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Sample records for nord barcelona 1993-2002

  1. Permanent medical disqualification in airline cabin crew: causes in 136 cases, 1993-2002.

    PubMed

    Pombal, Rui; Peixoto, Helena; Lima, Margarida; Jorge, Anabela

    2005-10-01

    Pronouncing cabin crew permanently unfit to fly is a difficult decision involving personal, professional, ethical, and corporate aspects. We analyzed the causes of permanent medical disqualification in cabin crew in a medium-sized European commercial airline for the period 1993-2002. The minutes of the official Medical Assessment Board of UCS for TAP Air Portugal were systematically reviewed and yielded a total of 136 cases of permanent medical disqualifications. The medical conditions most frequently responsible for grounding were otorhinolaryngological (30.1%), followed by musculoskeletal (21.3%), and psychiatric (12.5%). The remaining cases resulted from cardiovascular, malignant neoplastic, ophthalmologic, respiratory, neurological, infectious, urinary, digestive, and metabolic conditions. The disqualification rate was 9.2 for every 1000 cabin crewmembers per year. More than half of all cases (53.6%) were in the age range 41-50 yr (median 46 yr) and 66.1% were women. More than 85% had been with the company for 16 yr or more. The early retirement of these patients resulted in the loss of approximately 2364 person-years of work as cabin crew, although many patients were reassigned to ground duties with the airline. The annual disqualification rates found in this study were higher than those for airline pilots; we could find no comparable studies of rates for cabin crew. The results indicate the relevance of early detection as well as clinical and occupational follow up.

  2. Mechanisms of basketball injuries reported to the HQ Air Force Safety Center a 10-year descriptive study, 1993-2002.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Bruce R; Copley, G Bruce; Shim, Matthew J; Kemp, Philip A

    2010-01-01

    Basketball is the most popular sport among the U.S. Air Force (USAF) active duty population and causes a large number of lost-workday injuries. The purpose of this study is to describe how basketball injuries occur to allow development of effective countermeasures. This study used data derived from safety reports obtained from the USAF Ground Safety Automated System. Basketball injuries for the years 1993-2002 that resulted in at least one lost workday were included in the study conducted in 2003. Narrative data from 32,818 safety reports were systematically reviewed and coded in order to categorize and summarize mechanisms associated with these injuries. A total of 2204 mishap reports involving active duty USAF members playing basketball were documented by the study. This study identified seven mechanisms causing basketball injury. Two similar causes involving jumping (landing awkwardly and landing on someone's foot) accounted for 43% of basketball injuries followed by collisions with other players (10%). This study shows that mechanisms of basketball-related injury can be identified using the detailed information found in USAF safety reports. Knowledge of leading hazards or mechanisms for basketball injuries can be used to prioritize and develop prevention strategies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Lower rates of preterm birth in women of Arab ancestry: an epidemiologic paradox--Michigan, 1993-2002.

    PubMed

    El Reda, Darline K; Grigorescu, Violanda; Posner, Samuel F; Davis-Harrier, Amanda

    2007-11-01

    Preterm birth (PTB), <37 weeks gestation, occurs in 12.1% of live births annually and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the United States. Racial/ethnic subgroups are disproportionately affected by PTB. Michigan is home to one of the largest Arab-American communities in the country; however, little is known about PTB in this population. This study examined the maternal demographic profile and risk factors of preterm birth (PTB) among foreign-born and US-born women of Arab ancestry relative to US-born Whites in Michigan. Using Michigan Vital Statistics data, we examined correlates of PTB for primiparous U.S.-born white (n = 205,749), U.S.-born Arab (n=1,697), and foreign-born Arab (n=5,997) women who had had a live-born singleton infant during 1993-2002. We examined variables commonly reported to be associated with PTB, including mother's age and education; insurance type; marital status of parents; receipt of prenatal care; mother's chronic hypertension, diabetes, and tobacco use; and infant sex. Foreign-born Arabs are less educated and more likely to be on Medicaid, and they receive less prenatal care than US-born Whites. Prevalence of PTB was 8.5, 8.0, and 7.5% for US-born Whites, US-born Arabs, and foreign-born Arabs, respectively. Pregnancy-related hypertension was the only predictor of PTB that these three groups had in common: Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=2.1 (95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.99, 2.21), AOR=2.6 (95% CI=1.24, 5.51), and AOR=2.6 (95% CI=1.55, 4.31) for US-born whites, US-born Arabs, and foreign-born Arabs, respectively. Foreign-born Arab women in Michigan have a higher-risk maternal demographic profile than that of their US-born white counterparts; however, their prevalence of PTB is lower, which is consistent with the epidemiologic paradox reported among foreign-born Hispanic women.

  4. Paediatrics in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Midulla, Fabio; Lombardi, Enrico; Rottier, Bart; Lindblad, Anders; Grigg, Jonathan; Bohlin, Kajsa; Rusconi, Franca; Pohunek, Petr; Eber, Ernst

    2014-08-01

    This update will describe the paediatric highlights from the 2013 European Respiratory Society (ERS) annual congress in Barcelona, Spain. Abstracts from the seven groups of the ERS Paediatric Assembly (Respiratory Physiology and Sleep, Asthma and Allergy, Cystic Fibrosis, Respiratory Infection and Immunology, Neonatology and Paediatric Intensive Care, Respiratory Epidemiology, and Bronchology) have been chosen by group officers and are presented in the context of current literature. ©ERS 2014.

  5. Physical Science in Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca-Rosell, Antoni; Roqué, Xavier

    2013-12-01

    We provide a tour of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, following four routes through the city and one elsewhere in the city and beyond, focusing on sites of importance in physics. Route 1 covers the Old Town, its Gothic Quarter, Plaça del Rei, Plaça de Sant Jaume, and Jewish Quarter. Route 2 identifies sites on and close to La Rambla, the main promenade in the city. Route 3 goes from the medieval shipyards to the Board of Commerce to Citadel Park. Route 4 concentrates on the Extension ( Eixample) and covers the restored University, the Industrial University, and the new campus of the University of Barcelona. Elsewhere in the city and beyond are the Fabra Observatory; the Plaça de les Glòries with its large steel sculpture depicting the meridian arc from Dunkirk to Barcelona; Montjuïc, the site of the National Art Museum of Catalonia; and the National Museum of Science and Technology in Terrassa.

  6. Mechanisms of slow-pitch softball injuries reported to the HQ Air Force Safety Center a 10-year descriptive study, 1993-2002.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Bruce R; Copley, G Bruce; Shim, Matthew J; Kemp, Philip A; Jones, Bruce H

    2010-01-01

    Softball is a popular sport in civilian and military populations and results in a large number of lost-workday injuries. The purpose of this study is to describe the mechanisms associated with softball injuries occurring among active duty U.S. Air Force (USAF) personnel to better identify potentially effective countermeasures. Data derived from safety reports were obtained from the USAF Ground Safety Automated System in 2003. Softball injuries for the years 1993-2002 that resulted in at least one lost workday were included in the study. Narrative data were systematically reviewed and coded in order to categorize and summarize mechanisms associated with these injuries. This report documents a total of 1181 softball-related mishap reports, involving 1171 active duty USAF members who sustained one lost-workday injury while playing softball. Eight independent mechanisms were identified. Three specific scenarios (sliding, being hit by a ball, and colliding with a player) accounted for 60% of reported softball injuries. Mechanisms of injury for activities such as playing softball, necessary for prevention planning, can be identified using the detailed information found in safety reports. This information should also be used to develop better sports injury coding systems. Within the USAF and U.S. softball community, interventions to reduce injuries related to the most common mechanisms (sliding, being hit by a ball, and colliding with a player) should be developed, implemented, and evaluated. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Mechanisms of flag-football injuries reported to the HQ Air Force Safety Center a 10-year descriptive study, 1993-2002.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Bruce R; Copley, G Bruce; Shim, Matthew J; Kemp, Philip A; Jones, Bruce H

    2010-01-01

    Flag (touch or intramural) football is a popular sport among the U.S. Air Force (USAF) active duty population and causes a substantial number of lost-workday injuries. The purpose of this study is to describe the mechanisms of flag-football injuries to better identify effective countermeasures. The data were derived from safety reports obtained from the USAF Ground Safety Automated System. Flag-football injuries for the years 1993-2002 that resulted in at least one lost workday were included in the study conducted in 2003. Narrative data were systematically reviewed for 32,812 USAF mishap reports; these were then coded in order to categorize and summarize mechanisms associated with flag football and other sports and occupational injuries. Nine hundred and forty-four mishap reports involving active duty USAF members playing flag football met the criteria for inclusion into this study. Eight mechanisms of injury were identified. The eight mechanisms accounted for 90% of all flag-football injuries. One scenario (contact with another player) accounted for 42% of all flag-football injuries. The most common mechanisms of injury caused by playing flag football can be identified using the detailed information found in safety reports. These scenarios are essential to developing evidence-based countermeasures. Results for flag football suggest that interventions that prevent player contact injuries deserve further research and evaluation. The broader implications of this study are that military safety data can be used to identify potentially modifiable mechanisms of injury for specific activities such as flag football. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Ten-year experiences on initial genetic examination in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in Hungary (1993-2002). Technical approaches and clinical implementation.

    PubMed

    Olah, Eva; Balogh, Erzsebet; Pajor, Laszlo; Jakab, Zsuzsanna

    2011-03-01

    A nationwide study was started in 1993 to provide genetic diagnosis for all newly diagnosed childhood ALL cases in Hungary using cytogenetic examination, DNA-index determination, FISH (aneuploidy, ABL/BCR, TEL/AML1) and molecular genetic tests (ABL/BCR, MLL/AF4, TEL/AML1). Aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of different genetic methods, to study the frequency of various aberrations and their prognostic significance. Results were synthesized for genetic subgrouping of patients. To assess the prognostic value of genetic aberrations overall and event-free survival of genetic subgroups were compared using Kaplan-Meier method. Prognostic role of aberrations was investigated by multivariate analysis (Cox's regression) as well in comparison with other factors (age, sex, major congenital abnormalities, initial WBC, therapy, immunophenotype). Five hundred eighty-eight ALL cases were diagnosed between 1993-2002. Cytogenetic examination was performed in 537 (91%) (success rate 73%), DNA-index in 265 (45%), FISH in 74 (13%), TEL/AML1 RT-PCR in 219 (37%) cases producing genetic diagnosis in 457 patients (78%). Proportion of subgroups with good prognosis in prae-B-cell ALL was lower than expected: hyperdiploidB 18% (73/400), TEL/AML1+ 9% (36/400). Univariate analysis showed significantly better 5-year EFS in TEL/AML1+ (82%) and hyperdiploidB cases (78%) than in tetraploid (44%) or pseudodiploid (52%) subgroups. By multivariate analysis main negative prognostic factors were: congenital abnormalities, high WBC, delay in therapy, specific translocations. Complementary use of each of genetic methods used is necessary for reliable genetic diagnosis according to the algorithm presented. Specific genetic alterations proved to be of prognostic significance.

  9. Paralympics--Barcelona 1992.

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, J; Stirk, A; Thomas, A; Geary, F

    1994-01-01

    The British Team at the 9th Paralympic Games in September 1992 in Barcelona comprised 151 men and 54 women athletes in a total of 15 sports. They were supported by a staff of 86 including a 12-strong medical team. The athletes were selected from the National Championships of the five disability organizations: British Wheelchair Sports Federation; British Blind Sport; Cerebral Palsy Sport; British Amputee Sports Association; and the British Les Autres Sports Association. This article outlines the organization and experience of the medical support team. The injury/illness profile was similar to those in able bodied sport. The team went on to achieve 40 gold, 47 silver and 41 bronze medals, maintaining third place on the medal table as achieved in Seoul in 1988. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8044485

  10. Paralympics--Barcelona 1992.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, J; Stirk, A; Thomas, A; Geary, F

    1994-03-01

    The British Team at the 9th Paralympic Games in September 1992 in Barcelona comprised 151 men and 54 women athletes in a total of 15 sports. They were supported by a staff of 86 including a 12-strong medical team. The athletes were selected from the National Championships of the five disability organizations: British Wheelchair Sports Federation; British Blind Sport; Cerebral Palsy Sport; British Amputee Sports Association; and the British Les Autres Sports Association. This article outlines the organization and experience of the medical support team. The injury/illness profile was similar to those in able bodied sport. The team went on to achieve 40 gold, 47 silver and 41 bronze medals, maintaining third place on the medal table as achieved in Seoul in 1988.

  11. NEWS: GIREP in Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    2000-11-01

    The 18th biannual conference of GIREP was held in Barcelona from 27 August to 1 September 2000. GIREP stands for Groupe International de Recherche sur l'Enseignement de la Physique. Some 400 delegates from 53 countries attended the conference, whose main concern was Physics Teacher Education beyond 2000. All contributions had to made in English. A conference like this needs to be singularly interesting to keep delegates away from the sunsoaked attractions and delights of one of the most exciting cities in the world - even if some of the excitement comes from wondering whether or not you are going to get your pocket picked. A typical conference day begins with two or three plenary lectures in the morning, with the afternoon given over to a set of nine parallel sessions. These sessions consisted of tightly timetabled 20 minute talks or other types of presentation. This meant that even the most dedicated delegate could get to little more than 10% of the over 200 sessions that were on offer in the afternoons. The event was organized by Catalonian locals working at the conference site, the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, and was superbly smooth. The list of organizations supporting the conference is too long to record, but ranged from the European Commission to Barcelona Science Museum. The UK can boast (if that is the right word) just 11 paid-up members of GIREP, which at about £10 per annum is hardly an expensive club - next year it goes up to 20 Euros - and the fee is worth it for the excellently produced book or CD-ROM of the conference proceedings. These contain a great deal of wisdom, plus the fair amount of infuriating rubbish that tends to be generated by educational research. I write here with all the prejudices of an aged ex-teacher, of course. The first morning lecture was given by Jon Ogborn, who used his recent work as organizer of the IoP post-16 Initiative to give some details of the Advancing Physics AS and A2 and make some general points about

  12. European Energy Security and Nord Stream: A Case Study of the Nord Stream Pipeline, Its Opportunities and Risks for Europe, and Its Impact on European Energy Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Pipeline, FNI Report 15, Fridtjof Nansen Institut (Lysaker: Fridtjof Nansen Institut, 2008), 9. 183 Nord Stream, The pipeline - Nord Stream AG. 184...Nord Stream: Not just a Pipeline. FNI Report 15, Fridtjof Nansen Institut, Lysaker: Fridtjof Nansen Institut, 2008; available at: http://www.fni.no

  13. Severe Weather Guide, Mediterranean Ports. 16. Barcelona

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    and Besos rivers at 41»22’N 002»11’E (Figure 2-2). Figure 2-2. Region of the Port of Barcelona. 2-2 The Port of Barcelona is capable of...Llobregat and Besos rivers at 41൞’N 002»11’E (Figure 3-2). NAUTICAL MILE SCALE -^ It >■ 0 , UobngatR. ’BARCELONA Bhro f^: GULF OF VALENCIA...OOCUMENTATION 2. AVENUE RAPP 75340 PARIS CEDEX 07 FRANCE SERVICE HYDROGRAPHIQUE ET OCEANOGRAPHIQUE DE LA MARINE ESTABLISSEMENT PRINCIPAL RUE OU

  14. First Barcelona Conference on Epigenetics and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Palau, Anna; Perucho, Manuel; Esteller, Manel; Buschbeck, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The Barcelona Conference on Epigenetics and Cancer (BCEC) entitled “Challenges, opportunities and perspectives” took place November 21–22, 2013 in Barcelona. The 2013 BCEC is the first edition of a series of annual conferences jointly organized by five leading research centers in Barcelona. These centers are the Institute of Predictive and Personalized Medicine of Cancer (IMPPC), the Biomedical Campus Bellvitge with its Program of Epigenetics and Cancer Biology (PEBC), the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), the Institute for Biomedical Research (IRB), and the Molecular Biology Institute of Barcelona (IBMB). Manuel Perucho and Marcus Buschbeck from the Institute of Predictive and Personalized Medicine of Cancer put together the scientific program of the first conference broadly covering all aspects of epigenetic research ranging from fundamental molecular research to drug and biomarker development and clinical application. In one and a half days, 23 talks and 50 posters were presented to a completely booked out audience counting 270 participants. PMID:24413145

  15. [Catalan version of Barcelona Test's verbal subtests].

    PubMed

    Lluent Vallet, R; Peña-Casanova, J; Böhm, P

    2002-03-01

    Test Barcelona. Bilingüismo catalán-castellano. Adaptación lingüística de instrumentos neuropsicológicos. The present paper develops the Catalan version of the language subtests of the Barcelona Test (Peña-Casanova,1986) the original version of which was published in Spanish. To reach the Catalan version of the test it has been necessary to analyse the psycholinguistic variables of every item to then establish linguistically equivalent correlations. There are some subtests for which no modifications have been needed. Nevertheless, and because of some psycholinguistic features of Catalan (Catalan's spelling is not completely free of ambiguity) some subtests have suffered substantial modifications. The following paper presents the justification of every modification based on the features of the Catalan language and also based on the original goals of the test. An appendix contains the final version of the Catalan adaptation for the language subtests of the Barcelona Test. The present paper represents an advance in the assessment of neurological patients with language disfunctions. It will permit an appropiate assessment for the Spanish-Catalan bilingual patients.

  16. Barcelona: visa barriers may disrupt conference.

    PubMed

    James, John S

    2002-06-28

    Almost everyone from Africa or Asia needs a visa to enter Spain--although citizens of the U.S. and over 50 other countries do not. Many delegates from developing countries have had great difficulties getting a Spanish visa to attend the big international conference in Barcelona; we do not know how many were kept away as a result. In addition, we look at another access and solidarity issues, the price of the international AIDS conferences--and show that other large meetings can make a profit on a tenth the price.

  17. Teaching Religion in Public Schools: Review of Warren A. Nord, "Does God Make a Difference?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Walter

    2013-01-01

    In this review of Warren Nord's "Does God Make a Difference? Taking Religion Seriously in Our Schools and Universities," Walter Feinberg provides a detailed analysis of Nord's argument that the study of religion should be constitutionally mandated as a corrective to the overwhelmingly secular course of study offered in…

  18. Teaching Religion in Public Schools: Review of Warren A. Nord, "Does God Make a Difference?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Walter

    2013-01-01

    In this review of Warren Nord's "Does God Make a Difference? Taking Religion Seriously in Our Schools and Universities," Walter Feinberg provides a detailed analysis of Nord's argument that the study of religion should be constitutionally mandated as a corrective to the overwhelmingly secular course of study offered in…

  19. Bioaerosols in the Barcelona subway system.

    PubMed

    Triadó-Margarit, X; Veillette, M; Duchaine, C; Talbot, M; Amato, F; Minguillón, M C; Martins, V; de Miguel, E; Casamayor, E O; Moreno, T

    2016-09-30

    Subway systems worldwide transport more than 100 million people daily; therefore, air quality on station platforms and inside trains is an important urban air pollution issue. We examined the microbiological composition and abundance in space and time of bioaerosols collected in the Barcelona subway system during a cold period. Quantitative PCR was used to quantify total bacteria, Aspergillus fumigatus, influenza A and B, and rhinoviruses. Multitag 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to assess bacterial community composition and biodiversity. The results showed low bioaerosol concentrations regarding the targeted microorganisms, although the bacterial bioburden was rather high (10(4) bacteria/m(3) ). Airborne bacterial communities presented a high degree of overlap among the different subway environments sampled (inside trains, platforms, and lobbies) and were dominated by a few widespread taxa, with Methylobacterium being the most abundant genus. Human-related microbiota in sequence dataset and ascribed to potentially pathogenic bacteria were found in low proportion (maximum values below 2% of sequence readings) and evenly detected. Hence, no important biological exposure marker was detected in any of the sampled environments. Overall, we found that commuters are not the main source of bioaerosols in the Barcelona subway system.

  20. Requirement of norD for Brucella suis Virulence in a Murine Model of In Vitro and In Vivo Infection

    PubMed Central

    Loisel-Meyer, Séverine; Jiménez de Bagüés, Maria Pilar; Bassères, Eugénie; Dornand, Jacques; Köhler, Stephan; Liautard, Jean-Pierre; Jubier-Maurin, Véronique

    2006-01-01

    A mutant of Brucella suis bearing a Tn5 insertion in norD, the last gene of the operon norEFCBQD, encoding nitric oxide reductase, was unable to survive under anaerobic denitrifying conditions. The norD strain exhibited attenuated multiplication within nitric oxide-producing murine macrophages and rapid elimination in mice, hence demonstrating that norD is essential for Brucella virulence. PMID:16495577

  1. [Test-retest and interrater reliability of Barcelona Test].

    PubMed

    Serra-Mayoral, A; Peña-Casanova, J

    2006-01-01

    The short version of the Barcelona Test is a clinical tool that covers a wide spectrum of neuropsychological skills. Since its creation in 1977, it has often been subject of study either for its internal aspects or in validation studies with other cognitive tests. The results indicate that the Barcelona Test is a useful instrument in detecting cognitive impairment. The aim of this study is to measure the testretest reliability and the interrater reliability of the Abbreviated Barcelona Test in normal population. the sample consists of 31 normal subjects (14 men and 17 women) from 20 to 65 years old. Abbreviated Barcelona Test (TBA), Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), Syndrome-Kurztest (SKT) and Interview for Deterioration of Daily living in Dementia (IDDD). descriptive statistics and intraclass correlation coefficient. Test-retest reliability shows good intraclass correlation coefficients with both direct ICC=0.92 (IC 95%: 0.85-0.96) or typified scores ICC=0.79 (IC 95%: 0.61-0.89). Nevertheless, when each of the subtests is considered, correlations clearly show two characteristics: subtest with no or minimal range of scores and subtest with distribution of scores (as is the case of memory and executive function). The intraclass coefficient found for the interrater reliability is ICC =0.99 (IC 95 %: 0.99-0.99) and an alpha of 0.99 which indicate excellent reliability. As a whole, the abbreviated version of the Barcelona Test has excellent test-retest and interrater reliability psychometric characteristics.

  2. Survey of microfungi in the Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord (Germany).

    PubMed

    Jensen, M; Nerat, N; Ale-Agha, N

    2011-01-01

    During an excursion in the Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord in 2009 and 2010 we were able to collect and identify more than 100 specimens of microfungi on different parts of cultivated and wild plant species. We found parasitic and saprophytic microfungi on trees, bushes and herbaceous plants. Some of them have been observed only rarely until now. Most of the collected microfungi species belong to the classes of Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes - for example Leptosphaeria modesta (Desm.) Rabenh. on Knautia cf. arvensis (L.) Coult., Ramularia urticae Ces. on Urtica dioica L., Stigmina glomerulosa (Sacc.) S. Hughes on Juniperus communis L., Pseudomassaria corni (Sowerby) Arx on Cornus alba L., Mollisia discolor (Mont.) W. Phillips on Cornus alba L., Botryosphaeria quercuum (Schwein.) Sacc. on Quercus robur L., Peronospora cytisi Rostr. on Laburnum anagyroides Med., Microsphaera guarinonii Briosi and Cavara on Laburnum anagyroides Med., Brachysporium dingleyae S. Hughes on Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl and Rhododendron spec., Mamiania fimbriata (Pers.) Ces. and De Not. on Carpinus betulus L., Atopospora betulina (Fr.) Petr. on Betula pendula Roth, Septoria robiniae (Lib.) Desm. (=Phloeospora robiniae (Lib.) Höhn.) on Robinia pseudoacacia L., Chalara hughesii Nag Raj and W.B. Kendr. on Quercus robur L.. All specimens are located in the Herbarium ESS, Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha.

  3. Aspects of Spanish Deictic Expressions in Barcelona: A Quantitative Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vann, Robert E.

    1998-01-01

    This sociolinguistic investigation analyzes an innovative usage of Spanish motion verbs, demonstratives, and locatives in Barcelona, Spain that involves crosslinguistic pragmatic transfer. Speakers in the two social networks examined (n=58) use these Spanish deictics following pragmatic rules that generally correspond to the rules for their…

  4. Geodetic infrastructure at the Barcelona harbour for sea level monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, Juan Jose; Gili, Josep; Lopez, Rogelio; Tapia, Ana; Pros, Francesc; Palau, Vicenc; Perez, Begona

    2015-04-01

    The presentation is directed to the description of the actual geodetic infrastructure of Barcelona harbour with three tide gauges of different technologies for sea level determination and contribution to regional sea level rise and understanding past and present sea level rise in the Barcelona harbour. It is intended that the overall system will constitute a CGPS Station of the ESEAS (European Sea Level) and TIGA (GPS Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring) networks. At Barcelona harbour there is a MIROS radar tide gauge belonging to Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours).The radar sensor is over the water surface, on a L-shaped structure which elevates it a few meters above the quay shelf. 1-min data are transmitted to the ENAGAS Control Center by cable and then sent each 1 min to Puertos del Estado by e-mail. The information includes wave forescast (mean period, significant wave height, sea level, etc.This sensor also measures agitation and sends wave parameters each 20 min. There is a GPS station Leica Geosystems GRX1200 GG Pro and antenna AX 1202 GG. The Control Tower of the Port of Barcelona is situated in the North dike of the so-called Energy Pier in the Barcelona harbor (Spain). This tower has different kind of antennas for navigation monitoring and a GNSS permanent station. As the tower is founded in reclaimed land, and because its metallic structure, the 50 m building is subjected to diverse movements, including periodic fluctuations due to temperature changes. In this contribution the 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 the necessary monitoring campaigns are described. In the framework of a Spanish Space Project, the instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge Datamar 2000C from Geonica S.L. in June 2014 near an acoustic tide gauge from the Barcelona Harbour installed in 2013. Precision levelling has been made several times in the last two years because the tower is founded in reclaimed land and

  5. Improving irrigation management in L'Horta Nord (Valencia, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Seva, Nuria; San Bautista, Alberto; López-Galarza, Salvador; Maroto, Jose Vicente; Pascual, Bernardo

    2014-05-01

    L'Horta Nord is an important irrigation district in Valencia (Spain), especially for vegetable crops. The traditional cropping pattern in the region consists of a rotation of chufa with crops such as potato, onion, lettuce, escarole and red cabbage, being all these crops furrow irrigated. Currently, the quality of the water used is acceptable, water is not expensive and there are no limitations on supply. Consequently, growers are not aware of the volumes of water used, application efficiencies, nor water productivity for any of the crops cited. The European Framework Directive 2000/60, based on the precautionary principle, considers preventive action for measures to be taken; moreover, drought periods are becoming more frequent and extended, and water is being diverted to other uses. Thus, water use is an issue to improve. In this sense, the current situation of the irrigation in the area is analysed using chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. var. sativus Boeck.) as representative of the crops, since most of the crops in the area have shallow root systems, as chufa, which are irrigated in similar patterns. In order to analyse the irrigation performance of the traditional chufa crop as well as to achieve more sustainable results, different studies have been carried out, during the last decade. Efforts have been directed to increase water productivity, increasing yield and minimising the volumes of water applied. Different planting configurations and different irrigation thresholds, not only in furrow irrigation but also in drip irrigation, are examples of how the irrigation performance could be improved. Herein is presented a two-year study, comparing, in both furrow and drip irrigation, two irrigation schedules based on the volumetric soil water content, which was continuously monitored using capacitance sensors. Yield was significantly affected by the growing season, the irrigation system and by the irrigation schedule, and by the second order interactions of the

  6. Evidence of earliest human occurrence in Europe: the site of Pirro Nord (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzarello, Marta; Marcolini, Federica; Pavia, Giulio; Pavia, Marco; Petronio, Carmelo; Petrucci, Mauro; Rook, Lorenzo; Sardella, Raffaele

    2007-02-01

    Some flint lithic artifacts were discovered in the fissure fillings of the well-known Pirro Nord site (Apulia, Southern Italy). The lithic industry, composed by three cores and some flakes, has been found to be associated to an Early Pleistocene vertebrate fossil assemblage. The fossil association contains a wide range of micromammals, including Allophaiomys ruffoi and Episoriculus gibberodon and large mammals including Bison degiulii and Equus altidens together with African elements as the gelada baboon Theropithecus and the saber-toothed cat Megantereon whitei. It defines the latest Villafranchian chronological unit (Pirro Nord Faunal Unit) in the Western European mammal biochronology. The lithic industry of Pirro Nord represents the oldest occurrence of the genus Homo in Europe as it is attributable to a chronological interval between 1.3 and 1.7 Ma. This supports the hypothesis that the genus Homo, with Oldowaian technology, extended its range in Europe, probably from western Asia, during the first half of the Early Pleistocene. The new discovery from Pirro Nord changes the chronology of the first arrival of hominids in Europe and offers new perspectives in the debate about the human dispersal in the Early Pleistocene.

  7. Cooperation and Collaboration in Distance Education: The Contact North/Contact Nord Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Terry; And Others

    This paper describes Contact North/Contact Nord, a pilot project that attempts to improve strategies for distance education in Northern Ontario, Canada. The goals of the program include meeting ongoing and future educational needs of rural Canadians by improving the design and operation of technologically enhanced distance education programs. The…

  8. [Community prioritization in Barcelona Salut als Barris program].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ledesma, Esther; Pérez, Anna; Vázquez, Noelia; García-Subirats, Irene; Fernández, Ana; Novoa, Ana M; Daban, Ferran

    2017-06-29

    Prioritizing corresponds to the process of selecting and managing health needs identified after diagnosing the community's health needs and assets. Recently, the health needs assessment has been reinforced with the community perspective, providing multiple benefits: it sensitizes and empowers the community about their health, encourages mutual support among its members and promotes their importance by making them responsible for the process of improving their own reality. The objective of this paper is to describe the prioritization of Barcelona Salut als Barris, a community health strategy led by the Barcelona Public Health Agency to promote equity in health in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods of the city. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Social inequalities in health related behaviours in Barcelona

    PubMed Central

    Borrell, C.; Dominguez-Berjon, F.; Pasarin, M; Ferrando, J.; Rohlfs, I.; Nebot, M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—This study describes social class inequalities in health related behaviours (tobacco and alcohol consumption, physical activity) among a sample of general population over 14 years old in Barcelona.
DESIGN—Cross sectional study (Barcelona Health Interview Survey).
SETTING—Barcelona city (Spain).
PARTICIPANTS—A representative stratified sample of the non-institutionalised population resident in Barcelona was obtained. This study refers to the 4171 respondents aged over 14.
DATA—Social class was obtained from a Spanish adaptation of the British Registrar General classification. In addition, sociodemographic variables such as family structure and employment status were used. As health related behaviours tobacco consumption, alcohol consumption, usual physical activity and leisure time physical activity were analysed. Age adjusted percentages were compared by social class. Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression models.
MAIN RESULTS—Women in the upper social classes were more likely to smoke, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for social class V in reference to social class I was 0.36 (95% confidence intervals (95%CI): 0.19, 0.67), while the opposite occurred among men although it was not statistically significant in multivariate analysis. Smoking cessation was more likely among men in the higher classes (OR for class V 0.41, 95%CI: 0.18, 0.90). Excessive alcohol consumption among men showed no differences between classes, while among women it was greater in the upper classes. Engaging in usual physical activity classified as "light or none" in men decreased with lowering social class (OR class IVa: 0.55 and OR class IVb: 0.47). Women of social classes IV and V were less likely to have two or more health risk behaviours (OR for class V 0.33, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.62).
CONCLUSION—Health damaging behaviours are differentially distributed among social classes in Barcelona. Health policies should take into account these

  10. Cancer mortality by educational level in the city of Barcelona

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, E; Borrell, C

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between educational level and mortality from cancer in the city of Barcelona. The data were derived from a record linkage between the Barcelona Mortality Registry and the Municipal Census. The relative risks (RR) of death and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) according to level of education were derived from Poisson regression models. For all malignancies, men in the lowest educational level had a RR of death of 1.21 (95% CI 1.13–1.29) compared with men with a university degree, whereas for women a significant decreasing in risk was observed (RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.74–0.90). Among men, significant negative trends of increasing risk according to level of education were present for cancer of the mouth and pharynx (RR 1.70 for lowest vs. highest level of education), oesophagus (RR 2.14), stomach (RR 1.99), larynx (RR 2.56) and lung (RR 1.35). Among women, cervical cancer was negatively related to education (RR 2.62), whereas a positive trend was present for cancers of the colon (RR 0.76), pancreas (RR 0.59), lung (RR 0.55) and breast (RR 0.65). The present study confirms for the first time, at an individual level, the existence of socioeconomic differences in mortality for several cancer sites in Barcelona, Spain. There is a need to implement health programmes and public health policies to reduce these inequities. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10027350

  11. A thorny question: the taxonomic identity of the Pirro Nord cervical vertebrae revisited.

    PubMed

    Alba, David M; Colombero, Simone; Delfino, Massimo; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Pavia, Marco; Rook, Lorenzo

    2014-11-01

    The past geographic distribution of the genus Theropithecus (Primates: Cercopithecidae) is mainly restricted to Africa. Outside that continent, the earliest reported records of this genus consist of a calcaneus of cf. Theropithecus sp. from 'Ubeidiya (Israel, 1.6-1.2 Ma [millions of years ago]), as well as three associated cervical vertebrae from Pirro Nord (Italy, 1.7-1.3 Ma) attributed to Theropithecus sp. The attribution of the Pirro Nord vertebrae to this genus has been disputed on morphometric grounds, although their assignment to a large-bodied cercopithecid has remained undisputed. Here we report unpublished cervical vertebral specimens with a similar morphology and, given their significance for the paleobiogeography of Theropithecus (purportedly representing its earliest European record), we re-evaluate their taxonomic attribution. In particular, we reconsider the possibility that they belong to another non-primate mammal recorded at this site. Based on both qualitative and metric morphological comparisons, we strongly favor an alternative attribution of the cervical vertebrae from Pirro Nord to the large porcupine Hystrix refossa, which is widely documented at the site by both dentognathic and other postcranial remains. We therefore conclude that the dispersal of Theropithecus out of Africa before ca. 1 Ma (when it is recorded by dental remains from Cueva Victoria, Spain) is currently based only on the calcaneus from 'Ubeidiya tentatively attributed to this genus.

  12. [The lawsuit of apothecary Lluis Mariner against the College of Apothecaries of Barcelona (1631-1635)].

    PubMed

    Jordi, R

    1995-12-01

    The author describes the litigation between the "Col-legi d'Apotecaris de Barcelona" and Lluis Mariner, a pharmacist of Barcelona and supplier of the Spanish galleys. Mariner was absolved of the charges, but the author questions himself about the reasons of the Col-legi.

  13. Service-Learning in Physical Education Teacher Training. Physical Education in the Modelo Prison, Barcelona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lleixà, Teresa; Ríos, Merche

    2015-01-01

    In the Psychiatric Unit of the Modelo Prison, Barcelona, a physical education programme is carried out annually with the participation of University of Barcelona (UB) students. In this context, we carried out a study based on service-learning parameters. The aim of the study was twofold: to determine the impact on inmates of the physical education…

  14. [The "plague" of Barcelona. Yellow fever epidemic of 1821].

    PubMed

    Chastel, C

    1999-12-01

    The outbreak of yellow fever that struck Barcelona in 1821 followed a typical pattern for the times: a brick from Cuba introduced the disease in the port docks; the epidemic first reached the poor suburbs, and finally the center of the city. It was assumed that at least 20,000 inhabitants died from the scourge, that is a sixth of the total population of the city estimated 120,000. French authorities promptly took emergency measures at land and maritime borders by locking French ports to Catalan vessels and defining a quarantine line along the Pyrenean border controlled by an army 15,000 strong. French medical team including six physicians and two nuns was sent to Barcelona to provide assistance. Long after the epidemic had receded, the Pyrenean quarantine line was maintained by the French authorities for a hidden political purpose: Paris wished to contain Spanish Liberalism, a "revolutionary pest". French troops engaged in the so-called quarantine line were used in 1823 for invading the Spanish kingdom, while French physicians returning to Paris were celebrated as heroes and benefactors of the mankind although they had not provided any serious contribution to the therapeutics or the epidemiology of yellow fever. They were glorified in publications of the time without reserve. This unexpected manifestation of nationalism was welcomed and encouraged by the government of Louis XVIII who felt himself threatened by the liberal opposition.

  15. Baseline of Trace Elements in Soils from the Tarragona and Barcelona Coastal Area and Central Uplands of Barcelona , Catalonia (Spain) .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, Jaume; Tume, Pedro; Roca, Nuria; Reverter, Ferrán; Sanchez, Pedro; Rustullet, Joana

    2013-04-01

    A study was conducted to determine the baseline of total contents (XRF) of Ba, Cu, Ga, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sn, Sr, V, and Zn in soils from the Tarragona and Barcelona coastal area and Central Uplands of Barcelona, Catalonia, NE Spain, and to establish relationships between heavy metals and some soil properties. A total of 94 samples (47 soil plots) were collected from topsoils and subsurface soils in the main soil types. The median concentrations (mg kg-1) obtained were Ba 412 (range 113-954 mg kg-1), Cu 19.4 (5-91 mg kg-1), Ga 12.5 (5-21.7 mg kg-1 ), Ni 24 (7-56.5 mg kg-1 ), Pb 25 (9-100 mg kg-1), Rb 79 (34-140 mg kg-1 ), Sn 2 (1-8 mg kg-1 ), Sr 102 (43-401 mg kg-1 ), V 68.5 (22-170 mg kg-1 ), and Zn 66 (20-137 mg kg-1 ). The concentrations of trace elements in Catalonia were similar to those given by other authors from different countries of the Mediterranean regions. In terms of soil properties, the results of this study suggest that in these soils trace elements adsorption and retention are influenced by several properties such as clay minerals and pH. Almost all element concentrations were positively correlated with clay content and negatively correlated with carbonates. The very strong positive correlations between V, Ni, V, and Ga point to their natural origin.

  16. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Congenital Anomalies in Barcelona

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Salvador, Joaquin; de Nazelle, Audrey; Cirach, Marta; Dadvand, Payam; Beelen, Rob; Hoek, Gerard; Basagaña, Xavier; Vrijheid, Martine

    2014-01-01

    Background: A recent meta-analysis suggested evidence for an effect of exposure to ambient air pollutants on risk of certain congenital heart defects. However, few studies have investigated the effects of traffic-related air pollutants with sufficient spatial accuracy. Objectives: We estimated associations between congenital anomalies and exposure to traffic-related air pollution in Barcelona, Spain. Method: Cases with nonchromosomal anomalies (n = 2,247) and controls (n = 2,991) were selected from the Barcelona congenital anomaly register during 1994–2006. Land use regression models from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), were applied to residential addresses at birth to estimate spatial exposure to nitrogen oxides and dioxide (NOx, NO2), particulate matter with diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), 10–2.5 μm (PMcoarse), ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), and PM2.5 absorbance. Spatial estimates were adjusted for temporal trends using data from routine monitoring stations for weeks 3–8 of each pregnancy. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for 18 congenital anomaly groups associated with an interquartile-range (IQR) increase in exposure estimates. Results: In spatial and spatiotemporal exposure models, we estimated statistically significant associations between an IQR increase in NO2 (12.2 μg/m3) and coarctation of the aorta (ORspatiotemporal = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.31) and digestive system defects (ORspatiotemporal = 1.11; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.23), and between an IQR increase in PMcoarse (3.6 μg/m3) and abdominal wall defects (ORspatiotemporal = 1.93; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.73). Other statistically significant increased and decreased ORs were estimated based on the spatial model only or the spatiotemporal model only, but not both. Conclusions: Our results overall do not indicate an association between traffic-related air pollution and most groups of congenital anomalies. Findings for coarctation of the aorta are consistent with

  17. An approach of groundwater management in Barcelona City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criollo, Rotman; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Velasco, Violeta; Marazuela, Miguel Angel; Burdons, Silvia; Enrich, Monica; Cardona, Fidel

    2017-04-01

    Urban groundwater is a valuable resource since its quantity is larger than frequently expected due to additional recharge sources (Lerner, 2002; Vázquez-Suñé et al., 2003). Its interaction with the complex infrastructures network makes the water authorities a challenge to ensure a proper water management. Necessary datasets to ensure a suitable water management have normally different origins and formats. At the same time, the water management of a city involves different decision makers with different knowledges. In this scenario, it is a necessity to create a common environment where different actors would be able to understand and analyze problems in the same way. It should be also necessary to store, analyze and visualize all the required data in the same formats within its geographical context by using standardized specific tools. To apply these recommendations for the urban groundwater management of the Barcelona City Council, we have implemented a software platform developed in a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. These GIS-based tools will give support to the users for storing, managing, and analyzing geological, hydrogeological and hydrochemical data in 2D and in a 3D context (Velasco et al., 2013). This implementation will improve the groundwater management in Barcelona city optimizing the analysis and decision making processes. References Lerner, D.N., (2002). Identifying and quantifying urban recharge: a review. Hydrogeology Journal, 10 (1), pp. 143-152 Vázquez-Suñé, E., Sánchez-Vila, X. & Carrera, J. (2005). Introductory review of specific factors influencing urban groundwater, an emerging branch of hydrogeology, with reference to Barcelona, Spain. Hydrogeology Journal, 13: 522. doi:10.1007/s10040-004-0360-2 Velasco, V., Gogu, R., Vázquez-Suñè, E., Garriga A., Ramos, E., Riera, J., Alcaraz, M. (2013). The use of GIS-based 3D geological tools to improve hydrogeological models of sedimentary media in an urban environment

  18. Staphylococcus aureus NorD, a putative efflux pump coregulated with the Opp1 oligopeptide permease, contributes selectively to fitness in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yanpeng; Fu, Yingmei; Lee, Jean C; Hooper, David C

    2012-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus readily infects humans, causing infections from mild superficial skin infections to lethal bacteremia and endocarditis. Transporters produced by S. aureus allow the pathogen to adapt to a variety of settings, including survival at sites of infection and in the presence of antibiotics. The native functions of many transporters are unknown, but their potential dual contribution to fitness and antimicrobial resistance highlights their importance in staphylococcal infections. Here, we show that S. aureus NorD, a newly recognized efflux pump of the major facilitator superfamily, contributes to fitness in a murine subcutaneous abscess model. In community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) strain MW2, norD was selectively upregulated 36-fold at the infection site relative to growth in vitro, and the norD mutant demonstrated significant fitness impairment in abscesses, with fitness 20- to 40-fold lower than that of the parent MW2 strain. Plasmid-encoded NorD could complement the fitness defect of the MW2 norD mutant. Chromosomal norD expression is polycistronic with the upstream oligopeptide permease genes (opp1ABCDF), which encode an ABC oligopeptide transporter. Both norD and opp1 were upregulated in abscesses and iron-restricted culture medium and negatively regulated by Fur, but only NorD contributed to fitness in the murine abscess model.

  19. Kepler in Curricula of the Agrarian Engineering School of Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillet, Jaume Fabregat

    In the Agrarian Engineering school of Barcelona, within the subject of Mathematics some references to history are included, particularly about several great scientists, like Kepler who is famous for his astronomical laws, but he was occupied by other subjects for example he wrote about wine barrels. It is interesting to introduce students to dynamic aspects of science and not only to program an ordered mathematical knowledge of physical systems or, worse, only to offer a collection of numerical recipes or only presenting the foundation of theory; it is important to promote relationships between technical topics and other lateral matters. To instigate an integral education, students did a brief study entitled "Kepler, mathematics and agriculture"; students were guided to link Kepler with agriculture through astronomy.

  20. [Occupational accidents in Barcelona (Spain), from 1992 to 1993].

    PubMed

    Sampaio, R F; Martin, M; Artazcoz, L; Moncada, S

    1998-08-01

    The statistics related to labor accidents as with any other notification system ought to be the basis for programs and policies with a view to the adoption of preventive measures. In order to establish preventive norms, however, the health system needs data from researchers focussing on the dynamics of and the pitfalls revealed by specific events. Within this context the main objective of this study is to proceed with an in-depth analysis of the labor accidents verified in Barcelona (Spain) using for this purpose a descriptive statistics model to test variables such as type of accident, economic sector, economic enterprise and type of labor contract. The data source utilized was the notification system for labor accidents with grave consequences such as death of the victim registered in Barcelona during the period 1992-1993. Labor accidents registered for male workers numbered 848. A log-linear model was applied to this data base. The results show a positive association between traumatic accidents with the construction, traffic and services sectors. A positive association was also found between traumatic accidents and the size of the company concerved the small ones being the worse type in terms of worker's injuries. Regarding the nontraumatic accidents, the study showed a positive correlation between large-sized enterprises and type of temporary worker and the civil construction sector as compared to workers with long term work contracts within industry and services. There was some evidence, also, of a positive association between small and medium sized companies and temporary work and the occurrence of work accidents.

  1. Nonlocal relativistic diffusion (NoRD) model of cosmic ray propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchaikin, V. V.; Sibatov, R. T.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of physical interpretation of the nonlocal relativistic diffusion (NoRD model) for cosmic ray transport in the Galaxy is discussed. The model accounts for the turbulent character of the interstellar medium and the relativistic principle of the speed limitation. Involving fractional calculus and non-Gaussian Lévy statistics yields numerical results compatible with observation data. A special attention is paid to the knee problem. The relativistic speed limit requirement steepens theoretical background spectrum at certain energies, and the position of the break, its sharpness and slopes of asymptotes depend on Dα (E) and α.

  2. Highlights from the CERN/ESO/NordForsk ''Gender in Physics Day''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primas, F.; Guinot, G.; Strandberg, L.

    2017-03-01

    In their role as observers on the EU Gender Equality Network in the European Research Area (GENERA) project, funded under the Horizon 2020 framework, CERN, ESO and NordForsk joined forces and organised a Gender in Physics Day at the CERN Globe of Science and Innovation. The one-day conference aimed to examine innovative activities promoting gender equality, and to discuss gender-oriented policies and best practice in the European Research Area (with special emphasis on intergovernmental organisations), as well as the importance of building solid networks. The event was very well attended and was declared a success. The main highlights of the meeting are reported.

  3. Air-borne fungi in the air of Barcelona (Spain). IV. Various isolated genera.

    PubMed

    Calvo, M A; Guarro, J; Suarez, G; Ramírez, C

    1980-07-01

    During a two-year survey on the air-borne fungi in the atmosphere of Barcelona (Spain), the following genera were isolated in decreasing order: Aureobasidium, Rhizopus, Mucor, Arthrinium, Phoma, Fusarium, Trichoderma, and Botrytis.

  4. Air pollution and urinary thioether excretion in children of Barcelona

    SciTech Connect

    Mallol, J.; Nogues, M.R. )

    1991-06-01

    The polluted environment found in highly industrialized areas and in big cities contains a great quantity of electrophilic (EC) and proelectrophilic (PEC) compounds, which largely contribute to the development of several pathological processes in humans. EC and PEC can be coupled to the cysteine moiety of glutathione spontaneously or by the glutathione S-transferase system (GST), giving nontoxic metabolites that can be eliminated as urinary thioethers (UT). Therefore one approach to establishing the degree of impact of EC and PEC on the human body is the analysis of UT in the population living in polluted environments. The work presented here has been carried out in the city of Barcelona with a group of 50 children living in a polluted area, over a 12-mo period. Our results demonstrate that UT are significantly higher when the amounts of air pollutants (AP) increase; although the level of contamination never exceeded the established safe limits, UT reached values similar to those found in people smoking more than 10 cigarettes/d. These results may contribute to establishing the maximal levels of contamination compatible with a healthy life, on the basis of patterns of true salubrity rather than on political and economic criteria.

  5. European Society of Cardiology (ESC) congress report from Barcelona 2014.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Takashi; Ozaki, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    The Annual Congress of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) was held in Barcelona from 30th August to 3rd September 2014. More than 30,300 attendees from around the world shared the latest original research, including 27 clinical Hot Line studies, 12 basic science Hot Lines, 15 clinical trial updates, 19 registry studies, and 4,597 abstracts. Many important issues were presented, including novel treatment strategies for heart failure, acute coronary syndrome, interventional treatment for structural heart disease, renal denervation, novel anticoagulant therapies, atrial fibrillation and so on. In addition, 5 new ESC clinical practice guidelines (ie, myocardial revascularization, non-cardiac surgery, acute pulmonary embolism, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and aortic disease) were launched. It should be noted that Japan has recently been ranked in the top position in terms of the number of abstract submissions. Based on these activities, the ESC Congress has been recognized as the dominant scientific and educational forum for healthcare professionals in cardiology. We report the highlights and several key presentations of the ESC Congress 2014. The scientific activities and growing contributions of Japanese cardiologists or cardiovascular surgeons enhance the favorable relationship between the ESC and the Japanese Circulation Society.

  6. [Alcohol, drug and tobacco use amongst adolescents in Barcelona region].

    PubMed

    Carré Martí, Clara Isabel; Jiménez Fernández, Miriam; Lara Rodríguez, Mirian

    2011-01-01

    to describe consumption, knowledge and attitudes towards alcohol, tobacco an "illicit drugs" amongst teenagers aged 12-15 years. cross-sectional study. RECRUITMENT: high schools from Barcelona area. 407 studies of ESO (Secondary education) aged 12-15, academic year 2007-2008. SURVEY MEASURES: demographic characteristics, alcohol, tobacco and drug use, opinion and information about them. It was an ad hoc questionnaire of 22 items, anonymous and filled in by each student. the sample (n = 348) consisted of 50% of women and 50% of men. Mean age: 13.91 years old. The largest group was 14 years old. 35,34% of pupils had tried tobacco, 55,17% alcohol, 9,8% cannabis, 1% cocaine and 0,5% synthetic drugs. 72,41% tried them because they were curious. 40% did not consider alcohol as a drug. Tobacco and alcohol were accessible in more than 85% of the cases. The main source of information comes from the media 49,75%. adolescents start tobacco consumption between 12-13 years, alcohol at 13, cannabis at 14 synthetic drugs at 13 and cocaine between 14 and 15. The most used substances are alcohol and tobacco and they were not considered drugs by more than half of the surveyed. They believe availability is high. More than half of the sample would like to receive more information about drugs.

  7. Drugs of abuse in urban groundwater. A case study: Barcelona.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, A.; Mastroianni, N.; Vazquez-Suñe, E.; Carrera, J.; Tubau, I.; Pujades, E.; Postigo, C.; Lopez de Alda, M.; Barceló, D.

    2012-04-01

    This study is concerned with drugs of abuse (DAs) and their metabolites in urban groundwater at field scale in relation to (1) the spatial distribution of the groundwater samples, (2) the depth of the groundwater sample, (3) the presence of DAs in recharge sources, and (4) the identification of processes affecting the fate of DAs in groundwater. To this end, urban groundwater samples were collected in the city of Barcelona and a total of 21 drugs were analyzed including cocainics, amphetamine-like compounds, opioids, lysergics and cannabinoids and the prescribed drugs benzodiazepines. Overall, the highest groundwater concentrations and the largest number of detected DAs were found in zones basically recharged by a river that receives large amounts of effluents from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). In contrast, the urbanized areas yielded not only lower concentrations but also a much smaller number of drugs, which suggests a local origin. In fact, cocaine and its metabolite were dominant in more prosperous neighbourhoods, whereas the cheaper (MDMA) was the dominant DA in poorer districts. Concentrations of DAs estimated mainly from the waste water fraction in groundwater samples were consistently higher than the measured ones, suggesting that DAs undergo removal processes in both reducing and oxidizing conditions.

  8. [Evaluation of the website of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais regional pharmacovigilance center].

    PubMed

    Rochoy, Michaël; Béné, Johana; Messaadi, Nassir; Auffret, Marine; Gautier, Sophie

    2016-06-01

    We posted the Nord-Pas-de-Calais regional pharmacovigilance center website and distributed a survey to its potential users between August 2014 and October 2014 (135 general practitioners, 45 pharmacists, 14 patients). Satisfaction was 7.3±1.6 out of 10 points for the visual aspect, 7.8±1.5 out of 10 points for navigation and 7.6±1.4 out of 10 points for content. The website was declared useful by 98% respondents, particularly for the reporting of adverse drugs reactions (89%).

  9. French validation of the Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Marco-Pallares, Josep; Tillmann, Barbara; Zeitouni, Anthony; Lehmann, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire (BMRQ) questionnaire investigates the main facets of music experience that could explain the variance observed in how people experience reward associated with music. Currently, only English and Spanish versions of this questionnaire are available. The objective of this study is to validate a French version of the BMRQ. Methods. The original BMRQ was translated and adapted into an international French version. The questionnaire was then administered through an online survey aimed at adults aged over 18 years who were fluent in French. Statistical analyses were performed and compared to the original English and Spanish version for validation purposes. Results. A total of 1,027 participants completed the questionnaire. Most responses were obtained from France (89.4%). Analyses revealed that congruence values between the rotated loading matrix and the ideal loading matrix ranged between 0.88 and 0.96. Factor reliabilities of subscales (i.e., Musical Seeking, Emotion Evocation, Mood Regulation, Social Reward and Sensory-Motor) also ranged between 0.88 and 0.96. In addition, reliability of the overall factor score (i.e., Music reward) was 0.91. Finally, the internal consistency of the overall scale was 0.85. The factorial structure obtained in the French translation was similar to that of the original Spanish and English samples. Conclusion. The French version of the BMRQ appears valid and reliable. Potential applications of the BMRQ include its use as a valuable tool in music reward and emotion research, whether in healthy individuals or in patients suffering from a wide variety of cognitive, neurologic and auditory disorders. PMID:27019776

  10. The effects of hot nights on mortality in Barcelona, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royé, D.

    2017-08-01

    Heat-related effects on mortality have been widely analyzed using maximum and minimum temperatures as exposure variables. Nevertheless, the main focus is usually on the former with the minimum temperature being limited in use as far as human health effects are concerned. Therefore, new thermal indices were used in this research to describe the duration of night hours with air temperatures higher than the 95% percentile of the minimum temperature (hot night hours) and intensity as the summation of these air temperatures in degrees (hot night degrees). An exposure-response relationship between mortality due to natural, respiratory, and cardiovascular causes and summer night temperatures was assessed using data from the Barcelona region between 2003 and 2013. The non-linear relationship between the exposure and response variables was modeled using a distributed lag non-linear model. The estimated associations for both exposure variables and mortality shows a relationship with high and medium values that persist significantly up to a lag of 1-2 days. In mortality due to natural causes, an increase of 1.1% per 10% (CI95% 0.6-1.5) for hot night hours and 5.8% per each 10° (CI95% 3.5-8.2%) for hot night degrees is observed. The effects of hot night hours reach their maximum with 100% and lead to an increase by 9.2% (CI95% 5.3-13.1%). The hourly description of night heat effects reduced to a single indicator in duration and intensity is a new approach and shows a different perspective and significant heat-related effects on human health.

  11. Outdoor and indoor UFP in primary schools across Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Reche, C; Viana, M; Rivas, I; Bouso, L; Àlvarez-Pedrerol, M; Alastuey, A; Sunyer, J; Querol, X

    2014-09-15

    Indoor and outdoor measurements of real-time ultrafine particles (UFP; N10-700 in this study) number concentration and average diameter were collected twice at 39 primary schools located in Barcelona (Spain), with classrooms naturally ventilated under warm weather conditions. Simultaneous outdoor N concentration measurements at schools under different traffic exposures showed the important role of this source, with higher levels by 40% on average at schools near heavy traffic, highlighting thus the increased exposure of children due to urban planning decisions. A well-defined spatial pattern of outdoor UFP levels was observed. Midday increases in outdoor N levels mainly attributed to nucleation processes have been recorded both at high and low temperatures in several of the outdoor school sites (increasing levels by 15%-70%). The variation of these increases also followed a characteristic spatial pattern, pointing at schools' location as a key variable in terms of UFP load owing to the important contribution of traffic emissions. Indoor N concentrations were to some extent explained by outdoor N concentrations during school hours, together with average temperatures, related with natural ventilation. Outdoor midday increases were generally mimicked by indoor N concentrations, especially under warm temperatures. At specific cases, indoor concentrations during midday were 30%-40% higher than outdoor. The time scale of these observations evidenced the possible role of: a) secondary particle formation enhanced by indoor precursors or conditions, maybe related with surface chemistry reactions mediated by O3, and/or b) UFP from cooking activities. Significant indoor N increases were detected after school hours, probably associated with cleaning activities, resulting in indoor N concentrations up to 3 times higher than those in outdoor. A wide variability of indoor/outdoor ratios of N concentrations and mean UFP sizes was detected among schools and measurement periods

  12. Returned medicines in community pharmacies of Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Coma, Anna; Modamio, Pilar; Lastra, Cecilia F; Bouvy, Marcel L; Mariño, Eduardo L

    2008-06-01

    To monitor the amount of unused drugs and the cost to the public health system. Setting A random sample of community pharmacies in Barcelona, Spain. Method The drugs were collected from 38 community pharmacies over a period of 7 consecutive working days (excluding Sundays). A questionnaire was designed to evaluate each returned medicine. The resulting data were analyzed and evaluated. The number of drugs collected at the pharmacy, the characteristics of the clients and the reasons why they returned the drugs, and finally the economic value of the drugs returned and the cost to the public health system. A total of 227 clients (54.6% women, 64 +/- 20 years-old) returned 1,176 packages to the pharmacy. The number of packages collected in one return ranged from 1 to 121. The number of packages collected per pharmacy ranged from 0 to 188. In more than half of the cases (52.4%) the patients returned their drug in person and in 32.2% of the cases a relative returned it on their behalf. The main reason (28.2%) why drugs were returned was the expiry date. In 24.9% of the cases the patient's condition had improved and there was no further need for the drug. In 20.8% the patient had died. The estimated total cost of the collected drugs was euro8,539.9. Over 75% of this amount (euro6,463.9) had been paid by the public health system. This study confirms the importance of analyzing the return of unwanted medicines to reduce unnecessary health expenditure. It also highlights the inadequacies of the Spanish health system in the areas of prescription, dispensing and use of medicines. Establishing strategies to reduce the wastage of unused medicines is necessary.

  13. Green spaces and spectacles use in schoolchildren in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Dadvand, Payam; Sunyer, Jordi; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Dalmau-Bueno, Albert; Esnaola, Mikel; Gascon, Mireia; De Castro Pascual, Montserrat; Basagaña, Xavier; Morgan, Ian G; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2017-01-01

    Myopia is one of the major causes of low visual acuity during childhood, and hence of the need for spectacles. It is generally more prevalent in urban areas where children are often less exposed to green spaces than in rural areas. This study evaluated the association between exposure to green space and use of spectacles (as a surrogate measure for myopia) in a cohort of 2727 schoolchildren (7-10 years old) recruited from 39 primary schools in Barcelona (2012-2015). We assessed exposure to green spaces by characterizing outdoor surrounding greenness at home and school and during commuting using satellite data on greenness (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). We also obtained data on the annual average time children spent playing in green spaces through questionnaires. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted based on prevalent cases of spectacles use at baseline data collection campaign and longitudinal analyses based on incident cases of spectacles use during the three-year period between the baseline and last data collection campaigns. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in exposure to green space at home (500m buffer) and school and during commuting was associated with respectively 14% (95% CI: 2%, 26%), 27% (95% CI: 6%, 44%), and 20% (95% CI: 5%, 33%) decrease in spectacles use in cross-sectional analyses. In longitudinal analyses, we observed a reduction of 23% (95% CI: 4%, 39%) and 34% (95% CI: 2%, 55%) associated with an IQR increase in greenness at home and school, respectively. Moreover, an IQR increase in time playing in green spaces was associated with a 28% (95% CI: 7%, 45%) reduction in the risk of spectacles use in the longitudinal analysis. Our observed reduced risk of spectacles use associated with higher contact with green space calls for more refined studies of the association between green spaces and refractive errors of visions.

  14. Patient assaults on professionals? Type II workplace violence: A known phenomenon in Barcelona nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Martí, Cristina; Pérez-Testor, Carles

    2015-01-01

    Workplace violence is a real phenomenon at nursing homes. This article studied this phenomenon in Barcelona. The objective of this study was to determine whether type II workplace violence takes place in senior citizen residences in Barcelona. To conduct this exploratory, descriptive and transversal study, the ad hoc QViLab II Questionnaire (version 1) was administered to professionals at senior citizen residences in Barcelona. The sample system used was the randomly stratified conglomerate system, using the size of the residence as the stratum to ensure the representativeness of the sample. Sixty-seven professionals from residences in Barcelona participated in the study. The results show that 61.2% (IC 95%: 58-65%) of the professionals believed that they have been assaulted by the residents they cared for in the previous year. With regard to the participant variables, we noticed a significant relationship between stress and the belief of having been assaulted. The professionals stated that male residents assaulted them more than females and that verbal aggression was the most common form of aggression from both males and females, followed by physical aggression. With regard to frequency, verbal demands were the kind most often expressed on a daily basis. Professionals from nursing homes in Barcelona perceived workplace violence.

  15. [Innovating the service management of public health: the experience of the Barcelona Public Health Agency (Spain)].

    PubMed

    Guix, Joan; Villalbí, Joan Ramon; Armengol, Ricard; Llebaria, Xavier; Manzanera, Rafael; Plasència, Antoni

    2008-01-01

    We describe the evolution of the organization of public health services in the city of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) until the creation of the Barcelona Public Health Agency. This Agency is a consortium created by the Barcelona City Council and the Government of Catalonia as the sole entity responsible for regional and local public health services in the city. The underlying logic for the Agency's design, as well as its mission, vision and value statements, strategy, services' portfolio, and the role of leadership in the process, are analyzed. Aspects related to the Agency's quality and communication plans, as well as the design of its processes, and its policy in terms of alliances for research and training in public health, are discussed. Finally, the main challenges for the future are described.

  16. Rorschach Comprehensive System data for a sample of 517 adults from Spain (Barcelona).

    PubMed

    Campo, Vera; Vilar, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    This study is composed of 517 adult voluntary participants, from Barcelona and its surroundings, all of whom are from Spain, Barcelona, and Catalonia. The study builds on a previously published report for a smaller sample (N = 250; see Alvarez, Baeza, Campo, Garcia, Guardia, et al., 1993) and is the result of collaboration between students and professors at the Barcelona Rorschach School (Catalan Rorschach Society). Our aim is to offer local data that should help to understand possible differences with existing reference data for the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 2005), which is the system that has been taught at this school since 1978. Inclusion and exclusion criteria are described and interrater reliability statistics at the response level are presented, along with scores for the CS, followed by a discussion and very brief comparison with other international reference samples.

  17. Barcelona conference on epigenetics and cancer 2015: Coding and non-coding functions of the genome

    PubMed Central

    Corujo, David; Mas, Gloria; Malinverni, Roberto; Di Croce, Luciano; Buschbeck, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Barcelona Conference on Epigenetics and Cancer (BCEC) entitled “Coding and Non-Coding functions of the Genome” took place October 29–30, 2015 in Barcelona. The 2015 BCEC was the third edition of a series of annual conferences jointly organized by 5 leading research centers in Barcelona together with B-Debate, an initiative of BioCat. Luciano Di Croce from the Center for Genomic Regulation and Marcus Buschbeck from the Josep Carreras Leukemia Research Institute put together the scientific program with a particular focus on the role of non-coding RNAs in enhancer regulation, epigenetic control by Polycomb complexes, histone variants, and nuclear organization. In one and a half days, 22 talks and 56 posters were presented to an audience of 215 participants. PMID:26996885

  18. Latino Trajectories in Barcelona: A Longitudinal Ethnographic Study of Latin American Adolescents in Catalonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corona, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    The ethnographic research presented in this paper consists of two parts developed chronologically. The first part is based on a study (Corona, V., Nussbaum, L., & Unamuno, V. [2012]. The emergence of new linguistic repertoires among Barcelona's youth of Latin American origin. "International Journal of Bilingual Education and…

  19. Physical Activity Promotion in General Practices of Barcelona: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puig Ribera, Anna; McKenna, Jim; Riddoch, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This case study aimed to generate explanations for the lack of integration of physical activity (PA) promotion in general practices of Barcelona, the capital of Catalonia. This explanatory study adopted a qualitative approach, based on three techniques; focus groups (n = 3), semi-structured (n = 25) and short individual interviews (n = 5). These…

  20. Quality Assessment for Placement Centres: A Case Study of the University of Barcelona's Faculty of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freixa Niella, Montse; Vilà Baños, Ruth; Rubio Hurtado, M. José

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to identify the factors that could be used for quality assessments of the placement centres used by the University of Barcelona's Faculty of Education. To achieve this, a multiple case study method (bachelor's degrees in Education, Social Education and Social Work) was used, which was based on a survey methodology. A…

  1. Quality Assessment for Placement Centres: A Case Study of the University of Barcelona's Faculty of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freixa Niella, Montse; Vilà Baños, Ruth; Rubio Hurtado, M. José

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to identify the factors that could be used for quality assessments of the placement centres used by the University of Barcelona's Faculty of Education. To achieve this, a multiple case study method (bachelor's degrees in Education, Social Education and Social Work) was used, which was based on a survey methodology. A…

  2. Latino Trajectories in Barcelona: A Longitudinal Ethnographic Study of Latin American Adolescents in Catalonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corona, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    The ethnographic research presented in this paper consists of two parts developed chronologically. The first part is based on a study (Corona, V., Nussbaum, L., & Unamuno, V. [2012]. The emergence of new linguistic repertoires among Barcelona's youth of Latin American origin. "International Journal of Bilingual Education and…

  3. Teaching and Learning in the Virtual Campus: The Case of the University of Barcelona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil, Juana M. Sancho; Sanchez, Joan-Anton

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on a research project aimed at analysing the teaching and learning models explicit and implicit in the different uses of e-learning platforms. From qualitative analysis of the interview with the coordinator of the Virtual Campus of the University of Barcelona (VC-UB) and the focus group with the 8 lecturers, emerged both the…

  4. Barcelona-Catania-Paris-Madrid functional with a realistic effective mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldo, M.; Robledo, L. M.; Schuck, P.; Viñas, X.

    2017-01-01

    The Barcelona-Catania-Paris-Madrid functional recently proposed to describe nuclear structure properties of finite nuclei is generalized as to include a realistic effective mass. The resulting functional is as good as the previous one in describing binding energies, radii, deformation properties, etc. In addition, the description of giant quadrupole resonance energies is greatly improved.

  5. Urban photochemical pollution in the Iberian Peninsula: Lisbon and Barcelona airsheds.

    PubMed

    Barros, Nelson; Borrego, Carlos; Toll, Isabel; Soriano, Cecilia; Jiménez, Pedro; Baldasano, José Maria

    2003-03-01

    Numerical simulations with photochemical transport models were independently performed for two domains situated in the Iberian Peninsula covering the Lisbon and Barcelona airsheds. Although the days chosen for simulation of the two cities are not the same, the synoptic situations in both cases, known as typical summertime situations, were similar, which allowed the development of typical mesoscale circulations, such as sea breezes and mountain and valley winds dominated by the Azores anticyclone. Emission inventories for the two areas were developed. The O3 concentrations recorded in both cities have a similar level. Nevertheless, O(x) values in Barcelona are higher than in Lisbon, which may, at a first glance, indicate an apparently more oxidant atmosphere in Barcelona. Photochemical modeling for the two cities has shown that the behavior of the circulatory patterns in both urban areas is rather different, which mainly has to do with the different strengths of the sea breeze and the topography, inducing an important offshore vertical layered dimension of pollutant transport in Barcelona versus an important inland horizontal transport in Lisbon.

  6. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality in Barcelona: 1992–2003

    PubMed Central

    Puigpinós, Rosa; Borrell, Carme; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Azlor, Enric; Pasarín, M Isabel; Serral, Gemma; Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Fernández, Esteve

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to assess trends in cancer mortality by educational level in Barcelona from 1992 to 2003. Methods The study population comprised Barcelona inhabitants aged 20 years or older. Data on cancer deaths were supplied by the system of information on mortality. Educational level was obtained from the municipal census. Age-standardized rates by educational level were calculated. We also fitted Poisson regression models to estimate the relative index of inequality (RII) and the Slope Index of Inequalities (SII). All were calculated for each sex and period (1992–1994, 1995–1997, 1998–2000, and 2001–2003). Results Cancer mortality was higher in men and women with lower educational level throughout the study period. Less-schooled men had higher mortality by stomach, mouth and pharynx, oesophagus, larynx and lung cancer. In women, there were educational inequalities for cervix uteri, liver and colon cancer. Inequalities of overall and specific types of cancer mortality remained stable in Barcelona; although a slight reduction was observed for some cancers. Conclusion This study has identified those cancer types presenting the greatest inequalities between men and women in recent years and shown that in Barcelona there is a stable trend in inequalities in the burden of cancer. PMID:19166582

  7. Physical Activity Promotion in General Practices of Barcelona: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puig Ribera, Anna; McKenna, Jim; Riddoch, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This case study aimed to generate explanations for the lack of integration of physical activity (PA) promotion in general practices of Barcelona, the capital of Catalonia. This explanatory study adopted a qualitative approach, based on three techniques; focus groups (n = 3), semi-structured (n = 25) and short individual interviews (n = 5). These…

  8. Viruses 2018 - Breakthroughs in Viral Replication - Barcelona, Spain | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    This Conference is held in Barcelona, Spain on February 7 - 9, 2018. For registration information please go to the conference website at https://sciforum.net/conference/Viruses-2018 Dates to remember: Abstract Submission: 31 Oct. 2017 Acceptance Notification: 25 Nov. 2017 Full Paper Submission: 1 Aug. 2018

  9. Schooling Effects on Undergraduate Performance: Evidence from the University of Barcelona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora, Toni; Escardibul, Josep-Oriol

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes the effects of several factors related to high school, such as the kind of school (public or private), the type of education (general or vocational), school location and peers on undergraduate performance from students of the University of Barcelona (Spain). Particular attention is given to the functional form and to the…

  10. Teaching and Learning in the Virtual Campus: The Case of the University of Barcelona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil, Juana M. Sancho; Sanchez, Joan-Anton

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on a research project aimed at analysing the teaching and learning models explicit and implicit in the different uses of e-learning platforms. From qualitative analysis of the interview with the coordinator of the Virtual Campus of the University of Barcelona (VC-UB) and the focus group with the 8 lecturers, emerged both the…

  11. Surveys of microfungi in a former industrial area in Duisburg-Nord.

    PubMed

    Feige, G B; Ale-Agha, N; Dachowski, M; Kricke, R

    2002-01-01

    One hundred and forty microfungi (Ascomycetes and Deuteromycetes) were collected in the "Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord" located in North Rhine-Westphalia. New hosts for rarely found fungi are recorded for the first time. New for Germany are Massaria inquinans (Tode) De Not. and Nitschkia grevillei (Rhem) Nannf. on Acer pseudoplatanus L., Pirottaea nigrostriata Graddon on Artemisia vulgaris L., Ceratopycnis clematidis Höhn. on Clematis vitalba L., Dasyscyphus aff. humuli (W. Phillips) Dennis on Humulus lupulus L. and Leptosphaeria derasa (Berk. & Br.) Auersw. on Senecio inaequidens DC. New for North Rhine-Westphalia are Chaetosphaerella phaeostroma (Durieu & Mont.) E. Müller & Booth and Phomopsis platanoides (Cooke) Died. on Acer pseudoplatanus L., Microsphaeropsis pseudaspera Sutton, Mycosphaerella osborniae D. Hawksw. & Sivan. and Phomopsis oblita Sacc. on Artemisia vulgaris L., Leptosphaeria acuta (Fr.) P. Karst. and Leptosphaeria doliolum (Pers.) Ces. & De Not. on Bryonia dioica Jacq., Ophiobolus erythrosporus (Riess) G. Winter and Pleospora herbarum (Pers.) Rabenh. ex Ces. & De Not. on Dipsacus sylvestris (Huds), Keissleriella ocellata (Niessl) Bose on Hypericum perforatum L., Dactylaria aff. graminicola on Lolium perenne L., Siroplacodium aff. atrum on Oenothera beinnis L., Diatrypella favacea (Fr.) Sacc. on Prunus spec., Hapalosphaeria deformans (Syd.) Syd. and Microdiscula rubicola (Bres.) Höhn. on Rubus fructicosus agg. L., Cryptodiaporthe salicina (Pers.) Wehm. on Salix alba L. and Pleurophoma pleurospora (Sacc.) Höhn. on Salix caprea L.

  12. Mental disorder and caregiver burden in spouses: the Nord-Trøndelag health study.

    PubMed

    Idstad, Mariann; Ask, Helga; Tambs, Kristian

    2010-08-26

    Researchers generally agree that mental disorder represents a burden to the family. The present study concerns the subjective burden of living with a person with mental disorder, more specifically the association between mental disorder in the index person and subjective well-being and symptoms of anxiety and depression in the spouse. Data were obtained from questionnaires administered to the adult population of Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway during the period 1995-1997. The present study is based on a subsample where 9,740 couples were identified. Subjective burden in spouses of persons with mental disorder was compared with subjective burden in spouses of persons without mental disorder, using analysis of variance (ANOVA). All analyses were stratified by sex. Adjusting for several covariates, spouses of persons with mental disorder scored significantly lower on subjective well-being and significantly higher on symptoms of anxiety and depression compared to spouses of index persons without mental disorder. Although highly significant, the effect sizes were moderate, corresponding to a difference in standard deviations ranging from .34 - .51. Our study supports the notion that there is an association between mental disorder in one partner and subjective burden in the spouse, but not to the same extent that have been reported in earlier studies, as our results do not indicate that a large proportion of the spouses reach a symptom level of anxiety and depression that reflects clinical mental disorder.

  13. [Recourse to psychotropic medication in the Nord - Pas-de-Calais Region (France)].

    PubMed

    Plancke, Laurent; Benoît, Emmanuel; Chantelou, Marie-Lise; Amariei, Alina; Vaiva, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    The prescriptions for psychoactive drugs presented to the Health Insurance system for reimbursement of charges are a source of information about some psychological illnesses and disorders in the context of the overuse of these drugs in France. In Nord - Pas-de-Calais Region, out of a total of 5 070 160 prescriptions in 2007, 576 493 individuals benefited from at least one such drug. Over the period of the study, 15.6% of the population of the region covered took at least one psychotropic medication. The rate of use was 11.7% for benzodiazepines, 7.6% for anti-depressants, 1.8% for anti-psychotics, 0.5% for treatment of alcohol dependence and 0.3% for opiate substitution therapy (OST). For the first three of these classes rate of use increased steadily with age. It was invariably much higher in women than in men. Men were treated more frequently for alcoholism and heroin dependency; the proportion taking medication initially increased with age (up to 40-49 years for alcohol dependency and 30-39 years for OST), before falling thereafter.

  14. Nature-based solutions for urban landscapes under post-industrialization and globalization: Barcelona versus Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Fan, Peilei; Ouyang, Zutao; Basnou, Corina; Pino, Joan; Park, Hogeun; Chen, Jiquan

    2017-07-01

    Using Barcelona and Shanghai as case studies, we examined the nature-based solutions (NBS) in urban settings-specifically within cities experiencing post-industrialization and globalization. Our specific research questions are: (1) What are the spatiotemporal changes in urban built-up land and green space in Barcelona and Shanghai? (2) What are the relationships between economic development, exemplified by post-industrialization, globalization, and urban green space? Urban land use and green space change were evaluated using data derived from a variety of sources, including satellite images, landscape matrix indicators, and a land conversion matrix. The relationships between economic development, globalization, and environmental quality were analyzed through partial least squares structural equation modeling based on secondary statistical data. Both Barcelona and Shanghai have undergone rapid urbanization, with urban expansion in Barcelona beginning in the 1960s-1970s and in Shanghai in the last decade. While Barcelona's urban green space and green space per capita began declining between the 1950s and 1990s, they increased slightly over the past two decades. Shanghai, however, has consistently and significantly improved urban green space and green space per capita over the past six decades, especially since the economic reform in 1978. Economic development has a direct and significant influence on urban green space for both cities and post-industrialization had served as the main driving force for urban landscape change in Barcelona and Shanghai. Based on secondary statistical and qualitative data from on-site observations and interviews with local experts, we highlighted the institution's role in NBS planning. Furthermore, aspiration to become a global or globalizing city motivated both cities to use NBS planning as a place-making tool to attract global investment, which is reflected in various governing policies and regulations. The cities' effort to achieve a

  15. Long-term development and current status of the Barcelona continental shelf: A source-to-sink approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liquete, C.; Canals, M.; Lastras, G.; Amblas, D.; Urgeles, R.; De Mol, B.; De Batist, M.; Hughes-Clarke, J. E.

    2007-07-01

    The Barcelona continental shelf, off the city of Barcelona (NE Spain), is a relatively narrow canyon-bounded shelf in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Three medium-size rivers (Tordera, Besós and Llobregat) and several ephemeral rivulets flow into this margin. Two main domains have been recognized in the Barcelona shelf: (i) a modern, river-influenced area, and (ii) a relict, sediment depleted area, both affected by a variety of human impacts. A detailed geomorphologic study based on multibeam bathymetry and backscatter data, high resolution seismic profiles, and surface sediment samples allowed mapping and interpreting the main distinctive seafloor features on the Barcelona shelf. Modern sedimentary features reveal that the Llobregat River is the main sediment source of the Barcelona prodeltaic shelf. High-discharge fluvial events result in the formation of suspended sediment plumes and sediment waves on the shelf floor. Relict (late Pleistocene-Holocene) sedimentary features reflect that an important shift occurred in the seashore direction between MIS 4 and MIS 2, and that recent neotectonic reactivation has created a set of seafloor faults. The Barcelona inner and middle shelf is severely impacted by anthropogenic activities such as the enlargement works of the Port of Barcelona, sewage pipes, dredging, anchoring and trawling.

  16. Atmospheric dispersion of airborne pollen evidenced by near-surface and columnar measurements in Barcelona, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicard, Michaël.; Izquierdo, Rebeca; Jorba, Oriol; Alarcón, Marta; Belmonte, Jordina; Comerón, Adolfo; De Linares, Concepción; Baldasano, José Maria

    2016-10-01

    Hourly measurements of pollen near-surface concentration and lidar-derived profiles of volume and particle depolarization ratios during a 5-day pollination event observed in Barcelona, Spain, between 27 - 31 March, 2015, are presented. Maximum hourly pollen concentrations of 4700 and 1200 m-3 h-1 were found for Platanus and Pinus, respectively, which represented together more than 80 % of the total pollen. . The pollen concentration was found positively correlated with temperature (correlation coefficient, r, of 0.95) and wind speed (r = 0.82) and negatively correlated with relative humidity (r = -0.18). The ground concentration shows a clear diurnal cycle although pollen activity is also detected during nighttime in three occasions and is clearly associated with periods of strong wind speeds. Everyday a clear diurnal cycle caused by the vertical transport of the airborne pollen was visible on the lidar-derived profiles of the volume depolarization ratio with maxima usually reached between 12 and 15 UT. On average the volume depolarization ratios in the pollen plume ranged between 0.08 and 0.22. Except in the cases of nocturnal pollen activity, the correlation coefficients between volume depolarization ratio and near-surface concentration are high (>0.68). The dispersion of the Platanus and Pinus in the atmosphere was simulated with the Nonhydrostatic Multiscale Meteorological Model on the B grid at the Barcelona Supercomputing Center with a newly developed Chemical Transport Model (NMMB/BSC-CTM). Model near-surface daily pollen concentrations were compared to our observations at two sites: in Barcelona and Bellaterra (12 km NE of Barcelona). Model hourly pollen concentrations were compared to our observations in Barcelona. Better results are obtained for Pinus than for Platanus. Guidelines are proposed to improve the dispersion of airborne pollen by atmospheric models.

  17. Trends in young adult mortality in three European cities: Barcelona, Bologna and Munich, 1986-1995

    PubMed Central

    Borrell, C; Pasarin, M; Cirera, E; Klutke, P; Pipitone, E; Plasencia, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—In recent decades, in most European countries young adult mortality has risen, or at best has remained stable. The aim of this study was to describe trends in mortality attributable to the principal causes of death: AIDS, drug overdose, suicide and motor vehicle traffic accidents, among adults aged between 15 and 34 years in three European cities (Barcelona, Bologna and Munich), over the period 1986 to 1995.
METHODS—The population studied consisted of all deaths that occurred between 1986 and 1995 among residents of Barcelona, Bologna and Munich aged from 15 to 34 years. Information about deaths was obtained from mortality registers. The study variables were sex, age, the underlying cause of death and year of death. Causes of death studied were: drug overdose, AIDS, suicide and motor vehicle traffic accidents. Age standardised mortality rates (direct adjustment) were obtained in all three cities for the age range 15-34. To investigate trends in mortality over the study period Poisson regression models were fitted, obtaining the average relative risk (RR) associated with a one year increment.
RESULTS—Young adult mortality increased among men in Barcelona and Bologna (RR per year: 1.04, 95% confidence intervals (95%CI): 1.03, 1.06 in Barcelona and RR:1.03, 95%CI:1.01, 1.06 in Bologna) and among women in Barcelona (RR:1.02, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.04), with a change in the pattern of the main causes of death attributable to the increase in AIDS and drug overdose mortality. In Munich, the pattern did not change as much, suicides being the main cause of death during the 10 years studied, although they have been decreasing since 1988 (RR:0.92, 95%CI:0.88, 0.96 for men and 0.81, 95%CI: 0.75-0.87 for women).
CONCLUSION—The increase in AIDS mortality observed in the three European cities in the mid-80s and mid-90s has yielded to substantial changes in the pattern of the main causes of death at young ages in Barcelona and Bologna. Munich

  18. Prevalence of psychoactive substances in truck drivers in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region (France).

    PubMed

    Labat, Laurence; Fontaine, Bernard; Delzenne, Chantal; Doublet, Anne; Marek, Marie Christine; Tellier, Dominique; Tonneau, Murielle; Lhermitte, Michel; Frimat, Paul

    2008-01-30

    A previous study conducted in 1995 showed that psychoactive drug use by workers was higher in safety/security workstations than in the rest of the labour force. In order to verify this finding, we conducted a new study in 2003-2004 in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region, restricted to truck drivers. The aim of this study was to allow harmonizing the professional practice of the occupational physicians, proposing drug prevention and drug testing policies, validating the analytical methods and the guidelines in case of positive testing results. One thousand truck drivers were studied. Urines were tested for amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, opiates, benzodiazepines, buprenorphine and methadone by immunoassay. Urine ethanol determinations were performed by an ADH method. Positive urines for drugs of abuse, methadone or buprenorphine were then tested by gas chromatography or liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Out of the 1000 drivers, cannabinoids were detected in 85 cases, opiates in 41 cases, amphetamines in 3 cases and cocaine in only one case. Buprenorphine was detected in 18 cases, methadone in 5 cases and benzodiazepines in 4 cases. Urine ethanol was positive in 50 cases. We found only one case with 6-monoacetylmorphine. Other positive opiates were metabolites of antitussives. The relatively low number of benzodiazepine positive urines could be explained by the lack of sensitivity of the test we used. All these results confirm those of the previous study for cannabinoids and ethanol in safety/security workstations. Positive results for methadone and buprenorphine are eight times higher than in the general population. In conclusion, the authors think that it will be of a great interest to test urine of truck drivers for other classes of psychoactive drugs, using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method.

  19. Measureaments of CO2 levels in a transect from Cerdanyola del Vallès to Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prat, Nuria; Guerola, Fran

    2010-05-01

    Measurements of CO2 levels in a transect from Barcelona to Cerdanyola del Vallès Science activity developed along the 2008-2009 school term within the Carboschools+ project, in collaboration whit The Climate Research group of Barcelona Park Science (LRC- PCB) The students take CO2 concentration measures from Barcelona to Cerdanyola del Vallès, two cities separated by a mountain in order to find out how is the atmosphere CO2 concentration distributed in the territory. They interchanged their data, worked out their own conclusions and prepared their own presentations. The students finally communicate their own results to the other schools involved in the project in the first Workshop Carboschools+ Catalunya hosted by the LRC-PCB at the Faculty of Biology from the University of Barcelona.

  20. [Characteristics of AIDS cases detected at a prison in Barcelona (1991-1993)].

    PubMed

    Marco, A; Guerrero, R A; Rodríguez, A M; Escribano, M; Humet, V; Mercadé, E; Ballester, J

    1995-05-15

    To describe the cases of AIDS detected in a Barcelona prison. A prospective study. A penitentiary for men in Barcelona. All those inmates who had AIDS or were diagnosed with the illness during their stay in prison during the 36 months between 1/1/1991 and 31/12/93. 220 cases of AIDS (91.7% PVDA), 60% of which were diagnosed in prison. The PVDA were younger (p < 0.0001). There were a greater number of Spaniards among the UDVP (p < 0.01) and among those with tattoos (p < 0.001). The first manifestation of the disease in 53% of the cases was extrapulmonary Tuberculosis. Prisons are key places in the prevention and monitoring of HIV infection. The use of care programmes, including maintenance programmes using Methadone, for drug-dependent patients are recommended. The continuation of programmes tracking Tuberculosis, the main illness related to HIV infection in prison, is also recommended.

  1. Emission inventory for greenhouse gases in the City of Barcelona, 1987-1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldasano, José M.; Soriano, Cecilia; Boada, Lluís.

    Emissions of greenhouse gases for the City of Barcelona are estimated for the period 1987-1994. The sources considered are: public and private transportation; industrial, commercial and domestic activities; and municipal solid waste disposal. The results show that the main source of CO 2 emissions in Barcelona is private vehicle transportation, which accounts, as an average for the period studied, for 35% of total emissions. The second most important source is the municipal solid waste landfill facility of the city (24% of total emissions). The percentages for the remaining sources under consideration were: 14% electricity, 12% natural gas, 5% incineration, and 3% liquefied petroleum gases. However, the values for CO 2 emissions per inhabitant over the period studied are lower than those for any other industrialized city available for comparison. This is closely related to the high percentage of electricity generation from nuclear power stations and hydro power facilities, and also to the extensive use of natural gas for domestic uses.

  2. [Knowledge of electronic cigarettes and their perceived harmfulness among the adult population in Barcelona (Spain)].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sánchez, José M; Fu, Marcela; Ballbè, Montse; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Saltó, Esteve; Fernández, Esteve

    2015-01-01

    To describe knowledge of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and their perceived harmfulness in the population of Barcelona in 2013-2014. We used participants from a longitudinal study of a representative sample of the adult population in the city of Barcelona (n=736). The field work was conducted between May 2013 and February 2014. Awareness of e-cigarette was 79.2%. The average level of knowledge was 4.4 points out of 10; there were statistically significant differences according to age, educational level, tobacco consumption, and nicotine dependence. Most participants had learned about e-cigarettes through traditional media (57.8%). Nearly half (47.2%) of the participants believed that e-cigarettes are less harmful than conventional cigarettes. Advertising of e-cigarettes in the media should be regulated because there is still scarce scientific evidence about the usefulness and harmful effects of these devices. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Safety belt and mobile phone usage in vehicles in Barcelona (Spain).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Curto, Ariadna; Fu, Marcela; Martínez, Cristina; Sureda, Xisca; Ballbè, Montse; Fernández, Esteve

    2014-01-01

    To describe the prevalence and correlates of safety belt and mobile phone usage in vehicles in the city of Barcelona (Spain). We performed a study using direct observation with a cross-sectional design. We selected 2,442 private cars, commercial vehicles, and taxis from all districts of Barcelona. The prevalence of people not wearing safety belt was 10.5% among drivers, 4.6% among front seat passengers, and 32.2% among some of the rear passengers. It was higher among the passengers than among the drivers, regardless of the type of the vehicle. The prevalence of mobile phone usage while driving during a moment of the trip was 3.8%. Our study shows noticeably high prevalence of people not wearing safety belt in the rear seats. Moreover, four out of one hundred drivers still use the mobile phone while driving during a moment of the trip. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. A review of taste and odour events in Barcelona's drinking water area (1990-2004).

    PubMed

    Boleda, M R; Díaz, A; Martí, I; Martín-Alonso, J; Matia, L; Romero, J; Ventura, F

    2007-01-01

    The main, relevant, solved problems associated with taste and odour incidents in Barcelona's drinking water area in the last 14 years are reviewed. Events produced by creosote, dioxanes and dioxolanes, dicylopentadiene, and diacetyl, among the anthropogenic compounds; geosmin, MIB and iodinated trihalomethanes and chlorobromoanisoles as examples of compounds of natural origin are exemplified. The determination of the odour threshold concentrations of selected odorous compounds is also shown as a tool to gain a better knowledge of future taste and odour events.

  5. Air-borne fungi in the air of Barcelona (Spain). III. The genus Aspergillus Link.

    PubMed

    Calvo, A; Guarro, J; Suarez, G; Ramirez, C

    1980-05-01

    During a survey on the presence of species of the genus Aspergillus in the air of the city of Barcelona (Spain), the following species were identified: Aspergillus flavus Link, A. niger van Tieghem, A. fumigatus Fresenius, A. clavatus Desmazières, A. terreus Thom, A. chevalieri (Mang.) Thom et Church, A. niveus Bloch, emend. Thom et Church, A. ochraceus Wilhelm, A. versicolor (Vuillemin) Tiraboschi, and A. amstelodami (Mang.) Church et Thom.

  6. [A prospective study of drug-facilitated sexual assault in Barcelona].

    PubMed

    Xifró-Collsamata, Alexandre; Pujol-Robinat, Amadeo; Barbería-Marcalain, Eneko; Arroyo-Fernández, Amparo; Bertomeu-Ruiz, Antonia; Montero-Núñez, Francisco; Medallo-Muñiz, Jordi

    2015-05-08

    To determine the frequency and characteristics of suspected drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) among the victims of sexual assault in Barcelona. Prospective study of every adult consulting an emergency service because of alleged sexual assault and receiving forensic assessment in the city of Barcelona in 2011. A total of 35 of 114 cases (30.7%) met suspected DFSA criteria. Compared with the other victims, suspected DFSA cases were more likely to experience amnesia, to have been assaulted by night, after a social situation and by a recently acquainted man, to have used alcohol before the assault and to be foreigners. In this group ethanol was detected in blood or urine in 48.4% of analyzed cases; their mean back calculated blood alcohol concentration was 2.29g/l (SD 0.685). Also, at least one central nervous system drug other than ethanol was detected in 60,6%, mainly stimulant drugs of abuse. Suspected DFSA is frequent among victims of alleged sexual assault in Barcelona nowadays. The depressor substance most commonly encountered is alcohol, which contributes to victims' vulnerability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. [Confirmed Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika Cases during the Period 2014 to 2016 in Barcelona, Spain].

    PubMed

    González, Roser; Camprubí, Esteve; Fernández, Lidia; Millet, Joan Pau; Peracho, Víctor; Gorrindo, Pilar; Avellanés, Ingrid; Romero, Arancha; Caylà, Joan A

    2017-03-07

    Arbovirus infections are a group of diseases whose incidence is increasing and that entail an important problem for public health. The aim of this study was to describe detected cases of arbovirosis in Barcelona, and surveillance and control actions performed in order to reduce the risk of transmission. Descriptive cross-sectional study of confirmed dengue, chikungunya and Zika cases in Barcelona during 2014-2016 (1st trimester). Suspected cases detected in the city were notified to the Epidemiology Department of the Barcelona Public Health Agency, where an epidemiological survey is undertaken and, if appropriate, Urban Pests Surveillance and Control Department is contacted. They perform an entomological inspection and implement control and monitoring actions. We collected sociodemographical, epidemiological, clinical and entomological variables. In 2014, 50 chikungunya and 20 dengue cases were detected; 25 entomological inspections were carried out in residences and 38 in the street. In 2015, 47 chikungunya, 51 dengue and 2 Zika cases were detected; 27 inspections were carried out in residences and 80 in the street. In 2016, 17 chikungunya, 52 dengue and 48 Zika cases were detected; 50 inspections were carried out in residences and 103 in the street. No autochtonous case was detected. We observed an increasing incidence of arbovirosis cases during the 3-year study period. There was a progressive intensification of vector surveillance and control actions (inspections, sample collection…).

  8. La tectonique active de la région nord-algérienne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yelles-Chaouche, AbdelKrim; Boudiaf, Azzedine; Djellit, Hamou; Bracene, Rabah

    2006-01-01

    En Algérie, la tectonique active est localisée dans la région nord du pays, essentiellement dans le Tell. Dans cette région, frontière entre les plaques Africaine et Eurasiatique, la déformation tectonique est l'expression de la convergence actuelle des ces deux plaques et se traduit par la fermeture progressive des bassins néogènes et par la poursuite de l'édification de la chaîne. Le long de la marge, la déformation s'exprime dans la partie de la plaine abyssale proche du continent, par le plissement de la couverture plio-quaternaire. Au niveau de la pente et sur le plateau continental, la sismicité est générée par des accidents qui se prolongent parfois à terre. Cette tectonique littorale active est à l'origine de la surrection de la côte, comme cela fut le cas lors du dernier séisme de Boumerdes du 21 mai 2003, où le soulèvement cosismique a été estimé en moyenne à 0,50 m. À terre, la sismicité s'exprime surtout le long des bordures des bassins néogènes qui longent la côte. Ces bassins se déforment en donnant des structures plicatives (synclinaux, anticlinaux) et parfois cassantes (pli-failles, failles inverses, chevauchements) orientées NE-SW à NNE-SSW. Ces dernières sont le plus souvent à l'origine des violents tremblements de terre que connaît l'Algérie. Plus au sud, la sismicité s'exprime, tout le long du Tell, le long des faisceaux de plis de direction NE-SW. Actuellement, dans les régions des Hauts Plateaux et la région de l'Atlas saharien, l'activité sismique est faible. Pour citer cet article : A. Yelles-Chaouche et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  9. Clinical and genetic features of human prion diseases in Catalonia: 1993-2002.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Valle, R; Nos, C; Yagüe, J; Graus, F; Domínguez, A; Saiz, A

    2004-10-01

    We describe the clinical and genetic characteristics of the 85 definite or probable human prion diseases cases died between January 1993 and December 2002 in Catalonia (an autonomous community of Spain, 6 million population). Seventy-three (86%) cases were sporadic Creutzfeld-Jakob diseases (sCJD) (49 definite, 24 probable), with a median age at onset of 66 years. The clinical presentation was dementia in 29 cases, ataxia in 14 and visual symptoms in five. The median survival was 3 months. The 14-3-3 assay was positive in 93% cases, 62% presented periodic sharp wave complexes (PSWC) in EEG but only 18% the typical signs on MRI. Forty-eight sCJD were studied for codon 129 PRNP polymorphism: 69% were methionine/methionine (M/M), 14.5% valine/valine (V/V) and 16.5% M/V. Six out of seven V/V cases did not present PSWC and in two survival was longer than 20 months. Eleven cases (13%) were genetic: five familial fatal insomnia and six familial CJD (fCJD). Up to four (67%) fCJD lacked family history of disease, two presented seizures early at onset and one neurosensorial deafness. The only iatrogenic case was related to a dura mater graft. No case of variant CJD was registered. The study confirms in our population the consistent pattern reported worldwide on human prion diseases. Atypical features were seen more frequently in sporadic 129 V/V CJD and fCJD cases.

  10. Population-based incidence of childhood leukaemias and lymphomas in Spain (1993-2002).

    PubMed

    Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Cervantes-Amat, Marta; Vicente, Maria Luisa; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Guallar, Elena; Godoy, Catalina; Calvo, Carlota; Giraldo, Pilar; Sant, Milena; Peris-Bonet, Rafael; Carmen Martos, Maria

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of leukaemias and lymphomas in children according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer third edition (ICCC-3) in the population covered by the Girona, Valencia, and Zaragoza population-based cancer registries and compare it with the incidence rates in other European countries. All haematological malignancies (HMs) registered between 1993 and 2002 in children below 15 years of age were included in the study. Pathological and haematological diagnoses were reviewed, recoded according to International Classification of Diseases for Oncology-3 and reclassified on the basis of ICCC-3. Sex and age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated, using the world population as standard. Five hundred and seventy-one HMs were registered in the Girona, Valencia and Zaragoza Cancer Registries during the study period. According to ICCC-3, precursor cell leukaemias were the most frequent HMs in children and constituted 60% of all HMs (an age-adjusted incidence rate of 42.7 per million children-years). The second most frequent childhood HM was Hodgkin lymphoma (11.2% of all HMs), yielding an age-adjusted standardized incidence rate of 6.3 per million children-years. With regard to myeloid lineage, acute myeloid leukaemias were the most frequent with a rate of 7.9 per million children-years. The standardized incidence rates for lymphoid leukaemia (1.19) and Burkitt lymphoma (3.94) were statistically higher than the rates observed in Europe. Compared with European data, Spain has a high incidence of lymphoid leukaemias and lymphomas. In particular, a high incidence of Burkitt lymphoma was observed. The causes of this geographical variation are still unknown.

  11. Towards a sedentary society: trends in adolescent sport practice in Switzerland (1993-2002).

    PubMed

    Suris, Joan-Carles; Michaud, Pierre-André; Chossis, Isabelle; Jeannin, André

    2006-07-01

    The rate of overweight and obese children and adolescents is rapidly increasing in developed countries. Although a decrease in sport practice may be one of the several factors implicated, data on recent trends are scarce. This article presents the trends in sport practice among Swiss adolescents between 1993 and 2002, comparing data from two surveys.

  12. ANALYSES OF AIR QUALITY DATA FOR AN EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT STUDY, 1993-2002. (R831076)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  13. Factors affecting groundwater quality in the Valley and Ridge aquifers, eastern United States, 1993-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Gregory C.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Lindsey, Bruce D.; Gross, Eliza L.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical and microbiological analyses of water from 230 wells and 35 springs in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province, sampled between 1993 and 2002, indicated that bedrock type (carbonate or siliciclastic rock) and land use were dominant factors influencing groundwater quality across a region extending from northwestern Georgia to New Jersey. The analyses included naturally occurring compounds (major mineral ions and radon) and anthropogenic contaminants [pesticides and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)], and contaminants, such as nitrate and bacteria, which commonly increase as a result of human activities. Natural factors, such as topographic position and the mineral composition of underlying geology, act to produce basic physical and geochemical conditions in groundwater that are reflected in physical properties, such as pH, temperature, specific conductance, and alkalinity, and in chemical concentrations of dissolved oxygen, radon, and major mineral ions. Anthropogenic contaminants were most commonly found in water from wells and springs in carbonate-rock aquifers. Nitrate concentrations exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels in 12 percent of samples, most of which were from carbonate-rock aquifers. Escherichia coli (E. coli), pesticide, and VOC detection frequencies were significantly higher in samples from sites in carbonate-rock aquifers. Naturally occurring elements, such as radon, iron, and manganese, were found in higher concentrations in siliciclastic-rock aquifers. Radon levels exceeded the proposed maximum contaminant level of 300 picocuries per liter in 74 percent of the samples, which were evenly distributed between carbonate- and siliciclastic-rock aquifers. The land use in areas surrounding wells and springs was another significant explanatory variable for the occurrence of anthropogenic compounds. Nitrate and pesticide concentrations were highest in samples collected from sites in agricultural areas and lowest in samples collected from sites in undeveloped areas. Volatile organic compounds were detected most frequently and in highest concentrations in samples from sites in urban areas, and least frequently in agricultural and undeveloped areas. No volatile organic compound concentrations and concentrations from only one pesticide, dieldrin, exceeded human-health benchmarks.

  14. Replacing car trips by increasing bike and public transport in the greater Barcelona metropolitan area: a health impact assessment study.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Rueda, D; de Nazelle, A; Teixidó, O; Nieuwenhuijsen, M J

    2012-11-15

    Estimate the health risks and benefits of mode shifts from car to cycling and public transport in the metropolitan area of Barcelona, Spain. We conducted a health impact assessment (HIA), creating 8 different scenarios on the replacement of short and long car trips, by public transport or/and bike. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality and change in life expectancy related to two different assessments: A) the exposure of travellers to physical activity, air pollution to particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM2.5), and road traffic fatality; and B) the exposure of general population to PM2.5, modelling by Barcelona Air-Dispersion Model. The secondary outcome was a change in emissions of carbon dioxide. The annual health impact of a shift of 40% of the car trips, starting and ending in Barcelona City, to cycling (n=141,690) would be for the travellers who shift modes 1.15 additional deaths from air pollution, 0.17 additional deaths from road traffic fatality and 67.46 deaths avoided from physical activity resulting in a total of 66.12 deaths avoided. Fewer deaths would be avoided annually if half of the replaced trips were shifted to public transport (43.76 deaths). The annual health impact in the Barcelona City general population (n=1,630,494) of the 40% reduction in car trips would be 10.03 deaths avoided due to the reduction of 0.64% in exposure to PM2.5. The deaths (including travellers and general population) avoided in Barcelona City therefore would be 76.15 annually. Further health benefits would be obtained with a shift of 40% of the car trips from the Greater Barcelona Metropolitan which either start or end in Barcelona City to public transport (40.15 deaths avoided) or public transport and cycling (98.50 deaths avoided).The carbon dioxide reduction for shifting from car to other modes of transport (bike and public transport) in Barcelona metropolitan area was estimated to be 203,251t/CO₂ emissions per year. Interventions to reduce car use and

  15. First epidemiological report of feline heartworm infection in the Barcelona metropolitan area (Spain).

    PubMed

    Montoya-Alonso, José Alberto; Carretón, Elena; García-Guasch, Laín; Expósito, Jordi; Armario, Belén; Morchón, Rodrigo; Simón, Fernando

    2014-11-12

    The metropolitan area of Barcelona is the most densely populated metropolitan area on the Mediterranean coast. Several studies have reported the presence of canine heartworm disease in this region; however, there are no published epidemiological data regarding feline heartworm in this region and the prevalence in this species remains unknown. Serum samples from 758 cats living in the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Spain) were collected between 2012 and 2013. To establish the seroprevalence of heartworm infection in cats, serological techniques for anti-D.immitis and anti-Wolbachia antibody detection were used while a commercial ELISA test kit was used to detect circulating D.immitis antigens. Of these samples, 11.47% were positive to D.immitis and Wolbachia surface protein antibodies and 0.26% were positive to D.immitis antigens. The higher antibody seroprevalences were found in the areas that follow the courses of the rivers Llobregat and Anoia (Baix Llobregat 11.5%, Vallés Occidental 13.2%; Barcelonés 11.7%) where humidity and vegetation favour the development of the mosquito vectors. High antibody seroprevalences were also found in the urban areas (Barcelona city 13.1%; Sabadell 15.5%), which demonstrates that city cats are also at risk from D.immitis infection. Generally, in Spain cats do not receive prophylactic treatment and therefore the risk of infection is higher in this species than in dogs. Adequate prophylactic plans should be implemented in the feline population. This is the first epidemiologic study on feline heartworm infection to be carried out in continental Spain.

  16. Estimation of extreme flash flood evolution in Barcelona County from 1351 to 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera, A.; Llasat, M. C.; Barriendos, M.

    2006-06-01

    Every year, flash floods cause economic losses and major problems for undertaking daily activity in the Catalonia region (NE Spain). Sometimes catastrophic damage and casualties occur. When a long term analysis of floods is undertaken, a question arises regarding the changing role of the vulnerability and the hazard in risk evolution. This paper sets out to give some information to deal with this question, on the basis of analysis of all the floods that have occurred in Barcelona county (Catalonia) since the 14th century, as well as the flooded area, urban evolution, impacts and the weather conditions for any of most severe events. With this objective, the identification and classification of historical floods, and characterisation of flash-floods among these, have been undertaken. Besides this, the main meteorological factors associated with recent flash floods in this city and neighbouring regions are well-known. On the other hand, the identification of rainfall trends that could explain the historical evolution of flood hazard occurrence in this city has been analysed. Finally, identification of the influence of urban development on the vulnerability to floods has been carried out. Barcelona city has been selected thanks to its long continuous data series (daily rainfall data series, since 1854; one of the longest rainfall rate series of Europe, since 1921) and for the accurate historical archive information that is available (since the Roman Empire for the urban evolution). The evolution of flood occurrence shows the existence of oscillations in the earlier and later modern-age periods that can be attributed to climatic variability, evolution of the perception threshold and changes in vulnerability. A great increase of vulnerability can be assumed for the period 1850-1900. The analysis of the time evolution for the Barcelona rainfall series (1854-2000) shows that no trend exists, although, due to changes in urban planning, flash-floods impact has altered over

  17. Trihalomethane concentrations in tap water as determinant of bottled water use in the city of Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Font-Ribera, Laia; Cotta, Jordi Colomer; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Anna; Villanueva, Cristina M

    2017-08-01

    Bottled water consumption is increasing worldwide, despite its huge economic and environmental cost. We aim to describe personal and tap water quality determinants of bottled water use in the city of Barcelona. This cross-sectional study used data from the Health Survey of Barcelona in 2006 (N=5417 adults). The use of bottled water to drink and to cook was evaluated in relation to age, gender, educational level, district and levels of trihalomethanes (THMs), free chlorine, conductivity, chloride, sodium, pH, nitrate and aluminium in municipal tap water using Robust Poisson Regression. The prevalence of bottled water use to drink and cook was 53.9% and 6.7%, respectively. Chemical parameters in water had a large variability (interquartile range of THMs concentrations: 83.2-200.8μg/L) and were correlated between them, except aluminium. Drinking bottled water increased with educational level, while cooking with bottled water was higher among men than among women and decreased with age. After adjusting by these personal determinants, a dose-response relationship was found between concentrations of all chemicals except aluminium in tap water and bottled water use. The highest association was found for THMs, with a Prevalence Ratio of 2.00 (95%CI=1.86, 2.15) for drinking bottled water and 2.80 (95%CI=1.72, 4.58) for cooking with bottled water, among those with >150μg/L vs. <100μg/L THMs in tap water. More than half of Barcelona residents regularly drank bottled water, and the main determinant was the chemical composition of tap water, particularly THM level. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Socioeconomic factors and mortality in urban settings: the case of Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Borrell, C; Arias, A

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--This study aimed to describe the relationship between health and socioeconomic indicators in the 38 neighbourhoods of the city of Barcelona, Spain. DESIGN--Mortality data for 1983-89 and socioeconomic data for each of the 38 neighbourhoods of Barcelona were used. Mortality indicators used were the comparative mortality figure, the ratio of potential years of life lost, and life expectancy at birth. Socioeconomic indicators were the percentage of unemployed, the percentage of illiteracy, monthly telephone usage, the average power and age of cars, and the average rateable value of buildings and of land. The statistical correlation between socioeconomic indicators and mortality indicators was studied by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. SETTING--The 38 neighbourhoods of Barcelona, Spain. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--The comparative mortality figure ranged from 87.41-152.43 and the ratio of potential years of life lost from 74.94-237.31 in both sexes. Both the absolute difference and the ratio of the value for the neighbourhood with lowest mortality and that with highest mortality were larger when premature mortality was examined. Life expectancy at birth ranged from 64.77-75.32 years in men and 75.04-81.51 in women. All correlations between mortality and socioeconomic indicators were high and statistically significant: the higher the unemployment and illiteracy levels and the older the cars, the greater the comparative mortality figure and ratio of potential years of life lost, and the lower the life expectancy (negative correlations). Conversely, the higher the telephone use, the more powerful the cars, and the greater the rateable value, the lower the mortality (negative correlations) and the greater the life expectancy. These correlations were greater in males than in females. The highest correlations were with illiteracy. CONCLUSIONS--This study has detected significant differences in mortality in a large town in the Mediterranean region

  19. PCB residues in the adipose tissue of the population of Barcelona (Spain)

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Catalan, J.; Sabroso, M.; To-Figueras, J.; Planas, J.; Corbella, J. )

    1991-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of aryl halides widely distributed in the environment. Although production has virtually ceased, and most industrial applications (capacitors, transformers, hydraulic fluids, lubricants, etc) are severely restricted, they are one of the most ubiquitous and persistent environmental pollutants. Several toxic effects caused by PCBs have been described including: liver enlargement, hepatomegalocytosis, acne, lymphoid atrophy, immunosuppression, tumor promotion, porphyria. This work continues the authors' previous reports about organochlorine residues in human tissues of some Spanish populations, that showed high levels of some residues, specially of hexachlorobenzene (HCB). PCBs pattern and concentration in the adipose tissue of the inhabitants of an urban and industrial area (Barcelona) were determined.

  20. Epidemiology of imported malaria among children and young adults in Barcelona (1990-2008)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasing international travel and migration is producing changes in trends in infectious diseases, especially in children from many European cities. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology and determine the trends of imported malaria in patients under 20 years old in the city of Barcelona, Spain, during an 18-year period. Methods The study included malaria cases that were laboratory confirmed and reported to the malaria register at the Public Health Agency of Barcelona from 1990 to 2008, residing in Barcelona and less than 20 years old. Patients were classified as natives (born in Spain) or immigrants. Differences in the distribution of demographic, clinical characteristics, and incidence per 100,000 person-year evolution were analysed. Natives and immigrants were compared by logistic regression by calculating the odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) and Chi-square for a linear trend (p < 0.05). Results Of the total 174 cases, 143 (82.1%) were immigrants, 100 (57.5%) were female, 121 (69.5%) Plasmodium falciparum, and 108 (62.1%) were visiting friends and relatives (VFR) as the reason for travel. Among the immigrants, 99 (67.8%) were from Equatorial Guinea. Immigrant cases more frequently travelled to Africa than natives (p = 0.02). The factors associated with imported malaria among immigrant residents was travelling for VFR (OR: 6.2 CI 1.9-20.2) and age 15-19 (OR: 3.7 CI 1-13.3). The incidence increased from 1990 to 1999 (p < 0.001) and decreased from 2000 to 2008 (p = 0.01), although the global linear trend was not statistically significant (p = 0.41). The fatality rate was 0.5%. Conclusions The majority of cases of malaria in population less than 20 years in Barcelona were immigrants, travelling to Africa for VFR and Plasmodium falciparum was most frequently detected. The trend analysis of the entire study period did not show a statistically significant decline. It is recommended to be aware of malaria, especially

  1. A report from the European Society of Cardiology Congress 2014 (August 30-September 3 - Barcelona, Spain).

    PubMed

    Dulsat, C

    2014-09-01

    The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Annual Congress is the largest cardiology conference in the world and this year ran in Barcelona from August 30 to September 3. During the meeting, more than 30,000 cardiologists from over 100 countries met to share their knowledge in all cardiovascular fields, from basic science to management and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Apart from more than 4,500 interesting abstracts presented in posters and oral sessions, five new ESC Clinical Practice Guidelines were presented among the latest clinical trial results, updates and registries.

  2. Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in Barcelona: a study based on census tracts (MEDEA Project).

    PubMed

    Cano-Serral, Gemma; Azlor, Enric; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Pasarín, M Isabel; Martínez, José Miguel; Puigpinós, Rosa; Muntaner, Carles; Borrell, Carme

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study is to describe inequalities in socioeconomic indicators and in mortality by sex in the census tracts of Barcelona city during the period 1996-2003. The results show that there is excess mortality in coastal and northern areas. This distribution is similar to that of socioeconomic deprivation and therefore there is an association between mortality and socioeconomic indicators, not only for total mortality but also for the specific causes of death studied. This type of analysis can be useful for planning of public health policy since it allows small areas with high mortality risk to be detected.

  3. Child exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants in schools in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Rivas, I; Viana, M; Moreno, T; Pandolfi, M; Amato, F; Reche, C; Bouso, L; Àlvarez-Pedrerol, M; Alastuey, A; Sunyer, J; Querol, X

    2014-08-01

    Proximity to road traffic involves higher health risks because of atmospheric pollutants. In addition to outdoor air, indoor air quality contributes to overall exposure. In the framework of the BREATHE study, indoor and outdoor air pollution was assessed in 39 schools in Barcelona. The study quantifies indoor and outdoor air quality during school hours of the BREATHE schools. High levels of fine particles (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), equivalent black carbon (EBC), ultrafine particle (UFP) number concentration and road traffic related trace metals were detected in school playgrounds and indoor environments. PM2.5 almost doubled (factor of 1.7) the usual urban background (UB) levels reported for Barcelona owing to high school-sourced PM2.5 contributions: [1] an indoor-generated source characterised mainly by organic carbon (OC) from organic textile fibres, cooking and other organic emissions, and by calcium and strontium (chalk dust) and; [2] mineral elements from sand-filled playgrounds, detected both indoors and outdoors. The levels of mineral elements are unusually high in PM2.5 because of the breakdown of mineral particles during playground activities. Moreover, anthropogenic PM components (such as OC and arsenic) are dry/wet deposited in this mineral matter. Therefore, PM2.5 cannot be considered a good tracer of traffic emissions in schools despite being influenced by them. On the other hand, outdoor NO2, EBC, UFP, and antimony appear to be good indicators of traffic emissions. The concentrations of NO2 are 1.2 times higher at schools than UB, suggesting the proximity of some schools to road traffic. Indoor levels of these traffic-sourced pollutants are very similar to those detected outdoors, indicating easy penetration of atmospheric pollutants. Spatial variation shows higher levels of EBC, NO2, UFP and, partially, PM2.5 in schools in the centre than in the outskirts of Barcelona, highlighting the influence of traffic emissions. Mean child exposure to

  4. Activity size distributions for long-lived radon decay products in aerosols collected in Barcelona (Spain).

    PubMed

    Camacho, A; Valles, I; Vargas, A; Gonzalez-Perosanz, M; Ortega, X

    2009-05-01

    The activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMADs) of long-lived radon decay product ((210)Pb, (210)Po) in aerosols collected in the Barcelona area (Northeast Spain) during the period from April 2006 to February 2008 are presented. The (210)Po mean AMAD was 420 nm, while the (210)Pb mean AMAD was 500 nm. The temporal evolution of (210)Pb and (210)Po AMADs shows maxima in autumn and winter and minima in spring and summer. (210)Pb AMAD are being used to estimate the mean-residence time of atmospheric aerosols.

  5. Mental health and wellbeing in spouses of persons with dementia: the Nord-Trøndelag health study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Caring for a spouse diagnosed with dementia can be a stressful situation and can put the caregiving partner at risk of loss of mental health and wellbeing. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dementia and spousal mental health in a population-based sample of married couples older than 55 years of age. The association was investigated for individuals living together with their demented partner, as well as for individuals whose demented partner was living in an institution. Methods Data on dementia were collected from hospitals and nursing homes in the county of Nord-Trøndelag, Norway. These data were combined with data on spousal mental health, which were collected in a population-based health screening: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT). Of 6,951 participating couples (>55 years), 131 included one partner that had been diagnosed with dementia. Results Our results indicate that after adjustment for covariates, having a partner with dementia is associated with lower levels of life satisfaction and more symptoms of anxiety and depression than reported by spouses of elderly individuals without dementia. Spouses living together with a partner diagnosed with dementia experienced moderately lower levels of life satisfaction (0.35 standard deviation [SD]) and more symptoms of depression (0.38 SD) and anxiety (0.23 SD) than did their non-caregiving counterparts. Having a partner with dementia that resided in a nursing home was associated with clearly lower life satisfaction. Compared with non-caregivers, these spouses reported lower levels of life satisfaction (1.16 SD), and also more symptoms of depression (0.38 SD), and more symptoms of anxiety (0.42 SD). Conclusions Having a partner with dementia is associated with loss of mental health and reduced life satisfaction. The risk of adverse mental health outcomes is greatest after the partner’s nursing home admission. PMID:24885732

  6. Mental health and wellbeing in spouses of persons with dementia: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study.

    PubMed

    Ask, Helga; Langballe, Ellen Melbye; Holmen, Jostein; Selbæk, Geir; Saltvedt, Ingvild; Tambs, Kristian

    2014-05-01

    Caring for a spouse diagnosed with dementia can be a stressful situation and can put the caregiving partner at risk of loss of mental health and wellbeing. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dementia and spousal mental health in a population-based sample of married couples older than 55 years of age. The association was investigated for individuals living together with their demented partner, as well as for individuals whose demented partner was living in an institution. Data on dementia were collected from hospitals and nursing homes in the county of Nord-Trøndelag, Norway. These data were combined with data on spousal mental health, which were collected in a population-based health screening: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT). Of 6,951 participating couples (>55 years), 131 included one partner that had been diagnosed with dementia. Our results indicate that after adjustment for covariates, having a partner with dementia is associated with lower levels of life satisfaction and more symptoms of anxiety and depression than reported by spouses of elderly individuals without dementia. Spouses living together with a partner diagnosed with dementia experienced moderately lower levels of life satisfaction (0.35 standard deviation [SD]) and more symptoms of depression (0.38 SD) and anxiety (0.23 SD) than did their non-caregiving counterparts. Having a partner with dementia that resided in a nursing home was associated with clearly lower life satisfaction. Compared with non-caregivers, these spouses reported lower levels of life satisfaction (1.16 SD), and also more symptoms of depression (0.38 SD), and more symptoms of anxiety (0.42 SD). Having a partner with dementia is associated with loss of mental health and reduced life satisfaction. The risk of adverse mental health outcomes is greatest after the partner's nursing home admission.

  7. [Thirty Years of Health Surveillance of Foods in Barcelona: The "ICSA" Food Quality Research Program].

    PubMed

    Fontcuberta-Famadas, Mireia; Rodellar-Torras, Santiago; Portaña-Tudela, Samuel; Durán-Neira, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The Food Health Quality Research Program (Investigación de la Calidad Sanitaria de los Alimentos [ICSA]) of the Public Health Agency of Barcelona (Agencia de Salud Pública de Barcelona [ASPB]) was initiated in 1984 to carry out surveillance of certain chemical and microbiological parameters related to the sanitary and safety of foods sold in the city. The present article analyzes the importance of health surveillance and provides details of the uses of the ICSA program. The main aim of this program is to evaluate whether marketed foods comply with the absence and/or established tolerance levels of specific parameters. Nevertheless, the program is able to incorporate or suppress parameters or foods that pose emerging dangers or interests not represented in current legislation. Besides, the program not only obtains a view of the parameters studied at a specific time period in each report, but also accumulates data over time, allowing risk assessment, calculation of dietary intake of contaminants, analysis of tendencies, and evaluation of the effectiveness of regulations to reduce contaminants. The program can also help in the planning of food control programs. The information obtained is disseminated nationally and internationally and is included in dossiers of contaminants issued by national and European health agencies. This demonstrates that a locally-developed surveillance system can have a wider scope and broader objectives and can provide useful information for managers, administrations, economic operators and consumers.

  8. Widening social inequalities in mortality: the case of Barcelona, a southern European city.

    PubMed Central

    Borrell, C; Plasència, A; Pasarin, I; Ortún, V

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse trends in mortality inequalities in Barcelona between 1983 and 1994 by comparing rates in those electoral wards with a low socioeconomic level and rates in the remaining wards. DESIGN: Mortality trends study. SETTING: The city of Barcelona (Spain). SUBJECTS: The study included all deaths among residents of the two groups of city wards. Details were obtained from death certificates. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age standardised mortality rates, age standardised rates of years of potential life lost, and age specific mortality rates in relation to cause of death, sex, and year were computed as well as the comparative mortality figure and the ratio of standardised rates of years of potential life lost. RESULTS: Rates of premature mortality increased from 5691.2 years of potential life lost per 100,000 inhabitants aged 1 to 70 years in 1983 to 7606.2 in 1994 in the low socioeconomic level wards, and from 3731.2 to 4236.9 in the other wards, showing an increase in inequalities over the 12 years, mostly due to AIDS and drug overdose as causes of death. Conversely, cerebrovascular disease showed a reduction in inequality over the same period. Overall mortality in the 15-44 age group widened the gap between both groups of wards. CONCLUSION: AIDS and drug overdose are emerging as the causes of death that are contributing to a substantial increase in social inequality in terms of premature mortality, an unreported observation in European urban areas. PMID:9519129

  9. Quantification of thermal bioclimate for the management of urban design in Mediterranean climate of Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Algeciras, José Abel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    In order to contribute to the sustainability of the outdoor environment, knowledge about the urban thermal bioclimate should be transferred into climatic guidelines for planning. The general framework of this study responds to the need of analyzing thermal bioclimate in Mediterranean climate regions and its influence as an urban design factor. The paper analyzes the background of the urban climate and thermal bioclimate conditions in Barcelona (Spain), through the effect of shade conditions and wind speed variations. Simulations of shade and wind speed variations were performed to evaluate changes in thermal bioclimate due to modifications in urban morphology. Air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation for the period from January, 2001 to January, 2015 were used to calculate physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) using the RayMan model. The results demonstrate that shade is the most important strategy to improve urban microclimatic conditions. In Barcelona, human thermal comfort conditions can be improved by shade and wind speed increase in terms of PET above 23 °C and by a wind speed decrease for thresholds of PET below 18 °C. Heat stress situations can be mitigated by shade and wind speed increase in conditions above 35 and 45 °C, respectively. The results of the study are an important contribution for urban planners, due to their possibilities and potential for the description of microclimatic conditions in Mediterranean climate regions. The knowledge is useful for improved human thermal comfort conditions, from the suitable configuration of urban form and architecture.

  10. Quantification of thermal bioclimate for the management of urban design in Mediterranean climate of Barcelona, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Algeciras, José Abel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    In order to contribute to the sustainability of the outdoor environment, knowledge about the urban thermal bioclimate should be transferred into climatic guidelines for planning. The general framework of this study responds to the need of analyzing thermal bioclimate in Mediterranean climate regions and its influence as an urban design factor. The paper analyzes the background of the urban climate and thermal bioclimate conditions in Barcelona (Spain), through the effect of shade conditions and wind speed variations. Simulations of shade and wind speed variations were performed to evaluate changes in thermal bioclimate due to modifications in urban morphology. Air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation for the period from January, 2001 to January, 2015 were used to calculate physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) using the RayMan model. The results demonstrate that shade is the most important strategy to improve urban microclimatic conditions. In Barcelona, human thermal comfort conditions can be improved by shade and wind speed increase in terms of PET above 23 °C and by a wind speed decrease for thresholds of PET below 18 °C. Heat stress situations can be mitigated by shade and wind speed increase in conditions above 35 and 45 °C, respectively. The results of the study are an important contribution for urban planners, due to their possibilities and potential for the description of microclimatic conditions in Mediterranean climate regions. The knowledge is useful for improved human thermal comfort conditions, from the suitable configuration of urban form and architecture.

  11. [Psychosocial correlates of the adherence to antirretroviral treatment of men in Penitentiary Center of Barcelona].

    PubMed

    Herraiz, F; Villamarín, F; Chamarro, A

    2008-02-01

    to assess therapeutic adherence to HAART amongst HIV positive inmates and its likely relationship with sets of different variables. longitudinal study carried out at the Men's Prison of Barcelona (Centro Penitenciario de Hombres de Barcelona). The prison data base, a semi-structured interview assessing socio-penal, demographic and clinical variables as well as treatment characteristics, and questionnaires on beliefs and emotional states were used. Adherence at the beginning of the study, and then after three and six months was also assessed. inmates presented with low levels of social support, and showed moderate agreement regarding care received from medical and health personnel. They considered the level of treatment complexity to be high and gave moderate relevance to treatment side effects. They presented high agreement with the potential benefits of continuing with the treatment and showed moderate perception of the severity of the illness. They also showed high levels of self efficacy where treatment monitoring was concerned. The emotional variables showed low blood pressure, depression, anger and fatigue. Adherence to antiretroviral treatment did not vary throughout the study period. Socio-cognitive variables that correlated with adherence at different times of the study were self efficacy, perceived benefits, treatment complexity and side effects. Emotional states that correlated with adherence were depression and fatigue. the relationship between self efficacy and adherence is frequently mentioned in studies on the prediction of HAART adherence. The relationship between the two factors of fatigue and sadness/depression and adherence was expected.

  12. [Substance use and risk perception: comparative study of adolescents in Bogotá and Barcelona].

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Angela María; Forns i Santacana, María; Pérez Gómez, Augusto

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to determine the differences and similarities between adolescents from Barcelona and Bogotá in their psychoactive substance use habits, their perception of the activities that involve this use and how their risk perception can influence these habits. The sample consists of 865 school students from both cities, with ages between 15 and 18 years. Risk perception was assessed using the risk variables studied by Benthin, Slovic and Severson (1993). Substance use habits were assessed on the basis of the answers given by the youngsters to questions on the age when they first used any substance, frequency of use in the last week and use intentions in the next year. The findings suggest that the age they begin to use alcohol and marijuana and the first time they get drunk differ significantly between the adolescents in the two cities. The Barcelona youngsters have a higher tendency and actual use in respect of all the substances studied than the Bogotá youngsters. Perceived pleasure or benefits predict an increase in both the intention and frequency of use for almost every substance in this study for all, with the exception of the older adolescents (17 to 18 year-olds) from Bogotá. Fear of the consequences or the perception of a risk of illness or injury and conditions favouring use do not seem to have an obvious influence on the various use habits.

  13. Evidence of biomass burning aerosols in the Barcelona urban environment during winter time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, M.; Reche, C.; Amato, F.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Moreno, T.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.; Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; Rico, M.

    2013-06-01

    The influence of biomass burning (BB) aerosols, whether of regional or local origin, on fine aerosol levels in the Barcelona urban environment (Spain) was investigated. High-time resolved data on light-absorbing aerosols and inorganic tracers in PM2.5 were combined to this end during a dedicated sampling campaign carried out in winter 2011. The evaluation of PM inorganic components and equivalent black carbon evidenced that local-scale BB emissions were not detectable, whereas a source of K, different to vehicular traffic (road dust) and construction/demolition dust re-suspension, was detectable in the urban area. Source apportionment analysis evidenced the contribution from one source traced by S (62% of the source profile) and K (16% of the source profile), which was interpreted as regional-scale transport of secondary aerosols including BB contributions. The S/K ratio for this source (S/K = 4.4) indicated transport of the polluted air masses, as occurs from the rural areas towards the Barcelona urban environment. On average for the study period, the contribution of K-related aerosols from regional BB to PM2.5 levels in the urban environment was estimated as 1.7 μg/m3 as a daily mean, accounting for 8% of the PM2.5 mass during the winter period under study. The contribution from this source to urban aerosols should be lower on the annual scale.

  14. Multiple lifestyle risk behaviours and excess weight among adolescents in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Continente, Xavier; Pérez, Anna; Espelt, Albert; Ariza, Carles; López, María José

    We aimed to analyse the prevalence of having multiple lifestyle risk behaviours (LRB) and the potential relationship between excess weight (including overweight and obesity) and cumulative multiple LRB among adolescents in Barcelona, Spain. A cross-sectional study was performed among a representative sample of 3,114 secondary school students in Barcelona. Height and weight were objectively measured and excess weight was defined in accordance with World Health Organization criteria. Information on screen time, breakfast, physical activity and sleep duration was obtained through a self-administered questionnaire. More than 80% of the students had at least two LRBs. In compulsory schooling, the adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) of excess weight increased with a higher number of reported LRBs (four LRBs: aPR=1.56; 95% confidence interval: 1.19-2.05). These results highlight the importance of a multiple-behaviour approach in preventive programmes aimed at reducing adolescent obesity. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Deskilling and Delanguaging African Migrants in Barcelona: Pathways of Labour Market Incorporation and the Value of "Global" English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Maria Rosa; Codó, Eva

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the labour and social trajectories of seven multilingual and well-educated young men from Africa in the Barcelona area (Catalonia, Spain) over a 5-year period. Our data consist of life history interviews combined with ethnographic observations in a settlement non-governmental organisation (NGO). We adopt a critical…

  16. Nuclear Power for Catalonia: The Role of the Official Chamber of Industry of Barcelona, 1953-1962

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salom, Francesc X. Barca

    2005-01-01

    Between 1939 and 1959, the regime led by General Franco pursued a policy of economic self-sufficiency. This policy inflicted great injury on Spanish science and industry, not least in Catalonia, and in its capital, Barcelona. In response, Catalan industry looked to a future made more promising by the advent of nuclear power. This paper describes…

  17. "The Best School for My Child?" Positions, Dispositions and Inequalities in School Choice in the City of Barcelona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alegre, Miquel Angel; Benito, Ricard

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the discourses and practices employed by families involved in school choice processes in the city of Barcelona (Spain). It draws upon a study conducted by the authors in 2008/09, and it is based on surveys completed by a representative sample made up of 3245 families, as well as 60 in-depth interviews with families with…

  18. Virtual University Teaching: Contributions to Innovation in Higher Education. The Case of "Online Geography" at the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosco, Alejandra; Rodriguez-Gomez, David

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a case study, "Online Geography," carried out at the "Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona" (UAB), the basic feature of which was to implement a Learning Management System for university teaching. This experience resulted in the incorporation of curricular improvements which could be considered compatible…

  19. Final Documents of the International Congress of Educating Cities (1st, Barcelona, Spain, November 26-30, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcelona Council (Spain).

    The First International Congress of Educating Cities in Barcelona (Spain) considered education in its broadest sense, beyond the school system. An introduction by P. Figueras Bellot is provided. The following are the English translations of the Spanish titles of the presentations given by representatives of international and government…

  20. Outbreak of intestinal amoebiasis among men who have sex with men, Barcelona (Spain), October 2016 and January 2017.

    PubMed

    Escolà-Vergé, Laura; Arando, Maider; Vall, Martí; Rovira, Roger; Espasa, Mateu; Sulleiro, Elena; Armengol, Pere; Zarzuela, Francesc; Barberá, María-Jesús

    2017-07-27

    Entamoeba histolytica has been recently recognised as an emerging sexually transmissible pathogen in men who have sex with men (MSM), causing sporadic outbreaks in countries where it is not endemic. Here we report two closed clusters of invasive amoebiasis occurring in Barcelona, Spain, in October 2016 (four cases) and in January 2017 (four cases). This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  1. Regulating the Writing Process in the Teacher Training Practicum Guided by Feedback at the University of Barcelona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidiella, Maria-Cinta Portillo; Garcia, Elena Cano

    2016-01-01

    This is a longitudinal study that focuses on blog-writing for the purpose of self-assessing competencies, and which was carried out within the practicum of a degree course in Primary Education Teaching at the University of Barcelona. Over the course of three academic years, students and a teacher have used a Platform 2.0 program, specially created…

  2. Nuclear Power for Catalonia: The Role of the Official Chamber of Industry of Barcelona, 1953-1962

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salom, Francesc X. Barca

    2005-01-01

    Between 1939 and 1959, the regime led by General Franco pursued a policy of economic self-sufficiency. This policy inflicted great injury on Spanish science and industry, not least in Catalonia, and in its capital, Barcelona. In response, Catalan industry looked to a future made more promising by the advent of nuclear power. This paper describes…

  3. Implementation of CGPS at Estartit, Ibiza and Barcelona harbours for sea level monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J. J.; Ortiz Castellon, M.; Martinez-Garcia, M.; Perez, B.; Bosch, E.; Termens, A.; Martinez de Oses, X.

    2009-12-01

    The determination of global and regional mean sea level variations with accura-cies better than 1 mm/yr is a critical problem, the resolution of which is central to the current debate on climate change and its impact on the environment. Highly accurate time series from both satellite altimetry and tide gauges are needed. Measuring the sea surface height with in-situ tide gauges and GPS receivers pro-vides an efficient way to control the long term stability of the radar altimeters and other applications as the vertical land motion and studies of sea level change. L’Estartit tide gauge is a classical floating tide gauge set up in l’Estartit harbour (NE Spain) in 1990. Data are taken in graphics registers from which each two hours the mean value is recorded in an electronic support and delivered to the Permanent Service for Mean Sea level (PSMSL). Periodic surveying campaigns along the year are carried out for monitoring possible vertical movement of the geodetic benchmark adjacent to the tide gauge. Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours) installed the tide gauge station at Ibiza har-bour in January 2003 and a near GPS reference station. The station belongs to the REDMAR network, composed at this moment by 21 stations distributed along the whole Spanish waters, including also the Canary islands (http://www.puertos.es). The tide gauge also belongs to the ESEAS (European Sea Level) network. A description of the actual infrastructure at Ibiza, Barcelona and l’Estartit har-bours is presented.The main objective is the implementation of these harbours as a precise geodetic areas for sea level monitoring and altimeter calibration. Actually is a CGPS with a radar tide gauge from Puertos del Estado and a GPS belonging to Puerto de Barcelona. A precise levelling has been made by the Cartographic Insti-tute of Catalonia, ICC. The instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge Datamar 3000C device and a

  4. Synoptic analysis of heat waves in the Barcelona city (Catalonia, Spain) during 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro, Jéssica; Peña, Juan Carlos; Miró, Josep Ramon; Aran, Montserrat

    2017-04-01

    The impact of extremely warm episodes on health has been analysed by a large number of studies conducted in different countries and cities, showing that heat waves events (HWE) can cause an abrupt increase in mortality. A HWE was defined as a 7-day sequence following a key-day labelled by the 95th percentile of Barcelona daily mortality (see Peña et al., 2015). The aim of this study is to identify synoptic patterns associated to HWE in Barcelona over the 21st century and evaluate the impact and possible mitigations. To achieve it, a multivariate analysis (MVA) integrating different atmospheric levels (sea level pressure, temperature at 850 hPa and geopotential at 500 hPa) was undertaken. The observed data used for this study was the 20th Century Reanalysis. The Max Planck Institute Earth system model was used to study two scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) during the 21st century. The model was calibrated given the variability in the climate scenario, using the Quantile-Quantile mapping transformation (Q-Q). The MVA applied to the observed period (1990-2015) distinguish three main synoptic patterns: two dynamic configurations produced by southern fluxes related to an Atlantic low, associated with HWE recorded in southern Europe, and a third pattern identified by a stagnation situation related to persistent anticyclone periods. These patterns were also detected in the control simulated period (1961-2005) after the Q-Q calibration, preserving, therefore, the climatic variability: the number of HWE during the warm period (1990-2005) is twice more than during the cold period (1976-1989) due to an intensification of the warm masses. In the RCP 4.5 scenario (2006-2100 period) a positive and significant trend is shown in synoptic patterns which provoke HWE in Barcelona, especially during August; in the RCP 8.5 scenario there is no significant trend, but the intensification of the warm masses is higher.

  5. A management system for accidental water pollution risk in a harbour: The Barcelona case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grifoll, Manel; Jordà, Gabriel; Espino, Manuel; Romo, Javier; García-Sotillo, Marcos

    2011-10-01

    Water quality degradation in harbour domains can have an important negative impact from an economic, touristic and environmental point of view. In that sense, water quality management is becoming a main concern for harbour managers. In this paper, we present the research behind the initiative started in Spanish harbours to control water quality degradation due to accidental pollution. This management system is already operationally running in the Barcelona harbour (NW Mediterranean Sea). The system is based on a recent published risk assessment, which takes into account not only the different activities in the harbour and their inherent risk of accident but also the physical behaviour of harbour waters. In this methodology, a key element is to get hydrodynamic forecasts. Thus, the system is composed of a hierarchy of nested hydrodynamic models covering from the basin scale to the harbour scale and a module that computes the different parameters needed for risk assessment. Special emphasis is made on describing the steps followed for system implementation because such implementation is far from a mere technical problem. The first step is to identify the main forcing factors for the harbour hydrodynamics from both field data and numerical experiments, which has never been done before for the Barcelona harbour. Wind and shelf currents are suggested as the main forcing factors for the harbour circulation. The second step is to identify the requirements that a numerical model must fulfil in order to properly solve the Barcelona harbour's hydrodynamics. A high resolution (< 50 m) three dimensional model able to prognostically calculate temperature and salinity evolution; full air-sea coupling is needed as well. The third step is to investigate the best operational strategy. We have found that small errors in the initial density profiles are acceptable for surface current forecasts but not for deep circulation. A cold start must be avoided and a 72 h spin-up is

  6. Hospital emergency department utilisation rates among the immigrant population in Barcelona, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Buron, Andrea; Cots, Francesc; Garcia, Oscar; Vall, Oriol; Castells, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Background The recent increase in the number of immigrants of Barcelona represents a challenge for the public healthcare system, the emergency department being the most used healthcare service by this group. However, utilisation rates in our environment have not yet been studied. We aimed to compare emergency department utilisation rates between Spanish-born and foreign-born residents in a public hospital of Barcelona. Methods The study population included all adults residing in the area of study and visiting the emergency department of Hospital del Mar in 2004. The emergency care episodes were selected from the Emergency Department register, and the population figures from the Statistics Department of Barcelona. Emergency care episodes were classified into five large clinical categories. Adjusted rate ratios (RR) of utilisation among foreign-born vs. Spanish-born residents were assessed through negative binomial regression. Results The overall utilisation rate was 382 emergency contacts per 1,000 persons-years. The RR for foreign-born versus Spanish-born residents was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.52; 0.74%). The RR was also significantly below one in surgery (0.51, 95% CI: 0.42; 0.63), traumatology (0.47, 95% CI: 0.38; 0.59), medicine (0.48, 95% CI: 0.38; 0.59) and psychiatry (0.42, 95% CI: 0.18; 0.97). No differences were found in utilisation of gynaecology and minor emergency services. Conclusion The overall lower utilisation rates obtained for foreign-born residents is consistent with previous studies and is probably due to the "healthy immigrant effect". Thus, the population increase due to immigration does not translate directly into a corresponding increase in the number of emergency contacts. The lack of differences in minor and gynaecological emergency care supports the hypothesis that immigrants overcome certain barriers by using the emergency department to access to health services. The issue of healthcare barriers should therefore be addressed, especially among

  7. The Barcelona Sleepiness Index: A New Instrument to Assess Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Sleep Disordered Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Guaita, Marc; Salamero, Manel; Vilaseca, Isabel; Iranzo, Alex; Montserrat, Josep M.; Gaig, Carles; Embid, Cristina; Romero, Montserrat; Serradell, Mònica; León, Carme; de Pablo, Joan; Santamaria, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To develop the Barcelona Sleepiness Index (BSI), an interviewer-administered instrument for assessing excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) that correlates well with objective measures of EDS and which is sensitive to change with treatment. Methods: (1) Generation of a preliminary item list: Fifty-three consecutive SDB patients complaining of EDS and their bed partners were interviewed using a focus group methodology to generate a list of situations prone to cause sleepiness. Sixty different consecutive SDB patients were then evaluated using cognitive interviews to refine this list. (2) Construct validity: The maintenance of wakefulness test (MWT), the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) and the sustained attention to response task (SART) test were used in an additional 98 consecutive SDB patients with and without EDS. The item combination that best correlated with the objective tests constituted the BSI. Cutoff values were determined to differentiate between patients with and without EDS. (3) Sensitivity to change: Thirty patients requiring continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) were evaluated after satisfactory treatment. Results: A combination of two items, “in the morning, when relaxing” and “in the afternoon, standing inactive, in a public place,” presented the highest correlations with the MWT (r: −0.50, p < 0.001), the MSLT (r: −0.21, p = 0.07), and the SART (r: 0.27, p < 0.02) and constituted the BSI. The BSI significantly correlated with oxyhemoglobin saturation measures (nadir SpO2: r: −0.28, p = 0.01; CT 85: r: 0.23, p = 0.04) and showed a high sensitivity to change with CPAP treatment (t: 3.4, p = 0.002). A score of 2 or more identified patients with objective EDS (sensitivity = 64.9%, specificity = 72.1%). Conclusion: The Barcelona Sleepiness Index is a simple, brief instrument for measuring subjective EDS in SDB. Citation: Guaita M, Salamero M, Vilaseca I, Iranzo A, Montserrat JM

  8. Geodetic Infrastructure in the Ibiza and Barcelona Harbours for Sea Level Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J. J.; Gili, J.; Lopez, R.; Tapia, A.; Perez, B.; Pros, F.

    2013-12-01

    The presentation is directed to the description of the actual situation and relevant information of the geodetic infrastructure of Ibiza and Barcelona sites for sea level determination and contribution to regional sea level rise. Time series are being analysed for mean sea level variations www.puertos.es. .In the framework of a Spanish Space Project, the instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge Datamar 2000C from Geonica s.l. near an acoustic tide gauge. Puertos del Estado installed in 2007 a MIROS radar tide gauge and the Barcelona Harbour Authority a GPS referente station in the roof of the new Control Tower situated in the Energy Pier. The radar sensor is over the water surface, on a L-shaped structure which elevates it a few meters above the quay shelf. 1-min data are transmitted to the ENAGAS Control Center by cable and then sent each 1 min to Puertos del Estado by e-mail. There is a GPS station Leica Geosystems GRX1200 GG Pro and antenna 1202. Precision levelling has been made several times in the last two years because the tower is founded in reclaimed land. The measured settlement rate is about 1cm/year that may be could mask the values registered by the tide gauge. A description of the actual infrastructure at Ibiza harbour at Marina de Botafoch, is presented and its applications to sea level monitoring and altimeter calibration in support of the main CGPS at Ibiza harbour. It is described the geometrical precision levelling made in June 2013 between the radar tide gauge and the GPS station. In particular, the CGPS located at Ibiza harbour is essential for its application to the marine campaign Baleares 2013, near Ibiza island. The main objective is to determine the altimeter bias for Jason-2, about 9:09 UTC September 15, 2013, and Saral/AltiKa, about 05:30 UTC September 16, UTC. These activities has been received funding of the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion under Spanish

  9. The Barcelona International Symposium (21-23 April 2005). Synthesis reports.

    PubMed

    Basu, Kisalaya; Danon-Hersch, Nadia; Frisack, Johan; Kingma, Mireille; Martinez-Carretero, Josep Maria; Oberg, Klas; Pong, Raymond W

    2005-01-01

    The Symposium was held in Barcelona, Spain, with the Institut d'Estudis de la Salut acting as host. It gathered 51 participants working in 34 institutions based in 18 countries. The main objective of the Symposium was to create an opportunity for assessing the past trends and forecasting the future developments of health workforce within the various national health systems. The Symposium was composed of 5 sessions devoted to presentations of the papers freely contributed by the participants and 5 discussion sessions devoted to the following themes : (i) Supply of and demand for health workforce, (ii) Future trends and forecasting methods ; (iii) Strategies for managing and planning health workforce ; (iv) Health workforce in underserved areas; (v) International migration of health workers. Each discussion session was conducted by a discussion leader whose the synthesis report is displayed here below.

  10. Substance use among medical students in Barcelona (Spain). A comparison with previous surveys.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M E; Cami, J

    1986-11-01

    During the academic year 1983-1984, a survey on drug consumption was conducted among medical students in Barcelona. There was a high proportion of smokers in both sexes. Alcohol consumption was four times higher among men than women; high proof beverages were becoming the most common drinks. Coffee was the caffeine drink consumed by almost the whole population studied. Although cannabis derivatives had been tried at least once by almost all the students, regular consumers were almost non-existent. Amphetamine consumption was restricted to examination periods. The use of opiates, cocaine, hallucinogens, and solvents was rare for the sample. Results from this study are compared with those from similar surveys conducted 5 and 10 years ago.

  11. Papillomavirus research update: highlights of the Barcelona HPV 2000 international papillomavirus conference

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, F; Rohan, T; Schneider, A; Frazer, I; Pfister, H; Castellsague, X; de Sanjose, S; Moreno, V; Puig-Tintore, L; Smith, P; Munoz, N; zur Hausen, H

    2001-01-01

    The 18th international papillomavirus conference took place in Barcelona, Spain in July 2000. The HPV clinical workshop was jointly organised with the annual meeting of the Spanish Association of Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy. The conference included 615 abstracts describing ongoing research in epidemiology, diagnosis/screening, treatment/prognosis, immunology/human immunodeficiency virus, vaccine development/trials, transformation/progression, replication, transcription/translation, viral protein functions, and viral and host interactions. This leader summarises the highlights presented at the conference (the full text of the abstracts and lectures can be found at www.hpv2000.com). Relevant material in Spanish can be found at www.aepcc.org. Key Words: papillomavirus • epidemiology • immunology • biology • screening PMID:11253126

  12. [Feasibility of following up a representative sample of the adult population in Barcelona (Spain)].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; Sureda, Xisca; Ballbè, Montse; Riccobene, Anna; Fernández, Esteve

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the feasibility of following up a representative sample of the adult population of Barcelona 8 years after the baseline study. We selected a random sample (n=100) of the 1161 participants who consented to be re-contacted. We contacted 66 participants: 52 (78.8%) agreed to participate in the follow-up, three (4.5%) had died, four (6.1%) had moved, and seven (10.6%) declined to participate in the follow-up. The participation rate in the feasibility study was 52%. In conclusion, the results of our study show a good feasibility of conducting a follow-up study 8 years after the baseline study. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. The development of cost information by DRG--experience in a Barcelona hospital.

    PubMed

    Ibern, P; Bisbel, J; Casas, M

    1991-03-01

    The determination of hospital patient costing adjusted by case-mix is one of the possible applications arising from the emergence of patient classification systems, such as Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs). Most of the experiences up until now have given priority to the determination of the total costs by DRG, making it difficult to establish comparisons between hospitals. In this article, results of an experience in Barcelona with a direct patient costing model are presented, with these later being grouped into DRGs. Descriptive information is given together with statistical analysis of the intra-DRG variability and the relationship between costs and the length of stay. Patient costing systems represent a useful instrument for hospital management as they allow analyzing variation and its reasons at DRG level. It is in fact the primary level of information required in order to develop management control in hospitals.

  14. [Smoking in the hospitality sector: an observational study in Barcelona (Spain), 2008].

    PubMed

    Villalbí, Joan R; Baranda, Lucía; López, M José; Nebot, Manel

    2010-01-01

    To describe the actual presence of smoking in restaurant and hospitality premises after the smoking prevention act banning smoking in workplaces came into force in 2006, with wide exemptions in this sector. We performed an observational, descriptive study in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) in 2008 based on cluster sampling, with 1130 premises. The results were stratified by premise type. Up to 85.7% of food shops allowing consumption within their premises (bakeries, pastry shops...) ban smoking, as well as 85% of fast food establishments. Among restaurants, 40% are smoke-free or have separate smoking areas. Bar-cafés and café-restaurants (the most abundant premises) usually allow smoking. There are more smoke-free options in central districts and in shopping malls. Up to 75.4% of all premises allow smoking freely. These results show the limitations of the law. Copyright 2009 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in airborne particulate samples collected in Barcelona (Spain).

    PubMed

    Vallés, I; Camacho, A; Ortega, X; Serrano, I; Blázquez, S; Pérez, S

    2009-02-01

    Results for naturally occurring (7)Be, (210)Pb, (40)K, (214)Bi, (214)Pb, (212)Pb, (228)Ac and (208)Tl and anthropogenic (137)Cs in airborne particulate matter in the Barcelona area during the period from January 2001 to December 2005 are presented and discussed. The (212)Pb and (208)Tl, (214)Bi and (214)Pb, (7)Be and (210)Pb radionuclide levels showed a significant correlation with each other, with correlation coefficients of 0.99, 0.78 and 0.69, respectively, suggesting similar origin/behaviour of these radionuclides in the air. Caessium-137 and Potassium-40 were transported to the air as resuspended particle from the soil. The (7)Be and (210)Pb concentrations showed similar seasonal variations, with a tendency for maximum concentrations during the summer months. An inverse relationship was observed between the (7)Be, (210)Pb, (40)K and (137)Cs concentrations and weekly rainfall, indicating washout of atmospheric aerosols carrying these radionuclides.

  16. Cancer Therapeutic Resistance: Progress and Perspectives (April 7-8, 2016 - Barcelona, Spain).

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, E; Pujana, M A; Arribas, J

    2016-06-01

    At the Cancer Therapeutic Resistance: Progress and Perspectives conference, in Barcelona, Spain, April 7-8, 2016, researchers, clinicians and students gathered to discuss our current understanding of intrinsic and acquired resistance of tumors to cancer therapies and to explore how to translate strategies to predict risk or overcome resistance to the clinic. The sessions covered a wide range of topics, including cancer omics, molecular classification, clinically relevant tumor models, biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets, and personalized medicine, with talks from many international experts in the field. This report highlights the main presentations that demonstrate the progress being made in predicting and identifying drug resistance in patients with cancer, personalized approaches to direct treatment and understanding the mechanisms involved. With better models of human cancer and powerful high-throughput screening techniques, translation to the clinic leading to tangible benefits for patients is attainable.

  17. An observational study of the 7 September 2005 Barcelona tornado outbreak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, J.; Pascual, R.; Rigo, T.; Pineda, N.; López, J. M.; Arús, J.; Gayà, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an observational study of the tornado outbreak that took place on the 7 September 2005 in the Llobregat delta river, affecting a densely populated and urbanised area and the Barcelona International airport (NE Spain). The site survey confirmed at least five short-lived tornadoes. Four of them were weak (F0, F1) and the other one was significant (F2 on the Fujita scale). They started mostly as waterspouts and moved later inland causing extensive damage estimated in 9 million Euros, three injured people but fortunately no fatalities. Large scale forcing was provided by upper level diffluence and low level warm air advection. Satellite and weather radar images revealed the development of the cells that spawned the waterspouts along a mesoscale convergence line in a highly sheared and relatively low buoyant environment. Further analysis indicated characteristics that could be attributed indistinctively to non-supercell or to mini-supercell thunderstorms.

  18. The Barcelona Sleepiness Index: A New Instrument to Assess Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Sleep Disordered Breathing.

    PubMed

    Guaita, Marc; Salamero, Manel; Vilaseca, Isabel; Iranzo, Alex; Montserrat, Josep M; Gaig, Carles; Embid, Cristina; Romero, Montserrat; Serradell, Mònica; León, Carme; de Pablo, Joan; Santamaria, Joan

    2015-11-15

    To develop the Barcelona Sleepiness Index (BSI), an interviewer-administered instrument for assessing excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) that correlates well with objective measures of EDS and which is sensitive to change with treatment. (1) Generation of a preliminary item list: Fifty-three consecutive SDB patients complaining of EDS and their bed partners were interviewed using a focus group methodology to generate a list of situations prone to cause sleepiness. Sixty different consecutive SDB patients were then evaluated using cognitive interviews to refine this list. (2) Construct validity: The maintenance of wakefulness test (MWT), the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) and the sustained attention to response task (SART) test were used in an additional 98 consecutive SDB patients with and without EDS. The item combination that best correlated with the objective tests constituted the BSI. Cutoff values were determined to differentiate between patients with and without EDS. (3) Sensitivity to change: Thirty patients requiring continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) were evaluated after satisfactory treatment. A combination of two items, "in the morning, when relaxing" and "in the afternoon, standing inactive, in a public place," presented the highest correlations with the MWT (r: -0.50, p < 0.001), the MSLT (r: -0.21, p = 0.07), and the SART (r: 0.27, p < 0.02) and constituted the BSI. The BSI significantly correlated with oxyhemoglobin saturation measures (nadir SpO2: r: -0.28, p = 0.01; CT 85: r: 0.23, p = 0.04) and showed a high sensitivity to change with CPAP treatment (t: 3.4, p = 0.002). A score of 2 or more identified patients with objective EDS (sensitivity = 64.9%, specificity = 72.1%). The Barcelona Sleepiness Index is a simple, brief instrument for measuring subjective EDS in SDB. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  19. [Eating habits, sedentary behaviors and overweight and obesity among adolescents in Barcelona (Spain)].

    PubMed

    Garcia-Continente, X; Allué, N; Pérez-Giménez, A; Ariza, C; Sánchez-Martínez, F; López, M J; Nebot, M

    2015-07-01

    Breakfast is considered the most important meal of the day in an equilibrated diet. Skipping breakfast has been associated with overweight. This study aimed to describe overweight and obesity among high school students in Barcelona and to analyze their association with eating habits and sedentary behaviors. A cross-sectional study was performed in 2008 on a representative sample of high-school students in Barcelona (Spain). Overweight and obesity were defined using Body Mass Index (BMI), which was calculated from objective measurements. The prevalences of overweight and obesity were determined, and their association with eating habits, sedentary behaviors, and physical activity was analyzed using logistic regression models. A total of 3,089 students were analyzed (52% girls). The prevalence of overweight was 26.1% in boys (6.2% obese) and 20.6% in girls (3.7% obese). In both sexes, overweight was associated with being younger, having breakfast less often, being on a diet, and with a lower frequency of unhealthy food intake. Being on a diet and a lower unhealthy food intake were related to obesity in both sexes. Among boys, obesity was also associated with sedentary behaviors. The results show that overweight and obesity are a serious public health problem and confirm the importance of breakfast to prevent overweight. Moreover, these results allow us to expand our knowledge on the factors associated with overweight and obesity in order to improve current school preventive programs. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. [Second-hand smoke exposure in hospitality venues in Barcelona: measurement of respirable particles].

    PubMed

    Villarroel, Nazmy; López, María José; Sánchez-Martínez, Francesca; Fernández, Esteve; Nebot, Manel

    2011-01-01

    To quantify the concentration of respirable particles equal to or smaller than 2.5μm (PM(2.5)) as a marker of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in a sample of hospitality venues in Barcelona 2 years after the Spanish smoking law came into effect. We performed a cross-sectional descriptive study from October to December 2007. The study population consisted of 40 hospitality venues in Barcelona selected by a random route sampling, with representation of the different types of smoking regulation included in the law (smoking allowed, smoking ban and venues with smoking areas). SHS levels were quantified by measuring PM(2.5) concentrations, which were measured using a laser photometer (Side Pack AM 510 Personal Aerosol Monitor). The measurements were carried out for 5 minutes outside the venue and for 30 minutes inside the venue. In addition, observational variables related to the characteristics of the venue and signs of tobacco consumption were recorded. The concentration of PM(2.5) in venues where smoking was still allowed was five times higher than that in venues where smoking was banned (182μg/m(3) and 34μg/m(3), respectively) and exceeded the concentration established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as harmful (35μg/m(3)). However, in venues where smoking was banned, the concentration was lower than the EPA standard and there were no significant differences with the outdoor PM(2.5) concentration. Two years after the introduction of the Spanish smoking law, SHS exposure in venues where smoking was allowed was q still very high, representing a significant health risk for hospitality workers. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. UPC BarcelonaTech Platform. Innovative aerobatic parabolic flights for life sciences experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Poch, Antoni; Gonzalez, Daniel

    We present an innovative method of performing parabolic flights with aerobatic single-engine planes. A parabolic platform has been established in Sabadell Airport (Barcelona, Spain) to provide an infraestructure ready to allow Life Sciences reduced gravity experiments to be conducted in parabolic flights. Test flights have demonstrated that up to 8 seconds of reduced gravity can be achieved by using a two-seat CAP10B aircraft, with a gravity range between 0.1 and 0.01g in the three axis. A parabolic flight campaign may be implemented with a significant reduction in budget compared to conventional parabolic flight campaigns, and with a very short time-to-access to the platform. Operational skills and proficiency of the pilot controling the aircraft during the maneuvre, sensitivity to wind gusts, and aircraft balance are the key issues that make a parabola successful. Efforts are focused on improving the total “zero-g” time and the quality of reduced gravity achieved, as well as providing more space for experiments. We report results of test flights that have been conducted in order to optimize the quality and total microgravity time. A computer sofware has been developed and implemented to help the pilot optimize his or her performance. Finally, we summarize the life science experiments that have been conducted in this platform. Specific focus is given to the very successful 'Barcelona ZeroG Challenge', this year in its third edition. This educational contest gives undergraduate and graduate students worldwide the opportunity to design their research within our platform and test it on flight, thus becoming real researchers. We conclude that aerobatic parabolic flights have proven to be a safe, unexpensive and reliable way to conduct life sciences reduced gravity experiments.

  2. Injury pattern in lethal motorbikes-pedestrian collisions, in the area of Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Rebollo-Soria, M Carmen; Arregui-Dalmases, Carlos; Sánchez-Molina, David; Velázquez-Ameijide, Juan; Galtés, Ignasi

    2016-10-01

    There are several studies about M1 type vehicle-pedestrian collision injury pattern, and based on them, there has been several changes in automobiles for pedestrian protection. However, the lack of sufficient studies about injury pattern in motorbikes-pedestrian collisions leads to a lack of optimization design of these vehicles. The objective of this research is to study the injury pattern of pedestrians involved in collisions with motorized two-wheeled vehicles. A retrospective descriptive study of pedestrian's deaths after collisions with motorcycles in an urban area, like Barcelona was performed. The cases were collected from the Forensic Pathology Service database of the Institute of Legal Medicine of Catalonia. The selected cases were categorized as pedestrian-motorcycle collision, between January 1st, 2005 and December 31st, 2014. Data were collected from the autopsy, medical, and police report. The collected information was then analyzed using Microsoft Excel statistical functions. Traumatic Brain Injury is the main cause of death in pedestrian hit by motorized two-wheeled vehicles (62.85%). The most frequent injury was the subarachnoid hemorrhage, in 71.4% of cases, followed by cerebral contusions and skull base fractures (65.7%). By contrast, pelvic fractures and tibia fractures only appeared in 28.6%. The study characterizes the injury pattern of pedestrians involved in a collision with motorized two-wheeled vehicles in an urban area, like Barcelona, which has been found to be different from other vehicle-pedestrian collisions, with a higher incidence of brain injuries and minor frequency of lower extremities fractures in pelvis, tibia and fibula. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. Barcelona Rocks, a mobile app to learn geology in your city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, Adelina; Cabrera, Lluis; Alias, Gemma; Aulinas, Meritxell; Becerra, Margarita; Casadellà, Jordi; Clotet, Roger; Delclós, Xavier; Fernández-Turiel, José-Luis; Tarragó, Marta; Travé, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Barcelona Rocks is an application for personal mobile devices suitable for secondary and high school students as well as the general public without a solid background in Earth Sciences. The main objective of this app is to teach Geology using as learning resource our city façades and pavements. Additionally, Barcelona Rocks provides a short explanation about the significance of the appearance of the different rock types at the different historical periods of the city. Although it has been designed as a playful learning resource for secondary school students, the level of knowledge also allows bringing some basic concepts and principles of Earth Sciences to the general public, irrespective of age. This app is intended to provide the degree of interactivity and entertainment required by the different individual users and aims to: (i) Explain the techniques and experiments that allow the user to identify the different rocks, as well as their genesis. (ii) Introduce geology to the youngest users in a more attractive and entertaining way, providing also some information regarding the use of the different ornamental rocks during the different historical periods of the city: roman, medieval, etc. (iii) Provide historical and architectural information of the selected buildings in order to improve the city's historical architectural knowledge of the users. (iv) Show the non-expert public the importance of their country's geology. (v) Develop of outreach and dissemination resources taking advantage of the versatile and potent mobile application format using also the content as support material for science courses, seminars, or social learning events. (vi) Encourage new generations of Earth Scientists (vii) Promote science and scientific culture of the society, integrating culture and innovation as essential for the emergence of new scientific and technological vocations, promoting critical thinking, understanding of the scientific method and the social interest in science

  4. [Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity in Schoolchildren from 8 to 9 Years Old. Barcelona, Spain].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martínez, Francesca; Torres Capcha, Peter; Serral Cano, Gemma; Valmayor Safont, Sara; Castell Abat, Conxa; Ariza Cardenal, Carles

    2016-12-02

    Childhood overweight and obesity have increased progressively in the last decades, especially in countries of Southern Europe. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of overweight, obesity and its determinants in schoolchildren between 8-9 years old from Barcelona. Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 3,262 schoolchildren in 2011. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated following the criteria established by the World Health Organization (z-scores). Variables on eating behaviour, physical activity and use of new technologies were studied through 2 questionnaires. Logistic regression models were adjusted, obtaining adjusted odds ratio and their confidence intervals (95%). The prevalence of overweight was 24.0% and 12.7% for obesity. Obesity was significantly higher in boys than in girls (14.8% vs 10.8%.). No statistically significant differences were observed in the compliance of recommendations of physical activity practice and use of new technologies according to BMI. Factors associated with obesity in boys were to attend a school located in a neighbourhood of disadvantaged socio-economic status [ORa=1.88 (1.35-2.63)], to belong to an immigrant family [ORa=1.57 (1.12-2.20)], to do not eat at school [ORa=1.76 (1.20-2.59)] and to have some meal alone [ORa=1.95 (1.27-3.00)]. In girls associated factors were to belong to a single-parent family [ORa=1.58 (1.06-2.34)] and to an immigrant family [ORa=1.53 (1.07-2.18)]. The prevalence of childhood obesity in Barcelona is high. It is more common in boys, being the social determinants most relevant associated factors.

  5. The population-based Barcelona-Asymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis Study (ASIA): rationale and design

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Large-artery intracranial atherosclerosis may be the most frequent cause of ischemic stroke worldwide. Traditional approaches have attempted to target the disease when it is already symptomatic. However, early detection of intracranial atherosclerosis may allow therapeutic intervention while the disease is still asymptomatic. The prevalence and natural history of asymptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis in Caucasians remain unclear. The aims of the Barcelona-ASymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis (ASIA) study are (1) to determine the prevalence of ASIA in a moderate-high vascular risk population, (2) to study its prognostic impact on the risk of suffering future major ischemic events, and (3) to identify predictors of the development, progression and clinical expression of this condition. Methods/Design Cross-over and cohort, population-based study. A randomly selected representative sample of 1,503 subjects with a mild-moderate-high vascular risk (as defined by a REGICOR score ≥ 5%) and with neither a history of cerebrovascular nor ischemic heart disease will be studied. At baseline, all individuals will undergo extracranial and transcranial Color-Coded Duplex (TCCD) ultrasound examinations to detect presence and severity of extra and intracranial atherosclerosis. Intracranial stenoses will be assessed by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Clinical and demographic variables will be recorded and blood samples will be drawn to investigate clinical, biological and genetic factors associated with the presence of ASIA. A long-term clinical and sonographic follow-up will be conducted thereafter to identify predictors of disease progression and of incident vascular events. Discussion The Barcelona-ASIA is a population-based study aiming to evaluate the prevalence and clinical importance of asymptomatic intracranial large-artery atherosclerosis in Caucasians. The ASIA project may provide a unique scientific resource to better understand the dynamics of

  6. [Tobacco use by adolescents in Barcelona (Spain) and trends in the last 20 years].

    PubMed

    Ariza, Carles; García-Continente, Xavier; Villalbí, Joan Ramon; Sánchez-Martínez, Francesca; Pérez, Anna; Nebot, Manel

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is a preventable cause of early death and the habit starts in adolescence. The aim of this study was to describe tobacco consumption in secondary school students in 2008 and trends in the last 20 years in Barcelona. We analyzed the trend in tobacco consumption by comparing data from 8 surveys carried out between 1987 and 2008 in the 8th (2nd year of Compulsory Secondary Education), 10th (4th year of Compulsory Secondary Education) and 12th (2nd year of Compulsory Secondary Education) years of secondary school. The FRESC questionnaire was used. Data on regular and daily consumption and associated factors in 2008 were gathered and compared with those corresponding to the previous studies. Percentages of annual change were calculated with Joinpoint regression and data were stratified by sex and year of education. In 2008, 6.1% of boys and 4.5% of girls in the 8th year, 15.8% and 20.4% of those in the 10th year, respectively, and 26.1% and 33.1% of those in the 12th year, respectively, were regular smokers. A strong association was noted between regular smoking and cannabis consumption in three school years, as well as with having friends who were smokers and poor school performance. At 15-16 years old, the average annual decrease from 1996 to 2008 was 6.8% in girls and 6.1% in boys. Adolescent smoking has been decreasing in the last few years in Barcelona. There is a strong association between tobacco use and cannabis consumption. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Patterns of physical activity and associated factors among teenagers from Barcelona (Spain) in 2012.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Trasserra, Alicia; Pérez, Anna; Continente, Xavier; O'Brien, Kerry; Bartroli, Montse; Teixidó-Compaño, Ester; Espelt, Albert

    2017-01-03

    To estimate the prevalence of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA), as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO), and associated factors among teenagers from Barcelona in 2012. Cross-sectional survey to assess risk factors in a representative sample of secondary school students (aged 13-16 years, International Standard Classification of Education [ISCED] 2, n=2,162; and 17-18 years, ISCED 3, n=1016) in Barcelona. We estimated MVPA prevalence overall, and for each independent variable and each gender. Poisson regression models with robust variance were fit to examine the factors associated with high-level MVPA, and obtained prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Only 13% of ISCED 2 and 10% of ISCED 3 students met the WHO physical activity recommendations. This percentage was lower among girls at both academic levels. MVPA was lower among ISCED 3 compared to ISCED 2 students, and among students with a lower socioeconomic status. Physical activity was associated with positive self-perception of the health status (e.g., positive self-perception of health status among ISCED 2 compared to ISCED 3 students: PR=1.31 [95%CI: 1.22-1.41] and 1.61 [95%CI: 1.44-1.81] for boys and girls, respectively]. The percentage of teenagers who met WHO MVPA recommendations was low. Strategies are needed to increase MVPA levels, particularly in older girls, and students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Size fractionate particulate matter, vehicle traffic, and case-specific daily mortality in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Perez, L; Medina-Ramón, M; Künzli, N; Alastuey, A; Pey, J; Pérez, N; Garcia, R; Tobias, A; Querol, X; Sunyer, J

    2009-07-01

    Recent epidemiological research suggests that short-term effects of particle matter (PM) in urban areas may preferentially be driven by fine fractions. Questions remain concerning the adversehealth effects of coarse particles generated by noncombustion, traffic-related processes and the mechanism of action of PM. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design, we investigated the association between three independent size fractions, coarse (PM10-2.5), intermodal (PM2.5-1), and very fine PMs (PM1), and three health outcomes, respiratory, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular mortality in Barcelona, Spain, during the period of March 2003-December 2005. Using existing data, we examined the chemical composition of each fraction to explore the effects of PM from different sources and the mechanisms of action. We found that increased levels of PM, and PM10-2.5 were associated with increased levels of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality at lag 1 and lag 2. At lag 1, the odds ratio (OR) for a 1 microg/m3 increase in PM1 was 1.028 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.000-1.058] for cardiovascular mortality and 1.063 (95% CI, 1.004-1.124) for cerebrovascular mortality. At lag 1, the odds ratio per a 10 microg/ m3 increase of PM10-2.5 was 1.059 (95% CI, 1.026-1.094) for cardiovascular mortality and 1.098 (95% CI, 1.030-1.171) for cerebrovascular mortality. Association with respiratory mortality was only detected for PM2.5-1 at lag 2 (OR, 1.206 per a 10 microg/ m3 increase; 95% CI, 1.028-1.416). Chemical composition data showed that PM in Barcelona was generated in a large proportion by vehicle traffic. Vehicle traffic PM, generated by combustion and noncombustion processes, should be considered in air pollution mitigation strategies in urban areas.

  9. Inequalities in mortality by social class in men in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Puigpinós, R; Borrell, C; Pasarín, M I; Montellà, N; Pérez, G; Plasènci, A; Rué, M

    2000-01-01

    Most of the studies of inequalities in mortality carried out in Spain have been ecological, due to the difficulty of obtaining good quality socioeconomic information at individual level. The objective of this study was to describe inequalities in mortality by social class, based on occupation, among men residents of Barcelona in 1993. A representative sample was obtained of men residents of Barcelona who died during the year 1993, aged between 15 and 65 years. It was a retrospective interview given to relatives of the deceased, or other closely related persons. The variables analysed were: age, education level, underlying cause of death, and social class based on occupation (manual and non-manual workers). Rates, relative risks (RRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) are presented by age groups and cause of death. The main results show that among young people, the excess of mortality due to infectious diseases is notable (RR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.6-2.2), and also due to external causes (RR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.8-2.4) among manual workers with respect to non-manual workers, mainly due to AIDS and drug overdose. No significant differences were found in mortality due to tumours. For respiratory and cardiovascular causes, there is an increase in mortality in the less favoured social classes, as also occurs for mortality due to diseases of the digestive system, particularly among young manual workers, with an RR: 2.6 (95% CI: 1.5-3.6) compared to non-manual workers. This study shows that it is necessary to continue exploring inequalities in health, but above all it is necessary to implement efficient preventive measures addressed mainly at young people in situations of disadvantage, in order to avoid the excess of avoidable mortality which is found.

  10. Group B Streptococci Causing Neonatal Infections in Barcelona Are a Stable Clonal Population: 18-Year Surveillance▿

    PubMed Central

    Martins, E. R.; Andreu, A.; Correia, P.; Juncosa, T.; Bosch, J.; Ramirez, M.; Melo-Cristino, J.

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed 212 group B streptococci (GBS) from newborns with invasive infections in the area of Barcelona, Spain, between 1992 and 2009, with the aim of documenting changes in the prevalences of serotypes, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic lineages and evaluating their associations with either early-onset disease (EOD) or late-onset disease (LOD). Serotypes III (n = 118) and Ia (n = 47) together accounted for nearly 78% of the isolates. All isolates carried an alpha or alpha-like protein gene, and specific associations between genes and serotypes, such as serotype Ib and bca, serotype II and bca, serotype III and rib, and serotype V and alp3, reflected the presence of particular genetic lineages. Macrolide resistance (14.2%) was significantly associated with serotype V. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) clustering was an excellent predictor of serotype and antibiotic resistance. The combination of PFGE and multilocus sequence typing revealed a large number of genetically distinct lineages. Still, specific lineages were dominant in our collection, particularly the serotype III/ST17/rib lineage, which had enhanced potential to cause LOD. Serotype Ia was concentrated in a single PFGE cluster composed of two genetic lineages: ST23/eps and ST24/bca. The ST24/bca sublineage of serotype Ia, which is found infrequently elsewhere, may be emerging as an important cause of neonatal invasive infections in the Mediterranean region. In spite of the introduction of prophylaxis, resulting in a pronounced decline in the frequency of EOD, the study revealed a remarkably stable clonal structure of GBS causing neonatal infections in Barcelona over a period of 18 years. PMID:21697333

  11. Socioeconomic inequalities in dental services utilisation in a Norwegian county: the third Nord-Trondelag Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Vikum, Eirik; Krokstad, Steinar; Holst, Dorthe; Westin, Steinar

    2012-11-01

    To assess the level of socioeconomic inequity in dental care utilisation in Norway and enable comparison with recent international comparative studies. We studied dental care utilisation among 17,136 men and 21,414 women in the third Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (2006-08). Respondents aged 20 years and above were included in the study, and analyses were also performed within subgroups of age and gender (20-39, 40-59, and ≥60 years). Income-related horizontal inequity was estimated by means of concentration indices. Education-related inequity was estimated as relative risks. We found consistent pro-rich income inequity among men and women of all ages. The level of income inequity was highest among men and women ≥60 years, and in this group the income gradient was steepest between the poorest and the middle quintiles. Pro-educated inequity was found exclusively among men and women ≥60 years. General attendance was high (77%). The overall level of income-related inequity in dental services utilisation was low compared to other European countries as reported in two recent international studies of socioeconomic inequalities in dental care utilisation. Pro-rich and pro-educated inequity is a public health challenge mainly in the older part of the population.

  12. Establishment of the measurement uncertainty of 11-nor-D9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in hair.

    PubMed

    Han, Eunyoung; Yang, Wonkyung; Lee, Sooyeun; Kim, Eunmi; In, Sangwhan; Choi, Hwakyung; Lee, Sangki; Chung, Heesun; Song, Joon Myong

    2011-03-20

    The quantitative analysis of 11-nor-D(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCCOOH) in hair requires a sensitive method to detect a low-pg level. Before applying the method to real hair samples, the method was validated; in this study, we examined the uncertainty obtained from around the cut-off level of THCCOOH in hair. We calculated the measurement uncertainty (MU) of THCCOOH in hair as follows: specification of the measurand, identification of parameters using "cause and effect" diagrams, quantification of the uncertainty contributions using three factors, the uncertainty of weighing the hair sample, the uncertainty from calibrators and the calibration curve, and the uncertainty of the method precision. Finally, we calculated the degrees of freedom and the expanded uncertainty (EU). The concentration of THCCOOH in the hair sample with its EU was (0.60 ± 0.1) × 10(-4)ng/mg. The relative uncertainty percent for the measurand 0.60 × 10(-4)ng was 9.13%. In this study, we also selected different concentrations of THCCOOH in real hair samples and then calculated the EU, the relative standard uncertainty (RSU) of the concentration of THCCOOH in the test sample [u(r)(c0)], the relative uncertainty percent, and the effective degree of freedom (v(eff)). When the concentrations of THCCOOH approached the cut-off level, u(r)(c0) and the relative uncertainty percent increased but absolute EU and v(eff) decreased.

  13. Building a panel data set on fuel stations located in the Spanish regional areas of Madrid and Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Balaguer, Jacint; Ripollés, Jordi

    2016-06-01

    The data described in this article were collected daily over the period June 10, 2010, to November 25, 2012, from the website of the Spanish Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism. The database includes information about fuel stations regarding to their prices (both gross and net of taxes), brand, location (latitude and longitude), and postal code in the Spanish provinces of Madrid and Barcelona. Moreover, obtaining the postal codes has allowed us to select those stations that are operating within the metropolitan areas of Madrid and Barcelona. By considering those fuel stations that uninterruptedly provided prices during the entire period, the data can be especially useful to explore the dynamics of prices in fuel markets. This is the case of Balaguer and Ripollés (2016), "Asymmetric fuel price responses under heterogeneity" [1], who, taking into account the presence of the potential heterogeneity of the behaviour of fuel stations, used this statistical information to perform an analysis on asymmetric fuel price responses.

  14. [Infobarris: an interactive tool to monitor and disseminate information on health and its determinants in the neighbourhoods of Barcelona (Spain)].

    PubMed

    Llimona, Pere; Pérez, Glòria; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Novoa, Ana M; Espelt, Albert; García de Olalla, Patricia; Borrell, Carme

    In order to know about the health of the population, it is necessary to perform a systematic and continuous analysis of their health status and social and economic health determinants. The objective of this paper is to describe the development and implementation of the Infobarris tool, which allows to visualize a wide battery of indicators and social determinants of health by neighbourhoods in the city of Barcelona (Spain). For the development of the Infobarris tool, we used an agile methodology that allows the development of a project in iterative and incremental stages, which are the following: selection of indicators, design of the prototype, development of the tool, data loading, and tool review and improvements. Infobarris displays 64 indicators of health and its determinants through graphics, maps and tables, in a friendly, interactive and attractive way, which facilitates health surveillance in the neighbourhoods of Barcelona. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Hypogravity Research and Educational Parabolic Flight Activities Conducted in Barcelona: a new Hub of Innovation in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Poch, Antoni; González, Daniel Ventura; López, David

    2016-12-01

    We report on different research and educational activities related to parabolic flights conducted in Barcelona since 2008. We use a CAP10B single-engine aerobatic aircraft flying out of Sabadell Airport and operating in visual flight conditions providing up to 8 seconds of hypogravity for each parabola. Aside from biomedical experiments being conducted, different student teams have flown in parabolic flights in the framework of the international contest `Barcelona Zero-G Challenge', and have published their results in relevant symposiums and scientific journals. The platform can certainly be a good testbed for a proof-of-concept before accessing other microgravity platforms, and has proved to be excellent for motivational student campaigns.

  16. Twenty years of socioeconomic inequalities in premature mortality in Barcelona: The influence of population and neighbourhood changes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Gotsens, Mercè; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Mehdipanah, Roshanak; Borrell, Carme

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse trends in socioeconomic inequalities in premature mortality in Barcelona from 1992 to 2011, accounting for population changes. We conducted a repeated cross-sectional study of the Barcelona population (25-64 years) using generalized linear mixed models for trend analysis, and found that socioeconomic inequalities in premature mortality persisted between neighbourhoods, but tended to diminish. However, the reduction in inequality was related to an increase in the number of foreign-born individuals mainly in socioeconomic disadvantaged neighbourhoods, in which the decrease in premature mortality was more marked. To study trends in geographical inequalities in mortality, it is essential to understand demographic changes occurred in different places related to local levels of deprivation.

  17. A Mediterranean case study of flood evolution: the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llasat, Maria Carmen; Gilabert, Joan; Llasat-Botija, Montserrat; Cortès, Maria; Marcos, Raül; Martín-Vide, Juan Pedro; Turco, Marco; Falcón, Lluis

    2016-04-01

    Flood risk changes in Mediterranean Region integrate multiple factors, some of them related with the hazard (i.e. rainfall intensity), the vulnerability and exposure (i.e. population or assets), feedback processes that affect both hazard and vulnerability (i.e. urbanization of flood prone areas), mitigation and adaptation measures (i.e. rainwater tanks or early warning systems), and the available information used to estimate flood events (i.e. newspapers or gauged data). Flood events in the West Mediterranean region are usually produced as a consequence of very intense and local precipitation, mainly recorded on late summer and autumn that can give place to flash-floods in little torrential rivers (usually non-permanent flows) or urban floods. The Metropolitan Area of Barcelona (AMB), Spain, constitutes a good paradigm of a Mediterranean coast region, with strong urbanization of flood prone areas and high population density in an area crossed by numerous streams. The AMB is constituted by 36 municipalities with a total population above 3.200.000 inhabitants in an extension of 636 km². The major part of the population is concentrated between the Besós River and the Llobregat River, the Littoral Range and the Mediterranean Sea. Although both rivers have experienced catastrophic flood events (i.e. 25 September 1962, 815 deaths; 19-23 September 1971, 19 deaths; October 1987, 8 deaths), the most frequent situation is related with floods in non-permanent streams. Their main impacts are consequence of drainage and runoff problems and can affect both urban and rural areas. This contribution explores the evolution of land uses, population and precipitation from the middle of the 20th century until now, and how these changes have affected (or not), the flood risk. To do it, daily and sub-daily rainfall series, discharge series for the Llobregat and Besós Rivers, population data and land use changes have been analyzed. Future precipitation projections provided by an

  18. The Geographic Information System techniques impact analyze of Office's Properties in Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, P. A.; Biere, R. A.; Moix, M. B.

    2007-05-01

    The changes in the characteristics and needs in the cities structures means new challenges in the space to the economics activities. The increasing predominance of the tertiary industry, of offices or I+D buildings, like an effect of the economic transformation implies new forms, new technical characteristics and similar alternatives locations accordant with a changing demand. The project that is presented here, is developed by the Centre of Land Policy and Valuations of the University Polytechnic of Catalonia for the company "Servicios de Geo-marketing Inmobiliario S.L.' (SGMI, Real State Geo- marketing Services S.L.) The process consists in the generation of a geographic information system to the analyses of the characteristics office's buildings of Barcelona in the sense to introduce the property office's buildings of Barcelona into a database for the geo-marketing. This application allows the access to the necessary information of technical and constructive characteristics of the office's buildings, summoned by the most emblematic or central locations to the best technical level in their constructions towards facilitating the maximum knowledge the citizen in order to assure the choice according to the needs for every profile of demand. The work has consisted basically in defining the technical criteria of evaluation of the building, to systematize those characteristics in some indicators (variable) capable of expressing the level of quality of every variable, to establish a system measurement of greater to smaller value explained to the quality. Systematizing the collection of information of a total of 683 buildings of Barcelona and of some municipalities of its periphery, through a visit to every building, to process the data obtained to a database and to standardize the value of quality for every indicator and set of indicators towards determining a final qualification, obtained from the different physical, constructive and qualitative characteristics of

  19. Continuous atmospheric boundary layer observations in the coastal urban area of Barcelona during SAPUSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandolfi, M.; Martucci, G.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Wilsenack, F.; Frey, S.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Dall'Osto, M.

    2013-05-01

    Continuous measurements of surface mixed layer (SML), decoupled residual/convective layer (DRCL) and aerosol backscatter coefficient were performed within the Barcelona (Spain) boundary layer from September to October 2010 (30 days) in the framework of the SAPUSS (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies) field campaign. Two near-infrared ceilometers (Jenoptik CHM15K), vertically and horizontally probing (only vertical profiles are herein discussed), were deployed. Ceilometer-based DRCLs (1761 ± 363 m a.g.l.) averaged over the campaign duration were twice as high as the mean SML (904 ± 273 m a.g.l.). Both DRCL and SML showed a marked SML diurnal cycle. Ceilometer data were compared with potential temperature profiles measured by daily radiosounding (twice a day, midnight and midday) to interpret the boundary layer structure in the coastal urban area of Barcelona. The overall agreement (R2 = 0.80) between the ceilometer-retrieved and radiosounding-based SML heights (h) revealed overestimation of the SML by the ceilometer (Δh=145 ± 145 m). After separating the data in accordance with different atmospheric scenarios, the lowest SML (736 ± 183 m) and DRCL (1573 ± 428 m) were recorded during warm North African (NAF) advected air mass. By contrast, higher SML and DRCL were observed during stagnant Regional (REG) (911 ± 234 m and 1769 ± 314 m, respectively) and cold Atlantic (ATL) (965 ± 222 m and 1878 ± 290 m, respectively) air masses. In addition to being the lowest, the SML during the NAF scenario frequently showed a flat upper boundary throughout the day possibly because of the strong winds from the Mediterranean Sea limiting the midday SML convective growth. The mean backscatter coefficients were calculated at two selected heights representative of middle and top SML portions, i.e. β500 = 0.59 ± 0.45 Mm-1 sr-1 and β800 = 0.87 ± 0.68 Mm-1 sr-1 at 500 m and 800 m a.g.l., respectively. The highest backscatter coefficients were observed

  20. Structural characteristics of internally mixed carbonaceous aggregates from Barcelona (Spain) during DAURE winter campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coz, Esther; Casuccio, Gary S.; Robinson, Allen L.; Moreno, Teresa; Mohr, Claudia; Prevot, Andre S. H.; Artíñano, Begoña.

    2010-05-01

    Particle structure, understood as the characterization of size, morphology, texture and the spatial distribution of the different compounds at an individual particle level, influences carbonaceous aggregates behavior in the atmosphere and the respiratory system. Additionally, the absorption and scattering of light is modified by the particle structure and also influences water absorption and water vapor nucleation and, hence cloud formation, residence time in the atmosphere and removal processes. Two factors seem determinant in these processes: quantity of scattering material adsorbed onto the light absorbing core during the residence in the atmosphere and subsequent aging, and the spatial distribution of this condensed matter (commonly discussed as internally/externally mixtures). Morning, noon, afternoon, and evening samples were collected for electron microscopy analyses during 3 consecutive days during an atmospheric episode of thermal inversion in February 2009 in an urban background area within the city of Barcelona. The main goal of this study was to quantify the variations in morphology and state of mixture of carbonaceous soot-like aggregate structures observed during different times of the day. The study was part of the winter campaign: "Determination of the sources of atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and Rural Environments in the western Mediterranean" (DAURE, February/March 2009). The analysis of the aggregate structure was conducted by digital image analysis of several thousand particles to determine variations on size, shape and texture by means of several different mathematical descriptors such as aspect ratio/elongation, compactness and roughness through fractal dimension analysis, textural energy and entropy. Results indicate that carbon aggregates were mostly within 200-400 nm of geometric size, with slightly smaller sizes during time intervals associated to traffic peaks compared to the daily average. The morphological parameters obtained for these

  1. Long term effects of traffic noise on mortality in the city of Barcelona, 2004-2007.

    PubMed

    Barceló, Maria Antònia; Varga, Diego; Tobias, Aurelio; Diaz, Julio; Linares, Cristina; Saez, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Numerous studies showing statistically significant associations between environmental noise and adverse health effects already exist for short-term (over one day at most) and long-term (over a year or more) noise exposure, both for morbidity and (albeit to a lesser extent) mortality. Recently, several studies have shown this association to be independent from confounders, mainly those of air pollutants. However, what has not been addressed is the problem of misalignment (i.e. the exposure data locations and health outcomes have different spatial locations). Without any explicit control of such misalignment inference is seriously compromised. Our objective is to assess the long-term effects of traffic noise on mortality in the city of Barcelona (Spain) during 2004-2007. We take into account the control of confounding, for both air pollution and socioeconomic factors at a contextual level and, in particular, we explicitly address the problem of misalignment. We employed a case-control design with individual data. We used deaths resulting from myocardial infarction, hypertension, or Type II diabetes mellitus in Barcelona between 2004 and 2007 as cases for the study, while for controls we used deaths (likewise in Barcelona and over the same period of time) resulting from AIDS or external causes (e.g. accidental falls, accidental poisoning by psychotropic drugs, drugs of abuse, suicide and self-harm, or injuries resulting from motor vehicle accidents). The controls were matched with the cases by sex and age. We used the annual average equivalent A-weighted sound pressure levels for daytime (7-21h), evening-time (21-23h) and night-time (23-7h), and controlled for the following confounders: i) air pollutants (NO2, PM10 and benzene), ii) material deprivation (at a census tract level) and iii) land use and other spatial variables. We explicitly controlled for heterogeneity (uneven distribution of both response and environmental exposures within an area), spatial dependency

  2. HIV medicine after Barcelona conference: interview with Howard Grossman, M.D. Interview by John S. James.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Howard

    2002-09-06

    We asked a leading HIV physician to summarize some of the treatment issues that clinicians are now looking at after the Barcelona conference. Topics in this interview include: Tenofovir, including first-line therapy; The shift from protease inhibitors to non-nucleoside RT inhibitors, for many but not all patients; Benefits of once-a-day regimens; Lipodystrophy, and strategies for avoiding or reducing it; Viral resistance testing; T-20; Prevention--including danger of superinfection with a new HIV strain.

  3. Detection of mcr-1 colistin resistance gene in polyclonal Escherichia coli isolates in Barcelona, Spain, 2012 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Prim, Núria; Rivera, Alba; Rodríguez-Navarro, Judith; Español, Montserrat; Turbau, Miquel; Coll, Pere; Mirelis, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Colistin resistance was detected in 53 of 10,011 Escherichia coli (0.5%) by prospective phenotypic testing of consecutive clinical isolates in a single hospital in Barcelona, Spain (2012-15). The mcr-1 gene was retrospectively identified by PCR and sequencing in 15 of 50 available isolates. Each isolate had a unique PFGE pattern except for two. This clonal diversity supports the hypothesis of horizontal dissemination of the mcr-1 gene in the local study population.

  4. Risk perception of sexually transmitted infections and HIV in Nigerian commercial sex workers in Barcelona: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Coma Auli, Núria; Mejía-Lancheros, Cília; Berenguera, Anna; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine in detail the risk perception of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV, and the contextual circumstances, in Nigerian commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Barcelona. Design A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. Setting Raval area in Barcelona. Participants 8 CSWs working in Barcelona. Methods A phenomenological study was carried out with Nigerian CSWs in Barcelona. Sampling was theoretical, taking into account: different age ranges; women with and without a partner; women with and without children; and women participating or not in STI/HIV-prevention workshops. Information was obtained by means of eight semistructured individual interviews. An interpretative content analysis was conducted by four analysts. Results Illegal immigrant status, educational level, financial situation and work, and cultural context had mixed effects on CSW knowledge of, exposure to, and prevention and treatment of STI and HIV. CSWs were aware of the higher risk of STI associated with their occupation. They identified condoms as the best preventive method and used them during intercourse with clients. They also implemented other preventive behaviours such as personal hygiene after intercourse. Control of sexual services provided, health education and healthcare services had a positive effect on decreasing exposure and better management of STI/HIV. Conclusions Nigerian CSWs are a vulnerable group because of their poor socioeconomic status. The perception of risk in this group and their preventive behaviours are based on personal determinants, beliefs and experiences from their home country and influences from the host country. Interventions aimed at CSWs must address knowledge gaps, risk behaviours and structural elements. PMID:26078307

  5. Risk perception of sexually transmitted infections and HIV in Nigerian commercial sex workers in Barcelona: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Coma Auli, Núria; Mejía-Lancheros, Cília; Berenguera, Anna; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta

    2015-06-15

    This study aimed to determine in detail the risk perception of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV, and the contextual circumstances, in Nigerian commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Barcelona. A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. Raval area in Barcelona. 8 CSWs working in Barcelona. A phenomenological study was carried out with Nigerian CSWs in Barcelona. Sampling was theoretical, taking into account: different age ranges; women with and without a partner; women with and without children; and women participating or not in STI/HIV-prevention workshops. Information was obtained by means of eight semistructured individual interviews. An interpretative content analysis was conducted by four analysts. Illegal immigrant status, educational level, financial situation and work, and cultural context had mixed effects on CSW knowledge of, exposure to, and prevention and treatment of STI and HIV. CSWs were aware of the higher risk of STI associated with their occupation. They identified condoms as the best preventive method and used them during intercourse with clients. They also implemented other preventive behaviours such as personal hygiene after intercourse. Control of sexual services provided, health education and healthcare services had a positive effect on decreasing exposure and better management of STI/HIV. Nigerian CSWs are a vulnerable group because of their poor socioeconomic status. The perception of risk in this group and their preventive behaviours are based on personal determinants, beliefs and experiences from their home country and influences from the host country. Interventions aimed at CSWs must address knowledge gaps, risk behaviours and structural elements. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Characterization of Invasive Pneumococci of Serogroup 6 from Adults in Barcelona, Spain, in 1994 to 2008▿

    PubMed Central

    Rolo, Dora; Ardanuy, Carmen; Calatayud, Laura; Pallares, Román; Grau, Immaculada; García, Ernesto; Fenoll, Asunción; Martín, Rogelio; Liñares, Josefina

    2011-01-01

    A total of 91 of 1,480 invasive isolates (6.1%) collected from adults in Barcelona, Spain, in the period of 1994 to 2008 were of serogroup 6 (6B, 47 isolates; 6A, 28; and 6C, 16). Throughout this period, serotype 6B (Spain6B-ST90) decreased, and serotype 6A remained stable. An increase in serotype 6C (ST224) in the 2004-2008 period was observed. PMID:21450964

  7. Developpement D'un Modele Climatique Regional: Fizr Simulation des Conditions de Janvier de la Cote Ouest Nord Americaine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyette, Stephane

    1995-11-01

    Le sujet de cette these concerne la modelisation numerique du climat regional. L'objectif principal de l'exercice est de developper un modele climatique regional ayant les capacites de simuler des phenomenes de meso-echelle spatiale. Notre domaine d'etude se situe sur la Cote Ouest nord americaine. Ce dernier a retenu notre attention a cause de la complexite du relief et de son controle sur le climat. Les raisons qui motivent cette etude sont multiples: d'une part, nous ne pouvons pas augmenter, en pratique, la faible resolution spatiale des modeles de la circulation generale de l'atmosphere (MCG) sans augmenter a outrance les couts d'integration et, d'autre part, la gestion de l'environnement exige de plus en plus de donnees climatiques regionales determinees avec une meilleure resolution spatiale. Jusqu'alors, les MCG constituaient les modeles les plus estimes pour leurs aptitudes a simuler le climat ainsi que les changements climatiques mondiaux. Toutefois, les phenomenes climatiques de fine echelle echappent encore aux MCG a cause de leur faible resolution spatiale. De plus, les repercussions socio-economiques des modifications possibles des climats sont etroitement liees a des phenomenes imperceptibles par les MCG actuels. Afin de circonvenir certains problemes inherents a la resolution, une approche pratique vise a prendre un domaine spatial limite d'un MCG et a y imbriquer un autre modele numerique possedant, lui, un maillage de haute resolution spatiale. Ce processus d'imbrication implique alors une nouvelle simulation numerique. Cette "retro-simulation" est guidee dans le domaine restreint a partir de pieces d'informations fournies par le MCG et forcee par des mecanismes pris en charge uniquement par le modele imbrique. Ainsi, afin de raffiner la precision spatiale des previsions climatiques de grande echelle, nous developpons ici un modele numerique appele FIZR, permettant d'obtenir de l'information climatique regionale valide a la fine echelle spatiale

  8. Continuous atmospheric boundary layer observations in the coastal urban area of Barcelona, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandolfi, M.; Martucci, G.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Wilsenack, F.; Frey, S.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Dall'Osto, M.

    2013-01-01

    Continuous measurements of Surface Mixed Layer (SML), Decoupled Residual/Convective Layer (DRCL) and aerosol backscatter coefficient were performed within the Barcelona (NE Spain) boundary layer from September to October 2010 (30 days) in the framework of the SAPUSS (Solving Aerosol Problems Using Synergistic Strategies) field campaign. Two near-infrared ceilometers (Jenoptik CHM15K) vertically and horizontally-probing (only vertical profiles are discussed) were deployed during SAPUSS and compared with potential temperature profiles measured by daily radiosounding (midnight and midday) to interpret the boundary layer structure in the urban area of Barcelona. Ceilometer-based DRCL (1761±363 m a.g.l.) averaged over the campaign duration were twice as high as the mean SML (904±273 m a.g.l.) with a marked SML diurnal cycle. The overall agreement between the ceilometer-retrieved and radiosounding-based SML heights (R2=0.8) revealed overestimation of the SML by the ceilometer (Δh=145±145 m). After separating the data in accordance with different atmospheric scenarios, the lowest SML (736±183 m) and DRCL (1573±428 m) were recorded during warm North African (NAF) advected air mass. By contrast, higher SML and DRCL were observed during stagnant regional (REG) (911±234 m and 1769±314 m, respectively) and cold Atlantic (ATL) (965±222 m and 1878±290 m, respectively) air masses. The SML during the NAF scenario frequently showed a flat upper boundary throughout the day because of strong winds from the Mediterranean Sea that limit the midday SML convective growth observed during ATL and REG scenarios. The mean backscatter coefficients were calculated at two selected heights as representative of middle and top SML portions, i.e. β500=0.59±0.45 M m-1 sr-1 and β800=0.87±0.68 M m-1 sr-1 at 500 m and 800 m a.g.l., respectively. The highest backscatter coefficients were observed during NAF (β500=0.77±0.57 M m-1 sr-1) when compared with ATL (β500= 0.51±0.44 M m-1 sr-1

  9. Use of electronic cigarettes in public and private settings in Barcelona (Spain).

    PubMed

    Matilla-Santander, Nuria; Fu, Marcela; Ballbè, Montse; Bunch, Kailey; Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Fernández, Esteve; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M

    2017-10-01

    To describe the prevalence of e-cigarette users who use them in selected indoor public and workplaces, and private venues in Barcelona (Spain) in 2015. This is a cross-sectional study of a sample of e-cigarette users (≥ 18 years) from Barcelona (n = 600). We calculated the proportion of e-cigarette users who used the device in public and private settings (in the last 30 days). We fit multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for sex and age to calculate the odds ratios (OR) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) of e-cigarette use by socio-demographic factors, dual use and nicotine-containing e-cigarettes. The highest proportion of e-cigarette users who used them in public places was found at restaurants or bars (69.4%) and nightclubs or pubs (55.4%). Also being current conventional tobacco smokers (dual users) was significantly associated with lower use of e-cigarettes in workplaces (OR = 0.61, 95%CI:0.41-0.91), restaurants (OR = 0.66, 95%CI:0.45-0.97) and nightclubs (OR = 0.56, 95%CI:0.37-0.86). Moreover, being a nicotine-containing e-cigarette user was associated with higher odds of using the device in workplaces (OR = 2.01, 95%CI:1.34-3.01), and lower odds of using it in nightclubs (OR = 0.56, 95%CI:0.39-0.82). 96.8% of the included e-cigarette users declared to use the device at home. Being a current tobacco smoker was associated with increased odds of using e-cigarettes at home (OR = 3.17, 95%CI:1.22-8.22). E-cigarette use in private settings and in public settings where their use is not regulated by law is high. Therefore, the public health administration in Spain should consider expanding the prohibition of e-cigarette use to indoor public places and should take into account the possibility of exposure to aerosol from e-cigarettes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Green and Blue Spaces and Behavioral Development in Barcelona Schoolchildren: The BREATHE Project

    PubMed Central

    Amoly, Elmira; Forns, Joan; López-Vicente, Mónica; Basagaña, Xavier; Julvez, Jordi; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Sunyer, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Green spaces have been associated with improved mental health in children; however, available epidemiological evidence on their impact on child behavioral development is scarce. Objectives: We investigated the impact of contact with green spaces and blue spaces (beaches) on indicators of behavioral development and symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in schoolchildren. Methods: This study was based on a sample of 2,111 schoolchildren (7–10 years of age) from 36 schools in Barcelona in 2012. We obtained data on time spent in green spaces and beaches and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires (SDQ) from parents, and ADHD/DSM-IV questionnaires from teachers. Surrounding greenness was abstracted as the average Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in buffers of 100 m, 250 m, and 500 m around each home address. Proximity to green spaces was defined as living within 300 m of a major green space (≥ 0.05 km2). We applied quasi-Poisson mixed-effects models (with school random effect) to separately estimate associations between indicators of contact with green spaces and SDQ and ADHD total and subscale scores. Results: We generally estimated beneficial associations between behavioral indicators and longer time spent in green spaces and beaches, and with residential surrounding greenness. Specifically, we found statistically significant inverse associations between green space playing time and SDQ total difficulties, emotional symptoms, and peer relationship problems; between residential surrounding greenness and SDQ total difficulties and hyperactivity/inattention and ADHD/DSM-IV total and inattention scores; and between annual beach attendance and SDQ total difficulties, peer relationship problems, and prosocial behavior. For proximity to major green spaces, the results were not conclusive. Conclusion: Our findings support beneficial impacts of contact with green and blue spaces on behavioral development in schoolchildren

  11. Implementation of Barcelona, L'estartit and Ibiza Sites for Altimeter Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J. J.; Gili, J.; Lopez, R.; Tapia, A.; Bosch, E.; Perez, B.; Pros, F.

    2012-12-01

    A marine campaign to compute the sea surface data along the Spanish Mediterranean coastline and Balearic Islands is being prepared for 2013. Jason-2 (period ~10 days) and Saral/AltiKa (period of 35 days and expected launch in 2012) altimetric data and on-board GPS data will be used. Many GPS Buoy sessions along the ship route will be performed.Sea height estimates (instantaneous and mean sea levels) will be compared. Recently some geodetic improvements has been made in specific coastal spanish sites in the NW Mediterranean Sea for monitoring sea level. The goal is to maintain and improve the quality of the observation of the sea level change in the three sites. The information is coming from Puertos del Estado www.puertos.es L'Estartit tide gauge has been co-located with geodetic techniques (GPS measurements of XU, Utilitary Network, and XdA, Levelling Network,) and it is tied to the SPGIC (Integrated Geodetic Positioning System of Catalonia) project of the Cartographic Institute of Catalunya (ICC). In the past three calibration campaigns for Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1 in March 1999, August 2000 and July 2002 near Cape of Begur. At Barcelona harbour there is one MIROS radar tide gauge belonging to Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours).The radar sensor is over the water surface, on a L-shaped structure which elevates it a few meters above the quay shelf. 1-min data are transmitted to the ENAGAS Control Center by cable and then sent each 1 min to Puertos del Estado by e-mail. The information includes wave forescast (mean period, significant wave height, sea level, etc.This sensor also measures agitation and sends wave parameters each 20 min. There is a GPS station Leica Geosystems GRX1200 GG Pro and antenna 1202. Bathymetric campaigns inside the harbour have been made. At Ibiza site new measurements and levelling between the GPS reference station and a Radar MIROS, both from Puertos del Estado, has been made recently. A calibration campaign for Jason-1 was made in

  12. Use of the Oto lung donor score to analyze the 2010 donor pool of the Nord Italia Transplant program.

    PubMed

    Porro, G A; Valenza, F; Coppola, S; Froio, S; Benazzi, E; De Fazio, N; Santambrogio, L; D'Armini, A M; Loy, M; Ravini, M; Lucianetti, A; Moretti, M P; Vesconi, S; Scalamogna, M; Gattinoni, L

    2012-09-01

    The feasibility and utility of a lung donor score that has been recently proposed was tested among a pool of lung donors referred to the Nord Italia Transplant program (NITp) organ procurement organization. Each lung donor was assigned an Oto score including, age, smoking history, chest X-ray, secretions and ratio of arterial oxygen tension to inspired oxygen fraction (PaO(2)/FiO(2)). Based on clinical compromise, each variable received a score between 0 and 3, except for PaO(2)/FiO(2), which was scored between 0 and 6 given its overall relevance. Throughout 2010, 201 multiorgan donors were initially considered to be potential lung donors. Among these, 59 (29.4%) eventually yielded 67 lung transplantations (named "Used group"). Among the 142 (70.6%) refused lungs, 28 were not used due to logistic or medical problems ("general exclusion" group, GE) and 114, because of poor lung function ("lung exclusion" group, LE). Median lung donor scores were 1 (range, 0 to 3), 4 (range, 2.5 to 6.5), and 7 (range, 5 to 9) in the Used, GE, and LE groups, respectively (one-way analysis of variance, P < .001). Some donors with Oto scores ≤7 worsened over time so that the score had significantly increased by the time of organ retrieval. Overall, subjects who died after lung transplantation were characterized by higher lung donor scores, (2 [1-4] versus 0.5 [0-3], P = .003). Our analysis suggested that the use of a donor score as a dynamic tool over the donation process was of great utility to describe and analyze a pool of lung donors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A strong enrichment of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in Nord-Trøndelag (central Norway) forest soil.

    PubMed

    Reimann, C; Fabian, K; Schilling, J; Roberts, D; Englmaier, P

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of soil C and O horizon samples in a recent regional geochemical survey of Nord-Trøndelag, central Norway (752 sample sites covering 25,000 km2), identified a strong enrichment of several potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in the O horizon. Of 53 elements analysed in both materials, Cd concentrations are, on average, 17 times higher in the O horizon than in the C horizon and other PTEs such as Ag (11-fold), Hg (10-fold), Sb (8-fold), Pb (4-fold) and Sn (2-fold) are all strongly enriched relative to the C horizon. Geochemical maps of the survey area do not reflect an impact from local or distant anthropogenic contamination sources in the data for O horizon soil samples. The higher concentrations of PTEs in the O horizon are the result of the interaction of the underlying geology, the vegetation zone and type, and climatic effects. Based on the general accordance with existing data from earlier surveys in other parts of northern Europe, the presence of a location-independent, superordinate natural trend towards enrichment of these elements in the O horizon relative to the C horizon soil is indicated. The results imply that the O and C horizons of soils are different geochemical entities and that their respective compositions are controlled by different processes. Local mineral soil analyses (or published data for the chemical composition of the average continental crust) cannot be used to provide a geochemical background for surface soil. At the regional scale used here surface soil chemistry is still dominated by natural sources and processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Education-based health inequalities in 18,000 Norwegian couples: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT).

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Sara Marie; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Ernstsen, Linda; Krokstad, Steinar; Westin, Steinar

    2012-11-19

    Education-based inequalities in health are well established, but they are usually studied from an individual perspective. However, many individuals are part of a couple. We studied education-based health inequalities from the perspective of couples where indicators of health were measured by subjective health, anxiety and depression. A sample of 35,980 women and men (17,990 couples) was derived from the Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 1995-97 (HUNT 2). Educational data and family identification numbers were obtained from Statistics Norway. The dependent variables were subjective health (four-integer scale), anxiety (21-integer scale) and depression (21-integer scale), which were captured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The dependent variables were rescaled from 0 to 100 where 100 was the worst score. Cross-sectional analyses were performed using two-level linear random effect regression models. The variance attributable to the couple level was 42% for education, 16% for subjective health, 19% for anxiety and 25% for depression. A one-year increase in education relative to that of one's partner was associated with an improvement of 0.6 scale points (95% confidence interval = 0.5-0.8) in the subjective health score (within-couple coefficient). A one-year increase in a couple's average education was associated with an improvement of 1.7 scale points (95% confidence interval = 1.6-1.8) in the subjective health score (between-couple coefficient). There were no education-based differences in the anxiety or depression scores when partners were compared, whereas there were substantial education-based differences between couples in all three outcome measures. We found considerable clustering of education and health within couples, which highlighted the importance of the family environment. Our results support previous studies that report the mutual effects of spouses on education-based inequalities in health, suggesting that couples develop

  15. Alcohol use and spousal mental distress in a population sample: the nord-trøndelag health study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is a widely held notion that alcohol abuse is related to mental distress in the spouse. Research has substantiated this notion by showing a tendency for spouses of alcohol abusers to experience more mental distress than spouses of non-abusers. However, the picture seems to be more complex, as some results do not show a significant effect or even less mental distress among spouses of alcohol abusers with the highest alcohol consumption. The present study investigates the association between spousal mental distress and both a high consumption of alcohol and having experienced alcohol related problems. Methods Norwegian population-based questionnaire data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 2) were analyzed. In total 11,584 couples were eligible for analysis. Alcohol consumption was measured by numerical indicators of alcohol amount and frequency of drinking, whereas alcohol-related problems (i.e. having been criticized for excessive drinking) were measured by the CAGE Alcohol Screening Questionnaire. Multivariate hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Results Results revealed that alcohol consumption was significantly associated with a decrease in spousal mental distress, whereas alcohol-related problems were associated with an increase in spousal mental distress when adjusted for each other. Interaction effects indicated that couples discordant for drinking problems experienced more mental distress than spouses concordant for drinking problems. Conclusions The results of our study indicate that alcohol-related problems constitute a clear risk factor for spousal mental distress. On the other hand, a high consumption of alcohol per se was related to lower levels of spousal mental distress, after adjusting for the alcohol-related problems perceived by the alcohol consumer him/herself. All effect sizes were small, but the trends were clear, challenging the notion that a high consumption of alcohol is exclusively and under all

  16. The association between diabetes mellitus, glucose, and chronic musculoskeletal complaints. Results from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, Ole M; Midthjell, Kristian; Zwart, John-Anker; Hagen, Knut

    2008-01-01

    Background The relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic musculoskeletal complaints (MSCs) is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between DM, non-fasting glucose and chronic MSCs defined as pain and/or stiffness ≥ 3 months during the past year in the general adult population. Methods The results were based on cross-sectional data from 64,785 men and women (aged ≥ 20 years) who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey, which included 1,940 individuals with known DM. Associations were assessed using multiple logistic regression, estimating prevalence odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results High non-fasting glucose was associated with a lower prevalence of chronic MSCs compared to a low glucose level. DM was associated with higher prevalence of chronic MSCs, in particular chronic widespread MSCs. In the multivariate analysis, adjusting for glucose level, BMI, age, gender and physical activity, chronic widespread MSCs was 1.6 times more likely (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.2–2.2) among individuals < 60 years of age with DM than among those without DM. The association between chronic widespread MSCs and DM was most evident among the group of individuals aged < 60 years with either type 2 DM or unclassified DM (OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.3–2.5). Conclusion In this cross-sectional study a high non-fasting glucose was associated with lower prevalence of chronic MSCs. Among individuals with known DM chronic widespread MSCs were more likely. PMID:19055732

  17. A geological model for the management of subsurface data in the urban environment of Barcelona and surrounding area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Ángel Marazuela, Miguel; Velasco, Violeta; Diviu, Marc; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés; Álvarez-Marrón, Joaquina

    2016-09-01

    The overdevelopment of cities since the industrial revolution has shown the need to incorporate a sound geological knowledge in the management of required subsurface infrastructures and in the assessment of increasingly needed groundwater resources. Additionally, the scarcity of outcrops and the technical difficulty to conduct underground exploration in urban areas highlights the importance of implementing efficient management plans that deal with the legacy of heterogeneous subsurface information. To deal with these difficulties, a methodology has been proposed to integrate all the available spatio-temporal data into a comprehensive spatial database and a set of tools that facilitates the analysis and processing of the existing and newly added data for the city of Barcelona (NE Spain). Here we present the resulting actual subsurface 3-D geological model that incorporates and articulates all the information stored in the database. The methodology applied to Barcelona benefited from a good collaboration between administrative bodies and researchers that enabled the realization of a comprehensive geological database despite logistic difficulties. Currently, the public administration and also private sectors both benefit from the geological understanding acquired in the city of Barcelona, for example, when preparing the hydrogeological models used in groundwater assessment plans. The methodology further facilitates the continuous incorporation of new data in the implementation and sustainable management of urban groundwater, and also contributes to significantly reducing the costs of new infrastructures.

  18. Polymorphisme de l'apolipoprotéine E dans la population du nord du Maroc: fréquence et influence sur les paramètres lipidiques

    PubMed Central

    Benyahya, Fatiha; Barakat, Amina; Ghailani, Naima; Bennani, Mohcine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail est de déterminer les fréquences alléliques et génotypiques des sites polymorphes situés dans le gène de l'apolipoprotéine E (apo E) ainsi que leur impact sur les paramètres cliniques et lipidiques dans un échantillon de la population du nord du Maroc cliniquement diagnostiqué ADH. Méthodes Le génotype de l'apo E a été analysé par séquençage direct chez 46 patients cliniquement diagnostiqués ADH selon les critères standards. Résultats Les fréquences des allèles epsilon 3, epsilon 2 et epsilon 4 ont été respectivement 78.3%, 2.2% et 19.6%. La fréquence de l'allèle epsilon 4 est très élevée chez la population du nord du Maroc en comparaison avec les populations des autres régions marocaines. Elle est similaire à celle rapportée dans les pays de l'Europe du nord. Les taux du cholestérol total, du cholestérol LDL ainsi que la présence des xanthomes et les maladies cardiovasculaires ne différent pas entre les génotypes de l'apoE. En revanche, les résultats ont montré une influence de l'allèle epsilon4 sur le taux des triglycérides chez les sujets obèses. Conclusion Le génotype de l'apoE ne peut expliquer le phénotype clinique et biochimique présenté par des patients du Nord du Maroc cliniquement diagnostiqués ADH. PMID:24396563

  19. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 7th International LISA Symposium, Barcelona, Spain, 16-20 June 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Alberto; Sopuerta, Carlos F.

    2009-07-01

    In June 2006 the LISA International Science Team (LIST) accepted the bid presented by the Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC) to host the 7th International LISA Symposium. This was during its 11th meeting at the University of Maryland, just before the 6th edition of the Symposium started in NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The 7th International LISA Symposium took place at the city of Barcelona, Spain, from 16-20 June 2008, in the premises of CosmoCaixa, a modern Science Museum located in the hills near Tibidabo. Almost 240 delegates registered for the event, a record breaking figure compared to previous editions of the Symposium. Many of the most renowned world experts in LISA, Gravitational Wave Science, and Astronomy, as well as Engineers, attended LISA 7 and produced state-of-the-art presentations, while everybody benefited from the opportunity to have live discussions during the week in a friendly environment. The programme included 31 invited plenary lectures in the mornings, and 8 parallel sessions in the afternoons. These were classified into 7 major areas of research: LISA Technology, LISA PathFinder, LISA PathFinder Data Analysis, LISA Data Analysis, Gravitational Wave sources, Cosmology and Fundamental Physics with LISA and Other Gravitational Wave Detectors. 138 abstracts for communications were received, of which a selection was made by the session convenors which would fit time constraints. Up to 63 posters completed the scientific programme. More details on the programme, including some of the talks, can be found at the Symposium website: http://www.ice.cat/research/LISA_Symposium. There was however a remarkable add-on: Professor Clifford Will delivered a startling presentation to the general public, who completely filled the Auditori—the main Conference Room, 320 seats—and were invited to ask questions to the speaker who had boldly guided them through the daunting world of Black Holes, Waves of Gravity, and other Warped Ideas of

  20. A new Lower Pleistocene archeological site in Europe (Vallparadís, Barcelona, Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Kenneth; Garcia, Joan; Carbonell, Eudald; Agustí, Jordi; Bahain, Jean-Jaques; Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Burjachs, Francesc; Cáceres, Isabel; Duval, Mathieu; Falguères, Christophe; Gómez, Manuel; Huguet, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Here we report the discovery of a new late Lower Pleistocene site named Vallparadís (Barcelona, Spain) that produced a rich archeological and paleontological sequence dated from the upper boundary of the Jaramillo subchron to the early Middle Pleistocene. This deposit contained a main archeological layer with numerous artifacts and a rich macromammalian assemblage, some of which bore cut marks, that could indicate that hominins had access to carcasses. Paleomagnetic analysis, electron spin resonance-uranium series (ESR-US), and the biostratigraphic chronological position of the macro- and micromammal and lithic assemblages of this layer reinforce the proposal that hominins inhabited Europe during the Lower Pleistocene. The archeological sequence provides key information on the successful adaptation of European hominins that preceded the well-known fossil population from Atapuerca and succeeded the finds from Orce basin. Hence, this discovery enables us to close a major chronological gap in the early prehistory of Iberia. According to the information in this paper and the available data from these other sites, we propose that Mediterranean Western Europe was repeatedly and perhaps continuously occupied during the late Matuyama chron. PMID:20231433

  1. Biomedical practices from a patient perspective. Experiences of Polish female migrants in Barcelona, Berlin and London.

    PubMed

    Main, Izabella

    2016-08-01

    This paper focuses on the diversity in patients' experience of bio-medicine and contrasts it with the normative view characteristic of health professionals. Ethnographic fieldwork among Polish migrant women in London, Barcelona and Berlin included interviews about their experiences with local healthcare and health professionals. Themes drawn from the narratives are differences between the cities in terms of communication between patients and health professionals, respect for patients' choices and dignity, attitudes to pregnancy and birth (different levels of medicalization), and paediatric care. It is argued that patients continuously negotiate among their own views and expectations based on previous experiences and knowledge from personal communication; internet forums and publications; and the offer of medical services in the countries of their settlement. Patients experience pluralism of therapeutic traditions within and outside bio-medicine. In turn, representatives of bio-medicine are rarely aware of other medical practices and beliefs and this leads to various misunderstandings. By highlighting the pluralism of medical practices in European countries and the increasing mobility of patients, this case study has useful implications for medical anthropologists and health professionals in a broader Western context, such as raising sensitivity to different communication strategies and a diversity of curing traditions and expectations.

  2. Glyphosate transport through weathered granite soils under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions--Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Candela, Lucila; Caballero, Juan; Ronen, Daniel

    2010-05-15

    The transport of Glyphosate ([N-phosphonomethyl] glycine), AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid, CH(6)NO(3)P), and Bromide (Br(-)) has been studied, in the Mediterranean Maresme area of Spain, north of Barcelona, where groundwater is located at a depth of 5.5m. The unsaturated zone of weathered - granite soils was characterized in adjacent irrigated and non-irrigated experimental plots where 11 and 10 boreholes were drilled, respectively. At the non irrigated plot, the first half of the period was affected by a persistent and intense rainfall. After 69 days of application residues of Glyphosate up to 73.6 microgg(-1) were detected till a depth of 0.5m under irrigated conditions, AMPA, analyzed only in the irrigated plot was detected till a depth of 0.5m. According to the retardation coefficient of Glyphosate as compared to that of Br(-) for the topsoil and subsoil (80 and 83, respectively) and the maximum observed migration depth of Br(-) (2.9 m) Glyphosate and AMPA should have been detected till a depth of 0.05 m only. Such migration could be related to the low content of organic matter and clays in the soils; recharge generated by irrigation and heavy rain, and possible preferential solute transport and/or colloidal mediated transport.

  3. [Indicated prevention of problematic drug consumption in adolescents of barcelona, Spain].

    PubMed

    Guitart, Anna M; Bartroli, Montse; Villalbí, Joan R; Guilañá, Elvira; Castellano, Yolanda; Espelt, Albert; Brugal, M Teresa

    2012-01-01

    The Drugs Advice Service (SOD in its Catalan acronym) in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) provides an Information and Guidance Program (IGP) for teenagers, and an Alternative Measures Program (AMP) targeting minors fined for consumption / possession of illegal drugs in public spaces. This study describes these programs and compares the profiles of their users. Cross-sectional descriptive study of 1,010 people discharged from the two SOD programs in 2008-10 after screening for psychiatric disorders and addiction and an extended brief intervention for subjects without pathology. The profiles of the users were compared, and age-specific rates of AMP use were calculated. Cannabis causes 89.9% of entries in the SOD. The proportion of IGP users with high risk criteria for cannabis is 13.3% and with risk for alcohol 11.3%, while in AMP it is 8.9%, and 4%. Criteria for substance dependence or abuse or another psychiatric disorder caused referral of 6% of AMP users and 38% of IGP users. Adolescents in the AMP had a pattern of cannabis use (and often of alcohol) of low or moderate risk, compared to IGP. Beyond the value of the indicated prevention intervention, the programmes facilitate the early detection and referral of problematic substance use and mental disorders in early stages.

  4. A new Lower Pleistocene archeological site in Europe (Vallparadis, Barcelona, Spain).

    PubMed

    Martínez, Kenneth; Garcia, Joan; Carbonell, Eudald; Agustí, Jordi; Bahain, Jean-Jaques; Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Burjachs, Francesc; Cáceres, Isabel; Duval, Mathieu; Falguères, Christophe; Gómez, Manuel; Huguet, Rosa

    2010-03-30

    Here we report the discovery of a new late Lower Pleistocene site named Vallparadís (Barcelona, Spain) that produced a rich archeological and paleontological sequence dated from the upper boundary of the Jaramillo subchron to the early Middle Pleistocene. This deposit contained a main archeological layer with numerous artifacts and a rich macromammalian assemblage, some of which bore cut marks, that could indicate that hominins had access to carcasses. Paleomagnetic analysis, electron spin resonance-uranium series (ESR-US), and the biostratigraphic chronological position of the macro- and micromammal and lithic assemblages of this layer reinforce the proposal that hominins inhabited Europe during the Lower Pleistocene. The archeological sequence provides key information on the successful adaptation of European hominins that preceded the well-known fossil population from Atapuerca and succeeded the finds from Orce basin. Hence, this discovery enables us to close a major chronological gap in the early prehistory of Iberia. According to the information in this paper and the available data from these other sites, we propose that Mediterranean Western Europe was repeatedly and perhaps continuously occupied during the late Matuyama chron.

  5. [Home enteral nutrition. Case load of the Clinical Hospital of Barcelona].

    PubMed

    Leyes, P; Forga, M T; Montserrat, C; Coronas, R

    2001-01-01

    The use of Enteral Nutrition at Home (ENH) in the Hospital Clínico de Barcelona has grown greatly over the last decade, with a certain trend towards stabilization being observed in the last two years, but still growing at a rate of 9.2% per annum. A transverse analysis of the active patients on our ENH register at a given moment has revealed a total of 315 patients receiving treatment. The retrospective analysis of our series during 1998 gave a figure of 643 new cases. The most frequent indication for ENH was neoplasia (44%), followed by neurological pathology (28%). The administration route most frequently used was oral (66% of cases). In the oral route, oncological diagnoses were dominant (52%), whereas administration by means of a naso-gastric tube was mainly due to neurological disorders (72%). The use of PEG (12.5% of administrations via tube) was distributed between oncological and neurological patients, with a slight predominance of the first. Of those patients completing ENH in the same year, duration was in most cases (67%) less than one month. The decrease of the patient due to the underlying disorder was the main cause of termination, followed by the need for short-term nutritional support following discharge from hospital.

  6. Spanish multicenter normative studies (Neuronorma project): norms for the abbreviated Barcelona Test.

    PubMed

    Quintana, María; Peña-Casanova, Jordi; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; Langohr, Klaus; Manero, Rosa M; Aguilar, Miguel; Badenes, Dolors; Molinuevo, José Luis; Robles, Alfredo; Barquero, María Sagrario; Antúnez, Carmen; Martínez-Parra, Carlos; Frank-García, Anna; Fernández, Manuel; Blesa, Rafael

    2011-03-01

    The abbreviated Barcelona Test (a-BT) is an instrument widely used in Spain and Latin American countries for general neuropsychological assessment. The purpose of the present study was to provide new norms for the a-BT as part of the Neuronorma project. The sample consisted of 346 healthy controls. Overlapping cell procedure and midpoint techniques were applied to develop the normative data. Age, education, and sex influences were studied. Results indicated that although age and education affected the score on this test, sex did not. Raw scores were transformed to age-adjusted scaled scores (SS(A)) based on percentile ranks. These SS(A) were also converted into age-education scaled scores using a linear regression model. Norms were presented on age-education scaled scores. Also, the a-BT cognitive profile was presented and should prove to be clinically useful for interpretation. These co-normed data will allow clinicians to compare scores from a-BT with all the tests included in the Neuronorma project.

  7. The impact of future summer temperature on public health in Barcelona and Catalonia, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, Bart; Barrera-Gómez, Jose; Ballester, Joan; Basagaña, Xavier; Sunyer, Jordi

    2012-11-01

    Several epidemiological studies have reported associations between increases in summer temperatures and risks of premature mortality. The quantitative implications of predicted future increases in summer temperature, however, have not been extensively characterized. We have quantified these effects for the four main cities in Catalonia, Spain (Barcelona, Tarragona, Lleida, Girona). We first used case-crossover analysis to estimate the association between temperature and mortality for each of these cities for the period 1983 to 2006. These exposure-response (ER) functions were then combined with local measures of current and projected changes in population, mortality and temperature for the years 2025 and 2050. Predicted daily mean temperatures were based on the A1B greenhouse gas emission, "business-as-usual" scenario simulations derived from the ENSEMBLES project. Several different ER functions were examined and significant associations between temperature and mortality were observed for all four cities. For these four cities, the age-specific piecewise linear model predicts 520 (95%CI 340, 720) additional annual deaths attributable to the change in temperature in 2025 relative to the average from the baseline period of 1960-1990. For 2050, the estimate increases to 1,610 deaths per year during the warm season. For Catalonia as a whole, the point estimates for those two years are 720 and 2,330 deaths per year, respectively, or about 2 and 3% of the warm season. In comparing these predicted impacts with current causes of mortality, they clearly represent significant burdens to public health in Catalonia.

  8. The integration of information and communication technology into community pharmacists practice in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Lupiáñez-Villanueva, Francisco; Hardey, Michael; Lluch, Maria

    2014-03-01

    The study aims to identify community pharmacists' (CPs) utilization of information and communication technology (ICT); to develop and characterize a typology of CPs' utilization of ICT and to identify factors that can enhance or inhibit the use of these technologies. An online survey of the 7649 members of the Pharmacist Association of Barcelona who had a registered email account in 2006 was carried out. Factor analysis, cluster analysis and binomial logit modelling were undertaken. Multivariate analysis of the CPs' responses to the survey (648) revealed two profiles of adoption of ICT. The first profile (40.75%) represents those CPs who place high emphasis on ICT within their practice. This group is therefore referred to as 'integrated CPs'. The second profile (59.25%) represents those CPs who make less use of ICT and so are consequently labelled 'non-integrated CPs'. Statistical modelling was used to identify variables that were important in predisposing CPs to integrate ICT with their work. From the analysis it is evident that responses to questions relating to 'recommend patients going on line for health information'; 'patients discuss or share their Internet health information findings'; 'emphasis on the Internet for communication and dissemination' and 'Pharmacists Professional Association information' play a positive and significant role in the probability of being an 'integrated CP'. The integration of ICT within CPs' practices cannot be adequately understood and appreciated without examining how CPs are making use of ICT within their own practice, their organizational context and the nature of the pharmacists-client relationship.

  9. [A measure of the efficiency of primary care in Barcelona (Spain) incorporating quality indicators].

    PubMed

    Romano, José; Choi, Álvaro

    2016-01-01

    To demonstrate the impact of the incorporation of quality indicators in assessing the technical efficiency of primary healthcare teams. The processes through which primary healthcare resources have been allocated since the onset of the financial crisis in 2008 have focussed on quantitative rather than qualitative indicators. This study applies data envelopment analysis (DEA) techniques to 58 primary healthcare teams from three different primary healthcare services from the province of Barcelona (Spain). We combine publicly available information from the regional government of Catalonia with data requested from the Catalan Health System Observatory. The analysis compares the results of three models, thereby allowing shifts in the efficiency of primary healthcare teams to be identified in terms of the (lack of) consideration for healthcare quality indicators. Only 16% of the primary healthcare teams were found to be efficient according to the baseline models, which only incorporated input and output quantity indicators. However, once proxies for healthcare quality are included in the analysis, this percentage increases to 58.6%. No meaningful differences in primary healthcare team efficiency were found between public and privately owned centres, between regional primary care services and organisational models, or between rural and urban teams. The results suggest the need to incorporate healthcare quality indicators as outputs when considering criteria for the streamlining of primary healthcare services. Failure to incorporate quality indicators is associated with various primary healthcare concepts. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. IFDAT-International forum for drug and alcohol testing, 12-14 April 2010, Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Kenney J D, Josephine Elizabeth; Björklöv, Per

    2011-03-01

    The second programme of its kind globally, the highly successful, collaborative, productive and energizing IFDAT-International Forum for Drug and Alcohol Testing, was held in Barcelona, Spain, from 12-14 April. IFDAT was attended by over 100 delegates, conference sponsors and exhibitors from the international workplace drug and alcohol testing industry. Representing over 20 countries, the delegate professionals, speakers, and presenters included employers, service agents, an international publisher, and workplace testing suppliers. The purpose of the forum was to exchange knowledge, learn about new technology, and support the evolution and growth of the emerging international workplace drug and alcohol testing industry. This purpose was accomplished. Delegates from around the globe exchanged their experiences and thoughts about effective workplace drug testing programmes over two days of intensive presentations and panel discussions. The presenters and panelists included drug and alcohol testing professionals, authorities, and intellectuals from around the world. IFDAT conferences are planned for every 18 months, and the next Forum, to be held in Houston, Texas, USA is in the planning process for 2011. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Association between environmental factors and hospitalisations for bronchiectasis in Badalona, Barcelona, Spain (2007-2015).

    PubMed

    Garcia-Olivé, Ignasi; Radua, Joaquim; Sánchez-Berenguer, Dan; Hernández-Biette, Agnes; Raya-Márquez, Patricia; Stojanovic, Zoran; Martínez-Rivera, Carlos; Fernandez Serrano, Silvia; Ruiz Manzano, Juan

    2017-07-26

    The relationship between environmental factors and the exacerbation of respiratory diseases has been widely studied. However, there are no studies examining the relationship between these factors and bronchiectasis exacerbations. Our objective was to analyse the association between various environmental factors and hospitalisation for bronchiectasis. This was a retrospective observational study conducted at two hospitals in Badalona (Barcelona). The number of hospital admissions for exacerbation of bronchiectasis between 2007 and 2015 was obtained. Through multiple regression we analysed the relationship between the number of exacerbations and mean monthly values of temperature, SO2, NO, NO2, O3 and CO. Temperature, SO2, NO, NO2, O3 and CO were significantly associated with an increase in admissions due to exacerbation of bronchiectasis. By controlling the effect of temperature on the pollution variables, only SO2 maintained statistical significance (P=.008). We have detected an increase in hospital admissions for exacerbation of bronchiectasis with increases in the atmospheric concentration of SO2 and the decrease in temperature. Prospective studies with different geographical locations to confirm these results are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. The Application of Urban System Analysis To The Seismic Risk Assessment of Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irizarry, J.; Marturia, J.; Mena, U.

    The Urban System Analysis methodology developed by an international team directed by the BRGM (France) within the GEMITIS research program (1996-1999) consists of a global and integrated risk reduction strategy in order to improve the risk assessment effectiveness through the use of a geographical information system (GIS). A typical seismic risk analysis evaluates only the direct impacts of the earthquake, but gives few information about how to improve preventive effectiveness because it does not provide any data about the indirect consequences of an earthquake. This new methodology proposes to complete the scenario generation process by focusing physical vulnerability assessment on the essential elements for urban functioning. Besides it gives rational bases for the definition of appropriate risk management and preventive action plans. This study presents a first stage of the application of the Urban System Analysis method to the city of Barcelona. The elements at risk in the city like the residential, commercial, administrative, and industrials areas are identified and analyzed to define the weak points within its urban system. Then the most critical elements within the city's urban system will be identified to establish priorities for risk managements plans in the city.

  13. Monoterpene emissions from ornamental trees in urban areas: a case study of Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Noe, S M; Peñuelas, J; Niinemets, U

    2008-01-01

    Research on biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions has mainly focused on native species in natural ecosystems. However, much of the ozone and aerosol formation occurs in city atmospheres due to BVOC emissions by local urban vegetation. Plant composition of urban habitats is often dominated by non-native ornamental plant species, for which only limited data on BVOC emissions are available. To gain insight into the influence of ornamental vegetation on the urban atmospheric reactivity in Barcelona, Spain, we studied volatile isoprenoid emissions in 11 widespread ornamental tree species (three conifers and nine angiosperms). We found significant monoterpene emissions in all studied species, with normalized emission potentials (T=30 degrees C, photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD)=1000 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)) ranging between 0.2 to 110 microg x g(-1) (dry weight) h(-1). Depending on species, the emissions were dominated by alpha- and beta-pinene, myrcene, alpha- and beta-phellandrene, carene, limonene and eucalyptol. These data demonstrate that ornamental plants may significantly contribute to the BVOC load in urban atmospheres and also underscore the importance of broadleaf angiosperms as significant monoterpene emitters.

  14. Grey zone in the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Classification for hepatocellular carcinoma: Surgeons’ perspective

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tian; Lau, Wan-Yee; Zhang, Han; Huang, Bin; Lu, Jun-Hua; Wu, Meng-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer and the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification has been endorsed as the optimal staging system and treatment algorithm for HCC by the European Association for the Study of Liver Disease and the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease. However, in real life, the majority of patients who are not considered ideal candidates based on the BCLC guideline still were performed hepatic resection nowadays, which means many hepatic surgeons all around the world do not follow the BCLC guidelines. The accuracy and application of the BCLC classification has constantly been challenged by many clinicians. From the surgeons’ perspectives, we herein put forward some comments on the BCLC classification concerning subjectivity of the assessment criteria, comprehensiveness of the staging definition and accuracy of the therapeutic recommendations. We hope to further discuss with peers and colleagues with the aim to make the BCLC classification more applicable to clinical practice in the future. PMID:26217077

  15. Predictive optimal control of sewer networks using CORAL tool: application to Riera Blanca catchment in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Puig, V; Cembrano, G; Romera, J; Quevedo, J; Aznar, B; Ramón, G; Cabot, J

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the global control of the Riera Blanca catchment in the Barcelona sewer network using a predictive optimal control approach. This catchment has been modelled using a conceptual modelling approach based on decomposing the catchments in subcatchments and representing them as virtual tanks. This conceptual modelling approach allows real-time model calibration and control of the sewer network. The global control problem of the Riera Blanca catchment is solved using a optimal/predictive control algorithm. To implement the predictive optimal control of the Riera Blanca catchment, a software tool named CORAL is used. The on-line control is simulated by interfacing CORAL with a high fidelity simulator of sewer networks (MOUSE). CORAL interchanges readings from the limnimeters and gate commands with MOUSE as if it was connected with the real SCADA system. Finally, the global control results obtained using the predictive optimal control are presented and compared against the results obtained using current local control system. The results obtained using the global control are very satisfactory compared to those obtained using the local control.

  16. Caffeine, tobacco, alcohol and drug consumption among medical students in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Laporte, J R; Cami, J; Gutiérrez, R; Laporte, J

    1977-07-19

    A survey of medical students was conducted at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona in 1974. Out of 1029 students, 808 present at lectures (78.5%) returned properly completed questionnaires. These showed that mean caffeine consumption was 8.3 g per month and increased with the length of stay at the university. Tobacco consumption (general mean, 190 cigarettes per month, 216 for males and 150 for females) and alcohol consumption (8.8 litres/year for males and 4.1 litres/year for females) also increased with time spent at university. Alcohol consumption was not as high as in the general population. Amphetamine consumption was very high (22% of students had taken amphetamines on more than one occasion in the six months prior to the survey). Marihuana and hashish were by far the most commonly used drugs (9.6%), the use of these drugs being much less common than at other European universities. The use of "harder" drugs was very limited. Appraisal of alcohol, tobacco and amphetamine abuse is necessary, since the authorities have not employed adequate measures to stop or limit them.

  17. SMOS validation using SSS data from Barcelona World Race and Argo profilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umbert, M.; Ballabrera, J.; Fernandez, P.; Salat, J.; Salvador, J.

    2012-04-01

    The organisers of the Barcelona World Race (BWR), the Institute of Marine Sciences (ICM-CSIC) and the Maritime Catalan Forum (FMC) agreed on equiping the FMC boat, participating in the race, with a SeaBird MiniCTD. The idea was for the first time to explore how such oceanic races could help to monitor surface temperature and salinity all around the world ocean in real time. The boat spent 112 days to complete the rond trip, sending 12-30 real-time samples/day via ARGOS satellites, using a transmitter developed at the ICM. Data was also stored in the instrument, at 192 samples/day to allow further final global analyses. In the SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) satellite mission processing chain, sea surface salinity (SSS) values are retrieved from brightness temperature data at level 2 (L2). Global maps of SSS are being generated at level 3 (L3) using spatial and temporal weighted averages. Finally, improved representations of the SSS field are obtained at level 4 (L4) where satellite data is blended with data from other sensors. In the present study, validation of L2, L3 and L4 products using data from BWR and ARGO buoys is presented, covering the race period from January to April 2011. Differences between these two sets of data are also investigated as the uppermost robust measurements from Argo profilers have larger depths than the ones associated to the BWR boat.

  18. A small area analysis estimating the prevalence of addiction to opioids in Barcelona, 1993

    PubMed Central

    Brugal, M. T.; Domingo-Salvany, A.; Maguire, A.; Cayla, J. A.; Villalbi, J. R.; Hartnoll, R.

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the distribution of opioid use prevalence in small areas and its relation with socioeconomic indicators. DESIGN: Capture-recapture was applied using data from the Barcelona Drug Information System for 1993 (treatment demands, hospital emergency room visits, deaths from heroin acute adverse reaction and pre-trial prison admissions). To avoid dependence between sources, a log-linear regression model with interactions was fitted. For small neighbourhoods, where capture-recapture estimates were not obtainable, the Heroin Problem Index (HPI) was used to predict prevalence rates from a regression model. The correlation between estimated opioid use prevalence by neighbourhoods and their socioeconomic level was computed. MAIN RESULTS: The city's estimated prevalence was 12.9 opioid addicts per 1000 inhabitants aged 15 to 44 years (95% CI: 10.1, 17.2), which represents 9176 persons. The highest rate was found in the inner city neighbourhood. Comparing rates obtained for each neighbourhood with their unemployment rates, a high correlation coefficient was obtained (r = 0.80, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The main contribution of this study is that of combining capture-recapture with the HPI to produce small area prevalence estimates, which would not have been possible using only one method. Areas with higher socioeconomic status showed proportionally low addiction prevalences, but in depressed areas, prevalences varied widely.   PMID:10562867

  19. Follow-up study of heroin-addicted persons admitted for treatment in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Guardia Serecigni, J; Masip Vidal, J; Viladrich Segues, M C

    1988-01-01

    A follow-up study of 73 heroin-addicted persons three years after their first visit for treatment in 1981 to the Department of the Prevention of Drug Dependence and Guidance and Treatment of Drug Dependent Persons at Barcelona, Spain, was compared to a study of the same persons carried out after one year. The comparison showed that after one year 37 per cent of the cases had a favourable and 36 per cent an unfavourable outcome; for 27 per cent of the cases, information was lacking. After three years, 56 per cent showed a favourable and 30.3 per cent an unfavourable outcome; for 13.7 per cent information was lacking. Certain factors, such as a longer duration of treatment, a change in residence from an urban to a rural environment and treatment in a therapeutic community, were found to have enhanced the likelihood of achieving favourable results. Detoxification when not supplemented with supportive measures aimed at rehabilitation had a poor outcome.

  20. Assessment of metal mobility in dredged harbour sediments from Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Riba, A; Sahuquillo, A; Rubio, R; Rauret, G

    2004-04-05

    In order to assess heavy metal mobility in dredged harbour sediments, six superficial sediment samples covering a range of pollution levels and environments were collected in Barcelona Harbour. Samples were characterised in terms of major compounds (Al, Ca, Fe, Mn, Si, Ti, Mg, K and Na); total C, N and S contents; organic matter; and water content. Pseudo-total trace metal contents were assessed after aqua regia digestion (ISO 11466:1995). The modified BCR three-step sequential extraction procedure (BCR-SEP) was applied, and both major compounds (Al, Ca, Fe and Mn) and trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined in the different extracts. Both the pseudo-total digestion method and the BCR-SEP were validated using two sediment certified materials from lakes (BCR CRM 701 and BCR CRM 601). The highest metal concentrations were observed in one of the sampling points which receives an urban discharge. The observed mobility order (percentage of metal extracted in the first step) of the six trace metals studied was Cd>Zn>Pb>Cu>Ni>Cr. The good agreement observed with the results obtained as the sum of the four steps (extractable+residue) and the pseudo-total content shows that laboratory working conditions were under control.

  1. Hepatic resection beyond barcelona clinic liver cancer indication: When and how

    PubMed Central

    Garancini, Mattia; Pinotti, Enrico; Nespoli, Stefano; Romano, Fabrizio; Gianotti, Luca; Giardini, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the main common primary tumour of the liver and it is usually associated with cirrhosis. The barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) classification has been approved as guidance for HCC treatment algorithms by the European Association for the Study of Liver and the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease. According to this algorithm, hepatic resection should be performed only in patients with small single tumours of 2-3 cm without signs of portal hypertension (PHT) or hyperbilirubinemia. BCLC classification has been criticised and many studies have shown that multiple tumors and large tumors, as wide as those with macrovascular infiltration and PHT, could benefit from liver resection. Consequently, treatment guidelines should be revised and patients with intermediate/advanced stage HCC, when technically resectable, should receive the opportunity to be treated with radical surgical treatment. Nevertheless, the surgical treatment of HCC on cirrhosis is complex: The goal to be oncologically radical has always to be balanced with the necessity to minimize organ damage. The aim of this review was to analyze when and how liver resection could be indicated beyond BCLC indication. In particular, the role of multidisciplinary approach to assure a proper indication, of the intraoperative ultrasound for intra-operative restaging and resection guidance and of laparoscopy to minimize surgical trauma have been enhanced. PMID:27099652

  2. [Contact tracing of paediatric pertussis cases at a tertiary hospital in Barcelona, Spain].

    PubMed

    Uriona Tuma, Sonia María; Martínez Gómez, Xavier; Campins Martí, Magda; Codina Grau, Gemma; Ferrer Marcelles, Adelaida; Rodrigo Pendás, José Ángel; Pinós Tella, Laia; Cebrian, Rocio; Moraga Llop, Fernando Alfonso

    2013-11-02

    Pertussis remains an important cause of morbimortality despite current vaccination strategies. This study was designed to describe the results and characteristics of close contacts of pertussis cases diagnosed in children less than 16 years in a tertiary hospital in Barcelona. Cross-sectional study. Data were collected from chart review of contacts of paediatric cases of pertussis in Vall d'Hebron University Hospital from 2005 to 2009. Only patients with microbiological study done were included. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated as association measure. Ninety-one index cases and 404 contacts were studied. The prevalence of positive cases among contacts was 33.2%. Contacts of index cases younger than 6 months had a higher risk of being positive for pertussis than contacts of older children (OR: 3.38; 95% CI: 1.88-6.10). Primary cases were identified as 16.7% of the contacts studied, who were the source of infection for 67.7% of index cases younger than 6 months and for 26.9% of older index cases. Contact tracing of paediatric pertussis cases is a necessary clinical activity. It is more likely to find primary cases in the contact investigation of children less than 6 months. Preventive strategies should be targeted primarily to frequent contacts of this age group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer therapeutic strategy and impact on survival

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Camba, Alejandro; Turnes, Juan; Ramos, Luis Martin; Arranz, Laura; Mera, José; Crespo, Javier; Quintero, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Background The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has proved useful in the management of HCC patients. However, BCLC-recommended first-line treatment is not always applicable in clinical practice. Objective We performed a multicentre retrospective analysis of reasons for deviation from first-line treatment in 2008–2012. Methods One to three-year survival data were analysed using Kaplan-Meier method. Results A total of 407 consecutive HCC patients (66.6 ± 3 years, 83% male) with cirrhosis were included. Tumours were detected during surveillance in 53% of patients, grouped as Child-Pugh A (67%), B (25%) and C (8%); and BCLC A (including stage 0, 44%), B (26%), C (15%) and D (15%). In 31% of patients, first-line treatment was not feasible (51% in early stages) due to: technical reasons (74%); patient non-conformity (20%); medical decision (3%); and disease progression (3%). One to three-year survival of patients not receiving the recommended first-line treatment was similar to that of patients treated according to BCLC recommendations (log-rank, p = 0.229). Conclusion In real-life practice one-third of HCC patients could not receive first-line BCLC treatment. In our cohort of patients, similar short and medium-term survival was observed. Long-term prospective studies are required to determine the best alternative treatment option when BCLC first-line treatment is not feasible. PMID:26279838

  4. Adjuvant sorafenib after heptectomy for Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer-stage C hepatocellular carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Xia, Feng; Wu, Li-Li; Lau, Wan-Yee; Huan, Hong-Bo; Wen, Xu-Dong; Ma, Kuan-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Wu; Bie, Ping

    2016-06-21

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of adjuvant sorafenib after curative resection for patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC)-stage C hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Thirty-four HCC patients, classified as BCLC-stage C, received adjuvant sorafenib for high-risk of tumor recurrence after curative hepatectomy at a tertiary care university hospital. The study group was compared with a case-matched control group of 68 patients who received curative hepatectomy for HCC during the study period in a 1:2 ratio. The tumor recurrence rate was markedly lower in the sorafenib group (15/34, 44.1%) than in the control group (51/68, 75%, P = 0.002). The median disease-free survival was 12 mo in the study group and 10 mo in the control group. Tumor number more than 3, macrovascular invasion, hilar lymph nodes metastasis, and treatment with sorafenib were significant factors of disease-free survival by univariate analysis. Tumor number more than 3 and treatment with sorafenib were significant risk factors of disease-free survival by multivariate analysis in the Cox proportional hazards model. The disease-free survival and cumulative overall survival in the study group were significantly better than in the control group (P = 0.034 and 0.016, respectively). Our study verifies the potential benefit and safety of adjuvant sorafenib for both decreasing HCC recurrence and extending disease-free and overall survival rates for patients with BCLC-stage C HCC after curative resection.

  5. Rainfall intensity patterns derived from the urban network of Barcelona (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lana, Xavier; Serra, C.; Casas-Castillo, M. C.; Rodríguez-Solà, R.; Redaño, A.; Burgueño, A.

    2017-06-01

    An analysis of the normalised rainfall intensity curves in Barcelona (NE Spain) has been undertaken from 41 selected rain rate episodes recorded by an urban network of tipping buckets applying a 5-min integration time along the years 1994-2009. These curves, based on cumulative amount and time distributions, are modelled by a power law, this fact suggesting fractal behaviour. Four parameters characterise these curves. One of them is the exponent of the power law. Another one quantifies the intermittency of the rainfall along the episode. The other two are the coordinates of cumulative amount and time distribution from which the power law fits well the normalised curve. The total rainfall amount of the episode, its length and the coefficient of variation of the 5-min amounts are also considered as complementary parameters. Taking advantage of these seven parameters, patterns of rainfall intensity are determined for every episode. These patterns, together with the statistical distribution of 5-min amounts, maximum intensity and rainfall intermittence, should increase the knowledge on the urban rainfall regime with the aim of improving drainage design. In addition to present results, flood prevention should be complemented with extreme value analyses and quantification of return periods.

  6. Semi-open environmental conditions during phases of hominin occupation at the Eemian Interglacial basin site Neumark-Nord 2 and its wider environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, Eduard; Bakels, Corrie

    2015-06-01

    Neandertal occupation of Eemian environments in Europe is well attested by several archaeological sites dating to this interglacial period. Does this mean that Neandertals were living in closed forest environments? Due to the potential variability of Eemian environments in space and time, it is necessary to study environmental records that can be correlated with phases of hominin presence, as reflected in the archaeological record. Such a perspective can be obtained from the small basin locality Neumark-Nord 2, as it contains an extensive and detailed environmental record, as well as a large archaeological record consisting of several distinct find levels. Analysis shows that hominin presence is predominantly associated with semi-open environmental conditions. A review of the data from the neighbouring Neumark-Nord 1 basin shows that semi-open environments were also characterizing the wider environment during phases of hominin presence at both basin localities. Large herbivores attracted to the water in these basins may have played an important role in the vegetation openness, probably in conjunction with (local) climatic conditions. The relationship between hominin presence and semi-open environments is explained as Neandertals exploiting the large herbivores aggregating around these freshwater localities, while the more varied vegetation would also have provided them with edible plant foods. Other Eemian sites from freshwater contexts provide evidence for semi-open conditions as well.

  7. Education-based health inequalities in 18,000 Norwegian couples: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Education-based inequalities in health are well established, but they are usually studied from an individual perspective. However, many individuals are part of a couple. We studied education-based health inequalities from the perspective of couples where indicators of health were measured by subjective health, anxiety and depression. Methods A sample of 35,980 women and men (17,990 couples) was derived from the Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 1995–97 (HUNT 2). Educational data and family identification numbers were obtained from Statistics Norway. The dependent variables were subjective health (four-integer scale), anxiety (21-integer scale) and depression (21-integer scale), which were captured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The dependent variables were rescaled from 0 to 100 where 100 was the worst score. Cross-sectional analyses were performed using two-level linear random effect regression models. Results The variance attributable to the couple level was 42% for education, 16% for subjective health, 19% for anxiety and 25% for depression. A one-year increase in education relative to that of one’s partner was associated with an improvement of 0.6 scale points (95% confidence interval = 0.5–0.8) in the subjective health score (within-couple coefficient). A one-year increase in a couple’s average education was associated with an improvement of 1.7 scale points (95% confidence interval = 1.6–1.8) in the subjective health score (between-couple coefficient). There were no education-based differences in the anxiety or depression scores when partners were compared, whereas there were substantial education-based differences between couples in all three outcome measures. Conclusions We found considerable clustering of education and health within couples, which highlighted the importance of the family environment. Our results support previous studies that report the mutual effects of spouses on education

  8. Women's weight and disordered eating in a large Norwegian community sample: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT)

    PubMed Central

    Eik-Nes, Trine; Romild, Ulla; Guzey, Ismail; Holmen, Turid; Micali, Nadia; Bjørnelv, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Objectives An increasing part of the population is affected by disordered eating (DE) even though they do not meet the full eating disorder (ED) criteria. To improve treatment in the range of weight-related disorders, there is a need to improve our knowledge about DE and relevant correlates of weight problems such as underweight, overweight and obesity. However, studies investigating DE and weight problems in a wide range of ages in the general population have been lacking. This paper explores DE, weight problems, dieting and weight dissatisfaction among women in a general population sample. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The third survey of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3). Participants The population included 27 252 women, aged 19–99 years, with information on DE outcomes and covariates. Outcomes DE was assessed with an 8-item version of the Eating Attitude Test and the Eating Disorder Scale-5. Body mass index (BMI) was objectively measured. Data on dieting and weight dissatisfaction were collected from self-reported questionnaires and analysed across weight categories. Crude and adjusted logistic and multinomial logistic regression models were used. Results High rates of overweight (38%) and obesity (23%) were found. DE was associated with weight problems. In women aged <30 years, 11.8% (95% CI 10.3 to 13.1) reported DE, and 12% (95% CI 11.5 to 12.6) reported DE in women aged >30 years. In those of younger ages (19–29 years), lower weight predicted DE, while increasing weight predicted DE in older aged women (30–99 years). The majority of women were dissatisfied with their weight (58.8%), and 54.1% of the women reported dieting. Neither BMI status nor age was associated with dieting or weight dissatisfaction. Conclusions A high prevalence of DE was observed, and findings suggest that weight problems and DE are not distinct from one another. Dieting was associated with women's weight dissatisfaction, rather than with actual weight

  9. Vertical and horizontal variability of PM10 source contributions in Barcelona during SAPUSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brines, Mariola; Dall'Osto, Manuel; Amato, Fulvio; Cruz Minguillón, María; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier

    2016-06-01

    During the SAPUSS campaign (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies) PM10 samples at 12-hour resolution were simultaneously collected at four monitoring sites located in the urban agglomerate of Barcelona (Spain). A total of 221 samples were collected from 20 September to 20 October 2010. The Road Site (RS) site and the Urban Background (UB) site were located at street level, whereas the Torre Mapfre (TM) and the Torre Collserola (TC) sites were located at 150 m a.s.l. by the sea side within the urban area and at 415 m a.s.l. 8 km inland, respectively. For the first time, we are able to report simultaneous PM10 aerosol measurements, allowing us to study aerosol gradients at both horizontal and vertical levels. The complete chemical composition of PM10 was determined on the 221 samples, and factor analysis (positive matrix factorisation, PMF) was applied. This resulted in eight factors which were attributed to eight main aerosol sources affecting PM10 concentrations in the studied urban environment: (1) vehicle exhaust and wear (2-9 µg m-3, 10-27 % of PM10 mass on average), (2) road dust (2-4 µg m-3, 8-12 %), (3) mineral dust (5 µg m-3, 13-26 %), (4) aged marine (3-5 µg m-3, 13-20 %), (5) heavy oil (0.4-0.6 µg m-3, 2 %), (6) industrial (1 µg m-3, 3-5 %), (7) sulfate (3-4 µg m-3, 11-17 %) and (8) nitrate (4-6 µg m-3, 17-21 %). Three aerosol sources were found to be enhanced at the ground levels (confined within the urban ground levels of the city) relative to the upper levels: (1) vehicle exhaust and wear (2.8 higher), (2) road dust (1.8 higher) and (3) local urban industries/crafts workshops (1.6 higher). Surprisingly, the other aerosol sources were relatively homogeneous at both horizontal and vertical levels. However, air mass origin and meteorological parameters also played a key role in influencing the variability of the factor concentrations. The mineral dust and aged marine factors were found to be a mixture of natural and

  10. Monitoring Sea Level by Tide Gauges and GPS at Barcelona and Estartit Harbours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Benjamin, J. J.; Gili, J.; Lopez, R.; Tapia, A.; Bosch, E.; Perez, B.; Pros, F.

    2012-04-01

    Sea level is an environmental variable which is widely recognised as being important in many scientific disciplines as a control parameter for coastal dynamical processes or climate processes in the coupled atmosphere-ocean systems, as well as engineering applications. A major source of sea-level data are the national networks of coastal tide gauges, in Spain belonging to different institutions as the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN), Puertos del Estado (PE), Instituto Hidrográfico de la Marina (IHM), etc. The tide gauge of l'Estartit is a traditional floating gauge placed 21 years ago and has an accuracy of ± 2 mm. Since 1996, l'Estartit tide gauge has been co-located with geodetic techniques (GPS measurements of XU, Utilitary Network, and XdA, Levelling Network,) and it is tied to the SPGIC (Integrated Geodetic Positioning System of Catalonia) project of the Cartographic Institute of Catalunya (ICC). In 2006, due to the work for the expansion of the harbour, the tide gauge had to be moved. Before the work started, appropiate GPS measurements were carried out in order to ensure the connection of the tide gauge data. During October 2006 and May 2008, the tide gauge was inactive and it has been moved on to a new location inside the harbour. In June 2008, new GPS and levelling measures have been done in order to tie the new location into SPGIC project and to co-locate old data respect the new one. Although l'Estartit does not have a GPS permanent station, it is possible to build a virtual one from the service "CATNET web" of the ICC. "CATNET web" is a data distribution system of a virtual GPS permanent station via web. From the coordinates where you want to place the virtual station, the time interval and the measurement rate, the system generates a RINEX file under the requested conditions. At Barcelona harbour there is one MIROS radar tide gauge belonging to Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours). It is placed at the dock 140 of the ENAGAS Building.The radar

  11. Vertical and horizontal variability of PM10 source contributions in Barcelona during SAPUSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brines, M.; Dall'Osto, M.; Amato, F.; Minguillón, M. C.; Karanasiou, A.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.

    2015-11-01

    During the SAPUSS campaign (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies) PM10 samples at twelve hours resolution were simultaneously collected at four monitoring sites located in the urban agglomerate of Barcelona (Spain). A total of 221 samples were collected from 20 September to 20 October 2010. The Road Site (RS) site and the Urban Background (UB) site were located at street level, whereas the Torre Mapfre (TM) and the Torre Collserola (TC) sites were located at 150 m a.s.l. by the sea side within the urban area and at 415 m a.s.l. 8 km inland, respectively. For the first time, we are able to report simultaneous PM10 aerosol measurements allowing us to study aerosol gradients at both horizontal and vertical levels. The complete chemical composition of PM10 was determined on the 221 samples, and factor analysis (Positive Matrix Factorisation, PMF) was applied. This resulted in eight factors which were attributed to eight main aerosol sources affecting PM10 concentrations in the studied urban environment: (1) vehicle exhaust and wear (2-9 μg m-3, 10-27 % of PM10 mass on average), (2) road dust (2-4 μg m-3, 8-12 %), (3) mineral dust (5 μg m-3, 13-26 %), (4) aged marine (3-5 μg m-3, 13-20 %), (5) heavy oil (0.4-0.6 μg m-3, 2 %), (6) industrial (1 μg m-3, 3-5 %), (7) sulphate (3-4 μg m-3, 11-17 %) and (8) nitrate (4-6 μg m-3, 17-21 %). Three aerosol sources were found enhanced at the ground levels (confined within the urban ground levels of the city) relative to the upper levels: (1) vehicle exhaust and wear (2.8 higher), (2) road dust (1.8 higher) and (3) local urban industries/crafts workshops (1.6 higher). Surprisingly, the other aerosol sources were relatively homogeneous at both horizontal and vertical levels. However, air mass origin and meteorological parameters also played a key role in influencing the variability of the factors concentrations. The mineral dust and aged marine factors were found to be a mixture of natural and

  12. GPR velocity and frequency analysis in industrial archaeology. Study of the EUETIB buildings (Barcelona, Sapin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Gracia, V.; González Drigo, R.; Vendrell, D.

    2003-04-01

    The Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) analysis of some modernist buildings of the Technical Industrial School of Barcelona allow us to obtain valuable information of the underground constructions, corresponding to ancient structures of the preceding factory. The actual school is building on the modernist industrial complex. Many changes in the structure were carried out to adapt the structure to its actual use. The obtained GPR data was compared with the information, documents and photographies from the historical archives of the Diputación of Barcelona (Spain). To obtain accurate results and right interpretations, velocity analysis is performed in the different studied areas. The velocity values are used to convert accurately the two-way travel time into depth. The aim of those velocity estimations is obtain the minimum error in the final interpretations of the profiles. The velocity analysis is carried out using two different methods: calculating velocity using the reflection in anomalous bodies into the medium at a known depth, and calculating velocity from the hyperbolic events of the radargrams, caused by finite anomalies of the medium. The present tubes and conductions which are in use nowadays, have known depths. Then, velocity is obtained from the two-way travel time obtained for the reflected wave in that anomalous body. This method allow us to known velocities in areas where those elements are presented, which are mainly in the ground under the streets of the school. The reflection produced in unknown bodies which have finite dimensions, is obtained as an hyperbolic event. The averaged velocity of the medium over these bodies is calculated from the equation of the hyperbola. This method was used mainly where known elements were not presents in the ground. These areas are mainly the buildings of the school. Experimental velocities are understand as the averaged velocity of ray-path. The obtained values are applied to each area, to calculate depths of the

  13. [Results of a benchmarking exercise for primary care teams in Barcelona, Spain].

    PubMed

    Plaza Tesías, A; Zara Yahni, C; Guarga Rojas, A; Farrés Quesada, J

    2005-02-28

    To identify primary care teams (PCT) with the best overall performance and compare these with other PCT with benchmarking methods. Descriptive, cross-sectional study of a set of indictors for the year 2002. City of Barcelona (northeastern Spain). Thirteen seven PCT with more than 2 years' experience, and 771,811 inhabitants in the catchment area. Indicators were chosen from among those proposed by an advisory group, depending on feasibility of obtaining information. A total of 17 indicators in 4 dimensions were studied: accessibility, clinical effectiveness, case management capacity, and cost-efficiency. Each PCT was scored for each indicator based on the percentile group in the distribution of scores, and for each dimension based on the mean score for all indicators in a given dimension. Overall score for PCT performance was calculated as the weighted sum of the scores for each dimension. As descriptive variables we analyzed time operating under the revised administrative system, patient visits per population served, the population's economic capacity and age of the population. RESULTS. Nine PCT were identified as the benchmark group. Teams in this group had been operating under the revised administrative system for significantly longer than other PCT. In comparison to other PCT, the benchmark group obtained higher scores on all four dimensions, better results on 14 separate indicators, the same results for 1 indicator, and worse results for 2 indicators. CONCLUSIONS. Benchmarking made it possible to identify PCT with the best performance, and to identify areas in need of improvement. This approach is a potentially useful tool for self-evaluation and for stimulating a dynamic for improvement in primary care providers.

  14. [Comparison of primary care teams in Barcelona according to management formulas].

    PubMed

    Guarga, A; Gil, M; Pasarín, M; Manzanera, R; Armengol, R; Sintes, J

    2000-11-30

    The aim of the study is to compare, among socio-economically similar areas, the use of medical services, clinical practice and pharmacy costs depending on the how the primary healthcare teams, that provide these services, are organized according to different managemental formulas. Descriptive study of the evaluation of health care services. The population units (basic health areas) attended by the reformed primary health care services in Barcelona were classified into three levels according to the population's socioeconomic status (high, medium or low). For each level, two primary health care teams were selected representing different primary health care providers: "Institut Catala de la Salut"; and others. The influence of both the provision option and the population characteristics on service use, clinical practice and costs of prescription were compared. The services offered by the two provision options differ. However, the use of medical services is related to the socioeconomic characteristics and not to the option for service provision. Whilst there are no relevant differences in clinical practice between the different options, we observed variations among different primary care teams, notably in referrals to specialists and influenza vaccine coverage. The greater source of variation in prescription costs seems to be related to an external confounding factor. Empirical data have not identified relevant differences in the pattern of use, clinical practice, or costs between the different options for service provision within the model of reformed primary care services. Observed variations seem to be associated mainly with the population's characteristics, its pattern of health service use or other external confounding factors.

  15. [Perception of the transition to motherhood: a phenomenological study in the Barcelona region].

    PubMed

    Berlanga Fernández, Sofía; Vizcaya-Moreno, María Flores; Pérez-Cañaveras, Rosa María

    2013-10-01

    To describe needs and experiences of mothers with children under one year old, to identify the factors that hinder the transition to motherhood, and to design the content of a health promotion program to develop motherhood support group sessions. A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. Eight Primary Care Centres in the province of Barcelona, between July 2011 and July 2012. A total of 21 mothers participating in group dynamics maternity support: All of them participated in interviews and 8 in focus group. Semi-structured interviews were used in a purposive sample. The transcriptions were analysed by structure (latent content analysis) and content (manifest content analysis), with different categories being obtained. The participants in the study defined the construct of motherhood around three categories: Changes in lifestyle, feelings and perceptions. They identified as the most stressful times; «the new role», «changes in the partner relationship», «feelings», «experiences of pregnancy and childbirth», «idealisation», «lack of support», «crying», «colic», «read the signs of the child», «bath», «rest», «contradictory opinions», «learning», and «acquisition of new skills». They highlighted, as key topics for group dynamics, feeding, development, affective relationship, maternal confidence, fathers participation, family role, emotional, rest, massage, bath, accident prevention, colic, first aid, childcare, resources, and vaccines. Dynamic groups should be contextualised according to the perceived needs of the mothers, and other family members should be allowed to participate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of public transport strikes on air pollution levels in Barcelona (Spain).

    PubMed

    Basagaña, Xavier; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Agis, David; Pérez, Noemí; Reche, Cristina; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier

    2017-08-23

    Public transport strikes can lead to an increase of the number of private vehicle trips, which in turn can increase air pollution levels. We aimed to estimate the change in air pollution concentrations during public transport strikes in the city of Barcelona (Spain). Data on strikes of the metro, train or bus systems were collected from government records (2005-2016). We collected daily concentrations of NOx; particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10μm (PM10), 2.5μm (PM2.5), and 1μm (PM1); particle number concentration (N); black carbon (BC) and CO from research and official monitoring stations. We fitted linear regression models for each pollutant with the strike indicator as an independent variable, and models were adjusted for day of the week, month, year, and holiday periods. During the study period, there were 208days affected by a strike of the metro (28), train (106) or bus (91) systems. Half of the strikes were partial, most of them were single-day strikes, there was little overlap between strikes of the different transport systems, and all strikes had to comply with mandatory minimal services. When pooling all types of strikes, NOx and BC showed higher levels during strike days in comparison with non-strike days (increase between 4.1% and 7.7%, with higher increases for NO). The increases in these concentrations were more evident during full day and multiday metro strikes. In conclusion, alterations in public transport have consequences on air quality. This highlights the importance of public transport in reducing air pollution concentrations in cities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Barcelona 2002: law, ethics, and human rights. Using the law to improve access to treatments.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Richard; Parmar, Sharan; Divan, Vivek; Berger, Jonathan

    2002-12-01

    The XIII International AIDS Conference in Durban, South Africa in July 2000 focused worldwide attention on the problem of accessing treatments in developing countries. In the interim, thanks to the work of activists - from demonstrations to court cases, and from acts of public courage by people living with HIV/AIDS to ongoing lobbying of politicians and trade negotiators - some very significant developments have occurred. But the reality is that the vast majority of people living with HIV/AIDS still lack access to affordable, quality medicines. This article, a summary of a paper presented at "Putting Third First: Vaccines, Access to Treatments and the Law," a satellite meeting held at Barcelona on 5 July 2002 and organized by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, the AIDS Law Project, South Africa, and the Lawyers Collective HIV/AIDS Unit, India, explores three approaches for improving access. In the first part, Richard Elliott provides an overview of the state of the right to health as embodied in international human rights law; comments on the experience to date in litigating claims to the right to health; and identifies potential strategies activists can adopt to advance recognition of the right to health. In the second part, Sharan Parmar and Vivek Divan describe price-control and drug-financing mechanisms used by industrialized countries to increase the affordability of medicines; and discuss how some of these mechanisms could be adapted for use in developing countries. Finally, Jonathan Berger describes the use of litigation in the courts by the Treatment Action Campaign in South Africa.

  18. A travel mode comparison of commuters' exposures to air pollutants in Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Fruin, Scott; Westerdahl, Dane; Martinez, David; Ripoll, Anna; Kubesch, Nadine; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Daily commutes may contribute disproportionately to overall daily inhalations of urban air contaminants. Understanding factors that explain variability of exposures during travel, and especially differences across transportation modes, is essential to accurately assess health impacts of traffic emissions and to develop effective mitigating measures. We evaluated exposures and inhaled doses of air pollution and assessed factors that contributed to their variability in different travel modes in Barcelona. Black carbon (BC), ultrafine particles (UFP), carbon monoxide (CO), fine particle mass (PM2.5) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured and compared across walk, bike, bus, and car modes for a total of 172 trips made on two different round trip routes. On average, the car mode experienced highest concentrations for all contaminants. In pairwise t-tests between concurrent mode runs, statistically significant differences were found for cars compared to walking and biking. Car-to-walk or car-to-bike concentration ratios ranged from 1.3 for CO2 to 25 for CO and were 2-3 for PM2.5, BC, and UFP. In multivariate analyses, travel mode explained the greatest variability in travel exposures, from 8% for PM2.5 to 70% for CO. Different modal patterns emerged when estimating daily inhaled dose, with active commuters' two to three times greater total inhalation volume during travel producing about equal UFP and BC daily inhaled doses to car commuters and 33-50% higher UFP and BC doses compared to bus commuters. These findings, however, are specific to the bike and pedestrian lanes in this study being immediately adjacent to the roadways measured. Dedicated bike or pedestrian routes away from traffic would lead to lower active travel doses.

  19. Identification of Trypanosoma cruzi Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) in Latin-American migrants in Barcelona (Spain).

    PubMed

    Abras, Alba; Gállego, Montserrat; Muñoz, Carmen; Juiz, Natalia A; Ramírez, Juan Carlos; Cura, Carolina I; Tebar, Silvia; Fernández-Arévalo, Anna; Pinazo, María-Jesús; de la Torre, Leonardo; Posada, Elizabeth; Navarro, Ferran; Espinal, Paula; Ballart, Cristina; Portús, Montserrat; Gascón, Joaquim; Schijman, Alejandro G

    2017-04-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, is divided into six Discrete Typing Units (DTUs): TcI-TcVI. We aimed to identify T. cruzi DTUs in Latin-American migrants in the Barcelona area (Spain) and to assess different molecular typing approaches for the characterization of T. cruzi genotypes. Seventy-five peripheral blood samples were analyzed by two real-time PCR methods (qPCR) based on satellite DNA (SatDNA) and kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA). The 20 samples testing positive in both methods, all belonging to Bolivian individuals, were submitted to DTU characterization using two PCR-based flowcharts: multiplex qPCR using TaqMan probes (MTq-PCR), and conventional PCR. These samples were also studied by sequencing the SatDNA and classified as type I (TcI/III), type II (TcII/IV) and type I/II hybrid (TcV/VI). Ten out of the 20 samples gave positive results in the flowcharts: TcV (5 samples), TcII/V/VI (3) and mixed infections by TcV plus TcII (1) and TcV plus TcII/VI (1). By SatDNA sequencing, we classified the 20 samples, 19 as type I/II and one as type I. The most frequent DTU identified by both flowcharts, and suggested by SatDNA sequencing in the remaining samples with low parasitic loads, TcV, is common in Bolivia and predominant in peripheral blood. The mixed infection by TcV-TcII was detected for the first time simultaneously in Bolivian migrants. PCR-based flowcharts are very useful to characterize DTUs during acute infection. SatDNA sequence analysis cannot discriminate T. cruzi populations at the level of a single DTU but it enabled us to increase the number of characterized cases in chronically infected patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Perception of healthcare professionals on the Breast Cancer Screening Programme in Barcelona].

    PubMed

    Serral, G; Puigpinós-Riera, R; Maydana, E; Pons-Vigués, M; Borrell, C

    2013-01-01

    A good communication plan is vital for optimal results in any screening programme. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, involvement and opinion of health professionals regarding the Breast Cancer Screening Programme in Barcelona in 2008. A cross-sectional study using an anonymous and self-administered questionnaire. The study population (N = 960) were health professionals from Primary Health-care (PH), Programs for Sexual and Reproductive Health (PSRH), and Community Pharmacies (CP). The dependent variables were: knowledge of the Programme, professional involvement and opinion of the Programme. The independent variables were: sex, age, qualifications, employment status, and health team. A descriptive and bivariate analysis was performed. Using multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, an Odds Ratios (OR) were obtained along with the 95% confidence intervals (CI 95%). PSRH professionals know the target population better; 80.2% versus 26.1% PH, and 14.0% CP, respectively. Professional involvement was related to the health care team (ORCP/PH: 0.32, CI 95%: 0.22-0.43) being observed more in PH. The opinion on the Programme in reducing breast cancer mortality was similar in the three teams (61.6% PH, 59.3% PSRH, and 56.5% CP). Healthcare professionals are unaware of some aspects of Programme, such as age range or periodicity. There is great professional involvement and belief that the Programme has helped disseminate information and knowledge on the early detection of breast cancer. Copyright © 2012 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. [Infectious disease and sociodemographic characteristics of foreign immigrants in the Central Penitentiary for Men in Barcelona].

    PubMed

    García Vidal, J; López del Vallado, J M; García de Olalla Rizo, P; Barnés Vayés, I; Caylá Buqueras, J A

    1998-01-01

    Immigration from socioeconomically under-developed countries is relatively recent in our country. Analyzing the impact of diseases such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis among these populations is of particular interest with regard to public health. Case study and tests conducted at the Male Prison Facility in Barcelona from January 1, 1996 to September 30, 1996, the cases being the foreign immigrants from socioeconomically underdeveloped countries, and the checks of the native prisoners paired by age (+/- 5 years). A description is provided of the epidemiological and sociodemographic characteristics of the immigrants, and a comparison is drawn between the two populations. 450 prisoners, 300 native and 150 immigrants. Sixty-three percent (63%) of the immigrants were from the Maghreb, 72% being in this country illegally, 55% having resided in our country for over 5 years and 53% not living with any family members. The immigrants used less injected drugs that the native prisoners (OR: 0.2; IC95% 0.09-0.41), had less HIV infection (OR: 0.2; IC95% 0.05-0.49) and lived to a lesser extent with family (OR: 0.2; IC95% 1.011-0.36). No differences were found to exist with regard to infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis nor tubercular disease. The legal immigrants were older (OR: 1.07; IC95% 1.01-1.13) lived to a greater extent with family (OR: 2.7; IC95% 1.23-5.80) and drank more alcohol (OR: 1.7; IC95% 1.07-2.59) than the illegal residents. The native prisoners had HIV to a greater extent than the immigrants, the use of injected drugs, more common among the natives, bearing an influence on this aspect. As regards the immigrants, the high degree of illegal residence and the absence of a stable core family comprise indicators of a situation of being socially disadvantaged.

  2. Improvements in dioxin abatement strategies at a municipal waste management plant in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Abad, Esteban; Caixach, Josep; Rivera, Josep

    2003-03-01

    This study presents the results of a dioxin abatement programme undertaken in the municipal waste incineration plant of Montcada i Reixac (Barcelona, Spain) after the replacement of an obsolete air cleaning device by a new flue gas treatment system. A number of sampling campaigns were conducted with the aim of characterising stack gas emission levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and to evaluate initial specifications of dioxin stack gas emission values below 0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3). Preliminary results revealed levels between 44 and 111 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3) when the gas-cleaning system consisted only of an old electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Decreased levels around 15 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3) were observed when the semi-dry scrubber began to operate and the ESP was switched off. Again, remarkable dioxin removal was observed after the installation of the fabric filter and levels around 0.3-0.4 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3) were soon achieved. Nevertheless, the limit of 0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3) was reached by additional injection of activated carbon which helped to lower PCDD/PCDF levels to around 0.036 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3). The results also demonstrated a significant change in the dioxin distribution present in combustion-derived materials (stack gas emission, bottom ash and solid waste from gas treatment). The major dioxin fraction was found in gaseous matrices before the flue gas control system was upgraded. After this step, the major dioxin fraction content was observed in solid waste from gas treatment.

  3. Validation of DEMs Derived from High Resolution SAR Data: a Case Study on Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sefercik, U. G.; Schunert, A.; Soergel, U.; Watanabe, K.

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data have been widely used for scientific applications and several SAR missions were realized. The active sensor principle and the signal wavelength in the order of centimeters provide all-day and all-weather capabilities, respectively. The modern German TerraSAR-X (TSX) satellite provides high spatial resolution down to one meter. Based on such data SAR Interferometry may yield high quality digital surface models (DSMs), which includes points located on 3d objects such as vegetation, forest, and elevated man-made structures. By removing these points, digital elevation model (DEM) representing the bare ground of Earth is obtained. The primary objective of this paper is the validation of DEMs obtained from TSX SAR data covering Barcelona area, Spain, in the framework of a scientific project conducted by ISPRS Working Group VII/2 "SAR Interferometry" that aims the evaluation of DEM derived from data of modern SAR satellite sensors. Towards this purpose, a DSM was generated with 10 m grid spacing using TSX StripMap mode SAR data and converted to a DEM by filtering. The accuracy results have been presented referring the comparison with a more accurate (10 cm-1 m) digital terrain model (DTM) derived from large scale photogrammetry. The results showed that the TSX DEM is quite coherent with the topography and the accuracy is in between ±8-10 m. As another application, the persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) was conducted using TSX data and the outcomes were compared with a 3d city model available in Google Earth, which is known to be very precise because it is based on LIDAR data. The results showed that PSI outcomes are quite coherent with reference data and the RMSZ of differences is around 2.5 m.

  4. Manufactured and roll-your-own cigarettes: A changing pattern of smoking in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Sureda, Xisca; Fu, Marcela; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Martínez, Cristina; Ballbé, Montse; Pérez-Ortuño, Raúl; Saltó, Esteve; Pascual, José A; Fernández, Esteve

    2017-05-01

    The objectives of the present study were to describe smoking prevalence and compare the smoking attributes of adult smokers according to the type of tobacco product consumed. Repeated cross-sectional surveys (2004-2005 and 2011-2012) of a representative sample of the adult (≥16 years) population in Barcelona, Spain, were used to assess self-reported tobacco consumption, smoking attributes, and salivary cotinine concentration. The survey conducted in 2004-2005 included information on 1245 subjects and the survey in 2011-2012 on 1307 individuals. Smoking prevalence decreased over the study period (from 26.6% to 24.1% in self-reported daily smokers). The prevalence of daily smokers who reported the use of manufactured cigarettes declined from 23.7% in 2004-2005 to 17.3% in 2011-2012. The prevalence of roll-your-own cigarette users increased from 0.4% to 3.7%. According to data obtained in 2011-2012, the proportion of self-reported roll-your-own cigarette users was higher among men (19.8% vs. 9.5% of women), participants aged 16-44 years (22.9% vs. 5.8% of participants aged 45-65 years and 4.0% of participants aged ≥65 years), and participants with secondary and university education (17.7% and 18.5% vs. 7.9% of participants with less than primary and primary education). We did not observe differences in cotinine concentrations according to the type of tobacco product consumed. Systematic collection of data on smoking prevalence and smoker attributes from representative samples of the population is necessary for policymakers to develop efficient tobacco control interventions. Considering the increase of roll-your-own cigarette users and the unclear health consequences of their use, policymakers should aim to implement tax policies to equalize the prices of different types of tobacco products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Urban air quality comparison for bus, tram, subway and pedestrian commutes in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Teresa; Reche, Cristina; Rivas, Ioar; Cruz Minguillón, Maria; Martins, Vânia; Vargas, Concepción; Buonanno, Giorgio; Parga, Jesus; Pandolfi, Marco; Brines, Mariola; Ealo, Marina; Sofia Fonseca, Ana; Amato, Fulvio; Sosa, Garay; Capdevila, Marta; de Miguel, Eladio; Querol, Xavier; Gibbons, Wes

    2015-10-01

    Access to detailed comparisons in air quality variations encountered when commuting through a city offers the urban traveller more informed choice on how to minimise personal exposure to inhalable pollutants. In this study we report on an experiment designed to compare atmospheric contaminants inhaled during bus, subway train, tram and walking journeys through the city of Barcelona. Average number concentrations of particles 10-300 nm in size, N, are lowest in the commute using subway trains (N<2.5×10(4) part. cm(-3)), higher during tram travel and suburban walking (2.5×10(4) cm(-3)5.0×10(4) cm(-3)), with extreme transient peaks at busy traffic crossings commonly exceeding 1.0×10(5) cm(-3) and accompanied by peaks in Black Carbon and CO. Subway particles are coarser (mode 90 nm) than in buses, trams or outdoors (<70 nm), and concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and Black Carbon are lower in the tram when compared to both bus and subway. CO2 levels in public transport reflect passenger numbers, more than tripling from outdoor levels to >1200 ppm in crowded buses and trains. There are also striking differences in inhalable particle chemistry depending on the route chosen, ranging from aluminosiliceous at roadsides and near pavement works, ferruginous with enhanced Mn, Co, Zn, Sr and Ba in the subway environment, and higher levels of Sb and Cu inside the bus. We graphically display such chemical variations using a ternary diagram to emphasise how "air quality" in the city involves a consideration of both physical and chemical parameters, and is not simply a question of measuring particle number or mass. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of immigration on the cost of emergency visits in Barcelona (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Cots, Francesc; Castells, Xavier; García, Oscar; Riu, Marta; Felipe, Aida; Vall, Oriol

    2007-01-01

    Background The impact of immigration on health services utilisation has been analysed by several studies performed in countries with lower levels of immigration than Spain. These studies indicate that health services utilisation is lower among the immigrant population than among the host population and that immigrants tend to use hospital emergency services at the expense of primary care. We aimed to quantify the relative over-utilisation of emergency services in the immigrant population. Methods Emergency visits to Hospital del Mar in Barcelona in 2002 and 2003 were analysed. The country of origin, gender, age, discharge-related circumstances (hospital admission, discharge to home, or death), medical specialty, and variable cost related to medical care were registered. Immigrants were grouped into those from high-income countries (IHIC) and those from low-income countries (ILIC) and the average direct cost was compared by country of origin. A multivariate linear mixed model of direct costs was adjusted by country of origin (classified in five groups) and by the individual variables of age, gender, hospital admission, and death as a cause of discharge. Medical specialty was considered as a random effect. Results With the exception of gynaecological emergency visits, costs resulting from emergency visits by both groups of immigrants were lower than those due to visits by the Spanish-born population. This effect was especially marked for emergency visits by adults. Conclusion Immigrants tend to use the emergency department in preference to other health services. No differences were found between IHIC and ILIC, suggesting that this result was due to the ease of access to emergency services and to lack of knowledge about the country's health system rather than to poor health status resulting from immigrants' socioeconomic position. The use of costs as a variable of complexity represents an opportunistic use of a highly exhaustive registry, which is becoming ever more

  7. Epidemiological and clinical profile of adult patients with Blastocystis sp. infection in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Fernando; Sulleiro, Elena; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Alonso, Carmen; Santos, Javier; Fuentes, Isabel; Molina, Israel

    2016-10-14

    Blastocystis spp. are among the most frequently observed intestinal parasites in humans. Despite the discovery of Blastocystis approximately 100 years ago, limited information is available regarding its pathogenesis, genetic diversity, and available treatment options. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with Blastocystis sp. infections diagnosed at Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain). A retrospective observational study was performed which included all adult patients who attended Vall d'Hebron University Hospital from February 2009 to March 2014 that had Blastocystis sp. detected in their stool. Four hundred eighteen patients were included, the median age was 36 (18-86) years and 236 (56.5 %) were men. Regarding patient symptoms, 234 (56 %) patients were completely asymptomatic, 92 (22 %) patients had symptoms, and 92 (22 %) patients had symptoms that could be attributed to other causes. Of the 92 patients with symptoms not attributable to other etiologies except for Blastocystis infection, the most frequent symptoms were diarrhea (61 patients, 66.3 %) and abdominal pain (34 patients, 37 %). Additionally, nine (9.8 %) patients had cutaneous manifestations. Thirty-one (7.4 %) patients received specific treatment for Blastocystis infection. The clinical response of treated patients was varied. Five patients experienced complete resolution of symptoms, 12 patients reported improvement of clinical symptoms, eight patients described no clinical improvement, and information was unavailable for six patients. Blastocystis infection was detected in 418 patients, most of them foreign-born. Although the vast majority of patients were asymptomatic, 22 % of patients had gastrointestinal symptoms or cutaneous manifestations in the absence of other causes. Despite the scarce information available, given the safety of antiparasitic treatment, and the percentage of patients who experienced

  8. Everyday politics, social practices and movement networks: daily life in Barcelona's social centres.

    PubMed

    Yates, Luke

    2015-06-01

    The relations between everyday life and political participation are of interest for much contemporary social science. Yet studies of social movement protest still pay disproportionate attention to moments of mobilization, and to movements with clear organizational boundaries, tactics and goals. Exceptions have explored collective identity, 'free spaces' and prefigurative politics, but such processes are framed as important only in accounting for movements in abeyance, or in explaining movement persistence. This article focuses on the social practices taking place in and around social movement spaces, showing that political meanings, knowledge and alternative forms of social organization are continually being developed and cultivated. Social centres in Barcelona, Spain, autonomous political spaces hosting cultural and educational events, protest campaigns and alternative living arrangements, are used as empirical case studies. Daily practices of food provisioning, distributing space and dividing labour are politicized and politicizing as they unfold and develop over time and through diverse networks around social centres. Following Melucci, such latent processes set the conditions for social movements and mobilization to occur. However, they not only underpin mobilization, but are themselves politically expressive and prefigurative, with multiple layers of latency and visibility identifiable in performances of practices. The variety of political forms - adversarial, expressive, theoretical, and routinized everyday practices, allow diverse identities, materialities and meanings to overlap in movement spaces, and help explain networks of mutual support between loosely knit networks of activists and non-activists. An approach which focuses on practices and networks rather than mobilization and collective actors, it is argued, helps show how everyday life and political protest are mutually constitutive.

  9. [Management of the risks associated with allergens in school canteens in Barcelona (Spain)].

    PubMed

    Caballé-Gavaldà, Laura; García-Cid, Ester; Fontcuberta-Famadas, Mireia; Balfagón-Marzal, Pere; Durán-Neira, Julia

    2014-01-01

    To determine demand for special meals and their types for students with food allergies or intolerances (FAI) in school canteens in Barcelona (Spain) during the 2011-12 school year, and to ascertain the degree of implementation of self-assessment plans and preventive measures for the management of allergens, and the relationships between the application of such measures and other variables. A descriptive study was performed of a representative sample of schools (n=129). The dependent variables collected data on the schools and students, the level of demand for special meals, and the implementation of preventive measures. Independent variables consisted of canteen management, the number of users, and whether self-assessment plans were implemented. For those schools that prepared meals (n=92), an index was calculated from the questions on preventive measures. Student t-tests were used to compare the means of the indices with stratification by the independent variables. A total of 89% of schools served special meals for students with FAI (1,507 special meals per day, 5% of all meals) and 65% had no allergen control plan. The mean of the indices was 11.6 out of 17. Externally managed canteens, with more users and with self-assessment plans, implemented more preventive measures for allergen management (p<0.05). A high proportion of schools report carrying out preventive measures in the process of preparing and serving special meals. Those with self-assessment plans have better preventive practices. To manage this food-related risk, food hygiene inspection services should promote the implementation of allergen control plans in school canteens. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevention of stroke--a report from collaboration project between Zagreb and Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Demarin, V; Rundek, T; Tomljanović, B; Carillo-Pintos, J; Masso-Estrade, J

    1991-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is the main killer in the modern society and the most frequent cause of death and disability. According to the experiences of highly developed Western countries, especially of the U.S.A., the incidence of stroke can be reduced by the development and introduction of preventive actions and change of life style. Incidence of cerebrovascular disease is high in Croatia as well as in Spain (46% in the 46-59 age range) with an increasing tendency in younger population. As prevention is the only way of CVD incidence reduction, it is indispensable to organize an integral preventive neurologic network. Within the W.H.O. project "Health for All by the Year 2000 and the project "Zagreb"--Healthy City" a preventive action under the slogan 'With perfect brain and veins--enjoy the healthy days', has been organized with the aim to reduce the incidence of stroke for 20% during the following 10-year period. A standardized work of preventive network in Zagreb has also been established in Barcelona as a joint work. Using the interdisciplinary counselling approach, medical teams are still making examinations. In Zagreb Center for Neurological Sciences and Brain Research, data of risk factor distributions and trends of stroke incidence changes have been collected and the results have been analyzed. The Zagreb Center has also become a center for continuous evaluation and further planning. In this article functions of preventive centers, the preventive standardized protocol and structural and functional preventive network are introduced. The results of preventive action in Zagreb are also briefly presented.

  11. Risk perception of sexually transmitted infections and HIV in Nigerian commercial sex workers living in Barcelona: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Coma Auli, Núria; Mejía-Lancheros, Cília; Berenguera, Anna; Mayans, Martí Vall; Lasagabaster, Maider Arando; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV are a serious global public health issue. These diseases are largely preventable, as they are directly and indirectly associated with potentially modifiable factors, including socioeconomic conditions. Sexual transmission is responsible for over 75% of new HIV infections worldwide. Moreover, commercial sex workers and their clients are two of the groups at the highest risk of acquiring and transmitting these infectious diseases, due to an extensive number of sexual encounters and the various factors related to commercial sex situations. This qualitative study aims to deepen the understanding of the risk perception of STIs and HIV and their associated factors in Nigerian commercial sex workers in the city of Barcelona. Methods and analysis This is a qualitative, descriptive, interpretive study based on a social constructivist and phenomenological perspective conducted on a saturated sample of Nigerian commercial sex workers in the city of Barcelona. Data will be collected through semistructured individual and triangular group interviews. Information will be examined using a sociological discourse analysis, allowing us to understand the social and individual factors related to the risk perception of STIs and HIV in commercial sex workers. Discussion Qualitative studies are an important element in identifying individual, social and contextual factors directly or indirectly related to the health/disease process. This qualitative study will provide essential knowledge to improve health promotion, prevention strategies and effective management of STIs both for commercial sex workers and their clients. Ethics This study has been approved by the clinical research ethics committee (CEIC) of IDIAP Jordi Gol in Barcelona, 2012. PMID:23901029

  12. Distribution and sources of organic matter in size-fractionated nearshore sediments off the Barcelona city (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirós-Collazos, Lucía; Pedrosa-Pàmies, Rut; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Guillén, Jorge; Duran, Ruth; Cabelloa, Patricia

    2017-04-01

    Continental shelves are recognized to play a key role in the biogeochemical cycle of carbon, linking terrestrial and marine carbon reservoirs. In this study we investigate the physical and biogeochemical processes that control the source, transport and fate of organic carbon (OC) in the continental shelf off Barcelona city, in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Surface sediment samples were collected from depths of 10-40 m during late summer and autumn 2012. Grain size and biogeochemical parameters such as OC, its stable isotope δ13C, total nitrogen (TN) and OC/TN ratios were analysed in size-fractionated sediments. The influence of environmental factors over the study area was determined using hydrological and oceanographic time series, together with video images of the Barcelona coast line and nearshore region. We have found a wide range of OC contents, from 0.13 to 8.68%, depending on water depth and sediment particle size. The highest OC concentration was always found in the clay fraction (<4 μm), followed by the sand fraction (>63 μm) that contained terrestrial plant debris. Wave activity, discharge of the Besòs River and the "Espigó" de Ginebra; outfall were the main mechanisms controlling the sorting of sediments by their grain size and thus the distribution of OC in the inner shelf off Barcelona. In addition, we observed that the organic matter in clay particles was progressively degraded seawards, probably because these particles remain suspended in the water column much more time compared to those that are heavier and, therefore, they are exposed for longer time periods to oxygenated conditions. Both OC/TN ratios and δ13C values found suggest that the organic matter preserved was predominantly land supplied.

  13. The potential impacts of electric vehicles on air quality in the urban areas of Barcelona and Madrid (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soret, A.; Guevara, M.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    This work analyses the potential air quality improvements resulting from three fleet electrification scenarios (∼13, 26 and 40%) by replacing conventional vehicles with Electric Battery Vehicles (EBVs), Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs). This study has been performed for the cities of Barcelona and Madrid (Spain), where road transport is the primary emission source. In these urban areas, several air quality problems are present, mainly related to NO2 and particulate matter. The WRF-ARW/HERMESv2/CMAQ model system has been applied at high spatial (1 × 1 km2) and temporal (1 h) resolution. The results show that fleet electrification offers a potential for emission abatement, especially related to NOx and CO. Regarding the more ambitious scenario (∼40% fleet electrification), reductions of 11% and 17% of the total NOx emissions are observed in Barcelona and Madrid respectively. These emissions reductions involve air quality improvements in NO2 maximum hourly values up to 16%: reductions up to 30 and 35 μg m-3 in Barcelona and Madrid, respectively. Furthermore, an additional scenario has been defined considering electric generation emissions associated with EBVs and PHEVs charging from a combined-cycle power plant. These charging emissions would produce slight NO2 increases in the downwind areas of <3 μg m-3. Thus, fleet electrification would improve urban air quality even when considering emissions associated with charging electric vehicles. However, two further points should be considered. First, fleet electrification cannot be considered a unique solution, and other management strategies may be defined. This is especially important with respect to particulate matter emissions, which are not significantly reduced by fleet electrification (<5%) due to the high weight of non-exhaust emissions. Second, a significant introduction of electric vehicles (26-40%) involving all vehicle categories is required to improve urban

  14. Occurrence of polychlorinated naphthalenes, polychlorinated biphenyls and short-chain chlorinated paraffins in marine sediments from Barcelona (Spain).

    PubMed

    Castells, P; Parera, J; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T

    2008-02-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analysed in marine sediment samples collected from the coastal area of Barcelona (Spain) and near of a submarine emissary coming from a waste water treatment plant located at the mouth of the Besòs River (Barcelona). An integrated sample treatment based on Soxhlet extraction followed by a simple clean-up with Florisil and graphitized carbon cartridge was employed. Gas chromatography coupled to ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in electron capture negative ionization mode, were used for PCN and SCCP determinations, respectively, while for PCB analysis gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) was used. The method developed provided low limits of detection (0.001-0.003 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) for PCNs, 1.8 ng g(-1) for SCCPs and 0.006-0.014 ng g(-1)dw for PCBs) and good run-to-run precisions (lower than RSD 8%) for the analysis of sediment samples. Concentration levels ranging from 0.17 to 3.27 ng g(-1)dw for PCNs, between 0.21 and 1.17 microg g(-1)dw for SCCPs, and from 2.33 to 44.00 ng g(-1) (dw) for PCBs, were found in the coastal sediments, while for samples collected near to the submarine emissary higher levels (from 2.02 to 6.56 ng g(-1)dw for PCNs, between 1.25 and 2.09 microg g(-1)dw for SCCPs and from 22.34 to 37.74 ng g(-1)dw for PCBs) were obtained. The results obtained provide new data about the occurrence of PCN and SCCP in the coastal area of Barcelona.

  15. Effect of Mental Arithmetic on heart rate responses during Parabolic Flights: the Barcelona Zero-G Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Jeffrey R.; Alonsopérez Lanza, María Victoria; Desclaux, David Ferrer; Goswami, Nandu; González Alonso, Daniel Ventura; Moser, Maximilian; Grote, Vincent; Garcia-Cuadrado, Gloria; Perez-Poch, Antoni

    2014-07-01

    When an astronaut transitions from a low to high gravitational environment, fluid shifts from the head towards the feet resulting in orthostatic intolerance and syncope. Ground based experiments have shown that by stimulating the cardiovascular system via simple mental stressors, syncope can be delayed, potentially enabling astronauts to reach assistance before loss of consciousness. However, the effect of mental stressors on the stimulation of the cardiovascular system in gravitational environments different than that of Earth's is unknown. As such, this paper investigates the effects that mental stressors under various gravitational environments. To do this, a pilot study was performed in which two participants were flown on two separate parabolic flights that simulated hyper and hypogravity conditions. The plane used was an Aerobatic Single-Engine Cap-10B plane (twin seater), and each participant executed 11 parabolas. The participants were the winners of the Barcelona Zero-G Challenge 2011 organized by UPC Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya-BarcelonaTech and Aeroclub Barcelona-Sabadell. Measurements were made of the participants' hemodynamic and autonomic response throughout the parabolas, using a Chronocord: high precision HRV monitor. Comparisons of the baseline response without mental stressors, and the response with mental stressors during different gravitational loading conditions were made. It was observed that there is an increase in cardiovascular activity during hypo- and hyper-gravity when performing mental arithmetic. Our results show that the twin seater aerobatic single engine CAP-10B aicraft can provide changing gravitational loading conditions for enough periods to study changes in physiological systems.

  16. Traffic-Related Air Pollution, Noise at School, and Behavioral Problems in Barcelona Schoolchildren: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Forns, Joan; Dadvand, Payam; Foraster, Maria; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Rivas, Ioar; López-Vicente, Mònica; Suades-Gonzalez, Elisabet; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Esnaola, Mikel; Cirach, Marta; Grellier, James; Basagaña, Xavier; Querol, Xavier; Guxens, Mònica; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Sunyer, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    The available evidence of the effects of air pollution and noise on behavioral development is limited, and it overlooks exposure at schools, where children spend a considerable amount of time. We aimed to investigate the associations of exposure to traffic-related air pollutants (TRAPs) and noise at school on behavioral development of schoolchildren. We evaluated children 7-11 years of age in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) during 2012-2013 within the BREATHE project. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of elemental carbon (EC), black carbon (BC), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured at schools in two separate 1-week campaigns. In one campaign we also measured noise levels inside classrooms. Parents filled out the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) to assess child behavioral development, while teachers completed the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder criteria of the DSM-IV (ADHD-DSM-IV) list to assess specific ADHD symptomatology. Negative binomial mixed-effects models were used to estimate associations between the exposures and behavioral development scores. Interquartile range (IQR) increases in indoor and outdoor EC, BC, and NO2 concentrations were positively associated with SDQ total difficulties scores (suggesting more frequent behavioral problems) in adjusted multivariate models, whereas noise was significantly associated with ADHD-DSM-IV scores. In our study population of 7- to 11-year-old children residing in Barcelona, exposure to TRAPs at school was associated with increased behavioral problems in schoolchildren. Noise exposure at school was associated with more ADHD symptoms. Forns J, Dadvand P, Foraster M, Alvarez-Pedrerol M, Rivas I, López-Vicente M, Suades-Gonzalez E, Garcia-Esteban R, Esnaola M, Cirach M, Grellier J, Basagaña X, Querol X, Guxens M, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Sunyer J. 2016. Traffic-related air pollution, noise at school, and behavioral problems in Barcelona schoolchildren: a cross-sectional study. Environ Health Perspect

  17. CGPS Implementation and Lidar/Laser Altimeter Experiences at l'Estartit, Ibiza and Barcelona Harbours for Sea Level Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J.; Schutz, B.; Urban, T.; Ortiz Castellon, M.; Martinez-Garcia, M.; Ruiz, A.; Perez, B.; Rodriguez-Velasco, G.

    2008-12-01

    In the framework of a Spanish Space Project, the instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge and with a continuous GPS station nearby. The radar tide gauge is a Datamar 3000C device and a Thales Navigation Internet-Enabled GPS Continuous Geodetic Reference Station (iCGRS) with a choke ring antenna. It is intended that the overall system will constitute a CGPS Station of the ESEAS (European Sea Level) and TIGA (GPS Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring) networks. Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours) installed the tide gauge station at Ibiza harbour in January 2003. The station belongs to the REDMAR network, composed at this moment by 21 stations distributed along the whole Spanish waters, including also the Canary islands. The tide gauge also belongs to the ESEAS (European Sea Level) network. At the Barcelona harbour they have installed a radar tide gauge near a GPS station belonging to Puerto de Barcelona. L'Estartit floating tide gauge was set up in 1990. Data are taken in graphics registers from each two hours the mean value is recorded in an electronic support. L'Estartit tide gauge series provides good quality information about the changes in the sea heights at centimeter level, that is the magnitude of the common tides in the Mediterranean. Two airborne calibration campaigns carrying an Optech Lidar ALTM-3025 (ICC) were made on June 16, 2007 with a Partenavia P-68 and October 12, 2007, with a Cessna Caravan 208B flying along two ICESat target tracks including crossover near l'Estartit. The validation of this new technology LIDAR may be useful to fill coastal areas where satellite radar altimeters are not measuring due to the large footprint and the resulting gaps of about 15-30 km within the coastline. Measurements with a GPS Buoy at l'Estartit harbour were made during the June experience and a GPS reference station was installed in Aiguablava. On October 12, 2007, another LIDAR campaign was

  18. Antibiotic resistance and serotypes of 100 Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated in a children's hospital in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Latorre, C; Juncosa, T; Sanfeliu, I

    1985-01-01

    A total of 100 Streptococcus pneumoniae strains with various penicillin G susceptibilities, isolated in Barcelona, Spain, from different pediatric sources during 1983 and the first 4 months of 1984, were tested for susceptibility to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, clindamycin, vancomycin, and rifampin. The isolates were distributed in nine patterns of antibiotic resistance, and 15 different serotypes were encountered. The high incidence of resistance to multiple antibiotics clearly indicates the need to perform antibiotic susceptibility testing of all pneumococcal isolates with proved pathologic significance to avoid therapeutic failure. PMID:3834840

  19. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approaches to Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Understanding the Barcelona Clínic Liver Cancer Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Soldera, Jonathan; Balbinot, Silvana Sartori; Balbinot, Raul Angelo; Cavalcanti, Andreza Gautério

    2016-01-01

    Each year, hepatocellular carcinoma is diagnosed in more than half a million people worldwide and it is the fifth most common cancer in men and the seventh most common cancer in women. This article reviews the Barcelona-Clínic Liver Cancer protocol for the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of this disease, and four cases are presented for the discussion of the therapeutic approach. Understanding the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to this disease is essential, especially if we keep in mind the quintessential basics of prevention and early detection. PMID:27812296

  20. [In search of the ideal surgical treatment for lymphedema. Report of 2nd European Conference on supermicrosurgery (Barcelona - March 2012)].

    PubMed

    Rausky, J; Robert, N; Binder, J-P; Revol, M

    2012-12-01

    Since more than 50 years, many surgeons all around the world try to find the perfect surgical technique to treat limb lymphedemas. Decongestive physiotherapy associated with the use of a compressive garment has been the primary choice for lymphedema treatment. Many different surgical techniques have been developed, however, to date, there is no consensus on surgical procedure. Most surgical experts of lymphedema met in the second European Conference on supermicrosurgery, organized on March 1st and 2nd 2012, in San Pau Hospital, Barcelona. Together they tried to clarify these different options and ideally a strategy for using these techniques.

  1. Epidemiology of infections by HIV, Syphilis, Gonorrhea and Lymphogranuloma Venereum in Barcelona City: a population-based incidence study.

    PubMed

    Martí-Pastor, Marc; García de Olalla, Patricia; Barberá, Maria-Jesús; Manzardo, Christian; Ocaña, Inma; Knobel, Hernando; Gurguí, Mercè; Humet, Victoria; Vall, Martí; Ribera, Esteban; Villar, Judit; Martín, Gemma; Sambeat, Maria A; Marco, Andres; Vives, Alvaro; Alsina, Mercè; Miró, Josep M; Caylà, Joan A

    2015-10-05

    The aim of this study was to determine the evolution of HIV infection, gonorrhea, syphilis and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), and their epidemiological characteristics in Barcelona city. Population-based incidence study of all newly occurring diagnoses of HIV infection, syphilis, gonorrhea and LGV detected in Barcelona between January 2007 and December 2011. A descriptive analysis was performed. The annual incidence rates per 100,000 inhabitants were calculated by sex, sexual conduct and educational level. To estimate global sex-specific rates we used the Barcelona city census; for the calculation of rates by sexual conduct and educational level we used estimates of the Barcelona Health Interview Survey. Trends were analysed using the chi-squared test for linear trend. HIV. 66.8 % of the HIV cases were men who had sex with men (MSM). The incidence rates in MSM over the study period were from 692.67/100,000 to 909.88/100,000 inh. Syphilis. 74.2 % of the syphilis cases were MSM. The incidence rates in MSM were from 224.9/100,000 to 891.97/100,000 inh. and the MSM with a university education ranged from 196.3/100,000 to 1020.8/100,000. Gonorrhea. 45.5 % of the gonorrhea cases were MSM. The incidence rates in MSM were from 164.24/100,000 to 404.79/100,000 inh. and the MSM with university education ranged from 176.7/100,000 to 530.1/100,000 inh.. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). 95.3 % of the LGV cases are MSM. The incidence rates in MSM were from 24.99/100,000 to 282.99/100,000 inh. and the MSM with university education ranged from 9.3/100,000 to 265/100,000 inh. An increase in cases of STI was observed. These STI mainly affected MSM with a university education. Continuing to monitor changes in the epidemiology of STI, and identifying the most affected groups should permit redesigning preventive programs, with the goal of finding the most efficient way to reach these population groups.

  2. Air-borne fungi in Barcelona City (Spain). I. A two-year study (1976-1978).

    PubMed

    Calvo, M A; Guarro, J; Suarez, G; Ramírez, C

    1980-07-01

    Quantitative and qualitative studies were made of the fungi of the air in Barcelona City. The genera Cladosporium and Alternaria formed two of the most important components of the fungus population studied during a two-year period running from January 1976 through January 1978. Penicillium species formed the 16.3% of the total colonies while Aspergillus species represented only the 2.8%. The occurrence of the genera was greatly affected by climatic conditions. An attempt was made to summariza the data of various kinds of fungi on a volumetric basis. Most of the fungi reported here have been identified as far as genera.

  3. Variability of levels and composition of PM10 and PM2.5 in the Barcelona metro system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, X.; Moreno, T.; Karanasiou, A.; Reche, C.; Alastuey, A.; Viana, M.; Font, O.; Gil, J.; de Miguel, E.; Capdevila, M.

    2012-03-01

    From an environmental perspective, the underground metro system is one of the cleanest forms of public transportation in urban agglomerations. Current studies report contradicting results regarding air quality in the metro systems: whereas some reveal poor air quality, others report PM levels which are lower or of the same order of magnitude than those measured in traffic sites above ground level. The present work assesses summer indoor air quality and passenger exposure in the Barcelona metro, focusing on PM levels and their metal contents. In addition, the impact on indoor air quality of platform screen door systems (automated systems consisting of closed rail track and platforms) is evaluated, to determine whether these systems reduce passenger exposure to PM when compared with conventional systems (open tracks and platforms). In the Barcelona metro, PM levels inside the trains in summer are amongst the lowest reported for worldwide metro systems (11-32 μPM2.5 m-3). This is most probably due to the air conditioning system working in all carriages of the Barcelona metro during the whole year. On the platforms, levels were considerably higher, reaching mean levels of 59 and 88 μgPM2.5 m-3 in the new (L9) and old (L3) lines, respectively. PM10 data are also reported in the present study, but comparison with other metro systems is more difficult due to the scarcity of data compared with PM2.5. Results showed clear PM daily cycles, with a drastic increase from 06:00 to 07:00 a.m., a diurnal maximum from 07:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m., and marked decreases between 10:00 p.m. and 05:00 a.m. The elements with the highest enrichment are those associated with wheel or brake abrasion products (Ba, Fe, Cu, Mn, Cr, Sb, As, Mo, Co, Sr, among others). Laminar hematite (Fe2O3) was the dominant particle type, being mainly originated by mechanical abrasion of the rail track and wheels. Regarding passenger exposure to PM inside the metro system, the contribution of commuting by metro

  4. Variability of levels and composition of PM10 and PM2.5 in the Barcelona metro system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, X.; Moreno, T.; Karanasiou, A.; Reche, C.; Alastuey, A.; Viana, M.; Font, O.; Gil, J.; de Miguel, E.; Capdevila, M.

    2012-06-01

    From an environmental perspective, the underground metro system is one of the cleanest forms of public transportation in urban agglomerations. Current studies report contradicting results regarding air quality in the metro systems: whereas some reveal poor air quality, others report PM levels which are lower or of the same order of magnitude than those measured in traffic sites above ground level. The present work assesses summer and winter indoor air quality and passenger exposure in the Barcelona metro, focusing on PM levels and their metal contents. In addition, the impact on indoor air quality of platform screen door systems (automated systems consisting of closed rail track and platforms) is evaluated, to determine whether these systems reduce passenger exposure to PM when compared with conventional systems (open tracks and platforms). In the Barcelona metro PM levels inside the trains in summer are amongst the lowest reported for worldwide metro systems (11-32 μg m-3 PM2.5). This is most likely due to the air conditioning system working in all carriages of the Barcelona metro during the whole year. Levels were considerably higher on the platforms, reaching mean levels of 46 and 125 μg m3 in the new (L9) and old (L3) lines, respectively. PM10 data are also reported in the present study, but comparison with other metro systems is difficult due to the scarcity of data compared with PM2.5. Results showed distinct PM daily cycles, with a drastic increase from 06:00 to 07:00 a.m., a diurnal maximum from 07:00 to 10:00 p.m., and marked decrease between 10:00 p.m. and 05:00 a.m. The elements with the highest enrichment were those associated with wheel or brake abrasion products (Ba, Fe, Cu, Mn, Cr, Sb, As, Mo, Co, Sr, among others). Laminar hematite (Fe2O3) was the dominant particle type, being mainly originated by mechanical abrasion of the rail track and wheels. Regarding passenger exposure to PM, the contribution of commuting by metro was estimated to account

  5. NORD's Patient Assistance Programs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Travel & Lodging Contact: 1-855-316-4755 Email: isis-CS12@rarediseases.org Fax: 203-349-3206 Gaucher ... CS12 SMNRX Contact: 1-855-316-4755 Email: isis-CS12@rarediseases.org Fax: 1-203-349-3208 ...

  6. NORD's Patient Assistance Programs

    MedlinePlus

    ... vi@rarediseases.org Fax: 1-203-429-4153 Narcolepsy | Accepting Applications Copay Assistance Premium Assistance Contact: 855-202-5826 Email: narcolepsy@rarediseases.org Fax: 203-405-8795 Neurogenic Orthostatic ...

  7. Urban and peri-urban flood impact change: the case of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortès, Maria; Gilabert, Joan; Llasat-Botija, Montserrat; Marcos, Raül; Llasat, Maria del Carmen

    2017-04-01

    Floods are the most important natural hazard in the world. Nowadays, mitigation and adaptation strategies to reduce the impact that climate change will have on them, are a priority in most government agendas. Recent reports from the IPCC (2012, 2014) still show significant uncertainty associated with future projections of precipitation extremes. This uncertainty is higher when referred to floods and even larger when interactions with society and the changes in vulnerability are considered. Consequently, there is now a call to treat floods from a holistic perspective that integrates bottom-up (from impact and vulnerability) and top-down (from hazard) approaches (Hall et al., 2014). The study of flood risk in urban and peri-urban areas is complex and involves multiple factors. This is the case of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona (AMB), which concentrates 43% of total population of Catalonia in less than 2% of the whole territory. The impervious soil has grown more than 200% from 1956 to 2009 (resulting in higher values of runoff), the population has increased more than 80% in the same period and, simultaneously, an improvement of the drainage system and flood prevention has been developed. As a result, we have seen that the flood risk evolution in the area holds a strong link to these human changes. Actually, floods in this region are usually due to drainage problems, flash floods in ungauged torrential catchments and, only in some occasions, river floods are produced (i.e. the Llobregat River on September 1971). But, in all the cases they are due to heavy precipitations. The main objective of the contribution is assessing the relationship between precipitation in the AMB and the social impacts produced. In order to do it, different impact indicators have been proposed, such as the population affected or the duration of the flood event (Merz et al., 2010). These indicators have been implemented for the different cases analyzed, which affected AMB for the period

  8. Oral health care activities performed by caregivers for institutionalized elderly in Barcelona-Spain

    PubMed Central

    Cornejo-Ovalle, Marco; Costa-de-Lima, Kenio; Pérez, Glória; Borrell, Carme; Casals-Peidro, Elías

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the frequency of brushing teeth and cleaning of dentures, performed by caregivers, for institutionalized elderly people. Methods: A cross-sectional study in a sample of 196 caregivers of 31 health centers in Barcelona. The dependent variables were frequency of dental brushing and frequency of cleaning of dentures of the elderly by caregivers. The independent variables were characteristics of caregivers and institutions. We performed bivariate and multivariate descriptive analyses. Robust Poisson regression models were fitted to determine factors associated with the dependent variables and to assess the strength of the association. Results: 83% of caregivers were women, 79% worked on more than one shift, 42% worked only out of necessity, 92% were trained to care for elderly persons, 67% were trained in oral hygiene care for the elderly, and 73% recognized the existence of institutional protocols on oral health among residents. The variables explaining the lower frequency of brushing teeth by caregivers for the elderly, adjusted for the workload, were: no training in the care of elderly persons (PRa 1.7 CI95%: 1.6-1.8), not fully agreeing with the importance of oral health care of the elderly (PRa 2.5 CI95%: 1.5-4.1) and not knowing of the existence of oral health protocols (PRa 1.8 CI95%: 1.2-2.6). The variables that explain the lower frequency of cleaning dentures, adjusted for the workload, were lack of training in elderly care (PRa 1.7 CI95%: 1.3-1.9) and not knowing of the existence of protocols (PRa 3.7 CI95%: 1.6-8.7). Conclusion: The majority of caregivers perform activities of oral health care for the elderly at least once per day. The frequency of this care depends mainly on whether caregivers are trained to perform these activities, the importance given to oral health, the workload of caregivers and the existence of institutional protocols on oral health of institutionalized elderly persons. Key words:Institutionalized elderly

  9. Improving the modeling of road dust levels for Barcelona at urban scale and street level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, Fulvio; Zandveld, Peter; Keuken, Menno; Jonkers, Sander; Querol, Xavier; Reche, Cristina; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; Schaap, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    Road dust emission is an emerging issue in air quality due to the lack of remediation measures in contrast to vehicle exhaust emissions. The evidence of receptor modeling studies allows for quantifying impact on a few receptors, but the high cost of PM chemical speciation data and the questionable representativeness of single monitoring sites, limit considerably the development of population exposure estimates and epidemiologic studies based on georeferenced data. This study attempts to initiate and promote urban-scale dispersion modeling for road dust emissions, which will allow for a more robust estimate of population exposure and health outcomes. The TNO URBIS (URBan Information System) model was applied in the city of Barcelona, implementing a Gaussian line source and a street canyon dispersion model, together with new experimental estimates of road dust emission factors and algorithm to describe the time variability. Annual, daily and hourly road dust contributions were simulated and validated against observation of PM10, mineral dust and hourly PM2.5-10 concentrations. Results show that road dust contributed 9-15% to PM10 levels at background sites, and 23-44% at traffic sites. Highest contributions were modeled in the commercial/residential district where most of population live and work (Eixample) structured by 120 m wide square blocks, separated by roads with >10,000 vehicles per day. Street level contributions rise up to 20 μg/m3 (96% of roads) and an additional 3% of roads within 20-40 μg/m3. Hourly simulations of road dust contributions revealed to benefit from the implementation of the new emission module (Amato et al., 2012), able to describe the exponential recovery of road dust emission potential after rain events, when compared to common approach such as the use of constant emission factor or an ON/OFF approach. Correlation coefficients with observed data varied from 0.61, 0.58 and 0.43 for annual, daily and hourly means, respectively, revealing

  10. Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in institutionalized elderly in Barcelona (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Glòria; de Lima, Kenio C.; Casals-Peidro, Elías; Borrell, Carme

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the oral health status and the factors associated with oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in people aged 65 and older institutionalized in Barcelona in 2009. Study Design: Cross sectional study in 194 elderly. The dependent variable was poor OHRQoL, according to the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI). The independent variables were socio-demographic data, last dental visit, subjective and objective oral health status. Robust Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with OHRQoL as well as the strengths of association (Prevalence Ratios with respective confidence intervals at 95%). Results: According to GOHAI, 94 women (68.1%) and 36 men (64.3%) had poor OHRQoL. The average DMFT index (number of decayed, missing and filled teeth) was 22.8, with mean 10.2 remaining teeth. According to the Community Periodontal Index only 1.9% were healthy. 33.8% of the sample (35.5% of women and 30.4% of men) presented edentulism, 54.2% needed upper dental prostheses (51.1% of women and 60.7% of men) and 64.7% needed lower ones (61.6% of women and 71.4% of men). Only 7.2% had visited a dentist in the past year (8.8% of women and 3.6% of men). After fitting several multivariate adjusted robust Poisson regression models, poor OHRQoL was found to be associated to self-reporting problems with teeth or gums, self-reporting poor opinion about teeth/gums/denture and also associated to functional edentulism, needing upper denture, but not to socio-demographic factors or time since last dental visit. Conclusions: The study population has poor objective oral health. A high percentage has poor OHRQoL associated to subjective and objective oral health conditions. Dental care is required and these services should be included in the Spanish National Health System. Key words:Oral health, homes for the aged, elderly, self-assessment, quality of life, geriatric oral health assessment index

  11. Spatial variability of trace elements and sources for improved exposure assessment in Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguillón, María Cruz; Cirach, Marta; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Tsai, Ming; de Hoogh, Kees; Jedynska, Aleksandra; Kooter, Ingeborg M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Querol, Xavier

    2014-06-01

    Trace and major elements concentrations in PM10 and PM2.5 were measured at 20 sites spread in the Barcelona metropolitan area (1 rural background, 6 urban background, 13 road traffic sites) and at 1 reference site. Three 2-week samples per site and size fraction were collected during 2009 using low volume samplers, adding a total of 120 samples. Collected samples were analysed for elemental composition using Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF). EC, OC, and hopanes and steranes concentrations in PM2.5 were determined. Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF) model was used for a source apportionment analysis. The work was performed as part of the ESCAPE project. Elements were found in concentrations within the usual range in Spanish urban areas. Mineral elements were measured in higher concentrations during the warm season, due to enhanced resuspension; concentrations of fueloil combustion elements were also higher in summer. Elements in higher concentration at the traffic sites were: Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Sn, Zn and Zr. Spatial variations related to non-traffic sources were observed for concentrations of Br, Cl, K, and Na (sea salt origin) and Ni, V and S (shipping emissions), which were higher at the coastal sites, as well as for Zn and Pb, higher at sites closer to industrial facilities. Five common sources for PM10 and PM2.5 were identified by PMF: road traffic (with tracers Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo and Zn); fueloil combustion (Ni and V); secondary sulphate; industry (Pb and Zn); and mineral source (Al, Ca, Mg, Si, Sr and Ti). A marine aerosol source, a mixture of sea salt with aged anthropogenic aerosols, was found only in PM10. EC, hopanes and steranes concentrations correlate strongly with the PM10 road traffic source contributions, being hence all attributed to the same source. OC may arise from other sources in addition to road traffic and have a high contribution of secondary OC. Significant spatial and temporal variation in the PM2.5 and PM10 elemental

  12. Community health workers improve contact tracing among immigrants with tuberculosis in Barcelona

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The important increase in immigration during recent years has changed the epidemiology and control strategies for tuberculosis (TB) in many places. This study evaluates the effectiveness of intervention with community health workers (CHW) to improve contact tracing among immigrants. Methods The study included all TB cases detected by the Barcelona TB Program from 2000 to 2005 and compared a period without CHW intervention (2000-2002) to a period with CHW intervention (2003-2005). The influence on contact tracing of sex, age, hospital of diagnosis, district of residence, birthplace, HIV, homeless and CHW intervention was analysed by logistic regression. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results 960 foreign born TB cases were detected, 388 in the intervention period. Contact tracing was performed on 65,7% of 201 smear-positive cases during the pre-intervention period compared to 81.6% of 152 smear-positive TB cases during the intervention period (p < 0.001). Risk factors associated with incomplete contact tracing of smear-positive index cases included being diagnosed in two hospitals without contact tracing TB unit (OR = 3.5; CI:1.4-8.9) and (OR = 4.6; CI:1.6-13.5) respectively, birth place in India-Pakistan (OR = 4.4; CI:1.9-10.3) or North Africa (OR = 4.3; CI:1.8-10.5), having an unknown residence (OR = 5.4; CI:1.6-18.0), being HIV-infected (OR = 6.1; CI:2.5-14.8) or homeless (OR = 3.3; CI:1.3-8.2), and the absence of CHW intervention (OR = 2.4; CI:1.3-4.3). Conclusions The effectiveness of contact tracing for TB control in areas with high immigration can be improved by incorporating CHWs who act as translators, cultural mediators and facilitators who accompany cases and contacts through treatment and follow-up. PMID:22394990

  13. [First analysis of the deployment of the ethical approach in the field of mental health in the Nord Pas-de-Calais region].

    PubMed

    Boury, Dominique; François, Guillaume; Danel, Thierry; Cobbaut, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    For 3 years, the Regional Federation of Mental Health Research (F2RSM) has led a space ethics reflexion Department of mental health (ERESM) to federate structures that ethical institutions and mental health services have been creating in the Nord-Pas de Calais. This approach is, in many ways, revealing issues that involve the institutionalisation of ethical reflection in care facilities. In this article, after referring to the major developments in this field, we describe the conditions for the emergence of ethical bodies in the region. Through the choice of development and operation of the ethical reflexion department, we highlight a number of points of attention that illustrate the complex articulation between institutional expectations and concerns of professionals. The trajectory of the ERESM is thus revealed as a process of reflective learning open to all stakeholders, providers and users of mental health.

  14. [Two surgery schools: Madrid and Barcelona. Ribera Sans and Salvador Cardenal (150th anniversary of their birth)].

    PubMed

    Vázquez de Quevedo, Francisco

    2003-01-01

    Two eminent Spanish surgeons from the positivism period were born 150 years ago: Ribera Sans and Salvador Cardenal. To mark this anniversary I have studied their written work and their contribution to Spanish surgery as pioneers. Each school had its own place although they kept certain parallelism. Ribera worked in Madrid as a professor for 23 years and had many disciples. He initiated digestive, pediatric and thoracic surgery. He was a professor at San Carlos just like the surgeons: San Martín and Guedea. He was director of the Niño Jesús Hospital and a R. A. N. M. academic. Cardenal is a distinguished surgeon who carried out his work in Barcelona. He extended the use of the antiseptic method in Spanish surgery. He became Director of the Sagrado Corazón Hospital. He was also named Honorary professor of surgery and a member of the Royal School of Surgery in England, and R. A. Barcelona. His work was closely related to Dr. Ferrán's. His son was León Cardenal.

  15. Building a panel data set on fuel stations located in the Spanish regional areas of Madrid and Barcelona

    PubMed Central

    Balaguer, Jacint; Ripollés, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    The data described in this article were collected daily over the period June 10, 2010, to November 25, 2012, from the website of the Spanish Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism. The database includes information about fuel stations regarding to their prices (both gross and net of taxes), brand, location (latitude and longitude), and postal code in the Spanish provinces of Madrid and Barcelona. Moreover, obtaining the postal codes has allowed us to select those stations that are operating within the metropolitan areas of Madrid and Barcelona. By considering those fuel stations that uninterruptedly provided prices during the entire period, the data can be especially useful to explore the dynamics of prices in fuel markets. This is the case of Balaguer and Ripollés (2016), “Asymmetric fuel price responses under heterogeneity” [1], who, taking into account the presence of the potential heterogeneity of the behaviour of fuel stations, used this statistical information to perform an analysis on asymmetric fuel price responses. PMID:26933671

  16. Retrospective space-time cluster analysis of whooping cough, re-emergence in Barcelona, Spain, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Solano, Rubén; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; Simón, Fernando; Lafuente, Sarah; Simón, Pere; Rius, Cristina; Gorrindo, Pilar; Toledo, Diana; Caylà, Joan A

    2014-05-01

    A retrospective, space-time study of whooping cough cases reported to the Public Health Agency of Barcelona, Spain between the years 2000 and 2011 is presented. It is based on 633 individual whooping cough cases and the 2006 population census from the Spanish National Statistics Institute, stratified by age and sex at the census tract level. Cluster identification was attempted using space-time scan statistic assuming a Poisson distribution and restricting temporal extent to 7 days and spatial distance to 500 m. Statistical calculations were performed with Stata 11 and SatScan and mapping was performed with ArcGis 10.0. Only clusters showing statistical significance (P <0.05) were mapped. The most likely cluster identified included five census tracts located in three neighbourhoods in central Barcelona during the week from 17 to 23 August 2011. This cluster included five cases compared with the expected level of 0.0021 (relative risk = 2436, P <0.001). In addition, 11 secondary significant space-time clusters were detected with secondary clusters occurring at different times and localizations. Spatial statistics is felt to be useful by complementing epidemiological surveillance systems through visualizing excess in the number of cases in space and time and thus increase the possibility of identifying outbreaks not reported by the surveillance system.

  17. Epidemiological voice health map of the teaching population of Granollers (Barcelona) developed from the EVES questionnaire and the VHI.

    PubMed

    Godall, Pere; Gassull, Cecília; Godoy, Anna; Amador, Miquel

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research project was to carry out an epidemiological study on the voice health of the teaching population in Granollers (Barcelona) using the EVES questionnaire and to relate the collected data to the VHI results. The study sample consisted of 233 teachers from Granollers (Barcelona). The EVES questionnaire, which includes the VHI-10, was conducted online. A high percentage of the teachers consulted suffered voice disorders, which ranged from minor to more serious cases. In regard to the data obtained using the VHI, in 28.77% of the cases there was a moderate or a serious perception of voice problems. Out of these cases only one person, who had a moderate perception of their problem, was undergoing voice therapy with a speech therapist. There are three questions in the EVES questionnaire that can efficiently indicate the existence of a voice disorder in a straightforward manner, and the results for these were similar to those recorded for the VHI group of questions. Therefore, it may be argued that questions that refer to the perception of the degree of pleasantness of one's own voice should be included, because they would provide a useful way to indicate whether there is a voice problem at a preliminary screening stage.

  18. Negative mood states and related factors in a sample of adolescent secondary-school students in Barcelona (Spain).

    PubMed

    Ahonen, Emily Q; Nebot, Manel; Giménez, Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    Poor mental health is a common problem in adolescence. Little information is available, however, about the factors influencing negative mood states in otherwise healthy adolescents. We aimed to describe the mood states and related factors in a sample of adolescents in the city of Barcelona (Spain). We administered a health survey to a sample of 2,727 students from public, subsidized, and private schools in Barcelona, aged approximately 14, 16, and 18 years old. To analyze the associations among moods and related factors, we used bivariate logistic regression, and fitted multivariate logistic regressions using the statistically significant variables from the bivariate analysis. To examine the possible group effects of the school on individual students, we employed multilevel analysis. The frequencies of negative mood states increased with age, with girls consistently reporting more frequent negative mood states than boys. The factors associated with negative mood states were problematic alcohol use, perceived mistreatment or abuse, antisocial behavior, intention to use or current use of illegal drugs (not including cannabis), lower perceived academic performance, and feeling isolated. Mood states are influenced by lifestyle and social factors, about which there is little local information. To plan and implement appropriate public health interventions, more complete information about the possible areas of influence is required. To complement the information obtained from studies such as the present study, longitudinal and qualitative studies would be desirable.

  19. Potential formation of bromophenols in Barcelona's tap water due to daily salt mine discharges and occasional phenol spills

    SciTech Connect

    Ventura, F.; Rivera, J.

    1986-02-01

    The presence of phenol and chlorinated phenols in drinking water has been shown to affect both taste and odor and to cause negative effects on health. The priority pollutants list issued by E.P.A. includes eleven of these compounds as suspected carcinogens. Little attention has been focussed on the presence of bromophenols. The presence of volatile brominated organic compounds has been demonstrated when bromide is present, due to chlorination. Similarly, brominated phenols might be formed during chlorination in the water works. More than 3 million inhabitants in the area of Barcelona drink water taken from Llobregat river. Quality of this raw water is strongly influenced by high contents of bromide coming from salt mines located in the upper course of the river. Phenol and phenolic compounds are usually found in raw water in the ppb range but occasional spills may increase the phenol content up to parts per million. This study shows the possibility of formation of bromophenols during normal chlorination conditions at Barcelona's water works plant.

  20. Decline of trace metal pollution in the bottom sediments of the Barcelona City continental shelf (NW Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Palanques, Albert; Lopez, Laura; Guillén, Jorge; Puig, Pere; Masqué, Pere

    2017-02-01

    The evolution of trace metal pollution on the Barcelona city continental shelf during the last few decades was studied by analyzing the historical records of trace metals in sediment cores and surface sediment samples taken at the same locations in 1987 and in 2008. Polluted surface samples taken in 1987 reached enrichment factors of up to 490 for Hg, about 40 for Pb and Cd, and about 17 for Zn, Cr and Cu. The data show a decline of up to one order of magnitude in the trace metal content of surface sediments during the last few decades, with maximum enrichment factors of between 20 and 30 for Hg and Cd and between 5 and 12 for Zn, Cr, Pb and Cu. Although present-day pollution is still significant, it is evident that environmental regulations that are in place, including the operation since 1979 of wastewater treatment plants built in the Besòs River watershed, have drastically reduced the pollution levels in this highly populated and industrialized Mediterranean area. However, water discharge during heavy rain events exceeds the treatment capacity of the existing facilities, leading to the maintenance of still high levels of metals in sediments of the Barcelona city shelf.

  1. Spatial and temporal variability of PM levels and composition in a complex summer atmospheric scenario in Barcelona (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, M.; Pérez, C.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Nickovic, S.; Baldasano, J. M.

    Summer atmospheric coastal dynamics exert a significant influence on the levels and composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the North-Eastern Iberian Peninsula. Summer atmospheric scenarios in this region present a high degree of complexity as they are characterised by the absence of synoptic-scale air mass advections, the development of breeze circulations, enhanced photochemistry, local mineral dust re-suspension and the occurrence of African dust outbreaks. Three sampling sites were selected in Barcelona (NE Spain), an urban coastal site surrounded by complex topography. Regional dust modelling (DREAM) and high resolution meteorological modelling (MM5) were used to interpret PM levels and composition at the three sites. The results outline the effect of breeze dynamics and thermal internal boundary layer formation as the main meteorological drivers of the hourly evolution of PM levels. Levels of crustal components, secondary inorganic and carbon species are higher during the night, and only the marine aerosol content is higher during the day. Nitrate levels are higher during the night due to the thermal stability on NH 4NO 3. Sulphate levels are higher during the night as a consequence of the drainage flows. Lidar measurements and model results signalled the occurrence of two African dust episodes during the study period which mainly affected the free troposphere over Barcelona.

  2. Potentially inappropriate medication prescribing is associated with socioeconomic factors: a spatial analysis in the French Nord-Pas-de-Calais Region.

    PubMed

    Beuscart, Jean-Baptiste; Genin, Michael; Dupont, Corrine; Verloop, David; Duhamel, Alain; Defebvre, Marguerite-Marie; Puisieux, François

    2017-01-06

    potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) prescribing is common in older people and leads to adverse events and hospital admissions. to determine whether prevalence of PIM prescribing varies according to healthcare supply and socioeconomic status. all prescriptions dispensed at community pharmacies for patients aged 75 and older between 1 January  and 31 March 2012 were retrieved from French Health Insurance Information System of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais Region for patients affiliated to the Social Security scheme. PIM was defined according to the French list of Laroche. The geographic distribution of PIM prescribing in this area was analysed using spatial scan statistics. overall, 65.6% (n = 207,979) of people aged 75 years and over living in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais Region were included. Among them, 32.6% (n = 67,863) received at least one PIM. The spatial analysis identified 16 and 10 clusters of municipalities with a high and a low prevalence of PIM prescribing, respectively. Municipalities with a low prevalence of PIM were characterised by a high socioeconomic status whereas those with a high prevalence of PIM were mainly characterised by a low socioeconomic status, such as a high unemployment rate and low household incomes. Markers of healthcare supply were weakly associated with high or low prevalence clusters. significant geographic variation in PIM prescribing was observed in the study territory and was mainly associated with socioeconomic factors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Self-reported Diagnosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis or Ankylosing Spondylitis Has Low Accuracy: Data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study.

    PubMed

    Videm, Vibeke; Thomas, Ranjeny; Brown, Matthew A; Hoff, Mari

    2017-08-01

    Self-reported diagnoses of inflammatory arthritis are not accurate. The primary study aim was to ascertain self-reported diagnoses of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in the Norwegian population-based Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT) using hospital case files. The secondary aim was to provide updated estimates of the prevalence and incidence of RA and AS. All inhabitants ≥ 20 years old from the county of Nord-Trøndelag were invited. Data from 70,805 unique participants from HUNT2 (1995-1997) and HUNT3 (2006-2008) were included. For participants who self-reported RA or AS, case files from all 3 hospitals in the catchment area were evaluated using standardized diagnostic criteria. Of 2703 self-reported cases of RA, 19.1% were verified in hospital files. Of 1064 self-reported cases of AS, 15.8% were verified. Of 259 cases self-reporting both RA and AS, 8.1% had RA and 5.4% had AS. Overall, a self-report of 1 or both diagnoses could not be verified in 82.1%, including 22.8% with insufficient information or no case file. The prevalence of RA was 768 (95% CI 705-835) per 100,000. The incidence of RA from HUNT2 to HUNT3 was 0.48 (0.41-0.56) per 1000 per year. The prevalence of AS was 264 (228-305) per 100,000. The incidence of AS from HUNT2 to HUNT3 was 0.19 (0.15-0.24) per 1000 per year. Self-reported diagnoses of RA and AS are often false-positive. The prevalence and incidence of RA were comparable to reports from similar populations. The incidence of AS was higher than previously reported in a mixed population from Norway.

  4. Summary of sediment data from the Yampa river and upper Green river basins, Colorado and Utah, 1993-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, John G.; Anders, Steven P.

    2004-01-01

    The water resources of the Upper Colorado River Basin have been extensively developed for water supply, irrigation, and power generation through water storage in upstream reservoirs during spring runoff and subsequent releases during the remainder of the year. The net effect of water-resource development has been to substantially modify the predevelopment annual hydrograph as well as the timing and amount of sediment delivery from the upper Green River and the Yampa River Basins tributaries to the main-stem reaches where endangered native fish populations have been observed. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Division of Wildlife and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, began a study to identify sediment source reaches in the Green River main stem and the lower Yampa and Little Snake Rivers and to identify sediment-transport relations that would be useful in assessing the potential effects of hydrograph modification by reservoir operation on sedimentation at identified razorback spawning bars in the Green River. The need for additional data collection is evaluated at each sampling site. Sediment loads were calculated at five key areas within the watershed by using instantaneous measurements of streamflow, suspended-sediment concentration, and bedload. Sediment loads were computed at each site for two modes of transport (suspended load and bedload), as well as for the total-sediment load (suspended load plus bedload) where both modes were sampled. Sediment loads also were calculated for sediment particle-size range (silt-and-clay, and sand-and-gravel sizes) if laboratory size analysis had been performed on the sample, and by hydrograph season. Sediment-transport curves were developed for each type of sediment load by a least-squares regression of logarithmic-transformed data. Transport equations for suspended load and total load had coefficients of determination of at least 0.72 at all of the sampling sites except Little Snake River near Lily, Colorado. Bedload transport equations at the five sites had coefficients of determination that ranged from 0.40 (Yampa River at Deerlodge Park, Colorado) to 0.80 (Yampa River above Little Snake River near Maybell, Colorado). Transport equations for silt and clay-size material had coefficients of determination that ranged from 0.46 to 0.82. Where particle-size data were available (Yampa River at Deerlodge Park, Colorado, and Green River near Jensen, Utah), transport equations for the smaller particle sizes (fine sand) tended to have higher coefficients of determination than the equations for coarser sizes (medium and coarse sand, and very coarse sand and gravel). Because the data had to be subdivided into at least two subsets (rising-limb, falling-limb and, occasionally, base-flow periods), the seasonal transport equations generally were based on relatively few samples. All transport equations probably could be improved by additional data collected at strategically timed periods.

  5. Aeromedical Aspects of Findings from Aircraft-Assisted Pilot Suicides in the United States, 1993-2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    examination found 1 ng/mL tet- rahydrocannabinol (the active compound in marihuana ) in the pilot’s blood. Furthermore, tetrahydrocannabinol...tetrahydrocan- nabinol in the blood indicated the pilot used marihuana , an illegal substance, the blood concentration determined suggests that there...from the co-administration of cocaine and ethanol. One victim was found positive for tetrahydrocannabinol (Case 3), the active compound in marihuana

  6. Decreasing prevalence and seasonal variation of gunshot trauma in raptors admitted to the wildlife center of Virginia: 1993-2002.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jean; Lickey, Adrienne; Sleeman, Jonathan M

    2005-09-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to identify the epidemiologic factors associated with gunshot injuries in raptors presented to the Wildlife Center of Virginia from 1993 to 2002. Of the 3,156 raptors admitted, 118 raptors (3.7%), representing 15 species, were admitted with gunshot trauma as the primary cause of morbidity and mortality. The majority of cases consisted of four species: red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis; 47%), red-shouldered hawk (Buteo lineatus; 14%), turkey vulture (Cathartes aura; 10%), and bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus; 8%). For species with greater than 40 admissions during the study period, the proportion of gunshot trauma of all causes of morbidity and mortality ranged from <1% to 11%. Greater numbers of raptors with gunshot trauma were admitted during the fall and winter months (75%) compared with the spring and summer (25%). A significant decrease in the absolute number of gunshot cases per year was observed over the time period studied. The population-level effect of gunshot trauma is unknown for these species; however, it appears to be minor compared with other causes of morbidity and mortality.

  7. Mutual Learning for Sustainability: Relationships between the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) and Regional Centre of Expertise (RCE) Barcelona from a Systems Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer-Balas, D.; Buckland, H.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) and RCE-Barcelona in the context of two organisations with a strategic aim to further Education for Sustainable Development. A special emphasis is put in the role that UPC has had in the creation and development of this project,…

  8. Species of Root-knot Nematodes and Fungal Egg Parasites Recovered from Vegetables in Almería and Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Verdejo-Lucas, S; Ornat, C; Sorribas, F J; Stchiegel, A

    2002-12-01

    Intensive vegetable production areas were surveyed in the provinces of Almería (35 sites) and Barcelona (22 sites), Spain, to determine the incidence and identity of Meloidogyne spp. and of fungal parasites of nematode eggs. Two species of Meloidogyne were found in Almería-M. javanica (63% of the samples) and M. incognita (31%). Three species were found in Barcelona, including M. incognita (50%), M. javanica (36%), and M. arenaria (14%). Solanaceous crops supported larger (P < 0.05) nematode numbers than cucurbit crops in Almería but not in Barcelona. Fungal parasites were found in 37% and 45% of the sites in Almería and Barcelona, respectively, but percent parasitism was never greater than 5%. Nine fungal species were isolated from single eggs of the nematode. The fungi included Verticillium chlamydosporium, V. catenulatum, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Fusarium spp., Acremonium strictum, Gliocladium roseum, Cylindrocarpon spp., Engiodontium album, and Dactylella oviparasitica. Two sterile fungi and five unidentified fungi also were isolated from Meloidogyne spp. eggs.

  9. Mutual Learning for Sustainability: Relationships between the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) and Regional Centre of Expertise (RCE) Barcelona from a Systems Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer-Balas, D.; Buckland, H.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) and RCE-Barcelona in the context of two organisations with a strategic aim to further Education for Sustainable Development. A special emphasis is put in the role that UPC has had in the creation and development of this project,…

  10. Species of Root-knot Nematodes and Fungal Egg Parasites Recovered from Vegetables in Almería and Barcelona, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Verdejo-Lucas, S.; Ornat, C.; Sorribas, F. J.; Stchiegel, A.

    2002-01-01

    Intensive vegetable production areas were surveyed in the provinces of Almería (35 sites) and Barcelona (22 sites), Spain, to determine the incidence and identity of Meloidogyne spp. and of fungal parasites of nematode eggs. Two species of Meloidogyne were found in Almería—M. javanica (63% of the samples) and M. incognita (31%). Three species were found in Barcelona, including M. incognita (50%), M. javanica (36%), and M. arenaria (14%). Solanaceous crops supported larger (P < 0.05) nematode numbers than cucurbit crops in Almería but not in Barcelona. Fungal parasites were found in 37% and 45% of the sites in Almería and Barcelona, respectively, but percent parasitism was never greater than 5%. Nine fungal species were isolated from single eggs of the nematode. The fungi included Verticillium chlamydosporium, V. catenulatum, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Fusarium spp., Acremonium strictum, Gliocladium roseum, Cylindrocarpon spp., Engiodontium album, and Dactylella oviparasitica. Two sterile fungi and five unidentified fungi also were isolated from Meloidogyne spp. eggs. PMID:19265964

  11. 14th EuCheMS International Conference on Chemistry and the Environment ICCE 2013: IEC-WTC, Barcelona, Spain, 25-28 June 2013.

    PubMed

    Luis, Santiago V; Jover, Eric

    2014-10-01

    The 14th European Association of Chemical and Molecular Sciences (EuCheMS) International Conference on Chemistry and the Environment (ICCE 2013) took place on 25-28 June 2013 at the IEC and the WTC in Barcelona, Spain. The ICCE is a well-established biannual conference organized by the Division of Chemistry and the EuCheMS.

  12. Geochemical signature and phytoremediation of urban soil: a case in Barcelona city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Bocanegra, Javier; Roca, Núria; Febrero, Anna; Bort, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    The cleanup of contaminated places with heavy metals is necessary, but environmental remediation strategies are often expensive and energy consuming. Thus, it is important to develop low-cost and environmentally friendly strategies. Phytoremediation-based technologies could provide a long-lasting solution. The study area is located in Sants, a neighbourhood in Barcelona city (Catalonia, Spain). This place was an industrial area in the last century, which was occupied by a metal smelting industry. Nowadays, the neighbours want to cultivate vegetables in this location, but the history of this area suggests that the soil is polluted by elevated concentrations of heavy metals. The aim of this work was to determine heavy metal concentration in: a) soil, to know the degree of the soil pollution; b) roots and leaves of two plant species, Brassica juncea as an accumulator plant and Solanum lycopersicum as a crop plant, to know the capacity of each species to accumulate metals, and c) drainage water, to evaluate the heavy metal mobility. The main pollutants are Cu, Pb and Zn with topsoil total concentrations about 1355, 2230 and 6239 mg•kg-1, respectively. The established background upper limits in this area in mg•kg-1 were: Cu 145, Pb 91 and Zn 326. The same soil elements for available fractions, extracted with DTPA, were slightly elevated (9.6, 5.8 and 6.7 % of total concentration). The environmental pollution implies great extractability, suggesting the plants in these soils have facility with potentially toxic elements absorption. Instead, the concentrations in subsoil are lower than in topsoil. The concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn in the plants' leaves are greater in B. juncea 170 ± 52.7, 137 ± 46.3 and 2365 ± 860.4 mg•kg-1, than in S. lycopersicum 102.5 ± 7.1, 22.5 ± 1.3 and 1002 ± 85.2 mg•kg-1 respectively. Furthermore, they are also greater in roots than in leaves. All of them are lower than the threshold to be considered like a hyperaccumulator species

  13. Ascites and alpha-fetoprotein improve prognostic performance of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging.

    PubMed

    Gomaa, Asmaa I; Al-Khatib, Alzhraa; Abdel-Razek, Wael; Hashim, Mohammed Saad; Waked, Imam

    2015-05-14

    To assess how ascites and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) added to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging predict hepatocellular carcinoma survival. The presence of underlying cirrhosis, ascites and encephalopathy, Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) score, the number of nodules, and the maximum diameter of the largest nodule were determined at diagnosis for 1060 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma at a tertiary referral center for liver disease in Egypt. Demographic information, etiology of liver disease, and biochemical data (including serum bilirubin, albumin, international normalized ratio, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, and AFP) were evaluated. Staging of the tumor was determined at the time of diagnosis using the BCLC staging system; 496 patients were stage A and 564 patients were stage B. Patients with mild ascites on initial ultrasound, computed tomography, or clinical examination, and who had a CTP score ≤ 9 were included in this analysis. All patients received therapy according to the recommended treatment based on the BCLC stage, and were monitored from the time of diagnosis to the date of death or date of data collection. The effect of the presence of ascites and AFP level on survival was analyzed. At the time the data were censored, 123/496 (24.8%) and 218/564 (38.6%) patients with BCLC stages A and B, respectively, had died. Overall mean survival of the BCLC A and B patients during a three-year follow-up period was 31 mo [95% confidence interval (95%CI): 29.7-32.3] and 22.7 mo (95%CI: 20.7-24.8), respectively. The presence of ascites, multiple focal lesions, large tumor size, AFP level and CTP score were independent predictors of survival for the included patients on multivariate analysis (P < 0.001). Among stage A patients, 18% had ascites, 33% had AFP ≥ 200 ng/mL, and 8% had both. Their median survival in the presence of ascites was shorter if AFP was ≥ 200 ng/mL (19 mo vs 24 mo), and in the absence of ascites, patients with AFP ≥ 200

  14. Traffic-Related Air Pollution, Noise at School, and Behavioral Problems in Barcelona Schoolchildren: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Forns, Joan; Dadvand, Payam; Foraster, Maria; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Rivas, Ioar; López-Vicente, Mònica; Suades-Gonzalez, Elisabet; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Esnaola, Mikel; Cirach, Marta; Grellier, James; Basagaña, Xavier; Querol, Xavier; Guxens, Mònica; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The available evidence of the effects of air pollution and noise on behavioral development is limited, and it overlooks exposure at schools, where children spend a considerable amount of time. Objective: We aimed to investigate the associations of exposure to traffic-related air pollutants (TRAPs) and noise at school on behavioral development of schoolchildren. Methods: We evaluated children 7–11 years of age in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) during 2012–2013 within the BREATHE project. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of elemental carbon (EC), black carbon (BC), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured at schools in two separate 1-week campaigns. In one campaign we also measured noise levels inside classrooms. Parents filled out the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) to assess child behavioral development, while teachers completed the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder criteria of the DSM-IV (ADHD-DSM-IV) list to assess specific ADHD symptomatology. Negative binomial mixed-effects models were used to estimate associations between the exposures and behavioral development scores. Results: Interquartile range (IQR) increases in indoor and outdoor EC, BC, and NO2 concentrations were positively associated with SDQ total difficulties scores (suggesting more frequent behavioral problems) in adjusted multivariate models, whereas noise was significantly associated with ADHD-DSM-IV scores. Conclusion: In our study population of 7- to 11-year-old children residing in Barcelona, exposure to TRAPs at school was associated with increased behavioral problems in schoolchildren. Noise exposure at school was associated with more ADHD symptoms. Citation: Forns J, Dadvand P, Foraster M, Alvarez-Pedrerol M, Rivas I, López-Vicente M, Suades-Gonzalez E, Garcia-Esteban R, Esnaola M, Cirach M, Grellier J, Basagaña X, Querol X, Guxens M, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Sunyer J. 2016. Traffic-related air pollution, noise at school, and behavioral problems in Barcelona

  15. Ozone attributed to Madrid and Barcelona on-road transport emissions: Characterization of plume dynamics over the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Víctor; Pay, María T; Baldasano, José M

    2016-02-01

    Despite the ~30% emission decrease of the main tropospheric ozone (O3) precursors in Spain in the 2001-2012 period, the O3 concentration in summer still exceeds the target value for the protection of the human health of the Air Quality Directive (2008/50/EC). On-road transport is the main anthropogenic contributor to O3 precursor's emissions in Madrid and Barcelona metropolitan areas (65%/59% of NOx, 40%/33% of NMVOC, and 67%/85% of CO emissions) but this contribution to O3 formation is not well understood. The present work aims at increasing the understanding on the role of on-road transport emissions from main Spanish urban areas in O3 dynamics over Spain under typical circulation types. For that purpose, the Integrated Source Apportionment Method is used within the CALIOPE modelling system (WRF/CMAQ/HERMES/BSC-DREAM8b). The results indicate that the daily maximum O3 concentration attributed to the on-road transport emissions from Madrid (O3T-MAD) and Barcelona metropolitan areas (O3T-BCN) contribute up to 24% and 8% to total O3 concentration, respectively, within an area of influence of 200 km. The contribution of O3T-MAD and O3T-BCN is particularly significant (up to 80-100 μg m(-3) in an hour) to the O3 concentration peak during the central hours of the day in the high O3 concentration season (April-September). The maximum O3T-MAD concentration is calculated within the metropolitan area of Madrid but the plume, channelled by the Tajo and the Henares valleys, affects large areas of the Iberian Peninsula. The O3T-BCN plume is more driven by sea-land and mountain-valley breezes than by the synoptic advection and its maximum concentration is usually registered over the Mediterranean Sea. The O3 concentration transported long-range to the Iberian Peninsula is significant in the area of influence of Madrid and Barcelona, being maxima under cold (70-96%) and minima in warm circulation types (35-70%).

  16. HIV vaccine trial willingness among injection and non-injection drug users in two urban centres, Barcelona and San Francisco

    PubMed Central

    Etcheverry, M. Florencia; Lum, Paula J.; Evans, Jennifer L.; Sanchez, Emilia; de Lazzari, Elisa; Mendez-Arancibia, Eva; Sierra, Ernesto; Gatell, José M.; Page, Kimberly; Joseph, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Being able to recruit high-risk volunteers who are also willing to consider future participation in vaccine trials are critical features of vaccine preparedness studies. We described data from two cohorts of injection- and non-injection drug users in Barcelona, Spain [Red Cross centre] and in San Francisco, USA, [UFO-VAX study] at high risk of HIV/HCV infection to assess behaviour risk exposure and willingness to participate in future preventive HIV vaccine trials. We successfully identified drug-using populations that would be eligible for future HIV vaccine efficacy trials, based on reported levels of risk during screening and high levels of willingness to participate. In both groups, Red Cross and UFO-VAX respectively, HCV infection was highly prevalent at baseline (41% and 34%), HIV baseline seroprevalence was 4.2% and 1.5%, and high levels of willingness were seen (83% and 78%). PMID:21241735

  17. [The creation of the first anesthesiology service in Spain (Hospital de la Santa Cruz y San Pablo, Barcelona 1941)].

    PubMed

    Unzueta, M C; Hervás, C; Villar Landeira, J M

    2002-03-01

    On the sixtieth anniversary of the founding of the first Spanish anesthesia department, we review factors that led to its creation and its early development. Hospital de la Santa Cruz y San Pablo in Barcelona was the place where the service was established for several reasons. The first was the growing need for anesthesia to be administered by specialized physicians able to handle problems developing during and after surgery. The second was the presence of a prestigious surgeon, Dr. Juan Soler Juliá, who perceived the need, alongside the only physician in Spain who was completely dedicated to anesthesiology, Dr. José Miguel Martínez. Finally, the fact that professional anesthesiology allowed a physician to earn a decent income triggered interest in the specialty among physicians.

  18. HIV vaccine trial willingness among injection and non-injection drug users in two urban centres, Barcelona and San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Etcheverry, M Florencia; Lum, Paula J; Evans, Jennifer L; Sanchez, Emilia; de Lazzari, Elisa; Mendez-Arancibia, Eva; Sierra, Ernesto; Gatell, José M; Page, Kimberly; Joseph, Joan

    2011-02-24

    Being able to recruit high-risk volunteers who are also willing to consider future participation in vaccine trials are critical features of vaccine preparedness studies. We described data from two cohorts of injection- and non-injection drug users in Barcelona, Spain [Red Cross centre] and in San Francisco, USA, [UFO-VAX study] at high risk of HIV/HCV infection to assess behaviour risk exposure and willingness to participate in future preventive HIV vaccine trials. We successfully identified drug-using populations that would be eligible for future HIV vaccine efficacy trials, based on reported levels of risk during screening and high levels of willingness to participate. In both groups, Red Cross and UFO-VAX respectively, HCV infection was highly prevalent at baseline (41% and 34%), HIV baseline seroprevalence was 4.2% and 1.5%, and high levels of willingness were seen (83% and 78%). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Working toward cancer and healthy living education around the world: the experience at La Salle Campus Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Tallulah

    2012-01-01

    Health education, especially in the earlier stages of life, is essential for the development of healthy habits for life. Though healthy living messages must first be delivered locally, our goal is to distribute these messages globally using new technology and communications mediums. The La Salle schools, with a global network of primary, secondary, and higher education institutions have the capacity to reach thousands of children. La Salle Campus Barcelona, in collaboration with St. Jude Children's Research Hospital and Hospital Sant Joan de Déu , has started to carry out educational activities in schools in Catalonia, as well as supporting the design of video games teaching healthy habits and preparing videos about a healthy lifestyle, with the goal of reaching children around the world.

  20. Contribution of ecosystem services to air quality and climate change mitigation policies: the case of urban forests in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Baró, Francesc; Chaparro, Lydia; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Langemeyer, Johannes; Nowak, David J; Terradas, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    Mounting research highlights the contribution of ecosystem services provided by urban forests to quality of life in cities, yet these services are rarely explicitly considered in environmental policy targets. We quantify regulating services provided by urban forests and evaluate their contribution to comply with policy targets of air quality and climate change mitigation in the municipality of Barcelona, Spain. We apply the i-Tree Eco model to quantify in biophysical and monetary terms the ecosystem services "air purification," "global climate regulation," and the ecosystem disservice "air pollution" associated with biogenic emissions. Our results show that the contribution of urban forests regulating services to abate pollution is substantial in absolute terms, yet modest when compared to overall city levels of air pollution and GHG emissions. We conclude that in order to be effective, green infrastructure-based efforts to offset urban pollution at the municipal level have to be coordinated with territorial policies at broader spatial scales.

  1. Life cycle assessment of an intensive sewage treatment plant in Barcelona (Spain) with focus on energy aspects.

    PubMed

    Bravo, L; Ferrer, I

    2011-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment was used to evaluate environmental impacts associated to a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Barcelona Metropolitan Area, with a treatment capacity of 2 million population equivalent, focussing on energy aspects and resources consumption. The wastewater line includes conventional pre-treatment, primary settler, activated sludge with nitrogen removal, and tertiary treatment; and the sludge line consists of thickening, anaerobic digestion, cogeneration, dewatering and thermal drying. Real site data were preferably included in the inventory. Environmental impacts of the resulting impact categories were determined by the CLM 2 baseline method. According to the results, the combustion of natural gas in the cogeneration engine is responsible for the main impact on Climate Change and Depletion of Abiotic Resources, while the combustion of biogas in the cogeneration unit accounts for a minor part. The results suggest that the environmental performance of the WWTP would be enhanced by increasing biogas production through improved anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

  2. Field evidence of social influence in the expression of political preferences: the case of secessionists flags in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Parravano, Antonio; Noguera, José A; Hermida, Paula; Tena-Sánchez, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Models of social influence have explored the dynamics of social contagion, imitation, and diffusion of different types of traits, opinions, and conducts. However, few behavioral data indicating social influence dynamics have been obtained from direct observation in "natural" social contexts. The present research provides that kind of evidence in the case of the public expression of political preferences in the city of Barcelona, where thousands of citizens supporting the secession of Catalonia from Spain have placed a Catalan flag in their balconies and windows. Here we present two different studies. 1) During July 2013 we registered the number of flags in 26% of the electoral districts in the city of Barcelona. We find that there is a large dispersion in the density of flags in districts with similar density of pro-independence voters. However, by comparing the moving average to the global mean we find that the density of flags tends to be fostered in electoral districts where there is a clear majority of pro-independence vote, while it is inhibited in the opposite cases. We also show that the distribution of flags in the observed districts deviates significantly from that of an equivalent random distribution. 2) During 17 days around Catalonia's 2013 national holiday we observed the position at balcony resolution of the flags displayed in the facades of a sub-sample of 82 blocks. We compare the 'clustering index' of flags on the facades observed each day to thousands of equivalent random distributions. Again we provide evidence that successive hangings of flags are not independent events but that a local influence mechanism is favoring their clustering. We also find that except for the national holiday day the density of flags tends to be fostered in facades located in electoral districts where there is a clear majority of pro-independence vote.

  3. Development of spatial density maps based on geoprocessing web services: application to tuberculosis incidence in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Dominkovics, Pau; Granell, Carlos; Pérez-Navarro, Antoni; Casals, Martí; Orcau, Angels; Caylà, Joan A

    2011-11-29

    Health professionals and authorities strive to cope with heterogeneous data, services, and statistical models to support decision making on public health. Sophisticated analysis and distributed processing capabilities over geocoded epidemiological data are seen as driving factors to speed up control and decision making in these health risk situations. In this context, recent Web technologies and standards-based web services deployed on geospatial information infrastructures have rapidly become an efficient way to access, share, process, and visualize geocoded health-related information. Data used on this study is based on Tuberculosis (TB) cases registered in Barcelona city during 2009. Residential addresses are geocoded and loaded into a spatial database that acts as a backend database. The web-based application architecture and geoprocessing web services are designed according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) principles. These web processing services produce spatial density maps against the backend database. The results are focused on the use of the proposed web-based application to the analysis of TB cases in Barcelona. The application produces spatial density maps to ease the monitoring and decision making process by health professionals. We also include a discussion of how spatial density maps may be useful for health practitioners in such contexts. In this paper, we developed web-based client application and a set of geoprocessing web services to support specific health-spatial requirements. Spatial density maps of TB incidence were generated to help health professionals in analysis and decision-making tasks. The combined use of geographic information tools, map viewers, and geoprocessing services leads to interesting possibilities in handling health data in a spatial manner. In particular, the use of spatial density maps has been effective to identify the most affected areas and its spatial impact. This study is an attempt to demonstrate how web

  4. Field Evidence of Social Influence in the Expression of Political Preferences: The Case of Secessionists Flags in Barcelona

    PubMed Central

    Parravano, Antonio; Noguera, José A.; Hermida, Paula; Tena-Sánchez, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Models of social influence have explored the dynamics of social contagion, imitation, and diffusion of different types of traits, opinions, and conducts. However, few behavioral data indicating social influence dynamics have been obtained from direct observation in “natural” social contexts. The present research provides that kind of evidence in the case of the public expression of political preferences in the city of Barcelona, where thousands of citizens supporting the secession of Catalonia from Spain have placed a Catalan flag in their balconies and windows. Here we present two different studies. 1) During July 2013 we registered the number of flags in 26% of the electoral districts in the city of Barcelona. We find that there is a large dispersion in the density of flags in districts with similar density of pro-independence voters. However, by comparing the moving average to the global mean we find that the density of flags tends to be fostered in electoral districts where there is a clear majority of pro-independence vote, while it is inhibited in the opposite cases. We also show that the distribution of flags in the observed districts deviates significantly from that of an equivalent random distribution. 2) During 17 days around Catalonia’s 2013 national holiday we observed the position at balcony resolution of the flags displayed in the facades of a sub-sample of 82 blocks. We compare the ‘clustering index’ of flags on the facades observed each day to thousands of equivalent random distributions. Again we provide evidence that successive hangings of flags are not independent events but that a local influence mechanism is favoring their clustering. We also find that except for the national holiday day the density of flags tends to be fostered in facades located in electoral districts where there is a clear majority of pro-independence vote. PMID:25961562

  5. The Barcelona Dust Forecast Center: The first WMO regional meteorological center specialized on atmospheric sand and dust forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basart, Sara; Terradellas, Enric; Cuevas, Emilio; Jorba, Oriol; Benincasa, Francesco; Baldasano, Jose M.

    2015-04-01

    The World Meteorological Organization's Sand and Dust Storm Warning Advisory and Assessment System (WMO SDS-WAS, http://sds-was.aemet.es/) project has the mission to enhance the ability of countries to deliver timely and quality sand and dust storm forecasts, observations, information and knowledge to users through an international partnership of research and operational communities. The good results obtained by the SDS-WAS Northern Africa, Middle East and Europe (NAMEE) Regional Center and the demand of many national meteorological services led to the deployment of operational dust forecast services. On June 2014, the first WMO Regional Meteorological Center Specialized on Atmospheric Sand and Dust Forecast, the Barcelona Dust Forecast Center (BDFC; http://dust.aemet.es/), was publicly presented. The Center operationally generates and distributes predictions for the NAMEE region. The dust forecasts are based on the NMMB/BSC-Dust model developed at the Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC-CNS). The present contribution will describe the main objectives and capabilities of BDFC. One of the activities performed by the BDFC is to establish a protocol to routinely exchange products from dust forecast models as dust load, dust optical depth (AOD), surface concentration, surface extinction and deposition. An important step in dust forecasting is the evaluation of the results that have been generated. This process consists of the comparison of the model results with multiple kinds of observations (i.e. AERONET and MODIS) and is aimed to facilitate the understanding of the model capabilities, limitations, and appropriateness for the purpose for which it was designed. The aim of this work is to present different evaluation approaches and to test the use of different observational products in the evaluation system.

  6. The effects of an urban renewal project on health and health inequalities: a quasi-experimental study in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Mehdipanah, Roshanak; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Malmusi, Davide; Muntaner, Carles; Díez, Elia; Bartoll, Xavier; Borrell, Carme

    2014-09-01

    In the last decade, the Neighbourhoods Law in Catalonia (Spain) funded municipalities that presented urban renewal projects within disadvantaged neighbourhoods focusing on physical, social and economic improvements. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of this law on the health and health inequalities of residents in the intervened neighbourhoods in the city of Barcelona. A quasi-experimental predesign and postdesign was used to compare adult residents in five intervened neighbourhoods with eight non-intervened comparison neighbourhoods with similar socioeconomic characteristics. The Barcelona Health Survey was used for studying self-rated and mental health in pre (2001, 2006) and post (2011) years. Poisson regression models stratified by sex were used to compute prevalence ratios comparing 2011 with 2006, and later stratified by social class, to study health inequalities. The intervened neighbourhoods had a significant decrease in poor self-rated health in both sexes while no significant changes occurred in the comparison group. When stratified by social class, a significant improvement was observed in poor self-rated health in the manual group of the intervened neighbourhoods in both sexes, resulting in a decrease in self-rated health inequalities. Similar results were observed in poor mental health of women, while in men, poor mental health worsens in both neighbourhood groups but mostly in the comparison group. The Neighbourhoods Law had a positive effect on self-rated health and seems to prevent poor mental health increases in both sexes and especially among manual social classes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Epidemiological characteristics and predictors of late presentation of HIV infection in Barcelona (Spain) during the period 2001-2009

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Early diagnosis of HIV infection can prevent morbidity and mortality as well as reduce HIV transmission. The aim of the present study was to assess prevalence, describe trends and identify factors associated with late presentation of HIV infection in Barcelona (Spain) during the period 2001-09. Methods Demographic and epidemiological characteristics of cases reported to the Barcelona HIV surveillance system were analysed. Late presentation was defined for individuals with a CD4 count below 350 cells/ml upon HIV diagnosis or diagnosis of AIDS within 3 months of HIV diagnosis. Multivariate logistic regression were used to identify predictors of late presentation. Results Of the 2,938 newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals, 2,507 (85,3%) had either a CD4 cell count or an AIDS diagnosis available. A total of 1,139 (55.6%) of the 2,507 studied cases over these nine years were late presenters varying from 48% among men who have sex with men to 70% among heterosexual men. The proportion of late presentation was 62.7% in 2001-2003, 51.9% in 2004-2005, 52.6% in 2006-2007 and 52.1% in 2008-2009. A decrease over time only was observed between 2001-2003 and 2004-2005 (p = 0.001) but remained constant thereafter (p = 0.9). Independent risk factors for late presentation were older age at diagnosis (p < 0.0001), use of injected drugs by men (p < 0.0001), being a heterosexual men (p < 0.0001), and being born in South America (p < 0.0001) or sub-Saharan Africa (p = 0.002). Conclusion Late presentation of HIV is still too frequent in all transmission groups in spite of a strong commitment with HIV prevention in our city. It is necessary to develop interventions that increase HIV testing and facilitate earlier entry into HIV care. PMID:21729332

  8. Indoor/outdoor relationships and mass closure of quasi-ultrafine, accumulation and coarse particles in Barcelona schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, M.; Rivas, I.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Sunyer, J.; Álvarez-Pedrerol, M.; Bouso, L.; Sioutas, C.

    2014-05-01

    The mass concentration, chemical composition and sources of quasi-ultrafine (quasi-UFP, PM0.25), accumulation (PM0.25-2.5) and coarse mode (PM2.5-10) particles were determined in indoor and outdoor air at 39 schools in Barcelona (Spain). Quasi-UFP mass concentrations measured (25.6 μg m-3 outdoors, 23.4 μg m-3 indoors) are significantly higher than those reported in other studies, and characterised by higher carbonaceous and mineral matter contents and a lower proportion of secondary inorganic ions. Results suggest that quasi-UFPs in Barcelona are affected by local sources in the schools, mainly human activity (e.g. organic material from textiles, etc., contributing 23-46% to total quasi-UFP mass) and playgrounds (in the form of mineral matter, contributing about 9% to the quasi-UFP mass). The particle size distribution patterns of toxicologically relevant metals and major aerosol components was characterised, displaying two modes for most elements and components, and one mode for inorganic salts (ammonium nitrate and sulfate) and elemental carbon (EC). Regarding metals, Ni and Cr were partitioned mainly in quasi-UFPs and could thus be of interest for epidemiological studies, given their high redox properties. Exposure of children to quasi-UFP mass and chemical species was assessed by comparing the concentrations measured at urban background and traffic areas schools. Finally, three main indoor sources across all size fractions were identified by assessing indoor / outdoor ratios (I / O) of PM species used as their tracers: human activity (organic material), cleaning products, paints and plastics (Cl- source), and a metallic mixed source (comprising combinations of Cu, Zn, Co, Cd, Pb, As, V and Cr). Our results support the need to enforce targeted legislation to determine a minimum "safe" distance between major roads and newly built schools to reduce exposure to traffic-derived metals in quasi-UFPs.

  9. Climatology of ozone ``mini-hole'' events and their influence on UV solar radiation in Barcelona (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorente, J.; Sola, Y.; Campmany, E.; de Cabo, X.; Redaño, A.

    2009-03-01

    The total ozone column (TOC) shows a strong annual cycle, so the threshold to define its lower values is better characterized as deviations from local climatological mean levels. A complete analysis of the effects of low total ozone on the UV radiation measured in Barcelona (Northeast of Spain) is described in the present work. The ozone "mini-holes" climatology in Barcelona, obtained from the daily ozone satellite data series (1978-2006), shows a seasonal behaviour with a maximum number of episodes in winter and early spring. Nevertheless there are a great number of events in the study area during September, when the UV irradiance reaching the Earth's surface is still high and consequently the biological effects such as erythema could be more important. In fact, daily low ozone columnar contents in comparison with climatological means are detected throughout the year generally associated to weather systems passing. The deepest ozone "mini-hole" reported in the area was in 2004. It lasted three days with a minimum on 10 January, when daily TOC was 40% lower than the January climatological mean. During those days under cloud-free conditions the aerosol properties remained constant indicating that only low ozone levels were responsible of the increase in UV solar radiation. The erythemal irradiance at noon was 36% higher than the day before the extreme low ozone event. Although in absolute terms this increase is high, the erythemal effects are not so considerable because the UV levels in winter are low. On the other hand, the "mini-hole" event observed in this area at the end of spring had more harmful biological consequences although the ozone decrease was not so great: on 20 April 2004, low ozone levels and high solar elevation favoured the increase in UVB radiation detected by an operative spectroradiometer. At 300 nm, the irradiance was 80% higher than the day before, declining to 31% at 305 nm. In this occasion the UV Index at 12 UTC increased in one unit.

  10. Estimating the health and economic benefits associated with reducing air pollution in the Barcelona metropolitan area (Spain).

    PubMed

    Pérez, Laura; Sunyer, Jordi; Künzli, Nino

    2009-01-01

    To estimate the health and economic benefits that would result from two scenarios of improved air quality in 57 municipalities of the metropolitan area of Barcelona. We used attributable fractions and life tables to quantify the benefits for selected health outcomes, based on published concentration-response functions and economic unit values. The mean weighted concentration of PM(10) for the study population was estimated through concentration surface maps developed by the local government. The annual mean health benefits of reducing the mean PM(10) exposure estimated for the population in the study area (50microg/m(3)) to the annual mean value recommended by the World Health Organization (20microg/m(3)) were estimated to be 3,500 fewer deaths (representing an average increase in life expectancy of 14 months), 1,800 fewer hospitalizations for cardio-respiratory diseases, 5,100 fewer cases of chronic bronchitis among adults, 31,100 fewer cases of acute bronchitis among children, and 54,000 fewer asthma attacks among children and adults. The mean total monetary benefits were estimated to be 6,400 million euros per year. Reducing PM(10) to comply with the current European Union regulatory annual mean level (40microg/m(3)) would yield approximately one third of these benefits. This study shows that reducing air pollution in the metropolitan area of Barcelona would result in substantial health and economic benefits. The benefits are probably underestimated due to the assumptions made in this study. Assessment of the health impact of local air pollution is a useful tool in public health.

  11. [Barcelona Test for Intellectual Disability: a new instrument for the neuropsychological assessment of adults with intellectual disability].

    PubMed

    Esteba-Castillo, S; Pena-Casanova, J; Garcia-Alba, J; Castellanos, M A; Torrents-Rodas, D; Rodriguez, E; Deus-Yela, J; Caixas, A; Novell-Alsina, R

    2017-05-16

    Neuropsychological assessment in individuals with intellectual disability is of utmost importance in order to determine the cognitive deficits underlying brain dysfunction and limiting intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior. However, no neuropsychological batteries in Spanish language have been created and validated for this population. To adapt the 'programa integrado de exploracion neuropsicologica-test Barcelona' and to validate the new version, the Barcelona Test for Intellectual Disability (TB-DI). To create normative data for its clinical use. The original test was modified based on data from a pilot sample of 65 individuals with intellectual disability. In order to study the psychometric properties of the TB-DI, it was administered to a sample of 170 individuals with intellectual disability and to a group of 60 individuals without it. The relevant variables for stratification of normative data were determined by means of regression models. The TB-DI was finally composed by 67 subtests grouped in eight cognitive domains and it showed good psychometric properties. Normative data were created for five groups taking into account intellectual disability level, age and acquired curricular competence. These data were organized in percentiles in a way that allows the creation of cognitive profiles in the clinical and experimental fields. The TB-DI constitutes a tool of high applicability in the population with intellectual disability. It shows adequate validity and reliability, and it has good psychometric properties. The cognitive profiles obtained by the TB-DI will provide valuable information for the treatment of adult adults with mild and moderate intellectual disability.

  12. Electronic cigarette use among adult population: a cross-sectional study in Barcelona, Spain (2013–2014)

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Ballbè, Montse; Fu, Marcela; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Saltó, Esteve; Gottlieb, Mark; Daynard, Richard; Connolly, Gregory N; Fernández, Esteve

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study seeks to analyse the prevalence and correlates of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, purchase location and satisfaction with its use in a sample of the general population of the city of Barcelona, Spain. Design, setting and participants We used participants from a longitudinal study of a representative sample of the adult (≥16 years old) population of Barcelona (336 men and 400 women). The field work was conducted between May 2013 and February 2014. We computed the prevalence, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Results The prevalence of ever e-cigarette use was 6.5% (95% CI 4.7% to 8.3%): 1.6% current use, 2.2% past use and 2.7% only e-cigarette experimentation. 75% (95% CI 62.8% to 87.3%) of ever e-cigarette users were current cigarette smokers at the moment of the interview. E-cigarette use was more likely among current smokers (OR=54.57; 95% CI 7.33 to 406.38) and highly dependent cigarette smokers (OR=3.96; 95% CI 1.60 to 9.82). 62.5% of the ever users charged their e-cigarettes with nicotine with 70% of them obtaining the liquids with nicotine in a specialised shop. 39.6% of ever e-cigarette users were not satisfied with their use, a similar percentage of not satisfied expressing the smokers (38.9%) and there were no statistically significant differences in the satisfaction between the users of e-cigarettes with and without nicotine. Conclusions E-cigarette use is strongly associated with current smoking (dual use) and most users continue to be addicted to nicotine. Six out of 10 e-cigarette users preferred devices that deliver nicotine. The satisfaction with e-cigarette use is very low. PMID:25157186

  13. Development of spatial density maps based on geoprocessing web services: application to tuberculosis incidence in Barcelona, Spain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Health professionals and authorities strive to cope with heterogeneous data, services, and statistical models to support decision making on public health. Sophisticated analysis and distributed processing capabilities over geocoded epidemiological data are seen as driving factors to speed up control and decision making in these health risk situations. In this context, recent Web technologies and standards-based web services deployed on geospatial information infrastructures have rapidly become an efficient way to access, share, process, and visualize geocoded health-related information. Methods Data used on this study is based on Tuberculosis (TB) cases registered in Barcelona city during 2009. Residential addresses are geocoded and loaded into a spatial database that acts as a backend database. The web-based application architecture and geoprocessing web services are designed according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) principles. These web processing services produce spatial density maps against the backend database. Results The results are focused on the use of the proposed web-based application to the analysis of TB cases in Barcelona. The application produces spatial density maps to ease the monitoring and decision making process by health professionals. We also include a discussion of how spatial density maps may be useful for health practitioners in such contexts. Conclusions In this paper, we developed web-based client application and a set of geoprocessing web services to support specific health-spatial requirements. Spatial density maps of TB incidence were generated to help health professionals in analysis and decision-making tasks. The combined use of geographic information tools, map viewers, and geoprocessing services leads to interesting possibilities in handling health data in a spatial manner. In particular, the use of spatial density maps has been effective to identify the most affected areas and its spatial impact. This

  14. Evolution of inequalities in breast and cervical cancer screening in Barcelona: population surveys 1992, 2001, and 2006.

    PubMed

    Puigpinós-Riera, Rosa; Serral, Gemma; Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Palència, Laia; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Borrell, Carme

    2011-11-01

    To describe and compare breast and cervical cancer screening among women in Barcelona in 1992, 2001, and 2006 by social class, age, and screening approach. This was a study of trends based on analysis of Barcelona health interview surveys for the years 1992 (n=5,003), 2001 (n=10,030), and 2006 (n=6,050). Dependent variables were having regular mammographies (at least every 2 years) and having regular cytologic testing (at least every 3 years). Independent variables were age, social class, and survey year. A descriptive analysis was carried out. To compare prevalence in terms of social class and the years studied, we calculated prevalence differences (PD) and prevalence ratios (PR) by fitting robust Poisson regression models. In 1992, women aged 40?49 had more regular mammographies than those aged 50?69, with social class inequalities in both age groups. Having cervical cancer screening was more common than having breast cancer screening, with prevalence varying from 46.4% in the low social classes to 59.2% in the high classes. In 2001, breast cancer screening had risen, particularly in women aged 50?69, a tendency that had stabilized by 2006. Inequalities diminished over the period, more markedly in women aged 50?69; PRs of 1.22 and 1.58, respectively, for high and middle social classes with respect to the lowest class in 1992 fell to PRs of 1.07 and 1.08, respectively, in 2006. In the case of cervical cancer screening, inequalities also diminished but not to the same extent. Preventive screening for breast and cervical cancer has increased, and the population screening program for breast cancer among women aged 50?69 years appears to contribute more than opportunistic screening for cervical cancer in reducing social class inequalities.

  15. Etude de la qualité bactériologique de l’eau utilisée dans l’industrie agroalimentaire dans le Nord du Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Haijoubi, El Houcine; Benyahya, Fatiha; Bendahou, Abdrezzak; Essadqui, Faima Zahra; Behhari, Mohammed El; El Mamoune, Ahmed Fouad; Ghailani, Naima Nourouti; Mechita, Mohcine Bennani; Barakat, Amina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction L'eau est utilisée d'une façon primordiale dans tout le processus de la fabrication des produits alimentaires. Les industries agroalimentaires du Nord du Maroc utilisent différentes sources d'eaux mais l'eau de réseau public et l'eau de puits sont les principales sources d'eau utilisée. Cette eau peut s'avérer la source principale des éventuelles contaminations et altérations des aliments. Notre but est d'évaluer la qualité bactériologique de l'eau utilisée par les industries agroalimentaires dans la région du Nord du Maroc, d'identifier les différents germes responsables de la pollution de ces eaux et de définir les principales causes de cette pollution. Méthodes Des échantillons d'eau prélevés aux robinets ou des puits ont été analysés pour la recherche des germes indicateurs de la pollution (coliformes totaux (CT), coliformes fécaux (CF), entérocoques intestinaux (E), microorganismes revivifiables (MOR), anaérobies sulfitoréducteurs) et les germes pathogènes (Salmonelles, Staphylocoques, Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Le dénombrement des bactéries a été fait par la technique de filtration et par incorporation en milieu solide en surfusion. Résultats Les résultats ont montré que les eaux du réseau public ont été de qualité bactériologique satisfaisante tandis que 40% des eaux des puits ont été non conformes aux normes à cause de la présence des indicateurs de pollution CT, CF, E et MOR. En revanche, les germes pathogènes, en particulier les Salmonelles, ont été absents dans les eaux de tous les puits analysés. Conclusion La pollution de ces puits a été généralement liée au non-respect des conditions de puisage hygiéniques. La qualité bactériologique des eaux de ces puits peut être améliorée par une protection adéquate. PMID:28450992

  16. Source tracing of fluvial suspended sediments by magnetic and geochemical particle characterization: example of the Canche watershed (Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patault, Edouard; Alary, Claire; Franke, Christine; Gauthier, Arnaud; Abriak, Nor-Edine

    2016-04-01

    In France, erosion by water run-off is estimated to 1.5 t ha-1yr-1 and can exceed 10 t ha-1yr-1 in large growing areas, such as the North of France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais). In this region, the Canche watershed (1294 km2) sustains heavy loss of fertile soils. The land use is mainly dominated by arable lands (80%) and in 2013, 104 kt of suspended sediment transited to the estuary. As demonstrated in literature, agricultural soil erosion leads to the gradual disappearance and depletion of fertile soil, which constitute a non-renewable resource at human time scale. Additionally, water erosion can significantly damage the aquatic habitat and can be responsible for the input of nutrients, bacteria, pesticides, heavy metals and radionuclides into surface waters. Conscious of these effects, many programs have emerged in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais to reduce erosion. This study presents a combination of environmental magnetic proxy parameters and geochemical analyses on sediments and suspended particulate matter. The aim is to develop effective tools to trace erosion by water run-off and quantify this process. In order to identify the respective sediment sources in the Canche watershed, sediment trap samples of suspended particulate matter were recovered at key positions along the Canche watershed. The preliminary results show that magnetic concentration (Mrs) shows typical values for the agricultural soils in the region, but these variations in magnetic concentrations and total irons concentrations are not always correlated, which may be explained by the iron speciation. In calculating the so-called S-ratio for each sample we can distinguish changes in magneto-mineralogy (and thus iron speciation) from magnetite-dominated assemblages in the mainstream Canche (naturel background signal) to high-coercivity-dominated assemblages in the tributaries, typical for soil erosion material rich in hematite/goethite. In combination with the element concentrations from ICP analyses, this proxy

  17. Comparison of parallel temperature measurements from conventional and automatic weather stations at Fabra Observatory (Barcelona).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Enric; Gilabert, Alba; Prohom, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Fabra Observatory , located in a promontory at 411 meters above sea level in the outskirts of Barcelona, hosts a continuous climate record since 1913. Additionally, it has been recording since 1996 simultaneous temperature and precipitation data with conventional instruments and automated systems. The automatization of recording sites employed with climatological purposes is happening elsewhere in the country and across the globe. Unfortunately, in most cases long lasting parallel measurements, are not kept. Thereafter, this site offers an excellent opportunity to study the impact of the introduction of Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). The conventional station (CON) equips a liquid in glass thermometer, located inside a standard Stevenson screen. The automatic measurements (AWS) have been taken using MCV-STA sensors sheltered in a MCV small plate-like ventilated screen between 1996 and the end of July 2007. For our analysis, this MCV period is split in two (T1, T2) due to an obvious jump in the differences AWS-CON in October 2002, produced by unknown reasons. From August 2007 to the present (T3), a Vaisala HMP45AL sensor was placed inside a Stevenson Screen and used for automatic measurements. For daily maximum temperatures, the median differences reach 3.2°C in T1, 1.1°C in T2 and merely -0.1°C in T3. In this later period, 94% of the differences are comprised in a ±0.5°C range, compared to 23% in T2 and only 6% in T1. It is interesting to note how the overheating of the MCV screen dominates the difference series, as 85% of the AWS values taken in T1 and T2 are warmer than the conventional measurements, contrasting with only 27% of cases during T3, when the automated measurements were taken inside a Stevenson screen. These differences are highly temperature dependent: low (high) AWS temperatures are associated with small (large) differences with the CON series. This effect is also evident if temperatures are analyzed by seasons: summer differences are much

  18. Weathering patinas on the medieval (S. XIV) stained glass windows of the Pedralbes Monastery (Barcelona, Spain).

    PubMed

    Aulinas, Meritxell; Garcia-Valles, Maite; Gimeno, Domingo; Fernandez-Turiel, Jose Luis; Ruggieri, Flavia; Pugès, Montserrat

    2009-06-01

    The first step in the restoration of a medieval stained glass window is the evaluation of its degree of degradation. This implies the study of the chemical composition of the stained glass as well as the new mineral phases developed on its surface (patinas). Patinas are clearly related to glass composition, time, environmental conditions, microenvironments developed in local zones, bioactivity, physical and chemical factors, etc. This study was carried out on patinas developed in selected Na-rich stained glass of the Santa Maria de Pedralbes Monastery (Barcelona, Spain). The location of this monument in the city (about 5 km from the shoreline and close to the Collserola hill flank) helped to determine the environmental conditions in which patinas developed. The aim of our study was to characterize the patinas formed on the surface of the selected glass of this monastery in order to understand the role of the chemical composition of the original glass (Na-rich) as well as the environmental conditions in which they developed. Powdered samples of two different color-type patinas (ochre-orange and brownish) were collected in the external and internal parts of the stained glass windows of the Prebystery and Chapter House of the Pedralbes Monastery by using a precision (odontological) drill. These patinas were subsequently analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). XRD analyses evidenced the presence of sulfates (gypsum and thenardite), calcite, Ca-oxalates (whewellite and weddellite), and quartz forming part of the patinas. Although these mineral phases can be found in both color-type patinas, whewellite and thenardite are more common in the ochre-orange patinas. The results obtained were validated by the FTIR measurements. It has been observed, when thenardite is present, that gypsum occurs as traces. Thenardite is in most of the cases associated with whewellite and mainly occurs in the internal parts of the glass. In

  19. Childhood cod liver oil consumption and bone mineral density in a population-based cohort of peri- and postmenopausal women: the Nord-Trondelag Health Study.

    PubMed

    Forsmo, Siri; Fjeldbo, Sigurd Kjørstad; Langhammer, Arnulf

    2008-02-15

    Use of cod liver oil, which is rich in vitamins A and D, is traditionally recommended during the fall and winter months as a protective measure against vitamin D deficiency in several countries. It is not known whether childhood cod liver oil intake is related to variations in bone mineral density (BMD) or fractures in adult life. In 2001, a total of 3,052 Norway women aged 50-70 years had forearm BMD measured in a substudy of the population-based Nord-Trøndelag Health Study. Women reporting no childhood cod liver oil intake had statistically significantly higher BMD than those with any ingestion of cod liver oil. The odds ratio for low BMD (>1 standard deviation below age-specific mean) in women reporting cod liver oil intake throughout the year as compared with women with no intake was 2.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.4, 3.9), adjusted for body mass index, smoking, menopausal status, estrogen use, and current milk consumption. There were indications of a negative dose-response effect of childhood cod liver oil intake on bone. Although the vitamin A content of commercial cod liver oil was recently reduced by 75% in Norway, the past high concentration remains a possible explanation for the observed negative association between childhood cod liver oil intake and forearm BMD.

  20. Three years (2008-2010) of measurements of atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) at Station Nord, North-East Greenland.

    PubMed

    Bossi, Rossana; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Skov, Henrik

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been measured for the first time at Station Nord, North-East Greenland, from 2008 to 2010. The data obtained are reported here. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), endosulfan I and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the predominant compounds detected in the atmosphere, followed by p,p'-DDE and dieldrin. Chlordane isomers and related compounds (trans- and cis-chlordanes, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide, trans- and cis-nonachlor) were also detected. Atmospheric concentrations of the investigated compounds were correlated with temperature using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation in order to obtain information about their transport properties. The correlation between atmospheric concentrations and temperature was not significant for endosulfan I, γ-HCH and p,p'-DDT, which indicates that direct transport from direct sources is the dominating transport mechanism for these compounds. A significant correlation with temperature was found for all the other studied pesticides and pesticide degradation products, which indicates that re-emission of these compounds from previously contaminated surfaces is an important factor for the observed variation in concentrations. Pesticide concentrations were also correlated with sea ice cover. Concentrations of the compounds that have not been in use for decades correlated with temperature and ice cover, while concentrations of compounds still in use did not correlate with either of these parameters. These observations indicate that processes such as revolatilization from the open sea surface are important mediating factors in the dynamics of anthropogenic persistent pollutants in the Arctic environment under the expected influence of climate change processes.

  1. The relationship between health promoting resources and work participation in a sample reporting musculoskeletal pain from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, HUNT 3, Norway

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is one of the most frequent causes of sick leave from work, and is a common and potentially disabling condition. This study is based on the salutogenic perspective and investigates the relationship between personal, social, and functional health resources and work participation in a population reporting MSP. Method Analysis was performed on cross sectional data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, HUNT 3, in Norway. The sample of n= 6702 was extracted from HUNT 3, including a total of N= 50807 participants. Self-reported health (SRH) and, personal, social, and functional resources were assessed by a questionnaire. Reported sick leave was collected by interview at the point of time when the data were collected, from October 2006 until June 2008. Results Logistic regression analysis demonstrated statistically significant differences between the work group and sick leave group in self-rated health, work support, work control, work load, and feeling strong, and the model predicted 68% of the cases correctly. Females had a lower statistically significant probability (B= −.53) to be in the work group then men when suffering from MSP, with odds of 41%. Conclusion There was a statistically significant relationship between health promoting resources such as SRH, feeling strong, absence of neuroticism, work load, work control, and work participation in MSP population. PMID:23509959

  2. Effectiveness of cognitive behavior treatment for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: acute outcomes from the Nordic Long-term OCD Treatment Study (NordLOTS).

    PubMed

    Torp, Nor Christian; Dahl, Kitty; Skarphedinsson, Gudmundur; Thomsen, Per Hove; Valderhaug, Robert; Weidle, Bernhard; Melin, Karin Holmgren; Hybel, Katja; Nissen, Judit Becker; Lenhard, Fabian; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Franklin, Martin E; Ivarsson, Tord

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effectiveness of manualized exposure-based CBT with a family-based treatment, as an initial treatment for pediatric OCD delivered in regular community child and adolescents outpatient clinics. The report summarizes outcome of the first treatment step in the NordLOTS, which was conducted in Denmark, Sweden and Norway. 269 participants, age 7-17, with OCD, received treatment for 14 weekly sessions. Treatment response was defined as CY-BOCS score of ≤15 at post treatment. 241 participants (89.6%) completed all 14 weeks of treatment. Treatment response among the completers was 72.6% (95% CI 66.7%-77.9%). Mixed effects model revealed a statistically significant effect of time F(1,479) = 130.434. Mean symptom reduction on the CY-BOCS was 52.9% (SD = 30.9). The estimated within-group effect size between baseline and post treatment was 1.58 (95% CI: 1.37-1.80). This study found that manualized CBT can be applied effectively in community mental health clinics. These findings underscore the feasibility of implementing exposure-based CBT for pediatric OCD in a regular child and adolescent mental health setting. This study was registered in Current Controlled Trials; Nordic Long-term Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) Treatment Study (www.controlled-trials.com ISRCTN66385119). Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Paternal and maternal alcohol abuse and offspring mental distress in the general population: the Nord-Trøndelag health study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The degree to which parental alcohol abuse is a risk factor for offspring mental distress is unclear, due to conflicting results of previous research. The inconsistencies in previous findings may be related to sample characteristics and lack of control of confounding or moderating factors. One such factor may be the gender of the abusing parent. Also, other factors, such as parental mental health, divorce, adolescent social network, school functioning or self-esteem, may impact the outcome. This study examines the impact of maternal and paternal alcohol abuse on adolescent mental distress, including potentially confounding, mediating or moderating effects of various variables. Methods Data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT), a Norwegian population based health survey, from 4012 offspring and their parents were analyzed. Parental alcohol abuse was measured by numerical consumption indicators and CAGE, whereas offspring mental distress was measured by SCL-5, an abbreviated instrument tapping symptoms of anxiety and depression. Statistical method was analysis of variance. Results Maternal alcohol abuse was related to offspring mental distress, whereas no effect could be shown of paternal alcohol abuse. Effects of maternal alcohol abuse was partly mediated by parental mental distress, offspring social network and school functioning. However, all effects were relatively small. Conclusions The results indicate graver consequences for offspring of alcohol abusing mothers compared to offspring of alcohol abusing fathers. However, small effect sizes suggest that adolescent offspring of alcohol abusing parents in general manage quite well. PMID:22708789

  4. The relationship between health promoting resources and work participation in a sample reporting musculoskeletal pain from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, HUNT 3, Norway.

    PubMed

    Sivertsen, Heidi; Lillefjell, Monica; Espnes, Geir Arild

    2013-03-19

    Musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is one of the most frequent causes of sick leave from work, and is a common and potentially disabling condition. This study is based on the salutogenic perspective and investigates the relationship between personal, social, and functional health resources and work participation in a population reporting MSP. Analysis was performed on cross sectional data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, HUNT 3, in Norway. The sample of n= 6702 was extracted from HUNT 3, including a total of N= 50807 participants. Self-reported health (SRH) and, personal, social, and functional resources were assessed by a questionnaire. Reported sick leave was collected by interview at the point of time when the data were collected, from October 2006 until June 2008. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated statistically significant differences between the work group and sick leave group in self-rated health, work support, work control, work load, and feeling strong, and the model predicted 68% of the cases correctly. Females had a lower statistically significant probability (B= -.53) to be in the work group then men when suffering from MSP, with odds of 41%. There was a statistically significant relationship between health promoting resources such as SRH, feeling strong, absence of neuroticism, work load, work control, and work participation in MSP population.

  5. Gender differences in the impact of adolescent smoking on lung function and respiratory symptoms. the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, Norway, 1995-1997.

    PubMed

    Holmen, T L; Barrett-Connor, E; Clausen, J; Langhammer, A; Holmen, J; Bjermer, L

    2002-10-01

    Girls take up smoking at least as frequently as boys. Few studies have focused on gender differences in the impact of adolescent smoking. We evaluated the sex-specific effect of adolescent smoking on respiratory symptoms and lung function. All students in junior high and high schools in Nord-Trøndelag County Norway, 1995-97, were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Information on smoking habits and respiratory symptoms was obtained by self-administered questionnaires. Spirometry was performed in accordance with ATS standards. Eight-thousand-three-hundred and five students (83%) completed both questionnaire and spirometry. Among 6811 students aged 13-18 years (50.3% girls) with no history of asthma, 2993 (43.9%) reported never smoking, 665 (98%) reported occasional smoking, and 667 (9.9%) reported daily smoking (mean initiation age: 13.9 years). More boys than girls were heavy smokers. In all smoking categories, smokers reported a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms than nonsmokers; symptoms increased with smoke burden. Girls reported more symptoms compared to boys with comparable smoke burden. A dose-response relation between smoking and reduced lung function was found only in girls. Girls were more vulnerable than boys to the impact of smoking on respiratory symptoms and lung function.

  6. High resolution modeling of the effects of alternative fuels use on urban air quality: introduction of natural gas vehicles in Barcelona and Madrid Greater Areas (Spain).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, María; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro; Baldasano, José M

    2009-01-01

    The mitigation of the effects of on-road traffic emissions on urban air pollution is currently an environmental challenge. Air quality modeling has become a powerful tool to design environment-related strategies. A wide range of options is being proposed; such as the introduction of natural gas vehicles (NGV), biofuels or hydrogen vehicles. The impacts on air quality of introducing specific NGV fleets in Barcelona and Madrid (Spain) are assessed by means of the WRF-ARW/HERMES/CMAQ modeling system with high spatial-temporal resolution (1 km(2), 1 h). Seven emissions scenarios are defined taking into account the year 2004 vehicle fleet composition of the study areas and groups of vehicles susceptible of change under a realistic perspective. O(3) average concentration rises up to 1.3% in Barcelona and up to 2.5% in Madrid when introducing the emissions scenarios, due to the NO(x) reduction in VOC-controlled areas. Nevertheless, NO(2), PM10 and SO(2) average concentrations decrease, up to 6.1%, 1.5% and 6.6% in Barcelona and up to 20.6%, 8.7% and 14.9% in Madrid, respectively. Concerning SO(2) and PM10 reductions the most effective single scenario is the introduction of 50% of NGV instead of the oldest commercial vehicles; it also reduces NO(2) concentrations in Barcelona, however in Madrid lower levels are attained when substituting 10% of the private cars. This work introduces the WRF-ARW/HERMES/CMAQ modeling system as a useful management tool and proves that the air quality improvement plans must be designed considering the local characteristics.

  7. PREFACE: Lectures from the European RTN Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Fields, Barcelona, 12-16 January 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Jorge G.

    2005-04-01

    This issue of Classical and Quantum Gravity contains the proceedings of the RTN European Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Fields, which was held at the University of Barcelona, Spain, between 12-16 January 2004. The School was part of the RTN programme The Quantum Structure of Spacetime and the Geometric Nature of Fundamental Interactions of the European Union. It was attended by 181 registered participants. The lectures contain a pedagogical introduction to topics in string theory which are currently under active investigation. They were targeted mainly at students near the end of their PhD, and young postdocs and researchers. The topics were carefully selected to cover phenomenological aspects of string theory, covered by the lectures by A Uranga (Intersecting Brane Worlds) and U Danielsson (String Theory and Cosmology), as well as more fundamental and theoretical issues, covered by N Nekrasov (Non-perturbative Aspects of Supersymmetric Gauge Theories), P Townsend (Branes in Field Theory, not included in these proceedings) and Jaume Gomis (Tachyon Condensation: Towards Time Dependent Backgrounds and Holography). We must thank the lecturers for their admirable exposition of these interesting subjects. We hope that the readers of these proceedings receive these lectures with the same enthusiasm as they were received by all students and physicists that attended the School. Following the tradition of the RTN schools there were, in addition to the lectures, five workgroups on more specialized subjects, which aimed to discuss scientific problems of general interest to our network, facilitate communication between the various groups and, hopefully, help start new collaborations. They were Integrable Structures of the Gauge/String Correspondence led by G Arutyunov and B Stefanski Closed Timelike Curves in Supergravity and String Theory led by N Drukker and L Maoz Black Objects in Higher Dimensional General Relativity and Supergravity led by H Elvang and T

  8. The origin of the geothermal anomaly identified in the Barcelona underground (Spain): Future perspectives of this urban geothermal resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ángel Marazuela, Miguel; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Criollo-Manjarrez, Rotman; García-Gil, Alejandro

    2017-04-01

    During the drilling of line 9 of the Barcelona underground (Spain), a geothermal anomaly was detected, in which groundwater temperature was found to be up to 50°C. Previously, during the construction of the Fondo station in Santa Coloma de Gramanet (SCG), temperatures up to 37°C were already detected in this area. To study the feasibility of a future energy exploitation of the geothermal anomaly, a local and regional study is being undertaken. We present the first results of the new study. The objectives of this study were (1) to understand the flux regime of the hydrothermal system on both, local and large scale, (2) to explain the origin of the identified geothermal anomaly in SCG, and (3) to know the quality of the geothermal potential of the underground resources. To achieve these goals, different numerical models of groundwater flow and heat transport were performed. The area of study is constituted mainly of low permeability Palaeozoic granodiorites strongly weathered towards the top (lehm). These materials are affected by two sets of faults: the first one consists of porphyrýs dikes with a SW-NE direction and the second fault family which presents a NW-SE direction (Vázquez-Suñé et al., 2016). In the southeast area, the Quaternary deposits of the Besós River delta overlap these Palaeozoic materials. In spite of being a regional model, all these geological features have been incorporated in a complex mesh with more than 2.5 million finite elements. The results obtained suggest that in the case of SCG, the thermal anomaly found on the surface would have its origin in the rapid ascent of the hot water through these fracturing planes. Understanding the hydrogeothermal operation of the SCG system in detail and its possible temporal evolution will be of great interest for future evaluation, monitoring and management of the geothermal resources found, as well as to understand the interaction of these systems with urban infrastructures. REFERENCES V

  9. [Influence of social inequality, social unrest and extreme poverty on tuberculosis morbidity in the City of Barcelona].

    PubMed

    Díaz de Quijano, E; Brugal, M T; Pasarín, M I; Galdós-Tangüís, H; Caylà, J; Borrell, C

    2001-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to analyse inequalities between tuberculosis/intravenous drug user and tuberculosis/not intravenous drug user among the different neighbourhoods of Barcelona and the relationship to socioeconomic indicators and social/material deprivation indicators throughout the 1990-1995 period. An ecological study which included all cases of tuberculosis among residents of Barcelona, the analysis unit being the neighbourhood. Intravenous drug users within the 15-49 age range and non-intravenous drug users over age 14 were included. The mean annual incidence rate standardized by age was used. The social indicators considered were the inner city areas, unemployment, less than primary education, overcrowding, social unrest and extreme poverty. In the bivariate analysis, the relationship between tuberculosis incidence and the social indicators was studied by means of the Spearman correlation coefficient, and the multivariate analysis by means of the Poisson regression. The incidence rates were higher in the inner city neighbourhoods, followed by the newer outlying working class neighbourhoods in both groups studied, and in other older outlying districts for the non-users of intravenous drugs. Among the intravenous drug user group, the variables related to a greater risk of tuberculosis were: man (RR = 7.42, confidence interval at 95% ICI95%-: 6.16-8.93), age (RR = 61.51, CI95%: 34.64-109.20), unemployment (RR = 1.68, CI95%: 1.51-1.88), social unrest (RR = 1.29, CI 95%: 1.04-1.58), overcrowding (RR = 1.36, CI 95%: 1.19-1.55) and inner city areas (RR = 1.92, CI 95% 1.48-2.50). Among the male non-users of intravenous drugs, no interaction between unemployment and age was found. Neighbourhoods with extreme poverty and inner city neighbourhoods showed a higher risk of tuberculosis (RR = 1.11, CI 95% 1.08-1.135 and RR = 1.80, CI95%: 1.51-2.14). Among the female non-users of intravenous drugs, a relationship was found in those of lesser age (RR = 1

  10. Electronic cigarette use among adult population: a cross-sectional study in Barcelona, Spain (2013-2014).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Ballbè, Montse; Fu, Marcela; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Saltó, Esteve; Gottlieb, Mark; Daynard, Richard; Connolly, Gregory N; Fernández, Esteve

    2014-08-25

    This study seeks to analyse the prevalence and correlates of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, purchase location and satisfaction with its use in a sample of the general population of the city of Barcelona, Spain. We used participants from a longitudinal study of a representative sample of the adult (≥16 years old) population of Barcelona (336 men and 400 women). The field work was conducted between May 2013 and February 2014. We computed the prevalence, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). The prevalence of ever e-cigarette use was 6.5% (95% CI 4.7% to 8.3%): 1.6% current use, 2.2% past use and 2.7% only e-cigarette experimentation. 75% (95% CI 62.8% to 87.3%) of ever e-cigarette users were current cigarette smokers at the moment of the interview. E-cigarette use was more likely among current smokers (OR=54.57; 95% CI 7.33 to 406.38) and highly dependent cigarette smokers (OR=3.96; 95% CI 1.60 to 9.82). 62.5% of the ever users charged their e-cigarettes with nicotine with 70% of them obtaining the liquids with nicotine in a specialised shop. 39.6% of ever e-cigarette users were not satisfied with their use, a similar percentage of not satisfied expressing the smokers (38.9%) and there were no statistically significant differences in the satisfaction between the users of e-cigarettes with and without nicotine. E-cigarette use is strongly associated with current smoking (dual use) and most users continue to be addicted to nicotine. Six out of 10 e-cigarette users preferred devices that deliver nicotine. The satisfaction with e-cigarette use is very low. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. EDITORIAL: Proceedings of the 7th International LISA Symposium, Barcelona, Spain, 16-20 June 2008 Proceedings of the 7th International LISA Symposium, Barcelona, Spain, 16-20 June 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Alberto; Sopuerta, Carlos F.

    2009-05-01

    In June 2006 the LISA International Science Team (LIST) accepted the bid presented by the Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC) to host the 7th International LISA Symposium. This was during its 11th meeting at the University of Maryland, just before the 6th edition of the symposium started at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The 7th International LISA Symposium took place in the city of Barcelona, Spain, 16-20 June, 2008, in the premises of CosmoCaixa, a modern science museum located in the hills near Tibidabo. Almost 240 delegates registered for the event, a record breaking figure compared to previous editions of the symposium. Many of the most renowned world experts in LISA, gravitational wave science, and astronomy, as well as engineers, attended LISA #7 and produced state of the art presentations, while everybody benefited from the opportunity to have live discussions during the week in a friendly environment. The programme included 31 invited plenary lectures in the mornings, and eight parallel sessions in the afternoons. These were classified into seven major areas of research: LISA Technology, LISA PathFinder, LISA PathFinder Data Analysis, LISA Data Analysis, Gravitational Wave Sources, Cosmology and Fundamental Physics with LISA and Other Gravitational Wave Detectors. Abstracts for 138 communications were received, from which a selection was made by the session convenors which would fit time constraints. Up to 63 posters completed the scientific programme. More details on the programme, including some of the talks, can be found at the symposium website:http://www.ice.cat/research/LISA_Symposium. There was, however, a remarkable add-on: Professor Clifford Will delivered a startling presentation to the general public, who completely filled the Auditori—the main conference room, 320 seats—and were invited to ask questions to the speaker who boldly guided them through the daunting world of Black Holes, Waves of Gravity, and other Warped Ideas

  12. Monitoring the occurrence of emerging contaminants in treated wastewater and groundwater between 2008 and 2010. The Baix Llobregat (Barcelona, Spain).

    PubMed

    Cabeza, Y; Candela, L; Ronen, D; Teijon, G

    2012-11-15

    The occurrence of 166 emerging compounds and four heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Hg and Pb) in treated wastewater and groundwater has been monitored at the Llobregat delta (Barcelona, Spain) over a period of 3 years. Selected compounds were pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PCPs), dioxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and priority substances included in the 2008/105/CE Directive. Analysis was performed in tertiary treated wastewater (TWW), after an additional treatment of ultrafiltration reverse osmosis and UV disinfection, and groundwater from a deep confined aquifer. This aquifer is artificially recharged with TWW through injection wells. After the advanced treatment, 38 pharmaceuticals, 9 PCPs, 9 pesticides and 7 PAHs still showed a frequency of detection higher than 25% in the TWW, although at low concentration levels (ng/l). Not all active compounds found in the TWW were present in groundwater, indicating possible degradation within the aquifer media after the injection. A number of chemicals, mainly 10 pesticides and 10 pharmaceuticals were only present in groundwater samples, confirming a different origin than the injected TWW, probably agricultural activities and/or infiltration of poorly treated wastewater.

  13. Evaluating the environmental performance of urban parks in Mediterranean cities: an example from the Barcelona metropolitan region.

    PubMed

    Parés-Franzi, Marc; Saurí-Pujol, David; Domene, Elena

    2006-11-01

    In a context of increasing urban sprawl and water scarcity common to other Mediterranean cities, this article focuses on the urban parks in the Region of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) to examine how these parks are distributed in this region and to assess whether their design and management follow criteria adapted to Mediterranean environmental conditions, especially in what concerns water use. In order to evaluate the environmental performance of these parks, we selected four factors possibly influencing the adoption of park management practices at the local scale: urban density, population size of the municipality, municipal income per capita, and political orientation of the city council. After determining the location and area of urban parks in the region, we correlated these four explanatory factors with several management tasks extracted from two different samples of parks (one of 315 parks and another of 125 parks) and a survey of 86 city councils. Results show that, in general, urban parks were more frequent in large, dense, and left/green municipalities but that environmentally sound practices were more common in small and low-density municipalities. We conclude that changes in certain practices (especially the substitution of high water demanding species) could improve significantly the environmental performance of public spaces in large urban areas with Mediterranean climates. Our observations may be pertinent for other cities interested in the provision of environmental public goods such as parks that necessitate water for irrigation.

  14. [Drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A multicenter study of the Barcelona area. Grupo de Trabajo sobre Resistencias en Tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Martin-Casabona, N; Alcaide, F; Coll, P; González, J; Manterola, J M; Salvadó, M; Caylà, J A

    2000-10-21

    The aims of this multicenter study was to establish the level of primary and acquired drug resistance of M. Tuberculosis strains isolated in Barcelona and to identify possible risk groups using clinical data. All tuberculosis patients with isolation and identification of M. tuberculosis strains from October 1995 to September 1997 were included. Susceptibility tests isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, streptomycin and pyrazinamide were performed using the Bactec 460 system and the proportions method on solid medium. Logistic progression was used for statistical analysis. The total number of patients included was 1,749 (1,535 non-treated and 214 previously treated). Primary drug resistance was 5.7% (isoniazid 3.8%; rifampin 1.0%, streptomycin 2.1%, ethambutol 0.3% and pyrazinamide 1.0%). Acquired drug resistance was 20.5% (isoniazid 17.3%, rifampin 9.8%, ethambutol 1.9%, streptomycin 4.7% and pyrazinamide 6.5%). Primary drug resistance was associated with people over 60 years old and women. The low level of drug resistance enables antituberculosis treatment of non-treated patients to start with the standardised three-drug regimes except in the case of foreign people from countries with a high level of drug resistance. Susceptibility tests are recommended on all M. tuberculosis strains isolated, together with controlled studies of drug resistance surveillance.

  15. Seroprevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infection among HTLV-I infected blood donors in Barcelona, Spain: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Fernando; Sulleiro, Elena; Piron, Maria; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Sauleda, Silvia; Molina, Israel

    2017-09-20

    Strongyloides stercoralis infection in patients with HTLV-I infection may lead to severe clinical manifestations. The aim of the present study is to determine the seroprevalence of S. stercoralis infection among blood donors who tested positive for HTLV-I infection. A cross-sectional study was performed at the Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain) in 2016. Serum samples from HTLV-I positive patients diagnosed from 2008 to 2015 were retrieved from the Blood Bank, and S. stercoralis serology was performed. Thirty six serum samples from HTLV-I positive patients were retrieved from the Blood Bank. The blood samples came from 36 blood donors, and most of them were born in Latin America (75%), being Peru the most frequent country (11 participants). S. stercoralis serology was positive in one patient, corresponding to a prevalence of 2.8% (3.4% if we exclude donors coming from European countries, where the risk of S. stercoralis infection is highly unlikely). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Managing the identification of the mortal victims run over by a train in the Castelldefels railway accident (Barcelona).

    PubMed

    Barbería, Eneko; Martin-Fumadó, Carles; Galtés, Ignasi; Subirana-Domenech, Mercé; Puigbarraca-Sol, Lourdes; Vidal-Gutiérrez, Claudina; Valverde-Villarreal, Juan Luis; Castellà-García, Josep; Medallo-Muñiz, Jordi

    2015-09-01

    The identification of disaster victims is the formal, organized process of identifying multiple bodies after an incident with multiple victims. The appropriate management of these incidents, particularly of the bodies, is one of the most crucial aspects of disaster response and its importance has led to the evolution of the concept of Disaster Victim Management. The aim of this study is to report how the process of identifying the 12 mortal victims of a railway accident in June 2010 in Castelldefels (Barcelona) was managed. The methodology used complied with the National Protocol for medical forensic and scientific police response to mass casualty incidents. The family assistance center also served as an ante mortem (AM) office. Despite the fragmentation of the bodies, all the victims were identified satisfactorily. The main problems observed during the management of the disaster were due to the state of the bodies, which raised many doubts as to the number of fatalities. The experience prompted a proposal to establish some recommendations on limiting the number of fragments to be analyzed genetically. We would like to stress the importance of setting up a Data Integration Center which brought together all the participating institutions, and collected and supervised all the different identification reports in a single comprehensive text addressed to the competent legal authority.

  17. Managing an odour episode in Barcelona's water supply: strategies adopted, the causative agent (diacetyl) and determination of its organoleptic properties.

    PubMed

    Martín-Alonso, J; Devesa, R; Bernal, A; Matia, L

    2007-01-01

    The Llobregat River is a basic drinking water resource for the city of Barcelona, meeting 40% of the demand. The river runs through a densely populated industrial area, so that it has in its history experienced various episodes due to industrial spills. The present work deals with a recent episode involving diacetyl. To the best of our knowledge this episode is the first time that this compound has been identified as an odour-causing compound in water. In a previous work the analytical method used for the identification of the compound causing the episode was described. The present work focuses its attention on how the episode was handled: action taken at the Sant Joan Despi water treatment plant and the sampling strategy on the river that led to the identification of the company responsible for the spill, a paper mill. It also deals with the role played by the FPA panel in the resolution of the episode: organoleptic description of samples of the problem in the initial phase of the episode (from the treatment plant, distribution network and customer complaints) and, once the compound responsible was identified, the determination of its organoleptic characteristics (odour threshold, odour descriptors, Weber-Fechner curve).

  18. Clinical and functional characteristics of patients two years after being affected by the soybean asthma epidemic in Barcelona.

    PubMed Central

    Sabrià, J.; Antó, J. M.; Sunyer, J.; Roca, J.; Morell, F.; Rodríguez-Roisín, R.; Rodrigo, M. J.; Codina, R.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Patients affected during the asthma outbreaks caused by soybean dust inhalation in Barcelona presented with sudden onset of severe asthma followed by the rapid relief of symptoms after treatment. Two years after the epidemics ended, a case-control study was conducted in which the clinical, functional, and immunological characteristics of these asthma patients (a randomised sample of asthmatic patients admitted as emergency cases on epidemic days, n = 213) were compared with those of a control group (a random sample of asthmatic patients admitted as emergency cases for attacks of asthma on non-epidemic days, n = 170). METHODS--The study included the administration of the ATS-DLD78 standardised respiratory questionnaire, the measurement of atopy, and performance of spirometric tests and a methacholine inhalation test. RESULTS--Patients with epidemic asthma reported fewer symptoms of asthma, had attended emergency departments less frequently during the previous year for acute attacks of asthma, were taking fewer inhaled corticosteroids at the time of the study, and attended medical follow up less frequently than did the patients with non-epidemic asthma. However, the cases and controls showed no differences in ventilatory capacity or reactivity to the methacholine bronchoprovocation test. CONCLUSIONS--Two years after the end of the soybean epidemics, people affected by epidemic asthma had a favourable prognosis. This finding contrasts with a higher risk of life threatening asthma and death during the epidemics. This paradox could be the result of a complex interaction between host and conditions of exposure. Images PMID:7940432

  19. Levelling VS. InSAR in Urban Underground Construction Monitoring. Case of la Sagrera Railway Station (barcelona, Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Suñé, E.; Serrano-Juan, A.; Pujades, E.; Crosetto, M.

    2016-12-01

    Construction processes require monitoring to ensure safety and to control the new and existing structures. The most accurate and spread monitoring method to measure displacements is levelling, a point-like surveying technique that tipically allows for tens of discrete in-situ sub-millimetric measures per squared kilometer. Another emerging technique for mapping soil deformation is the Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), which is based on SAR images acquired from orbiting satellites. This remote sensing technique can provide better spatial point density than levelling, more extensive spatial coverage and cheaper acquisitions. This paper analyses, compares and discusses levelling and InSAR measurements when they are used to measure the soil deformation induced by the dewatering associated to underground constructions in urban areas. To do so, an experiment was performed in the future railway station of La Sagrera, Barcelona (Spain), in which levelling and InSAR were used to accurately quantify ground deformation by dewatering. Results showed that soil displacements measured by levelling and InSAR were not always consisting. InSAR measurements were more accurate with respect the soil deformation produced by the dewatering while levelling was really useful to determine the real impact of the construction on the nearby buildings.

  20. [An evaluation of the epidemiological surveillance system for infectious diseases in the Barcelona Olympic Games of 1992].

    PubMed

    Pañella, H; Plasència, A; Sanz, M; Caylà, J A

    1995-01-01

    Due to the 1992 Barcelona Olympic Games some modifications were introduced in the epidemiologic surveillance system for infectious diseases in place in the city, in order to expand its coverage and shorten its timeliness in detecting outbreaks and investigating cases. These modifications were introduced for a group conditions (hepatitis, meningococcal disease, legionnaire's disease and food outbreaks), selected on the basis of incidence, time of the year, previous experience in other settings, and likelihood of outbreak occurrence. In the June-August 1992 period (Olympic period), no increases in the incidence of selected conditions were observed when compared to the same period in 1986 to 1991. Major changes were observed in the source of food outbreak reporting, with a large increase in outbreaks reported by emergency room departments. There was an increase in the number of domestic foodborne outbreaks and a reduction in those related with restaurants. Timeliness in the detection of cases was shortened. The use of similar modifications can be useful for epidemiologic surveillance systems in other comparable settings or occasions.

  1. [PELFI Project: Recruitment and Sociodemographic Characteristics of Immigrant and Autochthonous Families from Alicante and Barcelona City Subcohorts].

    PubMed

    Cayuela-Mateo, Ana; Martínez-Martínez, José Miguel; Ferrer Serret, Laia; Felt, Emily; Casabona I Barbarà, Jordi; Collazos Sanchez, Francisco; Ronda-Pérez, Elena

    2017-02-09

    This study is a part of the multi-centre project "Platform of Longitudinal Studies of Immigrant Families (PELFI)" of the Immigration and Health Subprogram of the CIBER-ESP. It describes the field work and data collection of two sub-cohorts of immigrant and native families, and their main socio-demographic characteristics. Prospective observational cohort study in carried out in Barcelona and Alicante, Spain. The study population is a a non-probabilistic sample of 180 families of Colombian, Ecuadorian and Moroccan origin and 50 families of Spanish origin. We interviewed adults aged 18-65 years and adolescents aged 12-17 years in each family, through two questionnaires (adolescent/adult). The cooperation rate was 82.0% with an average recruitment rate of 1.3 families per day. In total, 250 families have been recruited, 82 from Ecuador, 82 from Colombia, 29 from Morocco and 57 from Spain. A total of 473 adults (59.8% women and 68.5% employed) were surveyed. Immigrant adults have an average of 13 years living in Spain. A total of 304 adolescents (53.9% female, 27.1% born in Spain but with immigrant parents) were surveyed. The combination of non-probabilistic techniques promoted access and improved recruitment speed. This study provides key information for the design and improvement of cohort studies with immigrant families.

  2. Lead exposure in the general population of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona: blood levels and related factors.

    PubMed

    Solé, E; Ballabriga, A; Dominguez, C

    1998-12-11

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on 254 individuals not occupationally exposed to lead to determine the degree of lead exposure in the general population of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. Blood lead levels (BPb) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) by haemofluorimetry. Blood lead levels were analysed with respect to individuals' age, sex, area of residence, the season of the year the blood was drawn and ZPP. Mean blood lead in our series was 0.22 +/- 0.011 mumol/l (mean +/- S.E.); no significant differences were found with respect to area of residence, sex or season. A linear relationship was observed between BPb and individuals' age (BPb = 0.08 + 0.05 x age; r = 0.37). The prevalence of lead intoxication (BPb > 0.48 mumol/l) was 7.1%. No linear relationship was observed between BPb and ZPP. ZPP determination does not appear to be a good screening method for lead intoxication since it presents low specificity and sensitivity values with an area below the ROC curve similar to the null value line (area below the curve = 0.5052, IC 95% = 0.443-0.568). We conclude that lead exposure does not constitute a serious health problem in the area studied, since BPb levels found are far below the toxic limit and the prevalence of intoxication is similar to that reported in other studies conducted in other developed countries.

  3. [Analysis of the epidemiological pattern of Shigellosis in Barcelona between 1988 and 2012: Is it an emerging sexually transmitted infection?].

    PubMed

    Culqui, Dante R; García-de-Olalla-Rizo, Patricia; Alva-Chavez, Kenedy Pedro; Lafuente, Sarah; Rius, Cristina; de Simón, Mercè; Sabater, Sarah; Caylá, Joan A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the evolution and epidemiologic characteristics of shigellosis patients over a 25 year period in a large city. Shigellosis is a notifiable disease in Spain since 1988. Cases are analyzed in Barcelona residents included in the registry between 1988-2012. A descriptive analysis by sex, age, mode of transmission and Shigella species is presented. Trend analysis and time series were performed. Of the 559 cases analyzed, 60.15% were males. A sustained increase was observed in the trend since 2008 in males (p<0,05), especially at the expense of males who had no history of food poisoning or travel to endemic areas. The increasing tendency was greater in males from 21 to 60 years, both for S. flexneri (since 2009), and for S. sonnei (since 2004). In 2012 it was noted that in the men with S. flexneri, the 63% were men who have sex with men. An increased trend was detected in men who had no history of food poisoning or travel to endemic areas. This increase points to a change in the pattern of shigellosis, becoming predominantly male and its main mechanism probably by sexual transmission. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  4. Prospective study of asbestos-related diseases incidence cases in primary health care in an area of Barcelona province

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Asbestos related diseases include a number of conditions due to inhalation of asbestos fibres at work, at home or in the environment, such as pleural mesothelioma, asbestosis and calcified pleural plaques. Few epidemiological studies have established the incidence of asbestos related diseases in our area. The present proposal is based on a retrospective study externally funded in 2005 that is currently taking place in the same area and largely carried out by the same research team. The aim of the study is to achieve a comprehensive and coordinated detection of all new cases of Asbestos Related Diseases presenting to primary care practitioners. Methods/design This is a multicentre, multidisciplinary and pluri-institutional prospective study. Setting 12 municipalities in the Barcelona province within the catchment area of the health facilities that participate in the study. Sample This is a population based study, of all patients presenting with diseases caused by asbestos in the study area. Measurements A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire will be filled in by the trained researchers after interviewing the patients and examining their clinical reports. Discussion Data on the incidence of the different Asbestos Related Diseases in this area will be obtained and the most plausible exposure source and space-time-patient profile will be described. The study will also improve the standardization of patient management, the coordination between health care institutions and the development of preventive activities related with asbestos exposure and disease. PMID:20412567

  5. Barcelona 2002: law, ethics, and human rights. Advancing research and access to HIV vaccines: a framework for action.

    PubMed

    Avrett, Sam

    2002-12-01

    In light of the continuing spread of HIV infection and the devastating impact of the disease on lives, communities, and economies, particularly in the developing world, the investment in new treatments, vaccines, and microbicides has clearly been inadequate. Efforts must be intensified to develop effective HIV vaccines and to ensure that they are accessible to people in all parts of the world. This article is a summary of a paper by Sam Avrett presented at "Putting Third First: Vaccines, Access to Treatments and the Law," a satellite meeting held at Barcelona on 5 July 2002 and organized by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, the AIDS Law Project, South Africa, and the Lawyers Collective HIV/AIDS Unit, India. In the article, Avrett calls for immediate action to increase commitment and funding for HIV vaccines, enhance public support and involvement, accelerate vaccine development, and plan for the eventual delivery of the vaccines. The article briefly outlines steps that governments need to take to implement each of these objectives. The article also provides a menu of potential actions for vaccine advocates to consider as they lobby governments.

  6. Barcelona clinic liver cancer nomogram and others staging/scoring systems in a French hepatocellular carcinoma cohort

    PubMed Central

    Adhoute, Xavier; Pénaranda, Guillaume; Raoul, Jean Luc; Edeline, Julien; Blanc, Jean-Frédéric; Pol, Bernard; Campanile, Manuela; Perrier, Hervé; Bayle, Olivier; Monnet, Olivier; Beaurain, Patrick; Muller, Cyril; Castellani, Paul; Le Treut, Yves Patrice; Bronowicki, Jean Pierre; Bourlière, Marc

    2017-01-01

    AIM To compare the performances of the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) nomogram and others systems (BCLC, HKLC, CLIP, NIACE) for survival prediction in a large hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) French cohort. METHODS Data were collected retrospectively from 01/2007 to 12/2013 in five French centers. Newly diagnosed HCC patients were analyzed. The discriminatory ability, homogeneity ability, prognostic stratification ability Akaike information criterion (AIC) and C-index were compared among scoring systems. RESULTS The cohort included 1102 patients, mostly men, median age 68 [60-74] years with cirrhosis (81%), child-Pugh A (73%), alcohol-related (41%), HCV-related (27%). HCC were multinodular (59%) and vascular invasion was present in 41% of cases. At time of HCC diagnosis BCLC stages were A (17%), B (16%), C (60%) and D (7%). First line HCC treatment was curative in 23.5%, palliative in 59.5%, BSC in 17% of our population. Median OS was 10.8 mo [4.9-28.0]. Each system distinguished different survival prognosis groups (P < 0.0001). The nomogram had the highest discriminatory ability, the highest C-index value. NIACE score had the lowest AIC value. The nomogram distinguished sixteen different prognosis groups. By classifying unifocal large HCC into tumor burden 1, the nomogram was less powerful. CONCLUSION In this French cohort, the BCLC nomogram and the NIACE score provided the best prognostic information, but the NIACE could even help treatment strategies. PMID:28465639

  7. Food-borne zoonotic pathogens and antimicrobial resistance of indicator bacteria in urban wild boars in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Gonzalez, Nora; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Porrero, Concepción M; Mateos, Ana; Domínguez, Lucas; Lavín, Santiago; Serrano, Emmanuel

    2013-12-27

    Wildlife is increasingly abundant in urban environments, but little is known about the zoonotic pathogens carried by these populations. Urban wild boars are of particular concern because this species is well-known as a pathogen reservoir, and thus, we studied selected zoonotic pathogens in urban wild boars in Barcelona, Spain (n=41). Salmonella enterica was found in 5.00% (95% CI 0.61-16.91) and Campylobacter coli in 4.88% (95% CI 0.6-16.53) of the animals. E. coli O157:H7 and C. jejuni were not found. Other thermophilic Campylobacter were moderately prevalent (19.51%, 95% CI 8.82-34.87). Additionally, we screened for antimicrobial resistance in indicator bacteria: resistance was most frequent in Enterococcus faecium (95% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent), followed by Enterococcus faecalis (50%) and Escherichia coli (10%). For the first time resistance to linezolid in bacteria carried by wildlife is reported. These findings pose a concern for public health, and thus, further research is needed on wildlife in urban environments.

  8. Toxic assessment of urban atmospheric particle-bound PAHs: relevance of composition and particle size in Barcelona (Spain).

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Sofia Raquel; van Drooge, Barend L; Reche, Cristina; Guimarães, Laura; Grimalt, Joan O; Barata, Carlos; Piña, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish embryotoxicity and dioxin-like activity levels were tested for particulate air samples from an urban background site in Barcelona (Spain). Samples were collected during 14 months, and maximal values for both biological activities corresponded to samples collected during late autumn months, correlating with elevated PAH levels. Vehicle and combustion emissions appeared as the potentially most toxic sources, whereas total PM mass and mineral content appeared to be poor predictors of the biological activity of the samples. Samples simultaneously collected at different particle size cut-offs (10, 2.5, and 1 μm) did not differ significantly in dioxin-like PAH levels and biological activity, indicating that the sub-micron particle fraction (PM1) concentrated essentially all observed toxicity. Our results support the need for a tighter control on sub-micron particle emissions and show that total PM mass and, particularly, PM10, may not fully characterize the toxic potential of air samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Barcelona 2002: law, ethics, and human rights. Global battle cry: health is a right, not a commodity.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Irene

    2002-12-01

    Health is a fundamental right, not a commodity to be sold at a profit, argues Irene Fernandez in the second Jonathan Mann Memorial Lecture delivered on 8 July 2002 to the XIV International AIDS Conference in Barcelona. Ms Fernandez had to obtain a special permit from the Malaysian government to attend the Conference because she is on trial for having publicly released information about abuse, torture, illness, corruption, and death in Malaysian detention camps for migrants. This article, based on Ms Fernandez' presentation, describes how the policies of the rich world have failed the poor world. According to Ms Fernandez, the policies of globalization and privatization of health care have hindered the ability of developing countries to respond to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The article decries the hypocrisy of the industrialized nations in increasing subsidies to farmers while demanding that the developing world open its doors to Western goods. It points out that the rich nations have failed to live up their foreign aid commitments. The article concludes that these commitments--and the other promises made in the last few years, such as those in the United Nations' Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS--can only become a reality if they are translated into action.

  10. Epidemic soybean asthma and public health: new control systems and initial evaluation in Barcelona, 1996–98

    PubMed Central

    Villalbi, J; Plasencia, A; Manzanera, R; Armengol, R; Anto, J

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the new measures adopted to control the risks from soybean unloading operations in the Port of Barcelona, after an episode of epidemic asthma in June 1996. Methods: After an initial cautionary suspension of all soybean unloading operations, they were subsequently resumed under restrictive criteria for time, flux, simultaneity, and meteorological conditions. Emission filtration systems based on either micro pore size filters or polytetrafluoroethylene membranes on tetratex filters showed promising results. Results: Allergen emission underwent a very important decrease to levels 95% to 98% lower. Emissions from the two plants with unloading operations are in the same order of magnitude as the processing plant that does not unload soybean. Allergen concentration levels presented fluctuations initially, but the new filters decreased mean values; despite increased unloading, allergen levels did not increase—mean allergen levels on unloading days (67 U/m3) and on days without unloading operations (63 U/m3) are similar. A panel of patients detected a cluster of increased symptoms during unloading operations on a day with suboptimal meteorological conditions and comparatively low allergen levels (225–415 U/m3). Since the June 1996 episode, no further asthma outbreak has been detected. Conclusions: The evaluation shows the effectiveness of the new filters in the control of soybean dust emission. With a systematic control programme, industrial soybean operations may function near urban centres without public health risks. These data may be useful in the development of future standards for allergenic agents. PMID:15143112

  11. Physical activity level at work and risk of chronic low back pain: A follow-up in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study.

    PubMed

    Heuch, Ingrid; Heuch, Ivar; Hagen, Knut; Zwart, John-Anker

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity in leisure time seems to reduce the risk of low back pain, but it is not known whether occupational activity, as recorded in a representative working population, produces a higher or lower risk. To study associations between physical activity level at work and risk of chronic low back pain. Associations were examined in a Norwegian prospective study using data from the HUNT2 and HUNT3 surveys carried out in the whole county of Nord-Trøndelag. Participants were 7580 women and 7335 men who supplied information about physical activity level at work. Levels considered were sedentary work, work involving walking but no heavy lifting, work involving walking and heavy lifting, and particularly strenuous physical work. Nobody in the cohort was affected by chronic low back pain at baseline. After 11 years, participants reported whether they suffered from chronic low back pain. Generalized linear modelling with adjustment for potential confounders was applied to assess associations with risk factors. In age-adjusted analyses both women and men showed statistically significant associations between physical activity at work and risk of chronic low back pain, suggesting positive relationships. For particularly strenuous physical work the relative risk of chronic low back pain was 1.30 (95% CI: 1.00-1.71) in women and 1.36 (95% CI 1.17-1.59) in men, compared to sedentary work. Women still showed a general association with activity level after adjustment for education, leisure time physical activity, BMI, smoking and occupational category. In men, the higher risk was only maintained for particularly strenuous work. In this cohort, women had a higher risk of chronic low back pain with work involving walking and heavy lifting or particularly strenuous work, compared to sedentary work. Men participating in particularly strenuous work also experienced a higher risk of chronic low back pain.

  12. Chronic pain and use of opioids: a population-based pharmacoepidemiological study from the Norwegian prescription database and the Nord-Trøndelag health study.

    PubMed

    Fredheim, Olav Magnus S; Mahic, Milada; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Dale, Ola; Romundstad, Pål; Borchgrevink, Petter C

    2014-07-01

    In previous studies on prescription patterns of opioids, accurate data on pain are missing, and previous epidemiological studies of pain lack accurate data on opioid use. The present linkage study, which investigates the relationship between pain and opioid use, is based on accurate individual data from the complete national Norwegian prescription database and the Nord-Trøndelag health study 3, which includes about 46,000 people. Baseline data were collected in 2006 to 2008, and the cohort was followed up for 3 years. Of 14,477 people who reported chronic nonmalignant pain, 85% did not use opioids at all, 3% used opioids persistently, and 12% used opioids occasionally. Even in the group reporting severe or very severe chronic pain, the number not using opioids (2680) was far higher than the number who used opioids persistently (304). However, three quarters of people using opioids persistently reported strong or very strong pain in spite of the medication. Risk factors for the people with chronic pain who were not persistent opioid users at baseline to use opioids persistently 3 years later were occasional use of opioids, prescription of >100 defined daily doses per year of benzodiazepines, physical inactivity, reports of strong pain intensity, and prescription of drugs from 8 or more Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical groups. The study showed that most people having chronic nonmalignant pain are not using opioids, even if the pain is strong or very strong. However, the vast majority of patients with persistent opioid use report strong or very strong pain in spite of opioid treatment.

  13. Inverse relationship between type 1 diabetes mellitus and migraine. Data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Surveys 1995-1997 and 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Knut; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Midthjell, Kristian; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Zwart, John-Anker; Linde, Mattias

    2017-01-01

    Aims The aim of this cross-sectional population-based study was to investigate the associations between migraine and type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods We used data from the second (1995-1997) and third survey (2006-2008) in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study. Analyses were made for the 26,121 participants (30-97 years of age, median 58.3 years) with known headache and DM status in both surveys, and for the 39,584 participants in the third survey (20-97 years, median 54.1 years). The diagnosis of migraine was given to those who fulfilled the questionnaire-based migraine diagnosis in the second and/or third survey. Associations were assessed using multiple logistic regression, estimating prevalence odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results In the multivariate analysis of the 26,121 participants in both surveys, adjusting for age, gender, years of education, and smoking, classical type 1 DM (n = 81) was associated with a lower prevalence of any headache (OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.34-0.88),and migraine (OR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.26-0.96) compared to those without DM (n = 24,779). Correspondingly, the merged group of classical type 1 DM and latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA) (n = 153) were less likely to have migraine (OR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.31-0.91). Similarly, an inverse relationship between type 1 DM and migraine was found in analyses of 39,584 participants in the third survey. No clear association was found between headache and type 2 DM. Conclusions In this cross-sectional population-based study of mainly middle-aged participants, type 1 DM was inversely associated with headache, in particular migraine.

  14. Migraine, headache and development of metabolic syndrome: an 11-year follow-up in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT).

    PubMed

    Winsvold, Bendik Slagsvold; Sandven, Irene; Hagen, Knut; Linde, Mattias; Midthjell, Kristian; Zwart, John-Anker

    2013-08-01

    Migraine with aura is associated with an increased incidence of stroke and cardiovascular disease, but the biological mechanisms are poorly understood. This study examined the incidence of metabolic syndrome and its relationship to migraine with and without aura and to nonmigraine headache. In the population-based the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT), 19,895 individuals were followed for the development of metabolic syndrome, with a median follow-up time of 11.3 years. Headache diagnoses were based on a validated headache questionnaire, and metabolic syndrome was based on a modified version of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria, using objective anthropometric measurements and blood biochemistry. Using the Poisson regression model, migraine with aura was associated with an increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome. The effect was modified by smoking, with an adjusted incident risk ratio (IRR) among smokers of 2.10 (95% CI 1.53-2.89) and among nonsmokers of 1.39 (95% CI 1.03-1.86), when compared to headache-free controls. A moderate risk increase was seen for migraine without aura (IRR 1.26, 95% CI 1.12-1.42) and nonmigraine headache (IRR 1.22, 95% CI 1.13-1.32), not modified by smoking. The results suggest that traditional risk factors may be one of the mechanisms through which migraine with aura is linked to an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. A heightened vigilance concerning cardiovascular risk factors in this patient group may be warranted. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The impact of headache and chronic musculoskeletal complaints on the risk of insomnia: longitudinal data from the Nord-Trøndelag health study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A strong relationship between insomnia and painful disorders has been found, but it is still unclear whether chronic pain leads to insomnia. There is a need of large-scale prospective studies to evaluate if there is a causal relationship between painful disorders and insomnia. Methods All inhabitants aged ≥ 20 years in Nord-Trøndelag County of Norway were invited to participate in two surveys (n = 92,566 and 93,860, respectively). 27,185 subjects participated in both surveys, and 19,271 of these were insomnia-free at baseline (population at risk). Using logistic regression, we evaluated the influence of headache, CMSCs and coexisting headache and CMSCs on the subsequent risk of insomnia. Results Compared to subjects without headache and CMSCs, there was an increased risk of insomnia among those with headache, most pronounced among those with headache ≥ 7 days / month (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.9 – 2.6). Similarly, an increased risk among those with CMSCs was found, most evident for those with widespread CMSCs (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.8 – 2.2). Having coexistent CMSCs and headache (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.8 – 2.2) predisposed more strongly to insomnia than having headache (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.3 – 1.6) and CMSCs (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.4 – 1.7) alone. Conclusion In this prospective study headache and CMSCs were risk factors for insomnia 11 years later. PMID:23566158

  16. Educational inequalities in disability pensioning - the impact of illness and occupational, psychosocial, and behavioural factors: The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT).

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Sara Marie; Ernstsen, Linda; Krokstad, Steinar; Westin, Steinar

    2012-03-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in disability pensioning are well established, but we know little about the causes. The main aim of this study was to disentangle educational inequalities in disability pensioning in Norwegian women and men. The baseline data consisted of 32,948 participants in the Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (1995-97), 25-66 years old, without disability pension, and in paid work. Additional analyses were made for housewives and unemployed/laid-off persons. Information on the occurrence of disability pension was obtained from the National Insurance Administration database up to 2008. Data analyses were performed using Cox regression. We found considerable educational inequalities in disability pensioning, and the incidence proportion by 2008 was higher in women (25-49 years 11%, 50-66 years 30%) than men (25-49 years 6%, 50-66 years 24%). Long-standing limiting illness and occupational, psychosocial, and behavioural factors were not sufficient to explain the educational inequalities: young men with primary education had a hazard ratio of 3.1 (95% CI 2.3-4.3) compared to young men with tertiary education. The corresponding numbers for young women were 2.7 (2.1-3.1). We found small educational inequalities in the oldest women in paid work and no inequalities in the oldest unemployed/laid-off women and housewives. Illness and occupational, psychosocial, and behavioural factors explained some of the educational inequalities in disability pensioning. However, considerable inequalities remain after accounting for these factors. The higher incidence of disability pensioning in women than men and the small or non-existing educational inequalities in the oldest women calls for a gender perspective in future research.

  17. Hypertension in Pregnancy and Offspring Cardiovascular Risk in Young Adulthood: Prospective and Sibling Studies in the HUNT Study (Nord-Trøndelag Health Study) in Norway.

    PubMed

    Alsnes, Ingvild V; Vatten, Lars J; Fraser, Abigail; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Romundstad, Pål R; Åsvold, Bjørn O

    2017-04-01

    Women with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are at increased lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease. We examined the offspring's cardiovascular risk profile in young adulthood and their siblings' cardiovascular risk profile. From the HUNT study (Nord-Trøndelag Health Study) in Norway, 15 778 participants (mean age: 29 years), including 210 sibling groups, were linked to information from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Blood pressure, anthropometry, serum lipids, and C-reactive protein were assessed. Seven hundred and six participants were born after exposure to maternal hypertension in pregnancy: 336 mothers had gestational hypertension, 343 had term preeclampsia, and 27 had preterm preeclampsia. Offspring whose mothers had hypertension in pregnancy had 2.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.8-3.5) mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure, 1.5 (0.9-2.1) mm Hg higher diastolic blood pressure, 0.66 (0.31-1.01) kg/m(2) higher body mass index, and 1.49 (0.65-2.33) cm wider waist circumference, compared with offspring of normotensive pregnancies. Similar differences were observed for gestational hypertension and term preeclampsia. Term preeclampsia was also associated with higher concentrations of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.14 mmol/L, 0.03-0.25) and triglycerides (0.13 mmol/L, 0.06-0.21). Siblings born after a normotensive pregnancy had nearly identical risk factor levels as siblings born after maternal hypertension. Offspring born after maternal hypertension in pregnancy have a more adverse cardiovascular risk profile in young adulthood than offspring of normotensive pregnancies. Their siblings, born after a normotensive pregnancy, have a similar risk profile, suggesting that shared genes or lifestyle may account for the association, rather than an intrauterine effect. All children of mothers who have experienced hypertension in pregnancy may be at increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease.

  18. Occupational noise exposure, hearing loss, and notched audiograms in the HUNT Nord-Trøndelag hearing loss study, 1996-1998.

    PubMed

    Lie, Arve; Engdahl, Bo; Hoffman, Howard J; Li, Chuan-Ming; Tambs, Kristian

    2017-06-01

    To study the prevalence and usefulness of audiometric notches in the diagnosis of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Audiograms and data on noise exposure from 23,297 men and 26,477 women, aged 20 to 101 years, from the Nord-Trøndelag Hearing Loss Study, 1996-1998. The prevalence of four types of audiometric notches (Coles, Hoffman, Wilson) and 4 kHz notch were computed in relation to occupational noise exposure, age, sex, and report of recurrent ear infections. The prevalence of notches in the 3 to 6 kHz range (Wilson, Hoffman, and Coles) ranged from 50% to 60% in subjects without occupational noise exposure, and 60% to 70% in the most occupationally noise-exposed men. The differences were statistically significant only for bilateral notches. For 4 kHz notches, the prevalence varied from 25% in occupationally nonexposed to 35% in the most occupationally exposed men, and the differences were statistically significant for both bilateral and unilateral notches. For women, the prevalence of notches was lower than in men, especially for 4 kHz notches, and the differences between occupationally noise exposed and nonexposed were smaller. Recreational exposure to high music was not associated with notched audiograms. The detection of bilateral notches and unilateral 4 kHz notches is of some value in diagnosing NIHL, especially in men. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:1442-1450, 2017. © 2016 The Authors. The Laryngoscope published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society Inc, “The Triological Society” and American Laryngological Association (ALA).

  19. Seasonal variation of atmospheric particle number concentrations, new particle formation and atmospheric oxidation capacity at the high Arctic site Villum Research Station, Station Nord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Quynh T.; Glasius, Marianne; Sørensen, Lise L.; Jensen, Bjarne; Skov, Henrik; Birmili, Wolfram; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Kristensson, Adam; Nøjgaard, Jacob K.; Massling, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    This work presents an analysis of the physical properties of sub-micrometer aerosol particles measured at the high Arctic site Villum Research Station, Station Nord (VRS), northeast Greenland, between July 2010 and February 2013. The study focuses on particle number concentrations, particle number size distributions and the occurrence of new particle formation (NPF) events and their seasonality in the high Arctic, where observations and characterization of such aerosol particle properties and corresponding events are rare and understanding of related processes is lacking.A clear accumulation mode was observed during the darker months from October until mid-May, which became considerably more pronounced during the prominent Arctic haze months from March to mid-May. In contrast, nucleation- and Aitken-mode particles were predominantly observed during the summer months. Analysis of wind direction and wind speed indicated possible contributions of marine sources from the easterly side of the station to the observed summertime particle number concentrations, while southwesterly to westerly winds dominated during the darker months. NPF events lasting from hours to days were mostly observed from June until August, with fewer events observed during the months with less sunlight, i.e., March, April, September and October. The results tend to indicate that ozone (O3) might be weakly anti-correlated with particle number concentrations of the nucleation-mode range (10-30 nm) in almost half of the NPF events, while no positive correlation was observed. Calculations of air mass back trajectories using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model for the NPF event days suggested that the onset or interruption of events could possibly be explained by changes in air mass origin. A map of event occurrence probability was computed, indicating that southerly air masses from over the Greenland Sea were more likely linked to those events.

  20. A 15-Year Follow-Up Study of Sense of Humor and Causes of Mortality: The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study.

    PubMed

    Romundstad, Solfrid; Svebak, Sven; Holen, Are; Holmen, Jostein

    2016-04-01

    Associations between the sense of humor and survival in relation to specific diseases has so far never been studied. We conducted a 15-year follow-up study of 53,556 participants in the population-based Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, Norway. Cognitive, social, and affective components of the sense of humor were obtained, and associations with all-cause mortality, mortality due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD), infections, cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases were estimated by hazard ratios (HRs). After multivariate adjustments, high scores on the cognitive component of the sense of humor were significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality in women (HR = 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.33-0.81), but not in men (HR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.59-1.32). Mortality due to CVD was significantly lower in women with high scores on the cognitive component (HR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.15-0.47), and so was mortality due to infections both in men (HR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.09-0.74) and women (HR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.04-0.76). The social and affective components of the sense of humor were not associated with mortality. In the total population, the positive association between the cognitive component of sense of humor and survival was present until the age of 85 years. The cognitive component of the sense of humor is positively associated with survival from mortality related to CVD and infections in women and with infection-related mortality in men. The findings indicate that sense of humor is a health-protecting cognitive coping resource.

  1. The Effects of Particulate Matter Sources on Daily Mortality: A Case-Crossover Study of Barcelona, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Aurelio; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Amato, Fulvio; Pey, Jorge; Pérez, Noemí; Sunyer, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dozens of studies link acute exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution with premature mortality and morbidity, but questions remain about which species and sources in the vast PM mixture are responsible for the observed health effects. Although a few studies exist on the effects of species and sources in U.S. cities, European cities—which have a higher proportion of diesel engines and denser urban populations—have not been well characterized. Information on the effects of specific sources could aid in targeting pollution control and in articulating the biological mechanisms of PM. Objectives: Our study examined the effects of various PM sources on daily mortality for 2003 through 2007 in Barcelona, a densely populated city in the northeast corner of Spain. Methods: Source apportionment for PM ≤ 2.5 μm and ≤ 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5 and PM10) using positive matrix factorization identified eight different factors. Case-crossover regression analysis was used to estimate the effects of each factor. Results: Several sources of PM2.5, including vehicle exhaust, fuel oil combustion, secondary nitrate/organics, minerals, secondary sulfate/organics, and road dust, had statistically significant associations (p < 0.05) with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Also, in some cases relative risks for a respective interquartile range increase in concentration were higher for specific sources than for total PM2.5 mass. Conclusions: These results along with those from our multisource models suggest that traffic, sulfate from shipping and long-range transport, and construction dust are important contributors to the adverse health effects linked to PM. PMID:21846610

  2. Extended screening of Trypanosoma cruzi among the offspring of infected women. Barcelona North metropolitan area, Catalonia (Spain), 2005-2016.

    PubMed

    Alcántara Román, Albert; Valerio Sallent, Lluís; Pérez Quílez, Olga; Roure Díez, Sílvia; Moreno Millán, Nemesio; Villanova Sanfeliu, Xavier; Martinez Cuevas, Octavi

    2017-07-06

    To date, very little data is available on the extensive, familiar, serological screening of Trypanosoma cruzi from infected-index cases. As it is a parasite with possibility of mother-to-child fetal transmission, the study of the offspring of chronically infected women has a special relevance. An observational study using a capture-recapture method that evaluates the offspring serological status of women diagnosed with T. cruzi infection (positive serology) in the northern metropolitan area of Barcelona during 2005-2016. A total of 238 women with positive serology for T. cruzi were identified. Of these, 117 (49.2%) could be localized. Their offspring summarized 300 individuals, of which 192 (64%) had serology records, with 23 positive for T. cruzi (11.98%; CI95%: 8.1-17.3). Among the 53 children born within the study area, 5 (9.8%, CI95%: 4.2-20.9) cases of vertical transmission were recorded. All children born as of 2010 (the starting year of mother screening) had serological outputs. Offspring of T. cruzi-seropositive women showed a high rate of seropositivity. The prevalence of vertical transmission is also remarkably high but comparable to that obtained in other European studies. The main source of loss was non-accessible women. It is reasonable to formaly include extensive, familiar, serological assessment in Chagas screening guidelines. In order to avoid losses, any eventual screening should be implemented at the time of the maternal diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  3. Survival comparison between surgical resection and percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for patients in Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer early stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kiong-Ming; Yeh, Ming-Lun; Chuang, Shih-Chung; Wang, Liang-Yen; Lin, Zu-Yau; Chen, Shinn-Cherng; Tsai, Jung-Fa; Wang, Shen-Nien; Kuo, Kung-Kai; Dai, Chia-Yen; Yu, Ming-Lung; Lee, King-The; Chuang, Wan-Long

    2013-07-01

    To compare the survival outcome between surgical resection (SR) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The retrospective study enrolled eighty-two patients with newly diagnosed BCLC early HCC (single nodule, size ≦3 cm, and Child-Pugh class A) treated either surgically (n = 46) or with RFA (n = 36) from year 2004 to 2009. The patients' survival outcomes were compared. There were no significant differences in overall survival (OS) rates between SR and RFA (p = 0.204). The 3- and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 65.8 % and 53.7 % respectively, in the SR group, which were significantly higher than those in the RFA group (34.8 % and 14.9 % respectively) (p = 0.009 and p = 0.001). In subgroup analysis, the DFS was similar between RFA and SR in patients with presentation of lower platelet count (≦100,000/mL) and smaller tumor size (tumor size ≦1 cm). Multivariate analysis showed SR as a procedure type was a significant predictive factor for DFS [HR = 2.26 (CI 1.462-5.227), p = 0.002]. SR yielded similar OS but better DFS when compared to RFA for patients with BCLC early HCC (single nodule, ≦3 cm and Child-Pugh class A). In subgroup patients with lower platelet count (≦100,000/mL) and smaller tumor size (tumor size ≦1 cm), DFS was similar between both treatments.

  4. Chagas Disease among the Latin American Adult Population Attending in a Primary Care Center in Barcelona, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Roca, Carme; Pinazo, María Jesús; López-Chejade, Paolo; Bayó, Joan; Posada, Elizabeth; López-Solana, Jordi; Gállego, Montserrat; Portús, Montserrat; Gascón, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims The epidemiology of Chagas disease, until recently confined to areas of continental Latin America, has undergone considerable changes in recent decades due to migration to other parts of the world, including Spain. We studied the prevalence of Chagas disease in Latin American patients treated at a health center in Barcelona and evaluated its clinical phase. We make some recommendations for screening for the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed an observational, cross-sectional prevalence study by means of an immunochromatographic test screening of all continental Latin American patients over the age of 14 years visiting the health centre from October 2007 to October 2009. The diagnosis was confirmed by serological methods: conventional in-house ELISA (cELISA), a commercial kit (rELISA) and ELISA using T cruzi lysate (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics) (oELISA). Of 766 patients studied, 22 were diagnosed with T. cruzi infection, showing a prevalence of 2.87% (95% CI, 1.6–4.12%). Of the infected patients, 45.45% men and 54.55% women, 21 were from Bolivia, showing a prevalence in the Bolivian subgroup (n = 127) of 16.53% (95% CI, 9.6–23.39%). All the infected patients were in a chronic phase of Chagas disease: 81% with the indeterminate form, 9.5% with the cardiac form and 9.5% with the cardiodigestive form. All patients infected with T. cruzi had heard of Chagas disease in their country of origin, 82% knew someone affected, and 77% had a significant history of living in adobe houses in rural areas. Conclusions We found a high prevalence of T. cruzi infection in immigrants from Bolivia. Detection of T. cruzi–infected persons by screening programs in non-endemic countries would control non-vectorial transmission and would benefit the persons affected, public health and national health systems. PMID:21572511

  5. [Decreasing incidence of perinatal group B streptococcal disease (Barcelona 1994-2002). Relation with hospital prevention policies].

    PubMed

    Andreu, Antonia; Sanfeliu, Isabel; Viñas, Lluis; Barranco, Margarita; Bosch, Jordi; Dopico, Eva; Guardia, Celia; Juncosa, Teresa; Lite, Josep; Matas, Lurdes; Sánchez, Ferrán; Sierr, Montse

    2003-04-01

    To analyze the incidence of perinatal sepsis due to group B streptococcus (GBS) as related to compliance with recommendations for its prevention issued by the Catalan Societies for Obstetrics, for Pediatrics, and for Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology in 1997. The study was conducted from 1994 to 2001 in 10 Barcelona-area hospitals, where 157,848 live infants were born. GBS disease was diagnosed in 129 neonates. Incidence decreased by 86.1% over the study period, from 1.92 cases per 1000 live births in 1994 to 0.26 per 1000 in 2001 (p < 0.001). Changes in the characteristics of perinatal GBS disease were observed in the 18 cases diagnosed in the last 3 years, the time when prevention policies were operative. The incidence was lower (0.28 per 1000 vs. 1.19 for the previous 5 years, p <.00006), the proportion of mothers without risk factors was greater (77.8% vs. 55.9%, p 5 0.009), and premature neonates were not affected (0% vs. 12.6%, p 5 0.003); nevertheless, mortality was similar (5.5% vs. 4.5%, p 5 0.8). Among these 18 cases of sepsis, 9 can be considered failures inherent to the prevention policy and 9 failures of compliance. Only 3 hospitals had prevention policies in 1994, whereas all 10 used intrapartum prophylaxis based on screening results in 2001. A substantial decrease in the incidence of perinatal GBS disease coinciding with the application of prevention measures for this pathology has been registered in 10 participating hospitals over the 1994-2001 period.

  6. [Antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy carrier individuals in primary care in Barcelona area].

    PubMed

    Llor, Carles; Boada, Albert; Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Grenzner, Elisabet; Juvé, Rosa; Almeda, Jesús

    2017-04-13

    The information available on antibiotic resistance patterns are generally based on specimens from hospitalised individuals. This study was aimed at evaluating the antibiotic resistance rate of nasal carriage strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy individuals, in accordance with age and gender, attended in Primary Care Centres (PCC). Cross-sectional study. Seven PCC in the Barcelona area. Healthy nasal carriers aged 4years or more who did not present with any sign of infectious disease, and had not taken any antibiotic or had been hospitalised in the previous 3months. A total of 3,969 nasal swabs valid for identification were collected between 2010 and 2011 and were sent to one central microbiological laboratory for isolation of both pathogens. Resistance to common antibiotics was determined on the basis of the current European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing guidelines on cut-off points. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant S.aureus was 1.3% (95%CI: 0.5-2.1%), with resistance rates of 87.1% to phenoxymethylpenicillin and 11.6% to azithromycin, with no significant differences with age and gender. A total of 2.4% (95CI%: 0.1-4.7%) of the pneumococcal strains were highly resistant to both phenoxymethylpenicillin and macrolides, whereas the highest resistance rates were to cefaclor (53.3%), followed by tetracycline (20%) and cefuroxime (12.1%). These pathogens have lower resistance rates in the community than in the hospital setting. Primary Care physicians must be more aware of the current antimicrobial resistance, in order to ensure prudent use of antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Knowledge, aptitudes, and preferences in implant dentistry teaching/training among undergraduate dental students at the University of Barcelona

    PubMed Central

    Berástegui-Jimeno, Esther; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2017-01-01

    Background Oral implant rehabilitation should be considered a treatment option for any edentulous patient and Implant Dentistry is currently a discipline taught in the undergraduate formation. The level of knowledge acquired and how the students perceive the quality of training in Implant Dentistry could assess to know if it is necessary to improve the syllabus. Material and Methods A questionnaire was developed with 11 questions: Basic knowledge (7); Perception of training received (2); Ways in which students would receive training (2). To be responded anonymously and voluntarily for undergraduates students in the Faculty of Dentistry (University of Barcelona, Spain). Results One hundred and seven students, 76 third year (Group A) and 31 fourth year (Group B) answered the questionnaire. In Group A, 98.68% of students and in Group B 93.54% believed they were poorly informed; 100% of both groups would prefer to receive more training as part of the degree or as postgraduate training through modular courses imparted by experts (A: 71,05%, B: 70,96%) Training through postgraduate programs or training given by private businesses were the least desirable options (A: 42%, B: 64.51%). Questions about basic knowledge acquired received varying responses, which might indicate a certain level of confusion in this area. Conclusions The undergraduate syllabus must be revised to include sufficient content and training to allow the student to indicate implant-based treatments based on evidence. Students would prefer training to be included in the undergraduate syllabus. Key words:Dental implants, dental students, dental education, dental syllabus, implant dentistry. PMID:28578375

  8. Nanoparticle tracking analysis characterisation and parts-per-quadrillion determination of fullerenes in river samples from Barcelona catchment area.

    PubMed

    Sanchís, Josep; Bosch-Orea, Cristina; Farré, Marinella; Barceló, Damià

    2015-06-01

    In the present work, the analysis of seven fullerenes (C60 and C70 fullerenes and five functionalised fullerenes) has been performed in river samples collected in the vicinities of Barcelona (Catalonia, NE of Spain). The results of 48 samples (25 river waters, 12 river sediments and 11 wastewater effluents) are presented. Extracts of river water, river sediments and wastewater effluents were analysed by liquid chromatography (LC), using a pyrenylpropyl group bonded silica based column, coupled to a high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRMS), using a dual ion source, atmospheric pressure photoionisation/atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation source (APPI/APCI). The novel methodology presents good chromatographic separation, excellent selectivity and instrumental limits of quantification (ILOQ) in the femtogram order. Method limits of quantification (MLOQ) ranged from 2.9 to 17 pg/l and from 3.2 to 31 pg/l in surface waters and wastewaters, respectively. In wastewater effluents, the sums of C60 and C70 ranged from 0.5 to 9.3 ng/l. In surface waters, C60 fullerene was the most ubiquitous compound, being detected in 100% of the samples in concentrations from 31 pg/l to 4.5 ng/l, while C70 concentrations ranged from less than the method limits of detection (MLOD) to 1.5 ng/l. The presence of fullerenes in both the large particulate (diameter Ø > 450 nm) and the colloidal (Ø < 450 nm) fractions of surface waters should be noticed. In sediments, the concentrations of fullerenes were between the MLOD and 34.4 pg/g. In addition, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) was used for the characterisation of water samples in terms of nanoparticle number concentration and size distribution. As far as our knowledge is concerned, this is the first time that NTA has been used for the characterisation of complex river waters with an environmental focus.

  9. Chagas disease among the Latin American adult population attending in a primary care center in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Roca, Carme; Pinazo, María Jesús; López-Chejade, Paolo; Bayó, Joan; Posada, Elizabeth; López-Solana, Jordi; Gállego, Montserrat; Portús, Montserrat; Gascón, Joaquim

    2011-04-26

    The epidemiology of Chagas disease, until recently confined to areas of continental Latin America, has undergone considerable changes in recent decades due to migration to other parts of the world, including Spain. We studied the prevalence of Chagas disease in Latin American patients treated at a health center in Barcelona and evaluated its clinical phase. We make some recommendations for screening for the disease. We performed an observational, cross-sectional prevalence study by means of an immunochromatographic test screening of all continental Latin American patients over the age of 14 years visiting the health centre from October 2007 to October 2009. The diagnosis was confirmed by serological methods: conventional in-house ELISA (cELISA), a commercial kit (rELISA) and ELISA using T cruzi lysate (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics) (oELISA). Of 766 patients studied, 22 were diagnosed with T. cruzi infection, showing a prevalence of 2.87% (95% CI, 1.6-4.12%). Of the infected patients, 45.45% men and 54.55% women, 21 were from Bolivia, showing a prevalence in the Bolivian subgroup (n=127) of 16.53% (95% CI, 9.6-23.39%). ALL THE INFECTED PATIENTS WERE IN A CHRONIC PHASE OF CHAGAS DISEASE: 81% with the indeterminate form, 9.5% with the cardiac form and 9.5% with the cardiodigestive form. All patients infected with T. cruzi had heard of Chagas disease in their country of origin, 82% knew someone affected, and 77% had a significant history of living in adobe houses in rural areas. We found a high prevalence of T. cruzi infection in immigrants from Bolivia. Detection of T. cruzi-infected persons by screening programs in non-endemic countries would control non-vectorial transmission and would benefit the persons affected, public health and national health systems.

  10. Research and development of a gamma-ray imaging spectrometer in the MeV range in Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, José-Manuel; Galvez, José-Luis; Hernanz, Margarita; Isern, Jordi; Lozano, Manuel; Pellegrini, Giulio; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Cabruja, Enric; Ullán, Miguel

    2010-07-01

    Gamma-ray astrophysics in the MeV energy range plays an important role for the understanding of cosmic explosions and acceleration mechanisms in a variety of galactic and extragalactic sources, e.g., Supernovae, Classical Novae, Supernova Remnants (SNRs), Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), Pulsars, Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Through the development of focusing telescopes in the MeV energy range, it will be possible to reach unprecedented sensitivities, compared with those of the currently operating gamma ray telescopes. In order to achieve the needed performance, a detector with mm spatial resolution and very high peak efficiency is required. It will be also desirable that the detector could detect polarization of the source. Our research and development activities in Barcelona aim to study a gamma-ray imaging spectrometer in the MeV range suited for the focal plane of a gamma-ray telescope mission, based on CdTe pixel detectors arranged in multiple layers with increasing thicknesses, to enhance gamma-ray absorption in the Compton regime. We have developed an initial prototype based on several CdTe module detectors, with 11x11 pixels, a pixel pitch of 1mm and a thickness of 2mm. Each pixel is stud-bump bonded to a fanout board and routed to a readout ASIC to measure pixel position, pulse height and rise time information for each incident gamma-ray photon. We will report on the results of an optimization study based on simulations, to select the optimal thickness of each CdTe detector within the module to get the best energy resolution of the spectrometer.

  11. Implementation of the Barcelona Basic Model into TOUGH-FLAC for simulations of the geomechanical behavior of unsaturated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, J.; Ijiri, Y.; Yamamoto, H.

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents the implementation of the Barcelona Basic Model (BBM) into the TOUGH-FLAC simulator analyzing the geomechanical behavior of unsaturated soils. We implemented the BBM into TOUGH-FLAC by (1) extending an existing FLAC{sup 3D} module for the Modified Cam-Clay (MCC) model in FLAC{sup 3D} and (2) adding computational routines for suction-dependent strain and net stress (i.e., total stress minus gas pressure) for unsaturated soils. We implemented a thermo-elasto-plastic version of the BBM, wherein the soil strength depends on both suction and temperature. The implementation of the BBM into TOUGH-FLAC was verified and tested against several published numerical model simulations and laboratory experiments involving the coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) behavior of unsaturated soils. The simulation tests included modeling the mechanical behavior of bentonite-sand mixtures, which are being considered as back-fill and buffer materials for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel. We also tested and demonstrated the use of the BBM and TOUGH-FLAC for a problem involving the coupled THM processes within a bentonite-backfilled nuclear waste emplacement tunnel. The simulation results indicated complex geomechanical behavior of the bentonite backfill, including a nonuniform distribution of buffer porosity and density that could not be captured in an alternative, simplified, linear-elastic swelling model. As a result of the work presented in this paper, TOUGH-FLAC with BBM is now fully operational and ready to be applied to problems associated with nuclear waste disposal in bentonite-backfilled tunnels, as well as other scientific and engineering problems related to the mechanical behavior of unsaturated soils.

  12. The effects of particulate matter sources on daily mortality: a case-crossover study of Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Ostro, Bart; Tobias, Aurelio; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Amato, Fulvio; Pey, Jorge; Pérez, Noemí; Sunyer, Jordi

    2011-12-01

    Dozens of studies link acute exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution with premature mortality and morbidity, but questions remain about which species and sources in the vast PM mixture are responsible for the observed health effects. Although a few studies exist on the effects of species and sources in U.S. cities, European cities-which have a higher proportion of diesel engines and denser urban populations-have not been well characterized. Information on the effects of specific sources could aid in targeting pollution control and in articulating the biological mechanisms of PM. Our study examined the effects of various PM sources on daily mortality for 2003 through 2007 in Barcelona, a densely populated city in the northeast corner of Spain. Source apportionment for PM ≤ 2.5 μm and ≤ 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5 and PM10) using positive matrix factorization identified eight different factors. Case-crossover regression analysis was used to estimate the effects of each factor. Several sources of PM2.5, including vehicle exhaust, fuel oil combustion, secondary nitrate/organics, minerals, secondary sulfate/organics, and road dust, had statistically significant associations (p < 0.05) with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Also, in some cases relative risks for a respective interquartile range increase in concentration were higher for specific sources than for total PM2.5 mass. These results along with those from our multisource models suggest that traffic, sulfate from shipping and long-range transport, and construction dust are important contributors to the adverse health effects linked to PM.

  13. Secondhand smoke risk perception and smoke-free rules in homes: a cross-sectional study in Barcelona (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; Ballbè, Montse; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Martínez, Cristina; Fernández, Esteve

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe the voluntary adoption of smoke-free homes in Spain among general population and to identify variables associated with its voluntary adoption. Methods Cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n=731) of the adult population (>26 years) of Barcelona, Spain, in 2013–2014. We defined smoking rules inside the households as complete indoor rules (when smoking was not allowed inside the house), and partial or absent indoor rules (when smoking was allowed in some designated places inside the house or when smoking was allowed everywhere) and described them according to the perceived risk of the secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. We calculated the prevalence and prevalence ratios (PR) according to sociodemographic variables. Results 57.4% of households had complete indoor smoke-free rules. The prevalence of households with complete indoor rules was higher among women (PRa: 1.15; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.33), married (PRa: 1.18; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.38), never-smokers (PRa: 2.68; 95% CI 2.06 to 3.50) and in households where a minor lived (PRa: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.20–1.65). Believe that breathing tobacco smoke from smokers is dangerous for non-smokers (PRa: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.06–2.97) is associated with the voluntary adoption of complete indoor smoke-free home. Conclusions Risk perceptions of SHS exposure were associated with the voluntary adoption of indoor smoke-free homes. PMID:28104712

  14. Food consumption frequency and excess body weight in adolescents in the context of financial crisis in Barcelona (Spain).

    PubMed

    Arechavala, Teresa; Continente, Xavier; Pérez-Giménez, Anna; Bartoll, Xavier; Sànchez-Martínez, Francesca; López, María José

    To describe food consumption frequency in adolescents in the context of the financial crisis in 2012, and to analyse potential fluctuations in excess body weight between 2008 and 2012. A cross-sectional study of eating habits and excess body weight was conducted in adolescents aged 13 to 19 years old from public, subsidised and private secondary schools in Barcelona, Spain. The FRESC lifestyle risk factors survey was used, and food frequency consumption, food recommendations and body mass index were analysed according to gender, year of education and socioeconomic status. Girls ate vegetables and fruits more frequently than boys, while the prevalence of junk food consumption was higher in boys. The prevalence of compliance with food recommendations was lower than 50% for all foods, and gender and socioeconomic differences were found for eggs, red meat and soft drinks. Regarding excess body weight, boys had a higher prevalence than girls in the 2 years analysed. Furthermore, a reduction in excess body weight was observed among girls in secondary education in the highest socioeconomic groups (28.7% [95% CI: 24.8-32.6%] in 2008 to 20.5% [95% CI: 17.1-23.8%] in 2012). The prevalence of adolescents following food recommendations is low, and gender differences were found in terms of food consumption frequency, even in the context of financial crisis. There is a need to promote programmes and policies to reduce inequalities related to eating habits and excess body weight in adolescents. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. [Correlations between cognition and function in Alzheimer's disease: based on the abbreviated Barcelona Test (a-BT)].

    PubMed

    Peña-Casanova, J; Monllau, A; Böhm, P; Blesa González, R; Aguilar Barberà, M; Sol, J M; Hernández, G

    2005-01-01

    The objective is to establish the existence of possible correlations between cognitive measures using the a-BT, and functional measures in a population of normal to moderately severe demented subjects. A sample of 107 subjects (42 healthy controls, 19 subjects with mild cognitive impairment and 46 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease) were included in the present study. The instruments of the cognitive measure used was the abbreviated Barcelona Test (a-BT), a test of general cognitive function. Apart from that, the following functional scales, evaluating activities of daily living, were used: Rapid Disability Rating Scale-2 (RDRS-2), Blessed Dementia Rating Scale (BDRS), and Interview for Deterioration in Daily living in Dementia (IDDD). The statistical procedures were the correlations between cognitive and functional measures using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The correlations obtained between the cognitive and all functional measures were all highly significant (p < 0.0001) and consistently high, with correlations ranging between 0.72 and 0.80. Correlations between the a-BT and functional measures of more basic activities of daily living (RDRS-2, BDRS) were lower than those that included instrumental and some advanced activities of daily living (IDDD). The present paper establishes the existence of satisfactory correlations between the functional measures studied and the global scores of the a-BT. These correlations are applicable for groups of subjects with cognitive impairment that does not reach the threshold of a diagnosis of dementia as well as subjects suffering from Alzheimer's disease, at least up to moderately severe cases. The global score of the a-BT allows for some degree of prediction of the functional status of a subject with suspected Alzheimer's disease pathology evaluated.

  16. Analysis of participant satisfaction in the Barcelona colorectal cancer screening programme: Positive evaluation of the community pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Burón, Andrea; Posso, Margarita; Sivilla, Judit; Grau, Jaume; Guayta, Rafael; Castells, Xavier; Castells, Antoni; Macià, Francesc

    2017-04-01

    Population-based bowel screening programmes with faecal occult blood (FOB) tests need to achieve high uptake rates and offer quality services. We invited participants in the Barcelona Programme to complete a satisfaction survey, in order to explore factors influencing uptake and respondents' opinion and satisfaction with each step of the screening process. Telephone survey using an ad hoc questionnaire (see annex) administered to a final sample of 1189 people: 310 non-participants in the programme (NoP), 553 participants with a negative test result (PNeg), and 326 participants with a positive result (PPos). High scores were obtained for the clarity of the information provided by the programme (mean 8.9 on a scale 0-10), and for the accessibility and attention at the pharmacy as well as its role as the point for collection and return of FOB test cards (mean >9.3). Aspects that were not so highly rated were: preparation for the colonoscopy (41.6% reported quite a lot or a lot of discomfort), and to a lesser extent telephone accessibility (27.1% reported some difficulties). Participants also expressed concern about receiving a positive test result by telephone (78.9% reported some concern). Respondents' opinion of the programme was positive overall, and supports the pharmacy as the point for distributing and collecting FOB test cards, as well as the role of the pharmacist in the context of the programme. Some aspects of the screening process will be reviewed in order to improve participant satisfaction and eventually increase uptake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U., AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  17. Do Young Heroin Users in Madrid, Barcelona and Seville have Sufficient Knowledge of the Risk Factors for Unintentional Opioid Overdose?

    PubMed Central

    Barrio, Gregorio; Brugal, M. Teresa; de la Fuente, Luis; Ballesta, Rosario; Bravo, María J.; Silva, Teresa C.; Rodríguez-Martos, Alicia

    2006-01-01

    To identify the self-perceived reasons for unintentional opioid overdose of young heroin users in three Spanish cities and their agreement with objective risk factors for overdose. Computer-Assisted Personal Interviews (CAPI) were held with 991 street-recruited current heroin users aged 18–30. The general reasons for overdose and the reasons for the last overdose suffered were explored with open-ended (OEQs) and pre-coded questions (PCQs). Limited knowledge of overdose risk factors was defined as mention of fewer than two objective risk factors for unintentional overdose in the OEQ. Univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression methods were used. 77.8% (Seville), 64.9% (Madrid) and 57.2% (Barcelona) of participants have limited knowledge of overdose risk factors. Residence in Seville and not having attended courses or meetings on overdoses were significantly associated with limited knowledge, after adjusting for other factors. The most frequently identified general reasons in OEQ or PCQ were using heroin in large amounts (66.8%), together with tranquilizers (62.0%), adulterated (60.7%), or purer than usual (57.6%). Most reasons were selected more frequently in PCQ than in OEQ, especially rapid injection of the entire dose and using heroin shortly after using tranquilizers or alcohol, by injection, or after a period of abstinence. The results were similar for overdoses suffered by participants. Most young heroin users do not have sufficient knowledge of overdose risk factors, especially the use of heroin by injection, after a period of abstinence, or together with alcohol or methadone. Specific informational or educational programs adapted to the local context are critically needed. PMID:16739049

  18. Performance status in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: determinants, prognostic impact, and ability to improve the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer system.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Yang; Lee, Yun-Hsuan; Hsia, Cheng-Yuan; Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Su, Chien-Wei; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Rheun-Chuan; Chiou, Yi-You; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Huo, Teh-Ia

    2013-01-01

    Performance status is included in the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) system for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Few studies specifically evaluated the role of performance status in patients with HCC. This study investigated its distribution, determinants, and prognostic impact, aiming to improve the performance of the BCLC system. A total of 2,381 HCC patients were enrolled. Performance status was determined according to the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group scale. The prognostic ability of the original and three modified BCLC systems in HCC patients was compared by the Akaike information criterion (AIC). There were 60, 17, 11, 8, and 4% of patients who were classified as performance status 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. A worse performance status significantly correlated with age, alcoholism, hypoalbuminemia, hyperbilirubinemia, renal insufficiency, hyponatremia, and prothrombin time prolongation (all P < 0.001). Larger tumor burden, poorer residual liver function, more frequent vascular invasion, and diabetes mellitus were also observed in patients with worse performance status (all P < 0.001). Patients with poorer performance status more often received best supportive care (P < 0.001). In the Cox proportional hazards model, performance status was an independent prognostic predictor and the long-term survival tended to be worse in patients with progressively poor performance status (all P < 0.05). Reassigning patients with performance status 0 or 1 to stage B provided the lowest AIC among the four BCLC-based staging systems. Performance status is strongly associated with both tumoral and cirrhotic factors and accurately predicts long-term survival in HCC patients. Modification of the BCLC system based on performance status may further enhance its prognostic ability in patients with early to advanced cancer stage. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  19. Emissions variation in urban areas resulting from the introduction of natural gas vehicles: application to Barcelona and Madrid greater areas (Spain).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, María; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro; Baldasano, José M

    2009-05-01

    On-road traffic is the major contributor to pollutant emissions in urban areas. Nowadays different emission abatement strategies are being tested in order to improve urban air quality (e.g. the European Commission currently promotes the use of natural gas as an alternative fuel). Several feasible scenarios regarding the introduction of natural gas vehicles (NGV) are studied in the two main cities of Spain (Barcelona and Madrid) by using the HERMES emission model. The most suitable emission factors to NGV are selected among those available in the literature. The account of emissions in the base case scenario estimated for a typical summertime polluted day of the year 2004 reflects that in Barcelona 86% of primary pollutants come from on-road traffic compared to 93% in Madrid, because of the heavier industrial activity in the former. The introduction of NGV in urban zones would have a positive effect on emissions, whose extent largely depends on the substituted fleets and the conurbation characteristics. Maximum reductions in NO(x) emissions in Madrid are attributed to the substitution of 10% of the oldest diesel and petrol cars, while in Barcelona the change of 50% of the oldest commercial light vehicles becomes more effective. PM(2.5) and SO(2) emissions can be significatively reduced with the introduction of NGV instead of the oldest commercial light vehicles. The substitution of conventional fuels by natural gas must reach around 4% to achieve significative reductions in traffic emissions (larger than 5%). This work focuses on air quality issues, therefore GHG emissions are not included, nevertheless this kind of associated impact has to be considered by the decision makers. Assessing the efficacy of environmental improvement strategies entails a realistic design of emission scenarios and their evaluation. The detailed emission account provides a fundamental basis for the air quality modelling and its comparison among scenarios.

  20. Globally Expanding Carbapenemase Finally Appears in Spain: Nosocomial Outbreak of Acinetobacter baumannii Producing Plasmid-Encoded OXA-23 in Barcelona, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Mosqueda, Noraida; Espinal, Paula; Cosgaya, Clara; Viota, Sergio; Plasensia, Virginia; Álvarez-Lerma, Francisco; Montero, Milagro; Gómez, Julià; Horcajada, Juan Pablo; Roca, Ignasi

    2013-01-01

    Resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates to carbapenems is on the rise worldwide mainly in association with the production of OXA-23. Until recently, however, OXA-23 was absent in Spain. In this work, we report the molecular characterization of a hospital outbreak of OXA-23-producing A. baumannii in Barcelona caused by a multidrug-resistant (MDR) clone belonging to international clone IC-II/sequence type ST85 between October 2010 and May 2011. blaOXA-23 was carried in a plasmid of 90 kb and located within the composite transposon Tn2006. PMID:23877694

  1. Efficacy of FOLFOXIRI plus bevacizumab in liver-limited metastatic colorectal cancer: A pooled analysis of clinical studies by Gruppo Oncologico del Nord Ovest.

    PubMed

    Cremolini, Chiara; Casagrande, Mariaelena; Loupakis, Fotios; Aprile, Giuseppe; Bergamo, Francesca; Masi, Gianluca; Moretto R, Roberto; Pietrantonio, Filippo; Marmorino, Federica; Zucchelli, Gemma; Tomasello, Gianluca; Tonini, Giuseppe; Allegrini, Giacomo; Granetto, Cristina; Ferrari, Laura; Urbani, Lucio; Cillo, Umberto; Pilati, Pierluigi; Sensi, Elisa; Pellegrinelli, Alessio; Milione, Massimo; Fontanini, Gabriella; Falcone, Alfredo

    2017-03-01

    Secondary resection is a chance of cure for a subgroup of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients with unresectable liver-limited disease. Medical treatment has a dual goal: to induce tumour shrinkage and to prevent disease relapse. The aims of the present analysis were to assess the efficacy of FOLFOXIRI plus bevacizumab in this setting, and to investigate whether this regimen could revert the poor prognosis of high-risk patients defined by clinical and molecular factors. We performed a pooled analysis of patients with unresectable and liver-limited mCRC, treated with first-line FOLFOXIRI plus bevacizumab in three prospective clinical trials by Gruppo Oncologico del Nord Ovest. 205 (37.9%) patients with liver-limited disease were selected, out of 541 treated patients. Liver metastases were synchronous, ≥4 and bilobar in 90%, 61%, and 79% of cases, respectively. The largest diameter was >5 cm in 42% of cases, and ≥6 segments were involved in 25%. Seventy-four patients (36.1%) underwent R0 or R1 resection of metastases. R2 resections were performed in 17 cases (8.3%). Having <6 involved segments (p < 0.001) and achieving RECIST response (p = 0.019) were associated with higher chances of resection. R0/R1 resected patients had significantly longer median progression-free survival (PFS) (18.1 versus 10.7 months, HR: 0.48 [0.35-0.66], p < 0.001) and overall survival (OS) (44.3 versus 24.4 months, HR: 0.32 [0.22-0.48], p < 0.001) compared with other patients, both in the univariate and multivariate analyses (PFS p = 0.025; OS p < 0.001). The 5-year PFS and OS rate in R0 resected patients were 12% and 43%, respectively. Neither negative baseline characteristics nor high clinical risk scores or RAS/BRAF mutations were associated with poor post-resection outcomes. In conclusion, FOLFOXIRI plus bevacizumab demonstrates efficacy in the conversion setting with considerable long-term outcome results independent of clinical and molecular prognostic

  2. Interaction of Physical Activity and Body Mass Index on Mortality in Coronary Heart Disease: Data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study.

    PubMed

    Moholdt, Trine; Lavie, Carl J; Nauman, Javaid

    2017-08-01

    The role of physical activity in the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and survival in coronary heart disease is unclear. Our aim was to examine the isolated and combined associations among BMI, physical activity, and mortality in subjects with coronary heart disease. A total of 6493 participants (34.4% were women) with coronary heart disease from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, with examinations in 1986, 1996, and 2007, were followed to the end of 2014. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality, estimated using Cox proportionate hazard regression adjusted for age, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, self-reported health status, and alcohol. A total of 3818 patients died (62.1% of cardiovascular disease) during 30 (median 12.5) years of follow-up. Compared with a BMI of 18.5 to 22.4 kg/m(2), BMI categories of 25.0 to 27.4 kg/m(2), 27.5 to 29.9 kg/m(2), and 30.0 to 34.9 kg/m(2) had reduced all-cause mortality risk: HR, 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.72-0.90; HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.71-0.90; HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74-0.95, respectively. The BMI categories 25.0 to 27.4 kg/m(2) and 27.5 to 29.9 kg/m(2) had reduced cardiovascular disease mortality risk: HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70-0.94; HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.71-0.96, respectively. Compared with physically inactive, all levels of physical activity were associated with reduced all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality risk. In physically inactive, all BMI categories >25.0 kg/m(2) had reduced all-cause mortality risk (HRs across BMI categories: 0.77, 0.79, 0.79, 0.74), whereas in subjects who were following or exceeding the recommended level of physical activity, BMI was not associated with survival. Overweight and obese subjects with coronary heart disease had reduced all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality, but such an obesity paradox was seen only in participants who did not adhere to current recommendations of physical activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  3. Éthique de la recherche en santé mondiale : la relation Nord-Sud, quel partenariat pour quelle justice sociale ?

    PubMed

    Godard, Béatrice; Hunt, Matthew; Moube, Zéphirin

    2014-06-01

    La recherche en santé mondiale s'inscrit dans une volonté de mobiliser des connaissances au service d'interventions et de politiques publiques pour l'atteinte équitable du bien-être commun, notamment en matière de santé. Elle joue un rôle primordial en ce sens, en favorisant l'implication des communautés et leur autonomisation et de nombreuses lignes directrices supportent un tel partenariat. Néanmoins, certains enjeux éthiques sont liés au financement de la recherche, aux environnements de recherche, à la priorisation des problématiques de recherche, aux mécanismes d'évaluation éthique posent souvent un problème de justice sociale au niveau de la redistribution des ressources et de la reconnaissance des différences culturelles. Comment alors déterminer quelle est la façon « idéale » d'agir en tenant compte de la globalité des individus et du pluralisme culturel des sociétés pour « bien faire », pour satisfaire l'exigence de l'équité? Une réflexion et une démarche éthique demeurent essentielles, ainsi qu'un dialogue entre les chercheurs du Nord et du Sud, et leurs autres partenaires que sont les décideurs, les responsables locaux et les communautés. Un tel dialogue, établi dans un continuum du développement de projets de recherche à leur pérennité, peut grandement contribuer à limiter les problèmes de justice sociale et à viser un développement plus égalitaire des savoirs scientifiques. Plusieurs chercheurs se sont déjà engagés dans cette voie, et leurs initiatives devraient être encouragées pour mettre les nouveaux savoirs au service des populations.

  4. Integrated Health Care Barcelona Esquerra (Ais-Be): A Global View of Organisational Development, Re-Engineering of Processes and Improvement of the Information Systems. The Role of the Tertiary University Hospital in the Transformation.

    PubMed

    Font, David; Escarrabill, Joan; Gómez, Mónica; Ruiz, Rafael; Enfedaque, Belén; Altimiras, Xavier

    2016-05-23

    The Integrated Health Area "Barcelona Esquerra" (Área Integral de Salud de Barcelona Esquerra - AIS-BE), which covers a population of 524,000 residents in Barcelona city, is running a project to improve healthcare quality and efficiency based on co-ordination between the different suppliers in its area through the participation of their professionals. Endowed with an Organisational Model that seeks decision-taking that starts out from clinical knowledge and from Information Systems tools that facilitate this co-ordination (an interoperability platform and a website) it presents important results in its structured programmes that have been implemented such as the Reorganisation of Emergency Care, Screening for Colorectal Cancer, the Onset of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Teledermatology and the Development of Cross-sectional Healthcare Policies for Care in Chronicity.

  5. Integrated Health Care Barcelona Esquerra (Ais-Be): A Global View of Organisational Development, Re-Engineering of Processes and Improvement of the Information Systems. The Role of the Tertiary University Hospital in the Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Escarrabill, Joan; Gómez, Mónica; Ruiz, Rafael; Enfedaque, Belén; Altimiras, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Health Area “Barcelona Esquerra” (Área Integral de Salud de Barcelona Esquerra – AIS-BE), which covers a population of 524,000 residents in Barcelona city, is running a project to improve healthcare quality and efficiency based on co-ordination between the different suppliers in its area through the participation of their professionals. Endowed with an Organisational Model that seeks decision-taking that starts out from clinical knowledge and from Information Systems tools that facilitate this co-ordination (an interoperability platform and a website) it presents important results in its structured programmes that have been implemented such as the Reorganisation of Emergency Care, Screening for Colorectal Cancer, the Onset of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Teledermatology and the Development of Cross-sectional Healthcare Policies for Care in Chronicity. PMID:27616964

  6. Source apportionment of indoor, outdoor and personal PM2.5 exposure of pregnant women in Barcelona, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguillón, M. C.; Schembari, A.; Triguero-Mas, M.; de Nazelle, A.; Dadvand, P.; Figueras, F.; Salvado, J. A.; Grimalt, J. O.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Querol, X.

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to air pollution has been shown to adversely affect foetal development in the case of pregnant women. The present study aims to investigate the PM composition and sources influencing personal exposure of pregnant women in Barcelona. To this end, indoor, outdoor and personal exposure measurements were carried out for a selection of 54 pregnant women between November 2008 and November 2009. PM2.5 samples were collected during two consecutive days and then analysed for black smoke (BS), major and trace elements, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations. Personal information such as commuting patterns and cosmetics use was also collected. PM2.5 concentrations were higher for personal samples than for indoor and outdoor environments. Indoor, outdoor and personal BS and sulphate concentrations were strongly correlated, although some specific indoor and outdoor sulphate sources may exist. Average trace elements concentrations were similar indoor, outdoor and for personal exposure, but the correlations were moderate for most of them. Most of the PAHs concentrations showed strong correlations indoor-outdoor. A source apportionment analysis of the PM composition data by means of a Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) resulted in the identification of six sources for the outdoor and indoor environments: secondary sulphate, fueloil + sea salt (characterized by V, Ni, Na and Mg), mineral, cigarette (characterized by K, Ce, Cd, benzo(k)fluoranthene and benzo(ghi)perylene), road traffic (characterized by BS and low weight PAHs), and industrial (characterized by Pb, Sn, Cu, Mn and Fe). For personal exposure two specific sources were found: cosmetics (characterized by abundance of Ca, Li, Ti and Sr and the absence of Al) and train/subway (characterized by Fe, Mn, Cu and Ba). The contribution of the sources varied widely among women, especially for cigarette (from zero to up to 4 μg m-3), train/subway (up to more than 6 μg m-3) and cosmetics (up to more

  7. Near-surface and columnar measurements with a micro pulse lidar of atmospheric pollen in Barcelona, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicard, Michaël; Izquierdo, Rebeca; Alarcón, Marta; Belmonte, Jordina; Comerón, Adolfo; Baldasano, José Maria

    2016-06-01

    We present for the first time continuous hourly measurements of pollen near-surface concentration and lidar-derived profiles of particle backscatter coefficients and of volume and particle depolarization ratios during a 5-day pollination event observed in Barcelona, Spain, between 27 and 31 March 2015. Daily average concentrations ranged from 1082 to 2830 pollen m-3. Platanus and Pinus pollen types represented together more than 80 % of the total pollen. Maximum hourly pollen concentrations of 4700 and 1200 m-3 were found for Platanus and Pinus, respectively. Every day a clear diurnal cycle caused by the vertical transport of the airborne pollen was visible on the lidar-derived profiles with maxima usually reached between 12:00 and 15:00 UT. A method based on the lidar polarization capabilities was used to retrieve the contribution of the pollen to the total aerosol optical depth (AOD). On average the diurnal (09:00-17:00 UT) pollen AOD was 0.05, which represented 29 % of the total AOD. Maximum values of the pollen AOD and its contribution to the total AOD reached 0.12 and 78 %, respectively. The diurnal means of the volume and particle depolarization ratios in the pollen plume were 0.08 and 0.14, with hourly maxima of 0.18 and 0.33, respectively. The diurnal mean of the height of the pollen plume was found at 1.24 km with maxima varying in the range of 1.47-1.78 km. A correlation study is performed (1) between the depolarization ratios and the pollen near-surface concentration to evaluate the ability of the former parameter to monitor pollen release and (2) between the depolarization ratios as well as pollen AOD and surface downward solar fluxes, which cause the atmospheric turbulences responsible for the particle vertical motion, to examine the dependency of the depolarization ratios and the pollen AOD upon solar fluxes. For the volume depolarization ratio the first correlation study yields to correlation coefficients ranging 0.00-0.81 and the second to

  8. The Framingham function overestimates the risk of ischemic heart disease in HIV-infected patients from Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Sabina; Guelar, Ana; Sorlì, Luisa; Vila, Joan; Molas, Ema; Grau, María; Marrugat, Jaume; Esteve, Erika; Güerri-Fernández, Roberto; Montero, Milagro; Knobel, Hernando

    2016-07-01

    Cardiovascular risk (CVR) assessment helps to identify patients at high CVR. The Framingham CVR score (FRS) is the most widely used methods but may overestimate risk in regions with low incidence of cardiovascular disease. The objective was to compare the 10-year performance of the original and the adapted REGICOR - Framingham CVR functions in HIV-infected individuals. We carried out a longitudinal study of HIV-infected patients with CVR evaluation in a hospital in Barcelona between 2003 and 2013. Risk probability was calculated using the FRAMINGHAM function and REGICOR adaptation to the Spanish population, and individuals were categorized in three groups (low, 0 < 5%; moderate, 5-10%; and high, >10%). For each risk group, the number of events over 10 years was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the expected number of events was calculated by multiplying the frequency of participants in the group by the mean of the probabilities from the risk function. We used the X(2) goodness-of-fit test to assess agreement between observed and expected. Six hundred and forty-one patients were followed up for a median of 10.2 years, and 20 ischemic heart events (IHE) were observed. The mean (95% CI) number of IHEs per 1000 person-years was 3.7 (2.06-5.27). The estimates from the Framingham and REGICOR functions were 40 and 14 IHEs, respectively. The estimate from the original Framingham function differed significantly from the observed incidence (p < 0.001), whereas that from the REGICOR-adapted function did not (p = 0.15). In terms of the number of cardiovascular events (38 events observed), the REGICOR function significantly underestimated risk (p = 0.01), whereas the estimate from the Framingham function was similar to observed (p:0.93). The FRS significantly overestimates risk of IHE events in our HIV-infected patients, while the REGICOR function is a better predictor of these events. In terms of cardiovascular events, the REGICOR function significantly

  9. Restricting Access to Health Care to Immigrants in Barcelona: A Mixed-Methods Study With Immigrants Who Have Experienced an Infectious Disease.

    PubMed

    Castano, Jenny; Ospina, Jesús E; Caylà, Joan A; Greer, Scott L

    2016-01-01

    Austerity policies implemented in Spain in response to the ongoing economic crisis may have detrimental consequences for the health of immigrant populations and for public health in general. A mixed-methods study by the Public Health Agency of Barcelona and the University of Michigan indicates that the Real Decreto-ley 16/2012 (RDL) threatens the health of individuals and the population, especially in the case of infectious diseases. The study sought to determine the percentage of foreign-born persons with an infectious disease who had an Individual Health Card (IHC) prior to the RDL and to determine whether foreign-born persons with an infectious disease in Barcelona encountered problems accessing health care after the RDL. Results indicate that immigrants used the IHC to seek medical attention for infectious diseases and chronic conditions. Results also show that 66% of respondents, including 54% of unemployed respondents, 3% of respondents working without contracts, and those in informal employment (9%), may be at risk of losing at least part of their health coverage. Universal health care access in Spain has been crucial for the control of communicable diseases among immigrant populations. Reducing access to a significant percentage of the total population may have deleterious effects on public health. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Influences of natural emission sources (wildfires and Saharan dust) on the urban organic aerosol in Barcelona (Western Mediterranean Basis) during a PM event.

    PubMed

    van Drooge, Barend L; Lopez, Jordi F; Grimalt, Joan O

    2012-11-01

    The urban air quality in Barcelona in the Western Mediterranean Basin is characterized by overall high particulate matter (PM) concentrations, due to intensive local anthropogenic emissions and specific meteorological conditions. Moreover, on several days, especially in summer, natural PM sources, such as long-range transported Saharan dust from Northern Africa or wildfires on the Iberian Peninsula and around the Mediterranean Basin, may influence the levels and composition of the organic aerosol. In the second half of July 2009, daily collected PM(10) filter samples in an urban background site in Barcelona were analyzed on organic tracer compounds representing several emission sources. During this period, an important PM peak event was observed. Individual organic compound concentrations increased two to five times during this event. Although highest increase was observed for the organic tracer of biomass burning, the contribution to the organic aerosol was estimated to be around 6 %. Organic tracers that could be related to Saharan dust showed no correlation with the PM and OC levels, while this was the case for those related to fossil fuel combustion from traffic emissions. Moreover, a change in the meteorological conditions gave way to an overall increase of the urban background contamination. Long-range atmospheric transport of organic compounds from primary emissions sources (i.e., wildfires and Saharan dust) has a relatively moderate impact on the organic aerosol in an urban area where the local emissions are dominating.

  11. Geochemical survey and metal bioaccumulation of three bivalve species (Crassostrea gigas, Cerastoderma edule and Ruditapes philippinarum) in the Nord Medoc salt marshes (Gironde estuary, France).

    PubMed

    Baudrimont, M; Schäfer, J; Marie, V; Maury-Brachet, R; Bossy, C; Boudou, A; Blanc, G

    2005-01-20

    A 15-month experiment combining a geochemical survey of Cd, Cu, Zn and Hg with a bioaccumulation study for three filter-feeding bivalve species (oysters, Crassostrea gigas; cockles, Cerastoderma edule; and clams, Ruditapes philippinarum) was conducted in a breeding basin of the Nord Medoc salt marshes connected to the Gironde estuary, which is affected by historic polymetallic pollution. Regular manual surface measurements of temperature, salinity, pH and dissolved O(2) concentration and hourly multiprobe in situ measurements throughout several periods for 6-8 weeks were performed. The geochemical behavior of metals in water, suspended particulate matter and sediment and their ecotoxicological impact on the three bivalve species were evaluated by in situ exposure of juvenile oysters (water column) and adult cockles and clams (sediment surface). The physico-chemical parameters reflected seasonal variations and basin management. A distinct daily periodicity (except salinity) indicated intense photosynthesis and respiration. In summer, low dissolved O(2) saturations ( approximately 40-50%) occurred in the early morning at 30 cm above the sediment, whereas in depressions, the water column near the sediment surface was suboxic. Cadmium, Zn and Cu concentrations in suspended particulate matter exceeded typical estuarine values and were much higher than the homogeneously distributed concentrations in different depth ranges of the basin sediment. Particles collected in sediment traps showed intermediate metal concentrations close to sediment values. These results suggest trace metal recycling due to reductive dissolution under suboxic conditions at the sediment surface resulting in trace metal release to the water column and adsorption onto suspended particles. Dissolved Cd, Zn and Hg concentrations (e.g. 13-136 ng l(-1); 0.3-25.1 microg l(-1) and 0.5-2.0 ng l(-1), respectively) in the basin corresponded to the concentration range typically observed in the Gironde estuary

  12. Impact of Smoking on Circulating Cardiac Troponin I Concentrations and Cardiovascular Events in the General Population: The HUNT Study (Nord-Trøndelag Health Study).

    PubMed

    Lyngbakken, Magnus Nakrem; Skranes, Julia Brox; de Lemos, James A; Nygård, Ståle; Dalen, Håvard; Hveem, Kristian; Røsjø, Helge; Omland, Torbjørn

    2016-12-13

    Both tobacco smoking and circulating cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels are associated with the risk of acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and cardiovascular death. However, whether cTnI levels differ according to smoking status and whether smoking modifies the prognostic relationship between cTnI and outcomes remain unclear. Using data from a large, population-based cohort, we assessed the association between smoking and cTnI and the impact of smoking on the associations between cTnI levels and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and cardiovascular death. cTnI was measured with a high-sensitivity assay in 3824 never smokers, 2341 former smokers, and 2550 current smokers participating in the prospective observational HUNT Study (Nord-Trøndelag Health Study). All subjects were free from known prior cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus at baseline. The age of the participants ranged from 19 to 94 years; 55.5% were women. Current smokers exhibited significantly lower levels of cTnI (median, 2.9 ng/L; interquartile range, 2.0-4.1 ng/L) than never smokers (3.2 ng/L; interquartile range, 2.2-4.7 ng/L; P<0.001) and former smokers (3.4 ng/L; interquartile range, 2.3-5.0 ng/L; P<0.001). This association remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders (B=-0.098; 95% confidence interval, -0.129 to -0.068). We observed an association between increasing concentrations of cTnI and clinical end points in the total study cohort (adjusted hazard ratio per log unit increase in cTnI, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-1.54). This association was attenuated for current smokers (hazard ratio, 1.17; 95% confidence interval, 0.98-1.40) and was significantly weaker than in never/former smokers (P for interaction=0.003). Prognostic accuracy, as assessed by C statistics, was significantly lower in current smokers than in never smokers (P<0.001). In addition, cTnI provided no incremental prognostic information to the Framingham

  13. Source apportionment of submicron organic aerosol at an urban background and a road site in Barcelona, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alier, M.; van Drooge, B. L.; Dall'Osto, M.; Querol, X.; Grimalt, J. O.; Tauler, R.

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates the contribution of potential sources to the sub-micron (PM1) organic aerosol (OA) simultaneously detected at an urban background (UB) and a road site (RS) in Barcelona during the 30 days of the intensive field campaign of SAPUSS (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies, September-October 2010). 103 filters at 12 h sampling time resolution were collected at both sites. Thirty-six neutral and polar organic compounds of known emission sources and photo-chemical transformation processes were analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The concentrations of the trace chemical compounds analyzed are herein presented and discussed. Additionally, OA source apportionment was performed by Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) and six OA components were identified at both sites: two were of primary anthropogenic OA origin, three of secondary OA origin while a sixth one was not clearly defined. Primary organics from emissions of local anthropogenic activities (Urban primary organic aerosol, Urban POA) contributed for 43% (1.5 μg OC m-3) and 18% (0.4 μg OC m-3) to OA in RS and UB, respectively. A secondary primary source - biomass burning (BBOA) - was found in all the samples (average values 7% RS; 12% UB; 0.3 μg OC m-3), but this component was substantially contributing to OA only when the sampling sites were under influence of regional air mass circulation. Three Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) components (describing overall 60% of the variance) were observed in the urban ambient PM1. Products of isoprene oxidation (SOA ISO), i.e. 2-methylglyceric acid, C5 alkene triols and 2-methyltetrols, showed the highest abundance at both sites when the city was under influence of inland air masses. The overall concentrations of SOA ISO were similar at both sites (0.4 and 0.3 μg m-3, 16% and 7%, at UB and RS, respectively). By contrast, a SOA biogenic component attributed to α-pinene oxidation (SOA

  14. Source apportionment of submicron organic aerosol at an urban background and a road site in Barcelona (Spain) during SAPUSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alier, M.; van Drooge, B. L.; Dall'Osto, M.; Querol, X.; Grimalt, J. O.; Tauler, R.

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the contribution of potential sources to the submicron (PM1) organic aerosol (OA) simultaneously detected at an urban background (UB) and a road site (RS) in Barcelona during the 30 days of the intensive field campaign of SAPUSS (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies, September-October 2010). A total of 103 filters at 12 h sampling time resolution were collected at both sites. Thirty-six neutral and polar organic compounds of known emission sources and photo-chemical transformation processes were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The concentrations of the trace chemical compounds analyzed are herein presented and discussed. Additionally, OA source apportionment was performed by multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) and six OA components were identified at both sites: two were of primary anthropogenic OA origin and three of secondary OA origin, while a sixth one was not clearly defined. Primary organics from emissions of local anthropogenic activities (urban primary organic aerosol, or POA Urban), mainly traffic emissions but also cigarette smoke, contributed 43% (1.5 μg OC m-3) and 18% (0.4 μg OC m-3) to OA at RS and UB, respectively. A secondary primary source - biomass burning (BBOA) - was found in all the samples (average values 7% RS; 12% UB; 0.3 μg OC m-3), but this component was substantially contributing to OA only when the sampling sites were under influence of regional air mass circulation (REG.). Three secondary organic aerosol (SOA) components (describing overall 60% of the variance) were observed in the urban ambient PM1. Products of isoprene oxidation (SOA ISO) - i.e. 2-methylglyceric acid, C5 alkene triols and 2-methyltetrols - showed the highest abundance at both sites when the city was under influence of inland air masses. The overall concentrations of SOA ISO were similar at both sites (0.4 and 0.3 μg m-3, or 16% and 7%, at UB and RS, respectively

  15. Radiofrequency ablation versus resection for Barcelona clinic liver cancer very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    He, Zhen-Xin; Xiang, Pu; Gong, Jian-Ping; Cheng, Nan-Sheng; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    To compare the long-term survival outcomes of radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2015), Embase (1974 to March 15, 2015), PubMed (1950 to March 15, 2015), Web of Science (1900 to March 15, 2015), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (1978 to March 15, 2015) were searched to identify relevant trials. Only trials that compared radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early stage (≤2 cm) or early stage (≤3 cm) HCC according to the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging system were considered for inclusion in this review. The primary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates, and the secondary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates. Review Manager 5.3 was used to perform a cumulative meta-analysis. Possible publication bias was examined using a funnel plot. A random-effects model was applied to summarize the various outcomes. Six studies involving 947 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=528) to liver resection (n=419) for single BCLC very early HCC. In these six studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (risk ratio [RR] =0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-0.98, P=0.01; RR =0.84, 95% CI: 0.75-0.95, P=0.004; RR =0.77, 95% CI: 0.60-0.98, P=0.04; and RR =0.70, 95% CI: 0.52-0.94, P=0.02, respectively). Ten studies involving 2,501 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=1,476) to liver resection (n=1,025) for single BCLC early HCC. In these ten studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were also significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (RR =0.93, 95% CI: 0.88-0.98, P=0.003; RR =0.84, 95% CI

  16. Radiofrequency ablation versus resection for Barcelona clinic liver cancer very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhen-Xin; Xiang, Pu; Gong, Jian-Ping; Cheng, Nan-Sheng; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Aim To compare the long-term survival outcomes of radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2015), Embase (1974 to March 15, 2015), PubMed (1950 to March 15, 2015), Web of Science (1900 to March 15, 2015), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (1978 to March 15, 2015) were searched to identify relevant trials. Only trials that compared radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early stage (≤2 cm) or early stage (≤3 cm) HCC according to the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging system were considered for inclusion in this review. The primary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates, and the secondary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates. Review Manager 5.3 was used to perform a cumulative meta-analysis. Possible publication bias was examined using a funnel plot. A random-effects model was applied to summarize the various outcomes. Results Six studies involving 947 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=528) to liver resection (n=419) for single BCLC very early HCC. In these six studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (risk ratio [RR] =0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83–0.98, P=0.01; RR =0.84, 95% CI: 0.75–0.95, P=0.004; RR =0.77, 95% CI: 0.60–0.98, P=0.04; and RR =0.70, 95% CI: 0.52–0.94, P=0.02, respectively). Ten studies involving 2,501 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=1,476) to liver resection (n=1,025) for single BCLC early HCC. In these ten studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were also significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (RR =0.93, 95% CI: 0.88–0

  17. Personalized Respiratory Medicine: Exploring the Horizon, Addressing the Issues. Summary of a BRN-AJRCCM Workshop Held in Barcelona on June 12, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Antó, Josep Maria; Auffray, Charles; Barbé, Ferran; Barreiro, Esther; Dorca, Jordi; Escarrabill, Joan; Faner, Rosa; Furlong, Laura I.; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Gea, Joaquim; Lindmark, Bertil; Monsó, Eduard; Plaza, Vicente; Puhan, Milo A.; Roca, Josep; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan; Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Sanz, Ferran; Serrano, Luis; Sharpe, James; Sibila, Oriol; Silverman, Edwin K.; Sterk, Peter J.; Sznajder, Jacob I.

    2015-01-01

    This Pulmonary Perspective summarizes the content and main conclusions of an international workshop on personalized respiratory medicine coorganized by the Barcelona Respiratory Network (www.brn.cat) and the AJRCCM in June 2014. It discusses (1) its definition and historical, social, legal, and ethical aspects; (2) the view from different disciplines, including basic science, epidemiology, bioinformatics, and network/systems medicine; (3) the bottlenecks and opportunities identified by some currently ongoing projects; and (4) the implications for the individual, the healthcare system and the pharmaceutical industry. The authors hope that, although it is not a systematic review on the subject, this document can be a useful reference for researchers, clinicians, healthcare managers, policy-makers, and industry parties interested in personalized respiratory medicine. PMID:25531178

  18. Immediate/early loading of dental implants: a report from the Sociedad Española de Implantes World Congress consensus meeting in Barcelona, Spain, 2002.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Carlos; Rangert, Bo; Sennerby, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Immediate/early loading protocols are becoming frequently used in implant dentistry, but the prerequisites for achieving good results and the limitations of such protocols are not fully known. Moreover, the terminology used in immediate/early loading is still confusing. The purpose of this article is to present the outcome of a consensus meeting on immediate/early loading. A consensus meeting was organized during the Sociedad Española de Implantes World Congress in Barcelona on May 23, 2002, with the objective to present and discuss the experiences from immediate/early loading protocols in dental implant treatment. The purpose was also to discuss definitions of the terminology used in immediate/early loading. The consensus meeting agenda included presentations from invited experts, followed by a consensus discussion. A consensus statement was agreed on. Multiple independent investigators have demonstrated that immediate/early loading of implants is possible in many clinical situations; however, additional documentation is required.

  19. The impact of harm reduction programs and police interventions on the number of syringes collected from public spaces. A time series analysis in Barcelona, 2004-2014.

    PubMed

    Espelt, A; Villalbí, J R; Bosque-Prous, M; Parés-Badell, O; Mari-Dell'Olmo, M; Brugal, M T

    2017-09-25

    To estimate the effect of opening two services for people who use drugs and three police interventions on the number of discarded syringes collected from public spaces in Barcelona between 2004 and 2014. We conducted an interrupted time-series analysis of the monthly number of syringes collected from public spaces during this period. The dependent variable was the number of syringes collected per month. The main independent variables were month and five dummy variables (the opening of two facilities with safe consumption rooms, and three police interventions). To examine which interventions affected the number of syringes collected, we performed an interrupted time-series analysis using a quasi-Poisson regression model, obtaining relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The number of syringes collected per month in Barcelona decreased from 13,800 in 2004 to 1655 in 2014 after several interventions. For example, following the closure of an open drug scene in District A of the city, we observed a decreasing trend in the number of syringes collected [RR=0.88 (95% CI: 0.82-0.95)], but an increasing trend in the remaining districts [RR=1.11 (95% CI: 1.05-1.17) and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.99-1.18) for districts B and C, respectively]. Following the opening of a harm reduction facility in District C, we observed an initial increase in the number collected in this district [RR=2.72 (95% CI: 1.57-4.71)] and stabilization of the trend thereafter [RR=0.97 (95% CI: 0.91-1.03)]. The overall number of discarded syringes collected from public spaces has decreased consistently in parallel with a combination of police interventions and the opening of harm reduction facilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Indoor/outdoor relationships of quasi-ultrafine, accumulation and coarse mode particles in school environments in Barcelona: chemical composition and sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, M.; Rivas, I.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Sunyer, J.; Álvarez-Pedrerol, M.; Bouso, L.; Sioutas, C.

    2013-12-01

    The mass concentration, chemical composition and sources of quasi-ultrafine (quasi-UFP, PM0.25), accumulation (PM0.25-2.5) and coarse mode (PM2.5-10) particles were determined in indoor and outdoor air at 39 schools in Barcelona (Spain). Quasi-UFP mass concentrations measured (25.6 μg m-3 outdoors, 23.4 μg m-3 indoors) are significantly higher than those reported in other studies, and characterised by higher carbonaceous and mineral matter contents and a lower proportion of secondary inorganic ions. Results suggest that quasi-UFPs in Barcelona are affected by local sources in the schools, mainly human activity (e.g. organic material from textiles, etc.; contributing 23-46% to total quasi-UFP mass) and playgrounds (in the form of mineral matter, contributing about 9% to the quasi-UFP mass). The particle size distribution of toxicologically relevant metals and major aerosol components was characterised, displaying bimodal size distributions for most elements and components, and a unimodal distribution for inorganic salts (ammonium nitrate and sulphate) and elemental carbon (EC). Regarding metals, Ni and Cr were partitioned mainly in quasi-UFPs and could thus be of interest for epidemiological studies, given their high redox properties. Children exposure to quasi-UFP mass and chemical species was assessed by comparing the concentrations measured at urban background and traffic areas schools. Finally, three main indoor sources across all size fractions were identified by assessing indoor/outdoor ratios (I/O) of PM species used as their tracers: human activity (organic material), cleaning products, paints and plastics (Cl- source), and a metallic mixed source (comprising combinations of Cu, Zn, Co, Cd, Pb, As, V and Cr).

  1. Impact of Glucose-Lowering Agents on the Risk of Cancer in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. The Barcelona Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Simó, Rafael; Plana-Ripoll, Oleguer; Puente, Diana; Morros, Rosa; Mundet, Xavier; Vilca, Luz M.; Hernández, Cristina; Fuentes, Inmaculada; Procupet, Adriana; Tabernero, Josep M.; Violán, Concepción

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study is to evaluate the impact of glucose-lowering agents in the risk of cancer in a large type 2 diabetic population. Methods A nested case-control study was conducted within a defined cohort (275,164 type 2 diabetic patients attending 16 Primary Health Care Centers of Barcelona). Cases (n = 1,040) comprised those subjects with any cancer diagnosed between 2008 and 2010, registered at the Cancer Registry of Hospital Vall d'Hebron (Barcelona). Three control subjects for each case (n = 3,120) were matched by age, sex, diabetes duration, and geographical area. The treatments analyzed (within 3 years prior to cancer diagnosis) were: insulin glargine, insulin detemir, human insulin, fast-acting insulin and analogues, metformin, sulfonylureas, repaglinide, thiazolidinediones, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and alpha glucosidase inhibitors. Conditional logistic regressions were used to calculate the risk of cancer associated with the use of each drug adjusted by age, BMI, dose and duration of treatment, alcohol use, smoking habit, and diabetes duration. Results No differences were observed between case and control subjects for the proportion, dose or duration of exposure to each treatment. None of the types of insulin and oral agents analyzed showed a significant increase in the risk of cancer. Moreover, no cancer risk was observed when glargine was used alone or in combination with metformin. Conclusions Our results suggest that diabetes treatment does not influence the risk of cancer associated with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, an eventual increase of cancer should not be a reason for biasing the selection of any glucose-lowering treatment in type 2 diabetic population. PMID:24278227

  2. [Group B streptococcal early-onset neonatal sepsis in the area of Barcelona (2004-2010). Analysis of missed opportunities for prevention].

    PubMed

    Giménez, Montserrat; Sanfeliu, Isabel; Sierra, Montserrat; Dopico, Eva; Juncosa, Teresa; Andreu, Antonia; Lite, Josep; Guardià, Cèlia; Sánchez, Ferran; Bosch, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    To study the evolution of the incidence of early-onset neonatal sepsis (EOS) by Streptococcus agalactiae in the area of Barcelona and to analyze failure of compliance with the prevention protocol. A retrospective review was carried out on EOS cases in 8 Health-Care Centers in the Barcelona area between 2004 and 2010. Forty-nine newborns from 48 mothers were diagnosed with EOS. The incidence was 0.29‰ living newborns (0.18-0.47‰), with no significant differences in the fluctuations along the 7 years. The mortality rate was 8.16%. In 68.5% cases the maternal colonization studies were negative, and in 21% these studies were not performed. No risk factors were detected in 58.3% of pregnant women, and 22.9% of births were premature. In 58% of cases intra-partum antibiotic prophylaxis was not administered because it was not indicated, and in 42% due to failure to follow the protocol (3 strains were resistant to erythromycin). Resistance to clindamycin was 33.3%. The Streptococcus agalactiae serotypes more frequently isolated were iii, v, and ia. No significant changes were detected in the incidence of Streptococcus agalactiae EOS in the 7 years of the study. The increased sensitivity of screening methods with the use of molecular techniques, the performance of susceptibility testing of strains isolated from pregnant women, and the improvement of communication between Health-Care Centers, can contribute to a better implementation of the protocol, as well as to reduce the incidence of EOS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  3. [Colorectal Cancer Early Screening Program of Barcelona, Spain: Indicators of the first round of a program with participation of community pharmacies].

    PubMed

    Burón, Andrea; Grau, Jaume; Andreu, Montserrat; Augé, Josep M; Guayta-Escolies, Rafael; Barau, Mercè; Macià, Francesc; Castells, Antoni

    2015-08-21

    The Colorectal Cancer Screening Program of Barcelona was implemented in December 2009 and involves pharmacies for the distribution and collection of screening tests. The aim of this article is to describe the main indicators of the first round of the Program (2010-2011), based on the ones suggested by the European Union. The target population of the Colorectal Cancer Screening Program of Barcelona includes men and women aged 50-69 years who live in the catchment areas of Hospital Clínic and Hospital del Mar. Screening consists of biennial immunochemical fecal occult blood testing, with colonoscopy as confirmatory procedure. Target population comprised 197,795 persons. Participation rate was 43.6%, was higher among women and among those aged 60 and older. 2.1% of the eligible population stated to have been already screened for colorectal cancer. Overall positivity rate was 6.2%, higher among men and with a broad variability among health care areas. The detection rates of low- and high-risk adenoma, and of invasive cancer were 9.1 ‰, 21.7 ‰ and 3.1 ‰, respectively. 48.2% of tumors were stage i. These results are considered satisfactory and consistent with those obtained in other programs and with European standards. Nevertheless, some areas for improvement have been identified. The high participation rate can be attributed, at least in part, to the type of test and to the involvement of community pharmacies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Surveillance and maintenance plan for Waste Area Groupings at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for FY 1993--2002

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, M.K.; Holder, L. Jr.; Jones, R.G.

    1992-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Waste Area Grouping (WAG) Surveillance and Maintenance (S M) program was designed for the management of sites contaminated with radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals from the end of their operating life until final facility disposition or site stabilization in accordance with environmental regulations and good management practices. Program objectives include (1) S M of sites/facilities awaiting final disposition; (2) planning for safe and orderly final closure at each site/facility; and (3) implementing a program to accomplish final disposition in a safe, cost-effective, and timely manner.

  5. Surveillance and maintenance plan for Waste Area Groupings at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for FY 1993--2002. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, M.K.; Holder, L. Jr.; Jones, R.G.

    1992-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Waste Area Grouping (WAG) Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) program was designed for the management of sites contaminated with radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals from the end of their operating life until final facility disposition or site stabilization in accordance with environmental regulations and good management practices. Program objectives include (1) S&M of sites/facilities awaiting final disposition; (2) planning for safe and orderly final closure at each site/facility; and (3) implementing a program to accomplish final disposition in a safe, cost-effective, and timely manner.

  6. Trends in drinking habits among adolescents in the Baltic countries over the period of transition: HBSC survey results, 1993-2002.

    PubMed

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Sumskas, Linas; Maser, Mai; Pudule, Iveta

    2006-03-15

    The Baltic countries--Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania--are considered to be an example of regional homogeneity over the period of transition. The World Health Organization cross-national study on Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) allows a comparison and time trends analysis of behavioral patterns among adolescents in this region. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and trends of alcohol consumption and drunkenness among adolescents of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania in 1993/94, 1997/98, and 2001/02. Representative samples of 5286 boys and 6485 girls aged 15 from Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania were surveyed in 1993/94, 1997/98, and 2001/02 school-year within the framework of HBSC study. The standardized survey methods were applied. The research focused on the following outcome variables: i) frequency of drinking beer, wine, and spirits; and ii) frequency of drunkenness. The same wording of questions on the consumption of alcohol was retained in each survey. Beer was the most frequently used alcoholic beverage across the Baltic countries among adolescents. The rate of weekly drinking of any alcoholic beverage increased considerably during the eight years of observation, especially among Estonian and Lithuanian students. In 2001/02, 25% of boys and 12.5% of girls have reported drinking alcohol at least weekly. The rate of regular alcohol drinking was two times higher in boys, while irregular drinking was more prevalent in girls. Two or more episodes of drunkenness in the lifespan were reported by 30% of boys and 15% of girls in 1993/94 and by 52% of boys and 36% of girls in 2001/02. The use of alcoholic beverages was related to the perceived family wealth: the students from the families perceived by them as wealthy were more likely to drink weekly as compared to the students from the families perceived by them as not wealthy. Over the period between 1993 and 2002 the prevalence of alcohol consumption among adolescents increased considerably across the Baltic countries. The efforts of dealing with this problem should employ a combination of measures, including the strategies relevant for the period of transition.

  7. [Diversity and frequency of scientific research design and statistical methods in the "Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia": a systematic review of the "Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia"--1993-2002].

    PubMed

    Crosta, Fernando; Nishiwaki-Dantas, Maria Cristina; Silvino, Wilmar; Dantas, Paulo Elias Correa

    2005-01-01

    To verify the frequency of study design, applied statistical analysis and approval by institutional review offices (Ethics Committee) of articles published in the "Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia" during a 10-year interval, with later comparative and critical analysis by some of the main international journals in the field of Ophthalmology. Systematic review without metanalysis was performed. Scientific papers published in the "Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia" between January 1993 and December 2002 were reviewed by two independent reviewers and classified according to the applied study design, statistical analysis and approval by the institutional review offices. To categorize those variables, a descriptive statistical analysis was used. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 584 articles for evaluation of statistical analysis and, 725 articles for evaluation of study design were reviewed. Contingency table (23.10%) was the most frequently applied statistical method, followed by non-parametric tests (18.19%), Student's t test (12.65%), central tendency measures (10.60%) and analysis of variance (9.81%). Of 584 reviewed articles, 291 (49.82%) presented no statistical analysis. Observational case series (26.48%) was the most frequently used type of study design, followed by interventional case series (18.48%), observational case description (13.37%), non-random clinical study (8.96%) and experimental study (8.55%). We found a higher frequency of observational clinical studies, lack of statistical analysis in almost half of the published papers. Increase in studies with approval by institutional review Ethics Committee was noted since it became mandatory in 1996.

  8. [An approach to the history of scientific documentation in Catalonia. The activity of María Serrallach Juliá (1905-1992) in the Seminary of Chemistry of the University of Barcelona (1937-1984)].

    PubMed

    Olagüe de Ros, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes a study of Maria Serrallach Juliá (1905-1992), one of the first specialised librarians in Spain. Between 1937 and 1975, she directed the Seminary of Chemistry of the University of Barcelona (initials in Spanish, SQUB), the name given to the space that resulted from the merger of the libraries of the Faculties of Pharmacy and Chemistry of the University. Serrallach turned the SQUB into a modern scientific documentation centre offering services that were practically non-existent in the rest of Spain. The publications and educational activity of Serrallach are also analysed. The history of the SQUB is studied until 1984, when SQUB was transformed into the Library of the Faculties of Physics and Chemistry of the University of Barcelona.

  9. Gender differences in subjective well-being, self-esteem and psychosocial functioning in adolescents with symptoms of anxiety and depression: findings from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study.

    PubMed

    Derdikman-Eiron, Ruth; Indredavik, Marit S; Bratberg, Grete H; Taraldsen, Gunnar; Bakken, Inger Johanne; Colton, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    Gender differences in the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression during adolescence are well documented. However, little attention has been given to differences in subjective well-being, self-esteem and psychosocial functioning between boys and girls with symptoms of anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the associations between such symptoms and subjective well-being, self-esteem, school functioning and social relations in adolescents. Data were taken from a major population-based Norwegian study, the Nord-Trøndelag Health study (HUNT), in which 8984 (91% of all invited) adolescents, aged 13-19 years, completed an extensive self-report questionnaire. Although prevalence rates of symptoms of anxiety and depression were higher in girls than in boys, a significant interaction between gender and symptoms of anxiety and depression was found in respect of each of the following outcome variables: subjective well-being, self-esteem, academic problems, frequency of meeting friends and the feeling of not having enough friends. These interactions indicate that the associations between symptoms of anxiety and depression and lower subjective well-being and self-esteem, more academic problems in school and lower social functioning were stronger for boys than for girls. Our findings may contribute to an earlier assessment and more efficient treatment of male adolescent anxiety and depression. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  10. Review of environmental exposure concentrations of chemical warfare agent residues and associated the fish community risk following the construction and completion of the Nord Stream gas pipeline between Russia and Germany.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik; Rahbek, Malene; Larsen, Jørn Bo

    2014-08-30

    This paper compiles all the measured chemical warfare agent (CWA) concentrations found in relation to the Nord Stream pipeline work in Danish waters for the past 5 years. Sediment and biota sampling were performed along the pipeline route in four campaigns, prior to (in 2008 and 2010), during (in 2011) and after (in 2012) the construction work. No parent CWAs were detected in the sediments. Patchy residues of CWA degradation products of Adamsite, Clark I, phenyldichloroarsine, trichloroarsine and Lewisite II, were detected in a total of 29 of the 391 sediment samples collected and analyzed the past 5 years. The cumulative fish community risk quotient for the different locations, calculated as a sum of background and added risk, ranged between 0 and 0.017 suggesting a negligible acute CWA risk toward the fish community. The added risk from sediment disturbance in relation to construction of the pipelines represents less than 2% of the total risk in the areas with the highest calculated risk. The analyses of benthic infauna corroborate the finding of CWA related low risk across the years. There was no significant difference in CWA risk before (2008) and after the pipeline construction (2012).

  11. Épidémiologie descriptive de la brûlure dans un territoire de santé exemple du « territoire nord franche-comté » durant l’année 2014

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, J.L.; Bitar, M.P.; Marx, T.; Macher, J.M.; Desmettre, T.; Ravat, F.; Labourey, J.M.; Capellier, G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cette étude est une analyse épidémiologique rétrospective du recours aux services de santé du nord de la Franche-Comté en raison d’une brûlure durant l’année 2014 (114 patients). L’âge moyen était de 26 ans (8 mois-81 ans), 1/3 des brûlures ont touché des enfants de moins de 15 ans. Les brûlures, plus fréquentes l’été, surviennent principalement autour de l’heure des repas, les jours « sans école », à domicile, avec un liquide chaud. Elles sont peu étendues (4,81% de la SCT) et souvent superficielles. Elles nécessitent un passage dans un Service d’Accueil des Urgences dans 88,59% des cas, suivi d’un transfert en CTB (Lyon plus que Nancy ou Metz) dans 12,28% des cas. PMID:27252605

  12. Congenital Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in Non-Endemic Areas: Evaluation of a Screening Program in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Barcelona, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Otero, Susana; Sulleiro, Elena; Molina, Israel; Espiau, Maria; Suy, Anna; Martín-Nalda, Andrea; Figueras, Concepción

    2012-01-01

    The impact of Chagas disease is no longer restricted to endemic areas. The aim of this study is to evaluate a 2-year period of a vertical transmission screening program of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in a tertiary care hospital in Barcelona (Spain). Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (recombinant and crude antigen) were performed in parallel to pregnant women at risk of T. cruzi infection. Discordant results were confirmed by a third diagnostic test. In the case of a positive result, the newborn was tested at birth and after 8 months of life. A total of 1,473 women met the inclusion criteria for the screening program with a resulting seroprevalence for T. cruzi of 3.5% (2.2–5.2% 95% confidence interval [95% CI]). One case of congenital infection was identified. Screening programs for vertically transmitted T. cruzi acute infection are beneficial in non-endemic areas for early detection and treatment of acute infection. PMID:22987653

  13. Enhanced retention strategies and willingness to participate among hard-to-reach female sex workers in Barcelona for HIV prevention and vaccine trials

    PubMed Central

    Etcheverry, M. Florencia; Evans, Jennifer L.; Sanchez, Emilia; Mendez-Arancibia, Eva; Meroño, Mercé; Gatell, José M.; Page, Kimberly; Joseph, Joan

    2013-01-01

    The potential for implementation of HIV vaccine trials in hard-to-reach female sex workers in an inner city area of Barcelona, Spain was assessed via a study of HIV risk, willingness to participate and the success of retention strategies. In 130 women, serological HIV status, behavioral risk exposures and willingness to participate in future HIV vaccine trials were recorded every six months using a confidential questionnaire. An enhanced retention (ER) strategy was compared with a control retention (CR) strategy comprising the recording of data on appointment cards. HIV seroincidence and retention rates were estimated. Retention rates after 6 and 12 mo of follow-up in the ER group were 76% and 69% respectively compared with 16% and 13% in the CR group. Among the ER group 97% were willing to participate in HIV vaccine trials at baseline and, after 12 mo of follow-up. Willingness was significantly associated with higher HIV risk exposure, and higher education level. Successfully retaining these cohorts over time in settings with a high HIV seroincidence rate is an ongoing challenge that will need to be addressed to ensure participation in future trials. Furthermore, as we have demonstrated, the fact that retaining hard-to-reach populations is difficult should not exclude this target population for HIV vaccine and prevention trials. PMID:23291931

  14. Exploring the interaction between O₃ and NOx pollution patterns in the atmosphere of Barcelona, Spain using the MCR-ALS method.

    PubMed

    Malik, Amrita; Tauler, Roma

    2015-06-01

    This work focuses on understanding the behaviour and patterns of three atmospheric pollutants namely, nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) along with their mutual interactions in the atmosphere of Barcelona, North Spain. Hourly samples were collected for NO, NO2 and O3 from the same city location for three consecutive years (2010-2012). The study explores the seasonal, annual and weekday-weekend variations in their diurnal profiles along with the possible identification of their source and mutual interactions in the region. Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) was applied to the individual datasets of these pollutants, as well as to all of them simultaneously (augmented mode) to resolve the profiles related to their source and variation patterns in the atmosphere. The analysis of the individual datasets confirmed the source pattern variations in the concerned pollutant's profiles; and the resolved profiles for augmented datasets suggested for the mutual interaction of the pollutants along with their patterns variations, simultaneously. The study suggests vehicular pollution as the major source of atmospheric nitrogen oxides and presence of weekend ozone effect in the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bioinformatics Analysis Reveals Distinct Molecular Characteristics of Hepatitis B-Related Hepatocellular Carcinomas from Very Early to Advanced Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Stages.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fan-Yun; Wei, Xiao; Zhou, Kai; Hu, Wei; Kou, Yan-Bo; You, Hong-Juan; Liu, Xiao-Mei; Zheng, Kui-Yang; Tang, Ren-Xian

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)is the fifth most common malignancy associated with high mortality. One of the risk factors for HCC is chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The treatment strategy for the disease is dependent on the stage of HCC, and the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging system is used in most HCC cases. However, the molecular characteristics of HBV-related HCC in different BCLC stages are still unknown. Using GSE14520 microarray data from HBV-related HCC cases with BCLC stages from 0 (very early stage) to C (advanced stage) in the gene expression omnibus (GEO) database, differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including common DEGs and unique DEGs in different BCLC stages, were identified. These DEGs were located on different chromosomes. The molecular functions and biology pathways of DEGs were identified by gene ontology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, and the interactome networks of DEGs were constructed using the NetVenn online tool. The results revealed that both common DEGs and stage-specific DEGs were associated with various molecular functions and were involved in special biological pathways. In addition, several hub genes were found in the interactome networks of DEGs. The identified DEGs and hub genes promote our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of HBV-related HCC through the different BCLC stages, and might be used as staging biomarkers or molecular targets for the treatment of HCC with HBV infection.

  16. Can More Aggressive Treatment Improve Prognosis in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma? A Direct Comparison of the Hong Kong Liver Cancer and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Sun; Seo, Yeon Seok; Kim, Ji Hoon; Lee, Juneyoung; Kim, Hae Rim; Yoo, Yang Jae; Kim, Tae Suk; Kang, Seong Hee; Suh, Sang Jun; Joo, Moon Kyung; Jung, Young Kul; Lee, Beom Jae; Yim, Hyung Joon; Yeon, Jong Eun; Kim, Jae Seon; Park, Jong-Jae; Um, Soon Ho; Bak, Young-Tae; Byun, Kwan Soo

    2017-09-07

    In addition to the globally endorsed Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system, other algorithms or staging systems have been developed, including the Hong Kong Liver Cancer (HKLC) staging system. This study aimed to validate the HKLC staging system relative to the BCLC staging system for predicting survival for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients in Korea. From 2004 to 2013, 2,571 patients newly diagnosed with HCC were consecutively enrolled at three Korea University medical centers. Both staging systems differentiated survival well (p<0.001). However, 1-year and 3-year survival were predicted better using the HKLC system than the BCLC system (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.869 vs 0.856 for 1 year, p=0.002; 0.841 vs 0.827 for 3 years, p=0.010). In hypothetical survival curves, the HKLC system exhibited better median overall survival than the BCLC system (33.1 months vs 19.2 months). In evaluations of prognosis according to either BCLC or HKLC treatment guidelines, risk of death was reduced in the group following only HKLC guidelines compared with the group following only BCLC guidelines (hazard ratio, 0.601; 95% confidence interval, 0.443 to 0.816; p=0.001). Although both staging systems predicted and discriminated HCC prognoses well, the HKLC system showed more encouraging survival benefits than the BCLC system.

  17. [Comparison liver resection with transarterial chemoembolization for Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage B hepatocellular carcinoma patients on long-term survival after SPSS propensity score matching].

    PubMed

    Ke, Yang; Zhong, Jianhong; Guo, Zhe; Liang, Yongrong; Li, Lequn; Xiang, Bangde

    2014-03-18

    To compare the long-term survival of patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage B hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) undergoing either liver resection or transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) after propensity score matching (PSM). One hundred sixty-seven and 70 BCLC-B HCC patients undergoing liver resection and TACE were retrospectively collected. PSM function of SPSS software was conducted to reduce confounding bias between the groups. And then survival analysis was performed for the matched data. Fifty-three pairs of patients were successfully matched. And then survival analysis showed that the median survival periods and their 95% confidence intervals were 35.0 (26.3-43.7)months in the liver resection group versus 20.0(15.0-25.0) months in the TACE group. The 1, 3, 5 and 7-year survival rates were 91.0%, 49.0%, 30.0% and 17.0% in the liver resection group versus 73.0%, 25.0%, 8.0% and 5.0% respectively in the TACE group (P = 0.001). Cox regression analysis revealed that TACE, total bilirubin ≥ 34.2 µmol/L, alpha fetoprotein ≥ 400 ng/ml and tumor number ≥ 3 were independent risk factors of survival (hazard ratio >1, P < 0.05). The balance of covariates may be achieved through PSM. And for patients with BCLC-B HCC, liver resection provides better long-term overall survival than TACE.

  18. Comprehensive monitoring of the occurrence of 22 drugs of abuse and transformation products in airborne particulate matter in the city of Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Mastroianni, Nicola; Postigo, Cristina; López de Alda, Miren; Viana, Mar; Rodríguez, Aureli; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier; Barceló, Damià

    2015-11-01

    In recent years monitoring the presence of psychotropic compounds in wastewater has been proposed as a tool to estimate community drug use. Measurement of drugs of abuse (DAs) in airborne particulate is currently being explored as an additional tool to evaluate drug use patterns in time and space, and identify potential emission sources. In this study, we comprehensively monitor the occurrence of 22 licit and illicit DAs and transformation products, belonging to 6 different chemical groups, in airborne particulate matter (PM10) in the city of Barcelona. In order to study spatial and temporal variations, samples were collected from 12 different selected locations on one weekday (Wednesday) and one weekend day (Saturday), during five consecutive weeks. A previously developed analytical methodology, based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination, was adapted for analysis of the target compounds with satisfactory performance, ensuring reliability of results. Among the investigated compounds, cannabinol (CBN), cocaine (COC), and methamphetamine (MA) were found to be the most ubiquitous and abundant compounds in PM10 with concentrations ranging from 0.7pg/m(3) (MA) to 6020pg/m(3) (CBN). Significant differences in total DA concentrations in PM10 were observed across sampling days and locations. DA emissions were identified in highly densely populated areas, where popular commercial and nightlife zones are located. Psychoactive effects due to inhalation of measured concentrations are probably negligible; however, potential health effects due to chronic exposure have not been explored yet.

  19. Attitudes of students of a health sciences university towards the extension of smoke-free policies at the university campuses of Barcelona (Spain).

    PubMed

    Martínez, Cristina; Méndez, Carlos; Sánchez, María; Martínez-Sánchez, José María

    To assess attitudes towards the extension of outdoor smoke-free areas on university campuses. Cross-sectional study (n=384) conducted using a questionnaire administered to medical and nursing students in Barcelona in 2014. Information was obtained pertaining to support for indoor and outdoor smoking bans on university campuses, and the importance of acting as role models. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine agreement. Most of the students agreed on the importance of health professionals and students as role models (74.9% and 64.1%, respectively) although there were statistically significant differences by smoking status and age. 90% of students reported exposure to smoke on campus. Students expressed strong support for indoor smoke-free policies (97.9%). However, only 39.3% of participants supported regulation of outdoor smoking for university campuses. Non-smokers (OR=12.315; 95% CI: 5.377-28.204) and students ≥22 years old (OR=3.001; 95% CI: 1.439-6.257) were the strongest supporters. The students supported indoor smoke-free policies for universities. However, support for extending smoke-free regulations to outdoor areas of university campuses was limited. It is necessary to educate students about tobacco control and emphasise their importance as role models before extending outdoor smoke-free legislation at university campuses. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Occurrence of emerging contaminants, priority substances (2008/105/CE) and heavy metals in treated wastewater and groundwater at Depurbaix facility (Barcelona, Spain).

    PubMed

    Teijon, Gloria; Candela, Lucila; Tamoh, Karim; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2010-08-01

    The presence of 170 pharmaceuticals, personal care products, priority substances according to the 2008/105EU Directive and four metals (Cd, Ni, Hg, Pb) have been investigated at the Llobregat delta, south of Barcelona (Spain). In the area, reclaimed water is destined to satisfy environmental uses, irrigation and the construction of a hydraulic barrier against seawater intrusion in the deep aquifer of the delta. A monitoring survey was undertaken of water samples from a tertiary wastewater treatment plant (Depurbaix), treated waste water with an additional treatment of ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, and UV disinfection (WWATP, for the hydraulic barrier injection). Groundwater samples from the aquifer receiving recharge were also investigated. The pharmaceutical group of substances was detected in sampled waters at concentrations rarely exceeding a few microg/L, among the compounds Caffeine, Nicotine and Galaxolide (musk fragrance) were found to be present in more than 60% of the samples. Diuron was the only priority substance detected. The four metals were always present in a variable concentration. After the WWATP treatment the majority of analytes are removed from tertiary treated wastewater or their concentration is reduced below 0.1 microg/L. Monitoring revealed a widespread occurrence of analysed compounds in groundwater. Among them Codeine (analgesic), Ibuprofen (anti-inflammatory), Iopamidol, Iopromide (contrast agent) and Paraxanthine (metabolite of caffeine) have only been detected in groundwater, and are not present in water currently being injected in the deep aquifer.

  1. Class relations and all-cause mortality: a test of Wright's social class scheme using the Barcelona 2000 Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, Carles; Borrell, Carme; Solà, Judit; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Chung, Haejoo; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Benach, Joan; Rocha, Kátia B; Ng, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the effects of neo-Marxian social class and potential mediators such as labor market position, work organization, material deprivation, and health behaviors on all-cause mortality. The authors use longitudinal data from the Barcelona 2000 Health Interview Survey (N=7526), with follow-up interviews through the municipal census in 2008 (95.97% response rate). Using data on relations of property, organizational power, and education, the study groups social classes according to Wright's scheme: capitalists, petit bourgeoisie, managers, supervisors, and skilled, semi-skilled, and unskilled workers. Findings indicate that social class, measured as relations of control over productive assets, is an important predictor of mortality among working-class men but not women. Workers (hazard ratio = 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-2.35) but also managers and small employers had a higher risk of death compared with capitalists. The extensive use of conventional gradient measures of social stratification has neglected sociological measures of social class conceptualized as relations of control over productive assets. This concept is capable of explaining how social inequalities are generated. To confirm the protective effect of the capitalist class position and the "contradictory class location hypothesis," additional efforts are needed to properly measure class among low-level supervisors, capitalists, managers, and small employers.

  2. Predominant Virulent IbA10G2 Subtype of Cryptosporidium hominis in Human Isolates in Barcelona: A Five-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Segura, Remedios; Prim, Núria; Montemayor, Michel; Valls, María Eugenia; Muñoz, Carme

    2015-01-01

    Background Cryptosporidium infection is a worldwide cause of diarrheal disease. To gain insight into the epidemiology of the infection in a certain geographic area, molecular methods are needed to determine the species/genotypes and subtypes. Methodology/Principal Findings From 2004 to 2009, 161 cryptosporidiosis cases were detected in two hospitals in Barcelona. Diagnosis was performed by microscopic observation of oocysts in stool specimens following modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Most cases (82%) occurred in children. The number of cases increased in summer and autumn. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium was performed in 69 specimens, and C. hominis and C. parvum were identified in 88.4% and 10.1% of the cases, respectively. C. meleagridis was detected in one specimen. Subtyping based on the gp60 polymorphism showed six subtypes, four C. hominis and two C. parvum. Subtype IbA10G2 was the most prevalent subtype corresponding to 90% of all C. hominis isolates. This is the first report on the distribution of specific Cryptosporidium subtypes from humans in Spain. Conclusions/Significance In our geographic area, the anthroponotic behavior of C. hominis, the lower infective dose, and the higher virulence of certain subtypes may contribute to the high incidence of human cryptosporidiosis caused by the IbA10G2 subtype. Further studies should include populations with asymptomatic shedding of the parasite. PMID:25816024

  3. Morphological characteristics of the optic nerve evaluated by confocal laser tomography (HRT3) and laser polarimetry (GDx-VCC) in a normal population from the city of Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Fallon, M; Pazos, M; Morilla, A; Sebastián, M A; Xancó, R; Mora, C; Calderón, B; Vega, Z; Antón, A

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate morphological parameters of optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) examined with confocal laser tomography (HRT3) and laser polarimetry (GDx-VCC) in a normal population, and analyze correlations of these parameters with demographic variables. Cross-sectional study in the context of a glaucoma screening campaign in the primary care center of Barcelona. The individuals selected were non-hypertensive Mediterranean Caucasians with risk for glaucoma development (individuals≥60 years old or≥40 years old with family history of glaucoma or intraocular pressure or myopia>3diopter). All subjects underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, confocal laser tomography (HRT3) and scanning laser polarimetry (GDX-VCC), subjects with results within normal limits only being included. Structural parameters were analyzed along with age, refraction, and pachymetry based on the Spearman rank correlation test. A total of 224 subjects included, with a mean age of 63.4±11.1 years. Disc areas, excavation and ring area were 2.14±0.52mm(2), 0.44±0.34mm (2) and 1.69±0.38mm(2), respectively. The mean RNFL (GDX) was 55.9±6.9μm. Age was correlated with lower ring volume, highest rate of cup shape measure, largest mean and maximum cup depth, lower nerve fiber index (NFI) and RNFL (all p-values below .05). The mean values and distribution of several parameters of the papilla and the RNFL in normal Mediterranean Caucasians population are presented. A loss of thickness of the RNFL, ring thinning, and enlarged cup was observed with increased age. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of radiotherapy in liver-confined but non-resectable Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage C large hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hong In; Jung, Inkyung; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Seong, Jinsil

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Clinical trials to determine the efficacy of radiotherapy (RT) in liver-confined but non-resectable Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage C hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are scarce. We aimed to determine the benefit of RT in such tumors and investigated large HCC tumors. Methods HCC data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry recorded from 2008 to 2010 were used. A total of 593 patients met our inclusion criteria; 67 were treated with RT while the remainder made up the non-RT group. Fifty-two RT recipients underwent combination treatments within 4 weeks after the first RT treatment, and were defined as the combination RT group. We performed propensity score matching (PSM) to compare the RT or combination RT groups with the non-RT group. The endpoint was overall survival (OS). Results Median follow-up time for surviving patients was 48 months. After PSM, there was no difference in OS between the RT and non-RT groups or between the combination RT and non-RT groups. However, the combination RT group had a longer median survival time (MST) (10.7 vs. 6.9 months, respectively). Next, we conducted PSM between the combination RT and non-RT groups in patients with tumor sizes ≥10 cm; MST was significantly longer in the former group (10.1 vs. 5.4 months, respectively; bootstrap 95% confidence interval of the difference in MST: 0.2-11.8). Conclusions As a combined modality, RT is a plausible therapeutic option for liver-confined but non-resectable BCLC stage C large HCC patients. PMID:27486881

  5. Validation of heart failure diagnosis registered in primary care records in two primary care centres in Barcelona (Spain) and factors related. A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Verdú-Rotellar, Jose María; Frigola-Capell, Eva; Alvarez-Pérez, Rosa; da Silva, Daniela; Enjuanes, Cristina; Domingo, Mar; Mena, Amparo; Muñoz, Miguel-Angel

    2017-12-01

    Heart failure (HF) diagnosis as reported in primary care medical records is not always properly confirmed and could result in over-registration. To determine the proportion of registered HF that can be confirmed with information from primary care medical records and to analyse related factors. A cross-sectional study. The medical records of 595 HF patients attended in two primary healthcare centres in Barcelona (Spain) were revised and validated by a team of experts who classified diagnosis into confirmed, unconfirmed, and misdiagnosis. Variables potentially related to the confirmation of the diagnosis were analysed. The revision of medical records and data collection took place from 15 January to 31 March 2014. Mean (standard deviation) age was 78 (10) years and 58% were women. The diagnosis could be confirmed in 53.6% of patients. Factors associated with a greater probability of having a confirmed diagnosis were age (yearly OR: 0.97, 95%CI: 0.95-0.99), cardiologist follow-up (OR: 3.66, 95%CI: 2.46-5.48), history of ischaemic heart disease (OR: 2.18, 95%CI: 1.36-2.48), atrial fibrillation (OR: 2.01, 95%CI: 1.34-3.03), and prescription of loop diuretics (OR: 3.24, 95%CI: 2.14-4.89). Only in half of the patients labelled as HF in primary care medical records could this diagnosis be further confirmed. Variables regularly registered in clinical practice could help general practitioners identify those patients requiring a revision of their HF diagnosis.

  6. Nomogram for preoperative estimation of long-term survival of patients who underwent curative resection with hepatocellular carcinoma beyond Barcelona clinic liver cancer stage A1

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hui; Wu, Dong-Hao; Chen, Jie; Dong, Min; Lin, Qu; Wu, Xiang-Yuan; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims This retrospective cohort study developed a prognostic nomogram to predict the survival of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients diagnosed as beyond Barcelona clinic liver cancer stage A1 after resection and evaluated the possibility of using the nomogram as a treatment algorithm reference. Results The predictors included in the nomogram were total tumour volume, Child-Turcotte-Pugh class, plasma fibrinogen and portal vein tumour thrombus. Patients diagnosed as beyond A1 were stratified into low-, medium- and high-risk groups using nomogram scores of 0 and 51 with the total points of 225. Patients within A1 exhibited similar recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) rates compared with the low-risk group. Patients in the medium-risk group exhibited a similar OS but a worse RFS rates compared with patients within A1. The high-risk group was associated with worse RFS and OS rates compared with the patients within A1 (3-year RFS rates, 27.0% vs. 60.3%, P < 0.001; 3-year OS rates, 49.2% vs. 83.1%, P < 0.001). Methods A total of 352 HCC patients undergoing curative resection from September 2003 to December 2012 were included to develop a nomogram to predict overall survival after resection. Univariate and multivariate survival analysis were used to identify prognostic factors. A visually orientated nomogram was constructed using a Cox proportional hazards model. Conclusions This user-friendly nomogram offers an individualized preoperative recurrence risk estimation and stratification for HCC patients beyond A1 undergoing resection. Resection should be considered the first-line treatment for low-risk patients. PMID:27542216

  7. Knowledge and attitudes of primary health care physicians and nurses with regard to population screening for colorectal cancer in Balearic Islands and Barcelona

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Primary health care (PHC) professionals play a key role in population screening of colorectal cancer. The purposes of the study are: to assess knowledge and attitudes among PHC professionals with regard to colorectal cancer screening, as well as the factors that determine their support for such screening. Methods Questionnaire-based survey of PHC physicians and nurses in the Balearic Islands and in a part of the metropolitan area of Barcelona. Results We collected 1,219 questionnaires. About 84% of all professionals believe that screening for colorectal cancer by fecal occult blood test (FOBT) is effective. Around 68% would recommend to their clients a colorectal cancer screening program based on FOBT and colonoscopy. About 31% are reluctant or do not know. Professionals perceive the fear of undergoing a colonoscopy as the main obstacle in getting patients to participate, and the invasive nature of this test is the main reason behind their resistance to this program. The main barriers to support the screening program among PHC professionals are lack of knowledge (nurses) and lack of time (physicians). On multivariate analysis, the factors associated with reluctance to recommend colorectal cancer screening were: believing that FOBT has poor sensitivity and is complicated; that colonoscopy is an invasive procedure; that a lack of perceived benefit could discourage client participation; that only a minority of clients would participate; thinking that clients are fed up with screening tests and being unaware if they should be offered something to ensure their participation in the programme. Conclusions Two in every three PHC professionals would support a population screening program for colorectal cancer screening. Factors associated with reluctance to recommend it were related with screening tests characteristics as sensitivity and complexity of FOBT, and also invasive feature of colonoscopy. Other factors were related with patients' believes. PMID:20854679

  8. Study of biomechanical overload in urban gardeners of Barcelona: application of analytical models for risk exposure evaluation in annual working cycle.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Casado, Enrique; Hernandez-Soto, Aquiles; Tello, Sandoval; Gual, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Occupational musculoskeletal disorders in the upper limbs and its consequences on the impact and prevalence in the work force are subject of many investigations in almost all the production fields. However, the exposure to this kind of risk factor on urban gardeners has not been well studied so far. The kind of plant varieties used in the parks, the tools that they use, as much as the necessary actions for the maintenance of the park, have an impact on the biomechanical overload of the upper limbs. Additionally, the analysis of the exposure to the biomechanical overload on upper limbs in gardening work is a complex task, mainly because it is an activity highly variable and of annual cycle. For this reason an analytical model for risk exposure evaluation is necessary. During this research the work activity of 29 gardeners in 3 urban parks of Barcelona has been analyzed. Each park has a specific acting plan, in relation with the quantity and the typology of vegetal species, its classification and the season of the year. Work and observation and video recording sessions on-site were conducted. The video-graphic registration was done on workers without any prior musculoskeletal disorder and with a minimum labour experience of 5 years. Moreover, the analysis of saturation time, considered as the relation of the repetitive working hours in reference with the hours of effective work was done. Using the registered tasks on video, the biomechanical overload on upper limbs applying the OCRA Checklist method was analyzed. A methodological procedure to analyze the risk exposure in annual working cycle has been proposed. The results that we got allow us to get information that can help in the assignment of the tasks and in the training of staff, as well as in the recommendations of the urban landscape's design. All these aspects have the goal to decrease the risk to develop work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

  9. Analysis of ethyl sulfate in raw wastewater for estimation of alcohol consumption and its correlation with drugs of abuse in the city of Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Mastroianni, Nicola; Lopez de Alda, Miren; Barcelo, Damia

    2014-09-19

    The increasing, generalized consumption of alcohol, especially among young people, generates great concern in our society due to its negative consequences on public health and safety. Besides the traditional, official methods employed for estimation of alcohol consumption, the monitoring of ethyl sulfate (EtS), a urinary biomarker of alcohol ingestion, in raw wastewater has been recently proposed as an additional tool to estimate alcohol use at community level through the so-called sewage epidemiology approach. In the presented study, a fast and reliable analytical method based on ion-pair liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been optimized and further applied to the analysis of EtS in seven 24h composite samples collected along one week at the inlet of a large sewage treatment plant (STP) located in the Barcelona area. EtS was measured in the entire set of analysed samples, with concentrations ranging from 5.5 to 33μg/L, which correspond to an absolute alcohol consumption of around 11,000 (Wednesday) to 25,000 (Sunday) kg/day. The average per capita absolute alcohol consumption calculated was 18mL/day/inhabitant. Moreover, the levels of EtS measured throughout the week showed high correlation with those of some recreational illicit drugs and metabolites, namely, cocaethylene (r(2)=0.9391, n=5), benzoylecgonine (r(2)=0.9252, n=7), ecstasy (r(2)=0.8950, n=7), amphetamine (r(2)=0.8707, n=7) and cocaine (r(2)=0.6425, n=7), measured in the same samples. This study confirms that the analysis of EtS in raw wastewater can be a useful tool for the estimation of alcohol consumption in an anonymous, fast and economic way, and indicates that consumption of alcohol and some illicit drugs occurs often together. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Anxiety, depression and timing of insulin treatment among people with type 2 diabetes: Nine-year follow-up of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, Norway.

    PubMed

    Iversen, M M; Nefs, G; Tell, G S; Espehaug, B; Midthjell, K; Graue, M; Pouwer, F

    2015-10-01

    Depression and anxiety have been found to be predictors of poor health outcomes in diabetes, but mechanisms are still unclear. To examine whether symptoms of anxiety and depression were associated with timing of initiating insulin therapy. A cohort study of insulin-naive particpants with type 2 dabetes completed the Hospital Anxiey and Depression Scale, HADS-A (n = 731) and/or the HADS-D (n = 768) in the communy-based Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (1995-1997). Information on insulin initiation was retrieved from the Norwegian Prescription Database from January 1, 2004 to November 21, 2012. Cox regression analyses were used to estimate the association between symptoms of anxiety, depression and time to insulin initiation. At baseline, 19% reported anxiety symptoms (score≥8) and 18% depressive symptoms (score≥8). After a mean follow-up of 4.4 (SD 3.6) years, 337 (40%) participants had started insulin therapy. After adjustment for sociodemographic and clinical variables, anxiety symptoms were associated with later initiation of insulin therapy (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.49-0.99), while depressive symptoms were not. Considering groups simultaneously, having both elevated depressive and elevated anxiety symptoms was associated with later time to insulin initiation (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.39-0.99), while having only anxiety symptoms (without depressive) HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.50-1.32) or only depressive symptoms (without anxiety) (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.68-1.72) were not. Anxiety was associated with a later initiation of insulin, while depressive symptoms were not. Persons with both elevated levels of anxiety and depression were also less likely to start insulin therapy. These results need further testing in other prospective studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-Smoking Tobacco Affects Endothelial Function in Healthy Men in One of the Largest Health Studies Ever Performed; The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study in Norway; HUNT3

    PubMed Central

    Aspenes, Stian Thoresen; Ellingsen, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral tobacco (snuff) is taking a large market share in Scandinavia, especially with young users. However, long-term health effects are unknown. Small studies show association between snuff and reduced endothelial function, representing an early stage of vascular injury that often precedes manifest cardiovascular disease by several years. We therefore determined the associations between snuff and endothelial function in a large sample of healthy Norwegian men. Methods and Design In the Fitness substudy of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3), endothelial function was measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Aerobic fitness was measured by peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). A cross-sectional design including 1 592 self-reported healthy men compared these observations with records of present tobacco use, standard cardiovascular risk factors, and socioeconomic status, using general linear models. Results FMD was lower in snuff users (FMD: 4.12%, 3.63, 4.61) compared to non-users (FMD: 4.52%, 4.27, 4.78) after adjustment for age (difference: -0.57%, -1.12, -0.01). After further adjustment for potential confounders, FMD still tended to be lower in snuff users than in non-users (difference: -0.53%, -1.09, 0.02). This difference was even more pronounced in the inactive snuff users (-0.83%, -1.59, -0.06) and in the low fit snuff users (-0.74%, CI -0.55, 0.079). Conclusions Oral tobacco is associated with a tendency towards reduced endothelial function, indicating vascular changes that precede cardiovascular disease. The strongest associations were found in men with low physical activity or reduced aerobic fitness. PMID:27490361

  12. Use of alcohol and drugs with addiction potential among older women and men in a population-based study. The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 2006-2008 (HUNT3).

    PubMed

    Tevik, Kjerstin; Selbæk, Geir; Engedal, Knut; Seim, Arnfinn; Krokstad, Steinar; Helvik, Anne-S

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the consumption habits of older adults in Norway with respect to alcohol and the use of drugs with addiction potential, such as benzodiazepines, z-hypnotics and opioids, among regular drinkers. We studied the prevalence of self-reported consumption of alcohol on a regular basis in community-living older men and women (≥ 65 years). Furthermore, we investigated the prevalence of dispensed prescribed drugs with addiction potential in older men and women who were regular drinkers. We used data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 2006-2008 (HUNT3). Of 12,361 older adults in the HUNT3 study, 11,545 had answered the alcohol consumption item and were included in our study. Regular drinkers were defined as consuming alcohol one or more days a week. Data on dispensed drugs with addiction potential were drawn from the Norwegian Prescription Database. Addiction potential was defined as at least one prescription for benzodiazepines, z-hypnotics or opioids during one year for a minimum of two consecutive years. In total 28.2% of older Norwegian adults were regular drinkers. Men in the study were more likely to be regular drinkers than women. Drugs with addiction potential were used by 32.4% of participants, and were more commonly used by women. Nearly 12% of participants used benzodiazepines, 19% z-hypnotics and 12.4% opioids. Among regular drinkers, 29% used drugs with addiction potential, which was also more common among women. Adjusted for age, gender and living situation, use of z-hypnotics was associated with regular alcohol intake, while use of opioids was associated with no regular alcohol intake. The prevalence of the use of drugs with addiction potential was high in a Norwegian population of older adults who reported regular consumption of alcohol. Strategies should be developed to reduce or prevent alcohol consumption among older adults who use drugs with addiction potential.

  13. Advantages of using a fast urban boundary layer model as compared to a full mesoscale model to simulate the urban heat island of Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Díez, Markel; Lauwaet, Dirk; Hooyberghs, Hans; Ballester, Joan; De Ridder, Koen; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-12-01

    As most of the population lives in urban environments, the simulation of the urban climate has become a key problem in the framework of the climate change impact assessment. However, the high computational power required by high-resolution (sub-kilometre) fully coupled land-atmosphere simulations using urban canopy parameterisations is a severe limitation. Here we present a study on the performance of UrbClim, an urban boundary layer model designed to be several orders of magnitude faster than a full-fledged mesoscale model. The simulations are evaluated with station data and land surface temperature observations from satellites, focusing on the urban heat island (UHI). To explore the advantages of using a simple model like UrbClim, the results are compared with a simulation carried out with a state-of-the-art mesoscale model, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model, which includes an urban canopy model. This comparison is performed with driving data from ERA-Interim reanalysis (70 km). In addition, the effect of using driving data from a higher-resolution forecast model (15 km) is explored in the case of UrbClim. The results show that the performance of reproducing the average UHI in the simple model is generally comparable to the one in the mesoscale model when driven with reanalysis data (70 km). However, the simple model needs higher-resolution data from the forecast model (15 km) to correctly reproduce the variability of the UHI at a daily scale, which is related to the wind speed. This lack of accuracy in reproducing the wind speed, especially the sea-breeze daily cycle, which is strong in Barcelona, also causes a warm bias in the reanalysis driven UrbClim run. We conclude that medium-complexity models as UrbClim are a suitable tool to simulate the urban climate, but that they are sensitive to the ability of the input data to represent the local wind regime. UrbClim is a well suited model for impact and adaptation studies at city scale without high

  14. Levels of outdoor PM 2.5, absorbance and sulphur as surrogates for personal exposures among post-myocardial infarction patients in Barcelona, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Lanki, Timo; Sunyer, Jordi; Cabrera, Laia; Querol, Xavier; Bellander, Tom; Moreno, Natalia; Peters, Annette; Pey, Jorge; Pekkanen, Juha

    Outdoor levels of fine particles (PM 2.5; particles <2.5 μm) have been associated with cardiovascular health. Persons with existing cardiovascular disease have been suggested to be especially vulnerable. It is unclear, how well outdoor concentrations of PM 2.5 and its constituents measured at a central site reflect personal exposures in Southern European countries. The objective of the study was to assess the relationship between outdoor and personal concentrations of PM 2.5, absorbance and sulphur among post-myocardial infarction patients in Barcelona, Spain. Thirty-eight subjects carried personal PM 2.5 monitors for 24-h once a month (2-6 repeated measurements) between November 2003 and June 2004. PM 2.5 was measured also at a central outdoor monitoring site. Light absorbance (a proxy for elemental carbon) and sulphur content of filter samples were determined as markers of combustion originating and long-range transported PM 2.5, respectively. There were 110, 162 and 88 measurements of PM 2.5, absorbance and sulphur, respectively. Levels of outdoor PM 2.5 (median 17 μg m 3) were lower than personal PM 2.5 even after excluding days with exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) (median after exclusion 27 μg m 3). However, outdoor concentrations of absorbance and sulphur were similar to personal concentrations after exclusion of ETS. When repeated measurements were taken into account, there was a statistically significant association between personal and outdoor absorbance when adjusting for ETS (slope 0.66, p<0.001), but for PM 2.5 the association was weaker (slope 0.51, p=0.066). Adjustment for ETS had little effect on the respective association of S (slope 0.69, p<0.001). Our results suggest that outdoor measurements of absorbance and sulphur can be used to estimate both the daily variation and levels of personal exposures also in Southern European countries, especially when exposure to ETS has been taken into account. For PM 2.5, indoor sources need to

  15. [Trichinae, pigs and veterinary public health: The introduction of the microscopic world into the scientific basis for meat inspection (Barcelona, 1870s)].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez García, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    During the second half of the 19th century, Spanish authorities began developing specific programs on the safety of certain foods intended for human consumption. This paper analyses the key features that gave rise to the inclusion of the veterinarian in the administrative structure responsible for safeguarding public health. Among the aspects covered, special focus is put on the relationship between human and animal medicine at a time when growing public alarm in relation to certain zoonoses contributed to shaping the notion of veterinary public health. The appearance of a disease in pigs that was transmissible through the consumption of parasitized meat set the scene for veterinary inspection to be associated with the protection of public health. The outbreaks of trichinosis all over Spain in the 1870's proved the existence of contagium animatum in a pre-bacteriology era, and this led to the introduction of improvements in food inspection. In this sense, microscopic examination of pork products encouraged the modernization of inspection tasks undertaken by veterinarians, which had previously focused on the organoleptic evaluation of meat and fish and on unveiling fraud. The introduction of microscopes was widely accepted and established a watershed between acceptable and unacceptable methods of carrying out the examination of meat. Furthermore, this "technological" method of diagnosis brought veterinary medicine closer to other more prestigious health professions, at least in theory. Among other aspects, the acceptance of trichinae as an exogenous cause of disease contributed to 19th century doctors learning about the idea of pathogenic microorganisms from veterinarians. At a social level, the use of the microscope was seen as a way of preventing the transmission to people of an animal disease that was very much in the public eye at the time. From the political point of view, the process -analysed in this paper from the perspective of veterinarians in Barcelona

  16. Update on fertility preservation from the Barcelona International Society for Fertility Preservation-ESHRE-ASRM 2015 expert meeting: indications, results and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Francisca

    2017-09-01

    What progress has been made in fertility preservation (FP) over the last decade? FP techniques have been widely adopted over the last decade and therefore the establishment of international registries on their short- and long-term outcomes is strongly recommended. FP is a fundamental issue for both males and females whose future fertility may be compromised. Reproductive capacity may be seriously affected by age, different medical conditions and also by treatments, especially those with gonadal toxicity. There is general consensus on the need to provide counselling about currently available FP options to all individuals wishing to preserve their fertility. An international meeting with representatives from expert scientific societies involved in FP was held in Barcelona, Spain, in June 2015. Twenty international FP experts belonging to the American Society of Reproductive Medicine, ESHRE and the International Society of Fertility Preservation reviewed the literature up to June 2015 to be discussed at the meeting, and approved the final manuscript. At the time this manuscript was being written, new evidence considered relevant for the debated topics was published, and was consequently included. Several oncological and non-oncological diseases may affect current or future fertility, either caused by the disease itself or the gonadotoxic treatment, and need an adequate FP approach. Women wishing to postpone maternity and transgender individuals before starting hormone therapy or undergoing surgery to remove/alter their reproductive organs should also be counselled accordingly. Embryo and oocyte cryopreservation are first-line FP methods in postpubertal women. Metaphase II oocyte cryopreservation (vitrification) is the preferred option. Cumulative evidence of restoration of ovarian function and spontaneous pregnancies after ART following orthotopic transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue supports its future consideration as an open clinical application. Semen

  17. Different survival of Barcelona clinic liver cancer stage C hepatocellular carcinoma patients by the extent of portal vein invasion and the type of extrahepatic spread.

    PubMed

    Sinn, Dong Hyun; Cho, Ju-Yeon; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Paik, Yong-Han; Choi, Moon Seok; Lee, Joon Hyeok; Koh, Kwang Cheol; Paik, Seung Woon; Yoo, Byung Chul

    2015-01-01

    Portal vein invasion (PVI) and extrahepatic spread (ES) are two tumor-related factors that define advanced stage in the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system (BCLC stage C), and the recommended first line therapy in this stage is sorafenib. However, the extent of PVI and the type of ES may affect patient prognosis as well as treatment outcome. This study analyzed survival of BCLC stage C HCC patients in order to see whether sub-classification of BCLC stage C is necessary. A total of 582 treatment naïve, BCLC stage C HCC patients [age: 54.3 ± 10.8 years, males = 494 (84.9%), hepatitis B virus (458, 78.7%)], defined by PVI and/or ES, were analyzed. Extent of PVI was divided into none, type I-segmental/sectoral branches, type II-left and/or right portal vein, and type III-main portal vein trunk. Type of ES was divided into nodal and distant metastasis. The extent of PVI and type of ES were independent factors for survival. When patients were sub-classified according to the extent of PVI and type of ES, the median survival was significantly different [11.7 months, 5.7 months, 4.9 months and 2.3 months for C1 (PVI-O/I without distant ES), C2 (PVI-II/III without distant ES), C3 (PVI-0/I with distant ES), and C4 (PVI-II/III with distant ES), respectively, P = 0.01]. Patients' survival was different according to the treatment modality in each sub-stage. Sub-classification of BCLC stage C according to the extent of PVI and type of ES resulted in a better prediction of survival. Also, different outcome was observed by treatment modalities in each sub-stage. Sub-classification of BCLC stage C is required to minimize heterogeneity within the same tumor stage, that will help better predict survival and to select optimal treatment strategies.

  18. Different Survival of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Stage C Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients by the Extent of Portal Vein Invasion and the Type of Extrahepatic Spread

    PubMed Central

    Gwak, Geum-Youn; Paik, Yong-Han; Choi, Moon Seok; Lee, Joon Hyeok; Koh, Kwang Cheol; Paik, Seung Woon; Yoo, Byung Chul

    2015-01-01

    Portal vein invasion (PVI) and extrahepatic spread (ES) are two tumor-related factors that define advanced stage in the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system (BCLC stage C), and the recommended first line therapy in this stage is sorafenib. However, the extent of PVI and the type of ES may affect patient prognosis as well as treatment outcome. This study analyzed survival of BCLC stage C HCC patients in order to see whether sub-classification of BCLC stage C is necessary. A total of 582 treatment naïve, BCLC stage C HCC patients [age: 54.3 ± 10.8 years, males = 494 (84.9%), hepatitis B virus (458, 78.7%)], defined by PVI and/or ES, were analyzed. Extent of PVI was divided into none, type I-segmental/sectoral branches, type II-left and/or right portal vein, and type III-main portal vein trunk. Type of ES was divided into nodal and distant metastasis. The extent of PVI and type of ES were independent factors for survival. When patients were sub-classified according to the extent of PVI and type of ES, the median survival was significantly different [11.7 months, 5.7 months, 4.9 months and 2.3 months for C1 (PVI-O/I without distant ES), C2 (PVI-II/III without distant ES), C3 (PVI-0/I with distant ES), and C4 (PVI-II/III with distant ES), respectively, P = 0.01]. Patients’ survival was different according to the treatment modality in each sub-stage. Sub-classification of BCLC stage C according to the extent of PVI and type of ES resulted in a better prediction of survival. Also, different outcome was observed by treatment modalities in each sub-stage. Sub-classification of BCLC stage C is required to minimize heterogeneity within the same tumor stage, that will help better predict survival and to select optimal treatment strategies. PMID:25923439

  19. [On the way to shortening tuberculosis treatments: clinical trials of the Unitat d' Investagació en Tuberculosi de Barcelona supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention].

    PubMed

    Moreno, Antonio; Sánchez, Francesca; Nelson, Jeanne; Miró, José M; Caylà, Joan A

    2010-01-01

    New treatment guidelines are required to improve the tuberculosis control strategies that have been used for 30 years. Seven centers of the Barcelona Tuberculosis Research Unit (BTRU) (Unitat d'Investigació en Tuberculosi de Barcelona) are collaborating with the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in a series of clinical trials on latent tuberculosis infection and tuberculosis disease. BTRU participation began in 2004 with Study 26, an evaluation of the efficacy and tolerability of rifapentine plus isoniazid administered once weekly for 3 months compared with the standard treatment for latent tuberculosis infection. The BTRU centers together enrolled 246 patients (3% of the total). General enrollment was completed in February, 2008. HIV-infected patient and child enrollment continues. Treatment with 12 doses instead of 270 doses is expected to be a clear success. However, the analysis will be completed in 2010. Study 28 (started in 2006), designed for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, compared standard treatment with an experimental regimen substituting moxifloxacin for isoniazid. BTRU centers together enrolled 15 patients (3.5% of the total). The provisional results (presented at the 47th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy in Chicago, 2007) showed no difference between the sputum conversion rate of each regimen at week 8 of treatment. Study 29 is currently underway, in which rifapentine was introduced in the experimental regimen for active tuberculosis treatment.

  20. Etude des connaissances, attitudes et pratiques en matière de réintégration sociale des femmes victimes de fistule obstétricale: région de l'Extrême-nord, Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Sanou Sobze; Adogaye, Sali Ben Béchir; Rodrigue, Mabvouna Biguioh; Maurice, Douryang; Vivaldi, Teikeu Tessa Vladimir; Amede, Saah Fopa Michael; Marie, Ovaga Eyenga Landry; Meriam, Ausseil Sandra; Colizzi, Vittorio; Gianluca, Russo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La fistule obstétricale est un orifice entre le vagin et la vessie ou le rectum, voire les deux. Ses impacts sont des conséquences anatomo-fonctionnelles et sociales. On estime à plus de 19 000 le nombre de femmes qui souffrent de fistule obstétricale au Cameroun. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale descriptive conduite dans trois districts de santé de la région de l'Extrême-nord. Vingt-huit femmes victimes de fistules obstétricales, quarante-deux membres de leur entourage et vingt-quatre agents de santé ont été interviewés entre Novembre et Décembre 2013. Trois types de questionnaires ont été utilisés. Les données ont été analysées dans Epi Info version 7.1.4.0. Les moyennes et les fréquences ont été calculées avec un intervalle de confiance à 95%. Résultats 46,4% des femmes victimes de fistule obstétricales interviewées avaient subi une intervention chirurgicale réparatrice parmi lesquelles, 61,5% bénéficiaient de la réintégration. Le fonds de commerce (62,5%) était l'aide la plus reçue. Vingt-deux membres de l'entourage savaient pourquoi on fait la réintégration. Selon eux, les considérations socioculturelles (68,2%), sont la principale barrière de la réintégration. D'après les agents de santé, le suivi psychosocial (58,3%) est la principale activité de la réintégration dans les centres de prise en charge de la fistule. Conclusion La prise en charge des fistules obstétricales au Cameroun souffre de manque de réintégration sociale. Ceci expliquerait en partie la persistance de cette pathologie. Un accent devrait être mis sur l'appui matériel, financier et sur le suivi psychosocial des femmes victimes de fistule obstétricale. PMID:26113915

  1. Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms as Predictors of All-Cause Mortality among People with Insulin-Naïve Type 2 Diabetes: 17-Year Follow-Up of the Second Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT2), Norway.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Marjolein M; Nefs, Giesje; Tell, Grethe S; Espehaug, Birgitte; Midthjell, Kristian; Graue, Marit; Pouwer, Frans

    2016-01-01

    To examine whether elevated anxiety and/or depressive symptoms are related to all-cause mortality in people with Type 2 diabetes, not using insulin. 948 participants in the community-wide Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey conducted during 1995-97 completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale with subscales of anxiety (HADS-A) and depression (HADS-D). Elevated symptoms were defined as HADS-A or HADS-D ≥8. Participants with type 2 diabetes, not using insulin, were followed until November 21, 2012 or death. Cox regression analyses were used to estimate associations between baseline elevated anxiety symptoms, elevated depressive symptoms and mortality, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, HbA1c, cardiovascular disease and microvascular complications. At baseline, 8% (n = 77/948) reported elevated anxiety symptoms, 9% (n = 87/948) elevated depressive symptoms and 10% (n = 93/948) reported both. After a mean follow-up of 12 years (SD 5.1, range 0-17), 541 participants (57%) had died. Participants with elevated anxiety symptoms only had a decreased mortality risk (unadjusted HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.46-0.96). Adjustment for HbA1c attenuated this relation (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.50-1.07). Those with elevated depression symptoms alone had an increased mortality risk (fully adjusted model HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.05-1.84). Having both elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms was not associated with increased mortality risk (adjusted HR 1.30, 95% CI 0.96-1.74). Elevated depressive symptoms were associated with excess mortality risk in people with Type 2 diabetes not using insulin. No significant association with mortality was found among people with elevated anxiety symptoms. Having both elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms was not associated with mortality. The hypothesis that elevated levels of anxiety symptoms leads to behavior that counteracts the adverse health effects of Type 2 diabetes needs further investigation.

  2. Midlife mental distress and risk for dementia up to 27 years later: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT) in linkage with a dementia registry in Norway.

    PubMed

    Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Bergh, Sverre; Stewart, Robert; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Bjerkeset, Ottar

    2015-03-10

    Dementia is an increasing public health challenge, and the number of individuals affected is growing rapidly. Mental disorders and symptoms of mental distress have been reported to be risk factors for dementia. The aim of this study was to examine whether midlife mental distress is a predictor for onset of dementia later in life. Using data from a large population-based study (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study; HUNT1) linked to a dementia registry (The Health and Memory study; HMS) enabling a maximum 27 years of follow-up, we ascertained mental distress and subsequent dementia status for 30,902 individuals aged 30-60 years at baseline. In HUNT1, self-reported mental distress was assessed using the four-item Anxiety and Depression Index (ADI-4). Dementia status was ascertained from HMS, which included patient and caregiver history, cognitive testing and clinical and physical examinations from the hospitals and nursing homes serving the catchment area of HUNT1. In the main analysis, unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were computed for the prospective association between mental distress and dementia. In secondary analyses, two-way age and gender interactions with mental distress on later dementia were examined. A 50% increased odds for dementia among HUNT1-participants reporting mental distress was found (crude odds ratio (OR): 1.52; 95% CI 1.15-2.01), and a 35% increase in the fully adjusted model (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.01-1.80). In secondary analyses, we found evidence for a two-way interaction with age on the association between mental distress and dementia (p = 0.030): the age- and gender adjusted OR was 2.44 (95% CI 1.18-5.05) in those aged 30-44 years at baseline, and 1.24 (0.91-1.69) in 45-60 year olds. Our results indicate an association between midlife mental distress and increased risk of later dementia, an association that was stronger for distress measured in early compared to later midlife. Mental distress should be investigated further as

  3. ISSOL Meeting, Barcelona, Spain, 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, James P. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    Topics in a conference on the origins of life and the evolution of the biosphere include the origin of chirality, prebiotic chemistry of small biomolecules, primitive polymer formation, RNA regulation and control. Early origins of life and the ecology of hydrothermal systems such as ocean floor vents and their simple organisms are examined. The process of mineral catalysis in Montmorillonite as a model for early metabolism is used. The origin of the genetic code and the development of branching in molecular structures of amino acids is described. Studies are reported of the effects of meteorite impact on early Earth life.

  4. Five-year monitoring of 19 illicit and legal substances of abuse at the inlet of a wastewater treatment plant in Barcelona (NE Spain) and estimation of drug consumption patterns and trends.

    PubMed

    Mastroianni, Nicola; López-García, Ester; Postigo, Cristina; Barceló, Damià; López de Alda, Miren

    2017-12-31

    Illicit and legal drugs of abuse, including alcohol, continue to be in the focus of many governmental national and international studies due to the important consequences of their consumption at both individual and social level. Estimation of drug use at the community level from the concentrations of the drugs themselves or their major metabolites measured in wastewater has become an increasingly accepted and extended tool, complementary to the methods traditionally used for this purpose. The present work describes the application of this approach, generally known as wastewater epidemiology, to investigate the latest drug consumption patterns and trends in the European city of Barcelona. To this end, a total of 19 selected drugs of abuse and metabolites were monitored at the inlet of one of the main wastewater treatment plants of Barcelona every day during one week in March between 2011 and 2015. Analysis of the selected drugs and metabolites in the wastewater samples was performed by means of two methodologies based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and the concentrations obtained were translated into consumption data. In agreement with official records, alcohol, followed by cannabis, cocaine, amphetamine-like compounds, and methadone were the most consumed drugs. Alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine consumption were on average 18mL(14g)/day/inhabitant (>15), 38g/day/1000 inhabitants aging 15-64, and 2.4g/day/1000 inhabitants aging 15-64, respectively. As for drug use trends, consumption increased over the 5years monitored for all drugs, but for heroin and diazepam. Weekly profiles characterized by higher consumption over the weekend as compared to weekdays were observed only for alcohol, cocaine, and MDMA. Extrapolation of the data obtained for the area under study to the national Spanish territory yields consumption figures of 142t of illicit drugs per year and >2500 million euro turnover per year in the black market. Copyright © 2017

  5. Comparison of four-colour IS6110-fAFLP with the classic IS6110-RFLP on the ability to detect recent transmission in the city of Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Borrell, Sònia; Thorne, Nicola; Español, Montserrat; Mortimer, Chloe; Orcau, Angels; Coll, Pere; Gharbia, Saheer; González-Martín, Julian; Arnold, Catherine

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the IS6110-RFLP (RFLP) results obtained in a previous epidemiological study in the city of Barcelona, Spain [Borrell S, Espanol M, Orcau A, Tudo G, March F, Cayla JA, et al. Factors associated with differences between conventional contact tracing and molecular epidemiology in study of tuberculosis transmission and analysis in the city of Barcelona, Spain. J Clin Microbiol 2009 Jan;47(1):198-204.] with the results obtained with IS6110-fAFLP, [Thorne N, Evans JT, Smith EG, Hawkey PM, Gharbia S, Arnold C. An IS6110-targeting fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism alternative to IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA fingerprinting. Clin Microbiol Infect 2007 Oct;13(10):964-70.] on the ability to detect recent transmission. fAFLP was applied to DNA samples of RFLP clustered strains, with and without known epidemiological links, with the additional inclusion of four nucleotide-specific fluorophores to further increase the discrimination of the fragments obtained. Four-colour fAFLP was performed on 123 RFLP clustered strains with no epidemiological link (NELC) and on 28 epidemiologically linked RFLP clustered (ELC) strains grouped into 48 and 13 clusters respectively. Clustering results obtained by the two methods were highly congruent in ELC strains with fAFLP allocating 92.3% of the ELCs. For the NELCs, RFLP results were confirmed in 39/48 (81.2%) of fAFLP-clusters with 0-1 different fragments and 9/48 (18.8%) differed in 2-4 fragments, which are considered genetically related but not recently transmitted. In conclusion, overestimation of recent tuberculosis transmission can occur because of the inaccurate analysis of RFLP results. Four-colour fAFLP allows us to differentiate between recent transmission strains and epidemiologically unrelated but genetically related strains.

  6. Pollen-inferred quantitative reconstructions of Holocene land-cover in NW Europe for the evaluation of past climate-vegetation feedbacks - The Swedish LANDCLIM project and the NordForsk LANDCLIM network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillard, Marie-Jose; Sugita, Shinya; Rundgren, Mats; Smith, Benjamin; Mazier, Florence; Trondman, Anna-Kari; Fyfe, Ralph; Kokfelt, Ulla; Nielsen, Anne-Birgitte; Strandberg, Gustav

    2010-05-01

    Reliable predictive models are needed to describe potential future climate changes and their impacts. Land surface-atmosphere feedbacks and their impacts on climate are a current priority in the climate modelling community, but reliable records of long-term land use and vegetation change required for model evaluation are limited. Palaeoecological and palaeo-climatic data provide a unique record of the past changes in vegetation, land use and climate on time scales relevant to vegetation processes and global change projections. The application of a new technique (the REVEALS model (Sugita 2007) to landscape reconstruction using fossil pollen data makes robust comparisons with vegetation model output possible . The model corrects for biases caused by e.g. inter-taxonomic differences in pollen productivity and dispersal. Our results show that pollen percentages, a traditional indicator of land cover changes, generally underestimate the unforested areas and certain broad-leaved trees such as Corylus and Tilia, while they often overestimate Betula and Pinus (see Cui et al. BG 6.2). Climate models use simplified land-surface classifications (plant functional types (PFTs)), such as grass (i.e. open land), deciduous trees, and conifers. Therefore, the observed large discrepancies in past land cover between the REVEALS estimates and pollen percentages are expected to influence model outcomes of the Holocene regional climate in NW Europe. The LANDCLIM project and research network (sponsored by the Swedish [VR] and Nordic [NordForsk] Research Councils) aim to quantify human-induced changes in regional vegetation/land-cover in NW Europe during the Holocene, and to evaluate the effects of these changes on the regional climate through altered feedbacks. We use the REVEALS model, theoretically derived and empirically tested, to estimate the percentage cover of taxa and groups of taxa (PFTs) from fossil pollen data for selected time windows of the Holocene, at a spatial resolution

  7. Trends in Transmission of Drug Resistance and Prevalence of Non-B Subtypes in Patients with Acute or Recent HIV-1 Infection in Barcelona in the Last 16 Years (1997-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, David; Parera, Marta; López-Diéguez, María; Romero, Anabel; Agüero, Fernando; Marcos, María Ángeles; Manzardo, Christian; Zamora, Laura; Gómez-Carrillo, Manuel; Gatell, José María; Pumarola, Tomás; Miró, José María

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and non-B subtypes in patients with acute/recent HIV-1 infection in Barcelona during the period 1997-2012. Methods Patients from the “Hospital Clínic Primary HIV-1 Infection Cohort” with a genotyping test performed within 180 days of infection were included. The 2009 WHO List of Mutations for Surveillance of Transmitted HIV-1 Drug Resistance was used for estimating the prevalence of TDR and phylogenetic analysis for subtype determination. Results 189 patients with acute/recent HIV-1 infection were analyzed in 4 time periods (1997-2000, n=28; 2001-4, n=42; 2005-8, n=55 and 2009-12, n=64). The proportion of patients with acute/recent HIV-1 infection with respect to the total of newly HIV-diagnosed patients in our center increased over the time and was 2.18%, 3.82%, 4.15% and 4.55% for the 4 periods, respectively (p=0.005). The global prevalence of TDR was 9%, or 17.9%, 9.5%, 3.6% and 9.4% by study period (p=0.2). The increase in the last period was driven by protease-inhibitor and nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor resistance mutations while non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase inhibitor TDR and TDR of more than one family decreased. The overall prevalence of non-B subtypes was 11.1%, or 0%, 4.8%, 9.1% and 20.3 by study period (p=0.01). B/F recombinants, B/G recombinants and subtype F emerged in the last period. We also noticed an increase in the number of immigrant patients (p=0.052). The proportion of men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) among patients with acute/recent HIV-1 infection increased over the time (p=0.04). Conclusions The overall prevalence of TDR in patients with acute/recent HIV-1 infection in Barcelona was 9%, and it has stayed relatively stable in recent years. Non-B subtypes and immigrants proportions progressively increased. PMID:26039689

  8. Trends in Transmission of Drug Resistance and Prevalence of Non-B Subtypes in Patients with Acute or Recent HIV-1 Infection in Barcelona in the Last 16 Years (1997-2012).

    PubMed

    Ambrosioni, Juan; Sued, Omar; Nicolas, David; Parera, Marta; López-Diéguez, María; Romero, Anabel; Agüero, Fernando; Marcos, María Ángeles; Manzardo, Christian; Zamora, Laura; Gómez-Carrillo, Manuel; Gatell, José María; Pumarola, Tomás; Miró, José María

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and non-B subtypes in patients with acute/recent HIV-1 infection in Barcelona during the period 1997-2012. Patients from the "Hospital Clínic Primary HIV-1 Infection Cohort" with a genotyping test performed within 180 days of infection were included. The 2009 WHO List of Mutations for Surveillance of Transmitted HIV-1 Drug Resistance was used for estimating the prevalence of TDR and phylogenetic analysis for subtype determination. 189 patients with acute/recent HIV-1 infection were analyzed in 4 time periods (1997-2000, n=28; 2001-4, n=42; 2005-8, n=55 and 2009-12, n=64). The proportion of patients with acute/recent HIV-1 infection with respect to the total of newly HIV-diagnosed patients in our center increased over the time and was 2.18%, 3.82%, 4.15% and 4.55% for the 4 periods, respectively (p=0.005). The global prevalence of TDR was 9%, or 17.9%, 9.5%, 3.6% and 9.4% by study period (p=0.2). The increase in the last period was driven by protease-inhibitor and nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor resistance mutations while non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase inhibitor TDR and TDR of more than one family decreased. The overall prevalence of non-B subtypes was 11.1%, or 0%, 4.8%, 9.1% and 20.3 by study period (p=0.01). B/F recombinants, B/G recombinants and subtype F emerged in the last period. We also noticed an increase in the number of immigrant patients (p=0.052). The proportion of men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) among patients with acute/recent HIV-1 infection increased over the time (p=0.04). The overall prevalence of TDR in patients with acute/recent HIV-1 infection in Barcelona was 9%, and it has stayed relatively stable in recent years. Non-B subtypes and immigrants proportions progressively increased.

  9. Seasonal and nocturnal domiciliary human landing/biting behaviour of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) evansi and Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) panamensis (Diptera; Psychodidae) in a periurban area of a city on the Caribbean coast of eastern Venezuela (Barcelona; Anzoátegui State).

    PubMed

    González, R; De Sousa, L; Devera, R; Jorquera, A; Ledezma, E

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, in addition to American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), a significant number of cases of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) have been reported in periurban areas of Barcelona city (Anzoátegui State, Venezuela). We studied the bionomics of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) evansi and Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) panamensis, possible vectors of AVL and ACL, respectively, in El Rincón, a periurban village of that city. To evaluate the seasonal domiciliary landing/biting activity of sandflies on human bait, a house was chosen in El Rincón. Landing catches were carried out between 18:00 and 06:00, once a month for a year. The results show the presence of 2 species, Lu. (Lu.) evansi (89.9%) and Lu. (Psy.) panamensis (10.1%). Lu. evansi was most abundant in the months of October and July, associated with the bimodal cycle of annual rainfall in the area. Maximum landing/biting activity of Lu. evansi was observed at 24:00 and 03:00. These findings suggest that at this time of the year and at these hours there is heightened risk of the transmission of AVL. Lu. panamensis monthly abundance also shows a direct association with rainfall and maximum landing/biting activity was observed between 02:00 and 03:00. The lower domiciliary abundance of Lu. panamensis suggests its greater importance in the extradomiciliary transmission of ACL.

  10. Occurrence and implications of methyl tert-butyl ether and gasoline hydrocarbons in ground water and source water in the United States and in drinking water in 12 Northeast and Mid-Atlantic States, 1993-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, Michael J.; Zogorski, John S.; Squillace, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence and implications of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and gasoline hydrocarbons were examined in three surveys of water quality conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey?one national-scale survey of ground water, one national-scale survey of source water from ground water, and one regional-scale survey of drinking water from ground water. The overall detection frequency of MTBE in all three surveys was similar to the detection frequencies of some other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have much longer production and use histories in the United States. The detection frequency of MTBE was higher in drinking water and lower in source water and ground water. However, when the data for ground water and source water were limited to the same geographic extent as drinking-water data, the detection frequencies of MTBE were comparable to the detection frequency of MTBE in drinking water. In all three surveys, the detection frequency of any gasoline hydrocarbon was less than the detection frequency of MTBE. No concentration of MTBE in source water exceeded the lower limit of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Drinking-Water Advisory of 20 ?g/L (micrograms per liter). One concentration of MTBE in ground water exceeded 20 ?g/L, and 0.9 percent of drinking-water samples exceeded 20 ?g/L. The overall detection frequency of MTBE relative to other widely used VOCs indicates that MTBE is an important concern with respect to ground-water management. The probability of detecting MTBE was strongly associated with population density, use of MTBE in gasoline, and recharge, and weakly associated with density of leaking underground storage tanks, soil permeability, and aquifer consolidation. Only concentrations of MTBE above 0.5 ?g/L were associated with dissolved oxygen. Ground water underlying areas with high population density, ground water underlying areas where MTBE is used as a gasoline oxygenate, and ground water underlying areas with high recharge has a greater probability of MTBE contamination. Ground water from public-supply wells and shallow ground water underlying urban land-use areas has a greater probability of MTBE contamination compared to ground water from domestic wells and ground water underlying rural land-use areas.

  11. [Anthropometric growth patterns of preterm and full-term newborns (24-42 weeks' gestational age) at the Hospital Materno-Infantil Vall d'Hebron (Barcelona)(1997-2002].

    PubMed

    Carrascosa, A; Yeste, D; Copil, A; Almar, J; Salcedo, S; Gussinyé, M

    2004-05-01

    Gestational age and neonatal anthropometric parameters are significant predictive factors of neonatal and adult morbidity. Our objective was to evaluate these parameters in a population of preterm and full-term newborns. We retrospectively analyzed neonatal anthropometric parameters (weight, vertex-heel length and head circumference) in 1470 live preterm neonates born at 24-36 weeks' gestation between 1997 and 2002. The same parameters were prospectively analyzed in 1786 live newborns born at 37-42 weeks after uncomplicated pregnancies between 2001 and 2002. All preterm and full-term neonates were the result of single pregnancies and were born at the Hospital Materno-Infantil Vall d'Hebron in Barcelona. Only Caucasian neonates whose parents were born in Spain were included. In the group of full-term neonates all measurements were made by the same researcher. The mean and standard deviation and percentile distribution values of weight, length and head circumference according to sex and gestational age are presented. These parameters progressively increased with gestational age and sexual dimorphism from the 30th week of gestation onwards, with statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) for all parameters at 38-42 weeks' gestational age. The mean gains in male full-term newborns compared with female full-term newborns were: 129.1 g of weight, 0.68 cm of length and 0.45 cm of head circumference (P < 0.05). In our population, 10th percentile values for weight and length were higher than those in other Spanish populations reported in 1988 and 1996. Sexual dimorphism was found in intrauterine anthropometric growth parameters. These parameters change over time and should be updated periodically.

  12. The Organization of Hospital Services for Casualties due to the Bombing of Cities, Based on Experience Gained in Barcelona-with Special Reference to the Classification of Casualties: (Section of Orthopædics).

    PubMed

    Trueta, J

    1939-11-01

    (1) Difference between modern "total population" war and old-fashioned war. Difference between bombing of (a) military objectives and (b) civilian population.(a) The heavy bomb, e.g. 750 lb., with large fragments, upward throw, great destruction of buildings.(b) The light bomb with finger nail fragments, horizontal throw, great velocity.There is in addition the incendiary bomb, little used in Barcelona because the buildings are built of stone and concrete.(2) Aerial bombing of a town produces injuries needing more immediate hospitalization than most front-line wounds. At the same time it is possible in a town to organize rapid collection of patients and their immediate transfer to hospital.(3) Experience shows that it is most desirable to make this transfer of patients to hospital a primary consideration. On arrival they are "sorted" and minor injuries are given First Aid treatment and sent home, others are fully examined, classified, and dispatched to the theatres on a priority list, to nearby wards for resuscitation, to wards for rest, or sent on to plaster rooms for splintage, or to a neurosurgical centre.(4) First-aid posts in a town should be in hospitals and treat superficial injuries, &c., after primary sorting in the hospital reception room.(5) First-aid posts in outlying areas should carry out the same function for the same type of cases; all the more seriously wounded, including those with tiny penetrating wounds, should be dispatched without first aid treatment direct to hospital.(6) Hospital arrangements, for circulation of ambulances, for sorting, undressing of patients, docketing of valuables, &c.(7) Classification must be carried out by surgeons of experience and judgment. They must regard not only a standard priority list but the particular clinical picture and prognosis in each case.(8) The surgeon will furthermore draft the cases with regard to the special abilities of the surgical units available, e.g. chest, abdomen, or limbs.(9) Review of

  13. The Organization of Hospital Services for Casualties due to the Bombing of Cities, Based on Experience Gained in Barcelona-with Special Reference to the Classification of Casualties: (Section of Orthopaedics).

    PubMed

    Trueta, J

    1939-11-01

    (1) Difference between modern "total population" war and old-fashioned war. Difference between bombing of (a) military objectives and (b) civilian population.(a) The heavy bomb, e.g. 750 lb., with large fragments, upward throw, great destruction of buildings.(b) The light bomb with finger nail fragments, horizontal throw, great velocity.There is in addition the incendiary bomb, little used in Barcelona because the buildings are built of stone and concrete.(2) Aerial bombing of a town produces injuries needing more immediate hospitalization than most front-line wounds. At the same time it is possible in a town to organize rapid collection of patients and their immediate transfer to hospital.(3) Experience shows that it is most desirable to make this transfer of patients to hospital a primary consideration. On arrival they are "sorted" and minor injuries are given First Aid treatment and sent home, others are fully examined, classified, and dispatched to the theatres on a priority list, to nearby wards for resuscitation, to wards for rest, or sent on to plaster rooms for splintage, or to a neurosurgical centre.(4) First-aid posts in a town should be in hospitals and treat superficial injuries, &c., after primary sorting in the hospital reception room.(5) First-aid posts in outlying areas should carry out the same function for the same type of cases; all the more seriously wounded, including those with tiny penetrating wounds, should be dispatched without first aid treatment direct to hospital.(6) Hospital arrangements, for circulation of ambulances, for sorting, undressing of patients, docketing of valuables, &c.(7) Classification must be carried out by surgeons of experience and judgment. They must regard not only a standard priority list but the particular clinical picture and prognosis in each case.(8) The surgeon will furthermore draft the cases with regard to the special abilities of the surgical units available, e.g. chest, abdomen, or limbs.(9) Review of

  14. Multidisciplinary approach and long-term follow-up in a series of 640 consecutive patients with sarcoidosis: Cohort study of a 40-year clinical experience at a tertiary referral center in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Mañá, Juan; Rubio-Rivas, Manuel; Villalba, Nadia; Marcoval, Joaquim; Iriarte, Adriana; Molina-Molina, María; Llatjos, Roger; García, Olga; Martínez-Yélamos, Sergio; Vicens-Zygmunt, Vanessa; Gámez, Cristina; Pujol, Ramón; Corbella, Xavier

    2017-07-01

    Cohort studies of large series of patients with sarcoidosis over a long period of time are scarce. The aim of this study is to report a 40-year clinical experience of a large series of patients at Bellvitge University Hospital, a tertiary university hospital in Barcelona, Spain. Diagnosis of sarcoidosis required histological confirmation except in certain specific situations. All patients underwent a prospective study protocol. Clinical assessment and follow-up of patients were performed by a multidisciplinary team.From 1976 to 2015, 640 patients were diagnosed with sarcoidosis, 438 of them (68.4%) were female (sex ratio F/M 2:1). The mean age at diagnosis was 43.3 ± 13.8 years (range, 14-86 years), and 613 patients (95.8%) were Caucasian. At diagnosis, 584 patients (91.2%) showed intrathoracic involvement at chest radiograph, and most of the patients had normal pulmonary function. Erythema nodosum (39.8%) and specific cutaneous lesions (20.8%) were the most frequent extrapulmonary manifestations, but there was a wide range of organ involvement. A total of 492 patients (76.8%) had positive histology. Follow-up was carried out in 587 patients (91.7%), over a mean of 112.4 ± 98.3 months (range, 6.4-475 months). Corticosteroid treatment was administered in 255 patients (43.4%), and steroid-sparing agents in 49 patients (7.7%). Outcomes were as follows: 111 patients (18.9%) showed active disease at the time of closing this study, 250 (42.6%) presented spontaneous remission, 61 (10.4%) had remission under treatment, and 165 (28.1%) evolved to chronic sarcoidosis; among them, 115 (19.6%) with mild disease and 50 (8.5%) with moderate to severe organ damage. A multivariate analysis showed that at diagnosis, age more than 40 years, the presence of pulmonary involvement on chest radiograph, splenic involvement, and the need of treatment, was associated with chronic sarcoidosis, whereas Löfgren syndrome and mediastinal lymphadenopathy on chest radiograph were

  15. Meteor Scatter Communication between Thule and Station Nord, Greenland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    capacity digital communication channel. In comparison with high yield satellite links, meteor scatter was too complex for widespread utilization then...great companionship during the field campaigns. To Mr. Eric Li , Dr. A. L. Snyder, Jr., Dr. G. S. Sales and Dr. J. A. Weitzen of the University of Lowell...geostationary satellites . Existing polar orbiting satellites intended for data collection are restricted for data of interest to the World Meteorological

  16. Lacuna maculare in latitudine nell'emisfero nord del Sole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giubergia, Gian Paolo; Piovan, Luciano

    2005-04-01

    This paper completes the study of sunspot activity as far as latitude distribution is concerned, having already outlined in this journal the lack of spots around the 9-10° of southern latitudes. We searched for a similar behaviour in the northern hemisphere. We present the confirmation of our hypothesis, thanks to the discovery of a slight anomaly in the northern hemisphere, which showed a latitudinal mobility of about 5° during periods of time greater than the duration of the typical magnetic cycles of the sunspots.

  17. Fatigue Prediction for Composite Materials and Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    Eugenio OÑATE CIMNE (International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering) Building C-1, Campus Nord UPC -C/ Gran Capitán s/n 08034 Barcelona...SPAIN * salomon@cimne.upc.edu ABSTRACT The objective of this paper is to present a new computational methodology for predicting the durability of... methodology is validated using experimental data from tests on CFRR composite material samples. 1.0 INTRODUCTION Fatigue is defined as "the process

  18. [The short-term effects of air pollution on mortality. The results of the EMECAM project in the city of Barcelona, 1991-1995. Estudio Multicéntrico Español sobre la Relación entre la Contaminación Atmosférica y la Mortalidad].

    PubMed

    Saurina, C; Barceló, M A; Sáez, M; Tobias, A

    1999-01-01

    Most of the studies which demonstrate the existence of a short-term relationship between air pollution and morbidity and the Mortality analyze the impact of "classic" pollutants which are by-products of combustion. However, the changes in the sources of these emissions, shifting basically toward road traffic, has made a change in air pollution, heightening the importance of the photochemical components, such as ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Barcelona is a city located in a mild climate zone, and its air pollution comes mainly from vehicle emissions. The main objective of this article is that of analyzing the relationship between the photochemical pollutants, NO2 and O3 and the death rate for different causes in the city of Barcelona throughout the 1991-1995 period, using the procedure for analysis set out as part of the EMECAM Project. Daily changes in the number of deaths resulting from all causes, of the number of deaths for all causes of those over age 70, of the number of deaths resulting from cardiovascular diseases, and of the number of deaths resulting from respiratory-related causes are related to the daily changes in the photochemical pollutants using autoregressive Poisson models, controlling confusion-causing variables such as the temperature, the relative humidity, the systematic time structure and the autoregressive structure. Except for the relationship between O3 and the mortality for causes involving respiratory diseases, the relationships between photochemical pollutants and the mortality for all the causes considered were statistically significant. The risks related to dying as a result of rises in O3 were greater than as a result of rises in NO2, almost triple among cardiovascular diseases. The risks related to dying for all the causes are lower than for specific causes and than for those individuals over age 70. The results of the analysis by six-month periods are quite similar to the overall results, revealing, in any event, relative

  19. The Barcelona Hospital Clínic therapeutic apheresis database.

    PubMed

    Cid, Joan; Carbassé, Gloria; Cid-Caballero, Marc; López-Púa, Yolanda; Alba, Cristina; Perea, Dolores; Lozano, Miguel

    2017-09-22

    A therapeutic apheresis (TA) database helps to increase knowledge about indications and type of apheresis procedures that are performed in clinical practice. The objective of the present report was to describe the type and number of TA procedures that were performed at our institution in a 10-year period, from 2007 to 2016. The TA electronic database was created by transferring patient data from electronic medical records and consultation forms into a Microsoft Access database developed exclusively for this purpose. Since 2007, prospective data from every TA procedure were entered in the database. A total of 5940 TA procedures were performed: 3762 (63.3%) plasma exchange (PE) procedures, 1096 (18.5%) hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) collections, and 1082 (18.2%) TA procedures other than PEs and HPC collections. The overall trend for the time-period was progressive increase in total number of TA procedures performed each year (from 483 TA procedures in 2007 to 822 in 2016). The tracking trend of each procedure during the 10-year period was different: the number of PE and other type of TA procedures increased 22% and 2818%, respectively, and the number of HPC collections decreased 28%. The TA database helped us to increase our knowledge about various indications and type of TA procedures that were performed in our current practice. We also believe that this database could serve as a model that other institutions can use to track service metrics. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Intentional roundings in general medical practice: the experience of the Azienda Ospedali Riuniti Marche Nord (Italy).

    PubMed

    Frassini, Serena; Giovannini, Donatella; Gargiulo, Mariarosaria; Warid, Amina; Tonucci, Sonia; Capalbo, Maria

    2017-04-01

    The "intentional roundings" are planned rounds, conducted at regular intervals by nursing staff to anticipate care, comfort, hospitality and psychological needs of hospitalized users. These purposes are achieved with a structured way to make observations and carry out activities for well-being and patient safety, documenting what was done with a structured ad hoc form. In the United Kingdom, as well as in the USA, intentional rounding is an established model of care that improve the safety of provided care, to reduce the occurrence of preventable events, address proactively basic caring needs, and that increase users and staff satisfaction. Implementing in a medical pilot unit the care model named "intentional rounding". The care team carried intentional rounds every two hours, in a systematic and documented manner. All patients received admission informations about the organizational method and were invited to participate by completing a satisfaction questionnaire at discharge. At the end of the experimental period organizational impact have been investigated, specifically users and hospital staff satisfaction. About privacy, courtesy, nurse support and quality of care provided, level of satisfaction of patients and caregivers reached high percentage of approval (90-99%). Nurses and other healthcare personnel have perceived they delivered either a safer and most satisfying healthcare (90-94%) as well as inter- and intra-professional dynamics communications (95%). Value of roundings have been less appreciated concerning the optimization about the worktime management (79%). Calls to the bell have had a notable change of their reasons unlikely about the quantity. Intentional roundings affects very positively to users satisfaction level and to the perception of the quality of care provided; the care team, though express the need to make some changes for a real implementation, recognize the proactivity of intentional roundings as an added value.

  1. Impacts potentiels d'un changement climatique sur le pergelisol dans le nord canadien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obretin, Calin

    This thesis explores the potential impacts of a climate change due to the greenhouse gases on the state and the evolution of the permafrost in the Canadian North. The permafrost represents the half of the Canadian national territory and a change of its current state will echo in all spheres of activity, on the biosphere and on the environment generally. In spite of the evident importance of the subject, there is no precise idea as to how the permafrost will react to the climate change and to what extent the frozen layer will be disrupted. This thesis investigates this problem by using a methodological approach inspired by the Canadian model on the evolution of permafrost (TTOP) coupled with a theoretical approach based on the theory of the complex neuronal systems. The general objective of this thesis is to improve the Canadian model of evolution of permafrost (TTOP-Temperature one the Top Of Permafrost) created by Smith and Riseborough in 1996, its structure of computation, spatial resolution and to determine the state of the permafrost in the study area between 2010 and 2100. The study zone is situated in the Mackenzie Basin (N-W.T) on a north-south transect of 1440 by 720 km. The first objective of the research is to derive maps of the annual values of temperature on the top of the permafrost from 2010 to 2100 by using an improved dynamic model of the evolution of permafrost (TTOP-A). Thereafter, these values are compared with those obtained by Smith and Riseborough (1996). The values of the evolution of air temperature for this period are supplied by the climatic scenarios CGCM32 SRES A1B, CGCM3 SRES A2 and CGCM3 SRES B1. Secondly, this thesis has as an objective the production of the maps of the thickness of permafrost for 2100 with a spatial resolution of 25 km. More exactly, we determine the evolution of the values of thickness of permafrost for the three climatic scenarios mentioned above. Furthermore, the study proposes: i) a new method for downscaling of climate data by using a Determined Stochastic Model, ii) the integration of soil type, iii) the integration of the soil humidity, iv) the integration of the values of thickness of the snow layer and v) the integration of remote sensing data (SSM/I). As a rule, the results obtained by the TTOP-A model reveal that the mean values of temperature at the surface of the permafrost follow closely the values of air temperature and that they are similar to those found by Smith and Riseborough (1996) and Heginbottom and coll. (1995). Also, the differences of the values of temperature on the surface of permafrost between 2010 and 2100 are similar to the values published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Concerning the second objective of this thesis, the spatio-temporal dynamics of the permafrost until 2100 demonstrates that, in the study zone, the surface perturbed by global warming will be 37 %, 60 % and 29 % according to the scenarios CGCM3 SRES A1B, CGCM3 SRES A2 and CGCM3 SRES B1 respectively. The permafrost layer inside this zone will disappear by 20 %, 32 % and 18 % according to the scenarios mentioned before. These results lead us to believe that the estimations made by Smith and Riseborough were overvalued in the context of two of three current climates scenarios compared to that of the 1996. Finally, this study demonstrates that the method of downscaling of climate data using the neuronal network within a Determined Stochastic Model gives good results and it represents a reliable option which lends itself to large-scale generalizations. Keywords: permafrost, downscaling, snow, soil humidity, climate scenarios, neuronal network, Determined Stochastic Model, climate change, CGCM3, TTOP. 2The third generation Coupled Global Climate Model [CCCma, 2010].

  2. Screening for Imported Diseases in an Immigrant Population: Experience from a Teaching Hospital in Barcelona, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Bocanegra, Cristina; Salvador, Fernando; Sulleiro, Elena; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Pahissa, Albert; Molina, Israel

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the screening for imported diseases among an immigrant population. This retrospective observational study was of all adult immigrants attended at the Tropical Medicine Unit of the Vall d'Hebron Teaching Hospital from September of 2007 to March of 2010. The screening strategy was adjusted by symptoms, country of origin, and length of residence in Europe. Overall, 927 patients were included. The median age was 34.5 years, and 42.1% of patients were male. A diagnosis was made in 419 (45.2%) patients. The most frequent diagnoses were Chagas disease, anemia, latent tuberculosis infection, intestinal parasitosis, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. After screening, more diseases were identified in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa (new diagnoses in 56.6% of patients) than patients from other geographic areas. The geographic origin and length of residence in a developed country determine the prevalence of diseases; hence, screening protocols must be based on this information. PMID:25331805

  3. The Emergence of New Linguistic Repertoires among Barcelona's Youth of Latin American Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corona, Victor; Nussbaum, Luci; Unamuno, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Since the end of the last century, more than 10% of students in Catalonia's schools are immigrants, mostly concentrated in areas of Catalonia where the population speaks Castilian in everyday life. Although these newcomers are educated in Catalan, the majority use diverse varieties of Spanish as their language of everyday communication. In the…

  4. Cost-effectiveness of a Barcelona home care program for individuals with multimorbidity.

    PubMed

    Vilà, Anna; Villegas, Eulàlia; Cruanyes, Jordi; Delgado, Rosa; Sabaté, Rosa-Ana; Ortega, Josep; Araguás, Cristina; Humet, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    To improve the efficiency and effectiveness of care and optimize healthcare resources, a home healthcare program was created for individuals with multiple chronic conditions. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the 261 individuals (mean age 84) included in the program from its inception in 2011 through 2013 (mean stay in the program 203±192 days) were prospectively analyzed. The number of hospital admissions, length of stay, and costs for individuals admitted to the program were compared for two time periods: the 6 months before admission to the program and their stay in the program. After admission to the program, the number of hospital admissions and the hospital length of stay per person per month decreased from 0.36±0.21 to 0.19±0.52 (P<.001) and from 3.5 to 1 day (P<.001), respectively. Surveys of randomly selected patients and caregivers showed high satisfaction with the program. Costs per person per day decreased from €54.65 (US$73.12) to €17.91 (US$23.96), a reduction of 67.1%. Fewer admissions and shorter hospital stays enabled the hospital to eliminate one acute bed for every 50 individuals admitted to the program. In conclusion, home care for individuals with chronic illness with multimorbidity reduced the number of hospital admissions and length of stay, resulting in good patient satisfaction and lower costs.

  5. ISSOL Meeting, 7th, Barcelona, Spain, July 4-9, 1993. [Abstracts only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, James P. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The journal issue consists of abstracts presented at the International Society for the Study of the Origins of Life (ISSOL) conference. Topics include research on biological and chemical evolution including prebiotic evolution: cosmic and terrestrial; mechanisms of abiogenesis including synthesis and reactions of biomonomers; and analysis of cometary matter and its possible relationship to organic compounds on Earth. Theories and research on origins of ribonucleic acids (RNA), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and other amino acids and complex proteins including their autocatalysis, replication, and translation are presented. Abiotic synthesis of biopolymers, mechanisms of the Genetic Code, precellular membrane systems and energetics are considered. Earth planetary evolution including early microfossils and geochemical conditions and simulations to study these conditions are discussed. The role of chirality in precellular evolution and the taxonomy and phylogeny of very simple organisms are reported. Past and future explorations in exobiology and space research directed toward study of the origins of life and solar system evolution are described.

  6. New particle formation at ground level and in the vertical column over the Barcelona area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguillón, M. C.; Brines, M.; Pérez, N.; Reche, C.; Pandolfi, M.; Fonseca, A. S.; Amato, F.; Alastuey, A.; Lyasota, A.; Codina, B.; Lee, H.-K.; Eun, H.-R.; Ahn, K.-H.; Querol, X.

    2015-10-01

    The vertical profiles (up to 975 m a.s.l.) of ultrafine and micronic particles across the planetary boundary layer and the free troposphere over a Mediterranean urban environment were investigated. Measurements were carried out using a tethered balloon equipped with a miniaturized condensation particle counter, a miniaturized optical particle counter, a micro-aethalometer, a rotating impactor, and meteorological instrumentation. Simultaneous ground measurements were carried out at an urban and a regional background site. New particle formation episodes initiating in the urban area were observed under high insolation conditions. The precursors were emitted by the city and urban photochemically-activated nucleation occurred both at high atmospheric levels (tens to hundreds of meters) and at ground level. The new particle formation at ground level was limited by the high particulate matter concentrations recorded during the morning traffic rush hours that increase the condensation sink and prevent new particle formation, and therefore restricted to midday and early afternoon. The aloft new particle formation occurred earlier as the thermally ascending polluted air mass was diluted. The regional background was only affected from midday and early afternoon when sea and mountain breezes transported the urban air mass after particle growth. These events are different from most new particle formation events described in literature, characterized by a regionally originated nucleation, starting early in the morning in the regional background and persisting with a subsequent growth during a long period. An idealized and simplified model of the spatial and time occurrence of these two types of new particle formation episodes into, around and over the city was elaborated.

  7. Barcelona Harbor, New York. Design for Harbor Improvements. Hydraulic Model Investigation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    model contours. 11 44 124 DIGITAL EQUIPMENT SMULTIPLEXER S AND CENTRAL MAGNETIC DS I ANALOG To BIT PROCESSING TAPE DS DIGITAL PCKS UNIT HANDLERS...wave characLeristics except wave period (to the first order of approximaLion). [lie iust important transformacions with respect to the selection of

  8. [Epidemiology of head traumas. "Barcelona" data base. Objectives, design and analysis of 584 cases].

    PubMed

    Vilalta, J; Bosch, J; Castaño, C H; Poca, M A; Rubio, E; Godet, C; Puig, G

    1992-01-01

    Descriptive analysis of some features in patients with cranio-encephalic traumatisms (CET) admitted to our hospital and collected in a data base, in order to establish the prognosis of the lesions and apply the most appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Since July 1987 to June 1989 we collected data on 584 patients with CET who presented the following selection criteria: consciousness level lower than 13 points in the Glasgow scale and/or pathologic computerized tomography. According to the consciousness level (Glasgow scale) on admission, patients were classified into three groups: slight CET (Glasgow 15-13), moderate CET (Glasgow 12-9), and severe CET (Glasgow < 9). The traumatic mechanisms were divided into 8 categories (occupant, pedestrian, motorbike, aggression, labor, drop, sporting, cyclist). According to the main lesion we considered the following diagnoses: subdural hematoma, epidural hematoma, cerebral contusion (s), diffuse lesion with normal computerized tomography and/or subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebral congestion, and diffuse axonal lesion. Results were evaluated six months after using the Glasgow scale. The mean age of patients with slight CET was 37.7 +/- 22.1 years, those with moderate CET 31.7 +/- 22.6 years, and those with severe CET 30.8 +/- 21.6 years. Four hundred and forty-two were men (75.6%). The time period between the accident and hospital admission could be determined in 512 cases (87.6%). Severe CET arrived to the hospital (4.8 +/- 7.3 hours) earlier than the other groups (6.6 +/- 11.9 hours in moderate CET and 14.2 +/- 23 hours in slight CET). Most of patients, 488 (83.5%), were referred from another hospital, whereas the remaining cases came directly from the accident place. Traumatic mechanisms according to the previous categories were: occupant 145 (25%), pedestrian 112 (20%), motorbike 104 (18%), cyclist 2 (0.003%), labor 39 (7%), drop 154 (27%), sporting 7 (1%), aggression 10 (2%). Percentage of traffic accident was higher in patients with severe CET (74.6, 64, and 47% in severe moderate, and slight CET, respectively). The main lesions were: acute subdural hematoma, 72 (12.3%); cerebral contusion, 207 (35.4%); epidural hematoma, 88 (15%); normal computerized tomography/subarachnoid hemorrhage, 87 (14.8%); swelling, 17 (2.9%); diffuse axonal injury, 74 (12.6%); and the remaining, 39 (6.6%) had other lesions such as hydrocephalus fracture-sinking, etc. Mortality was 44.2, 12.2, and 3.7% respectively in severe, moderate, and slight CET. Data base may contribute to establish the prognosis of CET and to determine the efficacy of therapeutic procedures as well as that of diagnostic and investigational methods.

  9. Absent Others: Perspectives on Marginality in Barcelona Schools. Research Report Number 27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pi-Sunyer, Oriol

    This report is designed to examine the construction of cultural memory, specifically the interpretation and transmission of historical knowledge in Spain and Catalonia. The study contends that in modern complex societies the genre commonly categorized as history represents a particular form of cultural construct devoted to the transmission,…

  10. Assessment of Rectocolonic Morphology and Function in Patients with Chagas Disease in Barcelona (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Salvador, Fernando; Mego, Marianela; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Morís, María; Ramírez, Kathleen; Accarino, Ana; Malagelada, Juan-Ramon; Azpiroz, Fernando; Molina, Israel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between colonic symptoms, radiological abnormalities, and anorectal dysfunction in patients with Chagas disease. We performed a cross-sectional study of untreated patients diagnosed with Chagas disease. All patients were evaluated clinically (by a questionnaire for colonic symptoms based on Rome III criteria) and underwent a barium enema and anorectal manometry. A control group of patients with functional constipation and without Chagas disease was included in the study. Overall, 69 patients were included in the study: 42 patients were asymptomatic and 27 patients had abdominal symptoms according to Rome III criteria. Anorectal manometry showed a higher proportion of abnormalities in symptomatic patients than in asymptomatic ones (73% versus 21%, respectively; P < 0.0001). Megarectum was detected in a similar proportion in the different subgroups regardless of the presence of symptoms or abnormalities in anorectal functions. Among non-Chagas disease patients with functional constipation, 90% had an abnormal anorectal manometry study. Patients with Chagas disease present a high proportion of constipation with dyssynergic defecation in anorectal manometry but a low prevalence of impaired rectoanal inhibitory reflex, although these abnormalities may be nonspecific for Chagas disease. The presence of megarectum is a nonspecific finding. PMID:25778503

  11. Exploring Links between Empowerment and Community-Based Arts and Cultural Practices: Perspectives from Barcelona Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrasco, Ruben David Fernández; Monferrer, Moisés Carmona; Tarditi, Andrés Di Masso

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we reflect on the development of community-based arts and cultural (CBAC) practices to promote psychosocial, group/organisational and community changes from the perspective of empowerment. We draw on findings from an initial exploratory phase of an ongoing action-research project in Spain about creative tools that empower artists…

  12. Stratigraphic context and direct dating of the Neandertal mandible from Cova del Gegant (Sitges, Barcelona).

    PubMed

    Daura, J; Sanz, M; Pike, A W G; Subirà, M E; Fornós, J J; Fullola, J M; Julià, R; Zilhão, J

    2010-07-01

    Stratigraphic study of the Cova del Gegant's sedimentary fill revealed different cycles of accumulation of typical interior cave and delta facies. A precise chronology for these deposits, the faunal remains and stone tools contained therein was obtained by radiocarbon, U-Th and OSL. Our results indicate that the Upper Pleistocene archaeological sequence dates between 49.3 +/- 1.8 ka BP, the U-Th age of the overlying flowstone, and 60.0 +/- 3.9 ka BP, the OSL age of the basal deposits. We have also directly dated the site's Neandertal mandible to 52.3 +/- 2.3 ka by U-Th.

  13. [Epidemiology of atherogenic dyslipidemia in an urban area of the city of Barcelona].

    PubMed

    Caballero Sarmiento, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    We performed a descriptive cross-sectional epidemiological study data on lipid profile and blood glucose of sample collected in 2021 consecutive and anonymous patients. We calculated the prevalence of atherogenic dyslipidemia by sex, according to several cutoff HDL cholesterol in women, and in the whole sample, and its association with diabetes. There is in the study selection bias, as it is performed in patients attending in a Primary Care Laboratory and not in a sample of the general population. Prevalence epidemiological data are therefore approximate and provisional. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEA. All rights reserved.

  14. Ethical challenges in preclinical Alzheimer's disease observational studies and trials: Results of the Barcelona summit.

    PubMed

    Molinuevo, José L; Cami, Jordi; Carné, Xavier; Carrillo, Maria C; Georges, Jean; Isaac, Maria B; Khachaturian, Zaven; Kim, Scott Y H; Morris, John C; Pasquier, Florence; Ritchie, Craig; Sperling, Reisa; Karlawish, Jason

    2016-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is among the most significant health care burdens. Disappointing results from clinical trials in late-stage AD persons combined with hopeful results from trials in persons with early-stage suggest that research in the preclinical stage of AD is necessary to define an optimal therapeutic success window. We review the justification for conducting trials in the preclinical stage and highlight novel ethical challenges that arise and are related to determining appropriate risk-benefit ratios and disclosing individuals' biomarker status. We propose that to conduct clinical trials with these participants, we need to improve public understanding of AD using unified vocabulary, resolve the acceptable risk-benefit ratio in asymptomatic participants, and disclose or not biomarker status with attention to study type (observational studies vs clinical trials). Overcoming these challenges will justify clinical trials in preclinical AD at the societal level and aid to the development of societal and legal support for trial participants. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mutual benefits of B-ALL and HLDA/HCDM HLDA 9th Barcelona 2010.

    PubMed

    Faure, Gilbert C; Amsellem, Sophie; Arnoulet, Christine; Bardet, Valérie; Campos, Lydia; De Carvalho-Bittencourt, Marcelo; de Labarthe, Adrienne; Eischen, Alice; Feuillard, Jean; Fossat, Chantal; Ottou, Francine Garnache; Guérin, Estelle; Guy, Julien; Jouault, Hélène; Kuhlein, Emilienne; Lacombe, Francis; Lainey, Elodie; Maynadié, Marc; Noguera, Maria Elena; Roussel, Mikael; Solly, Françoise; Ballon, Orianne Wagner; Béné, Marie C

    2011-01-30

    The B-cell panel of the ninth HLDA was applied in a multicentre fashion to cryopreserved cells from 46 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The reagents were aliquoted and shipped to volunteer participants from the French Groupe d'Etude Immunologique des Leucémies (GEIL). All samples were tested in flow cytometry, and the results collected as of the strength of labeling of the leukemic clone as negative, weak or strong. Among the 64 antibodies tested, the strongest and most frequent staining was observed for CD305 (LAIR), CD229 (Ly9), CD200 (OX-2) and, to a lesser extent, CD361 (EVI2b). Details of the observations, and information about the molecules tested are provided in the manuscript as well as a summary table. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Linear and non-linear chemometric modeling of THM formation in Barcelona's water treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Platikanov, Stefan; Martín, Jordi; Tauler, Romà

    2012-08-15

    The complex behavior observed for the dependence of trihalomethane formation on forty one water treatment plant (WTP) operational variables is investigated by means of linear and non-linear regression methods, including kernel-partial least squares (K-PLS), and support vector machine regression (SVR). Lower prediction errors of total trihalomethane concentrations (lower than 14% for external validation samples) were obtained when these two methods were applied in comparison to when linear regression methods were applied. A new visualization technique revealed the complex nonlinear relationships among the operational variables and displayed the existing correlations between input variables and the kernel matrix on one side and the support vectors on the other side. Whereas some water treatment plant variables like river water TOC and chloride concentrations, and breakpoint chlorination were not considered to be significant due to the multi-collinear effect in straight linear regression modeling methods, they were now confirmed to be significant using K-PLS and SVR non-linear modeling regression methods, proving the better performance of these methods for the prediction of complex formation of trihalomethanes in water disinfection plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Surveillance of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in food commercialized in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Fontcuberta, M; Arqués, J F; Villalbí, J R; Martínez, M; Serrahima, E; Centrich, F; Ábalos, M; Abad, E; Duran, J; Casas, C

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the potential use of seven congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs-7) as indicator compounds for the presence of dioxins and PCBs in food samples, as part of the routine surveillance programme of a public health agency. Samples of 24 foodstuffs with high fat content were collected (ten fresh fish, six dairy products, five meat and three eggs). Duplicate analyses were performed. A research laboratory tested samples for seven polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDDs), ten dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and twelve dioxin-like PCBs, with limits of detection in the range of ng kg(-1) (ppt). The public health services official control laboratory tested samples for PCBs-7, with a limit of quantification of 5 µg kg(-1) (ppb). The research laboratory detected the presence of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in all samples; fish samples had the highest levels (0.04-10.3 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)). The public health service official control laboratory detected PCBs-7 only in five samples, which were all fish. Comparing the results in the two laboratories there seems to be an association between the detection of PCB-7 and the presence of higher levels of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs. The use of PCB-7 as an indicator compound may be a practical surveillance strategy for those foodstuffs with higher concentrations of dioxin-like congeners.

  18. Long-Term Macroevaluation of Environmental Enrichment in Three Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) at Barcelona Zoo.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Ana I; Vinyoles, Dolors; Maté, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of enrichment programs is important to determine their effect on nonhuman animal welfare. The daily activity pattern and use of space of 3 brown bears (Ursus arctos) were used for long-term macroevaluation of enrichment to compare the baseline and enrichment phases. Focal sampling methods were used for data collection, and instantaneous scans were made at 2-min intervals during 15 sessions of 1 hr for each animal during the 2 study periods. The enrichment devices were categorized as feeding, occupational, and sensorial. The long-term macroevaluation in 3 bears showed statistically significant differences in some types of activity but not in others. There were also statistically significant differences for the use of space in 4 of the 8 zones in which the enclosures were divided. A more homogenous pattern in the use of space was only observed during the enrichment phase in the old female. The 3 brown bears followed different patterns concerning the enrichment program.

  19. [Neisseria gonorrho