunday) kg/day. The average per capita absolute alcohol consumption calculated was 18mL/day/inhabitant. Moreover, the levels of EtS measured throughout the week showed high correlation with those of some recreational illicit drugs and metabolites, namely, cocaethylene (r(2)=0.9391, n=5), benzoylecgonine (r(2)=0.9252, n=7), ecstasy (r(2)=0.8950, n=7), amphetamine (r(2)=0.8707, n=7) and cocaine (r(2)=0.6425, n=7), measured in the same samples. This study confirms that the analysis of EtS in raw wastewater can be a useful tool for the estimation of alcohol consumption in an anonymous, fast and economic way, and indicates that consumption of alcohol and some illicit drugs occurs often together.

  5. Review of environmental exposure concentrations of chemical warfare agent residues and associated the fish community risk following the construction and completion of the Nord Stream gas pipeline between Russia and Germany.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik; Rahbek, Malene; Larsen, Jørn Bo

    2014-08-30

    This paper compiles all the measured chemical warfare agent (CWA) concentrations found in relation to the Nord Stream pipeline work in Danish waters for the past 5 years. Sediment and biota sampling were performed along the pipeline route in four campaigns, prior to (in 2008 and 2010), during (in 2011) and after (in 2012) the construction work. No parent CWAs were detected in the sediments. Patchy residues of CWA degradation products of Adamsite, Clark I, phenyldichloroarsine, trichloroarsine and Lewisite II, were detected in a total of 29 of the 391 sediment samples collected and analyzed the past 5 years. The cumulative fish community risk quotient for the different locations, calculated as a sum of background and added risk, ranged between 0 and 0.017 suggesting a negligible acute CWA risk toward the fish community. The added risk from sediment disturbance in relation to construction of the pipelines represents less than 2% of the total risk in the areas with the highest calculated risk. The analyses of benthic infauna corroborate the finding of CWA related low risk across the years. There was no significant difference in CWA risk before (2008) and after the pipeline construction (2012).

  6. Épidémiologie descriptive de la brûlure dans un territoire de santé exemple du « territoire nord franche-comté » durant l’année 2014

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, J.L.; Bitar, M.P.; Marx, T.; Macher, J.M.; Desmettre, T.; Ravat, F.; Labourey, J.M.; Capellier, G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cette étude est une analyse épidémiologique rétrospective du recours aux services de santé du nord de la Franche-Comté en raison d’une brûlure durant l’année 2014 (114 patients). L’âge moyen était de 26 ans (8 mois-81 ans), 1/3 des brûlures ont touché des enfants de moins de 15 ans. Les brûlures, plus fréquentes l’été, surviennent principalement autour de l’heure des repas, les jours « sans école », à domicile, avec un liquide chaud. Elles sont peu étendues (4,81% de la SCT) et souvent superficielles. Elles nécessitent un passage dans un Service d’Accueil des Urgences dans 88,59% des cas, suivi d’un transfert en CTB (Lyon plus que Nancy ou Metz) dans 12,28% des cas. PMID:27252605

  7. Review of environmental exposure concentrations of chemical warfare agent residues and associated the fish community risk following the construction and completion of the Nord Stream gas pipeline between Russia and Germany.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik; Rahbek, Malene; Larsen, Jørn Bo

    2014-08-30

    This paper compiles all the measured chemical warfare agent (CWA) concentrations found in relation to the Nord Stream pipeline work in Danish waters for the past 5 years. Sediment and biota sampling were performed along the pipeline route in four campaigns, prior to (in 2008 and 2010), during (in 2011) and after (in 2012) the construction work. No parent CWAs were detected in the sediments. Patchy residues of CWA degradation products of Adamsite, Clark I, phenyldichloroarsine, trichloroarsine and Lewisite II, were detected in a total of 29 of the 391 sediment samples collected and analyzed the past 5 years. The cumulative fish community risk quotient for the different locations, calculated as a sum of background and added risk, ranged between 0 and 0.017 suggesting a negligible acute CWA risk toward the fish community. The added risk from sediment disturbance in relation to construction of the pipelines represents less than 2% of the total risk in the areas with the highest calculated risk. The analyses of benthic infauna corroborate the finding of CWA related low risk across the years. There was no significant difference in CWA risk before (2008) and after the pipeline construction (2012). PMID:25113514

  8. Epidemiology and Predictors of Mortality in Cases of Candida Bloodstream Infection: Results from Population-Based Surveillance, Barcelona, Spain, from 2002 to 2003

    PubMed Central

    Almirante, Benito; Rodríguez, Dolors; Park, Benjamin J.; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Planes, Ana M.; Almela, Manuel; Mensa, Jose; Sanchez, Ferran; Ayats, Josefina; Gimenez, Montserrat; Saballs, Pere; Fridkin, Scott K.; Morgan, Juliette; Rodriguez-Tudela, Juan L.; Warnock, David W.; Pahissa, Albert

    2005-01-01

    We conducted population-based surveillance for Candida bloodstream infections in Spain to determine its incidence, the extent of antifungal resistance, and risk factors for mortality. A case was defined as the first positive blood culture for any Candida spp. in a resident of Barcelona, from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2003. We defined early mortality as occurring between days 3 to 7 after candidemia and late mortality as occurring between days 8 to 30. We detected 345 cases of candidemia, for an average annual incidence of 4.3 cases/100,000 population, 0.53 cases/1,000 hospital discharges, and 0.73 cases/10,000 patient-days. Outpatients comprised 11% of the cases, and 89% had a central venous catheter (CVC) at diagnosis. Overall mortality was 44%. Candida albicans was the most frequent species (51% of cases), followed by Candida parapsilosis (23%), Candida tropicalis (10%), Candida glabrata (8%), Candida krusei (4%), and other species (3%). Twenty-four isolates (7%) had decreased susceptibility to fluconazole (MIC ≥ 16 μg/ml). On multivariable analysis, early death was independently associated with hematological malignancy (odds ratio [OR], 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 10.4). Treatment with antifungals (OR, 0.05; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.2) and removal of CVCs (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1 to 0.9) were protective factors for early death. Receiving adequate treatment, defined as having CVCs removed and administration of an antifungal medication (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.8), was associated with lower odds of late mortality; intubation (OR, 7.5; 95% CI, 2.6 to 21.1) was associated with higher odds. The incidence of candidemia and prevalence of fluconazole resistance are similar to other European countries, indicating that routine antifungal susceptibility testing is not warranted. Antifungal medication and catheter removal are critical in preventing mortality. PMID:15815004

  9. [Trichinae, pigs and veterinary public health: The introduction of the microscopic world into the scientific basis for meat inspection (Barcelona, 1870s)].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez García, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    During the second half of the 19th century, Spanish authorities began developing specific programs on the safety of certain foods intended for human consumption. This paper analyses the key features that gave rise to the inclusion of the veterinarian in the administrative structure responsible for safeguarding public health. Among the aspects covered, special focus is put on the relationship between human and animal medicine at a time when growing public alarm in relation to certain zoonoses contributed to shaping the notion of veterinary public health. The appearance of a disease in pigs that was transmissible through the consumption of parasitized meat set the scene for veterinary inspection to be associated with the protection of public health. The outbreaks of trichinosis all over Spain in the 1870's proved the existence of contagium animatum in a pre-bacteriology era, and this led to the introduction of improvements in food inspection. In this sense, microscopic examination of pork products encouraged the modernization of inspection tasks undertaken by veterinarians, which had previously focused on the organoleptic evaluation of meat and fish and on unveiling fraud. The introduction of microscopes was widely accepted and established a watershed between acceptable and unacceptable methods of carrying out the examination of meat. Furthermore, this "technological" method of diagnosis brought veterinary medicine closer to other more prestigious health professions, at least in theory. Among other aspects, the acceptance of trichinae as an exogenous cause of disease contributed to 19th century doctors learning about the idea of pathogenic microorganisms from veterinarians. At a social level, the use of the microscope was seen as a way of preventing the transmission to people of an animal disease that was very much in the public eye at the time. From the political point of view, the process -analysed in this paper from the perspective of veterinarians in Barcelona

  10. ISSOL Meeting, Barcelona, Spain, 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, James P. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    Topics in a conference on the origins of life and the evolution of the biosphere include the origin of chirality, prebiotic chemistry of small biomolecules, primitive polymer formation, RNA regulation and control. Early origins of life and the ecology of hydrothermal systems such as ocean floor vents and their simple organisms are examined. The process of mineral catalysis in Montmorillonite as a model for early metabolism is used. The origin of the genetic code and the development of branching in molecular structures of amino acids is described. Studies are reported of the effects of meteorite impact on early Earth life.

  11. Non-Smoking Tobacco Affects Endothelial Function in Healthy Men in One of the Largest Health Studies Ever Performed; The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study in Norway; HUNT3

    PubMed Central

    Aspenes, Stian Thoresen; Ellingsen, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral tobacco (snuff) is taking a large market share in Scandinavia, especially with young users. However, long-term health effects are unknown. Small studies show association between snuff and reduced endothelial function, representing an early stage of vascular injury that often precedes manifest cardiovascular disease by several years. We therefore determined the associations between snuff and endothelial function in a large sample of healthy Norwegian men. Methods and Design In the Fitness substudy of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3), endothelial function was measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Aerobic fitness was measured by peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). A cross-sectional design including 1 592 self-reported healthy men compared these observations with records of present tobacco use, standard cardiovascular risk factors, and socioeconomic status, using general linear models. Results FMD was lower in snuff users (FMD: 4.12%, 3.63, 4.61) compared to non-users (FMD: 4.52%, 4.27, 4.78) after adjustment for age (difference: -0.57%, -1.12, -0.01). After further adjustment for potential confounders, FMD still tended to be lower in snuff users than in non-users (difference: -0.53%, -1.09, 0.02). This difference was even more pronounced in the inactive snuff users (-0.83%, -1.59, -0.06) and in the low fit snuff users (-0.74%, CI -0.55, 0.079). Conclusions Oral tobacco is associated with a tendency towards reduced endothelial function, indicating vascular changes that precede cardiovascular disease. The strongest associations were found in men with low physical activity or reduced aerobic fitness. PMID:27490361

  12. Implementation and Operational Research: Programmatic Feasibility of Dried Blood Spots for the Virological Follow-up of Patients on Antiretroviral Treatment in Nord Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Laetitia; Muwonga, Jeremie; Kabuayi, Jean Pierre; Kambale, Alain; Mutaka, Fidèle; Fujiwara, Paula I.; Decosas, Josef; Peeters, Martine; Delaporte, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background: As part of its policy to shift monitoring of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to primary health care (PHC) workers, the Ministry of Health of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) tested the feasibility of using dried blood spots (DBS) for viral load (VL) quantification and genotypic drug resistance testing in off-site high-throughput laboratories. Methods: DBS samples from adults on ART were collected in 13 decentralized PHC facilities in the Nord-Kivu province and shipped during program quarterly supervision to a reference laboratory 2000 km away, where VL was quantified with a commercial assay (m2000rt, Abbott). A second DBS was sent to a World Health Organization (WHO)-accredited laboratory for repeat VL quantification on a subset of samples with a generic assay (Biocentric) and genotypic drug resistance testing when VL >1000 copies per milliliter. Findings: Constraints arose because of an interruption in national laboratory funding rather than to technical or logistic problems. All samples were assessed by both VL assays to allow ART adjustment. Median DBS turnaround time was 37 days (interquartile range: 9–59). Assays performed unequally with DBS, impacting clinical decisions, quality assurance, and overall cost-effectiveness. Based on m2000rt or generic assay, 31.3% of patients were on virological failure (VF) and 14.8% presented resistance mutations versus 50.3% and 15.4%, respectively. Conclusion: This study confirms that current technologies involving DBS make virological monitoring of ART possible at PHC level, including in challenging environments, provided organizational issues are addressed. Adequate core funding of HIV laboratories and adapted choice of VL assays require urgent attention to control resistance to ART as coverage expands. PMID:26413848

  13. Pedogeochemical mapping of Al, Ba, Pb, Ti and V in soils of the Barcelona Province (Catalonia, NE Spain): relationships with soil physico-chemical properties.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, J.; Reverter, F.; Tume, P.; Sokolowska, M.; Sanchez, P.; Longan, L.; Bech, J.; Zhiyanski, M.; Lansac, A.; Oliver, M. T.

    2009-04-01

    Pedogeochemical mapping is a useful tool for estimating the local background of potentially toxic elements (PTE), wich is essential for environmental regulation. The aim of this study is to estimate the levels and distribution of Al, Ba, Pb, Ti and V in surface soils of the Barcelona province (Catalonia, NE Spain) and their relationships with administrative-geographic districts, texture, pH, organic carbon and CaCO3. The studied region has a surface area of 7731 Km2. The geology is varied: granites and Paleozoic shales predominate in SE-E. and Mesozoic and Cenozoic limestones, dolomites, marlstones, gypsum and sandstones in the remainder of the studied area. 319 top soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected at 5 km intervals on a regular grid, dried and sieved (2mm). General soil properties were analysed by standard methods. Aqua regia digests (DIN 38414-S7) of Al, Ba, Pb, Ti and V were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry. Statistical data treatment was carried out using SPSS 12.0 and Statgraphics Plus 5.1. We applied Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) techniques to statistically describe the data. The software used for mapping was ESRI's Arc Wiew 9.0, Desktop version. Analytical data is represented using growing dot maps. The values of every mapped variable were grouped into a few cartographic classes in order to produce limited legends. The limits for the cartographic classes were chosen by the percentile method (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 98th). Some results are: Al mg kg-1min 4410.0, max 194786.0, mean 18145.6, sd 12112.1, med 16273.3 ; Ba mgkg-1min 7.32, max 1709.0, mean 128.4, sd 149.2, med 91.7; Pb mg kg-1min 2.76, max 485.7, mean 52.2, sd 46.3, med 46.0; Ti mg kg-1min 11.6, max 3540.0, mean 268.0, sd 421.6, med 132.2, and V mg kg-1min 2.15, max 289.2, mean 31.4, sd 25.7, med 26.0. . The highest mean value of Ba (328mkg-1), Pb (139.6 mgkg-1) and V (54.7 mgkg-1) corresponds to the Barcelonés district with mainly urban soils. The Al contents

  14. Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms as Predictors of All-Cause Mortality among People with Insulin-Naïve Type 2 Diabetes: 17-Year Follow-Up of the Second Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT2), Norway

    PubMed Central

    Nefs, Giesje; Tell, Grethe S.; Espehaug, Birgitte; Midthjell, Kristian; Graue, Marit; Pouwer, Frans

    2016-01-01

    Aim To examine whether elevated anxiety and/or depressive symptoms are related to all-cause mortality in people with Type 2 diabetes, not using insulin. Methods 948 participants in the community-wide Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey conducted during 1995–97 completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale with subscales of anxiety (HADS-A) and depression (HADS-D). Elevated symptoms were defined as HADS-A or HADS-D ≥8. Participants with type 2 diabetes, not using insulin, were followed until November 21, 2012 or death. Cox regression analyses were used to estimate associations between baseline elevated anxiety symptoms, elevated depressive symptoms and mortality, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, HbA1c, cardiovascular disease and microvascular complications. Results At baseline, 8% (n = 77/948) reported elevated anxiety symptoms, 9% (n = 87/948) elevated depressive symptoms and 10% (n = 93/948) reported both. After a mean follow-up of 12 years (SD 5.1, range 0–17), 541 participants (57%) had died. Participants with elevated anxiety symptoms only had a decreased mortality risk (unadjusted HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.46–0.96). Adjustment for HbA1c attenuated this relation (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.50–1.07). Those with elevated depression symptoms alone had an increased mortality risk (fully adjusted model HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.05–1.84). Having both elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms was not associated with increased mortality risk (adjusted HR 1.30, 95% CI 0.96–1.74). Conclusions Elevated depressive symptoms were associated with excess mortality risk in people with Type 2 diabetes not using insulin. No significant association with mortality was found among people with elevated anxiety symptoms. Having both elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms was not associated with mortality. The hypothesis that elevated levels of anxiety symptoms leads to behavior that counteracts the adverse health effects of Type 2 diabetes needs further investigation. PMID:27537359

  15. Etude des connaissances, attitudes et pratiques en matière de réintégration sociale des femmes victimes de fistule obstétricale: région de l'Extrême-nord, Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Sanou Sobze; Adogaye, Sali Ben Béchir; Rodrigue, Mabvouna Biguioh; Maurice, Douryang; Vivaldi, Teikeu Tessa Vladimir; Amede, Saah Fopa Michael; Marie, Ovaga Eyenga Landry; Meriam, Ausseil Sandra; Colizzi, Vittorio; Gianluca, Russo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La fistule obstétricale est un orifice entre le vagin et la vessie ou le rectum, voire les deux. Ses impacts sont des conséquences anatomo-fonctionnelles et sociales. On estime à plus de 19 000 le nombre de femmes qui souffrent de fistule obstétricale au Cameroun. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale descriptive conduite dans trois districts de santé de la région de l'Extrême-nord. Vingt-huit femmes victimes de fistules obstétricales, quarante-deux membres de leur entourage et vingt-quatre agents de santé ont été interviewés entre Novembre et Décembre 2013. Trois types de questionnaires ont été utilisés. Les données ont été analysées dans Epi Info version 7.1.4.0. Les moyennes et les fréquences ont été calculées avec un intervalle de confiance à 95%. Résultats 46,4% des femmes victimes de fistule obstétricales interviewées avaient subi une intervention chirurgicale réparatrice parmi lesquelles, 61,5% bénéficiaient de la réintégration. Le fonds de commerce (62,5%) était l'aide la plus reçue. Vingt-deux membres de l'entourage savaient pourquoi on fait la réintégration. Selon eux, les considérations socioculturelles (68,2%), sont la principale barrière de la réintégration. D'après les agents de santé, le suivi psychosocial (58,3%) est la principale activité de la réintégration dans les centres de prise en charge de la fistule. Conclusion La prise en charge des fistules obstétricales au Cameroun souffre de manque de réintégration sociale. Ceci expliquerait en partie la persistance de cette pathologie. Un accent devrait être mis sur l'appui matériel, financier et sur le suivi psychosocial des femmes victimes de fistule obstétricale. PMID:26113915

  16. Trends in Transmission of Drug Resistance and Prevalence of Non-B Subtypes in Patients with Acute or Recent HIV-1 Infection in Barcelona in the Last 16 Years (1997-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, David; Parera, Marta; López-Diéguez, María; Romero, Anabel; Agüero, Fernando; Marcos, María Ángeles; Manzardo, Christian; Zamora, Laura; Gómez-Carrillo, Manuel; Gatell, José María; Pumarola, Tomás; Miró, José María

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and non-B subtypes in patients with acute/recent HIV-1 infection in Barcelona during the period 1997-2012. Methods Patients from the “Hospital Clínic Primary HIV-1 Infection Cohort” with a genotyping test performed within 180 days of infection were included. The 2009 WHO List of Mutations for Surveillance of Transmitted HIV-1 Drug Resistance was used for estimating the prevalence of TDR and phylogenetic analysis for subtype determination. Results 189 patients with acute/recent HIV-1 infection were analyzed in 4 time periods (1997-2000, n=28; 2001-4, n=42; 2005-8, n=55 and 2009-12, n=64). The proportion of patients with acute/recent HIV-1 infection with respect to the total of newly HIV-diagnosed patients in our center increased over the time and was 2.18%, 3.82%, 4.15% and 4.55% for the 4 periods, respectively (p=0.005). The global prevalence of TDR was 9%, or 17.9%, 9.5%, 3.6% and 9.4% by study period (p=0.2). The increase in the last period was driven by protease-inhibitor and nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor resistance mutations while non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase inhibitor TDR and TDR of more than one family decreased. The overall prevalence of non-B subtypes was 11.1%, or 0%, 4.8%, 9.1% and 20.3 by study period (p=0.01). B/F recombinants, B/G recombinants and subtype F emerged in the last period. We also noticed an increase in the number of immigrant patients (p=0.052). The proportion of men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) among patients with acute/recent HIV-1 infection increased over the time (p=0.04). Conclusions The overall prevalence of TDR in patients with acute/recent HIV-1 infection in Barcelona was 9%, and it has stayed relatively stable in recent years. Non-B subtypes and immigrants proportions progressively increased. PMID:26039689

  17. Post-licensure evaluation of vaccine safety: current status and future directions. Symposium organised by the International Alliance for Biological Standardization (IABS) in Barcelona, Spain, 27-28 April 2011.

    PubMed

    Black, Steven; Egan, William; Lambert, Paul-Henri

    2012-09-01

    Adverse events following immunization, while rare, unfortunately do occur. And when they do, the public's faith in vaccines waves. It's a known fact, for example, that vaccine safety concerns are among the most important factors contributing to parents refusing vaccination for their children. How best, then, to tackle these concerns and increase public confidence in the vaccine safety system? In an effort to contribute to identifying the right mechanisms, the International Alliance for Biological Standardization organized an international symposium on "Post-Licensure Evaluation of Vaccine Safety" in Barcelona in early Spring. Delegates from 24 countries took a close look at the current status of this challenging problem and identified several practical measures which could help address the situation. They suggested an integrated vaccine safety program to be in place in all countries and standardized so that information and data can be exchanged on a routine basis. Another proposal was to put in place simple measures such as the use of bar codes on vaccine vials.

  18. The Effectiveness of Multiple Electrode Radiofrequency Ablation in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Lesions More than 3 cm in Size and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Stage A to B2

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chen-Chun; Cheng, Ya-Ting; Chen M, Wei-Ting; Lin, Shi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) lesions >3.0 cm in size including Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage B after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with a single electrode remain unsatisfactory. This study aimed to investigate the outcomes of RFA with multiple electrodes (ME-RFA) for HCC tumors 3.1-7.0 cm in size and BCLC stage B. This retrospective study included 70 consecutive patients with 58 medium- (3.1-5.0 cm) and 17 large- (5.1-7.0 cm) sized HCCs after ME-RFA using a controller. Outcomes in terms of complete response, primary technique effectiveness, local tumor progression, and overall survival were investigated. After 1-4 applications of ME-RFA, the rates of complete response and PTE in medium-sized tumors were 79.3% and 91.4%, respectively, and in large tumors were 76.5% and 94.1%, respectively. Overall, the major complication rate was 5.7%. After a median 21-month follow-up period, both two- and three-year estimated overall survival rates were above 80%. There were no significant differences in overall survival and local tumor progression rates between medium- and large-size tumors and among BCLC stages A, B1 and B2. A complete response to ME-RFA was the only significant factor associated with improved survival (p=0.008). In conclusion, ME-RFA can effectively treat 3.1-7.0-cm sized HCCs with a comparable outcome between medium- and large-size tumors and among BCLA stages A to B2. PMID:26989656

  19. Occurrence and implications of methyl tert-butyl ether and gasoline hydrocarbons in ground water and source water in the United States and in drinking water in 12 Northeast and Mid-Atlantic States, 1993-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, Michael J.; Zogorski, John S.; Squillace, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence and implications of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and gasoline hydrocarbons were examined in three surveys of water quality conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey?one national-scale survey of ground water, one national-scale survey of source water from ground water, and one regional-scale survey of drinking water from ground water. The overall detection frequency of MTBE in all three surveys was similar to the detection frequencies of some other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have much longer production and use histories in the United States. The detection frequency of MTBE was higher in drinking water and lower in source water and ground water. However, when the data for ground water and source water were limited to the same geographic extent as drinking-water data, the detection frequencies of MTBE were comparable to the detection frequency of MTBE in drinking water. In all three surveys, the detection frequency of any gasoline hydrocarbon was less than the detection frequency of MTBE. No concentration of MTBE in source water exceeded the lower limit of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Drinking-Water Advisory of 20 ?g/L (micrograms per liter). One concentration of MTBE in ground water exceeded 20 ?g/L, and 0.9 percent of drinking-water samples exceeded 20 ?g/L. The overall detection frequency of MTBE relative to other widely used VOCs indicates that MTBE is an important concern with respect to ground-water management. The probability of detecting MTBE was strongly associated with population density, use of MTBE in gasoline, and recharge, and weakly associated with density of leaking underground storage tanks, soil permeability, and aquifer consolidation. Only concentrations of MTBE above 0.5 ?g/L were associated with dissolved oxygen. Ground water underlying areas with high population density, ground water underlying areas where MTBE is used as a gasoline oxygenate, and ground water underlying areas with high recharge has a greater probability of MTBE contamination. Ground water from public-supply wells and shallow ground water underlying urban land-use areas has a greater probability of MTBE contamination compared to ground water from domestic wells and ground water underlying rural land-use areas.

  20. [Hyperthyroidism and pregnancy. A retrospective multicenter study Nord-Picardie-Champagne. Report of 48 cases].

    PubMed

    Dorangeon, P H; Quereux, C; Wahl, P

    1989-12-01

    In 92,130 pregnancies followed between 1980 and 1987, 48 cases of hyperthyroidism were reported including 38 Grave's diseases, 5 toxic adenomas, 4 multinodules goiters. In comparing the results with those mentioned in the literature, a number of conclusions may be reached. In case of hyperthyroidism treated before the pregnancy or discovered at the beginning, there is, in every other case, an aggravation at the end of the first trimester, then a stabilization in the 2nd or 3rd trimester and finally an aggravation in the post-partum period. There is a high rate of abortions (35 p. cent), a delayed intra-uterine growth in half of the cases. The problem of the treatment is of paramount importance; there is no problem with Beta-blockers but the SAT are not without danger: risk of hypothyroidism and fetal goiter, but also risk of maternal hypothyroidism. From the 15th week, the doses should therefore be decreased, and sometimes the treatment discontinued and replaced with Beta-blockers. The best SAT drug during pregnancy is the propylthioracile which is the least likely to cross the fetal barrier. Surgery is only exceptionally indicated. In a woman who is cured from her Grave's disease, recurrences are always possible, and also fetal hyperthyroidism caused by crossing of thyreostimulins immunoglobins, even in case of maternal euthyroidism. PMID:2696063

  1. Impacts potentiels d'un changement climatique sur le pergelisol dans le nord canadien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obretin, Calin

    This thesis explores the potential impacts of a climate change due to the greenhouse gases on the state and the evolution of the permafrost in the Canadian North. The permafrost represents the half of the Canadian national territory and a change of its current state will echo in all spheres of activity, on the biosphere and on the environment generally. In spite of the evident importance of the subject, there is no precise idea as to how the permafrost will react to the climate change and to what extent the frozen layer will be disrupted. This thesis investigates this problem by using a methodological approach inspired by the Canadian model on the evolution of permafrost (TTOP) coupled with a theoretical approach based on the theory of the complex neuronal systems. The general objective of this thesis is to improve the Canadian model of evolution of permafrost (TTOP-Temperature one the Top Of Permafrost) created by Smith and Riseborough in 1996, its structure of computation, spatial resolution and to determine the state of the permafrost in the study area between 2010 and 2100. The study zone is situated in the Mackenzie Basin (N-W.T) on a north-south transect of 1440 by 720 km. The first objective of the research is to derive maps of the annual values of temperature on the top of the permafrost from 2010 to 2100 by using an improved dynamic model of the evolution of permafrost (TTOP-A). Thereafter, these values are compared with those obtained by Smith and Riseborough (1996). The values of the evolution of air temperature for this period are supplied by the climatic scenarios CGCM32 SRES A1B, CGCM3 SRES A2 and CGCM3 SRES B1. Secondly, this thesis has as an objective the production of the maps of the thickness of permafrost for 2100 with a spatial resolution of 25 km. More exactly, we determine the evolution of the values of thickness of permafrost for the three climatic scenarios mentioned above. Furthermore, the study proposes: i) a new method for downscaling of climate data by using a Determined Stochastic Model, ii) the integration of soil type, iii) the integration of the soil humidity, iv) the integration of the values of thickness of the snow layer and v) the integration of remote sensing data (SSM/I). As a rule, the results obtained by the TTOP-A model reveal that the mean values of temperature at the surface of the permafrost follow closely the values of air temperature and that they are similar to those found by Smith and Riseborough (1996) and Heginbottom and coll. (1995). Also, the differences of the values of temperature on the surface of permafrost between 2010 and 2100 are similar to the values published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Concerning the second objective of this thesis, the spatio-temporal dynamics of the permafrost until 2100 demonstrates that, in the study zone, the surface perturbed by global warming will be 37 %, 60 % and 29 % according to the scenarios CGCM3 SRES A1B, CGCM3 SRES A2 and CGCM3 SRES B1 respectively. The permafrost layer inside this zone will disappear by 20 %, 32 % and 18 % according to the scenarios mentioned before. These results lead us to believe that the estimations made by Smith and Riseborough were overvalued in the context of two of three current climates scenarios compared to that of the 1996. Finally, this study demonstrates that the method of downscaling of climate data using the neuronal network within a Determined Stochastic Model gives good results and it represents a reliable option which lends itself to large-scale generalizations. Keywords: permafrost, downscaling, snow, soil humidity, climate scenarios, neuronal network, Determined Stochastic Model, climate change, CGCM3, TTOP. 2The third generation Coupled Global Climate Model [CCCma, 2010].

  2. The Neandertals of northeastern Iberia: new remains from the Cova del Gegant (Sitges, Barcelona).

    PubMed

    Quam, Rolf; Sanz, Montserrat; Daura, Joan; Robson Brown, Kate; García-González, Rebeca; Rodríguez, Laura; Dawson, Heidi; Rodríguez, Rosa Flor; Gómez, Sandra; Villaescusa, Lucía; Rubio, Ángel; Yagüe, Almudena; Ortega Martínez, María Cruz; Fullola, Josep Maria; Zilhão, João; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-04-01

    The present study describes a new juvenile hominin mandible and teeth and a new juvenile humerus from level V of the GP2 gallery of Cova del Gegant (Spain). The mandible (Gegant-5) preserves a portion of the right mandibular corpus from the M1 distally to the socket for the dc mesially, and the age at death is estimated as 4.5-5.0 years. Gegant-5 shows a single mental foramen located under the dm1/dm2 interdental septum, a relatively posterior placement compared with recent hominins of a similar developmental age. The mental foramen in Gegant-5 is also placed within the lower half of the mandibular corpus, as in the previously described late adolescent/adult mandible (Gegant-1) from this same Middle Paleolithic site. The Gegant-5 canine shows pronounced marginal ridges, a distal accessory ridge, and a pronounced distolingual tubercle. The P3 shows a lingually-displaced protoconid cusp tip and a distal accessory ridge. The P4 shows a slightly asymmetrical crown outline, a continuous transverse crest, a mesially placed metaconid cusp tip, a slight distal accessory ridge, and an accessory lingual cusp. The M1 shows a Y5 pattern of cusp contact and a well-developed and deep anterior fovea bounded posteriorly by a continuous midtrigonid crest. Gegant-4 is the distal portion of a left humerus from a juvenile estimated to be between 5 and 7 years old at death. The specimen shows thick cortical bone. Although fragmentary, the constellation of morphological and metric features indicates Neandertal affinities for these specimens. Their spatial proximity at the site and similar ages at death suggest these remains may represent a single individual. The addition of these new specimens brings the total number of Neandertal remains from the Cova del Gegant to five, and this site documents the clearest evidence for Neandertal fossils associated with Middle Paleolithic stone tools in this region of the Iberian Peninsula.

  3. A Neandertal mandible from the Cova del Gegant (Sitges, Barcelona, Spain).

    PubMed

    Daura, J; Sanz, M; Subirá, M E; Quam, R; Fullola, J M; Arsuaga, J L

    2005-07-01

    A human mandible from the site of Cova del Gegant is described here for the first time and compared with other Middle and Upper Pleistocene representatives of the genus Homo from Europe and Southwest Asia. The specimen was recovered from sediments which also yielded Mousterian stone tools and Pleistocene fauna. The preserved morphology of the mandible, particularly in the region of the mental foramen, clearly aligns it with the Neandertals, making the Cova del Gegant the only known site in Catalonia documenting diagnostic human skeletal remains in association with Middle Paleolithic stone tools. This represents an important new addition to the human fossil record from the Iberian Peninsula and joins the Bañolas mandible in documenting the course of human evolution in the northern Mediterranean region of Spain.

  4. [Epidemiology of atherogenic dyslipidemia in an urban area of the city of Barcelona].

    PubMed

    Caballero Sarmiento, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    We performed a descriptive cross-sectional epidemiological study data on lipid profile and blood glucose of sample collected in 2021 consecutive and anonymous patients. We calculated the prevalence of atherogenic dyslipidemia by sex, according to several cutoff HDL cholesterol in women, and in the whole sample, and its association with diabetes. There is in the study selection bias, as it is performed in patients attending in a Primary Care Laboratory and not in a sample of the general population. Prevalence epidemiological data are therefore approximate and provisional. PMID:24365578

  5. Stratigraphic context and direct dating of the Neandertal mandible from Cova del Gegant (Sitges, Barcelona).

    PubMed

    Daura, J; Sanz, M; Pike, A W G; Subirà, M E; Fornós, J J; Fullola, J M; Julià, R; Zilhão, J

    2010-07-01

    Stratigraphic study of the Cova del Gegant's sedimentary fill revealed different cycles of accumulation of typical interior cave and delta facies. A precise chronology for these deposits, the faunal remains and stone tools contained therein was obtained by radiocarbon, U-Th and OSL. Our results indicate that the Upper Pleistocene archaeological sequence dates between 49.3 +/- 1.8 ka BP, the U-Th age of the overlying flowstone, and 60.0 +/- 3.9 ka BP, the OSL age of the basal deposits. We have also directly dated the site's Neandertal mandible to 52.3 +/- 2.3 ka by U-Th.

  6. The Neandertals of northeastern Iberia: new remains from the Cova del Gegant (Sitges, Barcelona).

    PubMed

    Quam, Rolf; Sanz, Montserrat; Daura, Joan; Robson Brown, Kate; García-González, Rebeca; Rodríguez, Laura; Dawson, Heidi; Rodríguez, Rosa Flor; Gómez, Sandra; Villaescusa, Lucía; Rubio, Ángel; Yagüe, Almudena; Ortega Martínez, María Cruz; Fullola, Josep Maria; Zilhão, João; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-04-01

    The present study describes a new juvenile hominin mandible and teeth and a new juvenile humerus from level V of the GP2 gallery of Cova del Gegant (Spain). The mandible (Gegant-5) preserves a portion of the right mandibular corpus from the M1 distally to the socket for the dc mesially, and the age at death is estimated as 4.5-5.0 years. Gegant-5 shows a single mental foramen located under the dm1/dm2 interdental septum, a relatively posterior placement compared with recent hominins of a similar developmental age. The mental foramen in Gegant-5 is also placed within the lower half of the mandibular corpus, as in the previously described late adolescent/adult mandible (Gegant-1) from this same Middle Paleolithic site. The Gegant-5 canine shows pronounced marginal ridges, a distal accessory ridge, and a pronounced distolingual tubercle. The P3 shows a lingually-displaced protoconid cusp tip and a distal accessory ridge. The P4 shows a slightly asymmetrical crown outline, a continuous transverse crest, a mesially placed metaconid cusp tip, a slight distal accessory ridge, and an accessory lingual cusp. The M1 shows a Y5 pattern of cusp contact and a well-developed and deep anterior fovea bounded posteriorly by a continuous midtrigonid crest. Gegant-4 is the distal portion of a left humerus from a juvenile estimated to be between 5 and 7 years old at death. The specimen shows thick cortical bone. Although fragmentary, the constellation of morphological and metric features indicates Neandertal affinities for these specimens. Their spatial proximity at the site and similar ages at death suggest these remains may represent a single individual. The addition of these new specimens brings the total number of Neandertal remains from the Cova del Gegant to five, and this site documents the clearest evidence for Neandertal fossils associated with Middle Paleolithic stone tools in this region of the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:25766902

  7. [Epidemiology of atherogenic dyslipidemia in an urban area of the city of Barcelona].

    PubMed

    Caballero Sarmiento, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    We performed a descriptive cross-sectional epidemiological study data on lipid profile and blood glucose of sample collected in 2021 consecutive and anonymous patients. We calculated the prevalence of atherogenic dyslipidemia by sex, according to several cutoff HDL cholesterol in women, and in the whole sample, and its association with diabetes. There is in the study selection bias, as it is performed in patients attending in a Primary Care Laboratory and not in a sample of the general population. Prevalence epidemiological data are therefore approximate and provisional.

  8. Assessment of rectocolonic morphology and function in patients with Chagas disease in Barcelona (Spain).

    PubMed

    Salvador, Fernando; Mego, Marianela; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Morís, María; Ramírez, Kathleen; Accarino, Ana; Malagelada, Juan-Ramon; Azpiroz, Fernando; Molina, Israel

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between colonic symptoms, radiological abnormalities, and anorectal dysfunction in patients with Chagas disease. We performed a cross-sectional study of untreated patients diagnosed with Chagas disease. All patients were evaluated clinically (by a questionnaire for colonic symptoms based on Rome III criteria) and underwent a barium enema and anorectal manometry. A control group of patients with functional constipation and without Chagas disease was included in the study. Overall, 69 patients were included in the study: 42 patients were asymptomatic and 27 patients had abdominal symptoms according to Rome III criteria. Anorectal manometry showed a higher proportion of abnormalities in symptomatic patients than in asymptomatic ones (73% versus 21%, respectively; P < 0.0001). Megarectum was detected in a similar proportion in the different subgroups regardless of the presence of symptoms or abnormalities in anorectal functions. Among non-Chagas disease patients with functional constipation, 90% had an abnormal anorectal manometry study. Patients with Chagas disease present a high proportion of constipation with dyssynergic defecation in anorectal manometry but a low prevalence of impaired rectoanal inhibitory reflex, although these abnormalities may be nonspecific for Chagas disease. The presence of megarectum is a nonspecific finding.

  9. The Emergence of New Linguistic Repertoires among Barcelona's Youth of Latin American Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corona, Victor; Nussbaum, Luci; Unamuno, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Since the end of the last century, more than 10% of students in Catalonia's schools are immigrants, mostly concentrated in areas of Catalonia where the population speaks Castilian in everyday life. Although these newcomers are educated in Catalan, the majority use diverse varieties of Spanish as their language of everyday communication. In the…

  10. Ethical challenges in preclinical Alzheimer's disease observational studies and trials: Results of the Barcelona summit.

    PubMed

    Molinuevo, José L; Cami, Jordi; Carné, Xavier; Carrillo, Maria C; Georges, Jean; Isaac, Maria B; Khachaturian, Zaven; Kim, Scott Y H; Morris, John C; Pasquier, Florence; Ritchie, Craig; Sperling, Reisa; Karlawish, Jason

    2016-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is among the most significant health care burdens. Disappointing results from clinical trials in late-stage AD persons combined with hopeful results from trials in persons with early-stage suggest that research in the preclinical stage of AD is necessary to define an optimal therapeutic success window. We review the justification for conducting trials in the preclinical stage and highlight novel ethical challenges that arise and are related to determining appropriate risk-benefit ratios and disclosing individuals' biomarker status. We propose that to conduct clinical trials with these participants, we need to improve public understanding of AD using unified vocabulary, resolve the acceptable risk-benefit ratio in asymptomatic participants, and disclose or not biomarker status with attention to study type (observational studies vs clinical trials). Overcoming these challenges will justify clinical trials in preclinical AD at the societal level and aid to the development of societal and legal support for trial participants.

  11. Exploring Links between Empowerment and Community-Based Arts and Cultural Practices: Perspectives from Barcelona Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrasco, Ruben David Fernández; Monferrer, Moisés Carmona; Tarditi, Andrés Di Masso

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we reflect on the development of community-based arts and cultural (CBAC) practices to promote psychosocial, group/organisational and community changes from the perspective of empowerment. We draw on findings from an initial exploratory phase of an ongoing action-research project in Spain about creative tools that empower artists…

  12. Screening for Imported Diseases in an Immigrant Population: Experience from a Teaching Hospital in Barcelona, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Bocanegra, Cristina; Salvador, Fernando; Sulleiro, Elena; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Pahissa, Albert; Molina, Israel

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the screening for imported diseases among an immigrant population. This retrospective observational study was of all adult immigrants attended at the Tropical Medicine Unit of the Vall d'Hebron Teaching Hospital from September of 2007 to March of 2010. The screening strategy was adjusted by symptoms, country of origin, and length of residence in Europe. Overall, 927 patients were included. The median age was 34.5 years, and 42.1% of patients were male. A diagnosis was made in 419 (45.2%) patients. The most frequent diagnoses were Chagas disease, anemia, latent tuberculosis infection, intestinal parasitosis, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. After screening, more diseases were identified in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa (new diagnoses in 56.6% of patients) than patients from other geographic areas. The geographic origin and length of residence in a developed country determine the prevalence of diseases; hence, screening protocols must be based on this information. PMID:25331805

  13. Long-Term Macroevaluation of Environmental Enrichment in Three Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) at Barcelona Zoo.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Ana I; Vinyoles, Dolors; Maté, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of enrichment programs is important to determine their effect on nonhuman animal welfare. The daily activity pattern and use of space of 3 brown bears (Ursus arctos) were used for long-term macroevaluation of enrichment to compare the baseline and enrichment phases. Focal sampling methods were used for data collection, and instantaneous scans were made at 2-min intervals during 15 sessions of 1 hr for each animal during the 2 study periods. The enrichment devices were categorized as feeding, occupational, and sensorial. The long-term macroevaluation in 3 bears showed statistically significant differences in some types of activity but not in others. There were also statistically significant differences for the use of space in 4 of the 8 zones in which the enclosures were divided. A more homogenous pattern in the use of space was only observed during the enrichment phase in the old female. The 3 brown bears followed different patterns concerning the enrichment program.

  14. ISSOL Meeting, 7th, Barcelona, Spain, July 4-9, 1993. [Abstracts only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, James P. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The journal issue consists of abstracts presented at the International Society for the Study of the Origins of Life (ISSOL) conference. Topics include research on biological and chemical evolution including prebiotic evolution: cosmic and terrestrial; mechanisms of abiogenesis including synthesis and reactions of biomonomers; and analysis of cometary matter and its possible relationship to organic compounds on Earth. Theories and research on origins of ribonucleic acids (RNA), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and other amino acids and complex proteins including their autocatalysis, replication, and translation are presented. Abiotic synthesis of biopolymers, mechanisms of the Genetic Code, precellular membrane systems and energetics are considered. Earth planetary evolution including early microfossils and geochemical conditions and simulations to study these conditions are discussed. The role of chirality in precellular evolution and the taxonomy and phylogeny of very simple organisms are reported. Past and future explorations in exobiology and space research directed toward study of the origins of life and solar system evolution are described.

  15. Intestinal parasitism--protozoa and helminths--in primates at the Barcelona Zoo.

    PubMed

    Soledad Gómez, M; Gracenea, M; Montoliu, I; Feliu, C; Monleon, A; Fernandez, J; Enseñat, C

    1996-12-01

    The faunistic results regarding intestinal parasitism by protozoa and helminths in 21 primate species (three Cebidae, thirteen Cercopithecidae, one Hylobatidae, one Lemuridae, three Pongidae) are reported. The primate species were housed in four separate galleries. Six faecal samples of each host species were subjected to coprological analysis. Fifteen parasite species were detected: 11 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, E. chattoni, E. hartmanni, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Endolimax nana, Giardia intestinalis, Chilomastix mesnilii, Enteromonas hominis, Trichomonas intestinalis, Balantidium coli, and Blastocystis hominis) and 4 helminths (Ancylostoma sp., Strongyloides fuelleborni, Strongyloides sp., and Trichuris trichiura). The results reveal certain parasitic similarities between host species housed in the same gallery; however, these primate species do not always carry identical parasite species. PMID:9210027

  16. Long-Term Macroevaluation of Environmental Enrichment in Three Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) at Barcelona Zoo.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Ana I; Vinyoles, Dolors; Maté, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of enrichment programs is important to determine their effect on nonhuman animal welfare. The daily activity pattern and use of space of 3 brown bears (Ursus arctos) were used for long-term macroevaluation of enrichment to compare the baseline and enrichment phases. Focal sampling methods were used for data collection, and instantaneous scans were made at 2-min intervals during 15 sessions of 1 hr for each animal during the 2 study periods. The enrichment devices were categorized as feeding, occupational, and sensorial. The long-term macroevaluation in 3 bears showed statistically significant differences in some types of activity but not in others. There were also statistically significant differences for the use of space in 4 of the 8 zones in which the enclosures were divided. A more homogenous pattern in the use of space was only observed during the enrichment phase in the old female. The 3 brown bears followed different patterns concerning the enrichment program. PMID:26709627

  17. Ethical challenges in preclinical Alzheimer's disease observational studies and trials: Results of the Barcelona summit.

    PubMed

    Molinuevo, José L; Cami, Jordi; Carné, Xavier; Carrillo, Maria C; Georges, Jean; Isaac, Maria B; Khachaturian, Zaven; Kim, Scott Y H; Morris, John C; Pasquier, Florence; Ritchie, Craig; Sperling, Reisa; Karlawish, Jason

    2016-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is among the most significant health care burdens. Disappointing results from clinical trials in late-stage AD persons combined with hopeful results from trials in persons with early-stage suggest that research in the preclinical stage of AD is necessary to define an optimal therapeutic success window. We review the justification for conducting trials in the preclinical stage and highlight novel ethical challenges that arise and are related to determining appropriate risk-benefit ratios and disclosing individuals' biomarker status. We propose that to conduct clinical trials with these participants, we need to improve public understanding of AD using unified vocabulary, resolve the acceptable risk-benefit ratio in asymptomatic participants, and disclose or not biomarker status with attention to study type (observational studies vs clinical trials). Overcoming these challenges will justify clinical trials in preclinical AD at the societal level and aid to the development of societal and legal support for trial participants. PMID:26988427

  18. Spatial Reference in Sumu-Mayangna, Nicaraguan Spanish, and Barcelona Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggleston, Alyson G.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines linguistic spatial frame of reference (FoR) usage across three cohorts, detailing the lexical and structural realization of particular spatial FoR classes within each linguistic community, as well as which linguistic and nonlinguistic factors are predictors of spatial FoR class usage. This study was designed to determine…

  19. Découverte de coésite dans la ceinture métamorphique UHP d'âge Paléozoïque inférieur du Nord-Qaidam, Chine nord-occidentale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jingsui; Xu, Zhiqin; Song, Shuguang; Zhang, Jianxin; Wu, Cailai; Shi, Rendeng; Li, Haibing; Brunel, Maurice

    2001-12-01

    Coesite and graphite were discovered as inclusions in zircon separates from pelitic gneiss associated with a large eclogite body in the North Qaidam UHP terrane. This finding suggests UHP metamorphism at pressures below the diamond stability field. This supports previous indirect UHP evidences, such as polycrystalline quartz inclusions in eclogitic garnet, quartz lamellae in omphacite and P- T estimates for both eclogite and garnet peridotite. The U/Pb and Sm/Nd isotopic ages from the North Qaidam eclogite indicated that continental subduction occurred in Early Palaeozoic, most probably in relation with the collision between the Sino-Korean and Yangtze plates.

  20. Apercu des fautes eventuelles des anglophones Nord-Americains (Survey of Possible Errors of English-Speaking North Americans).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBel, Jean-Guy

    This paper discusses the concept of error in the learning of the phonology of a second language and argues that the concept of error must be viewed as a positive element, an initiation of the process of successive approximations toward the correct phonetic realization. Based on the idea that interference between two languages generates a…

  1. Etude de la variabilite climatique des hautes latitudes nord, derivee d'observations satellites micro-ondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mialon, Arnaud

    Observing sub-polar ecosystems is important as they are suspected to change significantly in response to the expected increase in temperature for the next decades. To bypass the lack of meteorological stations in the Northern High Latitudes, remote sensing is an interesting alternative tool, covering almost the entire area. This project deals with the development of a method to derive surface parameters (>50°N) from satellite data. For this study, brightness temperature data acquired by the SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) in the microwave spectrum are used because they are independent of solar radiation and weakly influenced by the atmosphere. Methods used are based on brightness temperatures measured at 19 and 37 GHz, which allow to derive three geophysical parameters related to climate variability: daily maps of snowcover between 1988 and 2002; a water surface extent (open water, small lakes, reservoirs, wetlands associated with low vegetation); a temperature characterizing the surface and the air above the ground. A method to normalize the temperature is presented to overcome the variation of the time of measurement. It leads to hourly series of temperature, This allows to study climate indicators such as the annual sum of positive degree days. Trends confirm observed climate evolution: increase of surface temperature (+0.8 +/- 0.4°C for Canada/Alaska between 1992 and 2002), decrease in snow extent cover. These original databases could also be useful for validation of regional climate model. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  2. Cout direct hospitalier des accidents vasculaires cérébraux à Parakou au nord du Benin

    PubMed Central

    Adoukonou, Thierry; Kouna-Ndouongo, Philomène; Codjia, Jean-Mannix; Covi, Richmine; Tognon-Tchegnonsi, Francis; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Houinato, Dismand

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Les accidents vasculaires cérébraux constituent un véritable problème de santé publique en Afrique avec une charge importante. Les données fiables sur sa réelle charge économique sont rares en Afrique. L'objectif de cette étude était d’évaluer le coût direct hospitalier des AVC à Parakou au Bénin. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale économique ayant inclus des patients hospitalisés pour un AVC à l'hôpital de Parakou entre le 1er Juin 2010 au 31Mai 2011. Les données concernant les différents postes de consommation ont été collectées selon la méthode dite bottom-up. Le coût était envisagé du point de vue de la société et du patient. L'unité du coût était le franc CFA (valeur en 2011). Une régression linéaire multiple était utilisée pour déterminer les meilleurs prédicteurs du coût. Résultats Ils étaient 78 patients dont 52 hommes, âgés en moyenne de 57 ans ± 10.9. Le NIHSS moyen était de 14,4. Le taux de mortalité était de 20,5%. Le coût direct moyen était de 316.810,3 (±230.774,8) F CFA (environ 704 ± 512 Euros). Les grands postes de consommation étaient les explorations paracliniques (34.3%) les soins et médicaments (28.4%) et les frais d'hospitalisation (17.9%). Les meilleurs prédicteurs du coût élevé étaient un AVC hémorragique, un NIHSS élevé à l'admission et une longue durée d'hospitalisation. Conclusion Cette étude suggère un coût élevé de la prise en charge actuelle des AVC à Parakou. PMID:24839529

  3. The Determinants of Transitions in Youth. Papers from the Conference Organized by the ESF Network on Transitions in Youth, CEDEFOP and GRET (Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona) (Barcelona, Spain, September 20-21, 1993). 2nd Edition. CEDEFOP Panorama. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    This document consists of the 24 papers delivered at a conference that had five workshops examining various dimensions of the social and occupational transition of young people. The papers are arranged by workshop/session. A summary report precedes the other papers presented during a session. The papers in the session on perspectives on systems,…

  4. The Participation of Immigrant Families with Children with SEN in Schools: A Qualitative Study in the Area of Barcelona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paniagua, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The context of Special Education is a privileged space to study participation. Most professionals and teachers have long assumed the participation and collaboration with families as a central tenet of their interventions. On the other hand, parents with children with Special Educational Needs (SEN) have also been described as being permanently…

  5. School Educational Project as a Criterion of School Choice: Discourses and Practices in the City of Barcelona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benito, Ricard; Alegre, Miquel Àngel; Gonzàlez, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    In its advancement towards an education quasi-market, Catalonia has recently been driving the development of "school educational projects" in all schools (both public and private) as a tool to facilitate school autonomy and family choices. A school educational project is a formal document in which schools identify their pedagogical…

  6. Short human occupations in the Middle Palaeolithic level i of the Abric Romani rock-shelter (Capellades, Barcelona, Spain)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallerdu, J.; Allue, E.; Bischoff, J.L.; Caceres, I.; Carbonell, E.; Cebria, A.; Garcia-Anton, D.; Huguet, R.; Ibanez, N.; Martinez, K.; Pasto, I.; Rosell, J.; Saladie, P.; Vaquero, Manola

    2005-01-01

    The small occupation surfaces and restricted provisioning strategies suggest short settlements in the Abric Romani. This shorter occupation model complements the longer diversified provisioning strategy recorded in both small and medium-sized occupied surfaces. The selection of precise elements for transport and the possible deferred consumption in the diversified provision strategy suggest an individual supply. In this respect, Neanderthal occupations in the Romani rock-shelter show a direct relation to: 1) hunting strategic resources; 2) high, linear mobility.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of severe respiratory disease by human rhinoviruses and enteroviruses at a tertiary paediatric hospital in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Launes, C; Armero, G; Anton, A; Hernandez, L; Gimferrer, L; Cisneros, C; Jordan, I; Muñoz-Almagro, C

    2015-08-01

    In order to describe the molecular epidemiology of human rhinovirus (HRV) and enterovirus (EV) infection in severely ill children, we studied all episodes of bronchospasm/bronchopneumonia in 6-month-old to 18-year-old patients from January 2010 to May 2012 who required mechanical ventilation. HRV/EVs were detected in 55 (57.3%) of 96 patients, of which 50 (91%) were HRV (HRV-A, 16; HRV-B, 1; HRV-C, 18) and 5 (9%) were EVs (EV-D68, 3). No significant differences in epidemiologic and clinical characteristics were found between different types. In six of the 13 patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation, HRV was the only pathogen detected.

  8. Arsenic levels in immigrant children from countries at risk of consuming arsenic polluted water compared to children from Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Piñol, S; Sala, A; Guzman, C; Marcos, S; Joya, X; Puig, C; Velasco, M; Velez, D; Vall, O; Garcia-Algar, O

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic is a highly toxic element that pollutes groundwater, being a major environmental problem worldwide, especially in the Bengal Basin. About 40% of patients in our outpatient clinics come from those countries, and there is no published data about their arsenic exposure. This study compares arsenic exposure between immigrant and native children. A total of 114 children (57 natives, 57 immigrants), aged 2 months to 16 years, were recruited and sociodemographic and environmental exposure data were recorded. Total arsenic in urine, hair, and nails and arsenic-speciated compounds in urine were determined. We did not find significant differences in total and inorganic arsenic levels in urine and hair, but in organic arsenic monomethylarsenic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA) in urine and in total arsenic in nails. However, these values were not in the toxic range. There were significant differences between longer than 5 years exposure and less than 5 years exposure (consumption of water from tube wells), with respect to inorganic and organic MMA arsenic in urine and total arsenic in nails. There was partial correlation between the duration of exposure and inorganic arsenic levels in urine. Immigrant children have higher arsenic levels than native children, but they are not toxic. At present, there is no need for specific arsenic screening or follow-up in immigrant children recently arrived in Spain from exposure high-risk countries.

  9. Neighbourhood vitality and physical activity among the elderly: The role of walkable environments on active ageing in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Marquet, Oriol; Miralles-Guasch, Carme

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated whether neighbourhood vitality and walkability were associated with active ageing of the elderly. Immobility, activity engagement and physical activity were explored in relation with age, gender and walkability of the built environment. Number of trips per day and minutes spent on walking by the elderly were extracted from a broad travel survey with more than 12,000 CATI interviews and were compared across vital and non-vital urban environments. Results highlight the importance of vital environments for elderly active mobility as subpopulations residing in highly walkable neighbourhoods undertook more trips and spent more minutes walking than their counterparts. The results also suggest that the built environment has different effects in terms of gender, as elderly men were more susceptible to urban vitality than elderly women.

  10. Household energy use in urban Venezuela: Implications from surveys in Maracaibo, Valencia, Merida, and Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, M.J.; Sathaye, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies the most important results of a comparative analysis of household commercial energy use in Venezuelan urban cities. The use of modern fuels is widespread among all cities. Cooking consumes the largest share of urban household energy use. The survey documents no use of biomass and a negligible use of kerosene for cooking. LPG, natural gas, and kerosene are the main fuels available. LPG is the fuel choice of low-income households in all cities except Maracaibo, where 40% of all households use natural gas. Electricity consumption in Venezuela`s urban households is remarkably high compared with the levels used in households in comparable Latin American countries and in households of industrialized nations which confront harsher climatic conditions and, therefore, use electricity for water and space heating. The penetration of appliances in Venezuela`s urban households is very high. The appliances available on the market are inefficient, and there are inefficient patterns of energy use among the population. Climate conditions and the urban built form all play important roles in determining the high level of energy consumption in Venezuelan urban households. It is important to acknowledge the opportunities for introducing energy efficiency and conservation in Venezuela`s residential sector, particularly given current economic and financial constraints, which may hamper the future provision of energy services.

  11. Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae clones causing bacteraemia in adults in a teaching hospital in Barcelona, Spain (2007-2013).

    PubMed

    Cubero, M; Grau, I; Tubau, F; Pallarés, R; Dominguez, M A; Liñares, J; Ardanuy, C

    2016-02-01

    Virulent hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae strains associated with the magA and rmpA genes have mainly emerged in Asia. We analysed the frequency and the clinical and molecular epidemiology of K. pneumoniae bacteraemia isolates obtained over a 7-year period (2007-2013). Fifty-three of 878 K. pneumoniae invasive isolates (5.4%) showed a hypermucoviscous phenotype (by the string test). Of these, 16 (30.2%) were magA(+)/rmpA(+), 12 (22.6%) were magA(-)/rmpA(+), and the remaining 25 (47.2%) were magA(-)/rmpA(-). After multilocus sequence typing and wzi sequencing, all magA(+)/rmpA(+) isolates were serotype K1 and sequence type (ST)23. Of the 12 magA(-)/rmpA(+) isolates, nine were K2 (ST380, ST86, ST65, ST25 and ST493), and three magA(-)/rmpA(+) isolates had the new wzi allele 122, an unknown serotype, and the new ST1013. The remaining isolates, which were magA(-)/rmpA(-), showed different serotypes and STs. Patients with magA(+)/rmpA(+) or magA(-)/rmpA(+)K. pneumoniae bacteraemia more frequently had pyogenic liver abscesses (PLAs) and pneumonia than patients with magA(-)/rmpA(-)K. pneumoniae bacteraemia (respectively: 21.4% vs. 8%, p 0.26; and 17.9% vs. 0%, p 0.05). In fact, magA(-)/rmpA(-) isolates were similar to the those termed 'classic' K. pneumoniae isolates causing bacteraemia, the urinary and biliary tracts being the main foci of infection. In conclusion, hypervirulent clones (CC23K1, CC86K2, CC65K2, and CC380K2) were infrequent among K. pneumoniae isolates causing bacteraemia in our geographical area. A hypermucoviscous phenotype as determined with the string test is not enough to recognize these clones; additional molecular studies are needed. Patients with magA(+) and/or rmpA(+)K. pneumoniae bacteraemia more frequently had PLAs and pneumonia than patients without hypermucoviscosity genes.

  12. Molecular epidemiology of severe respiratory disease by human rhinoviruses and enteroviruses at a tertiary paediatric hospital in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Launes, C; Armero, G; Anton, A; Hernandez, L; Gimferrer, L; Cisneros, C; Jordan, I; Muñoz-Almagro, C

    2015-08-01

    In order to describe the molecular epidemiology of human rhinovirus (HRV) and enterovirus (EV) infection in severely ill children, we studied all episodes of bronchospasm/bronchopneumonia in 6-month-old to 18-year-old patients from January 2010 to May 2012 who required mechanical ventilation. HRV/EVs were detected in 55 (57.3%) of 96 patients, of which 50 (91%) were HRV (HRV-A, 16; HRV-B, 1; HRV-C, 18) and 5 (9%) were EVs (EV-D68, 3). No significant differences in epidemiologic and clinical characteristics were found between different types. In six of the 13 patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation, HRV was the only pathogen detected. PMID:25964153

  13. Cost Attributable to Nosocomial Bacteremia. Analysis According to Microorganism and Antimicrobial Sensitivity in a University Hospital in Barcelona

    PubMed Central

    Riu, Marta; Chiarello, Pietro; Terradas, Roser; Sala, Maria; Garcia-Alzorriz, Enric; Castells, Xavier; Grau, Santiago; Cots, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    Aim To calculate the incremental cost of nosocomial bacteremia caused by the most common organisms, classified by their antimicrobial susceptibility. Methods We selected patients who developed nosocomial bacteremia caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These microorganisms were analyzed because of their high prevalence and they frequently present multidrug resistance. A control group consisted of patients classified within the same all-patient refined-diagnosis related group without bacteremia. Our hospital has an established cost accounting system (full-costing) that uses activity-based criteria to analyze cost distribution. A logistic regression model was fitted to estimate the probability of developing bacteremia for each admission (propensity score) and was used for propensity score matching adjustment. Subsequently, the propensity score was included in an econometric model to adjust the incremental cost of patients who developed bacteremia, as well as differences in this cost, depending on whether the microorganism was multidrug-resistant or multidrug-sensitive. Results A total of 571 admissions with bacteremia matched the inclusion criteria and 82,022 were included in the control group. The mean cost was € 25,891 for admissions with bacteremia and € 6,750 for those without bacteremia. The mean incremental cost was estimated at € 15,151 (CI, € 11,570 to € 18,733). Multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa bacteremia had the highest mean incremental cost, € 44,709 (CI, € 34,559 to € 54,859). Antimicrobial-susceptible E. coli nosocomial bacteremia had the lowest mean incremental cost, € 10,481 (CI, € 8,752 to € 12,210). Despite their lower cost, episodes of antimicrobial-susceptible E. coli nosocomial bacteremia had a major impact due to their high frequency. Conclusions Adjustment of hospital cost according to the organism causing bacteremia and antibiotic sensitivity could improve prevention strategies and allow their prioritization according to their overall impact and costs. Infection reduction is a strategy to reduce resistance. PMID:27055117

  14. La Ciutat Educadora = The Educating City. International Congress of Educating Cities (1st, Barcelona, Spain, November 26-30, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcelona Council (Spain).

    This report presents 28 conference papers, which represent different thematic and scientific perspectives designed to create an educating city theory. The translated titles of the articles include the following: (1) "Foreword" (P. Maragall); (2) "Introduction" (J. Trilla Bernet); (3) "Conceptual Itinerary Through the Educating City: A…

  15. Barcelona 2002: law, ethics, and human rights. HIV testing for peacekeeping forces: legal and human rights issues.

    PubMed

    Jürgens, Ralf

    2002-12-01

    In 2001, the United Nations Security Council established an Expert Panel to study the issue of whether the UN should institute HIV testing of peacekeeping personnel. This article, based on a 9 July 2002 presentation to the XIV International AIDS Conference (abstract TuOrG1173), reports on the findings of a paper prepared for the Expert Panel by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network. The paper examined whether it is permissible for the UN to implement mandatory HIV testing of its peacekeeping personnel, and whether HIV-positive UN peacekeeping personnel should be excluded or restricted from service on the basis of their HIV status or HIV disease progression. The article describes some of the court cases in which these issues have been considered; discusses the importance of analyzing such issues in the context of a human rights-based approach to the pandemic; and formulates a series of key principles for guiding UN decision-making. The article concludes that a policy of mandatory HIV testing for all UN peacekeeping personnel cannot be justified on the basis that it is required in order to assess their physical and mental capacity for service; that HIV-positive peacekeeping personnel cannot be excluded from service based on their HIV status alone, but only on their ability to perform their duties; and that the UN cannot resort to mandatory HIV testing for all UN peacekeeping personnel to protect the health and safety of HIV-negative personnel unless it can demonstrate that alternatives to such a policy would not reduce the risk sufficiently. In the end, the Expert Panel unanimously rejected mandatory testing and instead endorsed voluntary HIV counselling and testing for UN peacekeeping personnel. PMID:14743823

  16. Evaluation of groundwater contamination beneath an urban environment: the Besòs river basin (Barcelona, Spain).

    PubMed

    Navarro, Andrés; Carbonell, Montserrat

    2007-10-01

    The urban groundwater of the central Besòs river basin (the La Llagosta aquifer) has become contaminated due to the infiltration of wastewater from septic tanks and sewage networks, and by industrial activities located in urban areas. The groundwater hydrogeochemistry of the La Llagosta aquifer was characterized using isoconcentration maps, hydrogeochemical diagrams (Piper, Schoeller-Berkaloff) and by analyzing hydrogeochemical changes along a flow-path that crosses an urban and peripheral industrial area in the main alluvial aquifer (the La Llagosta unit). The evolution of cations, anions and heavy metals along the flow path and the use of the PHREEQC numerical code indicate a complex set of geochemical processes, which result from the interaction between the sources of pollution, the groundwater flow and the mineral composition of the aquifer materials. The contaminated groundwater below the urban areas shows high contents of NO(3)(-) (90-100 mg/L) and an increase in the concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) which coincides with a decrease in pH. The Eh shows greater variation than the pH along the flow line studied, with values ranging between 56 mV in the industrial area and 370 mV in the urban area. The area with the lowest Eh value coincides with the highest concentrations of dissolved Fe (4.7 mg/L) and Mn (0.22 mg/L).

  17. Antibiotic Resistance Trends in Enteropathogenic Bacteria Isolated in 1985–1987 and 1995–1998 in Barcelona

    PubMed Central

    Prats, Guillermo; Mirelis, Beatriz; Llovet, Teresa; Muñoz, Carmen; Miró, Elisenda; Navarro, Ferran

    2000-01-01

    Trends in resistance to antimicrobial agents used for therapy have been evaluated with 3,797 enteropathogenic bacteria, Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia, between 1985–1987 and 1995–1998. The greater increase in the rate of resistance was observed in Campylobacter jejuni for quinolones (from 1 to 82%) and tetracycline (from 23 to 72%) and in gastroenteric salmonellae for ampicillin (from 8 to 44%), chloramphenicol (from 1.7 to 26%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and nalidixic acid (from less than 0.5 to 11%). Multidrug resistance was detected in several Salmonella serotypes. In the 1995–1998 period, 76% of Shigella strains were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 43% were resistant to ampicillin, and 39% were resistant to chloramphenicol. Seventy-two percent of Yersinia enterocolitica O3 strains were resistant to streptomycin, 45% were resistant to sulfonamides, 28% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and 20% were resistant to chloramphenicol. PMID:10770742

  18. The Role of Previously Learned Languages in the Thought Processes of Multilingual Writers at the Deutsche Schule Barcelona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Brandon D.; Fernandez-Villanueva, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, scholars have voiced the need for research which focuses on the ability of multilinguals to write across multiple languages rather than on the limitations that they face when composing in a non-native language. In order to better understand multilingual writers as resourceful and creative problem-solvers, the current study aims to…

  19. Arsenic levels in immigrant children from countries at risk of consuming arsenic polluted water compared to children from Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Piñol, S; Sala, A; Guzman, C; Marcos, S; Joya, X; Puig, C; Velasco, M; Velez, D; Vall, O; Garcia-Algar, O

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic is a highly toxic element that pollutes groundwater, being a major environmental problem worldwide, especially in the Bengal Basin. About 40% of patients in our outpatient clinics come from those countries, and there is no published data about their arsenic exposure. This study compares arsenic exposure between immigrant and native children. A total of 114 children (57 natives, 57 immigrants), aged 2 months to 16 years, were recruited and sociodemographic and environmental exposure data were recorded. Total arsenic in urine, hair, and nails and arsenic-speciated compounds in urine were determined. We did not find significant differences in total and inorganic arsenic levels in urine and hair, but in organic arsenic monomethylarsenic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA) in urine and in total arsenic in nails. However, these values were not in the toxic range. There were significant differences between longer than 5 years exposure and less than 5 years exposure (consumption of water from tube wells), with respect to inorganic and organic MMA arsenic in urine and total arsenic in nails. There was partial correlation between the duration of exposure and inorganic arsenic levels in urine. Immigrant children have higher arsenic levels than native children, but they are not toxic. At present, there is no need for specific arsenic screening or follow-up in immigrant children recently arrived in Spain from exposure high-risk countries. PMID:26431705

  20. Dasatinib induces fast and deep responses in newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukaemia patients in chronic phase: clinical results from a randomised phase-2 study (NordCML006)

    PubMed Central

    Hjorth-Hansen, Henrik; Stenke, Leif; Söderlund, Stina; Dreimane, Arta; Ehrencrona, Hans; Gedde-Dahl, Tobias; Gjertsen, Bjørn Tore; Höglund, Martin; Koskenvesa, Perttu; Lotfi, Kourosh; Majeed, Waleed; Markevärn, Berit; Ohm, Lotta; Olsson-Strömberg, Ulla; Remes, Kari; Suominen, Merja; Simonsson, Bengt; Porkka, Kimmo; Mustjoki, Satu; Richter, Johan

    2015-01-01

    We randomised 46 newly diagnosed patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (median age 56) to receive dasatinib 100 mg QD or imatinib 400 mg QD and report outcome as an intention-to-treat analysis with 36 months follow-up. Early cytogenetic and molecular responses were superior in the dasatinib group, with a tendency that imatinib patients caught up with time. For instance, MR3.0 was reached at 3 months in 36% vs. 8% (P = 0.02), at 12 months in 81% vs. 46% (P = 0.02) and at 18 months in 73% vs. 65% (n.s.) of the patients in the two groups. In contrast, MR4.5 was consistently superior in the dasatinib group at all time points from 6 months onwards, reaching 61% vs. 21% (P < 0.05) at 36 months. Sixty-four vs. 71% of the patients in the dasatinib and imatinib arms, respectively, remained on assigned drug. Dasatinib dose was frequently reduced, but with maintained excellent effect. One imatinib patient progressed to blastic phase, but no CML-related deaths occurred. In conclusion, our data compare favourably with those of the dasatinib registration study, DASISION. The fast and deep molecular responses induced by dasatinib compared with imatinib may be exploited to increase the proportion of patients who can achieve a treatment-free remission after treatment discontinuation. PMID:25082346

  1. Analyse multi-échelle par ondelettes des contacts géologiques : application à la carte gravimétrique du Maroc nord-oriental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khattach, Driss; Mraoui, Hamid; Sbibih, Driss; Chennouf, Touria

    2006-06-01

    The multiscale wavelet analysis has been applied to the gravity data from northeastern Morocco to map the major geological contacts, such us faults. Hence, the faults affecting the survey area were outlined with their importance level and dip direction. Seismic data confirm these results and testify the efficiency of this method, particularly in studying structure of plains. The structural map established is a very useful document in the planning of natural resources investigations (i.e. water, mines) to be undertaken in the area of study. To cite this article: D. Khattach et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  2. Do Abnormal Serum Lipid Levels Increase the Risk of Chronic Low Back Pain? The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Heuch, Ingrid; Heuch, Ivar; Hagen, Knut; Zwart, John-Anker

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies suggest associations between abnormal lipid levels and prevalence of low back pain (LBP), but it is not known if there is any causal relationship. Objective The objective was to determine, in a population-based prospective cohort study, whether there is any relation between levels of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides and the probability of experiencing subsequent chronic (LBP), both among individuals with and without LBP at baseline. Methods Information was collected in the community-based HUNT 2 (1995–1997) and HUNT 3 (2006–2008) surveys of an entire Norwegian county. Participants were 10,151 women and 8731 men aged 30–69 years, not affected by chronic LBP at baseline, and 3902 women and 2666 men with LBP at baseline. Eleven years later the participants indicated whether they currently suffered from chronic LBP. Results Among women without LBP at baseline, HDL cholesterol levels were inversely associated and triglyceride levels positively associated with the risk of chronic LBP at end of follow-up in analyses adjusted for age only. Adjustment for the baseline factors education, work status, physical activity, smoking, blood pressure and in particular BMI largely removed these associations (RR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.85–1.07 per mmol/l of HDL cholesterol; RR: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.94–1.42 per unit of lg(triglycerides)). Total cholesterol levels showed no associations. In women with LBP at baseline and men without LBP at baseline weaker relationships were observed. In men with LBP at baseline, an inverse association with HDL cholesterol remained after complete adjustment (RR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.72–0.95 per mmol/l). Conclusion Crude associations between lipid levels and risk of subsequent LBP in individuals without current LBP are mainly caused by confounding with body mass. However, an association with low HDL levels may still remain in men who are already affected and possibly experience a higher pain intensity. PMID:25233233

  3. Un très ancien ptérosaure ptérodactyloïde de l'Oxfordien de Normandie (Nord-Ouest de la France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffetaut, Eric; Guibert, Jean-Pierre

    2001-10-01

    A long and slender wing metacarpal from the Late Oxfordian Sables de Glos of Cordebugle (Calvados, Normandy) clearly belongs to a pterodactyloid pterosaur, with an estimated wingspan of at least 2.30 m. This is currently one of the earliest records of a representative of the Pterodactyloidea.

  4. New archaeorthopteran insects from the Late Carboniferous of the Nord and Pas-de-Calais basins in northern France (Insecta: Cnemidolestodea, Panorthoptera).

    PubMed

    Coty, David; Háva, Jiří; Prokop, Jakub; Roques, Patrick; Nel, André

    2014-01-01

    New polyneopteran insects are described from Pennsylvanian (Bashkirian, Moscovian) compressed fossils from the North of France (Insecta: Archaeorthoptera). Discovery of wing apex with distinct venation, e.g., apical fusion of RA with RP, numerous parallel posterior branches of RP with transversal crossveins, can be assigned to cf. Tococladus sp. (Cnemidolestodea: Tococladidae). It represents the second record of Cnemidolestodea from the Avion locality apart from Aviocladus pectinatus Prokop et al., 2014. Bruaylogus magnificus gen. et sp. nov., based on forewing venation, is attributed to Panorthoptera nec Orthoptera having some distinct characters for the placement either close to Oedischiidae or a more basal position possibly with affinities to genus Heterologus. Aviologus duquesnei gen. et sp. nov., based on forewing venation, differs from Oedischiidae by the presence of basal fork of M far from point of separation between M and Cu and fusion of MA with first posterior branch of RP. Aviologus share a long stem of M and simple CuPaβ with Heterologus duyiwuer and H. langfordorum, but both differ in well separated median and radial veins. These new fossils demonstrate that the archaeorthopterid insect fauna from the North of France was rather diverse with links to late Carboniferous and early Permian assemblages in Euramerica such as the Mazon Creek, Carbondale Formation or Elmo, Wellington Formation (Illinois, Kansas, USA) entomofaunas.

  5. Transient heat flow due to tectonic processes in the deep geothermal regime between the Nord Eifel-Venn Massif, Brabant Massif and adjacent Graben (Central Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkshoorn, L.; Clauser, C.

    2005-12-01

    A 3D model for flow and heat transport is build, based on vitrinite reflectance measurements, fission track data, geophysical logging as well as core data from deep boreholes, geological maps and, balanced profiles. The model will be used to study the regional heat flow: key parameter for energy and cost efficiency of geothermal energy use of a deep borehole heat exchanger. The model is 40 by 40 square km with a depth of 5 km. It includes parts of Germany, Belgium and The Netherlands. The importance of the different tectonic processes for the thermal regime is demonstrated: extension, erosion & sedimentation, heat production, water flow (forced and free convection) and deep magmatic processes (Eifel Plume). These processes are investigated with respect to their thermal response time and there influence on present heat flow. Where appropriated, Greens response functions where used to study these processes. The tectonic events manifested in the studied area gives a heat flow diversity of 20 mW/m2. The hanging walls of the fault systems have an increased heat flow due to uplift, erosion and the large river valley, while the foot walls have a decreased heat flow due to down warp and sedimentation. These results in horizontal heat flow at the normal faults or the over thrust faults. The diversity is more pronounced for transient conduction. Long period temperature changes at to top or bottom of the model caused by deep plume or climatic changes at the surface yield a faster and deeper response in the hanging wall than in foot wall. These responses are caused by the higher thermal diffusivities of the older geologic rocks in the hanging wall.

  6. Ongoing Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus after 25 Years of Annual Ivermectin Mass Treatments in the Vina du Nord River Valley, in North Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Eisenbarth, Albert; Achukwi, Mbunkah Daniel; Renz, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent reports of transmission interruption of Onchocerca volvulus, the causing agent of river blindness, in former endemic foci in the Americas, and more recently in West and East Africa, raise the question whether elimination of this debilitating disease is underway after long-term treatment of the population at risk with ivermectin. The situation in Central Africa has not yet been clearly assessed. Methods and findings Entomologic data from two former endemic river basins in North Cameroon were generated over a period of 43 and 48 months to follow-up transmission levels in areas under prolonged ivermectin control. Moreover, epidemiologic parameters of animal-borne Onchocerca spp. transmitted by the same local black fly vectors of the Simulium damnosum complex were recorded and their impact on O. volvulus transmission success evaluated. With mitochondrial DNA markers we unambiguously confirmed the presence of infective O. volvulus larvae in vectors from the Sudan savannah region (mean Annual Transmission Potential 2009–2012: 98, range 47–221), but not from the Adamawa highland region. Transmission rates of O. ochengi, a parasite of Zebu cattle, were high in both foci. Conclusions/significance The high cattle livestock density in conjunction with the high transmission rates of the bovine filaria O. ochengi prevents the transmission of O. volvulus on the Adamawa plateau, whereas transmission in a former hyperendemic focus was markedly reduced, but not completely interrupted after 25 years of ivermectin control. This study may be helpful to gauge the impact of the presence of animal-filariae for O. volvulus transmission in terms of the growing human and livestock populations in sub-Saharan countries. PMID:26926855

  7. Kartenerstellung mit Geostatistik und Fuzzy-Geostatistik. Ein Methodenvergleich am Beispiel der Verteilung der Sulfatkonzentrationen im oberflächennahen Grundwasserleiter in Bremen Nord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azouzi, Blel; Schröter, Jürgen

    2012-12-01

    In order to visualize sulfate contents distributions in near surface groundwater north of Bremen, maps were regionalized by Ordinary Kriging, Fuzzy Kriging and the Natural Neighbor method and compared with a conventionally provided distribution map. The computations were made with uniform parameters and a uniform raster grid. The original data sets contained fuzzy data of sulfate concentrations like "<40 mg/l", which were used in different variants for the interpolation. The regionalization of the sulfate concentrations by Ordinary Kriging shows—depending on the conversion of these values—strongly smoothed results, particularly within the range of locally arising concentration maxima in the southern investigation area. In comparison, the maps by Fuzzy Kriging and the Natural Neighbor method identified high concentration gradients much better. The Fuzzy Kriging approach links the quality of a geostatistical method with the possibility of dealing with imprecise data, and is therefore preferred in comparison to the other methods.

  8. Problemi di comunicazione interculturale tra Italiani e parlanti di italiano in Nord America (Intercultural Communication Problems Between Italians and Speakers of Italian in North America).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balboni, Paolo E.

    2001-01-01

    Examines intercultural communication between Italians and speakers of Italian in North America. Argues intercultural communicative competence comprises three elements: deep cultural values or "mental software"; non-verbal means of communication; and language. Offers advice to teachers of Italian who want to help their students develop…

  9. The flight of Arcadia: spatial CO2/SO2 variations in a cross section above the Nord East crater of Etna volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuffrida, Giovanni; Calabrese, Sergio; Bobrowski, Nicole; Finkenzeller, Henning; Pecoraino, Giovannella; Scaglione, Sarah

    2015-04-01

    The CO2/SO2 ratio in volcanic plumes of open conduit volcanoes can provide useful information about the magma depth inside a conduit and the possible occurrence of an eruptive event. Moreover, the same CO2 measurement when combined with a SO2 flux measurement, commonly carried out at many volcanoes nowadays, is used to contribute to an improved estimate of global volcanic CO2 budget. Today worldwide at 13 volcanoes automated in-situ instruments (known as Multi-GAS stations) are applied to continuously determine CO2/SO2 ratios and to use this signal as additional parameter for volcanic monitoring. Usually these instruments carry out measurements of half an hour 4 - 6 times/day and thus provide continuous CO2/SO2 values and their variability. The stations are located at crater rims in a position that according to the prevailing winds is invested by the plume. Obviously, although the stations are carefully positioned, it is inevitable that other sources than the plume itself, e.g. soil degassing and surrounding fumaroles, contribute and will be measured as well, covering the 'real' values. Between July and September 2014 experiments were carried out on the North East crater (NEC) of Mount Etna, installing a self-made cable car that crossed the crater from one side to the other. The basket, called "Arcadia", was equipped with an automated standard Multi-GAS station and a GPS, which acquired at high frequency (0.5 Hz) the following parameters : CO2, SO2, H2S, Rh, T, P and geo-coordinates. The choice of NEC of the volcano Etna was based on its accessibility, the relative small diameter (about 230 m) and the presence of a relatively constant and rather concentrated plume. Actually, NEC belongs also to the monitoring network EtnaPlume (managed by the INGV of Palermo). The aim of these experiments was to observe variations of each parameter, in particular the fluctuation of the CO2/SO2 ratio within the plume, moving from the edge to the center of the crater. The gained results give a first possibility to understand if common measurements carried out at the edge of a crater are subject to over- or underestimation and about the order of derivations caused by other sources than the plume. A preliminary analysis results in a lower CO2/SO2 ratio in the central part of the crater versus the more peripheral one. The deviation between the average CO2/SO2 ratio and the center of the plume ranges from a minimum of 58% up to a maximum of 74%. An increased CO2/SO2 emission could be caused by the influence of soil and/or fumarolic degassing at the crater rim. This interpretation leads us to the conclusion that measurements by fixed installed stations might overestimate the CO2/SO2 ratio compared to values originating from the "pure" plume. Further on, it means that variations of up to 74 % (in our experiment) don't necessarily correlate with volcanic activity changes.

  10. Evaluation of the recovery annealing of the reactor pressure vessel of NPP Nord (Greifswald) Units 1 and 2 by means of subsize impact specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlstrand, R.; Klausnitzer, E.N.; Leitz, C.; Lange, D.; Pastor, D.; Valo, M.

    1993-12-01

    In 1988 and 1990, the reactor pressure vessels of Units 1 and 2, respectively, of the Greifswald nuclear power station were subjected to heat treatment at 475 C for annealing of irradiation effects. To demonstrate the effect of annealing and to evaluate a new postannealing transition temperature of vessel base metal and weld metal, boat samples were removed by means of electric discharge machining (EDM) from the (unclad) inner surface of the vessel. From these samples, micronotched bar impact test specimens were fabricated and tested at different temperature. Transition curves were evaluated from the results. By means of correlation tests, the transition temperatures evaluated from the micro-specimen tests are converted to standard Charpy-5 transition temperatures. Results are available for the weld metal of Unit 1 after annealing. The transition temperature T{sub k} is lower than the value calculated by the designer of the plant. Specimens removed from Unit 2 before and after annealing are in preparation.

  11. Weight-of-evidence environmental risk assessment of dumped chemical weapons after WWII along the Nord-Stream gas pipeline in the Bornholm Deep.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik; Thomsen, Marianne; Larsen, Jørn Bo

    2012-05-15

    In connection with installation of two natural gas pipelines through the Baltic Sea between Russia and Germany, there has been concern regarding potential re-suspension of historically dumped chemical warfare agents (CWA) in a nearby dump site and the potential environmental risks associated. 192 sediment and 11 porewater samples were analyzed for CWA residues, both parent and metabolites in 2008 and 2010 along the pipeline corridor next to the dump site. Macrozoobenthos and background variables were also collected and compared to the observed CWA levels and predicted potential risks. Detection frequencies and levels of intact CWA found were low, whereas CWA metabolites were more frequently found. Re-suspension of CWA residue-containing sediment from installation of the pipelines contributes marginally to the overall background CWA residue exposure and risk along the pipeline route. The multivariate weight-of-evidence analysis showed that physical and background parameters of the sediment were of higher importance for the biota than observed CWA levels. PMID:22440539

  12. Identification d'indicateurs de risque des populations victimes de conflits par imagerie satellitaire. Etude de cas: Le nord de l'Irak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubareka, Sarah Betoul

    Remote sensing and security, terms which are not usually associated, have found a common platform this decade with the conjuring of the GMOSS network (Global Monitoring for Security and Stability), whose mandate is to discover new applications for satellite-derived imagery to security issues. This study focuses on human security, concentrating on the characterisation of vulnerable areas to conflict. A time-series of satellite imagery taken from Landsat sensors from 1987 to 2001 and the SRTM mission imagery are used for this purpose over a site in northern Iraq. Human security issues include the exposure to any type of hazard. The region of study is first characterised in order to understand which hazards are and were present in the past for the region of study. The principal hazard for the region of study is armed conflict and the relative field data was analysed to determine the links between geographical indicators and vulnerable areas. This is done through historical research and the study of open-sourced information about disease outbreaks; the movements of refugees and the internally displaced; and humanitarian aid and security issues. These open sources offer information which are not always consistent, objective, or normalized and are therefore difficult to quantify. A method for the rapid mapping and graphing and subsequent analysis of the situation in a region where limited information is available is developed. This information is coupled with population numbers to create a "risk map": A disaggregated matrix of areas most at risk during conflict situations. The results show that describing the risk factor for a population to the hazard conflict depends on three complex indicators: Population density, remoteness and economic diversity. Each of these complex indicators is then derived from Landsat and SRTM imagery and a satellite-driven model is formulated. This model based on satellite imagery is applied to the study site for a temporal study. The output are three 90 m x 90 m resolution grids which describe, at a pixel level, the risk level within the region for each of the dates studies, and the changes which occur in northern Iraq as the result of the Anfal Campaigns. Results show that satellite imagery, with a minimum of processing, can yield indicators for characterising risk in a region. Although by no means a replacement for field data, this technological source, in the absence of local knowledge, can provide users with a starting point in understanding which areas are most at risk within a region. If this data is coupled with open sourced information such as political and cultural discrimination, economy and agricultural practices, a fairly accurate risk map can be generated in the absence of field data. Keywords. SRTM, Landsat, risk indicators, Iraq, conflict, population vulnerability, segmentation, land-use, fuzzy-classification, atmospheric corrections.

  13. Cadmium contamination of three bivalve species (oysters, cockles and clams) in Nord Médoc salt marshes (Gironde estuary, France): Geochemical survey and metal bioaccumulation kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudrimont, M.; Schäfer, J.; Marie, V.; Maury-Brachet, R.; Bossy, C.; Durrieu, G.; Palvadeau, A.; Maneux, E.; Boudou, A.; Blanc, G.

    2003-05-01

    A historical Cd pollution of the Lot-Garonne River system (France) bas led to the contamination of sediment and water of the Gironde Estuary. In spite of the decrease of fluvial Cd inputs since the early 90ies, Cd concentrations in the Gironde oysters remain higher than European norms (5 μg.g^{-1} dry mass) and the “zone D” classification of the estuary prohibits bivalve production and harvesting for human consumption. A geochemical survey in salt marshes used for aquaculture (crustaceans) has been conducted in order to assess the heavy métal contamination level in these systems periodically alimented by the Gironde water, accompanied by caging experiments on three bivalve species of economical interest: oysters (Crassostrea gigas), cockles (Cerastoderma edule) and clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) to study heavy metal accumulation in these organisms. Distribution of heavy metals in this system is controlled by biogeochemical processes and is independent of routine water management. Contamination levels in the studied species indicate the high accumulation of Cd by oysters. On the other hand, Cd concentrations in benthic species, such as cockles and clams, are clearly lower than European safety limits for human consumption.

  14. Proceedings of the International Academy for Information Management (IAIM) Annual Conference: International Conference on Informatics Education Research (ICIER) (17th, Barcelona, Spain, December 13-15, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Academy for Information Management.

    The International Conference on Informatics Education Research (ICIER 2002) sponsored by the International Academy for Information Management (IAIM) provides a forum in which educators, researchers and practitioners in information systems can exchange ideas, techniques, and applications of pedagogy and can react to issues with significant…

  15. The message from the World Asthma Meeting. The Working Groups of the World Asthma Meeting, held in Barcelona, Spain, December 9-13, 1998.

    PubMed

    Sterk, P J; Buist, S A; Woolcock, A J; Marks, G B; Platts-Mills, T A; von Mutius, E; Bousquet, J; Frew, A J; Pauwels, R A; Aït-Khaled, N; Hill, S L; Partridge, M R

    1999-12-01

    The 1998 World Asthma Meeting (WAM) has been the first multidisciplinary event aimed to consider asthma as a global public health problem in children and adults. The purpose of the meeting was to present state-of-the-art scientific information and to make recommendations on the research agenda for the coming years. Five Working Groups of invited experts were appointed to pin-point the established knowledge and the important questions in the areas of epidemiology, prevention, pathogenesis, management, and education. Their reports were discussed during the final plenary session, and are forming the current proceedings of the meeting. The message of the World Asthma Meeting provides a research agenda supported by the major international bodies involved in this disease. An integrated approach is considered to be essential in order to improve the prevention and care of asthma in all countries of the world.

  16. A multidisciplinary approach to reconstructing the chronology and environment of southwestern European Neanderthals: the contribution of Teixoneres cave (Moià, Barcelona, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-García, Juan Manuel; Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Burjachs, Francesc; Ballesteros, Anna; Allué, Ethel; Cuevas-Ruiz, Gloria Ericka; Rivals, Florent; Blasco, Ruth; Morales, Juan Ignacio; Hidalgo, Antonio Rodríguez; Carbonell, Eudald; Serrat, David; Rosell, Jordi

    2012-06-01

    According to pollen analysis and the 18O-isotope curve, the first part of the Late Pleistocene (ca 128-30 ka) is mainly characterized by a dynamic that alternates cold phases (Heinrich Events) and temperate phases (interstadials). These rapid fluctuations provide the context for the Neanderthal occupations in the northeastern part of the Iberian Peninsula. In this paper we present the chronological, environmental and climatic data obtained by analyzing the pollen, the charcoal, the small vertebrates (amphibians, squamates and small mammals) and the large-mammal dental wear at the Neanderthal site of Teixoneres cave, Northeastern Iberia. Levels II and III from this cavity have provided Mousterian industries and other evidence of Neanderthal occupations, such as cut-marks in large-mammal bones. A multiproxy study such as this constitutes a new approach to the chronological, environmental and climatic context in which Neanderthal populations lived in southwestern Europe (Iberian Peninsula). The results allow us to establish a relative chronology for these two levels of between ca 30-90 ka and show that they are associated with different environmental and climatic conditions: temperate and humid for Level III and cold and dry for Level II. This demonstrates that the Neanderthals were well adapted to the territory that they occupied, irrespective of the climatic conditions.

  17. Cova del Rinoceront (Castelldefels, Barcelona): a terrestrial record for the Last Interglacial period (MIS 5) in the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daura, J.; Sanz, M.; Julià, R.; García-Fernández, D.; Fornós, J. J.; Vaquero, M.; Allué, E.; López-García, J. M.; Blain, H. A.; Ortiz, J. E.; Torres, T.; Albert, R. M.; Rodríguez-Cintas, À.; Sánchez-Marco, A.; Cerdeño, E.; Skinner, A. R.; Asmeron, Y.; Polyak, V. J.; Garcés, M.; Arnold, L. J.; Demuro, M.; Pike, A. W. G.; Euba, I.; Rodríguez, R. F.; Yagüe, A. S.; Villaescusa, L.; Gómez, S.; Rubio, A.; Pedro, M.; Fullola, J. M.; Zilhão, J.

    2015-04-01

    The Cova del Rinoceront, a site in NE Iberia, contains a thick sedimentary fill preserving a faunal archive from the penultimate glacial and the the last interglacial periods. Layers I to III have been dated to between 74 and 147 ka, coinciding with MIS 5a to 5e, a period poorly represented in the Mediterranean terrestrial record. The results from Cova del Rinoceront are of broader interest for the reconstruction of ecological dynamics during warm stages and the understanding of the evolution and geographical variation of several taxa. The palaeoecological evidence suggests a landscape dominated by mixed wooded vegetation with mild climatic conditions, slightly more humid than today. Several vertebrate taxa, including Haploidoceros mediterraneus, Stephanorhinus hundsheimensis and Glis glis, are documented for the first time in the early Upper Pleistocene of Europe, showing that these species persisted across the region for longer than previously thought. In addition, the recovery of a small lithic assemblage indicates human presence in the surroundings of the site. The 11 m-thick stratigraphic section also provides an ideal setting in which to compare several geochronological methods. U-Th dating of the flowstones that cap the deposit, of speleothems formed along the cave walls, and of speleothems buried by the deposit at different elevations provides minimum and maximum ages of 74 and 175 ka, respectively, for the accumulation. The ages obtained by luminescence, electron spin resonance (ESR), amino acid racemisation (AAR), palaeomagnetism and U-series dating of bone are in good agreement with each other and are stratigraphically consistent. This well-dated faunal succession presents a unique opportunity to assess changes in the Pleistocene fauna of the Mediterranean coast over an interval of more than 100 ka.

  18. Evolution and genetic diversity of the Spain23F-ST81 clone causing adult invasive pneumococcal disease in Barcelona (1990–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Domenech, A.; Ardanuy, C.; Grau, I.; Calatayud, L.; Pallares, R.; Fenoll, A.; Brueggemann, A. B.; Liñares, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to analyse the clinical epidemiology and genetic diversity of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) episodes attributed to the Spain23F-ST81 (PMEN1) clone. Methods Fifty-eight (2.7%) of 2117 invasive pneumococci isolated from adult patients during the 1990–2012 period shared a PFGE pattern related to the PMEN1 clone. The genotype was confirmed by multilocus sequence typing. The pbp2x, pbp1a, pbp2b and pspA genes were PCR-amplified and sequenced. Polymorphisms in the pspC gene were identified by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism. The presence of transposons with erythromycin and tetracycline resistance determinants was detected by PCR. Results The prevalence of the PMEN1 clone increased from 0.8% in 1991 to 6.2% in 2001, and decreased to 0% in 2010–12, concomitant with the introduction of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for children. A total of 93.1% of patients had pneumonia, meningitis or peritonitis; 87.9% of patients had associated underlying diseases, mainly cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and diabetes. Two closely related sequence types (STs) (ST81, n = 52; ST85, n = 6) were detected, with different serotypes: 23F (n = 42), 19A (n = 9) and 19F (n = 6). All the isolates were resistant to penicillin, co-trimoxazole and chloramphenicol. All the isolates also shared the same pbp1a allele, whereas multiple alleles of pbp2b, pbp2x, pspA and pspC were detected. Of the isolates, 89.7% were tetracycline resistant and 60.3% (n = 35) were macrolide resistant, and resistance was associated with different Tn916-like transposons. Conclusions Adult IPD caused by this clone was mainly detected in patients with underlying conditions, and genetic variability was observed among PMEN1 isolates collected in our area over the past 20 years. PMID:24324223

  19. From challenges to solutions. European Bioanalysis Forum 3rd Annual Open Symposium, Hesperia Towers, Barcelona, Spain, 1-3 December 2010.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Richard W; Gordon, Ben; van Amsterdam, Peter; Lausecker, Berthold; Brudny-Kloeppel, Margarete; Smeraglia, John; Romero, Fernando; Globig, Susanne; Golob, Michaela; Knutsson, Magnus; Herling, Christian; Vieser, Eva; Timmerman, Philip

    2011-04-01

    The European Bioanalysis Forum is a bioanalytical nonprofit organization comprised of European pharmaceutical companies (27 members to date) and currently expanding to include CROs as well. The European Bioanalysis Forum provides a broad European bioanalytical network for the discussion of scientific, technological and regulatory topics of bioanalytical interest. The 3rd Annual Open Symposium was again much anticipated after the two previous successful meetings. The symposium included sessions on thinking outside the 'commodity' box, bioanalytical challenges with blood, global harmonization, assay platforms, dried blood spots, immunogenicity, matrix effects, anomalous results, biomarkers and two plenary technology sessions hosted by the Platinum sponsors. Experts and key opinion leaders were invited as guest speakers. A total of 424 delegates registered from 113 companies representing a large percentage of the European bioanalytical community. In addition to 48 oral presentations, 88 posters were presented and there was a vendor exposition of 40 companies.

  20. Analysis and occurrence of pharmaceuticals, estrogens, progestogens and polar pesticides in sewage treatment plant effluents, river water and drinking water in the Llobregat river basin (Barcelona, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuster, Marina; López de Alda, Maria José; Hernando, Maria Dolores; Petrovic, Mira; Martín-Alonso, Jordi; Barceló, Damià

    2008-08-01

    SummaryThis work investigated the presence of 21 emerging contaminants of various chemical groups (7 estrogens, 3 progestogens, 6 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and 5 acidic pesticides) in the Llobregat river basin (NE Spain). Waters from the outlet of various sewage treatment plants (STP) and waterworks located along the river basin, as well as water samples from the river or its tributaries upstream and downstream of these plants were analysed in two pilot monitoring studies. Chemical analyses were performed by means of on-line or off-line solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry. Methods detection limits (in ng/L) were ⩽0.85 for estrogens, ⩽3.94 for progestogens, ⩽30 for PPCPs, and ⩽0.99 for pesticides. Of the estrogens and progestogens analysed, only estrone-3-sulfate, estrone, estriol and progesterone were found to be present in the low nanogram per liter range in some of the samples investigated. Except for atenolol, all PPCPs studied (ibuprofen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, salicylic acid, and triclosan) could be identified at levels usually lower than 250 ng/L and up to 1200 ng/l (diclofenac). Of the various pesticides investigated (2,4-D, bentazone; MCPA, mecoprop and propanil) MCPA and 2,4-D were the most ubiquitous and abundant and bentazone the only one not detected. Individual concentrations were most often below 100 ng/L and never surpassed the EU limits.

  1. Assessment of groundwater contamination caused by uncontrolled dumping in old gravel quarries in the Besòs aquifers (Barcelona, Spain).

    PubMed

    Navarro, Andrés; Carbonell, Montserrat

    2008-06-01

    The contamination of groundwater in the aquifer of the La Llagosta basin (Besòs river basin) due to waste disposal in quarries formerly used for the extraction of dry raw materials has led to the cessation of groundwater extraction for public water supply. The mobilization of pollutants was largely caused by fluctuations in piezometric levels, which led to the washing of buried waste. The hydrogeochemical processes associated with uncontrolled waste disposal in these landfilled areas of the La Llagosta basin aquifer were studied along a flow path that crosses the contaminated area. The PHREEQC code was used to establish the reactions associated with the different mineral phases through inverse modeling. This transport code, ionic exchange phenomena, surface reactions and balance (mineral phase) reactions were used to simulate the dilution phenomenon associated with the pollution after the potential removal of the sources of contamination. One-dimensional advective-dispersive modeling indicates a substantial reduction in Ca, Mg, Na and SO2(4-) within one year and stabilization within four years.

  2. Identification of 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl) as the compound causing odor events at trace levels in the Llobregat River and Barcelona's treated water (Spain).

    PubMed

    Díaz, Alfredo; Ventura, Francesc; Galceran, Maria Teresa

    2004-04-23

    A study of organic compounds imparting sweet and buttery odor problems in the Llobregat River (northeast Spain) and in treated water was conducted. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME), gas chromatography-olfactometry, and flavor profile analysis (FPA) were used as analytical methodologies to identify the compound responsible for odor incidents. 2,3-Butanedione (diacetyl) with a concentration range of 0.90-26 microg/l in river water samples entering the water treatment plant was identified as the compound causing the odor events. Flavor profile analysis establishes 0.05 microg/l as its odor threshold concentration (OTC) in water, with an odor recognition concentration of 0.20 microg/l. The analyses were carried out with SPME-GC-MS and parameters affecting SPME extraction such as selection of the fiber (carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane), extraction time (30 min), temperature (60 degrees C), and ionic strength were evaluated. Quality parameters of the optimized method gives good linearity (r2 > 0.999), a limit of detection (0.08 microg/l) similar to the OTC of the compound, and good reproducibility (R.S.D. < 20%). The SPME method was applied to identify the compound causing the odor. PMID:15116928

  3. Partitioning of magnetic particles in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 aerosols in the urban atmosphere of Barcelona (Spain).

    PubMed

    Revuelta, María Aránzazu; McIntosh, Gregg; Pey, Jorge; Pérez, Noemi; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés

    2014-05-01

    A combined magnetic-chemical study of 15 daily, simultaneous PM10-PM2.5-PM1 urban background aerosol samples has been carried out. The magnetic properties are dominated by non-stoichiometric magnetite, with highest concentrations seen in PM10. Low temperature magnetic analyses showed that the superparamagnetic fraction is more abundant when coarse, multidomain particles are present, confirming that they may occur as an oxidized outer shell around coarser grains. A strong association of the magnetic parameters with a vehicular PM10 source has been identified. Strong correlations found with Cu and Sb suggests that this association is related to brake abrasion emissions rather than exhaust emissions. For PM1 the magnetic remanence parameters are more strongly associated with crustal sources. Two crustal sources are identified in PM1, one of which is of North African origin. The magnetic particles are related to this source and so may be used to distinguish North African dust from other sources in PM1.

  4. Economic and Racial Segregation in Greater Miami's Elementary Schools: Trends Shaping Metropolitan Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Myron; Discher, Anne; Luce, Tom

    This report highlights the social changes underway in Miami-area schools, discussing their implications for metropolitan growth policies. It focuses on changes in the racial and economic composition of elementary schools between 1993-2002. Data come from the Common Core of Data of the National Center for Education Statistics. Results indicate that…

  5. Motivation for Healthy Behavior: A Review of Health Promotion Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunsmore, Sarah; Goodson, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Authors reviewed the theoretical history of the "motivation" construct, and its utilization within past/current health behavior research. Textbooks and review articles functioned as sources for the theoretical history review. Research published within a 10-year period (1993-2002) in four health promotion journals (all with impact factors greater…

  6. Modelling Patterns of Improvement over Time: Value Added Trends in English Secondary School Performance across Ten Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sally; Peng, Wen Jung; Gray, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper looks at underlying patterns of school effectiveness through analysing a GCSE examination data-set over a period of ten cohorts (1993-2002) in one very large English school district. Both value added and raw score approaches were explored by employing different statistical multilevel models to examine time trends of school and pupil…

  7. PATTERNS OF MERCURY DEPOSITION AND CONCENTRATION IN NORTHEASTERN NORTH AMERICA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from 13 NADP/MDN monitoring sites (1996 -- 2002) and the Underhill (VT) event-based monitoring site (1993 -- 2002) were evaluated for spatial and temporal trends. Recent regional reductions of mercury emissions were not reflected in the mercury concentration or deposition d...

  8. Analysis of Contents, Contributors, and Research Directions: Mapping Publication Routes in the Journal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Leona; D'souza, Mario; Chartrand, Leon

    2005-01-01

    A content analysis of the journal Religious Education: An Interfaith Journal of Spirituality, Growth and Transformation was conducted for a 10-year period between 1993?2002 (Volume 88, 1?Volume 97, 4). A total of 325 articles (277 authors) were analyzed into 3 primary research directions (theoretical, qualitative, and quantitative). Author…

  9. Exposure of health workers in primary health care to glutaraldehyde

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In order to avoid proliferation of microorganisms, cleaning, disinfection and sterilisation in health centres is of utmost importance hence reducing exposure of workers to biological agents and of clients that attend these health centres to potential infections. One of the most commonly-used chemical is glutaraldehyde. The effects of its exposure are well known in the hospital setting; however there is very little information available with regards to the primary health care domain. Objective To determine and measure the exposure of health workers in Primary Health Care Centres. Environmental to glutaraldehyde and staff concentration will be measured and compared with regulated Occupational Exposure Limits. Methods/Design Observational, cross-sectional and multi-centre study. The study population will be composed of any health professionals in contact with the chemical substance that work in the Primary Health Care Centres in the areas of Barcelonès Nord, Maresme, and Barcelona city belonging to the Catalan Institute of Health. Data will be collected from 1) Glutaraldhyde consumption from the previous 4 years in the health centres under study. 2) Semi-structured interviews and key informants to gather information related to glutaraldehyde exposure. 3) Sampling of the substance in the processes considered to be high exposure. Discussion Although glutaraldehyde is extensively used in health centres, scientific literature only deals with certain occupational hazards in the hospital setting. This study attempts to take an in-depth look into the risk factors and environmental conditions that exist in the primary care workplace with exposure to glutaraldehyde. PMID:24180250

  10. Étude magnétostratigraphique préliminaire sur l'âge du bassin de Rudgai-Sibi (Nord-Est du Balouchistan, Pakistan) et ses implications tectoniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Khadim H.; Chen, Yan; Courme, Marie-Denise; Kassi, Akhtar

    1997-07-01

    A first magnetostratigraphic study was carried out in Neogene fluvial formations of the Rudgai (Sibi) basin in the Sulaiman Fold Belt. In order to date these units more precisely and to understand the tectonic implications for the formation of this basin, a total of 59 samples were analysed in the laboratory. The results show that a unique correlation is possible between the observed magnetic polarity stratigraphy and the magnetic polarity stratigraphy scale. This allows us to place the sequence between 16.5 and 14.8 Ma and to show that the molassic sediments are well diachronic between the Rudgai (Sibi) basin (16.5 Ma) the basins of the Potwar Plateau (10.1 Ma).

  11. Le mosasauridé basal Halisaurus sternbergii du Crétacé supérieur du Kansas (Amérique du Nord): une révision du spécimen type d'Uppsala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardet, Nathalie; Pereda Suberbiola, Xabier

    2001-03-01

    The type specimen of Clidastes sternbergii Wiman, 1920, a basal mosasaurid from the Santonian of Kansas (USA), is reviewed. Its attribution to Halisaurus is confirmed. H. sternbergii is mainly defined on the basis of cranial characters: frontal with a smooth dorsal surface bearing a prominent median ridge; parietal with a triangular table extending far posteriorly and bearing a medium sized circular foramen, which is located at a distance equal to twice its diameter from the frontal-parietal suture. The vertebral column and appendicular skeleton retain many plesiomorphies. H. sternbergii is the oldest species of the genus, also known in the Maastrichtian.

  12. Géométrie et cinématique des chevauchements varisques du Nord-Est du Massif armoricain (France)Geometry and kinematics of Variscan thrusts in the northeastern Armorican Massif (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butaeye, Damien; Laville, Edgard; Le Gall, Jean

    2001-02-01

    Variscan structures of the northeastern Armorican massif consist of folds induced by south-verging thrust faults. This thin-skinned process is controlled by a major décollement that would be expected at the base of the Brioverian flysch. So, the northeastern Armorican domain can be integrated to the tectonic model admitted at the Variscan Orogenesis scale.

  13. Evolution of amphibolite-facies structural features and boundary conditions for deformation during exhumation of high- and ultrahigh-pressure rocks, Nordøyane, Western Gneiss Region, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, Michael P.; Robinson, Peter

    2003-08-01

    Geologic mapping and structural analysis of Baltica basement and overlying thrust nappes have yielded a record of the late exhumation history of high-pressure rocks, where strain partitioning has preserved evidence for interpreting the evolution of late structural features. The earliest of these were extensional detachments juxtaposing eclogite-facies rocks against overlying amphibolite-facies rocks that show no evidence for eclogite-facies metamorphism. These early detachments are strongly overprinted and complexly folded, and they represent a phase of upper crustal extension that was active during continued convergence at deeper levels. Younger more localized mylonite zones formed synchronously with tubular, sheath, isoclinal, tight and open folding that shows a progression from WNW to ENE trends. The earliest mylonite zones, interpreted as originally subhorizontal, range in strike through a 20° angle from 110° to 90°. Later steeply dipping mylonite zones, formed under lower amphibolite-facies conditions, strike 75° and locally truncate earlier structures. The youngest mylonite zones, formed under lowest amphibolite conditions, strike 50° and truncate all earlier structures. Folds developed during this progression show the range in orientation from WNW to ENE reflected in the orientations of the mylonite zones that is interpreted to represent progressive evolution during top west shearing. These changes in orientation of the late structural features are interpreted to have been caused by changes in boundary conditions related to transtensional deformation during exhumation. L > S fabrics, absence of axial planar foliation, and chaotic orientations of axial surfaces of granulite to amphibolite-facies folds indicate formation in a constrictional strain field. This is also supported by estimates of the finite strain accumulated at ˜780°C and 45 km and similar observations by previous workers. Assuming a simple monoclinic deformation for transtension, strain estimates and structural measurements indicate apparent transtensional angles of 9-11° that increased to greater than 20° and then decreased to less than 20°. These changes in transtensional angle agree with changes in the orientation of the X-Y plane of strain during exhumation from 45 km to less than ˜20 km depth and appear to reflect changes in the boundary conditions of deformation. This upper crustal transtension is interpreted to have occurred during continued sinistral oblique convergence and provides a mechanism for syncollisional exhumation of HP and UHP metamorphic rocks.

  14. Highlighting the Impacts of North-South Research Collaboration among Canadian and Southern Higher Education Partners (Principaux impacts des collaborations de recherche Nord-Sud entre les partenaires des etablissements d'enseignement superieur du Canada et du Sud)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC) felt it was timely to create an academic forum in which university researchers have the opportunity to engage with their peers and relevant stakeholders and document the impacts of their North-South research collaboration in a peer-reviewed publication. The Association achieved this by…

  15. La vulnerabilite de l'universite face aux politiques gouvernementales et la cooperation internationale nord-sud (The Vulnerability of the University in the Face of Governmental Politics and North-South International Cooperation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barot, Elisabeth

    1991-01-01

    Cooperation between universities in northern and southern hemispheres in the current economic and geopolitical climate is discussed. The relationship between Canadian universities and the government is chronicled, and mechanisms of international cooperation are analyzed. Certain ethical principles are proposed as a framework for Canadian…

  16. Profil étiologique des surdités neurosensorielle sévère et profonde de l'enfant dans la région du centre-nord du Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Ridal, Mohammed; Outtasi, Naouar; Taybi, Zainab; Boulouiz, Redouan; Chaouki, Sanae; Boubou, Meryem; Maaroufi, Mustapha; Benmansour, Najib; Zaki, Zouheir; Ouldim, Karim; Barakat, Hamid; Hida, Mustapha; Tizniti, Siham; El Alami, Mohamed Noreddine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le diagnostic d'une surdité profonde est possible dès les premiers jours de vie. Or, le développement du langage et l'intégration scolaire et professionnelle ne sont pas possible que si la surdité est prise en charge précocement. L’établissement d'un diagnostc étiologique a des implications pronostiques et thérapeutiques. Méthodes C'est une étude rétrospective allant de Juin 2009 au mois de Janvier 2012 ayant recensé 250 cas d'enfants porteurs d'une surdité sévère et profonde. Résultats La moyenne d’âge au moment de l'annonce du diagnostic est de 3.7 ans. Les étiologies prédominantes sont les surdités génétiques dans 35.6% suivies des surdités acquises dans 30.8% des cas. Dans 34.4% des cas aucune étiologie n'a pu être retrouvée. Conclusion Cette étude met en évidence la prédominance éventuelle de causes génétiques de la surdité neurosensorielle de l'enfant au Maroc, et souligne la nécessité d'améliorer les politiques de prévention des maladies infectieuses et de dépistage de la surdité néonatale. Cependant, des analyses moléculaires plus ciblées et la réalisation d'un scanner des rochers systématiques sont nécessaires pour évaluer plus précisément la contribution des étiologies génétiques. PMID:25018837

  17. Signification des ferruginisations des formations néoprotérozoïques du Nord-Burkina Faso (Afrique de l'Ouest)Meaning of ironstones in the sedimentary Neoproterozoic formations of the northern Burkina Faso (western Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blot, Alain

    2002-09-01

    There are many small ferruginous outcrops of different facies, often breccia-like, in the Neoproterozoic sedimentary formations in northern Burkina. These outcrops are made up of goethite and quartz, and are often along with high grades of various elements. It could be a question of gossans. Their large distribution in this part of the Taoudéni Basin offers it prospects as a province geochemically rich in Cu, Pb, Zn, Mo, As, Cd, Co... This basin would be a geochemical bin for ancient formations, which would have been evacuated before the Neoproterozoic. The ironstones would be the mark of further concentrations. To cite this article: A. Blot, C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 909-915.

  18. How Much Video Gaming Is Too Much for Kids?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the department of radiology at the Hospital del Mar in Barcelona. For the study, parents living in ... MRI research unit, department of radiology, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona; Julia Lippman, Ph.D., visiting scholar, Research ...

  19. Terrasses de la Riera dels Canyars (Gavà, Barcelona): the landscape of Heinrich Stadial 4 north of the "Ebro frontier" and implications for modern human dispersal into Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daura, J.; Sanz, M.; García, N.; Allué, E.; Vaquero, M.; Fierro, E.; Carrión, J. S.; López-García, J. M.; Blain, H. A.; Sánchez-Marco, A.; Valls, C.; Albert, R. M.; Fornós, J. J.; Julià, R.; Fullola, J. M.; Zilhão, J.

    2013-01-01

    Terrasses de la Riera dels Canyars is an Upper Pleistocene fluvial deposit containing the remains of large mammals, principally accumulated in the framework of hyena denning in the area, as well as a few artifacts. Radiocarbon-dated to ˜39.6 ka cal BP, the time of Heinrich Stadial (HS) 4, this site enables us to reconstruct the environmental conditions then prevalent in the NE of the Iberian Peninsula. The concentration in a single locus of finds generated by different agents relates to a flash-flood event, the rapidity of which, combined with the absence of archaeological, ecological or paleontological incongruities in the composition of the assemblage, warrants an assumption of broad contemporaneity for its contents. The ecofactual evidence (fauna, pollen, charcoal, phytoliths) indicates a steppe-dominated environment for the coastal areas between the Pyrenees and the Ebro delta; the dominant elements are cold- and dry-adapted species but a Mediterranean component is present, implying a less rigorous climate than farther north in Europe. The artifacts are clearly Upper Paleolithic, and assignment to the modern human-associated Aurignacian technocomplex is supported by the radiocarbon dates and the typology of a bilaterally retouched blade. This evidence is consistent with the notion that anatomical modernity spread across Europe over open landscape niches. Available pollen data from deep sea cores indicate that, during some of the interstadials of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3, a significant vegetation gradient existed at 40°N, broadly coincident with the "Ebro frontier:" temperate and warm temperate trees expanded significantly to the south, while steppe-tundra landscapes remained dominant to the north, a contrast best seen during Greenland Interstadial (GI) 8. Such an environmental boundary must have implied a durable barrier to diffusion and migration during interstadials. Under the cold and arid conditions of HS4, the site of Canyars shows that the Eurasian steppe-tundra extended as far south as the Llobregat delta; however, the environmental reconstructions available for the lower Ebro valley and adjacent mountains of the Iberian Range farther south suggest that they formed at this time a belt of semi-desert or steppe-desert landscapes, thus maintaining the boundary effect despite the climatic reversal. The persistence of such a boundary through HS4 and the interstadials that bracket it must have played a role in the delayed arrival of the Aurignacian (and modern humans) to southern and western Iberia, which continued to be settled by Middle Paleolithic Neanderthals well beyond 40 ka cal BP.

  20. Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility in Barcelona: penA, ponA, mtrR, and porB mutations and NG-MAST sequence types associated with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins.

    PubMed

    Serra-Pladevall, J; Barberá, M J; Rodriguez, S; Bartolomé-Comas, R; Roig, G; Juvé, R; Andreu, A

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) in our area, to analyze the molecular mechanisms involved in cephalosporins resistance, and to undertake molecular typing of our NG strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using the Etest. The genes penA, mtrR, penB, and ponA were studied. Molecular typing was performed by N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing. Of 329 strains analyzed in 2013, none showed high-level cephalosporin resistance, but 8.2 % had resistance to cefixime [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 0.125 μg/mL] and 0.6 % to ceftriaxone (MIC > 0.125 μg/mL). Azithromycin resistance was documented in 4.3 % and ciprofloxacin resistance in 49.2 %. Among 48 strains with an MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL to cefixime, 58.3 % showed the penA mosaic pattern XXXIV, 98 % a Leu → Pro substitution at position 421 of the ponA gene, 100 % amino acid changes at positions 101 and 102 of the PorB1b porin, and 87.5 % of strains an adenine deletion in the promoter region of the MtrC-D-E efflux pump. A significant difference between strains with and without decreased cephalosporin susceptibility (MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL) was observed for these four genes. Of the 48 strains with an MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL to cefixime, 43.8 % belonged to the genogroup G1407 and 27.1 % belonged to the genogroup G2400. A significant association of G1407 with decreased susceptibility (MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL) and G2992 with susceptibility was found, and also between G1407 and mosaic pattern XXXIV and between G2400 and A501T substitution in penA. The NG resistance rate in our area is higher than the median of Europe. We have detected the emergence of G2400, which may be a source of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27255221

  1. School Exchanges Present and Future. Proceedings of the Symposium (Barcelona, Spain, March 13-17, 1991) = Bilan et Perspectives des Echanges Scolaires. Actes du colloque (Barcelone, Spain, 13-17 mar 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium).

    This document sets forth the proceedings of a symposium on the subject of international educational exchanges. Part 1 of the document includes introductory remarks by Catalonia's minister of education and David Coyne of the European Commission's task force on human relations. Part 2 offers specific introductory material on political, theoretical,…

  2. Motorized Migrations: the Future or Mere Fantasy?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Sladen, William J. L.; Lishman, W.A.; Clegg, K.R.; Duff, J.W.; Gee, G.F.; Lewis, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    In 15 experiments from 1993-2002, we led cranes, geese, or swans on their first southward migration with either ultralight aircraft or vehicles on the ground. These experiments reveal that large birds can be readily trained to follow and most will return north (and south) in subsequent migrations unassisted. These techniques can now be used to teach birds new (or forgotten) migration paths. Although we are constantly improving our training techniques, we now have an operational program that can be broadly applied to those species where juveniles learn migration routes from their parents.

  3. L'olistostrome coniacien de Lordat (Pyrénées ariégeoises) et son équivalent latéral de Vicdessos, témoins d'un nouveau bassin d'avant-pays au front nord de la Haute Chaîne Primaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peybernès, Bernard; Fondecave-Wallez, Marie-José; Eichène, Paule

    By means of new datings and grade-datings founded on planktonic Foraminifera, ponctually identified in spite of a Campanian epimetamorphism, the extention of the Coniacian sub-basin of Lordat (« Zone des Écailles Bordières » , Ariège),partly calciturbiditic, is doubled indeed tripled at the expense of formations previously assigned to Paleozoic (particularly the ex-'Paleozoic slice of Lordat'). These last ones are only represented by very large size olistolites redeposited within a thick olistostrome (Lordat castle, Saint-Pierre hermitage), itself included within a monoclinal succession with calcareous intercalations, regarded as a probable equivalent of the 'Fucoïd flysch'. This épimetamorphic series also exists, more to the North, beyond the marbles of the Internal Metamorphic Zone, as it is evidenced by the Upper Cretaceous age assigned to the ex-Paleozoic slice of Carmilles directly overthrust by the North-pyrenean hercynian massif of Saint-Barthelemy. More to the West, the Vicdessos sub-basin is regarded as a lateral extension of the Lordat one ; it consists of a thick monoclinal Coniacian series and not of a large 'synclinorium' subdivided by Urgo-Aptian anticlines which correspond, in reality, to calcareous intercalations within the Upper Cretaceous normal succession. The herein studied terrigenous complex of Lordat-Vicdessos, partly turbiditic, is composed by, at least, two 3rd order tectono-sedimentary sequences, A and B, marking the successive infilling of foreland synsedimentary synclines supplied (olistolites) by the probably submarine erosion of the Northward migrating front of the High Primary Range (induced by successive synsedimentary probably blind overthrusts). This model of foreland sub-basin fits in perfectly with the evolutional sheme of an interplaque bivergent range, in compression during Upper Cretaceous, where followed along a N-S palinspastic section reconstructed during Coniacian, on the two sides of the future High Primary Range, at least two sub-basins linked to the European Plate (Lordat-Vicdessos and Nalzen I) and one sub-basin (San Gervas) linked to the Iberian Plate.

  4. L'analyse morphologique spatialisée: apports d'une méthode à la détection des accidents, une nécessité dans l'approche hydrodynamique et karstologique des aquifères fissurés. Exemples dans le Nord de la France crayeux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, Thierry; Colbeaux, Jean-Pierre

    1999-05-01

    Spatialized Morphological Analysis is a new method of detecting faults which uses the morphometric relief data (slope, aspect, elevation) taken from a precise Digital Elevation Model by a computer program. This program, taking the principles of the evolution of relief into account (rock type, climate, chronology), allows the statistical identification of morphometric standards for each type of morphology and the extraction of anomalies to these standards. Some of these anomalies, after a processing of spatial classification, are considered as tectonic tracks. The actual existence of faults, corresponding with anomalies, is verified by classical methods of structural geology. By a better localisation and geometrical definition of faults, this method can allow the optimization of hydrodynamical studies of cracked aquifers, and in case of calcareous ones, a spatial approach to karstification. This method is applied to the north of France chalky aquifer, where, associated with detailed hydrogeological records, it allowed the identification of rapid transfers of groundwater at the level of faults. Even so, exokarstic phenomena are uncommon in this area. Some chemical and textural particularities of Quaternary chalk cover may be the cause of rainwater inhibition, and it is possible that the karstic responses observed are due to considerable mechanical dissolution in the saturated area where tectonic activity (neotectonic faults have been observed) creates environments of preferential flow.

  5. Communique: Special Issue on the International Network for Cooperation in Northern Science Created at a Meeting held in Edmonton, Alberta (October 12-15, 1982). Summary of Discussions and Agreements Reached = Numero special sur le Reseau Scientifique Internationale pour le Nord cree a la reunion tenue a Edmonton, Alberta (du 12 au 15 octobre 1982). Resume des discussions et accords conclus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Communique, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Delegations from Canada, Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, and the United States agreed to the establishment of a network for cooperation among individuals engaged in problems peculiar to the circumpolar North. The Northern Science Network, established within the Unesco Man and the Biosphere Program, consists of three themes: studies on the…

  6. "The Right To Speak Irish": representation de la langue gaelique en tant qu'enjeu de mobilisation militante en Irlande du Nord ("The Right To Speak Irish": Representation of the Gaelic Language as a Catalyst for Militant Activism in Northern Ireland).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Viviane

    2000-01-01

    The Irish language movement in Northern Ireland was formed in the 1970s. Pragmatic and symbolic implications of this minority language revival considerably evolved, reflecting and depending on important political changes happening in this European province. This article focuses on the representation of Irish language and the most recent strategy…

  7. Charonosaurus jiayinensis n.g., n.sp.,a lambeosaurine dinosaur from the Late Maastrichtian of northeastern ChinaCharonosaurus jiayinensis n.g., n.sp., un dinosaure lambéosauriné du Maastrichtien supérieur du Nord-Est de la Chine.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godefroit, Pascal; Zan, Shuqin; Jin, Liyong

    2000-06-01

    Large bonebeds have been excavated in the Late Maastrichian Yuliangze Formation near Jiayin (Heilongjang Province, northeastern China). The greatest part of the discovered fossils belong to a new lambeosaurine dinosaur, Charonosaurus jiayinensis n.g., n.sp. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 33 cranial, dental and postcranial characters, indicates that this new taxon may be closer to Parasaurolophus than any other known Lambeosaurinae. The Late Maastrichtian dinosaur faunas currently known in northeastern Asia are dominated by Lambeosaurinae, although these dinosaurs are not represented any more in synchronous North American and European localities.

  8. Spasticity

    MedlinePlus

    ... in association with spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, stroke, brain or head trauma, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ... 999-NORD (6673) Fax: 203-798-2291 United Cerebral Palsy (UCP) 1825 K St NW Suite 600 Washington, ...

  9. 75 FR 23847 - Blocking of Specially Designated National Pursuant to Executive Order 13413

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ..., Democratic Republic of the; DOB 1973; POB Nord-Kivu, DRC; alt. POB Rwanda; nationality Congo, Democratic.... MUTEBUZI, Jules), Rwanda; DOB 6 Jul 1960; POB South Kivu, DRC; nationality Congo, Democratic Republic...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Fabry disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) National Tay-Sachs & Allied Diseases Association, Inc. Resource list from the ... Brady R, Barranger J, Collins AJ, Germain DP, Goldman M, Grabowski G, Packman S, Wilcox WR. Fabry disease, ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Laron syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 links) Human Growth Foundation Little People of America National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD): Growth Hormone ... on PubMed Central Guevara-Aguirre J, Rosenbloom AL. Obesity, diabetes and cancer: insight into the relationship from ...

  12. Teacher Images in Spain and Turkey: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Nese

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the metaphorical images of "teacher" produced by 55 Spanish and 72 Turkish preservice teachers at Universitat de Barcelona, in Barcelona, Spain, and at Ege University, in Izmir, Turkey. It is based on a theory of teacher socialization which affirms that cultural values have an impact on the…

  13. Hodgkin disease (1973-2002): long-term survival and cure fractions.

    PubMed

    Bouliotis, George; Bessell, Eric M

    2015-05-01

    The Nottinghamshire Lymphoma Registry contains the details of all patients diagnosed with lymphoma (since 1 January 1973) within a defined geographical area with a stable population of 1.1 million. The aim of this study was to investigate the relative survival and estimate the cure fraction for patients with Hodgkin disease (HD) using various cure fraction models. Five- and 10-year survival was estimated in comparison to the general population of the same age, gender and year of diagnosis. Relative survival probabilities at 10 years were 52.3% for the 1973-1982 cohort, 67.8% (1983-1992) and 75.7% (1993-2002). The estimated cured fraction (π) was 45%, 65% and 75%, respectively, for the same cohorts. There was very little excess mortality after 4 years from treatment. The prognosis of patients with HD has improved progressively within a defined unselected population over this 30-year period. In the 1993-2002 cohort the prognosis after 4 years of treatment is almost the same as for a normal population.

  14. The Nordic energy market model an electricity power exchange across national borders

    SciTech Connect

    Randen, H.; Andersen, J.H.

    1998-07-01

    As a first step towards a Nordic Power Exchange the Swedish and the Norwegian electricity market were merged into one free trade area. Norwegian and Swedish participants trade on equal terms on the market. Finnish and Danish participants trade on special terms towards the common Norwegian-Swedish free trade area. Finland will be included in the free trade area in 1998. Nord Pool is responsible for two markets. The Spot Market is the Nordic market for physical delivery power. In this market participants trade power contracts for next-day delivery. A price is determined for each hour based on bids and offer from the participants. The Spot Market serves as reference price for Nord Pool's Futures and Forward Market and reference price in the bilateral wholesale market. The Futures and Forward Markets are financial markets for price hedging and risk management. Through these market the participants can hedge purchase and sale of power within a time horizon of up to three years. In the bilateral wholesale market there is a high trade activity of financial contracts that are standardized in the same manner as Nord Pools forwards. Nord Pool has therefore established a clearing service where contracts that are traded on bilateral basis can be cleared through Nord Pool and with Nord Pool as counterpart. More than 200 participants from Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark and England trade through Nord Pool. A general goal is to develop the market to include all four nordic countries in one common free trade area in close co-operation with the power business in the countries. There are different conditions for competition in the four countries, and much coordinating work is therefore still left to be done.

  15. Évidences paléomagnétiques et paléontologiques en faveur d'une position antipodale du craton Ouest-Africain et de la Chine du Nord : conséquences paléogéographiquesPalaeomagnetic and palaeontologic evidence for an antipodal position of the West African Craton and of northern China in the Rodinia puzzle: palaeogeographic consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefort, Jean-Pierre; Aı̈fa, Tahar; Bourrouilh, Robert

    2004-02-01

    Reappraisal of the palaeomagnetic data previously published about the West African Craton and their comparison with the most recent information obtained on doleritic dykes and stromatolite-bearing formations allow us to propose, after a critical examination of the old geochronological data, a new path for the West African Craton between 2200 and 700 Ma. This path has been compared with that of eastern China (which can be simply divided into a northern and a southern China block) between 1400 and 700 Ma. We can observe that these two blocks show a common path before their accretion to the Rodinia super-continent. These two blocks, which were located close the equator and at the outboard of Rodinia at about 1000 Ma, were also characterized by identical stromatolitic assemblages. This result shows that West Africa and Eastern China represented the antipodal continental margins of Rodinia. One can also deduce from our data that the accretion of Rodinia mainly resulted from north-south-oriented displacements. To cite this article: J.-P. Lefort et al., C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas molluscorum Strain 848TT, Isolated from Bivalve Molluscs.

    PubMed

    Spataro, Nino; Farfán, Maribel; Albarral, Vicenta; Sanglas, Ariadna; Lorén, J Gaspar; Fusté, M Carmen; Bosch, Elena

    2013-06-20

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Aeromonas molluscorum 848T, the type strain of this Aeromonas species, which was isolated from wedge shells (Donax trunculus) obtained from a retail market in Barcelona, Spain, in 1997.

  17. Clinical Interpretation of Variants from Next-Generation Sequencing: The 2016 Scientific Meeting of the Human Genome Variation Society.

    PubMed

    Oetting, William S; Brookes, Anthony J; Béroud, Christophe; Taschner, Peter E

    2016-10-01

    The 2016 scientific meeting of the Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS; http://www.hgvs.org) was held on the 20th of May in Barcelona, Spain, with the theme of "Clinical Interpretation of Variants from Next-Generation Sequencing."

  18. Fatty Fish May Curb Eye Risks for Diabetics, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... fish did. That point was seconded by Dr. Michael Larsen, a professor of clinical ophthalmology at the ... Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red, Barcelona, Spain; Michael Larsen, M.D., D.M.Sc., professor, clinical ...

  19. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2003-07-09

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the PNNL Radiological Control Program Description, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2002 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program.

  20. Regulatory treatment of foreign investments by US electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Harunuzzaman, M.; Jennings, E.

    1996-11-01

    Foreign activities of U.S. electric utilities are on the rise, stimulated by increasing privatization of utility systems by many countries. Of the 550 gigawatts of electrical capacity scheduled to be built in 1993-2002, about 82.9 percent will be in countries of Asia, Europe, Africa, and Latin America. According to a World Bank estimate, developing countries will spend as much as $745 billion on electric power systems, of which about $248 billion, or one-third, may be purchased from U.S. utilities. The degree of U.S. penetration in foreign electricity markets is exemplified by the recent privatization of a government-owned electric power plant in Venezuela. All of the five companies prequalified to buy the 2,000 megawatt (MW) Planta Centro facility are U.S. companies and four of them are affiliates of U.S. utilities.

  1. The effects of harvest regulations on behaviors of duck hunters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haugen, Matthew T.; Powell, Larkin A.; Vrtiska, Mark P.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty exists as to how duck harvest regulations influence waterfowl hunter behavior. We used the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Parts Collection Survey to examine how harvest regulations affected behaviors of Central Flyway duck hunters. We stratified hunters into ranked groups based on seasonal harvest and identified three periods (1975–1984, 1988–1993, 2002–2011) that represented different harvest regulations (moderate, restrictive, and liberal, respectively; season length and daily bag limits smallest in restrictive seasons and largest in liberal seasons). We examined variability of seven measures of duck hunter behaviors across the periods: days harvesting ducks, daily harvest, hunter mobility, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) selectivity, gender selectivity, daily female mallard harvest, and timing of harvest. Hunters reported harvesting ducks on more days, at a higher efficiency, and in slightly more counties during liberal seasons relative to restrictive and moderate seasons. We provide evidence to suggest that future regulation change will affect hunter behaviors.

  2. 78 FR 28729 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ..., 2012) Nord Wind Airlines reported the status of compliance of its airplanes with the NPRM (77 FR 65506... Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are... series airplanes. That AD currently requires modifying the nacelle strut and wing structure,...

  3. Sciences and society

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-10

    J.Luns des Pays-Bas, ancien sécétaire général de NATO (OTAN=Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord) parle du passé, présent et future de la défense européenne et des relations est et ouest

  4. Holy Grail or Poisoned Chalice? A Case Study of Partnership Collaboration between a University School of Education and a Private Sector Education Services Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Bill; Brown, Marie

    2000-01-01

    Reports on a case study of the set up and first year operations of the public-private partnership between the University of Manchester (UK) and Nord Anglia that delivered training for the National Professional Qualification for Headship. Reviews the partnership according to four factors and discusses the areas of conflict (time and language). (CMK)

  5. UMIST, IDN, NTUA, TUM, ULB: A Successful European Exchange Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borne, Pierre; Singh, Madan G.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the exchange programs that existed for a decade in the fields of automatic control and computer science including the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, the "Institut Industriel du Nord," the National Technical University of Athens, the Technical University of Munich, and the Free University of Brussels.…

  6. Examining Gender and the Academic Achievement of Students with Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Elisabeth Hess; Yen, Cherng-Jyh

    2010-01-01

    Students with emotional disturbance (ED) have significant academic deficits (Trout, Nordness, Pierce, & Epstein, 2003; Lane, 2004). Even after identification and school intervention, students with ED continue to demonstrate limited academic achievement and high rates of drop out and school failure, with 80-90% scoring below grade level on tests of…

  7. Applying Operant Conditioning Principles to the Management of Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVries, David L.; Jablonsky, Stephen F.

    Following Walter Nord (1969), the present article contains a predictive model of individual behavior based on both operant conditioning and management literatures. The behavior of an organizational member is seen as a function of the reinforcement contingencies applied by various groups in his environment and of his cognitive assessment of such…

  8. Inclusive Work at a European Level: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Paul; Rumley, Glynis

    2005-01-01

    In this article, Paul Stephenson and Glynis Rumley describe the way in which educators in Kent have developed strong links with their colleagues and neighbours from Nord Pas de Calais in France. From a variety of projects undertaken, some of which were assisted by funding from European sources, children of all abilities and needs have been able to…

  9. Genetics Home Reference: pyruvate kinase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... National (UK) Information Centre for Metabolic Diseases National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD): Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency Genetic Testing Registry (1 link) Pyruvate kinase deficiency of red cells Scientific articles on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (1 link) ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Gorlin syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Syndrome Life Support Network Gorlin Syndrome Group National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) GeneReviews (1 link) Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Genetic Testing Registry (1 link) Gorlin syndrome Scientific articles on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (1 link) ...

  11. A Tool for Creating Healthier Workplaces: The Conducivity Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karasek, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    The conducivity process, a methodology for creating healthier workplaces by promoting conducive production, is illustrated through the use of the "conducivity game" developed in the NordNet Project in Sweden, which was an action research project to test a job redesign methodology. The project combined the "conducivity" hypotheses about a…

  12. Contact North: The Concept, Policy, Development, and Status of the Northern Ontario Distance Education Access Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arblaster, John R.

    Contact North/Contact Nord (CN) was designed to enhance distance education opportunities at the secondary and postsecondary levels in Northern Ontario through the use of new information and communication technologies. The central thesis of CN is that access to education at all levels could be improved through a combined effort by community…

  13. [Upper eyelid congenital coloboma, aethiology pathogenesis and management].

    PubMed

    Bourlet, J; Bachelet, J T; Beziat, J L; Gleizal, A

    2015-06-01

    Coloboma of the upper eyelid is a rare congenital disease. It is defined as an agenesis of the eyelid free edge. Multiple patho-physiological theories exist about its etiology. The surgical therapeutic management of this malformation is clearly codified. We illustrate the presentation by two cases treated in the Groupement Hospitalier Nord of Lyon University Hospital.

  14. Engaging Students with Behavior Disorders in Mathematics Practice Using the High-"p" Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vostal, Brooks R.

    2011-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) demonstrate significant academic deficits across content areas (Coutinho, 1986; Lane, Barton-Arwood, Nelson, & Wehby, 2008; Nelson, Benner, Lane, & Smith, 2004; Reid, Gonzalez, Nordness, Trout, & Epstein, 2004; Ruhl & Berlinghoff, 1992). Mathematics, however, appears to be especially…

  15. The Unique Health Needs of Adolescents: Implications for Health Care Insurance and Financing. Highlights and Background Briefing Report of a Meeting (Washington, D.C., February 24, 1989). Family Impact Seminars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooms, Theodora; Herendeen, Lisa

    This report presents highlights of a seminar which focused on the unique health care needs of adolescents. Comments by the following panelists are summarized: Christine Winquist Nord, research associate at Child Trends Inc.; John Sargent, an adolescent psychiatrist, pediatrician and family therapist at the Philadelphia Child Guidance Clinic; and…

  16. Rare Disorders and Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umlauf, Mary; Monaco, Jana; FitzZaland, Mary; FitzZaland, Richard; Novitsky, Scott

    2008-01-01

    According to the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD), a rare or "orphan" disease affects fewer than 200,000 people in the United States. There are more than 6,000 rare disorders that, taken together, affect approximately 25 million Americans. "Exceptional Parent" ("EP") recognizes that when a disorder affects a child or adult, it…

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Coffin-Lowry syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lowry Syndrome MalaCards: coffin-lowry syndrome MalaCards: symptomatic form of coffin-lowry syndrome in female carriers Orphanet: Coffin-Lowry syndrome Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (2 links) National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) Resource list from the ...

  18. Description de Nosopsyllus (N.) Atsbi n. sp. (Siphonaptera : Ceratophyllidae) d’Éthiopie et révision de l’espèce affine N. (N.) Incisus (Jordan & Rothschild, 1913) ; discussion biogéographique

    PubMed Central

    Beaucournu, J.-C.; Meheretu, Y.; Welegerima, K.; Mergey, T.; Laudisoit, A.

    2012-01-01

    Nous décrivons un Nosopsyllus s. sto. nouveau du nord de l’Éthiopie, N. atsbi, montrant des ressemblances phylétiques avec N. incisus (Jordan & Rothschild, 1913), espèce cantonnée à la partie orientale de la région afrotropicale. Ceci nous conduit à revoir les populations classées comme incisus sur l’unique critère de la sétation du télomère (trois fortes soies marginales, au lieu des deux classiquement observées dans ces genre et sous-genre). Il apparaît que N. incisus s. sto. est connu au nord-est de la République Démocratique du Congo, au Kenya, au Burundi et en Tanzanie. Au nord et au sud de cette région (centre de l’Éthiopie, d’une part, Zambie et Malawi, d’autre part), deux taxa sont morphologiquement à part et nous les érigeons au rang de sous-espèces : Nosopsyllus (N.) incisus traubi n. ssp. et N. (N.) incisus lewisi n. ssp. À l’heure actuelle, le “complexe incisus” est riche de quatre taxa, à savoir, du nord au sud, N. atsbi n. sp., N. incisus traubi n. ssp., N. incisus incisus (Jordan & Rothschild, 1913) et N. incisus lewisi n. ssp. PMID:22314238

  19. Molecular evidence to suggest the origin of a colonization: Drosophila subobscura in America.

    PubMed

    Araúz, Pedro A; Peris-Bondia, Francesc; Latorre, Amparo; Serra, Luís; Mestres, Francesc

    2011-12-01

    The recent colonization of America by Drosophila subobscura represents a great opportunity for evolutionary biology studies. Knowledge of the populations from which the colonization started would provide an understanding of how genetic composition changed during adaptation to the new environment. Thus, a 793 nucleotide fragment of the Odh (Octanol dehydrogenase) gene was sequenced in 66 chromosomal lines from Barcelona (western Mediterranean) and in 66 from Mt. Parnes (Greece, eastern Mediterranean). No sequence of Odh fragment in Barcelona or Mt. Parnes was identical to any of those previously detected in America. However, an Odh sequence from Barcelona differed in only one nucleotide from another found in American populations. In both cases, the chromosomal lines presented the same inversion: O(7), and the Odh gene was located within this inversion. This evidence suggests a possible western Mediterranean origin for the colonization. Finally, the molecular and inversion data indicate that the colonization was not characterized by multiple reintroductions.

  20. The problems of asbestosis in Spain.

    PubMed

    Segarra, F

    1979-04-01

    About 50 cases of asbestosis have been descirbed in Spain from 1948 through 1974. Since 1975 the Instituto Territorial de Barcelona, Servicio Social de Higiene y Seguridad del Trabajo, has initiated a survey of all the industries with an asbestosis risk in the Barcelona area. Nearly 300 cases of asbestosis have been detected to date. Given the poor hygienic conditions of most of the industries, with an asbestosis risk, and the considerably large number of exposed people, it can easily be predicted that a rapid increase of the incidence of the disease in the years to come will occur. Most of the observed cases in Barcelona were from two fibrocement industries. Of a total of 1003 workers examined, 247 (about 25%) had asbestosis.

  1. Effect of climatic conditions, season and wastewater quality on contaminant removal efficiency of two experimental constructed wetlands in different regions of Spain.

    PubMed

    Garfí, Marianna; Pedescoll, Anna; Bécares, Eloy; Hijosa-Valsero, María; Sidrach-Cardona, Ricardo; García, Joan

    2012-10-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of climate, season and wastewater quality on contaminant removal efficiency of constructed wetlands implemented in Mediterranean and continental-Mediterranean climate region of Spain. To this end, two experimental horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands located in Barcelona and León (Spain) were compared. The two constructed wetland systems had the same experimental set-up. Each wetland had a surface area of 2.95 m(2), a water depth of 25 cm and a granular medium of D(60)=7.3 mm, and was planted with Phragmites australis. Both systems were designed in order to operate with a maximum organic loading rate of 6 g(DBO) m(-2) d(-1). Experimental systems operated with a hydraulic loading rate of 28.5 and 98 mm d(-1) in Barcelona and León, respectively. Total suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand and ammonium mass removal efficiencies followed seasonal trends, with higher values in the summer (97.4% vs. 97.8%; 97.1% vs. 96.2%; 99.9% vs. 88.9%, in Barcelona and León systems, respectively) than in the winter (83.5% vs. 74.4%; 73.2% vs. 60.6%; 19% vs. no net removal for ammonium in Barcelona and León systems, respectively). During the cold season, biochemical oxygen demand and ammonium removal were significantly higher in Barcelona system than in León, as a result of higher temperature and redox potential in Barcelona. During the warm season, statistical differences were observed only for ammonium removal. Results showed that horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland is a successful technology for both regions considered, even if winter seemed to be a critical period for ammonium removal in continental climate regions.

  2. Optical characteristics of biomass burning and desert dust over the Western Mediterranean during summer: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basart, Sara; Sicart, Michaël; María Baldasano, José; Lane, Diego; Comerón, Adolfo

    2013-04-01

    The present contribution reports on the aerosol vertical distributions in Barcelona (Spain) which were obtained when very high aerosol concentrations were observed on summer 2012. An EARLINET lidar system and AERONET sunphotometer located in Barcelona performed intensive measurements in the framework of the ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network) project. The data that were collected allow the characterization of the optical properties of the aerosols in this region, benefiting from the synergy of various remote sensing instruments. Due to its location in the Mediterranean basin, Barcelona metropolitan area is influenced by two major aerosol source regions: Europe and the Western Mediterranean Basin, as a major source of anthropogenic pollutants, and North Africa, as a principal source of natural dust. As a result, the composition of atmospheric aerosols in Barcelona station is a mixing of aerosols. During the period between 1 - 2 July, AOD reached high values (~ 0.5). In addition to anthropogenic local contributions, other aerosols long-range transported were also detected. Between 1 - 3 July, strong forest fires occurred in Alicante where advected to Barcelona area. On the other hand, between 28th June and 1st July, the northeastern Iberian Peninsula was affected by the intrusion of Saharan dust. The presence of Saharan dust was successfully forecasted by the BSC-DREAM8b dust regional model. MODIS and AERONET data, as well as air-mass backward trajectories confirmed the existence of biomass burning and desert dust in the case examined. Desert dust was detected between 2 and 4 km (above sea level, a.s.l) with maximum dust concentrations at ~ 4 km a.s.l on 1st June. On the other hand, favourable meteorological conditions made possible that biomass burning from Alicante was southern advected to Barcelona during the study period.

  3. Variability in exposure to ambient ultrafine particles in urban schools: Comparative assessment between Australia and Spain.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, Mandana; Reche, Cristina; Rivas, Ioar; Crilley, Leigh R; Álvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Viana, Mar; Tobias, Aurelio; Alastuey, Andrés; Sunyer, Jordi; Querol, Xavier; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-03-01

    Ambient ultrafine particle number concentrations (PNC) have inhomogeneous spatio-temporal distributions and depend on a number of different urban factors, including background conditions and distant sources. This paper quantitatively compares exposure to ambient ultrafine particles at urban schools in two cities in developed countries, with high insolation climatic conditions, namely Brisbane (Australia) and Barcelona (Spain). The analysis used comprehensive indoor and outdoor air quality measurements at 25 schools in Brisbane and 39 schools in Barcelona. PNC modes were analysed with respect to ambient temperature, land use and urban characteristics, combined with the measured elemental carbon concentrations, NOx (Brisbane) and NO2 (Barcelona). The trends and modes of the quantified weekday average daily cycles of ambient PNC exhibited significant differences between the two cities. PNC increases were observed during traffic rush hours in both cases. However, the mid-day peak was dominant in Brisbane schools and had the highest contribution to total PNC for both indoors and outdoors. In Barcelona, the contribution from traffic was highest for ambient PNC, while the mid-day peak had a slightly higher contribution for indoor concentrations. Analysis of the relationships between PNC and land use characteristics in Barcelona schools showed a moderate correlation with the percentage of road network area and an anti-correlation with the percentage of green area. No statistically significant correlations were found for Brisbane. Overall, despite many similarities between the two cities, school-based exposure patterns were different. The main source of ambient PNC at schools was shown to be traffic in Barcelona and mid-day new particle formation in Brisbane. The mid-day PNC peak in Brisbane could have been driven by the combined effect of background and meteorological conditions, as well as other local/distant sources. The results have implications for urban development

  4. Historical and current perspectives on fish assemblages of the Snake River, Idaho and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maret, T.R.; Mebane, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Snake River is the tenth longest river in the United States, extending 1,667 km from its origin in Yellowstone National Park in western Wyoming to its union with the Columbia River at Pasco, Washington. Historically, the main-stem Snake River upstream from the Hells Canyon Complex supported at least 26 native fish species, including anadromous stocks of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead O. mykiss, Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata, and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. Of these anadromous species, only the white sturgeon remains in the Snake River between the Hells Canyon Complex and Shoshone Falls. Today, much of the Snake River has been transformed into a river with numerous impoundments and flow diversions, increased pollutant loads, and elevated water temperatures. Current (1993-2002) fish assemblage collections from 15 sites along the Snake River and Henrys Fork contained 35 fish species, including 16 alien species. Many of these alien species such as catfish (Ictaluridae), carp (Cyprinidae), and sunfish (Centrarchidae) are adapted for warmwater impounded habitats. Currently, the Snake River supports 19 native species. An index of biotic integrity (IBI), developed to evaluate large rivers in the Northwest, was used to evaluate recent (1993-2002) fish collections from the Snake River and Henrys Fork in southern Idaho and western Wyoming. Index of biotic integrity site scores and component metrics revealed a decline in biotic integrity from upstream to downstream in both the Snake River and Henrys Fork. Two distinct groups of sites were evident that correspond to a range of IBI scores-an upper Snake River and Henrys Fork group with relatively high biotic integrity (mean IBI scores of 46-84) and a lower Snake River group with low biotic integrity (mean IBI scores of 10-29). Sites located in the lower Snake River exhibited fish assemblages that reflect poor-quality habitat where coldwater and sensitive species are rare or absent, and

  5. Direct terrestrial–marine correlation demonstrates surprisingly late onset of the last interglacial in central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Sier, Mark J.; Roebroeks, Wil; Bakels, Corrie C.; Dekkers, Mark J.; Brühl, Enrico; De Loecker, Dimitri; Gaudzinski-Windheuser, Sabine; Hesse, Norbert; Jagich, Adam; Kindler, Lutz; Kuijper, Wim J.; Laurat, Thomas; Mücher, Herman J.; Penkman, Kirsty E.H.; Richter, Daniel; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J.J.

    2011-01-01

    An interdisciplinary study of a small sedimentary basin at Neumark Nord 2 (NN2), Germany, has yielded a high-resolution record of the palaeomagnetic Blake Event, which we are able to place at the early part of the last interglacial pollen sequence documented from the same section. We use this data to calculate the duration of this stratigraphically important event at 3400 ± 350 yr. More importantly, the Neumark Nord 2 data enables precise terrestrial–marine correlation for the Eemian stage in central Europe. This shows a remarkably large time lag of ca. 5000 yr between the MIS 5e ‘peak’ in the marine record and the start of the last interglacial in this region. PMID:26523075

  6. Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism, Great Escarpment (Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa).

    PubMed

    Clark, V Ralph; Schrire, Brian D; Barker, Nigel P

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) are described from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism on the southern Great Escarpment, Eastern and Western Cape Provinces, South Africa. Both species are localised high-altitude endemics. Indigoferamagnifica Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to the summit plateau of the Toorberg-Koudeveldberg-Meelberg west of Graaff-Reinet, and complements other western Sneeuberg endemics such as Ericapasserinoides (Bolus) E.G.H. Oliv. and Faurearecondita Rourke & V.R. Clark. Indigoferaasantasanensis Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to a small area east of Graaff-Reinet, and complements several other eastern Sneeuberg endemics such as Euryopsexsudans B. Nord & V.R. Clark and Euryopsproteoides B. Nord. & V.R. Clark. Based on morphology, both new species belong to the Cape Clade of Indigofera, supporting a biogeographical link between the Cape Floristic Region and the Sneeuberg, as well as with the rest of the eastern Great Escarpment. PMID:25941448

  7. Study of tip loss corrections using CFD rotor computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, W. Z.; Zhu, W. J.; Sørensen, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    Tip loss correction is known to play an important role for engineering prediction of wind turbine performance. There are two different types of tip loss corrections: tip corrections on momentum theory and tip corrections on airfoil data. In this paper, we study the latter using detailed CFD computations for wind turbines with sharp tip. Using the technique of determination of angle of attack and the CFD results for a NordTank 500 kW rotor, airfoil data are extracted and a new tip loss function on airfoil data is derived. To validate, BEM computations with the new tip loss function are carried out and compared with CFD results for the NordTank 500 kW turbine and the NREL 5 MW turbine. Comparisons show that BEM with the new tip loss function can predict correctly the loading near the blade tip.

  8. Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism, Great Escarpment (Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa).

    PubMed

    Clark, V Ralph; Schrire, Brian D; Barker, Nigel P

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) are described from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism on the southern Great Escarpment, Eastern and Western Cape Provinces, South Africa. Both species are localised high-altitude endemics. Indigoferamagnifica Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to the summit plateau of the Toorberg-Koudeveldberg-Meelberg west of Graaff-Reinet, and complements other western Sneeuberg endemics such as Ericapasserinoides (Bolus) E.G.H. Oliv. and Faurearecondita Rourke & V.R. Clark. Indigoferaasantasanensis Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to a small area east of Graaff-Reinet, and complements several other eastern Sneeuberg endemics such as Euryopsexsudans B. Nord & V.R. Clark and Euryopsproteoides B. Nord. & V.R. Clark. Based on morphology, both new species belong to the Cape Clade of Indigofera, supporting a biogeographical link between the Cape Floristic Region and the Sneeuberg, as well as with the rest of the eastern Great Escarpment.

  9. Sciences and society

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    J.Luns des Pays-Bas, ancien sécétaire général de NATO (OTAN=Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord) parle du passé, présent et future de la défense européenne et des relations est et ouest

  10. Gryphopsylla segregata Beaucournu & Sountsov, 1999 : Nouveau statut pour G. jacobsoni segregata, description de la femelle et proposition d’une nouvelle clé pour le genre Gryphopsylla traub, 1957 (Siphonaptera – Pygiopsyllidae – Stivaliinae)

    PubMed Central

    Beaucournu, J.-C.; Wells, K.

    2011-01-01

    La collecte d’une femelle de Gryphopsylla jacobsoni segregata Beaucournu & Sountsov, 1999 du nord de Bornéo nous permet de modifier le statut de ce taxon en celui de bonne espèce, proche mais distincte de G. jacobsoni (Jordan & Rothschild, 1922). La femelle de G. segregata est décrite et une clé remise à jour de ce genre est donnée. PMID:21894266

  11. Vic: The Challenges Facing Schools in a Small, Newly Diverse, Catalan City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simo, Nuria; Telford, Jon

    2012-01-01

    The arrival over the last 15 years of a substantial number of pupils of immigrant origin has presented Catalan schools with significant challenges. The schools in Vic (70 km north of Barcelona) have been at the forefront of attempts to adjust to this new multicultural reality. This article describes the results of three studies carried out by the…

  12. Using Role Play to Debate Animal Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agell, Laia; Soria, Vanessa; Carrió, Mar

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals in biomedical research is a socio-scientific issue in which decision-making is complicated. In this article, we describe an experience involving a role play activity performed during school visits to the Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB) to debate animal testing. Role playing games require students to defend different…

  13. Interaccion adulto-nino en la escuela infantil (Adult-Child Interaction in Nursery School).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined teacher-child interactions in 2 nursery schools in Barcelona, Spain, when the children (15 2-year olds and 15 4-year olds) were alone or in a group, observing a group in which they were a member, and not part of a group. For these conditions, compared differences in age, gender, and the forms of verbal and nonverbal communication used.…

  14. The Development of Reference to Space in a Narrative Task of a Spanish/English Bilingual Child from the Age of 7 to 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Esther A.

    This study followed a child born in a bilingual (English and Spanish) family who had daily exposure to both languages since birth. The study examined how bilingual acquisition proceeded in this child who was receiving different, often contradictory, cues from the structure of the two languages. The family lived in Barcelona, Spain, and the child…

  15. Natural Bioactive Compounds: The Way Shown by Professor Maurizio Battino and His Group in an Italian Cutting-Edge Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Editorial Office, International Journal Of Molecular Sciences

    2016-07-05

    Maurizio Battino, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Biochemistry in the Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Università Politecnica delle Marche (Italy), is the Director of the Centre for Health and Nutrition, Universidad Europea del Atlantico (Santander, Spain) and Director of Nutrition and Health projects and Master courses at FUNIBER on-line platform (Barcelona, Spain).[...].

  16. Discourse Analysis Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheu, Dagmar, Ed.; Lopez-Maestre, M. D., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This collection of articles includes: "Introduction: Discourse Analysis Today" (Dagmar Schue and M.D. Lopez-Maestre); "The Metaphorical and Metonymic Understanding of the Trinitarian Dogma" (Antonio Barcelona); "Symmetry as Conceptual Metaphor in Walker's The Color Purple" (Elena Tapia); "And She's Like it's Terrible, Like: Spoken Discourse,…

  17. Implementing E-Learning in the Traditional Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barajas, Mario; Gannaway, Gloria J.

    2007-01-01

    This article takes a close look at a large, well-established traditional European university, the University of Barcelona, as an example of an institution that has a long history of developing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and e-learning. The results of a systematic peer-review analysis illustrate the issues, problems, and…

  18. Tablet PCs, Academic Results and Educational Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Ferran; Belvis, Esther; Pamies, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    This article is the result of a study carried out in 2008 and 2009 by a team from the Autonomous University of Barcelona in order to evaluate the implementation of the Digital Whiteboard Program in public schools in the region of Aragon (Spain). The following pages present some of the results obtained during the study. More specifically, this…

  19. The Conceptions about Teamwork Questionnaire: Design, Reliability and Validity with Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Fernandez, J. Reinaldo; Corcelles, Mariona; Cerrato-Lara, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we present the conceptions about teamwork questionnaire designed to evaluate the conceptions that secondary students have about teamwork. Participants were 309 students aged 15-16 from eight secondary schools, seven from Barcelona and one from Girona (Spain). The original 27-item questionnaire was reduced according to expert…

  20. The Autobiographical Group: A Tool for the Reconstruction of Past Life Experience with the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botella, Luis; Feixas, Guillem

    1993-01-01

    Used guided autobiography to foster reconstruction of past life experiences among 12 older adults in Barcelona, Spain. Found a significant and gradual change in the construing system of those participants in autobiographical group as compared to control group of 10 older adults. Distance of elements self-ideal/self and self-ideal/others…

  1. Gaining a "Sense of Place": Students' Affective Experiences of Place Leading to Transformative Learning on International Fieldwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simm, David; Marvell, Alan

    2015-01-01

    This paper reveals the extent to which undergraduate students demonstrate transformative learning whilst on international fieldwork in Barcelona, Spain. Groups of students create a series of discrete active learning situations that allow them and their peers to engage more fully with their locale and in turn experience a deeper understanding of…

  2. 78 FR 49768 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Joint Task-Force...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ..., LLC, Oak Hill, VA; Distrito Telefonica, Madrid, SPAIN; Diversified Systems Inc., Kenilworth, NJ; Dolby..., CA; TeamCast, Saint-Gr goire Cedex, FRANCE; Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona, SPAIN; Tech..., SPAIN; TELUS Communication Inc., Toronto, Quebec, CANADA; Thomson Video Networks, Cesson-S vign ,...

  3. Book review: Handbook of the birds of the world, Volume 8, Broadbills to Tapaculos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gustafson, Mary

    2004-01-01

    No abstract available.Review info: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Volume 8, Broadbills to Tapaculos. Edited by Josep del Hoyo, Andrew Elliott, and David Christie. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain. 2003: 845 pp., 81 color plates, over 470 color photographs, 672 maps. ISBN: 8487334504, $195.00 (cloth)

  4. Experiencia Pedagogica con Adolescentes Paraliticos Cerebrales: La Musica, Un Elemento Rehabilitador (A Pedagogical Experience with Teenage Cerebral Paralytics Using Music as a Rehabilitating Element).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colomer, Marta; And Others

    The monograph describes efforts carried out in the Department of Work Therapy of a center for cerebral paralysis in Barcelona, Spain. The rehabilitation program incorporated music and movement in an attempt to develop the musical ear, sensitivity, and a sensorial education. The program stresses rhythm, melody, harmony, voice, musical audition, and…

  5. Gaudi Goes Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    When the author traveled to the city of Barcelona, Spain to see the still-unfinished La Sagrada Familia in person, she marveled at the magical genius of Antoni Gaudi's masterpiece. Inspired by Gaudi's whimsical tile work and cathedral towers, the author developed an art project that engages students in a creative experience, which combined art…

  6. Shifting Discourses of Migrant Incorporation at a Time of Crisis: Understanding the Articulation of Language and Labour in the Catalan Non-Governmental Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codó, Eva; Garrido, Maria Rosa

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the discursive transformations that occurred at a migrant-support non-governmental organisation (NGO) located in the outskirts of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) and how they intersect with broader sociopolitical and economic processes. In particular, we focus on the revamping of the key notions of language and labour…

  7. Using Activity Theory to Understand the Contradictions in an Online Transatlantic Collaboration between Student-Teachers of English as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antoniadou, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the contradictions reported by student-teachers in Barcelona who engaged in telecollaboration with transatlantic peers via Second Life, during their initial training in Teaching English as a Foreign Language. The data analysis draws upon Grounded Theory and is theoretically informed by Activity Theory and the notion of…

  8. The Contribution of International Studies on Educational Effectiveness: Current and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammons, Pam

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the contribution of international studies on educational effectiveness in the light of 4 papers presented at the new ICSEI Methodology of Research and Effectiveness (MORE) Network in Barcelona in January 2005 and published in this issue of the journal. A brief historical overview is used to provide a context for these papers…

  9. Spanish Universities and the "Ranking 2005" Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Miguel, Jesus M.; Vaquera, Elizabeth; Sanchez, Jara D.

    2005-01-01

    This article assesses the quality of the Spanish higher education system, focusing mainly on the methodological challenges that the existence of public and private universities represents in the calculation of global higher education rankings. Researchers from the University of Barcelona and the University of Pennsylvania calculated the first…

  10. Beyond Delinquent Citizenships: Immigrant Youth's (Re)Visions of Citizenship and Belonging in a Globalized World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rios-Rojas, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Using ethnographic fieldwork conducted in a public high school located in the greater Barcelona area, Anne Rios-Rojas focuses on the experiences of immigrant youth as they negotiate a sense of belonging in an ever more globalized society. Rios-Rojas pays particular attention to the multiple and at times contradictory ways in which youth maneuver…

  11. Accurate nuclear masses from a three parameter Kohn-Sham DFT approach (BCPM)

    SciTech Connect

    Baldo, M.; Robledo, L. M.; Schuck, P.; Vinas, X.

    2012-10-20

    Given the promising features of the recently proposed Barcelona-Catania-Paris (BCP) functional [1], it is the purpose of this work to still improve on it. It is, for instance, shown that the number of open parameters can be reduced from 4-5 to 2-3, i.e. by practically a factor of two without deteriorating the results.

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis from cetearyl alcohol in Thrombocid® ointment.

    PubMed

    Armengot-Carbo, Miquel Armengot-Carbo1; Rodríguez-Serna, Mercedes; Taberner-Bonastre, Pilar; Miquel-Miquel, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Thrombocid® ointment (Lacer, Barcelona, Spain) is widely used in Spain and other countries for varicose veins and 22 hematomas. To our knowledge, there are no reported cases of allergic contact dermatitis following its use. Herein we present 23 two cases of allergic contact dermatitis to Thrombocid® ointment, owing to cetearyl alcohol. PMID:27617733

  13. From Bologna to Copenhagen: Progress towards a European Credit Transfer System for VET

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterton, Jonathon

    2005-01-01

    The Lisbon summit (March 2000) set the objective for 2010 of making Europe "the most competitive and knowledge-based economy in the world capable of sustainable growth and better jobs and greater social cohesion", while the Barcelona summit (March 2002) set the further objective of making European education and training systems a world quality…

  14. 77 FR 72856 - New York State Prohibition of Discharges of Vessel Sewage; Receipt of Petition and Tentative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... safety standards. Currently, six New York municipal and community water supplies, including Buffalo and... and tentative affirmative determination. SUMMARY: Notice is given that, pursuant to Clean Water Act... embayments of the Lake, including Barcelona Harbor, Dunkirk Harbor and Buffalo Outer Harbor, and...

  15. Affluence, Class Structure, and Working-Class Consciousness in Modern Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, John R.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of textile workers in Barcelona indicates that the growing proportion of affluent workers in Spain has become a major source of class consciousness, militancy, and politicization. A theoretical framework is presented which interprets the survey findings in terms of the relationship between affluence and class consciousness. (Author/DB)

  16. Promoting Individual and Group Regulated Learning in Collaborative Settings: An Experience in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onrubia, Javier; Rochera, Maria José; Engel, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We present a teaching innovation intervention aimed at promoting individual and group learning regulation in undergraduate students working in a computer supported collaborative learning environment. Participants were 127 students and three teachers of a compulsory course on Educational Psychology at the University of Barcelona (Spain). As a…

  17. Training Emotional and Social Competences in Higher Education: The Seminar Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberst, Ursula; Gallifa, Josep; Farriols, Nuria; Vilaregut, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of emotional and social competences in higher education and presents a training model. In 1991, Ramon Llull University of Barcelona (Spain) created the Seminar methodology to tackle these challenges. A general model derived from the Emotional Intelligence concept and the general principles of this methodology…

  18. Students as Scholars: Evaluating Student-Led Learning and Teaching during Fieldwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvell, Alan; Simm, David; Schaaf, Rebecca; Harper, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Student-led teaching and learning is an innovative form of active learning that empowers students with direct ownership of the learning experience. Reporting on a final-year undergraduate field trip to Barcelona, Spain, peer-to-peer teaching is used to facilitate the acquisition of knowledge and uncover the processes that help create a sense of…

  19. Reasons for Older Adult Participation in University Programs in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villar, Feliciano; Triado, Carme; Pinazo, Sacramento; Celdran, Montserrat; Sole, Carme

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the reasons expressed by older adults for attending a university program in Barcelona (Spain). Results were based on the responses of 36 elders to questions from a semistructured interview. These were (a) reasons for joining a university course and (b) factors that prevent enrolling in that course. Participants mentioned more…

  20. Generic Competences in Higher Education: Studying Their Development in Undergraduate Social Science Studies by Means of a Specific Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallifa, Josep; Garriga, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    Research into the acquisition of generic competences was carried out with the undergraduate social science programmes offered by the Ramon Llull University, Barcelona (Spain). For these programmes an innovative methodology called "cross-course seminars" has been developed. Its focus is, amongst others, on developing generic competences. In the…

  1. A Comparative Study of the Seriousness Attributed to Disruptive Classroom Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotzens, Concepcion; Badia, Mar; Genovard, Candido; Dezcallar, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper we present a comparative analysis of three samples of teachers from Coimbra, Barcelona and Murcia that provides insight into the importance teachers attach to disruptive behavior and how different perspectives and values affect their daily work. Method: This research is framed within a quantitative empirical-analytic…

  2. Engaging Sacred Space: Experiments in the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    della Dora, Veronica

    2011-01-01

    This article reflects on the experience of theorizing sacred space through field practice as part of a fieldtrip to Barcelona. In particular, it focuses on the critical analysis of different approaches to sacred space as applied to various sites in the city. The article opens with a brief review of three mainstream approaches to sacred space: the…

  3. 77 FR 54612 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ODVA, INC.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ...) of the Act on February 15, 1996 (61 FR 6039). The last notification was filed with the Department on... May 24, 2012 (77 FR 31041). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division..., Malaysia; SERRA soldadura S.A.U., Barcelona, Spain; Tri-Tronics Company, Inc., Tampa, FL; IEP...

  4. Deconstructing Immigrant Girls' Identities through the Production of Visual Narratives in a Catalan Urban Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rifa-Valls, Montserrat

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the research findings of a deconstructive visual ethnography focused on the production of immigrant girls' identities will be analysed. This collaborative research project involved experimentation with a dialogic curriculum aimed at creating diverse identity narratives with immigrant girls at an urban primary school in Barcelona.…

  5. Humanizing Education: Critical Alternatives to Reform. Harvard Educational Review Reprint Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brion-Meisels, Gretchen, Ed.; Cooper, Kristy S., Ed.; Deckman, Sherry S., Ed.; Dobbs, Christina L., Ed.; Francois, Chantal, Ed.; Nikundiwe, Thomas, Ed.; Shalaby, Carla, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This collection of essays from the "Harvard Educational Review" offers historic examples of humanizing educational spaces, practices, and movements that embody a spirit of hope and change. From Dayton, Ohio, to Barcelona, Spain, this collection of essays from the "Harvard Educational Review" carries readers to places where…

  6. Role of Secondary Schools in the Face of Student Absenteeism: A Study of Schools in Socially Underprivileged Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Gracia, Maribel

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the reactions to absenteeism in public secondary schools in underprivileged areas of the city of Barcelona, Spain. The data presented are part of a doctoral thesis undertaken after the implementation of the Spanish comprehensive education reform (LOGSE) and they draw attention to important differences between schools. The study…

  7. Antonio Bayés de Luna - the man behind the BaMa ECG Symposia.

    PubMed

    Nikus, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    Since 2005 Professor Antonio Bayés de Luna and Dr Miquel Fiol have invited experts in electrocardiography to consensus meeting in Barcelona and Mallorca. The meetings have resulted in consensus papers related to different electrocardiography topics. An interview with Professor Bayés de Luna was conducted.

  8. The Best of Both Worlds: Adapting ESL Methodology to the EFL Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Mary C.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses how the Instituto de Estudios Norteamericanos (IEN) in Barcelona, Spain has successfully met the challenge of developing an approach to teaching English that is both in step with current American methodology, yet fits the culture and logistical circumstances of an overseas program. (Author/VWL)

  9. The Verbal System of Catalan Sign Language (LSC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales-Lopez, Esperanza; Boldu-Menasanch, Rosa Maria; Alonso-Rodriguez, Jesus Amador; Gras-Ferrer, Victoria; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Maria Angeles

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the predicative verbal system of Catalan Sign Language (LSC) as it is used by Deaf people in the province of Barcelona. We also present a historical perspective of the research on this topic, which provides insight into the changes that have taken place over the last few decades in sign language linguistics. The principal…

  10. La Verneda-Sant Martí Adult School: A Reference for Neighborhood Popular Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubert, Adrianna; Villarejo, Bea; Cabré, Joan; Santos, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: The Adult School of La Verneda Sant Martí, located in Barcelona, Spain, is a reference at the international level because of its trajectory and its contributions to the transformative movement in democratic education. The school was created in 1978 to address the demands of the working-class residents of the La Verneda…

  11. Partnership and Cooperation at Two Levels: Tele-Guidance in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veen, Wim; And Others

    This paper describes the experiences of four university teacher education institutions collaborating in an European Union-funded project called the REFLECT project: the Universities of Barcelona (Spain), Exeter (England), Trondheim (Norway), and Utrecht (Netherlands). The project s focus is on the development of reflective competencies in…

  12. Is the Personal Political? Chronotopes and Changing Stances toward Catalan Language and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolard, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    During the early catalanization of schooling in the Barcelona area in the 1980s, Castilian-speaking teenagers of working-class immigrant descent often struggled against Catalan language and identity. This longitudinal study followed a group of high-school classmates and found that as young adults, some but not all of the resistant working-class…

  13. The Spanish Civil War as Seen through Children's Drawings of the Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padrós Tuneu, Núria; Carrillo Flores, Isabel; Casanovas Prat, Josep; Prat Viñolas, Pilar; Tort Bardolet, Antoni; Gómez Mundó, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the most significant results to have emerged from the research process "Documentation, interpretation and digital diffusion of the educational patrimony produced in the period 1936-1939 in the schools of Barcelona: children's drawings". This research set out to analyse the drawings produced by the children of the…

  14. When Grandparents Have Dementia: Effects on Their Grandchildren's Family Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celdran, Montserrat; Villar, Feliciano; Triado, Carme

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to identify changes in adolescents' lives and in the relationships within the family when a family member has a dementia. Grandchildren living in Barcelona, Spain, participated in the study (N = 145). The data, based on both quantitative and qualitative information, showed that if the grandparent moved into the grandchildren's…

  15. Adoption of Preventive Measures and Attitudes toward the H1N1 Influenza Pandemic in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez, Anna; Rodríguez, Tània; López, Maria José; Continente, Xavier; Nebot, Manel

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study describes the perceived impact of H1N1 influenza and the adoption of the recommended measures to address the pandemic in schools. Methods: A cross-sectional self-reported survey was conducted in 433 schools in Barcelona addressed to the school principal or the H1N1 influenza designated person. A descriptive analysis was…

  16. CSF Amino Acids, Pterins and Mechanism of the Ketogenic Diet.

    PubMed

    Millichap, J Gordon

    2015-10-01

    Investigators from Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona, Spain, studied the relationship between the etiology of refractory childhood epilepsy, CSF neurotransmitters, pterins, and amino acids, and response to a ketogenic diet in 60 patients with refractory epilepsy, 83% focal and 52% idiopathic. PMID:26933537

  17. "A New World in Our Hearts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, John

    2009-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, Spain was a backward, rural country. Catalonia, by contrast, was industrialising rapidly. Catalan workers suffered from poor wages, worse conditions, exploited child and female labour, and unfit housing. In 1909 Barcelona erupted in a whole week of general strike and riots against the sending of Catalan reservists to…

  18. Learning Communities: When Learning in Common Means School Success for All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonso, Jesus Gomez

    2002-01-01

    Barcelona, Spain's Learning Communities project transforms schools and their context through a permanent, integral, and participatory education based on the communicative approach of social and educational sciences. It has the entire community involved in working toward the best school for all children. The work is grounded in dialogic and…

  19. Experiences of Serveis de Cultura Popular in the Field of Co-Production and Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuni, Lluis

    1992-01-01

    Describes efforts of Serveis de Cultura Popular, a nonprofit foundation in Barcelona (Spain), in the coproduction of educational videos. Highlights include contests that awarded prizes for completed videos, video scripts, or ideas for videos; coproduction with educational television; coproduction of an interactive videodisc; and international…

  20. Activity Report: "Escola de Cultura de Pau", the Laureate of the First Evens Prize for Peace Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delvou, Marjolein

    2011-01-01

    On March 18th 2011 an independent jury of experts convened in Antwerp, Belgium, to select the laureate of the first Evens Prize for Peace Education from a shortlist of eleven organizations from all over Europe. After a long day of intense discussions, the jury agreed unanimously to award the prize to the "Escola de Cultura de Pau" (Barcelona,…

  1. Linguistic Reception of Latin American Students in Catalonia and Their Responses to Educational Language Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Michael; Patino-Santos, Adriana; Trenchs-Parera, Mireia

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the connections between language policy implementation in three Barcelona-area secondary schools and the language attitudes and behaviors of Spanish-speaking Latin American newcomers. Data were collected through interviews and ethnographic participant observation document indexes of different forms of language socialization…

  2. Learning Outcomes for Sustainable Development in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svanstrom, Magdalena; Lozano-Garcia, Francisco J.; Rowe, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper sets out to discuss the commonalities that can be found in learning outcomes (LOs) for education for sustainable development in the context of the Tbilisi and Barcelona declarations. The commonalities include systemic or holistic thinking, the integration of different perspectives, skills such as critical thinking, change agent…

  3. A Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Course for Secondary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Novell, J. M.; Cid, E.; Gomis, R.; Barbera, A.; Guinovart, J. J.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a course for reinforcing the knowledge of biochemistry in secondary school science teachers. The Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of the University of Barcelona designed a course to bring these teachers up to date with this discipline. In addition to updating their knowledge of biochemistry and molecular…

  4. Continuous Assessment in a Large Group of Psychology Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Merce; Gotzens, Concepcion; Badia, Mar

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A continuous classroom assessment method was applied to a higher education course aimed at a large group of educational psychology students at the "Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona". Following the Bologna directions and the constructivist model, both declarative and procedural knowledge was taught in the module, and the students…

  5. Language versus Medium in the Study of Bilingual Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafaranga, Joseph; Torras i Calvo, Maria-Carme

    2001-01-01

    This study is based on bilingual conversations collected in two bilingual settings--service encounters in Barcelona and ordinary informal conversations among bilingual Rwandese in Belgium. Raises the question of whether the concept of language is a useful one in accounting for language choice acts among bilingual speakers. (Author/VWL)

  6. The Responses of Higher Education Institutions to Global Challenge: Innovative Universities and Human Resources Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parellada, Francesc Sole; Bertran, Josep Coll

    1999-01-01

    Describes the "Innova" project of the Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC) as an example of how a major regional university is attempting to apply new teaching models to enhance entrepreneurial culture in the area of Barcelona, Spain and thus to increase regional human capital. Discusses ways universities can contribute to the creation of…

  7. Education and Research Related to Organic Waste Management at Agricultural Engineering Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliva, Montserrat; Bernat, Carles; Gil, Emilio; Martinez, Xavier; Pujol, Miquel; Sabate, Josep; Valero, Jordi

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the experience of the Agriculture Engineering School of Barcelona (ESAB), where undergraduate students were involved in field research experiments on organic waste use in agricultural systems. Design/methodology/approach: The paper outlines how the formation of professionals oriented to work for…

  8. Trace element accumulation in the moss Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. and the trees Quercus ilex L. and Pinus halepensis Mill. in Catalonia.

    PubMed

    Sardans, Jordi; Peñuelas, Josep

    2005-09-01

    We studied trace element accumulation in the moss Hypnum cupressiforme and the widely distributed Mediterranean trees Quercus ilex and Pinus halepensis located at increasing distances from the Barcelona Metropolitan Area. Hypnum cupressiforme, Quercus ilex and, to a somewhat lesser extent, Pinus halepensis, have proved to be adequate as possible accumulative monitoring species in relation to trace elements pollution. No significant effects of crown orientation were found. One-year old leaves generally accumulated more trace elements than current-year leaves. All the studied trace elements showed greatest concentrations in the Barcelona Metropolitan Area, with lead, cadmium and arsenic concentrations being especially high. In general, trace element concentrations in biomass were similar or higher than the values reported from other Mediterranean urban areas of Europe. The top soil-layer concentrations were also higher in the Barcelona Metropolitan Area indicating the existence of mechanisms of atmospheric deposition and/or concentration in the soil. The lower values of Pb of airborne origin relative to other elements such as Cd, Cu, Zn and Sb suggest that traffic exhausts are not the only important focus of pollutants in this area. The results of biomass concentrations and of enrichment factor of biomasses respect to bedrock and soils show that atmospheric inputs account for the higher trace element concentrations in the Barcelona Metropolitan Area.

  9. Active Participation. An Analysis of Citizen Action among Young People in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Esther Luna; Rodriguez, Flor A. Cabrera

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a research project that has its origins in a broader research programme in Citizenship Education that is being undertaken by the intercultural education research group (GREDI) at the University of Barcelona. The programme, "From school to community," is intended to serve as a framework for teaching the process of active…

  10. Biosolids applications to tall fescue have long-term influence on soil nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Cogger, Craig G; Bary, Andy I; Myhre, Elizabeth A; Fortuna, Ann-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Repeated applications of biosolids provide long-term benefits by increasing soil organic matter and N supply but can cause excess accumulation of P. Our objective was to determine the residual effects of repeated surface applications of biosolids on N availability and fate, tall fescue ( Schreb.) response, soil C, and P. A field experiment was started in 1993 to compare two biosolids products, each applied at three rates (6.7, 13.4, and 20.1 Mg ha yr), with synthetic N fertilizer (0 and 403 kg N ha yr as ammonium nitrate). Treatments were surface applied for 10 yr, followed by a 9-yr residual period where all plots received a reduced rate of inorganic N (202 kg N ha yr). Annual measurements included forage yield, N uptake, and soil nitrate N. Soil samples collected in 2002 and 2011 were analyzed for total C and N and Bray-1 P. Cumulative apparent N recoveries in harvested grass (1993-2010) were 51% for biosolids N and 72% for ammonium nitrate. Net fall soil nitrate N summed for the period 1993-2002 ranged from <1 to 3% of N applied. The N applied that was accounted for in forage and soil averaged 74% for biosolids and 73% for ammonium nitrate. Soil C increased in the biosolids treatments, and the increase was equivalent to 27% of biosolids C. Bray-1 P remained at excessive levels (338-629 mg P kg soil) 9 yr after the last biosolids application.

  11. Fatal burns in Manipal area: a 10 year study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virendra; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar; Kanth, Sarita

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to record and evaluate the causes and the magnitude of the fatal burn injuries retrospectively. An analysis of autopsy records revealed 19.4% cases of burn injuries amongst the total autopsies done over 10years period (1993-2002) in the mortuary of the department of Forensic Medicine of Kasturba medical College, Manipal. The majority of deaths (78.5%) occurred between 11 and 40years of age group with preponderance of females (74.8%). The flame burns were seen in 94.1% of the victims followed by scalds and electrical burns in 2.8% and 2.5% cases, respectively. The majority of burn incidents were accidental (75.8%) in nature followed by suicidal (11.5%) and homicidal (3.1%) deaths. The percentage of burn (TBSA) over 40% were observed in most of the cases (92.5%). The majority of deaths occurred within a week (69.87%) and most the victims died because of septicemia (50.9%). PMID:17046310

  12. The impact of Australia's measles control programme over the past decade.

    PubMed

    Gidding, H F

    2005-02-01

    We reviewed measles surveillance data for 1993-2002 to determine the impact of Australia's measles control initiatives. The introduction of a second dose of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine for 10- to 16-year-olds in 1993 was followed by marked reductions in measles notifications and hospitalizations, especially in the targeted age group. Further rate reductions were achieved following the Measles Control Campaign (MCC) in 1998, which involved a catch-up campaign for primary-school-aged children and lowering the age for the second dose of MMR vaccine to 4 years. Since the MCC, outbreaks have continued to occur, but most had a source case who was infected overseas, which suggests that indigenous transmission has been interrupted. In addition, a greater proportion of cases have been in adults although infants aged < 5 years still had the highest rates. In conclusion, Australia is making good progress towards measles elimination. However, as in other countries, this progress can be sustained only by maintaining high vaccination coverage with the routine childhood vaccination schedule.

  13. Calcium, vitamin D, and dairy product intake and prostate cancer risk: the Multiethnic Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Yi; Murphy, Suzanne P; Wilkens, Lynne R; Stram, Daniel O; Henderson, Brian E; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2007-12-01

    High intakes of calcium and dairy products have been suggested to be related to prostate cancer risk. Such associations were examined in the Multiethnic Cohort Study (1993-2002) among 82,483 men who completed a detailed quantitative food frequency questionnaire. During a mean follow-up of 8 years, 4,404 total cases of prostate cancer were identified. In Cox proportional hazards models, no association was found between calcium and vitamin D intake and total, advanced, or high-grade prostate cancer risk, whether for total intake, intake from foods, or intake from supplements, among all male participants or among nonusers of supplemental calcium. No association of calcium or vitamin D intake was seen across racial/ethnic groups. In analyses of food groups, dairy product and total milk consumption were not associated with prostate cancer risk. However, low-/nonfat milk was related to an increased risk and whole milk to a decreased risk of total prostate cancer; after stratification, these effects were limited to localized or low-grade tumors. Although the findings from this study do not support an association between the intakes of calcium and vitamin D and prostate cancer risk, they do suggest that an association with milk consumption may vary by fat content, particularly for early forms of this cancer.

  14. Russian roulette and risk-taking behavior: a medical examiner study.

    PubMed

    Shields, Lisa B E; Hunsaker, John C; Stewart, Donna M

    2008-03-01

    Fatal Russian roulette refers to death following an act of extreme bravado in which the individual spins the cylinder of a revolver loaded with at least one cartridge, aims the muzzle at the head, and pulls the trigger. The majority of victims are men younger than 30 years who, in the presence of others, are under the influence of ethanol or other drugs. This is a 10-year (1993-2002) retrospective review of self-inflicted gunshot wounds of the head, among which we culled and paid special attention to cases of Russian roulette, at the Medical Examiners' Offices in Kentucky. Of the 24 incidents of Russian roulette, the majority of victims were white (79.2%), and all were men between 14 and 47 years with a mean age of 24.8 years. Compared with other cephalic firearm suicides, the subjects engaging in Russian roulette were significantly more likely to have elevated blood levels (> or = 0.1%) of ethanol along with various drugs detected in urine. Although the presumed intent of the risky act is to survive, Russian roulette is deemed to be suicide, which is based on a comprehensive understanding of the inherently deliberate, volitional actions of the decedent.

  15. Radar observations of the diurnal tide in the tropical mesosphere-lower thermosphere region: Longitudinal variabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurubaran, S.; Rajaram, R.; Nakamura, T.; Tsuda, T.; Riggin, D.; Vincent, R. A.

    2009-04-01

    Significant attention is being paid in recent times by several observational and modeling studies to quantify the spatial and temporal variabilities of diurnal tide in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region. These variabilities are ascribed to spatial and temporal variations in the tidal forcing or interactions between the propagating tides and background wind, planetary waves or gravity waves. The present work makes use of simultaneous ground-based radar wind observations of different durations from five equatorial/low latitude sites in the Indian, Indonesian and Pacific sectors: Tirunelveli (8.7°N, 77.8°E), Jakarta (6.4°S, 106.7°E), Pontianak (0.03°N, 109°E), Kauai (22°N, 160°W) and Christmas Island (2°N, 157°W). This study delineates the longitudinal differences in the tidal characteristics in (i) interannual time scales over Tirunelveli and Kauai during 1993-2002, (ii) seasonal time scales over Christmas Island, Jakarta and Tirunelveli for the years 1993-1997 and (iii) shorter than seasonal time scales over Christmas Island, Pontianak and Tirunelveli during 1996-1997. An important observational feature noticed in this work is the differing behavior of the long-term tidal fields over Tirunelveli and Kauai. The monthly tidal amplitudes over Tirunelveli reveal a strong QBO signature whereas a similar, strong QBO signal could not be traced in the long-term observations from Kauai.

  16. Decline of Yangtze River water and sediment discharge: Impact from natural and anthropogenic changes.

    PubMed

    Yang, S L; Xu, K H; Milliman, J D; Yang, H F; Wu, C S

    2015-01-01

    The increasing impact of both climatic change and human activities on global river systems necessitates an increasing need to identify and quantify the various drivers and their impacts on fluvial water and sediment discharge. Here we show that mean Yangtze River water discharge of the first decade after the closing of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) (2003-2012) was 67 km(3)/yr (7%) lower than that of the previous 50 years (1950-2002), and 126 km(3)/yr less compared to the relatively wet period of pre-TGD decade (1993-2002). Most (60-70%) of the decline can be attributed to decreased precipitation, the remainder resulting from construction of reservoirs, improved water-soil conservation and increased water consumption. Mean sediment flux decreased by 71% between 1950-1968 and the post-TGD decade, about half of which occurred prior to the pre-TGD decade. Approximately 30% of the total decline and 65% of the decline since 2003 can be attributed to the TGD, 5% and 14% of these declines to precipitation change, and the remaining to other dams and soil conservation within the drainage basin. These findings highlight the degree to which changes in riverine water and sediment discharge can be related with multiple environmental and anthropogenic factors. PMID:26206169

  17. Patterns of mercury deposition and concentration in northeastern North America (1996-2002).

    PubMed

    Vanarsdale, Alan; Weiss, Jeri; Keeler, Gerald; Miller, Eric; Boulet, Gille; Brulotte, Raynald; Poissant, Laurier

    2005-03-01

    Data from 13 National Atmospheric Deposition Program Mercury Monitor Network (NADP/ MDN) monitoring stations (1996-2002) and the Underhill (VT) event-based monitoring site (1993-2002) were evaluated for spatial and temporal trends. More precipitation and mercury deposition occurred in the southern and coastal MDN sites, except for the Underhill site, which received more mercury deposition than surrounding sites. Precipitation patterns varied. Regionally, higher concentrations of mercury were recorded during the late spring and summer months. Several sub-regional clusters of MDN sites were evident, based on mercury deposition patterns. In general, more mercury was deposited during the summer months. "Enhanced" weekly deposition (> 250 ng/m2) and distinct seasonal deposition patterns were evident at all MDN sites. Regionally, high depositional periods contributed significantly to annual loads (< 20%- approximately 60%). Southern and coastal sites measured more frequent periods of high deposition than inland sites. Spring and summer "enhanced" deposition may be important contributing factors to mercury bioaccumulation during the growing season. Recent regional reductions of mercury emissions were not reflected in the regional mercury concentration or deposition data. Few sites showed linear relations between the concentration of mercury in precipitation and acid rain co-contaminants (sulfates and nitrates).

  18. Global Warming 'Pause' - Oceans Reshuffle Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves, V.; Willis, J. K.; Patzert, W. C.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the fact that greenhouse gases are still increasing and all other indicators show warming-related change (+0.0064 °C/year since 1880 or +0.0077 °C/year during 1993-2002), surface temperatures stopped climbing steadily during the past decade at a rate of +0.0010 °C/year from 2003 to 2012. We show that in recent years, the heat was being trapped in the subsurface waters of the western Pacific and eastern Indian oceans between 100 and 300 m. The movement of warm Pacific water below the surface, also related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation climatic pattern, temporarily affected surface temperatures and accounted for the global cooling trend in surface temperature. With the Pacific Decadal Oscillation possibly changing to a warm phase, it is likely that the oceans will drive a major surge in global surface warming sometime in the next decade or two. Reference: Nieves, V., Willis, J. K., and Patzert, W. C. (2015). Recent hiatus caused by decadal shift in Indo-Pacific heating. Science, aaa4521.

  19. Double Standards in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Admay, Catherine; Shakow, Aaron; Keshavjee, Salmaan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The human rights arguments that underpinned the fight against HIV over the last three decades were poised, but ultimately failed, to provide a similar foundation for success against multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and other diseases of the poor. With more than 1.5 million deaths since 2000 attributed to strains of MDR-TB, and with half a million new, and mostly untreated, MDR-TB cases in the world each year, the stakes could not be higher. The World Health Organization (WHO), whose mandate is to champion the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health, recommended unsound medical treatment for MDR-TB patients in resource-poor settings from 1993-2002. Citing cost considerations, WHO did not recommend the available standard of care that had been successfully used to contain and defeat MDR-TB in rich countries. By acting as a strategic gatekeeper in its technical advisory role to donor agencies and countries, it also facilitated the global implementation of a double standard for TB care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), upending important legal and scientific priorities. This raises serious questions about whether the organization violated international human rights standards and those established in its own constitution. While calling for additional analysis and discussion on this topic, the authors propose that policymakers should reject double standards of this kind and instead embrace the challenge of implementing the highest standard of care on a global level. PMID:27781001

  20. Decline of Yangtze River water and sediment discharge: Impact from natural and anthropogenic changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S. L.; Xu, K. H.; Milliman, J. D.; Yang, H. F.; Wu, C. S.

    2015-07-01

    The increasing impact of both climatic change and human activities on global river systems necessitates an increasing need to identify and quantify the various drivers and their impacts on fluvial water and sediment discharge. Here we show that mean Yangtze River water discharge of the first decade after the closing of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) (2003-2012) was 67 km3/yr (7%) lower than that of the previous 50 years (1950-2002), and 126 km3/yr less compared to the relatively wet period of pre-TGD decade (1993-2002). Most (60-70%) of the decline can be attributed to decreased precipitation, the remainder resulting from construction of reservoirs, improved water-soil conservation and increased water consumption. Mean sediment flux decreased by 71% between 1950-1968 and the post-TGD decade, about half of which occurred prior to the pre-TGD decade. Approximately 30% of the total decline and 65% of the decline since 2003 can be attributed to the TGD, 5% and 14% of these declines to precipitation change, and the remaining to other dams and soil conservation within the drainage basin. These findings highlight the degree to which changes in riverine water and sediment discharge can be related with multiple environmental and anthropogenic factors.

  1. Forecast changes for heat and cold stress in Warsaw in the 21st century, and their possible influence on mortality risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Błażejczyk, Krzysztof; Idzikowska, Danuta; Błażejczyk, Anna

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research dealing with forecast changes in the frequency of occurrence of heat and cold stress in Warsaw (Poland) in the years 2001-2100, and the possible influence these may exert on mortality risk. Heat and cold stress were assessed by reference to the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTC I), for which values were calculated using meteorological data derived from the MPI-M-RE MO regional climate model, at a with spatial resolution of 25 × 25 km. The simulations used boundary conditions from the EC HAMP5 Global Climate Model, for SRES scenario A1B. Predictions of mortality rate were in turn based on experimental epidemiological data from the period 1993-2002. Medical data consist of daily numbers of deaths within the age category above 64 years (TM64+). It proved possible to observe a statistically significant relationship between UTC I and mortality rates, this serving as a basis for predicting possible changes in mortality in the 21st century due to changing conditions as regards heat and cold stress.

  2. Forecast changes for heat and cold stress in Warsaw in the 21st century, and their possible influence on mortality risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Błażejczyk, Krzysztof; Idzikowska, Danuta; Błażejczyk, Anna

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research dealing with forecast changes in the frequency of occurrence of heat and cold stress in Warsaw (Poland) in the years 2001-2100, and the possible influence these may exert on mortality risk. Heat and cold stress were assessed by reference to the U niversal T hermal C limate I ndex (UTC I), for which values were calculated using meteorological data derived from the MPI-M-RE MO regional climate model, at a with spatial resolution of 25 × 25 km. The simulations used boundary conditions from the EC HAMP5 Global Climate Model, for SRES scenario A1B. Predictions of mortality rate were in turn based on experimental epidemiological data from the period 1993-2002. Medical data consist of daily numbers of deaths within the age category above 64 years (TM64+). It proved possible to observe a statistically significant relationship between UTC I and mortality rates, this serving as a basis for predicting possible changes in mortality in the 21st century due to changing conditions as regards heat and cold stress.

  3. Emissions of air pollutants from road transport in Lebanon and other countries in the Middle East region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waked, Antoine; Afif, Charbel

    2012-12-01

    Road transport is a major contributor to pollutant emissions in the Middle East region (MEA). Emissions originating from this sector have a significant impact on the atmosphere, health and the climate change. Identification and quantification of these emissions in this region is of great importance in order to develop emissions reductions strategies. For this purpose and because a detailed emission inventory for road transport is nonexistent for Lebanon (a small developing country in the MEA region) and for its capital city Beirut, a spatially-resolved and temporally-allocated emission inventory for road transport was developed for Lebanon and for the city of Beirut using a bottom-up approach where possible. In order to compare emissions between developed and non-developed cities on the Mediterranean basin, road transport emissions originating in normal (February-June and September-November) and touristic periods (July-August and December-January) were compared between Beirut, Barcelona and Athens, respectively. The comparison obtained between Beirut, Barcelona and Athens showed that emissions per capita for CO and SO2 are highest in Beirut while emissions of particulate matter were highest in Barcelona. The different patterns between these cities showed that emissions increases in winter in Beirut and Barcelona (11 and 9% respectively) and decreases in the city of Athens by 9%. In summer, an increase of 15% in traffic intensities is observed in Athens while in Beirut and Barcelona, traffic intensities decrease by 10 and 40% respectively. At a national level, emissions were calculated for 14 countries in the MEA in order to inter compare them with those of Lebanon. The results show that in the MEA, the highest contributors to total carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions (78 and 79% respectively), are countries having a population that exceeds 20 million inhabitants such as Iran, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Turkey and Egypt. For Lebanon, emissions per

  4. Organic, elemental and inorganic carbon in particulate matter of six urban environments in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillanpää, M.; Frey, A.; Hillamo, R.; Pennanen, A. S.; Salonen, R. O.

    2005-11-01

    A series of 7-week sampling campaigns were conducted in urban background sites of six European cities as follows: Duisburg (autumn), Prague (winter), Amsterdam (winter), Helsinki (spring), Barcelona (spring) and Athens (summer). The campaigns were scheduled to include seasons of local public health concern due to high particulate concentrations or findings in previously conducted epidemiological studies. Aerosol samples were collected in parallel with two identical virtual impactors that divide air particles into fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) size ranges. From the collected filter samples, elemental (EC) and organic (OC) carbon contents were analysed with a thermal-optical carbon analyser (TOA); total Ca, Ti, Fe, Si, Al and K by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF); As, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS); Ca2+, succinate, malonate and oxalate by ion chromatography (IC); and the sum of levoglucosan+galactosan+mannosan (∑MA) by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The campaign means of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were 8.3-29.6 µg m-3 and 5.4-28.7 µg m-3, respectively. The contribution of particulate organic matter (POM) to PM2.5 ranged from 21% in Barcelona to 54% in Prague, while that to PM2.5-10 ranged from 10% in Barcelona to 27% in Prague. The contribution of EC was higher to PM2.5 (5-9%) than to PM2.5-10 (1-6%) in all the six campaigns. Carbonate (C(CO3), that interferes with the TOA analysis, was detected in PM2.5-10 of Athens and Barcelona but not elsewhere. It was subtracted from the OC by a simple integration method that was validated. The CaCO3 accounted for 55% and 11% of PM2.5-10 in Athens and Barcelona, respectively. It was anticipated that combustion emissions from vehicle engines affected the POM content in PM2.5 of all the six sampling campaigns, but a comparison of mass concentration ratios of the selected inorganic and organic tracers of common sources of organic material to POM suggested

  5. Lively Earthquake Activity in North-Eastern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Tine B.; Dahl-Jensen, Trine; Voss, Peter H.

    2016-04-01

    The seismograph at the Danish military outpost, Station Nord (NOR) in North East Greenland, records many regional/local earthquakes every day. Most of these events originate at the Arctic plate boundary between the Eurasian and the North American plates. The plate boundary has a particularly active segment approximately 200 km from the seismograph. Additionally we find a seismically very active region 20-30 km from NOR on the Kronprins Christian Land peninsula. The BB seismograph at NOR was installed in 2002 and later upgraded with real-time telemetry as part of the GLISN-project. Since late 2013 data from NOR have been included in routine processing at GEUS. Phase readings on some of the older data, primarily 2002-2003, have been carried out previously in connection with other projects. As a result, phase readings for more than 6000 local events, recorded exclusively at NOR, were found in the GEUS data base. During the years 2004 to 2007 four locations were occupied by temporary BB seismographs on the North coast of Greenland as part of the Law of the Sea preparatory work. Data from these stations have not previously been analyzed for local and regional events. In this study we combine the recordings from NOR with phase readings from the temporary seismographs in Northern Greenland. The local events on Kronprins Christian Land range in magnitude from less than 2 to a 4.8 event widely recorded in the region and felt by the personnel at Station Nord on August 30, 2005. Station Nord is located in the seismically most active region of Greenland.

  6. Integrated care

    PubMed Central

    Gröne, Oliver; Garcia-Barbero, Mila

    2001-01-01

    Abstract The WHO European Office for Integrated Health Care Services in Barcelona is an integral part of the World Health Organizations' Regional Office for Europe. The main purpose of the Barcelona office is within the integration of services to encourage and facilitate changes in health care services in order to promote health and improve management and patient satisfaction by working for quality, accessibility, cost-effectiveness and participation. This position paper outlines the need for Integrated Care from a European perspective, provides a theoretical framework for the meaning of Integrated Care and its strategies and summarizes the programmes of the office that will support countries in the WHO European Region to improve health services. PMID:16896400

  7. International Mass Spectrometry Society (IMSS).

    PubMed

    Cooks, R G; Gelpi, E; Nibbering, N M

    2001-02-01

    This paper gives a brief description of the recently formalized International Mass Spectrometry Society (IMSS). It is presented here in order to increase awareness of the opportunities for collaboration in mass spectrometry in an international context. It also describes the recent 15th International Mass Spectrometry Conference, held August/September 2000, in Barcelona. Each of the authors is associated with the IMSS. The 15th Conference, which covers all of mass spectrometry on a triennial basis, was chaired by Professor Emilio Gelpi of the Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Barcelona. The outgoing and founding President of the IMSS is Professor Graham Cooks, Purdue University, and the incoming President is Professor Nico Nibbering, University of Amsterdam. Similar material has been provided to the Editors of other journals that cover mass spectrometry.

  8. Cell scientist to watch - Meritxell Huch.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    After completing her BSc in pharmacology at University of Barcelona, Spain, Meritxell Huch pursued her PhD in the laboratory of Cristina Fillat at the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG) in Barcelona. Wanting to move into more basic research, Meri trained as a postdoc with Hans Clevers at the Hubrecht Institute in the Netherlands. In her postdoctoral research, she successfully established a liver organoid culture that earned her the National Centre for Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) prize in 2013. Meri joined the Gurdon Institute in February 2014 and is currently a Wellcome Trust Sir Henry Dale Research Fellow. She is interested in the mechanisms responsible for adult tissue regeneration in the liver and the pancreas, particularly in identifying stem cell populations that respond to damage and the intracellular mechanisms regulating their activation. PMID:27505425

  9. Conference report: moving forward together: "we are making progress".

    PubMed

    van Dongen, William D; Renfurm, Luuk C

    2014-05-01

    The 6th European Bioanalysis Forum Open Meeting 20-22 November 2013, Hesperia Tower Hotel, Barcelona, Spain At the 6th European Bioanalysis Forum Open Meeting, held from 20-22 November 2013 in Hesperia Tower Hotel, Barcelona, Spain, bioanalytical experts from pharmaceutical industry, academia, contract laboratories and regulatory bodies discussed current topics of interest in bioanalysis. 450 delegates from more than 170 institutes and companies participated in 75 open and stimulating presentations regarding the new US FDA Guidance for industry, technology updates, including liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of proteins and antibody-drug conjugates, dried blood spots, sampling and extraction and regulatory aspects of, for example, flow cytometry, parallelism, and interferences in ligand-binding assays. This article aims to provide an overview of the highlights discussed at the meeting. PMID:24946916

  10. Cell scientist to watch - Meritxell Huch.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    After completing her BSc in pharmacology at University of Barcelona, Spain, Meritxell Huch pursued her PhD in the laboratory of Cristina Fillat at the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG) in Barcelona. Wanting to move into more basic research, Meri trained as a postdoc with Hans Clevers at the Hubrecht Institute in the Netherlands. In her postdoctoral research, she successfully established a liver organoid culture that earned her the National Centre for Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) prize in 2013. Meri joined the Gurdon Institute in February 2014 and is currently a Wellcome Trust Sir Henry Dale Research Fellow. She is interested in the mechanisms responsible for adult tissue regeneration in the liver and the pancreas, particularly in identifying stem cell populations that respond to damage and the intracellular mechanisms regulating their activation.

  11. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2002-09-01

    Jeunes étoiles et vieilles galaxies; Chiens de Chasse; Des images en partie belges; Détection chimique de planètes?; Amas cannibale; Le pulsar œil de bœuf; Supernova 2002 DJ; Centaurus A; Et de cent; Près du trou noir; Un cratère sous la Merdu Nord; Des astéroï des frôlent la Terre; Photons fatigués; Taches solaires; Un grand lac martien; Les naines brunes en infrarouge; Bourrelet équatorial; Fusion de trous noirs; Le hamburger de Gomez; Matière sombre; Non aux étoiles à quarks

  12. [Organ allocation. Ethical issues].

    PubMed

    Cattorini, P

    2010-01-01

    The criteria for allocating organs are one of the most debated ethical issue in the transplantation programs. The article examines some rules and principles followed by "Nord Italia Transplant program", summarized in its Principles' Charter and explained in a recent interdisciplinary book. General theories of justice and their application to individual clinical cases are commented and evaluated, in order to foster a public, democratic, transparent debate among professionals and citizens, scientific associations and customers' organizations. Some specific moral dilemmas are focused regarding the concepts of proportionate treatment, unselfish donation by living persons, promotion of local institutions efficiency. PMID:20677677

  13. Heterogeneity of European DRG systems and potentials for a common EuroDRG system Comment on "Cholecystectomy and Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRGs): patient classification and hospital reimbursement in 11 European countries".

    PubMed

    Geissler, Alexander; Quentin, Wilm; Busse, Reinhard

    2015-05-01

    Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) systems across Europe are very heterogeneous, in particular because of different classification variables and algorithms as well as costing methodologies. But, given the challenge of increasing patient mobility within Europe, health systems are forced to incorporate a common patient classification language in order to compare and identify similar patients e.g. for reimbursement purposes. Beside the national adoption of DRGs for a wide range of purposes (measuring hospital activity vs. paying hospitals), a common DRG system can serve as an international communication basis among health administrators and can reduce the national development efforts as it is demonstrated by the NordDRG consortium. PMID:25905484

  14. Heterogeneity of European DRG systems and potentials for a common EuroDRG system Comment on "Cholecystectomy and Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRGs): patient classification and hospital reimbursement in 11 European countries".

    PubMed

    Geissler, Alexander; Quentin, Wilm; Busse, Reinhard

    2015-03-05

    Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) systems across Europe are very heterogeneous, in particular because of different classification variables and algorithms as well as costing methodologies. But, given the challenge of increasing patient mobility within Europe, health systems are forced to incorporate a common patient classification language in order to compare and identify similar patients e.g. for reimbursement purposes. Beside the national adoption of DRGs for a wide range of purposes (measuring hospital activity vs. paying hospitals), a common DRG system can serve as an international communication basis among health administrators and can reduce the national development efforts as it is demonstrated by the NordDRG consortium.

  15. Les rivières et les sources de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac: extrait du rapport sur les eaux souterraines de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C.; Lemoine, Rémy C.

    1949-01-01

    Les principales rivières de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac, la Rivière Grise ou Grande Rivière du Cul-de-Sac et la Rivière Blanche, prennent naissance sur le flanc Nord du Massif de la Selle à des altitudes de 1,300 à 1,800 mètres au dessus du niveau de la mer. Elles coulent à l’amont à travers des gorges profondes et sont éloignées de 9 Kms. dans la partie central de la bordure Sud de la plaine.

  16. Common murre restoration monitoring in the Barren Islands, Alaska, 1993. Restoration project 93049. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Roseneau, D.G.; Kettle, A.B.; Byrd, G.V.

    1995-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of the second year of common murre (Uria aalge) restoration monitoring work conducted in the northern Gulf of Alaska for the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council. Information on population numbers, nesting chronology, and productivity of murres were collected by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) biologists at the injured East of Amatuli Island - Light Rock and Nord Island - Northwest Islet colonies in the Barren Islands during the 1993 breeding season. These data are presented and statistically compared with information reported in the 1989-1992 FWS murre damage assessment and restoration studies.

  17. Heterogeneity of European DRG systems and potentials for a common EuroDRG system

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Alexander; Quentin, Wilm; Busse, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) systems across Europe are very heterogeneous, in particular because of different classification variables and algorithms as well as costing methodologies. But, given the challenge of increasing patient mobility within Europe, health systems are forced to incorporate a common patient classification language in order to compare and identify similar patients e.g. for reimbursement purposes. Beside the national adoption of DRGs for a wide range of purposes (measuring hospital activity vs. paying hospitals), a common DRG system can serve as an international communication basis among health administrators and can reduce the national development efforts as it is demonstrated by the NordDRG consortium. PMID:25905484

  18. Kyste hydatique du foie compliqué d'un accident vasculaire cérébral ischémique: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Turki, Olfa; Bahloul, Mabrouk; Chtara, Kamilia; Regaieg, Kais; Haddar, Sondes; Bouaziz, Mounir

    2015-01-01

    Le kyste hydatique du foie (KHF) est une maladie assez répandue dans les pays nord-africains. La rupture post-traumatique ou spontanée du kyste compliquée d'un choc anaphylactique et d'un AVC ischémique a été exceptionnellement rapportée. Nous rapportons un cas d'un kyste hydatique du foie (KHF) fissuré et compliqué d'un choc anaphylactique et d'un AVC ischémique. PMID:26985273

  19. [A community program to stimulate smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Villalbí, J R; Ballestín, M; Surós, C; de Miguel-Blondel, E; Cabello, R

    1992-01-01

    A community program to stimulate smoking cessation developed on the 1988 World No-smoking Day in the city of Barcelona (Spain) is presented. Participants in this program could make a written commitment to quit, and received support materials by mail. The results are evaluated in a sample of participants: 69% declare having quit on the specified date, and 29% do not smoke after one year.

  20. [Diagnosis and treatment of bladder schistosomiasis from penitentiary primary care: case report].

    PubMed

    Bedoya del Campillo, A; Martínez-Carpio, P A; Leal, M J; Lleopart, N

    2012-01-01

    We describe a case of a patient from Senegal with voiding symptoms and microscopic hematuria diagnosed and treated for bladder schistosomiasis in the medical services of the Youth Prison in Barcelona. According to our information in the Medline database no bladder schistosomiasis cases have been seen in primary care outside endemic areas. Patients can be diagnosed and treated before referral to specialized care for further study of possible complications. PMID:22801651

  1. Middle Palaeolithic refugium, or archaeological misconception? A new U-Series and radiocarbon chronology of Abric Agut (Capellades, Spain)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaquero, Manola; Esteban, M.; Allue, E.; Vallverdu, J.; Carbonell, E.; Bischoff, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    New U-Series and C14 (AMS) dates are provided for the Abric Agut (Capellades, Barcelona, Spain). This site was previously considered to be of Middle Palaeolithic age according to the characteristics of the lithic assemblage. In addition, human teeth were uncovered and attributed to neandertals. However, radiometric dating clearly indicates a Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene age. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Seasonal and spatial variation of organic tracers for biomass burning in PM1 aerosols from highly insolated urban areas.

    PubMed

    van Drooge, B L; Fontal, M; Bravo, N; Fernández, P; Fernández, M A; Muñoz-Arnanz, J; Jiménez, B; Grimalt, J O

    2014-10-01

    PM1 aerosol characterization on organic tracers for biomass burning (levoglucosan and its isomers and dehydroabietic acid) was conducted within the AERTRANS project. PM1 filters (N = 90) were sampled from 2010 to 2012 in busy streets in the urban centre of Madrid and Barcelona (Spain) at ground-level and at roof sites. In both urban areas, biomass burning was not expected to be an important local emission source, but regional emissions from wildfires, residential heating or biomass removal may influence the air quality in the cities. Although both areas are under influence of high solar radiation, Madrid is situated in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, while Barcelona is located at the Mediterranean Coast and under influence of marine atmospheres. Two extraction methods were applied, i.e. Soxhlet and ASE, which showed equivalent results after GC-MS analyses. The ambient air concentrations of the organic tracers for biomass burning increased by an order of magnitude at both sites during winter compared to summer. An exception was observed during a PM event in summer 2012, when the atmosphere in Barcelona was directly affected by regional wildfire smoke and levels were four times higher as those observed in winter. Overall, there was little variation between the street and roof sites in both cities, suggesting that regional biomass burning sources influence the urban areas after atmospheric transport. Despite the different atmospheric characteristics in terms of air relative humidity, Madrid and Barcelona exhibit very similar composition and concentrations of biomass burning organic tracers. Nevertheless, levoglucosan and its isomers seem to be more suitable for source apportionment purposes than dehydroabietic acid. In both urban areas, biomass burning contributions to PM were generally low (2 %) in summer, except on the day when wildfire smoke arrive to the urban area. In the colder periods the contribution increase to around 30 %, indicating that regional

  3. Cocaine use among heroin users in Spain: the diffusion of crack and cocaine smoking. Spanish Group for the Study on the Route of Administration of Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Barrio, G.; De la Fuente, L.; Royuela, L.; Diaz, A.; Rodriguez-Artalej..., F.

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and patterns of use of crack and cocaine hydrochloride among heroin users in Spain. To explore if the expansion of heroin smoking is accompanied by a similar phenomenon for cocaine. DESIGN: Cross sectional study in 1995. Face to face interviews using a structured questionnaire. SETTING: Three cities with different prevalences of heroin use by smoking: high (Seville), intermediate (Madrid), and low (Barcelona). PARTICIPANTS: 909 heroin users, 452 in treatment and 457 out of treatment. MAIN RESULTS: Last month prevalence of crack use was 62.3% in Seville, 19.4% in Madrid, and 7.7% in Barcelona. Most users in Madrid (86.5%) and Barcelona (100%) generally prepared their own crack, usually with ammonia as alkali; in Seville most users (69.7%) bought preprocessed crack. The proportion of users who began taking cocaine (crack or cocaine hydrochloride) by smoking has increased progressively since the seventies, rising to 74.1% in Seville, 61.5% in Madrid, and 28% in Barcelona in 1992-1995, with the earliest increase in Seville. The factors associated with crack use were: residence in Seville (odds ratio (OR) = 16.3), cocaine hydrochloride use mainly by smoking (OR = 5.0), by sniffing (OR = 2.7) or by injecting (OR = 2.5), heroin use mainly by smoking (OR = 2.8) and weekly use of cannabis (OR = 1.9). CONCLUSIONS: In Spain smoking cocaine may be progressively diffusing from the south west to the north east, similar to what has happened with smoking heroin, but beginning later in time. The factors associated with smoking cocaine are basically ecological or cultural in nature (characteristics of the available drugs and the main route of heroin administration in each city).   PMID:9616422

  4. Assessing the effects of the Spanish partial smoking ban on cardiovascular and respiratory diseases: methodological issues

    PubMed Central

    Galán, Iñaki; Simón, Lorena; Flores, Víctor; Ortiz, Cristina; Fernández-Cuenca, Rafael; Linares, Cristina; Boldo, Elena; José Medrano, María; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent research has assessed the impact of tobacco laws on cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity. In this study, we also examined whether the association between the implementation of the 2005 Spanish smoking ban and hospital admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases varies according to the adjustment for potential confounders. Design Ecological time series analysis. Setting Residents of Madrid and Barcelona cities (Spain). Outcome Data on daily emergency room admissions for acute myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and asthma derived from the 2003–2006 Spanish hospital admissions registry. Methods Changes in admission rates between 2006 and the 2003–2005 period were estimated using additive Poisson models allowing for overdispersion adjusted for secular trend in admission, seasonality, day of the week, temperature, number of flu and acute respiratory infection cases, pollution levels, tobacco consumption prevalence and, for asthma cases, pollen count. Results In Madrid, fully adjusted models failed to detect significant changes in hospital admission rates for any disease during the study period. In Barcelona, however, hospital admissions decreased by 10.2% (95% CI 3.8% to 16.1%) for cerebrovascular diseases and by 16.0% (95% CI 7.0% to 24.1%) for COPD. Substantial changes in effect estimates were observed on adjustment for linear or quadratic trend. Effect estimates for asthma-related admissions varied substantially when adjusting for pollen count in Madrid, and for seasonality and tobacco consumption in Barcelona. Conclusions Our results confirm that the potential impact of a smoking ban must be adjusted for the underlying secular trend. In asthma-related admissions, pollen count, seasonality and tobacco consumption must be specified in the model. The substantial variability in effects detected between the two cities of Madrid and Barcelona lends strong support for a

  5. Bridging knowledge: reflections on crossing the boundaries between long-term care and support

    PubMed Central

    McDaid, David; Cieza, Alarcos; Gomez, Ana Rico

    2009-01-01

    In March 2009 members of the research, policy and practice communities in the fields of ageing and disability came together in Barcelona for the first international conference on bridging knowledge in long-term care and support. This paper presents a brief snapshot of some of the key themes and ideas that emerged during three days of presentation and debate on methods, policy and practice. PMID:19590760

  6. Seasonal and spatial variation of organic tracers for biomass burning in PM1 aerosols from highly insolated urban areas.

    PubMed

    van Drooge, B L; Fontal, M; Bravo, N; Fernández, P; Fernández, M A; Muñoz-Arnanz, J; Jiménez, B; Grimalt, J O

    2014-10-01

    PM1 aerosol characterization on organic tracers for biomass burning (levoglucosan and its isomers and dehydroabietic acid) was conducted within the AERTRANS project. PM1 filters (N = 90) were sampled from 2010 to 2012 in busy streets in the urban centre of Madrid and Barcelona (Spain) at ground-level and at roof sites. In both urban areas, biomass burning was not expected to be an important local emission source, but regional emissions from wildfires, residential heating or biomass removal may influence the air quality in the cities. Although both areas are under influence of high solar radiation, Madrid is situated in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, while Barcelona is located at the Mediterranean Coast and under influence of marine atmospheres. Two extraction methods were applied, i.e. Soxhlet and ASE, which showed equivalent results after GC-MS analyses. The ambient air concentrations of the organic tracers for biomass burning increased by an order of magnitude at both sites during winter compared to summer. An exception was observed during a PM event in summer 2012, when the atmosphere in Barcelona was directly affected by regional wildfire smoke and levels were four times higher as those observed in winter. Overall, there was little variation between the street and roof sites in both cities, suggesting that regional biomass burning sources influence the urban areas after atmospheric transport. Despite the different atmospheric characteristics in terms of air relative humidity, Madrid and Barcelona exhibit very similar composition and concentrations of biomass burning organic tracers. Nevertheless, levoglucosan and its isomers seem to be more suitable for source apportionment purposes than dehydroabietic acid. In both urban areas, biomass burning contributions to PM were generally low (2 %) in summer, except on the day when wildfire smoke arrive to the urban area. In the colder periods the contribution increase to around 30 %, indicating that regional

  7. Injecting and HIV prevalence among young heroin users in three Spanish cities and their association with the delayed implementation of harm reduction programmes

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Luis; Bravo, María José; Toro, Carlos; Brugal, M Teresa; Barrio, Gregorio; Soriano, Vicente; Vallejo, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate changes in the prevalence of HIV infection among young heroin users in three Spanish cities, and their association with harm reduction programmes (HRPs). Methods Two cross sectional studies. The 1995 study included 596 users; half were street recruited and half were recruited at drug treatment centres. The 2001–03 study included 981 street recruited users. Face to face interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire. Samples for HIV testing (saliva in 1995 and dried blood spot in 2001–03) were collected. Results The proportion who had ever injected (IDUs) decreased in all three cities. HIV prevalence in IDUs decreased by half in Barcelona (44.1% to 20.8%) and Seville (44.2% to 22.2%), but remained constant in Madrid (36.8% and 34.9%). This difference was attributable to a decrease in HIV prevalence in long term IDUs in Barcelona and Seville, but not in Madrid. The crude odds ratio for HIV prevalence in Madrid compared with Barcelona in long term IDUs was 2.3 (95%CI 1.4 to 3.7), increasing to 3.1 (95%CI 1.5 to 6.2) after adjusting for sociodemographic and risk factors. HIV prevalence in short term IDUs was similar in all cities. In 1992 Barcelona already had 20 heroin users in methadone maintenance programmes (MMPs) per 10 000 population aged 15–49 years; Seville reached this rate in 1994, and Madrid, not until 1998. Conclusions The prevalence of HIV infection did not decrease in long term injectors in Madrid. The delayed implementation of HRPs, especially MMPs, may be the most plausible hypothesis. This finding should shed light on decision making in countries in a similar epidemiological and sociological situation. PMID:16698987

  8. Measuring the performance of urban healthcare services: results of an international experience

    PubMed Central

    García‐Altés, Anna; Borrell, Carme; Coté, Louis; Plaza, Aina; Benet, Josep; Guarga, Alex

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to apply a framework for country‐level performance assessment to the cities of Montreal, Canada, and Barcelona, Spain, and to use this framework to explore and understand the differences in their health systems. The UK National Health Service Performance Assessment Framework was chosen. Its indicators went through a process of selection, adaptation and prioritisation. Most of them were calculated for the period 2001–3, with data obtained from epidemiological, activity and economic registries. Montreal has a higher number of old people living alone and with limitations on performing one or more activities of daily life, as well as longer hospital stays for several conditions, especially in the case of elderly patients. This highlights a lack of mid‐term, long‐term and home care services. Diabetes‐avoidable hospitalisation rates are also significant in Montreal, and are likely to improve following reforms in primary care. Efficient health policies such as generic drug prescription and major ambulatory surgery are lower in Barcelona. Rates of caesarean deliveries are higher in Barcelona, owing to demographics and clinical practice. Waiting times for knee arthroplasty are longer in Barcelona, which has triggered a plan to reduce them. In both cities, avoidable mortality and the prevalence of smoking have been identified as areas for improvement through preventive services. In conclusion, performance assessment fits perfectly in an urban context, as it has been shown to be a useful tool in designing and monitoring the accomplishment of programmes in both cities, to assess the performance of the services delivered, and for use in policy development. PMID:17699533

  9. A biochemistry and molecular biology course for secondary school teachers*.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Novell, J M; Cid, E; Gomis, R; Barberà, A; Guinovart, J J

    2004-11-01

    This article describes a course for reinforcing the knowledge of biochemistry in secondary school science teachers. The Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of the University of Barcelona designed a course to bring these teachers up to date with this discipline. In addition to updating their knowledge of biochemistry and molecular biology, this course aims to provide teachers with a set of relevant laboratory practices that can be applied in their practical lessons.

  10. Salmonella enterica Serovar Virchow with CTX-M-Like β-Lactamase in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Simarro, Encarna; Navarro, Ferrán; Ruiz, Joaquín; Miró, Elisenda; Gómez, Joaquín; Mirelis, Beatriz

    2000-01-01

    Four Salmonella enterica serovar Virchow strains resistant to broad-spectrum cephalosporins were isolated from patients with gastroenteritis in 1997 and 1998 in Murcia and Barcelona, Spain. The isolates expressed a β-lactamase with a pI of about 8 and a positive PCR when specific primers for CTX-M-9 were used. These results suggest the presence of a CTX-M-9 β-lactamase in these strains. PMID:11101623

  11. Dental treatment under general anesthesia in a group of patients with cerebral palsy and a group of healthy pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Escanilla-Casal, Alejandro; Aznar-Gómez, Mirella; Viaño, José M.; Rivera-Baró, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    This is a comparative study between two groups, one of healthy children and the other of children with cerebral palsy, which underwent dental treatment under general anesthesia at Hospital Sant Joan de Déu Barcelona. The purpose of the study was to compare and determine oral pathology, frequency, severity and postoperative complications in pediatric patients with and without an underlying disease which undergo a dental treatment under general anesthesia. Key words:General anesthesia, cerebral palsy, pediatric patients. PMID:24608223

  12. Origin of fine carbonaceous particulate matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin: fossil versus modern sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz Minguillón, María.; Perron, Nolwenn; Querol, Xavier; Szidat, Sönke; Fahrni, Simon; Wacker, Lukas; Reche, Cristina; Cusack, Michael; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2010-05-01

    The present work was carried out in the frame of the international field campaign DAURE (Determination of the sources of atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and Rural Environments in the western Mediterranean). The objective of this campaign is to study the aerosol pollution episodes occurring at regional scale during winter and summer in the Western Mediterranean Basin. As part of this campaign, this work focuses on identifying the origin of fine carbonaceous aerosols. To this end, fine particulate matter (PM1) samples were collected during two different seasons (February-March and July 2009) at two sites: an urban site (Barcelona, NE Spain) and a rural European Supersite for Atmospheric Aerosol Research (Montseny, NE Spain). Subsequently, 14C analyses were carried out on these samples, both in the elemental carbon (EC) fraction and the organic carbon (OC) fraction, in order to distinguish between modern carbonaceous sources (biogenic emissions and biomass burning emissions) and fossil carbonaceous sources (mainly road traffic). Preliminary results from the winter period show that 40% of the OC at Barcelona has a fossil origin whereas at Montseny this percentage is 30%. These values can be considered as unexpected given the nature of the sites. Nevertheless, the absolute concentrations of fossil OC at Barcelona and Montseny differ by a factor of 2 (the first being higher), since the total OC at Montseny is lower than at Barcelona. Further evaluation of results and comparison with other measurements carried out during the campaign are required to better evaluate the origin of the fine carbonaceous matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Acknowledgements: Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for a Postdoctoral Grant awarded to M.C. Minguillón in the frame of Programa Nacional de Movilidad de Recursos Humanos del Plan nacional de I-D+I 2008-2011. Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for the Acción Complementaria DAURE CGL2007-30502-E/CLI.

  13. (Automation in the clinical laboratory and drug testing programs in the workplace)

    SciTech Connect

    Burtis, C.

    1990-10-17

    The traveler chaired a session on Laboratory Robotics at 4th International Congress on Automation in the Clinical Laboratory. In addition, the traveler chaired a session on Drugs-of-Abuse at 2nd International Congress of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Toxicology. In this session, the traveler also presented a paper entitled Development, Implementation and Management of a Drug Testing Program in the Workplace.'' These two Congress were run concurrently in the Congress Center in Barcelona, Spain.

  14. The seismicity in Kenya (East Africa) for the period 1906-2010: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulwa, J. K.; Kimata, F.; Suzuki, S.; Kuria, Z. N.

    2014-01-01

    Kenya has had a seismic station since 1963 as part of the World Wide Standardized Seismograph Network (WWSSN). In 1990, the University of Nairobi in collaboration with GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ) started to build up a local seismological network, the Kenya National Seismic Network (KNSN), which operated for about ten years between 1993-2002. This, however, experienced a myriad of problems ranging from equipment breakdown, vandalism and lack of spares. Kenya is seismically active since the Kenya rift valley traverses through the country from north to south bisecting the country into eastern and western regions. In the central part, the Kenya rift branches to form the NW-SE trending Kavirondo (Nyanza) rift. The Kenya rift valley and the Kavirondo (Nyanza) rift are the most seismically active where earthquakes of local magnitude (Ml) in the order of ⩽2.0-5.0 occur. Furthermore, historical records show that earthquakes of magnitudes of the order of Ml ⩾ 6.0 have occurred in Kenya. Such large magnitude earthquakes include the January 6, 1928 Subukia earthquake (Ml 7.1) and an aftershock (Ml 6.2) four days later, as well as the 1913 Turkana region earthquake (Ml 6.2). Since early 1970's, numerous seismic investigations have been undertaken in Kenya in order to understand the formation and structure of the Kenyan part of the East African rift valley. Earthquake data from these studies is, however, rather disorganized and individual datasets, including that acquired during the period 1993-2002, cannot furnish us with comprehensive information on the seismicity of Kenya for the past ∼100 years. The purpose of this paper is, therefore, to review the seismicity in Kenya for the period 1906-2010 by utilizing data and results from different sources. The general seismicity of Kenya has been evaluated using historical data, data recorded by local seismic networks, the United States Geological Survey catalogue as well as earthquake data from the numerous seismic

  15. [Performance assessment of health services in Catalonia (Spain): evaluation of initial results of the Catalan healthcare service project].

    PubMed

    García-Altés, Anna; Dalmau-Bueno, Albert; Colls, Cristina; Mendivil, Joan; Benet, Josep; Mompart, Anna; Torné, Elvira; Zara, Corinne; Borrell, Carme; Brugulat, Pilar; Guarga, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Performance assessment of healthcare services is receiving greater attention due to increasing health care expenditures, greater expectations among the population, and the need to obtain results from the invested resources. Taking advantage of the existing experience of the Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona and the Consorci Sanitari de Barcelona, which compared the healthcare services of Barcelona and Montreal, a grant from the Agència d'Avaluació de Tecnologia i Recerca Mèdiques, and the health planning interest of the Departament de Salut, the performance assessment of the Catalan healthcare service project was started in Catalonia in 2005. This article aims to present the development of the project, to provide some examples that illustrate the kind of numerical and graphical information that could be obtained and the kind of analysis that could be performed, to provide possible explanations for the results shown, and to discuss some limitations and implications. Currently, the added value of this project is that it identifies the extent to which the healthcare system is achieving its objectives, establishes a set of homogeneous indicators that could be used in the future, and is a key tool in the development of the Central de Resultats del Departament de Salut de la Generalitat de Catalunya.

  16. Gerberto, gli Arabi e Gerusalemme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, C.

    Gerbert of Aurillac went in Catalonia from 967 to 970, to visit the bishop Atton of Vic, famous for mathematical knowledge, during the apogee of Cordova's reign of the Caliph Al-Hakam II ibn Abd al-Rahman (961-976). He maintained contacts with local personalities like Mirò Bonfill (Bishop of Girona) and Lupitus of Barcelona through letters (both dated 984). When he was pope, Gerbert sent five papal privileges to Catalan dignitaries, showing his attention to this territory. The Caliph's prime minister Al-Mansu'r depredated Barcelona in 985, and conquered Santiago de Compostela in 997, drawing to an end the cultural exchanges between Christian and Arabic world through Mozarabic and Jewish translators. Gerbert learned and after taught and used Indo-Arabic numbers, abaci, astrolabes, monochords and theoretical music. It was possible for pilgrims to reach Jerusalem at Gerbert's times, and a letter written by Gerbert probably for an abbot starting his pilgrimage seems to introduce the first ideas of crusade and indulgences related to offers. The change of attitude of the Al-Andalus' government toward Christianity is probably responsible of these words written in a time very close to the depredations of Barcelona. Jerusalem is also in the index of geographic places in the book of the astrolabe, attributed to Gerbert, as well as Santiago de Compostela. Finally the legend of the Golem and the mass celebrated in the church of Jerusalem in Rome, completes the panorama of Gerbert and the Holy City.

  17. Urban NH3 levels and sources in six major Spanish cities.

    PubMed

    Reche, Cristina; Viana, Mar; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Cusack, Michael; Alastuey, Andrés; Artiñano, Begoña; Revuelta, M Aranzazu; López-Mahía, Purificación; Blanco-Heras, Gustavo; Rodríguez, Sergio; Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M; Fernández-Camacho, Rocío; González-Castanedo, Yolanda; Mantilla, Enrique; Tang, Y Sim; Querol, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    A detailed spatial and temporal assessment of urban NH3 levels and potential emission sources was made with passive samplers in six major Spanish cities (Barcelona, Madrid, A Coruña, Huelva, Santa Cruz de Tenerife and Valencia). Measurements were conducted during two different periods (winter-autumn and spring-summer) in each city. Barcelona showed the clearest spatial pattern, with the highest concentrations in the old city centre, an area characterised by a high population density and a dense urban architecture. The variability in NH3 concentrations did not follow a common seasonal pattern across the different cities. The relationship of urban NH3 with SO2 and NOX allowed concluding on the causes responsible for the variations in NH3 levels between measurement periods observed in Barcelona, Huelva and Madrid. However, the factors governing the variations in A Coruña, Valencia and Santa Cruz de Tenerife are still not fully understood. This study identified a broad variability in NH3 concentrations at the city-scale, and it confirms that NH3 sources in Spanish urban environments are vehicular traffic, biological sources (e.g. garbage containers), wastewater treatment plants, solid waste treatment plants and industry. The importance of NH3 monitoring in urban environments relies on its role as a precursor of secondary inorganic species and therefore PMX. Further research should be addressed in order to establish criteria to develop and implement mitigation strategies for cities, and to include urban NH3 sources in the emission inventories.

  18. Nonlinear responses of southern African rainfall to forcing from Atlantic SST in a high-resolution regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C.; Kniveton, D.; Layberry, R.

    2009-04-01

    It is increasingly accepted that any possible climate change will not only have an influence on mean climate but may also significantly alter climatic variability. A change in the distribution and magnitude of extreme rainfall events (associated with changing variability), such as droughts or flooding, may have a far greater impact on human and natural systems than a changing mean. This issue is of particular importance for environmentally vulnerable regions such as southern Africa. The subcontinent is considered especially vulnerable to and ill-equipped (in terms of adaptation) for extreme events, due to a number of factors including extensive poverty, famine, disease and political instability. Rainfall variability is a function of scale, so high spatial and temporal resolution data are preferred to identify extreme events and accurately predict future variability. In this research, high resolution satellite derived rainfall data from the Microwave Infra-Red Algorithm (MIRA) are used as a basis for undertaking model experiments using a state-of-the-art regional climate model. The MIRA dataset covers the period from 1993-2002 and the whole of southern Africa at a spatial resolution of 0.1 degree longitude/latitude. Once the model's ability to reproduce extremes has been assessed, idealised regions of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies are used to force the model, with the overall aim of investigating the ways in which SST anomalies influence rainfall extremes over southern Africa. In this paper, results from sensitivity testing of the regional climate model's domain size are briefly presented, before a comparison of simulated daily rainfall from the model with the satellite-derived dataset. Secondly, simulations of current climate and rainfall extremes from the model are compared to the MIRA dataset at daily timescales. Finally, the results from the idealised SST experiments are presented, suggesting highly nonlinear associations between rainfall extremes

  19. Rainfall variability and extremes over southern Africa: assessment of a climate model to reproduce daily extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C.; Kniveton, D.; Layberry, R.

    2009-04-01

    It is increasingly accepted that that any possible climate change will not only have an influence on mean climate but may also significantly alter climatic variability. A change in the distribution and magnitude of extreme rainfall events (associated with changing variability), such as droughts or flooding, may have a far greater impact on human and natural systems than a changing mean. This issue is of particular importance for environmentally vulnerable regions such as southern Africa. The subcontinent is considered especially vulnerable to and ill-equipped (in terms of adaptation) for extreme events, due to a number of factors including extensive poverty, famine, disease and political instability. Rainfall variability and the identification of rainfall extremes is a function of scale, so high spatial and temporal resolution data are preferred to identify extreme events and accurately predict future variability. The majority of previous climate model verification studies have compared model output with observational data at monthly timescales. In this research, the assessment of ability of a state of the art climate model to simulate climate at daily timescales is carried out using satellite derived rainfall data from the Microwave Infra-Red Algorithm (MIRA). This dataset covers the period from 1993-2002 and the whole of southern Africa at a spatial resolution of 0.1 degree longitude/latitude. The ability of a climate model to simulate current climate provides some indication of how much confidence can be applied to its future predictions. In this paper, simulations of current climate from the UK Meteorological Office Hadley Centre's climate model, in both regional and global mode, are firstly compared to the MIRA dataset at daily timescales. This concentrates primarily on the ability of the model to simulate the spatial and temporal patterns of rainfall variability over southern Africa. Secondly, the ability of the model to reproduce daily rainfall extremes will

  20. Extreme Rainfall Events Over Southern Africa: Assessment of a Climate Model to Reproduce Daily Extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C.; Kniveton, D.; Layberry, R.

    2007-12-01

    It is increasingly accepted that any possible climate change will not only have an influence on mean climate but may also significantly alter climatic variability. This issue is of particular importance for environmentally vulnerable regions such as southern Africa. The subcontinent is considered especially vulnerable extreme events, due to a number of factors including extensive poverty, disease and political instability. Rainfall variability and the identification of rainfall extremes is a function of scale, so high spatial and temporal resolution data are preferred to identify extreme events and accurately predict future variability. The majority of previous climate model verification studies have compared model output with observational data at monthly timescales. In this research, the assessment of a state-of-the-art climate model to simulate climate at daily timescales is carried out using satellite derived rainfall data from the Microwave Infra-Red Algorithm (MIRA). This dataset covers the period from 1993-2002 and the whole of southern Africa at a spatial resolution of 0.1 degree longitude/latitude. Once the model's ability to reproduce extremes has been assessed, idealised regions of SST anomalies are used to force the model, with the overall aim of investigating the ways in which SST anomalies influence rainfall extremes over southern Africa. In this paper, results from sensitivity testing of the UK Meteorological Office Hadley Centre's climate model's domain size are firstly presented. Then simulations of current climate from the model, operating in both regional and global mode, are compared to the MIRA dataset at daily timescales. Thirdly, the ability of the model to reproduce daily rainfall extremes will be assessed, again by a comparison with extremes from the MIRA dataset. Finally, the results from the idealised SST experiments are briefly presented, suggesting associations between rainfall extremes and both local and remote SST anomalies.

  1. Out-of-phase decadal changes in boreal summer rainfall between Yellow-Huaihe River Valley and southern China around 2002/2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Yao; Zhong, Zhong; Chen, Haishan; Hu, Yijia

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the decadal variability of rainfall over China in boreal summer (June-August) since the early 1990s. Results show that the rainfall experiences an abrupt decadal change at around 2002/2003. The decadal change is statistically significant and characterized by an out-of-phase pattern between southern China (SC) and the Yellow-Huaihe River Valley (YHRV). The rainfall over SC decreases during the decade 2003-2012 compared to that in the preceding decade 1993-2002. A simultaneous decadal increase in rainfall has occurred over the YHRV. Meanwhile, a significant sea surface temperature warming appears over the western Pacific Ocean and the northern Indian Ocean after 2002 on the decadal time scale. Further analysis reveals that enhanced convections are activated over the tropical regions between 130°E and 160°E and west of 80°E due to the SST anomalies, which induce the dry air in an area of anomalous subsidence located over SC and the northern South China Sea (SCS) via zonal circulation. Accompanied by the anomalous descending flow over the northern SCS, tropical cyclone (TC) activities in the SCS also experience a concurrent decadal reduction. The decrease in landfall TCs contributes to the decadal decrease in SC rainfall since 2003. Corresponding to the anomalous descending motion that is dominant south of 30°N, an anomalous moist ascending flow develops over the YHRV at around 35°N. Meanwhile, the western Pacific subtropical high becomes stronger and extends further westward during 2003-2012, leading to enhanced moisture transport by the southwesterly in the northwestern flank of subtropical high. As a result, more precipitation occurs over the YHRV. The above analysis has revealed the physical-dynamical processes involved in the decadal changes in rainfall over China. The mechanisms behind the out-of-phase pattern of rainfall changes between SC and the YHRV that occurred at 2002/2003 are explored.

  2. Mapping and modeling the urban landscape in Bangkok, Thailand: Physical-spectral-spatial relations of population-environmental interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yang

    This research focuses on the application of remote sensing, geographic information systems, statistical modeling, and spatial analysis to examine the dynamics of urban land cover, urban structure, and population-environment interactions in Bangkok, Thailand, with an emphasis on rural-to-urban migration from rural Nang Rong District, Northeast Thailand to the primate city of Bangkok. The dissertation consists of four main sections: (1) development of remote sensing image classification and change-detection methods for characterizing imperviousness for Bangkok, Thailand from 1993-2002; (2) development of 3-D urban mapping methods, using high spatial resolution IKONOS satellite images, to assess high-rises and other urban structures; (3) assessment of urban spatial structure from 2-D and 3-D perspectives; and (4) an analysis of the spatial clustering of migrants from Nang Rong District in Bangkok and the neighborhood environments of migrants' locations. Techniques are developed to improve the accuracy of the neural network classification approach for the analysis of remote sensing data, with an emphasis on the spectral unmixing problem. The 3-D building heights are derived using the shadow information on the high-resolution IKONOS image. The results from the 2-D and 3-D mapping are further examined to assess urban structure and urban feature identification. This research contributes to image processing of remotely-sensed images and urban studies. The rural-urban migration process and migrants' settlement patterns are examined using spatial statistics, GIS, and remote sensing perspectives. The results show that migrants' spatial clustering in urban space is associated with the source village and a number of socio-demographic variables. In addition, the migrants' neighborhood environments in urban setting are modeled using a set of geographic and socio-demographic variables, and the results are scale-dependent.

  3. Modeling spatial and temporal variation of suitable nursery habitats for Atlantic sturgeon in the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niklitschek, Edwin J.; Secor, David H.

    2005-07-01

    For rare and endangered species, bioenergetics modeling can represent a valuable approach for understanding issues of habitat value and connectivity among potential habitats within nurseries in restoration programs. We used multivariable bioenergetics and survival models for Atlantic sturgeon to generate spatially explicit maps of potential production in the Chesapeake Bay. For the period 1993-2002, spatial and temporal patterns in water quality effects (temperature, dissolved oxygen [DO] and salinity) on potential production were evaluated. In addition, two forecasted scenarios were modeled: one implementing newly revised U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) DO-criteria for the Chesapeake Bay, and the other assuming a bay-wide increase of 1 °C due to an underlying trend in regional climate. Atlantic sturgeon's low (survival/growth) tolerance to temperatures >28 °C was a critical constraint during their first 1-2 summers of life. Hatched in freshwater (spring to mid-summer), young-of-the-year were predicted to occupy cooler (deeper) areas as temperature approached sub-lethal levels. While most thermal refuges were located down-estuary, a large fraction of potential refuges were unsuitable due to persistent hypoxia and/or salinity levels beyond the limited osmoregulatory capabilities of early juvenile Atlantic sturgeon. As a result, suitable summer habitats for juvenile Atlantic sturgeons in the Chesapeake Bay were predicted to be spatially restricted and variable between years, ranging from 0 to 35% of the modeled bay surface area. In critical (drought) years, almost no summer habitat was predicted to be available for juvenile Atlantic sturgeon. Value and size of nursery habitat was highly sensitive to climatic oscillations and anthropogenic interventions affecting freshwater inflow, water temperature and/or DO. Achieving EPA DO-criteria for the Chesapeake Bay was predicted to increase total suitable habitat by 13% for an average year, while increasing

  4. Longitudinal trends in global obesity research and collaboration: a review using bibliometric metadata.

    PubMed

    Khan, A; Choudhury, N; Uddin, S; Hossain, L; Baur, L A

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to understand research trends and collaboration patterns together with scholarly impact within the domain of global obesity research. We developed and analysed bibliographic affiliation data collected from 117,340 research articles indexed in Scopus database on the topic of obesity and published from 1993-2012. We found steady growth and an exponential increase of publication numbers. Research output in global obesity research roughly doubled each 5 years, with almost 80% of the publications and authors from the second decade (2003-2012). The highest publication output was from the USA - 42% of publications had at least one author from the USA. Many US institutions also ranked highly in terms of research output and collaboration. Fifteen of the top-20 institutions in terms of publication output were from the USA; however, several European and Japanese research institutions ranked more highly in terms of average citations per paper. The majority of obesity research and collaboration has been confined to developed countries although developing countries have showed higher growth in recent times, e.g. the publication ratio between 2003-2012 and 1993-2002 for developing regions was much higher than that of developed regions (9:1 vs. 4:1). We also identified around 42 broad disciplines from authors' affiliation data, and these showed strong collaboration between them. Overall, this study provides one of the most comprehensive longitudinal bibliometric analyses of obesity research. This should help in understanding research trends, spatial density, collaboration patterns and the complex multi-disciplinary nature of research in the obesity domain. PMID:26864566

  5. Patient satisfaction with transgender health services.

    PubMed

    Bockting, W; Robinson, B; Benner, A; Scheltema, K

    2004-01-01

    Measuring patient satisfaction (i.e., patients' subjective evaluation of health care services received) is increasingly important in assessing health care outcomes because of the current emphasis on greater partnership between providers (therapist, doctor, staff) and consumers (patients) in health care. In care of transgender persons, achieving good patient satisfaction is particularly challenging given the primary role mental health professionals play as arbiters of who has access to sex reassignment and when such candidates are ready. Dependence on a mental health professional in this "gate-keeping" role is perceived by some members of the transgender community as unnecessarily pathologizing. This study compared satisfaction ratings of 180 transgender and 837 other sexual health patients with psychotherapeutic, psychiatric, and sexual medicine services provided at a university-based sexual health clinic. Five consecutive surveys conducted during 1993-2002 showed high patient satisfaction. We found few significant differences between transgender and other sexual health patients, except that in 1995, transgender patients had higher satisfaction on their perceived ability to handle the problems that originally had led them to therapy. Survey results helped target areas in need of improvement (e.g., friendliness and courtesy of staff, handling of phone calls), and efforts by the providers to improve services resulted in significant increases in patient satisfaction. These findings put individual complaints in perspective and showed that despite the challenges inherent in providing transgender care good satisfaction can be achieved. We encourage providers to implement quality assurance and improvement procedures to give patients the opportunity to provide feedback and have a voice in shaping their own health care. PMID:15205065

  6. RANGELAND SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Spangler; George F. Vance; Gerald E. Schuman; Justin D. Derner

    2012-03-31

    Rangelands occupy approximately half of the world's land area and store greater than 10% of the terrestrial biomass carbon and up to 30% of the global soil organic carbon. Although soil carbon sequestration rates are generally low on rangelands in comparison to croplands, increases in terrestrial carbon in rangelands resulting from management can account for significant carbon sequestration given the magnitude of this land resource. Despite the significance rangelands can play in carbon sequestration, our understanding remains limited. Researchers conducted a literature review to identify sustainably management practices that conserve existing rangeland carbon pools, as well as increase or restore carbon sequestration potentials for this type of ecosystem. The research team also reviewed the impact of grazing management on rangeland carbon dynamics, which are not well understood due to heterogeneity in grassland types. The literature review on the impact of grazing showed a wide variation of results, ranging from positive to negative to no response. On further review, the intensity of grazing appears to be a major factor in controlling rangeland soil organic carbon dynamics. In 2003, researchers conducted field sampling to assess the effect of several drought years during the period 1993-2002. Results suggested that drought can significantly impact rangeland soil organic carbon (SOC) levels, and therefore, carbon sequestration. Resampling was conducted in 2006; results again suggested that climatic conditions may have overridden management effects on SOC due to the ecological lag of the severe drought of 2002. Analysis of grazing practices during this research effort suggested that there are beneficial effects of light grazing compared to heavy grazing and non-grazing with respect to increased SOC and nitrogen contents. In general, carbon storage in rangelands also increases with increased precipitation, although researchers identified threshold levels of

  7. Patient satisfaction with transgender health services.

    PubMed

    Bockting, W; Robinson, B; Benner, A; Scheltema, K

    2004-01-01

    Measuring patient satisfaction (i.e., patients' subjective evaluation of health care services received) is increasingly important in assessing health care outcomes because of the current emphasis on greater partnership between providers (therapist, doctor, staff) and consumers (patients) in health care. In care of transgender persons, achieving good patient satisfaction is particularly challenging given the primary role mental health professionals play as arbiters of who has access to sex reassignment and when such candidates are ready. Dependence on a mental health professional in this "gate-keeping" role is perceived by some members of the transgender community as unnecessarily pathologizing. This study compared satisfaction ratings of 180 transgender and 837 other sexual health patients with psychotherapeutic, psychiatric, and sexual medicine services provided at a university-based sexual health clinic. Five consecutive surveys conducted during 1993-2002 showed high patient satisfaction. We found few significant differences between transgender and other sexual health patients, except that in 1995, transgender patients had higher satisfaction on their perceived ability to handle the problems that originally had led them to therapy. Survey results helped target areas in need of improvement (e.g., friendliness and courtesy of staff, handling of phone calls), and efforts by the providers to improve services resulted in significant increases in patient satisfaction. These findings put individual complaints in perspective and showed that despite the challenges inherent in providing transgender care good satisfaction can be achieved. We encourage providers to implement quality assurance and improvement procedures to give patients the opportunity to provide feedback and have a voice in shaping their own health care.

  8. An Integrated Model for Evaluating Hydrology, Hydrodynamics, Water Quality and Ecology in a Coastal Desert Wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huckelbridge, K. H.; Stacey, M. T.; Glenn, E. P.; Dracup, J. A.

    2007-05-01

    An integrated model describing hydrology, hydrodynamics, salt dynamics and vegetation was developed to predict the evolution of the Cienega de Santa Clara ("Cienega"), a non-tidal wetland located in the Colorado River Delta. The Cienega was created in 1977 when water intended for treatment at the Yuma Desalting Plant in Arizona was bypassed to a salt flat in the Delta. The continued delivery of this water is uncertain and thus, this model was developed to predict the effects of changes in the quantity and quality of inflow to the wetland over seasonal and annual timescales. The model is divided into four modules that run in sequence for each timestep, in which the results from one module are used to produce results in successive modules. The four modules are: (1) evapotranspiration, (2) water balance, (3) mixing/salt balance, and (4) vegetation response. Over the calibration period, 1993-2002, modeled results of wetland surface area, the fraction of the wetland covered in vegetation and salinity concentrations compare well to actual data. The model was used to run nine hypothetical scenarios, representing the range of inflow quantity and quality to the Cienega that could occur if the source of the inflow is altered, including the possible re-opening of the Yuma Desalting plant. Model results show that the Cienega ecosystem is more sensitive to changes in salinity than to changes in flow. However, in almost all cases, an increase in salinity and/or a decrease in flow would cause a significant decrease in wetland size and vegetation cover, compromising a large portion of the habitat currently available to wildlife at the Cienega.

  9. BALTEX—an interdisciplinary research network for the Baltic Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckermann, Marcus; Langner, Joakim; Omstedt, Anders; von Storch, Hans; Keevallik, Sirje; Schneider, Bernd; Arheimer, Berit; Markus Meier, H. E.; Hünicke, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    BALTEX is an environmental research network dealing with the Earth system of the entire Baltic Sea drainage basin. Important elements include the water and energy cycle, climate variability and change, water management and extreme events, and related impacts on biogeochemical cycles. BALTEX was founded in 1993 as a GEWEX continental-scale experiment and is currently in its second 10 yr phase. Phase I (1993-2002) was primarily dedicated to hydrological, meteorological and oceanographic processes in the Baltic Sea drainage basin, hence mostly dealt with the physical aspects of the system. Scientific focus was on the hydrological cycle and the exchange of energy between the atmosphere, the Baltic Sea and the surface of its catchment. The BALTEX study area was hydrologically defined as the Baltic Sea drainage basin. The second 10 yr phase of BALTEX (Phase II: 2003-12) has strengthened regional climate research, water management issues, biogeochemical cycles and overarching efforts to reach out to stakeholders and decision makers, as well as to foster communication and education. Achievements of BALTEX Phase II have been the establishment of an assessment report of regional climate change and its impacts on the Baltic Sea basin (from hydrological to biological and socio-economic), the further development of regional physical climate models and the integration of biogeochemical and ecosystem models. BALTEX features a strong infrastructure, with an international secretariat and a publication series, and organizes various workshops and conferences. This article gives an overview of the BALTEX programme, with an emphasis on Phase II, with some examples from BALTEX-related research.

  10. [Cervix uteri cancer in Poland--epidemiological opening balance and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Didkowska, Joanna; Wojciechowska, Urszula; Zatoński, Witold

    2006-09-01

    Cancer is one of the main causes of death among young and middle-aged females. In case of some cancer sites there is a possibility of undertaking an intervention, which would diminish the risk of death--to this group belongs first of all malignant neoplasm of cervix uteri. The date of beginning first cervix uteri cancer screening in Poland is approaching, therefore presenting epidemiological opening balance and possible scenarios of changes it worthwhile. This work uses data on morbidity and mortality due to malignant neoplasm of cervix uteri cancer in Polish population. Time trends analysis was based on so-called "breakpoint" (joinpoint analysis). Cervix uteri cancer mortality trend is characterized by two breakpoints (1971 and 1993). In the period of 1963-1970 there was an increase of mortality and then after the trend reversed: percentage decline was estimated at the level of 0.8% yearly in 1971-1992 and 2.4% yearly in 1993-2002. Hypothetical scenarios of changes in cervix uteri cancer mortality show, that lack of intervention will cause mortality among Polish females at the level recorded in Finland 25 years ago. Optimistic variant would allow on diminishing mortality in Poland down to the level observed currently in Finland, in around 30 years. Implementing preventive cervix uteri cancer screening is currently the most urgent challenge of public health. If the preventive screening program will still be in the phase of plans and projects, then in 30 years time Poland will be in the point which Finland reached in the end of 1970s, and our civilizing underdevelopment will reach half a century.

  11. Flood and debris flow interactions with roads promote the invasion of exotic plants along steep mountain streams, western Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watterson, Nicholas A.; Jones, Julia A.

    2006-08-01

    This study examines the interactions among geomorphic and biogeographic processes that govern the invasion by two contrasting exotic plant species—a shrub, scotch broom ( Cytisus scoparius) and an herb, foxglove ( Digitalis purpurea), over several decades of road and stream networks in the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest in western Oregon. Distributions of C. scoparius and D. purpurea were mapped along hillslopes and streams in 1993, 2002, and 2003. The mapped distributions were related to debris flow pathways and changes in stream morphology interpreted from field surveys and air photos over the period 1993 to 2003. Laboratory trials examined the response of seed germination to scarification (to test effects of transport by debris flows), soaking (to test effects of fluvial transport), and substrate texture (to test effects on establishment). C. scoparius and D. purpurea were present along roads and in clearcuts in the Andrews Forest from the 1970s to 2003, but invaded the stream (Lookout Creek) only after debris flows and floods during an extreme storm in 1996. Laboratory trials demonstrated that seeds could germinate on a variety of substrates after scarification and flood transport. Mapping and air photo/GIS analysis indicated that the distributions of exotic plants were located on freshly scoured bars and floodplains adjacent to the active channel, downstream of seed sources along roads that were connected to the main stem of Lookout Creek by road ditch drainage systems, and debris flow paths. This paper outlines a conceptual model for the invasion of exotic plants, highlighting the connectivity between road and stream networks provided by geomorphic processes in steep forested landscapes.

  12. Multimodel simulations of Arctic Ocean sea surface height variability in the period 1970-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koldunov, Nikolay V.; Serra, Nuno; Köhl, Armin; Stammer, Detlef; Henry, Olivier; Cazenave, Anny; Prandi, Pierre; Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Gao, Yongqi; Johannessen, Johnny

    2014-12-01

    The performance of several numerical ocean models is assessed with respect to their simulation of sea surface height (SSH) in the Arctic Ocean, and the main patterns of SSH variability and their causes over the past 40 years (1970-2009) are analyzed. In comparison to observations, all tested models broadly reproduce the mean SSH in the Arctic and reveal a good correlation with both tide gauge data and SSH anomalies derived from satellite observations. Although the models do not represent the positive Arctic SSH trend observed over the last two decades, their interannual-to-decadal SSH variability is in reasonable agreement with available measurements. Focusing on results from one of the models for a detailed analysis, it is shown that the decadal-scale SSH variability over shelf areas and deep parts of the Arctic Ocean have pronounced differences that are determined mostly by salinity variations. A further analysis of the three time periods 1987-1992, 1993-2002, and 2003-2009, corresponding to the transition times between cyclonic and anticyclonic regimes of the atmospheric circulation over the Arctic, revealed an unusual increase of SSH in the Amerasian basin during 2003-2009. Results from this model support the recent finding that the increase is caused mainly by changes in freshwater content brought about by the freshwater export through the Canadian Arctic Archiplago and increased Ekman pumping in the Amerasian basin and partly by lateral freshwater transport changes, leading to a redistribution of low-salinity shelf water. Overall, we show that present-day models can be used for investigating the reasons for low-frequency SSH variability in the region.

  13. Towards an inclusive society in Asia: the invisible helping hand.

    PubMed

    Tan, Adrian Hock Guan; Ang, Wei Tech

    2008-11-01

    Asia has come a long way in its laborious journey towards an inclusive society - one that allows full participation and equality for people with disability (PWD). The imminent aging population in Asia has injected a new-found urgency among the Asian legislators to get their countries prepared in anticipation of an explosive number of elderly people with geriatric disabilities. From the concluded Asian and Pacific Decade of Disabled Persons (1993-2002) to the Biwako Millennium Framework (2003-2012), the efforts led by the United Nation Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific have been predominantly focusing on using government policies to build the two pillars of an inclusive society: A barrier-free society and empowerment of the PWD. Notwithstanding that policy is the most powerful tool for solving the issues of the PWD, it cannot do it all by itself. The top-down nature of policy would better serve the cause in overcoming the barriers than in the empowerment of the PWD. In this paper, we advocate empowerment of the PWD through the use of technology. While policy provides the framework to integrate the PWD back into the mainstream society, technology can enhance their capability and give them a chance to compete in the real world. To popularize technology usage among the PWD, it is vital to develop an assistive and rehabilitative technology industry in Asia. Taking a leaf from philosopher Adam Smith's famed theory of the 'Invisible Hand'; the authors believe the best way forward for the Asian assistive and rehabilitative technology industry is to grow it into a sustainable and profitable one without intervention and protection from the government. When there is money to be made, more players will enter the industry, thus providing better services and innovative products at more competitive prices and in consequence, the PWD will become the eventual winners.

  14. New York hazardous substances emergency events surveillance: learning from hazardous substances releases to improve safety.

    PubMed

    Welles, Wanda Lizak; Wilburn, Rebecca E; Ehrlich, Jenny K; Floridia, Christina M

    2004-11-11

    Since 1993, the New York State Department of Health, funded by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, has collected data about non-petroleum hazardous substances releases through the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (NYHSEES) project. This study investigates risk factors for hazardous substances releases that may result in public health consequences such as injury or reported health effects. The 6428 qualifying events that occurred during the 10-year-period of 1993-2002 involved 8838 hazardous substances, 842 evacuations, more than 75,419 people evacuated, and more than 3120 people decontaminated. These events occurred both at fixed facilities (79%) and during transport (21%). The causative factors most frequently contributing to reported events were equipment failure (39%) and human error (33%). Five of the 10 chemicals most frequently associated with injuries were also among the 10 chemicals most frequently involved in reported events: sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, ammonia, sodium hypochlorite, and carbon monoxide. The chemical categories most frequently associated with events, and with events with adverse health effects were volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and solvents, and acids. Events with releases of hazardous substances were associated with injuries to 3089 people including employees (37%), responders (12%), the general public (29%) and students (22%). The most frequently reported adverse health effects were respiratory irritation, headache, and nausea or vomiting. Most of the injured were transported to the hospital, treated, and released (55%) or treated at the scene (29%). These data have been used for emergency response training, planning, and prevention activities to reduce morbidity and mortality from future events.

  15. Estimation of sex-specific survival from capture-recapture data when sex is not always known

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Kendall, W.L.; Hines, J.E.; Spendelow, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Many animals lack obvious sexual dimorphism, making assignment of sex difficult even for observed or captured animals. For many such species it is possible to assign sex with certainty only at some occasions; for example, when they exhibit certain types of behavior. A common approach to handling this situation in capture-recapture studies has been to group capture histories into those of animals eventually identified as male and female and those for which sex was never known. Because group membership is dependent on the number of occasions at which an animal was caught or observed (known sex animals, on average, will have been observed at more occasions than unknown-sex animals), survival estimates for known-sex animals will be positively biased, and those for unknown animals will be negatively biased. In this paper, we develop capture-recapture models that incorporate sex ratio and sex assignment parameters that permit unbiased estimation in the face of this sampling problem. We demonstrate the magnitude of bias in the traditional capture-recapture approach to this sampling problem, and we explore properties of estimators from other ad hoc approaches. The model is then applied to capture-recapture data for adult Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) at Falkner Island, Connecticut, 1993-2002. Sex ratio among adults in this population favors females, and we tested the hypothesis that this population showed sex-specific differences in adult survival. Evidence was provided for higher survival of adult females than males, as predicted. We recommend use of this modeling approach for future capture-recapture studies in which sex cannot always be assigned to captured or observed animals. We also place this problem in the more general context of uncertainty in state classification in multistate capture-recapture models.

  16. Surface waters are a source of polychlorinated biphenyls to the coastal atmosphere of the North-Western Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    García-Flor, Nuria; Dachs, Jordi; Bayona, Josep M; Albaigés, Joan

    2009-05-01

    Atmospheric (gaseous and particulate) and seawater (dissolved and particulate in the surface microlayer and underlying waters) samples were collected in 2001 and 2002 in two North-Western Mediterranean contrasting coastal environments, Banyuls-sur-Mer (France) and Barcelona (Spain). The total aerosol suspended particle concentrations (microg m(-3)) were higher in Barcelona (266+/-132) than in Banyuls-sur-Mer (149+/-43), even under near-gale conditions. The influence of the marine aerosol in the total suspended particles (TSP) concentration was backed by both organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations, as they exhibited lower levels in Banyuls (3+/-2 microg OC m(-3) and 0.4+/-0.3 microg EC m(-3)) than in Barcelona (31+/-26 microg OC m(-3) and 6+/-8 microg EC m(-3)). Moreover, samples from Barcelona, both atmospheric and seawater, showed greater variability than in Banyuls (Snedecor's test (p<0.001)) possibly reflecting the influence of urban sources of pollutants. Concentrations of atmospheric PCBs (Sigma41 congeners) off-shore Barcelona ranged from 389 to 1410 pg m(-3) in the gas phase and from 71 to 78 pg m(-3) in the aerosol phase. In Banyuls, concentrations were 30.7-858 pg m(-3) in the gas phase and 12.8-41.2 pg m(-3) in the aerosol phase. Their gas-particle partitioning suggested that PCBs in the samples were close to equilibrium (deduced from the regression of the experimental logK(p) and logP(l)(0)). Moreover, a positive correlation was found between wind direction, wind speed and atmospheric PCB concentrations, which is consistent with the fact the PCB concentration of the marine waters, influenced by coastal run-off, become a secondary source for these semi-volatile compounds after volatilization to the coastal atmosphere. This is supported by the high dissolved concentrations in the coastal surface waters, and specially by the enrichment found in the surface microlayer.

  17. Energy and greenhouse gas balances for a solid waste incineration plant: a case study.

    PubMed

    Brinck, Kim; Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Skov, Henrik

    2011-10-01

    Energy and greenhouse gas balances for a waste incineration plant (Reno-Nord I/S, Aalborg, Denmark) as a function of time over a 45-year period beginning 1960 are presented. The quantity of energy recovered from the waste increased over time due to increasing waste production, increasing lower heating value of the waste and implementation of improved energy recovery technology at the incineration plant. Greenhouse gas (GHG) balances indicated progressively increasing GHG savings during the time period investigated as a result of the increasing energy production. The GHG balances show that the Reno-Nord incineration plant has changed from a net annual GHG emission of 30 kg CO(2)-eq person(-1) year(-1) to a net annual GHG saving of 770 kg CO(2)-eq person(-1) year(-1) which is equivalent to approximately 8% of the annual emission of GHG from an average Danish person (including emissions from industry and transport). The CO(2) emissions associated with combustion of the fossil carbon contained in the waste accounted for about two-thirds of the GHG turnover when no energy recovery is applied but its contribution reduces to between 10 and 15% when energy recovery is implemented. The reason being that energy recovery is associated with a large CO(2) saving (negative emission).

  18. Confirmation of a founder effect in a Northern European population of a new β-globin variant: HBB:c.23_26dup (codons 8/9 (+AGAA))

    PubMed Central

    Marchi, Nina; Pissard, Serge; Cliquennois, Manuel; Vasseur, Christian; Le Metayer, Nathalie; Mereau, Claude; Jouet, Jean Pierre; Georgel, Anne-France; Genin, Emmanuelle; Rose, Christian

    2015-01-01

    β-Thalassemia is a genetic disease caused by a defect in the production of the β-like globin chain. More than 200 known different variants can lead to the disease and are mainly found in populations that have been exposed to malaria parasites. We recently described a duplication of four nucleotides in the first exon of β-globin gene in several families of patients living in Nord-Pas-de-Calais (France). Using the genotypes at 12 microsatellite markers surrounding the β-globin gene of four unrelated variant carriers plus an additional one recently discovered, we found that they shared a common haplotype indicating a founder effect that was estimated to have taken place 225 years ago (nine generations). In order to determine whether this variant arose in this region of Northern Europe or was introduced by migrants from regions of the world where thalassemia is endemic, we genotyped the first 4 unrelated variant carriers and 32 controls from Nord-Pas-de-Calais for 97 European ancestry informative markers (EAIMs). Using these EAIMs and comparing with population reference panels, we demonstrated that the variant carriers were very similar to the controls and were closer to North European populations than to South European or Middle-East populations. Rare β-thalassemia variants have already been described in patients sampled in non-endemic regions, but it is the first proof of a founder effect in Northern Europe. PMID:25469539

  19. Confirmation of a founder effect in a Northern European population of a new β-globin variant: HBB:c.23_26dup (codons 8/9 (+AGAA)).

    PubMed

    Marchi, Nina; Pissard, Serge; Cliquennois, Manuel; Vasseur, Christian; Le Metayer, Nathalie; Mereau, Claude; Jouet, Jean Pierre; Georgel, Anne-France; Genin, Emmanuelle; Rose, Christian

    2015-09-01

    β-Thalassemia is a genetic disease caused by a defect in the production of the β-like globin chain. More than 200 known different variants can lead to the disease and are mainly found in populations that have been exposed to malaria parasites. We recently described a duplication of four nucleotides in the first exon of β-globin gene in several families of patients living in Nord-Pas-de-Calais (France). Using the genotypes at 12 microsatellite markers surrounding the β-globin gene of four unrelated variant carriers plus an additional one recently discovered, we found that they shared a common haplotype indicating a founder effect that was estimated to have taken place 225 years ago (nine generations). In order to determine whether this variant arose in this region of Northern Europe or was introduced by migrants from regions of the world where thalassemia is endemic, we genotyped the first 4 unrelated variant carriers and 32 controls from Nord-Pas-de-Calais for 97 European ancestry informative markers (EAIMs). Using these EAIMs and comparing with population reference panels, we demonstrated that the variant carriers were very similar to the controls and were closer to North European populations than to South European or Middle-East populations. Rare β-thalassemia variants have already been described in patients sampled in non-endemic regions, but it is the first proof of a founder effect in Northern Europe. PMID:25469539

  20. Nordic Lightning Information System: Thunderstorm climate of Northern Europe for the period 2002-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkelä, Antti; Enno, Sven-Erik; Haapalainen, Jussi

    2014-03-01

    A 10-year statistics (2002-2011) of the Nordic Lightning Information System (NORDLIS) are presented. NORDLIS is a joined lightning location network between Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Estonia, comprising in 2011 of 32 lightning location sensors. Our data set contains a total of 4,121,649 cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes. We show the regional and temporal distribution of lightning in Northern Europe during the study period. Our results indicate that the average annual ground flash density values are greatest in Southern Sweden, Baltic countries and Western Finland. The average number of thunderstorm days is largest in the Baltic countries and Southwestern Sweden, and the annual number of ground flashes has varied during the study period from 250,000 to 620,000. The largest observed daily number of ground flashes is 51,500, and the largest daily ground flash density is about 5 CGs km- 2; this has occurred in southern Sweden in July 2003. The average daily number of ground flashes peaks in mid-July-early-August. Cold season (October-April) thunderstorms occur frequently over the North Sea west of Norway and in the west coast of Denmark. Our results also show that an intense thunderstorm may occur practically anywhere in the Northern Europe except for certain maritime and mountain areas.

  1. Comparisons between physics-based, engineering, and statistical learning models for outdoor sound propagation.

    PubMed

    Hart, Carl R; Reznicek, Nathan J; Wilson, D Keith; Pettit, Chris L; Nykaza, Edward T

    2016-05-01

    Many outdoor sound propagation models exist, ranging from highly complex physics-based simulations to simplified engineering calculations, and more recently, highly flexible statistical learning methods. Several engineering and statistical learning models are evaluated by using a particular physics-based model, namely, a Crank-Nicholson parabolic equation (CNPE), as a benchmark. Narrowband transmission loss values predicted with the CNPE, based upon a simulated data set of meteorological, boundary, and source conditions, act as simulated observations. In the simulated data set sound propagation conditions span from downward refracting to upward refracting, for acoustically hard and soft boundaries, and low frequencies. Engineering models used in the comparisons include the ISO 9613-2 method, Harmonoise, and Nord2000 propagation models. Statistical learning methods used in the comparisons include bagged decision tree regression, random forest regression, boosting regression, and artificial neural network models. Computed skill scores are relative to sound propagation in a homogeneous atmosphere over a rigid ground. Overall skill scores for the engineering noise models are 0.6%, -7.1%, and 83.8% for the ISO 9613-2, Harmonoise, and Nord2000 models, respectively. Overall skill scores for the statistical learning models are 99.5%, 99.5%, 99.6%, and 99.6% for bagged decision tree, random forest, boosting, and artificial neural network regression models, respectively.

  2. Electrical parameters and series resistance analysis of Au/Y/p-InP/Pt Schottky barrier diode at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, L. Dasaradha; Reddy, V. Rajagopal

    2016-05-01

    The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Au/Y/p-InP/Pt Schottky barrier diode (SBD) are analyzed at room temperature. The Au/Y/p-InP/Pt SBD shows a good rectification behavior. The ideality factor (n), barrier height (Φb), series resistance (Rs) and shunt resistance (Rsh) are determined from the I-V measurements. The n and Φb values of Au/Y/p-InP/Pt SBD are found to be 1.32 and 0.62 eV respectively. The value of barrier height (BH) obtained from Norde function is compared with those calculated from Cheung's functions. The series resistance (Rs) is calculated from Cheung's and modified Norde functions. Additionally, it is found that n, Φb, Rs, and Rsh have strong correlation with the applied bias. Furthermore, at low and high voltage regions, ohmic and space-charge-limited conduction mechanisms are found to govern the current flow in the diode.

  3. Spatial relationships between tropical cyclone frequencies and population densities in Haiti since the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, C. D.

    2011-12-01

    The second edition of the United Nations Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction in 2011 outlined that the worldwide physical exposure to tropical cyclones increased by 192 per cent between 1970 and 2010. For the past 160 years, the Republic of Haiti has experienced numerous tropical storms and hurricanes which may have directly effected the country's development path. However, statistical data regarding storm frequencies and population densities in space and time show that the population's exposure in Haiti may have more negatively influenced its development than the actual number of storms and hurricanes. Haitians, in particular, those living in urban areas have been exposed to much higher tropical cyclone hazards than rural areas since the second half of the 20th century. Specifically, more storms made landfall in regions of accelerated migration/urbanization, such as, in departments Ouest, Artibonite, Nord, and Nord-Ouest with Haiti's four largest cities Port-au-Prince, Gonaives, Cap-Haitien and Port-de-Paix.

  4. First results of Liguria-Trento transplant network project: a model for a macroregional network and real-time registry in Italy.

    PubMed

    Valente, R; Cambiaso, F; Santori, G; Ghirelli, R; Gianelli, A; Valente, U

    2004-04-01

    In Italy, health-care telematic is funded and supported at the level of national government or regional institutions. In 1999, the Italian Ministry of Health started to fund the Liguria-Trento Transplant Network (LTTN) project, a health research project with the aim to build an informative system for donor management and transplantation activity in a macroregional area. At the time of LTTN project proposal, no published Transplant Network Informative System fulfilled Italian rules on telematic management of electronic documentation concerning transplantation activity. Partnership of LTTN project were two Regional Transplant Coordinating Centres, Nord Italia Transplant Interregional Coordinating Centre and the Italian Institute of Health/National Transplant Coordinating Centre. Project Total Quality Management methods were adopted. Technological and case analysis followed ANSI-HL7, CEN-TC251, and Object-Oriented Software Engineering standards. A low-tech prototype powered by a web access relational database is running on a transplant network including web-based clients located in 17 intensive care units, in Nord Italia Transplant Interregional Coordinating Centre, and at the Italian Institute of Health/National Transplant Coordinating Centre. LTTN registry includes pretransplant, surgical, and posttransplant phases regarding liver, kidney, pancreas, and kidney-pancreas transplantation in adult and pediatric recipients. Clinical specifications were prioritized in agreement with the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method. Further implementation will include formal rules for data access and output release, fault tolerance, and a continuous registry evolution plan.

  5. Fate of elemental mercury in the Arctic during atmospheric mercury depletion episodes and the load of atmospheric mercury to the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Skov, Henrik; Christensen, Jesper H; Goodsite, Michael E; Heidam, Niels Z; Jensen, Bjarne; Wåhlin, Peter; Geernaert, Gerald

    2004-04-15

    Atmospheric mercury depletion episodes (AMDEs) were studied at Station Nord, Northeast Greenland, 81 degrees 36' N, 16 degrees 40' W, during the Arctic Spring. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and ozone were measured starting from 1998 and 1999, respectively, until August 2002. GEM was measured with a TEKRAN 2735A automatic mercury analyzer based on preconcentration of mercury on a gold trap followed by detection using fluorescence spectroscopy. Ozone was measured by UV absorption. A scatter plot of GEM and ozone concentrations confirmed that also at Station Nord GEM and ozone are linearly correlated during AMDEs. The relationship between ozone and GEM is further investigated in this paper using basic reaction kinetics (i.e., Cl, ClO, Br, and BrO have been suggested as reactants for GEM). The analyses in this paper show that GEM in the Arctic troposphere most probably reacts with Br. On the basis of the experimental results of this paper and results from the literature, a simple parametrization for AMDE was included into the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM). In the model, GEM is converted linearly to reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) over sea ice with temperature below -4 degrees C with a lifetime of 3 or 10 h. The new AMDE parametrization was used together with the general parametrization of mercury chemistry [Petersen, G.; Munthe, J.; Pleijel, K.; Bloxam, R.; Vinod Kumar, A. Atmos. Environ. 1998, 32, 829-843]. The obtained model results were compared with measurements of GEM at Station Nord. There was good agreement between the start and general features periods with AMDEs, although the model could not reproduce the fast concentration changes, and the correlation between modeled and measured values decreased from 2000 to 2001 and further in 2002. The modeled RGM concentrations over the Arctic in 2000 were found to agree well with the temporal and geographical variability of the boundary column of monthly average BrO observed by the GOME satellite. Scenario

  6. Effects of Highly Conserved Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Extended Haplotypes on Iron and Low CD8+ T Lymphocyte Phenotypes in HFE C282Y Homozygous Hemochromatosis Patients from Three Geographically Distant Areas

    PubMed Central

    Barton, James C.; Thorstensen, Ketil; Morais, Sandra; da Silva, Berta M.; Pinto, Jorge P.; Vieira, Cristina P.; Vieira, Jorge; Acton, Ronald T.; Porto, Graça

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary Hemochromatosis (HH) is a recessively inherited disorder of iron overload occurring commonly in subjects homozygous for the C282Y mutation in HFE gene localized on chromosome 6p21.3 in linkage disequilibrium with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A locus. Although its genetic homogeneity, the phenotypic expression is variable suggesting the presence of modifying factors. One such genetic factor, a SNP microhaplotype named A-A-T, was recently found to be associated with a more severe phenotype and also with low CD8+T-lymphocyte numbers. The present study aimed to test whether the predictive value of the A-A-T microhaplotype remained in other population settings. In this study of 304 HH patients from 3 geographically distant populations (Porto, Portugal 65; Alabama, USA 57; Nord-Trøndelag, Norway 182), the extended haplotypes involving A-A-T were studied in 608 chromosomes and the CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers were determined in all subjects. Patients from Porto had a more severe phenotype than those from other settings. Patients with A-A-T seemed on average to have greater iron stores (p = 0.021), but significant differences were not confirmed in the 3 separate populations. Low CD8+ T-lymphocytes were associated with HLA-A*03-A-A-T in Porto and Alabama patients but not in the greater series from Nord-Trøndelag. Although A-A-T may signal a more severe iron phenotype, this study was unable to prove such an association in all population settings, precluding its use as a universal predictive marker of iron overload in HH. Interestingly, the association between A-A-T and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, which was confirmed in Porto and Alabama patients, was not observed in Nord-Trøndelag patients, showing that common HLA haplotypes like A*01–B*08 or A*03–B*07 segregating with HFE/C282Y in the three populations may carry different messages. These findings further strengthen the relevance of HH as a good disease model to search for novel candidate loci associated with

  7. Mapping End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD): Spatial Variations on Small Area Level in Northern France, and Association with Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Occelli, Florent; Deram, Annabelle; Génin, Michaël; Noël, Christian; Cuny, Damien; Glowacki, François

    2014-01-01

    Background Strong geographic variations in the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are observed in developed countries. The reasons for these variations are unknown. They may reflect regional inequalities in the population's sociodemographic characteristics, related diseases, or medical practice patterns. In France, at the district level, the highest incidence rates have been found in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region. This area, with a high population density and homogeneous healthcare provision, represents a geographic situation which is quite suitable for the study, over small areas, of spatial disparities in the incidence of ESRD, together with their correlation with a deprivation index and other risk factors. Methods The Renal Epidemiology and Information Network is a national registry, which lists all ESRD patients in France. All cases included in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais registry between 2005 and 2011 were extracted. Adjusted and smoothed standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for each of the 170 cantons, thanks to a hierarchical Bayesian model. The correlation between ESRD incidence and deprivation was assessed using the quintiles of Townsend index. Relative risk (RR) and credible intervals (CI) were estimated for each quintile. Results Significant spatial disparities in ESRD incidence were found within the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region. The sex- and age-adjusted, smoothed SIRs varied from 0.66 to 1.64. Although no correlation is found with diabetic or vascular nephropathy, the smoothed SIRs are correlated with the Townsend index (RR: 1.18, 95% CI [1.00–1.34] for Q2; 1.28, 95% CI [1.11–1.47] for Q3; 1.30, 95% CI [1.14–1.51] for Q4; 1.44, 95% CI [1.32–1.74] for Q5). Conclusion For the first time at this aggregation level in France, this study reveals significant geographic differences in ESRD incidence. Unlike the time of renal replacement care, deprivation is certainly a determinant in this phenomenon. This association is probably

  8. Trends in Inequalities in Induced Abortion According to Educational Level among Urban Women

    PubMed Central

    García-Subirats, Irene; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Díez, Elia; Borrell, Carme

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to describe trends in inequalities by women’s socioeconomic position and age in induced abortion in Barcelona (Spain) over 1992–1996 and 2000–2004. Induced abortions occurring in residents in Barcelona aged 20 and 44 years in the study period are included. Variables are age, educational level, and time periods. Induced abortion rates per 1,000 women and absolute differences for educational level, age, and time period are calculated. Poisson regression models are fitted to obtain the relative risk (RR) for trends. Induced abortion rates increased from 10.1 to 14.6 per 1,000 women aged 20–44 (RR = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41–1.47) between 1992–1996 and 2000–2004. The abortion rate was highest among women aged 20–24 and 25–34 and changed little among women aged 35–44. Among women aged 20–24 and 25–34, those with a primary education or less had higher rates of induced abortion in the second period. Induced abortion rates also grew in those women with secondary education. In the 35–44 age group, the induced abortion rate declined among women with a secondary education (RR = 0.66; 95% CI 0.60–0.73) and slightly among those with a greater level of education. Induced abortion is rising most among women in poor socioeconomic positions. This study reveals deep inequalities in induced abortion in Barcelona, Spain. The trends identified in this study suggest that policy efforts to reduce unintended pregnancies are failing in Spain. Our study fills an important gap in literature on recent trends in Southern Europe. PMID:20229107

  9. Determinants of aerosol lung-deposited surface area variation in an urban environment.

    PubMed

    Reche, Cristina; Viana, Mar; Brines, Mariola; Pérez, Noemí; Beddows, David; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier

    2015-06-01

    Ultrafine particles are characterized by a high surface area per mass. Particle surface has been reported to play a significant role in determining the toxicological activity of ultrafine particles. In light of this potential role, the time variation of lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentrations in the alveolar region was studied at the urban background environment of Barcelona (Spain), aiming to asses which processes and sources govern this parameter. Simultaneous data on Black Carbon (BC), total particle number (N) and particle number size distribution were correlated with LDSA. Average LDSA concentrations in Barcelona were 37 ± 26 μm(2)cm(-3), levels which seem to be characteristic for urban environments under traffic influence across Europe. Results confirm the comparability between LDSA data provided by the online monitor and those calculated based on particle size distributions (by SMPS), and reveal that LDSA concentrations are mainly influenced by particles in the size range 50-200 nm. A set of representative daily cycles for LDSA concentrations was obtained by means of a k-means cluster technique. The contribution of traffic emissions to daily patterns was evidenced in all the clusters, but was quantitatively different. Traffic events under stable atmospheric conditions increased mean hourly background LDSA concentrations up to 6 times, attaining levels higher than 200 μm(2)cm(-3). However, under warm and relatively clean atmospheric conditions, the traffic rush hour contribution to the daily LDSA mean appeared to be lower and the contribution of new urban particle formation events (by photochemically induced nucleation) was detected. These nucleation events were calculated to increase average background LDSA concentrations by 15-35% (maximum LDSA levels=45-50 μm(2)cm(-3)). Thereby, it may be concluded that in the urban background of Barcelona road traffic is the main source increasing the aerosol surface area which can deposit on critical

  10. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Rueda, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Andersen, Zorana J.; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Bruha, Jan; Bruhova-Foltynova, Hana; Desqueyroux, Hélène; Praznoczy, Corinne; Ragettli, Martina S.; Tainio, Marko; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling) have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16–64) in six European cities. We conducted a health impact assessment using two scenarios: increased cycling and increased walking. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality related to changes in physical activity level, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with a diameter <2.5 μm, as well as traffic fatalities in the cities of Barcelona, Basel, Copenhagen, Paris, Prague, and Warsaw. All scenarios produced health benefits in the six cities. An increase in bicycle trips to 35% of all trips (as in Copenhagen) produced the highest benefits among the different scenarios analysed in Warsaw 113 (76–163) annual deaths avoided, Prague 61 (29–104), Barcelona 37 (24–56), Paris 37 (18–64) and Basel 5 (3–9). An increase in walking trips to 50% of all trips (as in Paris) resulted in 19 (3–42) deaths avoided annually in Warsaw, 11(3–21) in Prague, 6 (4–9) in Basel, 3 (2–6) in Copenhagen and 3 (2–4) in Barcelona. The scenarios would also reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year). Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation. PMID:26930213

  11. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Rueda, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Andersen, Zorana J; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Bruha, Jan; Bruhova-Foltynova, Hana; Desqueyroux, Hélène; Praznoczy, Corinne; Ragettli, Martina S; Tainio, Marko; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling) have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16-64) in six European cities. We conducted a health impact assessment using two scenarios: increased cycling and increased walking. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality related to changes in physical activity level, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with a diameter <2.5 μm, as well as traffic fatalities in the cities of Barcelona, Basel, Copenhagen, Paris, Prague, and Warsaw. All scenarios produced health benefits in the six cities. An increase in bicycle trips to 35% of all trips (as in Copenhagen) produced the highest benefits among the different scenarios analysed in Warsaw 113 (76-163) annual deaths avoided, Prague 61 (29-104), Barcelona 37 (24-56), Paris 37 (18-64) and Basel 5 (3-9). An increase in walking trips to 50% of all trips (as in Paris) resulted in 19 (3-42) deaths avoided annually in Warsaw, 11(3-21) in Prague, 6 (4-9) in Basel, 3 (2-6) in Copenhagen and 3 (2-4) in Barcelona. The scenarios would also reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year). Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation.

  12. Antibiotic resistance genes in bacterial and bacteriophage fractions of Tunisian and Spanish wastewaters as markers to compare the antibiotic resistance patterns in each population.

    PubMed

    Colomer-Lluch, Marta; Calero-Cáceres, William; Jebri, Sihem; Hmaied, Fatma; Muniesa, Maite; Jofre, Juan

    2014-12-01

    The emergence and increased prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment may pose a serious global health concern. This study evaluates the abundance of several ARGs in bacterial and bacteriophage DNA via real-time qPCR in samples from five different sampling points in Tunisia; three wastewater treatment plants (WWTP 1, 2 and 3) and wastewater from two abattoirs slaughtering different animals. Results are compared with those obtained in the Barcelona area, in northeast Spain. Eight ARGs were quantified by qPCR from total and phage DNA fraction from the samples. Three β-lactamases (bla(TEM), bla(CTX-M) cluster 1 and bla(CTX-M) cluster 9), two quinolone resistance genes (qnrA and qnrS), the mecA gene that confers resistance to methicillin in Staphylococcus aureus, the emerging armA gene, conferring resistance to aminoglycosides and sul1, the most extended gene conferring resistance to sulfonamides, were evaluated. Sul1 and bla(TEM) were the most prevalent ARGs detected at all five Tunisian sampling points, similarly with the observations in Barcelona. bla(CTX-M-9) was more prevalent than bla(CTX-M-1) both in bacterial and DNA within phage particles in all samples analysed. mecA and armA were almost absent in Tunisian waters from human or animal origin in contrast with Barcelona that showed a medium prevalence. qnrA was more prevalent than qnrS in bacterial and phage DNA from all sampling points. In conclusion, our study shows that ARGs are found in the bacterial and is reflected in the phage DNA fraction of human and animal wastewaters. The densities of each ARGs vary depending on the ARGs shed by each population and is determined by the characteristics of each area. Thus, the evaluation of ARGs in wastewaters seems to be suitable as marker reflecting the antibiotic resistance patterns of a population.

  13. Dispersion in harbour and coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, M.; Castilla, R.

    2010-05-01

    Experimental results of turbulent flows in the sea surface near the coastline have been performed using both Lagrangian and Eulerian methods, field tests are presented using video recordings and velocity sensors[1]. The spatial and temporal resolution is limited by the measuring instruments, which results in "filtering" out the very small scales. The experimental field-results obtained during the Vilanova i la geltru experiments [2], under reduced longshore currents and spilling/plunging breaking waves are compared with experiments performed at the Barcelona harbour. The field-measurements include several tests across the surf and enclosed zones. The measured turbulent properties are compared with macroturbulence characteristics and parameterisations [2,3]. Diffusion is measured and related to the local velocity spectra so that a generalized Richardson law may be used, Numerical models on turbulent dispersion for different spectra are compared with the measurements [4,5]. [1] Diez M., Estudio de la Hidrodinamica de la zona de rompientes mediante el analisis digital de imagenes, Master Thesis, UPC, Barcelona (1998). [2] Bezerra M. O., Diez M., Medeiros C., Rodriguez A., Bahia E., Sanchez-Arcilla A. and Redondo J. M., J. Flow Turb. Combust., 59 (1998) 127. [3] Rodriguez A., Sanchez-Arcilla A., Redondo J. M. and Mosso C., Exp. Fluids, 27(1999) 31. [4] Castilla R., Simulacion cinematica de flujo turbulento. Aplicacion al estudio de la estructura de la turbulencia y la dispersíon turbulenta, PhD Thesis UPC , Barcelona (2001). [5] Castilla R., Redondo J. M., Gamez-Monterol P. J. and Babiano A., Nonlinear Processes Geophys., 14 (2007) 139.

  14. Pediatric Exposure to Drugs of Abuse by Hair Testing: Monitoring 15 Years of Evolution in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Pichini, Simona; García-Algar, Oscar; Alvarez, Airam-Tenesor; Mercadal, Maria; Mortali, Claudia; Gottardi, Massimo; Svaizer, Fiorenza; Pacifici, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Hair testing is a useful tool to investigate the prevalence of unsuspected chronic exposure to drugs of abuse in pediatric populations and it has been applied to three different cohorts of children from Barcelona, Spain along fifteen years to evaluate eventual changes in this exposure. Children were recruited from three independent studies performed at Hospital del Mar (Barcelona, Spain) and approved by the local Ethics Committee. Hair samples were collected from the first 187 children cohort (around 4 years of age) in 1998, from the second 90 children cohort (1.5–5 years of age) in 2008 and from the third 114 children cohort (5–14 years of age) in 2013. Hair samples were analysed for the presence of opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, and cannabis by validated methodologies using gas or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Familiar sociodemographics and eventual consumption of drugs of abuse by parents, and caregivers were recorded. Hair samples from 24.6% children in 1998 were positive for any drug of abuse (23.0% cocaine), 25.5% in 2008 (23.3% cocaine), and 28.1% in 2013 (20.1% cocaine and 11.4% cannabis). In none of the cohorts, parental sociodemographics were associated with children exposure to drugs of abuse. The results of the three study cohorts demonstrated a significant prevalence of unsuspected pediatric exposure to drugs of abuse which mainly involved cocaine maintained along fifteen years in Barcelona, Spain. We recommend to be aware about unsuspected passive exposure to drugs of abuse in general population and to use general or selected hair screening to disclose exposure to drugs of abuse in children from risky environments to provide the basis for specific social and health interventions. PMID:25153461

  15. Neural network model for the prediction of PM10 daily concentrations in two sites in the Western Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Trizio, Livia; Di Gilio, Alessia; Pey, Jorge; Pérez, Noemi; Cusack, Michael; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier

    2013-10-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) was developed and tested to forecast PM10 daily concentration in two contrasted environments in NE Spain, a regional background site (Montseny), and an urban background site (Barcelona-CSIC), which was highly influenced by vehicular emissions. In order to predict 24-h average PM10 concentrations, the artificial neural network previously developed by Caselli et al. (2009) was improved by using hourly PM concentrations and deterministic factors such as a Saharan dust alert. In particular, the model input data for prediction were the hourly PM10 concentrations 1-day in advance, local meteorological data and information about air masses origin. The forecasted performance indexes for both sites were calculated and they showed better results for the regional background site in Montseny (R(2)=0.86, SI=0.75) than for urban site in Barcelona (R(2)=0.73, SI=0.58), influenced by local and sometimes unexpected sources. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis conducted to understand the importance of the different variables included among the input data, showed that local meteorology and air masses origin are key factors in the model forecasts. This result explains the reason for the improvement of ANN's forecasting performance at the Montseny site with respect to the Barcelona site. Moreover, the artificial neural network developed in this work could prove useful to predict PM10 concentrations, especially, at regional background sites such as those on the Mediterranean Basin which are primarily affected by long-range transports. Hence, the artificial neural network presented here could be a powerful tool for obtaining real time information on air quality status and could aid stakeholders in their development of cost-effective control strategies.

  16. Pediatric exposure to drugs of abuse by hair testing: monitoring 15 years of evolution in Spain.

    PubMed

    Pichini, Simona; García-Algar, Oscar; Alvarez, Airam-Tenesor; Mercadal, Maria; Mortali, Claudia; Gottardi, Massimo; Svaizer, Fiorenza; Pacifici, Roberta

    2014-08-01

    Hair testing is a useful tool to investigate the prevalence of unsuspected chronic exposure to drugs of abuse in pediatric populations and it has been applied to three different cohorts of children from Barcelona, Spain along fifteen years to evaluate eventual changes in this exposure. Children were recruited from three independent studies performed at Hospital del Mar (Barcelona, Spain) and approved by the local Ethics Committee. Hair samples were collected from the first 187 children cohort (around 4 years of age) in 1998, from the second 90 children cohort (1.5-5 years of age) in 2008 and from the third 114 children cohort (5-14 years of age) in 2013. Hair samples were analysed for the presence of opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, and cannabis by validated methodologies using gas or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Familiar sociodemographics and eventual consumption of drugs of abuse by parents, and caregivers were recorded. Hair samples from 24.6% children in 1998 were positive for any drug of abuse (23.0% cocaine), 25.5% in 2008 (23.3% cocaine), and 28.1% in 2013 (20.1% cocaine and 11.4% cannabis). In none of the cohorts, parental sociodemographics were associated with children exposure to drugs of abuse. The results of the three study cohorts demonstrated a significant prevalence of unsuspected pediatric exposure to drugs of abuse which mainly involved cocaine maintained along fifteen years in Barcelona, Spain. We recommend to be aware about unsuspected passive exposure to drugs of abuse in general population and to use general or selected hair screening to disclose exposure to drugs of abuse in children from risky environments to provide the basis for specific social and health interventions.

  17. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Rueda, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Andersen, Zorana J; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Bruha, Jan; Bruhova-Foltynova, Hana; Desqueyroux, Hélène; Praznoczy, Corinne; Ragettli, Martina S; Tainio, Marko; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling) have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16-64) in six European cities. We conducted a health impact assessment using two scenarios: increased cycling and increased walking. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality related to changes in physical activity level, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with a diameter <2.5 μm, as well as traffic fatalities in the cities of Barcelona, Basel, Copenhagen, Paris, Prague, and Warsaw. All scenarios produced health benefits in the six cities. An increase in bicycle trips to 35% of all trips (as in Copenhagen) produced the highest benefits among the different scenarios analysed in Warsaw 113 (76-163) annual deaths avoided, Prague 61 (29-104), Barcelona 37 (24-56), Paris 37 (18-64) and Basel 5 (3-9). An increase in walking trips to 50% of all trips (as in Paris) resulted in 19 (3-42) deaths avoided annually in Warsaw, 11(3-21) in Prague, 6 (4-9) in Basel, 3 (2-6) in Copenhagen and 3 (2-4) in Barcelona. The scenarios would also reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year). Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation. PMID:26930213

  18. Inherited functional variants of the lymphocyte receptor CD5 influence melanoma survival.

    PubMed

    Potrony, Miriam; Carreras, Esther; Aranda, Fernando; Zimmer, Lisa; Puig-Butille, Joan-Anton; Tell-Martí, Gemma; Armiger, Noelia; Sucker, Antje; Giménez-Xavier, Pol; Martínez-Florensa, Mario; Carrera, Cristina; Malvehy, Josep; Schadendorf, Dirk; Puig, Susana; Lozano, Francisco

    2016-09-15

    Despite the recent progress in treatment options, malignant melanoma remains a deadly disease. Besides therapy, inherited factors might modulate clinical outcome, explaining in part widely varying survival rates. T-cell effector function regulators on antitumor immune responses could also influence survival. CD5, a T-cell receptor inhibitory molecule, contributes to the modulation of antimelanoma immune responses as deduced from genetically modified mouse models. The CD5 SNPs rs2241002 (NM_014207.3:c.671C > T, p.Pro224Leu) and rs2229177 (NM_014207.3:c.1412C > T, p.Ala471Val) constitute an ancestral haplotype (Pro224-Ala471) that confers T-cell hyper-responsiveness and worsens clinical autoimmune outcome. The assessment of these SNPs on survival impact from two melanoma patient cohorts (Barcelona, N = 493 and Essen, N = 215) reveals that p.Ala471 correlates with a better outcome (OR= 0.57, 95% CI = 0.33-0.99, Adj. p = 0.043, in Barcelona OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.40-1.01, Adj. p = 0.051, in Essen). While, p.Leu224 was associated with increased melanoma-associated mortality in both cohorts (OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.07-3.24, Adj. p = 0.030 in Barcelona and OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.04-3.26, Adj. p = 0.037, in Essen). Furthermore survival analyses showed that the Pro224-Ala471 haplotype in homozygosis improved melanoma survival in the entire set of patients (HR = 0.27, 95% CI 0.11-0.67, Adj. p = 0.005). These findings highlight the relevance of genetic variability in immune-related genes for clinical outcome in melanoma.

  19. Trends in inequalities in induced abortion according to educational level among urban women.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Gloria; García-Subirats, Irene; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Díez, Elia; Borrell, Carme

    2010-05-01

    This study aims to describe trends in inequalities by women's socioeconomic position and age in induced abortion in Barcelona (Spain) over 1992-1996 and 2000-2004. Induced abortions occurring in residents in Barcelona aged 20 and 44 years in the study period are included. Variables are age, educational level, and time periods. Induced abortion rates per 1,000 women and absolute differences for educational level, age, and time period are calculated. Poisson regression models are fitted to obtain the relative risk (RR) for trends. Induced abortion rates increased from 10.1 to 14.6 per 1,000 women aged 20-44 (RR = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41-1.47) between 1992-1996 and 2000-2004. The abortion rate was highest among women aged 20-24 and 25-34 and changed little among women aged 35-44. Among women aged 20-24 and 25-34, those with a primary education or less had higher rates of induced abortion in the second period. Induced abortion rates also grew in those women with secondary education. In the 35-44 age group, the induced abortion rate declined among women with a secondary education (RR = 0.66; 95% CI 0.60-0.73) and slightly among those with a greater level of education. Induced abortion is rising most among women in poor socioeconomic positions. This study reveals deep inequalities in induced abortion in Barcelona, Spain. The trends identified in this study suggest that policy efforts to reduce unintended pregnancies are failing in Spain. Our study fills an important gap in literature on recent trends in Southern Europe.

  20. Constraints on axions from π0 --> e+e- decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massó, Eduard

    1986-12-01

    The contribution of axions to π0 --> e+e- decay is considered. It is found that a recently proposed short-lived axion with a mass of 1.8 MeV induces a decay rate inconsistent with experimental observations. More generally, upper limits are placed on the mass of an axion that couples to first-generations fermions. On leave of absence from Department de Física Teòrica, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain.