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Sample records for norm change movement

  1. Change IS the New Norm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Community colleges are undergoing an evolution that is unprecedented since they were created. State and federal mandates, greater calls for accountability, and a stronger push for student success are causing community colleges to review and retool their campuses and their focus. In other words, change IS the new norm. It is time for community…

  2. Dynamic Assessment of Binocular Eye Movement Coordination: Norms and Functional Implications

    PubMed Central

    Viirre, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Alignment of the two eyes is controlled by a finely tuned, fast acting system with components within the brain. Assessment of binocular alignment has classically been done statically. Eye positions are assessed in primary position and at eccentric angles to interpret the functional status of the oculomotor nerves and muscles. However, assessment of dynamic eye alignment, the coordination of the eyes during eye movements, has been less commonly carried out and has not been formalized with population norms. Clinicians are aware of slow eye movement dynamic alignment changes, such as that clinically observed in Intranuclear Ophthalmoplegia. But assessment of eye alignment during rapid eye movements, such as saccade or pursuit has not been part of neuro-ophthalmologic assessment. With the advent of inexpensive, high resolution recording systems, both eyes can be simultaneously recorded and their coordination during movement compared. Thus, we now have an opportunity to provide a laboratory based objective measurement of a gamut of binocular coordination systems. Recent research in humans has demonstrated increased variability of binocular coordination during divided attention. Variability is an interesting statistic that can be sensitively assessed in the velocity domain without extensive gaze position recalibration procedures during recording over long intervals. Variability can thus be used as a robust, long-term eye movement parameter with minimal intrusiveness to the subject. It is proposed that population studies of binocular coordination during eye movements be carried out to determine neurologic norms so that conditions such as brain injury and others can be assessed with a functional tool with objective parameters. PMID:24804278

  3. Conflicts and Changes in Textual Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Kjell Lars

    The notion of "textual norms" refers to sociocultural conventions that define the "well-formedness" of a text. Because well-formedness in texts is characterized by convention, different conventions may exist in a community and lead to norm conflicts when used in actual text generation. In this article, two types of norm conflict are described. In…

  4. Time Lag and Communication in Changing Unpopular Norms

    PubMed Central

    Gërxhani, Klarita; Bruggeman, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Humans often coordinate their social lives through norms. When a large majority of people are dissatisfied with an existing norm, it seems obvious that they will change it. Often, however, this does not occur. We investigate how a time lag between individual support of a norm change and the change itself hinders such change, related to the critical mass of supporters needed to effectuate the change, and the (im)possibility of communicating about it. To isolate these factors, we utilize a laboratory experiment. As predicted, we find unambiguous effects of time lag on precluding norm change; a higher threshold for a critical mass does so as well. Communication facilitates choosing superior norms but it does not necessarily lead to norm change when the uncertainty on whether there will be a norm change in the future is high. Communication seems to help coordination on actions at the present but not the future. Hence, the uncertainty driven by time lag makes individuals choose the status quo, here the unpopular norm. PMID:25880200

  5. Time lag and communication in changing unpopular norms.

    PubMed

    Gërxhani, Klarita; Bruggeman, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Humans often coordinate their social lives through norms. When a large majority of people are dissatisfied with an existing norm, it seems obvious that they will change it. Often, however, this does not occur. We investigate how a time lag between individual support of a norm change and the change itself hinders such change, related to the critical mass of supporters needed to effectuate the change, and the (im)possibility of communicating about it. To isolate these factors, we utilize a laboratory experiment. As predicted, we find unambiguous effects of time lag on precluding norm change; a higher threshold for a critical mass does so as well. Communication facilitates choosing superior norms but it does not necessarily lead to norm change when the uncertainty on whether there will be a norm change in the future is high. Communication seems to help coordination on actions at the present but not the future. Hence, the uncertainty driven by time lag makes individuals choose the status quo, here the unpopular norm.

  6. A norming study and library of 203 dance movements.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julia F; Nadal, Marcos; Cela-Conde, Camilo José

    2014-01-01

    Dance stimuli have been used in experimental studies of (i) how movement is processed in the brain; (ii) how affect is perceived from bodily movement; and (iii) how dance can be a source of aesthetic experience. However, stimulus materials across--and even within--these three domains of research have varied considerably. Thus, integrative conclusions remain elusive. Moreover, concerns have been raised that the movements selected for such stimuli are qualitatively too different from the actual art form dance, potentially introducing noise in the data. We propose a library of dance stimuli which responds to the stimuli requirements and design criteria of these three areas of research, while at the same time respecting a dance art-historical perspective, offering greater ecological validity as compared with previous dance stimulus sets. The stimuli are 5-6 s long video clips, selected from genuine ballet performances. Following a number of coding experiments, the resulting stimulus library comprises 203 ballet dance stimuli coded in (i) 25 qualitative and quantitative movement variables; (ii) affective valence and arousal; and (iii) the aesthetic qualities beauty, liking, and interest. An Excel spreadsheet with these data points accompanies this manuscript, and the stimuli can be obtained from the authors upon request. PMID:24919352

  7. A norming study and library of 203 dance movements.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julia F; Nadal, Marcos; Cela-Conde, Camilo José

    2014-01-01

    Dance stimuli have been used in experimental studies of (i) how movement is processed in the brain; (ii) how affect is perceived from bodily movement; and (iii) how dance can be a source of aesthetic experience. However, stimulus materials across--and even within--these three domains of research have varied considerably. Thus, integrative conclusions remain elusive. Moreover, concerns have been raised that the movements selected for such stimuli are qualitatively too different from the actual art form dance, potentially introducing noise in the data. We propose a library of dance stimuli which responds to the stimuli requirements and design criteria of these three areas of research, while at the same time respecting a dance art-historical perspective, offering greater ecological validity as compared with previous dance stimulus sets. The stimuli are 5-6 s long video clips, selected from genuine ballet performances. Following a number of coding experiments, the resulting stimulus library comprises 203 ballet dance stimuli coded in (i) 25 qualitative and quantitative movement variables; (ii) affective valence and arousal; and (iii) the aesthetic qualities beauty, liking, and interest. An Excel spreadsheet with these data points accompanies this manuscript, and the stimuli can be obtained from the authors upon request.

  8. Changing Values and Norms in Portuguese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhaes, Antonio M.; Amaral, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to identify emerging changes in the values and norms related to governance and management in Portuguese higher education and to identify how different kinds of stakeholders perceive these changes. The University Autonomy Act (1988) and the Polytechnics Autonomy Act (1990) by transferring greater responsibility…

  9. Areal Characteristics and Changing Community Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Bih-Er; And Others

    Study objectives were to assess actual changes in normative traditionalism which had occurred in a sample of rural Pennsylvania areas and to determine the extent to which the changes in traditionalism were associated with the rurality of these areas. Utilizing a combination of socioeconomic data (census derived) and longitudinal data obtained via…

  10. Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) Test Norms for Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Chinese Children

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Meiling; Zhang, Min; Li, Tingting; Xu, Yaqin; Guo, Xirong; Hong, Qin; Chi, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the “vertical scores” were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (P<0.001) in all age groups. For several ages, the scores obtained in this study were significantly different from the reported scores of Cantonese-speaking Chinese children (P<0.005). Compared with English-speaking children, only the vertical score of the 6-year-old group, the vertical

  11. Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) Test Norms for Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yachun; Shi, Chunmei; Tong, Meiling; Zhang, Min; Li, Tingting; Xu, Yaqin; Guo, Xirong; Hong, Qin; Chi, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the "vertical scores" were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (P<0.001) in all age groups. For several ages, the scores obtained in this study were significantly different from the reported scores of Cantonese-speaking Chinese children (P<0.005). Compared with English-speaking children, only the vertical score of the 6-year-old group, the vertical-horizontal time

  12. Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) Test Norms for Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yachun; Shi, Chunmei; Tong, Meiling; Zhang, Min; Li, Tingting; Xu, Yaqin; Guo, Xirong; Hong, Qin; Chi, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the "vertical scores" were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (P<0.001) in all age groups. For several ages, the scores obtained in this study were significantly different from the reported scores of Cantonese-speaking Chinese children (P<0.005). Compared with English-speaking children, only the vertical score of the 6-year-old group, the vertical-horizontal time

  13. Social Change Movements and Transformative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auretto, Vera

    2001-01-01

    Defines social change movements and the role played by individual and collective transformation. Addresses the debate over Mezirow's transformation theory and shows how transformative learning was used in the women's movement. (SK)

  14. Control of arm movements for quick change of movement direction.

    PubMed

    Takatoku, Nozomi; Fujiwara, Motoko

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigated the control strategy for changing movement direction during arm movements by analyzing the changes in a triphasic electromyographic pattern. Subjects performed a 40° flexion (basic) and a 40° flexion-extension to return to the start position (return) under two conditions: performing a predetermined task (SF) and performing each task in response to a signal (ST). The results revealed the agonist burst for the return task under the ST condition resembled that of the basic task under the SF condition, and the antagonist burst increased after presenting the modification signal. In conclusion, the strategy for quick change of movement direction was to increase the antagonist burst by an additional command from the central nervous system without cancelling the planned movement.

  15. Changing and Changed Stance toward Norm Selection in Philippine Universities: Its Pedagogical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardo, Alejandro S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey which involved College English teachers from three leading universities in the Philippines. The results point to one conclusion--College English teachers now have a changing and changed stance toward norm selection in Philippine Universities. The results give the impression that a good number of College…

  16. ICT in Preschool: Friend or Foe? The Significance of Norms in a Changing Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar; Folkesson, Anne-Mari

    2012-01-01

    Societal change and prescriptions in curricula demand a change in educational practice. This can create conflicts between practitioners' usual practices (norms) and those prescribed by curricula. One example is the introduction of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into preschool practice. Hence, our aim is to analyse how norms are…

  17. Changes in Students' Participation and Small Group Norms in Scientific Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, Sun Mi; Kim, Heui-Baik

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to interpret students' participation in terms of social and argumentation norms to improve understanding of social interaction in scientific argumentation. Therefore, the study sought to identify social and argumentation norms formed in group argumentation and to explore changes in students' participation as lessons…

  18. Reliable change indices and standardized regression-based change score norms for evaluating neuropsychological change in children with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Busch, Robyn M; Lineweaver, Tara T; Ferguson, Lisa; Haut, Jennifer S

    2015-06-01

    Reliable change indices (RCIs) and standardized regression-based (SRB) change score norms permit evaluation of meaningful changes in test scores following treatment interventions, like epilepsy surgery, while accounting for test-retest reliability, practice effects, score fluctuations due to error, and relevant clinical and demographic factors. Although these methods are frequently used to assess cognitive change after epilepsy surgery in adults, they have not been widely applied to examine cognitive change in children with epilepsy. The goal of the current study was to develop RCIs and SRB change score norms for use in children with epilepsy. Sixty-three children with epilepsy (age range: 6-16; M=10.19, SD=2.58) underwent comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations at two time points an average of 12 months apart. Practice effect-adjusted RCIs and SRB change score norms were calculated for all cognitive measures in the battery. Practice effects were quite variable across the neuropsychological measures, with the greatest differences observed among older children, particularly on the Children's Memory Scale and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. There was also notable variability in test-retest reliabilities across measures in the battery, with coefficients ranging from 0.14 to 0.92. Reliable change indices and SRB change score norms for use in assessing meaningful cognitive change in children following epilepsy surgery are provided for measures with reliability coefficients above 0.50. This is the first study to provide RCIs and SRB change score norms for a comprehensive neuropsychological battery based on a large sample of children with epilepsy. Tables to aid in evaluating cognitive changes in children who have undergone epilepsy surgery are provided for clinical use. An Excel sheet to perform all relevant calculations is also available to interested clinicians or researchers.

  19. Scientists in a Changed Institutional Environment: Subjective Adaptation and Social Responsibility Norms in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, T P; Ball, D Y

    2008-06-05

    How do scientists react when the institutional setting in which they conduct their work changes radically? How do long-standing norms regarding the social responsibility of scientists fare? What factors influence whether scientists embrace or reject the new institutions and norms? We examine these questions using data from a unique survey of 602 scientists in Russia, whose science system experienced a sustained crisis and sweeping changes in science institutions following the collapse of the Soviet Union. We develop measures of how respondents view financing based on grants and other institutional changes in the Russian science system, as well as measures of two norms regarding scientists social responsibility. We find that the majority of scientists have adapted, in the sense that they hold positive views of the new institutions, but a diversity of orientations remains. Social responsibility norms are common among Russian scientists, but far from universal. The main correlates of adaptation are age and current success at negotiating the new institutions, though prospective success, work context, and ethnicity have some of the hypothesized associations. As for social responsibility norms, the main source of variation is age: younger scientists are more likely to embrace individualistic rather than socially-oriented norms.

  20. Chloe's Law: A Powerful Legislative Movement Challenging a Core Ethical Norm of Genetic Testing.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Arthur L

    2015-08-01

    Since the early 1970s, the ethical norm governing counselors involved in testing and screening for genetic conditions related to reproduction has been strict neutrality. Counseling about reproductive genetics was to be patient centered but nondirective. Many advocates for people with Down syndrome believe that high abortion rates following a diagnosis of this condition show an unfounded bias against those with Down syndrome. These advocates have succeeded in enacting federal and state legislation that requires women who receive a prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome to receive positive information about the condition, thereby ending the nominal goal of value-neutral counseling and setting the stage for further normative shifts in clinical reproductive genetics as counseling expands because of cell-free testing.

  1. Chloe’s Law: A Powerful Legislative Movement Challenging a Core Ethical Norm of Genetic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Arthur L.

    2015-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, the ethical norm governing counselors involved in testing and screening for genetic conditions related to reproduction has been strict neutrality. Counseling about reproductive genetics was to be patient centered but nondirective. Many advocates for people with Down syndrome believe that high abortion rates following a diagnosis of this condition show an unfounded bias against those with Down syndrome. These advocates have succeeded in enacting federal and state legislation that requires women who receive a prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome to receive positive information about the condition, thereby ending the nominal goal of value-neutral counseling and setting the stage for further normative shifts in clinical reproductive genetics as counseling expands because of cell-free testing. PMID:26247743

  2. Promoting Behavior Change Using Social Norms: Applying a Community Based Social Marketing Tool to Extension Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Warner, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Most educational programs are designed to produce lower level outcomes, and Extension educators are challenged to produce behavior change in target audiences. Social norms are a very powerful proven tool for encouraging sustainable behavior change among Extension's target audiences. Minor modifications to program content to demonstrate the…

  3. Male Scientists' Competing Devotions to Work and Family: Changing Norms in a Male-Dominated Profession.

    PubMed

    Damaske, Sarah; Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Lincoln, Anne E; White, Virginia Johnston

    2014-11-01

    Using in-depth interviews with 74 men across different ranks in biology and physics at prestigious US universities, we ask to what extent changing norms of fatherhood and a flexible workplace affect men working in a highly male-dominated profession and what variation exists in family forms. We conceptualize four typologies of men: those forgoing children, egalitarian partners, neo-traditional dual-earners, and traditional breadwinners. Findings suggest male scientists hold strong work devotions yet a growing number seek egalitarian relationships, which they frame as reducing their devotion to work. The majority of men find the all-consuming nature of academic science conflicts with changing fatherhood norms. PMID:25419040

  4. Male Scientists’ Competing Devotions to Work and Family: Changing Norms in a Male-Dominated Profession

    PubMed Central

    Damaske, Sarah; Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Lincoln, Anne E.; White, Virginia Johnston

    2014-01-01

    Using in-depth interviews with 74 men across different ranks in biology and physics at prestigious US universities, we ask to what extent changing norms of fatherhood and a flexible workplace affect men working in a highly male-dominated profession and what variation exists in family forms. We conceptualize four typologies of men: those forgoing children, egalitarian partners, neo-traditional dual-earners, and traditional breadwinners. Findings suggest male scientists hold strong work devotions yet a growing number seek egalitarian relationships, which they frame as reducing their devotion to work. The majority of men find the all-consuming nature of academic science conflicts with changing fatherhood norms. PMID:25419040

  5. Changes in Students' Participation and Small Group Norms in Scientific Argumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Sun Mi; Kim, Heui-Baik

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to interpret students' participation in terms of social and argumentation norms to improve understanding of social interaction in scientific argumentation. Therefore, the study sought to identify social and argumentation norms formed in group argumentation and to explore changes in students' participation as lessons progressed. Twelve lessons that included argumentation were delivered to 44 eighth graders in Korea. In each lesson, small group argumentation tasks were introduced after the teacher had explained the main concepts or after student-centred hands-on activities. We analysed argumentation in one focus group based on various data, including audiotaped and videotaped conversations, field notes and student interviews. In early lessons, discussions were always teacher-initiated and led by a high-achieving student, while other students rarely presented ideas. Moreover, students struggled to seek answers in a textbook and often used analogies and common sense to explain phenomena. They tended to accept others' opinions unquestioningly or ignore other low achievers' ideas in small group argumentation. In later lessons, we observed student-initiated and more equally distributed discussions, in which students were likely to make claims or statements actively based on experimental results and scientific knowledge. Along with these changes in discussion style, some students were seen to support the building of social norms and argumentation norms in a group. Also, performing tasks and receiving guidance from the teacher helped to build students' epistemological norms about scientific argumentation.

  6. Exploring the potential for changing gender norms among cricket coaches and athletes in India.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elizabeth; Das, Madhumita; Verma, Ravi; O'Connor, Brian; Ghosh, Sancheeta; Jaime, Maria Catrina D; McCauley, Heather L

    2015-02-01

    This study explored gender norms with cricket coaches and athletes in India to adapt a coach-delivered gender violence prevention program from the United States for the urban Indian context. Interviews and focus groups conducted among coaches and adolescent cricketers highlight the extent to which coaches and athletes articulate prevailing inequitable notions about gender and recognition of the power coaches wield. Adapting a violence prevention program that emphasizes gender norms change may be feasible with Indian cricket coaches but is likely to require attention to defining gender equity and challenging cultural assumptions with coaches prior to implementing the program with athletes. PMID:25540256

  7. Computer use changes generalization of movement learning.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kunlin; Yan, Xiang; Kong, Gaiqing; Yin, Cong; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Qining; Kording, Konrad Paul

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, one of the most salient lifestyle changes for us has been the use of computers. For many of us, manual interaction with a computer occupies a large portion of our working time. Through neural plasticity, this extensive movement training should change our representation of movements (e.g., [1-3]), just like search engines affect memory [4]. However, how computer use affects motor learning is largely understudied. Additionally, as virtually all participants in studies of perception and actions are computer users, a legitimate question is whether insights from these studies bear the signature of computer-use experience. We compared non-computer users with age- and education-matched computer users in standard motor learning experiments. We found that people learned equally fast but that non-computer users generalized significantly less across space, a difference negated by two weeks of intensive computer training. Our findings suggest that computer-use experience shaped our basic sensorimotor behaviors, and this influence should be considered whenever computer users are recruited as study participants.

  8. Changing Gender Norms and Reducing HIV and Violence Risk Among Workers and Students in China.

    PubMed

    Pulerwitz, Julie; Hui, Wang; Arney, Jennifer; Scott, Lisa Mueller

    2015-08-01

    Global evidence demonstrates that inequitable gender norms negatively influence key health outcomes (e.g., violence, HIV/STI), and the importance of male involvement in prevention efforts. The China Family Planning Association and PATH partnered to develop and evaluate a gender-focused behavior change communication intervention for HIV and violence prevention. Eight participatory education sessions-adapted for the Chinese setting-were implemented in factories and schools. Baseline and endline surveys with participants (219 male factory workers and 496 male vocational students) were conducted. Support for (in)equitable norms was measured by the Gender Equitable Men Scale, as well as partner violence and communication. Focus groups with male and female workers/students, teachers, and factory managers were used to corroborate findings. At baseline, many workers and students supported inequitable gender norms, with workers generally being more inequitable. At endline, significant positive changes in gender-related views (e.g., reduction from 42% to 18% of workers agreeing that "a woman should tolerate violence in order to keep her family together") and behaviors (e.g., reduction from 15% to 7% of students reporting partner violence over the past 3 months) were reported. Results suggest that a relatively low intensity intervention can influence important gender norms and related behaviors.

  9. Changing global essential medicines norms to improve access to AIDS treatment: Lessons from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, A.; Fonseca, E. Da; Gruskin, S.

    2009-01-01

    Brazil's large-scale, successful HIV/AIDS treatment programme is considered by many to be a model for other developing countries aiming to improve access to AIDS treatment. Far less is known about Brazil's important role in changing global norms related to international pharmaceutical policy, particularly international human rights, health and trade policies governing access to essential medicines. Prompted by Brazil's interest in preserving its national AIDS treatment policies during World Trade Organisation trade disputes with the USA, these efforts to change global essential medicines norms have had important implications for other countries, particularly those scaling up AIDS treatment. This paper analyses Brazil's contributions to global essential medicines policy and explains the relevance of Brazil's contributions to global health policy today. PMID:19333805

  10. Changing global essential medicines norms to improve access to AIDS treatment: lessons from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunn, A; Fonseca, E Da; Gruskin, S

    2009-01-01

    Brazil's large-scale, successful HIV/AIDS treatment programme is considered by many to be a model for other developing countries aiming to improve access to AIDS treatment. Far less is known about Brazil's important role in changing global norms related to international pharmaceutical policy, particularly international human rights, health and trade policies governing access to essential medicines. Prompted by Brazil's interest in preserving its national AIDS treatment policies during World Trade Organisation trade disputes with the USA, these efforts to change global essential medicines norms have had important implications for other countries, particularly those scaling up AIDS treatment. This paper analyses Brazil's contributions to global essential medicines policy and explains the relevance of Brazil's contributions to global health policy today. PMID:19333805

  11. Changing global essential medicines norms to improve access to AIDS treatment: lessons from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunn, A; Fonseca, E Da; Gruskin, S

    2009-01-01

    Brazil's large-scale, successful HIV/AIDS treatment programme is considered by many to be a model for other developing countries aiming to improve access to AIDS treatment. Far less is known about Brazil's important role in changing global norms related to international pharmaceutical policy, particularly international human rights, health and trade policies governing access to essential medicines. Prompted by Brazil's interest in preserving its national AIDS treatment policies during World Trade Organisation trade disputes with the USA, these efforts to change global essential medicines norms have had important implications for other countries, particularly those scaling up AIDS treatment. This paper analyses Brazil's contributions to global essential medicines policy and explains the relevance of Brazil's contributions to global health policy today.

  12. Fetal breathing movements and changes at birth.

    PubMed

    Koos, Brian J; Rajaee, Arezoo

    2014-01-01

    The fetus, which develops within a fluid-filled amniotic sac, relies on the placenta for respiratory gas exchange rather than the lungs. While not involved in fetal oxygenation, fetal breathing movements (FBM) nevertheless have an important role in lung growth and in development of respiratory muscles and neural regulation. FBM are regulated differently in many respects than postnatal respiration, which results from the unique intrauterine environment. Prominent distinctions of FBM include its episodic nature and apnea-sensitivity to hypoxia. The latter characteristic is the basis for using FBM in the assessment of fetuses at risk for hypoxic injury. At birth, the transition to continuous postnatal respiration involves a fall in temperature, gaseous distention of the lungs, activation of the Hering-Breuer reflexes, and functional connectivity of afferent O2 chemoreceptor activity with respiratory motoneurons and arousal centers. Importantly, exposure to drugs or adverse conditions in utero not only can change patterns of FBM but also can lead to epigenetic dysregulation in postnatal respiration. Such changes, can blunt respiratory and arousal defenses against hypoxic challenges in sleep. Thus, fetal hypoxia and/or drug exposure may in later life dispose sleeping infants, children, and adults to hypertension, diabetes mellitus, brain injury, and sudden death. PMID:25015803

  13. Learning from the Women's Movement about Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane

    2008-01-01

    The women's movement in the 1970s and 1980s was a global phenomenon that achieved significant educational change. More analysis of how it developed and had an impact on education can inform our understanding of the possibilities for change today. This paper explores how the women's movement changed schooling in Vancouver in the 1970s, using a…

  14. Reliable Change Indices and Standardized Regression-Based Change Score Norms for Evaluating Neuropsychological Change in Children with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Robyn M.; Lineweaver, Tara T.; Ferguson, Lisa; Haut, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable change index scores (RCIs) and standardized regression-based change score norms (SRBs) permit evaluation of meaningful changes in test scores following treatment interventions, like epilepsy surgery, while accounting for test-retest reliability, practice effects, score fluctuations due to error, and relevant clinical and demographic factors. Although these methods are frequently used to assess cognitive change after epilepsy surgery in adults, they have not been widely applied to examine cognitive change in children with epilepsy. The goal of the current study was to develop RCIs and SRBs for use in children with epilepsy. Sixty-three children with epilepsy (age range 6–16; M=10.19, SD=2.58) underwent comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations at two time points an average of 12 months apart. Practice adjusted RCIs and SRBs were calculated for all cognitive measures in the battery. Practice effects were quite variable across the neuropsychological measures, with the greatest differences observed among older children, particularly on the Children’s Memory Scale and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. There was also notable variability in test-retest reliabilities across measures in the battery, with coefficients ranging from 0.14 to 0.92. RCIs and SRBs for use in assessing meaningful cognitive change in children following epilepsy surgery are provided for measures with reliability coefficients above 0.50. This is the first study to provide RCIs and SRBs for a comprehensive neuropsychological battery based on a large sample of children with epilepsy. Tables to aid in evaluating cognitive changes in children who have undergone epilepsy surgery are provided for clinical use. An excel sheet to perform all relevant calculations is also available to interested clinicians or researchers. PMID:26043163

  15. Professional Norms in School Leadership: Change Efforts in Implementation of Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leo, Ulf; Wickenberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    This study identifies and analyses professional norms as a means of illuminating school cultures and how norms are distributed in the system. Of special interest is the role of school leaders and how they lead, organize and realise school development. The study research question is: What professional norms do school leaders highlight in change…

  16. 30 CFR 57.9160 - Train movement during shift changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Train movement during shift changes. 57.9160 Section 57.9160 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND..., the movement of underground trains carrying rock or material shall be limited to areas where...

  17. 30 CFR 57.9160 - Train movement during shift changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Train movement during shift changes. 57.9160 Section 57.9160 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND..., the movement of underground trains carrying rock or material shall be limited to areas where...

  18. Mechanical Power Flow Changes during Multijoint Movement Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadota, Koji; Matsuo, Tomoyuki; Hashizume, Ken; Tezuka, Kazushi

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the differences in mechanical power flow in early and late practice stages during a cyclic movement consisting of upper arm circumduction to clarify the change in mechanical energy use with skill acquisition. Seven participants practiced the task every other day until their joint angular movements conformed to those of an expert.…

  19. Legitimization of regulatory norms: Waterfowl hunter acceptance of changing duck bag limits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Lawrence, Jeffrey S.; Cordts, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined response to regulatory change over time, or addressed hunter attitudes about changes in hunting bag limits. This article explores Minnesota waterfowl hunters’ attitudes about duck bag limits, examining attitudes about two state duck bag limits that were initially more restrictive than the maximum set by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), but then increased to match federal limits. Results are from four mail surveys that examined attitudes about bag limits over time. Following two bag limit increases, a greater proportion of hunters rated the new bag limit “too high” and a smaller proportion rated it “too low.” Several years following the first bag limit increase, the proportion of hunters who indicated that the limit was “too high” had declined, suggesting hunter acceptance of the new regulation. Results suggest that waterfowl bag limits may represent legal norms that influence hunter attitudes and gain legitimacy over time.

  20. Creating social norm change to prevent VAW and HIV: a programmatic perspective from Uganda.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Katy

    2016-05-01

    There has been an increased emphasis on evidence based programming for violence prevention in recent years, although research on what works to prevent violence is still an emerging field. There are also important lessons emerging from practice. The experience of Raising Voices in Uganda is that using community mobilization programming can help to shift entrenched norms, attitudes and behaviours. A recent randomised control trial evidenced some of these changes and whilst this research has been key to developing the approach, it is also essential that we continue to be informed by the voices of community members and activists. As we continue to build the evidence base on what works to prevent violence, the field needs to ensure that we place the experiences and ideas of the community at the center of our interventions.

  1. Creating social norm change to prevent VAW and HIV: a programmatic perspective from Uganda.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Katy

    2016-05-01

    There has been an increased emphasis on evidence based programming for violence prevention in recent years, although research on what works to prevent violence is still an emerging field. There are also important lessons emerging from practice. The experience of Raising Voices in Uganda is that using community mobilization programming can help to shift entrenched norms, attitudes and behaviours. A recent randomised control trial evidenced some of these changes and whilst this research has been key to developing the approach, it is also essential that we continue to be informed by the voices of community members and activists. As we continue to build the evidence base on what works to prevent violence, the field needs to ensure that we place the experiences and ideas of the community at the center of our interventions. PMID:27578348

  2. Matrix Norms and the Condition Number: A General Framework to Improve Mesh Quality via Node-Movement

    SciTech Connect

    KNUPP,PATRICK

    1999-09-27

    Objective functions for unstructured hexahedral and tetrahedral mesh optimization are analyzed using matrices and matrix norms. Mesh untangling objective functions that create valid meshes are used to initialize the optimization process. Several new objective functions to achieve element invertibility and quality are investigated, the most promising being the ''condition number''. The condition number of the Jacobian matrix of an element forms the basis of a barrier-based objective function that measures the distance to the set of singular matrices and has the ideal matrix as a stationary point. The method was implemented in the Cubit code, with promising results.

  3. Web-based intervention to change perceived norms of college student alcohol use and sexual behavior on spring break.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Megan E; Lee, Christine M; Neighbors, Clayton

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate an adapted web-based multi-component personalized feedback intervention to reduce college student alcohol use and risky sexual behavior during Spring Break. This is one of the first interventions focused on Spring Break alcohol use and related sexual behavior. Personalized feedback intervention components addressed intentions, expected consequences, norms, motivations, protective behavioral strategies, and pacts with friends. Participants were college students (N=263; 55% women) between the ages of 18 and 21 who planned to go on a Spring Break trip with their friends. Effects were not significant in reducing alcohol use or sexual behavior during Spring Break or some of the proposed intervention mechanisms. However, consistent results showed that the intervention succeeded in reducing perceived social norms for Spring Break drinking and sexual behavior. Findings suggest that changing norms alone is not sufficient for changing risk behavior during this event and alternative strategies are needed to impact other putative mediators.

  4. Movement amplitude and tempo change in piano performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Caroline

    2001-05-01

    Music performance places stringent temporal and cognitive demands on individuals that should yield large speed/accuracy tradeoffs. Skilled piano performance, however, shows consistently high accuracy across a wide variety of rates. Movement amplitude may affect the speed/accuracy tradeoff, so that high accuracy can be obtained even at very fast tempi. The contribution of movement amplitude changes in rate (tempo) is investigated with motion capture. Cameras recorded pianists with passive markers on hands and fingers, who performed on an electronic (MIDI) keyboard. Pianists performed short melodies at faster and faster tempi until they made errors (altering the speed/accuracy function). Variability of finger movements in the three motion planes indicated most change in the plane perpendicular to the keyboard across tempi. Surprisingly, peak amplitudes of motion before striking the keys increased as tempo increased. Increased movement amplitudes at faster rates may reduce or compensate for speed/accuracy tradeoffs. [Work supported by Canada Research Chairs program, HIMH R01 45764.

  5. Reconstructing Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorgorio, Nuria; Planas, Nuria

    2005-01-01

    Starting from the constructs "cultural scripts" and "social representations", and on the basis of the empirical research we have been developing until now, we revisit the construct norms from a sociocultural perspective. Norms, both sociomathematical norms and norms of the mathematical practice, as cultural scripts influenced by social…

  6. Changes in smoking-related norms in bars resulting from California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act.

    PubMed

    Satterlund, Travis D; Lee, Juliet P; Moore, Roland S

    2012-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act--CA Labor Code Sec. 6404.5(a)--was extended to bars in 1998. This article analyzes changes in normative beliefs and behaviors related to bar smoking in the decade following the adoption of the Act. In a series of studies evaluating the smoke-free workplace law in bars, researchers conducted extensive observations and interviews with bar staff and patrons, health officials, and law enforcement personnel in three California counties. Smoking outside became a normal pause in the social environment and created a new type of bar socializing for outside smokers. Although some bar owners and staff reported initially resenting the responsibility to uphold the law, once norms regarding cigarettes and smoking began changing, bar workers experienced less conflict in upholding the law. Non-smoking behavior within bars also became the normative behavior for bar patrons. California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act has both reflected and encouraged normative beliefs and behaviors related to smoking in bars. The findings indicate that such shifts are possible even in contexts where smoking behaviors and attitudes supporting smoking were deeply entrenched. Recommendations include attending to the synergistic effect of education and policy in effective tobacco control programs.

  7. Accuracy of aimed arm movements in changed gravity.

    PubMed

    Bock, O; Howard, I P; Money, K E; Arnold, K E

    1992-11-01

    We studied the accuracy of aimed arm movements in normal gravity, and during the hypergravity (hyper-G) and microgravity (micro-G) episodes of KC-135 parabolic flights. Subjects pointed at mirror-viewed targets without sight of their arm, and final pointing position was measured by a digitizing pad. Compared with the normal gravity (normal-G) baseline, subjects pointed consistently higher in hyper-G, and still higher in micro-G. Results were not different if subjects viewed targets only during normal-G and pointed at their memorized position under changed gravity (changed-G); this suggests that the "elevator illusion" played a minor role in our study. The observed impairments were attributed to degraded proprioceptive feedback and/or inappropriate motor programs in changed-G. Pointing accuracy improved movement-to-movement but not parabola-to-parabola, indicating that prolonged exposure is needed for sustained adaptation.

  8. Cue properties change timing strategies in group movement synchronisation

    PubMed Central

    Honisch, Juliane J.; Elliott, Mark T.; Jacoby, Nori; Wing, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    To maintain synchrony in group activities, each individual within the group must continuously correct their movements to remain in time with the temporal cues available. Cues might originate from one or more members of the group. Current research suggests that when synchronising movements, individuals optimise their performance in terms of minimising variability of timing errors (asynchronies) between external cues and their own movements. However, the cost of this is an increase in the timing variability of their own movements. Here we investigate whether an individual’s timing strategy changes according to the task, in a group scenario. To investigate this, we employed a novel paradigm that positioned six individuals to form two chains with common origin and termination on the circumference of a circle. We found that participants with access to timing cues from only one other member used a strategy to minimise their asynchrony variance. In contrast, the participant at the common termination of the two chains, who was required to integrate timing cues from two members, used a strategy that minimised movement variability. We conclude that humans are able to flexibly switch timekeeping strategies to maintain task demands and thus optimise the temporal performance of their movements. PMID:26781066

  9. Optimal compensation for changes in task-relevant movement variability.

    PubMed

    Trommershäuser, Julia; Gepshtein, Sergei; Maloney, Laurence T; Landy, Michael S; Banks, Martin S

    2005-08-01

    Effective movement planning should take into account the consequences of possible errors in executing a planned movement. These errors can result from either sensory uncertainty or variability in movement planning and production. We examined the ability of humans to compensate for variability in sensory estimation and movement production under conditions in which variability is increased artificially by the experimenter. Subjects rapidly pointed at a target region that had an adjacent penalty region. Target and penalty hits yielded monetary rewards and losses. We manipulated the task-relevant variability by perturbing visual feedback of finger position during the movement. The feedback was shifted in a random direction with a random amplitude in each trial, causing an increase in the task-relevant variability. Subjects were unable to counteract this form of perturbation. Rewards and penalties were based on the perturbed, visually specified finger position. Subjects rapidly acquired an estimate of their new variability in <120 trials and adjusted their aim points accordingly. We compared subjects' performance to the performance of an optimal movement planner maximizing expected gain. Their performance was consistent with that expected from an optimal movement planner that perfectly compensated for externally imposed changes in task-relevant variability. When exposed to novel stimulus configurations, aim points shifted in the first trial without showing any detectable trend across trials. These results indicate that subjects are capable of changing their pointing strategy in the presence of externally imposed noise. Furthermore, they manage to update their estimate of task-relevant variability and to transfer this estimate to novel stimulus configurations.

  10. Conceptual Change, Text Comprehension and Eye Movements during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penttinen, Marjaana; Anto, Erkki; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija

    2013-01-01

    In the two studies presented in this article, we examine the interplay of conceptual change, text comprehension, and eye-movements during reading and develop and test methods suitable for such explorations. In studies 1 and 2, university students (N = 15 and 23) read a text on photosynthesis, explained their reading processes retrospectively cued…

  11. Incorporating Social Norms into Sexual Assault Interventions: Effects on Belief and Behavior Change among College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    A sexual assault intervention was designed using applicable research from social psychology (i.e., social norms). Undergraduate men were randomly assigned to the experimental intervention or an active control condition. Attitudinal and behavioral data were collected preintervention, post-intervention and at a one month follow-up. Significant…

  12. Rolling with the Changes: A Role Congruity Perspective on Gender Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diekman, Amanda B.; Goodfriend, Wind

    2006-01-01

    Role congruity theory (e.g., Eagly & Diekman, 2005) posits that a group will be positively evaluated when its characteristics are perceived to align with the requirements of the group's typical social roles. Social roles may thus form the basis of norms that prescribe valued behavior for men and women. Three experiments explored the relationship…

  13. Eye movements and display change detection during reading.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Timothy J; Angele, Bernhard; Rayner, Keith

    2011-12-01

    In the boundary change paradigm (Rayner, 1975), when a reader's eyes cross an invisible boundary location, a preview word is replaced by a target word. Readers are generally unaware of such changes due to saccadic suppression. However, some readers detect changes on a few trials and a small percentage of them detect many changes. Two experiments are reported in which we combined eye movement data with signal detection analyses to investigate display change detection. On each trial, readers had to indicate if they saw a display change in addition to reading for meaning. On half the trials the display change occurred during the saccade (immediate condition); on the other half, it was slowed by 15-25 ms (delay condition) to increase the likelihood that a change would be detected. Sentences were presented in an alternating case fashion allowing us to investigate the influence of both letter identity and case. In the immediate condition, change detection was higher when letters changed than when case changed corroborating findings that word processing utilizes abstract (case independent) letter identities. However, in the delay condition (where d' was much higher than the immediate condition), detection was equal for letter and case changes. The results of both experiments indicate that sensitivity to display changes was related to how close the eyes were to the invalid preview on the fixation prior to the display change, as well as the timing of the completion of this change relative to the start of the post-change fixation.

  14. Changing gendered norms about women and girls at the level of household and community: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Keleher, H; Franklin, L

    2008-01-01

    Gendered norms are embedded in social structures, operating to restrict the rights, opportunities, and capabilities, of women and girls, causing significant burdens, discrimination, subordination, and exploitation. This review, developed for the Women and Gender Equity Knowledge Network of the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health, sought to identify the best available research evidence about programmatic interventions, at the level of household and community, that have been effective for changing gender norms to increase the status of women. The focus was on developing countries. A wide range of single and multiple databases were searched, utilizing database specific keywords such as: women and girls; men and boys; household and community; intervention; and gender norms. Key themes were identified: education of women and girls; economic empowerment of women; violence against women, including female genital mutilation/cutting; and men and boys. Types of interventions, levels of action, populations of interest, and key outcomes from evaluations are identified. Evaluations are limited, with little evidence or measurement of changes in gender equity and women's empowerment. A key finding is, that targeting women and girls is a sound investment, but outcomes are dependent on integrated approaches and the protective umbrella of policy and legislative actions. PMID:19288342

  15. Changing gendered norms about women and girls at the level of household and community: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Keleher, H; Franklin, L

    2008-01-01

    Gendered norms are embedded in social structures, operating to restrict the rights, opportunities, and capabilities, of women and girls, causing significant burdens, discrimination, subordination, and exploitation. This review, developed for the Women and Gender Equity Knowledge Network of the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health, sought to identify the best available research evidence about programmatic interventions, at the level of household and community, that have been effective for changing gender norms to increase the status of women. The focus was on developing countries. A wide range of single and multiple databases were searched, utilizing database specific keywords such as: women and girls; men and boys; household and community; intervention; and gender norms. Key themes were identified: education of women and girls; economic empowerment of women; violence against women, including female genital mutilation/cutting; and men and boys. Types of interventions, levels of action, populations of interest, and key outcomes from evaluations are identified. Evaluations are limited, with little evidence or measurement of changes in gender equity and women's empowerment. A key finding is, that targeting women and girls is a sound investment, but outcomes are dependent on integrated approaches and the protective umbrella of policy and legislative actions.

  16. Wheelchair propulsion efficiency: movement pattern adaptations to speed changes.

    PubMed

    Vanlandewijck, Y C; Spaepen, A J; Lysens, R J

    1994-11-01

    Low mechanical efficiency values in wheelchair propulsion are usually explained on the basis of the supply of force and power generated during the push phase. The purpose of this study is to analyze the movement and muscular activity pattern in handrim wheelchair propulsion, focusing on both the push and recovery phases. Data on cardiorespiratory and propulsion technique parameters were obtained from 40 wheelchair basketball players with extensive experience in wheelchair propulsion in six situations: two exercise levels (60% and 80% of individual VO2peak), and three velocities (1.11, 1.67, and 2.22 m.s-1) with constant power output on a treadmill. A two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measurements was applied with "exercise level" and "speed" as the main factors. A significant effect on gross mechanical efficiency was found when the velocity was increased from 1.67 to 2.22 m.s-1. Decreased mechanical efficiency could be explained by a significant change in the acceleration of the wheelchair-user system during recovery, caused by arm and trunk movements, inducing inertial forces to act on the wheelchair. Consequently, mechanical work increased significantly during the recovery phase. These findings indicate that studies on mechanical efficiency in wheelchair propulsion should not only be focussed on power supply during the push phase, but also on the movement pattern during recovery.

  17. Community Gender Norms Change as a Part of a Multilevel Approach to Sexual Health Among Married Women in Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajendra; Schensul, Jean J.; Verma, Ravi K.; Burleson, Joseph A.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.

    2015-01-01

    Inequitable gender norms in societies and communities negatively contribute to women’s sexual and reproductive health. While the need for change in gender norms is well recognized, the task is highly challenging in terms of intervention design, implementation and assessment of impact. This paper describes a methodology for identification of gender norms, the design of community level intervention, community participation and the assessment of intervention impact in a low income, predominately Muslim community of 600,000 people in Mumbai, India. Formative research focused on in-depth interviews with women, men and couples yielding gender normative statements and assessment of community resources to facilitate change. A Gender Equity Scale (GES) based on this formative research was developed and administered annually for a three-year period to random, cross-sectional samples in the intervention and control communities, and to community based, non-governmental organizations (NGO) staff and Imams (religious leaders) in the intervention community. NGO staff disseminated gender oriented messages to their female constituency through their regular outreach activities and through special events and festivals in the community. Imams disseminated gender messages through lectures on social issues for men attending Friday prayers. The results showed that the NGO staff and Imams, assumed more gender equitable attitudes across time. The intervention was associated with a significant improvement in attitudes towards gender equity in the intervention relative to the control community. Men showed a dramatic change in more positive gender attitudes, while women lagged behind in their GES scores. The meaning of these results are explored and the implications assessed for the generalizability of the methodology for other countries, cultures and communities. PMID:26136202

  18. Community Gender Norms Change as a Part of a Multilevel Approach to Sexual Health Among Married Women in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Schensul, Stephen L; Singh, Rajendra; Schensul, Jean J; Verma, Ravi K; Burleson, Joseph A; Nastasi, Bonnie K

    2015-09-01

    Inequitable gender norms in societies and communities negatively contribute to women's sexual and reproductive health. While the need for change in gender norms is well recognized, the task is highly challenging in terms of intervention design, implementation and assessment of impact. This paper describes a methodology for identification of gender norms, the design of community level intervention, community participation and the assessment of intervention impact in a low income, predominately Muslim community of 600,000 people in Mumbai, India. Formative research focused on in-depth interviews with women, men and couples yielding gender normative statements and assessment of community resources to facilitate change. A Gender Equity Scale (GES) based on this formative research was developed and administered annually for a three-year period to random, cross-sectional samples in the intervention and control communities, and to community based, non-governmental organizations (NGO) staff and Imams (religious leaders) in the intervention community. NGO staff disseminated gender oriented messages to their female constituency through their regular outreach activities and through special events and festivals in the community. Imams disseminated gender messages through lectures on social issues for men attending Friday prayers. The results showed that the NGO staff and Imams, assumed more gender equitable attitudes across time. The intervention was associated with a significant improvement in attitudes towards gender equity in the intervention relative to the control community. Men showed a dramatic change in more positive gender attitudes, while women lagged behind in their GES scores. The meaning of these results are explored and the implications assessed for the generalizability of the methodology for other countries, cultures and communities.

  19. Spatial Changes and Population Movements on the Albanian Coastline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanjir, U.; Gregorič Bon, N.

    2016-06-01

    The last decade has seen a large increase in construction along the southern Albanian coastline, mainly in the rise of large tourist complexes comprising hotels, apartment houses, touristic villages, and so on. These constructions rarely follow urban planning and not only change its landscape but also often threaten the ecological value of the coastal zone. The uncontrolled and devastating construction along the coast has been accompanied by coastal erosion caused by the sea with the intensity up to 50 cm/year. This paper investigates the environmental change monitoring on the Albanian Riviera by analysing optical remote sensing data (Landsat 5 and 8) in the period between 1984 and 2015. The image analysis results grounded on the change vector analysis indicate coastal morphology changes and land cover changes in the coastal environment, which appear mostly due to erosion in river delta and urban growth. Apart from identifying both phenomena through time, the objective of this study is to show that these landscape changes in fact correlate with the population migration as well as to explain why and the extent to which Albania is one of the most migratory countries in Europe. Based on the multidisciplinary research, which combines anthropological method with spatial analysis, this presentation anticipates future changes in this area. It argues that movements of both people and in landscape formations strongly influence each other, constituting a closely corresponding relationship.

  20. Alignment control exercise changes lower extremity movement during stop movements in female basketball players.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shigeyuki; Urabe, Yukio; Kawamura, Kenji

    2008-08-01

    This study was intended to evaluate a short-term intervention designed to improve the lower extremity alignment with neutral position during stop movements of female basketball players when performing a quick-stop jump shot. In this study, 20 healthy female college basketball players (mean age 20.5 years) participated. The authors monitored two groups for 4 weeks: one which trained (n=10) and one which did not train (n=10). The exercise program emphasized the neutral position of lower extremities for dynamic alignment control; the players avoided the valgus position with their knees. Kinematics analysis with a lower extremity angle in the stop action was performed using three digital video cameras and analyzed using software. Following the intervention exercise program, each subject was re-evaluated at two and four weeks to determine changes in movement patterns during the "sink shot" task. Two-way analysis of variance models were used to determine differences at pre-intervention, at mid-term, and post-intervention. After the 2-week intervention, the trained athletes group made basketball shots with greater change of the lower extremity motion pattern during the stop action than did non-trained athletes (p<0.05). However, no significant differences were found between other data of the 2-week and 4-week intervention groups. Results of this study show that two weeks of training can improve the dynamic alignment control of the lower extremities, as measured using the alignment angle of the coronal plane and the torsion angle of horizontal plane during a stop action.

  1. Environmentalism unbound: reconnecting and re-envisioning movements for change.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, R

    2001-01-01

    Disputes over environmental discourse have generated divergent pathways and discordant messages over the last three decades. An examination of them becomes a study of environmentalism s roots. The workplace is shown as a hidden and often discounted arena of debate about what constitutes an environmental issue. The triumph of the productionist and limitless consumption views helped to establish a focus on environmental change as a form of consumer action. Since the 1970s though, new forms of environmental discourse and action both community- and production-related have sought to shift the terrain. The possibility of becoming a broader, more socially inclusive movement capable of challenging the very structure and logic of capitalist social order is possible again, including the ability to identify new strategies for action. Overcoming the work/environment divide is perhaps the most contentious question facing the future of the environmental and labor movements. New approaches, including developing a community of interests, revaluing work, and developing an ethic of place (with urban, industrial, and global forms), require that the social and the ecological become joined in the construction of a common vision. When any environmental issue can be seen as socially determined, then environmentalism s great task will be to see itself as a primary agent of social change. PMID:17208705

  2. Environmentalism unbound: reconnecting and re-envisioning movements for change.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, R

    2001-01-01

    Disputes over environmental discourse have generated divergent pathways and discordant messages over the last three decades. An examination of them becomes a study of environmentalism s roots. The workplace is shown as a hidden and often discounted arena of debate about what constitutes an environmental issue. The triumph of the productionist and limitless consumption views helped to establish a focus on environmental change as a form of consumer action. Since the 1970s though, new forms of environmental discourse and action both community- and production-related have sought to shift the terrain. The possibility of becoming a broader, more socially inclusive movement capable of challenging the very structure and logic of capitalist social order is possible again, including the ability to identify new strategies for action. Overcoming the work/environment divide is perhaps the most contentious question facing the future of the environmental and labor movements. New approaches, including developing a community of interests, revaluing work, and developing an ethic of place (with urban, industrial, and global forms), require that the social and the ecological become joined in the construction of a common vision. When any environmental issue can be seen as socially determined, then environmentalism s great task will be to see itself as a primary agent of social change.

  3. Cellular and Molecular Changes in Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    PubMed Central

    Zainal Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham; Yamamoto, Zulham; Zainol Abidin, lntan Zarina; Megat Abdul Wahab, Rohaya; Zainal Ariffin, Zaidah

    2011-01-01

    Tooth movement induced by orthodontic treatment can cause sequential reactions involving the periodontal tissue and alveolar bone, resulting in the release of numerous substances from the dental tissues and surrounding structures. To better understand the biological processes involved in orthodontic treatment, improve treatment, and reduce adverse side effects, several of these substances have been proposed as biomarkers. Potential biological markers can be collected from different tissue samples, and suitable sampling is important to accurately reflect biological processes. This paper covers the tissue changes that are involved during orthodontic tooth movement such as at compression region (involving osteoblasts), tension region (involving osteoclasts), dental root, and pulp tissues. Besides, the involvement of stem cells and their development towards osteoblasts and osteoclasts during orthodontic treatment have also been explained. Several possible biomarkers representing these biological changes during specific phenomenon, that is, bone remodelling (formation and resorption), inflammation, and root resorption have also been proposed. The knowledge of these biomarkers could be used in accelerating orthodontic treatment. PMID:22125437

  4. Training leaders from priority populations to implement social norm changes in tobacco control: lessons from the LAAMPP Institute.

    PubMed

    Lew, Rod; Martinez, Jaime; Soto, Claradina; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2011-11-01

    The development of leadership in tobacco control has been crucial in the fight against the number one most preventable cause of death and disease worldwide. Yet today, little scientific evidence exists regarding its actual impact, particularly among priority populations. This article describes the impact of the Leadership and Advocacy Institute to Advance Minnesota's Parity for Priority Populations (LAAMPP Institute), a major tobacco control leadership program for five priority populations: African/African Americans, American Indians, Asian Americans, Chicano/Latinos, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender communities in Minnesota. The LAAMPP Institute, a year-long institute with 17 days of training, focused on the core competencies of advocacy, collaboration, cultural or community competency, facilitation, and tobacco control. A logic model helped to guide and frame the institute's efforts. The LAAMPP Institute has been effective in increasing fellows' capacity to do advocacy, which in turn has led to increased involvement in implementing social norm-change activities. Leadership development can provide a solid foundation for training leaders and a catalyst for mobilizing key advocates and priority population communities toward the implementation and sustainment of social norm or policy changes.

  5. Conceptual Change, Text Comprehension and Eye Movements During Reading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penttinen, Marjaana; Anto, Erkki; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija

    2013-08-01

    In the two studies presented in this article, we examine the interplay of conceptual change, text comprehension, and eye-movements during reading and develop and test methods suitable for such explorations. In studies 1 and 2, university students (N = 15 and 23) read a text on photosynthesis, explained their reading processes retrospectively cued with their own gaze videos, and answered written pre- and posttests. In Study 1, a case study demonstrated connections between re-readings and high-level cognitive processing. Out of all of the participants' retrospective reports, categories were formed based on the expressions referring to either situation model or textbase construction during reading. In Study 2, conceptual change learners differed from other learner groups in terms of prolonged overall reading time and a relatively high amount of expressing textbase construction at the beginning of the retrospective reporting. The results emphasise the importance of careful construction of the textbase in conceptual change and point to the benefits of complementing the eye tracking with cued retrospective reporting when examining high-level cognitive processes during reading.

  6. Social Change & Marriage Norms-Values in the Middle East. A Case-Study of Kuwait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Naser, Fahad

    The term "social change" refers to variations over time in the ecological ordering of populations and communities, in patterns of roles and social interactions, and in the cultures of societies. Some facets of social change in one middle eastern country are presented in this paper. The study looks at the influence of social changes on marriage…

  7. Predicting Change in Children’s Aggression and Victimization Using Classroom-level Descriptive Norms of Aggression and Pro-social Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Sterett H.; McMillen, Janey Sturtz; DeRosier, Melissa E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined aggressive and pro-social classroom descriptive norms as predictors of change in aggression and victimization during middle childhood. Participants included 948 children in third through fifth grade. Measures of teacher-reported aggressive and peer-reported pro-social descriptive norms were completed at the onset of the study. Children completed self-report measures of aggression and victimization on three occasions during one academic year. Multilevel growth models were analyzed to determine the amount of student-reported change in aggression and victimization attributable to the classroom norm variables. Results indicated that students in classrooms with higher initial mean levels of aggression reported larger increases in aggression and victimization over the school year. In contrast, boys with higher initial levels of aggression reported smaller increases in aggression than boys with lower initial levels of aggression, and both boys and girls with higher initial aggression reported declining victimization over the school year. Pro-social classroom norms were unrelated to change in aggression and victimization. The implications of the findings for future studies on the influence of classroom social norms as well as interventions for aggression and victimization are discussed. PMID:19480888

  8. Changing Issue Representation among Major United States Environmental Movement Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Histories of the environmental movement have emphasized the importance of a shift in focus from those issues traditionally associated with the movement, such as resource and wildlife protection, towards "new" quality of life issues, such as environmental pollution and its human health effects. Here, time-series data between 1970 and 2000 on the…

  9. Atherosclerotic changes of vessels caused by restriction of movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gvishiani, G. S.; Kobakhidze, N. G.; Mchedlishvili, M. G.; Dekanosidze, T. I.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of restriction of movement on the development of atheroscelerosis was studied in rabbits. Drastic restriction of movement for 20 and 30 days causes atherosclerotic alterations of the aorta and shifts in ECG which are characteristic of coronary atherosclerosis. At the same time, shortening of the duration of blood coagulation and an increase in the content of catecholamines and beta-lipoproteids occur.

  10. Educational Change and the Women's Movement: Lessons From British Columbia Schools in the 1970s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This article uses Melucci's approach to social movements to explore how the women"s movement changed education in British Columbia in the 1970s. The women's movement was a multifaceted social phenomenon with multiple agendas and actors. In the early 1970s, it developed a temporary sense of cohesion in the field of education in the context of a…

  11. Spectral changes of interhemispheric crosstalk during movement instabilities.

    PubMed

    Houweling, Sanne; Beek, Peter J; Daffertshofer, Andreas

    2010-11-01

    Bimanual coordination requires the functional integration of the activity in various cortical, subcortical, spinal, and peripheral neural structures. We challenged this functional integration by destabilizing bimanual 5:8 tapping through an increase in movement tempo, while measuring brain and muscle activity using magnetoencephalography and electromyography. Movement instabilities were characterized by a drop in frequency locking. Time-frequency analysis revealed movement-related beta amplitude modulation in bilateral motor areas as well as movement-related corticospinal entrainment. Both of these synchronization patterns depended on movement tempo suggesting that the timescale needed for the upregulation and downregulation of beta synchrony in rhythmic tapping poses constraints on motor performance. Bilateral phase locking over movement cycles appeared to be mediated by beta-frequency oscillations and constrained by its phase dynamics. The timescale of beta synchrony thus seems to play a key role in achieving timed phase synchrony in the motor cortex and along the neural axis. Once event-related desynchronization-synchronization cycles cannot be build up properly, inhibition may become inadequate, resulting in a reduction of the stability of performance, which may eventually become unstable. PMID:20176689

  12. Changes in Smoking-Related Norms in Bars Resulting from California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2012-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act--CA Labor Code Sec. 6404.5(a)--was extended to bars in 1998. This article analyzes changes in normative beliefs and behaviors related to bar smoking in the decade following the adoption of the Act. In a series of studies evaluating the smoke-free workplace law in bars, researchers conducted extensive…

  13. NORM regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.

    1997-02-01

    The author reviews the question of regulation for naturally occuring radioactive material (NORM), and the factors that have made this a more prominent concern today. Past practices have been very relaxed, and have often involved very poor records, the involvment of contractors, and the disposition of contaminated equipment back into commercial service. The rationale behind the establishment of regulations is to provide worker protection, to exempt low risk materials, to aid in scrap recycling, to provide direction for remediation and to examine disposal options. The author reviews existing regulations at federal and state levels, impending legislation, and touches on the issue of site remediation and potential liabilities affecting the release of sites contaminated by NORM.

  14. Women and AIDS Support Network: mutual support to change community norms.

    PubMed

    Ray, S

    1992-01-01

    A group of women formed the Women and AIDS Support Network (WASN) in Zimbabwe in June 1989 to improve women;s self-esteem and confidence and to bring about changes in attitudes and reactions toward AIDS-related problems. Both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women are WASN members. Women have limited control over sexual relationships. Women who know their partners are having intercourse with other women have few options, e.g., they may depend on their partners. A family council settles marital disagreements, but husbands do not always cooperate. Increased peer pressure could change societal acceptance of male infidelity to positive attitudes toward friendship and partnership in marriage. Therefore, WASN explores sexual relationships, especially control and power in them. These discussions should lead to affirmation of positive behavior. For example, men can promote condom use and monogamy to their male peers. They can also talk to their partners and their sons about HIV. Rural women should not blame urban women for their partner's HIV status. WASN also targets schoolgirls. Most early and some current messages of AIDS campaigns reinforces the dichotomy of good and bad women, supported by an earlier link between urban women and sexually transmitted diseases. Yet, they ignored men's role in HIV transmission. WASN speaks out against such negative images, e.g., dramas that depict the HIV-infected woman as evil and the innocent as good while the man worries about which woman infected him instead of feeling awful about infecting other women. WASN also addressee AIDS-related discrimination on the job and stigmatization issues. It now is conducting 2 research projects: information needs of urban and rural women and capacities of family support systems to assist HIV-positive women.

  15. Seasonal and Ontogenetic Changes in Movement Patterns of Sixgill Sharks

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Kelly S.; Williams, Greg D.; Levin, Phillip S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding movement patterns is fundamental to population and conservation biology. The way an animal moves through its environment influences the dynamics of local populations and will determine how susceptible it is to natural or anthropogenic perturbations. It is of particular interest to understand the patterns of movement for species which are susceptible to human activities (e.g. fishing), or that exert a large influence on community structure, such as sharks. Methodology/Principal Findings We monitored the patterns of movement of 34 sixgill sharks Hexanchus griseus using two large-scale acoustic arrays inside and outside Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Sixgill sharks were residents in Puget Sound for up to at least four years before making large movements out of the estuary. Within Puget Sound, sixgills inhabited sites for several weeks at a time and returned to the same sites annually. Across four years, sixgills had consistent seasonal movements in which they moved to the north from winter to spring and moved to the south from summer to fall. Just prior to leaving Puget Sound, sixgills altered their behavior and moved twice as fast among sites. Nineteen of the thirty-four sixgills were detected leaving Puget Sound for the outer coast. Three of these sharks returned to Puget Sound. Conclusions/Significance For most large marine predators, we have a limited understanding of how they move through their environment, and this clouds our ability to successfully manage their populations and their communities. With detailed movement information, such as that being uncovered with acoustic monitoring, we can begin to quantify the spatial and temporal impacts of large predators within the framework of their ecosystems. PMID:20838617

  16. Vascular endothelium: functioning in norm, changes in atherosclerosis and current dietary approaches to improve endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Revin, Victor V; Sobenin, Igor A; Orekhov, Alexander N; Bobryshev, Yuri V

    2015-01-01

    The endothelium represents not only a simple cellular monolayer that lines the vascular tree in humans and other vertebrates. Depending on the location, the endothelium shows significant morphological and functional heterogeneity through differentiated expression of pro- and anticoagulant factors, presence and frequency of intercellular contacts, variable contractility, cell shape, and volume. Altogether, these properties are crucial for adjustment of the endothelial function and further maintenance of the adequate homeostasis in response in local microenvironmental changes. Endothelial cells (ECs) play a critical role in coordinated regulation of blood flow. This is achieved due to the capacity of ECs to create the active anti-thrombotic surface that supports blood fluidity and transfer of blood cells and biomolecules. However, in certain vascular regions that can occur in inflamed sites or in sites with high hydrodynamic shear stress, ECs could lost their anti-thrombotic properties and switch their normal quiescent phenotype towards the prothrombotic, proadhesion, and proinflammatory state. In such an athero-prone site, the proper endothelial function is impaired that increases risk for formation of the atherosclerotic plaque. The endothelial dysfunction not only precedes atherosclerosis but greatly contributes to atherogenesis in all disease stages. Healthy lifestyle and regular intake of correct antioxidant-rich diet such as fresh fruits, vegetables, olive oil, red wine, and tea have beneficial effects on endothelial function and could therefore reduce the cardiovascular risk. PMID:25723463

  17. Nursing home organizational change: the "Culture Change" movement as viewed by long-term care specialists.

    PubMed

    Miller, Susan C; Miller, Edward Alan; Jung, Hye-Young; Sterns, Samantha; Clark, Melissa; Mor, Vincent

    2010-08-01

    A decade-long grassroots movement aims to deinstitutionalize nursing home (NH) environments and individualize care. Coined "NH Culture Change" the movement is often described by its resident-centered/directed care focus. While empirical data of "culture change's" costs and benefits are limited, it is broadly viewed as beneficial and widely promoted. Still, debate abounds regarding barriers to its adoption. We used data from a Web-based survey of 1,147 long-term care specialists (including NH and other providers, consumers/advocates, state and federal government officials, university/academic, researchers/consultants, and others) to better understand factors associated with perceived barriers. Long-term care specialists view the number-one barrier to adoption differently depending on their employment, familiarity with culture change, and their underlying policy views. To promote adoption, research and broad-based educational efforts are needed to influence views and perceptions. Fundamental changes in the regulatory process together with targeted regulatory changes and payment incentives may also be needed.

  18. Teaching for Change: Popular Education and the Labor Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delp, Linda, Ed.; Outman-Kramer, Miranda, Ed.; Schurman, Susan J., Ed.; Wong, Kent, Ed.

    These 28 essays recount popular education's history and its multiple uses in the labor movement today: to organize the unorganized, to develop new leaders and activists, and to strengthen labor and community alliances. They explore its other facets: theater and culture, economics education, workplace safety and health, and classroom use and…

  19. The mental patients' rights movement and mental health institutional change.

    PubMed

    Brown, P

    1981-01-01

    The mental patients' rights movement has added to the widespread critique of institutional psychiatry and provided leadership in opposing treatment methods such as electroshock, psychosurgery, and overdrugging, which are dangerous and regressive not only to patients, but to the expanded population of non-institutionalized persons as well. The movement has had some success in court cases for democratic rights, such as the right to treatment, the right to refuse treatment, patient labor, and commitment law. At the same time patients' rights demands have been partly coopted by mental health administrators. In a number to cases, mental health officials supported patients' rights litigation because it enabled them to speed up their deinstitutionalization programs. Overall, the conjuncture of the movement with economic impetus toward deinstitutionalization has allowed mental health planners to use the patients' rights issues to justify their essentially fiscal policy. Providers and administrators have set up advocacy offices, posted patients' bills of rights, and incorporated ex-patient representatives on advisory boards. Yet mental health administrators are generally opposed to a broad application of patients' rights. PMID:7333723

  20. The Nursing Home Culture-Change Movement: Recent Past, Present, and Future Directions for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Anna N.; Schnelle, John F.

    2008-01-01

    This article uses a retrospective approach to critique the research base underlying the nursing home culture-change movement--an effort to radically transform the nation's nursing homes by delivering resident-directed care and empowering staff. The article traces the development of the movement from its inception 10 years ago to 2005, when the…

  1. Changes in movement symmetry over the stages of the shoeing process in military working horses.

    PubMed

    Pfau, T; Daly, K; Davison, J; Bould, A; Housby, N; Weller, R

    2016-08-20

    Military working horses perform a high proportion of work on road surfaces and are shod frequently to deal with high attrition rates. The authors investigate the influence of shoeing on movement symmetry as an indirect indicator of mechanical differences affecting force production between contralateral limbs. In this quantitative observational study, inertial sensor gait analysis was performed in 23 Irish sport type horses (4-21 years, 1.58-1.85 m) in full ceremonial work at the King's Troop, Royal Horse Artillery. Changes in two movement symmetry measures (SI: symmetry index; MinDiff: difference between displacement minima) for head and pelvic movement were assessed at four stages of routine shoeing: 'old shoes', 'shoes removed', 'trimmed', 'reshod'. Horses were assessed applying shoes to the front limbs (N=10), to the hindlimbs (N=10) or both (N=3). Changes in head movement symmetry between conditions were small and inconsistent. Changes in pelvic movement symmetry were small and showed significant differences between shoeing stages (SI: P=0.013, MinDiff: P=0.04) with most symmetrical pelvic movement after trimming. In military working horses with high frequency shoeing small changes in movement symmetry were measured. All significant changes involved trimming, which indicates that future studies should in particular assess changes before/after trimming and investigate longer shoeing intervals.

  2. Eye Movements and Display Change Detection during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slattery, Timothy J.; Angele, Bernhard; Rayner, Keith

    2011-01-01

    In the boundary change paradigm (Rayner, 1975), when a reader's eyes cross an invisible boundary location, a preview word is replaced by a target word. Readers are generally unaware of such changes due to saccadic suppression. However, some readers detect changes on a few trials and a small percentage of them detect many changes. Two experiments…

  3. Changes in music tempo entrain movement related brain activity.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ian; Hallowell, James; Hwang, Faustina; Kirke, Alexis; Malik, Asad; Roesch, Etienne; Weaver, James; Williams, Duncan; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2014-01-01

    The neural mechanisms of music listening and appreciation are not yet completely understood. Based on the apparent relationship between the beats per minute (tempo) of music and the desire to move (for example feet tapping) induced while listening to that music it is hypothesised that musical tempo may evoke movement related activity in the brain. Participants are instructed to listen, without moving, to a large range of musical pieces spanning a range of styles and tempos during an electroencephalogram (EEG) experiment. Event-related desynchronisation (ERD) in the EEG is observed to correlate significantly with the variance of the tempo of the musical stimuli. This suggests that the dynamics of the beat of the music may induce movement related brain activity in the motor cortex. Furthermore, significant correlations are observed between EEG activity in the alpha band over the motor cortex and the bandpower of the music in the same frequency band over time. This relationship is observed to correlate with the strength of the ERD, suggesting entrainment of motor cortical activity relates to increased ERD strength. PMID:25571015

  4. Changes in music tempo entrain movement related brain activity.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ian; Hallowell, James; Hwang, Faustina; Kirke, Alexis; Malik, Asad; Roesch, Etienne; Weaver, James; Williams, Duncan; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2014-01-01

    The neural mechanisms of music listening and appreciation are not yet completely understood. Based on the apparent relationship between the beats per minute (tempo) of music and the desire to move (for example feet tapping) induced while listening to that music it is hypothesised that musical tempo may evoke movement related activity in the brain. Participants are instructed to listen, without moving, to a large range of musical pieces spanning a range of styles and tempos during an electroencephalogram (EEG) experiment. Event-related desynchronisation (ERD) in the EEG is observed to correlate significantly with the variance of the tempo of the musical stimuli. This suggests that the dynamics of the beat of the music may induce movement related brain activity in the motor cortex. Furthermore, significant correlations are observed between EEG activity in the alpha band over the motor cortex and the bandpower of the music in the same frequency band over time. This relationship is observed to correlate with the strength of the ERD, suggesting entrainment of motor cortical activity relates to increased ERD strength.

  5. Improvement of Reading Speed and Change of Eye Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, Kenji; Tomita, Tsuyoshi; Saida, Shinya

    Although many studies have examined eye movements in reading, it is unclear what factors separate fast readers from slow readers. Some studies suggest that effective visual field size should be a dominant factor. However, a direct link between reading speed and effective visual field is under controversial. To clarify this issue, we investigated eye movements in reading in conjunction with speed reading training. Four participants (approx. 600 letters per minute in Japanese) improved thier reading speed through training for half an hour per day for 30 days. Reading performance of Japanese editorial articles was recorded every five days of training by the gaze-contingent window method. In three participants, effective visual field size did not increase in the same manner as reading speed which increased up to 1000 lpm. Instead, we found that in those three participants mean saccadic length became longer due to the reduction of short and unsystematic saccades. On the contrary, one participant showed high correlation between effective visual field and reading speed. Our results suggest that not only the size of the effective visual field but also efficiency of comprehension at a single gaze may be important factors for reading speed. The qualitative discrepancy among individuals suggests the existence of multiple strategies for fast reading.

  6. Whole-Body Reaching Movements Formulated by Minimum Muscle-Tension Change Criterion.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Naoki; Choi, Kyuheong; Kagawa, Takahiro; Uno, Yoji

    2016-05-01

    It is well known that planar reaching movements of the human shoulder and elbow joints have invariant features: roughly straight hand paths and bell-shaped velocity profiles. The optimal control models with the criteria of smoothness or precision, which determine a unique movement pattern, predict such features of hand trajectories. In this letter on expanding the research on simple arm reaching movements, we examine whether the smoothness criteria can be applied to whole-body reaching movements with many degrees of freedom. Determining a suitable joint trajectory in the whole-body reaching movement corresponds to the optimization problem with constraints, since body balance must be maintained during a motion task. First, we measured human joint trajectories and ground reaction forces during whole-body reaching movements, and confirmed that subjects formed similar movements with common characteristics in the trajectories of the hand position and body center of mass. Second, we calculated the optimal trajectories according to the criteria of torque and muscle-tension smoothness. While the minimum torque change trajectories were not consistent with the experimental data, the minimum muscle-tension change model was able to predict the stereotyped features of the measured trajectories. To explore the dominant effects of the extension from the torque change to the muscle-tension change, we introduced a weighted torque change cost function. Considering the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) force of the muscle as the weighting factor of each joint torque, we formulated the weighted torque change cost as a simplified version of the minimum muscle-tension change cost. The trajectories owing to the minimum weighted torque change criterion also showed qualitative agreement with the common features of the measured data. Proper estimation of the MVC forces in the body joints is essential to reproduce human whole-body movements according to the minimum muscle-tension change

  7. Adaptation to climate change: contrasting patterns of thermal-reaction-norm evolution in Pacific versus Atlantic silversides.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Hannes; Conover, David O

    2011-08-01

    How organisms may adapt to rising global temperatures is uncertain, but concepts can emerge from studying adaptive physiological trait variations across existing spatial climate gradients. Many ectotherms, particularly fish, have evolved increasing genetic growth capacities with latitude (i.e. countergradient variation (CnGV) in growth), which are thought to be an adaptation primarily to strong gradients in seasonality. In contrast, evolutionary responses to gradients in mean temperature are often assumed to involve an alternative mode, 'thermal adaptation'. We measured thermal growth reaction norms in Pacific silverside populations (Atherinops affinis) occurring across a weak latitudinal temperature gradient with invariant seasonality along the North American Pacific coast. Instead of thermal adaptation, we found novel evidence for CnGV in growth, suggesting that CnGV is a ubiquitous mode of reaction-norm evolution in ectotherms even in response to weak spatial and, by inference, temporal climate gradients. A novel, large-scale comparison between ecologically equivalent Pacific versus Atlantic silversides (Menidia menidia) revealed how closely growth CnGV patterns reflect their respective climate gradients. While steep growth reaction norms and increasing growth plasticity with latitude in M. menidia mimicked the strong, highly seasonal Atlantic coastal gradient, shallow reaction norms and much smaller, latitude-independent growth plasticity in A. affinis resembled the weak Pacific latitudinal temperature gradient. PMID:21208956

  8. Adaptation to climate change: contrasting patterns of thermal-reaction-norm evolution in Pacific versus Atlantic silversides.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Hannes; Conover, David O

    2011-08-01

    How organisms may adapt to rising global temperatures is uncertain, but concepts can emerge from studying adaptive physiological trait variations across existing spatial climate gradients. Many ectotherms, particularly fish, have evolved increasing genetic growth capacities with latitude (i.e. countergradient variation (CnGV) in growth), which are thought to be an adaptation primarily to strong gradients in seasonality. In contrast, evolutionary responses to gradients in mean temperature are often assumed to involve an alternative mode, 'thermal adaptation'. We measured thermal growth reaction norms in Pacific silverside populations (Atherinops affinis) occurring across a weak latitudinal temperature gradient with invariant seasonality along the North American Pacific coast. Instead of thermal adaptation, we found novel evidence for CnGV in growth, suggesting that CnGV is a ubiquitous mode of reaction-norm evolution in ectotherms even in response to weak spatial and, by inference, temporal climate gradients. A novel, large-scale comparison between ecologically equivalent Pacific versus Atlantic silversides (Menidia menidia) revealed how closely growth CnGV patterns reflect their respective climate gradients. While steep growth reaction norms and increasing growth plasticity with latitude in M. menidia mimicked the strong, highly seasonal Atlantic coastal gradient, shallow reaction norms and much smaller, latitude-independent growth plasticity in A. affinis resembled the weak Pacific latitudinal temperature gradient.

  9. Adaptation to climate change: contrasting patterns of thermal-reaction-norm evolution in Pacific versus Atlantic silversides

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Hannes; Conover, David O.

    2011-01-01

    How organisms may adapt to rising global temperatures is uncertain, but concepts can emerge from studying adaptive physiological trait variations across existing spatial climate gradients. Many ectotherms, particularly fish, have evolved increasing genetic growth capacities with latitude (i.e. countergradient variation (CnGV) in growth), which are thought to be an adaptation primarily to strong gradients in seasonality. In contrast, evolutionary responses to gradients in mean temperature are often assumed to involve an alternative mode, ‘thermal adaptation’. We measured thermal growth reaction norms in Pacific silverside populations (Atherinops affinis) occurring across a weak latitudinal temperature gradient with invariant seasonality along the North American Pacific coast. Instead of thermal adaptation, we found novel evidence for CnGV in growth, suggesting that CnGV is a ubiquitous mode of reaction-norm evolution in ectotherms even in response to weak spatial and, by inference, temporal climate gradients. A novel, large-scale comparison between ecologically equivalent Pacific versus Atlantic silversides (Menidia menidia) revealed how closely growth CnGV patterns reflect their respective climate gradients. While steep growth reaction norms and increasing growth plasticity with latitude in M. menidia mimicked the strong, highly seasonal Atlantic coastal gradient, shallow reaction norms and much smaller, latitude-independent growth plasticity in A. affinis resembled the weak Pacific latitudinal temperature gradient. PMID:21208956

  10. Movement planning reflects skill level and age changes in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-ping; Keen, Rachel; Rosander, Kerstin; von Hofsten, Claes

    2010-01-01

    Kinematic measures of children's reaching were found to reflect stable differences in skill level for planning for future actions. Thirty-five toddlers (18-21 months) were engaged in building block towers (precise task) and in placing blocks into an open container (imprecise task). Sixteen children were retested on the same tasks a year later. Longer deceleration as the hand approached the block for pickup was found in the tower task compared with the imprecise task, indicating planning for the second movement. More skillful toddlers who could build high towers had a longer deceleration phase when placing blocks on the tower than toddlers who built low towers. Kinematic differences between the groups remained a year later when all children could build high towers. PMID:21077868

  11. Path segmentation for beginners: an overview of current methods for detecting changes in animal movement patterns.

    PubMed

    Edelhoff, Hendrik; Signer, Johannes; Balkenhol, Niko

    2016-01-01

    Increased availability of high-resolution movement data has led to the development of numerous methods for studying changes in animal movement behavior. Path segmentation methods provide basics for detecting movement changes and the behavioral mechanisms driving them. However, available path segmentation methods differ vastly with respect to underlying statistical assumptions and output produced. Consequently, it is currently difficult for researchers new to path segmentation to gain an overview of the different methods, and choose one that is appropriate for their data and research questions. Here, we provide an overview of different methods for segmenting movement paths according to potential changes in underlying behavior. To structure our overview, we outline three broad types of research questions that are commonly addressed through path segmentation: 1) the quantitative description of movement patterns, 2) the detection of significant change-points, and 3) the identification of underlying processes or 'hidden states'. We discuss advantages and limitations of different approaches for addressing these research questions using path-level movement data, and present general guidelines for choosing methods based on data characteristics and questions. Our overview illustrates the large diversity of available path segmentation approaches, highlights the need for studies that compare the utility of different methods, and identifies opportunities for future developments in path-level data analysis.

  12. Path segmentation for beginners: an overview of current methods for detecting changes in animal movement patterns.

    PubMed

    Edelhoff, Hendrik; Signer, Johannes; Balkenhol, Niko

    2016-01-01

    Increased availability of high-resolution movement data has led to the development of numerous methods for studying changes in animal movement behavior. Path segmentation methods provide basics for detecting movement changes and the behavioral mechanisms driving them. However, available path segmentation methods differ vastly with respect to underlying statistical assumptions and output produced. Consequently, it is currently difficult for researchers new to path segmentation to gain an overview of the different methods, and choose one that is appropriate for their data and research questions. Here, we provide an overview of different methods for segmenting movement paths according to potential changes in underlying behavior. To structure our overview, we outline three broad types of research questions that are commonly addressed through path segmentation: 1) the quantitative description of movement patterns, 2) the detection of significant change-points, and 3) the identification of underlying processes or 'hidden states'. We discuss advantages and limitations of different approaches for addressing these research questions using path-level movement data, and present general guidelines for choosing methods based on data characteristics and questions. Our overview illustrates the large diversity of available path segmentation approaches, highlights the need for studies that compare the utility of different methods, and identifies opportunities for future developments in path-level data analysis. PMID:27595001

  13. Negotiating for Change: Women's Movements and Education Reform in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shu-Ching

    2011-01-01

    The dramatic changes during the past 20 years in Taiwan offer a good example of how gender policy in education is facilitated by a combination of interrelated economic, political and social forces. Taiwan's policy on gender education emerged from the interaction of state, education, academic and non-academic feminist positions in reforms. This…

  14. Autism in the U.S.: social movement and legal change.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    The social movement surrounding autism in the U.S. has been rightly defined a ray of light in the history of social progress. The movement is inspired by a true understanding of neuro-diversity and is capable of bringing about desirable change in political discourse. At several points along the way, however, the legal reforms prompted by the autism movement have been grafted onto preexisting patterns of inequality in the allocation of welfare, education, and medical services. In a context most recently complicated by economic recession, autism-driven change bears the mark of political and legal fragmentation. Distributively, it yields ambivalent results that have not yet received systemic attention. This article aims to fill this analytical vacuum by offering, first, a synoptic view of the several legal transformations brought about or advocated for by the autism movement and, second, a framework for investigating their distributive consequences.

  15. Changing Gender Norms and Reducing Intimate Partner Violence: Results From a Quasi-Experimental Intervention Study With Young Men in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Lindsay; Mehta, Manisha; Kidanu, Aklilu; Verani, Fabio; Tewolde, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effects of a community-based project in Ethiopia that worked with young men to promote gender-equitable norms and reductions in intimate partner violence (IPV). Methods. A quasi-experimental design was used to assign young Ethiopian men 15 to 24 years of age (809 participants were surveyed at baseline in 2008) to an intervention involving community engagement (CE) activities in combination with interactive group education (GE) sessions promoting gender-equitable norms and violence prevention, an intervention involving CE activities alone, or a comparison group. Results. Participants in the GE + CE intervention were twice as likely (P < .01) as those in the comparison group to show increased support for gender-equitable norms between the baseline and end-line points. Also, the percentage of GE + CE participants who reported IPV toward their partner in the preceding 6 months decreased from 53% to 38% between baseline and end line, and the percentage in the CE-only group decreased from 60% to 37%; changes were negligible in the comparison group. Conclusions. Promoting gender equity is an important strategy to reduce IPV. PMID:25393199

  16. Target switching in curved human arm movements is predicted by changing a single control parameter.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Heiko

    2011-01-01

    Straight-line movements have been studied extensively in the human motor-control literature, but little is known about how to generate curved movements and how to adjust them in a dynamic environment. The present work studied, for the first time to my knowledge, how humans adjust curved hand movements to a target that switches location. Subjects (n = 8) sat in front of a drawing tablet and looked at a screen. They moved a cursor on a curved trajectory (spiral or oval shaped) toward a goal point. In half of the trials, this goal switched 200 ms after movement onset to either one of two alternative positions, and subjects smoothly adjusted their movements to the new goal. To explain this adjustment, we compared three computational models: a superposition of curved and minimum-jerk movements (Flash and Henis in J Cogn Neurosci 3(3):220-230, 1991), Vector Planning (Gordon et al. in Exp Brain Res 99(1):97-111, 1994) adapted to curved movements (Rescale), and a nonlinear dynamical system, which could generate arbitrarily curved smooth movements and had a point attractor at the goal. For each model, we predicted the trajectory adjustment to the target switch by changing only the goal position in the model. As result, the dynamical model could explain the observed switch behavior significantly better than the two alternative models (spiral: P = 0.0002 vs. Flash, P = 0.002 vs. Rescale; oval: P = 0.04 vs. Flash; P values obtained from Wilcoxon test on R (2) values). We conclude that generalizing arbitrary hand trajectories to new targets may be explained by switching a single control command, without the need to re-plan or re-optimize the whole movement or superimpose movements.

  17. Relationships between and Changes in Preservice Classroom Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs, Willingness to Integrate Movement, and Perceived Barriers to Movement Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Collin A.; Erwin, Heather; Parks, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This study used an uncontrolled pre-post design in the context of a 16-week comprehensive school physical activity promotion (CSPAP) course to examine relationships between and changes in preservice classroom teachers' (PCTs; N = 103) efficacy beliefs about integrating movement in the academic classroom, willingness to integrate movement, and…

  18. Tortuosity entropy: a measure of spatial complexity of behavioral changes in animal movement.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Xu, Ning; Jiang, Aimin

    2015-01-01

    The goal of animal movement analysis is to understand how organisms explore and exploit complex and varying environments. Animals usually exhibit varied and complicated movements, from apparently deterministic behaviours to highly random behaviours. It has been a common method to assess movement efficiency and foraging strategies by means of quantifying and analyzing movement trajectories. Here we introduce a tortuosity entropy (TorEn), a simple measure for quantifying the behavioral change in animal movement data. In our approach, the differences between pairwise successive track points are transformed into symbolic sequences, then we map these symbols into a group of pattern vectors and calculate the information entropy of pattern vectors. We test the algorithm on both simulated trajectories and real trajectories to show that it can accurately identify not only the mixed segments in simulated data, but also the different phases in real movement data. Tortuosity entropy can be easily applied to arbitrary real-world data, whether deterministic or stochastic, stationary or non-stationary. It could be a promising tool to reveal behavioral mechanism in movement data.

  19. Changing motivations during migration: linking movement speed to reproductive status in a migratory large mammal.

    PubMed

    Singh, Navinder J; Ericsson, Göran

    2014-06-01

    A challenge in animal ecology is to link animal movement to demography. In general, reproducing and non-reproducing animals may show different movement patterns. Dramatic changes in reproductive status, such as the loss of an offspring during the course of migration, might also affect movement. Studies linking movement speed to reproductive status require individual monitoring of life-history events and hence are rare. Here, we link movement data from 98 GPS-collared female moose (Alces alces) to field observations of reproductive status and calf survival. We show that reproductive females move more quickly during migration than non-reproductive females. Further, the loss of a calf over the course of migration triggered a decrease in speed of the female. This is in contrast to what might be expected for females no longer constrained by an accompanying offspring. The observed patterns demonstrate that females of different reproductive status may have distinct movement patterns, and that the underlying motivation to move may be altered by a change in reproductive status during migration.

  20. Impact of changes in cattle movement regulations on the risks of bovine tuberculosis for Scottish farms.

    PubMed

    Gates, M C; Volkova, V V; Woolhouse, M E J

    2013-02-01

    Legislation requiring the pre- and post-movement testing of cattle imported to Scotland from regions with high bovine tuberculosis (bTB) incidence was phased in between September 2005 and May 2006 as part of efforts to maintain Officially Tuberculosis Free (OTF) status. In this analysis, we used centralized cattle movement records to investigate the influence of the legislative change on import movement patterns and the movement-based risk factors associated with new bTB herd breakdowns identified through routine testing or slaughter surveillance. The immediate reduction in the number of import movements from high incidence regions of England and Wales into Scotland suggests that pre- and post-movement testing legislation has had a strong deterrent effect on cattle import trade. Combined with the direct benefits of a more stringent testing regime, this likely explains the observed decrease in the odds of imported cattle subsequently being identified as reactors in herd breakdowns detected through routine surveillance compared to Scottish cattle. However, at the farm-level, herds that recently imported cattle from high incidence regions were still at increased risk of experiencing bTB breakdowns, which highlights the delay between the introduction of disease control measures and detectable changes in incidence. With the relative infrequency of routine herd tests and the insidious nature of clinical signs, past import movements were likely still important in determining the present farm-level risk for bTB breakdown. However, the possibility of low-level transmission between Scottish cattle herds cannot be ruled out given the known issues with test sensitivity, changes in import animal demographics, and the potential for on-farm transmission. Findings from this analysis emphasize the importance of considering how farmer behavioural change in response to policy interventions may influence disease transmission dynamics.

  1. Effectiveness of Community Dialogue in Changing Gender and Sexual Norms for HIV Prevention: Evaluation of the Tchova Tchova Program in Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Maria Elena; Poppe, Patricia; Carrasco, Maria; Pinho, Maria Dirce; Massingue, Felisberto; Tanque, Maria; Kwizera, Amata

    2016-01-01

    Structural HIV prevention interventions have gained prominence as ways to address underlying social and cultural factors that fuel the HIV epidemic. Identifying theories that explain how structural interventions are expected to change such factors can substantially increase their success. The Tchova Tchova community dialogue program, a theory-based intervention implemented in 2009–2010 in the provinces of Zambezia and Sofala, Mozambique, aimed to change gender and sexual norms for HIV prevention. Through facilitated sessions, the program sparked critical thinking and open dialogue among participants. This article measures the program’s effectiveness based on a sample of 462 participants and 453 nonparticipants. The results show that the program was successful in producing changes in three of the underlying structural factors of HIV: gender attitudes, gender roles, and HIV stigma. The program was also successful in changing other factors associated with HIV infection, including HIV prevention knowledge, discussion of HIV between sex partners, and having multiple sex partners. PMID:27123984

  2. Effectiveness of Community Dialogue in Changing Gender and Sexual Norms for HIV Prevention: Evaluation of the Tchova Tchova Program in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Maria Elena; Poppe, Patricia; Carrasco, Maria; Pinho, Maria Dirce; Massingue, Felisberto; Tanque, Maria; Kwizera, Amata

    2016-05-01

    Structural HIV prevention interventions have gained prominence as ways to address underlying social and cultural factors that fuel the HIV epidemic. Identifying theories that explain how structural interventions are expected to change such factors can substantially increase their success. The Tchova Tchova community dialogue program, a theory-based intervention implemented in 2009-2010 in the provinces of Zambezia and Sofala, Mozambique, aimed to change gender and sexual norms for HIV prevention. Through facilitated sessions, the program sparked critical thinking and open dialogue among participants. This article measures the program's effectiveness based on a sample of 462 participants and 453 nonparticipants. The results show that the program was successful in producing changes in three of the underlying structural factors of HIV: gender attitudes, gender roles, and HIV stigma. The program was also successful in changing other factors associated with HIV infection, including HIV prevention knowledge, discussion of HIV between sex partners, and having multiple sex partners. PMID:27123984

  3. Effectiveness of Community Dialogue in Changing Gender and Sexual Norms for HIV Prevention: Evaluation of the Tchova Tchova Program in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Maria Elena; Poppe, Patricia; Carrasco, Maria; Pinho, Maria Dirce; Massingue, Felisberto; Tanque, Maria; Kwizera, Amata

    2016-05-01

    Structural HIV prevention interventions have gained prominence as ways to address underlying social and cultural factors that fuel the HIV epidemic. Identifying theories that explain how structural interventions are expected to change such factors can substantially increase their success. The Tchova Tchova community dialogue program, a theory-based intervention implemented in 2009-2010 in the provinces of Zambezia and Sofala, Mozambique, aimed to change gender and sexual norms for HIV prevention. Through facilitated sessions, the program sparked critical thinking and open dialogue among participants. This article measures the program's effectiveness based on a sample of 462 participants and 453 nonparticipants. The results show that the program was successful in producing changes in three of the underlying structural factors of HIV: gender attitudes, gender roles, and HIV stigma. The program was also successful in changing other factors associated with HIV infection, including HIV prevention knowledge, discussion of HIV between sex partners, and having multiple sex partners.

  4. Local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and physical inactivity, features of the built environment, and 10-year change in glycosylated haemoglobin in an Australian population-based biomedical cohort.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Suzanne J; Paquet, Catherine; Howard, Natasha J; Coffee, Neil T; Taylor, Anne W; Niyonsenga, Theo; Daniel, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Descriptive norms vary between places. Spatial variation in health-related descriptive norms may predict individual-level health outcomes. Such relationships have rarely been investigated. This study assessed 10-year change in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in relation to local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity (n = 1890) and physical inactivity (n = 1906) in models accounting for features of the built environment. HbA1c was measured three times over 10 years for a population-based biomedical cohort of adults in Adelaide, South Australia. Environmental exposures were expressed for cohort participants using 1600 m road-network buffers centred on participants' residential address. Local descriptive norms (prevalence of overweight/obesity [body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2)] and of physical inactivity [<150 min/week]) were aggregated from responses to a separate geocoded population survey. Built environment measures were public open space (POS) availability (proportion of buffer area) and walkability. Separate sets of multilevel models analysed different predictors of 10-year change in HbA1c. Each model featured one local descriptive norm and one built environment variable with area-level education and individual-level covariates (age, sex, employment status, education, marital status, and smoking status). Interactions between local descriptive norms and built environment measures were assessed. HbA1c increased over time. POS availability and local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and physical inactivity were each associated with greater rates of HbA1c increase. Greater walkability was associated with a reduced rate of HbA1c increase, and reduced the influence of the overweight/obesity norm on the rate of increase in HbA1c. Local descriptive health-related norms and features of the built environment predict 10-year change in HbA1c. The impact of local descriptive norms can vary according to built environment features. Little researched thus far

  5. Local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and physical inactivity, features of the built environment, and 10-year change in glycosylated haemoglobin in an Australian population-based biomedical cohort.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Suzanne J; Paquet, Catherine; Howard, Natasha J; Coffee, Neil T; Taylor, Anne W; Niyonsenga, Theo; Daniel, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Descriptive norms vary between places. Spatial variation in health-related descriptive norms may predict individual-level health outcomes. Such relationships have rarely been investigated. This study assessed 10-year change in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in relation to local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity (n = 1890) and physical inactivity (n = 1906) in models accounting for features of the built environment. HbA1c was measured three times over 10 years for a population-based biomedical cohort of adults in Adelaide, South Australia. Environmental exposures were expressed for cohort participants using 1600 m road-network buffers centred on participants' residential address. Local descriptive norms (prevalence of overweight/obesity [body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2)] and of physical inactivity [<150 min/week]) were aggregated from responses to a separate geocoded population survey. Built environment measures were public open space (POS) availability (proportion of buffer area) and walkability. Separate sets of multilevel models analysed different predictors of 10-year change in HbA1c. Each model featured one local descriptive norm and one built environment variable with area-level education and individual-level covariates (age, sex, employment status, education, marital status, and smoking status). Interactions between local descriptive norms and built environment measures were assessed. HbA1c increased over time. POS availability and local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and physical inactivity were each associated with greater rates of HbA1c increase. Greater walkability was associated with a reduced rate of HbA1c increase, and reduced the influence of the overweight/obesity norm on the rate of increase in HbA1c. Local descriptive health-related norms and features of the built environment predict 10-year change in HbA1c. The impact of local descriptive norms can vary according to built environment features. Little researched thus far

  6. Association of Orofacial Muscle Activity and Movement during Changes in Speech Rate and Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClean, Michael D.; Tasko, Stephen M.

    2003-01-01

    Understanding how orofacial muscle activity and movement covary across changes in speech rate and intensity has implications for the neural control of speech production and the use of clinical procedures that manipulate speech prosody. The present study involved a correlation analysis relating average lower-lip and jaw-muscle activity to lip and…

  7. Modeling void growth and movement with phase change in thermal energy storage canisters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darling, Douglas; Namkoong, David; Skarda, J. Raymond Lee

    1993-01-01

    A scheme was developed to model the thermal hydrodynamic behavior of thermal energy storage salts. The model included buoyancy, surface tension, viscosity, phases change with density difference, and void growth and movement. The energy, momentum, and continuity equations were solved using a finite volume formulation. The momentum equation was divided into two pieces. The void growth and void movement are modeled between the two pieces of the momentum equations. Results showed this scheme was able to predict the behavior of thermal energy storage salts.

  8. Cytoplasmic filaments of Amoeba proteus. I. The role of filaments in consistency changes and movement.

    PubMed

    Pollard, T D; Ito, S

    1970-08-01

    The role of filaments in consistency changes and movement in a motile cytoplasmic extract of Amoeba proteus was investigated by correlating light and electron microscopic observations with viscosity measurements. The extract is prepared by the method of Thompson and Wolpert (1963). At 0 degrees C, this extract is nonmotile and similar in structure to ameba cytoplasm, consisting of groundplasm, vesicles, mitochondria, and a few 160 A filaments. The extract undergoes striking ATP-stimulated streaming when warmed to 22 degrees C. Two phases of movement are distinguished. During the first phase, the apparent viscosity usually increases and numerous 50-70 A filaments appear in samples of the extract prepared for electron microscopy, suggesting that the increase in viscosity in caused, at least in part, by the formation of these thin filaments. During this initial phase of ATP-stimulated movement, these thin filaments are not detectable by phase-contrast or polarization microscopy, but later, in the second phase of movement, 70 A filaments aggregate to form birefringent microscopic fibrils. A preparation of pure groundplasm with no 160 A filaments or membranous organelles exhibits little or no ATP-stimulated movement, but 50-70 A filaments form and aggregate into birefringent fibrils. This observation and the structural relationship of the 70 A and the 160 A filaments in the motile extract suggest that both types of filaments may be required for movement. These two types of filaments, 50-70 A and 160 A, are also present in the cytoplasm of intact amebas. Fixed cells could not be used to study the distribution of these filaments during natural ameboid movement because of difficulties in preserving the normal structure of the ameba during preparation for electron microscopy.

  9. Changes in functional movement screen scores over a season in collegiate soccer and volleyball athletes.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Peter A; Mokha, G Monique; Gatens, Dustin R

    2014-11-01

    Changes in many aspects of physical capacity and athletic performance have been documented through the course of a competitive season in collegiate athletes. Movement pattern quality as measured by the functional movement screen (FMS) has recently been linked to performance and injury risk. The purpose of this study was to document the changes in functional movement patterns over a competitive season. Fifty-seven National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II athletes were screened using the FMS as part of the pre and post participation examination for their competitive seasons in 2012. Composite and individual FMS test scores for the preseason and postseason were compared with identified significant changes. The scores were also analyzed for changes in the number of asymmetries present and the frequency of a score of 1 in any of the tests. There were no significant interactions in the main effects for time or sport in the composite FMS scores. However, 4 individual tests did show significant change. The deep squat (Z = -3.260, p = 0.001) and in-line lunge scores (Z = -3.498, p < 0.001) improved across all athletes, and the active straight leg raise (Z = -2.496, p = 0.013) and rotary stability scores (Z = -2.530, p = 0.011) worsened across all athletes. A reduction in the number of asymmetries (χ = 4.258, p = 0.039) and scores of 1 (χ = 26.148, p < 0.001) were also found. Changes in individual fundamental movement patterns occur through the course of a competitive season.

  10. Lateralization patterns of covert but not overt movements change with age: An EEG neurofeedback study.

    PubMed

    Zich, Catharina; Debener, Stefan; De Vos, Maarten; Frerichs, Stella; Maurer, Stefanie; Kranczioch, Cornelia

    2015-08-01

    The mental practice of movements has been suggested as a promising add-on therapy to facilitate motor recovery after stroke. In the case of mentally practised movements, electroencephalogram (EEG) can be utilized to provide feedback about an otherwise covert act. The main target group for such an intervention are elderly patients, though research so far is largely focused on young populations (<30 years). The present study therefore aimed to examine the influence of age on the neural correlates of covert movements (CMs) in a real-time EEG neurofeedback framework. CM-induced event-related desynchronization (ERD) was studied in young (mean age: 23.6 years) and elderly (mean age: 62.7 years) healthy adults. Participants performed covert and overt hand movements. CMs were based on kinesthetic motor imagery (MI) or quasi-movements (QM). Based on previous studies investigating QM in the mu frequency range (8-13Hz) QM were expected to result in more lateralized ERD% patterns and accordingly higher classification accuracies. Independent of CM strategy the elderly were characterized by a significantly reduced lateralization of ERD%, due to stronger ipsilateral ERD%, and in consequence, reduced classification accuracies. QM were generally perceived as more vivid, but no differences were evident between MI and QM in ERD% or classification accuracies. EEG feedback enhanced task-related activity independently of strategy and age. ERD% measures of overt and covert movements were strongly related in young adults, whereas in the elderly ERD% lateralization is dissociated. In summary, we did not find evidence in support of more pronounced ERD% lateralization patterns in QM. Our finding of a less lateralized activation pattern in the elderly is in accordance to previous research and with the idea that compensatory processes help to overcome neurodegenerative changes related to normal ageing. Importantly, it indicates that EEG neurofeedback studies should place more emphasis on the

  11. Shift in arm-pointing movements during gravity changes produced by aircraft parabolic flight.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Mori, S; Koga, K; Ohta, Y; Wada, Y; Tanaka, M

    1999-06-01

    It has been shown that target-pointing arm movements without visual feedback shift downward in space microgravity and upward in centrifuge hypergravity. Under gravity changes in aircraft parabolic flight, however, arm movements have been reported shifting upward in hypergravity as well, but a downward shift under microgravity is contradicted. In order to explain this discrepancy, we reexamined the pointing movements using an experimental design which was different from prior ones. Arm-pointing movements were measured by goniometry around the shoulder joint of subjects with and without eyes closed or with a weight in the hand, during hyper- and microgravity in parabolic flight. Subjects were fastened securely to the seat with the neck fixed and the elbow maintained in an extended position, and the eyes were kept closed for a period of time before each episode of parabolic flight. Under these new conditions, the arm consistently shifted downward during microgravity and mostly upward during hypergravity, as expected. We concluded that arm-pointing deviation induced by parabolic flight could be also be valid for studying the mechanism underlying disorientation under varying gravity conditions.

  12. Changes of vertical eye movements of goldfish for different otolith stimulation by linear acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takabayashi, A.; Ohmura-Iwasaki, T.; Mori, S.

    2003-10-01

    Eye movements serves to hold the gaze steady or to shift the gaze to an object of interest. On Earth, signals from otoliths can be interpreted either as linear motion or as tilt with respect to gravity. In microgravity, static tilt will no longer give rise to changes in otolith activity. However, linear acceleration as well as angular acceleration stimulate the otolith organ. Therefore, during adaptation to microgravity, otolith-mediated response such as eye movements alter. In this study, we analyzed the eye movements of goldfish during linear acceleration. The eye movements during rectangular linear acceleration along the different body axis were video-recorded. The vertical eye rotations were analyzed frame by frame. In normal fish, leftward lateral acceleration induced downward eye rotation in the left eye and upward eye rotation in the right eye. Acceleration from caudal to rostral evoked downward eye rotation in both eyes. When the direction of acceleration was shifted 15 degrees left, the responses in the left eye disappeared. These results suggested that otolith organs in each side were stimulated differently.

  13. Changes of vertical eye movements of goldfish for different otolith stimulation by linear acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takabayashi, A.; Ohmura, T.; Mori, S.

    Eye movements serve to hold the gaze steady or to shift the gaze to an object of interest. On Earth, signals from otoliths can be interpreted either as linear motion or as tilt with respect to gravity. In microgravity, static tilt will no longer give rise to change in otolith activity. However, linear acceleration as well as angular acceleration stimulate otolith organ. Therefore, during adaptation to microgravity, otolith-mediated response such as eye movements would alter. In this study, we analyzed the eye movements of goldfish during linear acceleration. The eye movements during rectangular linear acceleration along the different body axis were video-recorded. The vertical eye rotations were analyzed frame by frame. In normal fish, acceleration from caudal to rostral evoked downward eye rotation in both eyes. Leftward lateral acceleration induced downward eye rotation in left eye and upward eye rotation in right eye. When the direction of acceleration was shifted to left about 15 degrees, the responses in left eye was disappeared. These results suggested that otolith organs in each side were stimulated in different way.

  14. Norm-establishing and norm-following in autonomous agency.

    PubMed

    Barandiaran, Xabier E; Egbert, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Living agency is subject to a normative dimension (good-bad, adaptive-maladaptive) that is absent from other types of interaction. We review current and historical attempts to naturalize normativity from an organism-centered perspective, identifying two central problems and their solution: (1) How to define the topology of the viability space so as to include a sense of gradation that permits reversible failure, and (2) how to relate both the processes that establish norms and those that result in norm-following behavior. We present a minimal metabolic system that is coupled to a gradient-climbing chemotactic mechanism. Studying the relationship between metabolic dynamics and environmental resource conditions, we identify an emergent viable region and a precarious region where the system tends to die unless environmental conditions change. We introduce the concept of normative field as the change of environmental conditions required to bring the system back to its viable region. Norm-following, or normative action, is defined as the course of behavior whose effect is positively correlated with the normative field. We close with a discussion of the limitations and extensions of our model and some final reflections on the nature of norms and teleology in agency.

  15. Norm-establishing and norm-following in autonomous agency.

    PubMed

    Barandiaran, Xabier E; Egbert, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Living agency is subject to a normative dimension (good-bad, adaptive-maladaptive) that is absent from other types of interaction. We review current and historical attempts to naturalize normativity from an organism-centered perspective, identifying two central problems and their solution: (1) How to define the topology of the viability space so as to include a sense of gradation that permits reversible failure, and (2) how to relate both the processes that establish norms and those that result in norm-following behavior. We present a minimal metabolic system that is coupled to a gradient-climbing chemotactic mechanism. Studying the relationship between metabolic dynamics and environmental resource conditions, we identify an emergent viable region and a precarious region where the system tends to die unless environmental conditions change. We introduce the concept of normative field as the change of environmental conditions required to bring the system back to its viable region. Norm-following, or normative action, is defined as the course of behavior whose effect is positively correlated with the normative field. We close with a discussion of the limitations and extensions of our model and some final reflections on the nature of norms and teleology in agency. PMID:23373978

  16. Adaptation and perceptual norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Michael A.; Yasuda, Maiko; Haber, Sara; Leonard, Deanne; Ballardini, Nicole

    2007-02-01

    We used adaptation to examine the relationship between perceptual norms--the stimuli observers describe as psychologically neutral, and response norms--the stimulus levels that leave visual sensitivity in a neutral or balanced state. Adapting to stimuli on opposite sides of a neutral point (e.g. redder or greener than white) biases appearance in opposite ways. Thus the adapting stimulus can be titrated to find the unique adapting level that does not bias appearance. We compared these response norms to subjectively defined neutral points both within the same observer (at different retinal eccentricities) and between observers. These comparisons were made for visual judgments of color, image focus, and human faces, stimuli that are very different and may depend on very different levels of processing, yet which share the property that for each there is a well defined and perceptually salient norm. In each case the adaptation aftereffects were consistent with an underlying sensitivity basis for the perceptual norm. Specifically, response norms were similar to and thus covaried with the perceptual norm, and under common adaptation differences between subjectively defined norms were reduced. These results are consistent with models of norm-based codes and suggest that these codes underlie an important link between visual coding and visual experience.

  17. Age-related changes of dental pulp tissue after experimental tooth movement in rats

    PubMed Central

    Von Böhl, Martina; Ren, Yijin; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne M.; Maltha, Jaap C.

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the effect of orthodontic tooth movement on the dental pulp in adolescents is reversible and that it has no long-lasting effect on pulpal physiology. However, it is not clear yet if the same conclusion is also valid for adult subjects. Thus, in two groups of rats, aged 6 and 40 weeks respectively, 3 molars at one side of the maxilla were moved together in a mesial direction with a standardized orthodontic appliance delivering a force of 10 cN. The contralateral side served as a control. Parasagittal histological sections were prepared after tooth movement for 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The pulp tissue was characterized for the different groups, with special emphasis on cell density, inflammatory cells, vascularity, and odontoblasts. Dimensions of dentin and the pulpal horns was determined and related with the duration of orthodontic force application and age ware evaluated. We found that neither in young nor in adult rats, force application led to long-lasting or irreversible changes in pulpal tissues. Dimensional variables showed significant age-related changes. In conclusion, orthodontic tooth movement per se has no long-lasting or irreversible effect on pulpal tissues, neither in the young nor in the adult animals. PMID:26855867

  18. Norms for change in episodic memory as a prerequisite for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

    PubMed

    Bläsi, Stefan; Zehnder, Antoinette E; Berres, Manfred; Taylor, Kirsten I; Spiegel, René; Monsch, Andreas U

    2009-03-01

    The new diagnostic criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from the International Working Group on Mild Cognitive Impairment (Winblad et al., 2004, p. 243) list "evidence of decline over time in objective cognitive tasks" as one diagnostic sign, implying the repeated neuropsychological testing. This study aimed to compare different assessment methods of longitudinal change based on the performances of 366 cognitively healthy participants (237 men, 129 women) examined with a German version of the California Verbal Learning Test (Delis, Kramer, Kaplan, & Ober, 1987) at baseline and 2 years later. Age, education, gender, and baseline performance were taken into account. Results revealed marked practice effects after 2 years. Normal ranges for change that controls for practice effects and regression to the mean proved to be superior to other reliable change indexes. This new method allows for more valid interpretation of change in neuropsychological functioning and thus diagnosis of MCI. PMID:19254092

  19. Learning-induced changes in attentional allocation during categorization: a sizable catalog of attention change as measured by eye movements.

    PubMed

    McColeman, Caitlyn M; Barnes, Jordan I; Chen, Lihan; Meier, Kimberly M; Walshe, R Calen; Blair, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    Learning how to allocate attention properly is essential for success at many categorization tasks. Advances in our understanding of learned attention are stymied by a chicken-and-egg problem: there are no theoretical accounts of learned attention that predict patterns of eye movements, making data collection difficult to justify, and there are not enough datasets to support the development of a rich theory of learned attention. The present work addresses this by reporting five measures relating to the overt allocation of attention across 10 category learning experiments: accuracy, probability of fixating irrelevant information, number of fixations to category features, the amount of change in the allocation of attention (using a new measure called Time Proportion Shift - TIPS), and a measure of the relationship between attention change and erroneous responses. Using these measures, the data suggest that eye-movements are not substantially connected to error in most cases and that aggregate trial-by-trial attention change is generally stable across a number of changing task variables. The data presented here provide a target for computational models that aim to account for changes in overt attentional behaviors across learning.

  20. Doctoral students in the life sciences: Perceptions related to the impact of changing expectations and modes of support on research ethics and norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajen, Ava Lee

    Scholars predict that the current institutional, state, and federal push for the commercialization of research, as well as increases in industry funding, will challenge, and perhaps even alter, the culture and ethical standards of academe. A focal point for these trends at many institutions is the current emphasis on life sciences research. This study builds on what is known about doctoral students and their ethical training in the life sciences by examining the individual experiences of doctoral students within the context of changing research expectations and funding patterns at one research university. The project was conducted using a case study approach within the naturalistic tradition. Twenty-four advanced doctoral student in the life sciences were interviewed. They were asked about their perceptions and experiences related to three broad topics: the normative and ethical aspects of academic research behavior; the impact of changing funding sources and changing expectations for research outcomes; and the aspects of their graduate education and training related to research norms and ethics. A systematic qualitative data analysis process allowed the richness and complexity of the students' views and concerns to be revealed. The results of this study highlight their individual and shared understandings and experiences, provide a conceptual framework for understanding their perceptions, and offer related recommendations for improving doctoral education within the current, ethically complex research context.

  1. The Relationship between Performance and Trunk Movement During Change of Direction

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Shogo; Nagano, Yasuharu; Kaneko, Satoshi; Sakurai, Takakuni; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain the trunk kinematics data during a change-of-direction task and to determine the relationship between trunk kinematics and the change-of-direction performance. The design of this investigation was a descriptive laboratory study. Twelve healthy male collegiate soccer players (age: 21.3 ± 1.0 yrs, body mass: 67. 7 ± 6.7 kg, and height: 1.75 ± 0.05 m) participated in this study. Participants performed a shuttle run cutting task with a 180 degree pivot as quickly as possible. The shuttle run cutting time, ground contact time during a change-of-direction, and trunk inclination angle were measured. The shuttle run cutting time tends to correlate positively with ground contact time. During the change- of-direction task, the trunk forward inclination angle gradually increased during the first 50% of the stance phase and decreased subsequently whereas the trunk flexed, maintaining a left inclination during the first 40% of the stance phase and changing exponentially in the opposite direction. Forward angular displacement of the trunk between foot-contact and maximum trunk inclination correlated positively with the shuttle run cutting time (r = 0.61, p < 0.05) and ground contact time (r = 0.65, p < 0.05). These findings suggest that the change-of-direction performance could be related to the small angular displacement of the trunk during a change of direction. Moreover, it was considered that there might be optimal inclination angles related to change-of-direction performance. Therefore, coaches in field sports should check body posture and trunk movements during changes of direction. Key points Small forward angular displacement of the trunk during a direction change is related to the change-of-direction performance. Trunk stability during a change of direction is an important factor in the change-of-direction performance. There might be a range of optimal angles of trunk inclination during a change of direction. Coaches in field

  2. The Relationship between Performance and Trunk Movement During Change of Direction.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Shogo; Nagano, Yasuharu; Kaneko, Satoshi; Sakurai, Takakuni; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain the trunk kinematics data during a change-of-direction task and to determine the relationship between trunk kinematics and the change-of-direction performance. The design of this investigation was a descriptive laboratory study. Twelve healthy male collegiate soccer players (age: 21.3 ± 1.0 yrs, body mass: 67. 7 ± 6.7 kg, and height: 1.75 ± 0.05 m) participated in this study. Participants performed a shuttle run cutting task with a 180 degree pivot as quickly as possible. The shuttle run cutting time, ground contact time during a change-of-direction, and trunk inclination angle were measured. The shuttle run cutting time tends to correlate positively with ground contact time. During the change- of-direction task, the trunk forward inclination angle gradually increased during the first 50% of the stance phase and decreased subsequently whereas the trunk flexed, maintaining a left inclination during the first 40% of the stance phase and changing exponentially in the opposite direction. Forward angular displacement of the trunk between foot-contact and maximum trunk inclination correlated positively with the shuttle run cutting time (r = 0.61, p < 0.05) and ground contact time (r = 0.65, p < 0.05). These findings suggest that the change-of-direction performance could be related to the small angular displacement of the trunk during a change of direction. Moreover, it was considered that there might be optimal inclination angles related to change-of-direction performance. Therefore, coaches in field sports should check body posture and trunk movements during changes of direction. Key pointsSmall forward angular displacement of the trunk during a direction change is related to the change-of-direction performance.Trunk stability during a change of direction is an important factor in the change-of-direction performance.There might be a range of optimal angles of trunk inclination during a change of direction.Coaches in field

  3. Does face inversion qualitatively change face processing: an eye movement study using a face change detection task.

    PubMed

    Xu, Buyun; Tanaka, James W

    2013-02-18

    Understanding the Face Inversion Effect is important for the study of face processing. Some researchers believe that the processing of inverted faces is qualitatively different from the processing of upright faces because inversion leads to a disproportionate performance decrement on the processing of different kinds of face information. Other researchers believe that the difference is quantitative because the processing of all kinds of facial information is less efficient due to the change in orientation and thus, the performance decrement is not disproportionate. To address the Qualitative and Quantitative debate, the current study employed a response-contingent, change detection paradigm to study eye movement during the processing of upright and inverted faces. In this study, configural and featural information were parametrically and independently manipulated in the eye and mouth region of the face. The manipulations for configural information involved changing the interocular distance between the eyes or the distance between the mouth and the nose. The manipulations for featural information involved changing the size of the eyes or the size of the mouth. The main results showed that change detection was more difficult in inverted than upright faces. Specifically, performance declined when the manipulated change occurred in the mouth region, despite the greater efforts allocated to the mouth region. Moreover, compared to upright faces where fixations were concentrated on the eyes and nose regions, inversion produced a higher concentration of fixations on the nose and mouth regions. Finally, change detection performance was better when the last fixation prior to response was located on the region of change, and the relationship between last fixation location and accuracy was stronger for inverted than upright faces. These findings reinforce the connection between eye movements and face processing strategies, and suggest that face inversion produces a qualitative

  4. Tracking Mobile Sinks via Analysis of Movement Angle Changes in WSNs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guisong; Xu, Huifen; He, Xingyu; Wang, Gang; Xiong, Naixue; Wu, Chunxue

    2016-01-01

    Existing methods for tracking mobile sinks in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) often incur considerable energy consumption and overhead. To address this issue, we propose a Detour-Aware Mobile Sink Tracking (DAMST) method via analysis of movement angle changes of mobile sinks, for collecting data in a low-overhead and energy efficient way. In the proposed method, while a mobile sink passes through a region, it appoints a specific node as a region agent to collect information of the whole region, and records nodes near or on its trajectory as footprints. If it needs information from the region agent in a future time it will construct an energy efficient path from the region agent to itself by calculating its own movement angles according to the footprints, as well as getting rid of detours by analyzing these movement angles. Finally, the performance of the tracking method is evaluated systematically under different trajectory patterns and footprint appointment intervals. The simulation results consolidate that DAMST has advantages in reducing energy consumption and data overhead. PMID:27043562

  5. Trick maneuvers in cervical dystonia: investigation of movement- and touch-related changes in polymyographic activity.

    PubMed

    Wissel, J; Müller, J; Ebersbach, G; Poewe, W

    1999-11-01

    Antagonistic gestures or trick maneuvers are well-known clinical features to reduce or abolish dystonic posturing in cervical dystonia (CD). The maneuvers typically consist of a finger touch to the facial skin but their physiology remains unknown. To determine the temporal profile of geste maneuver performance, 25 patients with idiopathic CD were studied by means of polymyography of six cervical muscles prior to any botulinum toxin treatment. Two piezoelectric elements fixed to a fingertip of the hand involved in the trick maneuver and to the facial target region, respectively, were used to relate the essential points of the trick maneuver time course (start of geste-arm movement, facial contact, end of contact, end of movement) to changes in polymyographic activity. Thirteen patients (52%) showed marked reductions of electromyographic (EMG) activity (> or =50% in at least one muscle) during arm movement, definitely prior to contact between fingers and facial target area; in the remaining 12 patients (48%), geste-related EMG effects were confined to facial-finger contact. These results might indicate different physiological mechanisms in clinically indistinguishable antagonistic gestures.

  6. Potential Applications of Social Norms Theory to Academic Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demetriou, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, social norms theory has become prevalent in student development literature and research. Subsequently, social norms interventions to change student behavior have spread across campuses nationwide through marketing campaigns. Theorists and practitioners have applied the social norms approach to primarily health-related student…

  7. Spring hunting changes the regional movements of migrating greater snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bechet, A.; Giroux, J.-F.; Gauthier, G.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    1. Human-induced disturbance such as hunting may influence the migratory behaviour of long-distance migrants. In 1999 and 2000 a spring hunt of greater snow geese Anser caerulescens atlanticus occurred for the first time in North America since 1916, aimed at stopping population growth to protect natural habitats. 2. We evaluated the impact of this hunt on the staging movements of geese along a 600-km stretch of the St. Lawrence River in southern Quebec, Canada. 3. We tracked radio-tagged female geese in three contiguous regions of the staging area from the south-west to the north-east: Lake St Pierre, Upper Estuary and Lower Estuary, in spring 1997 (n = 37) and 1998 (n = 70) before the establishment of hunting, and in 1999 (n = 60) and 2000 (n = 59) during hunting. 4. We used multi-state capture-recapture models to estimate the movement probabilities of radio-tagged females among these regions. To assess disturbance level, we tracked geese during their feeding trips and estimated the probability of completing a foraging bout without being disturbed. 5. In the 2 years without hunting, migration was strongly unidirectional from the south-west to the north-east, with very low westward movement probabilities. Geese gradually moved from Lake St Pierre to Upper Estuary and then from Upper Estuary to Lower Estuary. 6. In contrast, during the 2 years with hunting westward movement was more than four times more likely than in preceding years. Most of these backward movements occurred shortly after the beginning of the hunt, indicating that geese moved back to regions where they had not previously experienced hunting. 7. Overall disturbance level increased in all regions in years with hunting relative to years without hunting. 8. Synthesis and applications. We conclude that spring hunting changed the stopover scheduling of this long-distance migrant and might further impact population dynamics by reducing prenuptial fattening. The spring hunt may also have increased crop

  8. Lacustrine chronology links late Pleistocene climate change and mass movements in northern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Dethier, D.P.; Reneau, S.L.

    1996-06-01

    Well-dated lacustrine deposits in northern White Rock Canyon, New Mexico, record damming of the Rio Grande by at least four separate failures of a slump complex between about 17.5 and 12.4 ka ({sup 14}C), linking mass movements to a period of rapid climate change in the western United States. Failure of metastable slumps probably resulted from removal of lateral support during down-cutting and erosion by the Rio Grande and from a decrease in resisting forces due to increased pore pressures. Our chronology suggests that the lake that formed between 17.5 and 15.0 ka may record effects of both glacial melt and pluvial activity (mainly enhanced rainfall); the youngest lake (neary 12.4 ka) may record pluvial runoff; and the intermediate lakes (13.7 to 13.1 ka) may record pluvial and minor melt-water activity. We have not found lacustrine deposits younger than about 12.4 ka. The record of geomorphic response along the Rio Grande suggests that late Pleistocene climatic changes may have triggered similar mass movements elsewhere in the southwest. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Evaluation of Potential Climate Change Impacts on Particle Movement in Open Channel Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, E.; Tsai, C.

    2014-12-01

    It is important to develop a forecast model to predict the trajectory of sediment particles when extreme flow events occur. In extreme flow environments, the stochastic jump diffusion particle tracking model (SJD-PTM) can be used to model the movement of sediment particles in response to extreme events. This proposed SJD-PTM can be separated into three main parts — a drift motion, a turbulence term and a jump term due to random occurrences of extreme flow events. The study is intended to modify the jump term, which models the abrupt changes of particle position in the extreme flow environments. The frequency of extreme flow occurrences might change due to many uncertain factors such as climate change. The study attempts to use the concept of the logistic regression and the parameter of odds ratio, namely the trend magnitude to investigate the frequency change of extreme flow event occurrences and its impact on sediment particle movement. With the SJD-PTM, the ensemble mean and variance of particle trajectory can be quantified via simulations. The results show that by taking the effect of the trend magnitude into consideration, the particle position and its uncertainty may undergo a significant increase. Such findings will have many important implications to the environmental and hydraulic engineering design and planning. For instance, when the frequency of the occurrence of flow events with higher extremity increases, particles can travel further and faster downstream. It is observed that flow events with higher extremity can induce a higher degree of entrainment and particle resuspension, and consequently more significant bed and bank erosion.

  10. Health norms in pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Barić, L; MacArthur, C

    1977-01-01

    A study was conducted on a sample of pregnant women. The study had two aims: to develop a method of measuring social expectations (norms) and to find out how far women conform in their behaviour to these norms. The areas of behaviour were smoking, exercise, diet, alcohol, and medication. Pregnancy was found to be appropriate for this study because of the high degree of formalisation that this state enjoys in our society. The methods used for measuring norms in this study are an improvement on earlier methods, but further refinements are needed. The findings show that women generally do conform to the social expectations and that their behaviour is in accordance with three types of norms--that is, general, specific, and transitional. The implications for health education interventions are discussed. PMID:856369

  11. Extending the Mertonian Norms: Scientists’ Subscription to Norms of Research

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Melissa S.; Ronning, Emily A.; DeVries, Raymond; Martinson, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    This analysis, based on focus groups and a national survey, assesses scientists’ subscription to the Mertonian norms of science and associated counternorms. It also supports extension of these norms to governance (as opposed to administration), as a norm of decision-making, and quality (as opposed to quantity), as a evaluative norm. PMID:21132074

  12. Extending the Mertonian Norms: Scientists' Subscription to Norms of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Melissa S.; Ronning, Emily A.; De Vries, Raymond; Martinson, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    This analysis, based on focus groups and a national survey, assesses scientists' subscription to the Mertonian norms of science and associated counternorms. It also supports extension of these norms to governance (as opposed to administration), as a norm of decision-making, and quality (as opposed to quantity), as an evaluative norm. (Contains 1…

  13. Extending the Mertonian Norms: Scientists' Subscription to Norms of Research.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Melissa S; Ronning, Emily A; Devries, Raymond; Martinson, Brian C

    2010-05-01

    This analysis, based on focus groups and a national survey, assesses scientists' subscription to the Mertonian norms of science and associated counternorms. It also supports extension of these norms to governance (as opposed to administration), as a norm of decision-making, and quality (as opposed to quantity), as a evaluative norm. PMID:21132074

  14. Mode changes associated with oil droplet movement in solutions of gemini cationic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Banno, Taisuke; Miura, Shingo; Kuroha, Rie; Toyota, Taro

    2013-06-25

    Micrometer-sized self-propelled oil droplets in nonequilibrium systems have attracted much attention, since they form stable emulsions composed of oil, water, and surfactant which represent a primitive type of inanimate chemical machinery. In this work, we examined means of controlling the movement of oil droplets by studying the dynamics of n-heptyloxybenzaldehyde droplets in phosphate buffers containing alkanediyl-α,ω-bis(N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethylammonium bromide) (nG12) with either tetramethylene (4G12), octaethylene (8G12), or dodecamethylene (12G12) chains in the linker moiety. Significant differences in droplet dynamics were observed to be induced by changes in the linker structure of these gemini cationic surfactants. In a phosphate buffer containing 30 mM 4G12, self-propelled motion of droplets concurrent with the formation of molecular aggregates on their surfaces was observed, whereas the fusion of oil droplets was evident in both 8G12 and 12G12 solutions. We also determined that the surface activities and the extent of molecular self-assembly of the surfactants in phosphate buffer were strongly influenced by the alkyl chain length in the linker moiety. We therefore conclude that the surface activities of the gemini cationic surfactant have important effects on the oil-water interfacial tension of oil droplets and the formation of molecular aggregates and that both of these factors induce the unique movement of the droplets.

  15. Changes in mechanical control of movement during the first 5 months of independent walking: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Hallemans, Ann; Dhanis, Lin; De Clercq, Dirk; Aerts, Peter

    2007-05-01

    Insight into neuromuscular control of movement is gained through an understanding of the mechanical causes of movement. Data on new walkers' net joint moments is scarce, however, although those moments can be considered the direct cause of movement. The authors' goal in this research project was to characterize net joint moments in toddlers (N = 10) during the first 5 months of independent walking and to discuss their role in mechanical control of walking. The authors modeled leg segments as oscillating pendulums fixed at the proximal joint and investigated the relationship between force and movement. Their investigation revealed that at the onset of independent gait, walking was primarily hip driven. Furthermore, the toddlers seemed to experience problems in uncoupling active and passive control around the joints. Changes in mechanical control of walking were observed after 3 to 4 months of independent walking. The changes were more obvious at the hip and the knee joint than at the ankle.

  16. Air distribution and size changes in the remediated zone after air sparging for soil particle movement.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yih-Jin

    2008-10-30

    In an unconsolidated porous medium, soil particles can be mobilized by physical perturbation. In model systems of fluids flowing over spherical particles attached to flat surfaces, the hydrodynamic shear force depends on the fluid viscosity, particle radius, and flow velocity. Soil particles can be reasonably expected to be transported by flowing water during air sparging when the particle-size distribution does not fit the densest possible particle arrangement. If soil particles are transported during air sparging, then the distribution of the porosity and reservoir permeability will change. The remediated zone changes because of the changes in soil characteristics. This study applied some mathematical models to elucidate the mobilization process of soil particles during in situ air sparging. The changes in the characteristics of the soil and the swept volume of injected air during air sparging were also investigated. The results demonstrated that particle movement reduced the radius of influence (ROI) and the swept volume of injected air. In this case study, the maximum reducing rates in ROI and the swept volume were 24% and 26% for the zone where the gas saturation exceeded 10%.

  17. Changes in Articulator Movement Variability during Phonemic Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigos, Maria I.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The present study explored articulator movement variability during voicing contrast acquisition. The purpose was to examine whether oral articulator movement trajectories associated with the production of voiced/voiceless bilabial phonemes in children became less variable over time. Method: Jaw, lower lip, and upper lip movements were…

  18. Event-related beta EEG-changes during passive and attempted foot movements in paraplegic patients.

    PubMed

    Müller-Putz, Gernot R; Zimmermann, Doris; Graimann, Bernhard; Nestinger, Kurt; Korisek, Gerd; Pfurtscheller, Gert

    2007-03-16

    A number of electroencephalographic (EEG) studies report on motor event-related desynchronization and synchronization (ERD/ERS) in the beta band, i.e. a decrease and increase of spectral amplitudes of central beta rhythms in the range from 13 to 35 Hz. Following an ERD that occurs shortly before and during the movement, bursts of beta oscillations (beta ERS) appear within a 1-s interval after movement offset. Such a post-movement beta ERS has been reported after voluntary hand movements, passive movements, movement imagination, and also after movements induced by functional electrical stimulation. The present study compares ERD/ERS patterns in paraplegic patients (suffering from a complete spinal cord injury) and healthy subjects during attempted (active) and passive foot movements. The aim of this work is to address the question, whether patients do have the same focal beta ERD/ERS pattern during attempted foot movement as healthy subjects do. The results showed midcentral-focused beta ERD/ERS patterns during passive, active, and imagined foot movements in healthy subjects. This is in contrast to a diffuse and broad distributed ERD/ERS pattern during attempted foot movements in patients. Only one patient showed a similar ERD/ERS pattern. Furthermore, no significant ERD/ERS patterns during passive foot movement in the group of the paraplegics could be found. PMID:17229403

  19. Atmospheric depression-mediated water temperature changes affect the vertical movement of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Takashi; Hyodo, Susumu; Sato, Katsufumi

    2016-08-01

    The Sanriku coastal area, Japan, is one of the southern-most natural spawning regions of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta. Here, we report their behavioral response to changes in ambient temperature after the passage of an atmospheric depression during the early spawning season. Before the passage, all electrically tagged fish moved vertically for several hours to depths below the shallow thermocline at >100 m. However, during the atmospheric depression, the salmon shortened the duration of their vertical movements and spent most time at the surface. The water column was homogenous at <150 m deep except for the surface. The descending behavior may have been discontinued because the cooler water below the thermocline was no longer in a thermally defined layer, due to strong vertical mixing by high wave action. Instead, they likely spent time within the cooler water temperatures at the surface of bays to minimize metabolic energy cost during migration.

  20. Climate change impacts on mass movements--case studies from the European Alps.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, M; Tiranti, D; Huggel, C

    2014-09-15

    This paper addresses the current knowledge on climate change impacts on mass movement activity in mountain environments by illustrating characteristic cases of debris flows, rock slope failures and landslides from the French, Italian, and Swiss Alps. It is expected that events are likely to occur less frequently during summer, whereas the anticipated increase of rainfall in spring and fall could likely alter debris-flow activity during the shoulder seasons (March, April, November, and December). The magnitude of debris flows could become larger due to larger amounts of sediment delivered to the channels and as a result of the predicted increase in heavy precipitation events. At the same time, however, debris-flow volumes in high-mountain areas will depend chiefly on the stability and/or movement rates of permafrost bodies, and destabilized rock glaciers could lead to debris flows without historic precedents in the future. The frequency of rock slope failures is likely to increase, as excessively warm air temperatures, glacier shrinkage, as well as permafrost warming and thawing will affect and reduce rock slope stability in the direction that adversely affects rock slope stability. Changes in landslide activity in the French and Western Italian Alps will likely depend on differences in elevation. Above 1500 m asl, the projected decrease in snow season duration in future winters and springs will likely affect the frequency, number and seasonality of landslide reactivations. In Piemonte, for instance, 21st century landslides have been demonstrated to occur more frequently in early spring and to be triggered by moderate rainfalls, but also to occur in smaller numbers. On the contrary, and in line with recent observations, events in autumn, characterized by a large spatial density of landslide occurrences might become more scarce in the Piemonte region.

  1. Climate change impacts on mass movements--case studies from the European Alps.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, M; Tiranti, D; Huggel, C

    2014-09-15

    This paper addresses the current knowledge on climate change impacts on mass movement activity in mountain environments by illustrating characteristic cases of debris flows, rock slope failures and landslides from the French, Italian, and Swiss Alps. It is expected that events are likely to occur less frequently during summer, whereas the anticipated increase of rainfall in spring and fall could likely alter debris-flow activity during the shoulder seasons (March, April, November, and December). The magnitude of debris flows could become larger due to larger amounts of sediment delivered to the channels and as a result of the predicted increase in heavy precipitation events. At the same time, however, debris-flow volumes in high-mountain areas will depend chiefly on the stability and/or movement rates of permafrost bodies, and destabilized rock glaciers could lead to debris flows without historic precedents in the future. The frequency of rock slope failures is likely to increase, as excessively warm air temperatures, glacier shrinkage, as well as permafrost warming and thawing will affect and reduce rock slope stability in the direction that adversely affects rock slope stability. Changes in landslide activity in the French and Western Italian Alps will likely depend on differences in elevation. Above 1500 m asl, the projected decrease in snow season duration in future winters and springs will likely affect the frequency, number and seasonality of landslide reactivations. In Piemonte, for instance, 21st century landslides have been demonstrated to occur more frequently in early spring and to be triggered by moderate rainfalls, but also to occur in smaller numbers. On the contrary, and in line with recent observations, events in autumn, characterized by a large spatial density of landslide occurrences might become more scarce in the Piemonte region. PMID:24630951

  2. Effects of movement from a postural maintenance position on lumbar hemodynamic changes

    PubMed Central

    Kumamoto, Tsuneo; Seko, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Yui

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of movement from a postural maintenance position on lumbar hemodynamic changes, in order to prevent lower back pain and develop exercise therapy. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five healthy adults (mean age: 23.2 years) participated in the study. During flexion-extension exercise, the subjects moved their trunks gradually to a flexed position from an upright posture while sitting and standing, and then returned to and maintained an upright (re-upright) position. In the extension–flexion exercise, the subjects moved their trunks gradually from an upright posture to an extended position, and back while maintaining an upright (re-upright) position. Lumbar spinal muscle activity and hemodynamic changes were evaluated during both exercises. [Results] During the flexion and extension exercises, increased trunk-flexion angle caused increased muscle activity, decreased oxygenated hemoglobin in the multifidus muscle, and increased deoxygenated hemoglobin in the multifidus and lumbar erector spinae muscles. Moreover, the muscle activities were nearly the same in the re-upright and upright positions, and total hemoglobin also increased. [Conclusion] In both standing and sitting positions, holding the trunk in a flexed position causes ischemic hemodynamic changes in the multifidus muscle; however, the hyperemic response when returning the trunk to an extended position may improve circulation. PMID:27390450

  3. Movement disorder and neuromuscular change in zebrafish embryos after exposure to caffeine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yau-Hung; Huang, Yi-Hui; Wen, Chi-Chung; Wang, Yun-Hsin; Chen, Wei-Li; Chen, Li-Chao; Tsay, Huey-Jen

    2008-01-01

    Though caffeine is broadly distributed in many plants and foods, little is known about the teratogenic effects of caffeine during early embryonic development. Here, we used zebrafish as a model to test toxicity and teratogenicity since they have transparent eggs, making the organogenesis of zebrafish embryos easier to observe. When the exposure doses of caffeine were less than 150 ppm (17.5, 35, 50, 100 and 150 ppm), the zebrafish embryos exhibited no significant differences in survival rates after comparison with vehicle-control (0 ppm) group. As the exposure dosages increased, the survival rates decreased. No embryos survived after treatment with 300 ppm caffeine or higher dosages. The most evident change in embryos treated with caffeine was a shorter body length (vehicle-control: 3.26+/-0.01 mm, n=49; vs 150 ppm of caffeine: 2.67+/-0.03 mm, n=50). In addition, caffeine-treated embryos exhibited significantly reduced tactile sensitivity frequencies of touch-induced movement (vehicle-control: 9.93+/-0.77 vs 17.5-150 ppm caffeine: 5.37+/-0.52-0.10+/-0.06). Subtle changes are easily observed by staining with specific monoclonal antibodies F59, Znp1 and Zn5 to detect morphological changes in muscle fibers, primary motor axons and secondary motor axon projections, respectively. Our data show that the treatment of caffeine leads to misalignment of muscle fibers and motor neuron defects, especially secondary motor neuron axonal growth defects.

  4. Network structure and influence of the climate change counter-movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Justin

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic climate change represents a global threat to human well-being and ecosystem functioning. Yet despite its importance for science and policy, our understanding of the causes of widespread uncertainty and doubt found among the general public remains limited. The political and social processes driving such doubt and uncertainty are difficult to rigorously analyse, and research has tended to focus on the individual-level, rather than the larger institutions and social networks that produce and disseminate contrarian information. This study presents a new approach by using network science to uncover the institutional and corporate structure of the climate change counter-movement, and machine-learning text analysis to show its influence in the news media and bureaucratic politics. The data include a new social network of all known organizations and individuals promoting contrarian viewpoints, as well as the entirety of all written and verbal texts about climate change from 1993-2013 from every organization, three major news outlets, all US presidents, and every occurrence on the floor of the US Congress. Using network and computational text analysis, I find that the organizational power within the contrarian network, and the magnitude of semantic similarity, are both predicted by ties to elite corporate benefactors.

  5. Using nonlinear methods to quantify changes in infant limb movements and vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Abney, Drew H.; Warlaumont, Anne S.; Haussman, Anna; Ross, Jessica M.; Wallot, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    The pairing of dynamical systems theory and complexity science brings novel concepts and methods to the study of infant motor development. Accordingly, this longitudinal case study presents a new approach to characterizing the dynamics of infant limb and vocalization behaviors. A single infant's vocalizations and limb movements were recorded from 51-days to 305-days of age. On each recording day, accelerometers were placed on all four of the infant's limbs and an audio recorder was worn on the child's chest. Using nonlinear time series analysis methods, such as recurrence quantification analysis and Allan factor, we quantified changes in the stability and multiscale properties of the infant's behaviors across age as well as how these dynamics relate across modalities and effectors. We observed that particular changes in these dynamics preceded or coincided with the onset of various developmental milestones. For example, the largest changes in vocalization dynamics preceded the onset of canonical babbling. The results show that nonlinear analyses can help to understand the functional co-development of different aspects of infant behavior. PMID:25161629

  6. Vitrification of NORM wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, C.

    1994-05-01

    Vitrification of wastes is a relatively new application of none of man`s oldest manufacturing processes. During the past 25 years it has been developed and accepted internationally for immobilizing the most highly radioactive wastes from spent nuclear fuel. By the year 2005, there will be nine operating high-level radioactive vitrification plants. Many of the technical ``lessons learned`` from this international program can be applied to much less hazardous materials such as naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). With the deployment of low capital and operating cost systems, vitrification should become a broadly applied process for treating a large variety of wastes. In many situations, the wastes can be transformed into marketable products. This paper will present a general description of waste vitrification, summarize some of its key advantages, provide some test data for a small sample of one NORM, and suggest how this process may be applied to NORM.

  7. Effects of Natural and Anthropogenic Change on Habitat Use and Movement of Endangered Salt Marsh Harvest Mice

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Katherine R.; Barthman-Thompson, Laureen; Gould, William R.; Mabry, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    The northern salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris halicoetes) is an endangered species endemic to the San Francisco Bay Estuary. Using a conservation behavior perspective, we examined how salt marsh harvest mice cope with both natural (daily tidal fluctuations) and anthropogenic (modification of tidal regime) changes in natural tidal wetlands and human-created diked wetlands, and investigated the role of behavioral flexibility in utilizing a human-created environment in the Suisun Marsh. We used radio telemetry to determine refuge use at high tide, space use, and movement rates to investigate possible differences in movement behavior in tidal versus diked wetlands. We found that the vast majority of the time salt marsh harvest mice remain in vegetation above the water during high tides. We also found no difference in space used by mice during high tide as compared to before or after high tide in either tidal or diked wetlands. We found no detectable difference in diurnal or nocturnal movement rates in tidal wetlands. However, we did find that diurnal movement rates for mice in diked wetlands were lower than nocturnal movement rates, especially during the new moon. This change in movement behavior in a relatively novel human-created habitat indicates that behavioral flexibility may facilitate the use of human-created environments by salt marsh harvest mice. PMID:25310800

  8. Effects of natural and anthropogenic change on habitat use and movement of endangered salt marsh harvest mice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine R; Barthman-Thompson, Laureen; Gould, William R; Mabry, Karen E

    2014-01-01

    The northern salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris halicoetes) is an endangered species endemic to the San Francisco Bay Estuary. Using a conservation behavior perspective, we examined how salt marsh harvest mice cope with both natural (daily tidal fluctuations) and anthropogenic (modification of tidal regime) changes in natural tidal wetlands and human-created diked wetlands, and investigated the role of behavioral flexibility in utilizing a human-created environment in the Suisun Marsh. We used radio telemetry to determine refuge use at high tide, space use, and movement rates to investigate possible differences in movement behavior in tidal versus diked wetlands. We found that the vast majority of the time salt marsh harvest mice remain in vegetation above the water during high tides. We also found no difference in space used by mice during high tide as compared to before or after high tide in either tidal or diked wetlands. We found no detectable difference in diurnal or nocturnal movement rates in tidal wetlands. However, we did find that diurnal movement rates for mice in diked wetlands were lower than nocturnal movement rates, especially during the new moon. This change in movement behavior in a relatively novel human-created habitat indicates that behavioral flexibility may facilitate the use of human-created environments by salt marsh harvest mice. PMID:25310800

  9. Development, social norms, and assignment to task

    PubMed Central

    Fafchamps, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Economic development involves a structural transformation in the way people are allocated to tasks. There is a shift from self-provision to market exchange, facilitating specialization. There is also a shift from self-employment to wage employment in large firms and organizations, driven by innovation and increasing returns to scale. Changes in allocation mechanisms require changes in norms and attitudes. Because different labor assignment domains coexist, conflicts arise among norms that apply to different domains, possibly resulting in dysfunctional outcomes. I argue that religion, humanism, and schools have all played an important historical role in fostering the changes in social norms and attitudes that are needed to accompany structural changes in the way economies allocate workers to tasks. PMID:22198757

  10. Some poleward movement of British native vascular plants is occurring, but the fingerprint of climate change is not evident

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recent upperward migration of plants and animals along altitudinal gradients and poleward movement of animal range boundaries have been confirmed by many studies. This phenomenon is considered to be part of the fingerprint of recent climate change on the biosphere. Here I examine whether poleward movement is occurring in the vascular plants of Great Britain. The ranges of plants were determined from detection/non-detection data in two periods, 1978 to 1994 and 1995 to 2011. From these, the centre of mass of the population was calculated and the magnitude and direction of range shifts were determined from movements of the centre of mass. A small, but significant, northward movement could be detected in plants with expanding ranges, but not among declining species. Species from warmer ranges were not more likely to be moving northward, nor was dispersal syndrome a predictor of migration success. It is concluded that simply looking at northward movement of species is not an effective way to identify the effect of climate change on plant migration and that other anthropogenic changes obscure the effect of climate. PMID:23734340

  11. Changes in motility, ATP content, morphology and fertilisation capacity during the movement phase of tetraploid Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) sperm.

    PubMed

    Suquet, M; Labbe, C; Brizard, R; Donval, A; Le Coz, J R; Quere, C; Haffray, P

    2010-07-01

    Changes in sperm features during the movement phase are especially interesting to study in external fertilization species whose sperm duration movement is long because this implies a significant adaptation of moving cells to the external medium. This study describes the changes in tetraploid Pacific oyster sperm characteristics in relation to time post activation. Sperm individually collected on three tetraploid males were activated in seawater. Their features were analysed over a 24h period and compared to a sperm pool collected on three diploid males as a reference. The percentage of motile spermatozoa, the intracellular ATP content, and the fine structure of spermatozoa were studied in relation to time post activation. Furthermore, the fertilisation capacity of sperm individually collected on five diploid males was assessed after 1 and 24h post activation. A forward progressive movement was maintained for at least a 20h duration. Compared to diploid males, the percentage of motile spermatozoa was lower in tetraploid males. The intracellular ATP concentration was higher in spermatozoa from tetraploid males than in spermatozoa from diploid males. A decrease in ATP content was observed in the first 6h post activation and severe alterations were observed in sperm morphology after 24h. Then, a lower fertilisation capacity of sperm from diploid males was observed at the end of the movement phase. The cessation of Pacific oyster sperm motility was unlikely caused by ATP consumption as ATP concentration was still high at the end of sperm movement but rather caused by drastic changes in sperm morphology. Compared to sperm collected on diploid males, the lower quality of sperm from tetraploid males was emphasized by a shorter movement duration and deeper morphological alterations at the end of the movement phase.

  12. One-Step "Change" and "Compare" Word Problems: Focusing on Eye-Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moutsios-Rentzos, Andreas; Stamatis, Panagiotis J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. In this study, we focus on the relationship between the students' mathematical thinking and their non-mechanically identified eye-movements with the purpose to gain deeper understanding about the students' reasoning processes and to investigate the feasibility of incorporating eye-movement information in everyday pedagogy. Method.…

  13. Cytomorphometric changes in rat brain neurons after rapid eye movement sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, S; Mallick, B N

    2005-01-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep plays a vital role in the survival of animals. Its deprivation causes alterations in brain functions and behaviors including activities of important enzymes, neurotransmitter levels, impairment of neural excitability and memory consolidation. However, there was a lack of knowledge regarding the effects of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation on neuronal morphology that may get affected much earlier than any permanent damage to the neurons. In the present study, some of these issues have been addressed by studying the effects of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation on various morphological parameters viz. neuronal perimeter, area and shape of neurons located in brain areas known to regulate rapid eye movement sleep and as a control in other brain areas which do not regulate rapid eye movement sleep. The results showed that rapid eye movement sleep deprivation differentially affected neurons depending on their physiological correlates of rapid eye movement sleep and neurotransmitter content. The effects could be reversed if the animals were allowed to recover from rapid eye movement sleep loss or by applying alpha1-adrenergic antagonist, prazosin. The findings in rats support reported data and help explaining previous observations.

  14. Understanding multiple levels of norms about teen pregnancy and their relationships to teens' sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W; Boardman, Jason D

    2014-06-01

    Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys' perceived norms, while peer network norms predict girls' perceived norms. Peer network and individually perceived norms against teen pregnancy independently and negatively predict teens' likelihood of sexual intercourse. Perceived norms against pregnancy predict increased likelihood of contraception among sexually experienced girls, but sexually experienced boys' contraceptive behavior is more complicated: When both the boy and his peers or school have stronger norms against teen pregnancy he is more likely to contracept, and in the absence of school or peer norms against pregnancy, boys who are embarrassed are less likely to contracept. We conclude that: (1) patterns of behavior cannot adequately operationalize teen pregnancy norms, (2) norms are not simply linked to behaviors through individual perceptions, and (3) norms at different levels can operate independently of each other, interactively, or in opposition. This evidence creates space for conceptualizations of agency, conflict, and change that can lead to progress in understanding age norms and sexual behaviors.

  15. Changes in Compensatory Eye Movements Associated with Simulated Stimulus Conditions of Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, Deborah L.; Zografos, Linda M.; Skinner, Noel C.; Parker, Donald E.

    1993-01-01

    Compensatory vertical eye movement gain (CVEMG) was recorded during pitch oscillation in darkness before, during and immediately after exposures to the stimulus rearrangement produced by the Preflight Adaptation Trainer (PAT) Tilt-Translation Device (TTD). The TTD is designed to elicit adaptive responses that are similar to those observed in microgravity-adapted astronauts. The data from Experiment 1 yielded a statistically significant CVEMG decrease following 15 minutes of exposure to a stimulus rearrangement condition where the phase angle between subject pitch tilt and visual scene translation was 270 degrees; statistically significant gain decreases were not observed following exposures either to a condition where the phase angle between subject pitch and scene translation was 90 degrees or to a no-stimulus-rearrangement condition. Experiment 2 replicated the 270 degree phase condition from Experiment 1 and extended the exposure duration from 30 to 45 minutes. Statistically significant additional changes in CVEMG associated with the increased exposure duration were not observed. The adaptation time constant estimated from the combined data from Experiments 1 and 2 was 29 minutes.

  16. Changes in compensatory eye movements associated with simulated stimulus conditions of spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, Deborah L.; Zografos, Linda M.; Skinner, Noel C.; Parker, Donald E.

    1993-01-01

    Compensatory vertical eye movement gain (CVEMG) was recorded during pitch oscillation in darkness before, during, and immediately after exposures to the stimulus rearrangement produced by the Preflight Adaptation Trainer (PAT) Tilt-Translation Device (TTD). The TTD is designed to elicit adaptive responses that are similar to those observed in microgravity-adapted astronauts. The data from Experiment 1 yielded a statistically significant CVEMG decrease following 15 min of exposure to a stimulus rearrangement condition where the phase angle between subject pitch tilt and visual scene translation was 270 deg; statistically significant gain decreases were not observed following exposures either to a condition where the phase angle between subject pitch and scene translation was 90 deg or to a no-stimulus-rearrangement condition. Experiment 2 replicated the 270-deg-phase condition from Experiment 1 and extended the exposure duration from 30 to 45 min. Statistically significant additional changes in CVEMG associated with the increased exposure duration were not observed. The adaptation time constant estimated fram the combined data from Experiments 1 and 2 was 29 min.

  17. Global climate change policy issues related to the movement of industry from developed to rapidly industrializing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, A.M.; Waltemath, L.A.

    1990-10-01

    Global climate change policies adopted by developed countries may encourage industries to move to countries with less restrictive policies. The purpose of this study is to identify policy-driven issues that may result in such a movement. This report (1) summarizes the conclusions of previous studies that have explored the relationship between environmental regulations and industrial movement, (2) identifies and summarizes existing and proposed US global climate change policy options, and (3) discusses issues and topics relating to possible industrial relocation because of the global climate change policy options. It concludes with recommendations for further research. Although federal global climate change policy options are the primary focus of this report, some international and regional efforts addressing this issue are also included. A potential regional industrial migration issue is highlighted. 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Adaptive changes of the eye movements for otolith stimulation in goldfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takabayashi, A.; Iwata, K.; Mori, S.

    2006-01-01

    Vestibular compensation was studied in the eye movements of goldfish. Vertical eye movements evoked by linear acceleration were analyzed for one month after unilateral removal of the otolith. No spontaneous nystagmus was observed in the goldfish following recovery from hemilabyrinthectomy surgery (a period of 30 min). However, unilateral removal of the otolith resulted in a decrease in response amplitude to linear acceleration. After one week, eye movement amplitude had increased to approximately 50% of normal. After one month of compensation, the response amplitude of eye movement was nearly normal. The results suggest that the goldfish is capable of almost completely recovering amplitude of response to linear acceleration following one month of compensation for unilateral removal of the otolith.

  19. Adaptive changes of the eye movements for otolith stimulation in goldfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takabayashi, A.; Iwata, K.; Mori, S.

    Vestibular compensation was studied in the eye movements of goldfish. Torsional and vertical eye movements evoked by linear acceleration or body tilt were analyzed for ˜ 2 months after unilateral removal of the otolith. Spontaneous nystagmus was not observed in the goldfish following recovery from the surgery for hemi labyrinthectomy (a period of 30 minutes). However, unilateral removal of the otolith resulted in an acute decrease in response amplitude to linear acceleration and body tilt. After 1 week, amplitude of eye movement had increased toward normal to approximately 50% of normal. After 1 month of compensation, response amplitude of eye movement had recovered almost its normal value. The results suggest that the goldfish is capable of almost completely recovering amplitude of response to linear acceleration following 1 month of compensation for unilateral removal of otolith.

  20. Does Domestication Cause Changes in Growth Reaction Norms? A Study of Farmed, Wild and Hybrid Atlantic Salmon Families Exposed to Environmental Stress

    PubMed Central

    Solberg, Monica Favnebøe; Skaala, Øystein; Nilsen, Frank; Glover, Kevin Alan

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important traits linked with the successful domestication of animals is reducing their sensitivity to environmental stressors in the human controlled environment. In order to examine whether domestication selection in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L., over approximately ten generations, has inadvertently selected for reduced responsiveness to stress, we compared the growth reaction norms of 29 wild, hybrid and domesticated families reared together under standard hatchery conditions (control) and in the presence of a stressor (reduced water level twice daily). The experiment was conducted for a 14 week period. Farmed salmon outgrew wild salmon 1∶2.93 in the control tanks, and no overlap in mean weight was displayed between families representing the three groups. Thus, the elevation of the reaction norms differed among the groups. Overall, growth was approximately 25% lower in the stressed tanksl; however, farmed salmon outgrew wild salmon 1∶3.42 under these conditions. That farmed salmon maintained a relatively higher growth rate than the wild salmon in the stressed tanks demonstrates a lower responsiveness to stress in the farmed salmon. Thus, flatter reaction norm slopes were displayed in the farmed salmon, demonstrating reduced plasticity for this trait under these specific experimental conditions. For all growth measurements, hybrid salmon displayed intermediate values. Wild salmon displayed higher heritability estimates for body weight than the hybrid and farmed salmon in both environments. This suggests reduced genetic variation for body weight in the farmed contra wild salmon studied here. While these results may be linked to the specific families and stocks investigated, and verification in other stocks and traits is needed, these data are consistent with the theoretical predictions of domestication. PMID:23382901

  1. Movement disorders and neurochemical changes in zebrafish larvae after bath exposure to fluoxetine (PROZAC).

    PubMed

    Airhart, Mark J; Lee, Deborah H; Wilson, Tracy D; Miller, Barney E; Miller, Merry N; Skalko, Richard G

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine (PROZAC), on the ontogeny of spontaneous swimming activity (SSA) in developing zebrafish. The development of zebrafish motor behavior consists of four sequential locomotor patterns that develop over 1-5 days post fertilization (dpf), with the final pattern, SSA, established at 4-5 dpf. In stage specific experiments, larvae were exposed to 4.6 microM fluoxetine for 24 h periods beginning at 24 h post fertilization (hpf) and extending through 5 dpf. From 1-3 dpf, there was no effect on SSA or earlier stages of motor development, i.e., spontaneous coiling, evoked coiling and burst swimming. Fluoxetine exposure at 3 dpf for 24 h resulted in a transient decrease in SSA through 7 dpf with a complete recovery by 8 dpf. Larvae exposed to 4.6 microM fluoxetine for 24 h on 4 or 5 dpf showed a significant decrease in SSA by day 6 with no recovery through 14 dpf. Although SSA was significantly affected 24 h after fluoxetine exposure, there was little or no effect on pectoral fin movement. These results demonstrate both a stage specific and a long term effect of 4.6 microM fluoxetine exposure in 4 and 5 dpf larvae. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to determine the relative levels of a serotonin transporter protein (SERT) transcript and the serotonin 1A (5-HT(1A)) receptor transcript in developing embryos/larvae over 1-6 dpf. Both transcripts were present at 24 hpf with the relative concentration of SERT transcript showing no change over the developmental time range. The relative concentration of the 5-HT(1A) receptor transcript, however, showed a two-tiered pattern of concentration. RT-PCR was also used to detect potential changes in the SERT and 5-HT(1A) receptor transcripts in 6 dpf larvae after a 24 h exposure to 4.6 microM fluoxetine on 5 dpf. Three separate regions of the CNS were individually analyzed, two defined brain regions and spinal

  2. Community stress and social and technological change: a framework for interpreting the behavior of social movements and community action groups

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, R.W.; Schuller, C.R.; Lindell, M.K.; Greene, M.R.; Walsh, J.T.; Earle, T.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive examination of existing research on community organizations and community political systems. These findings will be integrated into a framework for understanding the variety of social and political responses which may be manifest in small communities facing the prospect of hosting a major nuclear facility. The principal focus is on the formation and behavior of social groups in communities, particularly politically oriented social movements or community action groups. This analysis is set on the context of a community experiencing social stress. Most of the discussion which follows is based on an extrapolation from the large body of reseach literature on the topics in sociology, political science, and psychology. Chapter I examines the community political systems which are the arena in which local action groups will operate. Chapter II focuses on the internal conditions necessary for the formation and maintenance of community action groups. Chapter III reviews the research literature on the social environment of organizations in communities and the external conditions which are necessary to maintain organizations over time. Chapter IV develops a logic whereby the community consensus model can be adopted to particular social movement organizations and community actions groups. Chapter V examines changes in aspects of the environment which can be a function of the operation of movement organizations, and changes in the structure and tactics of movement organizations which appear to be a response to the environment.

  3. Robotic guidance induces long-lasting changes in the movement pattern of a novel sport-specific motor task.

    PubMed

    Kümmel, Jakob; Kramer, Andreas; Gruber, Markus

    2014-12-01

    Facilitating the learning or relearning of motor tasks is one of the main goals of coaches, teachers and therapists. One promising way to achieve this goal is guiding the learner through the correct movement trajectory with the help of a robotic device. The aim of this study was to investigate if haptic guidance can induce long-lasting changes in the movement pattern of a complex sport-specific motor task. For this purpose, 31 subjects were assigned to one of three groups: EA (early angle, n=10), LA (late angle, n=11) and CON (control, n=10). EA and LA successfully completed five training sessions, which consisted of 50 robot-guided golf swings and 10 free swings each, whereas CON had no training. The EA group was guided through the movement with the wrist being bent early during backswing, whereas in the LA group it was bent late. The participants of EA and LA were not told about this difference in the movement patterns. To assess if the robot-guided training was successful in shaping the movement pattern, the timing of the wrist bending during the backswing in free swings was measured before (PRE), one day after (POST), and 7 days after (FUP) the five training sessions. The ANOVA (time×group×angle) showed that during POST and FUP, the participants of the EA group bent their wrist significantly earlier during the backswing than the other groups. Post-hoc analyses revealed that this interaction effect was mainly due to the differences in the wrist angle progression during the first 5° of the backswing. The robot-guided training was successful in shaping the movement pattern, and these changes persisted even after 7 days without further practice. This might have implications for the learning of complex motor tasks in general, as haptic guidance might quickly provide the beginner with an internal model of the correct movement pattern without having to direct the learner's attention towards the key points of the correct movement pattern. PMID:25238621

  4. Excitability changes in human forearm corticospinal projections and spinal reflex pathways during rhythmic voluntary movement of the opposite limb

    PubMed Central

    Carson, R G; Riek, S; Mackey, D C; Meichenbaum, D P; Willms, K; Forner, M; Byblow, W D

    2004-01-01

    Rhythmic movements brought about by the contraction of muscles on one side of the body give rise to phase-locked changes in the excitability of the homologous motor pathways of the opposite limb. Such crossed facilitation should favour patterns of bimanual coordination in which homologous muscles are engaged simultaneously, and disrupt those in which the muscles are activated in an alternating fashion. In order to examine these issues, we obtained responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), to stimulation of the cervicomedullary junction (cervicomedullary-evoked potentials, CMEPs), to peripheral nerve stimulation (H-reflexes and f-waves), and elicited stretch reflexes in the relaxed right flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscle during rhythmic (2 Hz) flexion and extension movements of the opposite (left) wrist. The potentials evoked by TMS in right FCR were potentiated during the phases of movement in which the left FCR was most strongly engaged. In contrast, CMEPs were unaffected by the movements of the opposite limb. These results suggest that there was systematic variation of the excitability of the motor cortex ipsilateral to the moving limb. H-reflexes and stretch reflexes recorded in right FCR were modulated in phase with the activation of left FCR. As the f-waves did not vary in corresponding fashion, it appears that the phasic modulation of the H-reflex was mediated by presynaptic inhibition of Ia afferents. The observation that both H-reflexes and f-waves were depressed markedly during movements of the opposite indicates that there may also have been postsynaptic inhibition or disfacilitation of the largest motor units. Our findings indicate that the patterned modulation of excitability in motor pathways that occurs during rhythmic movements of the opposite limb is mediated primarily by interhemispheric interactions between cortical motor areas. PMID:15331684

  5. Examining Value Change in MOOCs in the Scope of Connectivism and Open Educational Resources Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Hayriye Tugba

    2015-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) came to prominence with Open Educational Resources Movement (OERM). It was based upon the idea of libre in removal of some permission barriers and gratis in removing the price barrier (Suber, 2008) in learning resources. In line with the theoretical underpinnings of OERM, MOOCs embody primary characteristics of…

  6. The effect of changes in habitat conditions on the movement of juvenile Snail Kites Rostrhamus sociabilis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowling, Andrea C.; Martin, Julien; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2012-01-01

    The degradation of habitats due to human activities is a major topic of interest for the conservation and management of wild populations. There is growing evidence that the Florida Everglades ecosystem continues to suffer from habitat degradation. After a period of recovery in the 1990s, the Snail Kite Rostrhamus sociabilis population suffered a substantial decline in 2001 and has not recovered since. Habitat degradation has been suggested as one of the primary reasons for this lack of recovery. As a consequence of the continued degradation of the Everglades, we hypothesized that this would have led to increased movement of juvenile Kites over time, as a consequence of the need to find more favourable habitat. We used multistate mark-recapture models to compare between-site movement probabilities of juvenile Snail Kites in the 1990s (1992–95; which corresponds to the period before the decline) and 2000s (2003–06; after the decline). Our analyses were based on an extensive radiotelemetry study (266 birds tracked monthly over the entire state of Florida for a total period of 6 years) and considered factors such as sex and age of marked individuals. There was evidence of increased movement of juvenile Snail Kites during the post-decline period from most of the wetland regions used historically by Kites. Higher movement rates may contribute to an increase in the probability of mortality of young individuals and could contribute to the observed declines.

  7. Social Movement Tactics, Organizational Change and the Spread of African-American Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    Social movement research suggests that protest is effective because it de-legitimizes existing policies and imposes costs on power holders. The author tests this hypothesis with data on African-American student protest and the creation of departments of African-American Studies. The author finds that nondisruptive protest, such as rallies and…

  8. Social Norms: Do We Love Norms Too Much?

    PubMed Central

    Bell, David C.; Cox, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Social norms are often cited as the cause of many social phenomena, especially as an explanation for prosocial family and relationship behaviors. And yet maybe we love the idea of social norms too much, as suggested by our failure to subject them to rigorous test. Compared to the detail in social norms theoretical orientations, there is very little detail in tests of normative theories. To provide guidance to researchers who invoke social norms as explanations, we catalog normative orientations that have been proposed to account for consistent patterns of action. We call on researchers to conduct tests of normative theories and the processes such theories assert. PMID:25937833

  9. Eye Movement Latencies to Direction Change for Different Classes of Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    In the analysis of visual motion, local features such as orientation are analyzed early in the cortical processing stream (V1), while integration across orientation and space is thought to occur in higher cortical areas such as MT, MST, etc. If all areas provide inputs to eye movement control centers, we would expect that local properties would drive eye movements with relatively short latencies, while global properties would require longer latencies. When such latencies are observed, they can provide information about when (and where?) various stimulus properties are analyzed. To this end, a stimulus was employed in which local and global properties determining perceived direction-of-motion could be manipulated independently: an elliptical Gabor patch with a drifting carrier, with variable orientation of the carrier grating and the contrast window. We have previously demonstrated that the directional percepts evoked by this stimulus vary between the "grating direction" (the normal to the grating's orientation) and the "window direction" (ARVO 91, 94), and that similar effects can be observed in reflexive eye movements (ARVO 95). Subjects viewed such a stimulus while attempting to maintain steady fixation on the center of the pattern, and the small reflexive eye movements ("stare OKN") were recorded. In the middle of the trial, the orientation of either the grating or the window was rotated smoothly by 30 degrees. Responses to the shift of both grating orientation and window orientation are seen in the average OKN slow phase velocity. Grating rotations produce a rapid OKN rotation to the grating direction (100 ms latency, 300 ms time constant), followed by a slower rebound to the steady state perceived direction midway between the grating and window directions. Window rotations, on the other hand, evoke a slower response (200 ms latency, 500 ms time constant). The results demonstrate multiple cortical inputs to eye movement control: a taste early input driven by

  10. A gait index may underestimate changes of gait: a comparison of the Movement Deviation Profile and the Gait Deviation Index.

    PubMed

    Barton, Gabor J; Hawken, Malcolm B; Holmes, Gill; Schwartz, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the Movement Deviation Profile (MDP) and Gait Deviation Index (GDI) to detect gait changes was compared in a child with cerebral palsy who underwent game training. Conventional gait analysis showed that sagittal plane angles became mirrored about normality after training. Despite considerable gait changes, the GDI showed minimal change, while the MDP detected a difference equal to a shift between 10-9 on the Functional Assessment Questionnaire scale. Responses of the GDI and MDP were examined during a synthetic transition of the patient's curves from before intervention to a state mirrored about normality. The GDI showed a symmetric response on the two opposite sides of normality but the neural network based MDP gave an asymmetric response reflecting faithfully the unequal biomechanical consequences of joint angle changes. In conclusion, the MDP can detect altered gait even if the changes are missed by the GDI. PMID:23521124

  11. A gait index may underestimate changes of gait: a comparison of the Movement Deviation Profile and the Gait Deviation Index.

    PubMed

    Barton, Gabor J; Hawken, Malcolm B; Holmes, Gill; Schwartz, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the Movement Deviation Profile (MDP) and Gait Deviation Index (GDI) to detect gait changes was compared in a child with cerebral palsy who underwent game training. Conventional gait analysis showed that sagittal plane angles became mirrored about normality after training. Despite considerable gait changes, the GDI showed minimal change, while the MDP detected a difference equal to a shift between 10-9 on the Functional Assessment Questionnaire scale. Responses of the GDI and MDP were examined during a synthetic transition of the patient's curves from before intervention to a state mirrored about normality. The GDI showed a symmetric response on the two opposite sides of normality but the neural network based MDP gave an asymmetric response reflecting faithfully the unequal biomechanical consequences of joint angle changes. In conclusion, the MDP can detect altered gait even if the changes are missed by the GDI.

  12. Changes in the manner of tectonic movements under the Earth's evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, M. I.; Yarmolyuk, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    Variations in the O, Sr, Nd, and Hf isotopic compositions in rocks of various ages, minerals, and mantle temperature in the geological history are considered. Two periods in the Earth's history are studied: the beginning of the formation of the planet until the turn of (3.4) 2.7-2.5 Ga and the tectonic movement period in the last 2 Ga, and also the transitional period within 2.7-2.0 Ga.

  13. Predation may counteract climatic change as a driving force for movements of mountain ungulates.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Francesco; Lovari, Sandro

    2016-08-01

    Temperature variations are expected to influence altitudinal movements of mountain herbivores and, in turn, those of their predators, but relevant information is scarce. We evaluated monthly relationships between temperature and altitude used by a large mountain-dwelling herbivore, the Himalayan tahr Hemitragus jemlahicus, and its main predator, the snow leopard Panthera uncia, in an area of central Himalaya for five consecutive years (2006-2010). In contrast to expectations, there was no significant direct relationship between altitude of tahr sightings and temperature. The mean altitude of tahr sightings decreased by c. 200m throughout our study. As expected, snow leopard movements tracked those of tahr, although the core area of the snow leopard did not move downwards. Tahr remained the staple of the snow leopard diet: we suggest that the former did not move upwards in reaction to higher temperature to avoid encounters with the latter. Avoidance of competition with the larger common leopard Panthera pardus at lower altitudes could explain why snow leopards did not shift their core area downwards. Apparently, interspecific interactions (predation; competition) influenced movements of Himalayan tahr and snow leopards more than climatic variations. PMID:27312822

  14. Predation may counteract climatic change as a driving force for movements of mountain ungulates.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Francesco; Lovari, Sandro

    2016-08-01

    Temperature variations are expected to influence altitudinal movements of mountain herbivores and, in turn, those of their predators, but relevant information is scarce. We evaluated monthly relationships between temperature and altitude used by a large mountain-dwelling herbivore, the Himalayan tahr Hemitragus jemlahicus, and its main predator, the snow leopard Panthera uncia, in an area of central Himalaya for five consecutive years (2006-2010). In contrast to expectations, there was no significant direct relationship between altitude of tahr sightings and temperature. The mean altitude of tahr sightings decreased by c. 200m throughout our study. As expected, snow leopard movements tracked those of tahr, although the core area of the snow leopard did not move downwards. Tahr remained the staple of the snow leopard diet: we suggest that the former did not move upwards in reaction to higher temperature to avoid encounters with the latter. Avoidance of competition with the larger common leopard Panthera pardus at lower altitudes could explain why snow leopards did not shift their core area downwards. Apparently, interspecific interactions (predation; competition) influenced movements of Himalayan tahr and snow leopards more than climatic variations.

  15. Excitability changes in the left primary motor cortex innervating the hand muscles induced during speech about hand or leg movements.

    PubMed

    Onmyoji, Yusuke; Kubota, Shinji; Hirano, Masato; Tanaka, Megumi; Morishita, Takuya; Uehara, Kazumasa; Funase, Kozo

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate the changes in the excitability of the left primary motor cortex (M1) innervating the hand muscles and in short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) during speech describing hand or leg movements. In experiment 1, we investigated the effects of the contents of speech on the amplitude of the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) induced during reading aloud and silent reading. In experiment 2, we repeated experiment 1 with an additional condition, the non-vocal oral movement (No-Voc OM) condition, and investigated the change in SICI induced in each condition using the paired TMS paradigm. The MEP observed in the reading aloud and No-Voc OM conditions exhibited significantly greater amplitudes than those seen in the silent reading conditions, irrespective of the content of the sentences spoken by the subjects or the timing of the TMS. There were no significant differences in SICI between the experimental conditions. Our findings suggest that the increased excitability of the left M1 hand area detected during speech was mainly caused by speech-related oral movements and the activation of language processing-related brain functions. The increased left M1 excitability was probably also mediated by neural mechanisms other than reduced SICI; i.e., disinhibition.

  16. Effect of changing lumbar stiffness by single facet joint dysfunction on the responsiveness of lumbar muscle spindles to vertebral movement

    PubMed Central

    Reed, William R.; Pickar, Joel G.; Long, Cynthia R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Individuals experiencing low back pain often present clinically with intervertebral joint dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether relative changes in stiffness at a single spinal joint alters neural responsiveness of lumbar muscle spindles to either vertebral movement or position. Methods: Muscle spindle discharge was recorded in response to 1mm L6 ramp and hold movements (0.5mm/s) in the same animal for lumbar laminectomy-only (n=23), laminectomy & L5/6 facet screw (n=19), laminectomy & L5/6 facetectomy (n=5) conditions. Mean instantaneous frequency (MIF) was calculated for the ramp-up, hold, ramp-down and post-ramp phases during each joint condition. Results: Mean MIFs were not significantly different between the laminectomy-only and the other two types of joint dysfunction for the ramp-up, hold, ramp-down, or post-ramp phases. Conclusion: Stiffness changes caused by single facet joint dysfunction failed to alter spindle responses during slow 1mm ramp and hold movements of the L6 vertebra. PMID:24932020

  17. The movement of sequestrated CO2 revealed by seismic attenuation spatial and temporal changes in Frio-II site, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Daley, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Continuous active source seismic measurements (CASSM) were collected in the crosswell geometry during scCO2 injection at the Frio-II brine pilot (Liberty, TX). Previous studies (Daley et.al. 2007, 2011) have demonstrated that spatial-temporal changes in the picked first arrival time after CO2 injection constrain the movement of the CO2 plume in the storage interval. To improve the quantitative constraints on plume saturation using this dataset, we investigate spatial-temporal changes in the seismic attenuation of the first arrivals. The attenuation changes over the injection period (~60 h) are estimated by the amount of the centroid frequency shift computed by the local time-frequency analysis. Our observations include: at receivers above the packer seismic attenuation does not change in a physical trend; at receivers below the packer attenuation sharply increases as the amount of CO2 plume increase at the first few hours and peaks at specific points varying with distributed receivers, which are consistent with observations from time delays of first arrivals. Then, attenuation decreases over the injection time with increased amount of CO2 plume. This bell-shaped attenuation response as a function of time in the experiment is consistent with White's patchy saturation model which predicts an attenuation peak at intermediate CO2 saturations. Our analysis suggests that spatial-temporal attenuation change is an indicator of the movement/saturation of CO2 plume at high saturations, a system state for which seismic measurements are typically only weakly sensitive to.

  18. Norm-Aware Socio-Technical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savarimuthu, Bastin Tony Roy; Ghose, Aditya

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * The Need for Norm-Aware Systems * Norms in human societies * Why should software systems be norm-aware? * Case Studies of Norm-Aware Socio-Technical Systems * Human-computer interactions * Virtual environments and multi-player online games * Extracting norms from big data and software repositories * Norms and Sustainability * Sustainability and green ICT * Norm awareness through software systems * Where To, From Here? * Conclusions

  19. From work with men and boys to changes of social norms and reduction of inequities in gender relations: a conceptual shift in prevention of violence against women and girls.

    PubMed

    Jewkes, Rachel; Flood, Michael; Lang, James

    2015-04-18

    Violence perpetrated by and against men and boys is a major public health problem. Although individual men's use of violence differs, engagement of all men and boys in action to prevent violence against women and girls is essential. We discuss why this engagement approach is theoretically important and how prevention interventions have developed from treating men simply as perpetrators of violence against women and girls or as allies of women in its prevention, to approaches that seek to transform the relations, social norms, and systems that sustain gender inequality and violence. We review evidence of intervention effectiveness in the reduction of violence or its risk factors, features commonly seen in more effective interventions, and how strong evidence-based interventions can be developed with more robust use of theory. Future interventions should emphasise work with both men and boys and women and girls to change social norms on gender relations, and need to appropriately accommodate the differences between men and women in the design of programmes.

  20. Localizing Movement-Related Primary Sensorimotor Cortices with Multi-Band EEG Frequency Changes and Functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ching-Chang; Luu, Phan; Morgan, Kyle K.; Dow, Mark; Davey, Colin; Song, Jasmine; Malony, Allen D.; Tucker, Don M.

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations in multiple frequency bands can be observed during functional activity of the cerebral cortex. An important question is whether activity of focal areas of cortex, such as during finger movements, is tracked by focal oscillatory EEG changes. Although a number of studies have compared EEG changes to functional MRI hemodynamic responses, we can find no previous research that relates the fMRI hemodynamic activity to localization of the multiple EEG frequency changes observed in motor tasks. In the present study, five participants performed similar thumb and finger movement tasks in parallel EEG and functional MRI studies. We examined changes in five frequency bands (from 5–120 Hz) and localized them using 256 dense-array EEG (dEEG) recordings and high-resolution individual head models. These localizations were compared with fMRI localizations in the same participants. Results showed that beta-band (14–30 Hz) desynchronizations (power decreases) were the most robust effects, appearing in all individuals, consistently localized to the hand region of the primary motor cortex, and consistently aligned with fMRI localizations. PMID:25375957

  1. NWEA FAQ: RIT Scale Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Northwest Evaluation Association™ (NWEA™) conducts norming studies every several years to provide the best and most up-to-date information we can about student achievement and growth to better support educational decision-making. It is an important part of our commitment to our partners. The most recent NWEA norms were released in July 2015. Just…

  2. Ethnic diversity, traditional norms, and marriage behaviour in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Buttenheim, Alison M; Nobles, Jenna

    2009-11-01

    What role do cultural norms play in shaping individual behaviour and how does this relationship change with rapid socio-economic development? While modernization and convergence theories predict a weakened relationship between culture and behaviour as individuals rely less on family and community members for economic opportunities, recent research suggests that such norms can persist and continue to influence behaviour. We explored this question for Indonesia, asking whether cultural norms for age at marriage and post-marriage residence-as embodied in local ethnicity-based laws and customs known as 'adat'-relate to actual marriage behaviour. We demonstrate that adat norms are strong predictors of marriage behaviour, both over time and net of large increases in educational attainment. Our results suggest more generally that traditional marriage norms can persist even when a society is in the process of rapid socio-economic development.

  3. Models for fine-scale movements along growth faults associated with climate/sea level changes

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrie, A.

    1986-09-01

    Along the northern Gulf of Mexico, the deglaciation phase of a Pliocene-Pleistocene glacial cycle produced up to a tenfold increase in waters available for sediment transportation to continental margins. With lowered sea levels during glacial maxima, sedimentary pulses are deposited along the shelf break and on the slope. High-energy deposition promotes foundation instability. Growth faults then originate along the shelf break. Increased lithostatic pressure due to rapid deposition on underlying unconsolidated and semiconsolidated sediments, semiplastic salt, and marine clays promote flow that accelerates compaction, fluid migration, growth fault movements, and salt tectonics. Sedimentary depositional cycles of deca- and centenary-millennia are recorded throughout the Phanerozoic. Planetary orbital motions, controlling the amount of incoming solar radiation and lasting 20,000, 40,00, and 100,000 years, apparently cause these depositional cycles via climate/sea level fluctuations. When sea level is low, sediments are deposited about or beyond the shelf break. Increased lithostatic pressure promotes movement on the fault, deposition on the downthrown block, accelerated compaction of sediments, and fluid expulsion and migration. When sea level is high, sediment deposition is along the upper and middle shelf. Fault activity should be minimal or nil. Thus, the geologic episodes that record the greatest amount of downthrown block growth may also be punctuated by bursts of large drops in sea level. Onshore Louisiana production is usually greatest from maximum growth downthrown blocks.

  4. Changes in Saccadic Eye Movements produced by Novel Brain and Vestibular rehabilitation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Carrick, Frederick R; Pagnacco, Guido; Wright, Cameron H G; Oggerd, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Saccadic eye movements offer several insights into the functional status of many areas of the central nervous system. As suchtheir observation is an important component of any neurological assessment. Unfortunately, these types of eye movementsare very fast and therefore cannot be evaluated in detail without high speed instrumentation. Direct infrared (IR) technologyallows to easily quantify standard saccades parameters such as latency, peak and mean velocity, and Q factor, as well as torecord the actual shape of the movement and its velocity. Using a direct IR device, we investigated if it is possible to changesaccades using a novel brain and vestibular rehabilitation therapy in subjects suffering a variety of neurological dysfunctions.Pre-post therapy comparison of saccade parameters showed that this type of subject's specific therapy can improve withstatistical significance the parameters of interest. However, the effects were not limited to the parameters of interest:subject-specific brain and vestibular rehabilitation therapy can improve the other parameters as well, although thisimprovement was not always statistically significant. Furthermore, we found that for the infrequent cases where thesubject-specific brain and vestibular rehabilitation therapy produced a deterioration of the other parameters, it was notstatistically significant. PMID:25996693

  5. Changes of substance P in the crevicular fluid in relation to orthodontic movement preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Levrini, Luca; Sacerdote, Paola; Moretti, Sarah; Panzi, Silvia; Caprioglio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is a tachykinin released from both the central and the peripheral endings of primary afferent neurons and functions as a neurotransmitter. As a transmitter signaling pain, substance P is involved in nociception and is an extremely potent vasodilator. We found several studies about this neuropeptide especially in relation to parodontology and a few orthodontic reviews. This is because in the past the importance of this neuropeptide in dental element undergoing periodontal inflammation was observed. The aims of the present pilot study was to investigate whether the substance P was present in gingival crevicular fluid in dental elements undergoing orthodontic treatment with Invisalign technique compared to teeth belonging to the same series but not undergoing orthodontic movement. We analysed gengival crevicular fluid (GCF) collected from four young subjects, using a paper cone for a time of 60 seconds. The results showed that SP is present in the gengival sulcus in elements undergoing orthodontic forces during treatment with Invisalign technique and not in the control teeth. During the literature analysis, we have found a lot of papers describing involvement of SP in periodontitis and inflammatory diseases, but further studies are needed in order to demonstrate the role of this neuropeptide during teeth movement.

  6. Changes of Substance P in the Crevicular Fluid in relation to Orthodontic Movement Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Levrini, Luca; Sacerdote, Paola; Moretti, Sarah; Panzi, Silvia; Caprioglio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is a tachykinin released from both the central and the peripheral endings of primary afferent neurons and functions as a neurotransmitter. As a transmitter signaling pain, substance P is involved in nociception and is an extremely potent vasodilator. We found several studies about this neuropeptide especially in relation to parodontology and a few orthodontic reviews. This is because in the past the importance of this neuropeptide in dental element undergoing periodontal inflammation was observed. The aims of the present pilot study was to investigate whether the substance P was present in gingival crevicular fluid in dental elements undergoing orthodontic treatment with Invisalign technique compared to teeth belonging to the same series but not undergoing orthodontic movement. We analysed gengival crevicular fluid (GCF) collected from four young subjects, using a paper cone for a time of 60 seconds. The results showed that SP is present in the gengival sulcus in elements undergoing orthodontic forces during treatment with Invisalign technique and not in the control teeth. During the literature analysis, we have found a lot of papers describing involvement of SP in periodontitis and inflammatory diseases, but further studies are needed in order to demonstrate the role of this neuropeptide during teeth movement. PMID:23737731

  7. Event-Related Beta EEG Changes During Active, Passive Movement and Functional Electrical Stimulation of the Lower Limb.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Shuang; Yi, Weibo; Xu, Jiapeng; Qi, Hongzhi; Du, Jingang; Wang, Chunfang; He, Feng; Ming, Dong

    2016-02-01

    A number of electroencephalographic (EEG) studies have reported on event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) during active movements, passive movements, and the movements induced by functional electrical stimulation (FES). However, the quantitative differences in ERD values and affected frequency bands associated with the lower limb have not been discussed. The goal of this paper was to quantitatively compare the ERD patterns during active movement, passive movement and FES-induced movement of the lower limb. 64-channel EEG signals were recorded to investigate the brain oscillatory patterns during active movement, passive movement and FES-induced movement of the lower limb in twelve healthy subjects. And passive movement and FES-induced movement were also performed in a hemiplegic stroke patient. For healthy subjects, FES-induced movement presented significantly higher characteristic frequency of central beta ERD while there was no significant difference in ERD values compared with active or passive movement. Meanwhile, beta ERD values of FES-induced movement were significantly correlated with those of active movement, and spatial distribution of beta ERD pattern for FES-induced movement was more correlated with that for active movement. In addition, the stroke patient presented central ERD patterns during FES-induced movement, while no ERD with similar frequencies could be found during passive movement. This work implies that the EEG oscillatory pattern under FES-induced movement tends more towards active movement instead of passive movement. The quantification of ERD patterns could be expected as a potential technique to evaluate the brain response during FES-induced movement. PMID:26441422

  8. Training-related changes in the R-R interval at the onset of passive movements in humans.

    PubMed

    Vianna, L C; Ricardo, D R; Araújo, C G S

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether training-related alterations in muscle mechanoreflex activation affect cardiac vagal withdrawal at the onset of exercise. Eighteen male volunteers divided into 9 controls (26 +/- 1.9 years) and 9 racket players (25 +/- 1.9 years) performed 10 s of voluntary and passive movement characterized by the wrist flexion of their dominant and non-dominant limbs. The respiratory cycle was divided into four phases and the phase 4 R-R interval was measured before and immediately following the initiation of either voluntary or passive movement. At the onset of voluntary exercise, the decrease in R-R interval was similar between dominant and non-dominant forearms in both controls (166 +/- 20 vs 180 +/- 34 ms, respectively; P > 0.05) and racket players (202 +/- 29 vs 201 +/- 31 ms, respectively; P > 0.05). Following passive movement, the non-dominant forearm of racket players elicited greater changes than the dominant forearm (129 +/- 30 vs 77 +/- 17 ms; P < 0.05), as well as both the dominant (54 +/- 20 ms; P < 0.05) and non-dominant (59 +/- 14 ms; P < 0.05) forearms of control subjects. In contrast, changes in R-R interval elicited by the racket players' dominant forearm were similar to that observed in the control group, indicating that changes in R-R interval at the onset of passive exercise were not attenuated in the dominant forearm of racket players. In summary, cardiac vagal withdrawal induced by muscle mechanoreflex stimulation is well-maintained, despite long-term exposure to training.

  9. FMS Scores Change With Performers' Knowledge of the Grading Criteria-Are General Whole-Body Movement Screens Capturing "Dysfunction"?

    PubMed

    Frost, David M; Beach, Tyson A C; Callaghan, Jack P; McGill, Stuart M

    2015-11-01

    Deficits in joint mobility and stability could certainly impact individuals' Functional Movement Screen (FMS) scores; however, it is also plausible that the movement patterns observed are influenced by the performers' knowledge of the grading criteria. Twenty-one firefighters volunteered to participate, and their FMS scores were graded before and immediately after receiving knowledge of the movement patterns required to achieve a perfect score on the FMS. Standardized verbal instructions were used to administer both screens, and the participants were not provided with any coaching or feedback. Time-synchronized sagittal and frontal plane videos were used to grade the FMS. The firefighters significantly (p < 0.001) improved their FMS scores from 14.1 (1.8) to 16.7 (1.9) when provided with knowledge pertaining to the specific grading criteria. Significant improvements (p < 0.05) were also noted in the deep squat (1.4 [0.7]-2.0 [0.6]), hurdle step (2.1 [0.4]-2.4 [0.5]), in-line lunge (2.1 [0.4]-2.7 [0.5]), and shoulder mobility (1.8 [0.8]-2.4 [0.7]) tests. Because a knowledge of a task's grading criteria can alter a general whole-body movement screen score, FMS or otherwise, observed changes may not solely reflect "dysfunction." The instant that individuals are provided with coaching and feedback regarding their performance on a particular task, the task may lose its utility to evaluate the transfer of training or predict musculoskeletal injury risk.

  10. The malleability of injunctive norms among college students.

    PubMed

    Prince, Mark A; Carey, Kate B

    2010-11-01

    Alcohol use among college students has been associated with injunctive norms, which refer to the perceived acceptability of excessive drinking, and descriptive norms, which refer to perceptions of actual drinking. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a brief injunctive norms manipulation on both injunctive and descriptive norms about drinking alcohol and to explore differences in the malleability of norms across referent groups, sex, and gender role. Participants were 265 undergraduates (43% male, 70% freshmen) who completed a web-based survey for course credit. A randomly selected half was exposed to a page of information-based feedback about typical student injunctive norms. Relative to the control condition, the manipulation produced lower injunctive and descriptive norms related to typical students' drinking but no change in either type of norm related to close friends. Femininity was associated with less permissive normative beliefs about the acceptability of excessive drinking whereas masculinity was associated with elevated perceptions of peer drinking, but neither sex nor gender role moderated the manipulation effect. We conclude that perceptions of peer approval of drinking are malleable with a very brief information-based manipulation. PMID:20598806

  11. The Haskell norm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Advocate, Dev L.

    The matter of the viscosity of the mantle has started to become serious. In 1935, Norm Haskell estimated the viscosity to be about 1020 poise and there the matter stood for about half a century. For a little while, people worried about excess ellipticity of the Earth and attributed this to a “fossil bulge” that lagged the rotation rate. For this same little while, 1025 poise was thought to be the viscosity of the lower mantle, but then it was discovered that the equator was also out of shape by about the same amount, ruling out the “fossil bulge” idea. To cover their embarrassment, geodynamicists upped the viscosity of the mantle to 1021 by adopting S.I. (Satan's Invention) units. No one noticed for some time since it didn't really matter whether viscosity was given in stokes, poise, or pascal seconds. It was just a large number with a large uncertainty and no one had a feel for it anyway.

  12. Diurnal movements of cotton leaves expressed as thermodynamic work and entropy changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, J. B.; Kimes, D. S.; Newcomb, W. W.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that some important agricultural crops show heliotropic leaf movements. In these species, the proclivity of leaves to orient either perpendicularly or parallel or in some combination of these positions with respect to the sun is controlled by the leaf turgor and the availability of water. Such an orientational response is particularly noticeable for cotton. Schutt et al. (1985) have detailed leaf trajectories using three angles. The present investigation applies the three-angle representation to leaf trajectory mapping and to the calculation of the phase angle 'gamma' between the individual leaf normals and the solar direction. Using gamma, the thermodynamic work and entropy functions are evaluated and used to distinguish between the behavior of water-stressed and well watered cotton canopies.

  13. Category Norms: An Updated and Expanded Version of the Battig and Montague (1969) Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Overschelde, James P.; Rawson, Katherine A.; Dunlosky, John

    2004-01-01

    The Battig and Montague (1969) category norms have been an invaluable tool for researchers in many fields, with a recent literature search revealing their use in over 1600 projects published in more than 200 different journals. Since 1969, numerous changes have occurred culturally that warrant the collection of new normative data. For instance, in…

  14. Systeme, norme, usage: Etudes contrastives (System, Norm, Usage: Contrastive Studies).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gak, Victor

    1989-01-01

    The comparison of languages can be an effective instructional technique if used well. The comparison of isolated elements is less effective than the examination of languages at several levels: system, norm, and usage. (MSE)

  15. Smartphone derived movement profiles to detect changes in health status in COPD patients - A preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Daniel; Donnelly, Seamas; Caulfield, Brian

    2015-08-01

    Over 3.2 million people in the UK alone have the lung disease Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Identifying when COPD patients are at risk of an exacerbation is a major problem and there is a need for smart solutions that provide us with a means of tracking patient health status. Smart-phone sensor technology provides us with an opportunity to automatically monitor patients. With sensors providing the ability to measure aspects of a patient's daily life, such a motion, methods to interpret these signals and infer health related information are needed. In this work we aim to investigate the feasibility of utilizing motion sensors, built within smartphones, to measure patient movement and to infer the health related information about the patient. We perform experiments, based on 7 COPD patients using data collected over a 12 week period for each patient, and identify a measure to distinguish between periods when a patient feels well Vs periods when a patient feels unwell. PMID:26736299

  16. Changes in blood circulation in teeth and supporting tissues incident to experimental tooth movement.

    PubMed

    Vandevska-Radunovic, V; Kristiansen, A B; Heyeraas, K J; Kvinnsland, S

    1994-10-01

    Fluorescent microspheres (FM) were used to semi-quantify the effect of orthodontic forces on blood flow in oral tissues in young rats. Forty-five animals had an orthodontic appliance inserted on the first maxillary molar on one side exerting a mesial force of approximately 50 g. Ten animals served as unoperated controls. On days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 after the start of the experiment, FM were injected into the left ventricle through an abdominal approach in the experimental and control animals. FM were counted in serial sections from the jaws in the periodontal ligament, pulp, and alveolar bone in a fluorescent microscope. The number of FM per tissue volume and/or tissue weight was taken as a measure of blood flow. The experimental side had significantly lower numbers of FM/mm3 in the periodontal ligament of the first and the second molar on the first day, compared with the contralateral side. However, a steady, significant increase in the number of FM/mm3 in the periodontal and pulpal tissues, and FM/mg in the alveolar bone could be observed on the third and seventh days on the experimental side of the first, second, and third molars compared with the contralateral side, while in the later stages the values of the two sides approached each other. The results of this study indicate that a localized experimental tooth movement initiates a more generalized blood flow response in the periodontal ligament, dental pulp and alveolar bone.

  17. Changes in Effective Connectivity of the Superior Parietal Lobe during Inhibition and Redirection of Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    Asscheman, Susanne J.; Thakkar, Katharine N.; Neggers, Sebastiaan F.W.

    2015-01-01

    Executive control is the ability to flexibly control behavior and is frequently studied with saccadic eye movements. Contrary to frontal oculomotor areas, the role of the superior parietal lobe (SPL) in the executive control of saccades remains unknown. To explore the role of SPL networks in saccade control, we performed a saccadic search-step task while acquiring functional magnetic resonance imaging data for 41 participants. Psychophysiological interaction analyses assessed task-related differences in the effective connectivity of SPL with other brain regions during the inhibition and redirection of saccades. Results indicate an increased coupling of SPL with frontal, posterior, and striatal oculomotor areas for redirected saccades versus visually guided saccades. Saccade inhibition versus unsuccessful inhibition revealed an increased coupling of SPL with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. We discuss how these findings relate to ongoing debates about the implementation of executive control and conclude that early attentional control and rapid updating of saccade goals are important signals for executive control. PMID:27147827

  18. [Trapped in the body - lived experience and coping of individuals having Parkinson and their relatives with changed movement pattern caused by the disease].

    PubMed

    Kohler, Myrta; Saxer, Susi; Fringer, André; Hantikainen, Virpi

    2014-06-01

    People with Parkinson's disease suffer from various symptoms. Changed movement patterns frequently represent the prevailing symptom experience and influence the everyday life of the affected persons and their relatives. This qualitative study explores how persons with Parkinson's disease and their relatives experience the changed movement patterns and how they manage the consequential problems in their daily life. Eight persons with Parkinson's disease and six partners were interviewed. The interviews were analysed by means of content analysis according to Mayring. The qualitative analysis resulted in two main categories: "effects on the changed movement patterns on everyday life" and "coping skills for dealing with changed movement patterns". The experience of the affected person can be characterised by "being trapped in the body" as well as by a constantly slowing down daily life. The coping strategies are diverse, but all respondents seek to maintain mobility. Partners naturally support the affected persons and take over many tasks. This is associated with elevated distress and the feeling of having to be permanently present. Various coping strategies have to be promoted and included in daily care for people with Parkinson's disease. Consideration of the individual experience of the changed movement patterns is very important in the development of strategies and also the support of the affected persons and relatives that they can keep up with their movements.

  19. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  20. Morphological changes in the rat periodontal ligament and its vascularity after experimental tooth movement using superelastic forces.

    PubMed

    Noda, Koji; Nakamura, Yoshiki; Kogure, Kyotaro; Nomura, Yoshiaki

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to statistically assess the morphological changes of the rat periodontal ligament (PDL) and its vascularity in relation to varied magnitudes of superelastic force in experimental tooth movement using nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy wire. Forces of 0.8, 1.6, 4, 8, and 18 g were applied to the upper first molars of five groups of 10-week-old male Wistar rats (300-320 g) for 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. A control group with no orthodontic appliance application was assessed in accordance with the five experimental periods. The specimens were observed under light microscopy, processed by computer imaging, and analysed statistically with Tukey's HSD non-parametric test. One day after the start of the experiment, a few blood vessels could be seen in the compressed PDL with forces of 0.8 and 1.6 g. The cross-sectional areas of blood vessels (CAV) and periodontal ligament (CAPL) in the experimental groups where a force of over 4 g was applied were significantly smaller than those where 0.8 and 1.6 g forces were used, and in the control group. On day 7, large CAV were seen in the 1.6, 4, and 8 g groups. On day 28, the 8 and 18 g groups showed significantly larger CAPL than the 0.8, 4 g, or control groups. The findings suggest that a light continuous force, under 1.6 g, maintains the vascular structure during experimental tooth movement. In contrast, a heavy continuous force over 4 g causes the vascular structure to be absent in the early stages of tooth movement, but a dynamic regeneration of the PDL with vascularity and expansion follows.

  1. Changes in rapid eye movement sleep associated with placebo-induced expectations and analgesia.

    PubMed

    Laverdure-Dupont, Danièle; Rainville, Pierre; Montplaisir, Jacques; Lavigne, Gilles

    2009-09-23

    The experience of a sensory event is extensively shaped by past experience and expectations. Placebo analgesia, one of the most studied models of expectation-mediated effects, can be induced by suggestion of analgesia and conditioning. The present study examined the possibility that sleep might contribute to the consolidation of new expectations and consequently influence the generation of expectation-mediated placebo effects. Strong expectations of analgesia were generated before sleep by conditioning manipulations wherein the intensity of thermal pain stimulation was surreptitiously reduced after the application of a topical placebo cream. Expectations and placebo analgesic effects were measured the following morning and compared with those of a control daytime group without sleep. Although placebo effects were observed in both groups, correlation analysis suggests that the mediating effect of expectations on placebo responses was strongest in the overnight group. Moreover, after exposure to a convincing analgesia experience, the relative duration of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep decreased in subjects showing higher analgesic expectations and placebo responses the next morning. In a third group exposed to less consistent analgesic experiences before sleep, expectations reported in the morning were comparable with other groups. However, expectations were positively correlated with REM sleep and did not emerge as a significant mediator of the analgesic effect. Together, these findings show that sleep-related processes may influence the association between expectations and placebo analgesia and that REM sleep can predict placebo-induced expectations of pain relief. However, equivocal previous experience with treatments may significantly alter the relationship between relief expectation, REM sleep, and placebo effects.

  2. Using Webcams to Show Change and Movement in the Physical Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Carol F.; Butler, David R.; Curtis, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Environmental change is ideally taught through field observations; however, leaving the classroom is often unrealistic due to financial and logistical constraints. The Internet offers several feasible alternatives using webcams that instructors can use to illustrate a variety of geographic examples and exercises for students. This article explores…

  3. Exploring Teachers' Experiences with Change Related to the Whole Language Movement: A Narrative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Stacey A.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study contributes to understanding about teachers' experiences with change. As teachers attempt to navigate the curricular initiatives that continually come and go, their work is affected and their attitudes are shaped. Employing the methodology of narrative inquiry, teachers' personal stories about their experiences…

  4. Ultrastructural changes on the root surface in "pressure zone" after experimental movement of teeth in young rats fed a low calcium and vitamin D-deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Bielaczyc, A; Gołebiewska, M

    1997-01-01

    Dietary calcium and vitamin D-deficiency, as a potential biological factor in etiopathogenesis of root resorption occurring during orthodontic tooth movement, still remains controversial. The aim of the present investigation was to assess the ultrastructural changes on the surface of the root in "pressure zone" after orthodontic tooth movement in rats fed a low calcium and vitamin D-deficient diet. The studies were carried out on 20 young Wistar rats. The results from the scanning electron microscopic showed the increased root resorption in "pressure zone" after orthodontic tooth movement in rats fed a low calcium and vitamin D-deficient diet.

  5. Professional Norms Guiding School Principals' Pedagogical Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leo, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze the professional norms surrounding school development, with a special emphasis on school principals' pedagogical leadership. Design/methodology/approach: A norm perspective is used to identify possible links between legal norms, professional norms, and actions. The findings are based on…

  6. Changing fuel use behavior: the Pittsburgh smoke control movement, 1940-1950

    SciTech Connect

    Tarr, J.A.

    1981-12-01

    Local policy development in Pittsburgh brought about cleaner air by influencing change in the household use of fuel and combustion equipment. By a combination of media campaigns, voluntary organizations, technical advisers, and business and labor leaders, the public was convinced of the necessity to reduce air pollution. The unique aspect is that the public accepted the costs of a long-range policy decision through education and persuasion. 20 refs.

  7. Developmental Change in the Function of Movement Systems: Transition of the Pectoral Fins between Respiratory and Locomotor Roles in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Melina E.

    2014-01-01

    An animal may experience strikingly different functional demands on its body’s systems through development. One way of meeting those demands is with temporary, stage-specific adaptations. This strategy requires the animal to develop appropriate morphological states or physiological pathways that address transient functional demands as well as processes that transition morphology, physiology, and function to that of the mature form. Recent research on ray-finned (actinopterygian) fishes is a developmental transition in function of the pectoral fin, thereby providing an opportunity to examine how an organism copes with changes in the roles of its morphology between stages of its life history. As larvae, zebrafish alternate their pectoral fins in coordination with the body axis during slow swimming. The movements of their fins do not appear to contribute to the production of thrust or to stability but instead exchange fluid near the body for cutaneous respiration. The morphology of the larval fin includes a simple stage-specific endoskeletal disc overlaid by fan-shaped adductor and abductor muscles. In contrast, the musculoskeletal system of the mature fin consists of a suite of muscles and bones. Fins are extended laterally during slow swimming of the adult, without the distinct, high-amplitude left-right fin alternation of the larval fin. The morphological and functional transition of the pectoral fin occurs through juvenile development. Early in this period, at about 3 weeks post-fertilization, the gills take over respiratory function, presumably freeing the fins for other roles. Kinematic data suggest that the loss of respiratory function does not lead to a rapid switch in patterns of fin movement but rather that both morphology and movement transition gradually through the juvenile stage of development. Studies relating structure to function often focus on stable systems that are arguably well adapted for the roles they play. Examining how animals navigate

  8. High Resolution Topography of Age-Related Changes in Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Electroencephalography.

    PubMed

    Sprecher, Kate E; Riedner, Brady A; Smith, Richard F; Tononi, Giulio; Davidson, Richard J; Benca, Ruth M

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping brain activity reflects brain anatomy and physiology. The aim of this study was to use high density (256 channel) electroencephalography (EEG) during sleep to characterize topographic changes in sleep EEG power across normal aging, with high spatial resolution. Sleep was evaluated in 92 healthy adults aged 18-65 years old using full polysomnography and high density EEG. After artifact removal, spectral power density was calculated for standard frequency bands for all channels, averaged across the NREM periods of the first 3 sleep cycles. To quantify topographic changes with age, maps were generated of the Pearson's coefficient of the correlation between power and age at each electrode. Significant correlations were determined by statistical non-parametric mapping. Absolute slow wave power declined significantly with increasing age across the entire scalp, whereas declines in theta and sigma power were significant only in frontal regions. Power in fast spindle frequencies declined significantly with increasing age frontally, whereas absolute power of slow spindle frequencies showed no significant change with age. When EEG power was normalized across the scalp, a left centro-parietal region showed significantly less age-related decline in power than the rest of the scalp. This partial preservation was particularly significant in the slow wave and sigma bands. The effect of age on sleep EEG varies substantially by region and frequency band. This non-uniformity should inform the design of future investigations of aging and sleep. This study provides normative data on the effect of age on sleep EEG topography, and provides a basis from which to explore the mechanisms of normal aging as well as neurodegenerative disorders for which age is a risk factor.

  9. High Resolution Topography of Age-Related Changes in Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Electroencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Sprecher, Kate E.; Riedner, Brady A.; Smith, Richard F.; Tononi, Giulio; Davidson, Richard J.; Benca, Ruth M.

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping brain activity reflects brain anatomy and physiology. The aim of this study was to use high density (256 channel) electroencephalography (EEG) during sleep to characterize topographic changes in sleep EEG power across normal aging, with high spatial resolution. Sleep was evaluated in 92 healthy adults aged 18–65 years old using full polysomnography and high density EEG. After artifact removal, spectral power density was calculated for standard frequency bands for all channels, averaged across the NREM periods of the first 3 sleep cycles. To quantify topographic changes with age, maps were generated of the Pearson’s coefficient of the correlation between power and age at each electrode. Significant correlations were determined by statistical non-parametric mapping. Absolute slow wave power declined significantly with increasing age across the entire scalp, whereas declines in theta and sigma power were significant only in frontal regions. Power in fast spindle frequencies declined significantly with increasing age frontally, whereas absolute power of slow spindle frequencies showed no significant change with age. When EEG power was normalized across the scalp, a left centro-parietal region showed significantly less age-related decline in power than the rest of the scalp. This partial preservation was particularly significant in the slow wave and sigma bands. The effect of age on sleep EEG varies substantially by region and frequency band. This non-uniformity should inform the design of future investigations of aging and sleep. This study provides normative data on the effect of age on sleep EEG topography, and provides a basis from which to explore the mechanisms of normal aging as well as neurodegenerative disorders for which age is a risk factor. PMID:26901503

  10. Deglacial Dust Provenance Changes in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific and Implications for ITCZ Movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, R.; Marcantonio, F.

    2009-12-01

    The provenance of the eolian dust component of deep-sea sediments has the potential to offer insights into changes in past atmospheric circulation patterns. Measuring temporal changes in dust provenance can shed more light on changes in the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), a region in which dust is removed from the upper troposphere by deep convection and scavenged by precipitation. The ITCZ should, therefore, act as a barrier separating wind-blown northern versus southern sources. Perhaps the best way to trace for provenance of dust sources is through the measurement of radiogenic isotope ratios. Here, we have analyzed Nd, Sr, and Pb isotope ratios in the detrital components extracted from deep-sea sediments in the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) along a meridional transect at 110W from 3S to 7N (ODP Leg 138, Sites 848 - 853). At each site, the sediments ranged in age from 0 to 25 ka. Detrital component extraction involved the chemical removal of the biogenic and authigenic sedimentary fractions. Preliminary detrital Nd isotope ratios show a range of 2.4 ɛNd units (from -5.7 to -3.3). There are distinct latitudinal trends in the ɛNd values, with more radiogenic values further south and less radiogenic values further north. This distinction holds true for both Holocene and glacial time. The difference in Nd isotope ratios at any one site between Holocene and glacial is smaller for the sites furthest North. The greatest Holocene-glacial differences in ɛNd occur at sites south of 3N, suggesting a distinct detrital component boundary at this latitude. The sites furthest north (7N and 5.29N) show the greatest variability in detrital 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios, while sites furthest south (equator and 1.5N) show negligible variability. The detrital component of sediment at Site 851 (2.77N) has a Sr isotope variability that is intermediate between the northern and southern values, again suggesting a detrital boundary of some sort. We interpreted

  11. Social Groups and Children's Intergroup Attitudes: Can School Norms Moderate the Effects of Social Group Norms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Lawson, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of social group norms (inclusion vs. exclusion vs. exclusion-plus-relational aggression) and school norms (inclusion vs. no norm) on 7- and 10-year-old children's intergroup attitudes were examined. Children (n = 383) were randomly assigned to a group with an inclusion or exclusion norm, and to 1 of the school norm conditions. Findings…

  12. Glacio-isostatic crustal movements caused by historical volume change of the Vatnajokull ice cap, Iceland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Einarsson, Pall

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of the lake level of Lake Langisjor at the SW edge of the Vatnajokull ice cap indicate a tilt of 0.26 +/- 0.06 microrad/yr away from the ice cap in the years of 1959-1991. The tilt is too large to be explained as an elastic Earth response to ice retreat this century, or to be caused by change in the gravitational pull of the ice cap, but it can be explained by sub-lithospheric viscous adjustment. Regional subsidence in historical times in SE Iceland can similarly be attributed to viscous adjustment resulting from the increased load of Vatnajokull during the Little Ice Age. The inferred sublithospheric viscosity is 1 x 10 exp 18 - 5 x 10 exp 19 Pa s.

  13. Old wine in new bottles: reaction norms in salmonid fishes

    PubMed Central

    Hutchings, J A

    2011-01-01

    Genetic variability in reaction norms reflects differences in the ability of individuals, populations and ultimately species to respond to environmental change. By increasing our understanding of how genotype × environment interactions influence evolution, studies of genetic variation in phenotypic plasticity serve to refine our capacity to predict how populations will respond to natural and anthropogenic environmental variability, including climate change. Given the extraordinary variability in morphology, behaviour and life history in salmonids, one might anticipate the research milieu on reaction norms in these fishes to be empirically rich and intellectually engaging. Here, I undertake a review of genetic variability in continuous and discontinuous (threshold) norms of reaction in salmonid fishes, as determined primarily (but not exclusively) by common-garden experiments. Although in its infancy from a numerical publication perspective, there is taxonomically broad evidence of genetic differentiation in continuous, threshold and bivariate reaction norms among individuals, families and populations (including inter-population hybrids and backcrosses) for traits as divergent as embryonic development, age and size at maturity, and gene expression. There is compelling inferential evidence that plasticity is heritable and that population differences in reaction norms can reflect adaptive responses, by natural selection, to local environments. As a stimulus for future work, a series of 20 research questions are identified that focus on reaction-norm variability, selection, costs and constraints, demographic and conservation consequences, and genetic markers and correlates of phenotypic plasticity. PMID:21224878

  14. Liberal Norms and Their Discontents.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Deborah A

    2012-09-01

    Recent analyses of the predominance of liberals in personality and social psychology have raised the possibility that this ideological imbalance is driven in part by active discrimination against conservatives. In this article, I review empirical evidence relevant to this possibility and find little support for it. The evidence points instead to a predominance of liberal views in academia more generally, driven by multiple factors including the consonance of academic work with the goals and values of liberals. Within the field of personality and social psychology, this concentration of liberal views has fostered strong liberal norms, which both intensify and exaggerate the field's ideological homogeneity. These liberal norms have unfortunate narrowing effects on research in personality and social psychology; remedies for these effects should focus on weakening the norms. PMID:26168510

  15. Change detection of riverbed movements using river cross-sections and LiDAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, Michael; Höfle, Bernhard; Mandlburger, Gottfried; Rutzinger, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Today, Airborne LiDAR derived digital terrain models (DTMs) are used for several aspects in different scientific disciplines, such as hydrology, geomorphology or archaeology. In the field of river geomorphology, LiDAR data sets can provide information on the riverine vegetation, the level and boundary of the water body, the elevation of the riparian foreland and their roughness. The LiDAR systems in use for topographic data acquisition mainly operate with wavelengths of at least 1064nm and, thus, are not able to penetrate water. LiDAR sensors with two wavelengths are available (bathymetric LiDAR), but they can only provide elevation information of riverbeds or lakes, if the water is clear and the minimum water depth exceeds 1.5m. In small and shallow rivers it is impossible to collect information of the riverbed, regardless of the used LiDAR sensor. In this article, we present a method to derive a high-resolution DTM of the riverbed and to combine it with the LiDAR DTM resulting in a watercourse DTM (DTM-W) as a basis for calculating the changes in the riverbed during several years. To obtain such a DTM-W we use river cross-sections acquired by terrestrial survey or echo-sounding. First, a differentiation between water and land has to be done. A highly accurate water surface can be derived by using a water surface delineation algorithm, which incorporates the amplitude information of the LiDAR point cloud and additional geometrical features (e.g. local surface roughness). The second step is to calculate a thalweg line, which is the lowest flow path in the riverbed. This is achieved by extracting the lowest point of each river cross section and by fitting a B-spline curve through those points. In the next step, the centerline of the river is calculated by applying a shrinking algorithm of the water boundary polygon. By averaging the thalweg line and the centerline, a main flow path line can be computed. Subsequently, a dense array of 2D-profiles perpendicular to the

  16. Changes in plate motion and vertical movements along passive continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Japsen, P.; Cobbold, P. R.; Chalmers, J. A.; Green, P. F.; Bonow, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    The origin of the forces that produce elevated, passive continental margins (EPCMs) has been a hot topic in geoscience for many years. Studies of individual margins have led to models, which explain high elevations by invoking specific conditions for each margin in question. We have studied the uplift history of several margins and have found some striking coincidences between episodes of uplift and changes in plate motion. In the Campanian, Eocene and Miocene, pronounced events of uplift and erosion affected not only SE Brazil (Cobbold et al., 2001), but also NE Brazil and SW Africa (Japsen et al., 2012a). The uplift phases in Brazil also coincided with three main phases of Andean orogeny (Cobbold et al., 2001, 2007). These phases, Peruvian (90-75 Ma), Incaic (50-40 Ma), and Quechuan (25-0 Ma), were also periods of relatively rapid convergence at the Andean margin of South America (Pardo-Casas and Molnar, 1987). Because Campanian uplift in Brazil coincides, not only with rapid convergence at the Andean margin of South America, but also with a decline in Atlantic spreading rate, we suggest that all these uplift events have a common cause, which is lateral resistance to plate motion (Japsen et al., 2012a). Because the uplift phases in South America and Africa are common to the margins of two diverging plates, we also suggest that the driving forces can transmit across the spreading axis, probably at great depth, e.g. in the asthenosphere (Japsen et al., 2012a). Similarly, a phase of uplift and erosion at the Eocene-Oligocene transition (c. 35 Ma), which affected margins around the North Atlantic, correlates with a major plate reorganization there (Japsen et al., 2012b). Passive continental margins clearly formed as a result of extension. Despite this, the World Stress Map shows that, where data exist, all EPCMs are today under compression. We maintain that folds, reverse faults, reactivated normal faults and strike-slip faults that are typical of EPCMs are a result

  17. Small plastic debris changes water movement and heat transfer through beach sediments.

    PubMed

    Carson, Henry S; Colbert, Steven L; Kaylor, Matthew J; McDermid, Karla J

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the physical properties of beaches contaminated with plastic fragments. We compared sediment cores from Hawai'i Island's Kamilo Beach, notable for plastic accumulation, to cores from a nearby beach. Compared to the nearby beach, Kamilo sediments contained more plastics (up to 30.2% by weight), were coarser-grained, and were more permeable (t-test, p<0.0001). 85% of the fragments were polyethylene, and 95% were concentrated in the top 15 cm of the cores. We constructed artificial cores of standardized grain size and varying plastic-to-sediment ratios. Adding plastic significantly increased the permeability (ANOVA, p=0.002), which was partially attributed to the fragments increasing the mean grain size. Sediments with plastic warmed more slowly (16% maximum decrease in thermal diffusivity), and reached lower maximum temperatures (21% maximum increase in heat capacity). These changes have a variety of potential effects on beach organisms, including those with temperature-dependent sex-determination such as sea turtle eggs. PMID:21700298

  18. Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... want them to. If you have a movement disorder, you experience these kinds of impaired movement. Dyskinesia ... and is a common symptom of many movement disorders. Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. Nerve diseases ...

  19. Human-Induced Changes in Landscape Configuration Influence Individual Movement Routines: Lessons from a Versatile, Highly Mobile Species

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Carlos; Palacios, Sebastián; Sáez, Pedro; Sánchez, Sonia; Potti, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Landscape conversion by humans may have detrimental effects on animal populations inhabiting managed ecosystems, but human-altered areas may also provide suitable environments for tolerant species. We investigated the spatial ecology of a highly mobile nocturnal avian species–the red-necked nightjar (Caprimulgus ruficollis)–in two contrastingly managed areas in Southwestern Spain to provide management recommendations for species having multiple habitat requirements. Based on habitat use by radiotagged nightjars, we created maps of functional heterogeneity in both areas so that the movements of breeding individuals could be modeled using least-cost path analyses. In both the natural and the managed area, nightjars used remnants of native shrublands as nesting sites, while pinewood patches (either newly planted or natural mature) and roads were selected as roosting and foraging habitats, respectively. Although the fraction of functional habitat was held relatively constant (60.9% vs. 74.1% in the natural and the managed area, respectively), landscape configuration changed noticeably. As a result, least-cost routes (summed linear distances) from nest locations to the nearest roost and foraging sites were three times larger in the natural than in the managed area (mean ± SE: 1356±76 m vs. 439±32 m). It seems likely that the increased proximity of functional habitats in the managed area relative to the natural one is underlying the significantly higher abundances of nightjars observed therein, where breeders should travel shorter distances to link together essential resources, thus likely reducing their energy expenditure and mortality risks. Our results suggest that landscape configuration, but not habitat availability, is responsible for the observed differences between the natural and the managed area in the abundance and movements of breeding nightjars, although no effect on body condition was detected. Agricultural landscapes could be moderately managed to

  20. Human-induced changes in landscape configuration influence individual movement routines: lessons from a versatile, highly mobile species.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Carlos; Palacios, Sebastián; Sáez, Pedro; Sánchez, Sonia; Potti, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Landscape conversion by humans may have detrimental effects on animal populations inhabiting managed ecosystems, but human-altered areas may also provide suitable environments for tolerant species. We investigated the spatial ecology of a highly mobile nocturnal avian species-the red-necked nightjar (Caprimulgus ruficollis)-in two contrastingly managed areas in Southwestern Spain to provide management recommendations for species having multiple habitat requirements. Based on habitat use by radiotagged nightjars, we created maps of functional heterogeneity in both areas so that the movements of breeding individuals could be modeled using least-cost path analyses. In both the natural and the managed area, nightjars used remnants of native shrublands as nesting sites, while pinewood patches (either newly planted or natural mature) and roads were selected as roosting and foraging habitats, respectively. Although the fraction of functional habitat was held relatively constant (60.9% vs. 74.1% in the natural and the managed area, respectively), landscape configuration changed noticeably. As a result, least-cost routes (summed linear distances) from nest locations to the nearest roost and foraging sites were three times larger in the natural than in the managed area (mean ± SE: 1356±76 m vs. 439±32 m). It seems likely that the increased proximity of functional habitats in the managed area relative to the natural one is underlying the significantly higher abundances of nightjars observed therein, where breeders should travel shorter distances to link together essential resources, thus likely reducing their energy expenditure and mortality risks. Our results suggest that landscape configuration, but not habitat availability, is responsible for the observed differences between the natural and the managed area in the abundance and movements of breeding nightjars, although no effect on body condition was detected. Agricultural landscapes could be moderately managed to

  1. The Climate Change Crisis as an International Civil Rights Issue: Forging an Alliance Between Science, Activism, and Progressive Social Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, B. J.; Driver, S.

    2011-12-01

    If our scientific community wants to make real progress on the climate change and environmental crisis we must be willing to side with and fight for the oppressed. The national and international communities most ready to act - those hit hardest by the real impact of climate change in their day-to-day lives - need the political leadership of and a living, organic connection with scientists who are prepared to tell the truth and act on the truth of our science. A new generation of scientist-activist leaders and this strategic and mutually beneficial alliance with the oppressed will be necessary to wage an international, intransigent fight to enact and implement the social, political, and economic policies needed to mitigate the damage already done and prevent future environmental and human catastrophe. In the statement BAMN distributed to last year's Fall AGU conference we said, "there will be no shortage of mass struggle in the next period of history." This spring we saw the absolutely awe-inspiring social upheavals in North Africa and the Middle East in the form of waves of mass demonstrations in country after country. Many of those struggles, with demands for real democracy, for jobs and economic opportunities, for improved living conditions, continue to this day. In virtually every instance, these popular and progressive social movements have been led by youth: middle school, high school and college students. In the US and Europe we have seen the spread of student-led struggle around the defense of K-12 public education and on college campuses in defense of various programs, opportunities, and the character of the educational experience. The most dynamic force in these struggles has been the Latina/o, black, other underrepresented minority and immigrant youth who refuse to accept permanent second-class citizenship and a future devoid of hope and opportunity. We will discuss our experience as a youth-led civil rights organization presenting the issues of climate

  2. Can Infrared Spectroscopy Be Used to Measure Change in Potassium Nitrate Concentration as a Proxy for Soil Particle Movement?

    PubMed Central

    Luleva, Mila Ivanova; van der Werff, Harald; Jetten, Victor; van der Meer, Freek

    2011-01-01

    Displacement of soil particles caused by erosion influences soil condition and fertility. To date, the cesium 137 isotope (137Cs) technique is most commonly used for soil particle tracing. However when large areas are considered, the expensive soil sampling and analysis present an obstacle. Infrared spectral measurements would provide a solution, however the small concentrations of the isotope do not influence the spectral signal sufficiently. Potassium (K) has similar electrical, chemical and physical properties as Cs. Our hypothesis is that it can be used as possible replacement in soil particle tracing. Soils differing in texture were sampled for the study. Laboratory soil chemical analyses and spectral sensitivity analyses were carried out to identify the wavelength range related to K concentration. Different concentrations of K fertilizer were added to soils with varying texture properties in order to establish spectral characteristics of the absorption feature associated with the element. Changes in position of absorption feature center were observed at wavelengths between 2,450 and 2,470 nm, depending on the amount of fertilizer applied. Other absorption feature parameters (absorption band depth, width and area) were also found to change with K concentration with coefficient of determination between 0.85 and 0.99. Tracing soil particles using K fertilizer and infrared spectral response is considered suitable for soils with sandy and sandy silt texture. It is a new approach that can potentially grow to a technique for rapid monitoring of soil particle movement over large areas. PMID:22163843

  3. Effect of gender on lower extremity kinematics during rapid direction changes: an integrated analysis of three sports movements.

    PubMed

    McLean, S G; Walker, K B; van den Bogert, A J

    2005-12-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a common sports injury, particularly in females. Gender differences in knee kinematics have been observed for specific movements, but there is limited information on how these findings relate to other joints and other movements. Here we present an integrated analysis of hip, knee and ankle kinematics across three movements linked to non-contact ACL injury. It was hypothesised that there are gender differences in lower extremity kinematics, which are consistent across sports movements. Ten female and ten male NCAA basketball players had three-dimensional hip, knee and ankle kinematics quantified during the stance phase of sidestep, sidejump and shuttle-run tasks. For each joint angle, initial value at contact, peak value and between-trial variability was obtained and submitted to a two-way mixed design ANOVA (gender and movement), with movement condition treated as a repeated measure. Females had higher peak knee valgus and lower peak hip and knee flexion, with the same gender differences also existing at the beginning of stance (p<0.05). Peak valgus measures were highly correlated between movements, but not to static valgus alignment. Kinematic differences demonstrated by females for the sports movements studied, and in particular knee valgus, may explain their increased risk of ACL injury. These differences appear to stem largely from subject-specific neuromuscular mechanisms across movements, suggesting that prevention via neuromuscular training is possible.

  4. 03-NIF Dedication: Norm Pattiz

    ScienceCinema

    Norm Pattiz

    2016-07-12

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Norm Pattiz, the chairman of Lawrence Livermore National Security, which manages Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  5. 03-NIF Dedication: Norm Pattiz

    SciTech Connect

    Norm Pattiz

    2009-07-02

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Norm Pattiz, the chairman of Lawrence Livermore National Security, which manages Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  6. McCarthyism's Rhetorical Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Rebecca M.

    Rhetorical norms of early McCarthyist discourse reveal a reliance upon images of chaos and the body. Through such metaphors, rhetors crafted a model of discussion that feminized "democracy" and "tolerance" to support anti-Communist measures and de-legitimize their opponents. Political variety was coded as deviant to national identity. "Tolerance"…

  7. Nasalance Norms in Greek Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal…

  8. Diversity-induced resonance in the response to social norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessone, Claudio J.; Sánchez, Angel; Schweitzer, Frank

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we focus on diversity-induced resonance, which was recently found in bistable, excitable, and other physical systems. We study the appearance of this phenomenon in a purely economic model of cooperating and defecting agents. An agent's contribution to a public good is seen as a social norm, so defecting agents face a social pressure, which decreases if free riding becomes widespread. In this model, diversity among agents naturally appears because of the different sensitivities towards the social norm. We study the evolution of cooperation as a response to the social norm (i) for the replicator dynamics and (ii) for the logit dynamics by means of numerical simulations. Diversity-induced resonance is observed as a maximum in the response of agents to changes in the social norm as a function of the degree of heterogeneity in the population. We provide an analytical, mean-field approach for the logit dynamics and find very good agreement with the simulations. From a socioeconomic perspective, our results show that, counterintuitively, diversity in the individual sensitivity to social norms may result in a society that better follows such norms as a whole, even if part of the population is less prone to follow them.

  9. Correcting Slightly Less Simple Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aivar, M. P.; Brenner, E.; Smeets, J. B. J.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have analysed how goal directed movements are corrected in response to changes in the properties of the target. However, only simple movements to single targets have been used in those studies, so little is known about movement corrections under more complex situations. Evidence from studies that ask for movements to several targets…

  10. Muscle co-activity tuning in Parkinsonian hand movement: disease-specific changes at behavioral and cerebral level.

    PubMed

    van der Stouwe, A M M; Toxopeus, C M; de Jong, B M; Yavuz, P; Valsan, G; Conway, B A; Leenders, K L; Maurits, N M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated simple directional hand movements based on different degrees of muscle co-activity, at behavioral and cerebral level in healthy subjects and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We compared "singular" movements, dominated by the activity of one agonist muscle, to "composite" movements, requiring conjoint activity of multiple muscles, in a center-out (right hand) step-tracking task. Behavioral parameters were obtained by EMG and kinematic recordings. fMRI was used to investigate differences in underlying brain activations between PD patients (N = 12) and healthy (age-matched) subjects (N = 18). In healthy subjects, composite movements recruited the striatum and cortical areas comprising bilaterally the supplementary motor area and premotor cortex, contralateral medial prefrontal cortex, primary motor cortex, primary visual cortex, and ipsilateral superior parietal cortex. Contrarily, the ipsilateral cerebellum was more involved in singular movements. This striking dichotomy between striatal and cortical recruitment vs. cerebellar involvement was considered to reflect the complementary roles of these areas in motor control, in which the basal ganglia are involved in movement selection and the cerebellum in movement optimization. Compared to healthy subjects, PD patients showed decreased activation of the striatum and cortical areas in composite movement, while performing worse at behavioral level. This implies that PD patients are especially impaired on tasks requiring highly tuned muscle co-activity. Singular movement, on the other hand, was characterized by a combination of increased activation of the ipsilateral parietal cortex and left cerebellum. As singular movement performance was only slightly compromised, we interpret this as a reflection of increased visuospatial processing, possibly as a compensational mechanism.

  11. Muscle co-activity tuning in Parkinsonian hand movement: disease-specific changes at behavioral and cerebral level

    PubMed Central

    van der Stouwe, A. M. M.; Toxopeus, C. M.; de Jong, B. M.; Yavuz, P.; Valsan, G.; Conway, B. A.; Leenders, K. L.; Maurits, N. M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated simple directional hand movements based on different degrees of muscle co-activity, at behavioral and cerebral level in healthy subjects and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We compared “singular” movements, dominated by the activity of one agonist muscle, to “composite” movements, requiring conjoint activity of multiple muscles, in a center-out (right hand) step-tracking task. Behavioral parameters were obtained by EMG and kinematic recordings. fMRI was used to investigate differences in underlying brain activations between PD patients (N = 12) and healthy (age-matched) subjects (N = 18). In healthy subjects, composite movements recruited the striatum and cortical areas comprising bilaterally the supplementary motor area and premotor cortex, contralateral medial prefrontal cortex, primary motor cortex, primary visual cortex, and ipsilateral superior parietal cortex. Contrarily, the ipsilateral cerebellum was more involved in singular movements. This striking dichotomy between striatal and cortical recruitment vs. cerebellar involvement was considered to reflect the complementary roles of these areas in motor control, in which the basal ganglia are involved in movement selection and the cerebellum in movement optimization. Compared to healthy subjects, PD patients showed decreased activation of the striatum and cortical areas in composite movement, while performing worse at behavioral level. This implies that PD patients are especially impaired on tasks requiring highly tuned muscle co-activity. Singular movement, on the other hand, was characterized by a combination of increased activation of the ipsilateral parietal cortex and left cerebellum. As singular movement performance was only slightly compromised, we interpret this as a reflection of increased visuospatial processing, possibly as a compensational mechanism. PMID:26300761

  12. Effects of changing gravity on anticipatory grip force control during point-to-point movements of a hand-held object.

    PubMed

    Nowak, D A; Hermsdörfer, J; Philipp, J; Marquardt, C; Glasauer, S; Mai, N

    2001-07-01

    We investigated the quality of predictive grip force control during gravity changes induced by parabolic flight maneuvers. During these maneuvers gravity varied: There were 2 periods of hypergravity, in which terrestrial gravity nearly doubled, and a 20-s period of microgravity, during which a manipulated object was virtually weightless. We determined grip and load forces during vertical point-to-point movements of an instrumented object. Point-to-point movements were a combination of static (stationary holding) and dynamic (continuous movements) task conditions, which were separately analyzed in our previous studies. Analysis of the produced grip forces revealed that grip adjustments were closely linked to load force fluctuations under each gravity condition. In particular, grip force maxima coincided closely in time with load force peaks, although these occurred at different phases of the movement depending on the gravity level. However, quantitative analysis of the ratio of maximum grip force to the corresponding load force peak revealed an increased force ratio during microgravity when compared to that during normal and hypergravity. We hypothesize that the impaired precision of force coupling with respect to force magnitude during microgravity results from reduced feedback information about the object's mass during the stationary holding of the object in between each movement. The results indicate that the temporal grip force regulation is highly automatized and stable, whereas economical planning of force magnitude is more flexible and might reflect changes of the external loading condition.

  13. Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approving cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  14. From the gating charge response to pore domain movement: Initial motions of Kv1.2 dynamics under physiological voltage changes

    PubMed Central

    Denning, Elizabeth J.; Crozier, Paul S.; Sachs, Jonathan N.; Woolf, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    Recent structures of the potassium channel provide an essential beginning point for explaining how the pore is gated between open and closed conformations by changes in membrane voltage. Yet, the molecular details of this process and the connections to transmembrane gradients are not understood. To begin addressing how changes within a membrane environment lead to the channel’s ability to sense shifts in membrane voltage and to gate, we performed double-bilayer simulations of the Kv1.2 channel. These double-bilayer simulations enable us to simulate realistic voltage drops from resting potential conditions to depolarized conditions by changes in the bath conditions on each side of the bilayer. Our results show how the voltage sensor domain movement responds to differences in transmembrane potential. The initial voltage sensor domain movement, S4 in particular, is modulated by the gating charge response to changes in voltage and is initially stabilized by the lipid headgroups. We show this response is directly coupled to the initial stages of pore domain motion. Results presented here provide a molecular model for how the pre-gating process occurs in sequential steps: Gating charge response, movement and stabilization of the S4 voltage sensor domain, and movement near the base of the S5 region to close the pore domain. PMID:19883299

  15. A Norm Changing Approach to Drug Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Loyd S.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of an innovative curriculum called Drugs-At-Work (DAW), which was evaluated in three phases. In phase-one, data collected after the third year of the study suggested that the curriculum had a significant impact on the fifth-grade participants, who in turn influenced their sixth-grade classmates the…

  16. Junior High Norms for the Bender Gestalt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grow, Richard T.

    Norms are tabulated for the Bender Gestalt Test, based on a group of 62 male and 73 female junior high school students in Utah. These norms are designed to fill a gap in norms which now range from 3 years through adult. The students in this group were aged 12 through 14. Standard Bender Gestalt cards were used. The tests were administered…

  17. Cultural Norms and Nonverbal Communication: An Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yanrong

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal communication takes place in specific cultural contexts and is influenced by cultural norms. Cultural norms are "social rules for what certain types of people should and should not do" (Hall, 2005). Different cultures might have different norms for nonverbal behaviors in specific social, relational, and geographical contexts.…

  18. Peer Group Norms and Accountability Moderate the Effect of School Norms on Children's Intergroup Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Luke; Rutland, Adam; Nesdale, Drew

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the interactive effects of school norms, peer norms, and accountability on children's intergroup attitudes. Participants (n = 229) aged 5-11 years, in a between-subjects design, were randomly assigned to a peer group with an inclusion or exclusion norm, learned their school either had an inclusion norm or not, and were…

  19. Separating subjective norms, university descriptive and injunctive norms, and U.S. descriptive and injunctive norms for drinking behavior intentions.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee Sun; Klein, Katherine A; Smith, Sandi; Martell, Dennis

    2009-12-01

    The theory of planned behavior and the social norms approach both stress the important influence that normative perceptions have on behavioral intentions and behavior. These 2 approaches were used to examine the behavioral intention to limit drinking to 0 to 4 drinks. Further, this study examined whether perception of subjective norms, university- and U.S.-level descriptive norms, and university- and U.S.-level injunctive norms represented separate dimensions for this behavioral intention. A representative sample of 1,100 undergraduate students completed a Web-based survey. The results confirmed that the 5 types of norms were all unique constructs and showed that individuals' intentions to limit their alcohol consumption to 0 to 4 drinks were predicted by positive attitudes, perceived behavioral control, subjective norms, U.S. descriptive norms, and U.S. injunctive norms. Subjective norms also moderated the relationship between perceived behavioral control and behavioral intention. University descriptive norms served as a moderator between attitudes and behavioral intentions and between perceived behavioral control and behavioral intentions. This study has important implications for norms-based theories and campaigns. PMID:20183383

  20. Soft, cutting edge of environmentalism: why and how the appropriate-technology notion is changing the movement

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.E.

    1980-04-01

    The central theme of hard, or centralized, technology versus soft, or small and disperse, technology is traced through two stages of development that the author terms enthusiasm and realism. The overlap between the environmental movement and the soft-technology movement has given the appropriate-technology movement a broad base of ideological support. Soft-technology thinking in environmentalism is broadening its concerns. This trend tends to increase what to date has been environmentalism's rather marginal relevance and legitimacy in the original and still-central domain of the soft-technolgoy movement, namely the developing countries. The small is beautiful concept will force environmentalists to question their commitments to political ideologies as well as environmentalism when faced with achieving environmental reform in the context of achieving greater social equity through redistribution. According to the author, the soft-technology vision of transformation to a soft society is the cutting edge of thought in environmentalism. 45 footnotes, 1 table. (SAC)

  1. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Coffé, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-05-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social Survey data. We investigate mean levels of civic mindedness in these countries and perform regression analyses to investigate whether factors traditionally associated with civic and political participation are also correlated with citizenship norms across Eastern Europe. We show that mean levels of civic mindedness differ significantly across the four Eastern European countries. We find some support for theories on civic and political participation when explaining norms of citizenship, but also demonstrate that individual-level characteristics are differently related to citizenship norms across the countries of our study. Hence, our findings show that Eastern Europe is not a monolithic and homogeneous bloc, underscoring the importance of taking the specificities of countries into account.

  2. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Coffé, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-05-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social Survey data. We investigate mean levels of civic mindedness in these countries and perform regression analyses to investigate whether factors traditionally associated with civic and political participation are also correlated with citizenship norms across Eastern Europe. We show that mean levels of civic mindedness differ significantly across the four Eastern European countries. We find some support for theories on civic and political participation when explaining norms of citizenship, but also demonstrate that individual-level characteristics are differently related to citizenship norms across the countries of our study. Hence, our findings show that Eastern Europe is not a monolithic and homogeneous bloc, underscoring the importance of taking the specificities of countries into account. PMID:20390027

  3. Boosting safety behaviour: Descriptive norms encourage child booster seat usage amongst low involvement parents.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Jennifer; Whelan, Jodie; Pirouz, Dante M; Snowdon, Anne W

    2016-07-01

    Campaigns advocating behavioural changes often employ social norms as a motivating technique, favouring injunctive norms (what is typically approved or disapproved) over descriptive norms (what is typically done). Here, we investigate an upside to including descriptive norms in health and safety appeals. Because descriptive norms are easy to process and understand, they should provide a heuristic to guide behaviour in those individuals who lack the interest or motivation to reflect on the advocated behaviour more deeply. When those descriptive norms are positive - suggesting that what is done is consistent with what ought to be done - including them in campaigns should be particularly beneficial at influencing this low-involvement segment. We test this proposition via research examining booster seat use amongst parents with children of booster seat age, and find that incorporating positive descriptive norms into a related campaign is particularly impactful for parents who report low involvement in the topic of booster seat safety. Descriptive norms are easy to state and easy to understand, and our research suggests that these norms resonate with low involvement individuals. As a result, we recommend incorporating descriptive norms when possible into health and safety campaigns. PMID:27085145

  4. Bowel Movement

    MedlinePlus

    A bowel movement is the last stop in the movement of food through your digestive tract. Your stool passes out ... rectum and anus. Another name for stool is feces. It is made of what is left after ...

  5. A model of movement coordinates in the motor cortex: posture-dependent changes in the gain and direction of single cell tuning curves.

    PubMed

    Ajemian, R; Bullock, D; Grossberg, S

    2001-12-01

    This article outlines a methodology for investigating the coordinate systems by which movement variables are encoded in the firing rates of individual motor cortical neurons. Recent neurophysiological experiments have probed the issue of underlying coordinates by examining how cellular preferred directions (as determined by the center-out task) change with posture. Several key experimental findings have resulted that constrain hypotheses about how motor cortical cells encode movement information. But while the significance of shifts in preferred direction is well known and widely accepted, posture-dependent changes in the depth of modulation of a cell's tuning curve--that is, gain changes--have not been similarly identified as a means of coordinate inference. This article develops a vector field framework in which the preferred direction and the gain of a cell's tuning curve are viewed as dual components of a unitary response vector. The formalism can be used to compute how each aspect of cell response covaries with posture as a function of the coordinate system in which a given cell is hypothesized to encode its movement information. Such an integrated approach leads to a model of motor cortical cell activity that codifies the following four observations: (i) cell activity correlates with hand movement direction; (ii) cell activity correlates with hand movement speed; (iii) preferred directions vary with posture; and (iv) the modulation depth of tuning curves varies with posture. Finally, the model suggests general methods for testing coordinate hypotheses at the single-cell level and simulates an example protocol for three possible coordinate systems: Cartesian spatial, shoulder-centered, and joint angle.

  6. Fatigue-Induced Changes in Movement Pattern and Muscle Activity During Ballet Releve on Demi-Pointe.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Feng; Lee, Wan-Chin; Chen, Yi-An; Hsue, Bih-Jen

    2016-08-01

    Fatigue in ballet dancers may lead to injury, particularly in the lower extremities. However, few studies have investigated the effects of fatigue on ballet dancers' performance and movement patterns. Thus, the current study examines the effect of fatigue on the balance, movement pattern, and muscle activities of the lower extremities in ballet dancers. Twenty healthy, female ballet dancers performed releve on demi-pointe before and after fatigue. The trajectory of the whole body movement and the muscle activities of the major lower extremity muscles were recorded continuously during task performance. The results show that fatigue increases the medial-lateral center of mass (COM) displacement and hip and trunk motion, but decreases the COM velocity and ankle motion. Moreover, fatigue reduces the activities of the hamstrings and tibialis anterior, but increases that of the soleus. Finally, greater proximal hip and trunk motions are applied to compensate for the effects of fatigue, leading to a greater COM movement. Overall, the present findings show that fatigue results in impaired movement control and may therefore increase the risk of dance injury. PMID:26955753

  7. Fatigue-Induced Changes in Movement Pattern and Muscle Activity During Ballet Releve on Demi-Pointe.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Feng; Lee, Wan-Chin; Chen, Yi-An; Hsue, Bih-Jen

    2016-08-01

    Fatigue in ballet dancers may lead to injury, particularly in the lower extremities. However, few studies have investigated the effects of fatigue on ballet dancers' performance and movement patterns. Thus, the current study examines the effect of fatigue on the balance, movement pattern, and muscle activities of the lower extremities in ballet dancers. Twenty healthy, female ballet dancers performed releve on demi-pointe before and after fatigue. The trajectory of the whole body movement and the muscle activities of the major lower extremity muscles were recorded continuously during task performance. The results show that fatigue increases the medial-lateral center of mass (COM) displacement and hip and trunk motion, but decreases the COM velocity and ankle motion. Moreover, fatigue reduces the activities of the hamstrings and tibialis anterior, but increases that of the soleus. Finally, greater proximal hip and trunk motions are applied to compensate for the effects of fatigue, leading to a greater COM movement. Overall, the present findings show that fatigue results in impaired movement control and may therefore increase the risk of dance injury. PMID:27622498

  8. Empowerment and the psychiatric consumer/ex-patient movement in the United States: contradictions, crisis and change.

    PubMed

    McLean, A

    1995-04-01

    A political movement in the United States by consumers and ex-patients of psychiatry has challenged the assumptions and negative consequences of traditional mental health practice and its control by professionals. In recent years, the movement has succeeded in gaining support to produce alternative programs based on a philosophy of 'consumer empowerment' and run entirely by consumers and ex-patients. In this article, I present results from an ethnographic study of one such alternative and I attempt to explain the discrepancy between the center's philosophy of empowerment and its actual practices. Utilizing this data, the consumer literature, and interviews with consumer leaders nationwide, I explain this situation in terms of conceptual problems with the terms 'empowerment' and 'consumer empowerment', local structural conditions under which the center operated, and the larger situation of the psychiatric consumer/ex-patient movement in the United States today. The case study represents a crisis in the consumer movement today, in which rapid growth of alternatives has been accompanied by a social amnesia of the emancipatory vision that originally spawned the movement.

  9. Using continuous GPS and absolute gravity to separate vertical land movements and changes in sea-level at tide-gauges in the UK.

    PubMed

    Teferle, F N; Bingley, R M; Williams, S D P; Baker, T F; Dodson, A H

    2006-04-15

    Researchers investigating climate change have used historical tide-gauge measurements from all over the world to investigate the changes in sea-level that have occurred over the last century or so. However, such estimates are a combination of any true sea-level variations and any vertical movements of the land at the specific tide-gauge. For a tide- gauge record to be used to determine the climate related component of changes in sea-level, it is therefore necessary to correct for the vertical land movement component of the observed change in sea-level.In 1990, the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy and Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory started developing techniques based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) for measuring vertical land movements (VLM) at tide-gauges in the UK. This paper provides brief details of these early developments and shows how they led to the establishment of continuous GPS (CGPS) stations at a number of tide-gauges. The paper then goes on to discuss the use of absolute gravity (AG), as an independent technique for measuring VLM at tide-gauges. The most recent results, from CGPS time-series dating back to 1997 and AG time-series dating back to 1995/1996, are then used to demonstrate the complementarity of these two techniques and their potential for providing site-specific estimates of VLM at tide-gauges in the UK.

  10. Perceived Norms Mediate Effects of a Brief Motivational Intervention for Sanctioned College Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Kate B.; Henson, James M.; Carey, Michael P.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study is a secondary analysis of a randomized trial of brief motivational interventions (BMIs) for 198 college students sanctioned for alcohol-related violations of school policy (Carey, Henson, Carey, & Maisto, 2009). Using multivariate latent growth curve models, we evaluated theoretically-derived mediators of the observed BMI effect: motivation to change (readiness-to-change, costs and benefits of drinking), and drinking norms (injunctive norms for peers, and descriptive norms for friends, local peers, and national peers). Results provided partial support for mediation by changes in perceptions of descriptive but not injunctive norms, a pattern that varied by gender and norm type. We found no evidence of a mediating role for any of the motivational variables. PMID:22238504

  11. Changes in the relative abundance and movement of insect pollinators during the flowering cycle of Brassica rapa crops: implications for gene flow.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Laura A; Howlett, Bradley G; Grant, Jan E; Didham, Raphael K

    2013-01-01

    The potential movement of transgenes from genetically modified crops to non-genetically modified crops via insect-mediated pollen dispersal has been highlighted as one of the areas of greatest concern in regards to genetically modified crops. Pollen movement depends sensitively on spatial and temporal variation in the movement of insect pollinators between crop fields. This study tested the degree of variation in the diversity and relative abundance of flower-visiting insects entering versus leaving pak choi, Brassica rapa var. chinensis L. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae), crops throughout different stages of the flowering cycle. The relative abundance of flower-visiting insects varied significantly with Brassica crop phenology. Greater numbers of flower-visiting insects were captured inside rather than outside the crop fields, with the highest capture rates of flower-visitors coinciding with the peak of flowering in both spring-flowering and summer-flowering crops. Moreover, the ratio of flower-visiting insects entering versus leaving crop fields also varied considerably with changing crop phenology. Despite high variation in relative capture rates, the data strongly indicate non-random patterns of variation in insect movement in relation to crop phenology, with early-season aggregation of flower-visiting insects entering and remaining in the crop, and then mass emigration of flower-visiting insects leaving the crop late in the flowering season. Although pollen movement late in the flowering cycle might contribute relatively little to total seed set (and hence crop production), the findings here suggest that extensive late-season pollinator redistribution in the landscape could contribute disproportionately to long-distance gene movement between crops.

  12. Changes in the relative abundance and movement of insect pollinators during the flowering cycle of Brassica rapa crops: implications for gene flow.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Laura A; Howlett, Bradley G; Grant, Jan E; Didham, Raphael K

    2013-01-01

    The potential movement of transgenes from genetically modified crops to non-genetically modified crops via insect-mediated pollen dispersal has been highlighted as one of the areas of greatest concern in regards to genetically modified crops. Pollen movement depends sensitively on spatial and temporal variation in the movement of insect pollinators between crop fields. This study tested the degree of variation in the diversity and relative abundance of flower-visiting insects entering versus leaving pak choi, Brassica rapa var. chinensis L. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae), crops throughout different stages of the flowering cycle. The relative abundance of flower-visiting insects varied significantly with Brassica crop phenology. Greater numbers of flower-visiting insects were captured inside rather than outside the crop fields, with the highest capture rates of flower-visitors coinciding with the peak of flowering in both spring-flowering and summer-flowering crops. Moreover, the ratio of flower-visiting insects entering versus leaving crop fields also varied considerably with changing crop phenology. Despite high variation in relative capture rates, the data strongly indicate non-random patterns of variation in insect movement in relation to crop phenology, with early-season aggregation of flower-visiting insects entering and remaining in the crop, and then mass emigration of flower-visiting insects leaving the crop late in the flowering season. Although pollen movement late in the flowering cycle might contribute relatively little to total seed set (and hence crop production), the findings here suggest that extensive late-season pollinator redistribution in the landscape could contribute disproportionately to long-distance gene movement between crops. PMID:23937538

  13. Changes in the Relative Abundance and Movement of Insect Pollinators During the Flowering Cycle of Brassica rapa Crops: Implications for Gene Flow

    PubMed Central

    Mesa, Laura A.; Howlett, Bradley G.; Grant, Jan E.; Didham, Raphael K.

    2013-01-01

    The potential movement of transgenes from genetically modified crops to non-genetically modified crops via insect-mediated pollen dispersal has been highlighted as one of the areas of greatest concern in regards to genetically modified crops. Pollen movement depends sensitively on spatial and temporal variation in the movement of insect pollinators between crop fields. This study tested the degree of variation in the diversity and relative abundance of flower-visiting insects entering versus leaving pak choi, Brassica rapa var. chinensis L. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae), crops throughout different stages of the flowering cycle. The relative abundance of flower-visiting insects varied significantly with Brassica crop phenology. Greater numbers of flower-visiting insects were captured inside rather than outside the crop fields, with the highest capture rates of flower-visitors coinciding with the peak of flowering in both spring-flowering and summer-flowering crops. Moreover, the ratio of flower-visiting insects entering versus leaving crop fields also varied considerably with changing crop phenology. Despite high variation in relative capture rates, the data strongly indicate non-random patterns of variation in insect movement in relation to crop phenology, with early-season aggregation of flower-visiting insects entering and remaining in the crop, and then mass emigration of flower-visiting insects leaving the crop late in the flowering season. Although pollen movement late in the flowering cycle might contribute relatively little to total seed set (and hence crop production), the findings here suggest that extensive late-season pollinator redistribution in the landscape could contribute disproportionately to long-distance gene movement between crops. PMID:23937538

  14. Believe It or Not: Examining to the Emergence of New Drinking Norms in College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granfield, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Paper examines impact of a six-month social norms marketing intervention designed to reduce alcohol use among students attending a small, private university. Results indicate that little change in student alcohol use or perception of drinking norms occurred following the intervention. Gender effect was noted in the analysis with female students…

  15. Norm stability in Jirisan National Park: effects of time, existing conditions, and background characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Oh; Shelby, Bo

    2008-04-01

    Norm stability is an important issue to consider in using the normative approach as a component of resource management decision making. This study examines three major questions related to norm stability: (1) Do norms change over time? (2) Do existing conditions affect norms? (3) Do background characteristics and visitation patterns affect norms? Data used in this study were collected at a campground in the Jirisan National Park (JNP) of Korea in 1993, 1994, and 2003. A total of 396 subjects were used for the study (120 for 1993, 106 for 1994, and 170 for 2003). Changes in the standards for "quiet time" and "seeing others littering" were statistically significant, but there was no change in the standard for "number of other tents." There was little change in norm agreement or norm prevalence. Existing conditions were strongly correlated with standards for number of other tents but results were mixed for the other two indicators. Users' demographic characteristics and visitation patterns were not generally related to norms. Findings of the study are discussed.

  16. Testing the Effects of Social Norms and Behavioral Privacy on Hand Washing: A Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Maloney, Erin K.; Braz, Mary; Shulman, Hillary C.

    2013-01-01

    A 2-part study examines the influence of normative messages on college males' hand washing perceptions and behaviors. Study 1 tests for the appropriateness of hand washing as a target of social norms campaigns and tests messages designed to change perceived descriptive norms. Results indicated that hand washing behavior is appropriate for health…

  17. Late Quaternary depositional history, Holocene sea-level changes, and vertical crustal movement, southern San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atwater, Brian F.; Hedel, Charles W.; Helley, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Sediments collected for bridge foundation studies at southern San Francisco Bay, Calif., record estuaries that formed during Sangamon (100,000 years ago) and post-Wisconsin (less than 10,000 years ago) high stands of sea level. The estuarine deposits of Sangamon and post-Wisconsin ages are separated by alluvial and eolian deposits and by erosional unconformities and surfaces of nondeposition, features that indicate lowered base levels and oceanward migrations of the shoreline accompanying low stands of the sea. Estuarine deposits of mid-Wisconsin age appear to be absent, suggesting that sea level was not near its present height 30,000–40,000 years ago in central California. Holocene sea-level changes are measured from the elevations and apparent 14C ages of plant remains from 13 core samples. Uncertainties of ±2 to ±4 m in the elevations of the dated sea levels represent the sum of errors in determination of (1) sample elevation relative to present sea level, (2) sample elevation relative to sea level at the time of accumulation of the dated material, and (3) postdepositional subsidence of the sample due to compaction of underlying sediments. Sea level in the vicinity of southern San Francisco Bay rose about 2 cm/yr from 9,500 to 8,000 years ago. The rate of relative sea-level rise then declined about tenfold from 8,000 to 6,000 years ago, and it has averaged 0.1–0.2 cm/yr from 6,000 years ago to the present. This submergence history indicates that the rising sea entered the Golden Gate 10,000–11,000 years ago and spread across land areas as rapidly as 30 m/yr until 8,000 years ago. Subsequent shoreline changes were more gradual because of the decrease in rate of sea-level rise. Some of the sediments under southern San Francisco Bay appear to be below the level at which they initially accumulated. The vertical crustal movement suggested by these sediments may be summarized as follows: (1) Some Quaternary(?) sediments have sustained at least 100 m of

  18. Theories of Change and Adoption of Innovations: The Evolving Evidence-Based Intervention and Practice Movement in School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psychology in the Schools, 2005

    2005-01-01

    As the evidence-based intervention (EBI) movement proliferated in medicine, psychology, and education, interest turned to establishing criteria for determining whether an intervention and/or program can be described as evidence-based. Less attention has been focused on establishing an empirical basis to understand and facilitate adoption of EBIs…

  19. Developmental Changes in the Variability of Tongue and Lip Movements during Speech from Childhood to Adulthood: An EMA Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdoch, Bruce E.; Cheng, Hei-Yan; Goozee, Justine V.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the developmental variability of lip and tongue movement in 48 children and adults. Motion of the tongue-tip, tongue-body and lower lip was recorded using electromagnetic articulography during productions of sentences containing /t/, /s/, /l/, /k/ and /p/. Four groups of speakers participated in the study: (1) aged 6-7…

  20. Overview of NORM and activities by a NORM licensed permanent decontamination and waste processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mirro, G.A.

    1997-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of issues related to handling NORM materials, and provides a description of a facility designed for the processing of NORM contaminated equipment. With regard to handling NORM materials the author discusses sources of NORM, problems, regulations and disposal options, potential hazards, safety equipment, and issues related to personnel protection. For the facility, the author discusses: description of the permanent facility; the operations of the facility; the license it has for handling specific radioactive material; operating and safety procedures; decontamination facilities on site; NORM waste processing capabilities; and offsite NORM services which are available.

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Black American and Mexican-American Cultural Norms and Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Willard A.; And Others

    Although Mexican-American and Black-American movements in the United States have typically been compared, significant differences between the two minorities--especially in cultural norms and expectations--make comparisons inaccurate and misleading. This paper explores the differences between the Black-American and Mexican-American minorities,…

  2. The Ability of Narrative Communication to Address Health-related Social Norms

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Murphy, Sheila T.; Frank, Lauren; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Social norms are an important predictor of health behavior and have been targeted by a variety of health communication campaigns. However, these campaigns often encounter challenges related to the socially specific context in which norms exist: specifically, the extent to which the target population identifies with the reference group presented in the ad and the extent to which the target population believes the campaign's message. We argue that because of its capacity to effect identification among viewers, narrative communication is particularly appropriate for impacting social norms and, consequently, behavioral intention. This manuscript presents the results of a randomized trial testing the effectiveness of two films – one narrative, one non-narrative – in changing perceived social norms and behavioral intention regarding Pap testing to detect cervical cancer. Results of the study indicate that the narrative film was in fact more effective at producing positive changes in perceived norm and intention. PMID:24179677

  3. Movement - uncontrolled or slow

    MedlinePlus

    Dystonia; Involuntary slow and twisting movements; Choreoathetosis; Leg and arm movements - uncontrollable; Arm and leg movements - uncontrollable; Slow involuntary movements of large muscle groups; Athetoid movements

  4. [Stereotypic movements].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alvarez, E

    2003-02-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive patterns of movement with certain peculiar features that make them especially interesting. Their physiopathology and their relationship with the neurobehavioural disorders they are frequently associated with are unknown. In this paper our aim is to offer a simple analysis of their dominant characteristics, their differentiation from other processes and a hypothesis of the properties of stereotypic movements, which could all set the foundations for research work into their physiopathology.

  5. Quantifying social norms: by coupling the ecosystem management concept and semi-quantitative sociological methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D.; Xu, H.

    2012-12-01

    Over recent decades, human-induced environmental changes have steadily and rapidly grown in intensity and impact to where they now often exceed natural impacts. As one of important components of human activities, social norms play key roles in environmental and natural resources management. But the lack of relevant quantitative data about social norms greatly limits our scientific understanding of the complex linkages between humans and nature, and hampers our solving of pressing environmental and social problems. In this study, we built a quantified method by coupling the ecosystem management concept, semi-quantitative sociological methods and mathematical statistics. We got the quantified value of social norms from two parts, whether the content of social norms coincide with the concept of ecosystem management (content value) and how about the performance after social norms were put into implementation (implementation value) . First, we separately identified 12 core elements of ecosystem management and 16 indexes of social norms, and then matched them one by one. According to their matched degree, we got the content value of social norms. Second, we selected 8 key factors that can represent the performance of social norms after they were put into implementation, and then we got the implementation value by Delph method. Adding these two parts values, we got the final value of each social norms. Third, we conducted a case study in Heihe river basin, the second largest inland river in China, by selecting 12 official edicts related to the river basin ecosystem management of Heihe River Basin. By doing so, we first got the qualified data of social norms which can be directly applied to the research that involved observational or experimental data collection of natural processes. Second, each value was supported by specific contents, so it can assist creating a clear road map for building or revising management and policy guidelines. For example, in this case study

  6. Changes in force associated with the amount of aligner activation and lingual bodily movement of the maxillary central incisor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaowei; Ren, Chaochao; Wang, Zheyao; Zhao, Pai; Wang, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were to measure the orthodontic forces generated by thermoplastic aligners and investigate the possible influences of different activations for lingual bodily movements on orthodontic forces, and their attenuation. Methods Thermoplastic material of 1.0-mm in thickness was used to manufacture aligners for 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 mm activations for lingual bodily movements of the maxillary central incisor. The orthodontic force in the lingual direction delivered by the thermoplastic aligners was measured using a micro-stress sensor system for the invisible orthodontic technique, and was monitored for 2 weeks. Results Orthodontic force increased with the amount of activation of the aligner in the initial measurements. The attenuation speed in the 0.6 mm group was faster than that of the other groups (p < 0.05). All aligners demonstrated rapid relaxation in the first 8 hours, which then decreased slowly and plateaued on day 4 or 5. Conclusions The amount of activation had a substantial influence on the orthodontic force imparted by the aligners. The results suggest that the activation of lingual bodily movement of the maxillary central incisor should not exceed 0.5 mm. The initial 4 or 5 days is important with respect to orthodontic treatment incorporating an aligner. PMID:27019820

  7. Educators Assess "Open Content" Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the open-content movement in education. A small but growing movement of K-12 educators is latching on to educational resources that are "open," or free for others to use, change, and republish on web sites that promote sharing. The open-content movement is fueled partly by digital creation tools that make it easy to create…

  8. A panel study of peer norms and adolescent alcohol consumption: developing strategies for communication interventions.

    PubMed

    Hong, Traci; Beaudoin, Christopher E; Johnson, Carolyn

    2013-08-01

    Given that alcohol consumption and binge drinking among adolescents in the United States remain prevalent, this study assesses changes in the influence of peer norms-and their interactions with time, gender, and ethnicity-on alcohol consumption. Panel survey interviews of adolescents (N = 1,607) were completed in 9th grade and then again in 12th grade with students from Louisiana. Fixed effects multiple regression assessed the relations between the changes in 2 types of peer norms (i.e., descriptive norms and injunctive norms) and 2 alcohol consumption measures: 30-day alcohol prevalence and binge drinking. Increases in 30-day alcohol prevalence and binge drinking were associated with only descriptive norms. The effects of both types of peer norms intensified over time, and the effects of descriptive norms varied according to gender and ethnicity. Specifically, the influence of descriptive norms was greater on boys than on girls and on Caucasians than on African Americans. Communication interventions that target adolescents in the context of alcohol consumption should consider the temporal variability of peer normative influence and how it varies by gender and ethnicity. PMID:23767700

  9. The Deanship and Its Faculty Interpreters: Do Mertonian Norms of Science Translate into Norms for Administration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Nathaniel J.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents research comparing faculty-held norms for academic deans' behavior to Mertonian norms of science. Findings indicate that while some elements of Mertonian norms hold true, it is not the best pattern of grouping faculty expectations for deans. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (Contains 5 tables.)

  10. Social norms and diet in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lally, Phillippa; Bartle, Naomi; Wardle, Jane

    2011-12-01

    We hypothesized that adolescents misperceive social norms for food consumption, and aimed to test this, and examine associations between perceived norms and dietary behaviours. School pupils (n=264) in the UK, aged 16-19 years, completed a questionnaire about their own attitudes to, and intake of, fruits and vegetables, unhealthy snacks and sugar-sweetened drinks, and their perceptions of their peers' attitudes to (injunctive norms), and intake of (descriptive norms), the same foods. Misperceptions were calculated from differences between perceived norms and median self-reports of peer groups. Respondents overestimated their peers' intake of snacks by 1.8 portions a week, and sugar-sweetened drinks by 5.2 portions, and overestimated how positive their peers' attitudes were towards these behaviours. They underestimated their peers' consumption of fruits and vegetables by 3.2 portions per week and how positive their peers' attitudes were towards fruit and vegetables. Descriptive norms were strongly associated with intake of fruit and vegetables, sugar-sweetened drinks, and unhealthy snacks, explaining between 17% and 22% of the variance in consumption. There was no association between injunctive norms and intake. Descriptive norms indicated that misperceptions of peers' food intake were associated with respondents' own intake. Interventions to correct misperceptions have the potential to improve adolescents' diets.

  11. NORM Management in the Oil & Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, Michael; Mously, Khalid; Fageeha, Osama; Nassar, Rafat

    2008-08-01

    It has been established that Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) accumulates at various locations along the oil/gas production process. Components such as wellheads, separation vessels, pumps, and other processing equipment can become NORM contaminated, and NORM can accumulate in sludge and other waste media. Improper handling and disposal of NORM contaminated equipment and waste can create a potential radiation hazard to workers and the environment. Saudi Aramco Environmental Protection Department initiated a program to identify the extent, form and level of NORM contamination associated with the company operations. Once identified the challenge of managing operations which had a NORM hazard was addressed in a manner that gave due consideration to workers and environmental protection as well as operations' efficiency and productivity. The benefits of shared knowledge, practice and experience across the oil & gas industry are seen as key to the establishment of common guidance on NORM management. This paper outlines Saudi Aramco's experience in the development of a NORM management strategy and its goals of establishing common guidance throughout the oil and gas industry.

  12. Adults' Attitudes about Children's Gender Norm Transgressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakemore, Judith E. Owen

    This study examined college students' knowledge and attitudes regarding children's gender, and social and moral norms, and compared their evaluations of violation of each norm type. Participating were 140 female and 67 male college students ranging in age from 17 to 46 years, 33 of whom were parents. Subjects were asked questions related to toys,…

  13. Eye movements during transcendental meditation.

    PubMed

    Tebēcis, A K

    1976-01-01

    Characteristic changes in eye movements occurred during meditation with closed eyes in a proportion of subjects experienced in TM. The most common changes were an increase in slow, large-amplitude, 'rolling' eye movements and a concomitant decrease in rapid, low-amplitude, 'jerky' eye movements. Much variation occurred between individuals, however, some subjects showing no differences between TM and non-meditation. Any changes that occurred were not necessarily constant for the whole recording period nor consistent between sessions. The physiological effects of TM are far more variable than previously publicized. In general, the main changes in eye movements during TM are similar to those during passive hypnosis.

  14. Auxin and chloroplast movements.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Aleksandra; Krzeszowiec, Weronika; Waligórski, Piotr; Gabryś, Halina

    2016-03-01

    Auxin is involved in a wide spectrum of physiological processes in plants, including responses controlled by the blue light photoreceptors phototropins: phototropic bending and stomatal movement. However, the role of auxin in phototropin-mediated chloroplast movements has never been studied. To address this question we searched for potential interactions between auxin and the chloroplast movement signaling pathway using different experimental approaches and two model plants, Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. We observed that the disturbance of auxin homeostasis by shoot decapitation caused a decrease in chloroplast movement parameters, which could be rescued by exogenous auxin application. In several cases, the impairment of polar auxin transport, by chemical inhibitors or in auxin carrier mutants, had a similar negative effect on chloroplast movements. This inhibition was not correlated with changes in auxin levels. Chloroplast relocations were also affected by the antiauxin p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid and mutations in genes encoding some of the elements of the SCF(TIR1)-Aux/IAA auxin receptor complex. The observed changes in chloroplast movement parameters are not prominent, which points to a modulatory role of auxin in this process. Taken together, the obtained results suggest that auxin acts indirectly to regulate chloroplast movements, presumably by regulating gene expression via the SCF(TIR1)-Aux/IAA-ARF pathway. Auxin does not seem to be involved in controlling the expression of phototropins.

  15. Movement - uncoordinated

    MedlinePlus

    Lack of coordination; Loss of coordination; Coordination impairment; Ataxia; Clumsiness; Uncoordinated movement ... are passed through families (such as congenital cerebellar ataxia, Friedreich ataxia , ataxia - telangiectasia , or Wilson disease ) Multiple ...

  16. Psychogenic Movement

    MedlinePlus

    ... also look for marked improvement in symptoms following psychotherapy, use of a placebo (a medicine with no ... multi-therapy approach to treating psychogenic movement includes psychotherapy, placebo, or suggestion; antidepressants for symptoms related to ...

  17. School holidays: examining childhood, gender norms, and kinship in children's shorter-term residential mobility in urban Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Hunleth, Jean; Jacob, Rebekah R; Cole, Steven M; Bond, Virginia; James, Aimee S

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses a practice of child residential mobility in Zambia that is frequently overlooked in migration studies and difficult to capture through standard survey methods: the practice of ‘going on holiday’ to the homes of relatives during breaks in the school term. Drawing on child-centered and quantitative research, this article examines the multiple dimensions of ‘going on holiday’ for children living in a low-income urban settlement in Lusaka. Findings suggest that the practice was gendered and may map onto changing norms in schooling in Zambia. Within a context where resources are severely constrained, going on holiday may serve as one means for cultivating reciprocity, sharing the burden of care and household labor, and strengthening kin ties. This work further demonstrates the importance of using locally meaningful terms and practices in survey research where general questions about children's mobility may fail to capture the nature and extent of children's movements. PMID:26435699

  18. Movement of Movements: Culture Moves in the Long Civil Rights Struggle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Larry

    2008-01-01

    In what way do movements move? What do we mean by the movement of movements? While still a rather unconventional stance, I advance the argument that social movements are, at root, culture production agents. Regardless of whatever else they may accomplish, movements produce new cultural forms in the course of struggle; they often change and augment…

  19. "Be Nice": Wikipedia norms for supportive communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reagle, Joseph M.

    2010-04-01

    Wikipedia is acknowledged to have been home to "some bitter disputes." Indeed, conflict at Wikipedia is said to be "as addictive as cocaine." Yet, such observations are not cynical commentary but motivation for a collection of social norms. These norms speak to the intentional stance and communicative behaviors Wikipedians should adopt when interacting with one another. In the following pages, I provide a survey of these norms on the English Wikipedia and argue that they can be characterized as supportive based on Jack Gibb's classic communication article "Defensive Communication."

  20. Adolescents' movement towards cessation of smoking: role and relative value of the processes of change and nicotine dependence.

    PubMed

    Kleinjan, Marloes; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; van Leeuwe, Jan; Brug, Johannes; van de Ven, Monique O M; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2008-01-01

    The present study addresses the applicability of the Transtheoretical Model's processes of change in explaining adolescents' readiness to quit smoking. Furthermore, the association between nicotine dependence and readiness to quit was assessed both directly, as well as indirectly through the processes of change. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, identifying 1547 weekly smokers aged 14-18 years. Structural equation modelling showed that the processes of change were only marginally associated with readiness to quit. Adding nicotine dependence to the model showed a direct association between nicotine dependence and readiness to quit. Only one process of change, self-liberation (i.e. choice/commitment to change and belief in the ability to change), was found to mediate this association. Nicotine dependence appeared to be highly important in adolescents' readiness to quit.

  1. Legal forms and reproductive norms.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Ruth

    2003-06-01

    This article draws on Pashukanis's concept of legal form and on O'Brien's concept of synthetic value to argue that legal form plays a role in reproductive relations by constructing legal subjects as the bearers of reproductive responsibilities. Pashukanis conceived of legal form as playing a particular role in capitalist exchange relations by interpellating subjects as the bearers of property rights. O'Brien argued that reproduction's specific value is synthetic value, which represents the value of integrating nature and reason in species continuity. Synthetic value is distinct from exchange value or emotional value which may also attach to reproductive process. By working through Pashukanis's method of extracting legal form from specific social relations and by adapting it to reproductive relations, an example is provided of how legal form analysis can be extended beyond the particular context of capitalist exchange relations. Just as legal form constitutes owners and non-owners as legal subjects, so it constitutes reproducers and non-reproducers. By tracing the way in which law attributes reproductive responsibility, legal form analysis shows us how law draws a line between wanting to attribute responsibility and not to attribute it, and this contradiction is a hook which social forces such as sexuality, gender, race, class and disability can latch on to in pushing legal form to shape reproductive responsibilities in a particular way. Each legal form is also externally contradicted by other legal forms. When law negotiates a balance between the reproductive norms of responsibilities and rights, it demonstrates how particular legal forms manage the interaction of different sets of social relations, such as reproduction and exchange. PMID:15871155

  2. Changes in TMD signs and in mandibular movements from 10 to 15 years of age in relation to articulatory speech disorders.

    PubMed

    Pahkala, R H; Laine-Alava, M T

    2000-12-01

    This study is part of a longitudinal study on the associations between different orofacial dysfunctions. The aim was to determine changes in signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and in mandibular movement capacity in subjects with articulatory speech disorders and in controls by re-examining a sample of 187 previously studied children from 10 to 15 years of age. Articulatory speech disorders were diagnosed by a phoniatrician. Mandibular movement capacity, signs of TMD, occlusal contacts/ interference and slide between retruded and intercuspal positions were recorded by a dentist. The follow-up results showed that mandibular mobility mainly increased up to the age of 15, but there was a decrease in protrusion capacity in almost half of the cases. This fluctuation probably reflects the normal changes in growth pattern. Signs of TMDs proved to be inconsistent in nature, especially among the controls. With age, girls in the control group, more so than boys, were prone to new signs of TMD, but no gender difference was found in the group of subjects with misarticulations of speech. The findings indicate that in adolescence different orofacial dysfunctions are related.

  3. NORM -- The new kid on the block

    SciTech Connect

    Estey, H.P.

    1991-12-31

    The existence of radioactive materials in accumulations of scale and sludge in oil and gas production equipment is a relatively new issue. This developing issue first gained international attention in 1981 when significant radiation levels were detected on oil and gas production platforms in the North Sea; it didn`t become a domestic issue until 1986 when a similar situation was detected in a Mississippi pipe yard. Most published papers on the occurrence of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in oil and gas production equipment have been based on studies of NORM-related activities in the United Kingdom (North Sea NORM). This paper addresses the occurrences and regulation of NORM in the US oil and gas production industry as experienced, witnessed and/or observed by the author over the past four years.

  4. Norms of reaction and diversifying selection.

    PubMed

    Wallace, B

    1994-01-01

    The numbers of progeny produced by comparable numbers of female Drosophila melanogaster of 26 geographic strains on nine different culture media are examined in the context of norms of reaction. Having emphasized that diversifying selection is seldom discussed simultaneously with its seemingly related topic, norms of reaction, I present the following argument: diversifying selection has generally been viewed as involving sub-populations inhabiting separate localities and subject to different patterns of selection, norms of reaction as variation whose weighted average determines the relative fitnesses of different genotypes within individual sub-populations. Should environmental challenges frequently involve life or death (including sterility) outcomes, norms of reaction involving components of fitness engender diversifying selection within local populations (demes). PMID:7958938

  5. The effects of sleep deprivation in humans: topographical electroencephalogram changes in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep versus REM sleep.

    PubMed

    Marzano, Cristina; Ferrara, Michele; Curcio, Giuseppe; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2010-06-01

    Studies on homeostatic aspects of sleep regulation have been focussed upon non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and direct comparisons with regional changes in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep are sparse. To this end, evaluation of electroencephalogram (EEG) changes in recovery sleep after extended waking is the classical approach for increasing homeostatic need. Here, we studied a large sample of 40 healthy subjects, considering a full-scalp EEG topography during baseline (BSL) and recovery sleep following 40 h of wakefulness (REC). In NREM sleep, the statistical maps of REC versus BSL differences revealed significant fronto-central increases of power from 0.5 to 11 Hz and decreases from 13 to 15 Hz. In REM sleep, REC versus BSL differences pointed to significant fronto-central increases in the 0.5-7 Hz and decreases in the 8-11 Hz bands. Moreover, the 12-15 Hz band showed a fronto-parietal increase and that at 22-24 Hz exhibited a fronto-central decrease. Hence, the 1-7 Hz range showed significant increases in both NREM sleep and REM sleep, with similar topography. The parallel change of NREM sleep and REM sleep EEG power is related, as confirmed by a correlational analysis, indicating that the increase in frequency of 2-7 Hz possibly subtends a state-aspecific homeostatic response. On the contrary, sleep deprivation has opposite effects on alpha and sigma activity in both states. In particular, this analysis points to the presence of state-specific homeostatic mechanisms for NREM sleep, limited to <2 Hz frequencies. In conclusion, REM sleep and NREM sleep seem to share some homeostatic mechanisms in response to sleep deprivation, as indicated mainly by the similar direction and topography of changes in low-frequency activity.

  6. Social norms and their influence on eating behaviours.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Suzanne

    2015-03-01

    Social norms are implicit codes of conduct that provide a guide to appropriate action. There is ample evidence that social norms about eating have a powerful effect on both food choice and amounts consumed. This review explores the reasons why people follow social eating norms and the factors that moderate norm following. It is proposed that eating norms are followed because they provide information about safe foods and facilitate food sharing. Norms are a powerful influence on behaviour because following (or not following) norms is associated with social judgements. Norm following is more likely when there is uncertainty about what constitutes correct behaviour and when there is greater shared identity with the norm referent group. Social norms may affect food choice and intake by altering self-perceptions and/or by altering the sensory/hedonic evaluation of foods. The same neural systems that mediate the rewarding effects of food itself are likely to reinforce the following of eating norms.

  7. How prescriptive norms influence causal inferences.

    PubMed

    Samland, Jana; Waldmann, Michael R

    2016-11-01

    Recent experimental findings suggest that prescriptive norms influence causal inferences. The cognitive mechanism underlying this finding is still under debate. We compare three competing theories: The culpable control model of blame argues that reasoners tend to exaggerate the causal influence of norm-violating agents, which should lead to relatively higher causal strength estimates for these agents. By contrast, the counterfactual reasoning account of causal selection assumes that norms do not alter the representation of the causal model, but rather later causal selection stages. According to this view, reasoners tend to preferentially consider counterfactual states of abnormal rather than normal factors, which leads to the choice of the abnormal factor in a causal selection task. A third view, the accountability hypothesis, claims that the effects of prescriptive norms are generated by the ambiguity of the causal test question. Asking whether an agent is a cause can be understood as a request to assess her causal contribution but also her moral accountability. According to this theory norm effects on causal selection are mediated by accountability judgments that are not only sensitive to the abnormality of behavior but also to mitigating factors, such as intentionality and knowledge of norms. Five experiments are presented that favor the accountability account over the two alternative theories. PMID:27591550

  8. NEIGHBORHOOD NORMS AND SUBSTANCE USE AMONG TEENS

    PubMed Central

    Musick, Kelly; Seltzer, Judith A.; Schwartz, Christine R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses new data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS) to examine how neighborhood norms shape teenagers’ substance use. Specifically, it takes advantage of clustered data at the neighborhood level to relate adult neighbors’ attitudes and behavior with respect to smoking, drinking, and drugs, which we treat as norms, to teenagers’ own smoking, drinking, and drug use. We use hierarchical linear models to account for parents’ attitudes and behavior and other characteristics of individuals and families. We also investigate how the association between neighborhood norms and teen behavior depends on: (1) the strength of norms, as measured by consensus in neighbors’ attitudes and conformity in their behavior; (2) the willingness and ability of neighbors to enforce norms, for instance, by monitoring teens’ activities; and (3) the degree to which teens are exposed to their neighbors. We find little association between neighborhood norms and teen substance use, regardless of how we condition the relationship. We discuss possible theoretical and methodological explanations for this finding. PMID:18496598

  9. Adaptation and perceptual norms in color vision.

    PubMed

    Webster, Michael A; Leonard, Deanne

    2008-11-01

    Many perceptual dimensions are thought to be represented relative to an average value or norm. Models of norm-based coding assume that the norm appears psychologically neutral because it reflects a neutral response in the underlying neural code. We tested this assumption in human color vision by asking how judgments of "white" are affected as neural responses are altered by adaptation. The adapting color was varied to determine the stimulus level that did not bias the observer's subjective white point. This level represents a response norm at the stages at which sensitivity is regulated by the adaptation, and we show that these response norms correspond to the perceptually neutral stimulus and that they can account for how the perception of white varies both across different observers and within the same observer at different locations in the visual field. We also show that individual differences in perceived white are reduced when observers are exposed to a common white adapting stimulus, suggesting that the perceptual differences are due in part to differences in how neural responses are normalized. These results suggest a close link between the norms for appearance and coding in color vision and illustrate a general paradigm for exploring this link in other perceptual domains.

  10. A vermal Purkinje cell simple spike population response encodes the changes in eye movement kinematics due to smooth pursuit adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Suryadeep; Dicke, Peter W.; Thier, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Smooth pursuit adaptation (SPA) is an example of cerebellum-dependent motor learning that depends on the integrity of the oculomotor vermis (OMV). In an attempt to unveil the neuronal basis of the role of the OMV in SPA, we recorded Purkinje cell simple spikes (PC SS) of trained monkeys. Individual PC SS exhibited specific changes of their discharge patterns during the course of SPA. However, these individual changes did not provide a reliable explanation of the behavioral changes. On the other hand, the population response of PC SS perfectly reflected the changes resulting from adaptation. Population vector was calculated using all cells recorded independent of their location. A population code conveying the behavioral changes is in full accordance with the anatomical convergence of PC axons on target neurons in the cerebellar nuclei. Its computational advantage is the ease with which it can be adjusted to the needs of the behavior by changing the contribution of individual PC SS based on error feedback. PMID:23494070

  11. Social norms and efficacy beliefs drive the Alarmed segment’s public-sphere climate actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Kathryn L.; Webler, Thomas N.

    2016-09-01

    Surprisingly few individuals who are highly concerned about climate change take action to influence public policies. To assess social-psychological and cognitive drivers of public-sphere climate actions of Global Warming’s Six Americas `Alarmed’ segment, we developed a behaviour model and tested it using structural equation modelling of survey data from Vermont, USA (N = 702). Our model, which integrates social cognitive theory, social norms research, and value belief norm theory, explains 36-64% of the variance in five behaviours. Here we show descriptive social norms, self-efficacy, personal response efficacy, and collective response efficacy as strong driving forces of: voting, donating, volunteering, contacting government officials, and protesting about climate change. The belief that similar others took action increased behaviour and strengthened efficacy beliefs, which also led to greater action. Our results imply that communication efforts targeting Alarmed individuals and their public actions should include strategies that foster beliefs about positive descriptive social norms and efficacy.

  12. Shared Norms and Their Explanation for the Social Clustering of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Brewis, Alexandra A.; Wutich, Amber; Morin, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to test the hypothesized role of shared body size norms in the social contagion of body size and obesity. Methods. Using data collected in 2009 from 101 women and 812 of their social ties in Phoenix, Arizona, we assessed the indirect effect of social norms on shared body mass index (BMI) measured in 3 different ways. Results. We confirmed Christakis and Fowler's basic finding that BMI and obesity do indeed cluster socially, but we found that body size norms accounted for only a small portion of this effect (at most 20%) and only via 1 of the 3 pathways. Conclusions. If shared social norms play only a minor role in the social contagion of obesity, interventions targeted at changing ideas about appropriate BMIs or body sizes may be less useful than those working more directly with behaviors, for example, by changing eating habits or transforming opportunities for and constraints on dietary intake. PMID:21555656

  13. Effects of norm referent salience on young people's dietary orientation.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Mark; Khan, Sammyh S; Qin, Qi

    2015-02-01

    We examined the effects of making salient different norm referents on young people's dietary orientation. Participants were exposed to a referent who was either of similar age to themselves or older before reporting their normative beliefs, attitudes and intentions concerning dietary behavior. As predicted, exposure to the older referent was associated with stronger perceptions that eating five portions of fruit and vegetables each day was normative. Compared to those exposed to the same-age referent, participants exposed to the older referent reported more positive attitudes towards eating "five-a-day" and stronger intentions to do so over the coming week. Referent salience was also associated with a behavioral outcome, with those participants exposed to the older referent more likely to take a piece of fruit upon completion of the study (OR: 4.97, 95% CI: 1.39-17.82). The implications of these findings for norms-based interventions for changing dietary behavior are discussed. PMID:25447012

  14. College Student Alcohol Use and Abuse: Social Norms, Health Beliefs, and Selected Socio-Demographic Variables as Explanatory Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Denisha A.; Lewis, Todd F.; Myers, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Surgeon General described college alcohol abuse as the most significant public health concern on university campuses (DHHS, 2007). Social norms have been identified as a strong predictor of college drinking and yet programs based on norms have had limited effectiveness in changing drinking behavior. Other theoretical explanations, such as…

  15. Do They Really Need to Raise Their Hands? Challenging a Traditional Social Norm in a Second Grade Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Juli K.; Egendoerfer, Lisa A.; Clements, Taylar

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to examine dialogue within a second grade classroom, students were encouraged to participate in whole-class mathematics discussions without raising their hands before speaking. Beneficial social and sociomathematical norms developed in place of this traditional social norm. Effects of this change on the dialogue and written…

  16. State High School Tests: Changes in State Policies and the Impact of the College and Career Readiness Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Shelby

    2011-01-01

    Since 2002, the Center on Education Policy (CEP) has collected and reported data on state policies that require students to pass a state assessment in order to receive a high school diploma. The state policies associated with these assessments, also known as high school exit exams, have undergone a number of changes over the past ten years. For…

  17. Using Non-Normed Tests in Title I Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunch, Michael B.

    Research evidence relating to the utility of the RMC evaluation models of compensatory education employing non-normed tests is examined. The history and evolution of five early models into the current norm-referenced model utilizing a non-normed test (Model A2), non-normed versions of a comparison model (Model B2), and the regression model (Model…

  18. Semidiurnal temperature changes caused by tidal front movements in the warm season in seabed habitats on the georges bank northern margin and their ecological implications.

    PubMed

    Guida, Vincent G; Valentine, Page C; Gallea, Leslie B

    2013-01-01

    Georges Bank is a large, shallow feature separating the Gulf of Maine from the Atlantic Ocean. Previous studies demonstrated a strong tidal-mixing front during the warm season on the northern bank margin between thermally stratified water in the Gulf of Maine and mixed water on the bank. Tides transport warm water off the bank during flood tide and cool gulf water onto the bank during ebb tide. During 10 days in August 2009, we mapped frontal temperatures in five study areas along ∼100 km of the bank margin. The seabed "frontal zone", where temperature changed with frontal movment, experienced semidiurnal temperature maxima and minima. The tidal excursion of the frontal boundary between stratified and mixed water ranged 6 to 10 km. This "frontal boundary zone" was narrower than the frontal zone. Along transects perpendicular to the bank margin, seabed temperature change at individual sites ranged from 7.0°C in the frontal zone to 0.0°C in mixed bank water. At time series in frontal zone stations, changes during tidal cycles ranged from 1.2 to 6.1°C. The greatest rate of change (-2.48°C hr(-1)) occurred at mid-ebb. Geographic plots of seabed temperature change allowed the mapping of up to 8 subareas in each study area. The magnitude of temperature change in a subarea depended on its location in the frontal zone. Frontal movement had the greatest effect on seabed temperature in the 40 to 80 m depth interval. Subareas experiencing maximum temperature change in the frontal zone were not in the frontal boundary zone, but rather several km gulfward (off-bank) of the frontal boundary zone. These results provide a new ecological framework for examining the effect of tidally-driven temperature variability on the distribution, food resources, and reproductive success of benthic invertebrate and demersal fish species living in tidal front habitats. PMID:23405129

  19. A review of adaptive change in musculoskeletal impedance during space flight and associated implications for postflight head movement control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, P. V.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Layne, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    We present a review of converging sources of evidence which suggest that the differences between loading histories experienced in 1-g and weightlessness are sufficient to stimulate adaptation in mechanical impedance of the musculoskeletal system. As a consequence of this adaptive change we argue that we should observe changes in the ability to attenuate force transmission through the musculoskeletal system both during and after space flight. By focusing attention on the relation between human sensorimotor activity and support surfaces, the importance of controlling mechanical energy flow through the musculoskeletal system is demonstrated. The implications of such control are discussed in light of visual-vestibular function in the specific context of head and gaze control during postflight locomotion. Evidence from locomotory biomechanics, visual-vestibular function, ergonomic evaluations of human vibration, and specific investigations of locomotion and head and gaze control after space flight, is considered.

  20. Abnormal Ocular Movement With Executive Dysfunction and Personality Change in Subject With Thalamic Infarction: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ee Jin; Kim, Myeong Ok; Kim, Chang Hwan; Joa, Kyung Lim

    2015-01-01

    The thalamus, located between the cerebrum and midbrain, is a nuclear complex connected to the cerebral cortex that influences motor skills, cognition, and mood. The thalamus is composed of 50-60 nuclei and can be divided into four areas according to vascular supply. In addition, it can be divided into five areas according to function. Many studies have reported on a thalamic infarction causing motor or sensory changes, but few have reported on behavioral and executive aspects of the ophthalmoplegia of the thalamus. This study reports a rare case of a paramedian thalamus infarction affecting the dorsomedial area of the thalamus, manifesting as oculomotor nerve palsy, an abnormal behavioral change, and executive dysfunction. This special case is presented with a review of the anatomical basis and function of the thalamus. PMID:26798620

  1. Changes in circumferential neck measurements during movements of the head in children and their relevance to extraoral traction.

    PubMed

    Samuels, R H; DiBiase, A T

    2001-02-01

    One of the causes of facebow injuries to patients wearing extraoral traction has been the catapult effect of the simple elasticized materials used in the past. A variety of safety or self-releasing modular systems to counteract this catapult effect are currently available. However, the strap extension provided by these modules varies considerably. To reduce the catapult effect to a minimum, it is desirable to fit a system with the minimal travel that will accommodate any changes in distance between the facebow and the back of the head or neck. To ascertain the minimal travel required for the straps, circumferential neck measurements were carried out on 105 children aged between 9 and 14 years. The change in circumference was recorded for 3 different head positions. The mean distance change between the back of the neck and the end of the facebow was 25 mm per side, with a range of 4 mm to 50 mm. This study suggests that on average, modules with a 25-mm extension will be required for cervical traction.

  2. Localized Movement and Levels of 53BP1 Protein Are Changed by γ-irradiation in PML Deficient Cells.

    PubMed

    Legartová, Soňa; Sehnalová, Petra; Malyšková, Barbora; Küntziger, Thomas; Collas, Philippe; Cmarko, Dušan; Raška, Ivan; Sorokin, Dmitry V; Kozubek, Stanislav; Bártová, Eva

    2016-11-01

    We studied epigenetics, distribution pattern, kinetics, and diffusion of proteins recruited to spontaneous and γ-radiation-induced DNA lesions. We showed that PML deficiency leads to an increased number of DNA lesions, which was accompanied by changes in histone signature. In PML wt cells, we observed two mobile fractions of 53BP1 protein with distinct diffusion in spontaneous lesions. These protein fractions were not detected in PML-deficient cells, characterized by slow-diffusion of 53BP1. Single particle tracking analysis revealed limited local motion of 53BP1 foci in PML double null cells and local motion 53BP1 foci was even more reduced after γ-irradiation. However, radiation did not change co-localization between 53BP1 nuclear bodies and interchromatin granule-associated zones (IGAZs), nuclear speckles, or chromocenters. This newly observed interaction pattern imply that 53BP1 protein could be a part of not only DNA repair, but also process mediated via components accumulated in IGAZs, nuclear speckles, or paraspeckles. Together, PML deficiency affected local motion of 53BP1 nuclear bodies and changed composition and a number of irradiation-induced foci. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2583-2596, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Localized Movement and Levels of 53BP1 Protein Are Changed by γ-irradiation in PML Deficient Cells.

    PubMed

    Legartová, Soňa; Sehnalová, Petra; Malyšková, Barbora; Küntziger, Thomas; Collas, Philippe; Cmarko, Dušan; Raška, Ivan; Sorokin, Dmitry V; Kozubek, Stanislav; Bártová, Eva

    2016-11-01

    We studied epigenetics, distribution pattern, kinetics, and diffusion of proteins recruited to spontaneous and γ-radiation-induced DNA lesions. We showed that PML deficiency leads to an increased number of DNA lesions, which was accompanied by changes in histone signature. In PML wt cells, we observed two mobile fractions of 53BP1 protein with distinct diffusion in spontaneous lesions. These protein fractions were not detected in PML-deficient cells, characterized by slow-diffusion of 53BP1. Single particle tracking analysis revealed limited local motion of 53BP1 foci in PML double null cells and local motion 53BP1 foci was even more reduced after γ-irradiation. However, radiation did not change co-localization between 53BP1 nuclear bodies and interchromatin granule-associated zones (IGAZs), nuclear speckles, or chromocenters. This newly observed interaction pattern imply that 53BP1 protein could be a part of not only DNA repair, but also process mediated via components accumulated in IGAZs, nuclear speckles, or paraspeckles. Together, PML deficiency affected local motion of 53BP1 nuclear bodies and changed composition and a number of irradiation-induced foci. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2583-2596, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27526954

  4. [Architecture and movement].

    PubMed

    Rivallan, Armel

    2012-01-01

    Leading an architectural project means accompanying the movement which it induces within the teams. Between questioning, uncertainty and fear, the organisational changes inherent to the new facility must be subject to constructive and ongoing exchanges. Ethics, safety and training are revised and the unit projects are sometimes modified.

  5. Learning the Norm of Internality: NetNorm, a Connectionist Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thierry, Bollon; Adeline, Paignon; Pascal, Pansu

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present article is to show that connectionist simulations can be used to model some of the socio-cognitive processes underlying the learning of the norm of internality. For our simulations, we developed a connectionist model which we called NetNorm (based on Dual-Network formalism). This model is capable of simulating the…

  6. Biology, norms, and personality: a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    af Klinteberg, B

    1996-01-01

    The focus concerns psychobiological risk factors in the development of antisocial behavior among male and female subjects. Using longitudinal data, violent and nonviolent criminal offences were studied in relation to childhood vulnerability indicators, norm-breaking behavior in adolescence, and to personality traits and biochemical measures in adult age. Subsequently, levels of norm-breaking behavior in adolescence were studied as related to personality and biochemical measures in adult age. Data were obtained from a representative group of 82 male and 87 female subjects as (1) teacher ratings of behavior at age 13, assumed to differentially reflect vulnerability to externalizing and internalizing psychosocial disturbances; (2) self-ratings of norm-breaking behaviors at age 15; (3) Karolinska Scales of Personality scores and biochemical measures at age 26-27 years, and (4) records for criminal offences up to age 40. In both the male and female groups, criminal offences during the life span were associated with childhood externalizing and adolescent norm-breaking behavior. Furthermore, in the male group, criminal and violent offences were associated with adult psychopathy-related personality traits and a biochemical indicator of psychosocial vulnerability; platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity. Among female subjects, criminal offenders displayed significantly lower MAO activity in comparison to noncriminals. High levels of norm-breaking behavior in adolescence were associated with adult high impulsiveness, low socialization, and low platelet MAO activity in both male and female subjects. The results of the analyses were used as a basis for some theoretical and methodological conclusions.

  7. Functional mapping of reaction norms to multiple environmental signals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiasheng; Zeng, Yanru; Huang, Jianqing; Hou, Wei; Zhu, Jun; Wu, Rongling

    2007-02-01

    Whether there are different genes involved in response to different environmental signals and how these genes interact to determine the final expression of the trait are of fundamental importance in agricultural and biological research. We present a statistical framework for mapping environment-induced genes (or quantitative trait loci, QTLs) of major effects on the expression of a trait that respond to changing environments. This framework is constructed with a maximum-likelihood-based mixture model, in which the mean and covariance structure of environment-induced responses is modelled. The means for responses to continuous environmental states, referred to as reaction norms, are approximated for different QTL genotypes by mathematical equations that were derived from fundamental biological principles or based on statistical goodness-of-fit to observational data. The residual covariance between different environmental states was modelled by autoregressive processes. Such an approach to studying the genetic control of reaction norms can be expected to be advantageous over traditional mapping approaches in which no biological principles and statistical structures are considered. We demonstrate the analytical procedure and power of this approach by modelling the photosynthetic rate process as a function of temperature and light irradiance. Our approach allows for testing how a QTL affects the reaction norm of photosynthetic rate to a specific environment and whether there exist different QTLs to mediate photosynthetic responses to temperature and light irradiance, respectively. PMID:17517157

  8. Changes in melatonin secretion in tourists after rapid movement to another lighting zone without transition of time zone.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Joanna; Blazejczyk, Krzysztof; Morita, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Most of the research in the field of Chronobiology is focused on the problem of the circadian rhythms (CR) desynchronization. In travelers, it results mostly from the changes of surrounding: photoperiod, local climate conditions (radiation and thermal load) and behavior (e.g. type and place of tourism and activity level). Until now, it was not documented whether the changes in melatonin (MLT) secretion occur in effect of mid-distance transparallel travels (TpT), without complications arising due to time-zone transitions (e.g. jet-lag syndrome). To cope with this problem, a special field experiment was carried out. In the experiment, MLT characteristics were examined twice a year in real conditions through a group of young tourists (23-26 years old) at their place of habitual residence (Warsaw, Poland), and at their tourist destination (Tromso, Norway). Transition to circumpolar zone in summer has resulted in insignificant reduction in melatonin peak value (MPV) compared to preflight control (2 days before travel) and the melatonin peak time (MPT) was delayed. However, after traveling southward on the returning flight, MPV was lower compared to control and MPT was advanced. In winter, MPV was insignificantly higher in comparison to preflight control and MPT was almost unchanged. While changes in MPV do not depend on season, flight direction and day of stay after flight than MPT was differentiated seasonally and due to direction of flight. MPV and MPT were significantly modified by characteristics of individual light exposure during daytime and evening. The experiment showed also that in real conditions activity level is an important factor affected melatonin peak in tourists. In winter, greater daytime activity significantly influenced earlier MPT occurrence, both after northward and southward flights. PMID:26817496

  9. Managing Medical Vocabulary Updates in a Clinical Data Warehouse: An RxNorm Case Study.

    PubMed

    Podchiyska, Tanya; Hernandez, Penni; Ferris, Todd; Weber, Susan; Lowe, Henry J

    2010-11-13

    Use of terminology standards facilitates aggregating data from multiple sources for information retrieval, exchange and analysis. However, medical vocabularies are continuously updated and incorporating those changes consistently into clinical data warehouses requires rigorous methodology. To integrate pharmacy data from two hospital pharmacy information systems the Stanford Translational Research Integrated Database Environment (STRIDE) project mapped medication orders to RxNorm content using the RxNorm drug model. In order to keep the data relevant and up-to-date, we developed a strategy for updating to RxNorm, while preserving the original meaning and mapping of the legacy data. This case study discusses managing the vocabulary update by following the RxNorm content maintenance strategy and supplementing it with operations to retain access to its drug model information.

  10. A longitudinal examination of alcohol, marijuana, and cigarette perceived norms among middle school adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Ewing, Brett A.; Shih, Regina A.; Tucker, Joan S.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescents tend to overestimate the prevalence of substance use among their peers and these perceived norms are associated with their current and future use. However, little is known about how perceived norms change over time during middle school, a developmental period when adolescents are at-risk for initiating substance use. Method We examined changes in perceived norms of alcohol, marijuana, and cigarettes over a two year period among a large and diverse sample of 6th and 7th grade youth (N = 6,097; 50.1% female; 54% Hispanic). Participants completed a baseline survey and two subsequent annual surveys. Participants estimated the percentage of their peers they believed used each substance, as well as indicated levels of personal use, offers to use from peers, and exposure to peers who were using each substance. Results Perceived norms of all three substances increased over time. Increases were somewhat attenuated when controlling for demographic factors, personal use, and peer factors, but remained significant. Female adolescents and those reporting non-Hispanic White ethnicity experienced the greatest increase in perceived norms over time. Conclusion Normative perceptions of substance use increase greatly during the middle school years, an effect which cannot be fully explained by demographics, personal use, or peer factors. Given that perceived norms are often associated with personal use, early interventions with middle school youth are warranted to prevent the growth of these influential factors during this developmental period. PMID:24012070

  11. Face recognition with L1-norm subspaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maritato, Federica; Liu, Ying; Colonnese, Stefania; Pados, Dimitris A.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the problem of representing individual faces by maximum L1-norm projection subspaces calculated from available face-image ensembles. In contrast to conventional L2-norm subspaces, L1-norm subspaces are seen to offer significant robustness to image variations, disturbances, and rank selection. Face recognition becomes then the problem of associating a new unknown face image to the "closest," in some sense, L1 subspace in the database. In this work, we also introduce the concept of adaptively allocating the available number of principal components to different face image classes, subject to a given total number/budget of principal components. Experimental studies included in this paper illustrate and support the theoretical developments.

  12. True gender ratios and stereotype rating norms

    PubMed Central

    Garnham, Alan; Doehren, Sam; Gygax, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    We present a study comparing, in English, perceived distributions of men and women in 422 named occupations with actual real world distributions. The first set of data was obtained from previous a large-scale norming study, whereas the second set was mostly drawn from UK governmental sources. In total, real world ratios for 290 occupations were obtained for our perceive vs. real world comparison, of which 205 were deemed to be unproblematic. The means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high, suggesting that people are generally accurate at judging real gender ratios, though there were some notable exceptions. Beside this correlation, some interesting patterns emerged from the two sources, suggesting some response strategies when people complete norming studies. We discuss these patterns in terms of the way real world data might complement norming studies in determining gender stereotypicality. PMID:26257681

  13. Mixed Norm Regularized Discrimination for Image Steganalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guoming; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Dong

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of image steganalysis is to detect the presence of hidden messages in cover images. Steganalysis can be considered as a pattern recognition process to decide which class a test image belongs to: the innocent photographic image or the stego-image. This paper presents a definition of mixed L_{p,q} matrix norm as an extension of L_{2,1} matrix norm. We incorporate discriminative mixed L_{p,q} matrix norm analysis to select the features which best preserve the data distribution, e.g., manifold structure, of the whole feature sets. Experiments on different data sets verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach and the selected features are more discriminate.

  14. Mixed-Norm Regularization for Brain Decoding

    PubMed Central

    Flamary, R.; Jrad, N.; Phlypo, R.; Congedo, M.; Rakotomamonjy, A.

    2014-01-01

    This work investigates the use of mixed-norm regularization for sensor selection in event-related potential (ERP) based brain-computer interfaces (BCI). The classification problem is cast as a discriminative optimization framework where sensor selection is induced through the use of mixed-norms. This framework is extended to the multitask learning situation where several similar classification tasks related to different subjects are learned simultaneously. In this case, multitask learning helps in leveraging data scarcity issue yielding to more robust classifiers. For this purpose, we have introduced a regularizer that induces both sensor selection and classifier similarities. The different regularization approaches are compared on three ERP datasets showing the interest of mixed-norm regularization in terms of sensor selection. The multitask approaches are evaluated when a small number of learning examples are available yielding to significant performance improvements especially for subjects performing poorly. PMID:24860614

  15. Four-dimensional inversion of resistivity monitoring data through Lp norm minimizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung-Ho; Supper, Robert; Tsourlos, Panagiotis; Yi, Myeong-Jong

    2013-12-01

    A new 4-D inversion algorithm is developed so that any data misfits and model roughness in the space and time domains can be selectively minimized, in terms of either the L1 norm or the L2 norm. This study is motivated by the experience that a 4-D inversion adopting full L2 norm minimization may sometimes result in a model that is too smoothly varying with time. It is further encouraged by the realization that a particular criterion of either L1 or L2 norm cannot be universally optimal for accurately reconstructing the subsurface condition. In addition, we try to overcome difficulties of jointly choosing two optimal regularization parameters in space and time domains. To achieve this, we devise automatic determination methods, not only of the Lagrangian multipliers for the space-domain smoothness constraint, but also of the regularization parameter for penalizing the model roughness along the time axis. Both kinds of regularization parameters are actively updated at each iteration, according to variations in data misfit and model roughness. We conducted inversion experiments using synthetic and field monitoring data to test the proposed algorithms, and further to compare the performance of L1 and L2 norm minimizations. Both the synthetic and field data experiments demonstrated that the proposed automatic determination method produced ground changes that were more similar to the true changes than those of approaches using pre-determined parameter values. Inversion experiments showed that L1 norm minimization of the time-domain roughness could reduce the problem of overly smooth model changes when the subsurface changes are locally confined, but that the L2 norm approach would be more reasonable when the changes are expected to be widespread.

  16. Shattering the illusion of development: the changing status of women and challenges for the feminist movement in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Colon-warren, A E; Alegria-ortega, I

    1998-01-01

    The introduction of this article on the impact of the colonialization of Puerto Rico by the US on gender relations and women's status notes that development strategies facilitated women's integration in the formal sector but recreated gender inequity and inequality by positioning women in low-paying jobs. The next section provides an historical overview of "Operation Bootstrap," an early example of the creation of export processing zones and of initial legislation to improve the status of women in the labor force. Next, the current situation is described as a period characterized by contradictions and industrial restructuring as the economy has moved from labor-intensive manufacturing to provision of high-tech financial services, and the impact of these changes on gender relations is sketched. The population control policies of Operation Bootstrap are then described as seeking to regulate women's reproductive behavior rather than to improve reproductive health or redefine gender relations. The article continues with a look at the still pervasive constraints to the redefinition of gender roles in politics, where male dominance places women in competition with each other for the same positions. After tracing the second wave of feminist organizing and the responses of the state to feminist mobilization, the article concludes by reviewing the challenges feminists face in demanding equal employment opportunities, healthy working conditions for women, child care, and adequate public health in a system that rewards privatization and reductions in social services.

  17. Southern elephant seals from Kerguelen Islands confronted by Antarctic Sea ice. Changes in movements and in diving behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailleul, Frédéric; Charrassin, Jean-Benoıˆt; Ezraty, Robert; Girard-Ardhuin, Fanny; McMahon, Clive R.; Field, Iain C.; Guinet, Christophe

    2007-02-01

    The behaviour of southern elephant seals from Kerguelen Island ( 49∘50'S, 70∘30'E) was investigated in relation to the oceanographic regions of the Southern Ocean. The oceanographic and the seal behaviour data, including location and diving activity, were collected using a new generation of satellite-relayed devices measuring and transmitting pressure, temperature, and salinity along with locations. Dive duration, maximum diving depth, time spent at the bottom of the dives, and shape of dive profiles were compared between male and female seals, and were related to the oceanographic characteristics of areas prospected by the seals. Most animals travelled to the Antarctic shelf. However, during winter, adult females travelled away from the continent, remained and foraged within the marginal sea-ice zone, while juvenile males remained within the pack ice to forage mainly on the Antarctic shelf. Therefore, as the ice expanded females appeared to shift from benthic to pelagic foraging farther north, while males continued to forage almost exclusively benthically on the continental shelf. This difference is likely related to the different energetic requirements between the two sexes, but also may be related to pregnant females having to return to Kerguelen in early spring in order to give birth and successfully raise their pups, while males can remain in the ice. Our results show an important link between elephant seals and Antarctic sea ice and suggest that changes in sea-ice conditions could strongly affect the behaviour of this species.

  18. Movement, swimming speed, and oxygen consumption of juvenile white sturgeon in response to changing flows, water temperatures, and light level in the Snake River, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Brown, Richard S.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Brink, Steve R.; Lepla, Kenneth B.; Bates, Phil; Chandler, James A.

    2005-07-01

    The flow of the Snake River downstream of Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho, frequently fluctuates as the dam responds to power production requirements. These flow fluctuations have the potential to increase the energy used by individual juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) that move to avoid unfavorable habitat or that alter their swimming speeds to maintain position over a range of velocities. Following swimming respirometry experiments, a field study using electromyogram (EMG) and sonic telemetry evaluated whether sturgeon were being negatively affected by operations of Hells Canyon Dam during three study periods where flows were artificially fluctuated (247 to 856 m3/s), held high and stable (438 to 600 m3/s), or held low and stable (275 to 284 m3/s). Respirometry results confirmed that oxygen consumption of juvenile sturgeon increased with swim speed and was temperature dependent, and when corrected for fish mass, ranged from 140.2 to 306.5 mg O2 kg-1 h-1. The telemetry study showed that movements and activity levels, as measured by swimming speeds and oxygen consumption, of sturgeon were variable among fish and across study periods. When flows were held low and stable, sturgeon movement increased while activity levels decreased when compared to the study periods when flows were variable or were high and stable. Although the overall trend was for activity levels to be less during the study period when flows were low and stable, the majority of differences between study periods appeared to be due to differences in water temperature and light levels that changed during the three-month investigation. The results suggest high flows, even those of relatively short durations such as what occurs during load-following operations, restrict the movement of juvenile sturgeon, but do not result in an increase of energy expenditure, possibly because of morphological and behavioral adaptations to living in a high-velocity environment. This may have significant

  19. Postural constraints on movement variability.

    PubMed

    Lametti, Daniel R; Ostry, David J

    2010-08-01

    Movements are inherently variable. When we move to a particular point in space, a cloud of final limb positions is observed around the target. Previously we noted that patterns of variability at the end of movement to a circular target were not circular, but instead reflected patterns of limb stiffness-in directions where limb stiffness was high, variability in end position was low, and vice versa. Here we examine the determinants of variability at movement end in more detail. To do this, we have subjects move the handle of a robotic device from different starting positions into a circular target. We use position servocontrolled displacements of the robot's handle to measure limb stiffness at the end of movement and we also record patterns of end position variability. To examine the effect of change in posture on movement variability, we use a visual motor transformation in which we change the limb configuration and also the actual movement target, while holding constant the visual display. We find that, regardless of movement direction, patterns of variability at the end of movement vary systematically with limb configuration and are also related to patterns of limb stiffness, which are likewise configuration dependent. The result suggests that postural configuration determines the base level of movement variability, on top of which control mechanisms can act to further alter variability.

  20. Norms as Group-Level Constructs: Investigating School-Level Teen Pregnancy Norms and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W.; Boardman, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Social norms are a group-level phenomenon, but past quantitative research has rarely measured them in the aggregate or considered their group-level properties. We used the school-based design of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to measure normative climates regarding teen pregnancy across 75 U.S. high schools. We distinguished between the strength of a school's norm against teen pregnancy and the consensus around that norm. School-level norm strength and dissensus were strongly (r = -0.65) and moderately (r = 0.34) associated with pregnancy prevalence within schools, respectively. Normative climate partially accounted for observed racial differences in school pregnancy prevalence, but norms were a stronger predictor than racial composition. As hypothesized, schools with both a stronger average norm against teen pregnancy and greater consensus around the norm had the lowest pregnancy prevalence. Results highlight the importance of group-level normative processes and of considering the local school environment when designing policies to reduce teen pregnancy. PMID:26074628

  1. Energizing and de-motivating effects of norm-conflict.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Rachel I; Fielding, Kelly S; Louis, Winnifred R

    2013-01-01

    Norms have a pervasive influence on behavior, yet previous research has not addressed that people often face conflicting norms from multiple ingroups. The current research addresses this gap in the context of proenvironmental behavior and demonstrates two effects predicted by the novel theoretical position we offer: People can be de-motivated by norm-conflict, or conversely, norm-conflict can encourage people to take action. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that norm-conflict is associated with increased perceived effectiveness for those with positive attitudes to the issue and reduced perceived effectiveness for those with moderate attitudes, and effectiveness perceptions mediated an indirect effect on behavioral intentions. Study 3 found that perceived effectiveness also moderates the effects of norm-conflict such that norm-conflict only influences intentions when perceived effectiveness is high. Norm-conflict is both positively and negatively related to behavioral decision making, suggesting additional considerations in the design of social norms-based interventions. PMID:23100542

  2. Do pursuit movement tasks lead to differential changes in early somatosensory evoked potentials related to motor learning compared with typing tasks?

    PubMed

    Andrew, Danielle; Yielder, Paul; Murphy, Bernadette

    2015-02-15

    Central nervous system (CNS) plasticity is essential for development; however, recent research has demonstrated its role in pathology, particularly following overuse and repetition. Previous studies investigating changes in sensorimotor integration (SMI) have used relatively simple paradigms resulting in minimal changes in neural activity, as determined through the use of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). This study sought to utilize complex tasks and compare separate motor paradigms to determine which one best facilitates long-term learning. Spinal, brainstem, and cortical SEPs were recorded following median nerve stimulation at the wrist pre- and postinterventions. Eighteen participants performed the same paradigms, a control condition of 10 min of mental recitation and two interventions, one consisting of 10 min of tracing and the other 10 min of repetitive typing. Significant increases in the N13, N20, P25, and N30 SEP peaks were seen for both interventions. A significant decrease in the N24 SEP peak was observed for both interventions. Significant improvements in accuracy were seen for both interventions postacquisition but only for tracing during retention. The changes seen following motor learning were congruent with those associated with long-term learning, which was also reflected by significant increases in accuracy during retention. Tracing or the pursuit movement paradigm was shown to be a more effective learning tool. The identification of a task that is sufficiently novel and complex, leading to robust changes in SEP peaks, indicates a task that can be utilized in future work to study clinical populations and the effect of experimental interventions on SMI.

  3. Junior High Norms for the Bender Gestalt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grow, Richard T.

    1980-01-01

    Junior high students were tested to supply normative data supporting the Bender Gestalt. Subject's performance was not significantly related to sex or occupation of the family bread winner. These variables do not have to be controlled for in norming visual motor tests at the junior high level. (Author)

  4. Towards a Norm in South African Englishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Walt, Johann L.; van Rooy, Bertus

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the perception and application of the norm in South African English with specific reference to Black South African English. Hypothesizes that South African English is in the hibernation and expansion phase. Three sets of data are presented and analyzed. (Author/VWL)

  5. Intergroup Evaluations and Norms about Learning Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowicki, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Children's evaluations of classmates with learning difficulties tend to be less positive than their evaluations of classmates without learning difficulties; but it is not clear if these evaluations are associated with age, group norms, and group identification. These associations were examined within the context of inclusive elementary school…

  6. Criterion vs. Norm-referenced Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimsleur, Paul

    1975-01-01

    A norm-referenced evaluation system, which evaluates the student in comparison to his peers, is rejected in favor of a criterion-referenced system. The latter, which rates the performance of a student on an absolute standard, makes for an individualized approach. Two kinds of tests are distinguished, the formative, administered during the course…

  7. Toleration and the Design of Norms.

    PubMed

    Floridi, Luciano

    2015-10-01

    One of the pressing challenges we face today-in a post-Westphalian order (emergence of the state as the modern, political information agent) and post-Bretton Woods world (emergence of non-state multiagent systems or MASs as "hyperhistorical" players in the global economy and politics)-is how to design the right kind of MAS that can take full advantage of the socio-economic and political progress made so far, while dealing successfully with the new global challenges that are undermining the best legacy of that very progress. This is the topic of the article. In it, I argue that (i) in order to design the right kind of MAS, we need to design the right kind of norms that constitute them; (ii) in order to design the right kind of constitutive norms, we need to identify and adopt the right kind of principles of normative design; (iii) toleration is one of those principles; (iv) unfortunately, its role as a foundation for the design of norms has been undermined by the "paradox of toleration"; (v) however, the paradox can be solved; (vi) so toleration can be re-instated as the right kind of foundational principle for the design of the right kind of norms that can constitute the right kind of MAS that can operate across cultures, societies and states, to help us to tackle the new global challenges facing us.

  8. Catalytic Majorization and ell_p Norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrun, Guillaume; Nechita, Ion

    2008-02-01

    An important problem in quantum information theory is the mathematical characterization of the phenomenon of quantum catalysis: when can the surrounding entanglement be used to perform transformations of a jointly held quantum state under LOCC (local operations and classical communication)? Mathematically, the question amounts to describe, for a fixed vector y, the set T( y) of vectors x such that we have x ⊗ z prec y ⊗ z for some z, where prec denotes the standard majorization relation. Our main result is that the closure of T(y) in the ell_1 norm can be fully described by inequalities on the ell_p norms: ||x||_p ≤ ||y||_p for all p ≥ 1. This is a first step towards a complete description of T( y) itself. It can also be seen as a ell_p -norm analogue of the Ky Fan dominance theorem about unitarily invariant norms. The proof exploits links with another quantum phenomenon: the possibiliy of multiple-copy transformations (x^{⊗ n} prec y^{⊗ n} for given n). The main new tool is a variant of Cramér’s theorem on large deviations for sums of i.i.d. random variables.

  9. Social Norms Theory and Concussion Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroshus, Emily; Garnett, Bernice R.; Baugh, Christine M.; Calzo, Jerel P.

    2015-01-01

    Secondary prevention of harm from sport-related concussion is contingent on immediate removal from play post-injury. To date, educational efforts to reduce the prevalent risk behavior of continued play while symptomatic have been largely ineffective. Social norms theory may hold promise as a foundation for more effective concussion education aimed…

  10. Contrasting Norm Referenced and Criterion Referenced Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Robert S.

    Differences in design between norm referenced measures (NRM) and criterion referenced measures (CRM) are reviewed, and some of the procedures proposed on designing and evaluating CRM are examined. Differences in design of NRM and CRM are said to arise from the different purposes that underlie each measure. In addition, there are differences among…

  11. Norming plans for the NIH Toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Havlik, Richard; Cook, Karon F.; Hays, Ron D.; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Korper, Samuel P.; Lai, Jin-Shei; Nord, Christine; Zill, Nicholas; Choi, Seung; Yost, Kathleen J.; Ustsinovich, Vitali; Brouwers, Pim; Hoffman, Howard J.; Gershon, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function (NIH Toolbox) is a comprehensive battery of brief assessment tools. The purpose of this article is to describe plans to establish normative reference values for the NIH Toolbox measures. Methods: A large sample will be obtained from the US population for the purpose of calculating normative values. The sample will be stratified by age (ages 3–85 years), sex, and language preference (English or Spanish) and have a total sample size of at least 4,205. The sample will include a minimum of 25–100 individuals in each targeted demographic and language subgroup. Results: Norming methods will include poststratification adjustment calculated using iterative proportional fitting, also known as raking, so that the weighted sample will have the same distribution on key demographic variables as the US population described in the 2010 Census. Conclusions: As with any set of norms, users should be mindful of the reference population and make conclusions consistent with the limitations of normative sampling, since it is not a probability-based sample. However, the NIH Toolbox norming study has been designed to minimize bias and maximize representativeness and precision of estimates. The availability of a "toolbox" of normed measures will be an important foundation for addressing critical research questions in neurologic and behavioral health. PMID:23479550

  12. Phase shift extraction algorithm based on Euclidean matrix norm.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jian; Wang, Hankun; Zhang, Desi; Zhong, Liyun; Fan, Jinping; Lu, Xiaoxu

    2013-05-01

    In this Letter, the character of Euclidean matrix norm (EMN) of the intensity difference between phase-shifting interferograms, which changes in sinusoidal form with the phase shifts, is presented. Based on this character, an EMN phase shift extraction algorithm is proposed. Both the simulation calculation and experimental research show that the phase shifts with high precision can be determined with the proposed EMN algorithm easily. Importantly, the proposed EMN algorithm will supply a powerful tool for the rapid calibration of the phase shifts.

  13. Semidiurnal Temperature Changes Caused by Tidal Front Movements in the Warm Season in Seabed Habitats on the Georges Bank Northern Margin and Their Ecological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Guida, Vincent G.; Valentine, Page C.; Gallea, Leslie B.

    2013-01-01

    Georges Bank is a large, shallow feature separating the Gulf of Maine from the Atlantic Ocean. Previous studies demonstrated a strong tidal-mixing front during the warm season on the northern bank margin between thermally stratified water in the Gulf of Maine and mixed water on the bank. Tides transport warm water off the bank during flood tide and cool gulf water onto the bank during ebb tide. During 10 days in August 2009, we mapped frontal temperatures in five study areas along ∼100 km of the bank margin. The seabed “frontal zone”, where temperature changed with frontal movment, experienced semidiurnal temperature maxima and minima. The tidal excursion of the frontal boundary between stratified and mixed water ranged 6 to 10 km. This “frontal boundary zone” was narrower than the frontal zone. Along transects perpendicular to the bank margin, seabed temperature change at individual sites ranged from 7.0°C in the frontal zone to 0.0°C in mixed bank water. At time series in frontal zone stations, changes during tidal cycles ranged from 1.2 to 6.1°C. The greatest rate of change (−2.48°C hr−1) occurred at mid-ebb. Geographic plots of seabed temperature change allowed the mapping of up to 8 subareas in each study area. The magnitude of temperature change in a subarea depended on its location in the frontal zone. Frontal movement had the greatest effect on seabed temperature in the 40 to 80 m depth interval. Subareas experiencing maximum temperature change in the frontal zone were not in the frontal boundary zone, but rather several km gulfward (off-bank) of the frontal boundary zone. These results provide a new ecological framework for examining the effect of tidally-driven temperature variability on the distribution, food resources, and reproductive success of benthic invertebrate and demersal fish species living in tidal front habitats. PMID:23405129

  14. Justice foundations for the Comprehensive Law Movement.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, Dale

    2010-01-01

    Authors examining the developing dispute resolution alternatives to the adversarial system have identified nine converging "vectors" or alternatives in what has been termed the Comprehensive Law Movement. These authors have sought to understand how the developing vectors can remain separate and vibrant movements while sharing common ground. Some analyze these developments as being within law and legal practice, others see them as alternative approaches to law, and still others take a combined approach. It will be impossible to understand how these vectors have meaningful differences from law and legal practice if the search is limited to looking within law and legal practice. It will be impossible to understand how these vectors have meaningful commonalities with law and legal practice if the search is limited to looking external to law and legal practice. Instead of comparing the vectors with the adversarial system, higher order criteria are required. What is needed is a comprehensive and internally consistent super-system of norms; one that can be used to evaluate the adversarial system and the evolving vectors on an equal footing. An Aristotelian natural law virtue theory of justice can: (a) provide a functional guiding definition of justice; (b) serve as a comprehensive and internally consistent super-system of norms; and (c) provide the theoretical and evaluative foundation required to clarify the relationships among the adversarial system and the developing vectors. Finally, it will become clear why the Comprehensive Law Movement might be more appropriately conceptualized as the Comprehensive Justice Movement. PMID:20880589

  15. Injunctive social norms primacy over descriptive social norms in retirement savings decisions.

    PubMed

    Croy, Gerry; Gerrans, Paul; Speelman, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Consistent with the global trend to shift responsibility for retirement income provision from the public purse to individuals has been encouragement to save more and to manage investment strategy. Analyzing data from 2,300 respondents to a randomly distributed questionnaire, this article focuses on the motivational importance of social norms. The study finds injunctive social norms (what is commonly approved or disapproved of) exert greater influence than descriptive social norms (what is commonly done) in predicting retirement savings intentions. Modeling employs the theory of planned behavior, and also finds injunctive social norm has predictive primacy over attitude and perceived behavioral control. Discussion advocates a balanced approach to intervention design, and identifies opportunities for the further study of normative message framing. PMID:21261135

  16. How School Norms, Peer Norms, and Discrimination Predict Interethnic Experiences Among Ethnic Minority and Majority Youth.

    PubMed

    Tropp, Linda R; O'Brien, Thomas C; González Gutierrez, Roberto; Valdenegro, Daniel; Migacheva, Katya; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo; Berger, Christian; Cayul, Oscar

    2016-09-01

    This research tests how perceived school and peer norms predict interethnic experiences among ethnic minority and majority youth. With studies in Chile (654 nonindigenous and 244 Mapuche students, M = 11.20 and 11.31 years) and the United States (468 non-Hispanic White and 126 Latino students, M = 11.66 and 11.68 years), cross-sectional results showed that peer norms predicted greater comfort in intergroup contact, interest in cross-ethnic friendships, and higher contact quality, whereas longitudinal results showed that school norms predicted greater interest in cross-ethnic friendships over time. Distinct effects of school and peer norms were also observed for ethnic minority and majority youth in relation to perceived discrimination, suggesting differences in how they experience cross-ethnic relations within school environments. PMID:27684397

  17. Impact of a Dialogic Community on the Development of Classroom Sociocultural Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pourdavood, Roland G.; Fleener, M. Jayne

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes a research study examining the dialectical relationship between the evolution of a dialogic community and changes in classroom sociocultural norms. As the community evolved, teachers' shared ideas and renewed confidence clearly affected risk taking and changes in classroom practices and procedures. Maintaining open and honest…

  18. Students Negotiating and Designing Their Collaborative Learning Norms: A Group Developmental Perspective in Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hod, Yotam; Ben-Zvi, Dani

    2015-01-01

    This research shows how participants in classroom learning communities (LCs) come to take responsibility over designing their collaborative learning norms. Taking a micro-developmental perspective within a graduate-level course, we examined fine-grained changes in group discourse during a period of rapid change where this responsibility taking…

  19. A Social Norms Approach to Preventing Binge Drinking at Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Michael P.

    This document describes an effort to change perceptions of social norms and examines the effect of this change on binge drinking and alcohol-related problems at Northern Illinois University (NIU). The first section of the report discusses the historical and theoretical basis for this approach to prevention. The next section describes a…

  20. Raised marine sequences of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura revisited—a reappraisal of relative sea-level changes and vertical movements in the eastern Canary Islands during the Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zazo, Cari; Goy, José Luis; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Gillot, Pierre-Yves; Soler, Vicente; González, José Ángel; Dabrio, Cristino J.; Ghaleb, Bassam

    2002-10-01

    Systematic mapping and morphosedimentary analysis of Fuerteventura and Lanzarote Islands supported by laboratory techniques (U-series mostly by TIMS, 14C analysis and allo-isoleucine measurements on biogenic carbonates from raised marine deposits, paleomagnetic and a few K/Ar measurements on volcanic formations related to marine deposits) provide a basis for constraining the age of Late Cainozoic marine units. The most complete sequences of raised marine terraces are found at similar elevations in both islands. They include up to 12 marine terraces (Episodes) at elevations between 0 m and 70 m above mean sea level (asl). At least six terraces should be of Quaternary age, and more recent than 1.2 Myr. Throughout the whole marine sequence with the exception of the Holocene terrace, the warm fauna assemblage is characterized by the presence of Ostrea virleti, Nerita emiliana, and Strombus ( S. cf. coronatus-S. cf. bubonius). However, there is a major change, highlighted by the disappearance of the first two species, below the 8-10 m terrace, that could possibly correspond to MIS 11. K-Ar measurements allow an estimate for mean uplift rate of 1.7 cm/ka during the last million years. The present elevation of the Last Interglacial deposits (about 1 and 2 m asl) shows discontinuous vertical movements with possibly a reverse trend since MIS 9 in eastern Canary Islands.

  1. Norms Regulating Self-Disclosure Among Polish University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derlega, Valerian J.; Stepien, Ewa Gurnik

    1977-01-01

    In the first study reported most American norms governing reactions to self-disclosure to friends and strangers were replicated. In the second study American norms governing self-disclosure to males and females were not replicated. (Author/AM)

  2. A Review of Norms and Normative Multiagent Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Moamin A.; Ahmad, Mohd Sharifuddin; Mustapha, Aida

    2014-01-01

    Norms and normative multiagent systems have become the subjects of interest for many researchers. Such interest is caused by the need for agents to exploit the norms in enhancing their performance in a community. The term norm is used to characterize the behaviours of community members. The concept of normative multiagent systems is used to facilitate collaboration and coordination among social groups of agents. Many researches have been conducted on norms that investigate the fundamental concepts, definitions, classification, and types of norms and normative multiagent systems including normative architectures and normative processes. However, very few researches have been found to comprehensively study and analyze the literature in advancing the current state of norms and normative multiagent systems. Consequently, this paper attempts to present the current state of research on norms and normative multiagent systems and propose a norm's life cycle model based on the review of the literature. Subsequently, this paper highlights the significant areas for future work. PMID:25110739

  3. A Modified CIPW Norm Calculation for Lunar Mare Basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milliken, R. E.; Basu, A.

    2000-01-01

    CIPW norms of lunar mare basalts are anomalously low in pyroxene. A modified norm calculation allowing higher Ca, Ti, Al, Cr, and Mn in di' and hy' obtains closer matches between normative and modal mineralogy.

  4. The Norm Implementation Problem in Normative Multi-Agent Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossi, D.; Gabbay, D.; van der Torre, L.

    The norm implementation problem consists in how to see to it that the agents in a system comply with the norms specified for that system by the system designer. It is part of the more general problem of how to synthesize or create norms for multi-agent systems, by, for example, highlighting the choice between regimentation and enforcement, or the punishment associated with a norm violation. In this paper we discuss how various ways to implement norms in a multi-agent system can be distinguished in a formal game-theoretic framework. In particular, we show how different types of norm implementation can all be uniformly specified and verified as types of transformations of extensive games. We introduce the notion of retarded preconditions to implement norms, and we illustrate the framework and the various ways to implement norms in the blocks world environment.

  5. Evidence for density-dependent changes in growth, downstream movement, and size of Chinook salmon subyearlings in a large-river landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, William P.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Plumb, John M.; Moffit, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the growth rate, downstream movement, and size of naturally produced fall Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha subyearlings (age 0) for 20 years in an 8th-order river landscape with regulated riverine upstream rearing areas and an impounded downstream migration corridor. The population transitioned from low to high abundance in association with U.S. Endangered Species Act and other federally mandated recovery efforts. The mean growth rate of parr in the river did not decline with increasing abundance, but during the period of higher abundance the timing of dispersal from riverine habitat into the reservoir averaged 17 d earlier and the average size at the time of downstream dispersal was smaller by 10 mm and 1.8 g. Changes in apparent abundance, measured by catch per unit effort, largely explained the time of dispersal, measured by median day of capture, in riverine habitat. The growth rate of smolts in the reservoir declined from an average of 0.6 to 0.2 g/d between the abundance periods because the reduction in size at reservoir entry was accompanied by a tendency to migrate rather than linger and by increasing concentrations of smolts in the reservoir. The median date of passage through the reservoir was 14 d earlier on average, and average smolt size was smaller by 38 mm and 22.0 g, in accordance with density-dependent behavioral changes reflected by decreased smolt growth. Unexpectedly, smolts during the high-abundance period had begun to reexpress the migration timing and size phenotypes observed before the river was impounded, when abundance was relatively high. Our findings provide evidence for density-dependent phenotypic change in a large river that was influenced by the expansion of a recovery program. Thus, this study shows that efforts to recover native fishes can have detectable effects in large-river landscapes. The outcome of such phenotypic change, which will be an important area of future research, can only be fully judged by

  6. Tutorial: Calculating Percentile Rank and Percentile Norms Using SPSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Ted A.

    2009-01-01

    Practitioners can benefit from using norms, but they often have to develop their own percentile rank and percentile norms. This article is a tutorial on how to quickly and easily calculate percentile rank and percentile norms using SPSS, and this information is presented for a data set. Some issues in calculating percentile rank and percentile…

  7. A Call for a New National Norming Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ligon, Glynn; Mangino, Evangelina

    Issues related to achieving adequate national norms are reviewed, and a new methodology is proposed that would work to provide a true measure of national achievement levels on an annual basis and would enable reporting results in current-year norms. Statistical methodology and technology could combine to create a national norming process that…

  8. Effects of Group Norms on Children's Intentions to Bully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne; Kiesner, Jeff; Griffiths, Judith A.

    2008-01-01

    A minimal group study examined the effect of peer group norms on children's direct and indirect bullying intentions. Prior to an inter-group drawing competition, children (N = 85) aged seven and nine years were assigned to a group that had a norm of out-group dislike or out-group liking. Results indicated that, regardless of group norms, the…

  9. Norms of certain Jordan elementary operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Ji, Guoxing

    2008-10-01

    Let be a complex Hilbert space and let denote the algebra of all bounded linear operators on . For , the Jordan elementary operator UA,B is defined by UA,B(X)=AXB+BXA, . In this short note, we discuss the norm of UA,B. We show that if and ||UA,B||=||A||||B||, then either AB* or B*A is 0. We give some examples of Jordan elementary operators UA,B such that ||UA,B||=||A||||B|| but AB*[not equal to]0 and B*A[not equal to]0, which answer negatively a question posed by M. Boumazgour in [M. Boumazgour, Norm inequalities for sums of two basic elementary operators, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 342 (2008) 386-393].

  10. Stuck in the 70s: the role of social norms in distracted driving.

    PubMed

    Atchley, Paul; Hadlock, Chelsie; Lane, Sean

    2012-09-01

    Successful campaigns to end distracted driving must understand prevailing social norms for behaviors such as texting and phoning while driving. The current work examined this issue by asking younger drivers to read car crash scenarios and rate the responsibility of the driver for the crash, and to levy fines and assign jail time, as a function of whether the driver was attentive, had been drinking, or was distracted by phoning or texting. In the first experiment, ratings were performed in the absence of injunctive norm information (laws against drunk and distracted driving). In the second experiment, injunctive norm information was included. Impaired drivers were viewed as more responsible in both experiments, with texting drivers viewed as the most responsible. However, drunk drivers received the most fines and jail time. When compared to data from the 1970s, the results show that anti-drunk driving campaigns have changed how younger drivers view drunk driving, but that norms have not yet changed for distracted driving, despite consistent results showing they know the risk of driving distracted. Implications for social norm distracted driving campaigns are discussed.

  11. The Effects of Liking Norms and Descriptive Norms on Vegetable Consumption: A Randomized Experiment.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jason M; Liu, Jinyu; Robinson, Eric L; Aveyard, Paul; Herman, C Peter; Higgs, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that social norm messages can be used to promote the selection of fruit and vegetables in low habitual consumers of these foods but it is unclear whether this effect is sustained over time. It is also unclear whether information about others' liking for a food (liking norm) could have the same effect. Using a 2 × 5 × 2 experimental design we investigated the effects of exposure to various messages on later intake from a food buffet and whether any effects were sustained 24 h after exposure in both low and high consumers of vegetables. There were three factors: delay (immediate food selection vs. food selection 24 h after exposure), message type (liking norm, descriptive norm, health message, vegetable variety condition, and neutral control message), and habitual consumption (low vs. high). The buffet consisted of three raw vegetables, three energy-dense foods, and two dips. For vegetables and non-vegetables there were no main effects of message type, nor any main effect of delay. There was a significant message × habitual vegetable consumption interaction for vegetable consumption; however, follow up tests did not yield any significant effects. Examining each food individually, there were no main effects of message type, nor any main effect of delay, for any of the foods; however, there was a message × habitual vegetable consumption interaction for broccoli. Consumption of broccoli in the health message and descriptive norm conditions did not differ from the control neutral condition. However, habitually low consumers of vegetables increased their consumption of broccoli in the vegetable variety and liking norm conditions relative to habitual low vegetable consumers in the neutral control condition (p < 0.05). Further, investigation of the effects of the liking norm and vegetable variety condition on vegetable intake is warranted. This trial is listed as NCT02618174 at clinicaltrials.gov.

  12. The Effects of Liking Norms and Descriptive Norms on Vegetable Consumption: A Randomized Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jason M.; Liu, Jinyu; Robinson, Eric L.; Aveyard, Paul; Herman, C. Peter; Higgs, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that social norm messages can be used to promote the selection of fruit and vegetables in low habitual consumers of these foods but it is unclear whether this effect is sustained over time. It is also unclear whether information about others' liking for a food (liking norm) could have the same effect. Using a 2 × 5 × 2 experimental design we investigated the effects of exposure to various messages on later intake from a food buffet and whether any effects were sustained 24 h after exposure in both low and high consumers of vegetables. There were three factors: delay (immediate food selection vs. food selection 24 h after exposure), message type (liking norm, descriptive norm, health message, vegetable variety condition, and neutral control message), and habitual consumption (low vs. high). The buffet consisted of three raw vegetables, three energy-dense foods, and two dips. For vegetables and non-vegetables there were no main effects of message type, nor any main effect of delay. There was a significant message × habitual vegetable consumption interaction for vegetable consumption; however, follow up tests did not yield any significant effects. Examining each food individually, there were no main effects of message type, nor any main effect of delay, for any of the foods; however, there was a message × habitual vegetable consumption interaction for broccoli. Consumption of broccoli in the health message and descriptive norm conditions did not differ from the control neutral condition. However, habitually low consumers of vegetables increased their consumption of broccoli in the vegetable variety and liking norm conditions relative to habitual low vegetable consumers in the neutral control condition (p < 0.05). Further, investigation of the effects of the liking norm and vegetable variety condition on vegetable intake is warranted. This trial is listed as NCT02618174 at clinicaltrials.gov. PMID:27065913

  13. The Effects of Liking Norms and Descriptive Norms on Vegetable Consumption: A Randomized Experiment.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jason M; Liu, Jinyu; Robinson, Eric L; Aveyard, Paul; Herman, C Peter; Higgs, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that social norm messages can be used to promote the selection of fruit and vegetables in low habitual consumers of these foods but it is unclear whether this effect is sustained over time. It is also unclear whether information about others' liking for a food (liking norm) could have the same effect. Using a 2 × 5 × 2 experimental design we investigated the effects of exposure to various messages on later intake from a food buffet and whether any effects were sustained 24 h after exposure in both low and high consumers of vegetables. There were three factors: delay (immediate food selection vs. food selection 24 h after exposure), message type (liking norm, descriptive norm, health message, vegetable variety condition, and neutral control message), and habitual consumption (low vs. high). The buffet consisted of three raw vegetables, three energy-dense foods, and two dips. For vegetables and non-vegetables there were no main effects of message type, nor any main effect of delay. There was a significant message × habitual vegetable consumption interaction for vegetable consumption; however, follow up tests did not yield any significant effects. Examining each food individually, there were no main effects of message type, nor any main effect of delay, for any of the foods; however, there was a message × habitual vegetable consumption interaction for broccoli. Consumption of broccoli in the health message and descriptive norm conditions did not differ from the control neutral condition. However, habitually low consumers of vegetables increased their consumption of broccoli in the vegetable variety and liking norm conditions relative to habitual low vegetable consumers in the neutral control condition (p < 0.05). Further, investigation of the effects of the liking norm and vegetable variety condition on vegetable intake is warranted. This trial is listed as NCT02618174 at clinicaltrials.gov. PMID:27065913

  14. Establishing a NORM based radiation calibration facility.

    PubMed

    Wallace, J

    2016-05-01

    An environmental radiation calibration facility has been constructed by the Radiation and Nuclear Sciences unit of Queensland Health at the Forensic and Scientific Services Coopers Plains campus in Brisbane. This facility consists of five low density concrete pads, spiked with a NORM source, to simulate soil and effectively provide a number of semi-infinite uniformly distributed sources for improved energy response calibrations of radiation equipment used in NORM measurements. The pads have been sealed with an environmental epoxy compound to restrict radon loss and so enhance the quality of secular equilibrium achieved. Monte Carlo models (MCNP),used to establish suitable design parameters and identify appropriate geometric correction factors linking the air kerma measured above these calibration pads to that predicted for an infinite plane using adjusted ICRU53 data, are discussed. Use of these correction factors as well as adjustments for cosmic radiation and the impact of surrounding low levels of NORM in the soil, allows for good agreement between the radiation fields predicted and measured above the pads at both 0.15 m and 1 m. PMID:26921707

  15. An Abbreviated Tool for Assessing Feminine Norm Conformity: Psychometric Properties of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Mike C.; Moradi, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    The Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45 (CFNI-45; Parent & Moradi, 2010) is an important tool for assessing level of conformity to feminine gender norms and for investigating the implications of such norms for women's functioning. The authors of the present study assessed the factor structure, measurement invariance, reliability, and…

  16. SU-E-J-179: Assessment of Tumor Volume Change and Movement During Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) for Lung Cancer: Is Adaptive Radiation Therapy (ART) Necessary?

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C; Lee, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Delineation of gross tumor volumes (GTVs) is important for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). However, tumor volume changes during treatment response. Here, we have investigated tumor volume changes and movement during SBRT for lung cancer, as a means of examining the need for adaptive radiation therapy (ART). Methods: Fifteen tumors in 15 patients with lung cancer were treated with SBRT (total dose: 60 Gy in 4 fractions). GTVs were obtained from cone-beam computed tomography scans (CBCT1–4) taken before each of the 4 fractions was administered. GTVs were delineated and measured by radiation oncologists using a treatment planning system. Variance in the tumor position was assessed between the planning CT and the CBCT images. To investigate the dosimetric effects of tumor volume changes, planning CT and CBCT4 treatment plans were compared using the conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), and Paddick’s index (PCI). Results: The GTV on CBCT1 was employed as a baseline for comparisons. GTV had decreased by a mean of 20.4% (range: 0.7% to 47.2%) on CBCT4. Most patients had smaller GTVs on CBCT4 than on CBCT1. The interfractional shifts of the tumor position between the planning CT and CBCT1–4 were as follows: right-left, −0.4 to 1.3 mm; anterior-posterior, −0.8 to 0.5 mm; and superiorinferior, −0.9 to 1.1 mm. Indices for plans from the planning CT and CBCT4 were as follows: CI = 0.94±0.02 and 1.11±0.03; HI= 1.1±0.02 and 1.10±0.03; and PCI = 1.35±0.16 and 1.11±0.02, respectively. Conclusion: CI, HI, and PCI did not differ between the planning CT and CBCTs. However, daily CBCT revealed a significant decrease in the GTV during lung SBRT. Furthermore, there was an obvious interfractional shift in tumor position. Using ART could potentially lead to a reduced GTV margin and improved regional tumor control for lung cancer patients with significantly decreased GTV.

  17. Race-specific norms for coding face identity and a functional role for norms.

    PubMed

    Armann, Regine; Jeffery, Linda; Calder, Andrew J; Rhodes, Gillian

    2011-11-09

    Models of face perception often adopt a framework in which faces are represented as points or vectors in a multidimensional space, relative to the average face that serves as a norm for encoding. Since faces are very similar in their configuration and share many visual properties, they could be encoded in one common space against one norm. However, certain face properties may result in grouping and "subclassification" of similar faces. We studied the processing of faces of different races, using high-level aftereffects, where exposure to one face systematically distorts the perception of a subsequently viewed face toward the "opposite" identity in face space. We measured identity aftereffects for adapt-test pairs that were opposite relative to race-specific (Asian and Caucasian) averages and pairs that were opposite relative to a "generic" average (both races morphed together). Aftereffects were larger for race-specific compared to mixed-race adapt-test pairs. These results suggest that race-specific norms are used to code identity because aftereffects are generally larger for adapt-test pairs drawn from trajectories passing through the norm (opposite pairs) than for those that do not. We also found that identification thresholds were lower when targets were distributed around race-specific averages than around the mixed-race average, suggesting that norm-based face encoding may play a functional role in facilitating identity discrimination.

  18. The effects of changing angle and height of toilet seat on movements and ground reaction forces in the feet during sit-to-stand

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su-Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the effects of changes in the angle and height on movements and ground reaction forces in the feet. Subjects were instructed to sit and stand on different angles and heights; 0° (43 cm), 10° (51 cm), and 15° (58 cm). The motion required in this study is similar to that of standing up from sitting on a chair. The Tumble Forms Wedges (10° [8 cm], 15° [15 cm]) were placed on the toilet seat to create angles and heights at 0° (43 cm), 10° (51 cm), and 15° (58 cm). The side-to-side travel distances when the subjects stood up from sitting were 103.70±12.46 at 0° (43 cm), 96.99±12.11 at 10° (51 cm), and 99.12±12.00 at 15° (58 cm). The forward and backward travel distances when the subjects stood up from sitting were 235.93±10.60 at 0° (43 cm), 194.17±8.07 at 10° (51 cm), and 181.63±8.66 at 15° (58 cm). The ground reaction forces when the subjects stood up from sitting were 1.09±0.02 at 0° (43 cm), 1.08±0.22 at 10° (51 cm), and 1.07±0.21 at 15° (58 cm). Increases in the angle and height of the toilet seat affected forward-and-backward swaying during standing up, but did not affect the ground reaction force and side-to-side swaying. PMID:27807522

  19. Thoracic Hemisection in Rats Results in Initial Recovery Followed by a Late Decrement in Locomotor Movements, with Changes in Coordination Correlated with Serotonergic Innervation of the Ventral Horn

    PubMed Central

    Leszczyńska, Anna N.; Majczyński, Henryk; Wilczyński, Grzegorz M.; Sławińska, Urszula; Cabaj, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    Lateral thoracic hemisection of the rodent spinal cord is a popular model of spinal cord injury, in which the effects of various treatments, designed to encourage locomotor recovery, are tested. Nevertheless, there are still inconsistencies in the literature concerning the details of spontaneous locomotor recovery after such lesions, and there is a lack of data concerning the quality of locomotion over a long time span after the lesion. In this study, we aimed to address some of these issues. In our experiments, locomotor recovery was assessed using EMG and CatWalk recordings and analysis. Our results showed that after hemisection there was paralysis in both hindlimbs, followed by a substantial recovery of locomotor movements, but even at the peak of recovery, which occurred about 4 weeks after the lesion, some deficits of locomotion remained present. The parameters that were abnormal included abduction, interlimb coordination and speed of locomotion. Locomotor performance was stable for several weeks, but about 3–4 months after hemisection secondary locomotor impairment was observed with changes in parameters, such as speed of locomotion, interlimb coordination, base of hindlimb support, hindlimb abduction and relative foot print distance. Histological analysis of serotonergic innervation at the lumbar ventral horn below hemisection revealed a limited restoration of serotonergic fibers on the ipsilateral side of the spinal cord, while on the contralateral side of the spinal cord it returned to normal. In addition, the length of these fibers on both sides of the spinal cord correlated with inter- and intralimb coordination. In contrast to data reported in the literature, our results show there is not full locomotor recovery after spinal cord hemisection. Secondary deterioration of certain locomotor functions occurs with time in hemisected rats, and locomotor recovery appears partly associated with reinnervation of spinal circuitry by serotonergic fibers. PMID

  20. Ground-Water Occurrence and Movement, 2006, and Water-Level Changes in the Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valley Basins, Mohave County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, David W.; Truini, Margot; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Remick, William H.

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water levels for water year 2006 and their change over time in Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valley Basins of northwestern Arizona were investigated to improve the understanding of current and past ground-water conditions in these basins. The potentiometric surface for ground water in the Basin-Fill aquifer of each basin is generally parallel to topography. Consequently, ground-water movement is generally from the mountain front toward the basin center and then along the basin axis toward the Colorado River or Lake Mead. Observed water levels in Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valley Basins have fluctuated during the period of historic water-level records (1943 through 2006). In Detrital Valley Basin, water levels in monitored areas have either remained the same, or have steadily increased as much as 3.5 feet since the 1980s. Similar steady conditions or water-level rises were observed for much of the northern and central parts of Hualapai Valley Basin. During the period of historic record, steady water-level declines as large as 60 feet were found in wells penetrating the Basin-Fill aquifer in areas near Kingman, northwest of Hackberry, and northeast of Dolan Springs within the Hualapai Valley Basin. Within the Sacramento Valley Basin, during the period of historic record, water-level declines as large as 55 feet were observed in wells penetrating the Basin-Fill aquifer in the Kingman and Golden Valley areas; whereas small, steady rises were observed in Yucca and in the Dutch Flat area.

  1. Dictator Game Giving: The Importance of Descriptive versus Injunctive Norms

    PubMed Central

    Raihani, Nichola J.; McAuliffe, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Human behaviour is influenced by social norms but norms can entail two types of information. Descriptive norms refer to what others do in this context, while injunctive norms refer to what ought to be done to ensure social approval. In many real-world situations these norms are often presented concurrently meaning that their independent effects on behaviour are difficult to establish. Here we used an online Dictator Game to test how descriptive and injunctive norms would influence dictator donations when presented independently of one another. In addition, we varied the cost of complying with the norm: By stating that $0.20 or $0.50 cent donations from a $1 stake were normal or suggested, respectively. Specifying a higher target amount was associated with increased mean donation size. In contrast to previous studies, descriptive norms did not seem to influence giving behaviour in this context, whereas injunctive norms were associated with increased likelihood to give at least the target amount to the partner. This raises the question of whether injunctive norms might be more effective than descriptive norms at promoting prosocial behaviour in other settings. PMID:25493945

  2. Bundles of Norms About Teen Sex and Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Sennott, Christie

    2015-09-01

    Teen pregnancy is a cultural battleground in struggles over morality, education, and family. At its heart are norms about teen sex, contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. Analyzing 57 interviews with college students, we found that "bundles" of related norms shaped the messages teens hear. Teens did not think their communities encouraged teen sex or pregnancy, but normative messages differed greatly, with either moral or practical rationalizations. Teens readily identified multiple norms intended to regulate teen sex, contraception, abortion, childbearing, and the sanctioning of teen parents. Beyond influencing teens' behavior, norms shaped teenagers' public portrayals and post hoc justifications of their behavior. Although norm bundles are complex to measure, participants could summarize them succinctly. These bundles and their conflicting behavioral prescriptions create space for human agency in negotiating normative pressures. The norm bundles concept has implications for teen pregnancy prevention policies and can help revitalize social norms for understanding health behaviors.

  3. Genetics of Growth Reaction Norms in Farmed Rainbow Trout

    PubMed Central

    Sae-Lim, Panya; Mulder, Han; Gjerde, Bjarne; Koskinen, Heikki; Lillehammer, Marie; Kause, Antti

    2015-01-01

    Rainbow trout is farmed globally under diverse uncontrollable environments. Fish with low macroenvironmental sensitivity (ES) of growth is important to thrive and grow under these uncontrollable environments. The ES may evolve as a correlated response to selection for growth in one environment when the genetic correlation between ES and growth is nonzero. The aims of this study were to quantify additive genetic variance for ES of body weight (BW), defined as the slope of reaction norm across breeding environment (BE) and production environment (PE), and to estimate the genetic correlation (rg(int, sl)) between BW and ES. To estimate heritable variance of ES, the coheritability of ES was derived using selection index theory. The BW records from 43,040 rainbow trout performing either in freshwater or seawater were analysed using a reaction norm model. High additive genetic variance for ES (9584) was observed, inferring that genetic changes in ES can be expected. The coheritability for ES was either -0.06 (intercept at PE) or -0.08 (intercept at BE), suggesting that BW observation in either PE or BE results in low accuracy of selection for ES. Yet, the rg(int, sl) was negative (-0.41 to -0.33) indicating that selection for BW in one environment is expected to result in more sensitive fish. To avoid an increase of ES while selecting for BW, it is possible to have equal genetic gain in BW in both environments so that ES is maintained stable. PMID:26267268

  4. Genetics of Growth Reaction Norms in Farmed Rainbow Trout.

    PubMed

    Sae-Lim, Panya; Mulder, Han; Gjerde, Bjarne; Koskinen, Heikki; Lillehammer, Marie; Kause, Antti

    2015-01-01

    Rainbow trout is farmed globally under diverse uncontrollable environments. Fish with low macroenvironmental sensitivity (ES) of growth is important to thrive and grow under these uncontrollable environments. The ES may evolve as a correlated response to selection for growth in one environment when the genetic correlation between ES and growth is nonzero. The aims of this study were to quantify additive genetic variance for ES of body weight (BW), defined as the slope of reaction norm across breeding environment (BE) and production environment (PE), and to estimate the genetic correlation (rg(int, sl)) between BW and ES. To estimate heritable variance of ES, the coheritability of ES was derived using selection index theory. The BW records from 43,040 rainbow trout performing either in freshwater or seawater were analysed using a reaction norm model. High additive genetic variance for ES (9584) was observed, inferring that genetic changes in ES can be expected. The coheritability for ES was either -0.06 (intercept at PE) or -0.08 (intercept at BE), suggesting that BW observation in either PE or BE results in low accuracy of selection for ES. Yet, the rg(int, sl) was negative (-0.41 to -0.33) indicating that selection for BW in one environment is expected to result in more sensitive fish. To avoid an increase of ES while selecting for BW, it is possible to have equal genetic gain in BW in both environments so that ES is maintained stable.

  5. BeUpright: Posture Correction Using Relational Norm Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jaemyung; Huh, Jina; Kang, Bumsoo; Kim, Jinhan; Park, Taiwoo; Song, Junewha

    2016-01-01

    Research shows the critical role of social relationships in behavior change, and the advancement of mobile technologies brings new opportunities of using online social support for persuasive applications. In this paper, we propose Relational Norm Intervention (RNI) model for behavior change, which involves two individuals as a target user and a helper respectively. RNI model uses Negative Reinforcement and Other-Regarding Preferences as motivating factors for behavior change. The model features the passive participation of a helper who will undergo artificially generated discomforts (e.g., limited access to a mobile device) when a target user performs against a target behavior. Based on in-depth discussions from a two-phase design workshop, we designed and implemented BeUpright, a mobile application employing RNI model to correct sitting posture of a target user. Also, we conducted a two-week study to evaluate the effectiveness and user experience of BeUpright. The study showed that RNI model has a potential to increase efficacy, in terms of behavior change, compared to conventional notification approaches. The most influential factor of RNI model in the changing the behavior of target users was the intention to avoid discomforting their helpers. RNI model also showed a potential to help unmotivated individuals in behavior change. We discuss the mechanism of RNI model in relation to prior literature on behavior change and implications of exploiting discomfort in mobile behavior change services. PMID:27478881

  6. Relationship between Norm-internalization and Cooperation in N-person Prisoners' Dilemma Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Mitsutaka

    In this paper, I discuss the problems of ``order in social situations'' using a computer simulation of iterated N-person prisoners' dilemma game. It has been claimed that, in the case of the 2-person prisoners' dilemma, repetition of games and the reciprocal use of the ``tit-for-tat'' strategy promote the possibility of cooperation. However, in cases of N-person prisoners' dilemma where N is greater than 2, the logic does not work effectively. The most essential problem is so called ``sanctioning problems''. In this paper, firstly, I discuss the ``sanctioning problems'' which were introduced by Axelrod and Keohane in 1986. Based on the model formalized by Axelrod, I propose a new model, in which I added a mechanism of players' payoff changes in the Axelrod's model. I call this mechanism norm-internalization and call our model ``norm-internalization game''. Second, by using the model, I investigated the relationship between agents' norm-internalization (payoff-alternation) and the possibilities of cooperation. The results of computer simulation indicated that unequal distribution of cooperating norm and uniform distribution of sanctioning norm are more effective in establishing cooperation. I discuss the mathematical features and the implications of the results on social science.

  7. Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Historic Prospective.

    PubMed

    Will, Leslie A

    2016-01-01

    The earliest report on orthodontic tooth movement in the English literature was published in 1911. Oppenheim carried out studies on baboons to determine what histologic changes occurred during tooth movement. Reitan and many others carried out research into the nature of tooth movement. The pressure-tension model of tooth movement developed from these studies, whereby the two sides of the tooth responded to forces as if in isolation. A second theory, proposed by Stuteville in 1938, was the hydraulic theory of tooth movement. In this theory, fluid from the vasculature, lymphatic system and intercellular spaces responds to the forces of tooth movement, damping the force and limiting movement. Bien and Baumrind expanded on this theory with their own studies in the 1960s. It is clear that both the pressure-tension and fluid flow concepts have merit, but considerable work needs to be done to ascertain the details so that tooth movement can be managed and controlled. PMID:26599117

  8. Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Historic Prospective.

    PubMed

    Will, Leslie A

    2016-01-01

    The earliest report on orthodontic tooth movement in the English literature was published in 1911. Oppenheim carried out studies on baboons to determine what histologic changes occurred during tooth movement. Reitan and many others carried out research into the nature of tooth movement. The pressure-tension model of tooth movement developed from these studies, whereby the two sides of the tooth responded to forces as if in isolation. A second theory, proposed by Stuteville in 1938, was the hydraulic theory of tooth movement. In this theory, fluid from the vasculature, lymphatic system and intercellular spaces responds to the forces of tooth movement, damping the force and limiting movement. Bien and Baumrind expanded on this theory with their own studies in the 1960s. It is clear that both the pressure-tension and fluid flow concepts have merit, but considerable work needs to be done to ascertain the details so that tooth movement can be managed and controlled.

  9. Age-related changes in speed and accuracy during rapid targeted center of pressure movements near the posterior limit of the base of support

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Manuel E.; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Alexander, Neil B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Backward falls are often associated with injury, particularly among older women. An age-related increase occurs in center of pressure variability when standing and leaning. So, we hypothesized that, in comparison to young women, older women would display a disproportionate decrease of speed and accuracy in the primary center of pressure submovements as movement amplitude increases. Methods Ground reaction forces were recorded from thirteen healthy young and twelve older women while performing rapid, targeted, center of pressure movements of small and large amplitude in upright stance. Measures included center of pressure speed, the number of center of pressure submovements, and the incidence rate of primary center of pressure submovements undershooting the target. Findings In comparison to young women, older women used slower primary submovements, particularly as movement amplitude increased (P < 0.01). Even though older women achieved similar endpoint accuracy, they demonstrated a 2 to 5-fold increase in the incidence of primary submovement undershooting for large-amplitude movements (P < 0.01). Overall, posterior center of pressure movements of older women were 41% slower and exhibited 43% more secondary submovements than in young women (P < 0.01). Interpretations We conclude that the increased primary submovement undershoots and secondary center of pressure submovements in the older women reflect the use of a conservative control strategy near the posterior limit of their base of support. PMID:22770467

  10. Forging New Norms in New Orleans: From Emotional to Ecological Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goleman, Daniel; Barlow, Zenobia; Bennett, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    At points of instability in a system--whether a school, community, or any other social system--there is the opportunity for breakdown or breakthrough. In that moment of opportunity arises the possibility for significant change through the emergence of new norms or standards of behavior that reflect the evolving values of the larger group. What…

  11. RECOGNIZE: A Social Norms Campaign to Reduce Rumor Spreading in a Junior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Jennifer E.; Peisner, William

    2009-01-01

    This article studied changes in rumor spreading and perceptions of peers' rumor spreading among students at one public junior high school following a social norms marketing campaign. Results of the study show that perceptions of peer rumor spreading fell following the campaign, but self-reports of rumor spreading did not decrease. Results suggest…

  12. Norms of Filial Responsibility for Aging Parents across Time and Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gans, Daphna; Silverstein, Merril

    2006-01-01

    This investigation examined the normative expectation that adult children should be responsible for the care of their aging parents, and how this norm changes over the adult life span, across several decades of historical time, in relation to generational position in families, and between successive generations. Analyses were performed using 4…

  13. Social Norms and Global Environmental Challenges: The Complex Interaction of Behaviors, Values, and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Paul R.; Alston, Lee J.; Arrow, Kenneth; Barrett, Scott; Buchman, Timothy G.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Levin, Bruce; Levin, Simon; Oppenheimer, Michael; Ostrom, Elinor; Saari, Donald

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Government policies are needed when people’s behaviors fail to deliver the public good. Those policies will be most effective if they can stimulate long-term changes in beliefs and norms, creating and reinforcing the behaviors needed to solidify and extend the public good.It is often the short-term acceptability of potential policies, rather than their longer-term efficacy, that determines their scope and deployment. The policy process should consider both time scales. The academy, however, has provided insufficient insight on the coevolution of social norms and different policy instruments, thus compromising the capacity of decision makers to craft effective solutions to the society’s most intractable environmental problems. Life scientists could make fundamental contributions to this agenda through targeted research on the emergence of social norms. PMID:25143635

  14. CORPEX{reg_sign} NORM decontamination process

    SciTech Connect

    Azrak, R.G.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes a commecial process which has been developed for application to the remediation of NORM deposits on metal parts or embedded in scales on such parts. The process employs a registered chemical process, involving non-RCRA regulated chemicals, which can remove fixed {sup 226,228}Radium, {sup 210}Lead, and {sup 210}Polonium. The author describes the capabilities of the chemical process which has been developed, the way it is offered to potential customers as a practical process, and numerous examples of its application in the field.

  15. Modeling social norms and social influence in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Shoham, David A.; Hammond, Ross; Rahmandad, Hazhir; Wang, Youfa; Hovmand, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide increase in obesity has led to changes in what is considered “normal” or desirable weight, especially among populations at higher risk. We show that social norms are key to understanding the obesity epidemic, and that social influence mechanisms provide a necessary linkage between individual obesity-related behaviors and population-level characteristics. Because influence mechanisms cannot be directly observed, we show how three complex systems tools may be used to gain insights into observed epidemiologic patterns: social network analysis, agent-based modeling, and systems dynamics modeling. However, simulation and mathematical modeling approaches raise questions regarding acceptance of findings, especially among policy makers. Nevertheless, we point to modeling successes in obesity and other fields, including the NIH-funded National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) Envison project. PMID:26576335

  16. Smoking Norms and the Regulation of E-Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS)—commonly called e-cigarettes—are at the center of a polarized debate. How should they be regulated? Central to this debate is the concern that e-cigarettes could lead to the renormalization of smoking and that the regulation of ENDS should therefore be modeled on the regulation of conventional cigarettes. I argue that arguments based on the renormalization of smoking can lend support to restrictions on marketing of ENDS, but that such arguments are problematic when used to justify restrictions on where ENDS can be used. The debate has been insufficiently sensitive to the ethical complexities of attempts to manipulate social norms to change health behaviors; these complexities must also inform the debate about ENDS and their regulation. PMID:26270285

  17. Mortality salience increases personal relevance of the norm of reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Simon; Reinhard, Marc-André; Stahlberg, Dagmar

    2012-10-01

    Research on terror management theory found evidence that people under mortality salience strive to live up to salient cultural norms and values, like egalitarianism, pacifism, or helpfulness. A basic, strongly internalized norm in most human societies is the norm of reciprocity: people should support those who supported them (i.e., positive reciprocity), and people should injure those who injured them (i.e., negative reciprocity), respectively. In an experiment (N = 98; 47 women, 51 men), mortality salience overall significantly increased personal relevance of the norm of reciprocity (M = 4.45, SD = 0.65) compared to a control condition (M = 4.19, SD = 0.59). Specifically, under mortality salience there was higher motivation to punish those who treated them unfavourably (negative norm of reciprocity). Unexpectedly, relevance of the norm of positive reciprocity remained unaffected by mortality salience. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  18. Computational substrates of social norm enforcement by unaffected third parties.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Songfa; Chark, Robin; Hsu, Ming; Chew, Soo Hong

    2016-04-01

    Enforcement of social norms by impartial bystanders in the human species reveals a possibly unique capacity to sense and to enforce norms from a third party perspective. Such behavior, however, cannot be accounted by current computational models based on an egocentric notion of norms. Here, using a combination of model-based fMRI and third party punishment games, we show that brain regions previously implicated in egocentric norm enforcement critically extend to the important case of norm enforcement by unaffected third parties. Specifically, we found that responses in the ACC and insula cortex were positively associated with detection of distributional inequity, while those in the anterior DLPFC were associated with assessment of intentionality to the violator. Moreover, during sanction decisions, the subjective value of sanctions modulated activity in both vmPFC and rTPJ. These results shed light on the neurocomputational underpinnings of third party punishment and evolutionary origin of human norm enforcement.

  19. Computational substrates of social norm enforcement by unaffected third parties.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Songfa; Chark, Robin; Hsu, Ming; Chew, Soo Hong

    2016-04-01

    Enforcement of social norms by impartial bystanders in the human species reveals a possibly unique capacity to sense and to enforce norms from a third party perspective. Such behavior, however, cannot be accounted by current computational models based on an egocentric notion of norms. Here, using a combination of model-based fMRI and third party punishment games, we show that brain regions previously implicated in egocentric norm enforcement critically extend to the important case of norm enforcement by unaffected third parties. Specifically, we found that responses in the ACC and insula cortex were positively associated with detection of distributional inequity, while those in the anterior DLPFC were associated with assessment of intentionality to the violator. Moreover, during sanction decisions, the subjective value of sanctions modulated activity in both vmPFC and rTPJ. These results shed light on the neurocomputational underpinnings of third party punishment and evolutionary origin of human norm enforcement. PMID:26825438

  20. Movement-related changes in local and long-range synchronization in Parkinson’s disease revealed by simultaneous magnetoencephalography and intracranial recordings

    PubMed Central

    Litvak, Vladimir; Eusebio, Alexandre; Jha, Ashwani; Oostenveld, Robert; Barnes, Gareth; Foltynie, Tom; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Hariz, Marwan I.; Friston, Karl; Brown, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Functional neurosurgery has afforded the opportunity to assess interactions between populations of neurons in the human cerebral cortex and basal ganglia in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Interactions occur over a wide range of frequencies, and the functional significance of those above 30 Hz is particularly unclear. Do they improve movement and, if so, in what way? We acquired simultaneously magnetoencephalography (MEG) and direct recordings from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in 17 PD patients. We examined the effect of synchronous and sequential finger movements and of the dopamine prodrug levodopa on induced power in the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1) and STN and on the coherence between the two structures. We observed discrete peaks in M1 and STN power over 60-90 Hz and 300-400 Hz. All these power peaks increased with movement and levodopa treatment. Only STN activity over 60-90 Hz was coherent with activity in M1. Directionality analysis showed that STN gamma activity at 60-90 Hz tended to drive gamma activity in M1. The effects of levodopa on both local and distant synchronisation over 60-90 Hz correlated with the degree of improvement in bradykinesia-rigidity, as did local STN activity at 300-400 Hz. Despite this, there were no effects of movement type, nor interactions between movement type and levodopa in the STN, nor in the coherence between STN and M1. We conclude that synchronisation over 60-90 Hz in the basal ganglia cortical network is prokinetic, but likely through a modulatory effect rather than any involvement in explicit motor processing. PMID:22855804

  1. Teaching Creative Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exiner, Johanna; Lloyd, Phyllis

    This guide to creative movement, relevant to all age groups, opens with a discussion of historical and present trends in movement and dance. Chapters treat (a) the body--body awareness, body activities, and relationships; (b) principles of movement--space, force, time, dynamics, and fluency; (c) topics within the sphere of movement, from the world…

  2. Relations between convergence rates in Schatten p-norms

    SciTech Connect

    Albini, Paolo; Toigo, Alessandro; Umanita, Veronica

    2008-01-15

    In quantum estimation theory and quantum tomography, the quantum state obtained by sampling converges to the ''true'' unknown density matrix under topologies that are different from the natural notion of distance in the space of quantum states, i.e., the trace class norm. In this paper, we address such problem, finding relations between the rates of convergence in the Schatten p-norms and in the trace class norm.

  3. Movement disorders and sleep.

    PubMed

    Driver-Dunckley, Erika D; Adler, Charles H

    2012-11-01

    This article summarizes what is currently known about sleep disturbances in several movement disorders including Parkinson disease, essential tremor, parkinsonism, dystonia, Huntington disease, myoclonus, and ataxias. There is an association between movement disorders and sleep. In some cases the prevalence of sleep disorders is much higher in patients with movement disorder, such as rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease. In other cases, sleep difficulties worsen the involuntary movements. In many cases the medications used to treat patients with movement disorder disturb sleep or cause daytime sleepiness. The importance of discussing sleep issues in patients with movement disorders cannot be underestimated.

  4. NORM management in the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Cowie, M; Mously, K; Fageeha, O; Nassar, R

    2012-01-01

    It has been established that naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may accumulate at various locations along the oil and gas production process. Components such as wellheads, separation vessels, pumps, and other processing equipment can become contaminated with NORM, and NORM can accumulate in the form of sludge, scale, scrapings, and other waste media. This can create a potential radiation hazard to workers, the general public, and the environment if certain controls are not established. Saudi Aramco has developed NORM management guidelines, and is implementing a comprehensive strategy to address all aspects of NORM management that aim to enhance NORM monitoring; control of NORM-contaminated equipment; control of NORM waste handling and disposal; and protection, awareness, and training of workers. The benefits of shared knowledge, best practice, and experience across the oil and gas industry are seen as key to the establishment of common guidance. This paper outlines Saudi Aramco's experience in the development of a NORM management strategy, and its goals of establishing common guidance throughout the oil and gas industry.

  5. Base norms and discrimination of generalized quantum channels

    SciTech Connect

    Jenčová, A.

    2014-02-15

    We introduce and study norms in the space of hermitian matrices, obtained from base norms in positively generated subspaces. These norms are closely related to discrimination of so-called generalized quantum channels, including quantum states, channels, and networks. We further introduce generalized quantum decision problems and show that the maximal average payoffs of decision procedures are again given by these norms. We also study optimality of decision procedures, in particular, we obtain a necessary and sufficient condition under which an optimal 1-tester for discrimination of quantum channels exists, such that the input state is maximally entangled.

  6. Using multiscale norms to quantify mixing and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiffeault, Jean-Luc

    2012-02-01

    Mixing is relevant to many areas of science and engineering, including the pharmaceutical and food industries, oceanography, atmospheric sciences and civil engineering. In all these situations one goal is to quantify and often then to improve the degree of homogenization of a substance being stirred, referred to as a passive scalar or tracer. A classical measure of mixing is the variance of the concentration of the scalar, which is the L2 norm of a mean-zero concentration field. Recently, other norms have been used to quantify mixing, in particular the mix-norm as well as negative Sobolev norms. These norms have the advantage that unlike variance they decay even in the absence of diffusion, and their decay corresponds to the flow being mixing in the sense of ergodic theory. General Sobolev norms weigh scalar gradients differently, and are known as multiscale norms for mixing. We review the applications of such norms to mixing and transport, and show how they can be used to optimize the stirring and mixing of a decaying passive scalar. We then review recent work on the less-studied case of a continuously replenished scalar field—the source-sink problem. In that case the flows that optimally reduce the norms are associated with transport rather than mixing: they push sources onto sinks, and vice versa.

  7. Dose assessment for management alternatives for NORM-contaminated equipment within the petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Blunt, D.L.; Smith, K.P.

    1995-08-01

    The contamination of drilling and production equipment by naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is a growing concern for the petroleum industry and regulators. Large volumes of NORM-contaminated scrap metal are generated by the industry each year. The contamination generally occurs as surface contamination on the interior of water-handling equipment. The source of this contamination is accumulation of by-product wastes, in the form of scale and sludge contaminated with NORM that are generated by extraction processes. The primary radionuclides of concern in petroleum industry NORM-wastes are radium-226 (Ra-226), and radium-228 (Ra-228). These isotopes are members of the uranium-238 and thorium-232 decay series, respectively. The uranium and thorium isotopes, which are naturally present in the subsurface formations from which hydrocarbons are extracted, are largely immobile and remain in the subsurface. The more soluble radium can become mobilized in the formation water and be transported to the surface in the produced water waste stream. The radium either remains in solution or precipitates in scale or sludge deposits, depending on water salinity and on temperature and pressure phase changes. NORM-containing scale consists of radium that has coprecipitated with barium, calcium, or strontium sulfates, and sludge typically consists of radium-containing silicates and carbonates. This assessment is limited to the evaluation of potential radiological doses from management options that specifically involve recycle and reuse of contaminated metal. Doses from disposal of contaminated equipment are not addressed. Radiological doses were estimated for workers and the general public for equipment decontamination and smelting. Results of this assessment can be used to examine policy issues concerning the regulation and management of NORM-contaminated wastes generated by the petroleum industry.

  8. Birth cohort effects on adolescent alcohol use: The influence of social norms from 1976-2007

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Schulenberg, John E.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Li, Guohua; Hasin, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Context The substantial changes adolescent alcohol use prevalence over time suggests that population-level environmental factors are important determinants of use, yet the potential influence of such environmental factors is inadequately understood. Objective The present study investigated whether adolescents in birth cohorts and/or time periods characterized by restrictive social norms towards alcohol were at decreased risk for alcohol use and binge drinking, controlling for individual attitudes (disapproval) towards use. Design Aggregated data from thirty-two annual national surveys of U.S. high school students. Participants A total of 1,032,052 students contributed data from 1976 through 2007. Exposure The social norm was measured by creating scores for each time period and birth cohort indicating the proportion disapproving of weekend binge drinking. Outcomes Frequency of past-year alcohol use and any instance of binge drinking (5+ drinks) in the past two-weeks, analyzed using multi-level models clustering individuals within time periods and birth cohorts. Period- and cohort-specific social norm scores were modeled as predictors, controlling for individual attitudes and demographics. Results Individuals who matured in birth cohorts with more restrictive social norms were less likely to use alcohol compared to individuals who matured in cohorts with more permissive norms; each 5% increase in the cohort-specific disapproval was associated with a 12% decrease in the odds of past-year alcohol use (OR=0.88, 99% C.I. 0.87-0.89). The effects of cohort-specific disapproval were notably stronger among White than non-White adolescents. Conclusions The present study documents the importance of considering time-varying population-level risk factors in the study of adolescent alcohol use, and indicates that even after an individual’s personal attitudes are accounted for, risk is shaped by cohort effects whereby the norms within the cohort contribute to the risk of

  9. [Indexes of integrative activity of motor system in norm and at neuromotor pathology].

    PubMed

    Aleksanian, Z A; Romanov, S P

    2012-11-01

    Characteristics of integrative activity of motor control system are received by the methods of the time series analysis. The methods allow to give an objective estimation of human brain pyramidal and extrapyramidal systems functional state. Authors consider the voluntary regulation of isometric effort as a model of movement and investigate this effort as the integrative motor output of a motor control system. Using of peculiar methodology of non-invasive research of parameters of isometric effort as indexes of CNS integrative activity, and application of modern methods of the time-series analysis has allowed to receive a new data concerning an estimation of activity of structures of motor control system in norm and in some neurodegenerative diseases of CNS (Parkinson's diseases, multiple sclerosis). These results represent the new knowledge in the field of movement physiology, and also expand opportunity of hardware diagnostics of neuromotor dysfunctions.

  10. Detection of the onset of upper-limb movements based on the combined analysis of changes in the sensorimotor rhythms and slow cortical potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, J.; Serrano, J. I.; del Castillo, M. D.; Monge-Pereira, E.; Molina-Rueda, F.; Alguacil-Diego, I.; Pons, J. L.

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Characterizing the intention to move by means of electroencephalographic activity can be used in rehabilitation protocols with patients’ cortical activity taking an active role during the intervention. In such applications, the reliability of the intention estimation is critical both in terms of specificity ‘number of misclassifications’ and temporal accuracy. Here, a detector of the onset of voluntary upper-limb reaching movements based on the cortical rhythms and the slow cortical potentials is proposed. The improvement in detections due to the combination of these two cortical patterns is also studied. Approach. Upper-limb movements and cortical activity were recorded in healthy subjects and stroke patients performing self-paced reaching movements. A logistic regression combined the output of two classifiers: (i) a naïve Bayes classifier trained to detect the event-related desynchronization preceding the movement onset and (ii) a matched filter detecting the bereitschaftspotential. The proposed detector was compared with the detectors by using each one of these cortical patterns separately. In addition, differences between the patients and healthy subjects were analysed. Main results. On average, 74.5 ± 13.8% and 82.2 ± 10.4% of the movements were detected with 1.32 ± 0.87 and 1.50 ± 1.09 false detections generated per minute in the healthy subjects and the patients, respectively. A significantly better performance was achieved by the combined detector (as compared to the detectors of the two cortical patterns separately) in terms of true detections (p = 0.099) and false positives (p = 0.0083). Significance. A rationale is provided for combining information from cortical rhythms and slow cortical potentials to detect the onsets of voluntary upper-limb movements. It is demonstrated that the two cortical processes supply complementary information that can be summed up to boost the performance of the detector. Successful results have been also

  11. Reducing Sexual Assault on Campus: Lessons From the Movement to Prevent Drunk Driving.

    PubMed

    Potter, Sharyn J

    2016-05-01

    I examined similarities and differences between the movement to prevent drunk driving of the 1980s, and current efforts to prevent and address campus sexual assault. As college and university administrators design policies and initiatives to reduce campus sexual assault in response to new federal legislation and regulation, they can apply lessons from successful public health initiatives to reduce drunk driving initiated more than 3 decades ago. I illustrate how interventions at the 5 levels of the social-ecological model, and messages that address entrenched cultural attitudes condoning sexual assault and blaming its victims can be used to combat campus sexual assault as a crime and a public health problem. I also show how efforts to promote community engagement can change behavioral norms and reduce offenses. PMID:26985614

  12. Reducing Sexual Assault on Campus: Lessons From the Movement to Prevent Drunk Driving

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    I examined similarities and differences between the movement to prevent drunk driving of the 1980s, and current efforts to prevent and address campus sexual assault. As college and university administrators design policies and initiatives to reduce campus sexual assault in response to new federal legislation and regulation, they can apply lessons from successful public health initiatives to reduce drunk driving initiated more than 3 decades ago. I illustrate how interventions at the 5 levels of the social–ecological model, and messages that address entrenched cultural attitudes condoning sexual assault and blaming its victims can be used to combat campus sexual assault as a crime and a public health problem. I also show how efforts to promote community engagement can change behavioral norms and reduce offenses. PMID:26985614

  13. Reducing Sexual Assault on Campus: Lessons From the Movement to Prevent Drunk Driving.

    PubMed

    Potter, Sharyn J

    2016-05-01

    I examined similarities and differences between the movement to prevent drunk driving of the 1980s, and current efforts to prevent and address campus sexual assault. As college and university administrators design policies and initiatives to reduce campus sexual assault in response to new federal legislation and regulation, they can apply lessons from successful public health initiatives to reduce drunk driving initiated more than 3 decades ago. I illustrate how interventions at the 5 levels of the social-ecological model, and messages that address entrenched cultural attitudes condoning sexual assault and blaming its victims can be used to combat campus sexual assault as a crime and a public health problem. I also show how efforts to promote community engagement can change behavioral norms and reduce offenses.

  14. The NORM technology connection web site : streamlined access to NORM-related service company and regulatory information.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K. P.; Richmond, P.; LePoire, D. J.; Arnish, J. J.; Johnson, R.

    2000-11-08

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed an Internet web site providing access to critical information needed to support decisions on the management and disposal of wastes containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The NORM Technology Connection web site provides current information on (1) service companies that provide support on NORM issues (e.g., site characterization and remediation, sample analysis, radiation safety training, disposal) and (2) existing applicable NORM regulations and guidelines. A third element of the site is an electronic mail list that allows users to post or respond to questions about the management of NORM. Development of the NORM Technology Connection web site was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. It is hosted and maintained by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The web site is publicly available; access is free, as is participation by any of the service companies.

  15. The cultural transmission of cooperative norms.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyue; Liu, Yan; Ho, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative behavior depends on cultural environment, so what happens when people move from to a new culture governed by a new norm? The dynamics of culture-induced cooperation has not been well understood. We expose lab participants to a sequence of different subject pools while playing a constrained Trust Game. We find prior exposure to different subject pools does in fact influence cooperative behavior; first impressions matter-the primacy effect plays a stronger role than the recency effect; and selfish first impressions matter more than cooperative first impressions-observing selfish behavior by others had a longer-lasting and greater influence on behaviors than observing cooperative behavior by others. Moreover, three consecutive exposures to cooperative environments were needed to neutralize one exposure to a selfish environment.

  16. The cultural transmission of cooperative norms

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xinyue; Liu, Yan; Ho, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative behavior depends on cultural environment, so what happens when people move from to a new culture governed by a new norm? The dynamics of culture-induced cooperation has not been well understood. We expose lab participants to a sequence of different subject pools while playing a constrained Trust Game. We find prior exposure to different subject pools does in fact influence cooperative behavior; first impressions matter—the primacy effect plays a stronger role than the recency effect; and selfish first impressions matter more than cooperative first impressions—observing selfish behavior by others had a longer-lasting and greater influence on behaviors than observing cooperative behavior by others. Moreover, three consecutive exposures to cooperative environments were needed to neutralize one exposure to a selfish environment. PMID:26578993

  17. The cultural transmission of cooperative norms.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyue; Liu, Yan; Ho, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative behavior depends on cultural environment, so what happens when people move from to a new culture governed by a new norm? The dynamics of culture-induced cooperation has not been well understood. We expose lab participants to a sequence of different subject pools while playing a constrained Trust Game. We find prior exposure to different subject pools does in fact influence cooperative behavior; first impressions matter-the primacy effect plays a stronger role than the recency effect; and selfish first impressions matter more than cooperative first impressions-observing selfish behavior by others had a longer-lasting and greater influence on behaviors than observing cooperative behavior by others. Moreover, three consecutive exposures to cooperative environments were needed to neutralize one exposure to a selfish environment. PMID:26578993

  18. Effects of geolocators on hatching success, return rates, breeding movements, and change in body mass in 16 species of Arctic-breeding shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiser, Emily; Lanctot, Richard B.; Brown, Stephen C.; Alves, Jose A.; Battley, Phil F.; Bentzen, Rebecca L.; Bety, Joel; Bishop, Mary Anne; Boldenow, Megan; Bollache, Loic; Casler, Bruce; Christie, Maureen; Coleman, Jonathan T.; Conklin, Jesse R.; English, Willow B.; Gates, H. River; Gilg, Olivier; Giroux, Marie-Andree; Gosbell, Ken; Hassell, Chris J.; Helmericks, Jim; Johnson, Andrew; Katrinardottir, Borgny; Koivula, Kari; Kwon, Eunbi; Lamarre, Jean-Francois; Lang, Johannes; Lank, David B.; Lecomte, Nicolas; Liebezeit, Joseph R.; Loverti, Vanessa; McKinnon, Laura; Minton, Clive; Mizrahi, David S.; Nol, Erica; Pakanen, Veli-Matti; Perz, Johanna; Porter, Ron; Rausch, Jennie; Reneerkens, Jeroen; Ronka, Nelli; Saalfeld, Sarah T.; Senner, Nathan R.; Sittler, Benoit; Smith, Paul A.; Sowl, Kristine M.; Taylor, Audrey; Ward, David H.; Yezerinac, Stephen; Sandercock, Brett K.

    2016-01-01

    Negative effects of geolocators occurred only for three of the smallest species in our dataset, but were substantial when present. Future studies could mitigate impacts of tags by reducing protruding parts and minimizing use of additional markers. Investigators could maximize recovery of tags by strategically deploying geolocators on males, previously marked individuals, and successful breeders, though targeting subsets of a population could bias the resulting migratory movement data in some species.

  19. Invarient patterns in articulatory movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaventura, Patrizia

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of the reported study is to discover an effective method of characterizing movement patterns of the crucial articulator as the function of an abstract syllable magnitude and the adjacent boundary, and at the same time to investigate effects of prosodic control on utterance organization. In particular, the speed of movement when a flesh point on the tongue blade or the lower lip crosses a selected position relative to the occlusion plane is examined. The time of such crossing provides an effective measure of syllable timing and syllable duration according to previous work. In the present work, using a very limited vocabulary with only a few consonants and one vowel as the key speech materials, effects of contrastive emphasis on demisyllabic movement patterns were studied. The theoretical framework for this analysis is the C/D model of speech production in relation to the concept of an invariant part of selected articulatory movements. The results show evidence in favor of the existence of ``iceberg'' patterns, but a linear dependence of slope on the total excursion of the demisyllabic movement, instead of the approximate constancy of the threshold crossing speed as suggested in the original proposal of the iceberg, has been found. Accordingly, a revision of the original concept of iceberg, seems necessary. This refinement is consistent with the C/D model assumption on ``prominence control'' that the syllable magnitude determines the movement amplitude, accompanying directly related syllable duration change. In this assumption, the movement of a consonantal component should also be proportional to syllable magnitude. The results suggests, however, systematic outliers deviating from the linear dependence of movement speed on excursion. This deviation may be caused by the effect of the immediately following boundary, often referred to as phrase-final elongation. Thesis advisor: Osamu Fujimura Copies of this thesis written in English can be obtained from

  20. How School Norms, Peer Norms, and Discrimination Predict Interethnic Experiences among Ethnic Minority and Majority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tropp, Linda R.; O'Brien, Thomas C.; González Gutierrez, Roberto; Valdenegro, Daniel; Migacheva, Katya; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo; Berger, Christian; Cayul, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    This research tests how perceived school and peer norms predict interethnic experiences among ethnic minority and majority youth. With studies in Chile (654 nonindigenous and 244 Mapuche students, M = 11.20 and 11.31 years) and the United States (468 non-Hispanic White and 126 Latino students, M = 11.66 and 11.68 years), cross-sectional results…

  1. NorM, an Erwinia amylovora multidrug efflux pump involved in in vitro competition with other epiphytic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Burse, Antje; Weingart, Helge; Ullrich, Matthias S

    2004-02-01

    Blossoms are important sites of infection for Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight of rosaceous plants. Before entering the tissue, the pathogen colonizes the stigmatic surface and has to compete for space and nutrient resources within the epiphytic community. Several epiphytes are capable of synthesizing antibiotics with which they antagonize phytopathogenic bacteria. Here, we report that a multidrug efflux transporter, designated NorM, of E. amylovora confers tolerance to the toxin(s) produced by epiphytic bacteria cocolonizing plant blossoms. According to sequence comparisons, the single-component efflux pump NorM is a member of the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion protein family. The corresponding gene is widely distributed among E. amylovora strains and related plant-associated bacteria. NorM mediated resistance to the hydrophobic cationic compounds norfloxacin, ethidium bromide, and berberine. A norM mutant was constructed and exhibited full virulence on apple rootstock MM 106. However, it was susceptible to antibiotics produced by epiphytes isolated from apple and quince blossoms. The epiphytes were identified as Pantoea agglomerans by 16S rRNA analysis and were isolated from one-third of all trees examined. The promoter activity of norM was twofold greater at 18 degrees C than at 28 degrees C. The lower temperature seems to be beneficial for host infection because of the availability of moisture necessary for movement of the pathogen to the infection sites. Thus, E. amylovora might employ NorM for successful competition with other epiphytic microbes to reach high population densities, particularly at a lower temperature.

  2. The Subjectivity of the Translator and Socio-Cultural Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pei, Denghua

    2010-01-01

    This thesis attempts to probe into the dialectical relationship between the subjectivity of the translator and socio-cultural norms. The socio-cultural norms inevitably regulate the translator's translating activity, as acceptability of the translated text is the primary concern of most translators. However, this does not mean that the…

  3. Teaching the Sociocultural Norms of an Undergraduate Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couper, Graeme; Denny, Heather; Watkins, Annette

    2016-01-01

    The importance of teaching second language learners the pragmatic norms of relevant communities of practice is widely recognised. Familiarisation with these norms is also an important aspect of socialisation for native speakers entering a new community of practice. This study focuses on pragmatic instruction of English as an additional language…

  4. Parametric R-norm directed-divergence convex function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Dhanesh; Kumar, Satish

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we define parametric R-norm directed-divergence convex function and discuss their special cases and prove some properties similar to Kullback-Leibler information measure. From R-norm divergence measure new information measures have also been derived and their relations with different measures of entropy have been obtained and give its application in industrial engineering.

  5. Professional Development of PMRI Teachers for Introducing Social Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Dolk, Maarten; Zulkardi

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports implementation results of designing a workshop for mathematics teachers in introducing classroom social norms. The participants are eight mathematics teachers in primary and junior secondary level. Teachers learned and did some activities about social norms during the workshop. First, they watched an example of learning videos…

  6. The Maturation of Norms for Computer-Mediated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Gregory B.

    1993-01-01

    Analyzes the communication norms of the major forms of computer-mediated communication, including electronic mail, mailing lists, Usenet and other bulletin board systems, interactive messaging, multiuser domains (MUDs), and mass-broadcast media. New uses and the development of standards, or norms, are discussed. (Contains 11 references.) (LRW)

  7. easyCBM Norms. 2014 Edition. Technical Report #1409

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saven, Jessica L.; Tindal, Gerald; Irvin, P. Shawn; Farley, Dan; Alonzo, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Previous norms for the easyCBM assessment system were computed using scores from all students who took each measure for every grade and benchmark season (fall, winter, and spring). During the 2013-­14 school year, new national norms were developed to more accurately (proportionately) represent reading and mathematics performance by two variables:…

  8. Establishing Computer Science Professional Norms among High-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolikant, Yifat Ben-David; Pollack, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Norms govern the criteria by which students decide what is good and what is not good, and align their learning trajectories accordingly.We found that the high-school students' norm is to produce working, but not necessarily error-free, programs and to argue for their correctness solely on the basis of a few executions. Therefore, they prefer…

  9. Creation of Norms for the Purpose of Global Talent Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedricks, Cynthia A.; Robie, Chet; Harnisher, John V.

    2008-01-01

    Personality scores were used to construct three databases of global norms. The composition of the three databases varied according to percentage of cases by global region, occupational group, applicant status, and gender of the job candidate. Comparison of personality scores across the three norms databases revealed that the magnitude of the…

  10. Analyzing and Teaching English: The Problem of the Norm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, C. Vaughan

    1992-01-01

    Argues that, although academic study of English development English concentrates on the norm, definitions of the norm are not clear, and many cited examples betray a lack of knowledge of historical aspects of English. It is suggested that emphasis on communication in teaching practice may lead to acceptance of nonnormative language use. (JL)

  11. Variation in reaction norms: Statistical considerations and biological interpretation.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Michael B; Liefting, Maartje

    2016-09-01

    Analysis of reaction norms, the functions by which the phenotype produced by a given genotype depends on the environment, is critical to studying many aspects of phenotypic evolution. Different techniques are available for quantifying different aspects of reaction norm variation. We examine what biological inferences can be drawn from some of the more readily applicable analyses for studying reaction norms. We adopt a strongly biologically motivated view, but draw on statistical theory to highlight strengths and drawbacks of different techniques. In particular, consideration of some formal statistical theory leads to revision of some recently, and forcefully, advocated opinions on reaction norm analysis. We clarify what simple analysis of the slope between mean phenotype in two environments can tell us about reaction norms, explore the conditions under which polynomial regression can provide robust inferences about reaction norm shape, and explore how different existing approaches may be used to draw inferences about variation in reaction norm shape. We show how mixed model-based approaches can provide more robust inferences than more commonly used multistep statistical approaches, and derive new metrics of the relative importance of variation in reaction norm intercepts, slopes, and curvatures.

  12. Linguistic Norms and Adult Roles in Play and Serious Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Janus Spindler; Jorgensen, Jens Normann

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the ways in which minority students in the Danish public school system bring mono-lingually based norms into their poly-lingual peer group interaction. In sequential micro-analyses of interaction we show how the students use the voice of an authority in their reproduction and negotiation of linguistic norms. We base our…

  13. Family Norms in a Rapidly Industrializing Society: Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podmore, David; Chaney, David

    1974-01-01

    A sample of 1123 young people in Hong Kong responded to a number of statements concerning family norms. Data suggest that with regard to relationships between husband and wife, and parents and children, views are more consonant with the norms of the Western conjugal family than the traditional Chinese family. (Author)

  14. Crystallization process to reduce NORM-containing waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, C.G.; Kraemer, T.F.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes a process of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) waste reduction for scales, sludges, and soils. The process involves dissolution and fractional crystallization steps that concentrate the radioactive material into a small mass of barite. The concentration of radium in the product, barite, can be increased or decreased. The NORM-containing barite product is suitable for slurry injection into sandstone formations.

  15. Norms and Varieties of English and TESOL Teacher Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamid, M. Obaidul; Zhu, Lingyan; Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The growing recognition of the plurality of English underlying the World Englishes (WE) paradigm has problematised the conventional second language acquisition (SLA) views of errors. If English use in emerging English-speaking contexts is to be judged by local norms, as argued by WE scholars, applying exocentric norms in these contexts can be…

  16. Epistemological Norms and Companion Meanings in Science Classroom Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundqvist, Eva; Almqvist, Jonas; Ostman, Leif

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe two central epistemological norms related to the importance of making investigations and to scientific language and its logic. These norms have been identified in empirical material consisting of 200 video-recorded lessons in three different science classes. With regard to the learning of science and socialization, we…

  17. A Questionnaire Method for Measuring the Autonomy/Equality Norm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packard, John S.

    Lortie has described teacher sentiments that meld into a structure called the autonomy/equality norm. This norm helps preserve the separation of teaching from organizational and collegial purviews. As part of a larger study which looks for conditions that affect and are influenced by variations in task interdependence among teachers, an effort was…

  18. Gender Norms and Retaliatory Violence against Spouses and Acquaintances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feld, Scott L.; Felson, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines an experiment embedded within a nationally representative survey of adult Americans to investigate gender norms regarding retaliatory violence between spouses and acquaintances. Contrary to claims that societal norms permit violence within marriage, respondents disapproved of retaliatory violence against spouses more than…

  19. Inequalities in the Impact of National Reimbursement of Smoking Cessation Pharmacotherapy and the Influence of Injunctive Norms: An Explorative Study

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Fiona E.; Nagelhout, Gera E.; Nierkens, Vera; Willemsen, Marc C.; Stronks, Karien

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, the Dutch government reimbursed smoking cessation pharmacotherapy with behavioral therapy for quitting smokers. We investigate whether inequalities in the use of pharmacotherapy change and, if not, whether this is due to a relatively positive injunctive norm in lower socioeconomic status (SES) groups. A total of 75,415 participants aged ≥15 years from the Dutch Continuous Survey of Smoking Habits, 2009–2012, were considered with the following measures: SES (education/income), injunctive norm (mostly acceptable/neutral/mostly unacceptable), period (2011/all other years), and pharmacotherapy use (yes/no). The proportion of low SES smokers compared with high SES smokers making quit attempts with pharmacotherapy did not differ significantly. The injunctive norm of low SES smokers differed significantly from high SES smokers and nonsmokers of all SES levels. Low income smokers with mostly acceptable injunctive norms were significantly less likely to make quit attempts using pharmacotherapy than those with a neutral or less accepting injunctive norm. The significantly lower use of pharmacotherapy in quit attempts in low income smokers with a positive injunctive norm toward smoking may partly underlie the lack of uptake of reimbursed pharmacotherapy in low SES smokers. PMID:27257383

  20. Social Norms about a Health Issue in Work Group Networks

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to advance theorizing about how small groups understand health issues through the use of social network analysis. To achieve this goal, an adapted cognitive social structure examines group social norms around a specific health issue, H1N1 flu prevention. As predicted, individual’s attitudes, self-efficacy, and perceived social norms were each positively associated with behavioral intentions for at least one of the H1N1 health behaviors studied. Moreover, collective norms of the whole group were also associated with behavioral intentions, even after controlling for how individual group members perceive those norms. For members of work groups in which pairs were perceived to agree in their support for H1N1 vaccination, the effect of individually perceived group norms on behavioral intentions was stronger than for groups with less agreement. PMID:26389934

  1. Privacy, technology, and norms: the case of Smart Meters.

    PubMed

    Horne, Christine; Darras, Brice; Bean, Elyse; Srivastava, Anurag; Frickel, Scott

    2015-05-01

    Norms shift and emerge in response to technological innovation. One such innovation is Smart Meters - components of Smart Grid energy systems capable of minute-to-minute transmission of consumer electricity use information. We integrate theory from sociological research on social norms and privacy to examine how privacy threats affect the demand for and expectations of norms that emerge in response to new technologies, using Smart Meters as a test case. Results from three vignette experiments suggest that increased threats to privacy created by Smart Meters are likely to provoke strong demand for and expectations of norms opposing the technology and that the strength of these normative rules is at least partly conditional on the context. Privacy concerns vary little with actors' demographic characteristics. These findings contribute to theoretical understanding of norm emergence and have practical implications for implementing privacy protections that effectively address concerns of electricity users.

  2. Marketing norm perception among medical representatives in Indian pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed; Ramasamy, Ravindran

    2012-03-01

    Study of marketing norm perception among medical representatives is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the perception of marketing norms among medical representatives. The research design is quantitative and cross sectional study with medical representatives as unit of analysis. Data is collected from medical representatives (n=300) using a simple random and cluster sampling using a structured questionnaire. Results indicate that there is no difference in the perception of marketing norms among male and female medical representatives. But there is a difference in opinion among domestic and multinational company's medical representatives. Educational back ground of medical representatives also shows the difference in opinion among medical representatives. Degree holders and multinational company medical representatives have high perception of marketing norms compare to their counterparts. The researchers strongly believe that mandatory training on marketing norms is beneficial in decision making process during the dilemmas in the sales field.

  3. Privacy, technology, and norms: the case of Smart Meters.

    PubMed

    Horne, Christine; Darras, Brice; Bean, Elyse; Srivastava, Anurag; Frickel, Scott

    2015-05-01

    Norms shift and emerge in response to technological innovation. One such innovation is Smart Meters - components of Smart Grid energy systems capable of minute-to-minute transmission of consumer electricity use information. We integrate theory from sociological research on social norms and privacy to examine how privacy threats affect the demand for and expectations of norms that emerge in response to new technologies, using Smart Meters as a test case. Results from three vignette experiments suggest that increased threats to privacy created by Smart Meters are likely to provoke strong demand for and expectations of norms opposing the technology and that the strength of these normative rules is at least partly conditional on the context. Privacy concerns vary little with actors' demographic characteristics. These findings contribute to theoretical understanding of norm emergence and have practical implications for implementing privacy protections that effectively address concerns of electricity users. PMID:25769852

  4. Silence and table manners: when environments activate norms.

    PubMed

    Joly, Janneke F; Stapel, Diederik A; Lindenberg, Siegwart M

    2008-08-01

    Two studies tested the conditions under which an environment (e.g., library, restaurant) raises the relevance of environment-specific social norms (e.g., being quiet, using table manners). As hypothesized, the relevance of such norms is raised when environments are goal relevant ("I am going there later") and when they are humanized with people or the remnants of their presence (e.g., a glass of wine on a table). Two studies show that goal-relevant environments and humanized environments raise the perceived importance of norms (Study 1) and the intention to conform to norms (Study 2). Interestingly, in both studies, these effects reach beyond norms related to the environments used in the studies.

  5. Robustness of norm-driven cooperation in the commons.

    PubMed

    Schlüter, Maja; Tavoni, Alessandro; Levin, Simon

    2016-01-13

    Sustainable use of common-pool resources such as fish, water or forests depends on the cooperation of resource users that restrain their individual extraction to socially optimal levels. Empirical evidence has shown that under certain social and biophysical conditions, self-organized cooperation in the commons can evolve. Global change, however, may drastically alter these conditions. We assess the robustness of cooperation to environmental variability in a stylized model of a community that harvests a shared resource. Community members follow a norm of socially optimal resource extraction, which is enforced through social sanctioning. Our results indicate that both resource abundance and a small increase in resource variability can lead to collapse of cooperation observed in the no-variability case, while either scarcity or large variability have the potential to stabilize it. The combined effects of changes in amount and variability can reinforce or counteract each other depending on their size and the initial level of cooperation in the community. If two socially separate groups are ecologically connected through resource leakage, cooperation in one can destabilize the other. These findings provide insights into possible effects of global change and spatial connectivity, indicating that there is no simple answer as to their effects on cooperation and sustainable resource use. PMID:26740611

  6. Contrast Invariant Interest Point Detection by Zero-Norm LoG Filter.

    PubMed

    Zhenwei Miao; Xudong Jiang; Kim-Hui Yap

    2016-01-01

    The Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) filter is widely used in interest point detection. However, low-contrast image structures, though stable and significant, are often submerged by the high-contrast ones in the response image of the LoG filter, and hence are difficult to be detected. To solve this problem, we derive a generalized LoG filter, and propose a zero-norm LoG filter. The response of the zero-norm LoG filter is proportional to the weighted number of bright/dark pixels in a local region, which makes this filter be invariant to the image contrast. Based on the zero-norm LoG filter, we develop an interest point detector to extract local structures from images. Compared with the contrast dependent detectors, such as the popular scale invariant feature transform detector, the proposed detector is robust to illumination changes and abrupt variations of images. Experiments on benchmark databases demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed zero-norm LoG detector in terms of the repeatability and matching score of the detected points as well as the image recognition rate under different conditions.

  7. Encouraging children to eat more fruit and vegetables: Health vs. descriptive social norm-based messages.

    PubMed

    Sharps, Maxine; Robinson, Eric

    2016-05-01

    Traditional intervention approaches to promote fruit and vegetable consumption outline the health benefits of eating fruit and vegetables. More recently, social norm-based messages describing the healthy eating habits of others have been shown to increase fruit and vegetable intake in adults. Here we report two experimental studies which investigated whether exposure to descriptive social norm-based messages about the behaviour of other children and health-based messages increased fruit and vegetable intake in young children. In both studies children were exposed to messages whilst playing a board-game. After exposure to the messages, children were able to consume fruit and vegetables, as well as high calorie snack foods. Although findings were inconsistent across the two individual studies, in a pooled analysis we found evidence that both health messages and descriptive social norm-based messages increased children's fruit and vegetable intake, relative to control condition messages (p < .05). Whether descriptive social norm-based messages can be used to promote meaningful changes to children's dietary behaviour warrants further study.

  8. Encouraging children to eat more fruit and vegetables: Health vs. descriptive social norm-based messages

    PubMed Central

    Sharps, Maxine; Robinson, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Traditional intervention approaches to promote fruit and vegetable consumption outline the health benefits of eating fruit and vegetables. More recently, social norm-based messages describing the healthy eating habits of others have been shown to increase fruit and vegetable intake in adults. Here we report two experimental studies which investigated whether exposure to descriptive social norm-based messages about the behaviour of other children and health-based messages increased fruit and vegetable intake in young children. In both studies children were exposed to messages whilst playing a board-game. After exposure to the messages, children were able to consume fruit and vegetables, as well as high calorie snack foods. Although findings were inconsistent across the two individual studies, in a pooled analysis we found evidence that both health messages and descriptive social norm-based messages increased children's fruit and vegetable intake, relative to control condition messages (p < .05). Whether descriptive social norm-based messages can be used to promote meaningful changes to children's dietary behaviour warrants further study. PMID:26820776

  9. Probabilistic maturation reaction norms assessed from mark-recaptures of wild fish in their natural habitat.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Esben M; Serbezov, Dimitar; Vøllestad, Leif A

    2014-05-01

    Reaction norms are a valuable tool in evolutionary biology. Lately, the probabilistic maturation reaction norm approach, describing probabilities of maturing at combinations of age and body size, has been much applied for testing whether phenotypic changes in exploited populations of fish are mainly plastic or involving an evolutionary component. However, due to typical field data limitations, with imperfect knowledge about individual life histories, this demographic method still needs to be assessed. Using 13 years of direct mark-recapture observations on individual growth and maturation in an intensively sampled population of brown trout (Salmo trutta), we show that the probabilistic maturation reaction norm approach may perform well even if the assumption of equal survival of juvenile and maturing fish does not hold. Earlier studies have pointed out that growth effects may confound the interpretation of shifts in maturation reaction norms, because this method in its basic form deals with body size rather than growth. In our case, however, we found that juvenile body size, rather than annual growth, was more strongly associated with maturation. Viewed against earlier studies, our results also underscore the challenges of generalizing life-history patterns among species and populations. PMID:24967078

  10. Eye Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  11. Movement - unpredictable or jerky

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy (chorea gravidarum) Stroke Systemic lupus erythematosus Tardive dyskinesia (a condition that can be caused by medicines ... uncontrolled); Hyperkinetic movements References Jankovic J, Lang AE. Movement disorders. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta ...

  12. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  13. The Largest Response Component in the Motor Cortex Reflects Movement Timing but Not Movement Type

    PubMed Central

    Sussillo, David; Ryu, Stephen I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Neural activity in monkey motor cortex (M1) and dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) can reflect a chosen movement well before that movement begins. The pattern of neural activity then changes profoundly just before movement onset. We considered the prediction, derived from formal considerations, that the transition from preparation to movement might be accompanied by a large overall change in the neural state that reflects when movement is made rather than which movement is made. Specifically, we examined “components” of the population response: time-varying patterns of activity from which each neuron’s response is approximately composed. Amid the response complexity of individual M1 and PMd neurons, we identified robust response components that were “condition-invariant”: their magnitude and time course were nearly identical regardless of reach direction or path. These condition-invariant response components occupied dimensions orthogonal to those occupied by the “tuned” response components. The largest condition-invariant component was much larger than any of the tuned components; i.e., it explained more of the structure in individual-neuron responses. This condition-invariant response component underwent a rapid change before movement onset. The timing of that change predicted most of the trial-by-trial variance in reaction time. Thus, although individual M1 and PMd neurons essentially always reflected which movement was made, the largest component of the population response reflected movement timing rather than movement type. PMID:27761519

  14. Emerging Identity through Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowen, Betty

    Movement is one of the primary ways in which the young child finds out about his world. Experiences in movement help the young child to develop a healthy sense of identity. Through movement, children: (1) learn, as infants, to distinguish themselves from the outside world; (2) find out what they can do and how they can affect their environment;…

  15. Linking Literacy and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2010-01-01

    There are many links between literacy and movement. Movement and language are both forms of communication and self-expression. Rhythm is an essential component of both language and movement. While people may think of rhythm primarily in musical terms, there is a rhythm to words and sentences as well. Individuals develop an internal rhythm when…

  16. [The "Participatory" Movement].

    PubMed

    Rossi, M J

    2001-01-01

    This study reports the trajectory of the Participatory Movement (MP), which was created in opposition to the policies carried out by the Brazilian Association of Nursing (ABEn). This article, written by the first president elected of the "participatory" movement, presents the principles of the movement, its organization, the struggle for leadership, and the work developed in the first administration.

  17. The Chicano Movement: Paths to Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Jose Angel

    2011-01-01

    This article is a quick overview of the Chicano Movement (CM) with specific analyses of the five major strategies employed by its adherents to effect social change. The CM was a social movement that occurred in the United States with increased activity in the southwest and midwest during a time frame: 1950s to 1980s. Persons of Mexican ancestry…

  18. Eye Movement Patterns of Captioned Television Viewers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensema, Carl J.; Sharkawy, Sameh El; Danturthi, Ramalinga Sarma; Burch, Robert; Hsu, David

    2000-01-01

    Eye movement of six subjects (three with deafness) was recorded as they watched video segments with and without captions. The addition of captions to a video resulted in major changes in eye movement patterns, with the viewing process becoming primarily a reading process. (Contains six references.) (Author/CR)

  19. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selman, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In this journal's Fall 2009 issue, the Forum section included an article by Gordon Selman and Mark Selman arguing that although Canadian adult education had existed as a social movement in the middle part of the 20th century, it is no longer a social movement. They also speculated about the causes of this change. In the Spring 2011 issue, Tom…

  20. Progressive Social Movements and Educational Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyon, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This article places policy development in the context of progressive social movements. It describes how social movements develop, and delineates some of the accomplishments of such contestation in U.S. history as well as in changes of education policy. The article closes by considering the possibilities and challenges of current social movement…

  1. Suicidality, Economic Shocks, and Egalitarian Gender Norms

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David

    2015-01-01

    Durkheim conceived of suicide as a product of social integration and regulation. Although the sociology of suicide has focused on the role of disintegration, to our knowledge, the interaction between integration and regulation has yet to be empirically evaluated. In this article we test whether more egalitarian gender norms, an important form of macro-regulation, protects men and women against suicidality during economic shocks. Using cross-national data covering 20 European Union countries from the years 1991 to 2011, including the recent economic crises in Europe, we first assessed the relation between unemployment and suicide. Then we evaluated potential effect modification using three measures of gender equality, the gender ratio in labour force participation, the gender pay gap, and women’s representation in parliament using multiple measures. We found no evidence of a significant, direct link between greater gender equality and suicide rates in either men or women. However, a greater degree of gender equality helped protect against suicidality associated with economic shocks. At relatively high levels of gender equality in Europe, such as those seen in Sweden and Austria, the relationship between rising unemployment rates and suicide in men disappeared altogether. Our findings suggest that more egalitarian forms of gender regulation may help buffer the suicidal consequences of economic shocks, especially in men. PMID:26877572

  2. Hazard of NORM from phosphorite of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sabiha-Javied; Tufail, M; Asghar, M

    2010-04-15

    In order to investigate the radiological hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in phosphorite deposits of Pakistan, 26 samples of phosphorite were collected from the phosphorite mines near Abbottabad, and 20 samples of single superphosphate (SSP) fertilizer were obtained from the warehouses in Pakistan. Activity concentration in all the samples was assayed using HPGe detection system. Specific activity values of (238)U, (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th in the samples of phosphorite were 550+/-156 (329-845), 206+/-72 (93-362), 511+/-189 (316-830) and 52+/-17 (23-81) Bq kg(-1), respectively; and those in SSP fertilizer due to these radionuclides were 637+/-44 (596-687), 164+/-24 (113-215), 589+/-44 (521-671) and 29+/-6 (16-45) Bq kg(-1), respectively. The results were compared with that of worldwide soil. Outdoor external dose rate due to gamma rays from phosphorite was calculated to be 276+/-94 (177-441) nGy h(-1) and external dose rate in a room made of phosphorite containing material was estimated to be 706+/-243 (455-1129) nGy h(-1). The concentration of radon was measured in phosphorite mines and in the warehouses for SSP fertilizer by an active method. Protective measures have been proposed to control the pollution in the phosphorite mining and processing, and fertilizer storage areas. PMID:19963319

  3. Saccadic Eye Movement Speed and Motor Response Execution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Harriet G.; Helfrich, Janet

    1977-01-01

    Evidence was found to indicate that training to improve the speed of saccadic eye movement (movement from one fixation point to another) also resulted in observable changes in batting performance among a sample group of high school girls. (MJB)

  4. [The time-course change of brain activity during learning new movement patterns of pronunciation with orthodontic appliances and its correlation with self-evaluation of pronunciation difficulty: an fMRI study].

    PubMed

    Kaneshima, Takako

    2014-03-01

    Pronunciation requires speed and accuracy, like many other fundamental activities such as breathing, eating, and walking. People can pronounce almost automatically without paying much attention to correctness, also like other activities. However, people may have to focus carefully on pronunciation when learning a foreign language, wearing dental appliances or rehabilitating after an injury or disease that affects speech. In the present study, we investigated neural changes underlying the process of learning new movement patterns of pronunciation in such cases. Nine healthy adults participated in the study. Difficulty of pronunciation was evaluated and cortical activity was measured under three conditions (overt and covert speaking, and silent reading) by fMRI three times after they wore orthodontic appliances. We found that the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) was involved in the auditory feedback control of pronunciation with the appliances, and the activity of the right STG was well correlated with the subjective difficulty of pronunciation and its time-dependent reduction. On the other hand, neural changes related to somatosensory feedback control and motor control of pronunciation did not show any time-dependent change. Our findings indicate that auditory feedback control of pronunciation is more important than motor control and somatosensory feedback control for learning new movements related to pronunciation.

  5. Between DSM and ICD: Paraphilias and the Transformation of Sexual Norms.

    PubMed

    Giami, Alain

    2015-07-01

    The simultaneous revision of the two major international classifications of disease, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the International Classification of Diseases, serves as an opportunity to observe the dynamic processes through which social norms of sexuality are constructed and are subject to change in relation to social, political, and historical context. This article argues that the classifications of sexual disorders, which define pathological aspects of "sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges or behaviors" are representations of contemporary sexual norms, gender identifications, and gender relations. It aims to demonstrate how changes in the medical treatment of sexual perversions/paraphilias passed, over the course of the 20th century, from a model of pathologization (and sometimes criminalization) of non-reproductive sexual behaviors to a model that reflects and privileges sexual well-being and responsibility, and pathologizes the absence or the limitation of consent in sexual relations. PMID:25933671

  6. Feasibility of re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, S. J.; Smith, K. P.

    1999-10-26

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) sometimes accumulate inside pieces of equipment associated with oil and gas production and processing activities. Typically, the NORM accumulates when radium that is present in solution in produced water precipitates out in scale and sludge deposits. Scrap equipment containing residual quantities of these NORM-bearing scales and sludges can present a waste management problem if the radium concentrations exceed regulatory limits or activate the alarms on radiation screening devices installed at most scrap metal recycling facilities. Although NORM-contaminated scrap metal currently is not disposed of by re-melting, this form of recycling could present a viable disposition option for this waste stream. Studies indicate that re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal is a viable recycling option from a risk-based perspective. However, a myriad of economic, regulatory, and policy issues have caused the recyclers to turn away virtually all radioactive scrap metal. Until these issues can be resolved, re-melting of the petroleum industry's NORM-impacted scrap metal is unlikely to be a widespread practice. This paper summarizes the issues associated with re-melting radioactive scrap so that the petroleum industry and its regulators will understand the obstacles. This paper was prepared as part of a report being prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission's NORM Subcommittee.

  7. Options and cost for disposal of NORM waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-10-22

    Oil field waste containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is presently disposed of both on the lease site and at off-site commercial disposal facilities. The majority of NORM waste is disposed of through underground injection, most of which presently takes place at a commercial injection facility located in eastern Texas. Several companies offer the service of coming to an operator's site, grinding the NORM waste into a fine particle size, slurrying the waste, and injecting it into the operator's own disposal well. One company is developing a process whereby the radionuclides are dissolved out of the NORM wastes, leaving a nonhazardous oil field waste and a contaminated liquid stream that is injected into the operator's own injection well. Smaller quantities of NORM are disposed of through burial in landfills, encapsulation inside the casing of wells that are being plugged and abandoned, or land spreading. It is difficult to quantify the total cost for disposing of NORM waste. The cost components that must be considered, in addition to the cost of the operation, include analytical costs, transportation costs, container decontamination costs, permitting costs, and long-term liability costs. Current NORM waste disposal costs range from $15/bbl to $420/bbl.

  8. Stabilizing l1-norm prediction models by supervised feature grouping.

    PubMed

    Kamkar, Iman; Gupta, Sunil Kumar; Phung, Dinh; Venkatesh, Svetha

    2016-02-01

    Emerging Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) have reformed the modern healthcare. These records have great potential to be used for building clinical prediction models. However, a problem in using them is their high dimensionality. Since a lot of information may not be relevant for prediction, the underlying complexity of the prediction models may not be high. A popular way to deal with this problem is to employ feature selection. Lasso and l1-norm based feature selection methods have shown promising results. But, in presence of correlated features, these methods select features that change considerably with small changes in data. This prevents clinicians to obtain a stable feature set, which is crucial for clinical decision making. Grouping correlated variables together can improve the stability of feature selection, however, such grouping is usually not known and needs to be estimated for optimal performance. Addressing this problem, we propose a new model that can simultaneously learn the grouping of correlated features and perform stable feature selection. We formulate the model as a constrained optimization problem and provide an efficient solution with guaranteed convergence. Our experiments with both synthetic and real-world datasets show that the proposed model is significantly more stable than Lasso and many existing state-of-the-art shrinkage and classification methods. We further show that in terms of prediction performance, the proposed method consistently outperforms Lasso and other baselines. Our model can be used for selecting stable risk factors for a variety of healthcare problems, so it can assist clinicians toward accurate decision making.

  9. Smooth pursuit adaptation (SPA) exhibits features useful to compensate changes in the properties of the smooth pursuit eye movement system due to usage.

    PubMed

    Dash, Suryadeep; Thier, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Smooth-pursuit adaptation (SPA) refers to the fact that pursuit gain in the early, still open-loop response phase of the pursuit eye movement can be adjusted based on experience. For instance, if the target moves initially at a constant velocity for ~100-200 ms and then steps to a higher velocity, subjects learn to up-regulate the pursuit gain associated with the initial target velocity (gain-increase SPA) in order to reduce the retinal error resulting from the velocity step. Correspondingly, a step to a lower target velocity leads to a decrease in gain (gain-decrease SPA). In this study we demonstrate that the increase in peak eye velocity during gain-increase SPA is a consequence of expanding the duration of the eye acceleration profile while the decrease in peak velocity during gain-decrease SPA results from reduced peak eye acceleration but unaltered duration. Furthermore, we show that carrying out stereotypical smooth pursuit eye movements elicited by constant velocity target ramps for several hundred trials (=test of pursuit resilience) leads to a clear drop in initial peak acceleration, a reflection of oculomotor and/or cognitive fatigue. However, this drop in acceleration gets compensated by an increase in the duration of the acceleration profile, thereby keeping initial pursuit gain constant. The compensatory expansion of the acceleration profile in the pursuit resilience experiment is reminiscent of the one leading to gain-increase SPA, suggesting that both processes tap one and the same neuronal mechanism warranting a precise acceleration-duration trade-off. Finally, we show that the ability to adjust acceleration duration during pursuit resilience depends on the integrity of the oculomotor vermis (OMV) as indicated by the complete loss of the duration adjustment following a surgical lesion of the OMV in one rhesus monkey we could study.

  10. Morality and prosocial behavior: the role of awareness, responsibility, and norms in the norm activation model.

    PubMed

    De Groot, Judith I M; Steg, Linda

    2009-08-01

    The authors examined the relationships between variables included in the Norm Activation Model (NAM; S. H. Schwartz, 1977) of prosocial behavior. Specifically, they evaluated the strength of 2 commonly used interpretations of this model: the NAM as a mediator model and the NAM as a moderator model. For the most part, 5 studies focusing on a variety of prosocial intentions and behavior support the NAM as a mediator model. Furthermore, these studies validate past research by showing that variables included in the NAM are powerful in explaining a diversity of prosocial intentions and behavior in the social and environmental contexts.

  11. Temperature-Related Reaction Norms of Gene Expression: Regulatory Architecture and Functional Implications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Nolte, Viola; Schlötterer, Christian

    2015-09-01

    The environment has profound effects on the expression of many traits and reaction norms describe the expression dynamics of a trait across a broad range of environmental conditions. Here, we analyze gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster across four different developmental temperatures (13-29 °C). Gene expression is highly plastic with 83.3% of the genes being differentially expressed. We distinguished three components of plasticity: 1) Dynamics of gene expression intensity (sum of change), 2) direction of change, and 3) curvature of the reaction norm (linear vs. quadratic). Studying their regulatory architecture we found that all three plasticity components were most strongly affected by the number of different transcription factors (TFs) binding to the target gene. More TFs were found in genes with less expression changes across temperatures. Although the effect of microRNAs was weaker, we consistently noted a trend in the opposite direction. The most plastic genes were regulated by fewer TFs and more microRNAs than less plastic genes. Different patterns of plasticity were also reflected by their functional characterization based on gene ontology. Our results suggest that reaction norms provide an important key to understand the functional requirements of natural populations exposed to variable environmental conditions.

  12. An H-infinity norm minimization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muse, Jonathan A.

    This dissertation seeks to merge the ideas from robust control theory such as Hinfinity control design and the Small Gain Theorem, L stability theory and Lyapunov stability from nonlinear control, and recent theoretical achievements in adaptive control. The fusion of frequency domain and linear time domain ideas allows the derivation of an H infinity Norm Minimization Approach (H infinity-NMA) for adaptive control architecture that permits a control designer to simplify the adaptive tuning process and tune the uncertainty compensation characteristics via linear control design techniques, band limit the adaptive control signal, efficiently handle redundant actuators, and handle unmatched uncertainty and matched uncertainty in a single design framework. The two stage design framework is similar to that used in robust control, but without sacrificing performance. The first stage of the design considers an ideal system with the system uncertainty completely known. For this system, a control law is designed using linear Hinfinity theory. Then in the second stage, an adaptive process is implemented that emulates the behavior of the ideal system. If the linear Hinfinity design is applied to control the emulated system, it then guarantees closed loop system stability of the actual system. All of this is accomplished while providing notions of transient performance bounds between the ideal system and the true system. Extensions to the theory include architectures for a class of output feedback systems, limiting the authority of an adaptive control system, and a method for improving the performance of an adaptive system with slow dynamics without any modification terms. Applications focus on using aerodynamic flow control for aircraft flight control and the Crew Launch Vehicle.

  13. The Double-Edged Sword of "Disaster Volunteerism": A Study of New Orleans Rebirth Movement Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heldman, Caroline; Israel-Trummel, Mackenzie

    2012-01-01

    We examine the political and personal effects of disaster volunteerism with participants of the New Orleans Rebirth Movement (NORM) using four waves of pre- and postsurveys and qualitative analysis of participant journals. Significant increases are found in internal political efficacy, desire to be active in politics, and value placed on social…

  14. Psychogenic Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Morgante, Francesca; Edwards, Mark J.; Espay, Alberto J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of Review This review describes the main clinical features of psychogenic (functional) movement disorders and reports recent advances in diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment. Recent Findings The terminology and definition of patients with psychogenic movement disorders remain subjects of controversy; the term “functional” has been used more frequently in the literature in recent years regarding the neurobiological substrate underpinning these disorders. Correct diagnosis of psychogenic movement disorders should rely not on the exclusion of organic disorders or the sole presence of psychological factors but on the observation or elicitation of clinical features related to the specific movement disorder (ie, a positive or inclusionary rather than exclusionary diagnosis). Sudden onset, spontaneous remissions, and variability over time or during clinical examination are useful “red flags” suggestive of a psychogenic movement disorder. Imaging studies have demonstrated impaired connectivity between limbic and motor areas involved in movement programming and hypoactivity of a brain region that compares expected data with actual sensory data occurring during voluntary movement. Treatment of psychogenic movement disorders begins with ensuring the patient’s acceptance of the diagnosis during the initial debriefing and includes nonpharmacologic (cognitive-behavioral therapy, physiotherapy) and pharmacologic options. Summary Psychogenic movement disorders represent a challenging disorder for neurologists to diagnose and treat. Recent advances have increased understanding of the neurobiological mechanism of psychogenic movement disorders. Treatment with cognitive strategies and physical rehabilitation can benefit some patients. As short duration of disease correlates with better prognosis, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment are critical. PMID:24092294

  15. Measurement of tooth movement.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, R J; Worms, F W; Speidel, T M

    1976-09-01

    1. Tooth movement relative to the alveolar bone can be precisely described only by superimposing on fixed points in the bone. Implants are the best known way today. Over short-term studies laminagraphy and the use of bony trabeculations are also useful. Remodeling occurs extensively on bony surfaces, making them too labile for use as stable landmarks. To project small amounts of tooth movement based on the use of such methods is so questionable as to represent little better than a guess or a clinical impression. 2. Growth can be separated into vertical and anteroposterior vectors with respect to the dentition. Since the occlusion is the concern, orientation of vertical and anteroposterior vectors to the occlusal plane is a reasonable baseline. The vertical and anteroposterior dental changes may not show a linear relationship in the anterior and posterior parts of the mouth when jaw rotations are occurring. 3. Growth can be disproportionate in either the vertical and/or the anteroposteroir plane of space. If the vertical increments of the anterior face differ from the vertical increments at the posterior face, mandibular rotations occur. This growth is accompanied by dental compensations that tend to mask the rotation. Therefore, open bite and deep bite are frequently skeletal growth problems. 4. Disproportional forward growth of the maxilla or mandible in an anteroposterior direction can lead to Class II or III relations. The growth that leads to Class II or Class III is accompanied by dental migrations that tend to mask this disproportionate growth. Orthodontic treatment of growth disproportionalities usually represents attempts to make the teeth further compensate. If surgical options are elected, the dental compensations should be removed prior to surgery in order to achieve a full surgical correction. 5. The teeth tend to move and grow in the opposite direction of the growth disproportionality. The teeth tend to mask the disproportionality. Thus, in an open

  16. Multiscale flat norm signatures for shapes and images

    SciTech Connect

    Sandine, Gary; Morgan, Simon P; Vixie, Kevin R; Clawson, Keth; Asaki, Thomas J; Price, Brandon

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we begin to explore the application of the multiscale flat norm introduced in Morgan and Vixie to shape and image analysis. In particular, we look at the use of the multiscale flat norm signature for the identification of shapes. After briefly reviewing the multiscale flat norm, the L{sup 1}TV functional and the relation between these two, we introduce multiscale signatures that naturally follow from the multiscale flat norm and its components. A numerical method based on the min-cut, max-flow graph-cut is briefly recalled. We suggest using L{sup 2} minimization, rather than the usual Crofton's formula based approximation, for choosing the required weights. The resulting weights have the dual benefits of being analytically computable and of giving more accurate approximations to the anisotropic TV energy. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of the signatures on simple shape classification tasks.

  17. PREDICTORS AND CONSEQUENCES OF ADOLESCENTS’ NORMS AGAINST TEENAGE PREGNANCY

    PubMed Central

    Mollborn, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    African American and Latino teenagers and communities are frequently assumed to have weaker norms against teenage pregnancy than whites. Despite their importance, adolescents’ norms about teenage pregnancy have not been measured or their correlates and consequences documented. This study examines individual-level and contextual variation in adolescents’ embarrassment at the prospect of a teenage pregnancy and its relationship with subsequent teenage pregnancy. Descriptive analyses find that norms vary by gender and individual- and neighborhood-level race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES). In multivariate analyses, neighborhood-level racial/ethnic associations with embarrassment are explained by neighborhood-level SES. Embarrassment is associated with a lower likelihood of subsequent teenage pregnancy but does not mediate racial, ethnic, or socioeconomic influences, underscoring the importance of both norms and structural factors for understanding teenage fertility. PMID:21921969

  18. Norm Referenced and Criterion Based Measures with Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacTurk, Robert H.; Neisworth, John T.

    1978-01-01

    Seventeen handicapped and nonhandicapped preschool children were given both the norm referenced Gesell Developmental Schedules and the criterion based HICOMP progress measure on a quarterly (10 week) basis. (Author/SBH)

  19. Computer-Delivered Social Norm Message Increases Pain Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Pulvers, Kim; Schroeder, Jacquelyn; Limas, Eleuterio F.; Zhu, Shu-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Background Few experimental studies have been conducted on social determinants of pain tolerance. Purpose This study tests a brief, computer-delivered social norm message for increasing pain tolerance. Methods Healthy young adults (N=260; 44 % Caucasian; 27 % Hispanic) were randomly assigned into a 2 (social norm)×2 (challenge) cold pressor study, stratified by gender. They received standard instructions or standard instructions plus a message that contained artifically elevated information about typical performance of others. Results Those receiving a social norm message displayed significantly higher pain tolerance, F(1, 255)=26.95, p<.001, ηp2=.10 and pain threshold F(1, 244)=9.81, p=.002, ηp2=.04, but comparable pain intensity, p>.05. There were no interactions between condition and gender on any outcome variables, p>.05. Conclusions Social norms can significantly increase pain tolerance, even with a brief verbal message delivered by a video. PMID:24146086

  20. [Delayed Copying of Unfamiliar Contour Shapes: Does Reaction Time Decrease with Growing Delay Reflect a Change in Internal Representation Of Fothcoming Movement?].

    PubMed

    Korneev, A A; Lomakin, D I; Kurgansky, A V

    2016-01-01

    Group of 24 adults has performed the delayed reproduction (copying) of unfamiliar contour shapes (trajectory templates). Templates were shown for 250 ms and the participants were asked to reproduce them upon detecting acoustical go signal (short click). Go signal was delayed relatively to the end of a visual template exposure by T = 0, 500, 1000, 2000 or 4000 ms. Block design of the experiment was used when delay T was held constant within a block consisted of 32 trials. We analyzed reaction time (RT), mean movement time (MT) along a single segment of trajectory, and the mean dwell time (DT) in the vertices of the template. It is shown that RT does not depend monotonically on the delay T showing a decrease at T ≤ 1000 ms and increase at T ≤ 2000 ms. The RT of T curve is well described by a simple additive model that includes a linearly growing and an exponentially decaying terms. The linear growth reflects the foreperiod effect, i.e., decreasing capacity to predict an exact moment of go signal with the growing delay T [Niemi, Naatanen, 1981; Meulenbroek, Van Galen, 1988]. We suggested that exponentially decaying term may be caused by the internal representation of a trajectory undergoing some transformation during retention in the working memory. PMID:27263275

  1. Changing patterns of localization of the tobacco mosaic virus movement protein and replicase to the endoplasmic reticulum and microtubules during infection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinlein, M.; Padgett, H. S.; Gens, J. S.; Pickard, B. G.; Casper, S. J.; Epel, B. L.; Beachy, R. N.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) derivatives that encode movement protein (MP) as a fusion to the green fluorescent protein (MP:GFP) were used in combination with antibody staining to identify host cell components to which MP and replicase accumulate in cells of infected Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and in infected BY-2 protoplasts. MP:GFP and replicase colocalized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER; especially the cortical ER) and were present in large, irregularly shaped, ER-derived structures that may represent "viral factories." The ER-derived structures required an intact cytoskeleton, and microtubules appeared to redistribute MP:GFP from these sites during late stages of infection. In leaves, MP:GFP accumulated in plasmodesmata, whereas in protoplasts, the MP:GFP was targeted to distinct, punctate sites near the plasma membrane. Treating protoplasts with cytochalasin D and brefeldin A at the time of inoculation prevented the accumulation of MP:GFP at these sites. It is proposed that the punctate sites anchor the cortical ER to plasma membrane and are related to sites at which plasmodesmata form in walled cells. Hairlike structures containing MP:GFP appeared on the surface of some of the infected protoplasts and are reminiscent of similar structures induced by other plant viruses. We present a model that postulates the role of the ER and cytoskeleton in targeting the MP and viral ribonucleoprotein from sites of virus synthesis to the plasmodesmata through which infection is spread.

  2. Investigation on the movement of vortex burst position with dynamically changing angle of attack for a schematic deltawing in a watertunnel with correlation to similar studies in windtunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolffelt, Karl W.

    1987-06-01

    The requirements for modern military aircraft to maintain good handling qualities at very high angles of attack is one of many reasons why an increased knowledge is necessary regarding the aerodynamic behavior of vortex flows at nonstationary conditions. Linearized theory as it has been utilized in flight mechanics simulation using damping derivatives derived from forced oscillation technique, for example, may no longer be valid at such conditions. With this background some investigations have been made by SAAB-SCANIA with the aim to study the hysteresis effects for nonstationary vortex flows. A schematic delta-wing model which could also be equipped with a similar canard wing has been tested in a water tunnel. The model was supported in the tunnel by a simple mechanism by which it could be forced to move in one of four different modes, pitching or plunging with either ramp or harmonic motion. The flow over the model was visualized with air bubbles and sequences were recorded on videotape. The sequences were analyzed and the movements of the leading edge vortex burst have been studied with the main interest focused on the hysteresis effects.

  3. Is movement variability important for sports biomechanists?

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Roger; Wheat, Jon; Robins, Matthew

    2007-05-01

    This paper overviews the importance for sports biomechanics of movement variability, which has been studied for some time by cognitive and ecological motor skills specialists but, until quite recently, had somewhat been overlooked by sports biomechanists. The paper considers biomechanics research reporting inter- and intra-individual movement variability in javelin and discus throwing, basketball shooting, and locomotion. The overview does not claim to be comprehensive and we exclude such issues as the theoretical background to movement and coordination variability and their measurement. We overview evidence, both theoretical and empirical, of inter-individual movement variability in seeking to achieve the same task goal, in contrast to the concept of "optimal" movement patterns. Furthermore, even elite athletes cannot reproduce identical movement patterns after many years of training, contradicting the ideas of motor invariance and "representative" trials. We contend that movement variability, far from being solely due to neuromuscular system or measurement "noise"--as sports biomechanists may have previously supposed--is, or could be, functional. Such functionality could allow environmental adaptations, reduce injury risk, and facilitate changes in coordination patterns. We conclude by recommending that sports biomechanists should focus more of their research on movement variability and on important related topics, such as control and coordination of movement, and implications for practice and skill learning.

  4. [Sleep related movement disorders].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-06-01

    Sleep related movement disorders (SRMD) are characterized by simple, stereotyped movements occur during sleep, with the exception of restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS has the following essential features; an urge to move the legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensation in the legs, improvement of symptoms after movement (non-stereotypical movements, such as walking and stretching, to reduce symptoms), and symptoms occur or worsen during periods of rest and in the evening and night. However, RLS is closely associated with periodic limb movement, which shows typical stererotyped limb movements. In the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition, sleep disturbances or daytime symptoms are prerequiste for a diagnosis of SRMD. We here review diagnosis and treatment of SRMD.

  5. Congenital mirror movements.

    PubMed Central

    Schott, G D; Wyke, M A

    1981-01-01

    In this report are described seven patients assessed clinically and neuropsychologically in whom mirror movements affecting predominantly the hands occurred as a congenital disorder. These mirror movements, representing a specific type of abnormal synkinesia, may arise as a hereditary condition, in the presence of a recognisable underlying neurological abnormality, and sporadically, and the seven patients provide more or less satisfactory examples of each of these three groups. Despite the apparent uniformity of the disorder, the heterogeneity and variability may be marked, examples in some of our patients including the pronounced increase in tone that developed with arm movement, and the capacity for modulation of the associated movement by alteration of neck position and bio-feedback. Various possible mechanisms are considered; these include impaired cerebral inhibition of unwanted movements, and functioning of abnormal motor pathways. Emphasis has been placed on the putative role of the direct, crossed corticomotoneurone pathways and on the unilateral and bilateral cerebral events that precede movement. PMID:7288446

  6. [Sleep related movement disorders].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-06-01

    Sleep related movement disorders (SRMD) are characterized by simple, stereotyped movements occur during sleep, with the exception of restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS has the following essential features; an urge to move the legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensation in the legs, improvement of symptoms after movement (non-stereotypical movements, such as walking and stretching, to reduce symptoms), and symptoms occur or worsen during periods of rest and in the evening and night. However, RLS is closely associated with periodic limb movement, which shows typical stererotyped limb movements. In the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition, sleep disturbances or daytime symptoms are prerequiste for a diagnosis of SRMD. We here review diagnosis and treatment of SRMD. PMID:26065126

  7. Geometry and dynamics of one-norm geometric quantum discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhiming; Qiu, Daowen; Mateus, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the geometry of one-norm geometric quantum discord and present a geometric interpretation of one-norm geometric quantum discord for a class of two-qubit states. It is found that one-norm geometric quantum discord has geometric behavior different from that described in Lang and Caves (Phys Rev Lett 105:150501, 2010), Li et al. (Phys Rev A 83:022321, 2011) and Yao et al. (Phys Lett A 376:358-364, 2012). We also compare the dynamics of the one-norm geometric quantum discord and other measures of quantum correlations under correlated noise. It is shown that different decoherent channels bring different influences to quantum correlations measured by concurrence, entropic quantum discord and geometric quantum discord, which depend on the memory parameter and decoherence parameter. We lay emphasis on the behaviors such as entanglement sudden death and sudden transition of quantum discord. Finally, we study the dynamical behavior of one-norm geometric quantum discord in one-dimensional anisotropic XXZ model by utilizing the quantum renormalization group method. It is shown that the one-norm geometric quantum discord demonstrates quantum phase transition through renormalization group approach.

  8. Improving ensemble forecasting with q-norm bred vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazo, Diego; Lopez, Juan Manuel; Rodriguez, Miguel Angel

    2016-04-01

    Error breeding is a popular and simple method to generate initial perturbations for use in ensemble forecasting that is used for operational purposes in many weather/climate centres worldwide. There is a widespread belief among practitioners that the type of norm used in the periodic normalizations of BVs does not have an effect on the performance of ensemble forecasting systems. However, we have recently reported that BVs constructed with different norms have indeed very different dynamical and spatial properties. In particular, BVs constructed with the 0-norm or geometric norm has nice properties (e.g. enhancement of the ensemble diversity), which in principle render it more adequate to construct ensembles than other norm types like the Euclidean one. These advantages are clearly demonstrated here in a simple experiment of ensemble forecasting for the Lorenz-96 model with ensembles of BVs. Our simple numerical assimilation experiment shows how the increased statistical diversity of geometric BVs leads to improved scores regarding forecasting capabilities as compared with BVs constructed with the standard Euclidean norm.

  9. Alterations of eye movement control in neurodegenerative movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Gorges, Martin; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Kassubek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the fovea centralis, the most central part of the retina and the area of the highest visual accuracy, requires humans to shift their gaze rapidly (saccades) to bring some object of interest within the visual field onto the fovea. In addition, humans are equipped with the ability to rotate the eye ball continuously in a highly predicting manner (smooth pursuit) to hold a moving target steadily upon the retina. The functional deficits in neurodegenerative movement disorders (e.g., Parkinsonian syndromes) involve the basal ganglia that are critical in all aspects of movement control. Moreover, neocortical structures, the cerebellum, and the midbrain may become affected by the pathological process. A broad spectrum of eye movement alterations may result, comprising smooth pursuit disturbance (e.g., interrupting saccades), saccadic dysfunction (e.g., hypometric saccades), and abnormal attempted fixation (e.g., pathological nystagmus and square wave jerks). On clinical grounds, videooculography is a sensitive noninvasive in vivo technique to classify oculomotion function alterations. Eye movements are a valuable window into the integrity of central nervous system structures and their changes in defined neurodegenerative conditions, that is, the oculomotor nuclei in the brainstem together with their directly activating supranuclear centers and the basal ganglia as well as cortical areas of higher cognitive control of attention. PMID:24955249

  10. The mathematics of movement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Review of: Quantitative Analysis of Movement: Measuring and Modeling Population Redistribution in Animals and Plants. Peter Turchin. 1998. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. 306 pages. $38.95 (paper).

  11. Relative ordering of square-norm distance correlations in open quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tao; Song, Xue-Ke; Ye, Liu

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the square-norm distance correlation dynamics of the Bell-diagonal states under different local decoherence channels, including phase flip, bit flip, and bit-phase flip channels by employing the geometric discord (GD) and its modified geometric discord (MGD), as the measures of the square-norm distance correlations. Moreover, an explicit comparison between them is made in detail. The results show that there is no distinct dominant relative ordering between them. Furthermore, we obtain that the GD just gradually deceases to zero, while MGD initially has a large freezing interval, and then suddenly changes in evolution. The longer the freezing interval, the less the MGD is. Interestingly, it is shown that the dynamic behaviors of the two geometric discords under the three noisy environments for the Werner-type initial states are the same.

  12. Friends don't let friends eat cookies: effects of restrictive eating norms on consumption among friends.

    PubMed

    Howland, Maryhope; Hunger, Jeffrey M; Mann, Traci

    2012-10-01

    Social norms are thought to be a strong influence over eating, but this hypothesis has only been experimentally tested with groups of strangers, and correlational studies using actual friends lack important controls. We manipulate an eating norm in the laboratory and explore its influence within established friendships. In two studies we randomly assigned groups of three friends to a restrictive norm condition, in which two of the friends were secretly instructed to restrict their intake of appetizing foods, or a control condition, in which the friends were not instructed to restrict their eating. The third friend's consumption was measured while eating with the other two friends and while eating alone. In both studies, participants consumed less food when eating with friends who had been given restricting instructions compared to those who had not been given those instructions. In Study 2, participants who ate with restricting friends also continued to restrict their eating when alone. Experimentally manipulating social norms within established friendships is possible, and these norms can influence consumption in those social groups and carry over into non-social eating situations. These findings may suggest mechanisms through which eating behaviors may spread through social networks, as well as an environmental factor that may be amenable to change.

  13. Friends Don’t Let Friends Eat Cookies: Effects of Restrictive Eating Norms on Consumption Among Friends

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Maryhope; Hunger, Jeffrey; Mann, Traci

    2012-01-01

    Social norms are thought to be a strong influence over eating, but this hypothesis has only been experimentally tested with groups of strangers, and correlational studies using actual friends lack important controls. We manipulate an eating norm in the laboratory and explore its influence within established friendships. In two studies we randomly assigned groups of three friends to a restrictive norm condition, in which two of the friends were secretly instructed to restrict their intake of appetizing foods, or a control condition, in which the friends were not instructed to restrict their eating. The third friend’s consumption was measured while eating with the other two friends and while eating alone. In both studies, participants consumed less food when eating with friends who had been given restricting instructions compared to those who had not been given those instructions. In Study 2, participants who ate with restricting friends also continued to restrict their eating when alone. Experimentally manipulating social norms within established friendships is possible, and these norms can influence consumption in those social groups and carry over into non-social eating situations. These findings may suggest mechanisms through which eating behaviors may spread through social networks, as well as an environmental factor that may be amenable to change. PMID:22771755

  14. Pronounced Seasonal Changes in the Movement Ecology of a Highly Gregarious Central-Place Forager, the African Straw-Coloured Fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum)

    PubMed Central

    Fahr, Jakob; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Esch, Thomas; Machwitz, Miriam; Suu-Ire, Richard; Wikelski, Martin; Dechmann, Dina K. N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Straw-coloured fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) migrate over vast distances across the African continent, probably following seasonal bursts of resource availability. This causes enormous fluctuations in population size, which in turn may influence the bats’ impact on local ecosystems. We studied the movement ecology of this central-place forager with state-of-the-art GPS/acceleration loggers and concurrently monitored the seasonal fluctuation of the colony in Accra, Ghana. Habitat use on the landscape scale was assessed with remote sensing data as well as ground-truthing of foraging areas. Principal Findings During the wet season population low (~ 4000 individuals), bats foraged locally (3.5–36.7 km) in urban areas with low tree cover. Major food sources during this period were fruits of introduced trees. Foraging distances almost tripled (24.1–87.9 km) during the dry season population peak (~ 150,000 individuals), but this was not compensated for by reduced resting periods. Dry season foraging areas were random with regard to urban footprint and tree cover, and food consisted almost exclusively of nectar and pollen of native trees. Conclusions and Significance Our study suggests that straw-coloured fruit bats disperse seeds in the range of hundreds of meters up to dozens of kilometres, and pollinate trees for up to 88 km. Straw-coloured fruit bats forage over much larger distances compared to most other Old World fruit bats, thus providing vital ecosystem services across extensive landscapes. We recommend increased efforts aimed at maintaining E. helvum populations throughout Africa since their keystone role in various ecosystems is likely to increase due to the escalating loss of other seed dispersers as well as continued urbanization and habitat fragmentation. PMID:26465139

  15. Density-dependent movement and the consequences of the Allee effect in the model organism Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Fronhofer, Emanuel A; Kropf, Tabea; Altermatt, Florian

    2015-05-01

    Movement and dispersal are critical processes for almost all organisms in natural populations. Understanding their causes and consequences is therefore of high interest. While both theoretical and empirical work suggest that dispersal, more exactly emigration, is plastic and may be a function of local population density, the functional relationship between the underlying movement strategies and population density has received less attention. We here present evidence for the shape of this reaction norm and are able to differentiate between three possible cues: the relative number of individuals, the presence of metabolites (chemical cues) and resource availability. We performed microcosm experiments with the ciliate model organism Tetrahymena in order to understand the plasticity of movement strategies with respect to local density while controlling for possible confounding effects mediated by the availability of different cues. In addition, we investigated how an Allee effect can influence movement and dispersal plasticity. Our findings suggest that movement strategies in Tetrahymena are plastic and density-dependent. The observed movement reaction norm was U-shaped. This may be due to an Allee effect which led to negative density dependence at low population densities and generally positive density dependence at high population densities due to local competition. This possibly adaptive density-dependent movement strategy was likely mediated by chemical cues. Our experimental work in highly controlled conditions indicates that both environmental cues as well as inherent population dynamics must be considered to understand movement and dispersal.

  16. Hispanic/Latino Adolescents' Alcohol Use: Influence of Family Structure, Perceived Peer Norms, and Family Members' Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Wura; Barry, Adam E.; Xu, Lei; Valente, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Family structure and value system among Hispanic/Latino population are changing. However, very few studies have examined the combination of the influence of family structure, parental and sibling alcohol use, perceived peer norms about drinking, and alcohol use among Hispanic/Latino adolescents. Purpose: This study examined the…

  17. Social and moral norm differences among Portuguese 1st and 6th year medical students towards their intention to comply with hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Magda S; Mearns, Kathryn; Silva, Silvia A

    2012-01-01

    This study examines social and moral norms towards the intention to comply with hand hygiene among Portuguese medical students from 1st and 6th years (N = 175; 121 from the 1st year, 54 from the 6th year). The study extended the theory of planned behaviour theoretical principles and hypothesised that both subjective and moral norms will be the best predictors of 1st and 6th year medical students' intention to comply with hand hygiene; however, these predictors ability to explain intention variance will change according to medical students' school year. Results indicated that the subjective norm, whose referent focuses on professors, is a relevant predictor of 1st year medical students' intention, while the subjective norm that emphasises the relevance of colleagues predicts the intentions of medical students from the 6th year. In terms of the moral norm, 6th year students' intention is better predicted by a norm that interferes with compliance; whereas intentions from 1st year students are better predicted by a norm that favours compliance. Implications of the findings highlight the importance of role models and mentors as key factors in teaching hand hygiene in medical undergraduate curricula. PMID:22111788

  18. The consumer movement in India.

    PubMed

    Girimaji, P

    1993-10-01

    It was thought that passage of the Consumer Protection Act in India in 1986 would encourage consumers to stand up for their rights and lead to an overwhelming number of disputes in consumer courts. Although a consumer movement has yet to get going in India, existence of the act has stimulated the creation of many consumer organizations across the country. The number has such organizations has more the doubled in the last few years so that there are now 600-800 organizations in the voluntary sector. The movement has not blossomed because not all of the organizations are active enough to make an impact, there has hardly been any unified action which would demonstrate their strength, and there has been no active consumer participation in the movements. Consumers claim that the lack of consumer education makes them passive and apathetic, and blame consumer organizations. The majority of consumers in the country are even unaware of the existence of consumer courts to which they make take their grievances. Consumer rights organizations, however, counter that they lack sufficient funds and blame the government for their inaction. The author acknowledges criticism that the Indian consumer movement is elitist and considers the need to focus upon rural consumers, the significant contributions that organizations have made in laying the foundations for change, the need for consumer education, the need for specialists, the particular need for consumer protection with regard to health-related products, and support by voluntary health groups.

  19. Two Movements in Pursuit of Equal Employment Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Donald Allen

    1979-01-01

    Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 represented the hopes of two modern movements for social change: the civil rights movement and the feminist movement. This paper discusses the enactment of Title VII and the ensuing struggle over its implementation during its first decade of existence. (Author/EB)

  20. Slow Movements of Bio-Inspired Limbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babikian, Sarine; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.; Kanso, Eva

    2016-10-01

    Slow and accurate finger and limb movements are essential to daily activities, but the underlying mechanics is relatively unexplored. Here, we develop a mathematical framework to examine slow movements of tendon-driven limbs that are produced by modulating the tendons' stiffness parameters. Slow limb movements are driftless in the sense that movement stops when actuations stop. We demonstrate, in the context of a planar tendon-driven system representing a finger, that the control of stiffness suffices to produce stable and accurate limb postures and quasi-static (slow) transitions among them. We prove, however, that stable postures are achievable only when tendons are pretensioned, i.e., they cannot become slack. Our results further indicate that a non-smoothness in slow movements arises because the precision with which individual stiffnesses need to be altered changes substantially throughout the limb's motion.

  1. From Social Movement Learning to Sociomaterial Movement Learning? Addressing the Possibilities and Limits of New Materialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Callum

    2014-01-01

    In recent years academic interest in social movement learning (SML) has flourished. "Studies in the Education of Adults" has arguably emerged as the premier international forum for exploring the links between adult learning and movements for progressive change. In parallel to this subfield, yet largely in isolation from it,…

  2. Randomness Of Amoeba Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashiguchi, S.; Khadijah, Siti; Kuwajima, T.; Ohki, M.; Tacano, M.; Sikula, J.

    2005-11-01

    Movements of amoebas were automatically traced using the difference between two successive frames of the microscopic movie. It was observed that the movements were almost random in that the directions and the magnitudes of the successive two steps are not correlated, and that the distance from the origin was proportional to the square root of the step number.

  3. The Human Potential Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamashiro, Roy T.

    The advent of the human potential movement has generated the expectation that educators unleash the intellectual, emotional, physical, and spiritual talents of students. This movement is characterized by its focus on (1) the person as a total being, (2) the needs and concerns of students, (3) phenomenology, (4) personal values and goals, and (5)…

  4. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  5. 85 Engaging Movement Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weikart, Phyllis S.; Carlton, Elizabeth B.

    This book presents activities to keep K-6 students moving in a variety of ways as they learn. The movement experiences are planned around key curriculum concepts in movement and music as well as in academic curriculum areas. The experiences develop students' basic timing, language abilities, vocabulary, concentration, planning skills, and…

  6. National CARES Mentoring Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Martin L.

    2013-01-01

    Harsh and cruel experiences have led many of our young to believe that they are alone in the world and that no one cares. In this article, Martin L Mitchell introduces us to the "National CARES Mentoring Movement" founded by Susan L.Taylor. This movement provides young people with role models who help shape their positive development.…

  7. Fractional norm regularization: learning with very few relevant features.

    PubMed

    Kaban, Ata

    2013-06-01

    Learning in the presence of a large number of irrelevant features is an important problem in high-dimensional tasks. Previous studies have shown that L1-norm regularization can be effective in such cases while L2-norm regularization is not. Furthermore, work in compressed sensing suggests that regularization by nonconvex (e.g., fractional) semi-norms may outperform L1-regularization. However, for classification it is largely unclear when this may or may not be the case. In addition, the nonconvex problem is harder to solve than the convex L1 problem. In this paper, we provide a more in-depth analysis to elucidate the potential advantages and pitfalls of nonconvex regularization in the context of logistic regression where the regularization term employs the family of Lq semi-norms. First, using results from the phenomenon of concentration of norms and distances in high dimensions, we gain intuition about the working of sparse estimation when the dimensionality is very high. Second, using the probably approximately correct (PAC)-Bayes methodology, we give a data-dependent bound on the generalization error of Lq-regularized logistic regression, which is applicable to any algorithm that implements this model, and may be used to predict its generalization behavior from the training set alone. Third, we demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by experiments and applications, where the PAC-Bayes bound is used to guide the choice of semi-norm in the regularization term. The results support the conclusion that the optimal choice of regularization depends on the relative fraction of relevant versus irrelevant features, and a fractional norm with a small exponent is most suitable when the fraction of relevant features is very small.

  8. Movement disorders induced by deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Baizabal-Carvallo, José Fidel; Jankovic, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation represents a major advance in the treatment of several types of movement disorders. However, during stimulation new movement disorders may emerge, thus limiting the positive effects of this therapy. These movement disorders may be induced by: 1) stimulation of the targeted nucleus, 2) stimulation of surrounding tracts and nuclei, and 3) as a result of dose adjustment of accompanying medications, such as reduction of dopaminergic drugs in patients with Parkinson's disease. Various dyskinesias, blepharospasm, and apraxia of eyelid opening have been described mainly with subthalamic nucleus stimulation, whereas hypokinesia and freezing of gait have been observed with stimulation of the globus pallidus internus. Other deep brain stimulation-related movement disorders include dyskinesias associated with stimulation of the globus pallidus externus and ataxic gait as a side effect of chronic bilateral stimulation of the ventral intermediate nucleus of thalamus. These movement disorders are generally reversible and usually resolved once the stimulation is reduced or turned off. This, however, typically leads to loss of benefit of the underlying movement disorder which can be re-gained by using different contacts, changing targets or stimulation parameters, and adjusting pharmacological therapy. New and innovative emerging technologies and stimulation techniques may help to prevent or overcome the various deep brain stimulation-induced movement disorders. In this review we aim to describe the clinical features, frequency, pathophysiology, and strategies for treatment of these iatrogenic movement disorders. PMID:26806438

  9. Visual gravity influences arm movement planning.

    PubMed

    Sciutti, Alessandra; Demougeot, Laurent; Berret, Bastien; Toma, Simone; Sandini, Giulio; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Pozzo, Thierry

    2012-06-01

    When submitted to a visuomotor rotation, subjects show rapid adaptation of visually guided arm reaching movements, indicated by a progressive reduction in reaching errors. In this study, we wanted to make a step forward by investigating to what extent this adaptation also implies changes into the motor plan. Up to now, classical visuomotor rotation paradigms have been performed on the horizontal plane, where the reaching motor plan in general requires the same kinematics (i.e., straight path and symmetric velocity profile). To overcome this limitation, we considered vertical and horizontal movement directions requiring specific velocity profiles. This way, a change in the motor plan due to the visuomotor conflict would be measurable in terms of a modification in the velocity profile of the reaching movement. Ten subjects performed horizontal and vertical reaching movements while observing a rotated visual feedback of their motion. We found that adaptation to a visuomotor rotation produces a significant change in the motor plan, i.e., changes to the symmetry of velocity profiles. This suggests that the central nervous system takes into account the visual information to plan a future motion, even if this causes the adoption of nonoptimal motor plans in terms of energy consumption. However, the influence of vision on arm movement planning is not fixed, but rather changes as a function of the visual orientation of the movement. Indeed, a clear influence on motion planning can be observed only when the movement is visually presented as oriented along the vertical direction. Thus vision contributes differently to the planning of arm pointing movements depending on motion orientation in space.

  10. Adolescent Subtest Norms for the ImPACT Neurocognitive Battery.

    PubMed

    Henry, Luke C; Sandel, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    The neurocognitive testing of sports concussion for injury management and return-to-play decisions has long been considered the gold standard in evaluation of the injury. Computerized testing batteries are frequently employed, with the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) being the most used of all the current testing platforms to evaluate concussion. ImPACT's clinical report yields four normed composite scores (Verbal Memory, Visual Memory, Visual Motor Speed, and Reaction Time) and another composite score that is not normed but is used as a validity measure (Impulse Control), as well as their corresponding subtest scores, which are not normed. The current study provides normative data on each of the subtests used to calculate the composite scores. Normative data are separated by gender for athletes aged 13 to 21 years old and are stratified by the norm age brackets already employed by the ImPACT. These norms may be helpful in the interpretation of the ImPACT clinical report and further delineation of areas of neurocognitive dysfunction. PMID:25412432

  11. Caught between cultures: cultural norms in Jungian psychodynamic process.

    PubMed

    Heyer, Gretchen

    2012-11-01

    In our increasingly mobile world, more of us are caught between cultures rather than in one culture. We straddle different ethnic, racial, political, geographical, and religious groups, forced into awareness of the precarious nature of our self-definition, involuntarily gazing at the constructed nature of our cultural norms, unable to avoid reckoning with the choices of which collective to honour. The impossibility of separating individual from collective is foundational to work as Jungian practitioners, but a paradox of individuation is becoming free of the control of collective norms while simultaneously living within those very norms. In such a conflict it becomes easy to overlook the fact that when the norms we have incorporated into ourselves are from cultures vastly different from the one in which we live, the cacophony can be overwhelming. In this paper, I will draw from postmodern theorists such as Derrida, Foucault and Irigaray in an effort to re-imagine the role of culture in psychodynamic process. The case of a Muslim Iranian man working with a Christian American woman analyst will be used to explore the complexity of a multitude of cultural norms present in the consulting room. PMID:23130617

  12. Caught between cultures: cultural norms in Jungian psychodynamic process.

    PubMed

    Heyer, Gretchen

    2012-11-01

    In our increasingly mobile world, more of us are caught between cultures rather than in one culture. We straddle different ethnic, racial, political, geographical, and religious groups, forced into awareness of the precarious nature of our self-definition, involuntarily gazing at the constructed nature of our cultural norms, unable to avoid reckoning with the choices of which collective to honour. The impossibility of separating individual from collective is foundational to work as Jungian practitioners, but a paradox of individuation is becoming free of the control of collective norms while simultaneously living within those very norms. In such a conflict it becomes easy to overlook the fact that when the norms we have incorporated into ourselves are from cultures vastly different from the one in which we live, the cacophony can be overwhelming. In this paper, I will draw from postmodern theorists such as Derrida, Foucault and Irigaray in an effort to re-imagine the role of culture in psychodynamic process. The case of a Muslim Iranian man working with a Christian American woman analyst will be used to explore the complexity of a multitude of cultural norms present in the consulting room.

  13. Marketing Norm Perception Among Medical Representatives in Indian Pharmaceutical Industry

    PubMed Central

    Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed; Ramasamy, Ravindran

    2012-01-01

    Study of marketing norm perception among medical representatives is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the perception of marketing norms among medical representatives. The research design is quantitative and cross sectional study with medical representatives as unit of analysis. Data is collected from medical representatives (n=300) using a simple random and cluster sampling using a structured questionnaire. Results indicate that there is no difference in the perception of marketing norms among male and female medical representatives. But there is a difference in opinion among domestic and multinational company’s medical representatives. Educational back ground of medical representatives also shows the difference in opinion among medical representatives. Degree holders and multinational company medical representatives have high perception of marketing norms compare to their counterparts. The researchers strongly believe that mandatory training on marketing norms is beneficial in decision making process during the dilemmas in the sales field. PMID:24826035

  14. Gene movement and genetic association with regional climate gradients in California valley oak (Quercus lobata Née) in the face of climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sork, Victoria L.; Davis, Frank W.; Westfall, Robert; Flint, Alan L.; Ikegami, Makihiko; Wang, Hongfang; Grivet, Delphine

    2010-01-01

    Rapid climate change jeopardizes tree populations by shifting current climate zones. To avoid extinction, tree populations must tolerate, adapt, or migrate. Here we investigate geographic patterns of genetic variation in valley oak, Quercus lobata N??e, to assess how underlying genetic structure of populations might influence this species' ability to survive climate change. First, to understand how genetic lineages shape spatial genetic patterns, we examine historical patterns of colonization. Second, we examine the correlation between multivariate nuclear genetic variation and climatic variation. Third, to illustrate how geographic genetic variation could interact with regional patterns of 21st Century climate change, we produce region-specific bioclimatic distributions of valley oak using Maximum Entropy (MAXENT) models based on downscaled historical (1971-2000) and future (2070-2100) climate grids. Future climatologies are based on a moderate-high (A2) carbon emission scenario and two different global climate models. Chloroplast markers indicate historical range-wide connectivity via colonization, especially in the north. Multivariate nuclear genotypes show a strong association with climate variation that provides opportunity for local adaptation to the conditions within their climatic envelope. Comparison of regional current and projected patterns of climate suitability indicates that valley oaks grow in distinctly different climate conditions in different parts of their range. Our models predict widely different regional outcomes from local displacement of a few kilometres to hundreds of kilometres. We conclude that the relative importance of migration, adaptation, and tolerance are likely to vary widely for populations among regions, and that late 21st Century conditions could lead to regional extinctions. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Impact of Norm Perceptions and Guilt on Audience Response to Anti-Smoking Norm PSAs: The Case of Korean Male Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyegyu; Paek, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine how norm appeals and guilt influence smokers' behavioural intention. Design: Quasi-experimental design. Setting: South Korea. Method: Two hundred and fifty-five male smokers were randomly assigned to descriptive, injunctive, or subjective anti-smoking norm messages. After they viewed the norm messages, their norm…

  16. The Role of Values, Moral Norms, and Descriptive Norms in Building Occupant Responses to an Energy-Efficiency Pilot Program and to Framing of Related Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arpan, Laura M.; Barooah, Prabir; Subramany, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    This study examined building occupants' responses associated with an occupant-based energy-efficiency pilot in a university building. The influence of occupants' values and norms as well as effects of two educational message frames (descriptive vs. moral norms cues) on program support were tested. Occupants' personal moral norm to conserve energy…

  17. Exploring spatial change and gravity center movement for ecosystem services value using a spatially explicit ecosystem services value index and gravity model.

    PubMed

    He, Yingbin; Chen, Youqi; Tang, Huajun; Yao, Yanmin; Yang, Peng; Chen, Zhongxin

    2011-04-01

    Spatially explicit ecosystem services valuation and change is a newly developing area of research in the field of ecology. Using the Beijing region as a study area, the authors have developed a spatially explicit ecosystem services value index and implemented this to quantify and spatially differentiate ecosystem services value at 1-km grid resolution. A gravity model was developed to trace spatial change in the total ecosystem services value of the Beijing study area from a holistic point of view. Study results show that the total value of ecosystem services for the study area decreased by 19.75% during the period 1996-2006 (3,226.2739 US$×10(6) in 1996, 2,589.0321 US$×10(6) in 2006). However, 27.63% of the total area of the Beijing study area increased in ecosystem services value. Spatial differences in ecosystem services values for both 1996 and 2006 are very clear. The center of gravity of total ecosystem services value for the study area moved 32.28 km northwestward over the 10 years due to intensive human intervention taking place in southeast Beijing. The authors suggest that policy-makers should pay greater attention to ecological protection under conditions of rapid socio-economic development and increase the area of green belt in the southeastern part of Beijing.

  18. L1-norm-based common spatial patterns.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haixian; Tang, Qin; Zheng, Wenming

    2012-03-01

    Common spatial patterns (CSP) is a commonly used method of spatial filtering for multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The formulation of the CSP criterion is based on variance using L2-norm, which implies that CSP is sensitive to outliers. In this paper, we propose a robust version of CSP, called CSP-L1, by maximizing the ratio of filtered dispersion of one class to the other class, both of which are formulated by using L1-norm rather than L2-norm. The spatial filters of CSP-L1 are obtained by introducing an iterative algorithm, which is easy to implement and is theoretically justified. CSP-L1 is robust to outliers. Experiment results on a toy example and datasets of BCI competitions demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method. PMID:22147288

  19. Evaluation of RxNorm for Medication Clinical Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Freimuth, Robert R.; Wix, Kelly; Zhu, Qian; Siska, Mark; Chute, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the potential use of RxNorm to provide standardized representations of generic drug name and route of administration to facilitate management of drug lists for clinical decision support (CDS) rules. We found a clear representation of generic drug name but not route of administration. We identified several issues related to data quality, including erroneous or missing defined relationships, and the use of different concept hierarchies to represent the same drug. More importantly, we found extensive semantic precoordination of orthogonal concepts related to route and dose form, which would complicate the use of RxNorm for drug-based CDS. This study demonstrated that while RxNorm is a valuable resource for the standardization of medications used in clinical practice, additional work is required to enhance the terminology so that it can support expanded use cases, such as managing drug lists for CDS. PMID:25954360

  20. Asymptotic state discrimination and a strict hierarchy in distinguishability norms

    SciTech Connect

    Chitambar, Eric; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, we consider the problem of discriminating quantum states by local operations and classical communication (LOCC) when an arbitrarily small amount of error is permitted. This paradigm is known as asymptotic state discrimination, and we derive necessary conditions for when two multipartite states of any size can be discriminated perfectly by asymptotic LOCC. We use this new criterion to prove a gap in the LOCC and separable distinguishability norms. We then turn to the operational advantage of using two-way classical communication over one-way communication in LOCC processing. With a simple two-qubit product state ensemble, we demonstrate a strict majorization of the two-way LOCC norm over the one-way norm.