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Sample records for norm change movement

  1. Change IS the New Norm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Community colleges are undergoing an evolution that is unprecedented since they were created. State and federal mandates, greater calls for accountability, and a stronger push for student success are causing community colleges to review and retool their campuses and their focus. In other words, change IS the new norm. It is time for community…

  2. What's in a norm? Sources and processes of norm change.

    PubMed

    Paluck, Elizabeth Levy

    2009-03-01

    This reply to the commentary by E. Staub and L. A. Pearlman (2009) revisits the field experimental results of E. L. Paluck (2009). It introduces further evidence and theoretical elaboration supporting Paluck's conclusion that exposure to a reconciliation-themed radio soap opera changed perceptions of social norms and behaviors, not beliefs. Experimental and longitudinal survey evidence reinforces the finding that the radio program affected socially shared perceptions of typical or prescribed behavior-that is, social norms. Specifically, measurements of perceptions of social norms called into question by Staub and Pearlman are shown to correlate with perceptions of public opinion and public, not private, behaviors. Although measurement issues and the mechanisms of the radio program's influence merit further testing, theory and evidence point to social interactions and emotional engagement, not individual education, as the likely mechanisms of change. The present exchange makes salient what is at stake in this debate: a model of change based on learning and personal beliefs versus a model based on group influence and social norms. These theoretical models recommend very different strategies for prejudice and conflict reduction. Future field experiments should attempt to adjudicate between these models by testing relevant policies in real-world settings.

  3. Dynamic assessment of binocular eye movement coordination: norms and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Viirre, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Alignment of the two eyes is controlled by a finely tuned, fast acting system with components within the brain. Assessment of binocular alignment has classically been done statically. Eye positions are assessed in primary position and at eccentric angles to interpret the functional status of the oculomotor nerves and muscles. However, assessment of dynamic eye alignment, the coordination of the eyes during eye movements, has been less commonly carried out and has not been formalized with population norms. Clinicians are aware of slow eye movement dynamic alignment changes, such as that clinically observed in Intranuclear Ophthalmoplegia. But assessment of eye alignment during rapid eye movements, such as saccade or pursuit has not been part of neuro-ophthalmologic assessment. With the advent of inexpensive, high resolution recording systems, both eyes can be simultaneously recorded and their coordination during movement compared. Thus, we now have an opportunity to provide a laboratory based objective measurement of a gamut of binocular coordination systems. Recent research in humans has demonstrated increased variability of binocular coordination during divided attention. Variability is an interesting statistic that can be sensitively assessed in the velocity domain without extensive gaze position recalibration procedures during recording over long intervals. Variability can thus be used as a robust, long-term eye movement parameter with minimal intrusiveness to the subject. It is proposed that population studies of binocular coordination during eye movements be carried out to determine neurologic norms so that conditions such as brain injury and others can be assessed with a functional tool with objective parameters.

  4. Care of the Elderly in Japan: Changing Norms and Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Naohiro; Retherford, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    Analyzed changes in norms of filial care for elderly parents and expectations of old-age support from children, based on Japanese national surveys. Findings suggest that norms of filial care for elderly parents were fairly constant from 1963 until 1986, when major weakening of norms began. Government efforts to shift burden of caring back to…

  5. Time Lag and Communication in Changing Unpopular Norms

    PubMed Central

    Gërxhani, Klarita; Bruggeman, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Humans often coordinate their social lives through norms. When a large majority of people are dissatisfied with an existing norm, it seems obvious that they will change it. Often, however, this does not occur. We investigate how a time lag between individual support of a norm change and the change itself hinders such change, related to the critical mass of supporters needed to effectuate the change, and the (im)possibility of communicating about it. To isolate these factors, we utilize a laboratory experiment. As predicted, we find unambiguous effects of time lag on precluding norm change; a higher threshold for a critical mass does so as well. Communication facilitates choosing superior norms but it does not necessarily lead to norm change when the uncertainty on whether there will be a norm change in the future is high. Communication seems to help coordination on actions at the present but not the future. Hence, the uncertainty driven by time lag makes individuals choose the status quo, here the unpopular norm. PMID:25880200

  6. Time lag and communication in changing unpopular norms.

    PubMed

    Gërxhani, Klarita; Bruggeman, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Humans often coordinate their social lives through norms. When a large majority of people are dissatisfied with an existing norm, it seems obvious that they will change it. Often, however, this does not occur. We investigate how a time lag between individual support of a norm change and the change itself hinders such change, related to the critical mass of supporters needed to effectuate the change, and the (im)possibility of communicating about it. To isolate these factors, we utilize a laboratory experiment. As predicted, we find unambiguous effects of time lag on precluding norm change; a higher threshold for a critical mass does so as well. Communication facilitates choosing superior norms but it does not necessarily lead to norm change when the uncertainty on whether there will be a norm change in the future is high. Communication seems to help coordination on actions at the present but not the future. Hence, the uncertainty driven by time lag makes individuals choose the status quo, here the unpopular norm.

  7. A norming study and library of 203 dance movements.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julia F; Nadal, Marcos; Cela-Conde, Camilo José

    2014-01-01

    Dance stimuli have been used in experimental studies of (i) how movement is processed in the brain; (ii) how affect is perceived from bodily movement; and (iii) how dance can be a source of aesthetic experience. However, stimulus materials across--and even within--these three domains of research have varied considerably. Thus, integrative conclusions remain elusive. Moreover, concerns have been raised that the movements selected for such stimuli are qualitatively too different from the actual art form dance, potentially introducing noise in the data. We propose a library of dance stimuli which responds to the stimuli requirements and design criteria of these three areas of research, while at the same time respecting a dance art-historical perspective, offering greater ecological validity as compared with previous dance stimulus sets. The stimuli are 5-6 s long video clips, selected from genuine ballet performances. Following a number of coding experiments, the resulting stimulus library comprises 203 ballet dance stimuli coded in (i) 25 qualitative and quantitative movement variables; (ii) affective valence and arousal; and (iii) the aesthetic qualities beauty, liking, and interest. An Excel spreadsheet with these data points accompanies this manuscript, and the stimuli can be obtained from the authors upon request.

  8. Changing Values and Norms in Portuguese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhaes, Antonio M.; Amaral, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to identify emerging changes in the values and norms related to governance and management in Portuguese higher education and to identify how different kinds of stakeholders perceive these changes. The University Autonomy Act (1988) and the Polytechnics Autonomy Act (1990) by transferring greater responsibility…

  9. Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) Test Norms for Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yachun; Shi, Chunmei; Tong, Meiling; Zhang, Min; Li, Tingting; Xu, Yaqin; Guo, Xirong; Hong, Qin; Chi, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the "vertical scores" were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (P<0.001) in all age groups. For several ages, the scores obtained in this study were significantly different from the reported scores of Cantonese-speaking Chinese children (P<0.005). Compared with English-speaking children, only the vertical score of the 6-year-old group, the vertical-horizontal time

  10. Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) Test Norms for Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Chinese Children

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Meiling; Zhang, Min; Li, Tingting; Xu, Yaqin; Guo, Xirong; Hong, Qin; Chi, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the “vertical scores” were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (P<0.001) in all age groups. For several ages, the scores obtained in this study were significantly different from the reported scores of Cantonese-speaking Chinese children (P<0.005). Compared with English-speaking children, only the vertical score of the 6-year-old group, the vertical

  11. Norm stability at Alcatraz Island: Effects of time and changing conditions

    Treesearch

    William Valliere; Robert. Manning

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that visitors often have norms about the resource and social conditions acceptable in a park and that understanding such norms can be useful for park management. Most studies of norms use data from cross-sectional surveys, and little is known about how norms may change over time. To explore this issue, we conducted a study in 2007 to determine whether...

  12. Crossing the North Sea seems to make DCD disappear: cross-validation of Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 norms.

    PubMed

    Niemeijer, Anuschka S; van Waelvelde, Hilde; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M

    2015-02-01

    The Movement Assessment Battery for Children has been revised as the Movement ABC-2 (Henderson, Sugden, & Barnett, 2007). In Europe, the 15th percentile score on this test is recommended for one of the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). A representative sample of Dutch and Flemish children was tested to cross-validate the UK standard scores, including the 15th percentile score. First, the mean, SD and percentile scores of Dutch children were compared to those of UK normative samples. Item standard scores of Dutch speaking children deviated from the UK reference values suggesting necessary adjustments. Except for very young children, the Dutch-speaking samples performed better. Second, based on the mean and SD and clinical relevant cut-off scores (5th and 15th percentile), norms were adjusted for the Dutch population. For diagnostic use, researchers and clinicians should use the reference norms that are valid for the group of children they are testing. The results indicate that there possibly is an effect of testing procedure in other countries that validated the UK norms and/or cultural influence on the age norms of the Movement ABC-2. It is suggested to formulate criterion-based norms for age groups in addition to statistical norms.

  13. Social Change Movements and Transformative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auretto, Vera

    2001-01-01

    Defines social change movements and the role played by individual and collective transformation. Addresses the debate over Mezirow's transformation theory and shows how transformative learning was used in the women's movement. (SK)

  14. Control of arm movements for quick change of movement direction.

    PubMed

    Takatoku, Nozomi; Fujiwara, Motoko

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigated the control strategy for changing movement direction during arm movements by analyzing the changes in a triphasic electromyographic pattern. Subjects performed a 40° flexion (basic) and a 40° flexion-extension to return to the start position (return) under two conditions: performing a predetermined task (SF) and performing each task in response to a signal (ST). The results revealed the agonist burst for the return task under the ST condition resembled that of the basic task under the SF condition, and the antagonist burst increased after presenting the modification signal. In conclusion, the strategy for quick change of movement direction was to increase the antagonist burst by an additional command from the central nervous system without cancelling the planned movement.

  15. Changing and Changed Stance toward Norm Selection in Philippine Universities: Its Pedagogical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardo, Alejandro S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey which involved College English teachers from three leading universities in the Philippines. The results point to one conclusion--College English teachers now have a changing and changed stance toward norm selection in Philippine Universities. The results give the impression that a good number of College…

  16. ICT in Preschool: Friend or Foe? The Significance of Norms in a Changing Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar; Folkesson, Anne-Mari

    2012-01-01

    Societal change and prescriptions in curricula demand a change in educational practice. This can create conflicts between practitioners' usual practices (norms) and those prescribed by curricula. One example is the introduction of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into preschool practice. Hence, our aim is to analyse how norms are…

  17. Changing the Perception of the Norm: A Strategy To Decrease Binge Drinking among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Michael; Spear, Sherilynn F.

    1996-01-01

    A five-year study examined the effects of a mass media campaign to change college students' perceptions of peer norms and binge drinking. Annual survey data indicated a significant drop in numbers of students who perceived binge drinking as the norm and a corresponding reduction in binge drinking. (SM)

  18. Changes in Students' Participation and Small Group Norms in Scientific Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, Sun Mi; Kim, Heui-Baik

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to interpret students' participation in terms of social and argumentation norms to improve understanding of social interaction in scientific argumentation. Therefore, the study sought to identify social and argumentation norms formed in group argumentation and to explore changes in students' participation as lessons…

  19. Changes in Students' Participation and Small Group Norms in Scientific Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, Sun Mi; Kim, Heui-Baik

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to interpret students' participation in terms of social and argumentation norms to improve understanding of social interaction in scientific argumentation. Therefore, the study sought to identify social and argumentation norms formed in group argumentation and to explore changes in students' participation as lessons…

  20. Changing the Perception of the Norm: A Strategy To Decrease Binge Drinking among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Michael; Spear, Sherilynn F.

    1996-01-01

    A five-year study examined the effects of a mass media campaign to change college students' perceptions of peer norms and binge drinking. Annual survey data indicated a significant drop in numbers of students who perceived binge drinking as the norm and a corresponding reduction in binge drinking. (SM)

  1. Transfer and Changing Linguistic Norms in Jersey Norman French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Mari C.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate a case of transfer within the context of language death. By examining data from Jersey Norman French (known to its speakers as Jerriais) it illustrates the difficulty in determining linguistic norms for this relatively undocumented variety and suggests possible strategies to overcome this problem. The study…

  2. Reliable change indices and standardized regression-based change score norms for evaluating neuropsychological change in children with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Busch, Robyn M; Lineweaver, Tara T; Ferguson, Lisa; Haut, Jennifer S

    2015-06-01

    Reliable change indices (RCIs) and standardized regression-based (SRB) change score norms permit evaluation of meaningful changes in test scores following treatment interventions, like epilepsy surgery, while accounting for test-retest reliability, practice effects, score fluctuations due to error, and relevant clinical and demographic factors. Although these methods are frequently used to assess cognitive change after epilepsy surgery in adults, they have not been widely applied to examine cognitive change in children with epilepsy. The goal of the current study was to develop RCIs and SRB change score norms for use in children with epilepsy. Sixty-three children with epilepsy (age range: 6-16; M=10.19, SD=2.58) underwent comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations at two time points an average of 12 months apart. Practice effect-adjusted RCIs and SRB change score norms were calculated for all cognitive measures in the battery. Practice effects were quite variable across the neuropsychological measures, with the greatest differences observed among older children, particularly on the Children's Memory Scale and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. There was also notable variability in test-retest reliabilities across measures in the battery, with coefficients ranging from 0.14 to 0.92. Reliable change indices and SRB change score norms for use in assessing meaningful cognitive change in children following epilepsy surgery are provided for measures with reliability coefficients above 0.50. This is the first study to provide RCIs and SRB change score norms for a comprehensive neuropsychological battery based on a large sample of children with epilepsy. Tables to aid in evaluating cognitive changes in children who have undergone epilepsy surgery are provided for clinical use. An Excel sheet to perform all relevant calculations is also available to interested clinicians or researchers.

  3. Scientists in a Changed Institutional Environment: Subjective Adaptation and Social Responsibility Norms in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, T P; Ball, D Y

    2008-06-05

    How do scientists react when the institutional setting in which they conduct their work changes radically? How do long-standing norms regarding the social responsibility of scientists fare? What factors influence whether scientists embrace or reject the new institutions and norms? We examine these questions using data from a unique survey of 602 scientists in Russia, whose science system experienced a sustained crisis and sweeping changes in science institutions following the collapse of the Soviet Union. We develop measures of how respondents view financing based on grants and other institutional changes in the Russian science system, as well as measures of two norms regarding scientists social responsibility. We find that the majority of scientists have adapted, in the sense that they hold positive views of the new institutions, but a diversity of orientations remains. Social responsibility norms are common among Russian scientists, but far from universal. The main correlates of adaptation are age and current success at negotiating the new institutions, though prospective success, work context, and ethnicity have some of the hypothesized associations. As for social responsibility norms, the main source of variation is age: younger scientists are more likely to embrace individualistic rather than socially-oriented norms.

  4. Chloe's Law: A Powerful Legislative Movement Challenging a Core Ethical Norm of Genetic Testing.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Arthur L

    2015-08-01

    Since the early 1970s, the ethical norm governing counselors involved in testing and screening for genetic conditions related to reproduction has been strict neutrality. Counseling about reproductive genetics was to be patient centered but nondirective. Many advocates for people with Down syndrome believe that high abortion rates following a diagnosis of this condition show an unfounded bias against those with Down syndrome. These advocates have succeeded in enacting federal and state legislation that requires women who receive a prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome to receive positive information about the condition, thereby ending the nominal goal of value-neutral counseling and setting the stage for further normative shifts in clinical reproductive genetics as counseling expands because of cell-free testing.

  5. Chloe’s Law: A Powerful Legislative Movement Challenging a Core Ethical Norm of Genetic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Arthur L.

    2015-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, the ethical norm governing counselors involved in testing and screening for genetic conditions related to reproduction has been strict neutrality. Counseling about reproductive genetics was to be patient centered but nondirective. Many advocates for people with Down syndrome believe that high abortion rates following a diagnosis of this condition show an unfounded bias against those with Down syndrome. These advocates have succeeded in enacting federal and state legislation that requires women who receive a prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome to receive positive information about the condition, thereby ending the nominal goal of value-neutral counseling and setting the stage for further normative shifts in clinical reproductive genetics as counseling expands because of cell-free testing. PMID:26247743

  6. Promoting Behavior Change Using Social Norms: Applying a Community Based Social Marketing Tool to Extension Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Warner, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Most educational programs are designed to produce lower level outcomes, and Extension educators are challenged to produce behavior change in target audiences. Social norms are a very powerful proven tool for encouraging sustainable behavior change among Extension's target audiences. Minor modifications to program content to demonstrate the…

  7. Promoting Behavior Change Using Social Norms: Applying a Community Based Social Marketing Tool to Extension Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Warner, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Most educational programs are designed to produce lower level outcomes, and Extension educators are challenged to produce behavior change in target audiences. Social norms are a very powerful proven tool for encouraging sustainable behavior change among Extension's target audiences. Minor modifications to program content to demonstrate the…

  8. Male Scientists’ Competing Devotions to Work and Family: Changing Norms in a Male-Dominated Profession

    PubMed Central

    Damaske, Sarah; Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Lincoln, Anne E.; White, Virginia Johnston

    2014-01-01

    Using in-depth interviews with 74 men across different ranks in biology and physics at prestigious US universities, we ask to what extent changing norms of fatherhood and a flexible workplace affect men working in a highly male-dominated profession and what variation exists in family forms. We conceptualize four typologies of men: those forgoing children, egalitarian partners, neo-traditional dual-earners, and traditional breadwinners. Findings suggest male scientists hold strong work devotions yet a growing number seek egalitarian relationships, which they frame as reducing their devotion to work. The majority of men find the all-consuming nature of academic science conflicts with changing fatherhood norms. PMID:25419040

  9. Male Scientists' Competing Devotions to Work and Family: Changing Norms in a Male-Dominated Profession.

    PubMed

    Damaske, Sarah; Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Lincoln, Anne E; White, Virginia Johnston

    2014-11-01

    Using in-depth interviews with 74 men across different ranks in biology and physics at prestigious US universities, we ask to what extent changing norms of fatherhood and a flexible workplace affect men working in a highly male-dominated profession and what variation exists in family forms. We conceptualize four typologies of men: those forgoing children, egalitarian partners, neo-traditional dual-earners, and traditional breadwinners. Findings suggest male scientists hold strong work devotions yet a growing number seek egalitarian relationships, which they frame as reducing their devotion to work. The majority of men find the all-consuming nature of academic science conflicts with changing fatherhood norms.

  10. Changes in Students' Participation and Small Group Norms in Scientific Argumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Sun Mi; Kim, Heui-Baik

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to interpret students' participation in terms of social and argumentation norms to improve understanding of social interaction in scientific argumentation. Therefore, the study sought to identify social and argumentation norms formed in group argumentation and to explore changes in students' participation as lessons progressed. Twelve lessons that included argumentation were delivered to 44 eighth graders in Korea. In each lesson, small group argumentation tasks were introduced after the teacher had explained the main concepts or after student-centred hands-on activities. We analysed argumentation in one focus group based on various data, including audiotaped and videotaped conversations, field notes and student interviews. In early lessons, discussions were always teacher-initiated and led by a high-achieving student, while other students rarely presented ideas. Moreover, students struggled to seek answers in a textbook and often used analogies and common sense to explain phenomena. They tended to accept others' opinions unquestioningly or ignore other low achievers' ideas in small group argumentation. In later lessons, we observed student-initiated and more equally distributed discussions, in which students were likely to make claims or statements actively based on experimental results and scientific knowledge. Along with these changes in discussion style, some students were seen to support the building of social norms and argumentation norms in a group. Also, performing tasks and receiving guidance from the teacher helped to build students' epistemological norms about scientific argumentation.

  11. Exploring the potential for changing gender norms among cricket coaches and athletes in India.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elizabeth; Das, Madhumita; Verma, Ravi; O'Connor, Brian; Ghosh, Sancheeta; Jaime, Maria Catrina D; McCauley, Heather L

    2015-02-01

    This study explored gender norms with cricket coaches and athletes in India to adapt a coach-delivered gender violence prevention program from the United States for the urban Indian context. Interviews and focus groups conducted among coaches and adolescent cricketers highlight the extent to which coaches and athletes articulate prevailing inequitable notions about gender and recognition of the power coaches wield. Adapting a violence prevention program that emphasizes gender norms change may be feasible with Indian cricket coaches but is likely to require attention to defining gender equity and challenging cultural assumptions with coaches prior to implementing the program with athletes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. 30 CFR 57.9160 - Train movement during shift changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Train movement during shift changes. 57.9160..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9160 Train movement during shift changes. During shift changes, the movement of underground trains carrying rock or material shall be limited to areas where the...

  13. Changing Gender Norms and Reducing HIV and Violence Risk Among Workers and Students in China.

    PubMed

    Pulerwitz, Julie; Hui, Wang; Arney, Jennifer; Scott, Lisa Mueller

    2015-08-01

    Global evidence demonstrates that inequitable gender norms negatively influence key health outcomes (e.g., violence, HIV/STI), and the importance of male involvement in prevention efforts. The China Family Planning Association and PATH partnered to develop and evaluate a gender-focused behavior change communication intervention for HIV and violence prevention. Eight participatory education sessions-adapted for the Chinese setting-were implemented in factories and schools. Baseline and endline surveys with participants (219 male factory workers and 496 male vocational students) were conducted. Support for (in)equitable norms was measured by the Gender Equitable Men Scale, as well as partner violence and communication. Focus groups with male and female workers/students, teachers, and factory managers were used to corroborate findings. At baseline, many workers and students supported inequitable gender norms, with workers generally being more inequitable. At endline, significant positive changes in gender-related views (e.g., reduction from 42% to 18% of workers agreeing that "a woman should tolerate violence in order to keep her family together") and behaviors (e.g., reduction from 15% to 7% of students reporting partner violence over the past 3 months) were reported. Results suggest that a relatively low intensity intervention can influence important gender norms and related behaviors.

  14. Computer use changes generalization of movement learning.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kunlin; Yan, Xiang; Kong, Gaiqing; Yin, Cong; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Qining; Kording, Konrad Paul

    2014-01-06

    Over the past few decades, one of the most salient lifestyle changes for us has been the use of computers. For many of us, manual interaction with a computer occupies a large portion of our working time. Through neural plasticity, this extensive movement training should change our representation of movements (e.g., [1-3]), just like search engines affect memory [4]. However, how computer use affects motor learning is largely understudied. Additionally, as virtually all participants in studies of perception and actions are computer users, a legitimate question is whether insights from these studies bear the signature of computer-use experience. We compared non-computer users with age- and education-matched computer users in standard motor learning experiments. We found that people learned equally fast but that non-computer users generalized significantly less across space, a difference negated by two weeks of intensive computer training. Our findings suggest that computer-use experience shaped our basic sensorimotor behaviors, and this influence should be considered whenever computer users are recruited as study participants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Changes in Perceived Filial Obligation Norms Among Coresident Family Caregivers in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsui, Takako; Muramatsu, Naoko; Higashino, Sadanori

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Japan introduced a nationwide long-term care insurance (LTCI) system in 2000, making long-term care (LTC) a right for older adults regardless of income and family availability. To shed light on its implications for family caregiving, we investigated perceived filial obligation norms among coresident primary family caregivers before and after the policy change. Design and Methods: Descriptive and multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine changes in perceived filial obligation norms and its subdimensions (financial, physical, and emotional support), using 2-wave panel survey data of coresident primary family caregivers (N = 611) in 1 city. The baseline survey was conducted in 1999, and a follow-up survey 2 years later. Results: On average, perceived filial obligation norms declined (p < .05). Daughters-in-law had the most significant declines (global and physical: p < .01, emotional: p < .05) among family caregivers. In particular, physical support, which Japan’s LTC reform targeted, declined significantly among daughters and daughters-in-law (p < .01). Multiple regression analysis indicated that daughters-in-law had significantly lower perceived filial obligation norms after the policy introduction than sons and daughters (p < .01 and p < .05, respectively), controlling for the baseline filial obligation and situational factors. Implications: Our research indicates declining roles of daughters-in-law in elder care during Japan’s LTCI system implementation period. Further international efforts are needed to design and implement longitudinal studies that help promote understanding of the interplay among national LTC policies, social changes, and caregiving norms and behaviors. PMID:24009170

  16. Changes in perceived filial obligation norms among coresident family caregivers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Takako; Muramatsu, Naoko; Higashino, Sadanori

    2014-10-01

    Japan introduced a nationwide long-term care insurance (LTCI) system in 2000, making long-term care (LTC) a right for older adults regardless of income and family availability. To shed light on its implications for family caregiving, we investigated perceived filial obligation norms among coresident primary family caregivers before and after the policy change. Descriptive and multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine changes in perceived filial obligation norms and its subdimensions (financial, physical, and emotional support), using 2-wave panel survey data of coresident primary family caregivers (N = 611) in 1 city. The baseline survey was conducted in 1999, and a follow-up survey 2 years later. On average, perceived filial obligation norms declined (p < .05). Daughters-in-law had the most significant declines (global and physical: p < .01, emotional: p < .05) among family caregivers. In particular, physical support, which Japan's LTC reform targeted, declined significantly among daughters and daughters-in-law (p < .01). Multiple regression analysis indicated that daughters-in-law had significantly lower perceived filial obligation norms after the policy introduction than sons and daughters (p < .01 and p < .05, respectively), controlling for the baseline filial obligation and situational factors. Our research indicates declining roles of daughters-in-law in elder care during Japan's LTCI system implementation period. Further international efforts are needed to design and implement longitudinal studies that help promote understanding of the interplay among national LTC policies, social changes, and caregiving norms and behaviors. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  17. Changing global essential medicines norms to improve access to AIDS treatment: lessons from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunn, A; Fonseca, E Da; Gruskin, S

    2009-01-01

    Brazil's large-scale, successful HIV/AIDS treatment programme is considered by many to be a model for other developing countries aiming to improve access to AIDS treatment. Far less is known about Brazil's important role in changing global norms related to international pharmaceutical policy, particularly international human rights, health and trade policies governing access to essential medicines. Prompted by Brazil's interest in preserving its national AIDS treatment policies during World Trade Organisation trade disputes with the USA, these efforts to change global essential medicines norms have had important implications for other countries, particularly those scaling up AIDS treatment. This paper analyses Brazil's contributions to global essential medicines policy and explains the relevance of Brazil's contributions to global health policy today.

  18. Changing global essential medicines norms to improve access to AIDS treatment: Lessons from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, A.; Fonseca, E. Da; Gruskin, S.

    2009-01-01

    Brazil's large-scale, successful HIV/AIDS treatment programme is considered by many to be a model for other developing countries aiming to improve access to AIDS treatment. Far less is known about Brazil's important role in changing global norms related to international pharmaceutical policy, particularly international human rights, health and trade policies governing access to essential medicines. Prompted by Brazil's interest in preserving its national AIDS treatment policies during World Trade Organisation trade disputes with the USA, these efforts to change global essential medicines norms have had important implications for other countries, particularly those scaling up AIDS treatment. This paper analyses Brazil's contributions to global essential medicines policy and explains the relevance of Brazil's contributions to global health policy today. PMID:19333805

  19. Learning from the Women's Movement about Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane

    2008-01-01

    The women's movement in the 1970s and 1980s was a global phenomenon that achieved significant educational change. More analysis of how it developed and had an impact on education can inform our understanding of the possibilities for change today. This paper explores how the women's movement changed schooling in Vancouver in the 1970s, using a…

  20. Professional Norms in School Leadership: Change Efforts in Implementation of Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leo, Ulf; Wickenberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    This study identifies and analyses professional norms as a means of illuminating school cultures and how norms are distributed in the system. Of special interest is the role of school leaders and how they lead, organize and realise school development. The study research question is: What professional norms do school leaders highlight in change…

  1. Professional Norms in School Leadership: Change Efforts in Implementation of Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leo, Ulf; Wickenberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    This study identifies and analyses professional norms as a means of illuminating school cultures and how norms are distributed in the system. Of special interest is the role of school leaders and how they lead, organize and realise school development. The study research question is: What professional norms do school leaders highlight in change…

  2. How Strong and Weak Readers Perform on the Developmental Eye Movement Test (DEM): Norms for Latvian School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serdjukova, Jelena; Ekimane, Lasma; Valeinis, Janis; Skilters, Jurgis; Krumina, Gunta

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine DEM test performance norms for school-aged children in Latvia, assess how DEM test results correlate with children's reading rates, compare test performance between strong and weak readers. A modified DEM test and a newly developed reading test were administered to 1487 children during a screening survey. Our…

  3. How Strong and Weak Readers Perform on the Developmental Eye Movement Test (DEM): Norms for Latvian School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serdjukova, Jelena; Ekimane, Lasma; Valeinis, Janis; Skilters, Jurgis; Krumina, Gunta

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine DEM test performance norms for school-aged children in Latvia, assess how DEM test results correlate with children's reading rates, compare test performance between strong and weak readers. A modified DEM test and a newly developed reading test were administered to 1487 children during a screening survey. Our…

  4. Developmental changes in attention tests norms: implications for the structure of attention.

    PubMed

    Vakil, Eli; Blachstein, Haya; Sheinman, Masha; Greenstein, Yoram

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of attention is a key issue in the study of neuropsychological development. In this study we collected Hebrew norms for four frequently used attention tests (Trail Making, Digit-Symbol, Digit Span, and Digit Cancellation), analyzed the developmental sensitivity of each test and traced changes in attention across ages. The tests were administered to 809 boys and girls ranging in age from 8 to 17, divided into 10 age cohorts. The results indicate that, although all tests showed age effects, Digit-Symbol and Digit Cancellation tests were most developmentally sensitive. Another interesting finding was that younger age groups (8-11) are more dissociable by attention tests than older age groups (12-17), indicating that changes in attention are more pronounced in the early years and stabilize in later years.

  5. Legitimization of regulatory norms: Waterfowl hunter acceptance of changing duck bag limits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Lawrence, Jeffrey S.; Cordts, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined response to regulatory change over time, or addressed hunter attitudes about changes in hunting bag limits. This article explores Minnesota waterfowl hunters’ attitudes about duck bag limits, examining attitudes about two state duck bag limits that were initially more restrictive than the maximum set by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), but then increased to match federal limits. Results are from four mail surveys that examined attitudes about bag limits over time. Following two bag limit increases, a greater proportion of hunters rated the new bag limit “too high” and a smaller proportion rated it “too low.” Several years following the first bag limit increase, the proportion of hunters who indicated that the limit was “too high” had declined, suggesting hunter acceptance of the new regulation. Results suggest that waterfowl bag limits may represent legal norms that influence hunter attitudes and gain legitimacy over time.

  6. Mechanical Power Flow Changes during Multijoint Movement Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadota, Koji; Matsuo, Tomoyuki; Hashizume, Ken; Tezuka, Kazushi

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the differences in mechanical power flow in early and late practice stages during a cyclic movement consisting of upper arm circumduction to clarify the change in mechanical energy use with skill acquisition. Seven participants practiced the task every other day until their joint angular movements conformed to those of an expert.…

  7. Mechanical Power Flow Changes during Multijoint Movement Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadota, Koji; Matsuo, Tomoyuki; Hashizume, Ken; Tezuka, Kazushi

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the differences in mechanical power flow in early and late practice stages during a cyclic movement consisting of upper arm circumduction to clarify the change in mechanical energy use with skill acquisition. Seven participants practiced the task every other day until their joint angular movements conformed to those of an expert.…

  8. Oscillatory changes related to the forced termination of a movement.

    PubMed

    Alegre, M; Alvarez-Gerriko, I; Valencia, M; Iriarte, J; Artieda, J

    2008-02-01

    Stimulus-induced movements are accompanied by a definite pattern of oscillatory changes, that include a frontal 15 Hz synchronization, a central peri-movement desynchronization, and a contralateral beta rebound after the movement. Our aim was to study the oscillatory changes related to the forced termination of a single complex motor program (signature) and compare them with those observed after the normal termination of the movement. Fifty-eight reference-free EEG channels were analyzed in 10 healthy subjects. A 2000 Hz tone (S1, go signal) indicated the subject to begin to write his/her complete signature. A second 2000 Hz tone 0.8 s afterwards (50% probability: S2, stop signal) indicated the subject to stop immediately. Movement-related energy changes were evaluated by means of time-frequency (Gabor) transforms. A frontal 15 Hz synchronization was observed after S1, but not after S2. The amplitude of the post-movement beta increase was significantly lower when the movement was abnormally terminated (p=0.005), while the peri-movement decrease was similar. The forced termination of a motor program reduces significantly the amplitude of the post-movement beta increment, conserving its temporal pattern. Also, the presence of the 15 Hz frontal synchronization only after S1, together with the results of previous studies, suggests that the frontal mechanisms involved in go/no go and stop signals are very different. Our results indicate that the beta rebound is an active process, independent of the peri-movement beta decrease, which is influenced by how the movement is terminated.

  9. Creating social norm change to prevent VAW and HIV: a programmatic perspective from Uganda.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Katy

    2016-05-01

    There has been an increased emphasis on evidence based programming for violence prevention in recent years, although research on what works to prevent violence is still an emerging field. There are also important lessons emerging from practice. The experience of Raising Voices in Uganda is that using community mobilization programming can help to shift entrenched norms, attitudes and behaviours. A recent randomised control trial evidenced some of these changes and whilst this research has been key to developing the approach, it is also essential that we continue to be informed by the voices of community members and activists. As we continue to build the evidence base on what works to prevent violence, the field needs to ensure that we place the experiences and ideas of the community at the center of our interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Underlying Changes in Repeated Reading: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Tori E.; Ardoin, Scott P.; Binder, Katherine S.

    2013-01-01

    conclusive evidence as to the mechanisms through which RR takes effect. Eye movement studies allow for precise examination of intervention effects. The current study examined underlying changes in elementary students' ("N" = 43) reading behavior…

  11. Leveraging changing gender norms to address concurrency: focus group findings from South African university students.

    PubMed

    Psaki, Stephanie R; Ayivi-Guedehoussou, Nono; Halperin, Daniel T

    2013-08-01

    Background This study aims to complement recent research on sexual concurrency in South Africa by providing a deeper understanding of women's roles and motivations for engaging in and accepting their partners' concurrency. Our goal is to inform the implementation of more effective interventions that embrace the powerful role that women can play in healthy sexual decision-making in consensual relationships. We conducted 12 focus groups with male and female students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. Drawing on a subset of those focus groups, we examined the gender norms underpinning the apparently widespread acceptance of concurrent sexual partnerships. Our analysis focusses on women's attitudes and behaviours towards concurrency - from both men's and women's perspectives - with a goal of identifying opportunities to engage women as agents of change in sexual partnership patterns in their communities. Our findings indicate that: (1) concurrent sexual partnerships were the norm among male students and increasingly common among female students; (2) material gain and changes in women's perceptions of their roles and power in relationships were the primary female motives for concurrency; (3) peer pressure, a perceived innate need and a fear of being alone were the primary male motives for concurrency; (4) women often know that their partners are cheating and stay with them because they believe they are the most important partner, for financial reasons, or because they worry they will not find another partner. HIV prevention interventions in populations where concurrency is common would benefit from emphasising women's role and power in taking greater control of their own sexual decision-making in consensual and nonviolent relationships.

  12. Predicting change in children's aggression and victimization using classroom-level descriptive norms of aggression and pro-social behavior.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Sterett H; McMillen, Janey Sturtz; DeRosier, Melissa E

    2009-08-01

    This study examined aggressive and pro-social classroom descriptive norms as predictors of change in aggression and victimization during middle childhood. Participants included 948 children in third through fifth grade. Measures of teacher-reported aggressive and peer-reported pro-social descriptive norms were completed at the onset of the study. Children completed self-report measures of aggression and victimization on three occasions during one academic year. Multilevel growth models were analyzed to determine the amount of student-reported change in aggression and victimization attributable to the classroom norm variables. Results indicated that students in classrooms with higher initial mean levels of aggression reported larger increases in aggression and victimization over the school year. In contrast, boys with higher initial levels of aggression reported smaller increases in aggression than boys with lower initial levels of aggression, and both boys and girls with higher initial aggression reported declining victimization over the school year. Pro-social classroom norms were unrelated to change in aggression and victimization. The implications of the findings for future studies on the influence of classroom social norms as well as interventions for aggression and victimization are discussed.

  13. Matrix Norms and the Condition Number: A General Framework to Improve Mesh Quality via Node-Movement

    SciTech Connect

    KNUPP,PATRICK

    1999-09-27

    Objective functions for unstructured hexahedral and tetrahedral mesh optimization are analyzed using matrices and matrix norms. Mesh untangling objective functions that create valid meshes are used to initialize the optimization process. Several new objective functions to achieve element invertibility and quality are investigated, the most promising being the ''condition number''. The condition number of the Jacobian matrix of an element forms the basis of a barrier-based objective function that measures the distance to the set of singular matrices and has the ideal matrix as a stationary point. The method was implemented in the Cubit code, with promising results.

  14. Web-Based Intervention to Change Perceived Norms of College Student Alcohol Use and Sexual Behavior on Spring Break

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Megan E.; Lee, Christine M.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate an adapted web-based multi-component personalized feedback intervention to reduce college student alcohol use and risky sexual behavior during Spring Break. This is one of the first interventions focused on Spring Break alcohol use and related sexual behavior. Personalized feedback intervention components addressed intentions, expected consequences, norms, motivations, protective behavioral strategies, and pacts with friends. Participants were college students (N=263; 55% women) between the ages of 18 and 21 who planned to go on a Spring Break trip with their friends. Effects were not significant in reducing alcohol use or sexual behavior during Spring Break or some of the proposed intervention mechanisms. However, consistent results showed that the intervention succeeded in reducing perceived social norms for Spring Break drinking and sexual behavior. Findings suggest that changing norms alone is not sufficient for changing risk behavior during this event and alternative strategies are needed to impact other putative mediators. PMID:24333038

  15. Web-based intervention to change perceived norms of college student alcohol use and sexual behavior on spring break.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Megan E; Lee, Christine M; Neighbors, Clayton

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate an adapted web-based multi-component personalized feedback intervention to reduce college student alcohol use and risky sexual behavior during Spring Break. This is one of the first interventions focused on Spring Break alcohol use and related sexual behavior. Personalized feedback intervention components addressed intentions, expected consequences, norms, motivations, protective behavioral strategies, and pacts with friends. Participants were college students (N=263; 55% women) between the ages of 18 and 21 who planned to go on a Spring Break trip with their friends. Effects were not significant in reducing alcohol use or sexual behavior during Spring Break or some of the proposed intervention mechanisms. However, consistent results showed that the intervention succeeded in reducing perceived social norms for Spring Break drinking and sexual behavior. Findings suggest that changing norms alone is not sufficient for changing risk behavior during this event and alternative strategies are needed to impact other putative mediators.

  16. Movement amplitude and tempo change in piano performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Caroline

    2004-05-01

    Music performance places stringent temporal and cognitive demands on individuals that should yield large speed/accuracy tradeoffs. Skilled piano performance, however, shows consistently high accuracy across a wide variety of rates. Movement amplitude may affect the speed/accuracy tradeoff, so that high accuracy can be obtained even at very fast tempi. The contribution of movement amplitude changes in rate (tempo) is investigated with motion capture. Cameras recorded pianists with passive markers on hands and fingers, who performed on an electronic (MIDI) keyboard. Pianists performed short melodies at faster and faster tempi until they made errors (altering the speed/accuracy function). Variability of finger movements in the three motion planes indicated most change in the plane perpendicular to the keyboard across tempi. Surprisingly, peak amplitudes of motion before striking the keys increased as tempo increased. Increased movement amplitudes at faster rates may reduce or compensate for speed/accuracy tradeoffs. [Work supported by Canada Research Chairs program, HIMH R01 45764.

  17. Reconstructing Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorgorio, Nuria; Planas, Nuria

    2005-01-01

    Starting from the constructs "cultural scripts" and "social representations", and on the basis of the empirical research we have been developing until now, we revisit the construct norms from a sociocultural perspective. Norms, both sociomathematical norms and norms of the mathematical practice, as cultural scripts influenced…

  18. The Interrelationship of Common Clinical Movement Screens: Establishing Population-Specific Norms in a Large Cohort of Military Applicants.

    PubMed

    de la Motte, Sarah J; Gribbin, Timothy C; Lisman, Peter; Beutler, Anthony I; Deuster, Patricia

    2016-11-01

     Musculoskeletal injuries (MSK-Is) are a leading cause of missed duty time and morbidity in the military. Modifiable risk factors for MSK-Is, such as inadequate core stability, poor movement patterns, and dynamic balance deficits, have not been identified in military applicants on entering service.  To establish normative functional movement data using a series of screens in military applicants entering basic training and explore relationships among several movement tests.  Cross-sectional study.  Military Entrance Processing Station.  A total of 1714 (1434 male, 280 female) military applicants entering the US Army (n = 546), Navy (n = 414), Air Force (n = 229), or Marine Corps (n = 525).  We conducted the Functional Movement Screen (FMS), Y-Balance Test (YBT), overhead squat (OHS), and Landing Error Scoring System (LESS). Movements were assessed using the scoring convention for each screen.  The FMS, YBT, OHS, and LESS scores and associations among the movement screens as well as clinical meaningfulness.  A total of 1037 of the 1714 enrolled applicants were screened on the day they left for basic training. Normative means for this population were established: FMS = 14.7 ± 1.8, YBT anterior-reach difference = 3.1 ± 3.0 cm, mean YBT composite differences = 8.0 ± 6.8 cm, mean YBT composite percentage = 90.9% ± 8.3%, OHS errors = 5.0 ± 2.8, and LESS score = 5.7 ± 2.1. Backward regression results revealed that the YBT composite percentage was related to the FMS and OHS scores in males and to the FMS and LESS results in females. However, clinically meaningful relationships between the tests varied for both males and females.  Sex-normative values for the FMS, YBT, OHS, and LESS screens were established for US military applicants, and some of the assessments overlapped. Overall, males performed better on the OHS and LESS and achieved a greater YBT composite percentage than females. The regression results revealed movement screen performance

  19. Changes in smoking-related norms in bars resulting from California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act.

    PubMed

    Satterlund, Travis D; Lee, Juliet P; Moore, Roland S

    2012-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act--CA Labor Code Sec. 6404.5(a)--was extended to bars in 1998. This article analyzes changes in normative beliefs and behaviors related to bar smoking in the decade following the adoption of the Act. In a series of studies evaluating the smoke-free workplace law in bars, researchers conducted extensive observations and interviews with bar staff and patrons, health officials, and law enforcement personnel in three California counties. Smoking outside became a normal pause in the social environment and created a new type of bar socializing for outside smokers. Although some bar owners and staff reported initially resenting the responsibility to uphold the law, once norms regarding cigarettes and smoking began changing, bar workers experienced less conflict in upholding the law. Non-smoking behavior within bars also became the normative behavior for bar patrons. California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act has both reflected and encouraged normative beliefs and behaviors related to smoking in bars. The findings indicate that such shifts are possible even in contexts where smoking behaviors and attitudes supporting smoking were deeply entrenched. Recommendations include attending to the synergistic effect of education and policy in effective tobacco control programs.

  20. Institutional Norms and Policies that Influence College Mathematics Professors in the Process of Changing to Reform-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Amy Roth; Graeber, Anna O.

    2003-01-01

    This case study was an investigation of the role of the institutional culture of a university in the process of changing to reform-based practices for two college mathematics professors. A framework is presented for identifying and analyzing institutional norms and policies that are present and those lacking in supporting faculty efforts toward…

  1. Force-Induced Changes in Subnuclear Movement and Rheology

    PubMed Central

    Booth-Gauthier, Elizabeth A.; Alcoser, Turi A.; Yang, Ge; Dahl, Kris N.

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular mechanical forces result in changes in gene expression, but it is unclear how cells are able to permanently adapt to new mechanical environments because chemical signaling pathways are short-lived. We visualize force-induced changes in nuclear rheology to examine short- and long-time genome organization and movements. Punctate labels in the nuclear interior of HeLa, human umbilical vein endothelial, and osteosarcoma (Saos-2) cells allow tracking of nuclear movements in cells under varying levels of shear and compressive force. Under adequate shear stress two distinct regimes develop in cells under mechanical stimulation: an initial event of increased intranuclear movement followed by a regime of intranuclear movements that reflect the dose of applied force. At early times there is a nondirectionally oriented response with a small increase in nuclear translocations. After 30 min, there is a significant increase in nuclear movements, which scales with the amount of shear or compressive stress. The similarities in the nuclear response to shear and compressive stress suggest that the nucleus is a mechanosensitive element within the cell. Thus, applied extracellular forces stimulate intranuclear movements, resulting in repositioning of nuclear bodies and the associated chromatin within the nucleus. PMID:23260044

  2. Cue properties change timing strategies in group movement synchronisation.

    PubMed

    Honisch, Juliane J; Elliott, Mark T; Jacoby, Nori; Wing, Alan M

    2016-01-19

    To maintain synchrony in group activities, each individual within the group must continuously correct their movements to remain in time with the temporal cues available. Cues might originate from one or more members of the group. Current research suggests that when synchronising movements, individuals optimise their performance in terms of minimising variability of timing errors (asynchronies) between external cues and their own movements. However, the cost of this is an increase in the timing variability of their own movements. Here we investigate whether an individual's timing strategy changes according to the task, in a group scenario. To investigate this, we employed a novel paradigm that positioned six individuals to form two chains with common origin and termination on the circumference of a circle. We found that participants with access to timing cues from only one other member used a strategy to minimise their asynchrony variance. In contrast, the participant at the common termination of the two chains, who was required to integrate timing cues from two members, used a strategy that minimised movement variability. We conclude that humans are able to flexibly switch timekeeping strategies to maintain task demands and thus optimise the temporal performance of their movements.

  3. Cue properties change timing strategies in group movement synchronisation

    PubMed Central

    Honisch, Juliane J.; Elliott, Mark T.; Jacoby, Nori; Wing, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    To maintain synchrony in group activities, each individual within the group must continuously correct their movements to remain in time with the temporal cues available. Cues might originate from one or more members of the group. Current research suggests that when synchronising movements, individuals optimise their performance in terms of minimising variability of timing errors (asynchronies) between external cues and their own movements. However, the cost of this is an increase in the timing variability of their own movements. Here we investigate whether an individual’s timing strategy changes according to the task, in a group scenario. To investigate this, we employed a novel paradigm that positioned six individuals to form two chains with common origin and termination on the circumference of a circle. We found that participants with access to timing cues from only one other member used a strategy to minimise their asynchrony variance. In contrast, the participant at the common termination of the two chains, who was required to integrate timing cues from two members, used a strategy that minimised movement variability. We conclude that humans are able to flexibly switch timekeeping strategies to maintain task demands and thus optimise the temporal performance of their movements. PMID:26781066

  4. Generalization of dynamics learning across changes in movement amplitude.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Andrew A G; Ostry, David J

    2010-07-01

    Studies on generalization show the nature of how learning is encoded in the brain. Previous studies have shown rather limited generalization of dynamics learning across changes in movement direction, a finding that is consistent with the idea that learning is primarily local. In contrast, studies show a broader pattern of generalization across changes in movement amplitude, suggesting a more general form of learning. To understand this difference, we performed an experiment in which subjects held a robotic manipulandum and made movements to targets along the body midline. Subjects were trained in a velocity-dependent force field while moving to a 15 cm target. After training, subjects were tested for generalization using movements to a 30 cm target. We used force channels in conjunction with movements to the 30 cm target to assess the extent of generalization. Force channels restricted lateral movements and allowed us to measure force production during generalization. We compared actual lateral forces to the forces expected if dynamics learning generalized fully. We found that, during the test for generalization, subjects produced reliably less force than expected. Force production was appropriate for the portion of the transfer movement in which velocities corresponded to those experienced with the 15 cm target. Subjects failed to produce the expected forces when velocities exceeded those experienced in the training task. This suggests that dynamics learning generalizes little beyond the range of one's experience. Consistent with this result, subjects who trained on the 30 cm target showed full generalization to the 15 cm target. We performed two additional experiments that show that interleaved trials to the 30 cm target during training on the 15 cm target can resolve the difference between the current results and those reported previously.

  5. Generalization of Dynamics Learning Across Changes in Movement Amplitude

    PubMed Central

    Mattar, Andrew A. G.

    2010-01-01

    Studies on generalization show the nature of how learning is encoded in the brain. Previous studies have shown rather limited generalization of dynamics learning across changes in movement direction, a finding that is consistent with the idea that learning is primarily local. In contrast, studies show a broader pattern of generalization across changes in movement amplitude, suggesting a more general form of learning. To understand this difference, we performed an experiment in which subjects held a robotic manipulandum and made movements to targets along the body midline. Subjects were trained in a velocity-dependent force field while moving to a 15 cm target. After training, subjects were tested for generalization using movements to a 30 cm target. We used force channels in conjunction with movements to the 30 cm target to assess the extent of generalization. Force channels restricted lateral movements and allowed us to measure force production during generalization. We compared actual lateral forces to the forces expected if dynamics learning generalized fully. We found that, during the test for generalization, subjects produced reliably less force than expected. Force production was appropriate for the portion of the transfer movement in which velocities corresponded to those experienced with the 15 cm target. Subjects failed to produce the expected forces when velocities exceeded those experienced in the training task. This suggests that dynamics learning generalizes little beyond the range of one's experience. Consistent with this result, subjects who trained on the 30 cm target showed full generalization to the 15 cm target. We performed two additional experiments that show that interleaved trials to the 30 cm target during training on the 15 cm target can resolve the difference between the current results and those reported previously. PMID:20463200

  6. Conceptual Change, Text Comprehension and Eye Movements during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penttinen, Marjaana; Anto, Erkki; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija

    2013-01-01

    In the two studies presented in this article, we examine the interplay of conceptual change, text comprehension, and eye-movements during reading and develop and test methods suitable for such explorations. In studies 1 and 2, university students (N = 15 and 23) read a text on photosynthesis, explained their reading processes retrospectively cued…

  7. Conceptual Change, Text Comprehension and Eye Movements during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penttinen, Marjaana; Anto, Erkki; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija

    2013-01-01

    In the two studies presented in this article, we examine the interplay of conceptual change, text comprehension, and eye-movements during reading and develop and test methods suitable for such explorations. In studies 1 and 2, university students (N = 15 and 23) read a text on photosynthesis, explained their reading processes retrospectively cued…

  8. Will plant movements keep up with climate change?

    PubMed

    Corlett, Richard T; Westcott, David A

    2013-08-01

    In the face of anthropogenic climate change, species must acclimate, adapt, move, or die. Although some species are moving already, their ability to keep up with the faster changes expected in the future is unclear. 'Migration lag' is a particular concern with plants, because it could threaten both biodiversity and carbon storage. Plant movements are not realistically represented in models currently used to predict future vegetation and carbon-cycle feedbacks, so there is an urgent need to understand how much of a problem failure to track climate change is likely to be. Therefore, in this review, we compare how fast plants need to move with how fast they can move; that is, the velocity of climate change with the velocity of plant movement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Incorporating Social Norms into Sexual Assault Interventions: Effects on Belief and Behavior Change among College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    A sexual assault intervention was designed using applicable research from social psychology (i.e., social norms). Undergraduate men were randomly assigned to the experimental intervention or an active control condition. Attitudinal and behavioral data were collected preintervention, post-intervention and at a one month follow-up. Significant…

  10. Incorporating Social Norms into Sexual Assault Interventions: Effects on Belief and Behavior Change among College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    A sexual assault intervention was designed using applicable research from social psychology (i.e., social norms). Undergraduate men were randomly assigned to the experimental intervention or an active control condition. Attitudinal and behavioral data were collected preintervention, post-intervention and at a one month follow-up. Significant…

  11. Rolling with the Changes: A Role Congruity Perspective on Gender Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diekman, Amanda B.; Goodfriend, Wind

    2006-01-01

    Role congruity theory (e.g., Eagly & Diekman, 2005) posits that a group will be positively evaluated when its characteristics are perceived to align with the requirements of the group's typical social roles. Social roles may thus form the basis of norms that prescribe valued behavior for men and women. Three experiments explored the relationship…

  12. Quality of Life Outcomes in Community-based Mental Health Consumers: Comparisons with Population Norms and Changes over Time.

    PubMed

    Happell, Brenda; Stanton, Robert; Hodgetts, Danya; Scott, David

    2016-01-01

    Quality of life is shown to be lower in people diagnosed with mental illness in comparison to the general population. The aim of this study is to examine the Quality of life in a subset of people accessing mental health services in a regional Queensland Centre. Thirty-seven people accessing mental health services completed the SF36 Health Survey on three occasions. Differences and relationships between Physical Composite Scores and Mental Composite Scores, comparisons with Australian population norms, and temporal change in Quality of Life were examined. Physical Composite Scores were significantly different to, but significantly correlated with, Mental Composite Scores on each occasion. Physical Composite Scores and Mental Composite Scores were significantly different to population norms, and did not vary significantly across time. The poor Quality of life of people with mental illness remains a significant challenge for the mental health workforce.

  13. Local descriptive body weight and dietary norms, food availability, and 10-year change in glycosylated haemoglobin in an Australian population-based biomedical cohort.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Suzanne J; Paquet, Catherine; Howard, Natasha J; Coffee, Neil T; Adams, Robert J; Taylor, Anne W; Niyonsenga, Theo; Daniel, Mark

    2017-02-02

    Individual-level health outcomes are shaped by environmental risk conditions. Norms figure prominently in socio-behavioural theories yet spatial variations in health-related norms have rarely been investigated as environmental risk conditions. This study assessed: 1) the contributions of local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and dietary behaviour to 10-year change in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), accounting for food resource availability; and 2) whether associations between local descriptive norms and HbA1c were moderated by food resource availability. HbA1c, representing cardiometabolic risk, was measured three times over 10 years for a population-based biomedical cohort of adults in Adelaide, South Australia. Residential environmental exposures were defined using 1600 m participant-centred road-network buffers. Local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and insufficient fruit intake (proportion of residents with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) [n = 1890] or fruit intake of <2 serves/day [n = 1945], respectively) were aggregated from responses to a separate geocoded population survey. Fast-food and healthful food resource availability (counts) were extracted from a retail database. Separate sets of multilevel models included different predictors, one local descriptive norm and either fast-food or healthful food resource availability, with area-level education and individual-level covariates (age, sex, employment status, education, marital status, and smoking status). Interactions between local descriptive norms and food resource availability were tested. HbA1c concentration rose over time. Local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and insufficient fruit intake predicted greater rates of increase in HbA1c. Neither fast-food nor healthful food resource availability were associated with change in HbA1c. Greater healthful food resource availability reduced the rate of increase in HbA1c concentration attributed to the overweight/obesity norm

  14. Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Lynda S.

    This document summarizes 20 articles and books which stress the importance of movement in the overall development of the human species. Each summary ranges in length from 100 to 200 words and often includes direct quotations. A wide range of movement activities suitable for people of all ages (from infants to adults) are discussed. Many summaries…

  15. Community Gender Norms Change as a Part of a Multilevel Approach to Sexual Health Among Married Women in Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajendra; Schensul, Jean J.; Verma, Ravi K.; Burleson, Joseph A.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.

    2015-01-01

    Inequitable gender norms in societies and communities negatively contribute to women’s sexual and reproductive health. While the need for change in gender norms is well recognized, the task is highly challenging in terms of intervention design, implementation and assessment of impact. This paper describes a methodology for identification of gender norms, the design of community level intervention, community participation and the assessment of intervention impact in a low income, predominately Muslim community of 600,000 people in Mumbai, India. Formative research focused on in-depth interviews with women, men and couples yielding gender normative statements and assessment of community resources to facilitate change. A Gender Equity Scale (GES) based on this formative research was developed and administered annually for a three-year period to random, cross-sectional samples in the intervention and control communities, and to community based, non-governmental organizations (NGO) staff and Imams (religious leaders) in the intervention community. NGO staff disseminated gender oriented messages to their female constituency through their regular outreach activities and through special events and festivals in the community. Imams disseminated gender messages through lectures on social issues for men attending Friday prayers. The results showed that the NGO staff and Imams, assumed more gender equitable attitudes across time. The intervention was associated with a significant improvement in attitudes towards gender equity in the intervention relative to the control community. Men showed a dramatic change in more positive gender attitudes, while women lagged behind in their GES scores. The meaning of these results are explored and the implications assessed for the generalizability of the methodology for other countries, cultures and communities. PMID:26136202

  16. Community Gender Norms Change as a Part of a Multilevel Approach to Sexual Health Among Married Women in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Schensul, Stephen L; Singh, Rajendra; Schensul, Jean J; Verma, Ravi K; Burleson, Joseph A; Nastasi, Bonnie K

    2015-09-01

    Inequitable gender norms in societies and communities negatively contribute to women's sexual and reproductive health. While the need for change in gender norms is well recognized, the task is highly challenging in terms of intervention design, implementation and assessment of impact. This paper describes a methodology for identification of gender norms, the design of community level intervention, community participation and the assessment of intervention impact in a low income, predominately Muslim community of 600,000 people in Mumbai, India. Formative research focused on in-depth interviews with women, men and couples yielding gender normative statements and assessment of community resources to facilitate change. A Gender Equity Scale (GES) based on this formative research was developed and administered annually for a three-year period to random, cross-sectional samples in the intervention and control communities, and to community based, non-governmental organizations (NGO) staff and Imams (religious leaders) in the intervention community. NGO staff disseminated gender oriented messages to their female constituency through their regular outreach activities and through special events and festivals in the community. Imams disseminated gender messages through lectures on social issues for men attending Friday prayers. The results showed that the NGO staff and Imams, assumed more gender equitable attitudes across time. The intervention was associated with a significant improvement in attitudes towards gender equity in the intervention relative to the control community. Men showed a dramatic change in more positive gender attitudes, while women lagged behind in their GES scores. The meaning of these results are explored and the implications assessed for the generalizability of the methodology for other countries, cultures and communities.

  17. Between Professional Field Norms and Environmental Change Impetuses: A Comparative Study of Change Processes in Public Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audunson, Ragnar

    1999-01-01

    Examines whether the established and traditional norms and standards of public librarianship structure the way challenges such as market orientation and privatization are met and coped with, or whether these standards are losing their structuring power. Compares three metropolitan library systems representing three different levels of…

  18. Changes in posture alter the attentional demands of voluntary movement.

    PubMed Central

    Carson, R G; Chua, R; Byblow, W D; Poon, P; Smethurst, C J

    1999-01-01

    Two simple experiments reveal that the ease with which an action is performed by the neuromuscular-skeletal system determines the attentional resources devoted to the movement. Participants were required to perform a primary task, consisting of rhythmic flexion and extension movements of the index finger, while being paced by an auditory metronome, in one of two modes of coordination: flex on the beat or extend on the beat. Using a classical dual-task methodology, we demonstrated that the time taken to react to an unpredictable visual probe stimulus (the secondary task) by means of a pedal response was greater when the extension phase of the finger movement sequence was made on the beat of the metronome than when the flexion phase was coordinated with the beat. In a second experiment, the posture of the wrist was manipulated in order to alter the operating lengths of muscles that flex and extend the index finger. The attentional demands of maintaining the extend-on-the-beat pattern of coordination were altered in a systematic fashion by changes in wrist posture, even though the effector used to respond to the visual probe stimulus was unaffected. PMID:10343408

  19. Relationships between and Changes in Preservice Classroom Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs, Willingness to Integrate Movement, and Perceived Barriers to Movement Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Collin A.; Erwin, Heather; Parks, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This study used an uncontrolled pre-post design in the context of a 16-week comprehensive school physical activity promotion (CSPAP) course to examine relationships between and changes in preservice classroom teachers' (PCTs; N = 103) efficacy beliefs about integrating movement in the academic classroom, willingness to integrate movement, and…

  20. Relationships between and Changes in Preservice Classroom Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs, Willingness to Integrate Movement, and Perceived Barriers to Movement Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Collin A.; Erwin, Heather; Parks, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This study used an uncontrolled pre-post design in the context of a 16-week comprehensive school physical activity promotion (CSPAP) course to examine relationships between and changes in preservice classroom teachers' (PCTs; N = 103) efficacy beliefs about integrating movement in the academic classroom, willingness to integrate movement, and…

  1. Spatial Changes and Population Movements on the Albanian Coastline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanjir, U.; Gregorič Bon, N.

    2016-06-01

    The last decade has seen a large increase in construction along the southern Albanian coastline, mainly in the rise of large tourist complexes comprising hotels, apartment houses, touristic villages, and so on. These constructions rarely follow urban planning and not only change its landscape but also often threaten the ecological value of the coastal zone. The uncontrolled and devastating construction along the coast has been accompanied by coastal erosion caused by the sea with the intensity up to 50 cm/year. This paper investigates the environmental change monitoring on the Albanian Riviera by analysing optical remote sensing data (Landsat 5 and 8) in the period between 1984 and 2015. The image analysis results grounded on the change vector analysis indicate coastal morphology changes and land cover changes in the coastal environment, which appear mostly due to erosion in river delta and urban growth. Apart from identifying both phenomena through time, the objective of this study is to show that these landscape changes in fact correlate with the population migration as well as to explain why and the extent to which Albania is one of the most migratory countries in Europe. Based on the multidisciplinary research, which combines anthropological method with spatial analysis, this presentation anticipates future changes in this area. It argues that movements of both people and in landscape formations strongly influence each other, constituting a closely corresponding relationship.

  2. Alice in actuarial-land: through the looking glass of changing Static-99 norms.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Shoba; Weinberger, Linda E; Frances, Allen; Cusworth-Walker, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The Static-99, an actuarial rating method, is employed to conduct sexual violence risk assessment in legal contexts. The proponents of the Static-99 dismiss clinical judgment as not empirical. Two elements must be present to apply an actuarial risk model to a specific individual: sample representativeness and uniform measurement of outcome. This review demonstrates that both of these elements are lacking in the normative studies of the Static-99 and its revised version, the Static-99R. Studies conducted since the publication of the Static-99 have not replicated the original norms. Sexual recidivism rates for the same Static-99 score vary widely, from low to high, depending on the sample used. A hypothetical case example is presented to illustrate how the solitary application of the Static-99 or Static-99R recidivism rates to the exclusion of salient clinical factors for identifying sexual dangerousness can have serious consequences for public safety.

  3. From psychogenic movement disorder to functional movement disorder: it's time to change the name.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Mark J; Stone, Jon; Lang, Anthony E

    2014-06-01

    Successive attempts at rebranding may be behind at least some of the proliferation of terms we have at our disposal when describing patients with what are now most often referred to as "psychogenic," "conversion," or "somatoform" symptoms. The most popular term in the movement disorder literature, "psychogenic," provides the aetiology of the disorder within the name, indicating that the symptoms are "born of the mind." Here we argue that it is logical to stop using a term that defines the disorder with regard to a poorly defined aetiology that is not supported by current evidence, and, instead, to use a broad term-functional-not as a "polite eponym" but as a term that is freer from such assumptions and does not reinforce dualistic thinking. The main argument for change is not political or even practical, but scientific.

  4. Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on movement: movable art, relocating families, human rights, and trains and cars. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books, additional resources and activities (PEN)

  5. Environmentalism unbound: reconnecting and re-envisioning movements for change.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, R

    2001-01-01

    Disputes over environmental discourse have generated divergent pathways and discordant messages over the last three decades. An examination of them becomes a study of environmentalism s roots. The workplace is shown as a hidden and often discounted arena of debate about what constitutes an environmental issue. The triumph of the productionist and limitless consumption views helped to establish a focus on environmental change as a form of consumer action. Since the 1970s though, new forms of environmental discourse and action both community- and production-related have sought to shift the terrain. The possibility of becoming a broader, more socially inclusive movement capable of challenging the very structure and logic of capitalist social order is possible again, including the ability to identify new strategies for action. Overcoming the work/environment divide is perhaps the most contentious question facing the future of the environmental and labor movements. New approaches, including developing a community of interests, revaluing work, and developing an ethic of place (with urban, industrial, and global forms), require that the social and the ecological become joined in the construction of a common vision. When any environmental issue can be seen as socially determined, then environmentalism s great task will be to see itself as a primary agent of social change.

  6. Drinking norms, readiness to change, and gender as moderators of a combined alcohol intervention for first-year college students.

    PubMed

    Grossbard, Joel R; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Geisner, Irene Markman; Atkins, David; Ray, Anne E; Kilmer, Jason R; Mallett, Kimberly; Larimer, Mary E; Turrisi, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol interventions targeting college students and their parents have been shown to be efficacious. Little research has examined moderators of intervention efficacy to help tailor interventions for subgroups of students. This study is a secondary data analysis of readiness to change, drinking norms, and gender as moderators of an efficacious peer- and parent-based intervention (Turrisi et al., 2009). Students (n=680) were randomized to the combined peer and parent intervention (n=342) or assessment-only control (n=338). The combined intervention reduced peak blood alcohol content (BAC) compared to control. Gender and norms did not moderate the relationship between the intervention and drinking. Significant interactions were found between gender, precontemplation, and intervention. Students in the combined condition with higher precontemplation had lower weekly drinking compared to those with lower precontemplation. This pattern was also found among men for peak BAC and alcohol-related consequences but not among women, indicating a three-way interaction. Interventions may need to consider readiness to change and gender to optimize effectiveness. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Experimental study on relaxation time in direction changing movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chi; Song, Weiguo; Fu, Libi; Lian, Liping; Lo, Siuming

    2017-02-01

    Controlled experiments were conducted to clarify the movement characteristics of pedestrians in direction changing processes. We track pedestrians' trajectories and map them into real space coordinates by the direct linear transformation method. In the acceleration process, the relaxation time and free moving speed in our experiments respectively equal 0.659 s and 1.540 m/s, which are consistent with those for Chinese participants in other experiments. Meanwhile, the values of relaxation time in the direction changing process are calculated by a derived equation from the concept of the social force model. It is observed that the relaxation time is not an invariable parameter, and tends to increase with an increase in the angular difference. Furthermore, results show that pedestrians are insensitive to a tiny angular difference between instantaneous velocity and desired velocity. These experimental results presented in this work can be applied in model development and validation.

  8. Thermal reaction norms and the scale of temperature variation: latitudinal vulnerability of intertidal nacellid limpets to climate change.

    PubMed

    Morley, Simon A; Martin, Stephanie M; Day, Robert W; Ericson, Jess; Lai, Chien-Houng; Lamare, Miles; Tan, Koh-Siang; Thorne, Michael A S; Peck, Lloyd S

    2012-01-01

    The thermal reaction norms of 4 closely related intertidal Nacellid limpets, Antarctic (Nacella concinna), New Zealand (Cellana ornata), Australia (C. tramoserica) and Singapore (C. radiata), were compared across environments with different temperature magnitude, variability and predictability, to test their relative vulnerability to different scales of climate warming. Lethal limits were measured alongside a newly developed metric of "duration tenacity", which was tested at different temperatures to calculate the thermal reaction norm of limpet adductor muscle fatigue. Except in C. tramoserica which had a wide optimum range with two break points, duration tenacity did not follow a typical aerobic capacity curve but was best described by a single break point at an optimum temperature. Thermal reaction norms were shifted to warmer temperatures in warmer environments; the optimum temperature for tenacity (T(opt)) increased from 1.0°C (N. concinna) to 14.3°C (C. ornata) to 18.0°C (an average for the optimum range of C. tramoserica) to 27.6°C (C. radiata). The temperature limits for duration tenacity of the 4 species were most consistently correlated with both maximum sea surface temperature and summer maximum in situ habitat logger temperature. Tropical C. radiata, which lives in the least variable and most predictable environment, generally had the lowest warming tolerance and thermal safety margin (WT and TSM; respectively the thermal buffer of CT(max) and T(opt) over habitat temperature). However, the two temperate species, C. ornata and C. tramoserica, which live in a variable and seasonally unpredictable microhabitat, had the lowest TSM relative to in situ logger temperature. N. concinna which lives in the most variable, but seasonally predictable microhabitat, generally had the highest TSMs. Intertidal animals live at the highly variable interface between terrestrial and marine biomes and even small changes in the magnitude and predictability of their

  9. Context-dependent changes in tactile perception during movement execution

    PubMed Central

    Juravle, Georgiana; McGlone, Francis; Spence, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Tactile perception is inhibited during movement execution, a phenomenon known as tactile suppression. Here, we investigated whether the type of movement determines whether or not this form of sensory suppression occurs. Participants performed simple reaching or exploratory movements. Tactile discrimination thresholds were calculated for vibratory stimuli delivered to participants' wrists while executing the movement, and while at rest (a tactile discrimination task, TD). We also measured discrimination performance in a same vs. different task for the explored materials during the execution of the different movements (a surface discrimination task, SD). The TD and SD tasks could either be performed singly or together, both under active movement and passive conditions. Consistent with previous results, tactile thresholds measured at rest were significantly lower than those measured during both active movement and passive touch (that is, tactile suppression was observed). Moreover, SD performance was significantly better under conditions of single-tasking, active movements, as well as exploratory movements, as compared to conditions of dual-tasking, passive movements, and reaching movements, respectively. Therefore, the present results demonstrate that when active hand movements are made with the purpose of gaining information about the surface properties of different materials an enhanced perceptual performance is observed. As such, it would appear that tactile suppression occurs for irrelevant tactual features during both reaching and exploratory movements, but not for those task-relevant features that result from action execution during tactile exploration. Taken together, then, these results support a context-dependent modulation of tactile suppression during movement execution. PMID:24367346

  10. Context-dependent changes in tactile perception during movement execution.

    PubMed

    Juravle, Georgiana; McGlone, Francis; Spence, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Tactile perception is inhibited during movement execution, a phenomenon known as tactile suppression. Here, we investigated whether the type of movement determines whether or not this form of sensory suppression occurs. Participants performed simple reaching or exploratory movements. Tactile discrimination thresholds were calculated for vibratory stimuli delivered to participants' wrists while executing the movement, and while at rest (a tactile discrimination task, TD). We also measured discrimination performance in a same vs. different task for the explored materials during the execution of the different movements (a surface discrimination task, SD). The TD and SD tasks could either be performed singly or together, both under active movement and passive conditions. Consistent with previous results, tactile thresholds measured at rest were significantly lower than those measured during both active movement and passive touch (that is, tactile suppression was observed). Moreover, SD performance was significantly better under conditions of single-tasking, active movements, as well as exploratory movements, as compared to conditions of dual-tasking, passive movements, and reaching movements, respectively. Therefore, the present results demonstrate that when active hand movements are made with the purpose of gaining information about the surface properties of different materials an enhanced perceptual performance is observed. As such, it would appear that tactile suppression occurs for irrelevant tactual features during both reaching and exploratory movements, but not for those task-relevant features that result from action execution during tactile exploration. Taken together, then, these results support a context-dependent modulation of tactile suppression during movement execution.

  11. Changes in Eyebrow Position and Movement with Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeongseob; Yun, Sangho

    2017-01-01

    Background This study evaluated dynamic changes in eyebrow position related to aging. Methods Female participants were recruited and separated into two groups aged 20–30 years (the younger group, n=20; mean age, 24.8 years) and 50–70 years (the older group, n=20; mean age, 55.8 years). Photogrammetry was used to determine the eyebrow position at the medial canthus (MC), lateral limbus, lateral canthus, and lateral end point (EP) for 6 actions: smooth opening (the reference action) and closing of the eye, forward gaze, maximum opening and closing of the eye, and maximum frown. Videos were also recorded. Results No differences in eyebrow position were detected at the MC when opening or closing the eyes smoothly, gazing straight ahead, or closing the eyes maximally. For all 6 actions, the position of the lateral EP in the older group was significantly lower than in the younger group (P=0.003), and the smallest degree of vertical movement at this point was found in both age groups (P<0.001). Vertical movement at the 4 landmarks of the eyebrows decreased with aging. Conclusions Eyebrow position was unchanged at the MC with aging, except at maximal eye opening and maximal frown. No differences in eyebrow position were observed between the younger and older groups when eyes were maximally closed, except at the EP. It is important to focus on correction of the lateral EP for periorbital rejuvenation. PMID:28194350

  12. Declining rock movement at Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park: An indicator of climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Jackson, Brian K.

    2014-04-01

    We have inspected Racetrack Playa at Death Valley over the last 7 years and have not observed major episodes of rock movement and trail generation. We compare this null observation with the literature record of the rock movement using a Monte Carlo method and find 4-to-1 odds that the rock movement probability has systematically declined. This statistically significant drop in movement rate may indicate a change in the probability of the required conditions for movement: we note decline in the occurrence of strong winds and in ice-forming cold in nearby weather records. Rock movement and trail formation may serve as an indicator of climate change.

  13. Conceptual Change, Text Comprehension and Eye Movements During Reading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penttinen, Marjaana; Anto, Erkki; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija

    2013-08-01

    In the two studies presented in this article, we examine the interplay of conceptual change, text comprehension, and eye-movements during reading and develop and test methods suitable for such explorations. In studies 1 and 2, university students (N = 15 and 23) read a text on photosynthesis, explained their reading processes retrospectively cued with their own gaze videos, and answered written pre- and posttests. In Study 1, a case study demonstrated connections between re-readings and high-level cognitive processing. Out of all of the participants' retrospective reports, categories were formed based on the expressions referring to either situation model or textbase construction during reading. In Study 2, conceptual change learners differed from other learner groups in terms of prolonged overall reading time and a relatively high amount of expressing textbase construction at the beginning of the retrospective reporting. The results emphasise the importance of careful construction of the textbase in conceptual change and point to the benefits of complementing the eye tracking with cued retrospective reporting when examining high-level cognitive processes during reading.

  14. Eye movements of flatfish for the changes of gravity (II).

    PubMed

    Iwata, Kaori; Takabayashi, Akira; Miyachi, Ei-ichi

    2007-07-01

    In this study, we analysed the eye movements of flatfish for body tilting and compared with that of goldfish. The fish was fixed on the tilting table controlled by computer. The eye movements for body tilting along the different body axis were video-recorded. The vertical and torsional eye rotations were analysed frame by frame. In normal flatfish, vertical eye movement of left eye to leftward tilting was larger than that to rightward tilting. For head up or head down tilting, clear vertical eye movements were observed. On the other hand, torsional eye movements showed similar characteristics as goldfish. These results suggested that sacculus and lagena were important for otolith-ocular eye movements in flatfish.

  15. Weight change following deep brain stimulation for movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Strowd, Roy E; Cartwright, Michael S; Passmore, Leah V; Ellis, Thomas L; Tatter, Stephen B; Siddiqui, Mustafa S

    2010-08-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET) tend to lose weight progressively over years. Weight gain following deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for treatment of PD has been documented in several studies that were limited by small sample size and exclusive focus on PD patients with STN stimulation. The current study was undertaken to examine weight change in a large sample of movement disorder patients following DBS. A retrospective review was undertaken of 182 patient charts following DBS of the STN, ventralis intermedius nucleus of the thalamus (VIM), and globus pallidus internus (GPi). Weight was collected preoperatively and postoperatively up to 24 months following surgery. Data were adjusted for baseline weight and multivariate linear regression was performed with repeated measures to assess weight change. Statistically significant mean weight gain of 1.8 kg (2.8% increase from baseline, p = 0.0113) was observed at a rate of approximately 1 kg per year up to 24 months following surgery. This gain was not predicted by age, gender, diagnosis, or stimulation target in a multivariate model. Significant mean weight gain of 2.3 kg (p = 0.0124) or 4.2% was observed in our PD patients. Most patients with PD and ET gain weight following DBS, and this gain is not predicted by age, gender, diagnosis, or stimulation target.

  16. Predicting Change in Children’s Aggression and Victimization Using Classroom-level Descriptive Norms of Aggression and Pro-social Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Sterett H.; McMillen, Janey Sturtz; DeRosier, Melissa E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined aggressive and pro-social classroom descriptive norms as predictors of change in aggression and victimization during middle childhood. Participants included 948 children in third through fifth grade. Measures of teacher-reported aggressive and peer-reported pro-social descriptive norms were completed at the onset of the study. Children completed self-report measures of aggression and victimization on three occasions during one academic year. Multilevel growth models were analyzed to determine the amount of student-reported change in aggression and victimization attributable to the classroom norm variables. Results indicated that students in classrooms with higher initial mean levels of aggression reported larger increases in aggression and victimization over the school year. In contrast, boys with higher initial levels of aggression reported smaller increases in aggression than boys with lower initial levels of aggression, and both boys and girls with higher initial aggression reported declining victimization over the school year. Pro-social classroom norms were unrelated to change in aggression and victimization. The implications of the findings for future studies on the influence of classroom social norms as well as interventions for aggression and victimization are discussed. PMID:19480888

  17. Educational Change and the Women's Movement: Lessons From British Columbia Schools in the 1970s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This article uses Melucci's approach to social movements to explore how the women"s movement changed education in British Columbia in the 1970s. The women's movement was a multifaceted social phenomenon with multiple agendas and actors. In the early 1970s, it developed a temporary sense of cohesion in the field of education in the context of a…

  18. Power and Vision: Group-Process Models Evolving from Social-Change Movements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Susan L.; Hawxhurst, Donna M.

    1988-01-01

    Explores evolution of group process in social change movements, including the evolution of the new left, the cooperative movement,and the women's liberation movement. Proposes a group-process model that encourages people to share power and live their visions. (Author/NB)

  19. Changing Issue Representation among Major United States Environmental Movement Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Histories of the environmental movement have emphasized the importance of a shift in focus from those issues traditionally associated with the movement, such as resource and wildlife protection, towards "new" quality of life issues, such as environmental pollution and its human health effects. Here, time-series data between 1970 and 2000…

  20. Atherosclerotic changes of vessels caused by restriction of movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gvishiani, G. S.; Kobakhidze, N. G.; Mchedlishvili, M. G.; Dekanosidze, T. I.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of restriction of movement on the development of atheroscelerosis was studied in rabbits. Drastic restriction of movement for 20 and 30 days causes atherosclerotic alterations of the aorta and shifts in ECG which are characteristic of coronary atherosclerosis. At the same time, shortening of the duration of blood coagulation and an increase in the content of catecholamines and beta-lipoproteids occur.

  1. Changing Issue Representation among Major United States Environmental Movement Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Histories of the environmental movement have emphasized the importance of a shift in focus from those issues traditionally associated with the movement, such as resource and wildlife protection, towards "new" quality of life issues, such as environmental pollution and its human health effects. Here, time-series data between 1970 and 2000…

  2. Cue predictability changes scaling in eye-movement fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Wallot, Sebastian; Coey, Charles A; Richardson, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Recent research has provided evidence for scaling-relations in eye-movement fluctuations, but not much is known about what these scaling relations imply about cognition or eye-movement control. Generally, scaling relations in behavioral and neurophysiological data have been interpreted as an indicator for the coordination of neurophysiological and cognitive processes. In this study, we investigated the effect of predictability in timing and gaze-direction on eye-movement fluctuations. Participants performed a simple eye-movement task, in which a visual cue prompted their gaze to different locations on a spatial layout, and the predictability about temporal and directional aspects of the cue were manipulated. The results showed that scaling exponents in eye-movements decreased with predictability and were related to the participants' perceived effort during the task. In relation to past research, these findings suggest that scaling exponents reflect a relative demand for voluntary control during task performance.

  3. NORM regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.

    1997-02-01

    The author reviews the question of regulation for naturally occuring radioactive material (NORM), and the factors that have made this a more prominent concern today. Past practices have been very relaxed, and have often involved very poor records, the involvment of contractors, and the disposition of contaminated equipment back into commercial service. The rationale behind the establishment of regulations is to provide worker protection, to exempt low risk materials, to aid in scrap recycling, to provide direction for remediation and to examine disposal options. The author reviews existing regulations at federal and state levels, impending legislation, and touches on the issue of site remediation and potential liabilities affecting the release of sites contaminated by NORM.

  4. Changes in Smoking-Related Norms in Bars Resulting from California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2012-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act--CA Labor Code Sec. 6404.5(a)--was extended to bars in 1998. This article analyzes changes in normative beliefs and behaviors related to bar smoking in the decade following the adoption of the Act. In a series of studies evaluating the smoke-free workplace law in bars, researchers conducted extensive…

  5. Changes in Smoking-Related Norms in Bars Resulting from California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2012-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act--CA Labor Code Sec. 6404.5(a)--was extended to bars in 1998. This article analyzes changes in normative beliefs and behaviors related to bar smoking in the decade following the adoption of the Act. In a series of studies evaluating the smoke-free workplace law in bars, researchers conducted extensive…

  6. Changes in Smoking-Related Norms in Bars Resulting from California’s Smoke-Free Workplace Act*

    PubMed Central

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2013-01-01

    California’s Smoke-Free Workplace Act— CA Labor Code Sec. 6404.5(a)—was extended to bars in 1998. This paper analyzes changes in normative beliefs and behaviors related to bar smoking in the decade following the adoption of the Act. In a series of studies evaluating the smoke-free workplace law in bars, researchers conducted extensive observations and interviews with bar staff and patrons, health officials, and law enforcement personnel in three California counties. Smoking outside became a normal pause in the social environment and created a new type of bar socializing for outside smokers. Although some bar owners and staff reported initially resenting the responsibility to uphold the law, once norms regarding cigarettes and smoking began changing, bar workers experienced less conflict in upholding the law. Non-smoking behavior within bars also became the normative behavior for bar patrons. California’s Smoke-Free Workplace Act has both reflected and encouraged normative beliefs and behaviors related to smoking in bars. The findings indicate that such shifts are possible even in contexts where smoking behaviors and attitudes supporting smoking were deeply entrenched. Recommendations include attending to the synergistic effect of education and policy in effective tobacco control programs. PMID:23705511

  7. Technical Aspects: Problems of Scale Development, Norms, Item Differences by Sex, and the Rate of Change in Occupational Group Characteristics (Revised February 6, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Charles B.

    The scope of the paper is to review the two major interest inventories, exploring the nuances and complexities of the technical aspects in their development, their item sampling, norming, scoring, reporting of results, and changing patterns of interests in relation to the differential treatment of sexes; and to suggest guidelines to eliminate or…

  8. Understanding scales of movement: animals ride waves and ripples of environmental change.

    PubMed

    van Moorter, Bram; Bunnefeld, Nils; Panzacchi, Manuela; Rolandsen, Christer M; Solberg, Erling J; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2013-07-01

    Animal movements are the primary behavioural adaptation to spatiotemporal heterogeneity in resource availability. Depending on their spatiotemporal scale, movements have been categorized into distinct functional groups (e.g. foraging movements, dispersal, migration), and have been studied using different methodologies. We suggest striving towards the development of a coherent framework based on the ultimate function of all movement types, which is to increase individual fitness through an optimal exploitation of resources varying in space and time. We developed a novel approach to simultaneously study movements at different spatiotemporal scales based on the following proposed theory: the length and frequency of animal movements are determined by the interaction between temporal autocorrelation in resource availability and spatial autocorrelation in changes in resource availability. We hypothesized that for each time interval the spatiotemporal scales of moose Alces alces movements correspond to the spatiotemporal scales of variation in the gains derived from resource exploitation when taking into account the costs of movements (represented by their proxies, forage availability NDVI and snow depth respectively). The scales of change in NDVI and snow were quantified using wave theory, and were related to the scale of moose movement using linear mixed models. In support of the proposed theory we found that frequent, smaller scale movements were triggered by fast, small-scale ripples of changes, whereas infrequent, larger scale movements matched slow, large-scale waves of change in resource availability. Similarly, moose inhabiting ranges characterized by larger scale waves of change in the onset of spring migrated longer distances. We showed that the scales of movements are driven by the scales of changes in the net profitability of trophic resources. Our approach can be extended to include drivers of movements other than trophic resources (e.g. population density

  9. Women and AIDS Support Network: mutual support to change community norms.

    PubMed

    Ray, S

    1992-01-01

    A group of women formed the Women and AIDS Support Network (WASN) in Zimbabwe in June 1989 to improve women;s self-esteem and confidence and to bring about changes in attitudes and reactions toward AIDS-related problems. Both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women are WASN members. Women have limited control over sexual relationships. Women who know their partners are having intercourse with other women have few options, e.g., they may depend on their partners. A family council settles marital disagreements, but husbands do not always cooperate. Increased peer pressure could change societal acceptance of male infidelity to positive attitudes toward friendship and partnership in marriage. Therefore, WASN explores sexual relationships, especially control and power in them. These discussions should lead to affirmation of positive behavior. For example, men can promote condom use and monogamy to their male peers. They can also talk to their partners and their sons about HIV. Rural women should not blame urban women for their partner's HIV status. WASN also targets schoolgirls. Most early and some current messages of AIDS campaigns reinforces the dichotomy of good and bad women, supported by an earlier link between urban women and sexually transmitted diseases. Yet, they ignored men's role in HIV transmission. WASN speaks out against such negative images, e.g., dramas that depict the HIV-infected woman as evil and the innocent as good while the man worries about which woman infected him instead of feeling awful about infecting other women. WASN also addressee AIDS-related discrimination on the job and stigmatization issues. It now is conducting 2 research projects: information needs of urban and rural women and capacities of family support systems to assist HIV-positive women.

  10. Confirming, Validating, and Norming the Factor Structure of Systemic Therapy Inventory of Change Initial and Intersession.

    PubMed

    Pinsof, William M; Zinbarg, Richard E; Shimokawa, Kenichi; Latta, Tara A; Goldsmith, Jacob Z; Knobloch-Fedders, Lynne M; Chambers, Anthony L; Lebow, Jay L

    2015-09-01

    Progress or feedback research tracks and feeds back client progress data throughout the course of psychotherapy. In the effort to empirically ground psychotherapeutic practice, feedback research is both a complement and alternative to empirically supported manualized treatments. Evidence suggests that tracking and feeding back progress data with individual or nonsystemic feedback systems improves outcomes in individual and couple therapy. The research reported in this article pertains to the STIC(®) (Systemic Therapy Inventory of Change)-the first client-report feedback system designed to empirically assess and track change within client systems from multisystemic and multidimensional perspectives in individual, couple, and family therapy. Clients complete the STIC Initial before the first session and the shorter STIC Intersession before every subsequent session. This study tested and its results supported the hypothesized factor structure of the six scales that comprise both STIC forms in a clinical outpatient sample and in a normal, random representative sample of the U.S. This study also tested the STIC's concurrent validity and found that its 6 scales and 40 of its 41 subscales differentiated the clinical and normal samples. Lastly, the study derived clinical cut-offs for each scale and subscale to determine whether and how much a client's score falls in the normal or clinical range. Beyond supporting the factorial and concurrent validity of both STIC forms, this research supported the reliabilities of the six scales (Omegahierarchical ) as well as the reliabilities of most subscales (alpha and rate-rerate). This article delineates clinical implications and directions for future research. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  11. Changing Latino Adolescents' Substance Use Norms and Behaviors: the Effects of Synchronized Youth and Parent Drug Use Prevention Interventions.

    PubMed

    Marsiglia, Flavio F; Ayers, Stephanie L; Baldwin-White, Adrienne; Booth, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    While parent and youth substance use prevention interventions have shown beneficial effects on preadolescents, many programs have typically targeted US born European American and African American families while overlooking the unique factors that characterize recent immigrant Latino families. This article presents the results on youth substance use when adding a culturally grounded parenting component, Familias Preparando la Nueva Generación (FPNG), to the existing and already proven efficacious classroom-based drug abuse prevention intervention, keepin'it REAL (kiR). Data come from youth (N = 267) participating in the randomized control trial of the interventions who were surveyed at baseline (beginning at 7th grade) and 18 months later (end of 8th grade). Using multivariate linear regression path analyses, results indicate when FPNG and kiR are combined, youth had significantly lowered alcohol and cigarettes use at the end of 8th grade, mediated through anti-drug norms, when compared with youth who only participated in kiR without parental participation in FPNG. These findings indicate that adolescent normative beliefs and related behaviors can be changed through synchronized culturally grounded parent and youth interventions and together can play an important role in reducing adolescent substance use.

  12. Changing Latino adolescents’ substance use norms and behaviors: The effects of synchronized youth and parent drug use prevention interventions

    PubMed Central

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Baldwin, Adrienne; Booth, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    While parent and youth substance use prevention interventions have shown beneficial effects on preadolescents, many programs have typically targeted U.S born European American and African American families while overlooking the unique factors that characterize recent immigrant Latino families. This article presents the results on youth substance use when adding a culturally grounded parenting component, Familias Preparando la Nueva Generación (FPNG), to the existing and already proven efficacious classroom-based drug abuse prevention intervention, keepin’it REAL (kiR). Data come from youth (N=267) participating in the randomized control trial of the interventions who were surveyed at baseline (beginning of 7th grade) and 18 months later (end of 8th grade). Using multivariate linear regression path analyses, results indicate when FPNG and kiR are combined, youth had significantly lowered alcohol and cigarettes use at the end of 8th grade, mediated through anti-drug norms, when compared to youth who only participated in kiR without parental participation in FPNG. These findings indicate that adolescent normative beliefs and related behaviors can be changed through synchronized culturally grounded parent and youth interventions and together can play an important role in reducing adolescent substance use. PMID:26103920

  13. Seasonal and Ontogenetic Changes in Movement Patterns of Sixgill Sharks

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Kelly S.; Williams, Greg D.; Levin, Phillip S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding movement patterns is fundamental to population and conservation biology. The way an animal moves through its environment influences the dynamics of local populations and will determine how susceptible it is to natural or anthropogenic perturbations. It is of particular interest to understand the patterns of movement for species which are susceptible to human activities (e.g. fishing), or that exert a large influence on community structure, such as sharks. Methodology/Principal Findings We monitored the patterns of movement of 34 sixgill sharks Hexanchus griseus using two large-scale acoustic arrays inside and outside Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Sixgill sharks were residents in Puget Sound for up to at least four years before making large movements out of the estuary. Within Puget Sound, sixgills inhabited sites for several weeks at a time and returned to the same sites annually. Across four years, sixgills had consistent seasonal movements in which they moved to the north from winter to spring and moved to the south from summer to fall. Just prior to leaving Puget Sound, sixgills altered their behavior and moved twice as fast among sites. Nineteen of the thirty-four sixgills were detected leaving Puget Sound for the outer coast. Three of these sharks returned to Puget Sound. Conclusions/Significance For most large marine predators, we have a limited understanding of how they move through their environment, and this clouds our ability to successfully manage their populations and their communities. With detailed movement information, such as that being uncovered with acoustic monitoring, we can begin to quantify the spatial and temporal impacts of large predators within the framework of their ecosystems. PMID:20838617

  14. Nursing home organizational change: the "Culture Change" movement as viewed by long-term care specialists.

    PubMed

    Miller, Susan C; Miller, Edward Alan; Jung, Hye-Young; Sterns, Samantha; Clark, Melissa; Mor, Vincent

    2010-08-01

    A decade-long grassroots movement aims to deinstitutionalize nursing home (NH) environments and individualize care. Coined "NH Culture Change" the movement is often described by its resident-centered/directed care focus. While empirical data of "culture change's" costs and benefits are limited, it is broadly viewed as beneficial and widely promoted. Still, debate abounds regarding barriers to its adoption. We used data from a Web-based survey of 1,147 long-term care specialists (including NH and other providers, consumers/advocates, state and federal government officials, university/academic, researchers/consultants, and others) to better understand factors associated with perceived barriers. Long-term care specialists view the number-one barrier to adoption differently depending on their employment, familiarity with culture change, and their underlying policy views. To promote adoption, research and broad-based educational efforts are needed to influence views and perceptions. Fundamental changes in the regulatory process together with targeted regulatory changes and payment incentives may also be needed.

  15. Teaching for Change: Popular Education and the Labor Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delp, Linda, Ed.; Outman-Kramer, Miranda, Ed.; Schurman, Susan J., Ed.; Wong, Kent, Ed.

    These 28 essays recount popular education's history and its multiple uses in the labor movement today: to organize the unorganized, to develop new leaders and activists, and to strengthen labor and community alliances. They explore its other facets: theater and culture, economics education, workplace safety and health, and classroom use and…

  16. Variations in Articulatory Movement with Changes in Speech Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasko, Stephen M.; McClean, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of normal and disordered articulatory movement often rely on the use of short, simple speech tasks. However, the severity of speech disorders can be observed to vary markedly with task. Understanding task-related variations in articulatory kinematic behavior may allow for an improved understanding of normal and disordered speech motor…

  17. Variations in Articulatory Movement with Changes in Speech Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasko, Stephen M.; McClean, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of normal and disordered articulatory movement often rely on the use of short, simple speech tasks. However, the severity of speech disorders can be observed to vary markedly with task. Understanding task-related variations in articulatory kinematic behavior may allow for an improved understanding of normal and disordered speech motor…

  18. Does Changing Vertical Disparity Induce Horizontal Head Movement?

    PubMed Central

    Maekawa, Toru; Kaneko, Hirohiko

    2015-01-01

    Theoretically, one can estimate the direction of an object that is relative to the head using vertical disparity if the distance from the head to the object is known. However, several reports describe vertical disparity as having little or no effect on the perception of visual direction. It has been suggested, however, that the visual processes involved in action are different from those involved in perception, and the effect of visual disparity on action has not been investigated in previous studies. This study investigated the influence of vertical disparity on the stability of head direction as a motor response to visual information. We presented a stimulus consisting of horizontal lines with vertical size-disparity oscillation, and examined whether the stimulus affected the subject’s head movement. The results showed that the head movement in the condition of vertical size-disparity oscillation was not significantly different from that in the condition of no disparity oscillation. Our results suggest that, despite theoretical validity, vertical disparity is not used for controlling head movement. PMID:26356478

  19. Changes in movement symmetry over the stages of the shoeing process in military working horses.

    PubMed

    Pfau, T; Daly, K; Davison, J; Bould, A; Housby, N; Weller, R

    2016-08-20

    Military working horses perform a high proportion of work on road surfaces and are shod frequently to deal with high attrition rates. The authors investigate the influence of shoeing on movement symmetry as an indirect indicator of mechanical differences affecting force production between contralateral limbs. In this quantitative observational study, inertial sensor gait analysis was performed in 23 Irish sport type horses (4-21 years, 1.58-1.85 m) in full ceremonial work at the King's Troop, Royal Horse Artillery. Changes in two movement symmetry measures (SI: symmetry index; MinDiff: difference between displacement minima) for head and pelvic movement were assessed at four stages of routine shoeing: 'old shoes', 'shoes removed', 'trimmed', 'reshod'. Horses were assessed applying shoes to the front limbs (N=10), to the hindlimbs (N=10) or both (N=3). Changes in head movement symmetry between conditions were small and inconsistent. Changes in pelvic movement symmetry were small and showed significant differences between shoeing stages (SI: P=0.013, MinDiff: P=0.04) with most symmetrical pelvic movement after trimming. In military working horses with high frequency shoeing small changes in movement symmetry were measured. All significant changes involved trimming, which indicates that future studies should in particular assess changes before/after trimming and investigate longer shoeing intervals.

  20. Eye Movements and Display Change Detection during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slattery, Timothy J.; Angele, Bernhard; Rayner, Keith

    2011-01-01

    In the boundary change paradigm (Rayner, 1975), when a reader's eyes cross an invisible boundary location, a preview word is replaced by a target word. Readers are generally unaware of such changes due to saccadic suppression. However, some readers detect changes on a few trials and a small percentage of them detect many changes. Two experiments…

  1. An Evaluation of the Small Group Norms Challenging Model: Changing Substance Use Misperceptions in Five Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Carol H.; Doyle, Lynn H.

    2005-01-01

    According to social norms theory, when high school students overestimate the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) by their peers, they tend to use more themselves. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these over estimations (misperceptions) could be corrected through a similar age peer-to-peer interactive social norms…

  2. Adaptation to climate change: contrasting patterns of thermal-reaction-norm evolution in Pacific versus Atlantic silversides.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Hannes; Conover, David O

    2011-08-07

    How organisms may adapt to rising global temperatures is uncertain, but concepts can emerge from studying adaptive physiological trait variations across existing spatial climate gradients. Many ectotherms, particularly fish, have evolved increasing genetic growth capacities with latitude (i.e. countergradient variation (CnGV) in growth), which are thought to be an adaptation primarily to strong gradients in seasonality. In contrast, evolutionary responses to gradients in mean temperature are often assumed to involve an alternative mode, 'thermal adaptation'. We measured thermal growth reaction norms in Pacific silverside populations (Atherinops affinis) occurring across a weak latitudinal temperature gradient with invariant seasonality along the North American Pacific coast. Instead of thermal adaptation, we found novel evidence for CnGV in growth, suggesting that CnGV is a ubiquitous mode of reaction-norm evolution in ectotherms even in response to weak spatial and, by inference, temporal climate gradients. A novel, large-scale comparison between ecologically equivalent Pacific versus Atlantic silversides (Menidia menidia) revealed how closely growth CnGV patterns reflect their respective climate gradients. While steep growth reaction norms and increasing growth plasticity with latitude in M. menidia mimicked the strong, highly seasonal Atlantic coastal gradient, shallow reaction norms and much smaller, latitude-independent growth plasticity in A. affinis resembled the weak Pacific latitudinal temperature gradient.

  3. An Evaluation of the Small Group Norms Challenging Model: Changing Substance Use Misperceptions in Five Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Carol H.; Doyle, Lynn H.

    2005-01-01

    According to social norms theory, when high school students overestimate the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) by their peers, they tend to use more themselves. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these over estimations (misperceptions) could be corrected through a similar age peer-to-peer interactive social norms…

  4. A change in temporal organization of fidgety movements during the fidgety movement period is common among high risk infants.

    PubMed

    Sæther, Rannei; Støen, Ragnhild; Vik, Torstein; Fjørtoft, Toril; Vågen, Randi Tynes; Silberg, Inger Elisabeth; Loennecken, Marianne; Møinichen, Unn Inger; Lydersen, Stian; Adde, Lars

    2016-07-01

    General movement assessment (GMA) at 9-20 weeks post-term, can effectively predict cerebral palsy. Our aim was to evaluate intra-individual variability of the temporal organization of fidgety movements (FMs) in high risk infants. 104 High risk infants (66 males) with at least two video recordings from the FMs period participated. 45 of the infants had GA <28 weeks and/or BW ≤800 g. Mean post-term age at first and second assessments was 11.0 (8-16) and 14.0 (11-17) weeks, respectively, and median time-difference between the assessments was 2.0 (range: three days to six weeks) weeks. Video recordings were analyzed according to Prechtl's GMA. 33 (32%) Infants were classified differently at first and second assessments. Six infants (6%) changed from normal to abnormal, and 10 (10%) changed from abnormal to normal FMs. Seven of the ten who changed classification from abnormal to normal were born before GA 26 weeks. A change between intermittent and continual, which are both considered normal, was observed in 17 (16%) infants. A change in temporal organization of FMs is common in high risk infants. Especially in extremely preterm infants with abnormal FMs, more than one assessment should be performed before long-term prognosis is considered. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes in music tempo entrain movement related brain activity.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ian; Hallowell, James; Hwang, Faustina; Kirke, Alexis; Malik, Asad; Roesch, Etienne; Weaver, James; Williams, Duncan; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2014-01-01

    The neural mechanisms of music listening and appreciation are not yet completely understood. Based on the apparent relationship between the beats per minute (tempo) of music and the desire to move (for example feet tapping) induced while listening to that music it is hypothesised that musical tempo may evoke movement related activity in the brain. Participants are instructed to listen, without moving, to a large range of musical pieces spanning a range of styles and tempos during an electroencephalogram (EEG) experiment. Event-related desynchronisation (ERD) in the EEG is observed to correlate significantly with the variance of the tempo of the musical stimuli. This suggests that the dynamics of the beat of the music may induce movement related brain activity in the motor cortex. Furthermore, significant correlations are observed between EEG activity in the alpha band over the motor cortex and the bandpower of the music in the same frequency band over time. This relationship is observed to correlate with the strength of the ERD, suggesting entrainment of motor cortical activity relates to increased ERD strength.

  6. Movement planning reflects skill level and age changes in toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-ping; Keen, Rachel; Rosander, Kerstin; von Hofsten, Claes

    2010-01-01

    Kinematic measures of children’s reaching were found to reflect stable differences in skill level for planning for future actions. Thirty-five toddlers (18–21 months) were engaged in building block towers (precise task) and in placing blocks into an open container (imprecise task). Sixteen children were re-tested on the same tasks a year later. Longer deceleration as the hand approached the block for pickup was found in the tower task compared to the imprecise task, indicating planning for the second movement. More skillful toddlers who could build high towers had a longer deceleration phase when placing blocks on the tower than toddlers who built low towers. Kinematic differences between the groups remained a year later when all children could build high towers. PMID:21077868

  7. Personality and social change: individual differences, life path, and importance attributed to the women's movement.

    PubMed

    Agronick, G S; Duncan, L E

    1998-06-01

    This article identifies antecedent characteristics of individuals who found the women's movement important and then shows how finding it important was associated with personality change. Eighty-six women provided personality and life data as college seniors in 1958 or 1960, prior to the onset of the women's movement, and in 1981, after the movement gained momentum. A combination of openness, ambition, and dissatisfaction, as assessed by California Psychological Inventory (CPI; H. Gough, 1957/1966) in college, and subsequent life path from ages 28 to 43 significantly predicted importance attributed to the women's movement (IWM). On CPI scales, IWM was associated with significant increases on scales including Dominance, Self-Acceptance, Empathy, Psychological Mindedness, and Achievement via Independence. Correlates of IWM with self-reported feelings at ages 33 and 43 and observer-based personality ratings at age 43 supplemented analyses of personality change. Findings support the utility of examining the impact of social change on personality.

  8. Change in the actin cytoskeleton during seismonastic movement of Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Kanzawa, Nobuyuki; Hoshino, Yoshinori; Chiba, Makiko; Hoshino, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Hidetaka; Kamasawa, Naomi; Kishi, Yoshiro; Osumi, Masako; Sameshima, Masazumi; Tsuchiya, Takahide

    2006-04-01

    The seismonastic movement of Mimosa pudica is triggered by a sudden loss of turgor pressure. In the present study, we compared the cell cytoskeleton by immunofluorescence analysis before and after movement, and the effects of actin- and microtubule-targeted drugs were examined by injecting them into the cut pulvinus. We found that fragmentation of actin filaments and microtubules occurs during bending, although the actin cytoskeleton, but not the microtubules, was involved in regulation of the movement. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that actin cables became loose after the bending. We injected phosphatase inhibitors into the severed pulvinus to examine the effects of such inhibitors on the actin cytoskeleton. We found that changes in actin isoforms, fragmentation of actin filaments and the bending movement were all inhibited after injection of a tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor. We thus propose that the phosphorylation status of actin at tyrosine residues affects the dynamic reorganization of actin filaments and causes seismonastic movement.

  9. Path segmentation for beginners: an overview of current methods for detecting changes in animal movement patterns.

    PubMed

    Edelhoff, Hendrik; Signer, Johannes; Balkenhol, Niko

    2016-01-01

    Increased availability of high-resolution movement data has led to the development of numerous methods for studying changes in animal movement behavior. Path segmentation methods provide basics for detecting movement changes and the behavioral mechanisms driving them. However, available path segmentation methods differ vastly with respect to underlying statistical assumptions and output produced. Consequently, it is currently difficult for researchers new to path segmentation to gain an overview of the different methods, and choose one that is appropriate for their data and research questions. Here, we provide an overview of different methods for segmenting movement paths according to potential changes in underlying behavior. To structure our overview, we outline three broad types of research questions that are commonly addressed through path segmentation: 1) the quantitative description of movement patterns, 2) the detection of significant change-points, and 3) the identification of underlying processes or 'hidden states'. We discuss advantages and limitations of different approaches for addressing these research questions using path-level movement data, and present general guidelines for choosing methods based on data characteristics and questions. Our overview illustrates the large diversity of available path segmentation approaches, highlights the need for studies that compare the utility of different methods, and identifies opportunities for future developments in path-level data analysis.

  10. Soft normed rings.

    PubMed

    Uluçay, Vakkas; Şahin, Mehmet; Olgun, Necati

    2016-01-01

    Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft sets, which can be seen as a new mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper, we initiate the study of soft normed rings by soft set theory. The notions of soft normed rings, soft normed ideals, soft complete normed rings are introduced and also several related properties and examples are given.

  11. Autism in the U.S.: social movement and legal change.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    The social movement surrounding autism in the U.S. has been rightly defined a ray of light in the history of social progress. The movement is inspired by a true understanding of neuro-diversity and is capable of bringing about desirable change in political discourse. At several points along the way, however, the legal reforms prompted by the autism movement have been grafted onto preexisting patterns of inequality in the allocation of welfare, education, and medical services. In a context most recently complicated by economic recession, autism-driven change bears the mark of political and legal fragmentation. Distributively, it yields ambivalent results that have not yet received systemic attention. This article aims to fill this analytical vacuum by offering, first, a synoptic view of the several legal transformations brought about or advocated for by the autism movement and, second, a framework for investigating their distributive consequences.

  12. Negotiating for Change: Women's Movements and Education Reform in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shu-Ching

    2011-01-01

    The dramatic changes during the past 20 years in Taiwan offer a good example of how gender policy in education is facilitated by a combination of interrelated economic, political and social forces. Taiwan's policy on gender education emerged from the interaction of state, education, academic and non-academic feminist positions in reforms. This…

  13. Negotiating for Change: Women's Movements and Education Reform in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shu-Ching

    2011-01-01

    The dramatic changes during the past 20 years in Taiwan offer a good example of how gender policy in education is facilitated by a combination of interrelated economic, political and social forces. Taiwan's policy on gender education emerged from the interaction of state, education, academic and non-academic feminist positions in reforms. This…

  14. Animal Perception of Seasonal Thresholds: Changes in Elephant Movement in Relation to Rainfall Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Birkett, Patricia J.; Vanak, Abi T.; Muggeo, Vito M. R.; Ferreira, Salamon M.; Slotow, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Background The identification of temporal thresholds or shifts in animal movement informs ecologists of changes in an animal’s behaviour, which contributes to an understanding of species’ responses in different environments. In African savannas, rainfall, temperature and primary productivity influence the movements of large herbivores and drive changes at different scales. Here, we developed a novel approach to define seasonal shifts in movement behaviour by examining the movements of a highly mobile herbivore (elephant; Loxodonta africana), in relation to local and regional rainfall patterns. Methodology/Principal Findings We used speed to determine movement changes of between 8 and 14 GPS-collared elephant cows, grouped into five spatial clusters, in Kruger National Park, South Africa. To detect broad-scale patterns of movement, we ran a three-year daily time-series model for each individual (2007–2009). Piecewise regression models provided the best fit for elephant movement, which exhibited a segmented, waveform pattern over time. Major breakpoints in speed occurred at the end of the dry and wet seasons of each year. During the dry season, female elephant are constrained by limited forage and thus the distances they cover are shorter and less variable. Despite the inter-annual variability of rainfall, speed breakpoints were strongly correlated with both local and regional rainfall breakpoints across all three years. Thus, at a multi-year scale, rainfall patterns significantly affect the movements of elephant. The variability of both speed and rainfall breakpoints across different years highlights the need for an objective definition of seasonal boundaries. Conclusions/Significance By using objective criteria to determine behavioural shifts, we identified a biologically meaningful indicator of major changes in animal behaviour in different years. We recommend the use of such criteria, from an animal’s perspective, for delineating seasons or other

  15. Changes in leaf optical properties associated with light-dependent chloroplast movements.

    PubMed

    Davis, Phillip A; Caylor, Steven; Whippo, Craig W; Hangarter, Roger P

    2011-12-01

    We surveyed 24 plant species to examine how leaf anatomy influenced chloroplast movement and how the optical properties of leaves change with chloroplast position. All species examined exhibited light-dependent chloroplast movements but the associated changes in leaf absorptance varied considerably in magnitude. Chloroplast movement-dependent changes in leaf absorptance were greatest in shade species, in which absorptance changes of >10% were observed between high- and low-light treatments. Using the Kubelka-Munk theory, we found that changes in the absorption (k) and chlorophyll a absorption efficiency (k*) associated with chloroplast movement correlated with cell diameter, such that the narrower, more columnar cells found in sun leaves restricted the ability of chloroplasts to move. The broader, more spherical cells of shade leaves allowed greater chloroplast rearrangements and in low-light conditions allowed efficient light capture. Across the species tested, light-dependent chloroplast movements modulated leaf optical properties and light absorption efficiency by manipulating the package (sieve or flattening) effect but not the detour (path lengthening) effect.

  16. Intervention induced changes on parenting practices, youth self-pride and sexual norms to reduce HIV-related behaviors among rural African American youths.

    PubMed

    Murry, Velma McBride; Berkel, Cady; Chen, Yi-Fu; Brody, Gene H; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg

    2011-09-01

    AIDS is the leading killer of African Americans between the ages of 25 and 44, many of whom became infected when they were teenagers or young adults. The disparity in HIV infection rate among African Americans youth residing in rural Southern regions of the United States suggests that there is an urgent need to identify ways to promote early preventive intervention to reduce HIV-related risk behavior. The Strong African American Families (SAAF) program, a preventive intervention for rural African American parents and their 11-year-olds, was specially designed to deter early sexual onset and the initiation and escalation of alcohol and drug use among rural African American preadolescents. A clustered-randomized prevention trial was conducted, contrasting families who took part in SAAF with control families. The trial, which included 332 families, indicated that intervention-induced changes occurred in intervention-targeted parenting, which in turn facilitated changes in youths' internal protective processes and positive sexual norms. Long-term follow up assessments when youth were 17 years old revealed that intervention-induced changes in parenting practices mediated the effect of intervention-group influences on changes in the onset and escalation of risky sexual behaviors over 65 months through its positive influence on adolescents' self-pride and their sexual norms. The findings underscore the powerful effects of parenting practices among rural African American families that over time serve a protective role in reducing youth's risk behavior, including HIV vulnerable behaviors.

  17. Reflections on the Women's Movement: An Assessment of Change and Its Limits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Cynthia Fuchs

    Recent changes in the social and economic roles of women are examined. These changes affect the lives of the largest single group in the United States and have resulted from a movement aimed not only at increased access to society's resources and power, but also at a redefinition of the identity of American women. Topics reviewed include women in…

  18. Tortuosity entropy: a measure of spatial complexity of behavioral changes in animal movement.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Xu, Ning; Jiang, Aimin

    2015-01-07

    The goal of animal movement analysis is to understand how organisms explore and exploit complex and varying environments. Animals usually exhibit varied and complicated movements, from apparently deterministic behaviours to highly random behaviours. It has been a common method to assess movement efficiency and foraging strategies by means of quantifying and analyzing movement trajectories. Here we introduce a tortuosity entropy (TorEn), a simple measure for quantifying the behavioral change in animal movement data. In our approach, the differences between pairwise successive track points are transformed into symbolic sequences, then we map these symbols into a group of pattern vectors and calculate the information entropy of pattern vectors. We test the algorithm on both simulated trajectories and real trajectories to show that it can accurately identify not only the mixed segments in simulated data, but also the different phases in real movement data. Tortuosity entropy can be easily applied to arbitrary real-world data, whether deterministic or stochastic, stationary or non-stationary. It could be a promising tool to reveal behavioral mechanism in movement data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Changes in the Spinal Neural Circuits are Dependent on the Movement Speed of the Visuomotor Task.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Shinji; Hirano, Masato; Koizume, Yoshiki; Tanabe, Shigeo; Funase, Kozo

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that spinal neural circuits are modulated by motor skill training. However, the effects of task movement speed on changes in spinal neural circuits have not been clarified. The aim of this research was to investigate whether spinal neural circuits were affected by task movement speed. Thirty-eight healthy subjects participated in this study. In experiment 1, the effects of task movement speed on the spinal neural circuits were examined. Eighteen subjects performed a visuomotor task involving ankle muscle slow (nine subjects) or fast (nine subjects) movement speed. Another nine subjects performed a non-visuomotor task (controls) in fast movement speed. The motor task training lasted for 20 min. The amounts of D1 inhibition and reciprocal Ia inhibition were measured using H-relfex condition-test paradigm and recorded before, and at 5, 15, and 30 min after the training session. In experiment 2, using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), the effects of corticospinal descending inputs on the presynaptic inhibitory pathway were examined before and after performing either a visuomotor (eight subjects) or a control task (eight subjects). All measurements were taken under resting conditions. The amount of D1 inhibition increased after the visuomotor task irrespective of movement speed (P < 0.01). The amount of reciprocal Ia inhibition increased with fast movement speed conditioning (P < 0.01), but was unchanged by slow movement speed conditioning. These changes lasted up to 15 min in D1 inhibition and 5 min in reciprocal Ia inhibition after the training session. The control task did not induce changes in D1 inhibition and reciprocal Ia inhibition. The TMS conditioned inhibitory effects of presynaptic inhibitory pathways decreased following visuomotor tasks (P < 0.01). The size of test H-reflex was almost the same size throughout experiments. The results suggest that supraspinal descending inputs for controlling joint movement are responsible

  20. Changing motivations during migration: linking movement speed to reproductive status in a migratory large mammal.

    PubMed

    Singh, Navinder J; Ericsson, Göran

    2014-06-01

    A challenge in animal ecology is to link animal movement to demography. In general, reproducing and non-reproducing animals may show different movement patterns. Dramatic changes in reproductive status, such as the loss of an offspring during the course of migration, might also affect movement. Studies linking movement speed to reproductive status require individual monitoring of life-history events and hence are rare. Here, we link movement data from 98 GPS-collared female moose (Alces alces) to field observations of reproductive status and calf survival. We show that reproductive females move more quickly during migration than non-reproductive females. Further, the loss of a calf over the course of migration triggered a decrease in speed of the female. This is in contrast to what might be expected for females no longer constrained by an accompanying offspring. The observed patterns demonstrate that females of different reproductive status may have distinct movement patterns, and that the underlying motivation to move may be altered by a change in reproductive status during migration.

  1. Effectiveness of Community Dialogue in Changing Gender and Sexual Norms for HIV Prevention: Evaluation of the Tchova Tchova Program in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Maria Elena; Poppe, Patricia; Carrasco, Maria; Pinho, Maria Dirce; Massingue, Felisberto; Tanque, Maria; Kwizera, Amata

    2016-05-01

    Structural HIV prevention interventions have gained prominence as ways to address underlying social and cultural factors that fuel the HIV epidemic. Identifying theories that explain how structural interventions are expected to change such factors can substantially increase their success. The Tchova Tchova community dialogue program, a theory-based intervention implemented in 2009-2010 in the provinces of Zambezia and Sofala, Mozambique, aimed to change gender and sexual norms for HIV prevention. Through facilitated sessions, the program sparked critical thinking and open dialogue among participants. This article measures the program's effectiveness based on a sample of 462 participants and 453 nonparticipants. The results show that the program was successful in producing changes in three of the underlying structural factors of HIV: gender attitudes, gender roles, and HIV stigma. The program was also successful in changing other factors associated with HIV infection, including HIV prevention knowledge, discussion of HIV between sex partners, and having multiple sex partners.

  2. Effectiveness of Community Dialogue in Changing Gender and Sexual Norms for HIV Prevention: Evaluation of the Tchova Tchova Program in Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Maria Elena; Poppe, Patricia; Carrasco, Maria; Pinho, Maria Dirce; Massingue, Felisberto; Tanque, Maria; Kwizera, Amata

    2016-01-01

    Structural HIV prevention interventions have gained prominence as ways to address underlying social and cultural factors that fuel the HIV epidemic. Identifying theories that explain how structural interventions are expected to change such factors can substantially increase their success. The Tchova Tchova community dialogue program, a theory-based intervention implemented in 2009–2010 in the provinces of Zambezia and Sofala, Mozambique, aimed to change gender and sexual norms for HIV prevention. Through facilitated sessions, the program sparked critical thinking and open dialogue among participants. This article measures the program’s effectiveness based on a sample of 462 participants and 453 nonparticipants. The results show that the program was successful in producing changes in three of the underlying structural factors of HIV: gender attitudes, gender roles, and HIV stigma. The program was also successful in changing other factors associated with HIV infection, including HIV prevention knowledge, discussion of HIV between sex partners, and having multiple sex partners. PMID:27123984

  3. Local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and physical inactivity, features of the built environment, and 10-year change in glycosylated haemoglobin in an Australian population-based biomedical cohort.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Suzanne J; Paquet, Catherine; Howard, Natasha J; Coffee, Neil T; Taylor, Anne W; Niyonsenga, Theo; Daniel, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Descriptive norms vary between places. Spatial variation in health-related descriptive norms may predict individual-level health outcomes. Such relationships have rarely been investigated. This study assessed 10-year change in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in relation to local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity (n = 1890) and physical inactivity (n = 1906) in models accounting for features of the built environment. HbA1c was measured three times over 10 years for a population-based biomedical cohort of adults in Adelaide, South Australia. Environmental exposures were expressed for cohort participants using 1600 m road-network buffers centred on participants' residential address. Local descriptive norms (prevalence of overweight/obesity [body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2)] and of physical inactivity [<150 min/week]) were aggregated from responses to a separate geocoded population survey. Built environment measures were public open space (POS) availability (proportion of buffer area) and walkability. Separate sets of multilevel models analysed different predictors of 10-year change in HbA1c. Each model featured one local descriptive norm and one built environment variable with area-level education and individual-level covariates (age, sex, employment status, education, marital status, and smoking status). Interactions between local descriptive norms and built environment measures were assessed. HbA1c increased over time. POS availability and local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and physical inactivity were each associated with greater rates of HbA1c increase. Greater walkability was associated with a reduced rate of HbA1c increase, and reduced the influence of the overweight/obesity norm on the rate of increase in HbA1c. Local descriptive health-related norms and features of the built environment predict 10-year change in HbA1c. The impact of local descriptive norms can vary according to built environment features. Little researched thus far

  4. Connecting today's climates to future climate analogs to facilitate movement of species under climate change.

    PubMed

    Littlefield, Caitlin E; McRae, Brad H; Michalak, Julia L; Lawler, Joshua J; Carroll, Carlos

    2017-03-24

    Increasing connectivity is an important strategy for facilitating species range shifts and maintaining biodiversity in the face of climate change. To date, however, few researchers have included future climate projections in efforts to prioritize areas for increasing connectivity. We identified key areas likely to facilitate climate-induced species' movement across western North America. Using historical climate data sets and future climate projections, we mapped potential species' movement routes that link current climate conditions to analogous climate conditions in the future (i.e., future climate analogs) with a novel moving-window analysis based on electrical circuit theory. In addition to tracing shifting climates, the approach accounted for landscape permeability and empirically derived species' dispersal capabilities. We compared connectivity maps generated with our climate-change-informed approach with maps of connectivity based solely on the degree of human modification of the landscape. Including future climate projections in connectivity models substantially shifted and constrained priority areas for movement to a smaller proportion of the landscape than when climate projections were not considered. Potential movement, measured as current flow, decreased in all ecoregions when climate projections were included, particularly when dispersal was limited, which made climate analogs inaccessible. Many areas emerged as important for connectivity only when climate change was modeled in 2 time steps rather than in a single time step. Our results illustrate that movement routes needed to track changing climatic conditions may differ from those that connect present-day landscapes. Incorporating future climate projections into connectivity modeling is an important step toward facilitating successful species movement and population persistence in a changing climate. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. From Norm Adoption to Norm Internalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, Rosaria; Andrighetto, Giulia; Villatoro, Daniel

    In this presentation, advances in modeling the mental dynamics of norms will be presented. In particular, the process from norm-adoption, possibly yielding new normative goals, to different forms of norm compliance will be focused upon, including norm internalization, which is at study in social-behavioral sciences and moral philosophy since long. Of late, the debate was revamped within the rationality approach pointing to the role of norm internalization as a less costly and more reliable enforcement system than social control. So far, poor attention was paid to the mental underpinnings of internalization. In this presentation, a rich cognitive model of different types, degrees and factors of internalization is shown. The initial implementation of this model on EMIL-A, a normative agent architecture developed and applied to the.

  6. Reconstruction of conductivity changes and electrode movements based on EIT temporal sequences.

    PubMed

    Dai, Tao; Gómez-Laberge, Camille; Adler, Andy

    2008-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) reconstructs a conductivity change image within a body from electrical measurements on the body surface; while it has relatively low spatial resolution, it has a high temporal resolution. One key difficulty with EIT measurements is due to the movement and position uncertainty of the electrodes, especially due to breathing and posture change. In this paper, we develop an approach to reconstruct both the conductivity change image and the electrode movements from the temporal sequence of EIT measurements. Since both the conductivity change and electrode movement are slow with respect to the data frame rate, there are significant temporal correlations which we formulate as priors for the regularized image reconstruction model. Image reconstruction is posed in terms of a regularization matrix and a Jacobian matrix which are augmented for the conductivity change and electrode movement, and then further augmented to concatenate the d previous and future frames. Results are shown for simulation, phantom and human data, and show that the proposed algorithm yields improved resolution and noise performance in comparison to a conventional one-step reconstruction method.

  7. Kinematics invariance in multi-directional complex movements in free space: effect of changing initial direction.

    PubMed

    Cheron, G; Draye, J P; Bengoetxea, A; Dan, B

    1999-04-01

    We investigated in normal human subjects the effect of changing the initial direction on the kinematic properties of figure '8' movement performed as fast as possible by the right arm extended in free space. To this end, the motion of the index finger was monitored by the ELITE system. The figure '8' movement was characterized by a complex tangential velocity profile (Vt) presenting 5 bell-shaped components. It was found that the temporal segmentation following Vt was not significantly different, whatever the initial direction of the movement. The decomposition of Vt into different velocity profiles with respect to vertical (3 phases, Iy-IIIy) and horizontal (5 phases, Iz-Vz) directions showed a significant relationship between the amplitude and the maximal velocity for all the different phases (except the IIy phase), which demonstrated a good conservation of the Isochrony Principle. However, we showed that the transition between the clockwise and counter-clockwise loop (inflection point) induced greater variability in the vertical velocity profile than in the horizontal one. Moreover, some parameters such as the maximal velocity of Iy and the movement amplitude of the last phases (IIIy and Vz) showed significant changes depending on the initial direction. A highly significant positive correlation was observed between the instantaneous curvature and angular velocity. This was expressed by a power law similar to that previously describe for other types of movement. Furthermore, it was found that this covariation between geometrical and kinematic properties of the trajectory is not dependent on the initial direction of movement. In conclusion, these results support the idea that the fast execution in different directions of a figure '8' movement is mainly controlled by two types of invariant commands. The first one is reflected in the 2/3 power law between angular velocity and curvature and the second one is represented by a segmented tangential velocity profile.

  8. Association of orofacial muscle activity and movement during changes in speech rate and intensity.

    PubMed

    McClean, Michael D; Tasko, Stephen M

    2003-12-01

    Understanding how orofacial muscle activity and movement covary across changes in speech rate and intensity has implications for the neural control of speech production and the use of clinical procedures that manipulate speech prosody. The present study involved a correlation analysis relating average lower-lip and jaw-muscle activity to lip and jaw movement distance, speed, and duration. Recordings were obtained on orofacial movement, muscle activity, and the acoustic signal in 3 normal speakers as they repeated a simple test utterance with targeted speech rates varying from 60% to 160% of their habitual rate and at targeted vocal intensities of -6 dB and +6 dB relative to their habitual intensity. Surface electromyographic (EMG) recordings were obtained with electrodes positioned to sample primarily the mentalis, depressor labii inferior, anterior belly of the digastric, and masseter muscles. Two-dimensional displacements of the lower lip and jaw in the midsagittal plane were recorded with an electromagnetic system. All participants produced linear changes in percent utterance duration relative to the auditory targets for speech rate variation. Intensity variations ranged from -10 dB to +8 dB. Average EMG levels for all 4 muscles were well correlated with specific parameters of movement. Across the intensity conditions, EMG level was positively correlated with movement speed and distance in all participants. Across the rate conditions, EMG level was negatively correlated with movement duration in all participants, while greater interparticipant variability was noted for correlations relating EMG to speed and distance. For intensity control, it is suggested that converging neural input to orofacial motoneurons varies monotonically with movement distance and speed. In contrast, rate control appears to be more strongly related to the temporal characteristics of neural input than activation level.

  9. Actin dynamics mediates the changes of calcium level during the pulvinus movement of Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Yao, Heng; Xu, Qiangyi; Yuan, Ming

    2008-11-01

    The bending movement of the pulvinus of Mimosa pudica is caused by a rapid change in volume of the abaxial motor cells, in response to various environmental stimuli. We investigated the relationship between the actin cytoskeleton and changes in the level of calcium during rapid contractile movement of the motor cells that was induced by electrical stimulation. The bending of the pulvinus was retarded by treatments with actin-affecting reagents and calcium channel inhibitors. The actin filaments in the motor cells were fragmented in response to electrical stimulation. Further investigations were performed using protoplasts from the motor cells of M. pudica pulvini. Calcium-channel inhibitors and EGTA had an inhibitory effect on contractile movement of the protoplasts. The level of calcium increased and became concentrated in the tannin vacuole after electrical stimulation. Ruthenium Red inhibited the increase in the level of calcium in the tannin vacuole and the contractile movement of the protoplasts. However, treatment with latrunculin A abolished the inhibitory effect of Ruthenium Red. Phalloidin inhibited the contractile movement and the increase in the level of calcium in the protoplasts. Our study demonstrates that depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton in pulvinus motor cells in response to electrical signals results in increased levels of calcium.

  10. Actin dynamics mediates the changes of calcium level during the pulvinus movement of Mimosa pudica

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Heng; Xu, Qiangyi

    2008-01-01

    The bending movement of the pulvinus of Mimosa pudica is caused by a rapid change in volume of the abaxial motor cells, in response to various environmental stimuli. We investigated the relationship between the actin cytoskeleton and changes in the level of calcium during rapid contractile movement of the motor cells that was induced by electrical stimulation. The bending of the pulvinus was retarded by treatments with actin-affecting reagents and calcium channel inhibitors. The actin filaments in the motor cells were fragmented in response to electrical stimulation. Further investigations were performed using protoplasts from the motor cells of M. pudica pulvini. Calcium-channel inhibitors and EGTA had an inhibitory effect on contractile movement of the protoplasts. The level of calcium increased and became concentrated in the tannin vacuole after electrical stimulation. Ruthenium Red inhibited the increase in the level of calcium in the tannin vacuole and the contractile movement of the protoplasts. However, treatment with latrunculin A abolished the inhibitory effect of Ruthenium Red. Phalloidin inhibited the contractile movement and the increase in the level of calcium in the protoplasts. Our study demonstrates that depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton in pulvinus motor cells in response to electrical signals results in increased levels of calcium. PMID:19513198

  11. Association of Orofacial Muscle Activity and Movement during Changes in Speech Rate and Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClean, Michael D.; Tasko, Stephen M.

    2003-01-01

    Understanding how orofacial muscle activity and movement covary across changes in speech rate and intensity has implications for the neural control of speech production and the use of clinical procedures that manipulate speech prosody. The present study involved a correlation analysis relating average lower-lip and jaw-muscle activity to lip and…

  12. Association of Orofacial Muscle Activity and Movement during Changes in Speech Rate and Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClean, Michael D.; Tasko, Stephen M.

    2003-01-01

    Understanding how orofacial muscle activity and movement covary across changes in speech rate and intensity has implications for the neural control of speech production and the use of clinical procedures that manipulate speech prosody. The present study involved a correlation analysis relating average lower-lip and jaw-muscle activity to lip and…

  13. Mismatch between marine plankton range movements and the velocity of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chivers, William J.; Walne, Anthony W.; Hays, Graeme C.

    2017-02-01

    The response of marine plankton to climate change is of critical importance to the oceanic food web and fish stocks. We use a 60-year ocean basin-wide data set comprising >148,000 samples to reveal huge differences in range changes associated with climate change across 35 plankton taxa. While the range of dinoflagellates and copepods tended to closely track the velocity of climate change (the rate of isotherm movement), the range of the diatoms moved much more slowly. Differences in range shifts were up to 900 km in a recent warming period, with average velocities of range movement between 7 km per decade northwards for taxa exhibiting niche plasticity and 99 km per decade for taxa exhibiting niche conservatism. The differing responses of taxa to global warming will cause spatial restructuring of the plankton ecosystem with likely consequences for grazing pressures on phytoplankton and hence for biogeochemical cycling, higher trophic levels and biodiversity.

  14. Mismatch between marine plankton range movements and the velocity of climate change.

    PubMed

    Chivers, William J; Walne, Anthony W; Hays, Graeme C

    2017-02-10

    The response of marine plankton to climate change is of critical importance to the oceanic food web and fish stocks. We use a 60-year ocean basin-wide data set comprising >148,000 samples to reveal huge differences in range changes associated with climate change across 35 plankton taxa. While the range of dinoflagellates and copepods tended to closely track the velocity of climate change (the rate of isotherm movement), the range of the diatoms moved much more slowly. Differences in range shifts were up to 900 km in a recent warming period, with average velocities of range movement between 7 km per decade northwards for taxa exhibiting niche plasticity and 99 km per decade for taxa exhibiting niche conservatism. The differing responses of taxa to global warming will cause spatial restructuring of the plankton ecosystem with likely consequences for grazing pressures on phytoplankton and hence for biogeochemical cycling, higher trophic levels and biodiversity.

  15. Modeling void growth and movement with phase change in thermal energy storage canisters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darling, Douglas; Namkoong, David; Skarda, J. Raymond Lee

    1993-01-01

    A scheme was developed to model the thermal hydrodynamic behavior of thermal energy storage salts. The model included buoyancy, surface tension, viscosity, phases change with density difference, and void growth and movement. The energy, momentum, and continuity equations were solved using a finite volume formulation. The momentum equation was divided into two pieces. The void growth and void movement are modeled between the two pieces of the momentum equations. Results showed this scheme was able to predict the behavior of thermal energy storage salts.

  16. Changes in Oral Vowel Sounds and Hyoid Bone Movement After Thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ki Hwan; Yang, Woo Seok; Park, Min Ju; Oh, Jong Seok; Han, Baek Hwa

    2017-06-01

    Voice and speech alterations after total thyroidectomy may be associated with other extralaryngeal factors, such as neck muscle dysfunction and neck scar contracture. We evaluated the acoustic characteristics of oral vowel sounds and changes in hyoid bone movement before and after thyroidectomy. Twenty-nine female patients undergoing total thyroidectomy were included. Fundamental frequencies (Fo), formants and vowel space areas were evaluated before surgery and 7 days and 3 months after surgery to acoustically analyze the oral vowel sounds. Videofluoroscopic images were taken at the same times to evaluate hyoid bone movement. The Fo levels of seven vowels decreased significantly after surgery. The vowel formant changes the F1 of vowel /[e]/ decreased significantly from baseline at 3 months postoperatively, and the F3 of vowel /[i]/ decreased significantly from baseline 7 days postoperatively. The change in the vowel space area was not observed. The Y coordinate of the vowels /[i]/ and /[e]/ decreased significantly from baseline 7 days postoperatively due to changes in hyoid movement. The damage to the neck muscles after thyroidectomy changes in Fo, formant and hyoid bone position. These quantitative results could be used as basic data for voice management in patients who undergo thyroidectomy.

  17. Changes in functional movement screen scores over a season in collegiate soccer and volleyball athletes.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Peter A; Mokha, G Monique; Gatens, Dustin R

    2014-11-01

    Changes in many aspects of physical capacity and athletic performance have been documented through the course of a competitive season in collegiate athletes. Movement pattern quality as measured by the functional movement screen (FMS) has recently been linked to performance and injury risk. The purpose of this study was to document the changes in functional movement patterns over a competitive season. Fifty-seven National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II athletes were screened using the FMS as part of the pre and post participation examination for their competitive seasons in 2012. Composite and individual FMS test scores for the preseason and postseason were compared with identified significant changes. The scores were also analyzed for changes in the number of asymmetries present and the frequency of a score of 1 in any of the tests. There were no significant interactions in the main effects for time or sport in the composite FMS scores. However, 4 individual tests did show significant change. The deep squat (Z = -3.260, p = 0.001) and in-line lunge scores (Z = -3.498, p < 0.001) improved across all athletes, and the active straight leg raise (Z = -2.496, p = 0.013) and rotary stability scores (Z = -2.530, p = 0.011) worsened across all athletes. A reduction in the number of asymmetries (χ = 4.258, p = 0.039) and scores of 1 (χ = 26.148, p < 0.001) were also found. Changes in individual fundamental movement patterns occur through the course of a competitive season.

  18. Information-movement coupling in developing cricketers under changing ecological practice constraints.

    PubMed

    Pinder, Ross A; Renshaw, Ian; Davids, Keith

    2009-08-01

    Changing informational constraints of practice, such as when using ball projection machines, has been shown to significantly affect movement coordination of skilled cricketers. To date, there has been no similar research on movement responses of developing batters, an important issue since ball projection machines are used heavily in cricket development programmes. Timing and coordination of young cricketers (n=12, age=15.6+/-0.7years) were analyzed during the forward defensive and forward drive strokes when facing a bowling machine and bowler (both with a delivery velocity of 28.14+/-0.56ms(-1)). Significant group performance differences were observed between the practice task constraints, with earlier initiation of the backswing, front foot movement, downswing, and front foot placement when facing the bowler compared to the bowling machine. Peak height of the backswing was higher when facing the bowler, along with a significantly larger step length. Altering the informational constraints of practice caused major changes to the information-movement couplings of developing cricketers. Data from this study were interpreted to emanate from differences in available specifying variables under the distinct practice task constraints. Considered with previous findings, results confirmed the need to ensure representative batting task constraints in practice, cautioning against an over-reliance on ball projection machines in cricket development programmes.

  19. Measuring changes of movement dynamics during robot-aided neurorehabilitation of stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Roberto; Sterpi, Irma; Mazzone, Alessandra; Delconte, Carmen; Minuco, Giuseppe; Pisano, Fabrizio

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe in detail a new method, called normalized force control parameter (nFCP), to measure changes in movement dynamics obtained during robot-aided neurorehabilitation, and to evaluate its ability to estimate the clinical scales. The study was conducted in a group of 18 subjects after chronic stroke who underwent robot therapy of the upper limb. We used two different measures of movement dynamics to assess patients' performance during each session of training: the nFCP and force directional error (FDE), both measuring the directional error of the patient-exerted force applied to the end-effector of the robot device. Both metrics exhibited significant changes over the three-week course of treatment. The comparison between nFCP and FDE slopes showed a significant and high correlation ( r = 0.79; p < 0.001), indicating that the two parameters are closely correlated. The FDE informed on the direction of the force error, while the nFCP showed a better performance in predicting the clinical scale values. Assessment of the time course of recovery showed that nFCP, FDE and the movement smoothness improved quickly at first and then plateaued, while steady gains in mean velocity of movement took place over a longer time course. These data may be helpful to the therapist in developing more effective robot-based therapy protocols.

  20. 49 CFR 236.405 - Track signaled for movements in both directions, change of direction of traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Track signaled for movements in both directions, change of direction of traffic. 236.405 Section 236.405 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... in both directions, change of direction of traffic. On track signaled for movements in both...

  1. Developmental changes in head movement kinematics during swimming in Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Hänzi, Sara; Straka, Hans

    2017-01-15

    During the post-embryonic developmental growth of animals, a number of physiological parameters such as locomotor performance, dynamics and behavioural repertoire are adjusted to match the requirements determined by changes in body size, proportions and shape. Moreover, changes in movement parameters also cause changes in the dynamics of self-generated sensory stimuli, to which motion-detecting sensory systems have to adapt. Here, we examined head movements and swimming kinematics of Xenopus laevis tadpoles with a body length of 10-45 mm (developmental stage 46-54) and compared these parameters with fictive swimming, recorded as ventral root activity in semi-intact in vitro preparations. Head movement kinematics was extracted from high-speed video recordings of freely swimming tadpoles. Analysis of these locomotor episodes indicated that the swimming frequency decreased with development, along with the angular velocity and acceleration of the head, which represent self-generated vestibular stimuli. In contrast, neither head oscillation amplitude nor forward velocity changed with development despite the ∼3-fold increase in body size. The comparison between free and fictive locomotor dynamics revealed very similar swimming frequencies for similarly sized animals, including a comparable developmental decrease of the swimming frequency. Body morphology and the motor output rhythm of the spinal central pattern generator therefore develop concurrently. This study thus describes development-specific naturalistic head motion profiles, which form the basis for more natural stimuli in future studies probing the vestibular system. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Can Changes in Eye Movement Scanning Alter the Age-Related Deficit in Recognition Memory?

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jessica P. K.; Kamino, Daphne; Binns, Malcolm A.; Ryan, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    Older adults typically exhibit poorer face recognition compared to younger adults. These recognition differences may be due to underlying age-related changes in eye movement scanning. We examined whether older adults’ recognition could be improved by yoking their eye movements to those of younger adults. Participants studied younger and older faces, under free viewing conditions (bases), through a gaze-contingent moving window (own), or a moving window which replayed the eye movements of a base participant (yoked). During the recognition test, participants freely viewed the faces with no viewing restrictions. Own-age recognition biases were observed for older adults in all viewing conditions, suggesting that this effect occurs independently of scanning. Participants in the bases condition had the highest recognition accuracy, and participants in the yoked condition were more accurate than participants in the own condition. Among yoked participants, recognition did not depend on age of the base participant. These results suggest that successful encoding for all participants requires the bottom-up contribution of peripheral information, regardless of the locus of control of the viewer. Although altering the pattern of eye movements did not increase recognition, the amount of sampling of the face during encoding predicted subsequent recognition accuracy for all participants. Increased sampling may confer some advantages for subsequent recognition, particularly for people who have declining memory abilities. PMID:21687460

  3. Load- and skill-related changes in segmental contributions to a weightlifting movement.

    PubMed

    Enoka, R M

    1988-04-01

    An exemplary short duration, high-power, weightlifting event was examined to determine whether the ability to lift heavier loads and whether variations in the level of skill were accompanied by quantitative changes in selected aspects of lower extremity joint power-time histories. Six experienced weightlifters, three skilled and three less skilled, performed the double-knee-bend execution of the pull in Olympic weightlifting, a movement which lasted almost 1 s. Analysis-of-variance statistics were performed on selected peak and average values of power generated by the three skilled subjects as they lifted three loads (69, 77, and 86% of their competition maximum). The results indicated that the skilled subjects lifted heavier loads by increasing the average power, but not the peak power, about the knee and ankle joints. In addition, the changes with load were more subtle than a mere quantitative scaling and also seemed to be associated with a skill element in the form of variation in the duration of the phases of power production and absorption. Similarly, statistical differences (independent t-test) due to skill did not involve changes in the magnitude of power but rather the temporal organization of the movement. Thus, the ability to successfully execute the double-knee-bend movement depends on an athlete's ability to both generate a sufficient magnitude of joint power and to organize the phases of power production and absorption into an appropriate temporal sequence.

  4. Adaptation and perceptual norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Michael A.; Yasuda, Maiko; Haber, Sara; Leonard, Deanne; Ballardini, Nicole

    2007-02-01

    We used adaptation to examine the relationship between perceptual norms--the stimuli observers describe as psychologically neutral, and response norms--the stimulus levels that leave visual sensitivity in a neutral or balanced state. Adapting to stimuli on opposite sides of a neutral point (e.g. redder or greener than white) biases appearance in opposite ways. Thus the adapting stimulus can be titrated to find the unique adapting level that does not bias appearance. We compared these response norms to subjectively defined neutral points both within the same observer (at different retinal eccentricities) and between observers. These comparisons were made for visual judgments of color, image focus, and human faces, stimuli that are very different and may depend on very different levels of processing, yet which share the property that for each there is a well defined and perceptually salient norm. In each case the adaptation aftereffects were consistent with an underlying sensitivity basis for the perceptual norm. Specifically, response norms were similar to and thus covaried with the perceptual norm, and under common adaptation differences between subjectively defined norms were reduced. These results are consistent with models of norm-based codes and suggest that these codes underlie an important link between visual coding and visual experience.

  5. Norms for change in episodic memory as a prerequisite for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

    PubMed

    Bläsi, Stefan; Zehnder, Antoinette E; Berres, Manfred; Taylor, Kirsten I; Spiegel, René; Monsch, Andreas U

    2009-03-01

    The new diagnostic criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from the International Working Group on Mild Cognitive Impairment (Winblad et al., 2004, p. 243) list "evidence of decline over time in objective cognitive tasks" as one diagnostic sign, implying the repeated neuropsychological testing. This study aimed to compare different assessment methods of longitudinal change based on the performances of 366 cognitively healthy participants (237 men, 129 women) examined with a German version of the California Verbal Learning Test (Delis, Kramer, Kaplan, & Ober, 1987) at baseline and 2 years later. Age, education, gender, and baseline performance were taken into account. Results revealed marked practice effects after 2 years. Normal ranges for change that controls for practice effects and regression to the mean proved to be superior to other reliable change indexes. This new method allows for more valid interpretation of change in neuropsychological functioning and thus diagnosis of MCI.

  6. Change in length of relaxed muscle fascicles and tendons with knee and ankle movement in humans

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, R D; Moseley, A M; Butler, J E; Gandevia, S C

    2002-01-01

    Ultrasonography was used to measure changes in length of muscle fascicles in relaxed human tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius during passively imposed changes in joint angle. Changes in the length of muscle fascicles were compared to changes in the length of the whole muscle-tendon units calculated from joint angles and anthropometric data. Relaxed muscle fascicles underwent much smaller changes in length than their muscle-tendon units. On average, muscle fascicles in tibialis anterior [saw] 55 ± 13 % (mean ± s.d.) of the total change in muscle-tendon length. This indicates nearly half of the total change in muscle-tendon length was taken up by stretch of tendon. In gastrocnemius, which has relatively long tendons, only 27 ± 9 % of the total change in muscle-tendon length was transmitted to muscle fascicles. Thus, the tendency for passive movement to be taken up by the tendon was greater for gastrocnemius than tibialis anterior (P = 0.002). For these muscles, the relatively large changes in tendon length across much of the physiological range of muscle-tendon lengths could not wholly be explained by tendon slackness, changes in fibre pennation, or stretch or contraction history of the muscle. Our data confirm that when joints are moved passively, length changes [seen] by muscle fascicles can be much less than changes in the distance between muscle origin and insertion. This occurs because tendons undergo significant changes in length, even at very low forces. PMID:11882694

  7. Changing Body Movement Patterns in 9-Year-Old Baseball Pitchers: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Fehringer, Edward V.; Dilisio, Matthew F.; Greco, Chaeli E.; Fleming, Shane M.; Brezenski, Jon W.; High, Robin R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Arm injuries in throwing athletes continue to increase. Injuries may be due to multiple variables, including inefficient body movement patterns, especially in young baseball throwers. It is unclear whether these patterns can be efficiently altered in this population. Purpose/Hypothesis: To investigate the effect of a novel 21-day throwing program on body movement patterns in youth baseball players using common practical tools. Our hypothesis was that this program would change body movement patterns over a relatively short period. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Ten 9-year-old baseball athletes were asked to participate in a 21–consecutive day throwing program focused on decreasing inefficiencies. All participants underwent video evaluation from 2 vantage points as well as radar evaluation before and after the programs. Throwing arm humerothoracic and antecubital angles as well as pelvic angles in the frontal view were measured at the time of front (directional) leg heel/toe down (late cocking) for each of 3 pitches. Glove-side humerothoracic angles and back leg minimum popliteal angles were measured from behind for each of 3 additional pitches. Velocity was measured using a radar gun. All angular measurements were performed by a physical therapist blinded to the purposes of the program and study as well as to video chronology. Results: Throwing arm antecubital angle (P = .01) and humerothoracic angle (P = .03) as well as back leg minimum popliteal angle (P = .03) all decreased, with mean decreases of 35°, 10°, and 8°, respectively. Velocity increased with decreased back leg popliteal angles (P = .019); mean velocity increased 2.6 mph (P = .016). Conclusion: Young baseball throwers can quickly retrain their bodies to accomplish different movement patterns. Clinical Relevance: This novel throwing program may have implications for injury prevention and treatment as we identify better baseball-throwing movement patterns. PMID

  8. Levodopa changes brain motor network function during ankle movements in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Schwingenschuh, Petra; Katschnig, Petra; Jehna, Margit; Koegl-Wallner, Mariella; Seiler, Stephan; Wenzel, Karoline; Ropele, Stefan; Langkammer, Christian; Gattringer, Thomas; Svehlík, Martin; Ott, Erwin; Fazekas, Franz; Schmidt, Reinhold; Enzinger, Christian

    2013-03-01

    Bradykinesia-the cardinal symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD)-affects both upper and lower limbs. While several functional imaging studies investigated the impact of levodopa on movement-related neural activity in Parkinson's disease during upper limb movements, analogue studies on lower limb movements are rare. We studied 20 patients with PD (mean age 66.8 ± 7.2 years) after at least 12 h drug withdrawal (OFF-state) and a second time approximately 40 min after oral administration of 200 mg levodopa (ON-state) behaviourally and by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3 T during externally cued active ankle movements of the more affected foot at fixed rate. Results were compared with that obtained in ten healthy controls (HC) to separate pure pharmacological from disease-related levodopa-induced effects and to allow for interaction analyses. Behaviourally, all patients improved by at least 20 % regarding the motor score of the Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale after levodopa-challenge (mean scores OFF-state: 38.4 ± 10.1; ON-state: 25.5 ± 8.1). On fMRI, levodopa application elicited increased activity in subcortical structures (contralateral putamen and thalamus) in the patients. In contrast, no significant levodopa-induced activation changes were found in HC. The interaction between "PD/HC group factor" and "levodopa OFF/ON" did not show significant results. Given the levodopa-induced activation increases in the putamen and thalamus with unilateral ankle movements in patients with PD but not in HC, we speculate that these regions show the most prominent response to levodopa within the cortico-subcortical motor-circuit in the context of nigrostriatal dysfunction.

  9. Periodic leg movements during sleep and cerebral hemodynamic changes detected by NIRS.

    PubMed

    Pizza, Fabio; Biallas, Martin; Wolf, Martin; Valko, Philipp O; Bassetti, Claudio L

    2009-07-01

    Periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS) have been shown to be associated with changes in autonomic and hemispheric activities. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) assesses hemodynamic changes linked to hemispheric/cortical activity. We applied NIRS to test whether cerebral hemodynamic alterations accompany PLMS. Three PLMS patients underwent nocturnal polysomnography coupled with cerebral NIRS. EEG correlates of PLMS were scored and NIRS data were analysed for the identification of correspondent hemodynamic changes. PLMS were constantly associated with cerebral hemodynamic fluctuations that showed greater amplitude when associated to changes in EEG and were present also in absence of any visually detectable arousal or A phase in the EEG. This is the first study documenting cerebral hemodynamic changes linked to PLMS. The clinical relevance of these observations remains to be determined.

  10. Age-related changes of dental pulp tissue after experimental tooth movement in rats.

    PubMed

    Von Böhl, Martina; Ren, Yijin; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne M; Fudalej, Piotr S; Maltha, Jaap C

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the effect of orthodontic tooth movement on the dental pulp in adolescents is reversible and that it has no long-lasting effect on pulpal physiology. However, it is not clear yet if the same conclusion is also valid for adult subjects. Thus, in two groups of rats, aged 6 and 40 weeks respectively, 3 molars at one side of the maxilla were moved together in a mesial direction with a standardized orthodontic appliance delivering a force of 10 cN. The contralateral side served as a control. Parasagittal histological sections were prepared after tooth movement for 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The pulp tissue was characterized for the different groups, with special emphasis on cell density, inflammatory cells, vascularity, and odontoblasts. Dimensions of dentin and the pulpal horns was determined and related with the duration of orthodontic force application and age ware evaluated. We found that neither in young nor in adult rats, force application led to long-lasting or irreversible changes in pulpal tissues. Dimensional variables showed significant age-related changes. In conclusion, orthodontic tooth movement per se has no long-lasting or irreversible effect on pulpal tissues, neither in the young nor in the adult animals.

  11. Age-related changes of dental pulp tissue after experimental tooth movement in rats

    PubMed Central

    Von Böhl, Martina; Ren, Yijin; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne M.; Maltha, Jaap C.

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the effect of orthodontic tooth movement on the dental pulp in adolescents is reversible and that it has no long-lasting effect on pulpal physiology. However, it is not clear yet if the same conclusion is also valid for adult subjects. Thus, in two groups of rats, aged 6 and 40 weeks respectively, 3 molars at one side of the maxilla were moved together in a mesial direction with a standardized orthodontic appliance delivering a force of 10 cN. The contralateral side served as a control. Parasagittal histological sections were prepared after tooth movement for 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The pulp tissue was characterized for the different groups, with special emphasis on cell density, inflammatory cells, vascularity, and odontoblasts. Dimensions of dentin and the pulpal horns was determined and related with the duration of orthodontic force application and age ware evaluated. We found that neither in young nor in adult rats, force application led to long-lasting or irreversible changes in pulpal tissues. Dimensional variables showed significant age-related changes. In conclusion, orthodontic tooth movement per se has no long-lasting or irreversible effect on pulpal tissues, neither in the young nor in the adult animals. PMID:26855867

  12. Distribution pattern changes of actin filaments during chloroplast movement in Adiantum capillus-veneris.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Hidenori; Wada, Masamitsu

    2012-05-01

    Chloroplasts change their positions in a cell in response to light intensities. The photoreceptors involved in chloroplast photo-relocation movements and the behavior of chloroplasts during their migration were identified in our previous studies, but the mechanism of movement has yet to be clarified. In this study, the behavior of actin filaments under various light conditions was observed in Adiantum capillus-veneris gametophytes. In chloroplasts staying in one place under a weak light condition and not moving, circular structures composed of actin filaments were observed around the chloroplast periphery. In contrast, short actin filaments were observed at the leading edge of moving chloroplasts induced by partial cell irradiation. In the dark, the circular structures found under the weak light condition disappeared and then reappeared around the moving chloroplasts. Mutant analyses revealed that the disappearance of the circular actin structure was mediated by the blue light photoreceptor, phototropin2.

  13. Finger movements induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation change with hand posture, but not with coil position.

    PubMed

    Wassermann, E M; Tormos, J M; Pascual-Leone, A

    1998-01-01

    We attempted to map the representations of movements in 2 normal subjects by delivering five transcranial magnetic stimuli (TMS) with a focal coil to each of a grid of positions over the primary motor area (M1). Isometric forces were recorded from the contralateral index finger. Maps were made with the hand in a semiflexed "neutral" position, and with the thumb and index finger opposed in a "pincer" grip. The electromyogram (EMG) was monitored to ensure relaxation. The wrist was immobilized. In the neutral position, TMS at almost all positions produced abduction. Flexion was produced in the pincer position. Thus, while sensitive to changes in posture, TMS mapping may not be sensitive to the topographical organization of the M1 by movements as detected with direct cortical stimulation.

  14. Movement changes due to hemiplegia in stroke survivors: a hermeneutic phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Risa; Murata, Waka; Saeki, Kazuko

    2016-08-01

    Meanings of movement for stroke survivors could give therapists significant insights, especially during maintenance phase. The purpose of this study was to examine how post-stroke users of a long-term elderly care facility had experienced changes in movement resulting from hemiplegia. The participants of this study were 18 stroke survivors using a long-term elderly care facility. Based on phenomenology, between two and three interviews were conducted with each participant about their experiences with hemiplegia. Data analysis consisted of the following phases: 'data immersion', 'data transformation' and 'thematic analysis'. This study was approved by the ethics committee of the authors' institution. Participants experienced seven themes resulting from hemiplegia, perceiving themselves differently from the way they did before the stroke. The themes were as follows: 'inescapable dependence', 'sense of incompetence', 'lack of autonomy', 'symbol of deviation from normal', 'licence for amae', 'security of self-worth' and 'proof of effort'. The first four themes attempt to express participants' pain and difficulty in living with their present body; the last three attempt to express methods for coping with the present body in the company of others. Results will assist therapists to understand the significant needs of their clients in the maintenance phase. Implications for Rehabilitation Hemiplegia is paralysis of half of the body; it represents one kind of physical disability caused by stroke. Re-interpretation of how patients had experienced the changes of their movements after they had hemiplegia is helpful for the therapists to understand the significant needs for their clients. It may be especially relevant for therapists working with stroke survivors in the maintenance phase, whose functional recovery of physical movements is not expected to occur to a greater extent.

  15. Working-Class High School Learners' Challenge to Change: Insights from the "Equal Education" Movement in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Steven Lance; Fleisch, Brahm

    2016-01-01

    Hargreaves (2002) suggested that vigorous social movements have the potential to improve the quality of (and increase the equity in) public education. This paper explores the role of Equal Education, an education social movement in South Africa led by university students and secondary school learners, in the process of educational change. Drawing…

  16. Working-Class High School Learners' Challenge to Change: Insights from the "Equal Education" Movement in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Steven Lance; Fleisch, Brahm

    2016-01-01

    Hargreaves (2002) suggested that vigorous social movements have the potential to improve the quality of (and increase the equity in) public education. This paper explores the role of Equal Education, an education social movement in South Africa led by university students and secondary school learners, in the process of educational change. Drawing…

  17. Potential Applications of Social Norms Theory to Academic Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demetriou, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, social norms theory has become prevalent in student development literature and research. Subsequently, social norms interventions to change student behavior have spread across campuses nationwide through marketing campaigns. Theorists and practitioners have applied the social norms approach to primarily health-related student…

  18. Mismatch between marine plankton range movements and the velocity of climate change

    PubMed Central

    Chivers, William J.; Walne, Anthony W.; Hays, Graeme C.

    2017-01-01

    The response of marine plankton to climate change is of critical importance to the oceanic food web and fish stocks. We use a 60-year ocean basin-wide data set comprising >148,000 samples to reveal huge differences in range changes associated with climate change across 35 plankton taxa. While the range of dinoflagellates and copepods tended to closely track the velocity of climate change (the rate of isotherm movement), the range of the diatoms moved much more slowly. Differences in range shifts were up to 900 km in a recent warming period, with average velocities of range movement between 7 km per decade northwards for taxa exhibiting niche plasticity and 99 km per decade for taxa exhibiting niche conservatism. The differing responses of taxa to global warming will cause spatial restructuring of the plankton ecosystem with likely consequences for grazing pressures on phytoplankton and hence for biogeochemical cycling, higher trophic levels and biodiversity. PMID:28186097

  19. Initial changes in pulpal microvasculature during orthodontic tooth movement: a stereological study.

    PubMed

    Santamaria, Milton; Milagres, Débora; Stuani, Adriana Sasso; Stuani, Maria Bernadete Sasso; Ruellas, Antônio Carlos de Oliveira

    2006-06-01

    Any alteration in blood flow or vascular pressure caused by a trauma may damage the pulp tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the vascular changes during the initial period of tooth movement. These alterations were assessed in coronal molar pulp tissue of 20 male Wistar rats, 90 days of age, submitted to mesial inclination movement by a closed coil spring, placed from the right maxillary first molar to the maxillary incisors. The animals were divided into three experimental groups of 6, 24, and 72 hours of 0.4 N force application, with five animals in each group, and a control group of five animals without tooth movement. The volume density of blood vessels (V(v)) of the coronal pulp tissue in the experimental groups was calculated by stereology and compared with the control group. The results demonstrated a significant increase in V(v) at 6 hours of 10.2 per cent compared with 7.2 per cent for the control group (P 0.05). These results demonstrate the high capacity of adaptation of the pulp tissue to an aggression, provided the biological limits of tolerance of the pulp are respected.

  20. Tracking Mobile Sinks via Analysis of Movement Angle Changes in WSNs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guisong; Xu, Huifen; He, Xingyu; Wang, Gang; Xiong, Naixue; Wu, Chunxue

    2016-01-01

    Existing methods for tracking mobile sinks in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) often incur considerable energy consumption and overhead. To address this issue, we propose a Detour-Aware Mobile Sink Tracking (DAMST) method via analysis of movement angle changes of mobile sinks, for collecting data in a low-overhead and energy efficient way. In the proposed method, while a mobile sink passes through a region, it appoints a specific node as a region agent to collect information of the whole region, and records nodes near or on its trajectory as footprints. If it needs information from the region agent in a future time it will construct an energy efficient path from the region agent to itself by calculating its own movement angles according to the footprints, as well as getting rid of detours by analyzing these movement angles. Finally, the performance of the tracking method is evaluated systematically under different trajectory patterns and footprint appointment intervals. The simulation results consolidate that DAMST has advantages in reducing energy consumption and data overhead. PMID:27043562

  1. Tracking Mobile Sinks via Analysis of Movement Angle Changes in WSNs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guisong; Xu, Huifen; He, Xingyu; Wang, Gang; Xiong, Naixue; Wu, Chunxue

    2016-03-29

    Existing methods for tracking mobile sinks in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) often incur considerable energy consumption and overhead. To address this issue, we propose a Detour-Aware Mobile Sink Tracking (DAMST) method via analysis of movement angle changes of mobile sinks, for collecting data in a low-overhead and energy efficient way. In the proposed method, while a mobile sink passes through a region, it appoints a specific node as a region agent to collect information of the whole region, and records nodes near or on its trajectory as footprints. If it needs information from the region agent in a future time it will construct an energy efficient path from the region agent to itself by calculating its own movement angles according to the footprints, as well as getting rid of detours by analyzing these movement angles. Finally, the performance of the tracking method is evaluated systematically under different trajectory patterns and footprint appointment intervals. The simulation results consolidate that DAMST has advantages in reducing energy consumption and data overhead.

  2. An Under-the-Table Leg-Movement Apparatus and Changes in Energy Expenditure.

    PubMed

    Koepp, Gabriel A; Moore, Graham; Levine, James A

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Deskwork contributes substantially to sedentariness. Here, we evaluated an under-the-table apparatus that was designed to promote leg movement (fidgeting) while seated. Our hypothesis was that the under-the-table apparatus would increase energy expenditure. Methods: We measured energy expenditure and heart rate in 26 people while they sat and worked using a standard chair, walked on a treadmill, and sat and worked using an under-the-desk apparatus that encouraged leg movement. Results: Energy expenditure increased significantly while using the under-the-table apparatus when compared to the standard office chair (standard chair, 81 ± 18 kcal/h; under-the-table apparatus, 96 ± 23 kcal/h) (P < 0.001); representing an 18 ± 16% increase. The changes in energy expenditure were not as great as walking (1 mph, 168 ± 46 kcal/h, P < 0.001; 2 mph, 205 ± 51 kcal/, P < 0.001), representing 107 ± 37% and 155 ± 48% increases over baseline, respectively. Conclusions: An under-the-table apparatus that promotes leg movement can increase energy expenditure by approximately 20%. Dynamic sitting is promoted by this apparatus and may be among a lexicon of options to help people move more while seated at work.

  3. An Under-the-Table Leg-Movement Apparatus and Changes in Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Koepp, Gabriel A.; Moore, Graham; Levine, James A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Deskwork contributes substantially to sedentariness. Here, we evaluated an under-the-table apparatus that was designed to promote leg movement (fidgeting) while seated. Our hypothesis was that the under-the-table apparatus would increase energy expenditure. Methods: We measured energy expenditure and heart rate in 26 people while they sat and worked using a standard chair, walked on a treadmill, and sat and worked using an under-the-desk apparatus that encouraged leg movement. Results: Energy expenditure increased significantly while using the under-the-table apparatus when compared to the standard office chair (standard chair, 81 ± 18 kcal/h; under-the-table apparatus, 96 ± 23 kcal/h) (P < 0.001); representing an 18 ± 16% increase. The changes in energy expenditure were not as great as walking (1 mph, 168 ± 46 kcal/h, P < 0.001; 2 mph, 205 ± 51 kcal/, P < 0.001), representing 107 ± 37% and 155 ± 48% increases over baseline, respectively. Conclusions: An under-the-table apparatus that promotes leg movement can increase energy expenditure by approximately 20%. Dynamic sitting is promoted by this apparatus and may be among a lexicon of options to help people move more while seated at work. PMID:28572774

  4. Experimental orthodontic tooth movement and extensive root resorption: periodontal and pulpal changes.

    PubMed

    Tripuwabhrut, Polbhat; Brudvik, Pongsri; Fristad, Inge; Rethnam, Sivakami

    2010-12-01

    Previous studies have reported changes both in dental pulp and in periodontal ligament (PDL) following orthodontic tooth movement. However, pulpal changes following extensive root resorption after orthodontic tooth movement have not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate inflammatory changes, both in the dental pulp and in the compressed PDL, after experimentally induced extensive root resorption. Extensive root resorption was induced in rats by the activation and re-activation of orthodontic force, with a short intervening period of no force application. The distribution of immune cells, nerve fibres and blood vessels was studied immunohistochemically using antibodies against CD68-immunoreactive (IR) cells, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II Ia-expressing cells, CD43-IR cells, protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), and laminin. In the compressed PDL of experimental first molars, significantly increased density of CD68-IR cells and MHC class II Ia-expressing cells were found, whereas the density of CD43-IR cells were unchanged when compared with control second molars. In the compressed PDL, there was an increased density of blood vessels, but no sprouting of nerve fibres. In the dental pulp, however, no increased density of immune cells or sprouting of nerve fibres was recorded. In conclusion, inflammation after extensive root resorption was confined to the compressed PDL, whereas the dental pulp was unaffected.

  5. Changing norms, strategies, and systems to support behavioral health and social justice: A call to action and introduction to the special section.

    PubMed

    McLeigh, Jill D; Kilmer, Ryan P

    2017-01-01

    This editorial introduces this special section of the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. The Global Alliance for Behavioral Health and Social Justice (formerly the American Orthopsychiatric Association) has developed the theme for its track at the 2016 Annual Research and Policy Conference on Child, Adolescent, and Young Adult Behavioral Health. The Global Alliance, the parent organization of the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, has long sought to address prevailing social conditions by treating them as problems to be solved through multilevel, contextually grounded social interventions. Indeed, throughout the organization's history, it has advocated for focusing on the effects of social determinants of health (e.g., racism, violence, poverty, oppression, war) on behavioral health and for doing so across contexts, such as the family, community, and broader social environment. In keeping with the organization's history and the current social context, the theme for the Global Alliance's track was "Changing norms, strategies, and systems to support behavioral health and social justice." This special section includes articles that build on four of the presentations and two award addresses delivered as part of the Global Alliance's track. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Children's and Adolescents' Expectations about Challenging Unfair Group Norms.

    PubMed

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Killen, Melanie

    2017-04-07

    Youth often hold group norms that perpetuate inequality. One way these norms can be changed is by challenging these norms by choosing to include new members into these groups who hold morally just norms. In the current study, children's and adolescents' inclusion decisions and social reasoning about challenging group norms through inclusion were investigated. The sample included 9-10 (children) and 13-14 year-olds (adolescents) (N = 673, 54.4% female). Participants supported including challengers into groups holding norms supporting relational aggression and unequal allocation of resources, but they were less likely to support including a challenger into a physically aggressive group. Age-related differences and gender differences were found: children and female participants were more likely to include challengers than were adolescents and male participants. The findings indicate that youth support including new members who would challenge morally questionable group norms, but that their support depends on the specific norm the group holds.

  7. Developmental changes in lateralized inhibition of symmetric movements in children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    PubMed

    Tallet, Jessica; Albaret, Jean-Michel; Barral, Jérôme

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigates developmental changes in selective inhibition of symmetric movements with a lateralized switching task from bimanual to unimanual tapping in typically developing (TD) children and with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) from 7 to 10 years old. Twelve right-handed TD children and twelve gender-matched children with DCD and probable DCD produce a motor switching task in which they have (1) to synchronize with the beat of an auditory metronome to produce bimanual symmetrical tapping and (2) to selectively inhibit their left finger's tapping while continuing their right finger's tapping and conversely. We assess (1) the development of the capacity to inhibit the stopping finger (number of supplementary taps after the stopping instruction) and (2) the development of the capacity to maintain the continuing finger (changes in the mean tempo and its variability for the continuing finger's tapping) and (3) the evolution of performance through trials. Results indicate that (1) TD children present an age-related increase in the capacity to inhibit and to maintain the left finger's tapping, (2) DCD exhibits persistent difficulties to inhibit the left finger's tapping, and (3) both groups improve their capacity to inhibit the left finger's movements through trials. In conclusion, the lateralized switching task provides a simple and fine tool to reveal differences in selective inhibition of symmetric movements in TD children and children with DCD. More theoretically, the specific improvement in selective inhibition of the left finger suggests a progressive development of inter-hemispheric communication during typical development that is absent or delayed in children with DCD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ultrasonographic evaluation of periodontal changes during orthodontic tooth movement - work in progress

    PubMed Central

    ZIMBRAN, ADELA; DUDEA, DIANA; GASPARIK, CRISTINA; DUDEA, SORIN

    2017-01-01

    Background and aim Orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is a process whereby the application of a force induces bone resorption on the pressure side and bone apposition on the tension side of the lamina dura. However, only limited data are available on the in vivo behavior of the periodontal tissues. The aim of this study was to assess the changes of periodontal tissues, induced by the orthodontic canine retraction, using 40 MHz ultrasonography. Methods Ultrasonographic evaluation of periodontal tissues was conducted in 5 patients with indication for orthodontic treatment. The upper first premolars were extracted bilaterally due to severe crowding, and the canines were distalized using elastomeric chain with a net force of 100 cN. Ultrasonographic scans (US scans) were performed before, during and after retraction, in three distinct areas of the canines buccal surface: mesial, middle and distal. The reference point was the bracket, which appeared hyperechoic on the US scan. Four different dimensions were obtained: D1 (depth of the sulcus), D2 (thickness of the gingiva), D3 (length of the supracrestal fibers), D4 (width of periodontal space). Results An increase of D1 was observed in all three areas of the periodontium, during orthodontic treatment. D3 was strongly correlated before and immediately after force delivery only for the mesial area (r=0.828, p<0.05). In total, 228 variables were statistically analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficients, in order to demonstrate the relationship between periodontal findings during orthodontic tooth movement. Conclusion High-resolution ultrasonography has the capability to obviate changes in periodontal ligament space and free gingiva during orthodontic tooth movement. PMID:28246503

  9. Speech in ALS: Longitudinal Changes in Lips and Jaw Movements and Vowel Acoustics

    PubMed Central

    Yunusova, Yana; Green, Jordan R.; Lindstrom, Mary J.; Pattee, Gary L.; Zinman, Lorne

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this exploratory study was to investigate longitudinally the changes in facial kinematics, vowel formant frequencies, and speech intelligibility in individuals diagnosed with bulbar amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This study was motivated by the need to understand articulatory and acoustic changes with disease progression and their subsequent effect on deterioration of speech in ALS. Method Lip and jaw movements and vowel acoustics were obtained for four individuals with bulbar ALS during four consecutive recording sessions with an average interval of three months between recordings. Participants read target words embedded into sentences at a comfortable speaking rate. Maximum vertical and horizontal mouth opening and maximum jaw displacements were obtained during corner vowels. First and second formant frequencies were measured for each vowel. Speech intelligibility and speaking rate score were obtained for each session as well. Results Transient, non-vowel-specific changes in kinematics of the jaw and lips were observed. Kinematic changes often preceded changes in vowel acoustics and speech intelligibility. Conclusions Nonlinear changes in speech kinematics should be considered in evaluation of the disease effects on jaw and lip musculature. Kinematic measures might be most suitable for early detection of changes associated with bulbar ALS. PMID:27453680

  10. Social change movements and the struggle over meaning-making: a case study of domestic violence narratives.

    PubMed

    Lehrner, Amy; Allen, Nicole E

    2008-12-01

    Social movement theorists have emphasized the important role of meaning-making for social change movements (e.g., D. A. Snow and R. D. Benford, 1992, In: A. D. Morris & C. M. Mueller (Eds.) Frontiers in social movement theory. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, pp 133-155; C. M. Mueller, 1992, In: A. D. Morris & C. M. Mueller (Eds.) Frontiers in social movement theory. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, pp 3-26). Using the domestic violence movement as a case study, this study undertakes a close analysis of advocates' narratives about the phenomenon of domestic violence. This analysis sheds light on the current status of the movement as a social change movement attempting to promote alternative understandings of domestic violence as a social, rather than individual, problem. Study findings provide some evidence that the domestic violence movement has become increasingly de-politicized by documenting a range of narratives that convey an apolitical, degendered, individual-level analysis of domestic violence.

  11. Spring hunting changes the regional movements of migrating greater snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bechet, A.; Giroux, J.-F.; Gauthier, G.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    1. Human-induced disturbance such as hunting may influence the migratory behaviour of long-distance migrants. In 1999 and 2000 a spring hunt of greater snow geese Anser caerulescens atlanticus occurred for the first time in North America since 1916, aimed at stopping population growth to protect natural habitats. 2. We evaluated the impact of this hunt on the staging movements of geese along a 600-km stretch of the St. Lawrence River in southern Quebec, Canada. 3. We tracked radio-tagged female geese in three contiguous regions of the staging area from the south-west to the north-east: Lake St Pierre, Upper Estuary and Lower Estuary, in spring 1997 (n = 37) and 1998 (n = 70) before the establishment of hunting, and in 1999 (n = 60) and 2000 (n = 59) during hunting. 4. We used multi-state capture-recapture models to estimate the movement probabilities of radio-tagged females among these regions. To assess disturbance level, we tracked geese during their feeding trips and estimated the probability of completing a foraging bout without being disturbed. 5. In the 2 years without hunting, migration was strongly unidirectional from the south-west to the north-east, with very low westward movement probabilities. Geese gradually moved from Lake St Pierre to Upper Estuary and then from Upper Estuary to Lower Estuary. 6. In contrast, during the 2 years with hunting westward movement was more than four times more likely than in preceding years. Most of these backward movements occurred shortly after the beginning of the hunt, indicating that geese moved back to regions where they had not previously experienced hunting. 7. Overall disturbance level increased in all regions in years with hunting relative to years without hunting. 8. Synthesis and applications. We conclude that spring hunting changed the stopover scheduling of this long-distance migrant and might further impact population dynamics by reducing prenuptial fattening. The spring hunt may also have increased crop

  12. Health norms in pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Barić, L; MacArthur, C

    1977-01-01

    A study was conducted on a sample of pregnant women. The study had two aims: to develop a method of measuring social expectations (norms) and to find out how far women conform in their behaviour to these norms. The areas of behaviour were smoking, exercise, diet, alcohol, and medication. Pregnancy was found to be appropriate for this study because of the high degree of formalisation that this state enjoys in our society. The methods used for measuring norms in this study are an improvement on earlier methods, but further refinements are needed. The findings show that women generally do conform to the social expectations and that their behaviour is in accordance with three types of norms--that is, general, specific, and transitional. The implications for health education interventions are discussed. PMID:856369

  13. Lacustrine chronology links late Pleistocene climate change and mass movements in northern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Dethier, D.P.; Reneau, S.L.

    1996-06-01

    Well-dated lacustrine deposits in northern White Rock Canyon, New Mexico, record damming of the Rio Grande by at least four separate failures of a slump complex between about 17.5 and 12.4 ka ({sup 14}C), linking mass movements to a period of rapid climate change in the western United States. Failure of metastable slumps probably resulted from removal of lateral support during down-cutting and erosion by the Rio Grande and from a decrease in resisting forces due to increased pore pressures. Our chronology suggests that the lake that formed between 17.5 and 15.0 ka may record effects of both glacial melt and pluvial activity (mainly enhanced rainfall); the youngest lake (neary 12.4 ka) may record pluvial runoff; and the intermediate lakes (13.7 to 13.1 ka) may record pluvial and minor melt-water activity. We have not found lacustrine deposits younger than about 12.4 ka. The record of geomorphic response along the Rio Grande suggests that late Pleistocene climatic changes may have triggered similar mass movements elsewhere in the southwest. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  14. [Changes in movement-related cortical potentials in Parkinson's patients before and after treatment with levodopa].

    PubMed

    Feve, A P; Bathien, N; Rondot, P

    1991-05-01

    Cortical potentials associated with voluntary, self-paced wrist flexion (MRPs) were recorded from 3 scalp locations (Cz and psi contralateral hand motor area) in patients with Parkinson's disease (9 de novo patients and 30 L-Dopa treated patients). The analysis concerned 3 components of the MRPs: the 2 slow negative shifts (NS1 and N1) before the movement onset and the motor potential (MP). The NSI amplitude was measured at Cz, the peak negativity N1 and MP from contralateral hand motor area location. The potential distribution was also studied. The amplitude of the MRPs components was the same as in the normals. But in de novo patients, the potential distribution of the NS1 component was different; a Cz preponderance of the NS1 amplitude was not found. In patients treated with L-Dopa, there is a negative correlation between the changes in amplitude and the changes in clinical rating for NS1, N1 and MP components. The decrease in the MRPs components was significant from stage III and IV of the Hoehn and Yahr scales. After L-Dopa therapy, the NS1 component from de novo patients was increased in amplitude. The amplitude of the MRPs components from patients with L-Dopa induced clinical fluctuations was reduced during "off" period in comparison to "on" period. The findings suggest that the NS1 potential and the N1 and MP components share 2 distinct systems for the control of voluntary movement. Their mechanism in Parkinson's disease is discussed.

  15. Service user involvement in practitioner education: Movement politics and transformative change.

    PubMed

    Mckeown, Mick; Dix, Julie; Jones, Fiona; Carter, Bernie; Malihi-Shoja, Lisa; Mallen, Ernie; Harrison, Nigel

    2014-08-01

    This paper will attempt to celebrate both key developments and best practice involving the users of health and social care services in programmes of practitioner education in a UK context, and offer a critical appraisal of the extent to which such initiatives meet some of the more transformative objectives sought by service user activists for change. The approach is largely that of a discussion paper but we will illustrate some of the themes relating to movement activism with selected data. These data relate to earlier research and two specially convened focus groups within the Comensus initiative at the University of Central Lancashire; itself constituted as a piece of participatory action research. We conclude that universities represent paradoxical sites for the facilitation of debate and learning relevant to key issues of social justice and change. As such, they are places that can impede or support movement aims. Particular strategic responses might be more likely to engender progressive outcomes. These ought to include the presence of critically engaged academic staff operating within a scholarly culture that fosters forms of deliberative democratic decision making.

  16. Influence of practice with within-trials and inter-trials changes of target velocity in improving movement correction.

    PubMed

    Ikudome, Sachi; Nakamoto, Hiroki; Ishii, Yasumitsu; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Mori, Shiro

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, the influences of two practice methods on movement correction during interceptive action was examined. Fourteen men practiced intercepting a moving virtual target. One group practiced on a target that changed velocity from 4 to 8 m/sec. during the trial (within-trials change group). The other group practiced under Slow and Fast conditions, in which the initial velocity (4 or 8 m/sec.) remained constant (inter-trials change group). After the practice, both groups showed similar decreases in temporal errors in interception of an acceleration target. However, the within-trials change group showed non-corrected movements, whereas the inter-trials change group showed corrective movements. Thus, the practice methods for within-trials and inter-trials change resulted in different corrective strategies to acceleration target.

  17. The effect of temporal and force changes on the patterning of sequential movements.

    PubMed

    Piek, J P; Glencross, D J; Barrett, N C; Love, G L

    1993-01-01

    This article examines the programming of relatively long sequences of action with the control of sequential movements being effected through the use of a tapping task involving a sequence of five taps. Subjects were required to tap with their right hand at rates of 150, 200, and 250 ms. There were two conditions, with subjects being required either to increase, in condition 1, or to decrease, in condition 2, the force at one of the five tap positions (all five tap positions were examined), then return to the previous force level. Changes in timing resulting from variations in the force characteristics have previously been discussed in terms of changes in the organizational time required (Semjen, Garcia-Colera, & Requin, 1984). The current study breaks the intertap interval down into two separate components: the contact interval (finger in contact with the key) and the non-contact interval (interval preceding the tap). Although changes in the non-contact interval could be explained in terms of changes in the organizational time required, changes in the contact interval appeared to be a result of the mechanical changes in force.

  18. Extending the Mertonian Norms: Scientists’ Subscription to Norms of Research

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Melissa S.; Ronning, Emily A.; DeVries, Raymond; Martinson, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    This analysis, based on focus groups and a national survey, assesses scientists’ subscription to the Mertonian norms of science and associated counternorms. It also supports extension of these norms to governance (as opposed to administration), as a norm of decision-making, and quality (as opposed to quantity), as a evaluative norm. PMID:21132074

  19. Correlating charge movements with local conformational changes of a Na(+)-coupled cotransporter.

    PubMed

    Patti, Monica; Forster, Ian C

    2014-04-15

    To gain insight into the steady-state and dynamic characteristics of structural rearrangements of an electrogenic secondary-active cotransporter during its transport cycle, two measures of conformational change (pre-steady-state current relaxations and intensity of fluorescence emitted from reporter fluorophores) were investigated as a function of membrane potential and external substrate. Cysteines were substituted at three believed-new sites in the type IIb Na(+)-coupled inorganic phosphate cotransporter (SLC34A2 flounder isoform) that were predicted to be involved in conformational changes. Labeling at one site resulted in substantial suppression of transport activity, whereas for the other sites, function remained comparable to the wild-type. For these mutants, the properties of the pre-steady-state charge relaxations were similar for each, whereas fluorescence intensity changes differed significantly. Fluorescence changes could be accounted for by simulations using a five-state model with a unique set of apparent fluorescence intensities assigned to each state according to the site of labeling. Fluorescence reported from one site was associated with inward and outward conformations, whereas for the other sites, including four previously indentified sites, emissions were associated principally with one or the other orientation of the transporter. The same membrane potential change induced complementary changes in fluorescence at some sites, which suggested that the microenvironments of the respective fluorophores experience concomitant changes in polarity. In response to step changes in voltage, the pre-steady-state current relaxation and the time course of change in fluorescence intensity were described by single exponentials. For one mutant the time constants matched well with and without external Na(+), providing direct evidence that this label reports conformational changes accompanying intrinsic charge movement and cation interactions.

  20. Evaluation of Potential Climate Change Impacts on Particle Movement in Open Channel Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, E.; Tsai, C.

    2014-12-01

    It is important to develop a forecast model to predict the trajectory of sediment particles when extreme flow events occur. In extreme flow environments, the stochastic jump diffusion particle tracking model (SJD-PTM) can be used to model the movement of sediment particles in response to extreme events. This proposed SJD-PTM can be separated into three main parts — a drift motion, a turbulence term and a jump term due to random occurrences of extreme flow events. The study is intended to modify the jump term, which models the abrupt changes of particle position in the extreme flow environments. The frequency of extreme flow occurrences might change due to many uncertain factors such as climate change. The study attempts to use the concept of the logistic regression and the parameter of odds ratio, namely the trend magnitude to investigate the frequency change of extreme flow event occurrences and its impact on sediment particle movement. With the SJD-PTM, the ensemble mean and variance of particle trajectory can be quantified via simulations. The results show that by taking the effect of the trend magnitude into consideration, the particle position and its uncertainty may undergo a significant increase. Such findings will have many important implications to the environmental and hydraulic engineering design and planning. For instance, when the frequency of the occurrence of flow events with higher extremity increases, particles can travel further and faster downstream. It is observed that flow events with higher extremity can induce a higher degree of entrainment and particle resuspension, and consequently more significant bed and bank erosion.

  1. Discriminating patterns and drivers of multiscale movement in herpetofauna: The dynamic and changing environment of the Mojave desert tortoise.

    PubMed

    Sadoti, Giancarlo; Gray, Miranda E; Farnsworth, Matthew L; Dickson, Brett G

    2017-09-01

    Changes to animal movement in response to human-induced changes to the environment are of growing concern in conservation. Most research on this problem has focused on terrestrial endotherms, but changes to herpetofaunal movement are also of concern given their limited dispersal abilities and specialized thermophysiological requirements. Animals in the desert region of the southwestern United States are faced with environmental alterations driven by development (e.g., solar energy facilities) and climate change. Here, we study the movement ecology of a desert species of conservation concern, the Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii). We collected weekly encounter locations of marked desert tortoises during the active (nonhibernation) seasons in 2013-2015, and used those data to discriminate movements among activity centers from those within them. We then modeled the probability of movement among activity centers using a suite of covariates describing characteristics of tortoises, natural and anthropogenic landscape features, vegetation, and weather. Multimodel inference indicated greatest support for a model that included individual tortoise characteristics, landscape features, and weather. After controlling for season, date, age, and sex, we found that desert tortoises were more likely to move among activity centers when they were further from minor roads and in the vicinity of barrier fencing; we also found that movement between activity centers was more common during periods of greater rainfall and during periods where cooler temperatures coincided with lower rainfall. Our findings indicate that landscape alterations and climate change both have the potential to impact movements by desert tortoises during the active season. This study provides an important baseline against which we can detect future changes in tortoise movement behavior.

  2. Pulp-dentine complex changes and root resorption during intrusive orthodontic tooth movement in patients prescribed nabumetone.

    PubMed

    Villa, Paula A; Oberti, Giovanni; Moncada, Cesar A; Vasseur, Olga; Jaramillo, Alejandro; Tobón, Diego; Agudelo, Jaime A

    2005-01-01

    Pulpitis, external root resorption, and pain may be experienced during orthodontic movement. The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been suggested to control these changes. The purpose of this study was to observe pulp-dentinal reactions, root resorption, tooth pain, and tooth movement after the application of a 4-ounce intrusive orthodontic force to human maxillary first premolars in patients given the NSAID nabumetone. Thirty-four maxillary first premolars were evaluated. A placebo was prescribed to 17 patients after an intrusive force was activated and reactivated for an 8-week period on the right side. The same procedure was repeated on the left side after patients were given nabumetone. Pulp-dentinal reactions and external root resorption were evaluated by histology. Pain and movement were also evaluated. Nabumetone was found to be useful in reducing pulpitis, external root resorption, and pain caused by intrusive orthodontic movement, without altering tooth movement in response to the application of orthodontic force.

  3. Mode changes associated with oil droplet movement in solutions of gemini cationic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Banno, Taisuke; Miura, Shingo; Kuroha, Rie; Toyota, Taro

    2013-06-25

    Micrometer-sized self-propelled oil droplets in nonequilibrium systems have attracted much attention, since they form stable emulsions composed of oil, water, and surfactant which represent a primitive type of inanimate chemical machinery. In this work, we examined means of controlling the movement of oil droplets by studying the dynamics of n-heptyloxybenzaldehyde droplets in phosphate buffers containing alkanediyl-α,ω-bis(N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethylammonium bromide) (nG12) with either tetramethylene (4G12), octaethylene (8G12), or dodecamethylene (12G12) chains in the linker moiety. Significant differences in droplet dynamics were observed to be induced by changes in the linker structure of these gemini cationic surfactants. In a phosphate buffer containing 30 mM 4G12, self-propelled motion of droplets concurrent with the formation of molecular aggregates on their surfaces was observed, whereas the fusion of oil droplets was evident in both 8G12 and 12G12 solutions. We also determined that the surface activities and the extent of molecular self-assembly of the surfactants in phosphate buffer were strongly influenced by the alkyl chain length in the linker moiety. We therefore conclude that the surface activities of the gemini cationic surfactant have important effects on the oil-water interfacial tension of oil droplets and the formation of molecular aggregates and that both of these factors induce the unique movement of the droplets.

  4. Past, Present, and Future of Psychosomatic Movements in an Ever-Changing World: Presidential Address.

    PubMed

    Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph

    2017-09-01

    The American Psychosomatic Society (APS) was founded in 1942 and is celebrating its 75th anniversary in 2017. In recognizing the society's anniversary, this article provides a historical perspective on its history, the field of psychosomatic medicine in general, and anticipated future directions. Essay and narrative review of the literature on the historic development of psychosomatic concepts and their impact on medicine over time. Mind-body associations have been described in the medical literature over more than 3,500 years. Early concepts of mind-body dualism and attempts to overcome them are found in classical Greek medicine. Psychosomatic thinking can be observed ever since but only in the 20th century a "psychosomatic movement" emerged in Europe and the North America, aiming at humanizing medicine by introducing a holistic understanding of man into what was considered a widely reductionistic practice of medicine. This movement led to the inauguration of the APS during World War II and of national and international societies of psychosomatic medicine and its subspecializations thereafter. Psychosomatic medicine has its roots in the beginnings of medicine. During the past 75 years it has made substantial contributions to the science and practice of medicine. The field has also changed in response to developments in medicine, technology, and society and is facing new challenges and opportunities that may require further adaptation of its concepts and practice.

  5. Plasmolysis-deplasmolysis causes changes in endoplasmic reticulum form, movement, flow, and cytoskeletal association.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaohang; Lang, Ingeborg; Adeniji, Opeyemi Samson; Griffing, Lawrence

    2017-07-10

    Plasmolysis of hypocotyl cells of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana diminishes the dynamics of the remodeling of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the central protoplast, namely that withdrawn from the cell wall, and more persistent cisternae are formed, yet little change in the actin network in the protoplast occurs. Also, protein flow within the ER network in the protoplast, as detected with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), is not affected by plasmolysis. After plasmolysis, another network of strictly tubular ER remains attached to the plasma membrane-wall interface and is contained within the Hechtian strands and reticulum. FRAP studies indicate that protein flow within these ER tubules diminishes. Actin is largely absent from the Hechtian reticulum and the ER becomes primarily associated with altered, branched microtubules. The smaller volume of the central protoplast is accompanied by decreased movement rates of tubules, cisternae, and spheroid organelles, but this reduced movement is not readily reversed by the increase in volume that accompanies deplasmolysis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. Changes in Articulator Movement Variability during Phonemic Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigos, Maria I.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The present study explored articulator movement variability during voicing contrast acquisition. The purpose was to examine whether oral articulator movement trajectories associated with the production of voiced/voiceless bilabial phonemes in children became less variable over time. Method: Jaw, lower lip, and upper lip movements were…

  7. Forest thinning changes movement patterns and habitat use by Pacific marten

    Treesearch

    Katie M. Moriarty; Clinton W. Epps; William J. Zielinski

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Simplifying stand structure to reduce fuel density is a high priority for forest managers; however, affects to Pacific marten (Martes caurina) movement and connectivity are unknown. We evaluated whether thinning forests to reduce fuels influenced movements of Pacific marten. We collected movement paths from 22 martens using global positioning system telemetry...

  8. Changes in Articulator Movement Variability during Phonemic Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigos, Maria I.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The present study explored articulator movement variability during voicing contrast acquisition. The purpose was to examine whether oral articulator movement trajectories associated with the production of voiced/voiceless bilabial phonemes in children became less variable over time. Method: Jaw, lower lip, and upper lip movements were…

  9. Assessing the outcome of making it easier for patients to change general practitioner: practice characteristics associated with patient movements.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, K; Nicholl, J; Coleman, P

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The government white paper, Promoting better health, suggested that primary health care services should be made more responsive to patient needs and that competition, brought about by the freer movement of patients between practices, could act as a mechanism for improving the quality of the services provided. Policy changes reflecting these aims were introduced with the 1990 contract for general practitioners. AIM. A study was carried out to estimate the volume of patient movement between practices not attributable to a patient's change of address or to a major change in the practice they had left, and to investigate which practice characteristics patients moved towards and which they moved away from when changing general practitioner. METHOD. Data on 2617 patient movements during June 1991 were collected from five family health services authorities. These patient movements were analysed in relation to data on practice characteristics obtained from family health services authority records. RESULTS. The estimated volume of movement of patients between practices was small (1.6% of the registered population per year). The majority of movements were between group practices; a quarter of the movements recorded were to single-handed general practitioners. However, the ratio of the number of movements from group practices to single-handed general practitioners compared with those from single-handed general practitioners to group practices was 1.37 (95% confidence interval 1.19 to 1.57). In choosing single-handed general practitioners these patients were willing to forgo access to a woman general practitioner, extended services and greater hours of general practitioner availability. Among the subset of movements between group practices, patients were more likely to gain access to a practice nurse, longer surgery hours and a woman general practitioner as a consequence of their move. CONCLUSION. The scale of patient movement observed did not indicate any

  10. Atmospheric depression-mediated water temperature changes affect the vertical movement of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Takashi; Hyodo, Susumu; Sato, Katsufumi

    2016-08-01

    The Sanriku coastal area, Japan, is one of the southern-most natural spawning regions of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta. Here, we report their behavioral response to changes in ambient temperature after the passage of an atmospheric depression during the early spawning season. Before the passage, all electrically tagged fish moved vertically for several hours to depths below the shallow thermocline at >100 m. However, during the atmospheric depression, the salmon shortened the duration of their vertical movements and spent most time at the surface. The water column was homogenous at <150 m deep except for the surface. The descending behavior may have been discontinued because the cooler water below the thermocline was no longer in a thermally defined layer, due to strong vertical mixing by high wave action. Instead, they likely spent time within the cooler water temperatures at the surface of bays to minimize metabolic energy cost during migration.

  11. Dynamical changes and temporal precision of synchronized spiking activity in monkey motor cortex during movement preparation.

    PubMed

    Riehle, A; Grammont, F; Diesmann, M; Grün, S

    2000-01-01

    Movement preparation is considered to be based on central processes which are responsible for improving motor performance. For instance, it has been shown that motor cortical neurones change their activity selectively in relation to prior information about movement parameters. However, it is not clear how groups of neurones dynamically organize their activity to cope with computational demands. The aim of the study was to compare the firing rate of multiple simultaneously recorded neurones with the interaction between them by describing not only the frequency of occurrence of epochs of significant synchronization, but also its modulation in time and its changes in temporal precision during an instructed delay. Multiple single-neurone activity was thus recorded in monkey motor cortex during the performance of two different delayed multi-directional pointing tasks. In order to detect conspicuous spike coincidences in simultaneously recorded spike trains by tolerating temporal jitter ranging from 0 to 20 ms and to calculate their statistical significance, a modified method of the 'Unitary Events' analysis was used. Two main results were obtained. First, simultaneously recorded neurones synchronize their spiking activity in a highly dynamic way. Synchronization becomes significant only during short periods (about 100 to 200 ms). Several such periods occurred during a behavioural trial more or less regularly. Second, in many pairs of neurones, the temporal precision of synchronous activity was highest at the end of the preparatory period. As a matter of fact, at the beginning of this period, after the presentation of the preparatory signal, neurones significantly synchronize their spiking activity, but with low temporal precision. As time advances, significant synchronization becomes more precise. Data indicate that not only the discharge rate is involved in preparatory processes, but also temporal aspects of neuronal activity as expressed in the precise synchronization

  12. Climate change impacts on mass movements--case studies from the European Alps.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, M; Tiranti, D; Huggel, C

    2014-09-15

    This paper addresses the current knowledge on climate change impacts on mass movement activity in mountain environments by illustrating characteristic cases of debris flows, rock slope failures and landslides from the French, Italian, and Swiss Alps. It is expected that events are likely to occur less frequently during summer, whereas the anticipated increase of rainfall in spring and fall could likely alter debris-flow activity during the shoulder seasons (March, April, November, and December). The magnitude of debris flows could become larger due to larger amounts of sediment delivered to the channels and as a result of the predicted increase in heavy precipitation events. At the same time, however, debris-flow volumes in high-mountain areas will depend chiefly on the stability and/or movement rates of permafrost bodies, and destabilized rock glaciers could lead to debris flows without historic precedents in the future. The frequency of rock slope failures is likely to increase, as excessively warm air temperatures, glacier shrinkage, as well as permafrost warming and thawing will affect and reduce rock slope stability in the direction that adversely affects rock slope stability. Changes in landslide activity in the French and Western Italian Alps will likely depend on differences in elevation. Above 1500 m asl, the projected decrease in snow season duration in future winters and springs will likely affect the frequency, number and seasonality of landslide reactivations. In Piemonte, for instance, 21st century landslides have been demonstrated to occur more frequently in early spring and to be triggered by moderate rainfalls, but also to occur in smaller numbers. On the contrary, and in line with recent observations, events in autumn, characterized by a large spatial density of landslide occurrences might become more scarce in the Piemonte region.

  13. Effects of movement from a postural maintenance position on lumbar hemodynamic changes.

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Tsuneo; Seko, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Yui

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of movement from a postural maintenance position on lumbar hemodynamic changes, in order to prevent lower back pain and develop exercise therapy. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five healthy adults (mean age: 23.2 years) participated in the study. During flexion-extension exercise, the subjects moved their trunks gradually to a flexed position from an upright posture while sitting and standing, and then returned to and maintained an upright (re-upright) position. In the extension-flexion exercise, the subjects moved their trunks gradually from an upright posture to an extended position, and back while maintaining an upright (re-upright) position. Lumbar spinal muscle activity and hemodynamic changes were evaluated during both exercises. [Results] During the flexion and extension exercises, increased trunk-flexion angle caused increased muscle activity, decreased oxygenated hemoglobin in the multifidus muscle, and increased deoxygenated hemoglobin in the multifidus and lumbar erector spinae muscles. Moreover, the muscle activities were nearly the same in the re-upright and upright positions, and total hemoglobin also increased. [Conclusion] In both standing and sitting positions, holding the trunk in a flexed position causes ischemic hemodynamic changes in the multifidus muscle; however, the hyperemic response when returning the trunk to an extended position may improve circulation.

  14. Effects of movement from a postural maintenance position on lumbar hemodynamic changes

    PubMed Central

    Kumamoto, Tsuneo; Seko, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Yui

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of movement from a postural maintenance position on lumbar hemodynamic changes, in order to prevent lower back pain and develop exercise therapy. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five healthy adults (mean age: 23.2 years) participated in the study. During flexion-extension exercise, the subjects moved their trunks gradually to a flexed position from an upright posture while sitting and standing, and then returned to and maintained an upright (re-upright) position. In the extension–flexion exercise, the subjects moved their trunks gradually from an upright posture to an extended position, and back while maintaining an upright (re-upright) position. Lumbar spinal muscle activity and hemodynamic changes were evaluated during both exercises. [Results] During the flexion and extension exercises, increased trunk-flexion angle caused increased muscle activity, decreased oxygenated hemoglobin in the multifidus muscle, and increased deoxygenated hemoglobin in the multifidus and lumbar erector spinae muscles. Moreover, the muscle activities were nearly the same in the re-upright and upright positions, and total hemoglobin also increased. [Conclusion] In both standing and sitting positions, holding the trunk in a flexed position causes ischemic hemodynamic changes in the multifidus muscle; however, the hyperemic response when returning the trunk to an extended position may improve circulation. PMID:27390450

  15. Movement disorder and neuromuscular change in zebrafish embryos after exposure to caffeine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yau-Hung; Huang, Yi-Hui; Wen, Chi-Chung; Wang, Yun-Hsin; Chen, Wei-Li; Chen, Li-Chao; Tsay, Huey-Jen

    2008-01-01

    Though caffeine is broadly distributed in many plants and foods, little is known about the teratogenic effects of caffeine during early embryonic development. Here, we used zebrafish as a model to test toxicity and teratogenicity since they have transparent eggs, making the organogenesis of zebrafish embryos easier to observe. When the exposure doses of caffeine were less than 150 ppm (17.5, 35, 50, 100 and 150 ppm), the zebrafish embryos exhibited no significant differences in survival rates after comparison with vehicle-control (0 ppm) group. As the exposure dosages increased, the survival rates decreased. No embryos survived after treatment with 300 ppm caffeine or higher dosages. The most evident change in embryos treated with caffeine was a shorter body length (vehicle-control: 3.26+/-0.01 mm, n=49; vs 150 ppm of caffeine: 2.67+/-0.03 mm, n=50). In addition, caffeine-treated embryos exhibited significantly reduced tactile sensitivity frequencies of touch-induced movement (vehicle-control: 9.93+/-0.77 vs 17.5-150 ppm caffeine: 5.37+/-0.52-0.10+/-0.06). Subtle changes are easily observed by staining with specific monoclonal antibodies F59, Znp1 and Zn5 to detect morphological changes in muscle fibers, primary motor axons and secondary motor axon projections, respectively. Our data show that the treatment of caffeine leads to misalignment of muscle fibers and motor neuron defects, especially secondary motor neuron axonal growth defects.

  16. Network structure and influence of the climate change counter-movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Justin

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic climate change represents a global threat to human well-being and ecosystem functioning. Yet despite its importance for science and policy, our understanding of the causes of widespread uncertainty and doubt found among the general public remains limited. The political and social processes driving such doubt and uncertainty are difficult to rigorously analyse, and research has tended to focus on the individual-level, rather than the larger institutions and social networks that produce and disseminate contrarian information. This study presents a new approach by using network science to uncover the institutional and corporate structure of the climate change counter-movement, and machine-learning text analysis to show its influence in the news media and bureaucratic politics. The data include a new social network of all known organizations and individuals promoting contrarian viewpoints, as well as the entirety of all written and verbal texts about climate change from 1993-2013 from every organization, three major news outlets, all US presidents, and every occurrence on the floor of the US Congress. Using network and computational text analysis, I find that the organizational power within the contrarian network, and the magnitude of semantic similarity, are both predicted by ties to elite corporate benefactors.

  17. Using nonlinear methods to quantify changes in infant limb movements and vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Abney, Drew H.; Warlaumont, Anne S.; Haussman, Anna; Ross, Jessica M.; Wallot, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    The pairing of dynamical systems theory and complexity science brings novel concepts and methods to the study of infant motor development. Accordingly, this longitudinal case study presents a new approach to characterizing the dynamics of infant limb and vocalization behaviors. A single infant's vocalizations and limb movements were recorded from 51-days to 305-days of age. On each recording day, accelerometers were placed on all four of the infant's limbs and an audio recorder was worn on the child's chest. Using nonlinear time series analysis methods, such as recurrence quantification analysis and Allan factor, we quantified changes in the stability and multiscale properties of the infant's behaviors across age as well as how these dynamics relate across modalities and effectors. We observed that particular changes in these dynamics preceded or coincided with the onset of various developmental milestones. For example, the largest changes in vocalization dynamics preceded the onset of canonical babbling. The results show that nonlinear analyses can help to understand the functional co-development of different aspects of infant behavior. PMID:25161629

  18. Development, social norms, and assignment to task

    PubMed Central

    Fafchamps, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Economic development involves a structural transformation in the way people are allocated to tasks. There is a shift from self-provision to market exchange, facilitating specialization. There is also a shift from self-employment to wage employment in large firms and organizations, driven by innovation and increasing returns to scale. Changes in allocation mechanisms require changes in norms and attitudes. Because different labor assignment domains coexist, conflicts arise among norms that apply to different domains, possibly resulting in dysfunctional outcomes. I argue that religion, humanism, and schools have all played an important historical role in fostering the changes in social norms and attitudes that are needed to accompany structural changes in the way economies allocate workers to tasks. PMID:22198757

  19. Hand-head coordination changes from discrete to reciprocal hand movements for various difficulty settings.

    PubMed

    Germain-Robitaille, Mathieu; Terrier, Romain; Forestier, Nicolas; Teasdale, Normand

    2012-07-11

    The parameters dictating the temporal hand-head coordination during visually corrected movements remain elusive. Here we examine the effects of the nature (discrete vs reciprocal) and the difficulty (ID of 4.7, 5.7 and 6.7 bits) of the task on the temporal hand-head coordination during a Fitts' like paradigm. Subjects aimed at a single target (discrete movement) or alternately to two targets (reciprocal movements). Head movements were unaffected by the ID during discrete movements. This was not the case during reciprocal movements where they were (1) smaller in duration and amplitude than during discrete movements and (2) increased in duration and amplitude with an increasing ID. To measure the temporal hand-head coordination, hand-head latencies were calculated at the onset, peak speed and offset of each movement. Offset latencies remained positive (i.e. the hand reached the target after the head stopped) for all IDs during reciprocal but not during discrete movements. Altogether, different patterns of temporal hand-head coordination were observed between discrete and reciprocal movements as well as between IDs, suggesting the hand-head coordination does not follow a fixed rule but is adjusted to task requirements.

  20. Effects of natural and anthropogenic change on habitat use and movement of endangered salt marsh harvest mice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine R; Barthman-Thompson, Laureen; Gould, William R; Mabry, Karen E

    2014-01-01

    The northern salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris halicoetes) is an endangered species endemic to the San Francisco Bay Estuary. Using a conservation behavior perspective, we examined how salt marsh harvest mice cope with both natural (daily tidal fluctuations) and anthropogenic (modification of tidal regime) changes in natural tidal wetlands and human-created diked wetlands, and investigated the role of behavioral flexibility in utilizing a human-created environment in the Suisun Marsh. We used radio telemetry to determine refuge use at high tide, space use, and movement rates to investigate possible differences in movement behavior in tidal versus diked wetlands. We found that the vast majority of the time salt marsh harvest mice remain in vegetation above the water during high tides. We also found no difference in space used by mice during high tide as compared to before or after high tide in either tidal or diked wetlands. We found no detectable difference in diurnal or nocturnal movement rates in tidal wetlands. However, we did find that diurnal movement rates for mice in diked wetlands were lower than nocturnal movement rates, especially during the new moon. This change in movement behavior in a relatively novel human-created habitat indicates that behavioral flexibility may facilitate the use of human-created environments by salt marsh harvest mice.

  1. Effects of Natural and Anthropogenic Change on Habitat Use and Movement of Endangered Salt Marsh Harvest Mice

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Katherine R.; Barthman-Thompson, Laureen; Gould, William R.; Mabry, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    The northern salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris halicoetes) is an endangered species endemic to the San Francisco Bay Estuary. Using a conservation behavior perspective, we examined how salt marsh harvest mice cope with both natural (daily tidal fluctuations) and anthropogenic (modification of tidal regime) changes in natural tidal wetlands and human-created diked wetlands, and investigated the role of behavioral flexibility in utilizing a human-created environment in the Suisun Marsh. We used radio telemetry to determine refuge use at high tide, space use, and movement rates to investigate possible differences in movement behavior in tidal versus diked wetlands. We found that the vast majority of the time salt marsh harvest mice remain in vegetation above the water during high tides. We also found no difference in space used by mice during high tide as compared to before or after high tide in either tidal or diked wetlands. We found no detectable difference in diurnal or nocturnal movement rates in tidal wetlands. However, we did find that diurnal movement rates for mice in diked wetlands were lower than nocturnal movement rates, especially during the new moon. This change in movement behavior in a relatively novel human-created habitat indicates that behavioral flexibility may facilitate the use of human-created environments by salt marsh harvest mice. PMID:25310800

  2. A nonlinear approach to tracking slow-time-scale changes in movement kinematics.

    PubMed

    Dingwell, Jonathan B; Napolitano, Domenic F; Chelidze, David

    2007-01-01

    Degenerative processes like repetitive strain injuries (RSIs) cause normal movement patterns to change slowly over time. Accurately tracking how these disease/injury processes evolve over time and predicting their future progression could allow early intervention and prevent further deterioration. However, these processes often cannot be measured directly and first-principles models of these processes and how they affect movement control are highly complex and difficult to derive analytically. This study was conducted to determine if algorithms developed to track damage accumulation in mechanical systems without requiring first-principles models or direct measurements of the damage itself could also track a similar "hidden" process in a biomechanical context. Five healthy adults walked on a motorized treadmill at their preferred speed, while the treadmill inclination angle was slowly increased from 0 degrees (level) to approximately +8 degrees . Sagittal plane kinematics for the left hip, knee, and ankle joints were computed. The treadmill inclination angle was independently recorded and defined the "damage" to be tracked. Scalar tracking metrics were computed from the lower extremity walking kinematics. These metrics exhibited strong cubic relationships with treadmill inclination (88.9%

  3. Movement Assessment of Children (MAC): validity, reliability, stability and sensitivity to change in typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Chandler, L S; Terhorst, L; Rogers, J C; Holm, M B

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the validity, reliability, stability and sensitivity to change of the family-centred Movement Assessment of Children (MAC) in typically developing infants/toddlers from 2 months (1 month 16 days) to 2 years (24 months 15 days) of age. Assessment of infant/toddler motor development is critical so that infants and toddlers who are at-risk for developmental delay or whose functional motor development is delayed can be monitored and receive therapy to improve their developmental outcomes. Infants/toddlers are thought to be more responsive during the MAC assessment because parents and siblings participate and elicit responses. Two hundred seventy six children and 405 assessments contributed to the establishment of age-related parameters for typically developing infants and toddlers on the MAC. The MAC assesses three core domains of functional movement (head control, upper extremities and hands, pelvis and lower extremities), and generates a core total score. Four explanatory domains serve to alert examiners to factors that may impact atypical development (general observations, special senses, primitive reflexes/reactions, muscle tone). Construct validity of functional motor development was examined using the relationship between incremental increases in scores and increases in participants' ages. Subsamples were used to establish inter-rater reliability, test-retest reliability, stability and sensitivity to change. Construct validity was established and inter-rater reliability ICCs for the core items and core total ranged from 0.83 to 0.99. Percent agreement for the explanatory items ranged from 0.72 to 0.96. Stability within age grouping was consistent from baseline to 6 months post-baseline, and sensitivity to change from baseline to 6 months was significant for all core items and the total score. The MAC has proven to be a well-constructed assessment of infant and toddler functional motor development. It is a

  4. Regional Norms for English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachru, Braj B.

    The debate continues about regional norms for English usage around the world, although the discussion has become more realistic and less didactic. Educated non-native varieties are increasingly accepted, distinctions are being made between national and international language uses, and localized varieties are no longer considered as necessarily…

  5. Changes in Chemical Permeation of Disposable Latex, Nitrile and Vinyl Gloves Exposed to Simulated Movement

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, Robert N.; Le, Thi; Wong, Weng Kee

    2014-01-01

    Glove movement can affect chemical permeation of organic compounds through polymer glove products. However, conflicting reports make it difficult to compare the effects of movement on chemical permeation through commonly available glove types. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of movement on chemical permeation of an organic solvent through disposable latex, nitrile, and vinyl gloves. Simulated whole-glove permeation testing was conducted using ethyl alcohol and a previously designed permeation test system. With exposure to movement, a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.001) in breakthrough time was observed for the latex (-23%) and nitrile gloves (-31%). With exposure to movement, only the nitrile glove exhibited a significant increase (p ≤ 0.001) in steady-state permeation rate (+47%) and cumulative permeation at 30 min (+111%). Even though the nitrile glove provided optimum chemical resistance against ethyl alcohol, it was most affected by movement. With exposure to movement, the latex glove was an equivalent option for overall worker protection, because it was less affected by movement and the permeation rate was lower than that of the nitrile glove. In contrast, the vinyl glove was the least affected by movement, but did not provide adequate chemical resistance to ethyl alcohol in comparison with the nitrile and latex gloves. In conclusion, glove selection should take movement and polymer type into account. Some glove polymer types are less affected by movement, most notably the latex glove in this test. With nitrile gloves, at least a factor of three should be used when attempting to assign a protection factor when repetitive hand motions are anticipated. Ultimately, the latex gloves outperformed nitrile and vinyl in these tests, which evaluated the effect of movement on chemical permeation. Future research should aim to resolve some of the observed discrepancies in test results with latex and vinyl gloves. PMID:24689368

  6. Changes in chemical permeation of disposable latex, nitrile, and vinyl gloves exposed to simulated movement.

    PubMed

    Phalen, Robert N; Le, Thi; Wong, Weng Kee

    2014-01-01

    Glove movement can affect chemical permeation of organic compounds through polymer glove products. However, conflicting reports make it difficult to compare the effects of movement on chemical permeation through commonly available glove types. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of movement on chemical permeation of an organic solvent through disposable latex, nitrile, and vinyl gloves. Simulated whole-glove permeation testing was conducted using ethyl alcohol and a previously designed permeation test system. With exposure to movement, a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.001) in breakthrough time (BT) was observed for the latex (-23%) and nitrile gloves (-31%). With exposure to movement, only the nitrile glove exhibited a significant increase (p ≤ 0.001) in steady-state permeation rate (+47%) and cumulative permeation at 30 min (+111%). Even though the nitrile glove provided optimum chemical resistance against ethyl alcohol, it was most affected by movement. With exposure to movement, the latex glove was an equivalent option for overall worker protection, because it was less affected by movement and the permeation rate was lower than that of the nitrile glove. In contrast, the vinyl glove was the least affected by movement, but did not provide adequate chemical resistance to ethyl alcohol in comparison with the nitrile and latex gloves. Glove selection should take movement and polymer type into account. Some glove polymer types are less affected by movement, most notably the latex glove in this test. With nitrile gloves, at least a factor of three should be used when attempting to assign a protection factor when repetitive hand motions are anticipated. Ultimately, the latex gloves outperformed nitrile and vinyl in these tests, which evaluated the effect of movement on chemical permeation. Future research should aim to resolve some of the observed discrepancies in test results with latex and vinyl gloves.

  7. Functional MRI and motor behavioral changes obtained with constraint-induced movement therapy in chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    Könönen, M; Tarkka, I M; Niskanen, E; Pihlajamäki, M; Mervaala, E; Pitkänen, K; Vanninen, R

    2012-04-01

    The clinical benefits of intensive stroke rehabilitation vary individually. We used multimodal functional imaging to assess the relationship of clinical gain and imaging changes in patients with chronic stroke whose voluntary motor control improved after constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT). Eleven patients (37.6 ± 36.8 months from stroke) were studied by functional MRI (fMRI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and behavioral assessment of hand motor control (Wolf Motor Function Test) before and after 2 weeks of CIMT. Individual and group-level changes in imaging and behavioral parameters were investigated. Increase in fMRI activation in the sensorimotor areas was greater amongst those subjects who had poor hand motor behavior before therapy and/or whose motor behavior improved notably because of therapy than amongst subjects with relatively good motor behavior already before therapy. The magnitude of CIMT-induced changes in task-related fMRI activation differed between lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres, and the fMRI laterality index was different for paretic and non-paretic hand tasks. The corticospinal conduction time in TMS was significantly decreased after CIM therapy. Alterations in sensorimotor cortical activations (fMRI) and corticospinal conductivity (TMS) were observed after intensive rehabilitation in patients with chronic stroke. Activation and functional changes in fMRI and TMS correlated significantly with the degree of clinical improvement in hand motor behavior. The present data advance the understanding of the functional underpinnings of motor recovery, which may be obtained even years after the stroke. © 2011 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2011 EFNS.

  8. Understanding multiple levels of norms about teen pregnancy and their relationships to teens’ sexual behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W.; Boardman, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys’ perceived norms, while peer network norms predict girls’ perceived norms. Peer network and individually perceived norms against teen pregnancy independently and negatively predict teens’ likelihood of sexual intercourse. Perceived norms against pregnancy predict increased likelihood of contraception among sexually experienced girls, but sexually experienced boys’ contraceptive behavior is more complicated: When both the boy and his peers or school have stronger norms against teen pregnancy he is more likely to contracept, and in the absence of school or peer norms against pregnancy, boys who are embarrassed are less likely to contracept. We conclude that: (1) patterns of behavior cannot adequately operationalize teen pregnancy norms, (2) norms are not simply linked to behaviors through individual perceptions, and (3) norms at different levels can operate independently of each other, interactively, or in opposition. This evidence creates space for conceptualizations of agency, conflict, and change that can lead to progress in understanding age norms and sexual behaviors. PMID:25104920

  9. Understanding multiple levels of norms about teen pregnancy and their relationships to teens' sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W; Boardman, Jason D

    2014-06-01

    Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys' perceived norms, while peer network norms predict girls' perceived norms. Peer network and individually perceived norms against teen pregnancy independently and negatively predict teens' likelihood of sexual intercourse. Perceived norms against pregnancy predict increased likelihood of contraception among sexually experienced girls, but sexually experienced boys' contraceptive behavior is more complicated: When both the boy and his peers or school have stronger norms against teen pregnancy he is more likely to contracept, and in the absence of school or peer norms against pregnancy, boys who are embarrassed are less likely to contracept. We conclude that: (1) patterns of behavior cannot adequately operationalize teen pregnancy norms, (2) norms are not simply linked to behaviors through individual perceptions, and (3) norms at different levels can operate independently of each other, interactively, or in opposition. This evidence creates space for conceptualizations of agency, conflict, and change that can lead to progress in understanding age norms and sexual behaviors.

  10. Some poleward movement of British native vascular plants is occurring, but the fingerprint of climate change is not evident.

    PubMed

    Groom, Quentin J

    2013-01-01

    Recent upperward migration of plants and animals along altitudinal gradients and poleward movement of animal range boundaries have been confirmed by many studies. This phenomenon is considered to be part of the fingerprint of recent climate change on the biosphere. Here I examine whether poleward movement is occurring in the vascular plants of Great Britain. The ranges of plants were determined from detection/non-detection data in two periods, 1978 to 1994 and 1995 to 2011. From these, the centre of mass of the population was calculated and the magnitude and direction of range shifts were determined from movements of the centre of mass. A small, but significant, northward movement could be detected in plants with expanding ranges, but not among declining species. Species from warmer ranges were not more likely to be moving northward, nor was dispersal syndrome a predictor of migration success. It is concluded that simply looking at northward movement of species is not an effective way to identify the effect of climate change on plant migration and that other anthropogenic changes obscure the effect of climate.

  11. Some poleward movement of British native vascular plants is occurring, but the fingerprint of climate change is not evident

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recent upperward migration of plants and animals along altitudinal gradients and poleward movement of animal range boundaries have been confirmed by many studies. This phenomenon is considered to be part of the fingerprint of recent climate change on the biosphere. Here I examine whether poleward movement is occurring in the vascular plants of Great Britain. The ranges of plants were determined from detection/non-detection data in two periods, 1978 to 1994 and 1995 to 2011. From these, the centre of mass of the population was calculated and the magnitude and direction of range shifts were determined from movements of the centre of mass. A small, but significant, northward movement could be detected in plants with expanding ranges, but not among declining species. Species from warmer ranges were not more likely to be moving northward, nor was dispersal syndrome a predictor of migration success. It is concluded that simply looking at northward movement of species is not an effective way to identify the effect of climate change on plant migration and that other anthropogenic changes obscure the effect of climate. PMID:23734340

  12. Changes in motility, ATP content, morphology and fertilisation capacity during the movement phase of tetraploid Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) sperm.

    PubMed

    Suquet, M; Labbe, C; Brizard, R; Donval, A; Le Coz, J R; Quere, C; Haffray, P

    2010-07-01

    Changes in sperm features during the movement phase are especially interesting to study in external fertilization species whose sperm duration movement is long because this implies a significant adaptation of moving cells to the external medium. This study describes the changes in tetraploid Pacific oyster sperm characteristics in relation to time post activation. Sperm individually collected on three tetraploid males were activated in seawater. Their features were analysed over a 24h period and compared to a sperm pool collected on three diploid males as a reference. The percentage of motile spermatozoa, the intracellular ATP content, and the fine structure of spermatozoa were studied in relation to time post activation. Furthermore, the fertilisation capacity of sperm individually collected on five diploid males was assessed after 1 and 24h post activation. A forward progressive movement was maintained for at least a 20h duration. Compared to diploid males, the percentage of motile spermatozoa was lower in tetraploid males. The intracellular ATP concentration was higher in spermatozoa from tetraploid males than in spermatozoa from diploid males. A decrease in ATP content was observed in the first 6h post activation and severe alterations were observed in sperm morphology after 24h. Then, a lower fertilisation capacity of sperm from diploid males was observed at the end of the movement phase. The cessation of Pacific oyster sperm motility was unlikely caused by ATP consumption as ATP concentration was still high at the end of sperm movement but rather caused by drastic changes in sperm morphology. Compared to sperm collected on diploid males, the lower quality of sperm from tetraploid males was emphasized by a shorter movement duration and deeper morphological alterations at the end of the movement phase.

  13. [Cleanliness Norms 1964-1975].

    PubMed

    Noelle-Neumann, E

    1976-01-01

    In 1964 the Institut für Demoskopie Allensbach made a first survey taking stock of norms concerning cleanliness in the Federal Republic of Germany. At that time, 78% of respondents thought that the vogue among young people of cultivating an unkempt look was past or on the wane (Table 1.). Today we know that this fashion was an indicator of more serious desires for change in many different areas like politics, sexual morality, education and that its high point was still to come. In the fall of 1975 a second survey, modelled on the one of 1964, was conducted. Again, it concentrated on norms, not on behavior. As expected, norms have changed over this period but not in a one-directional or simple manner. In general, people are much more large-minded about children's looks: neat, clean school-dress, properly combed hair, clean shoes, all this and also holding their things in order has become less important in 1975 (Table 2). To carry a clean handkerchief is becoming oldfashioned (Table 3). On the other hand, principles of bringing-up children have not loosened concerning personal hygiene - brushing ones teeth, washing hands, feet, and neck, clean fingernails (Table 4). On one item related to protection of the environment, namely throwing around waste paper, standards have even become more strict (Table 5). With regard to school-leavers, norms of personal hygiene have generally become more strict (Table 6). As living standards have gone up and the number of full bathrooms has risen from 42% to 75% of households, norms of personal hygiene have also increased: one warm bath a week seemed enough to 56% of adults in 1964, but to only 32% in 1975 (Table 7). Also standards for changing underwear have changed a lot: in 1964 only 12% of respondents said "every day", in 1975 48% said so (Table 8). Even more stringent norms are applied to young women (Tables 9/10). For comparison: 1964 there were automatic washing machines in 16%, 1975 in 79% of households. Answers to questions

  14. Edinger-Westphal and pharmacologically stimulated accommodative refractive changes and lens and ciliary process movements in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ostrin, Lisa A; Glasser, Adrian

    2007-02-01

    During accommodation, the refractive changes occur when the ciliary muscle contracts, releasing resting zonular tension and allowing the lens capsule to mold the lens into an accommodated form. This results in centripetal movement of the ciliary processes and lens edge. The goal of this study was to understand the relationship between accommodative refractive changes, ciliary process movements and lens edge movements during Edinger-Westphal (EW) and pharmacologically stimulated accommodation in adolescent rhesus monkeys. Experiments were performed on one eye each of three rhesus monkeys with permanent indwelling electrodes in the EW nucleus of the midbrain. EW stimulated accommodative refractive changes were measured with infrared photorefraction, and ciliary process and lens edge movements were measured with slit-lamp goniovideography on the temporal aspect of the eye. Images were recorded on the nasal aspect for one eye during EW stimulation. Image analysis was performed off-line at 30 Hz to determine refractive changes and ciliary body and lens edge movements during EW stimulated accommodation and after carbachol iontophoresis to determine drug induced accommodative movements. Maximum EW stimulated accommodation was 7.36+/-0.49 D and pharmacologically stimulated accommodation was 14.44+/-1.21 D. During EW stimulated accommodation, the ciliary processes and lens edge moved centripetally linearly by 0.030+/-0.001 mm/D and 0.027+/-0.001 mm/D, with a total movement of 0.219+/-0.034 mm and 0.189+/-0.023 mm, respectively. There was no significant nasal/temporal difference in ciliary process or lens edge movements. 30-40 min after pharmacologically stimulated accommodation, the ciliary processes moved centripetally a total of 0.411+/-0.048 mm, or 0.030+/-0.005 mm/D, and the lens edge moved centripetally 0.258+/-0.014 mm, or 0.019+/-0.003 mm/D. The peaks and valleys of the ciliary processes moved by similar amounts during both supramaximal EW and pharmacologically

  15. The Effect of Aging on Muscular Dynamics Underlying Movement Patterns Changes

    PubMed Central

    Vernooij, Carlijn A.; Rao, Guillaume; Berton, Eric; Retornaz, Frédérique; Temprado, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Aging leads to alterations not only within the complex subsystems of the neuro-musculo-skeletal system, but also in the coupling between them. Here, we studied how aging affects functional reorganizations that occur both within and between the behavioral and muscular levels, which must be coordinated to produce goal-directed movements. Using unimanual reciprocal Fitts' task, we examined the behavioral and muscular dynamics of older adults (74.4 ± 3.7 years) and compared them to those found for younger adults (23.2 ± 2.0 years). Methods: To achieve this objective, we manipulated the target size to trigger a phase transition in the behavioral regime and searched for concomitant signatures of a phase transition in the muscular coordination. Here, muscular coordination was derived by using the method of muscular synergy extraction. With this technique, we obtained functional muscular patterns through non-negative matrix factorization of the muscular signals followed by clustering the resulting synergies. Results: Older adults showed a phase transition in behavioral regime, although, in contrast to young participants, their kinematic profiles did not show a discontinuity. In parallel, muscular coordination displayed two typical signatures of a phase transition, that is, increased variability of coordination patterns and a reorganization of muscular synergies. Both signatures confirmed the existence of muscular reorganization in older adults, which is coupled with change in dynamical regime at behavioral level. However, relative to young adults, transition occurred at lower index of difficulty (ID) in older participants and the reorganization of muscular patterns lasted longer (over multiple IDs). Discussion: This implies that consistent changes occur in coordination processes across behavior and muscle. Furthermore, the repertoire of muscular patterns was reduced and somewhat modified for older adults, relative to young participants. This suggests that

  16. One-Step "Change" and "Compare" Word Problems: Focusing on Eye-Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moutsios-Rentzos, Andreas; Stamatis, Panagiotis J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. In this study, we focus on the relationship between the students' mathematical thinking and their non-mechanically identified eye-movements with the purpose to gain deeper understanding about the students' reasoning processes and to investigate the feasibility of incorporating eye-movement information in everyday pedagogy. Method.…

  17. One-Step "Change" and "Compare" Word Problems: Focusing on Eye-Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moutsios-Rentzos, Andreas; Stamatis, Panagiotis J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. In this study, we focus on the relationship between the students' mathematical thinking and their non-mechanically identified eye-movements with the purpose to gain deeper understanding about the students' reasoning processes and to investigate the feasibility of incorporating eye-movement information in everyday pedagogy. Method.…

  18. Changes in Timing and kinematics of goal directed eye-hand movements in early-stage Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective Many daily activities involve intrinsic or extrinsic goal-directed eye and hand movements. An extensive visuomotor coordination network including nigro-striatal pathways is required for efficient timing and positioning of eyes and hands. The aim of this study was to investigate how Parkinson’s disease (PD) affects eye-hand coordination in tasks with different cognitive complexity. Methods We used a touch screen, an eye-tracking device and a motion capturing system to quantify changes in eye-hand coordination in early-stage PD patients (H&Y < 2.5) and age-matched controls. Timing and kinematics of eye and hand were quantified in four eye-hand coordination tasks (pro-tapping, dual planning, anti-tapping and spatial memory task). Results In the pro-tapping task, saccade initiation towards extrinsic goals was not impaired. However, in the dual planning and anti-tapping task initiation of saccades towards intrinsic goals was faster in PD patients. Hand movements were differently affected: initiation of the hand movement was only delayed in the pro-tapping and dual planning task. Overall, hand movements in PD patients were slower executed compared to controls. Interpretation Whereas initiation of saccades in an extrinsic goal-directed task (pro-tapping task) is not affected, early stage PD patients have difficulty in suppressing reflexive saccades towards extrinsic goals in tasks where the endpoint is an intrinsic goal (e.g. dual planning and anti-tapping task). This is specific for eye movements, as hand movements have delayed responses in the pro-tapping and dual planning task. This suggests that reported impairment of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in early-stage PD patients affects only inhibition of eye movements. We conclude that timing and kinematics of eye and hand movements in visuomotor tasks are affected in PD patients. This result may have clinical significance by providing a behavioral marker for the early diagnosis of PD. PMID:23298720

  19. Changes in compensatory eye movements associated with simulated stimulus conditions of spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, Deborah L.; Zografos, Linda M.; Skinner, Noel C.; Parker, Donald E.

    1993-01-01

    Compensatory vertical eye movement gain (CVEMG) was recorded during pitch oscillation in darkness before, during, and immediately after exposures to the stimulus rearrangement produced by the Preflight Adaptation Trainer (PAT) Tilt-Translation Device (TTD). The TTD is designed to elicit adaptive responses that are similar to those observed in microgravity-adapted astronauts. The data from Experiment 1 yielded a statistically significant CVEMG decrease following 15 min of exposure to a stimulus rearrangement condition where the phase angle between subject pitch tilt and visual scene translation was 270 deg; statistically significant gain decreases were not observed following exposures either to a condition where the phase angle between subject pitch and scene translation was 90 deg or to a no-stimulus-rearrangement condition. Experiment 2 replicated the 270-deg-phase condition from Experiment 1 and extended the exposure duration from 30 to 45 min. Statistically significant additional changes in CVEMG associated with the increased exposure duration were not observed. The adaptation time constant estimated fram the combined data from Experiments 1 and 2 was 29 min.

  20. Changes in Compensatory Eye Movements Associated with Simulated Stimulus Conditions of Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, Deborah L.; Zografos, Linda M.; Skinner, Noel C.; Parker, Donald E.

    1993-01-01

    Compensatory vertical eye movement gain (CVEMG) was recorded during pitch oscillation in darkness before, during and immediately after exposures to the stimulus rearrangement produced by the Preflight Adaptation Trainer (PAT) Tilt-Translation Device (TTD). The TTD is designed to elicit adaptive responses that are similar to those observed in microgravity-adapted astronauts. The data from Experiment 1 yielded a statistically significant CVEMG decrease following 15 minutes of exposure to a stimulus rearrangement condition where the phase angle between subject pitch tilt and visual scene translation was 270 degrees; statistically significant gain decreases were not observed following exposures either to a condition where the phase angle between subject pitch and scene translation was 90 degrees or to a no-stimulus-rearrangement condition. Experiment 2 replicated the 270 degree phase condition from Experiment 1 and extended the exposure duration from 30 to 45 minutes. Statistically significant additional changes in CVEMG associated with the increased exposure duration were not observed. The adaptation time constant estimated from the combined data from Experiments 1 and 2 was 29 minutes.

  1. NORM survey in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Canoba, A C

    2012-01-01

    A survey programme was initiated several years ago with the aim of estimating the incidence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) exposure for workers in the oil and gas industry, gold mining, spas, and a tourist cavern in Argentina. This work presents the procedures, methods employed, and results to date from the survey, including protection and remedial actions recommended when deemed necessary. Radium isotope concentrations measured in some samples were well above the exemption values established by IAEA Standards. Elevated radon levels (above the action level established for workplaces) were detected in the gas facilities, the gold mine, and the tourist cavern. The pertinent authorities and the facilities were informed of the detected values in order to take actions to reduce concentrations. In terms of the spas, almost all values for geothermal waters were below the corresponding guidance levels. Some regulatory aspects for the management of NORM are suggested. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Global climate change policy issues related to the movement of industry from developed to rapidly industrializing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, A.M.; Waltemath, L.A.

    1990-10-01

    Global climate change policies adopted by developed countries may encourage industries to move to countries with less restrictive policies. The purpose of this study is to identify policy-driven issues that may result in such a movement. This report (1) summarizes the conclusions of previous studies that have explored the relationship between environmental regulations and industrial movement, (2) identifies and summarizes existing and proposed US global climate change policy options, and (3) discusses issues and topics relating to possible industrial relocation because of the global climate change policy options. It concludes with recommendations for further research. Although federal global climate change policy options are the primary focus of this report, some international and regional efforts addressing this issue are also included. A potential regional industrial migration issue is highlighted. 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Lip movement tracking based on the changes of surface area of ellipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talha, Kamil S.; Wan, Khairunizam; Chittawad, Viratt; Za'ba, S. K.; Ayob, M. Nasir

    2015-05-01

    Lip reading is a technique used by a hard hearing person to communicate in their conversation. Sometime the word they understand is not the same as what the other speaker talk. Computer-based lip reading system may help to track those words based on the movement of the lips. When speak, lip make a unique movement that may differ between several words. For the computer to recognize the spoken word, preliminary studies need to be done in order to extract features from the movements of the lip. A surface area of the lip is proposed as the feature of the lip movement. The horizontal and vertical distances of the lip are extracted to determine the surface area. In the experiments, several spoken words at the hospital have been chosen. The experimental results show that the ellipse feature could be employed to train the computer understands the spoken word from the human.

  4. Does Domestication Cause Changes in Growth Reaction Norms? A Study of Farmed, Wild and Hybrid Atlantic Salmon Families Exposed to Environmental Stress

    PubMed Central

    Solberg, Monica Favnebøe; Skaala, Øystein; Nilsen, Frank; Glover, Kevin Alan

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important traits linked with the successful domestication of animals is reducing their sensitivity to environmental stressors in the human controlled environment. In order to examine whether domestication selection in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L., over approximately ten generations, has inadvertently selected for reduced responsiveness to stress, we compared the growth reaction norms of 29 wild, hybrid and domesticated families reared together under standard hatchery conditions (control) and in the presence of a stressor (reduced water level twice daily). The experiment was conducted for a 14 week period. Farmed salmon outgrew wild salmon 1∶2.93 in the control tanks, and no overlap in mean weight was displayed between families representing the three groups. Thus, the elevation of the reaction norms differed among the groups. Overall, growth was approximately 25% lower in the stressed tanksl; however, farmed salmon outgrew wild salmon 1∶3.42 under these conditions. That farmed salmon maintained a relatively higher growth rate than the wild salmon in the stressed tanks demonstrates a lower responsiveness to stress in the farmed salmon. Thus, flatter reaction norm slopes were displayed in the farmed salmon, demonstrating reduced plasticity for this trait under these specific experimental conditions. For all growth measurements, hybrid salmon displayed intermediate values. Wild salmon displayed higher heritability estimates for body weight than the hybrid and farmed salmon in both environments. This suggests reduced genetic variation for body weight in the farmed contra wild salmon studied here. While these results may be linked to the specific families and stocks investigated, and verification in other stocks and traits is needed, these data are consistent with the theoretical predictions of domestication. PMID:23382901

  5. Does domestication cause changes in growth reaction norms? A study of farmed, wild and hybrid Atlantic salmon families exposed to environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Solberg, Monica Favnebøe; Skaala, Øystein; Nilsen, Frank; Glover, Kevin Alan

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important traits linked with the successful domestication of animals is reducing their sensitivity to environmental stressors in the human controlled environment. In order to examine whether domestication selection in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L., over approximately ten generations, has inadvertently selected for reduced responsiveness to stress, we compared the growth reaction norms of 29 wild, hybrid and domesticated families reared together under standard hatchery conditions (control) and in the presence of a stressor (reduced water level twice daily). The experiment was conducted for a 14 week period. Farmed salmon outgrew wild salmon 1:2.93 in the control tanks, and no overlap in mean weight was displayed between families representing the three groups. Thus, the elevation of the reaction norms differed among the groups. Overall, growth was approximately 25% lower in the stressed tanksl; however, farmed salmon outgrew wild salmon 1:3.42 under these conditions. That farmed salmon maintained a relatively higher growth rate than the wild salmon in the stressed tanks demonstrates a lower responsiveness to stress in the farmed salmon. Thus, flatter reaction norm slopes were displayed in the farmed salmon, demonstrating reduced plasticity for this trait under these specific experimental conditions. For all growth measurements, hybrid salmon displayed intermediate values. Wild salmon displayed higher heritability estimates for body weight than the hybrid and farmed salmon in both environments. This suggests reduced genetic variation for body weight in the farmed contra wild salmon studied here. While these results may be linked to the specific families and stocks investigated, and verification in other stocks and traits is needed, these data are consistent with the theoretical predictions of domestication.

  6. Age-related changes of arm movements in dual task condition when walking on different surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yao-Jen; Cho, Chiung-Yu

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the dual task paradigm would influence arm movements during walking. Furthermore, we examined the effects of different walking surfaces on arm movements while performing dual tasks. The effects of age and gender were also investigated. Fifteen young adults and 15 older adults were included in this study. Subjects were asked to perform the walking task alone (single-task trial) and walking in combination with a cognitive task (dual-task trial). Four walking conditions (1 single task and 3 dual task trials)×two walking surfaces were encountered. Both age groups had greater elbow and trunk movement in the sagittal plane under the dual task trials as compared to the single task trial (p<.05). Subjects had greater upper extremity and upper body movement on the soft floor than on the hard floor (p<.05). Subjects had greater movement amplitude when confronting a challenging environment, especially in the contralateral side. Among gender, there was a group-gender interaction: the older females had smaller upper extremity movement than the older males (p<.05) but the opposite was true for the young adults. The results suggest that different age groups of males and females use different balance control strategy to deal with the challenging conditions.

  7. Prazosin modulates rapid eye movement sleep deprivation-induced changes in body temperature in rats.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Manoj K; Mallick, Birendra N

    2009-09-01

    Prolonged rapid eye movement sleep deprivation (REMSD) causes hypothermia and death; however, the effect of deprivation within 24 h and its mechanism(s) of action were unknown. Based on existing reports we argued that REMSD should, at least initially, induce hyperthermia and the death upon prolonged deprivation could be due to persistent hypothermia. We proposed that noradrenaline (NA), which modulates body temperature and is increased upon REMSD, may be involved in REMSD- associated body temperature changes. Adult male Wistar rats were REM sleep deprived for 6-9 days by the classical flower pot method; suitable free moving, large platform and recovery controls were carried out. The rectal temperature (Trec) was recorded every minute for 1 h, or once daily, or before and after i.p. injection of prazosin, an alpha-1 adrenergic antagonist. The Trec was indeed elevated within 24 h of REMSD which decreased steadily, despite continuation of deprivation. Prazosin injection into the deprived rats reduced the Trec within 30 min, and the duration of effect was comparable to its pharmacological half life. The findings have been explained on the basis of REMSD-induced elevated NA level, which has opposite actions on the peripheral and the central nervous systems. We propose that REMSD-associated immediate increase in Trec is due to increased Na-K ATPase as well as metabolic activities and peripheral vasoconstriction. However, upon prolonged deprivation, probably the persistent effect of NA on the central thermoregulatory sites induced sustained hypothermia, which if remained uncontrolled, results in death. Thus, our findings suggest that peripheral prazosin injection in REMSD would not bring the body temperature to normal, rather might become counterproductive.

  8. "Smoking Is Sóóó ... Sandals and White Socks": Co-Creation of a Dutch Anti-Smoking Campaign to Change Social Norms.

    PubMed

    van den Heerik, Romy A M; van Hooijdonk, Charlotte M J; Burgers, Christian; Steen, Gerard J

    2017-05-01

    This article considers co-creation as a new persuasive strategy in health campaigns. Co-creation enables target audience members to become active campaign producers. A recent Dutch anti-smoking campaign applied co-creation, inviting the target audience to complete the slogan "smoking is sóóó . . . " with something outdated on social networking sites (SNSs) like Facebook and Twitter to stress non-smoking as the new social norm. From a corpus-linguistic perspective, we investigated how the slogans from the target audience resonated with or deviated from the campaign's original message. In general, the target audience slogans followed the campaign's approach, but on the SNSs, differences were found regarding the valence, type of utterance, and domain to which smoking was compared. The target audience frequently compared smoking with other (inter)personal social norms. Co-creation thus provides the target audience with an opportunity to disseminate campaign messages from their own perspective, but at the same time a co-creation strategy risks diluting the intended campaign message.

  9. Community stress and social and technological change: a framework for interpreting the behavior of social movements and community action groups

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, R.W.; Schuller, C.R.; Lindell, M.K.; Greene, M.R.; Walsh, J.T.; Earle, T.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive examination of existing research on community organizations and community political systems. These findings will be integrated into a framework for understanding the variety of social and political responses which may be manifest in small communities facing the prospect of hosting a major nuclear facility. The principal focus is on the formation and behavior of social groups in communities, particularly politically oriented social movements or community action groups. This analysis is set on the context of a community experiencing social stress. Most of the discussion which follows is based on an extrapolation from the large body of reseach literature on the topics in sociology, political science, and psychology. Chapter I examines the community political systems which are the arena in which local action groups will operate. Chapter II focuses on the internal conditions necessary for the formation and maintenance of community action groups. Chapter III reviews the research literature on the social environment of organizations in communities and the external conditions which are necessary to maintain organizations over time. Chapter IV develops a logic whereby the community consensus model can be adopted to particular social movement organizations and community actions groups. Chapter V examines changes in aspects of the environment which can be a function of the operation of movement organizations, and changes in the structure and tactics of movement organizations which appear to be a response to the environment.

  10. Robotic guidance induces long-lasting changes in the movement pattern of a novel sport-specific motor task.

    PubMed

    Kümmel, Jakob; Kramer, Andreas; Gruber, Markus

    2014-12-01

    Facilitating the learning or relearning of motor tasks is one of the main goals of coaches, teachers and therapists. One promising way to achieve this goal is guiding the learner through the correct movement trajectory with the help of a robotic device. The aim of this study was to investigate if haptic guidance can induce long-lasting changes in the movement pattern of a complex sport-specific motor task. For this purpose, 31 subjects were assigned to one of three groups: EA (early angle, n=10), LA (late angle, n=11) and CON (control, n=10). EA and LA successfully completed five training sessions, which consisted of 50 robot-guided golf swings and 10 free swings each, whereas CON had no training. The EA group was guided through the movement with the wrist being bent early during backswing, whereas in the LA group it was bent late. The participants of EA and LA were not told about this difference in the movement patterns. To assess if the robot-guided training was successful in shaping the movement pattern, the timing of the wrist bending during the backswing in free swings was measured before (PRE), one day after (POST), and 7 days after (FUP) the five training sessions. The ANOVA (time×group×angle) showed that during POST and FUP, the participants of the EA group bent their wrist significantly earlier during the backswing than the other groups. Post-hoc analyses revealed that this interaction effect was mainly due to the differences in the wrist angle progression during the first 5° of the backswing. The robot-guided training was successful in shaping the movement pattern, and these changes persisted even after 7 days without further practice. This might have implications for the learning of complex motor tasks in general, as haptic guidance might quickly provide the beginner with an internal model of the correct movement pattern without having to direct the learner's attention towards the key points of the correct movement pattern. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  11. The Quest for Quality--Towards Joint European Quality Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomeus, Yvonne, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains the following papers about considerations in developing joint European quality norms for vocational guidance: "Joint Quality Norms in Guidance"; "Careers Guidance in the Information Society" (Frans Meijers); "The Changing Nature of Guidance" (J. Chamberlain); "Quality with Policy: Beyond…

  12. Estimating changes in lichen mat volume through time and related effects on barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) movement.

    PubMed

    Rickbeil, Gregory J M; Hermosilla, Txomin; Coops, Nicholas C; White, Joanne C; Wulder, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    Lichens form a critical portion of barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) diets, especially during winter months. Here, we assess lichen mat volume across five herd ranges in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, Canada, using newly developed composite Landsat imagery. The lichen volume estimator (LVE) was adapted for use across 700 000 km2 of barren ground caribou habitat annually from 1984-2012. We subsequently assessed how LVE changed temporally throughout the time series for each pixel using Theil-Sen's slopes, and spatially by assessing whether slope values were centered in local clusters of similar values. Additionally, we assessed how LVE estimates resulted in changes in barren ground caribou movement rates using an extensive telemetry data set from 2006-2011. The Ahiak/Beverly herd had the largest overall increase in LVE (median = 0.033), while the more western herds had the least (median slopes below zero in all cases). LVE slope pixels were arranged in significant clusters across the study area, with the Cape Bathurst, Bathurst, and Bluenose East herds having the most significant clusters of negative slopes (more than 20% of vegetated land in each case). The Ahiak/Beverly and Bluenose West had the most significant positive clusters (16.3% and 18.5% of vegetated land respectively). Barren ground caribou displayed complex reactions to changing lichen conditions depending on season; the majority of detected associations with movement data agreed with current understanding of barren ground caribou foraging behavior (the exception was an increase in movement velocity at high lichen volume estimates in Fall). The temporal assessment of LVE identified areas where shifts in ecological conditions may have resulted in changing lichen mat conditions, while assessing the slope estimates for clustering identified zones beyond the pixel scale where forage conditions may be changing. Lichen volume estimates associated with barren ground caribou

  13. Estimating changes in lichen mat volume through time and related effects on barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) movement

    PubMed Central

    Hermosilla, Txomin; Coops, Nicholas C.; White, Joanne C.; Wulder, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Lichens form a critical portion of barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) diets, especially during winter months. Here, we assess lichen mat volume across five herd ranges in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, Canada, using newly developed composite Landsat imagery. The lichen volume estimator (LVE) was adapted for use across 700 000 km2 of barren ground caribou habitat annually from 1984–2012. We subsequently assessed how LVE changed temporally throughout the time series for each pixel using Theil-Sen’s slopes, and spatially by assessing whether slope values were centered in local clusters of similar values. Additionally, we assessed how LVE estimates resulted in changes in barren ground caribou movement rates using an extensive telemetry data set from 2006–2011. The Ahiak/Beverly herd had the largest overall increase in LVE (median = 0.033), while the more western herds had the least (median slopes below zero in all cases). LVE slope pixels were arranged in significant clusters across the study area, with the Cape Bathurst, Bathurst, and Bluenose East herds having the most significant clusters of negative slopes (more than 20% of vegetated land in each case). The Ahiak/Beverly and Bluenose West had the most significant positive clusters (16.3% and 18.5% of vegetated land respectively). Barren ground caribou displayed complex reactions to changing lichen conditions depending on season; the majority of detected associations with movement data agreed with current understanding of barren ground caribou foraging behavior (the exception was an increase in movement velocity at high lichen volume estimates in Fall). The temporal assessment of LVE identified areas where shifts in ecological conditions may have resulted in changing lichen mat conditions, while assessing the slope estimates for clustering identified zones beyond the pixel scale where forage conditions may be changing. Lichen volume estimates associated with barren ground caribou

  14. Excitability changes in human forearm corticospinal projections and spinal reflex pathways during rhythmic voluntary movement of the opposite limb

    PubMed Central

    Carson, R G; Riek, S; Mackey, D C; Meichenbaum, D P; Willms, K; Forner, M; Byblow, W D

    2004-01-01

    Rhythmic movements brought about by the contraction of muscles on one side of the body give rise to phase-locked changes in the excitability of the homologous motor pathways of the opposite limb. Such crossed facilitation should favour patterns of bimanual coordination in which homologous muscles are engaged simultaneously, and disrupt those in which the muscles are activated in an alternating fashion. In order to examine these issues, we obtained responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), to stimulation of the cervicomedullary junction (cervicomedullary-evoked potentials, CMEPs), to peripheral nerve stimulation (H-reflexes and f-waves), and elicited stretch reflexes in the relaxed right flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscle during rhythmic (2 Hz) flexion and extension movements of the opposite (left) wrist. The potentials evoked by TMS in right FCR were potentiated during the phases of movement in which the left FCR was most strongly engaged. In contrast, CMEPs were unaffected by the movements of the opposite limb. These results suggest that there was systematic variation of the excitability of the motor cortex ipsilateral to the moving limb. H-reflexes and stretch reflexes recorded in right FCR were modulated in phase with the activation of left FCR. As the f-waves did not vary in corresponding fashion, it appears that the phasic modulation of the H-reflex was mediated by presynaptic inhibition of Ia afferents. The observation that both H-reflexes and f-waves were depressed markedly during movements of the opposite indicates that there may also have been postsynaptic inhibition or disfacilitation of the largest motor units. Our findings indicate that the patterned modulation of excitability in motor pathways that occurs during rhythmic movements of the opposite limb is mediated primarily by interhemispheric interactions between cortical motor areas. PMID:15331684

  15. Social Norms: Do We Love Norms Too Much?

    PubMed Central

    Bell, David C.; Cox, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Social norms are often cited as the cause of many social phenomena, especially as an explanation for prosocial family and relationship behaviors. And yet maybe we love the idea of social norms too much, as suggested by our failure to subject them to rigorous test. Compared to the detail in social norms theoretical orientations, there is very little detail in tests of normative theories. To provide guidance to researchers who invoke social norms as explanations, we catalog normative orientations that have been proposed to account for consistent patterns of action. We call on researchers to conduct tests of normative theories and the processes such theories assert. PMID:25937833

  16. Social Norms: Do We Love Norms Too Much?

    PubMed

    Bell, David C; Cox, Mary L

    2015-03-01

    Social norms are often cited as the cause of many social phenomena, especially as an explanation for prosocial family and relationship behaviors. And yet maybe we love the idea of social norms too much, as suggested by our failure to subject them to rigorous test. Compared to the detail in social norms theoretical orientations, there is very little detail in tests of normative theories. To provide guidance to researchers who invoke social norms as explanations, we catalog normative orientations that have been proposed to account for consistent patterns of action. We call on researchers to conduct tests of normative theories and the processes such theories assert.

  17. Changes in volunteering among young old in the Netherlands between 1992 and 2002: the impact of religion, age-norms, and intergenerational transmission.

    PubMed

    Suanet, Bianca; Broese van Groenou, Marjolein; Braam, Arjan W

    2009-09-01

    The positive trend in volunteering among the Dutch young old may in part be due to a relatively favorable disposition to volunteer. Using data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, volunteering rates of 55-64 year olds in 1992 and 2002 were compared and associated with (among others) three types of dispositional factors: religious involvement, age-related engagement norms, and parental socialization. The recent cohort was less religiously involved, but more supportive of social engagement at older age, and more often had parents who volunteered, were religiously involved or higher educated. Multivariate analyses revealed that cohort differences were largely explained by cohort differences in educational level and religious involvement. It is concluded that their lower religious level suppresses the volunteering rate of the current young old. To compensate for the decline in religious young old, family and the broader society will become more important for stimulating volunteer work in the future.

  18. The effect of changes in habitat conditions on the movement of juvenile Snail Kites Rostrhamus sociabilis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowling, Andrea C.; Martin, Julien; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2012-01-01

    The degradation of habitats due to human activities is a major topic of interest for the conservation and management of wild populations. There is growing evidence that the Florida Everglades ecosystem continues to suffer from habitat degradation. After a period of recovery in the 1990s, the Snail Kite Rostrhamus sociabilis population suffered a substantial decline in 2001 and has not recovered since. Habitat degradation has been suggested as one of the primary reasons for this lack of recovery. As a consequence of the continued degradation of the Everglades, we hypothesized that this would have led to increased movement of juvenile Kites over time, as a consequence of the need to find more favourable habitat. We used multistate mark-recapture models to compare between-site movement probabilities of juvenile Snail Kites in the 1990s (1992–95; which corresponds to the period before the decline) and 2000s (2003–06; after the decline). Our analyses were based on an extensive radiotelemetry study (266 birds tracked monthly over the entire state of Florida for a total period of 6 years) and considered factors such as sex and age of marked individuals. There was evidence of increased movement of juvenile Snail Kites during the post-decline period from most of the wetland regions used historically by Kites. Higher movement rates may contribute to an increase in the probability of mortality of young individuals and could contribute to the observed declines.

  19. Relative Changes in Ankle and Hip Control during Bilateral Joint Movements in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Matthew C.; Hyngstrom, Allison S.; Ng, Alexander V.; Schmit, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to quantify hip and ankle impairments contributing to movement dysfunction in multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods Volitional phasing of bilateral hip and ankle torques was assessed using a load-cell-instrumented servomotor drive system in 10 participants with MS and 10 age-matched healthy participants. The hips and ankles were separately bilaterally oscillated 180° out of phase (40° range of motion) at a frequency of 0.75 Hz while the other joints were held stationary. Participants were instructed to assist in the same direction as the robot-imposed movement. The hip and ankle torques were measured and work was calculated for each movement. Results Total negative work at the ankle was significantly different between groups (p=0.040). The participants with MS produced larger negative work during hip flexion (p=0.042) and ankle flexion (p=0.037). Negative work at the hip was significantly correlated with the Berg Balance Scores and Timed 25 Feet Walk Test, and trends demonstrated increasing negative work with increasing clinical impairment in MS. Conclusions These results suggest an increased importance of the hip in functional balance and gait in MS. Significance Rehabilitation strategies targeting ankle recovery or compensation using the hip might improve movement function in MS. PMID:24315810

  20. Relative changes in ankle and hip control during bilateral joint movements in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chua, Matthew C; Hyngstrom, Allison S; Ng, Alexander V; Schmit, Brian D

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify hip and ankle impairments contributing to movement dysfunction in multiple sclerosis (MS). Volitional phasing of bilateral hip and ankle torques was assessed using a load-cell-instrumented servomotor drive system in ten participants with MS and 10 age-matched healthy participants. The hips and ankles were separately bilaterally oscillated 180° out of phase (40° range of motion) at a frequency of 0.75 Hz while the other joints were held stationary. Participants were instructed to assist in the same direction as the robot-imposed movement. The hip and ankle torques were measured and work was calculated for each movement. Total negative work at the ankle was significantly different between groups (p=0.040). The participants with MS produced larger negative work during hip flexion (p=0.042) and ankle flexion (p=0.037). Negative work at the hip was significantly correlated with the Berg Balance Scores and Timed 25 Feet Walk Test, and trends demonstrated increasing negative work with increasing clinical impairment in MS. These results suggest an increased importance of the hip in functional balance and gait in MS. Rehabilitation strategies targeting ankle recovery or compensation using the hip might improve movement function in MS. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Alternatives in Print. An Index and Listing of Some Movement Publications Reflecting Today's Social Change Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Library Association Social Responsibilities Round Table.

    Approximately 3,000 recent movement publications, made up of books, pamphlets, films, tapes and records but excluding serials, are listed in this index. The American Library Association Social Responsibilities Round Table Task Force on Alternative Books in Print compiled it primarily for librarians as a selection tool, and to make available to the…

  2. Beyond Anxiety and Nostalgia: Building a Social Movement for Educational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Andy

    2001-01-01

    Parents' nostalgia and waning confidence in teachers' competence are primary obstacles to improving schools. Teaching and public education are at a crossroads. One road involves teachers and parent partners in a broad social movement that ultimately protects and redefines teacher professionalism. The other leads to deprofessionalization of…

  3. Social Movement Tactics, Organizational Change and the Spread of African-American Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    Social movement research suggests that protest is effective because it de-legitimizes existing policies and imposes costs on power holders. The author tests this hypothesis with data on African-American student protest and the creation of departments of African-American Studies. The author finds that nondisruptive protest, such as rallies and…

  4. The English-Only Movement: A Communication Analysis of Changing Perceptions of Language Vitality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Valerie; Giles, Howard; Noels, Kimberly; Duck, Julie; Hecht, Michael; Clement, Richarde

    2001-01-01

    Offers an extensive literature review across disciplines and media reports on the potential impact of the English-only movement. Examines how Anglo support for English-only policies limits the use, promotion, and salience of minority languages like Spanish in institutional settings and in the linguistic landscape. Examines language vitality…

  5. Social Movement Tactics, Organizational Change and the Spread of African-American Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    Social movement research suggests that protest is effective because it de-legitimizes existing policies and imposes costs on power holders. The author tests this hypothesis with data on African-American student protest and the creation of departments of African-American Studies. The author finds that nondisruptive protest, such as rallies and…

  6. Developmental Changes in the Movement Characteristics of the Punt--A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poe, Alison

    Punting characteristics of a subject were studied over an 8-year period. Performances were recorded from the age of 2 years 9 months through 11 years 4 months. Fifteen film records were made at 3-month intervals through ages 3 and 4, at 6-month intervals through ages 6 and 7, and at 1-year intervals through ages 8 to 11. Movement characteristics…

  7. Examining Value Change in MOOCs in the Scope of Connectivism and Open Educational Resources Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Hayriye Tugba

    2015-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) came to prominence with Open Educational Resources Movement (OERM). It was based upon the idea of libre in removal of some permission barriers and gratis in removing the price barrier (Suber, 2008) in learning resources. In line with the theoretical underpinnings of OERM, MOOCs embody primary characteristics of…

  8. Eye Movement Latencies to Direction Change for Different Classes of Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    In the analysis of visual motion, local features such as orientation are analyzed early in the cortical processing stream (V1), while integration across orientation and space is thought to occur in higher cortical areas such as MT, MST, etc. If all areas provide inputs to eye movement control centers, we would expect that local properties would drive eye movements with relatively short latencies, while global properties would require longer latencies. When such latencies are observed, they can provide information about when (and where?) various stimulus properties are analyzed. To this end, a stimulus was employed in which local and global properties determining perceived direction-of-motion could be manipulated independently: an elliptical Gabor patch with a drifting carrier, with variable orientation of the carrier grating and the contrast window. We have previously demonstrated that the directional percepts evoked by this stimulus vary between the "grating direction" (the normal to the grating's orientation) and the "window direction" (ARVO 91, 94), and that similar effects can be observed in reflexive eye movements (ARVO 95). Subjects viewed such a stimulus while attempting to maintain steady fixation on the center of the pattern, and the small reflexive eye movements ("stare OKN") were recorded. In the middle of the trial, the orientation of either the grating or the window was rotated smoothly by 30 degrees. Responses to the shift of both grating orientation and window orientation are seen in the average OKN slow phase velocity. Grating rotations produce a rapid OKN rotation to the grating direction (100 ms latency, 300 ms time constant), followed by a slower rebound to the steady state perceived direction midway between the grating and window directions. Window rotations, on the other hand, evoke a slower response (200 ms latency, 500 ms time constant). The results demonstrate multiple cortical inputs to eye movement control: a taste early input driven by

  9. Evaluation of the age-related changes in movement smoothness in the lower extremity joints during lifting.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Kiyoshi; Kogure, Akira; Hosoda, Masataka; Isozaki, Koji; Masuda, Tadashi; Morita, Sadao

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze age-related movement smoothness changes in the lower extremity joints during load lifting. A total of 10 young and 13 elderly subjects participated in the study. Infrared reflective markers were attached to body landmarks in each subject. While the subjects stood on force plates and lifted a box, the marker displacements and ground reaction forces were measured using a 3D motion analysis system. The jerk square mean value (JSM) was defined as the lower extremity joint movement smoothness index during lifting. JSM represented the average of the square of the joint angle third derivative value, according to the jerk third derivative of the position data. Each subject's JSM values were calculated for the hip, knee and ankle joints. Movement smoothness appeared to decrease as JSM increased. Multiple regression analyses were performed for dependent variables (hip, knee and ankle joint JSM values) and independent variables (age, hand grip strength, sex difference and lifting duration). The level of significance was set at p<0.05. For the hip joint JSM, the regression coefficient for age was significantly positive and that for lifting duration was significantly negative. For the knee joint JSM, the regression coefficient for lifting duration was significantly negative. For the ankle joint JSM, the regression coefficients for age and hand grip strength were significantly positive and that for lifting duration was significantly negative. These results suggest that movement smoothness in the hip and ankle joints during lifting decreases with advancing age.

  10. Instrumented Footwear Inserts: A New Tool for Measuring Forces and Biomechanical State Changes During Dynamic Movements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-03

    Lower-limb musculoskeletal injuries are a pervasive problem in the population and military, especially during basic training where load bearing...sensors; biomechanics; load; gait; ground-reaction forces; load cells I. INTRODUCTION Lower-limb musculoskeletal injuries are ubiquitous in the...loaded activity, both prior to and after a musculoskeletal injury. Technologies to measure lower limb movement components such as ground reaction

  11. Predation may counteract climatic change as a driving force for movements of mountain ungulates.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Francesco; Lovari, Sandro

    2016-08-01

    Temperature variations are expected to influence altitudinal movements of mountain herbivores and, in turn, those of their predators, but relevant information is scarce. We evaluated monthly relationships between temperature and altitude used by a large mountain-dwelling herbivore, the Himalayan tahr Hemitragus jemlahicus, and its main predator, the snow leopard Panthera uncia, in an area of central Himalaya for five consecutive years (2006-2010). In contrast to expectations, there was no significant direct relationship between altitude of tahr sightings and temperature. The mean altitude of tahr sightings decreased by c. 200m throughout our study. As expected, snow leopard movements tracked those of tahr, although the core area of the snow leopard did not move downwards. Tahr remained the staple of the snow leopard diet: we suggest that the former did not move upwards in reaction to higher temperature to avoid encounters with the latter. Avoidance of competition with the larger common leopard Panthera pardus at lower altitudes could explain why snow leopards did not shift their core area downwards. Apparently, interspecific interactions (predation; competition) influenced movements of Himalayan tahr and snow leopards more than climatic variations.

  12. Excitability changes in the left primary motor cortex innervating the hand muscles induced during speech about hand or leg movements.

    PubMed

    Onmyoji, Yusuke; Kubota, Shinji; Hirano, Masato; Tanaka, Megumi; Morishita, Takuya; Uehara, Kazumasa; Funase, Kozo

    2015-05-06

    In the present study, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate the changes in the excitability of the left primary motor cortex (M1) innervating the hand muscles and in short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) during speech describing hand or leg movements. In experiment 1, we investigated the effects of the contents of speech on the amplitude of the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) induced during reading aloud and silent reading. In experiment 2, we repeated experiment 1 with an additional condition, the non-vocal oral movement (No-Voc OM) condition, and investigated the change in SICI induced in each condition using the paired TMS paradigm. The MEP observed in the reading aloud and No-Voc OM conditions exhibited significantly greater amplitudes than those seen in the silent reading conditions, irrespective of the content of the sentences spoken by the subjects or the timing of the TMS. There were no significant differences in SICI between the experimental conditions. Our findings suggest that the increased excitability of the left M1 hand area detected during speech was mainly caused by speech-related oral movements and the activation of language processing-related brain functions. The increased left M1 excitability was probably also mediated by neural mechanisms other than reduced SICI; i.e., disinhibition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of changing lumbar stiffness by single facet joint dysfunction on the responsiveness of lumbar muscle spindles to vertebral movement

    PubMed Central

    Reed, William R.; Pickar, Joel G.; Long, Cynthia R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Individuals experiencing low back pain often present clinically with intervertebral joint dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether relative changes in stiffness at a single spinal joint alters neural responsiveness of lumbar muscle spindles to either vertebral movement or position. Methods: Muscle spindle discharge was recorded in response to 1mm L6 ramp and hold movements (0.5mm/s) in the same animal for lumbar laminectomy-only (n=23), laminectomy & L5/6 facet screw (n=19), laminectomy & L5/6 facetectomy (n=5) conditions. Mean instantaneous frequency (MIF) was calculated for the ramp-up, hold, ramp-down and post-ramp phases during each joint condition. Results: Mean MIFs were not significantly different between the laminectomy-only and the other two types of joint dysfunction for the ramp-up, hold, ramp-down, or post-ramp phases. Conclusion: Stiffness changes caused by single facet joint dysfunction failed to alter spindle responses during slow 1mm ramp and hold movements of the L6 vertebra. PMID:24932020

  14. NWEA FAQ: RIT Scale Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Northwest Evaluation Association™ (NWEA™) conducts norming studies every several years to provide the best and most up-to-date information we can about student achievement and growth to better support educational decision-making. It is an important part of our commitment to our partners. The most recent NWEA norms were released in July 2015. Just…

  15. From work with men and boys to changes of social norms and reduction of inequities in gender relations: a conceptual shift in prevention of violence against women and girls.

    PubMed

    Jewkes, Rachel; Flood, Michael; Lang, James

    2015-04-18

    Violence perpetrated by and against men and boys is a major public health problem. Although individual men's use of violence differs, engagement of all men and boys in action to prevent violence against women and girls is essential. We discuss why this engagement approach is theoretically important and how prevention interventions have developed from treating men simply as perpetrators of violence against women and girls or as allies of women in its prevention, to approaches that seek to transform the relations, social norms, and systems that sustain gender inequality and violence. We review evidence of intervention effectiveness in the reduction of violence or its risk factors, features commonly seen in more effective interventions, and how strong evidence-based interventions can be developed with more robust use of theory. Future interventions should emphasise work with both men and boys and women and girls to change social norms on gender relations, and need to appropriately accommodate the differences between men and women in the design of programmes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ethnic diversity, traditional norms, and marriage behaviour in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Buttenheim, Alison M; Nobles, Jenna

    2009-11-01

    What role do cultural norms play in shaping individual behaviour and how does this relationship change with rapid socio-economic development? While modernization and convergence theories predict a weakened relationship between culture and behaviour as individuals rely less on family and community members for economic opportunities, recent research suggests that such norms can persist and continue to influence behaviour. We explored this question for Indonesia, asking whether cultural norms for age at marriage and post-marriage residence-as embodied in local ethnicity-based laws and customs known as 'adat'-relate to actual marriage behaviour. We demonstrate that adat norms are strong predictors of marriage behaviour, both over time and net of large increases in educational attainment. Our results suggest more generally that traditional marriage norms can persist even when a society is in the process of rapid socio-economic development.

  17. Localizing movement-related primary sensorimotor cortices with multi-band EEG frequency changes and functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ching-Chang; Luu, Phan; Morgan, Kyle K; Dow, Mark; Davey, Colin; Song, Jasmine; Malony, Allen D; Tucker, Don M

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations in multiple frequency bands can be observed during functional activity of the cerebral cortex. An important question is whether activity of focal areas of cortex, such as during finger movements, is tracked by focal oscillatory EEG changes. Although a number of studies have compared EEG changes to functional MRI hemodynamic responses, we can find no previous research that relates the fMRI hemodynamic activity to localization of the multiple EEG frequency changes observed in motor tasks. In the present study, five participants performed similar thumb and finger movement tasks in parallel EEG and functional MRI studies. We examined changes in five frequency bands (from 5-120 Hz) and localized them using 256 dense-array EEG (dEEG) recordings and high-resolution individual head models. These localizations were compared with fMRI localizations in the same participants. Results showed that beta-band (14-30 Hz) desynchronizations (power decreases) were the most robust effects, appearing in all individuals, consistently localized to the hand region of the primary motor cortex, and consistently aligned with fMRI localizations.

  18. The Malleability of Injunctive Norms Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Mark A.; Carey, Kate B.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use among college students has been associated with injunctive norms, which refer to the perceived acceptability of excessive drinking, and descriptive norms, which refer to perceptions of actual drinking. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a brief injunctive norms manipulation on both injunctive and descriptive norms about drinking alcohol and to explore differences in the malleability of norms across referent groups, sex, and gender role. Participants were 265 undergraduates (43% male, 70% freshmen) who completed a web-based survey for course credit. A randomly selected half were exposed to a page of information-based feedback about typical student injunctive norms. Relative to the control condition, the manipulation produced lower injunctive and descriptive norms related to typical students’ drinking but no change in either type of norm related to close friends. Femininity was associated with less permissive normative beliefs about the acceptability of excessive drinking whereas masculinity was associated with elevated perceptions of peer drinking, but neither sex nor gender role moderated the manipulation effect. We conclude that perceptions of peer approval of drinking are malleable with a very brief information-based manipulation. PMID:20598806

  19. The Haskell norm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Advocate, Dev L.

    The matter of the viscosity of the mantle has started to become serious. In 1935, Norm Haskell estimated the viscosity to be about 1020 poise and there the matter stood for about half a century. For a little while, people worried about excess ellipticity of the Earth and attributed this to a “fossil bulge” that lagged the rotation rate. For this same little while, 1025 poise was thought to be the viscosity of the lower mantle, but then it was discovered that the equator was also out of shape by about the same amount, ruling out the “fossil bulge” idea. To cover their embarrassment, geodynamicists upped the viscosity of the mantle to 1021 by adopting S.I. (Satan's Invention) units. No one noticed for some time since it didn't really matter whether viscosity was given in stokes, poise, or pascal seconds. It was just a large number with a large uncertainty and no one had a feel for it anyway.

  20. Cat and mouse search: the influence of scene and object analysis on eye movements when targets change locations during search.

    PubMed

    Hillstrom, Anne P; Segabinazi, Joice D; Godwin, Hayward J; Liversedge, Simon P; Benson, Valerie

    2017-02-19

    We explored the influence of early scene analysis and visible object characteristics on eye movements when searching for objects in photographs of scenes. On each trial, participants were shown sequentially either a scene preview or a uniform grey screen (250 ms), a visual mask, the name of the target and the scene, now including the target at a likely location. During the participant's first saccade during search, the target location was changed to: (i) a different likely location, (ii) an unlikely but possible location or (iii) a very implausible location. The results showed that the first saccade landed more often on the likely location in which the target re-appeared than on unlikely or implausible locations, and overall the first saccade landed nearer the first target location with a preview than without. Hence, rapid scene analysis influenced initial eye movement planning, but availability of the target rapidly modified that plan. After the target moved, it was found more quickly when it appeared in a likely location than when it appeared in an unlikely or implausible location. The findings show that both scene gist and object properties are extracted rapidly, and are used in conjunction to guide saccadic eye movements during visual search.This article is part of the themed issue 'Auditory and visual scene analysis'.

  1. Changes in cyclic and respiratory electron transport by the movement of phycobilisomes in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Ma, Weimin; Ogawa, Teruo; Shen, Yungang; Mi, Hualing

    2007-06-01

    Phycobilisomes (PBS) are the major accessory light-harvesting complexes in cyanobacteria and their mobility affects the light energy distribution between the two photosystems. We investigated the effect of PBS mobility on state transitions, photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport, and various fluorescence parameters in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803, using glycinebetaine to immobilize and couple PBS to photosystem II (PSII) or photosystem I (PSI) by applying under far-red or green light, respectively. The immobilization of PBS at PSII inhibited the increase in cyclic electron flow, photochemical and non-photochemical quenching, and decrease in respiration that occurred during the movement of PBS from PSII to PSI. In contrast, the immobilization of PBS at PSI inhibited the increase in respiration and photochemical quenching and decrease in cyclic electron flow and non-photochemical quenching that occurred when PBS moved from PSI to PSII. Linear electron transport did not change during PBS movement but increased or decreased significantly during longer illumination with far-red or green light, respectively. This implies that PBS movement is completed in a short time but it takes longer for the overall photosynthetic reactions to be tuned to a new state.

  2. Models for fine-scale movements along growth faults associated with climate/sea level changes

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrie, A.

    1986-09-01

    Along the northern Gulf of Mexico, the deglaciation phase of a Pliocene-Pleistocene glacial cycle produced up to a tenfold increase in waters available for sediment transportation to continental margins. With lowered sea levels during glacial maxima, sedimentary pulses are deposited along the shelf break and on the slope. High-energy deposition promotes foundation instability. Growth faults then originate along the shelf break. Increased lithostatic pressure due to rapid deposition on underlying unconsolidated and semiconsolidated sediments, semiplastic salt, and marine clays promote flow that accelerates compaction, fluid migration, growth fault movements, and salt tectonics. Sedimentary depositional cycles of deca- and centenary-millennia are recorded throughout the Phanerozoic. Planetary orbital motions, controlling the amount of incoming solar radiation and lasting 20,000, 40,00, and 100,000 years, apparently cause these depositional cycles via climate/sea level fluctuations. When sea level is low, sediments are deposited about or beyond the shelf break. Increased lithostatic pressure promotes movement on the fault, deposition on the downthrown block, accelerated compaction of sediments, and fluid expulsion and migration. When sea level is high, sediment deposition is along the upper and middle shelf. Fault activity should be minimal or nil. Thus, the geologic episodes that record the greatest amount of downthrown block growth may also be punctuated by bursts of large drops in sea level. Onshore Louisiana production is usually greatest from maximum growth downthrown blocks.

  3. [Changes of TGF-β1 expression during orthodontic tooth movement in rats with osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-He; Wang, Yang; Liao, Nan-Nan; Li, Jin-Yuan; Dong, Qing

    2017-02-01

    To observe the expression and distribution of TGF-β1 in periodontal tissue under intervention of Strontium ranelate and Qianggu capsule during orthodontic tooth movement in rats, and explore the efficacy of the 2 drugs. Seventy male SD rats of 3 months old were selected in the study, and randomly divided into control group, model control group, Strontium ranelate group, Qianggu capsule group, each group had 15 animals. Retinoic acid was given by gavage to animals in the control group, Strontium ranelate group, Qianggu capsule group for 2 weeks, and bone density was detected to determine successful establishment of osteoporosis model. All rats were installed orthodontic device, and were sacrificed at 7 days, 14 days and 21 days, respectively. The tissue blocks of the first maxillary molar and adjacent alveolar bone were taken for H-E staining, immunohistochemical staining and semi-quantitative analysis was used to detect TGF-β1 expression in periodontal tissues. The data were statistically analyzed by SPSS 17.0 software package. TGF- beta 1 expression was significantly increased in Strontium ranelate group and Qianggu capsule group compared with control group (P<0.05); TGF- beta 1 expression in Strontium ranelate group was significantly stronger than that of Qianggu capsule group (P<0.05). Strontium ranelate and Qianggu capsule could enhance the expression of TGF- beta 1 and promote bone metabolism in osteoporosis rats, which is helpful to the movement of healthy teeth; the effect of Strontium ranelate is stronger than Qianggu capsule.

  4. Changes of Substance P in the Crevicular Fluid in relation to Orthodontic Movement Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Levrini, Luca; Sacerdote, Paola; Moretti, Sarah; Panzi, Silvia; Caprioglio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is a tachykinin released from both the central and the peripheral endings of primary afferent neurons and functions as a neurotransmitter. As a transmitter signaling pain, substance P is involved in nociception and is an extremely potent vasodilator. We found several studies about this neuropeptide especially in relation to parodontology and a few orthodontic reviews. This is because in the past the importance of this neuropeptide in dental element undergoing periodontal inflammation was observed. The aims of the present pilot study was to investigate whether the substance P was present in gingival crevicular fluid in dental elements undergoing orthodontic treatment with Invisalign technique compared to teeth belonging to the same series but not undergoing orthodontic movement. We analysed gengival crevicular fluid (GCF) collected from four young subjects, using a paper cone for a time of 60 seconds. The results showed that SP is present in the gengival sulcus in elements undergoing orthodontic forces during treatment with Invisalign technique and not in the control teeth. During the literature analysis, we have found a lot of papers describing involvement of SP in periodontitis and inflammatory diseases, but further studies are needed in order to demonstrate the role of this neuropeptide during teeth movement. PMID:23737731

  5. Blood sampling in juvenile buff-breasted sandpipers: Movement, weight change and survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanctot, Richard B.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of blood sampling on juvenile Buff-breasted Sandpipers (Tryngites subruficollis) was evaluated by comparing movements, mass, and survival of 10 broods (37 chicks) that were bled and eight broods (31 chicks) that were not bled. Blood was sampled from the jugular vein of chicks when they weighed 9.1 ± 0.9 g (x̄ ± SD) on or within 1 d of hatch. Chicks showed few short-term negative effects from blood sampling. Individual chicks suffered little physical injury, and five of eight chicks where injury occurred (i.e., hematomas formed) survived to fledging. Furthermore, bled broods gained mass at a comparable rate during the first 5 d post-hatch, and were resighted at similar frequencies as broods that were not bled. Bled broods moved slightly longer distances than control broods 1 d after hatch, however. This increased activity may have been stress-induced, but was only temporary; bled and control broods made similar long-term movements, and the probability of resighting was similar at fledging. With the proper precautions, it appears that Buff-breasted Sandpiper young can be safely sampled for blood at an early age without causing undue harm.

  6. Movement disorder society unified Parkinson disease rating scale experiences in daily living: longitudinal changes and correlation with other assessments.

    PubMed

    Lang, Anthony E; Eberly, Shirley; Goetz, Christopher G; Stebbins, Glenn; Oakes, David; Marek, Ken; Ravina, Bernard; Tanner, Caroline M; Shoulson, Ira

    2013-12-01

    The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) commissioned a revision of the UPDRS with the goals of improving instructions and definitions, more accurately evaluating milder features, and assessing patient-reported outcomes and nonmotor features. To date, no study has evaluated longitudinal changes in components of the MDS-UPDRS over time or correlated these with changes in other scales of various symptoms. We assessed Parts I and II of the MDS-UPDRS (non-Motor and Motor Experiences of Daily Living [nM-EDL, M-EDL]) as well as a number of other scales of motor, cognitive and behavioral function in a large population of patients (n = 383) with early- to mid-stage Parkinson's disease (PD) who had previously participated in a trial of a putative disease-modifying agent. Both parts of a MDS-UPDRS showed significant change over the 3-year follow-up period, with M-EDL scores declining to a greater extent than nM-EDL. Both the scores and their changes over time correlated relatively well with other rating scales of similar disease aspects. Modest correlations with the original version of the UPDRS supported the increased attention to nonmotor symptoms as well as milder levels of severity in the MDS-UPDRS. The M-EDL was much more sensitive to change over time in these early- to mid-stage patients than the original UPDRS Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale. Finally, we showed no change over time in a small group of individuals with dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography scans without evidence for dopamine deficiency. The nM-EDL and M-EDL components of the MDS-UPDRS provide an effective, relevant measure of change in the broad spectrum of symptoms of PD over the first decade of the disease. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  7. Training-related changes in the R-R interval at the onset of passive movements in humans.

    PubMed

    Vianna, L C; Ricardo, D R; Araújo, C G S

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether training-related alterations in muscle mechanoreflex activation affect cardiac vagal withdrawal at the onset of exercise. Eighteen male volunteers divided into 9 controls (26 +/- 1.9 years) and 9 racket players (25 +/- 1.9 years) performed 10 s of voluntary and passive movement characterized by the wrist flexion of their dominant and non-dominant limbs. The respiratory cycle was divided into four phases and the phase 4 R-R interval was measured before and immediately following the initiation of either voluntary or passive movement. At the onset of voluntary exercise, the decrease in R-R interval was similar between dominant and non-dominant forearms in both controls (166 +/- 20 vs 180 +/- 34 ms, respectively; P > 0.05) and racket players (202 +/- 29 vs 201 +/- 31 ms, respectively; P > 0.05). Following passive movement, the non-dominant forearm of racket players elicited greater changes than the dominant forearm (129 +/- 30 vs 77 +/- 17 ms; P < 0.05), as well as both the dominant (54 +/- 20 ms; P < 0.05) and non-dominant (59 +/- 14 ms; P < 0.05) forearms of control subjects. In contrast, changes in R-R interval elicited by the racket players' dominant forearm were similar to that observed in the control group, indicating that changes in R-R interval at the onset of passive exercise were not attenuated in the dominant forearm of racket players. In summary, cardiac vagal withdrawal induced by muscle mechanoreflex stimulation is well-maintained, despite long-term exposure to training.

  8. Tendencies of changes in the natural movement in the Lublin voivodship at the turn of the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaga, MaŁgorzata

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents some aspects of population changes that have been taking place in the Lublin voivodship since the beginning of the nineties. The author's attention is concentrated on the elements of the natural movement, such as: marriages, divorces, births, deaths and natural increase. Two unlike periods in the course of their changes are designated and main trends of each phase are described. Another aim of the work is to show contrasts in demographic situation between towns and rural areas of the voivodship, as well as spatial differentiation of natural movement indexes in particular parts of the region. Basic factors of these differences are also presented. On the basis of the research, some general conclusions can be stated: - for the first period of demographic changes (1990-2003) decrease in some of natural movement indexes is characteristic (marriages, births and natural increase), after 2003 a new trend has appeared - increase in the mentioned phenomena; as for deaths - they have been remaining on the stable level all the time - these processes are bound, on the one hand, to entering of the Polish society into a new phase of demographic transition and on the other hand, they are connected with consequences of a new economic situation that has appeared in the country as the result of political transformation - distinct dissimilarities in regions of the Lublin voivodship are effects of their local features, e.g. demographic structure and potential, as well as economic development and life conditions - similar factors determined the diversity of demographic processes in towns and rural areas of the voivodship.

  9. Category Norms: An Updated and Expanded Version of the Battig and Montague (1969) Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Overschelde, James P.; Rawson, Katherine A.; Dunlosky, John

    2004-01-01

    The Battig and Montague (1969) category norms have been an invaluable tool for researchers in many fields, with a recent literature search revealing their use in over 1600 projects published in more than 200 different journals. Since 1969, numerous changes have occurred culturally that warrant the collection of new normative data. For instance, in…

  10. Category Norms: An Updated and Expanded Version of the Battig and Montague (1969) Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Overschelde, James P.; Rawson, Katherine A.; Dunlosky, John

    2004-01-01

    The Battig and Montague (1969) category norms have been an invaluable tool for researchers in many fields, with a recent literature search revealing their use in over 1600 projects published in more than 200 different journals. Since 1969, numerous changes have occurred culturally that warrant the collection of new normative data. For instance, in…

  11. The Floccular Syndrome: Dynamic Changes in Eye Movements and Vestibulo-ocular Reflex in Isolated Infarction of the Cerebellar Flocculus.

    PubMed

    Yacovino, Dario Andres; Akly, Manuel Perez; Luis, Leonel; Zee, David S

    2017-08-26

    The cerebellar flocculus is a critical structure involved in the control of eye movements. Both static and dynamic abnormalities of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) have been described in animals with experimental lesions of the flocculus/paraflocculus complex. In humans, lesions restricted to the flocculus are rare so they can become an exceptional model to contrast with the clinical features in experimental animals or in patients with more generalized cerebellar diseases. Here, we examined a 67-year-old patient with an acute vestibular syndrome due to an isolated infarct of the right flocculus. We evaluated him multiple times over 6 months-to follow the changes in eye movements and vestibular function-with caloric testing, video-oculography and head-impulse testing, and the anatomical changes on imaging. Acutely, he had an ipsilateral-beating spontaneous nystagmus, bilateral gaze-evoked nystagmus, borderline impaired smooth pursuit, and a complete contraversive ocular tilt reaction. The VOR gain was reduced for head impulses directed contralateral to the lesion, and there was also an ipsilesional caloric weakness. All abnormalities progressively improved at follow-up visits but with a considerable reduction in volume of the affected flocculus on imaging. The vestibular and ocular motor findings, qualitatively similar to a previously reported patient, further clarify the "acute floccular syndrome" in humans. We also add new information about the pattern of recovery from such a lesion with corresponding changes in the size of the affected flocculus on imaging.

  12. Length changes of human tibialis anterior central aponeurosis during passive movements and isometric, concentric, and eccentric contractions.

    PubMed

    Tilp, Markus; Steib, Simon; Herzog, Walter

    2012-04-01

    The behavior of aponeuroses during voluntary contractions is still poorly understood and results provided in the literature are controversial. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of the tibialis anterior aponeurosis during passive movements and active isometric, concentric, and eccentric contractions in vivo. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized that the aponeurosis exhibits behavior that is not consistent with a serial alignment with the contractile element of the muscle. Nine subjects participated in the study and performed contractions on a Biodex-dynamometer. Two ultrasound probes were used to visualize the proximal and distal ends of the tibialis anterior aponeurosis from which length changes were calculated. The main findings were that: (1) During isometric contractions, aponeurosis lengths increased and decreased with increasing and decreasing forces by about 2.8 (±1.5) mm while tendon length changes were much greater and averaged 15 (±3.3) mm, (2) during passive movements, aponeurosis lengths did not change significantly, and (3) despite similar average torque changes during concentric and eccentric contractions, aponeurosis lengths changed by 2.2 mm in concentric but only by 1.2 mm in eccentric contractions. The results of this study did not provide clear evidence for or against a serial alignment of the aponeurosis with the contractile elements. However, at low activation levels during force ramp contractions, there was a small but consistent shortening of aponeuroses with increasing torque. Our findings suggest that aponeurosis length changes do not depend on force alone but depend critically on activation level and the type of contraction.

  13. Accounting for Movement between Childcare Classrooms: Does it Change Teacher Effects Interpretations?

    PubMed Central

    Messan Setodji, Claude; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Schaack, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Child care studies that have examined links between teachers' qualifications and children's outcomes often ignore teachers’ and children’s transitions between classrooms at a center throughout the day and only take into account head teacher qualifications. The objective of this investigation was to examine these traditional assumptions and to compare inferences made from these traditional models to methods accounting for transitions between classrooms and multiple teachers in a classroom. The study examined the receptive language, letter-word identification, and passage comprehension skills of 307 children enrolled in 49 community-based childcare centers serving primarily low-income families in Colorado. Results suggest that nearly one-third of children and over 80% of teachers moved daily between classrooms. Findings also reveal that failure to account for daily transitions between classrooms can affect interpretations of the relationship between teacher qualifications and child outcomes, with the model accounting for movement providing significant improvements in model fit and inference. PMID:22389546

  14. Diurnal movements of cotton leaves expressed as thermodynamic work and entropy changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, J. B.; Kimes, D. S.; Newcomb, W. W.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that some important agricultural crops show heliotropic leaf movements. In these species, the proclivity of leaves to orient either perpendicularly or parallel or in some combination of these positions with respect to the sun is controlled by the leaf turgor and the availability of water. Such an orientational response is particularly noticeable for cotton. Schutt et al. (1985) have detailed leaf trajectories using three angles. The present investigation applies the three-angle representation to leaf trajectory mapping and to the calculation of the phase angle 'gamma' between the individual leaf normals and the solar direction. Using gamma, the thermodynamic work and entropy functions are evaluated and used to distinguish between the behavior of water-stressed and well watered cotton canopies.

  15. Changes in Cortical Activity During Real and Imagined Movements: an ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Paes, Flávia; Ribeiro, Pedro; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Almada, Leonardo Ferreira; Anghinah, Renato; Basile, Luis; Moro, Maria Francesca; Orsini, Marco; Silva, Julio Guilherme; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Nardi, Antonio E.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to compare the topographic distribution of cortical activation between real and imagined movement through event-related potential (ERP). We are specifically interested in identifying, the topographic distribution of activated areas, the intensity of activated areas, and the temporal occurrence of these activations on preparation and motor response phases. Twelve healthy and right handed subjects were instructed to perform a task under real and imagery conditions. The task was performed simultaneously to electroencephalographic (EEG) recording. When compared the conditions, we found a statistically significant difference in favor of real condition revealed by performing an unpaired t-test with multiple corrections of Bonferroni, demonstrating negative activity on electrode C3 and positive activity on the electrode C4 only in motor response phase. These findings revealed similar functional connections established during real and imagery conditions, suggesting that there are common neural substrate and similar properties of functional integration shared by conditions. PMID:24358049

  16. Changes in Cortical Activity During Real and Imagined Movements: an ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Paes, Flávia; Ribeiro, Pedro; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Almada, Leonardo Ferreira; Anghinah, Renato; Basile, Luis; Moro, Maria Francesca; Orsini, Marco; Silva, Julio Guilherme; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Nardi, Antonio E

    2013-11-15

    This study aims to compare the topographic distribution of cortical activation between real and imagined movement through event-related potential (ERP). We are specifically interested in identifying, the topographic distribution of activated areas, the intensity of activated areas, and the temporal occurrence of these activations on preparation and motor response phases. Twelve healthy and right handed subjects were instructed to perform a task under real and imagery conditions. The task was performed simultaneously to electroencephalographic (EEG) recording. When compared the conditions, we found a statistically significant difference in favor of real condition revealed by performing an unpaired t-test with multiple corrections of Bonferroni, demonstrating negative activity on electrode C3 and positive activity on the electrode C4 only in motor response phase. These findings revealed similar functional connections established during real and imagery conditions, suggesting that there are common neural substrate and similar properties of functional integration shared by conditions.

  17. Clinical ethics and values: how do norms evolve from practice?

    PubMed

    Spranzi, Marta

    2013-02-01

    Bioethics laws in France have just undergone a revision process. The bioethics debate is often cast in terms of ethical principles and norms resisting emerging social and technological practices. This leads to the expression of confrontational attitudes based on widely differing interpretations of the same principles and values, and ultimately results in a deadlock. In this paper I would like to argue that focusing on values, as opposed to norms and principles, provides an interesting perspective on the evolution of norms. As Joseph Raz has convincingly argued, "life-building" values and practices are closely intertwined. Precisely because values have a more indeterminate meaning than norms, they can be cited as reasons for action by concerned stakeholders, and thus can help us understand how controversial practices, e.g. surrogate motherhood, can be justified. Finally, norms evolve when the interpretations of the relevant values shift and cause a change in the presumptions implicit in the norms. Thus, norms are not a prerequisite of the ethical solution of practical dilemmas, but rather the outcome of the decision-making process itself. Struggling to reach the right decision in controversial clinical ethics situations indirectly causes social and moral values to change and principles to be understood differently.

  18. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  19. Changes in movements of neck, trunk, and hip according to height and foot position during sit-to-stand

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jungbin; Shim, Jemyung; Kim, Sungjoong; Roh, Hyolyun; Namkoong, Seung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to analyze changes in movements of the neck, trunk and hip according to foot position while performing sit-to-stand (STS) exercises from a height-fixed chair. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects consisted of 22 university students (12 males and 10 females). STS was conducted using a height-fixed chair at three positions: symmetric foot position, right foot position, and left foot position. Through three-dimensional motion analyzer, the movements of the neck, trunk, and hip were analyzed. [Results] While performing STS, the height was more influential on changed in angle of the neck, trunk, and hip. Moreover, when the height of the chair and the height of the subject were not matched correctly, more effective STS could be achieved when both of feet were laid symmetrically rather than at the other two positions. [Conclusion] It is necessary to employ an appropriate chair height that is matched with the height of the patients when therapy using STS is performed. PMID:27821921

  20. Changes in cortical beta activity related to a biceps brachii movement task while experiencing exercise induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Plattner, Kristina; Lambert, Michael I; Tam, Nicholas; Lamberts, Robert P; Baumeister, Jochen

    2014-01-17

    Exercise-induced-muscle-damage (EIMD) is a well-described phenomenon which leads to decreased force output and altered neuromuscular function. How these symptoms of EIMD affect brain function, in particular cortical activity has not been described. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the symptoms of EIMD and cortical beta (β) activity during a submaximal biceps brachii movement. Half of the subjects participated in an EIMD protocol. Control and EIMD groups were monitored for 132h thereafter. Muscle pain scores in the EIMD group peaked after 36h with the lowest muscle torque reported at 12h. Beta-1 and -2 activity was increased in the frontal and parietal area in the experimental group at 12h. This suggests an impact of EIMD induced neuromuscular changes on the cortical proprioceptive and motor perceptive networks. Beta-2 activity decreased in the control group over time suggesting a loss in focused attention and greater familiarization with the protocol as the study progressed. These data suggest that a change in β-1 and -2 activity is associated with integrating movement perception and proprioception post-EIMD. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Caribou, water, and ice - fine-scale movements of a migratory arctic ungulate in the context of climate change.

    PubMed

    Leblond, Mathieu; St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues; Côté, Steeve D

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater lakes and rivers of the Northern Hemisphere have been freezing increasingly later and thawing increasingly earlier during the last century. With reduced temporal periods during which ice conditions are favourable for locomotion, freshwater bodies could become impediments to the inter-patch movements, dispersion, or migration of terrestrial animals that use ice-covered lakes and rivers to move across their range. Studying the fine-scale responses of individuals to broad-scale changes in ice availability and phenology would help to understand how animals react to ongoing climate change, and contribute to the conservation and management of endangered species living in northern environments. Between 2007 and 2014, we equipped 96 migratory caribou Rangifer tarandus caribou from the Rivière-aux-Feuilles herd in northern Québec (Canada) with GPS telemetry collars and studied their space use. We measured contemporary (digital MODIS maps updated every 8 days, 2000-2014) and historical (annual observations, 1947-1985) variations in freshwater-ice availability and evaluated the concurrent responses of caribou to these changes. Ice had a positive influence on caribou movement rates and directionality, and caribou selected ice and avoided water when moving across or in the vicinity of large water bodies. When ice was unavailable, caribou rarely swam across (6 % of crossings) and frequently circumvented water bodies for several km. Although ice phenology did not change significantly during our study, climate projections indicated that ice availability could decrease considerably before the end of the century, generating a ~28 % increase in distance travelled by caribou during the early spring and fall migrations. We demonstrated that ice availability influenced the movements of a migratory arctic ungulate. Warmer air temperatures in the Arctic will undoubtedly modify the phenology of ice forming on freshwater lakes and rivers. If migratory caribou are unable to

  2. Late Holocene sea level changes and tectonic movements inferred from fossil diatom assemblages in Tainohama, Tokushima prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, T.; Fujino, S.; Kobori, E.

    2014-12-01

    The average recurrence interval of the interplate earthquakes along the Nankai Trough is estimated from historical literature and archaeological data. However, the details of tectonic movements by past Nankai earthquakes are mostly left unclear from historical literature, therefore, we need to obtain the geological evidence of the tectonic movements. Yuki city, Tokushima prefecture, located in north part of the Nankai Trough, has been subsided and many tsunamis attacked along the coast of the Shikoku islands accompanied by the previous Nankai earthquakes. Therefore, some historical documents and memorial monuments written about the past Nankai earthquakes and tsunamis remain in the city. The study purposed to reveal tectonic movements of the earthquakes from Nankai Trough during the late Holocene at Tainohama in Minami city which is adjacent to the southwest of Yuki city by fossil diatom analysis. We obtained a 700cm long core at a marsh behind a barrier spit probably be not affected directly from sea waves in Tainohama. The core includes more than 13 sand layers in organic-rich muddy or peaty sedimentary succession up to 500cm depth in the core. And the diatom assemblages included in the peat and peaty mud deposits were dominated by fresh and brackish water species, especially Pseudostaurosira brevistriata, P. subsalina and Tabellaria fenestrate. In contrast to the above mentioned sand layers, brackish and marine species, such as Diploneis smithii increased. The diatom assemblages from the organic rich muddy sediments and radiocarbon ages indicate that freshwater marsh or saltmarsh formed in this region during the late Holocene. On the other hand, the sandy layers include the diatoms living in environments where salinities are higher than freshwater or salt marsh, so the assemblages suggest that the sand layers were transported from seaside by past tsunamis. In addition, changes of diatom assemblages in the peaty or peaty mud sediments show increase or decrease of

  3. Changes in saccadic eye movement and memory function after mild closed head injury in children.

    PubMed

    Phillipou, Andrea; Douglas, Jacinta; Krieser, David; Ayton, Lauren; Abel, Larry

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether volitional saccadic impairments are present in children with mild closed head injury (mCHI) and whether these deficits are predictive of ongoing cognitive impairment. We analysed a sample of 26 children with mCHI (20 males, 6 females; mean age 13y 1mo, SD 2y) and 29 age-matched comparison children (20 males, 9 females; mean age 12y 2mo, SD 2y). Participants completed a battery of saccadic eye movement tasks and a set of computer-based cognitive tasks at three time points: within 2 weeks of mCHI, and at 3 months and 6 months. The group with mCHI made fewer errors on the antisaccade task at the first time point and showed increased latencies on prosaccades, correct antisaccades, and corrected antisaccade errors at the third time point (6mo). The group with mCHI also showed poorer performance on the cognitive tasks assessing memory. Even very mild, uncomplicated mCHI in children may persistently affect aspects of executive control and visual processing. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  4. Changes in Effective Connectivity of the Superior Parietal Lobe during Inhibition and Redirection of Eye Movements.

    PubMed

    Asscheman, Susanne J; Thakkar, Katharine N; Neggers, Sebastiaan F W

    2015-01-01

    Executive control is the ability to flexibly control behavior and is frequently studied with saccadic eye movements. Contrary to frontal oculomotor areas, the role of the superior parietal lobe (SPL) in the executive control of saccades remains unknown. To explore the role of SPL networks in saccade control, we performed a saccadic search-step task while acquiring functional magnetic resonance imaging data for 41 participants. Psychophysiological interaction analyses assessed task-related differences in the effective connectivity of SPL with other brain regions during the inhibition and redirection of saccades. Results indicate an increased coupling of SPL with frontal, posterior, and striatal oculomotor areas for redirected saccades versus visually guided saccades. Saccade inhibition versus unsuccessful inhibition revealed an increased coupling of SPL with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. We discuss how these findings relate to ongoing debates about the implementation of executive control and conclude that early attentional control and rapid updating of saccade goals are important signals for executive control.

  5. Changes in Effective Connectivity of the Superior Parietal Lobe during Inhibition and Redirection of Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    Asscheman, Susanne J.; Thakkar, Katharine N.; Neggers, Sebastiaan F.W.

    2015-01-01

    Executive control is the ability to flexibly control behavior and is frequently studied with saccadic eye movements. Contrary to frontal oculomotor areas, the role of the superior parietal lobe (SPL) in the executive control of saccades remains unknown. To explore the role of SPL networks in saccade control, we performed a saccadic search-step task while acquiring functional magnetic resonance imaging data for 41 participants. Psychophysiological interaction analyses assessed task-related differences in the effective connectivity of SPL with other brain regions during the inhibition and redirection of saccades. Results indicate an increased coupling of SPL with frontal, posterior, and striatal oculomotor areas for redirected saccades versus visually guided saccades. Saccade inhibition versus unsuccessful inhibition revealed an increased coupling of SPL with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. We discuss how these findings relate to ongoing debates about the implementation of executive control and conclude that early attentional control and rapid updating of saccade goals are important signals for executive control. PMID:27147827

  6. [Trapped in the body - lived experience and coping of individuals having Parkinson and their relatives with changed movement pattern caused by the disease].

    PubMed

    Kohler, Myrta; Saxer, Susi; Fringer, André; Hantikainen, Virpi

    2014-06-01

    People with Parkinson's disease suffer from various symptoms. Changed movement patterns frequently represent the prevailing symptom experience and influence the everyday life of the affected persons and their relatives. This qualitative study explores how persons with Parkinson's disease and their relatives experience the changed movement patterns and how they manage the consequential problems in their daily life. Eight persons with Parkinson's disease and six partners were interviewed. The interviews were analysed by means of content analysis according to Mayring. The qualitative analysis resulted in two main categories: "effects on the changed movement patterns on everyday life" and "coping skills for dealing with changed movement patterns". The experience of the affected person can be characterised by "being trapped in the body" as well as by a constantly slowing down daily life. The coping strategies are diverse, but all respondents seek to maintain mobility. Partners naturally support the affected persons and take over many tasks. This is associated with elevated distress and the feeling of having to be permanently present. Various coping strategies have to be promoted and included in daily care for people with Parkinson's disease. Consideration of the individual experience of the changed movement patterns is very important in the development of strategies and also the support of the affected persons and relatives that they can keep up with their movements.

  7. The future distribution of river fish: The complex interplay of climate and land use changes, species dispersal and movement barriers.

    PubMed

    Radinger, Johannes; Essl, Franz; Hölker, Franz; Horký, Pavel; Slavík, Ondřej; Wolter, Christian

    2017-05-13

    The future distribution of river fishes will be jointly affected by climate and land use changes forcing species to move in space. However, little is known whether fish species will be able to keep pace with predicted climate and land use-driven habitat shifts, in particular in fragmented river networks. In this study, we coupled species distribution models (stepwise boosted regression trees) of 17 fish species with species-specific models of their dispersal (fish dispersal model FIDIMO) in the European River Elbe catchment. We quantified (i) the extent and direction (up- vs. downstream) of predicted habitat shifts under coupled "moderate" and "severe" climate and land use change scenarios for 2050, and (ii) the dispersal abilities of fishes to track predicted habitat shifts while explicitly considering movement barriers (e.g., weirs, dams). Our results revealed median net losses of suitable habitats of 24 and 94 river kilometers per species for the moderate and severe future scenarios, respectively. Predicted habitat gains and losses and the direction of habitat shifts were highly variable among species. Habitat gains were negatively related to fish body size, i.e., suitable habitats were projected to expand for smaller-bodied fishes and to contract for larger-bodied fishes. Moreover, habitats of lowland fish species were predicted to shift downstream, whereas those of headwater species showed upstream shifts. The dispersal model indicated that suitable habitats are likely to shift faster than species might disperse. In particular, smaller-bodied fish (<200 mm) seem most vulnerable and least able to track future environmental change as their habitat shifted most and they are typically weaker dispersers. Furthermore, fishes and particularly larger-bodied species might substantially be restricted by movement barriers to respond to predicted climate and land use changes, while smaller-bodied species are rather restricted by their specific dispersal ability. © 2017

  8. Social Norms Shift Preferences for Healthy and Unhealthy Foods.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Emma M; Stanton, Michael V; Zaki, Jamil

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated whether people change their food preferences and eating behavior in response to health-based social norms. One hundred twenty participants rated a series of healthy and unhealthy food images. After each rating, participants sometimes viewed a rating that ostensibly represented the average rating of previous participants. In fact, these average ratings were manipulated to convey a particular social norm. Participants either saw average ratings that favored healthy foods, favored unhealthy foods, or did not see any average ratings. Participants then re-rated those same food images after approximately ten minutes and again three days later. After the norm manipulation, participants were given the chance to take as many M&Ms as they wanted. Participants exposed to a healthy social norm consistently reported lower preferences for unhealthy foods as compared to participants in the other two conditions. This preference difference persisted three days after the social norm manipulation. However, health-based social norm manipulations did not influence the amount of M&Ms participants took. Although health-based social norm manipulations can influence stated food preferences, in this case they did not influence subsequent eating behavior.

  9. Social Norms Shift Preferences for Healthy and Unhealthy Foods

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Emma M.; Stanton, Michael V.; Zaki, Jamil

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated whether people change their food preferences and eating behavior in response to health-based social norms. One hundred twenty participants rated a series of healthy and unhealthy food images. After each rating, participants sometimes viewed a rating that ostensibly represented the average rating of previous participants. In fact, these average ratings were manipulated to convey a particular social norm. Participants either saw average ratings that favored healthy foods, favored unhealthy foods, or did not see any average ratings. Participants then re-rated those same food images after approximately ten minutes and again three days later. After the norm manipulation, participants were given the chance to take as many M&Ms as they wanted. Participants exposed to a healthy social norm consistently reported lower preferences for unhealthy foods as compared to participants in the other two conditions. This preference difference persisted three days after the social norm manipulation. However, health-based social norm manipulations did not influence the amount of M&Ms participants took. Although health-based social norm manipulations can influence stated food preferences, in this case they did not influence subsequent eating behavior. PMID:27861518

  10. Excitability changes in human corticospinal projections to forearm muscles during voluntary movement of ipsilateral foot.

    PubMed

    Baldissera, Fausto; Borroni, Paola; Cavallari, Paolo; Cerri, Gabriella

    2002-03-15

    Excitability of the H-reflex in the relaxed flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscle was tested during voluntary oscillations of the ipsilateral foot at five evenly spaced delays during a 600 ms cycle. In some experiments the H-reflex was conditioned by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). With the hand prone, the amplitude of the FCR H-reflex was modulated sinusoidally with the same period as the foot oscillation, the modulation peak occurring in coincidence with contraction of the foot plantar-flexor soleus and the trough during contraction of the extensor tibialis anterior. When the H-reflex was facilitated by TMS at short latency (conditioning-test interval: -2 to -3.5 ms), the modulation was larger than that occurring with an unconditioned reflex of comparable size. This suggests that both the peripheral and the corticospinal components of the facilitated response were modulated in parallel. When the H-reflex was tested 40-60 ms after conditioning, i.e. during the cortical "silent period" induced by TMS, no direct effect was produced on the reflex size but the foot-associated modulation was deeply depressed. These results suggest that the reflex modulation may depend on activity fluctuations in the cortical motor area innervating the forearm motoneurones. It is proposed that when the foot is rhythmically oscillated, along with the full activation of the foot cortical area a simultaneous lesser co-activation of the forearm area produces a subliminal cyclic modulation of cervical motoneurones excitability. Should the two limbs be moved together, the time course of this modulation would favour isodirectional movements of the prone hand and foot, indeed the preferential coupling observed when hand and foot are voluntarily oscillated.

  11. Wrist torque estimation during simultaneous and continuously changing movements: surface vs. untargeted intramuscular EMG.

    PubMed

    Kamavuako, Ernest N; Scheme, Erik J; Englehart, Kevin B

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, the predictive capability of surface and untargeted intramuscular electromyography (EMG) was compared with respect to wrist-joint torque to quantify which type of measurement better represents joint torque during multiple degrees-of-freedom (DoF) movements for possible application in prosthetic control. Ten able-bodied subjects participated in the study. Surface and intramuscular EMG was recorded concurrently from the right forearm. The subjects were instructed to track continuous contraction profiles using single and combined DoF in two trials. The association between torque and EMG was assessed using an artificial neural network. Results showed a significant difference between the two types of EMG (P < 0.007) for all performance metrics: coefficient of determination (R(2)), Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC), and root mean square error (RMSE). The performance of surface EMG (R(2) = 0.93 ± 0.03; PCC = 0.98 ± 0.01; RMSE = 8.7 ± 2.1%) was found to be superior compared with intramuscular EMG (R(2) = 0.80 ± 0.07; PCC = 0.93 ± 0.03; RMSE = 14.5 ± 2.9%). The higher values of PCC compared with R(2) indicate that both methods are able to track the torque profile well but have some trouble (particularly intramuscular EMG) in estimating the exact amplitude. The possible cause for the difference, thus the low performance of intramuscular EMG, may be attributed to the very high selectivity of the recordings used in this study.

  12. Estimation of Holocene Land Movement and Sea Level Changes in Southwest Scandinavia - Results From Interpretation of Relative Sea Level Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, L.; Hede, M.; Clemmensen, L. B.; Morten Hansen, J.; Noe-Nygaard, N.; Sander, L.; Bendixen, M.; Kroon, A.; Murray, A. S.; Pejrup, M.

    2013-12-01

    Relative sea level curves from different localities in Denmark, southwest Scandinavia, are used for estimation of Holocene vertical land movement and absolute sea level variations in the gateway between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Two previous independent studies conducted in the area show that ground penetrating radar reflection images of internal beach ridge and swale architecture form a strong basis for estimation of relative sea level variation. Sediments are dated using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL); this shows that the beach ridges and swales were last exposed to daylight between ~6500 and 0 years ago. Time periods with characteristic changes in the rate of relative sea level change are identified at different localities. The observed relative sea level change rates differ in the study area, mainly because the different localities have experienced different isostatic rebound since the latest glaciation. Variations in uplift rates and absolute sea level change for the region are estimated by inversion of the observed relative sea level changes. The values obtained for the different time periods put constraints on absolute sea level variation during the Holocene and have implications for our understanding of the lithosphere's temporal response to the unloading caused by melting of the thick ice sheet formed during the latest glaciation in Scandinavia.

  13. Biomechanics of foetal movement.

    PubMed

    Nowlan, N C

    2015-01-02

    Foetal movements commence at seven weeks of gestation, with the foetal movement repertoire including twitches, whole body movements, stretches, isolated limb movements, breathing movements, head and neck movements, jaw movements (including yawning, sucking and swallowing) and hiccups by ten weeks of gestational age. There are two key biomechanical aspects to gross foetal movements; the first being that the foetus moves in a dynamically changing constrained physical environment in which the freedom to move becomes increasingly restricted with increasing foetal size and decreasing amniotic fluid. Therefore, the mechanical environment experienced by the foetus affects its ability to move freely. Secondly, the mechanical forces induced by foetal movements are crucial for normal skeletal development, as evidenced by a number of conditions and syndromes for which reduced or abnormal foetal movements are implicated, such as developmental dysplasia of the hip, arthrogryposis and foetal akinesia deformation sequence. This review examines both the biomechanical effects of the physical environment on foetal movements through discussion of intrauterine factors, such as space, foetal positioning and volume of amniotic fluid, and the biomechanical role of gross foetal movements in human skeletal development through investigation of the effects of abnormal movement on the bones and joints. This review also highlights computational simulations of foetal movements that attempt to determine the mechanical forces acting on the foetus as it moves. Finally, avenues for future research into foetal movement biomechanics are highlighted, which have potential impact for a diverse range of fields including foetal medicine, musculoskeletal disorders and tissue engineering.

  14. Explaining trends in alcohol-related harms in Scotland 1991-2011 (II): policy, social norms, the alcohol market, clinical changes and a synthesis.

    PubMed

    McCartney, G; Bouttell, J; Craig, N; Craig, P; Graham, L; Lakha, F; Lewsey, J; McAdams, R; MacPherson, M; Minton, J; Parkinson, J; Robinson, M; Shipton, D; Taulbut, M; Walsh, D; Beeston, C

    2016-03-01

    To provide a basis for evaluating post-2007 alcohol policy in Scotland, this paper tests the extent to which pre-2007 policy, the alcohol market, culture or clinical changes might explain differences in the magnitude and trends in alcohol-related mortality outcomes in Scotland compared to England & Wales (E&W). Rapid literature reviews, descriptive analysis of routine data and narrative synthesis. We assessed the impact of pre-2007 Scottish policy and policy in the comparison areas in relation to the literature on effective alcohol policy. Rapid literature reviews were conducted to assess cultural changes and the potential role of substitution effects between alcohol and illicit drugs. The availability of alcohol was assessed by examining the trends in the number of alcohol outlets over time. The impact of clinical changes was assessed in consultation with key informants. The impact of all the identified factors were then summarised and synthesised narratively. The companion paper showed that part of the rise and fall in alcohol-related mortality in Scotland, and part of the differing trend to E&W, were predicted by a model linking income trends and alcohol-related mortality. Lagged effects from historical deindustrialisation and socio-economic changes exposures also remain plausible from the available data. This paper shows that policy differences or changes prior to 2007 are unlikely to have been important in explaining the trends. There is some evidence that aspects of alcohol culture in Scotland may be different (more concentrated and home drinking) but it seems unlikely that this has been an important driver of the trends or the differences with E&W other than through interaction with changing incomes and lagged socio-economic effects. Substitution effects with illicit drugs and clinical changes are unlikely to have substantially changed alcohol-related harms: however, the increase in alcohol availability across the UK is likely to partly explain the rise in

  15. Exploring Teachers' Experiences with Change Related to the Whole Language Movement: A Narrative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Stacey A.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study contributes to understanding about teachers' experiences with change. As teachers attempt to navigate the curricular initiatives that continually come and go, their work is affected and their attitudes are shaped. Employing the methodology of narrative inquiry, teachers' personal stories about their experiences…

  16. Recovery of Online Sentence Processing in Aphasia: Eye Movement Changes Resulting from Treatment of Underlying Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Jennifer E.; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The present study tested whether (and how) language treatment changed online sentence processing in individuals with aphasia. Method: Participants with aphasia (n = 10) received a 12-week program of Treatment of Underlying Forms (Thompson & Shapiro, 2005) focused on production and comprehension of passive sentences. Before and after…

  17. Using Webcams to Show Change and Movement in the Physical Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Carol F.; Butler, David R.; Curtis, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Environmental change is ideally taught through field observations; however, leaving the classroom is often unrealistic due to financial and logistical constraints. The Internet offers several feasible alternatives using webcams that instructors can use to illustrate a variety of geographic examples and exercises for students. This article explores…

  18. Visual feedback-related changes in ipsilateral cortical excitability during unimanual movement: Implications for mirror therapy.

    PubMed

    Reissig, Paola; Garry, Michael I; Summers, Jeffery J; Hinder, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    Provision of a mirror image of a hand undertaking a motor task (i.e., mirror therapy) elicits behavioural improvements in the inactive hand. A greater understanding of the neural mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon is required to maximise its potential for rehabilitation across the lifespan, e.g., following hemiparesis or unilateral weakness. Young and older participants performed unilateral finger abductions with no visual feedback, with feedback of the active or passive hands, or with a mirror image of the active hand. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess feedback-related changes in two neurophysiological measures thought to be involved in inter-manual transfer of skill, namely corticospinal excitability (CSE) and intracortical inhibition (SICI) in the passive hemisphere. Task performance led to CSE increases, accompanied by decreases of SICI, in all visual feedback conditions relative to rest. However, the changes due to mirror feedback were not significantly different to those observed in the other (more standard) visual conditions. Accordingly, the unimanual motor action itself, rather than modifications in visual feedback, appears more instrumental in driving changes in CSE and SICI. Therefore, changes in CSE and SICI are unlikely to underpin the behavioural benefits of mirror therapy. We discuss implications for rehabilitation and directions of future research.

  19. Exploring Teachers' Experiences with Change Related to the Whole Language Movement: A Narrative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Stacey A.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study contributes to understanding about teachers' experiences with change. As teachers attempt to navigate the curricular initiatives that continually come and go, their work is affected and their attitudes are shaped. Employing the methodology of narrative inquiry, teachers' personal stories about their experiences…

  20. Housing Is an Epicenter for Change: A Narrative of Students and Staff Championing Campus Social Change Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otchere, Kimberly; Bankhead, Tekita; Williams, Ayanna

    2017-01-01

    The resurgence of student activism has yielded dynamic change within university housing departments and beyond on college campuses across the country. In higher education, the social, cultural, and political environment continues to be highly racialized and characterized by a string of protests and public displays of student angst. The threat of…

  1. Understanding social norms and violence in childhood: theoretical underpinnings and strategies for intervention.

    PubMed

    Lilleston, P S; Goldmann, L; Verma, R K; McCleary-Sills, J

    2017-03-01

    Violence in childhood is a widespread human rights violation that crosses cultural, social and economic lines. Social norms, the shared perceptions about others that exist within social groups, are a critical driver that can either prevent or perpetuate violence in childhood. This review defines injunctive and descriptive social norms and lays out a conceptual framework for the relationship between social norms and violence in childhood, including the forces shaping social norms, the mechanisms through which these norms influence violence in childhood (e.g. fear of social sanctions, internalization of normative behavior), and the drivers and maintainers of norms related to violence in childhood. It further provides a review of theory and evidence-based practices for shifting these social norms including strategic approaches (targeting social norms directly, changing attitudes to shift social norms, and changing behavior to shift social norms), core principles (e.g. using public health frameworks), and intervention strategies (e.g. engaging bystanders, involving stakeholders, using combination prevention). As a key driver of violence in childhood, social norms should be an integral component of any comprehensive effort to mitigate this threat to human rights. Understanding how people's perceptions are shaped, propagated, and, ultimately, altered is crucial to preventing violence in childhood.

  2. Social Groups and Children's Intergroup Attitudes: Can School Norms Moderate the Effects of Social Group Norms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Lawson, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of social group norms (inclusion vs. exclusion vs. exclusion-plus-relational aggression) and school norms (inclusion vs. no norm) on 7- and 10-year-old children's intergroup attitudes were examined. Children (n = 383) were randomly assigned to a group with an inclusion or exclusion norm, and to 1 of the school norm conditions. Findings…

  3. Transforming "apathy into movement": the role of prosocial emotions in motivating action for social change.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Emma F; McGarty, Craig; Mavor, Kenneth I

    2009-11-01

    This article explores the synergies between recent developments in the social identity of helping, and advantaged groups' prosocial emotion. The authors review the literature on the potential of guilt, sympathy, and outrage to transform advantaged groups' apathy into positive action. They place this research into a novel framework by exploring the ways these emotions shape group processes to produce action strategies that emphasize either social cohesion or social change. These prosocial emotions have a critical but underrecognized role in creating contexts of in-group inclusion or exclusion, shaping normative content and meaning, and informing group interests. Furthermore, these distinctions provide a useful way of differentiating commonly discussed emotions. The authors conclude that the most "effective" emotion will depend on the context of the inequality but that outrage seems particularly likely to productively shape group processes and social change outcomes.

  4. Advanced Behavioral Analyses Show that the Presence of Food Causes Subtle Changes in C. elegans Movement

    PubMed Central

    Angstman, Nicholas B.; Frank, Hans-Georg; Schmitz, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    As a widely used and studied model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans worms offer the ability to investigate implications of behavioral change. Although, investigation of C. elegans behavioral traits has been shown, analysis is often narrowed down to measurements based off a single point, and thus cannot pick up on subtle behavioral and morphological changes. In the present study videos were captured of four different C. elegans strains grown in liquid cultures and transferred to NGM-agar plates with an E. coli lawn or with no lawn. Using an advanced software, WormLab, the full skeleton and outline of worms were tracked to determine whether the presence of food affects behavioral traits. In all seven investigated parameters, statistically significant differences were found in worm behavior between those moving on NGM-agar plates with an E. coli lawn and NGM-agar plates with no lawn. Furthermore, multiple test groups showed differences in interaction between variables as the parameters that significantly correlated statistically with speed of locomotion varied. In the present study, we demonstrate the validity of a model to analyze C. elegans behavior beyond simple speed of locomotion. The need to account for a nested design while performing statistical analyses in similar studies is also demonstrated. With extended analyses, C. elegans behavioral change can be investigated with greater sensitivity, which could have wide utility in fields such as, but not limited to, toxicology, drug discovery, and RNAi screening. PMID:27065825

  5. Advanced Behavioral Analyses Show that the Presence of Food Causes Subtle Changes in C. elegans Movement.

    PubMed

    Angstman, Nicholas B; Frank, Hans-Georg; Schmitz, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    As a widely used and studied model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans worms offer the ability to investigate implications of behavioral change. Although, investigation of C. elegans behavioral traits has been shown, analysis is often narrowed down to measurements based off a single point, and thus cannot pick up on subtle behavioral and morphological changes. In the present study videos were captured of four different C. elegans strains grown in liquid cultures and transferred to NGM-agar plates with an E. coli lawn or with no lawn. Using an advanced software, WormLab, the full skeleton and outline of worms were tracked to determine whether the presence of food affects behavioral traits. In all seven investigated parameters, statistically significant differences were found in worm behavior between those moving on NGM-agar plates with an E. coli lawn and NGM-agar plates with no lawn. Furthermore, multiple test groups showed differences in interaction between variables as the parameters that significantly correlated statistically with speed of locomotion varied. In the present study, we demonstrate the validity of a model to analyze C. elegans behavior beyond simple speed of locomotion. The need to account for a nested design while performing statistical analyses in similar studies is also demonstrated. With extended analyses, C. elegans behavioral change can be investigated with greater sensitivity, which could have wide utility in fields such as, but not limited to, toxicology, drug discovery, and RNAi screening.

  6. Active transport, ion movements, and pH changes : I. The chemistry of pH changes.

    PubMed

    Good, N E

    1988-10-01

    The transport of substances across cell membranes may be the most fundamental activity of living things. When the substance transported is any ion there can be a change in the concentration of hydrogen ions on the two sides of the membrane. These hydrogen ion concentration changes are not caused by fluxes of hydrogen ions although fluxes of hydrogen ions may sometimes be involved. The reason for the apparent contradiction is quite simple. All aqueous systems are subject to two constraints: (1) to maintain the charge balance, the sum of the cationic charges must equal the sum of the anionic charges and (2) the product of the molar concentration of H(+) and the molar concentration of OH(-), established and maintained by the association and the dissociation of water, remains always at 10(-14). As a consequence the concentrations of H(+) and OH(-) are determined uniquely by differences between the concentrations of the other cations and anions, with [H(+)] and [OH(-)] being dependent variables. Hydrogen ions and hydroxyl ions can be produced or consumed in local reactions whereas any strong ions such as Cl(-), Mg(2+), or K(+) can be neither produced nor consumed in biological reactions. Further consequences of these truisms are outlined here in terms of the chemistry of the kinds of reactions which can lead to pH changes.

  7. Perceptual dehumanization of faces is activated by norm violations and facilitates norm enforcement.

    PubMed

    Fincher, Katrina M; Tetlock, Philip E

    2016-02-01

    This article uses methods drawn from perceptual psychology to answer a basic social psychological question: Do people process the faces of norm violators differently from those of others--and, if so, what is the functional significance? Seven studies suggest that people process these faces different and the differential processing makes it easier to punish norm violators. Studies 1 and 2 use a recognition-recall paradigm that manipulated facial-inversion and spatial frequency to show that people rely upon face-typical processing less when they perceive norm violators' faces. Study 3 uses a facial composite task to demonstrate that the effect is actor dependent, not action dependent, and to suggest that configural processing is the mechanism of perceptual change. Studies 4 and 5 use offset faces to show that configural processing is only attenuated when they belong to perpetrators who are culpable. Studies 6 and 7 show that people find it easier to punish inverted faces and harder to punish faces displayed in low spatial frequency. Taken together, these data suggest a bidirectional flow of causality between lower-order perceptual and higher-order cognitive processes in norm enforcement.

  8. Cell walls as reservoirs of potassium ions for reversible volume changes of pulvinar motor cells during rhythmic leaf movements.

    PubMed

    Freudling, C; Starrach, N; Flach, D; Gradmann, D; Mayer, W E

    1988-08-01

    The laminar pulvinus of primary leaves of Phaseolus coccineus L. was investigated with respect to the total K(+) content, the apoplastic K(+) content, and the water potential of extensor and flexor sections in relation to the leaf positions in a circadian leaf-movement cycle, as well as the cation-exchange properties of isolated extensor- and flexor-cell walls. Turgid tissue showed a high total but low apoplastic K(+) content, shrunken tissue a low total but high apoplastic K(+) content. Thus, part of the K(+) transported into and out of the swelling or shrinking protoplasts is shuttled between the protoplasts and the surrounding walls, another part between different regions of the pulvinus. The K(+) fraction shuttled between protoplasts and walls was found to be 30-40% of the total transported K(+) fraction. Furthermore, 15-20% of the total K(+) content of the tissue is located in the apoplast when the apoplastic reservoir is filled, 5-10% when the apoplastic reservoir is depleted. The ion-exchange properties of walls of extensor and flexor cells appear identical in situ and in isolated preparations. The walls behave as cation exchangers of hhe weak-acid type with a strong dependence of the activity of fixed negative charges as well as of the K(+)-storing capacity on pH and [K(+)] of the equilibration solution. The high apoplastic K(+) contents of freshly cut tissues reflect the cation-storing capacity of the isolated walls. We suggest that K(+) ions of the Donnan free space are used for the reversible volume changes (mediating the leaf movement) mainly by an electrogenic proton pump which changes the pH and-or the [K(+)] in the water free space of the apoplast.

  9. Developmental Change in the Function of Movement Systems: Transition of the Pectoral Fins between Respiratory and Locomotor Roles in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Melina E.

    2014-01-01

    An animal may experience strikingly different functional demands on its body’s systems through development. One way of meeting those demands is with temporary, stage-specific adaptations. This strategy requires the animal to develop appropriate morphological states or physiological pathways that address transient functional demands as well as processes that transition morphology, physiology, and function to that of the mature form. Recent research on ray-finned (actinopterygian) fishes is a developmental transition in function of the pectoral fin, thereby providing an opportunity to examine how an organism copes with changes in the roles of its morphology between stages of its life history. As larvae, zebrafish alternate their pectoral fins in coordination with the body axis during slow swimming. The movements of their fins do not appear to contribute to the production of thrust or to stability but instead exchange fluid near the body for cutaneous respiration. The morphology of the larval fin includes a simple stage-specific endoskeletal disc overlaid by fan-shaped adductor and abductor muscles. In contrast, the musculoskeletal system of the mature fin consists of a suite of muscles and bones. Fins are extended laterally during slow swimming of the adult, without the distinct, high-amplitude left-right fin alternation of the larval fin. The morphological and functional transition of the pectoral fin occurs through juvenile development. Early in this period, at about 3 weeks post-fertilization, the gills take over respiratory function, presumably freeing the fins for other roles. Kinematic data suggest that the loss of respiratory function does not lead to a rapid switch in patterns of fin movement but rather that both morphology and movement transition gradually through the juvenile stage of development. Studies relating structure to function often focus on stable systems that are arguably well adapted for the roles they play. Examining how animals navigate

  10. Developmental change in the function of movement systems: transition of the pectoral fins between respiratory and locomotor roles in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Hale, Melina E

    2014-07-01

    An animal may experience strikingly different functional demands on its body's systems through development. One way of meeting those demands is with temporary, stage-specific adaptations. This strategy requires the animal to develop appropriate morphological states or physiological pathways that address transient functional demands as well as processes that transition morphology, physiology, and function to that of the mature form. Recent research on ray-finned (actinopterygian) fishes is a developmental transition in function of the pectoral fin, thereby providing an opportunity to examine how an organism copes with changes in the roles of its morphology between stages of its life history. As larvae, zebrafish alternate their pectoral fins in coordination with the body axis during slow swimming. The movements of their fins do not appear to contribute to the production of thrust or to stability but instead exchange fluid near the body for cutaneous respiration. The morphology of the larval fin includes a simple stage-specific endoskeletal disc overlaid by fan-shaped adductor and abductor muscles. In contrast, the musculoskeletal system of the mature fin consists of a suite of muscles and bones. Fins are extended laterally during slow swimming of the adult, without the distinct, high-amplitude left-right fin alternation of the larval fin. The morphological and functional transition of the pectoral fin occurs through juvenile development. Early in this period, at about 3 weeks post-fertilization, the gills take over respiratory function, presumably freeing the fins for other roles. Kinematic data suggest that the loss of respiratory function does not lead to a rapid switch in patterns of fin movement but rather that both morphology and movement transition gradually through the juvenile stage of development. Studies relating structure to function often focus on stable systems that are arguably well adapted for the roles they play. Examining how animals navigate

  11. Old wine in new bottles: reaction norms in salmonid fishes

    PubMed Central

    Hutchings, J A

    2011-01-01

    Genetic variability in reaction norms reflects differences in the ability of individuals, populations and ultimately species to respond to environmental change. By increasing our understanding of how genotype × environment interactions influence evolution, studies of genetic variation in phenotypic plasticity serve to refine our capacity to predict how populations will respond to natural and anthropogenic environmental variability, including climate change. Given the extraordinary variability in morphology, behaviour and life history in salmonids, one might anticipate the research milieu on reaction norms in these fishes to be empirically rich and intellectually engaging. Here, I undertake a review of genetic variability in continuous and discontinuous (threshold) norms of reaction in salmonid fishes, as determined primarily (but not exclusively) by common-garden experiments. Although in its infancy from a numerical publication perspective, there is taxonomically broad evidence of genetic differentiation in continuous, threshold and bivariate reaction norms among individuals, families and populations (including inter-population hybrids and backcrosses) for traits as divergent as embryonic development, age and size at maturity, and gene expression. There is compelling inferential evidence that plasticity is heritable and that population differences in reaction norms can reflect adaptive responses, by natural selection, to local environments. As a stimulus for future work, a series of 20 research questions are identified that focus on reaction-norm variability, selection, costs and constraints, demographic and conservation consequences, and genetic markers and correlates of phenotypic plasticity. PMID:21224878

  12. Timing of cortical excitability changes during the reaction time of movements superimposed on tonic motor activity.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Cyril; Lavoie, Brigitte A; Barbeau, Hugues; Capaday, Charles

    2004-12-01

    Seated subjects were instructed to react to an auditory cue by simultaneously contracting the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of each ankle isometrically. Focal transcranial magnetic stimulation of the leg area of the motor cortex (MCx) was used to determine the time course of changes in motor-evoked potential amplitude (MEP) during the reaction time (RT). In one condition the voluntary contraction was superimposed on tonic EMG activity maintained at 10% of maximal voluntary contraction. In the other condition the voluntary contraction was made starting from rest. MEPs in the TA contralateral to the stimulation coil were evoked at various times during the RT in each condition. These were compared to the control MEPs evoked during tonic voluntary activity or with the subject at rest. The RT was measured trial by trial from the EMG activity of the TA ipsilateral to the magnetic stimulus, taking into account the nearly constant time difference between the two sides. The MEPs became far greater than control MEPs during the RT (mean = 332%, SD = 44 %, of control MEPs, P < 0.001) without any measurable change in the background level of EMG activity. The onset of this facilitation occurred on average 12.80 ms (SD = 7.55 ms) before the RT. There was no difference in the onset of facilitation between the two conditions. Because MEPs were facilitated without a change in the background EMG activity, it is concluded that this facilitation is specifically due to an increase of MCx excitability just before voluntary muscle activation. This conclusion is further reinforced by the observation that MEPs evoked by near-threshold anodal stimuli to the MCx were not facilitated during the RT, in contrast to those evoked by near-threshold transcranial magnetic stimulation. However, several observations in the present and previous studies indicate that MEP amplitude may be more sensitive to alpha-motoneuron activity than to motor cortical neuron activity, an idea that has important

  13. High Resolution Topography of Age-Related Changes in Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Electroencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Sprecher, Kate E.; Riedner, Brady A.; Smith, Richard F.; Tononi, Giulio; Davidson, Richard J.; Benca, Ruth M.

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping brain activity reflects brain anatomy and physiology. The aim of this study was to use high density (256 channel) electroencephalography (EEG) during sleep to characterize topographic changes in sleep EEG power across normal aging, with high spatial resolution. Sleep was evaluated in 92 healthy adults aged 18–65 years old using full polysomnography and high density EEG. After artifact removal, spectral power density was calculated for standard frequency bands for all channels, averaged across the NREM periods of the first 3 sleep cycles. To quantify topographic changes with age, maps were generated of the Pearson’s coefficient of the correlation between power and age at each electrode. Significant correlations were determined by statistical non-parametric mapping. Absolute slow wave power declined significantly with increasing age across the entire scalp, whereas declines in theta and sigma power were significant only in frontal regions. Power in fast spindle frequencies declined significantly with increasing age frontally, whereas absolute power of slow spindle frequencies showed no significant change with age. When EEG power was normalized across the scalp, a left centro-parietal region showed significantly less age-related decline in power than the rest of the scalp. This partial preservation was particularly significant in the slow wave and sigma bands. The effect of age on sleep EEG varies substantially by region and frequency band. This non-uniformity should inform the design of future investigations of aging and sleep. This study provides normative data on the effect of age on sleep EEG topography, and provides a basis from which to explore the mechanisms of normal aging as well as neurodegenerative disorders for which age is a risk factor. PMID:26901503

  14. A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Pathophysiological Changes Responsible for Mirror Movements in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Poisson, Alice; Ballanger, Bénédicte; Metereau, Elise; Redouté, Jérome; Ibarolla, Danielle; Comte, Jean-Christophe; Bernard, Hélène Gervais; Vidailhet, Marie; Broussolle, Emmanuel; Thobois, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Mirror movements correspond to involuntary movements observed in the limb contralateral to the one performing voluntary movement. They can be observed in Parkinson’s disease (PD) but their pathophysiology remains unclear. The present study aims at identifying their neural correlates in PD using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Ten control subjects and 14-off drug patients with asymmetrical right-sided PD were included (8 with left-sided mirror movements during right-hand movements, and 6 without mirror movements). Between-group comparisons of BOLD signal were performed during right-hand movements and at rest (p<0.005 uncorrected). The comparison between PD patients with and without mirror movements showed that mirror movements were associated with an overactivation of the insula, precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex bilaterally and of the left inferior frontal cortex and with a deactivation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, and pre-supplementary motor area and occipital cortex. These data suggest that mirror movements in Parkinson’s disease are promoted by: 1- a deactivation of the non-mirroring inhibitory network (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, pre-supplementary motor area); 2- an overactivation of prokinetic areas (notably the insula). The concomitant overactivation of a proactive inhibitory network (including the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus) could reflect a compensatory inhibition of mirror movements. PMID:23825583

  15. Diffusion of palliative care in nursing homes: lessons from the culture change movement.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Denise A; Shield, Renée R; Miller, Susan C

    2015-05-01

    Studies have found that nursing homes (NHs) that rely heavily on Medicaid funding are less likely to implement innovative approaches to care, such as palliative care (PC) or resident-centered approaches commonly referred to as "culture change" (CC). However, a nationally representative survey we previously conducted found that some high Medicaid facilities have implemented these innovative approaches. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that enable some high Medicaid NHs to implement innovative approaches to care. We conducted telephone interviews with 16 NH administrators in four categories of facilities: 1) low PC and low CC, 2) low PC and high CC, 3) high PC and low CC, and 4) high PC and high CC. Interviews explored strategies used to overcome barriers to implementation and the resources needed for implementation. We had expected to find differences between low and high NHs but instead found differences in NHs' experiences with CC and PC. Since the time of our national survey in 2009-2010, most previously low CC NHs had implemented at least some CC practices; however, we did not find similar changes around PC. Administrators reported numerous ways in which they had received information and assistance from outside entities for implementing CC. This was not the case for PC where administrators reported relying exclusively and heavily on hospices for both their residents' PC needs and information related to PC. PC advocates could learn much from the CC model in which advocates have used multipronged efforts to institute reform. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Changes in bending stiffness and lumbar spine range of movement following lumbar mobilization and manipulation.

    PubMed

    Stamos-Papastamos, Nikolaos; Petty, Nicola J; Williams, Jonathan M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of lumbar rotational manipulation and lumbar central posteroanterior mobilization on lumbar bending stiffness and flexion and extension range of motion (ROM). A same-subject, repeated-measures, crossover design was used using 32 asymptomatic subjects (16 female and 16 male; mean [SD] age, 25.5 [4.5] years; weight, 65.7 [11.8] kg; and height, 1.70 [0.08] m). Each subject received mobilization or manipulation on 2 different occasions. Bending stiffness was calculated using a 3-point bending model using an electromagnetic tracking device and a force platform; lumbar flexion and extension ROM was measured using an electromagnetic tracking device. All variables were measured pre- and postintervention. Their effect was compared using paired t tests. Manipulation and mobilization did not significantly alter either bending stiffness or lumbar flexion and extension ROM (mobilization: P = .175, P = .613, and P = .535; manipulation: P = .973, P = .323, and P = .439). Bending stiffness changes were not correlated to changes in ROM (Pearson r for stiffness-flexion = -0.102, P = .586; Pearson r for stiffness-extension = 0.014, P = .941). Manipulation and mobilization had no significant effect on bending stiffness or flexion and extension ROM for this group of subjects. Some individual variations in effect were observed. Copyright © 2011 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Patterns and Importance of Self-Other Differences in College Drinking Norms

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Kate B.; Borsari, Brian; Carey, Michael P.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2006-01-01

    College students overestimate other students’ drinking behavior (descriptive norms) and attitudes (injunctive norms). This study explored the effects of demographics, norm type, and reference group on the magnitude of self-other differences (SODs). Participants (N = 1611; 64% women) completed surveys assessing demographics, drinking patterns, and perceived norms. A subset of 122 students provided consumption data one month later to test predictors of changes in drinking. Overall, women and non-Greeks reported larger SODs for both norm types compared to men and Greeks. Heavier drinkers reported smaller SODs. Gender-by-reference group interactions revealed that women had larger SODs for reference groups increasingly distal to them; for men, the largest SODs occur for close friends versus more distal groups. Larger SODs for descriptive norms predicted increases in drinking, consistent with Social Norms Theory. PMID:17176173

  18. Changes in diffusion tensor tractographic findings associated with constraint-induced movement therapy in young children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jeong-Yi; Chang, Won Hyuk; Chang, Hyun Jung; Yi, Sook-Hee; Kim, Min-Young; Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) could lead to changes in diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) associated with clinical improvement in young children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). A standardized pediatric CIMT protocol (4weeks, 120h of constraint) was used on 10 children with unilateral CP who were younger than 5years. DTT was performed in five participants before and after the intervention. Clinical outcome was measured by using the Pediatric Motor Activity Log (PMAL), Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST), and self-care domain of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory. In two patients, the affected corticospinal tract (CST) visible on pretreatment DTT became more prominent on posttreatment DTT. In one patient, the affected CST was not visible on pretreatment DTT, but was visible on posttreatment DTT. All the clinical outcomes significantly improved in the CIMT group compared with the control group. Changes in the PMAL how often scale (PMAL-HO) score significantly differed between the CIMT and control groups. Changes in the properties of the affected CST on DTT were accompanied with improved arm function after CIMT in the children with CP. CIMT might lead to CST reorganization in young children with CP. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Glacio-isostatic crustal movements caused by historical volume change of the Vatnajokull ice cap, Iceland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Einarsson, Pall

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of the lake level of Lake Langisjor at the SW edge of the Vatnajokull ice cap indicate a tilt of 0.26 +/- 0.06 microrad/yr away from the ice cap in the years of 1959-1991. The tilt is too large to be explained as an elastic Earth response to ice retreat this century, or to be caused by change in the gravitational pull of the ice cap, but it can be explained by sub-lithospheric viscous adjustment. Regional subsidence in historical times in SE Iceland can similarly be attributed to viscous adjustment resulting from the increased load of Vatnajokull during the Little Ice Age. The inferred sublithospheric viscosity is 1 x 10 exp 18 - 5 x 10 exp 19 Pa s.

  20. Glacio-isostatic crustal movements caused by historical volume change of the Vatnajokull ice cap, Iceland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Einarsson, Pall

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of the lake level of Lake Langisjor at the SW edge of the Vatnajokull ice cap indicate a tilt of 0.26 +/- 0.06 microrad/yr away from the ice cap in the years of 1959-1991. The tilt is too large to be explained as an elastic Earth response to ice retreat this century, or to be caused by change in the gravitational pull of the ice cap, but it can be explained by sub-lithospheric viscous adjustment. Regional subsidence in historical times in SE Iceland can similarly be attributed to viscous adjustment resulting from the increased load of Vatnajokull during the Little Ice Age. The inferred sublithospheric viscosity is 1 x 10 exp 18 - 5 x 10 exp 19 Pa s.

  1. Coordination of limb movements: three types of intersegmental interneurons in the swimmeret system and their responses to changes in excitation.

    PubMed

    Namba, H; Mulloney, B

    1999-05-01

    Coordination of limb movements: three types of intersegmental interneurons in the swimmeret system and their responses to changes in excitation. During forward locomotion, the movements of swimmerets on different segments of the crayfish abdomen are coordinated so that more posterior swimmerets lead their anterior neighbors by approximately 25%. This coordination is accomplished by mechanisms within the abdominal nerve cord. Here we describe three different types of intersegmental swimmeret interneurons that are necessary and sufficient to accomplish this coordination. These interneurons could be identified both by their structures within their home ganglion and by their physiological properties. These interneurons occur as bilateral pairs in each ganglion that innervates swimmerets, and their axons traverse the minuscule tract (MnT) of their home ganglion before leaving to project to neighboring ganglia. Two types, ASCE and ASCL, projected an axon anteriorly; the third type, DSC, projected posteriorly. Each type fires a burst of impulses starting at a different phase of the swimmeret cycle in its home ganglion. In active preparations, excitation of individual ASCE or DSC interneurons at different phases in the cycle affected the timing of the next cycle in the interneuron's target ganglion. The axons of these interneurons that projected between two ganglia ran close together, and their firing often could be recorded by the same electrode. Experiments in which either this tract or the rest of the intersegmental connectives was cut bilaterally showed that these interneurons were both necessary and sufficient for coordination of neighboring swimmerets. When the level of excitation of the swimmeret system was increased by bath application of carbachol, the period of the system's cycle shortened, but the characteristic phase difference within and between ganglia was preserved. Each of these interneurons responded to this increase in excitation by increasing the

  2. Changes in plate motion and vertical movements along passive continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Japsen, P.; Cobbold, P. R.; Chalmers, J. A.; Green, P. F.; Bonow, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    The origin of the forces that produce elevated, passive continental margins (EPCMs) has been a hot topic in geoscience for many years. Studies of individual margins have led to models, which explain high elevations by invoking specific conditions for each margin in question. We have studied the uplift history of several margins and have found some striking coincidences between episodes of uplift and changes in plate motion. In the Campanian, Eocene and Miocene, pronounced events of uplift and erosion affected not only SE Brazil (Cobbold et al., 2001), but also NE Brazil and SW Africa (Japsen et al., 2012a). The uplift phases in Brazil also coincided with three main phases of Andean orogeny (Cobbold et al., 2001, 2007). These phases, Peruvian (90-75 Ma), Incaic (50-40 Ma), and Quechuan (25-0 Ma), were also periods of relatively rapid convergence at the Andean margin of South America (Pardo-Casas and Molnar, 1987). Because Campanian uplift in Brazil coincides, not only with rapid convergence at the Andean margin of South America, but also with a decline in Atlantic spreading rate, we suggest that all these uplift events have a common cause, which is lateral resistance to plate motion (Japsen et al., 2012a). Because the uplift phases in South America and Africa are common to the margins of two diverging plates, we also suggest that the driving forces can transmit across the spreading axis, probably at great depth, e.g. in the asthenosphere (Japsen et al., 2012a). Similarly, a phase of uplift and erosion at the Eocene-Oligocene transition (c. 35 Ma), which affected margins around the North Atlantic, correlates with a major plate reorganization there (Japsen et al., 2012b). Passive continental margins clearly formed as a result of extension. Despite this, the World Stress Map shows that, where data exist, all EPCMs are today under compression. We maintain that folds, reverse faults, reactivated normal faults and strike-slip faults that are typical of EPCMs are a result

  3. Brief motivational intervention for college drinking: the synergistic impact of social anxiety and perceived drinking norms.

    PubMed

    Terlecki, Meredith A; Buckner, Julia D; Larimer, Mary E; Copeland, Amy L

    2012-12-01

    Despite the efficacy of Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS), students with higher social anxiety appear vulnerable to poorer outcomes. A possible explanation for these outcomes is that corrective normative feedback (an active component of BASICS) may be less effective for socially anxious students if their beliefs about others' drinking are less malleable because of intense fear of negative evaluation for deviating from perceived drinking norms. This study evaluated whether socially anxious students demonstrated less change in perceived norms during BASICS. We also examined whether change in norm endorsement moderated the relation between social anxiety and BASICS outcomes. Undergraduates (n = 52) who underwent BASICS completed measures of drinking, social anxiety, and perceived norms at baseline and 4 weeks post-BASICS. Higher social anxiety was related to less change in norm endorsement after receiving BASICS. Change in perceived norms during treatment moderated the relation between social anxiety and follow-up drinking. Among students with smaller change in norm endorsement after BASICS, higher social anxiety was related to heavier follow-up drinking. Among students with greater changes to norm endorsement during BASICS, the effect of social anxiety was nonsignificant. Results suggest that corrective perceived norms interventions may be less effective among socially anxious students, contributing to continued heavy drinking. Development of social anxiety-specific BASICS components warrants attention. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Brief Motivational Intervention for College Drinking: The Synergistic Impact of Social Anxiety and Perceived Drinking Norms

    PubMed Central

    Terlecki, Meredith A.; Buckner, Julia D.; Larimer, Mary E.; Copeland, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the efficacy of Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS), students with higher social anxiety appear vulnerable to poorer outcomes. A possible explanation for these outcomes is that corrective normative feedback (an active component of BASICS) may be less effective for socially anxious students if their beliefs about others’ drinking are less malleable due to intense fear of negative evaluation for deviating from perceived drinking norms. This study evaluated whether socially anxious students demonstrated less change in perceived norms during BASICS. We also examined whether change in norm endorsement moderated the relation between social anxiety and BASICS outcomes. Undergraduates (N = 52) who underwent BASICS completed measures of drinking, social anxiety, and perceived norms at baseline and 4-weeks post-BASICS. Higher social anxiety was related to less change in norm endorsement after receiving BASICS. Change in perceived norms during treatment moderated the relation between social anxiety and follow-up drinking. Among students with smaller change in norm endorsement after BASICS, higher social anxiety was related to heavier follow-up drinking. Among students with greater changes to norm endorsement during BASICS, the effect of social anxiety was non-significant. Results suggest that corrective perceived norms interventions may be less effective among socially anxious students, contributing to continued heavy drinking. Development of social anxiety-specific BASICS components warrants attention. PMID:22612254

  5. Small plastic debris changes water movement and heat transfer through beach sediments.

    PubMed

    Carson, Henry S; Colbert, Steven L; Kaylor, Matthew J; McDermid, Karla J

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the physical properties of beaches contaminated with plastic fragments. We compared sediment cores from Hawai'i Island's Kamilo Beach, notable for plastic accumulation, to cores from a nearby beach. Compared to the nearby beach, Kamilo sediments contained more plastics (up to 30.2% by weight), were coarser-grained, and were more permeable (t-test, p<0.0001). 85% of the fragments were polyethylene, and 95% were concentrated in the top 15 cm of the cores. We constructed artificial cores of standardized grain size and varying plastic-to-sediment ratios. Adding plastic significantly increased the permeability (ANOVA, p=0.002), which was partially attributed to the fragments increasing the mean grain size. Sediments with plastic warmed more slowly (16% maximum decrease in thermal diffusivity), and reached lower maximum temperatures (21% maximum increase in heat capacity). These changes have a variety of potential effects on beach organisms, including those with temperature-dependent sex-determination such as sea turtle eggs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Athletic groin pain (part 2): a prospective cohort study on the biomechanical evaluation of change of direction identifies three clusters of movement patterns.

    PubMed

    Franklyn-Miller, A; Richter, C; King, E; Gore, S; Moran, K; Strike, S; Falvey, E C

    2017-03-01

    Athletic groin pain (AGP) is prevalent in sports involving repeated accelerations, decelerations, kicking and change-of-direction movements. Clinical and radiological examinations lack the ability to assess pathomechanics of AGP, but three-dimensional biomechanical movement analysis may be an important innovation. The primary aim was to describe and analyse movements used by patients with AGP during a maximum effort change-of-direction task. The secondary aim was to determine if specific anatomical diagnoses were related to a distinct movement strategy. 322 athletes with a current symptom of chronic AGP participated. Structured and standardised clinical assessments and radiological examinations were performed on all participants. Additionally, each participant performed multiple repetitions of a planned maximum effort change-of-direction task during which whole body kinematics were recorded. Kinematic and kinetic data were examined using continuous waveform analysis techniques in combination with a subgroup design that used gap statistic and hierarchical clustering. Three subgroups (clusters) were identified. Kinematic and kinetic measures of the clusters differed strongly in patterns observed in thorax, pelvis, hip, knee and ankle. Cluster 1 (40%) was characterised by increased ankle eversion, external rotation and knee internal rotation and greater knee work. Cluster 2 (15%) was characterised by increased hip flexion, pelvis contralateral drop, thorax tilt and increased hip work. Cluster 3 (45%) was characterised by high ankle dorsiflexion, thorax contralateral drop, ankle work and prolonged ground contact time. No correlation was observed between movement clusters and clinically palpated location of the participant's pain. We identified three distinct movement strategies among athletes with long-standing groin pain during a maximum effort change-of-direction task These movement strategies were not related to clinical assessment findings but highlighted targets

  7. Athletic groin pain (part 2): a prospective cohort study on the biomechanical evaluation of change of direction identifies three clusters of movement patterns

    PubMed Central

    Franklyn-Miller, A; Richter, C; King, E; Gore, S; Moran, K; Strike, S; Falvey, E C

    2017-01-01

    Background Athletic groin pain (AGP) is prevalent in sports involving repeated accelerations, decelerations, kicking and change-of-direction movements. Clinical and radiological examinations lack the ability to assess pathomechanics of AGP, but three-dimensional biomechanical movement analysis may be an important innovation. Aim The primary aim was to describe and analyse movements used by patients with AGP during a maximum effort change-of-direction task. The secondary aim was to determine if specific anatomical diagnoses were related to a distinct movement strategy. Methods 322 athletes with a current symptom of chronic AGP participated. Structured and standardised clinical assessments and radiological examinations were performed on all participants. Additionally, each participant performed multiple repetitions of a planned maximum effort change-of-direction task during which whole body kinematics were recorded. Kinematic and kinetic data were examined using continuous waveform analysis techniques in combination with a subgroup design that used gap statistic and hierarchical clustering. Results Three subgroups (clusters) were identified. Kinematic and kinetic measures of the clusters differed strongly in patterns observed in thorax, pelvis, hip, knee and ankle. Cluster 1 (40%) was characterised by increased ankle eversion, external rotation and knee internal rotation and greater knee work. Cluster 2 (15%) was characterised by increased hip flexion, pelvis contralateral drop, thorax tilt and increased hip work. Cluster 3 (45%) was characterised by high ankle dorsiflexion, thorax contralateral drop, ankle work and prolonged ground contact time. No correlation was observed between movement clusters and clinically palpated location of the participant's pain. Conclusions We identified three distinct movement strategies among athletes with long-standing groin pain during a maximum effort change-of-direction task These movement strategies were not related to clinical

  8. Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... want them to. If you have a movement disorder, you experience these kinds of impaired movement. Dyskinesia ... and is a common symptom of many movement disorders. Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. Nerve diseases ...

  9. Bowel Movement

    MedlinePlus

    A bowel movement is the last stop in the movement of food through your digestive tract. Your stool passes out of ... what you eat and drink. Sometimes a bowel movement isn't normal. Diarrhea happens when stool passes ...

  10. Human-induced changes in landscape configuration influence individual movement routines: lessons from a versatile, highly mobile species.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Carlos; Palacios, Sebastián; Sáez, Pedro; Sánchez, Sonia; Potti, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Landscape conversion by humans may have detrimental effects on animal populations inhabiting managed ecosystems, but human-altered areas may also provide suitable environments for tolerant species. We investigated the spatial ecology of a highly mobile nocturnal avian species-the red-necked nightjar (Caprimulgus ruficollis)-in two contrastingly managed areas in Southwestern Spain to provide management recommendations for species having multiple habitat requirements. Based on habitat use by radiotagged nightjars, we created maps of functional heterogeneity in both areas so that the movements of breeding individuals could be modeled using least-cost path analyses. In both the natural and the managed area, nightjars used remnants of native shrublands as nesting sites, while pinewood patches (either newly planted or natural mature) and roads were selected as roosting and foraging habitats, respectively. Although the fraction of functional habitat was held relatively constant (60.9% vs. 74.1% in the natural and the managed area, respectively), landscape configuration changed noticeably. As a result, least-cost routes (summed linear distances) from nest locations to the nearest roost and foraging sites were three times larger in the natural than in the managed area (mean ± SE: 1356±76 m vs. 439±32 m). It seems likely that the increased proximity of functional habitats in the managed area relative to the natural one is underlying the significantly higher abundances of nightjars observed therein, where breeders should travel shorter distances to link together essential resources, thus likely reducing their energy expenditure and mortality risks. Our results suggest that landscape configuration, but not habitat availability, is responsible for the observed differences between the natural and the managed area in the abundance and movements of breeding nightjars, although no effect on body condition was detected. Agricultural landscapes could be moderately managed to

  11. Human-Induced Changes in Landscape Configuration Influence Individual Movement Routines: Lessons from a Versatile, Highly Mobile Species

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Carlos; Palacios, Sebastián; Sáez, Pedro; Sánchez, Sonia; Potti, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Landscape conversion by humans may have detrimental effects on animal populations inhabiting managed ecosystems, but human-altered areas may also provide suitable environments for tolerant species. We investigated the spatial ecology of a highly mobile nocturnal avian species–the red-necked nightjar (Caprimulgus ruficollis)–in two contrastingly managed areas in Southwestern Spain to provide management recommendations for species having multiple habitat requirements. Based on habitat use by radiotagged nightjars, we created maps of functional heterogeneity in both areas so that the movements of breeding individuals could be modeled using least-cost path analyses. In both the natural and the managed area, nightjars used remnants of native shrublands as nesting sites, while pinewood patches (either newly planted or natural mature) and roads were selected as roosting and foraging habitats, respectively. Although the fraction of functional habitat was held relatively constant (60.9% vs. 74.1% in the natural and the managed area, respectively), landscape configuration changed noticeably. As a result, least-cost routes (summed linear distances) from nest locations to the nearest roost and foraging sites were three times larger in the natural than in the managed area (mean ± SE: 1356±76 m vs. 439±32 m). It seems likely that the increased proximity of functional habitats in the managed area relative to the natural one is underlying the significantly higher abundances of nightjars observed therein, where breeders should travel shorter distances to link together essential resources, thus likely reducing their energy expenditure and mortality risks. Our results suggest that landscape configuration, but not habitat availability, is responsible for the observed differences between the natural and the managed area in the abundance and movements of breeding nightjars, although no effect on body condition was detected. Agricultural landscapes could be moderately managed to

  12. Nasalance Norms in Greek Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal…

  13. Nasalance Norms in Greek Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal…

  14. 03-NIF Dedication: Norm Pattiz

    ScienceCinema

    Norm Pattiz

    2016-07-12

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Norm Pattiz, the chairman of Lawrence Livermore National Security, which manages Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  15. Normenbuch Franzoesisch (Norm Book French)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pamp, Friedhelm

    1976-01-01

    Critizes the Norm Book for French Final (Abitur) Examination 1975 for German Schools, as to its arrangement and some resulting difficulties; also for its over-emphasis on written work over speaking. Additional publications are needed to make the existing requirements more specific. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  16. 03-NIF Dedication: Norm Pattiz

    SciTech Connect

    Norm Pattiz

    2009-07-02

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Norm Pattiz, the chairman of Lawrence Livermore National Security, which manages Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  17. The Climate Change Crisis as an International Civil Rights Issue: Forging an Alliance Between Science, Activism, and Progressive Social Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, B. J.; Driver, S.

    2011-12-01

    If our scientific community wants to make real progress on the climate change and environmental crisis we must be willing to side with and fight for the oppressed. The national and international communities most ready to act - those hit hardest by the real impact of climate change in their day-to-day lives - need the political leadership of and a living, organic connection with scientists who are prepared to tell the truth and act on the truth of our science. A new generation of scientist-activist leaders and this strategic and mutually beneficial alliance with the oppressed will be necessary to wage an international, intransigent fight to enact and implement the social, political, and economic policies needed to mitigate the damage already done and prevent future environmental and human catastrophe. In the statement BAMN distributed to last year's Fall AGU conference we said, "there will be no shortage of mass struggle in the next period of history." This spring we saw the absolutely awe-inspiring social upheavals in North Africa and the Middle East in the form of waves of mass demonstrations in country after country. Many of those struggles, with demands for real democracy, for jobs and economic opportunities, for improved living conditions, continue to this day. In virtually every instance, these popular and progressive social movements have been led by youth: middle school, high school and college students. In the US and Europe we have seen the spread of student-led struggle around the defense of K-12 public education and on college campuses in defense of various programs, opportunities, and the character of the educational experience. The most dynamic force in these struggles has been the Latina/o, black, other underrepresented minority and immigrant youth who refuse to accept permanent second-class citizenship and a future devoid of hope and opportunity. We will discuss our experience as a youth-led civil rights organization presenting the issues of climate

  18. Psychosomatic norm in orthodontics: problems and approach.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Kader, Hussam M

    2006-01-01

    The term "psychosomatic norm" is not commonly used directly or indirectly in orthodontic discussions. However, at times, this may be the most important factor affecting patient satisfaction with treatment outcome. Psychosomatic norm is a norm based on a subjective psychosocial assessment of what is the patient's norm. A norm that significantly differs from the clinician's somatic norm, which is based on objective anatomic assessment, may end in a dilemma of unexplainable and unpredictable dissatisfaction with the orthodontic treatment outcome if not properly handled by the orthodontist. This review article attempts to approach and solve this clinically problematic situation.

  19. Diversity-induced resonance in the response to social norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessone, Claudio J.; Sánchez, Angel; Schweitzer, Frank

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we focus on diversity-induced resonance, which was recently found in bistable, excitable, and other physical systems. We study the appearance of this phenomenon in a purely economic model of cooperating and defecting agents. An agent's contribution to a public good is seen as a social norm, so defecting agents face a social pressure, which decreases if free riding becomes widespread. In this model, diversity among agents naturally appears because of the different sensitivities towards the social norm. We study the evolution of cooperation as a response to the social norm (i) for the replicator dynamics and (ii) for the logit dynamics by means of numerical simulations. Diversity-induced resonance is observed as a maximum in the response of agents to changes in the social norm as a function of the degree of heterogeneity in the population. We provide an analytical, mean-field approach for the logit dynamics and find very good agreement with the simulations. From a socioeconomic perspective, our results show that, counterintuitively, diversity in the individual sensitivity to social norms may result in a society that better follows such norms as a whole, even if part of the population is less prone to follow them.

  20. Social Norms of Cooperation in Small-Scale Societies

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Fernando P.; Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity, besides providing a convenient framework to address the evolution of moral systems, offers a simple and plausible explanation for the prevalence of cooperation among unrelated individuals. By helping someone, an individual may increase her/his reputation, which may change the pre-disposition of others to help her/him in the future. This, however, depends on what is reckoned as a good or a bad action, i.e., on the adopted social norm responsible for raising or damaging a reputation. In particular, it remains an open question which social norms are able to foster cooperation in small-scale societies, while enduring the wide plethora of stochastic affects inherent to finite populations. Here we address this problem by studying the stochastic dynamics of cooperation under distinct social norms, showing that the leading norms capable of promoting cooperation depend on the community size. However, only a single norm systematically leads to the highest cooperative standards in small communities. That simple norm dictates that only whoever cooperates with good individuals, and defects against bad ones, deserves a good reputation, a pattern that proves robust to errors, mutations and variations in the intensity of selection. PMID:26808261

  1. Social Norms of Cooperation in Small-Scale Societies.

    PubMed

    Santos, Fernando P; Santos, Francisco C; Pacheco, Jorge M

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity, besides providing a convenient framework to address the evolution of moral systems, offers a simple and plausible explanation for the prevalence of cooperation among unrelated individuals. By helping someone, an individual may increase her/his reputation, which may change the pre-disposition of others to help her/him in the future. This, however, depends on what is reckoned as a good or a bad action, i.e., on the adopted social norm responsible for raising or damaging a reputation. In particular, it remains an open question which social norms are able to foster cooperation in small-scale societies, while enduring the wide plethora of stochastic affects inherent to finite populations. Here we address this problem by studying the stochastic dynamics of cooperation under distinct social norms, showing that the leading norms capable of promoting cooperation depend on the community size. However, only a single norm systematically leads to the highest cooperative standards in small communities. That simple norm dictates that only whoever cooperates with good individuals, and defects against bad ones, deserves a good reputation, a pattern that proves robust to errors, mutations and variations in the intensity of selection.

  2. Can infrared spectroscopy be used to measure change in potassium nitrate concentration as a proxy for soil particle movement?

    PubMed

    Luleva, Mila Ivanova; van der Werff, Harald; Jetten, Victor; van der Meer, Freek

    2011-01-01

    Displacement of soil particles caused by erosion influences soil condition and fertility. To date, the cesium 137 isotope ((137)Cs) technique is most commonly used for soil particle tracing. However when large areas are considered, the expensive soil sampling and analysis present an obstacle. Infrared spectral measurements would provide a solution, however the small concentrations of the isotope do not influence the spectral signal sufficiently. Potassium (K) has similar electrical, chemical and physical properties as Cs. Our hypothesis is that it can be used as possible replacement in soil particle tracing. Soils differing in texture were sampled for the study. Laboratory soil chemical analyses and spectral sensitivity analyses were carried out to identify the wavelength range related to K concentration. Different concentrations of K fertilizer were added to soils with varying texture properties in order to establish spectral characteristics of the absorption feature associated with the element. Changes in position of absorption feature center were observed at wavelengths between 2,450 and 2,470 nm, depending on the amount of fertilizer applied. Other absorption feature parameters (absorption band depth, width and area) were also found to change with K concentration with coefficient of determination between 0.85 and 0.99. Tracing soil particles using K fertilizer and infrared spectral response is considered suitable for soils with sandy and sandy silt texture. It is a new approach that can potentially grow to a technique for rapid monitoring of soil particle movement over large areas.

  3. Concurrent adaptation of reactive saccades and hand pointing movements to equal and to opposite changes of target direction.

    PubMed

    Grigorova, Valentina; Bock, Otmar; Borisova, Steliana

    2013-04-01

    Eye as well as hand movements can adapt to double-step target displacements, but it is still controversial whether both motor systems use common or distinct adaptive mechanisms. Here, we posit that analyses of the concurrent adaptation of both motor systems to equal versus different double-steps may provide more conclusive evidence than previous work about the transfer of adaptation from one motor system to the other. Forty subjects adapted to double-steps which called for a change of response direction. The same (group S) or the opposite change (group O) was required for eyes and hand. Group ON equaled O, except that no visual feedback of the hand was provided. Groups E and H served as controls for eyes-only and hand-only adaptation, respectively. We found no differences between groups or motor systems when comparing S, E and H. Adaptation was faster in O than in S, E and H, and faster still in ON. However, the magnitude of eye adaptation was much smaller in O and ON than in S, E and H. We conclude that concurrent adaptation of eye and hand directions to opposite double-steps attenuates recalibration which, at least for the hand, is largely replaced by workaround strategies. The mechanisms for eye and hand adaptation therefore seem to be coupled, in a way that hinders divergent recalibration of both motor systems. The possible neuronal substrate for our findings is discussed.

  4. Changes in 42K efflux produced by alterations in transmembrane calcium movements in turtle cardiac pace-maker tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, B P; Giles, W

    1981-01-01

    1. 42K efflux has been measured from small strips of turtle sinus venosus which were electrically paced. Three different procedures for altering transmembrane calcium influx have been utilized to test whether changes in 42K efflux may be modulated by changes in intracellular calcium levels. 2. No significant changes in the 42K fractional escape rate (FER) were observed when external calcium was reduced to O mM or increased to 4 x normal (10 mM). In these experiments extracellular divalent cation concentration was held constant by adding or removing magnesium ions. 3. Application of 10 mM-Ba2+ also failed to alter 42K FER consistently. In red blood cells and snail neurones addition of barium ions has been shown to reduce significantly the calcium-mediated potassium current. 4. A tenfold increase in pacing rate (0.5-5 Hz) resulted in an augmented 42K FER, but repetition of this rate change in O mM-Ca2+ indicated that this increase in 42K FER was not strongly dependent on the amount of calcium entry. 5. Attempts to load the pace-maker cells with calcium by using the ionophore A23187 (10 micrograms ml . -1 of 2.0 x 10(-5) M) consistently resulted in very large increases in 42K FER. However, this effect (i) was blocked by atropine and (ii) was markedly reduced by pretreating the tissues with hemicholinium, indicating that A23187-induced release of acetylcholine from the endogenous nerve terminals was responsible for the observed increase in 42K FER. 6. In summary, three different experimental tests indicate that the majority of the 42K efflux is not tightly linked to transmembrane calcium movement in sinus venosus pace-maker tissue. PMID:6796675

  5. Effects of changing stance conditions on anticipatory postural adjustment and reaction time to voluntary arm movement in humans

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, V; Kowalewski, R; Nakazawa, K; Colombo, G

    2000-01-01

    The effect on reaction time (RT) and anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) of unexpectedly changing stance conditions was studied using a push or pull arm movement task. The aim was to evaluate the modifiability of RT and APA by an external perturbation associated with an automatic compensatory reaction.Subjects standing on a moveable platform were asked to push or pull a rigid handle as quickly and as strongly as possible in response to the ‘go-signal’, a visual signal from a green or red light-emitting diode. Forward and backward translations of the platform were randomly induced at four time intervals after the go-signal. In some experiments to detect unspecific arousal there were no platform translations but an acoustic signal was given before the go-signal. Surface electromyographic activity (EMG) of upper arm and lower leg muscles was analysed.During the push task both RT and the duration of APA (onset of APA till the force signal indicating hand action) were shorter during backward than during forward translation. During the pull task the effect of platform translations was the reverse. The delay between go-signal and onset of APA remained constant. Consequently, RT and APA became shorter when the platform was translated in the same direction as that in which the upper body was displaced by the push or pull movement, and longer when it was translated in the opposite direction. The effects were maximal when translations were induced 250 ms after the go-signal, but a difference was detected up to 375 ms.Furthermore, with forward and backward platform translations RT was shorter when the translations were induced early rather than late after the go-signal. This was associated with a shortening of the delay between the go-signal and onset of APA, while APA duration remained constant. The shortened RT was in the range of that obtained when an acoustic signal was given just before the go-signal.It is concluded that (i) both the RT and the duration of APA can

  6. A Handful of Paragraphs on "Translation" and "Norms."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toury, Gideon

    1998-01-01

    Presents some thoughts on the issue of translation and norms, focusing on the relationships between social agreements, conventions, and norms; translational norms; acts of translation and translation events; norms and values; norms for translated texts versus norms for non-translated texts; and competing norms. Comments on the reactions to three…

  7. A norm knockout method on indirect reciprocity to reveal indispensable norms

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Okada, Isamu; Uchida, Satoshi; Sasaki, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Although various norms for reciprocity-based cooperation have been suggested that are evolutionarily stable against invasion from free riders, the process of alternation of norms and the role of diversified norms remain unclear in the evolution of cooperation. We clarify the co-evolutionary dynamics of norms and cooperation in indirect reciprocity and also identify the indispensable norms for the evolution of cooperation. Inspired by the gene knockout method, a genetic engineering technique, we developed the norm knockout method and clarified the norms necessary for the establishment of cooperation. The results of numerical investigations revealed that the majority of norms gradually transitioned to tolerant norms after defectors are eliminated by strict norms. Furthermore, no cooperation emerges when specific norms that are intolerant to defectors are knocked out. PMID:28276485

  8. A norm knockout method on indirect reciprocity to reveal indispensable norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Okada, Isamu; Uchida, Satoshi; Sasaki, Tatsuya

    2017-03-01

    Although various norms for reciprocity-based cooperation have been suggested that are evolutionarily stable against invasion from free riders, the process of alternation of norms and the role of diversified norms remain unclear in the evolution of cooperation. We clarify the co-evolutionary dynamics of norms and cooperation in indirect reciprocity and also identify the indispensable norms for the evolution of cooperation. Inspired by the gene knockout method, a genetic engineering technique, we developed the norm knockout method and clarified the norms necessary for the establishment of cooperation. The results of numerical investigations revealed that the majority of norms gradually transitioned to tolerant norms after defectors are eliminated by strict norms. Furthermore, no cooperation emerges when specific norms that are intolerant to defectors are knocked out.

  9. Football, Fast Cars, and Cheerleading: Adolescent Gender Norms, 1978-1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suitor, J. Jill; Rebel, Reavis

    1995-01-01

    Examines changes in adolescent gender norms in the 1980s, using data collected from 496 college students who graduated from high school between 1979 and 1982 or between 1988 and 1989. Findings indicate little change in gender norms across the decade. Boys continue to achieve prestige primarily through sports and school achievement, while girls…

  10. Quality of decision making and group norms.

    PubMed

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Cihangir, S

    2001-06-01

    Two studies investigated the impact of group norms for maintaining consensus versus norms for critical thought on group decisions in a modification of the biased sampling paradigm (G. Stasser & W. Titus, 1985). Both studies showed that critical norms improved the quality of decisions, whereas consensus norms did not. This effect appeared to be mediated by the perceived value of shared and unshared information: Consensus norm groups valued shared information more highly than critical groups did, and valence was a good predictor of decision outcome. In addition, the 2nd study showed that the group norm manipulation has no impact on individual decisions, consistent with the assumption that this is a group effect. Results suggest that the content of group norms is an important factor influencing the quality of group decision-making processes and that the content of group norms may be related to the group's proneness for groupthink.

  11. Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approving cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  12. Moral alchemy: How love changes norms.

    PubMed

    Magid, Rachel W; Schulz, Laura E

    2017-04-09

    We discuss a process by which non-moral concerns (that is concerns agreed to be non-moral within a particular cultural context) can take on moral content. We refer to this phenomenon as moral alchemy and suggest that it arises because moral obligations of care entail recursively valuing loved ones' values, thus allowing propositions with no moral weight in themselves to become morally charged. Within this framework, we predict that when people believe a loved one cares about a behavior more than they do themselves, the moral imperative to care about the loved one's interests will raise the value of that behavior, such that people will be more likely to infer that third parties will see the behavior as wrong (Experiment 1) and the behavior itself as more morally important (Experiment 2) than when the same behaviors are considered outside the context of a caring relationship. The current study confirmed these predictions.

  13. Correcting Slightly Less Simple Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aivar, M. P.; Brenner, E.; Smeets, J. B. J.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have analysed how goal directed movements are corrected in response to changes in the properties of the target. However, only simple movements to single targets have been used in those studies, so little is known about movement corrections under more complex situations. Evidence from studies that ask for movements to several targets…

  14. Muscle co-activity tuning in Parkinsonian hand movement: disease-specific changes at behavioral and cerebral level

    PubMed Central

    van der Stouwe, A. M. M.; Toxopeus, C. M.; de Jong, B. M.; Yavuz, P.; Valsan, G.; Conway, B. A.; Leenders, K. L.; Maurits, N. M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated simple directional hand movements based on different degrees of muscle co-activity, at behavioral and cerebral level in healthy subjects and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We compared “singular” movements, dominated by the activity of one agonist muscle, to “composite” movements, requiring conjoint activity of multiple muscles, in a center-out (right hand) step-tracking task. Behavioral parameters were obtained by EMG and kinematic recordings. fMRI was used to investigate differences in underlying brain activations between PD patients (N = 12) and healthy (age-matched) subjects (N = 18). In healthy subjects, composite movements recruited the striatum and cortical areas comprising bilaterally the supplementary motor area and premotor cortex, contralateral medial prefrontal cortex, primary motor cortex, primary visual cortex, and ipsilateral superior parietal cortex. Contrarily, the ipsilateral cerebellum was more involved in singular movements. This striking dichotomy between striatal and cortical recruitment vs. cerebellar involvement was considered to reflect the complementary roles of these areas in motor control, in which the basal ganglia are involved in movement selection and the cerebellum in movement optimization. Compared to healthy subjects, PD patients showed decreased activation of the striatum and cortical areas in composite movement, while performing worse at behavioral level. This implies that PD patients are especially impaired on tasks requiring highly tuned muscle co-activity. Singular movement, on the other hand, was characterized by a combination of increased activation of the ipsilateral parietal cortex and left cerebellum. As singular movement performance was only slightly compromised, we interpret this as a reflection of increased visuospatial processing, possibly as a compensational mechanism. PMID:26300761

  15. Stereotypical movements.

    PubMed

    Delafield-Butt, J T

    2010-01-01

    A 'stereotypical movement' denotes a movement reproduced in a standardised form. The term is used in two fields, in movement science and in medical assessments of pathology. The former recognises the occurrence of regular patterns of movement across individuals expressed at regular points in development, such as the pre-reach in early infancy. The latter specifies a pathological form of repetitive movement by one individual symptomatic of, for example, autism. This entry explores the interindividual use of the term in movement science and touches on ongoing work to better classify and quantify stereotypical movements for better psychophysiological understanding of action development, and possible sensitive measures of them.

  16. Practice changes beta power at rest and its modulation during movement in healthy subjects but not in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Moisello, Clara; Blanco, Daniella; Lin, Jing; Panday, Priya; Kelly, Simon P; Quartarone, Angelo; Di Rocco, Alessandro; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio; Ghilardi, M Felice

    2015-10-01

    PD (Parkinson's disease) is characterized by impairments in cortical plasticity, in beta frequency at rest and in beta power modulation during movement (i.e., event-related ERS [synchronization] and ERD [desynchronization]). Recent results with experimental protocols inducing long-term potentiation in healthy subjects suggest that cortical plasticity phenomena might be reflected by changes of beta power recorded with EEG during rest. Here, we determined whether motor practice produces changes in beta power at rest and during movements in both healthy subjects and patients with PD. We hypothesized that such changes would be reduced in PD. We thus recorded EEG in patients with PD and age-matched controls before, during and after a 40-minute reaching task. We determined posttask changes of beta power at rest and assessed the progressive changes of beta ERD and ERS during the task over frontal and sensorimotor regions. We found that beta ERS and ERD changed significantly with practice in controls but not in PD. In PD compared to controls, beta power at rest was greater over frontal sensors but posttask changes, like those during movements, were far less evident. In both groups, kinematic characteristics improved with practice; however, there was no correlation between such improvements and the changes in beta power. We conclude that prolonged practice in a motor task produces use-dependent modifications that are reflected in changes of beta power at rest and during movement. In PD, such changes are significantly reduced; such a reduction might represent, at least partially, impairment of cortical plasticity.

  17. Effects of changing gravity on anticipatory grip force control during point-to-point movements of a hand-held object.

    PubMed

    Nowak, D A; Hermsdörfer, J; Philipp, J; Marquardt, C; Glasauer, S; Mai, N

    2001-07-01

    We investigated the quality of predictive grip force control during gravity changes induced by parabolic flight maneuvers. During these maneuvers gravity varied: There were 2 periods of hypergravity, in which terrestrial gravity nearly doubled, and a 20-s period of microgravity, during which a manipulated object was virtually weightless. We determined grip and load forces during vertical point-to-point movements of an instrumented object. Point-to-point movements were a combination of static (stationary holding) and dynamic (continuous movements) task conditions, which were separately analyzed in our previous studies. Analysis of the produced grip forces revealed that grip adjustments were closely linked to load force fluctuations under each gravity condition. In particular, grip force maxima coincided closely in time with load force peaks, although these occurred at different phases of the movement depending on the gravity level. However, quantitative analysis of the ratio of maximum grip force to the corresponding load force peak revealed an increased force ratio during microgravity when compared to that during normal and hypergravity. We hypothesize that the impaired precision of force coupling with respect to force magnitude during microgravity results from reduced feedback information about the object's mass during the stationary holding of the object in between each movement. The results indicate that the temporal grip force regulation is highly automatized and stable, whereas economical planning of force magnitude is more flexible and might reflect changes of the external loading condition.

  18. Can the Functional Movement Screen™ be used to capture changes in spine and knee motion control following 12 weeks of training?

    PubMed

    Frost, David M; Beach, Tyson A C; Campbell, Troy L; Callaghan, Jack P; McGill, Stuart M

    2017-01-01

    To examine whether objective measures of spine and frontal plane knee motion exhibited during Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS) task performance changed following a movement-guided fitness (MOV) and conventional fitness (FIT) exercise intervention. Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled experiment. Before and after 12 weeks of exercise, participants' kinematics were quantified while performing the FMS and a series of general whole-body movement tasks. Biomechanics laboratory. Fifty-two firefighters were assigned to MOV, FIT, or a control (CON) group. Peak lumbar spine flexion/extension, lateral bend and axial twist, and frontal plane knee motion. The post-training kinematic changes exhibited by trainees while performing the FMS tasks were similar in magnitude (effect size < 0.8) to those exhibited by CON. However, when performing the battery of general whole-body movement tasks, only MOV showed significant improvements in spine and frontal plane knee motion control (effect size > 0.5). Whether graded qualitatively, or quantitatively via kinematic analyses, the FMS may not be a viable tool to detect movement-based exercise adaptations. Amendments to the FMS tasks and/or scoring method are needed before it can be used for reasons beyond appraising the ability to move freely, symmetrically, and without pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cultural Norms and Nonverbal Communication: An Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yanrong

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal communication takes place in specific cultural contexts and is influenced by cultural norms. Cultural norms are "social rules for what certain types of people should and should not do" (Hall, 2005). Different cultures might have different norms for nonverbal behaviors in specific social, relational, and geographical contexts.…

  20. Norm Theory: Comparing Reality to Its Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahneman, Daniel; Miller, Dale T.

    1986-01-01

    A theory of norms and normality is applied to some phenomena of emotional responses, social judgment, and conversations about causes. Norm theory is applied in analyses of enhanced emotional response to events that have abnormal causes, of generation of prediction from observations of behavior, and of the role of norms. (Author/LMO)

  1. Cultural Norms and Nonverbal Communication: An Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yanrong

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal communication takes place in specific cultural contexts and is influenced by cultural norms. Cultural norms are "social rules for what certain types of people should and should not do" (Hall, 2005). Different cultures might have different norms for nonverbal behaviors in specific social, relational, and geographical contexts.…

  2. Junior High Norms for the Bender Gestalt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grow, Richard T.

    Norms are tabulated for the Bender Gestalt Test, based on a group of 62 male and 73 female junior high school students in Utah. These norms are designed to fill a gap in norms which now range from 3 years through adult. The students in this group were aged 12 through 14. Standard Bender Gestalt cards were used. The tests were administered…

  3. Peer Group Norms and Accountability Moderate the Effect of School Norms on Children's Intergroup Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Luke; Rutland, Adam; Nesdale, Drew

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the interactive effects of school norms, peer norms, and accountability on children's intergroup attitudes. Participants (n = 229) aged 5-11 years, in a between-subjects design, were randomly assigned to a peer group with an inclusion or exclusion norm, learned their school either had an inclusion norm or not, and were…

  4. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Coffé, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-05-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social Survey data. We investigate mean levels of civic mindedness in these countries and perform regression analyses to investigate whether factors traditionally associated with civic and political participation are also correlated with citizenship norms across Eastern Europe. We show that mean levels of civic mindedness differ significantly across the four Eastern European countries. We find some support for theories on civic and political participation when explaining norms of citizenship, but also demonstrate that individual-level characteristics are differently related to citizenship norms across the countries of our study. Hence, our findings show that Eastern Europe is not a monolithic and homogeneous bloc, underscoring the importance of taking the specificities of countries into account.

  5. Boosting safety behaviour: Descriptive norms encourage child booster seat usage amongst low involvement parents.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Jennifer; Whelan, Jodie; Pirouz, Dante M; Snowdon, Anne W

    2016-07-01

    Campaigns advocating behavioural changes often employ social norms as a motivating technique, favouring injunctive norms (what is typically approved or disapproved) over descriptive norms (what is typically done). Here, we investigate an upside to including descriptive norms in health and safety appeals. Because descriptive norms are easy to process and understand, they should provide a heuristic to guide behaviour in those individuals who lack the interest or motivation to reflect on the advocated behaviour more deeply. When those descriptive norms are positive - suggesting that what is done is consistent with what ought to be done - including them in campaigns should be particularly beneficial at influencing this low-involvement segment. We test this proposition via research examining booster seat use amongst parents with children of booster seat age, and find that incorporating positive descriptive norms into a related campaign is particularly impactful for parents who report low involvement in the topic of booster seat safety. Descriptive norms are easy to state and easy to understand, and our research suggests that these norms resonate with low involvement individuals. As a result, we recommend incorporating descriptive norms when possible into health and safety campaigns. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Principles and popularity: the interplay of moral norms and descriptive norms in the context of volunteerism.

    PubMed

    Smith, Megan K; Masser, Barbara M

    2012-12-01

    Can a moral norm be manipulated and if so, how does a manipulated moral norm interact with a descriptive norm to impact on behavioural intentions? The present research addressed these questions in three studies. Study 1a and 1b demonstrated the validity of a manipulation designed to activate a moral norm for volunteer activity. In Study 2, activating a moral norm for volunteering strengthened intentions to volunteer and inhibited intentions to conform to a descriptive norm. Conceptual and applied implications of activating a moral norm are discussed. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Soft, cutting edge of environmentalism: why and how the appropriate-technology notion is changing the movement

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.E.

    1980-04-01

    The central theme of hard, or centralized, technology versus soft, or small and disperse, technology is traced through two stages of development that the author terms enthusiasm and realism. The overlap between the environmental movement and the soft-technology movement has given the appropriate-technology movement a broad base of ideological support. Soft-technology thinking in environmentalism is broadening its concerns. This trend tends to increase what to date has been environmentalism's rather marginal relevance and legitimacy in the original and still-central domain of the soft-technolgoy movement, namely the developing countries. The small is beautiful concept will force environmentalists to question their commitments to political ideologies as well as environmentalism when faced with achieving environmental reform in the context of achieving greater social equity through redistribution. According to the author, the soft-technology vision of transformation to a soft society is the cutting edge of thought in environmentalism. 45 footnotes, 1 table. (SAC)

  8. Longitudinal Relationship Between Drinking with Peers, Descriptive Norms, and Adolescent Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Haynie, Denise; Farhat, Tilda; Wang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Descriptive norms are consistently found to predict adolescent alcohol use but less is known about the factors that predict descriptive norms. The objective of this study is to test if drinking with peers predicts later alcohol consumption and if this relationship is mediated by a change in the descriptive norms of peer alcohol use. Data are from a nationally representative cohort of high school students surveyed in the 10th and 11th grade (N=2,162). Structural equation modeling was used to test a mediation model of the relationship between drinking with peers (T1) on later alcohol use (T2) and mediation of the relationship by descriptive norms (T2). Descriptive norms significantly mediated the relationship between drinking with peers and alcohol use for both males and females with a somewhat larger effect for males compared to females. These results support a continued focus on the development and evaluation of interventions to alter descriptive norms of alcohol use. PMID:23564529

  9. Longitudinal relationship between drinking with peers, descriptive norms, and adolescent alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Haynie, Denise; Farhat, Tilda; Wang, Jing

    2014-08-01

    Descriptive norms are consistently found to predict adolescent alcohol use but less is known about the factors that predict descriptive norms. The objective of this study is to test if drinking with peers predicts later alcohol consumption and if this relationship is mediated by a change in the descriptive norms of peer alcohol use. Data are from a nationally representative cohort of high school students surveyed in the 10th and 11th grade (N = 2,162). Structural equation modeling was used to test a mediation model of the relationship between drinking with peers (T1) on later alcohol use (T2) and mediation of the relationship by descriptive norms (T2). Descriptive norms significantly mediated the relationship between drinking with peers and alcohol use for both males and females with a somewhat larger effect for males compared to females. These results support a continued focus on the development and evaluation of interventions to alter descriptive norms of alcohol use.

  10. Norms governing urban African American adolescents’ sexual and substance-using behavior

    PubMed Central

    Dolcini, M. Margaret; Catania, Joseph A.; Harper, Gary W.; Watson, Susan E.; Ellen, Jonathan M.; Towner, Senna L.

    2013-01-01

    Using a probability-based neighborhood sample of urban African American youth and a sample of their close friends (N = 202), we conducted a one-year longitudinal study to examine key questions regarding sexual and drug using norms. The results provide validation of social norms governing sexual behavior, condom use, and substance use among friendship groups. These norms had strong to moderate homogeneity; and both normative strength and homogeneity were relatively stable over a one-year period independent of changes in group membership. The data further suggest that sex and substance using norms may operate as a normative set. Similar to studies of adults, we identified three distinct “norm-based” social strata in our sample. Together, our findings suggest that the norms investigated are valid targets for health promotion efforts, and such efforts may benefit from tailoring programs to the normative sets that make up the different social strata in a given adolescent community. PMID:23072891

  11. Masculinity and HIV: Dimensions of Masculine Norms that Contribute to Men's HIV-Related Sexual Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Paul J; DiClemente, Ralph J; Barrington, Clare

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies have documented a relationship between masculine norms and men's HIV-related sexual behaviors, but intervening upon this relationship requires a nuanced understanding of the specific aspects of masculine norms that shape men's sexual behaviors. We integrate theories on masculinities with empirical HIV research to identify specific dimensions of masculine norms that influence men's HIV-related sexual behaviors. We identify three major dimensions of masculine norms that shape men's sexual behavior: (1) uncontrollable male sex drive, (2) capacity to perform sexually, and (3) power over others. While the existing literature does help explain the relationship between masculine norms and men's sexual behaviors several gaps remain including: a recognition of context-specific masculinities, an interrogation of the positive influences of masculinity, adoption of an intersectional approach, assessment of changes in norms and behaviors over time, and rigorous evaluations of gender-transformative approaches. Addressing these gaps in future research may optimize prevention efforts.

  12. Norms governing urban African American adolescents' sexual and substance-using behavior.

    PubMed

    Dolcini, M Margaret; Catania, Joseph A; Harper, Gary W; Watson, Susan E; Ellen, Jonathan M; Towner, Senna L

    2013-02-01

    Using a probability-based neighborhood sample of urban African American youth and a sample of their close friends (N = 202), we conducted a one-year longitudinal study to examine key questions regarding sexual and drug using norms. The results provide validation of social norms governing sexual behavior, condom use, and substance use among friendship groups. These norms had strong to moderate homogeneity; and both normative strength and homogeneity were relatively stable over a one-year period independent of changes in group membership. The data further suggest that sex and substance using norms may operate as a normative set. Similar to studies of adults, we identified three distinct "norm-based" social strata in our sample. Together, our findings suggest that the norms investigated are valid targets for health promotion efforts, and such efforts may benefit from tailoring programs to the normative sets that make up the different social strata in a given adolescent community.

  13. Quantifying drivers of wild pig movement across multiple spatial and temporal scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kay, Shannon L.; Fischer, Justin W.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Beasley, James C; Boughton, Raoul; Campbell, Tyler A; Cooper, Susan M; Ditchkoff, Stephen S; Hartley, Stephen B.; Kilgo, John C; Wisely, Samantha M; Wyckoff, A Christy; VerCauteren, Kurt C; Pipen, Kim M

    2017-01-01

    The analytical framework we present can be used to assess movement patterns arising from multiple data sources for a range of species while accounting for spatio-temporal correlations. Our analyses show the magnitude by which reaction norms can change based on the temporal scale of response data, illustrating the importance of appropriately defining temporal scales of both the movement response and covariates depending on the intended implications of research (e.g., predicting effects of movement due to climate change versus planning local-scale management). We argue that consideration of multiple spatial scales within the same framework (rather than comparing across separate studies post-hoc) gives a more accurate quantification of cross-scale spatial effects by appropriately accounting for error correlation.

  14. OPERATOR NORM INEQUALITIES BETWEEN TENSOR UNFOLDINGS ON THE PARTITION LATTICE.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miaoyan; Duc, Khanh Dao; Fischer, Jonathan; Song, Yun S

    2017-05-01

    Interest in higher-order tensors has recently surged in data-intensive fields, with a wide range of applications including image processing, blind source separation, community detection, and feature extraction. A common paradigm in tensor-related algorithms advocates unfolding (or flattening) the tensor into a matrix and applying classical methods developed for matrices. Despite the popularity of such techniques, how the functional properties of a tensor changes upon unfolding is currently not well understood. In contrast to the body of existing work which has focused almost exclusively on matricizations, we here consider all possible unfoldings of an order-k tensor, which are in one-to-one correspondence with the set of partitions of {1, …, k}. We derive general inequalities between the l(p) -norms of arbitrary unfoldings defined on the partition lattice. In particular, we demonstrate how the spectral norm (p = 2) of a tensor is bounded by that of its unfoldings, and obtain an improved upper bound on the ratio of the Frobenius norm to the spectral norm of an arbitrary tensor. For specially-structured tensors satisfying a generalized definition of orthogonal decomposability, we prove that the spectral norm remains invariant under specific subsets of unfolding operations.

  15. Movement - uncontrollable

    MedlinePlus

    ... peripheral nervous system References Jankovic J, Lang AE. Movement disorders: diagnosis and assessment. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, ... Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 21. Lang AE. Other movement disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  16. Movement - uncoordinated

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss of coordination; Coordination impairment; Ataxia; Clumsiness; Uncoordinated movement ... Smooth graceful movement requires a balance between different muscle groups. A part of the brain called the cerebellum manages this balance.

  17. Testing the Effects of Social Norms and Behavioral Privacy on Hand Washing: A Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Maloney, Erin K.; Braz, Mary; Shulman, Hillary C.

    2013-01-01

    A 2-part study examines the influence of normative messages on college males' hand washing perceptions and behaviors. Study 1 tests for the appropriateness of hand washing as a target of social norms campaigns and tests messages designed to change perceived descriptive norms. Results indicated that hand washing behavior is appropriate for health…

  18. Norm Stability in Jirisan National Park: Effects of Time, Existing Conditions, and Background Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Oh; Shelby, Bo

    2008-04-01

    Norm stability is an important issue to consider in using the normative approach as a component of resource management decision making. This study examines three major questions related to norm stability: (1) Do norms change over time? (2) Do existing conditions affect norms? (3) Do background characteristics and visitation patterns affect norms? Data used in this study were collected at a campground in the Jirisan National Park (JNP) of Korea in 1993, 1994, and 2003. A total of 396 subjects were used for the study (120 for 1993, 106 for 1994, and 170 for 2003). Changes in the standards for “quiet time” and “seeing others littering” were statistically significant, but there was no change in the standard for “number of other tents.” There was little change in norm agreement or norm prevalence. Existing conditions were strongly correlated with standards for number of other tents but results were mixed for the other two indicators. Users’ demographic characteristics and visitation patterns were not generally related to norms. Findings of the study are discussed.

  19. Testing the Effects of Social Norms and Behavioral Privacy on Hand Washing: A Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Maloney, Erin K.; Braz, Mary; Shulman, Hillary C.

    2013-01-01

    A 2-part study examines the influence of normative messages on college males' hand washing perceptions and behaviors. Study 1 tests for the appropriateness of hand washing as a target of social norms campaigns and tests messages designed to change perceived descriptive norms. Results indicated that hand washing behavior is appropriate for health…

  20. Norm stability in Jirisan National Park: effects of time, existing conditions, and background characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Oh; Shelby, Bo

    2008-04-01

    Norm stability is an important issue to consider in using the normative approach as a component of resource management decision making. This study examines three major questions related to norm stability: (1) Do norms change over time? (2) Do existing conditions affect norms? (3) Do background characteristics and visitation patterns affect norms? Data used in this study were collected at a campground in the Jirisan National Park (JNP) of Korea in 1993, 1994, and 2003. A total of 396 subjects were used for the study (120 for 1993, 106 for 1994, and 170 for 2003). Changes in the standards for "quiet time" and "seeing others littering" were statistically significant, but there was no change in the standard for "number of other tents." There was little change in norm agreement or norm prevalence. Existing conditions were strongly correlated with standards for number of other tents but results were mixed for the other two indicators. Users' demographic characteristics and visitation patterns were not generally related to norms. Findings of the study are discussed.

  1. Fatigue-Induced Changes in Movement Pattern and Muscle Activity During Ballet Releve on Demi-Pointe.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Feng; Lee, Wan-Chin; Chen, Yi-An; Hsue, Bih-Jen

    2016-08-01

    Fatigue in ballet dancers may lead to injury, particularly in the lower extremities. However, few studies have investigated the effects of fatigue on ballet dancers' performance and movement patterns. Thus, the current study examines the effect of fatigue on the balance, movement pattern, and muscle activities of the lower extremities in ballet dancers. Twenty healthy, female ballet dancers performed releve on demi-pointe before and after fatigue. The trajectory of the whole body movement and the muscle activities of the major lower extremity muscles were recorded continuously during task performance. The results show that fatigue increases the medial-lateral center of mass (COM) displacement and hip and trunk motion, but decreases the COM velocity and ankle motion. Moreover, fatigue reduces the activities of the hamstrings and tibialis anterior, but increases that of the soleus. Finally, greater proximal hip and trunk motions are applied to compensate for the effects of fatigue, leading to a greater COM movement. Overall, the present findings show that fatigue results in impaired movement control and may therefore increase the risk of dance injury.

  2. Motor commands for fast point-to-point arm movements are customized for small changes in inertial load.

    PubMed

    Pinter, Ilona J; Bobbert, Maarten F; van Soest, A J Knoek; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2011-12-01

    For repeated point-to-point arm movements it is often assumed that motor commands are customized in a trial-to-trial manner, based on previous endpoint error. To test this assumption, we perturbed movement execution without affecting the endpoint error by using a modest manipulation of inertia. Participants made point-to-point elbow flexion and extension movements in the horizontal plane, under the instruction to move as fast as possible from one target area to another. In selected trials the moment of inertia of the lower arm was increased or decreased by 25%. First, we found that an unexpected increase or decrease of inertia did not affect the open loop controlled part of the movement path (and thus endpoint error was not affected). Second, we found that when the increased or decreased inertia was presented repeatedly, after 5-11 trials motor commands were customized: the first 100ms of agonistic muscle activity in the smoothed and rectified electromyographic signal of agonistic muscles was higher for the high inertia compared to the low inertia. We conclude that endpoint error is not the only parameter that is used to evaluate if motor commands lead to movements as planned. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Perceived historical drinking norms and current drinking behavior: using the theory of normative social behavior as a framework for assessment.

    PubMed

    Carcioppolo, Nick; Jensen, Jakob D

    2012-01-01

    Social norms are sustained and disseminated, both implicitly and explicitly, through the act of communication. As a result, communication researchers have sought to classify and target normative perceptions to enact social change. In line with this research, the current study investigated whether perceptions of past normative behavior, referred to here as historical norms, were significantly related to current behavior. Using the theory of normative behavior as a guiding framework, two studies were conducted to assess whether college student drinking behavior was related to one of two perceived historical drinking norms measures: historical consumption norms (i.e., the perceived percentage of students who drank over time) and historical tradition norms (i.e., the perception of drinking as a university tradition). Study 1 revealed that although historical consumption norms was not directly related to drinking behavior, it moderated the effect of descriptive norms on drinking behavior (p = .03). A full assessment of the theory of normative social behavior was conducted in study 2 to determine whether perceived historical drinking norms influenced behavior above and beyond both descriptive and injunctive norms. Findings demonstrated that historical tradition norms were significantly related to drinking behavior (p = .001), and marginally moderated the relationship between descriptive norms and drinking behavior (p = .09). These findings offer preliminary evidence in support of measuring perceived historical drinking norms in future campaigns and interventions designed to reduce drinking behavior.

  4. Changes in the Relative Abundance and Movement of Insect Pollinators During the Flowering Cycle of Brassica rapa Crops: Implications for Gene Flow

    PubMed Central

    Mesa, Laura A.; Howlett, Bradley G.; Grant, Jan E.; Didham, Raphael K.

    2013-01-01

    The potential movement of transgenes from genetically modified crops to non-genetically modified crops via insect-mediated pollen dispersal has been highlighted as one of the areas of greatest concern in regards to genetically modified crops. Pollen movement depends sensitively on spatial and temporal variation in the movement of insect pollinators between crop fields. This study tested the degree of variation in the diversity and relative abundance of flower-visiting insects entering versus leaving pak choi, Brassica rapa var. chinensis L. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae), crops throughout different stages of the flowering cycle. The relative abundance of flower-visiting insects varied significantly with Brassica crop phenology. Greater numbers of flower-visiting insects were captured inside rather than outside the crop fields, with the highest capture rates of flower-visitors coinciding with the peak of flowering in both spring-flowering and summer-flowering crops. Moreover, the ratio of flower-visiting insects entering versus leaving crop fields also varied considerably with changing crop phenology. Despite high variation in relative capture rates, the data strongly indicate non-random patterns of variation in insect movement in relation to crop phenology, with early-season aggregation of flower-visiting insects entering and remaining in the crop, and then mass emigration of flower-visiting insects leaving the crop late in the flowering season. Although pollen movement late in the flowering cycle might contribute relatively little to total seed set (and hence crop production), the findings here suggest that extensive late-season pollinator redistribution in the landscape could contribute disproportionately to long-distance gene movement between crops. PMID:23937538

  5. Modulation of event-related desynchronization in robot-assisted hand performance: brain oscillatory changes in active, passive and imagined movements

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Robot-assisted therapy in patients with neurological disease is an attempt to improve function in a moderate to severe hemiparetic arm. A better understanding of cortical modifications after robot-assisted training could aid in refining rehabilitation therapy protocols for stroke patients. Modifications of cortical activity in healthy subjects were evaluated during voluntary active movement, passive robot-assisted motor movement, and motor imagery tasks performed under unimanual and bimanual protocols. Methods Twenty-one channel electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded with a video EEG system in 8 subjects. The subjects performed robot-assisted tasks using the Bi-Manu Track robot-assisted arm trainer. The motor paradigm was executed during one-day experimental sessions under eleven unimanual and bimanual protocols of active, passive and imaged movements. The event-related-synchronization/desynchronization (ERS/ERD) approach to the EEG data was applied to investigate where movement-related decreases in alpha and beta power were localized. Results Voluntary active unilateral hand movement was observed to significantly activate the contralateral side; however, bilateral activation was noted in all subjects on both the unilateral and bilateral active tasks, as well as desynchronization of alpha and beta brain oscillations during the passive robot-assisted motor tasks. During active-passive movement when the right hand drove the left one, there was predominant activation in the contralateral side. Conversely, when the left hand drove the right one, activation was bilateral, especially in the alpha range. Finally, significant contralateral EEG desynchronization was observed during the unilateral task and bilateral ERD during the bimanual task. Conclusions This study suggests new perspectives for the assessment of patients with neurological disease. The findings may be relevant for defining a baseline for future studies investigating the neural correlates of

  6. Using continuous GPS and absolute gravity to separate vertical land movements and changes in sea-level at tide-gauges in the UK.

    PubMed

    Teferle, F N; Bingley, R M; Williams, S D P; Baker, T F; Dodson, A H

    2006-04-15

    Researchers investigating climate change have used historical tide-gauge measurements from all over the world to investigate the changes in sea-level that have occurred over the last century or so. However, such estimates are a combination of any true sea-level variations and any vertical movements of the land at the specific tide-gauge. For a tide- gauge record to be used to determine the climate related component of changes in sea-level, it is therefore necessary to correct for the vertical land movement component of the observed change in sea-level.In 1990, the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy and Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory started developing techniques based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) for measuring vertical land movements (VLM) at tide-gauges in the UK. This paper provides brief details of these early developments and shows how they led to the establishment of continuous GPS (CGPS) stations at a number of tide-gauges. The paper then goes on to discuss the use of absolute gravity (AG), as an independent technique for measuring VLM at tide-gauges. The most recent results, from CGPS time-series dating back to 1997 and AG time-series dating back to 1995/1996, are then used to demonstrate the complementarity of these two techniques and their potential for providing site-specific estimates of VLM at tide-gauges in the UK.

  7. Overview of NORM and activities by a NORM licensed permanent decontamination and waste processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mirro, G.A.

    1997-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of issues related to handling NORM materials, and provides a description of a facility designed for the processing of NORM contaminated equipment. With regard to handling NORM materials the author discusses sources of NORM, problems, regulations and disposal options, potential hazards, safety equipment, and issues related to personnel protection. For the facility, the author discusses: description of the permanent facility; the operations of the facility; the license it has for handling specific radioactive material; operating and safety procedures; decontamination facilities on site; NORM waste processing capabilities; and offsite NORM services which are available.

  8. A Comparative Analysis of Black American and Mexican-American Cultural Norms and Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Willard A.; And Others

    Although Mexican-American and Black-American movements in the United States have typically been compared, significant differences between the two minorities--especially in cultural norms and expectations--make comparisons inaccurate and misleading. This paper explores the differences between the Black-American and Mexican-American minorities,…

  9. How do social norms influence prosocial development?

    PubMed

    House, Bailey R

    2017-08-12

    Humans are both highly prosocial and extremely sensitive to social norms, and some theories suggest that norms are necessary to account for uniquely human forms of prosocial behavior and cooperation. Understanding how norms influence prosocial behavior is thus essential if we are to describe the psychology and development of prosocial behavior. In this article I review recent research from across the social sciences that provides (1) a theoretical model of how norms influence prosocial behavior, (2) empirical support for the model based on studies with adults and children, and (3) predictions about the psychological mechanisms through which norms shape prosocial behavior. I conclude by discussing the need for future studies into how prosocial behavior develops through emerging interactions between culturally varying norms, social cognition, emotions, and potentially genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Late Quaternary depositional history, Holocene sea-level changes, and vertical crustal movement, southern San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atwater, Brian F.; Hedel, Charles W.; Helley, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Sediments collected for bridge foundation studies at southern San Francisco Bay, Calif., record estuaries that formed during Sangamon (100,000 years ago) and post-Wisconsin (less than 10,000 years ago) high stands of sea level. The estuarine deposits of Sangamon and post-Wisconsin ages are separated by alluvial and eolian deposits and by erosional unconformities and surfaces of nondeposition, features that indicate lowered base levels and oceanward migrations of the shoreline accompanying low stands of the sea. Estuarine deposits of mid-Wisconsin age appear to be absent, suggesting that sea level was not near its present height 30,000–40,000 years ago in central California. Holocene sea-level changes are measured from the elevations and apparent 14C ages of plant remains from 13 core samples. Uncertainties of ±2 to ±4 m in the elevations of the dated sea levels represent the sum of errors in determination of (1) sample elevation relative to present sea level, (2) sample elevation relative to sea level at the time of accumulation of the dated material, and (3) postdepositional subsidence of the sample due to compaction of underlying sediments. Sea level in the vicinity of southern San Francisco Bay rose about 2 cm/yr from 9,500 to 8,000 years ago. The rate of relative sea-level rise then declined about tenfold from 8,000 to 6,000 years ago, and it has averaged 0.1–0.2 cm/yr from 6,000 years ago to the present. This submergence history indicates that the rising sea entered the Golden Gate 10,000–11,000 years ago and spread across land areas as rapidly as 30 m/yr until 8,000 years ago. Subsequent shoreline changes were more gradual because of the decrease in rate of sea-level rise. Some of the sediments under southern San Francisco Bay appear to be below the level at which they initially accumulated. The vertical crustal movement suggested by these sediments may be summarized as follows: (1) Some Quaternary(?) sediments have sustained at least 100 m of

  11. Longitudinal relationships between individual and class norms supporting dating violence and perpetration of dating violence.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Katherine A; Sullivan, Terri N; Farrell, Albert D

    2015-03-01

    Dating violence is commonly perpetrated in adolescence, making it imperative to understand risk factors in order to inform prevention efforts. Although individual norms supporting dating violence are strongly related to its perpetration, few studies have examined their longitudinal impact. Moreover, the influence of class norms (i.e., norms for students in the same grade, cohort, and school) supporting dating violence on perpetration has rarely been studied. The current study examined longitudinal relationships between individual and class norms supporting dating violence and perpetration of physical and psychological dating violence. Participants were two cohorts of sixth graders from 37 schools who were in dating relationships at Wave 1 and 6 months later at Wave 2 (N = 2,022; 43% female; 52% African American, 21% Latino/a, 20% White, and 7% other). The analyses used a multilevel approach, with students represented at Level 1 and classes (n = 74) at Level 2. The models tested direct effects of Wave 1 individual and class norms supporting dating violence on subsequent changes in perpetration of dating violence at Wave 2 and the extent to which gender moderated these relationships. The findings indicated that greater individual norms supporting male dating violence predicted greater change in perpetration of physical and psychological dating violence and greater individual norms supporting female dating violence predicted greater change in perpetration of psychological dating violence. Greater class norms supporting male dating violence predicted greater change in perpetration of physical dating violence; whereas greater class norms supporting female dating violence predicted less change in perpetration of physical dating violence. These findings highlight the need to address norms in early adolescence.

  12. A Single Amino Acid Change in Turnip Crinkle Virus Movement Protein p8 Affects RNA Binding and Virulence on Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Wobbe, Kristin K.; Akgoz, Muslum; Dempsey, D’Maris Amick; Klessig, Daniel F.

    1998-01-01

    Comparison of the symptoms caused by turnip crinkle virus strain M (TCV-M) and TCV-B infection of a resistant Arabidopsis thaliana line termed Di-17 demonstrates that TCV-B has a greater ability to spread in planta. This ability is due to a single amino acid change in the viral movement protein p8 and inversely correlates with p8 RNA binding affinity. PMID:9621099

  13. Using Pre-Assessment and In-Class Questions to Change Student Understanding of Molecular Movements

    PubMed Central

    Shi, J.; Knight, Jennifer K.; Chun, Hyonho; Guild, Nancy A.; Martin, Jennifer M.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how different types of molecules move through cell membranes is a fundamental part of cell biology. To identify and address student misconceptions surrounding molecular movement through cell membranes, we surveyed student understanding on this topic using pre-class questions, in-class clicker questions, and subsequent exam questions in a large introductory biology course. Common misconceptions identified in student responses to the pre-class assessment questions were used to generate distractors for clicker questions. Two-tier diagnostic clicker questions were used to probe incoming common student misconceptions (first tier) and their reasoning (second tier). Two subsequent lectures with assessment clicker questions were used to help students construct a new framework to understand molecular movement through cell membranes. Comparison of pre-assessment and post-assessment (exam) performance showed dramatic improvement in students’ understanding of molecular movement: student answers to exam questions were 74.6% correct with correct reasoning while only 1.3% of the student answers were correct with correct reasoning on the pre-class assessment. Our results show that students’ conceptual understanding of molecular movement through cell membranes progressively increases through discussions of a series of clicker questions and suggest that this clicker-based teaching strategy was highly effective in correcting common student misconceptions on this topic. PMID:28512521

  14. Developmental Changes in the Variability of Tongue and Lip Movements during Speech from Childhood to Adulthood: An EMA Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdoch, Bruce E.; Cheng, Hei-Yan; Goozee, Justine V.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the developmental variability of lip and tongue movement in 48 children and adults. Motion of the tongue-tip, tongue-body and lower lip was recorded using electromagnetic articulography during productions of sentences containing /t/, /s/, /l/, /k/ and /p/. Four groups of speakers participated in the study: (1) aged 6-7…

  15. Age-Related Changes in the Relationship Between Visual Stimulus Intensity and Directional Finger Movements in Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Iris; Turkewitz, Gerald

    The relationship between visual stimulus intensity and directional finger movements was examined in infants of two age groups (16 infants, 10 to 15 weeks old, and 8 infants, 20 to 25 weeks old). Two hypotheses derived from Schneirla's Approach-Withdrawal Theory were examined: (1) that responses of the younger, but not of the older infants, would…

  16. Developmental Changes in the Variability of Tongue and Lip Movements during Speech from Childhood to Adulthood: An EMA Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdoch, Bruce E.; Cheng, Hei-Yan; Goozee, Justine V.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the developmental variability of lip and tongue movement in 48 children and adults. Motion of the tongue-tip, tongue-body and lower lip was recorded using electromagnetic articulography during productions of sentences containing /t/, /s/, /l/, /k/ and /p/. Four groups of speakers participated in the study: (1) aged 6-7…

  17. The Ability of Narrative Communication to Address Health-related Social Norms

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Murphy, Sheila T.; Frank, Lauren; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Social norms are an important predictor of health behavior and have been targeted by a variety of health communication campaigns. However, these campaigns often encounter challenges related to the socially specific context in which norms exist: specifically, the extent to which the target population identifies with the reference group presented in the ad and the extent to which the target population believes the campaign's message. We argue that because of its capacity to effect identification among viewers, narrative communication is particularly appropriate for impacting social norms and, consequently, behavioral intention. This manuscript presents the results of a randomized trial testing the effectiveness of two films – one narrative, one non-narrative – in changing perceived social norms and behavioral intention regarding Pap testing to detect cervical cancer. Results of the study indicate that the narrative film was in fact more effective at producing positive changes in perceived norm and intention. PMID:24179677

  18. Norms of Random Submatrices and Sparse Approximation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-28

    usual Hilbert space operator norm; the `1 to `2 operator norm ‖·‖1→2 computes the maximum `2 norm of a column; and ‖·‖max returns the maximum absolute...estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining...the spectral norm of a random column submatrix. Its proof is analogous with that of Theorem 3.2 but relies on a sharp noncommutative Khintchine

  19. Social norms shift behavioral and neural responses to foods.

    PubMed

    Nook, Erik C; Zaki, Jamil

    2015-07-01

    Obesity contributes to 2.8 million deaths annually, making interventions to promote healthy eating critical. Although preliminary research suggests that social norms influence eating behavior, the underlying psychological and neural mechanisms of such conformity remain unexplored. We used fMRI to investigate whether group norms shift individuals' preferences for foods at both behavioral and neural levels. Hungry participants rated how much they wanted to eat a series of healthy and unhealthy foods and, after each trial, saw ratings that ostensibly represented their peers' preferences. This feedback was manipulated such that peers appeared to prefer each food more than, less than, or as much as participants themselves. After a delay, participants rerated each food. Participants' second ratings shifted to resemble group norms. Initial consensus, as compared to disagreement, with peers produced activity in the nucleus accumbens, a region associated with reward prediction errors. Furthermore, the strength of this activity predicted the extent to which participants' ratings conformed to peer ratings, suggesting that the value associated with consensus drives social influence. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC), a region associated with value computation, initially responded more strongly to unhealthy, as compared to healthy, foods. However, this effect was "overwritten" by group norms. After individuals learned their peers' preferences, vMPFC responses tracked the popularity, but not the healthfulness, of foods. Furthermore, changes in vMPFC activity tracked social influence over behavioral ratings. These data provide evidence that group norms can shift food preferences, supporting the use of norms-based interventions to promote healthy eating.

  20. Quantifying social norms: by coupling the ecosystem management concept and semi-quantitative sociological methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D.; Xu, H.

    2012-12-01

    Over recent decades, human-induced environmental changes have steadily and rapidly grown in intensity and impact to where they now often exceed natural impacts. As one of important components of human activities, social norms play key roles in environmental and natural resources management. But the lack of relevant quantitative data about social norms greatly limits our scientific understanding of the complex linkages between humans and nature, and hampers our solving of pressing environmental and social problems. In this study, we built a quantified method by coupling the ecosystem management concept, semi-quantitative sociological methods and mathematical statistics. We got the quantified value of social norms from two parts, whether the content of social norms coincide with the concept of ecosystem management (content value) and how about the performance after social norms were put into implementation (implementation value) . First, we separately identified 12 core elements of ecosystem management and 16 indexes of social norms, and then matched them one by one. According to their matched degree, we got the content value of social norms. Second, we selected 8 key factors that can represent the performance of social norms after they were put into implementation, and then we got the implementation value by Delph method. Adding these two parts values, we got the final value of each social norms. Third, we conducted a case study in Heihe river basin, the second largest inland river in China, by selecting 12 official edicts related to the river basin ecosystem management of Heihe River Basin. By doing so, we first got the qualified data of social norms which can be directly applied to the research that involved observational or experimental data collection of natural processes. Second, each value was supported by specific contents, so it can assist creating a clear road map for building or revising management and policy guidelines. For example, in this case study

  1. Wagging the watchdog: law and the emergence of bioethical norms.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael L

    2002-01-01

    Bioethics offers an ideal vantage point to study how law and ethics affect the emergence of norms. Moral philosophy traditionally places itself in the role of prime mover, the normative force behind social, cultural and legislative change. But some bioethical norms, particularly those associated with emerging right-to-die norms in the mid 1960's and through the late 1980's, did not originate in this way. Instead, legal reasoning and judicial decision-making brought about rapid change in bioethical norms almost excluding moral philosophy in the process. Judicial decision-making has prompted legislation, molded public opinion, guided medical practice and shaped moral thinking. The reasons for this are not difficult to understand. Legal reasoning, usually in the form of risk management, replaces moral reasoning because it is cognitively more comfortable, rational and parsimonious. This process creates undue pressure on the judiciary to undertake tasks for which it may not be well trained, while at the same time offers a challenge to ethicists to advocate interdisciplinary, deliberative and public forums to attenuate the undue influence of the law.

  2. Movement - uncontrolled or slow

    MedlinePlus

    Dystonia; Involuntary slow and twisting movements; Choreoathetosis; Leg and arm movements - uncontrollable; Arm and leg movements - uncontrollable; Slow involuntary movements of large muscle groups; Athetoid movements

  3. A panel study of peer norms and adolescent alcohol consumption: developing strategies for communication interventions.

    PubMed

    Hong, Traci; Beaudoin, Christopher E; Johnson, Carolyn

    2013-08-01

    Given that alcohol consumption and binge drinking among adolescents in the United States remain prevalent, this study assesses changes in the influence of peer norms-and their interactions with time, gender, and ethnicity-on alcohol consumption. Panel survey interviews of adolescents (N = 1,607) were completed in 9th grade and then again in 12th grade with students from Louisiana. Fixed effects multiple regression assessed the relations between the changes in 2 types of peer norms (i.e., descriptive norms and injunctive norms) and 2 alcohol consumption measures: 30-day alcohol prevalence and binge drinking. Increases in 30-day alcohol prevalence and binge drinking were associated with only descriptive norms. The effects of both types of peer norms intensified over time, and the effects of descriptive norms varied according to gender and ethnicity. Specifically, the influence of descriptive norms was greater on boys than on girls and on Caucasians than on African Americans. Communication interventions that target adolescents in the context of alcohol consumption should consider the temporal variability of peer normative influence and how it varies by gender and ethnicity.

  4. [Stereotypic movements].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alvarez, E

    2003-02-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive patterns of movement with certain peculiar features that make them especially interesting. Their physiopathology and their relationship with the neurobehavioural disorders they are frequently associated with are unknown. In this paper our aim is to offer a simple analysis of their dominant characteristics, their differentiation from other processes and a hypothesis of the properties of stereotypic movements, which could all set the foundations for research work into their physiopathology.

  5. European Top Managers' Age-Related Workplace Norms and Their Organizations' Recruitment and Retention Practices Regarding Older Workers.

    PubMed

    Oude Mulders, Jaap; Henkens, Kène; Schippers, Joop

    2017-10-01

    Top managers guide organizational strategy and practices, but their role in the employment of older workers is understudied. We study the effects that age-related workplace norms of top managers have on organizations' recruitment and retention practices regarding older workers. We investigate two types of age-related workplace norms, namely age equality norms (whether younger and older workers should be treated equally) and retirement age norms (when older workers are expected to retire) while controlling for organizational and national contexts. Data collected among top managers of 1,088 organizations from six European countries were used for the study. Logistic regression models were run to estimate the effects of age-related workplace norms on four different organizational outcomes: (a) recruiting older workers, (b) encouraging working until normal retirement age, (c) encouraging working beyond normal retirement age, and (d) rehiring retired former employees. Age-related workplace norms of top managers affect their organizations' practices, but in different ways. Age equality norms positively affect practices before the boundary of normal retirement age (Outcomes a and b), whereas retirement age norms positively affect practices after the boundary of normal retirement age (Outcomes c and d). Changing age-related workplace norms of important actors in organizations may be conducive to better employment opportunities and a higher level of employment participation of older workers. However, care should be taken to target the right types of norms, since targeting different norms may yield different outcomes.

  6. Changes in force associated with the amount of aligner activation and lingual bodily movement of the maxillary central incisor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaowei; Ren, Chaochao; Wang, Zheyao; Zhao, Pai; Wang, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were to measure the orthodontic forces generated by thermoplastic aligners and investigate the possible influences of different activations for lingual bodily movements on orthodontic forces, and their attenuation. Methods Thermoplastic material of 1.0-mm in thickness was used to manufacture aligners for 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 mm activations for lingual bodily movements of the maxillary central incisor. The orthodontic force in the lingual direction delivered by the thermoplastic aligners was measured using a micro-stress sensor system for the invisible orthodontic technique, and was monitored for 2 weeks. Results Orthodontic force increased with the amount of activation of the aligner in the initial measurements. The attenuation speed in the 0.6 mm group was faster than that of the other groups (p < 0.05). All aligners demonstrated rapid relaxation in the first 8 hours, which then decreased slowly and plateaued on day 4 or 5. Conclusions The amount of activation had a substantial influence on the orthodontic force imparted by the aligners. The results suggest that the activation of lingual bodily movement of the maxillary central incisor should not exceed 0.5 mm. The initial 4 or 5 days is important with respect to orthodontic treatment incorporating an aligner. PMID:27019820

  7. Effect of quenching temperature and size on atom movement and local structural change for small copper clusters containing 51-54 atoms during quenching processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Fan, Q. N.

    2016-01-01

    Structural changes are sensitive to the atom number for the small size clusters. However, it is hardly predicted for the effects of quenching temperature and contained atom number on the atom movements of these clusters with the modification of a removing or adding atom. In this paper, we demonstrate the formation of many topologically non-equivalent Cu clusters containing 51-54 atoms during quenching processes by means of atomistic simulations. By modifying annealing temperature, different pathways are observed. The simulation results show that the quenching temperature has large effect on the atom movements and the scenario of the formation and growth of local structures in the clusters is greatly different for the four clusters only with one atom difference. When the quenching temperature is high, most atoms in the clusters move individually. In the meantime, changes in the atom packing can be observed in these clusters. Low quenching temperature is helpful to slow down the atom movements and form the structures on icosahedral geometry.

  8. Educators Assess "Open Content" Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the open-content movement in education. A small but growing movement of K-12 educators is latching on to educational resources that are "open," or free for others to use, change, and republish on web sites that promote sharing. The open-content movement is fueled partly by digital creation tools that make it easy…

  9. Educators Assess "Open Content" Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the open-content movement in education. A small but growing movement of K-12 educators is latching on to educational resources that are "open," or free for others to use, change, and republish on web sites that promote sharing. The open-content movement is fueled partly by digital creation tools that make it easy…

  10. Adults' Attitudes about Children's Gender Norm Transgressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakemore, Judith E. Owen

    This study examined college students' knowledge and attitudes regarding children's gender, and social and moral norms, and compared their evaluations of violation of each norm type. Participating were 140 female and 67 male college students ranging in age from 17 to 46 years, 33 of whom were parents. Subjects were asked questions related to toys,…

  11. NORM Management in the Oil & Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, Michael; Mously, Khalid; Fageeha, Osama; Nassar, Rafat

    2008-08-01

    It has been established that Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) accumulates at various locations along the oil/gas production process. Components such as wellheads, separation vessels, pumps, and other processing equipment can become NORM contaminated, and NORM can accumulate in sludge and other waste media. Improper handling and disposal of NORM contaminated equipment and waste can create a potential radiation hazard to workers and the environment. Saudi Aramco Environmental Protection Department initiated a program to identify the extent, form and level of NORM contamination associated with the company operations. Once identified the challenge of managing operations which had a NORM hazard was addressed in a manner that gave due consideration to workers and environmental protection as well as operations' efficiency and productivity. The benefits of shared knowledge, practice and experience across the oil & gas industry are seen as key to the establishment of common guidance on NORM management. This paper outlines Saudi Aramco's experience in the development of a NORM management strategy and its goals of establishing common guidance throughout the oil and gas industry.

  12. Social norms theory and concussion education.

    PubMed

    Kroshus, Emily; Garnett, Bernice R; Baugh, Christine M; Calzo, Jerel P

    2015-12-01

    Secondary prevention of harm from sport-related concussion is contingent on immediate removal from play post-injury. To-date, educational efforts to reduce the prevalent risk behavior of continued play while symptomatic have been largely ineffective. Social norms theory may hold promise as a foundation for more effective concussion education aimed at increasing concussion reporting. The primary objective of this study was to assess whether perceived team concussion reporting norms would be less supportive of an individual's safe concussion symptom reporting behavior than objective team norms. Participants were 328 male and female US collegiate athletes. Written surveys were completed in person during the spring of 2014. Among both male and female athletes, team concussion reporting norms were significantly misperceived, with athletes tending to think that they themselves have safer attitudes about concussion reporting than their teammates. Perceived norms were associated with symptom reporting intention, independent of the team's objective reporting norm. A social norms approach to concussion education, in which misperceived group norms are corrected and shifted in the direction of safety, is an important avenue for program development and evaluation research aimed at the secondary prevention of harm from concussion. Implications for the design of this type of educational programming are discussed.

  13. Grip strength norms for elderly women.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Patrick; Bohannon, Richard; Pescatello, Linda; Marschke, Lisa; Hasson, Scott; Murphy, Mary

    2004-12-01

    As part of community health screenings, the grip strength of 113 independently ambulatory women (M age=75.2 +/- 7.3 yr.) was measured. Norms derived from the measurements are presented and compared with (a) norms reported for similar procedures about 20 years ago and (b) values for disabled women.

  14. Adults' Attitudes about Children's Gender Norm Transgressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakemore, Judith E. Owen

    This study examined college students' knowledge and attitudes regarding children's gender, and social and moral norms, and compared their evaluations of violation of each norm type. Participating were 140 female and 67 male college students ranging in age from 17 to 46 years, 33 of whom were parents. Subjects were asked questions related to toys,…

  15. Social norms and diet in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lally, Phillippa; Bartle, Naomi; Wardle, Jane

    2011-12-01

    We hypothesized that adolescents misperceive social norms for food consumption, and aimed to test this, and examine associations between perceived norms and dietary behaviours. School pupils (n=264) in the UK, aged 16-19 years, completed a questionnaire about their own attitudes to, and intake of, fruits and vegetables, unhealthy snacks and sugar-sweetened drinks, and their perceptions of their peers' attitudes to (injunctive norms), and intake of (descriptive norms), the same foods. Misperceptions were calculated from differences between perceived norms and median self-reports of peer groups. Respondents overestimated their peers' intake of snacks by 1.8 portions a week, and sugar-sweetened drinks by 5.2 portions, and overestimated how positive their peers' attitudes were towards these behaviours. They underestimated their peers' consumption of fruits and vegetables by 3.2 portions per week and how positive their peers' attitudes were towards fruit and vegetables. Descriptive norms were strongly associated with intake of fruit and vegetables, sugar-sweetened drinks, and unhealthy snacks, explaining between 17% and 22% of the variance in consumption. There was no association between injunctive norms and intake. Descriptive norms indicated that misperceptions of peers' food intake were associated with respondents' own intake. Interventions to correct misperceptions have the potential to improve adolescents' diets.

  16. Frontcountry encounter norms among three cultures

    Treesearch

    Jerry J. Vaske; Maureen P. Donnelly; Robert M. Doctor; James P. Petruzzi

    1995-01-01

    Existing normative studies have focused on backcountry encounter norms reported by North Americans. This study extends previous research by comparing encounter norms reported by three different cultures - North Americans, Europeans, and Japanese - in a frontcountry day use recreation area. Data were obtained from on-site surveys distributed at the Columbia Icefield in...

  17. Social norms theory and concussion education

    PubMed Central

    Kroshus, Emily; Garnett, Bernice R.; Baugh, Christine M.; Calzo, Jerel P.

    2015-01-01

    Secondary prevention of harm from sport-related concussion is contingent on immediate removal from play post-injury. To-date, educational efforts to reduce the prevalent risk behavior of continued play while symptomatic have been largely ineffective. Social norms theory may hold promise as a foundation for more effective concussion education aimed at increasing concussion reporting. The primary objective of this study was to assess whether perceived team concussion reporting norms would be less supportive of an individual’s safe concussion symptom reporting behavior than objective team norms. Participants were 328 male and female US collegiate athletes. Written surveys were completed in person during the spring of 2014. Among both male and female athletes, team concussion reporting norms were significantly misperceived, with athletes tending to think that they themselves have safer attitudes about concussion reporting than their teammates. Perceived norms were associated with symptom reporting intention, independent of the team’s objective reporting norm. A social norms approach to concussion education, in which misperceived group norms are corrected and shifted in the direction of safety, is an important avenue for program development and evaluation research aimed at the secondary prevention of harm from concussion. Implications for the design of this type of educational programming are discussed. PMID:26471918

  18. Morphological changes of the caudal cervical intervertebral foramina due to flexion-extension and compression-traction movements in the canine cervical vertebral column.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Renato M; da Costa, Ronaldo C; Oliveira, Andre L A; Kodigudla, Manoj K; Goel, Vijay K

    2015-08-06

    Previous studies in humans have reported that the dimensions of the intervertebral foramina change significantly with movement of the spine. Cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM) in dogs is characterized by dynamic and static compressions of the neural components, leading to variable degrees of neurologic deficits and neck pain. Studies suggest that intervertebral foraminal stenosis has implications in the pathogenesis of CSM. The dimensions of the cervical intervertebral foramina may significantly change during neck movements. This could have implication in the pathogenesis of CSM and other diseases associated with radiculopathy such as intervertebral disc disease. The purpose of this study was to quantify the morphological changes in the intervertebral foramina of dogs during flexion, extension, traction, and compression of the canine cervical vertebral column. All vertebral columns were examined with magnetic resonance imaging prior to biomechanic testing. Eight normal vertebral columns were placed in Group 1 and eight vertebral columns with intervertebral disc degeneration or/and protrusion were assigned to Group 2. Molds of the left and right intervertebral foramina from C4-5, C5-6 and C6-7 were taken during all positions and loading modes. Molds were frozen and vertical (height) and horizontal (width) dimensions of the foramina were measured. Comparisons were made between neutral to flexion and extension, flexion to extension, and traction to compression in neutral position. Extension decreased all the foraminal dimensions significantly, whereas flexion increased all the foraminal dimensions significantly. Compression decreased all the foraminal dimensions significantly, and traction increased the foraminal height, but did not significantly change the foraminal width. No differences in measurements were seen between groups. Our results show movement-related changes in the dimensions of the intervertebral foramina, with significant foraminal narrowing in extension

  19. Understanding of norms regarding sexual practices among gay men: literature review.

    PubMed

    McKechnie, Michelle L; Bavinton, Benjamin R; Zablotska, Iryna B

    2013-05-01

    Since there is little evidence about gay community norms across the world, we reviewed published literature in this area and discuss implications for prevention and research. Eight databases were searched for articles and 16 were considered suitable for analysis. All used quantitative methodology and seven were based on a published theoretical framework. The most common theory employed by four out of the seven papers was the Theory of Reasoned Action. All papers reviewed examined norms on condom use but norms on other risk reduction practices were not explored in these papers. Seven (44 %) studies found those men who perceived strong social support from their peers, were less likely to engage in unprotected anal intercourse. This finding suggests that social support from partners and community members plays a role in shaping safe sex norms. Better understanding of norms may help to redress HIV behaviour change programmes, particularly at the time when HIV diagnoses rates are increasing in most gay communities across the world.

  20. Social norms and prejudice against homosexuals.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Annelyse; Monteiro, Maria Benedicta; Camino, Leoncio

    2009-11-01

    Different studies regarding the role of norms on the expression of prejudice have shown that the anti-prejudice norm influences people to inhibit prejudice expressions. However, if norm pressure has led to a substantial decrease in the public expression of prejudice against certain targets (e.g., blacks, women, blind people), little theoretical and empirical attention has been paid to the role of this general norm regarding sexual minorities (e.g., prostitutes, lesbians and gays). In this sense, the issue we want to address is whether general anti-prejudice norms can reduce the expression of prejudice against homosexual individuals. In this research we investigate the effect of activating an anti-prejudice norm against homosexuals on blatant and subtle expressions of prejudice. The anti-prejudice norm was experimentally manipulated and its effects were observed on rejection to intimacy (blatant prejudice) and on positive-negative emotions (subtle prejudice) regarding homosexuals. 136 university students were randomly allocated to activated-norm and control conditions and completed a questionnaire that included norm manipulation and the dependent variables. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) as well as subsequent ANOVAS showed that only in the high normative pressure condition participants expressed less rejection to intimacy and less negative emotions against homosexuals, when compared to the simple norm-activation and the control conditions. Positive emotions, however, were similar both in the high normative pressure and the control conditions. We concluded that a high anti-prejudice pressure regarding homosexuals could reduce blatant prejudice but not subtle prejudice, considering that the expression of negative emotions decreased while the expression of positive emotions remained stable.

  1. Chloroplast movement.

    PubMed

    Wada, Masamitsu; Kagawa, Takatoshi; Sato, Yoshikatsu

    2003-01-01

    The study of chloroplast movement made a quantum leap at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Research based on reverse-genetic approaches using targeted mutants has brought new concepts to this field. One of the most exciting findings has been the discovery of photoreceptors for both accumulation and avoidance responses in Arabidopsis and in the fern Adiantum. Evidence for the adaptive advantage of chloroplast avoidance movements in plant survival has also been found. Additional discoveries include mechano-stress-induced chloroplast movement in ferns and mosses, and microtubule-mediated chloroplast movement in the moss Physcomitrella. The possible ecological significance of chloroplast movement is discussed in the final part of this review.

  2. Norms of the Rorschach Test for Indian Subjects.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, S; Augustine, M; Saldanha, D; Srivastava, K; Kundeyawala, S M; Pawar, A A; Ryali, Vssr

    2006-04-01

    The clinical utility of the Rorschach test in Indians is hampered by the absence of reliable normative data. Method : The Rorschach by Dlopfer's method was administrated to 1256 subjects consisting of 300 normal army personnel, 300 normal civilians, 250 schizophrenics, 300 neurotics and 106 patients with organic disorders. The Rorschach protocols of normal Indian army personnel and normal civilians showed significant differences from one another and also from the western norms. These differences are culturally determined and are not indicative of low intelligence or psychopathology. Patients with schizophrenia, neurosis, head injury and epilepsy show significant differences from the records of normal subjects. The protocols of army schizophrenics show significant deviations from those of normal army personnel and these changes revert to normal with clinical recovery. The Rorschach test is not a culture fee test as claimed earlier. In view of the differences from Western norms, Rorschach protocols of Indians should be interpreted using the norms for Indians. In the case of army personnel the norms for army personnel should be used. While the use of the Rorschach to study the personality patterns of normal individuals and as an aid to clinical diagnosis was strongly supported, the findings of the study indicate that the test can also be employed to assess therapeutic response of patients with schizophrenia.

  3. Auxin and chloroplast movements.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Aleksandra; Krzeszowiec, Weronika; Waligórski, Piotr; Gabryś, Halina

    2016-03-01

    Auxin is involved in a wide spectrum of physiological processes in plants, including responses controlled by the blue light photoreceptors phototropins: phototropic bending and stomatal movement. However, the role of auxin in phototropin-mediated chloroplast movements has never been studied. To address this question we searched for potential interactions between auxin and the chloroplast movement signaling pathway using different experimental approaches and two model plants, Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. We observed that the disturbance of auxin homeostasis by shoot decapitation caused a decrease in chloroplast movement parameters, which could be rescued by exogenous auxin application. In several cases, the impairment of polar auxin transport, by chemical inhibitors or in auxin carrier mutants, had a similar negative effect on chloroplast movements. This inhibition was not correlated with changes in auxin levels. Chloroplast relocations were also affected by the antiauxin p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid and mutations in genes encoding some of the elements of the SCF(TIR1)-Aux/IAA auxin receptor complex. The observed changes in chloroplast movement parameters are not prominent, which points to a modulatory role of auxin in this process. Taken together, the obtained results suggest that auxin acts indirectly to regulate chloroplast movements, presumably by regulating gene expression via the SCF(TIR1)-Aux/IAA-ARF pathway. Auxin does not seem to be involved in controlling the expression of phototropins. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  4. Attitude ambivalence, social norms, and behavioral intentions: Developing effective antitobacco persuasive communications.

    PubMed

    Hohman, Zachary P; Crano, William D; Niedbala, Elizabeth M

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the moderating effects of attitude ambivalence on the relationship between social norms, attitudes, and behavioral intentions to use tobacco. It was predicted that people would use social norms to reduce attitude ambivalence, and that reduced ambivalence would lead to changes in attitudes and behavioral intentions. To test this hypothesis, participants (N = 152) were exposed to persuasive communications designed to influence attitude ambivalence and perceived social norms regarding tobacco use. Analysis indicated that providing a social norm antagonistic to tobacco use significantly reduced ambivalence among participants reading the ambivalence message (p < .001). Examining changes in tobacco attitudes from pre- to postpersuasive communications demonstrated a significant decrease in tobacco attitudes only for participants reading the ambivalence message who were provided with the antitobacco use norm (p < .001). Ambivalent message participants also expressed significantly lower intentions to use tobacco when provided with social norms indicating antitobacco sentiments (p < .02), and this significant decrease in intentions was associated with changes in attitudes toward tobacco. These results point to the important role of social norms in mediating the effects of attitude ambivalence on subsequent behavior in preventative programs targeting tobacco use. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Nasalance norms in Greek adults.

    PubMed

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal sentences and four sets of oral sentences and (3) repetitions of each of 12 syllable types (8 oral and 4 nasal). The last two sets of material corpus were based on an adaptation of the Simplified Nasometric Assessment Procedures Test (SNAP test) test ( MacKay and Kummer, 1994 ) in Greek, called the G-SNAP test. Eighty monolingual healthy young adult speakers of Greek, 40 males (mean age = 21 years) and 40 females (mean age = 20.5 years), with normal hearing and speech characteristics and unremarkable history were included in the study. The Nasometer (model 6200-3) was used to derive nasalance scores. Mean normative nasalance for spoken Greek was 25.50%, based on the G-oronasal text (with 8.6% nasals). Nasalance scores did not differ significantly with respect to gender. Finally, spoken Greek consistently yielded lower nasalance scores than other languages examined in past work. The aforementioned normative data on nasalance of young adult speakers of Greek are valid across gender and have direct clinical utility as they provide valuable reference information for the diagnosis and management of Greek adults with resonance disorders caused by velar dysfunction.

  6. Norms for hand grip strength.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, D G; Pearn, J; Barnes, A; Young, C M; Kehoe, M; Newman, J

    1984-01-01

    Norms for hand grip strength of healthy children are presented. Sex and age specific centiles for age 5 to 18 years have been determined using a portable strain gauge dynamometer with an accuracy of 0.5 N. The test group comprised 1417 healthy, urban school children from a middle class suburb of Brisbane. Mean maximum grip strength (of four tests, two with each hand) and mean peak grip strength (best of four tests) were recorded. Mean values of peak grip strength were 10 to 15% higher than the average maximum grip in all age groups. At all ages girls had a reduced grip strength compared with boys and although boys manifested a continual, approximately linear increase in grip strength through all age groups, girls manifested an approximately linear increase up to 13 years after which mean hand grip usually remained constant. By the age of 18 years boys had a mean grip strength some 60% higher than girls. Correlations with height and weight are also presented. "Handedness' influenced grip strength and was most noticeable in children aged over 10 years. The clinical use of hand grip strength centiles for the early indication of neurological and muscular disorders and for following the natural history of neuromuscular disease is discussed. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6732276

  7. Effects of a social norm feedback campaign on the drinking norms and behavior of Division I student-athletes.

    PubMed

    Thombs, Dennis L; Hamilton, Monair J

    2002-01-01

    Social norm feedback is a promising strategy for reducing alcohol misuse on college campuses. However, little is known about the impact of these interventions on at-risk populations, such as student-athletes. This study examined the effects of a campus-wide media campaign on Division I student-athletes at three universities. A discriminant function analysis revealed that a composite measure of perceived campus drinking norms distinguished between two campaign exposure groups. With the exception of one perceived norm measure (closest friends), the campaign-exposed group reported more conservative estimates of alcohol use in peers. However, there was no evidence that the campaign had reduced alcohol use. The inability of the campaign to reduce perceptions of alcohol use among one's closest friends may have accounted for the lack of change in drinking behavior. Discussion is directed to the potential limitations of using social norm feedback campaigns to reduce alcohol misuse in high-risk groups, such as student-athletes.

  8. School holidays: examining childhood, gender norms, and kinship in children's shorter-term residential mobility in urban Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Hunleth, Jean; Jacob, Rebekah R; Cole, Steven M; Bond, Virginia; James, Aimee S

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses a practice of child residential mobility in Zambia that is frequently overlooked in migration studies and difficult to capture through standard survey methods: the practice of ‘going on holiday’ to the homes of relatives during breaks in the school term. Drawing on child-centered and quantitative research, this article examines the multiple dimensions of ‘going on holiday’ for children living in a low-income urban settlement in Lusaka. Findings suggest that the practice was gendered and may map onto changing norms in schooling in Zambia. Within a context where resources are severely constrained, going on holiday may serve as one means for cultivating reciprocity, sharing the burden of care and household labor, and strengthening kin ties. This work further demonstrates the importance of using locally meaningful terms and practices in survey research where general questions about children's mobility may fail to capture the nature and extent of children's movements. PMID:26435699

  9. "Be Nice": Wikipedia norms for supportive communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reagle, Joseph M.

    2010-04-01

    Wikipedia is acknowledged to have been home to "some bitter disputes." Indeed, conflict at Wikipedia is said to be "as addictive as cocaine." Yet, such observations are not cynical commentary but motivation for a collection of social norms. These norms speak to the intentional stance and communicative behaviors Wikipedians should adopt when interacting with one another. In the following pages, I provide a survey of these norms on the English Wikipedia and argue that they can be characterized as supportive based on Jack Gibb's classic communication article "Defensive Communication."

  10. Movement of Movements: Culture Moves in the Long Civil Rights Struggle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Larry

    2008-01-01

    In what way do movements move? What do we mean by the movement of movements? While still a rather unconventional stance, I advance the argument that social movements are, at root, culture production agents. Regardless of whatever else they may accomplish, movements produce new cultural forms in the course of struggle; they often change and augment…

  11. Legal forms and reproductive norms.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Ruth

    2003-06-01

    This article draws on Pashukanis's concept of legal form and on O'Brien's concept of synthetic value to argue that legal form plays a role in reproductive relations by constructing legal subjects as the bearers of reproductive responsibilities. Pashukanis conceived of legal form as playing a particular role in capitalist exchange relations by interpellating subjects as the bearers of property rights. O'Brien argued that reproduction's specific value is synthetic value, which represents the value of integrating nature and reason in species continuity. Synthetic value is distinct from exchange value or emotional value which may also attach to reproductive process. By working through Pashukanis's method of extracting legal form from specific social relations and by adapting it to reproductive relations, an example is provided of how legal form analysis can be extended beyond the particular context of capitalist exchange relations. Just as legal form constitutes owners and non-owners as legal subjects, so it constitutes reproducers and non-reproducers. By tracing the way in which law attributes reproductive responsibility, legal form analysis shows us how law draws a line between wanting to attribute responsibility and not to attribute it, and this contradiction is a hook which social forces such as sexuality, gender, race, class and disability can latch on to in pushing legal form to shape reproductive responsibilities in a particular way. Each legal form is also externally contradicted by other legal forms. When law negotiates a balance between the reproductive norms of responsibilities and rights, it demonstrates how particular legal forms manage the interaction of different sets of social relations, such as reproduction and exchange.

  12. Encoded Exposure and Social Norms in Entertainment-Education.

    PubMed

    Riley, Amy Henderson; Sood, Suruchi; Mazumdar, Paramita Dasgupta; Choudary, Narendra Nath; Malhotra, Alka; Sahba, Naysan

    2017-01-01

    Entertainment-education is an effective health communication strategy that combines or embeds educational messages into entertainment programs to bring about social and behavior change. For years, scholars have considered how entertainment-education works. Some contemporary theories posit that entertainment-education does not engender behavior change directly but does so through mediating variables. This study adds to the literature on this topic by exploring the direct relationship between exposure and social norms instead of their relationship through behavior as a mediator. Novel to this study is the use of encoded exposure, a continuous and recognition-based measure of exposure that includes ever watching, recall, involvement, and dose in its operationalization. Using cross-sectional data from Kyunki … Jeena Issi Ka Naam Hai, an entertainment-education program in India, this exploratory analysis indicates a positive and significant relationship between encoded exposure and social norms. How can this finding be applied to future programs? Questions remain, and replication is needed, but if it is not essential to go through behavior in order to change social norms, then implications emerge for the theory and practice of entertainment-education.

  13. Time-related changes in salivary levels of the osteotropic factors sRANKL and OPG through orthodontic tooth movement.

    PubMed

    Flórez-Moreno, Gloria Amparo; Isaza-Guzmán, Diana María; Tobón-Arroyave, Sergio Iván

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine whether the variations in salivary concentrations of soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (sRANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG), and their ratios, might be linked with the different phases of orthodontic tooth movement. Twenty healthy subjects who required fixed appliance therapy not involving tooth extractions or surgical procedures were selected. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected from each patient before fitting the orthodontic appliances, and at 24 to 48 hours, 2 weeks, 5 weeks, and 8 weeks after the activation. Salivary sRANKL and OPG concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The data were analyzed by using nonparametric statistics. Overall, median values of sRANKL showed significant increases, median OPG salivary values showed a significant downward trend, and the sRANKL/OPG ratio tended to increase significantly over time after the activation visit. However, clear fluctuations in the immunoenzymatic findings were noted at the different sampling times, indicating nonlinear trends in the levels of the biomarkers through time. Post-hoc pairwise comparisons showed significant differences between (1) all sRANKL values relative to those of the 8-week sampling time; (2) baseline/8-week OPG salivary levels; and (3) baseline, 24 to 48 hours, and 2-week sRANKL/OPG ratios compared with those of the 8-week test. The findings indicate that variations in salivary concentrations of sRANKL and OPG and their ratios might be linked to the different phases of orthodontic tooth movement. Hence, these analytes might serve in a panel of salivary functional biomarkers that could assist in the screening of orthodontic treatment in clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes in illusory ankle movements induced by tendon vibrations during the delayed recovery phase of stretch-shortening cycle fatigue: an indirect study of muscle spindle sensitivity modifications.

    PubMed

    Regueme, S C; Barthèlemy, J; Gauthier, G M; Nicol, C

    2007-12-14

    This study examined the perceived movement velocity induced by tendon vibrations during the delayed recovery phase of a stretch-shortening cycle (SSC)-type exercise characterized by 2 to 4 days of neuromuscular and proprioceptive impairments. Seven subjects performed until exhaustion series of unilateral rebounds involving mostly the triceps surae muscle group. Fatigue effects were quantified for the exercised and non-exercised legs through muscle soreness and maximal voluntary plantarflexion test (MVC) performed immediately before (PRE) and after the SSC exercise, and repeated 2 days later (D2). At PRE and D2, mechanical vibrations at 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 Hz were applied to distal tendons of the exercised ankle. For each vibration, the subjects had to reproduce the perceived movement velocity with the non-exercised ankle. According to previous studies, the sole exercised leg was characterized by a D2 peak of muscle soreness associated, in the MVC test, with significant decreases in maximal force and mean soleus muscle activity. As compared to the PRE test and in all subjects, the vibrations applied at D2 to the tendon of the fatigued ankle extensor muscles led to significant decreases in the perceived movement velocity at 80 and 100 Hz, but to an increased one at 40 Hz. In contrast, vibrations applied to the tendon of the non-fatigued ankle flexor muscle did not result in any significant change. These results suggest that the delayed recovery phase of SSC fatigue is characterized by changes in muscle proprioception, which may partly result from a decreased sensitivity of the primary endings.

  15. NORM -- The new kid on the block

    SciTech Connect

    Estey, H.P.

    1991-12-31

    The existence of radioactive materials in accumulations of scale and sludge in oil and gas production equipment is a relatively new issue. This developing issue first gained international attention in 1981 when significant radiation levels were detected on oil and gas production platforms in the North Sea; it didn`t become a domestic issue until 1986 when a similar situation was detected in a Mississippi pipe yard. Most published papers on the occurrence of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in oil and gas production equipment have been based on studies of NORM-related activities in the United Kingdom (North Sea NORM). This paper addresses the occurrences and regulation of NORM in the US oil and gas production industry as experienced, witnessed and/or observed by the author over the past four years.

  16. Cephalometric floating norms for North American adults.

    PubMed

    Franchi, L; Baccetti, T; McNamara, J A

    1998-12-01

    Floating norms provide a method of analysis that uses the variability of the associations among suitable cephalometric measures, on the basis of a regression model combining both sagittal and vertical skeletal parameters. This study establishes floating norms for the description of the individual skeletal pattern in North American adults. The method is based on the correlations among the following craniofacial measurements: SNA, SNB, NL-NSL, ML-NSL, and NSBa. The results are given in a graphical box-like form. This easy, practical procedure allows for the identification of either individual harmonious craniofacial features or anomalous deviations from the individual norm. The use of cephalometric floating norms may be helpful for diagnosis and treatment planning in orthognathic surgery and dentofacial orthopedics.

  17. Friends' drinking norms and male adolescents' alcohol consumption: The moderating role of performance-based peer influence susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Hanneke A; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Scholte, Ron H J; Spijkerman, Renske; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2016-12-01

    This study examined whether the relationship between friends' drinking norms and male adolescents' alcohol use is moderated by performance-based peer influence susceptibility. Seventy-three male adolescents (M = 17 years) from three schools in the Netherlands were exposed to the drinking norms of "peers" (electronic confederates) in a chat room experiment. These peers were either popular or unpopular, and conveyed pro- or anti-alcohol norms. Peer influence susceptibility was defined as the change in adolescents' answers before and after exposure to the peer norms. Multilevel regression analyses indicated that the relationship between friends' drinking norms and adolescents' alcohol use (assessed during eight weekends) was moderated by susceptibility to the pro-alcohol norms of popular peers. This relationship was stronger for adolescents who were highly susceptible. These findings suggest that a behavioral measure of peer influence susceptibility could be useful in alcohol prevention programs to select adolescents at risk for negative peer socialization.

  18. Morphohistological change and expression of HSP70, osteopontin and osteocalcin mRNAs in rat dental pulp cells with orthodontic tooth movement.

    PubMed

    Shigehara, Satoshi; Matsuzaka, Kenichi; Inoue, Takashi

    2006-08-01

    Morphological change and expression of osteopontin, osteocalcin, and HSP70 mRNAs in rat dental pulp cells with experimental orthodontic tooth movement were investigated. Elastic rubber blocks, 0.65 mm in thickness, were inserted between the maxillary first and second molars in rats. In addition to morphological observations of HE staining and TUNEL staining at days 3, 7, 14 and 28 after insertion of elastic rubber blocks, expression of HSP70, osteopontin and osteocalcin mRNAs was also analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR with a LightCycler. Morphologically, proliferation and vasodilation of capillaries was evident in the pulp at days 3 and 7, and a sparse odontoblast layer and apoptosis in the pulp were observed at days 7 and 14 after rubber block insertion. Expression of HSP70, osteopontin and osteocalcin mRNAs in the experimental groups was higher than that in the control group at all time points. This suggests that orthodontic tooth movement causes degenerative changes and apoptosis in pulp cells, while pulp homeostasis is maintained at the genetic level.

  19. NEIGHBORHOOD NORMS AND SUBSTANCE USE AMONG TEENS

    PubMed Central

    Musick, Kelly; Seltzer, Judith A.; Schwartz, Christine R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses new data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS) to examine how neighborhood norms shape teenagers’ substance use. Specifically, it takes advantage of clustered data at the neighborhood level to relate adult neighbors’ attitudes and behavior with respect to smoking, drinking, and drugs, which we treat as norms, to teenagers’ own smoking, drinking, and drug use. We use hierarchical linear models to account for parents’ attitudes and behavior and other characteristics of individuals and families. We also investigate how the association between neighborhood norms and teen behavior depends on: (1) the strength of norms, as measured by consensus in neighbors’ attitudes and conformity in their behavior; (2) the willingness and ability of neighbors to enforce norms, for instance, by monitoring teens’ activities; and (3) the degree to which teens are exposed to their neighbors. We find little association between neighborhood norms and teen substance use, regardless of how we condition the relationship. We discuss possible theoretical and methodological explanations for this finding. PMID:18496598

  20. How prescriptive norms influence causal inferences.

    PubMed

    Samland, Jana; Waldmann, Michael R

    2016-11-01

    Recent experimental findings suggest that prescriptive norms influence causal inferences. The cognitive mechanism underlying this finding is still under debate. We compare three competing theories: The culpable control model of blame argues that reasoners tend to exaggerate the causal influence of norm-violating agents, which should lead to relatively higher causal strength estimates for these agents. By contrast, the counterfactual reasoning account of causal selection assumes that norms do not alter the representation of the causal model, but rather later causal selection stages. According to this view, reasoners tend to preferentially consider counterfactual states of abnormal rather than normal factors, which leads to the choice of the abnormal factor in a causal selection task. A third view, the accountability hypothesis, claims that the effects of prescriptive norms are generated by the ambiguity of the causal test question. Asking whether an agent is a cause can be understood as a request to assess her causal contribution but also her moral accountability. According to this theory norm effects on causal selection are mediated by accountability judgments that are not only sensitive to the abnormality of behavior but also to mitigating factors, such as intentionality and knowledge of norms. Five experiments are presented that favor the accountability account over the two alternative theories.

  1. Social norms and efficacy beliefs drive the Alarmed segment’s public-sphere climate actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Kathryn L.; Webler, Thomas N.

    2016-09-01

    Surprisingly few individuals who are highly concerned about climate change take action to influence public policies. To assess social-psychological and cognitive drivers of public-sphere climate actions of Global Warming’s Six Americas `Alarmed’ segment, we developed a behaviour model and tested it using structural equation modelling of survey data from Vermont, USA (N = 702). Our model, which integrates social cognitive theory, social norms research, and value belief norm theory, explains 36-64% of the variance in five behaviours. Here we show descriptive social norms, self-efficacy, personal response efficacy, and collective response efficacy as strong driving forces of: voting, donating, volunteering, contacting government officials, and protesting about climate change. The belief that similar others took action increased behaviour and strengthened efficacy beliefs, which also led to greater action. Our results imply that communication efforts targeting Alarmed individuals and their public actions should include strategies that foster beliefs about positive descriptive social norms and efficacy.

  2. Shared Norms and Their Explanation for the Social Clustering of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Brewis, Alexandra A.; Wutich, Amber; Morin, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to test the hypothesized role of shared body size norms in the social contagion of body size and obesity. Methods. Using data collected in 2009 from 101 women and 812 of their social ties in Phoenix, Arizona, we assessed the indirect effect of social norms on shared body mass index (BMI) measured in 3 different ways. Results. We confirmed Christakis and Fowler's basic finding that BMI and obesity do indeed cluster socially, but we found that body size norms accounted for only a small portion of this effect (at most 20%) and only via 1 of the 3 pathways. Conclusions. If shared social norms play only a minor role in the social contagion of obesity, interventions targeted at changing ideas about appropriate BMIs or body sizes may be less useful than those working more directly with behaviors, for example, by changing eating habits or transforming opportunities for and constraints on dietary intake. PMID:21555656

  3. [Food-procuring stereotype movements is accompanied by changes of c-Fos gene expression in the amygdala and modulation of heart rate in rats].

    PubMed

    Dovgan', O V; Vlasenko, O V; Buzyka, T V; Maĭs'kyĭ, V O; Piliavs'kyĭ, O I; Maznychenko, A V

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of Fos-immunoreactive (Fos-ir) and NADPH Diaphorase reactive (NADPH-dr-) neurons in the different subnuclei of amygdala and insular cortex (on the level -2,12 to -3,14 mm from bregma), and the associated changes of heart rate (HR) in intact, food-deprivated and executed food-procuring movements of rats were studied. In comparison with other groups of animals, the mean number of the Fos-ir neurons in the central nucleus of amygdala (Ce) and the insular cortex (GI/DI) at all studied levels was significantly greater in the executed food-procuring movements in rats. The main focus of localization of the Fos-ir neurons was found in lateral part of the Ce (58.5 +/- 1.9 units in 40-microm-thick section) at the level -2.56 mm. The mean number of Fos-ir neurons was significantly greater also in the lateral and capsular parts of the Ce. The mean number of Fos-ir neurons in the GI/DI was 165.5 +/- 3.2 cells in section. The number and density of NADPH-d reactive neurons was not significantly different in the brain structures of all animal groups studied. The double stained neurons (Fos-ir + NADPH-dr) were registered in medial, basolateral, anterior cortical amygdaloid nuclei and substantia innominata (SI) in rats after realization food-procuring movements. It was found that realization of food-procuring movements by the forelimb during repeated sessions was accompanied with the gradual decline of mean values of the HR (from 5% to 12% of control level) with subsequent renewal of them to the initial values (tonic component). The analysis of dynamics of the HR changes during realization of separate purposeful motion has shown the transient period of the HR suppression (500 ms), which coincided with the terminal phase of grasping of food pellet (phasic component). We suggest that the revealed focuses of localization of Fos-ir neurons in the lateral and medial subregions of amigdaloid Ce and also GI/DI, and SI testified that these structures of brain are involved

  4. Developmental changes in emotion recognition from full-light and point-light displays of body movement.

    PubMed

    Ross, Patrick D; Polson, Louise; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène

    2012-01-01

    To date, research on the development of emotion recognition has been dominated by studies on facial expression interpretation; very little is known about children's ability to recognize affective meaning from body movements. In the present study, we acquired simultaneous video and motion capture recordings of two actors portraying four basic emotions (Happiness Sadness, Fear and Anger). One hundred and seven primary and secondary school children (aged 4-17) and 14 adult volunteers participated in the study. Each participant viewed the full-light and point-light video clips and was asked to make a forced-choice as to which emotion was being portrayed. As a group, children performed worse than adults for both point-light and full-light conditions. Linear regression showed that both age and lighting condition were significant predictors of performance in children. Using piecewise regression, we found that a bilinear model with a steep improvement in performance until 8.5 years of age, followed by a much slower improvement rate through late childhood and adolescence best explained the data. These findings confirm that, like for facial expression, adolescents' recognition of basic emotions from body language is not fully mature and seems to follow a non-linear development. This is in line with observations of non-linear developmental trajectories for different aspects of human stimuli processing (voices and faces), perhaps suggesting a shift from one perceptual or cognitive strategy to another during adolescence. These results have important implications to understanding the maturation of social cognition.

  5. Asymmetry of rapid eye movements in chronic unilateral neglect does not change with behavioral improvement induced by rehabilitation treatment.

    PubMed

    Doricchi, F; Guariglia, C; Paolucci, S; Pizzamiglio, L

    1996-01-01

    A strong reduction of leftward rapid eye movements (REMs) during REM sleep was recently documented in patients with severe and chronic left unilateral neglect. The aim of the present research was to study the stability of the unilateral suppression of REMs before and after a rehabilitative treatment for neglect disorders. Six right-brain-damaged patients were tested for neglect at the beginning and at the end of a 2 month cognitive rehabilitation treatment. REMs were recorded during 1 night of undisturbed sleep before and after the training. Five out of 6 patients improved considerably their ability to attend the previously neglected left hemispace; in all patients REM asymmetry remained unchanged. The lack of relationship between the improvement of the neglect disorder and the persistence of REM asymmetry suggests that the sensorimotor mechanisms activated by rehabilitation are different from those involved in the production of REMs. It is proposed that: (a) the directional vectors of REMs are computed on the basis of the exclusive or predominant endogenous activation of the central attentional mechanisms related to vestibular input; (b) the presence of rightward and leftward saccades and the positive effects of the rehabilitation treatment are functionally linked to attentional oculomotor mechanisms that are not active in REM sleep.

  6. Developmental change in young children's use of haptic information in a visual task: the role of hand movements.

    PubMed

    Kalagher, Hilary; Jones, Susan S

    2011-02-01

    Preschoolers who explore objects haptically often fail to recognize those objects in subsequent visual tests. This suggests that children may represent qualitatively different information in vision and haptics and/or that children's haptic perception may be poor. In this study, 72 children (2½-5 years of age) and 20 adults explored unfamiliar objects either haptically or visually and then chose a visual match from among three test objects, each matching the exemplar on one perceptual dimension. All age groups chose shape-based matches after visual exploration. Both 5-year-olds and adults also chose shape-based matches after haptic exploration, but younger children did not match consistently in this condition. Certain hand movements performed by children during haptic exploration reliably predicted shape-based matches but occurred at very low frequencies. Thus, younger children's difficulties with haptic-to-visual information transfer appeared to stem from their failure to use their hands to obtain reliable haptic information about objects.

  7. Correcting exaggerated marijuana use norms among college abstainers: a preliminary test of a preventive intervention.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Jennifer C; Carey, Kate B

    2012-11-01

    College students have high rates of marijuana initiation and use, and they report exaggerated perceptions of peers' use. Computerized norm-correcting intervention programs have been developed, but minimal efficacy research has been conducted, especially with regard to preventing the onset of marijuana use. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Marijuana eCHECKUP TO GO (e-TOKE) for Universities & Colleges program in (a) correcting descriptive norms, (b) correcting injunctive norms, and (c) preventing initiation of marijuana use in a group of college-age abstainers. Participants were 245 college students (73% female) recruited from psychology courses for course credit who reported no marijuana use in the past month at baseline. Participants were randomized to receive the e-TOKE program or assessment only. All participants reported on marijuana use, descriptive norms, and injunctive norms 1 month later. Participants receiving the e-TOKE program estimated lower descriptive norms than the control group (p < .01), and fewer believed friends disapproved of their choice to abstain (p < .05). However, rates of use/initiation did not differ between the two conditions (p = .18). The current study provides preliminary evidence for the utility of the e-TOKE program in correcting abstainers' misperceptions about others' marijuana use as well as making them perceive less disapproval for their abstention. However, more research with longer follow-ups is necessary to determine if changes in norms affect initiation rates over time.

  8. Perceived social norms and eating behaviour: An evaluation of studies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Social norms refer to what most people typically do or approve of. There has been some suggestion that perceived social norms may be an important influence on eating behaviour. We and others have shown that perceived social norms relating to very specific contexts can influence food intake (the amount of food consumed in a single sitting) in those contexts; these studies have predominantly sampled young female adults. Less research has examined whether perceived social norms predict dietary behaviour (the types of food people eat on a day to day basis); here, most evidence comes from cross-sectional studies, which have a number of limitations. A small number of intervention studies have started to explore whether perceived social norms can be used to encourage healthier eating with mixed results. The influence that perceived social norms have on objective measures of eating behaviour now needs to be examined using longitudinal methods in order to determine if social norms are an important influence on eating behaviour and/or can be used to promote meaningful behaviour change.

  9. Effects of fall-to-winter changes in habitat and frazil ice on the movements and habitat use of juvenile rainbow trout in a Wyoming tailwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpkins, D.G.; Hubert, W.A.; Wesche, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    Overwinter declines in the abundance of small rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss have been observed in a section of the Big Horn River that lies downstream from Boysen Reservoir, where reservoir releases prevent surface ice formation. To provide insight into the possible causes of these declines in abundance, radiotelemetry was used to determine movement and microhabitat use of juvenile (20-25 cm total length) rainbow trout during the fall and winter of 1995-1996. Throughout the fall and winter, both stocked (hatchery) and naturally spawned (wild) fish were generally found in main-channel pools with cover that reduced current velocities to less than 2 cm/s near the bottom and with nearby (<2 m) water velocities that were greater than 15 cm/s. These locations provided refuges from the current, with adjacent flowing water that could deliver drifting aquatic invertebrates. The fish were generally associated with cover that was formed by aquatic vegetation early in the fall, but they shifted to cobble and boulder cover (in deeper water) as the aquatic vegetation decomposed and as winter progressed. Episodes of frazil ice in January and early February were associated with movements of wild fish in the upstream portion of the study area - from normal activity areas to refuges at the bottom of deep pools or under shelf ice in shallow water near shore. Frazil-ice episodes often initiated long-term movements among fish. Our results suggest that changing habitat features from fall to winter and frazil-ice episodes can cause juvenile rainbow trout to move and to modify their habitat use, depending on their location in a tailwater.

  10. A vermal Purkinje cell simple spike population response encodes the changes in eye movement kinematics due to smooth pursuit adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Suryadeep; Dicke, Peter W.; Thier, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Smooth pursuit adaptation (SPA) is an example of cerebellum-dependent motor learning that depends on the integrity of the oculomotor vermis (OMV). In an attempt to unveil the neuronal basis of the role of the OMV in SPA, we recorded Purkinje cell simple spikes (PC SS) of trained monkeys. Individual PC SS exhibited specific changes of their discharge patterns during the course of SPA. However, these individual changes did not provide a reliable explanation of the behavioral changes. On the other hand, the population response of PC SS perfectly reflected the changes resulting from adaptation. Population vector was calculated using all cells recorded independent of their location. A population code conveying the behavioral changes is in full accordance with the anatomical convergence of PC axons on target neurons in the cerebellar nuclei. Its computational advantage is the ease with which it can be adjusted to the needs of the behavior by changing the contribution of individual PC SS based on error feedback. PMID:23494070

  11. College Student Alcohol Use and Abuse: Social Norms, Health Beliefs, and Selected Socio-Demographic Variables as Explanatory Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Denisha A.; Lewis, Todd F.; Myers, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Surgeon General described college alcohol abuse as the most significant public health concern on university campuses (DHHS, 2007). Social norms have been identified as a strong predictor of college drinking and yet programs based on norms have had limited effectiveness in changing drinking behavior. Other theoretical explanations, such as…

  12. College Student Alcohol Use and Abuse: Social Norms, Health Beliefs, and Selected Socio-Demographic Variables as Explanatory Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Denisha A.; Lewis, Todd F.; Myers, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Surgeon General described college alcohol abuse as the most significant public health concern on university campuses (DHHS, 2007). Social norms have been identified as a strong predictor of college drinking and yet programs based on norms have had limited effectiveness in changing drinking behavior. Other theoretical explanations, such as…

  13. Do They Really Need to Raise Their Hands? Challenging a Traditional Social Norm in a Second Grade Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Juli K.; Egendoerfer, Lisa A.; Clements, Taylar

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to examine dialogue within a second grade classroom, students were encouraged to participate in whole-class mathematics discussions without raising their hands before speaking. Beneficial social and sociomathematical norms developed in place of this traditional social norm. Effects of this change on the dialogue and written…

  14. Developmental Changes in Emotion Recognition from Full-Light and Point-Light Displays of Body Movement

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Patrick D.; Polson, Louise; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène

    2012-01-01

    To date, research on the development of emotion recognition has been dominated by studies on facial expression interpretation; very little is known about children's ability to recognize affective meaning from body movements. In the present study, we acquired simultaneous video and motion capture recordings of two actors portraying four basic emotions (Happiness Sadness, Fear and Anger). One hundred and seven primary and secondary school children (aged 4–17) and 14 adult volunteers participated in the study. Each participant viewed the full-light and point-light video clips and was asked to make a forced-choice as to which emotion was being portrayed. As a group, children performed worse than adults for both point-light and full-light conditions. Linear regression showed that both age and lighting condition were significant predictors of performance in children. Using piecewise regression, we found that a bilinear model with a steep improvement in performance until 8.5 years of age, followed by a much slower improvement rate through late childhood and adolescence best explained the data. These findings confirm that, like for facial expression, adolescents' recognition of basic emotions from body language is not fully mature and seems to follow a non-linear development. This is in line with observations of non-linear developmental trajectories for different aspects of human stimuli processing (voices and faces), perhaps suggesting a shift from one perceptual or cognitive strategy to another during adolescence. These results have important implications to understanding the maturation of social cognition. PMID:22970310

  15. Regulating Gender Performances: Power and Gender Norms in Faculty Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Despite the steady increase of women in faculty positions over the last few decades and the research on gender norms in the academy, what remains unclear is why many female faculty continue to conform to gender norms despite their acknowledgement of the discriminatory nature of these norms, their dissatisfaction performing the norms, and the lack…

  16. 42 CFR 476.100 - Use of norms and criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of norms and criteria. 476.100 Section 476.100... § 476.100 Use of norms and criteria. (a) Use of norms. As specified in its contract, a QIO must use national, or where appropriate, regional norms in conducting review to achieve QIO contract objectives...

  17. The dynamic relationship between social norms and behaviors: The results of an HIV prevention network intervention for injection drug users

    PubMed Central

    Latkin, Carl; Donnell, Deborah; Liu, Ting-Yuan; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa; Celentano, David; Metzger, David

    2013-01-01

    Aims Social norms are a key source of influence on health behaviors. This study examined changes in social norms and relationships between HIV injection risk behaviors and social norms among injection drug users (IDUs) involved in an experimental intervention. Design Randomized clinical trial. Setting An HIV Prevention Trials Network study, Philadelphia, USA. Participants IDUs, called indexes, and their social network members, who were drug or sex partners, were recruited for an HIV prevention intervention and followed for up to 30 months (N=652). Indexes were randomized into a peer education intervention or control condition. Measurements Outcomes of injection related HIV risk behaviors (sharing needles, sharing cookers, sharing cotton, front/back-loaded) were measured every 6 months and social norm of these 4 risk behaviors were assessed every 12 months. Findings There was a statistically significant intervention effect on all four social norms of injection behaviors, with participants in the intervention reporting less risky social norms compared with controls (changes in mean score: needles, -0.24, p.<01; cookers, -0.33, p.<01; cottons, -0.28, p.<05; front/back loading, -0.23, p.<01). There was also a statistically significant bidirectional association with social norms predicting injection risk behaviors at the next assessment and risk behaviors predicting social norms at the subsequent visit. Conclusions Through social network interventions it is feasible to change both injection risk behaviors and associated social norms. However, it is critical that social network interventions focus on publically highlighting behavior changes since changing social norms without awareness of behaviors change may lead to relapse of risk behaviors. PMID:23362861

  18. Cyclic surface morphology change related to Li ion movement in Li secondary microbattery embedded in Si substrate: Atomic force microscopy studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushida, K.; Kuriyama, K.

    2004-05-01

    Surface morphology and charge/discharge characteristic in a 5×5 μm2 area of an all-solid-state Li secondary battery (Al/Li/SiO2-15 at. %P2O5/LiMn2O4/polycrystalline silicon) embedded in a Si substrate are simultaneously observed by atomic force microscopy with a conductive probe. The battery area of 5×5 μm2 shows charge/discharge behavior corresponding to the movement of ˜2.9×1010 Li+ ions/μm2, reflecting the cyclic movement of Li+ ions. The Al electrode consisting of scale-shaped grains of 0.1-1.5 μm in size rises by ˜30 nm during the first charge operation. The surface of the Al electrode shows a cyclic change from scaly to wrinkled structures with the charge/discharge operations, indicating the drawing of the excess Li in the anode into the glassy electrolyte. These results are promising for the realization of a micrometer-sized battery.

  19. Chloroplast movement.

    PubMed

    Wada, Masamitsu

    2013-09-01

    Chloroplast movement is important for plant survival under high light and for efficient photosynthesis under low light. This review introduces recent knowledge on chloroplast movement and shows how to analyze the responses and the moving mechanisms, potentially inspiring research in this field. Avoidance from the strong light is mediated by blue light receptor phototropin 2 (phot2) plausibly localized on the chloroplast envelop and accumulation at the week light-irradiated area is mediated by phot1 and phot2 localized on the plasma membrane. Chloroplasts move by chloroplast actin (cp-actin) filaments that must be polymerized by Chloroplast Unusual Positioning1 (CHUP1) at the front side of moving chloroplast. To understand the signal transduction pathways and the mechanism of chloroplast movement, that is, from light capture to motive force-generating mechanism, various methods should be employed based on the various aspects. Observation of chloroplast distribution pattern under different light condition by fixed cell sectioning is somewhat an old-fashioned technique but the most basic and important way. However, most importantly, precise chloroplast behavior during and just after the induction of chloroplast movement by partial cell irradiation using an irradiator with either low light or strong light microbeam should be recorded by time lapse photographs under infrared light and analyzed. Recently various factors involved in chloroplast movement, such as cp-actin filaments and CHUP1, could be traced in Arabidopsis transgenic lines with fluorescent protein tags under a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and/or a total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRFM). These methods are listed and their advantages and disadvantages are evaluated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Learning the Norm of Internality: NetNorm, a Connectionist Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thierry, Bollon; Adeline, Paignon; Pascal, Pansu

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present article is to show that connectionist simulations can be used to model some of the socio-cognitive processes underlying the learning of the norm of internality. For our simulations, we developed a connectionist model which we called NetNorm (based on Dual-Network formalism). This model is capable of simulating the…

  1. Global Norms: Towards Some Guidelines for Aggregating Personality Norms across Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartram, Dave

    2008-01-01

    The article discusses issues relating to the international use of personality inventories, especially those in which organizations make comparisons between people from differing cultures or countries or those with different languages. The focus is on the issue of norming and the use of national versus multinational norms. It is noted that…

  2. Global Norms: Towards Some Guidelines for Aggregating Personality Norms across Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartram, Dave

    2008-01-01

    The article discusses issues relating to the international use of personality inventories, especially those in which organizations make comparisons between people from differing cultures or countries or those with different languages. The focus is on the issue of norming and the use of national versus multinational norms. It is noted that…

  3. Reform Movement in Turkey: Changes in Geometry Content in Student Selection and Placement Examinations in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Incikabi, Lutfi

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to present the changes in student selection and placement examinations in secondary education by focusing on the geometry content during the postreform period. The methodology, also used by Petway (2000), includes three steps toward the aim of examining the following: technical aspects, content coverage, and examination results.…

  4. Popular Pedagogy and the Changing Political Landscape: A Case Study of a Women's Housing Movement in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Salma

    2009-01-01

    This paper sets out to explore the relationship between popular education and the changing South African political landscape through case study research of the Victoria Mxenge Housing Development Association. The research took place over an extended period of time from 1992-2003 and discusses how popular education was advocated by the South…

  5. State High School Tests: Changes in State Policies and the Impact of the College and Career Readiness Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Shelby

    2011-01-01

    Since 2002, the Center on Education Policy (CEP) has collected and reported data on state policies that require students to pass a state assessment in order to receive a high school diploma. The state policies associated with these assessments, also known as high school exit exams, have undergone a number of changes over the past ten years. For…

  6. Cyber Norms for Civilian Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Spirito, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    The international community agrees that the safe operation of civilian nuclear infrastructure is in every population’s best interest. One challenge each government must address is defining and agreeing to a set of acceptable norms of behavior in cyberspace as they relate to these facilities. The introduction of digital systems and networking technologies into these environments has led to the possibility that control and supporting computer systems are now accessible and exploitable, especially where interconnections to global information and communications technology (ICT) networks exist. The need for norms of behavior in cyberspace includes what is expected of system architects and cyber defenders as well as adversaries who should abide by rules of engagement even while conducting acts that violate national and international laws. The goal of this paper is to offer three behavioral cyber norms to improve the overall security of the ICT and Operational Technology (OT) networks and systems that underlie the operations of nuclear facilities. These norms of behavior will be specifically defined with the goals of reducing the threats associated to the theft of nuclear materials, accidental release of radiation and sabotage of nuclear processes. These norms would also include instances where an unwitting attacker or intelligence collection entity inadvertently makes their way into a nuclear facility network or system and can recognize they are in a protected zone and an approach to ensuring that these zones are not exploitable by bad actors to place their sensitive cyber effect delivery systems.

  7. Social norm perception in groups with outliers.

    PubMed

    Dannals, Jennifer E; Miller, Dale T

    2017-09-01

    Social outliers draw a lot of attention from those inside and outside their group and yet little is known about their impact on perceptions of their group as a whole. The present studies examine how outliers influence observers' summary perceptions of a group's behavior and inferences about the group's descriptive and prescriptive norms. Across 4 studies (N = 1,718) we examine how observers perceive descriptive and prescriptive social norms in groups containing outliers of varying degrees. We find consistent evidence that observers overweight outlying behavior when judging the descriptive and prescriptive norms, but overweight outliers less as they become more extreme, especially in perceptions of the prescriptive norm. We find this pattern across norms pertaining to punctuality (Studies 1-2 and 4) and clothing formality (Study 3) and for outliers who are both prescriptively and descriptively deviant (e.g., late arrivers), as well as for outliers who are only descriptive deviants (e.g., early arrivers). We further demonstrate that observers' perceptions of the group shift in the direction of moderate outliers. This occurs because observers anchor on the outlier's behavior and adjust their recollections of nonoutlying individuals, making their inferences about the group's average behavior more extreme. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Biology, norms, and personality: a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    af Klinteberg, B

    1996-01-01

    The focus concerns psychobiological risk factors in the development of antisocial behavior among male and female subjects. Using longitudinal data, violent and nonviolent criminal offences were studied in relation to childhood vulnerability indicators, norm-breaking behavior in adolescence, and to personality traits and biochemical measures in adult age. Subsequently, levels of norm-breaking behavior in adolescence were studied as related to personality and biochemical measures in adult age. Data were obtained from a representative group of 82 male and 87 female subjects as (1) teacher ratings of behavior at age 13, assumed to differentially reflect vulnerability to externalizing and internalizing psychosocial disturbances; (2) self-ratings of norm-breaking behaviors at age 15; (3) Karolinska Scales of Personality scores and biochemical measures at age 26-27 years, and (4) records for criminal offences up to age 40. In both the male and female groups, criminal offences during the life span were associated with childhood externalizing and adolescent norm-breaking behavior. Furthermore, in the male group, criminal and violent offences were associated with adult psychopathy-related personality traits and a biochemical indicator of psychosocial vulnerability; platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity. Among female subjects, criminal offenders displayed significantly lower MAO activity in comparison to noncriminals. High levels of norm-breaking behavior in adolescence were associated with adult high impulsiveness, low socialization, and low platelet MAO activity in both male and female subjects. The results of the analyses were used as a basis for some theoretical and methodological conclusions.

  9. EQ-5D Portuguese population norms.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Lara Noronha; Ferreira, Pedro L; Pereira, Luis N; Oppe, Mark

    2014-03-01

    The EQ-5D is a widely used preference-based measure. Normative data can be used as references to analyze the effects of healthcare, determine the burden of disease and enable regional or country comparisons. Population norms for the EQ-5D exist for other countries but have not been previously published for Portugal. The purpose of this study was to derive EQ-5D Portuguese population norms. The EQ-5D was applied by phone interview to a random sample of the Portuguese general population (n = 1,500) stratified by age, gender and region. The Portuguese value set was used to derive the EQ-5D index. Mean values were computed by gender and age groups, marital status, educational attainment, region and other variables to obtain the EQ-5D Portuguese norms. Health status declines with advancing age, and women reported worse health status than men. These results are similar to other EQ-5D population health studies. This study provides Portuguese population health-related quality of life data measured by the EQ-5D that can be used as population norms. These norms can be used to inform Portuguese policy makers, health care professionals and researchers in issues related to health care policy and planning and quantification of treatment effects on health status.

  10. Semidiurnal temperature changes caused by tidal front movements in the warm season in seabed habitats on the Georges Bank northern margin and their ecological implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guida, Vincent G.; Valentine, Page C.; Gallea, Leslie B.

    2013-01-01

    Georges Bank is a large, shallow feature separating the Gulf of Maine from the Atlantic Ocean. Previous studies demonstrated a strong tidal-mixing front during the warm season on the northern bank margin between thermally stratified water in the Gulf of Maine and mixed water on the bank. Tides transport warm water off the bank during flood tide and cool gulf water onto the bank during ebb tide. During 10 days in August 2009, we mapped frontal temperatures in five study areas along ∼100 km of the bank margin. The seabed “frontal zone”, where temperature changed with frontal movment, experienced semidiurnal temperature maxima and minima. The tidal excursion of the frontal boundary between stratified and mixed water ranged 6 to 10 km. This “frontal boundary zone” was narrower than the frontal zone. Along transects perpendicular to the bank margin, seabed temperature change at individual sites ranged from 7.0°C in the frontal zone to 0.0°C in mixed bank water. At time series in frontal zone stations, changes during tidal cycles ranged from 1.2 to 6.1°C. The greatest rate of change (-2.48°C hr-1) occurred at mid-ebb. Geographic plots of seabed temperature change allowed the mapping of up to 8 subareas in each study area. The magnitude of temperature change in a subarea depended on its location in the frontal zone. Frontal movement had the greatest effect on seabed temperature in the 40 to 80 m depth interval. Subareas experiencing maximum temperature change in the frontal zone were not in the frontal boundary zone, but rather several km gulfward (off-bank) of the frontal boundary zone. These results provide a new ecological framework for examining the effect of tidally-driven temperature variability on the distribution, food resources, and reproductive success of benthic invertebrate and demersal fish species living in tidal front habitats.

  11. Semidiurnal temperature changes caused by tidal front movements in the warm season in seabed habitats on the georges bank northern margin and their ecological implications.

    PubMed

    Guida, Vincent G; Valentine, Page C; Gallea, Leslie B

    2013-01-01

    Georges Bank is a large, shallow feature separating the Gulf of Maine from the Atlantic Ocean. Previous studies demonstrated a strong tidal-mixing front during the warm season on the northern bank margin between thermally stratified water in the Gulf of Maine and mixed water on the bank. Tides transport warm water off the bank during flood tide and cool gulf water onto the bank during ebb tide. During 10 days in August 2009, we mapped frontal temperatures in five study areas along ∼100 km of the bank margin. The seabed "frontal zone", where temperature changed with frontal movment, experienced semidiurnal temperature maxima and minima. The tidal excursion of the frontal boundary between stratified and mixed water ranged 6 to 10 km. This "frontal boundary zone" was narrower than the frontal zone. Along transects perpendicular to the bank margin, seabed temperature change at individual sites ranged from 7.0°C in the frontal zone to 0.0°C in mixed bank water. At time series in frontal zone stations, changes during tidal cycles ranged from 1.2 to 6.1°C. The greatest rate of change (-2.48°C hr(-1)) occurred at mid-ebb. Geographic plots of seabed temperature change allowed the mapping of up to 8 subareas in each study area. The magnitude of temperature change in a subarea depended on its location in the frontal zone. Frontal movement had the greatest effect on seabed temperature in the 40 to 80 m depth interval. Subareas experiencing maximum temperature change in the frontal zone were not in the frontal boundary zone, but rather several km gulfward (off-bank) of the frontal boundary zone. These results provide a new ecological framework for examining the effect of tidally-driven temperature variability on the distribution, food resources, and reproductive success of benthic invertebrate and demersal fish species living in tidal front habitats.

  12. [Sleep and movement disorders].

    PubMed

    Poryazova, R; Bassetti, C L

    2007-01-01

    The three different states of being (wakefulness, NREM and REM sleep) are associated with profound neurophysiological and neurochemical changes in the brain. These changes explain the existence of movement disorders appearing only or preferentially during sleep, and the effects of sleep on movement disorders. Sleep-related movement disorders are of clinical relevance for multiple reasons: 1) high frequency (e.g. restless legs syndrome (RLS)); 2) diagnostic relevance (e.g. REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) as first manifestation of Parkinson disorder); 3) diagnostic uncertainty (e.g. parasomnias vs nocturnal epilepsy); 4) association with injuries (e.g. RBD, sleepwalking), sleep disruption/daytime sleepiness (e.g. RLS), and psycho-social burden (e.g. enuresis); 5) requirement of specific treatments (e.g. nocturnal epilepsy, stridor, RBD). This article gives an overview on clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, work-up and treatment of sleep-related movement disorders (e.g. RLS, bruxism), parasomnias (e.g. sleepwalking, RBD), sleep-related epilepsies, and on sleep-associated manifestations of movement disorders (e.g. Parkinson disease, multiple system atrophy).

  13. A review of adaptive change in musculoskeletal impedance during space flight and associated implications for postflight head movement control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, P. V.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Layne, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    We present a review of converging sources of evidence which suggest that the differences between loading histories experienced in 1-g and weightlessness are sufficient to stimulate adaptation in mechanical impedance of the musculoskeletal system. As a consequence of this adaptive change we argue that we should observe changes in the ability to attenuate force transmission through the musculoskeletal system both during and after space flight. By focusing attention on the relation between human sensorimotor activity and support surfaces, the importance of controlling mechanical energy flow through the musculoskeletal system is demonstrated. The implications of such control are discussed in light of visual-vestibular function in the specific context of head and gaze control during postflight locomotion. Evidence from locomotory biomechanics, visual-vestibular function, ergonomic evaluations of human vibration, and specific investigations of locomotion and head and gaze control after space flight, is considered.

  14. A review of adaptive change in musculoskeletal impedance during space flight and associated implications for postflight head movement control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, P. V.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Layne, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    We present a review of converging sources of evidence which suggest that the differences between loading histories experienced in 1-g and weightlessness are sufficient to stimulate adaptation in mechanical impedance of the musculoskeletal system. As a consequence of this adaptive change we argue that we should observe changes in the ability to attenuate force transmission through the musculoskeletal system both during and after space flight. By focusing attention on the relation between human sensorimotor activity and support surfaces, the importance of controlling mechanical energy flow through the musculoskeletal system is demonstrated. The implications of such control are discussed in light of visual-vestibular function in the specific context of head and gaze control during postflight locomotion. Evidence from locomotory biomechanics, visual-vestibular function, ergonomic evaluations of human vibration, and specific investigations of locomotion and head and gaze control after space flight, is considered.

  15. Managing Medical Vocabulary Updates in a Clinical Data Warehouse: An RxNorm Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Podchiyska, Tanya; Hernandez, Penni; Ferris, Todd; Weber, Susan; Lowe, Henry J.

    2010-01-01

    Use of terminology standards facilitates aggregating data from multiple sources for information retrieval, exchange and analysis. However, medical vocabularies are continuously updated and incorporating those changes consistently into clinical data warehouses requires rigorous methodology. To integrate pharmacy data from two hospital pharmacy information systems the Stanford Translational Research Integrated Database Environment (STRIDE) project mapped medication orders to RxNorm content using the RxNorm drug model. In order to keep the data relevant and up-to-date, we developed a strategy for updating to RxNorm, while preserving the original meaning and mapping of the legacy data. This case study discusses managing the vocabulary update by following the RxNorm content maintenance strategy and supplementing it with operations to retain access to its drug model information. PMID:21347024

  16. Managing Medical Vocabulary Updates in a Clinical Data Warehouse: An RxNorm Case Study.

    PubMed

    Podchiyska, Tanya; Hernandez, Penni; Ferris, Todd; Weber, Susan; Lowe, Henry J

    2010-11-13

    Use of terminology standards facilitates aggregating data from multiple sources for information retrieval, exchange and analysis. However, medical vocabularies are continuously updated and incorporating those changes consistently into clinical data warehouses requires rigorous methodology. To integrate pharmacy data from two hospital pharmacy information systems the Stanford Translational Research Integrated Database Environment (STRIDE) project mapped medication orders to RxNorm content using the RxNorm drug model. In order to keep the data relevant and up-to-date, we developed a strategy for updating to RxNorm, while preserving the original meaning and mapping of the legacy data. This case study discusses managing the vocabulary update by following the RxNorm content maintenance strategy and supplementing it with operations to retain access to its drug model information.

  17. Changes in neck and upper trunk muscle activities according to the angle of movement of the neck in subjects with forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, SongHee; Park, SoHyun

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated changes in neck and upper trunk muscle activities according to the angle of movement of the neck in subjects with Forward Head Posture. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty subjects with forward head postures were recruited. The activities of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, splenius capitis and splenius cervicis muscles, upper trapezius muscle, and middle trapezius muscle during flexion and extension were assessed. [Results] The activity of the sternocleidomastoid muscle showed significant differences between the 30° flexed position and the full range of motion position, and between the neutral position and the full ROM position. The activity of the middle trapezius muscle showed a significant reduction in the 30° extended position and the full ROM position as compared to the neutral position. [Conclusion] In the full flexed position, sternocleidomastoid muscle activity increased significantly, and during extension position, the middle trapezius muscle reduced its activities. PMID:28265137

  18. Changes in neck and upper trunk muscle activities according to the angle of movement of the neck in subjects with forward head posture.

    PubMed

    Cheon, SongHee; Park, SoHyun

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated changes in neck and upper trunk muscle activities according to the angle of movement of the neck in subjects with Forward Head Posture. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty subjects with forward head postures were recruited. The activities of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, splenius capitis and splenius cervicis muscles, upper trapezius muscle, and middle trapezius muscle during flexion and extension were assessed. [Results] The activity of the sternocleidomastoid muscle showed significant differences between the 30° flexed position and the full range of motion position, and between the neutral position and the full ROM position. The activity of the middle trapezius muscle showed a significant reduction in the 30° extended position and the full ROM position as compared to the neutral position. [Conclusion] In the full flexed position, sternocleidomastoid muscle activity increased significantly, and during extension position, the middle trapezius muscle reduced its activities.

  19. Localized Movement and Levels of 53BP1 Protein Are Changed by γ-irradiation in PML Deficient Cells.

    PubMed

    Legartová, Soňa; Sehnalová, Petra; Malyšková, Barbora; Küntziger, Thomas; Collas, Philippe; Cmarko, Dušan; Raška, Ivan; Sorokin, Dmitry V; Kozubek, Stanislav; Bártová, Eva

    2016-11-01

    We studied epigenetics, distribution pattern, kinetics, and diffusion of proteins recruited to spontaneous and γ-radiation-induced DNA lesions. We showed that PML deficiency leads to an increased number of DNA lesions, which was accompanied by changes in histone signature. In PML wt cells, we observed two mobile fractions of 53BP1 protein with distinct diffusion in spontaneous lesions. These protein fractions were not detected in PML-deficient cells, characterized by slow-diffusion of 53BP1. Single particle tracking analysis revealed limited local motion of 53BP1 foci in PML double null cells and local motion 53BP1 foci was even more reduced after γ-irradiation. However, radiation did not change co-localization between 53BP1 nuclear bodies and interchromatin granule-associated zones (IGAZs), nuclear speckles, or chromocenters. This newly observed interaction pattern imply that 53BP1 protein could be a part of not only DNA repair, but also process mediated via components accumulated in IGAZs, nuclear speckles, or paraspeckles. Together, PML deficiency affected local motion of 53BP1 nuclear bodies and changed composition and a number of irradiation-induced foci. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2583-2596, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Architecture and movement].

    PubMed

    Rivallan, Armel

    2012-01-01

    Leading an architectural project means accompanying the movement which it induces within the teams. Between questioning, uncertainty and fear, the organisational changes inherent to the new facility must be subject to constructive and ongoing exchanges. Ethics, safety and training are revised and the unit projects are sometimes modified.