Sample records for norethandrolone

  1. Norethandrolone produces temporary loss of the ability to escape from salt-retaining steroids.


    Zumoff, B


    Patients with diseases characterized by salt retention manifest a loss of the normal ability of healthy persons to escape from repeat injections of aldosterone or other salt-retaining steroids. This phenomenon may be a clue to the pathophysiological mechanisms of salt retention. Administration of norethandrolone to a subject who had demonstrated the ability to escape from the salt-retaining effect of corticosteroid administration temporarily and reversibly deleted his ability to escape. Thus norethandrolone administration provides the basis for a model system for exploring the mechanisms of escape (and therefore of salt retention).

  2. The metabolism of norethandrolone in the horse: characterization of 16-, 20- and 21-oxygenated metabolites by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.


    McKinney, A R; Ridley, D D; Suann, C J


    After oral administration to a thoroughbred gelding, the anabolic steroid norethandrolone was converted into a complex mixture of oxygenated metabolites. These metabolites were extracted from the urine, deconjugated by methanolysis and converted to their O-methyloxime trimethylsilyl derivatives. Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis indicated the major metabolites to be 19-norpregnane-3,16,17-triols, 19-norpregnane-3,17,20-triols and 3,17-dihydroxy-19-norpregnan-21-oic acids. Some minor metabolites were also detected.

  3. Addition of Androgens Improves Survival in Elderly Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A GOELAMS Study.


    Pigneux, Arnaud; Béné, Marie C; Guardiola, Philippe; Recher, Christian; Hamel, Jean-Francois; Sauvezie, Mathieu; Harousseau, Jean-Luc; Tournilhac, Olivier; Witz, Francis; Berthou, Christian; Escoffre-Barbe, Martine; Guyotat, Denis; Fegueux, Nathalie; Himberlin, Chantal; Hunault, Mathilde; Delain, Martine; Lioure, Bruno; Jourdan, Eric; Bauduer, Frederic; Dreyfus, Francois; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Sotto, Jean-Jacques; Ifrah, Norbert


    Purpose Elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have a poor prognosis, and innovative maintenance therapy could improve their outcomes. Androgens, used in the treatment of aplastic anemia, have been reported to block proliferation of and initiate differentiation in AML cells. We report the results of a multicenter, phase III, randomized open-label trial exploring the benefit of adding androgens to maintenance therapy in patients 60 years of age or older. Patients and Methods A total of 330 patients with AML de novo or secondary to chemotherapy or radiotherapy were enrolled in the study. Induction therapy included idarubicin 8 mg/m(2) on days 1 to 5, cytarabine 100 mg/m(2) on days 1 to 7, and lomustine 200 mg/m(2) on day 1. Patients in complete remission or partial remission received six reinduction courses, alternating idarubicin 8 mg/m(2) on day 1, cytarabine 100 mg/m(2) on days 1 to 5, and a regimen of methotrexate and mercaptopurine. Patients were randomly assigned to receive norethandrolone 10 or 20 mg/day, according to body weight, or no norethandrolone for a 2-year maintenance therapy regimen. The primary end point was disease-free survival by intention to treat. Secondary end points were event-free survival, overall survival, and safety. This trial was registered at identifier NCT00700544. Results Random assignment allotted 165 patients to each arm; arm A received norethandrolone, and arm B did not receive norethandrolone. Complete remission or partial remission was achieved in 247 patients (76%). The Schoenfeld time-dependent model showed that norethandrolone significantly improved survival for patients still in remission at 1 year after induction. In arms A and B, respectively, 5-year disease-free survival was 31.2% and 16.2%, event-free survival was 21.5% and 12.9%, and overall survival was 26.3% and 17.2%. Norethandrolone improved outcomes irrelevant to all prognosis factors. Only patients with baseline leukocytes > 30

  4. Decreased liver cytochrome P-450 in rats caused by norethindrone or ethynyloestradiol.

    PubMed Central

    White, I N; Muller-Eberhard, U


    1. 19-Nor-17alpha-pregna-1,3,5(10)-trien-20-yne-3,17-diol (ethynyloestradiol) or 17beta-hydroxy-19-nor-17alpha-pregn-4-en-20-yn-3-one (norethindrone) but not 17alpha-ethyl-17beta-hydroxy-19-norandrost-4-en-3-one (norethandrolone) caused a time-dependent loss of cytochrome P-450 when incubated in vitro with rat liver microsomal fractions and NADPH-generating systems. 2. The enzyme system catalysing the norethindrone-mediated loss of cytochrome P-450 had many characteristics of the microsomal mixed-function oxidases. It required NADPH and air, and was inhibited by Co. However, it was unaffected by 1 mM-compound SKF 525A. 3. In microsomal fractions from phenobarbitone-pretreated rats the norethindrone-mediated loss of cytochrome P-450 was increased relative to controls. The norethindrone-mediated cytochrome P-450 loss was less pronounced when the animals were pretreated with 3beta-hydroxy-pregn-5-en-2-one 16alpha-carbonitrile (pregnenolone 16alpha-carbonitrile). Pretreatment with 3-methylcholanthrene rendered the animals resistant to the norethindrone effect. 4. Administration in vivo [100mg/kg, intraperitoneally] of norethindrone or ethinyl oestradiol also produced a time-dependent loss of liver cytochrome P-450. Norethandrolone had a similar, though much less-marked, effect. All three steroids lead to an induction of 5-aminolaevulinate synthase and an accumulation of porphyrins in the liver. 5. The loss of cytochrome P-450 and the accumulation of porphyrins in the liver 2 h after the administration of norethindrone to female rats was similar to that seen in males. 6. Rats pretreated with phenobarbitone and given norethindrone or ethynyloestradiol (100mg/kg, intraperitoneally) formed green pigments in their livers. These had characteristics similar to the green pigments produced in the livers of rats after the administration of 2-allyl-2-isopropylacetamide. No green pigments could be extracted from the livers of control rats or those given norethandrolone, oestradiol

  5. The metabolism of anabolic-androgenic steroids in the greyhound.


    McKinney, Andrew R; Cawley, Adam T; Young, E Bruce; Kerwick, Carmel M; Cunnington, Karen; Stewart, Rhiannon T; Ambrus, Joseph I; Willis, Anthony C; McLeod, Malcolm D


    Effective control of the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) in animal sports is essential in order to ensure both animal welfare and integrity. In order to better police their use in Australian and New Zealand greyhound racing, thorough metabolic studies have been carried out on a range of registered human and veterinary AASs available in the region. Canine metabolic data are presented for the AASs boldenone, danazol, ethylestrenol, mesterolone, methandriol, nandrolone and norethandrolone. The principal Phase I metabolic processes observed were the reduction of A-ring unsaturations and/or 3-ketones with either 3α,5β- or 3β,5α-stereochemistry, the oxidation of secondary 17β-hydroxyl groups and 16α-hydroxylation. The Phase II β-glucuronylation of sterol metabolites was extensive. The presented data have enabled the effective analysis of AASs and their metabolites in competition greyhound urine samples.

  6. Chronic Cholangitides: Aetiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment*

    PubMed Central

    Sherlock, Sheila


    A number of different chronic diseases affect the intrahepatic bile radicles or cholangioles. They include primary and secondary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, chronic cholestatic drug jaundice, atresia, and carcinoma. Aetiological factors include infection, immunological changes, hormones, and congenital defects. Patients with chronic cholestasis have decreased bile salts in the intestinal contents and suffer from a bile salt deficiency syndrome. Failure to absorb dietary fat is managed by a low-fat diet and by medium-chain trigly-cerides which are absorbed in the absence of intestinal bile salts. Fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies are prevented by parenteral vitamins A, D, and K1. Calcium absorption is defective, and improvement may follow intramuscular vitamin D, medium-chain triglycerides, a low-fat diet, and oral calcium supplements. In partial intestinal bile salt deficiency the anionic bile-salt-chelating resin cholestyramine controls pruritus though steatorrhoea increases. Pruritus associated with total lack of intestinal bile salts is managed by methyl-testosterone or norethandrolone, though the jaundice increases. PMID:4971054

  7. Online turbulent flow extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for high throughput screening of anabolic steroids in horse urine.


    Shin, Hyun Du; Suh, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Junghyun; Cho, Hyun-Deok; Lee, Su Duk; Han, Kwan Seok; Wang, Yu; Han, Sang Beom


    A high throughput method for simultaneous screening of anabolic steroids and their metabolites (4-esterendione, trenbolone, boldenone, oxandrolone, nandrolone, methandrostenolone, testosterone, 1-androstendione, ethisterone, normethandrolone, methyltestosterone, 16β-Hydroxystanozolol, epitestosterone, bolasterone, norethandrolone, danazol, stanozolol and androstadienone) in equine urine by online turbulent flow extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed. The use of turbulent flow chromatography could simplify pretreatment of horse urine, which has complex matrices as well as high viscosity. The urine was extracted by mixed-mode cation exchange solid phase extraction, and hydrolyzed using β-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase. Then, the sample was automatically loaded on the TurboFlow Cyclone extraction column for removal of further matrix, followed by separation on a fused core C18 column before MS/MS detection. Optimization and validation of the method were discussed in detail. All analytes were rapidly detected within 10min with high sensitivity (picogram to nanogram per milliliter level), and no interference was observed. The linearity range was from 0.1-10ng/mL for nine steroids and 1.0-50ng/mL for the others, with correlation of coefficient values over 0.995. Precision and accuracy ranged from 0.1 to 14.5% and 1.7 to 12.4%, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of anabolic steroids in horse urine after administration of a model drug. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Destruction of cytochrome P-450 and formation of green pigments by contraceptive steroids in rat hepatocyte suspensions.


    Blakey, D C; White, I N


    The contraceptive steroid norethindrone caused a rapid time and dose-dependent loss of cytochrome P-450 from rat hepatocytes in suspension cultures. Up to 30% of this cytochrome was lost in the first 5 min of incubation; longer incubations resulted in little further loss even though not all the steroid was metabolised and the cells remained viable. Such cultures were used to investigate the formation of N-alkylated porphyrins (green pigments) which could be extracted from cell incubation mixtures following exposure to norethindrone and separation by HPLC or TLC. The number of N-alkylated porphyrins formed was dependent both on the time of incubation and the concentration of steroid. After 1 min, 1 major green pigment (GP1) was resolved using either high (0.3 mM) or low (0.03 mM) norethindrone concentrations. With longer incubation times (60 min), at high steroid concentrations, only one additional polar adduct (GP2) was formed. At lower steroid levels, 3 more polar components (GP2, 3 and 4) were seen. As judged by HPLC or TLC, GP1 corresponds to the pigment formed in microsomal preparations incubated with norethindrone in vitro, while GP2, 3 and 4 correspond to the pigments extracted from the livers of rats administered this steroid in vivo. Pretreatment of rats with either phenobarbitone or 3-methylcholanthrene induced cytochrome P-450s. Relative to controls, phenobarbitone pretreatment also resulted in a greater accumulation of green pigments in hepatocytes incubated with norethindrone, the more polar forms of green pigments (GP3 and 4), showing a disproportionate increase in concentration. The mixed function oxidase inhibitor SKF 525-A or high concentrations of steroid not containing an ethynyl function, e.g. norethandrolone, when added to cell cultures containing norethindrone, preferentially inhibited the formation of GP3 and 4. When purified green pigments were added to cell incubation mixtures in the absence of norethindrone, preferentially inhibited the

  9. Accelerated sample treatment for screening of banned doping substances by GC-MS: ultrasonication versus microwave energy.


    Galesio, M; Mazzarino, M; de la Torre, X; Botrè, F; Capelo, J L


    (mesterolone metabolite 1), 17α-ethyl-5β-estrane-3α,17β,21-triol (norethandrolone metabolite 1), epioxandrolone, 4-chloro-6β,17β-dihydroxy-17α-methyl-1,4-androstadien-3-one (chlormetandienone metabolite 1), carphedon, esmolol and bambuterol the same results were obtained after 5 min under microwave irradiation.