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Sample records for normal bone cell

  1. Laser Light Induced Photosensitization Of Lymphomas Cells And Normal Bone Marrow Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulliya, Kirpal S.; Pervaiz, Shazib; Nealon, Don G.; VanderMeulen, David L.

    1988-06-01

    Dye mediated, laser light induced photosensitization was tested in an in vitro model for its efficacy in eliminating the contaminating tumor cells for ex vivo autologous bone marrow purging. Daudi and U-937 cells (3 x 106/ml) in RPMI-1640 supplemented with 0.25% human albumin were mixed with 20 µg/ml and 25 µg/ml of MC-540, respectively. These cell-dye mixtures were then exposed to 514 nm argon laser light. Identical treatment was given to the normal bone marrow cells. Viability was determined by the trypan blue exclusion method. Results show that at 31.2 J/cm2 irradiation, 99.9999% Daudi cells were killed while 87% of the normal bone marrow cells survived. No regrowth of Daudi cells was observed for 30 days in culture. However, a light dose of 93.6 J/cm2 was required to obtain 99.999% U-937 cell kill with 80% normal bone marrow cell survival. Mixing of irradiated bone marrow cells with an equal number of lymphoma cells did not interfere with the photodynamic killing of lymphoma cells. Exposure of cells to low doses of recombinant interferon-alpha prior to photodynamic therapy increased the viability of lymphoma cells.

  2. Regulation of heme metabolism in normal and sideroblastic bone marrow cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Ibraham, N.G.; Lutton, J.D.; Hoffman, R.; Levere, R.D.

    1985-05-01

    Heme metabolism was examined in developing in vitro erythroid colonies (CFUE) and in bone marrow samples taken directly from four normal donors and four patients with sideroblastic anemia. Maximum activities of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALAS), ALA dehydratase (ALAD), and /sup 14/C-ALA incorporation into heme were achieved in normal marrow CFUE after 8 days of culture, whereas heme oxygenase progressively decreased to low levels of activity during the same period. Assays on nucleated bone marrow cells taken directly from patients revealed that ALAS activity was considerably reduced in idiopathic sideroblastic anemia (IASA) and X-linked sideroblastic anemia (X-SA) bone marrow specimens, whereas the activity increased more than twofold (normal levels) when cells were assayed from 8-day CFUE. In all cases, ALAD activity appeared to be within normal levels. Measurement of heme synthesis revealed that normal levels of /sup 14/C-ALA incorporation into heme were achieved in IASA cells but were reduced in X-SA cells. In marked contrast to levels in normal cells, heme oxygenase was found to be significantly elevated (two- to fourfold) in bone marrow cells taken directly from patients with IASA and X-SA. Results from this study demonstrate that IASA and X-SA bone marrow cells have disturbances in ALAS and heme metabolism, and that erythropoiesis (CFUE) can be restored to normal levels when cells are cultured in methylcellulose.

  3. Assessment of methylprednisolone purging efficacy on Daudi burkitt lymphoma cells from normal bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Janakiraman, N; Niewenhuis, L M

    1991-01-01

    Studies on normal bone marrow and Daudi Burkitt lymphoma cells were performed to determine the efficacy of selective, in vitro chemopurging with methylprednisolone (MP). We found that MP reduces the number of lymphoma cells without significant damage to bone marrow cells. This information is important because we need to improve the existing in vitro purging regimens used to cleanse autologous marrows of metastatic disease before transplantation into cancer patients who have received high-dose chemotherapy. Normal human bone marrow (NBM) and Daudi lymphoma cells were treated in parallel with various purging regimens, NBM death was evaluated using soft-agar culture, while Daudi cell death was evaluated using one-week liquid culture. A protocol of 2.0 mg/mL of MP for four hours demonstrated optimal selectivity. When treatment was followed by cryopreservation, a 1.7 log purge of Daudi cells was increased to 2.3 logs while preserving 36% of committed NBM precursors. We repeated these experiments on a simulated contaminated marrow to model closely the mixture of normal and malignant cells found in advanced, metastatic disease. We evaluated this mixed system by flow cytometric immunoanalysis using the two-color CD10/CD20 markers to detect residual, viable Daudi cells. Our initial results were reproducible in this mixed-cell system, further supporting the evidence for effective in vitro purging of bone marrow using MP.

  4. Bone Marrow Cells in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Create a Proinflammatory Microenvironment Influencing Normal Hematopoietic Differentiation Fates

    PubMed Central

    Vilchis-Ordoñez, Armando; Contreras-Quiroz, Adriana; Dorantes-Acosta, Elisa; Reyes-López, Alfonso; Quintela-Nuñez del Prado, Henry Martin; Venegas-Vázquez, Jorge; Mayani, Hector; Ortiz-Navarrete, Vianney; López-Martínez, Briceida; Pelayo, Rosana

    2015-01-01

    B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is a serious public health problem in the pediatric population worldwide, contributing to 85% of deaths from childhood cancers. Understanding the biology of the disease is crucial for its clinical management and the development of therapeutic strategies. In line with that observed in other malignancies, chronic inflammation may contribute to a tumor microenvironment resulting in the damage of normal processes, concomitant to development and maintenance of neoplastic cells. We report here that hematopoietic cells from bone marrow B-ALL have the ability to produce proinflammatory and growth factors, including TNFα, IL-1β, IL-12, and GM-CSF that stimulate proliferation and differentiation of normal stem and progenitor cells. Our findings suggest an apparently distinct CD13+CD33+ population of leukemic cells contributing to a proinflammatory microenvironment that may be detrimental to long-term normal hematopoiesis within B-ALL bone marrow. PMID:26090405

  5. In vitro suppression of normal human bone marrow progenitor cells by human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, H N; Crumpacker, C S; Chatis, P A

    1991-01-01

    Incubation of normal human nonadherent and T-cell-depleted bone marrow cells with HIVIIIB at multiplicities of infection (MOI) ranging from 0.0001:1 to 1:1 reverse transcriptase (RT) units resulted in the dose-dependent suppression of the in vitro growth of erythroid burst-forming unit (BFU-E), granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM), and T-lymphocyte (CFU-TL) colonies of progenitor cells. Maximum inhibition of colony formation was observed at a 1:1 ratio of virus to bone marrow cells. At this MOI, BFU-E and CFU-GM colonies were inhibited by 60 to 80%, while CFU-TL colonies were totally suppressed. Inhibition of colony formation was also observed at an MOI of 0.1:1 but not with further log dilutions of the virus. Incubation of the virus with antibody to gp160 resulted in the complete reversal of stem cell suppression and the normalization of colony growth in vitro. For BFU-E and CFU-GM colonies, this reversal was observed with dilutions of antibody up to 1:100 and was no longer observed at titers greater than 1:500. The CFU-TL colony number normalized at titers between 1:10 and 1:50. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) also suppressed by 50% the growth of colonies derived from CD34+ stem cell fractions. Infection of CD34+ cells and T-cell-depleted, nonadherent cell fractions was demonstrated by detection with HIV-specific DNA probe following amplification by polymerase chain reaction. The results suggest that HIV can directly infect human bone marrow progenitor cells and affect their ability to proliferate and give rise to colonies in vitro. The results indicate a direct role for the virus in bone marrow suppression and a possible mechanism for the cytopenias observed in patients with AIDS. Images PMID:2002542

  6. [Normal bone marrow and common reactive alterations].

    PubMed

    Tzankov, A; Dirnhofer, S; Beham-Schmid, C

    2012-11-01

    Histological examination of bone marrow biopsies is an important and powerful diagnostic tool to assess various hematological and non-hematological disorders. Morphological examination of such biopsies requires knowledge of the composition of normal bone marrow and its variations, such as age-related changes. Diagnostic problems may arise due to poor specimen quality, insufficient sections or stainings and insufficient experience with reactive bone marrow changes which occasionally resemble neoplastic disorders. Reactive bone marrow processes can affect one or more hematopoietic cell lines, lead to disruption of the normal architecture and specifically affect the bone marrow stroma. Optimal bone marrow diagnosis requires adequately stained slides and, when needed, immunophenotyping and molecular examinations. Furthermore, rather than biopsy interpretation of other organs, pathologists routinely need clinical history information for correct interpretation and diagnosis of bone marrow changes. In this article, the normal features of bone marrow as well as the most frequent reactive bone marrow alterations are described.

  7. Flow cytometric analysis of mast cells from normal and pathological human bone marrow samples: identification and enumeration.

    PubMed Central

    Orfao, A.; Escribano, L.; Villarrubia, J.; Velasco, J. L.; Cerveró, C.; Ciudad, J.; Navarro, J. L.; San Miguel, J. F.

    1996-01-01

    In the present paper we have used a three-color immunofluorescence procedure combined with flow cytometry cell analysis and sorting for the identification and enumeration of human mast cells in both normal and pathological bone marrow samples. Our results show that bone marrow mast cells are clearly identifiable on the basis of their light-scatter properties and strong CD117 expression. These cells were negative for the CD34, CD38, and BB4 antigens. In addition, they were CD33+ and displayed a high reactivity for the anti-IgE monoclonal antibody. The identity of the CD117-strong+ cells (mast cells) was confirmed by both microscopic examination and flow cytometry analysis. The overall frequency of mast cells in the bone marrow samples analyzed in the present study was constantly lower than 1%. The lowest frequencies corresponded to normal human bone marrow samples (0.0080 +/- 0.0082%) and the highest to those patients suffering from indolent systemic mast cell disease (0.40 +/- 0.13%). In summary, our results show that the identification and enumeration of bone marrow mast cells can be achieved using multiparametric flow cytometry. Moreover, once identified, mast cells are suitable for being characterized from the phenotypic and the functional point of view, facilitating the comparison between normal and abnormal mast cells. Images Figure 3 PMID:8909239

  8. The fate of bone marrow-derived cells carrying a polycystic kidney disease mutation in the genetically normal kidney

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) is a genetic condition in which dedifferentiated and highly proliferative epithelial cells form renal cysts and is frequently treated by renal transplantation. Studies have reported that bone marrow-derived cells give rise to renal epithelial cells, particularly following renal injury as often occurs during transplantation. This raises the possibility that bone marrow-derived cells from a PKD-afflicted recipient could populate a transplanted kidney and express a disease phenotype. However, for reasons that are not clear the reoccurrence of PKD has not been reported in a genetically normal renal graft. We used a mouse model to examine whether PKD mutant bone marrow-derived cells are capable of expressing a disease phenotype in the kidney. Methods Wild type female mice were transplanted with bone marrow from male mice homozygous for a PKD-causing mutation and subjected to renal injury. Y chromosome positive, bone marrow-derived cells in the kidney were assessed for epithelial markers. Results Mutant bone marrow-derived cells were present in the kidney. Some mutant cells were within the bounds of the tubule or duct, but none demonstrated convincing evidence of an epithelial phenotype. Conclusions Bone marrow-derived cells appear incapable of giving rise to genuine epithelial cells and this is the most likely reason cysts do not reoccur in kidneys transplanted into PKD patients. PMID:22931547

  9. Increased survival of normal cells during laser photodynamic therapy: implications for ex vivo autologous bone marrow purging

    SciTech Connect

    Gulliya, K.S.; Matthews, J.L.; Fay, J.W.; Dowben, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Laser light-induced, dye-mediated photolysis of leukemic cells was tested in an in vitro model for its efficacy in eliminating occult tumor cells for ex vivo autologous bone marrow purging. Merocyanine 540 (MC540) was mixed with acute promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells in the presence of human albumin. This cell-dye mixture was irradiated with 514 nm argon laser light. Results show that in the presence of 0.1%, 0.25% and 0.5% albumin, laser light doses of 62.4 J/cm/sup 2/, 93.6 J/cm/sup 2/ and 109.2 J/cm/sup 2/, respectively, were required for a 5 log reduction in the survival of leukemic cells. Under identical conditions, 80% to 84% of the normal bone marrow cells and 41% of the granulocyte-macrophage colony forming cells survived. The number of surviving stromal cells was reduced (1+) compared to the untreated control (4+). Mixing of irradiated bone marrow cells with equal number of HL-60 cells did not interfere with the killing of HL-60 cells treated with MC540 and laser light. The non-specific cytotoxicity of laser light alone was less than 6% for normal bone marrow cells. These results suggest that the concentration of human albumin plays an important role in laser light-induced phototoxicity. This laser light-induced selective photolysis of leukemic cells can be used in ex vivo purging of tumor cell-contaminated bone marrow grafts to achieve very high survival rates of normal bone marrow cells and granulocyte-macrophage colony forming cells.

  10. Expression and characterization of erythropoietin receptors on normal human bone marrow cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, S.; Teramura, M.; Takahashi, M.; Motoji, T.; Oshimi, K.; Ueda, M.; Mizoguchi, H.

    1989-05-01

    We studied the specific binding of /sup 125/I-labeled bioactive recombinant human erythropoietin (Epo) to human bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMNC) obtained from normal subjects. The /sup 125/I-labeled Epo bound specifically to the BMNC. Scatchard analysis of the data showed two classes of binding sites; one high affinity (Kd 0.07 nM) and the other low affinity (Kd 0.38 nM). The number of Epo binding sites per BMNC was 46 +/- 16 high-affinity receptors and 91 +/- 51 low-affinity receptors. The specific binding was displaced by unlabeled Epo, but not by other growth factors. Receptor internalization was observed significantly at 37 degrees C, but was prevented by the presence of 0.2% sodium azide. These findings indicate that human BMNC possess two classes of specific Epo receptors with characteristics of a hormone-receptor association.

  11. Discordant findings in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer: absolutely normal bone scans versus disseminated bone metastases on positron-emission tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Ak, Ilknur; Sivrikoz, Muammer Cumhur; Entok, Emre; Vardareli, Erkan

    2010-04-01

    At present, metastatic bone involvement is usually assessed using bone scintigraphy, which has a high sensitivity but a poor specificity. The objective of our study was to compare the sensibility of the 2-deoxy-2-[18F] fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) for the detection of bone metastasis in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose technetium 99m methylenediphosphonate (Tc-99m MDP) bone scans were absolutely normal. This study based on the retrospective analysis of 95 consecutive patients with histologically proven NSCLC who underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT and Tc-99m MDP bone scan at the Eskişehir Osmangazi University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine between November 2006 and October 2008. Nineteen patients (19 of 95, 20%) with absolutely normal Tc-99m bone scan versus multiple high-grade F-18 FDG avid bony metastases on F-18 FDG PET/CT were selected for the review. Their ages ranged from 46 to 73 years (15 males and four females; mean: 57.2 years). Nine patients had squamous cell carcinoma, six had adenocarcinoma, three had large cell carcinoma and one had adenosquamous cell carcinoma. Tc-99m MDP bone scan that did not reveal bony abnormalities or radiotracer uptake was characteristic of benign disease (defined as absolutely normal) in these patients. Whereas, F-18 FDG PET/CT not only showed extremely disseminated heterogeneous nest-like high-grade FDG avid metastatic foci within the marrow cavity of the upper and lower thoracic spine, lumbar spine, pelvis, rib cages and bilateral proximal long bones, but also showed disseminated osteolytic bony metastases in these areas. Discordant findings of skeletal metastasis between Tc-99m MDP bone scans and F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging may be seen in 20% of the patients with NSCLC. F-18 FDG PET/CT could detect metastatic bone involvement more accurately than bone scintigraphy. Bone scans are insensitive to early bone marrow neoplastic infiltration

  12. Normalization of red cell enolase level following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in a child with Diamond-Blackfan anemia.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong A; Lim, Yeon Jung; Park, Hyeon Jin; Kong, Sun Young; Park, Byung Kiu; Ghim, Thad T

    2010-04-01

    We describe a girl with Diamond-Blackfan anemia with accompanying red cell enolase deficiency. At the age of 9 yr old, the patient received allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from her HLA-identical sister who had normal red cell enolase activity. While the post transplant DNA analysis with short tandem repeat has continuously demonstrated a stable mixed chimerism on follow-up, the patient remains transfusion independent and continues to show a steady increase in red cell enolase activity for over two and a half years following bone marrow transplantation.

  13. Factor-dependent in vitro growth of human normal bone marrow-derived basophil-like cells

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    A factor(s) present in supernatants from lectin-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells promoted the production of basophil-like cells in liquid cultures of normal human bone marrow cells. The cultured basophil-like cells had lobulated or round nuclei, and the cytoplasmic granules stained metachromatically with toluidine blue and azurophilic with Giemsa. 20% of the metachromatically staining cells were peroxidase positive but not positive for nonspecific esterase. The histamine content was 0.5-2 pg/cell. The basophil-like cells released histamine upon challenge with calcium ionophore A23187 but not with compound 48/80. They also released histamine with anti-IgE when passively sensitized with human myeloma IgE. The development of basophil-like cells was promoted in a dose-dependent fashion by a factor(s) in the conditioned medium. Blocking of cell proliferation with hydroxyurea or X irradiation inhibited the development of basophil- like cells. The production of the factor was dependent on the presence of T cells. The factor was different from interleukin 2 and its molecular weight was estimated to be 25,000-40,000 by gel filtration on a Sephacryl S-200 column. Thus, human basophil-like cells derived from normal bone marrow cells can grow and differentiate in vitro under the regulation of T cells. PMID:6193237

  14. Differential sensitivity of a mouse myeloid leukemia cell line and normal mouse bone marrow cells to X-ray-induced chromosome aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Aardema, M.J.; Au, W.W.; Hand, R.E. Jr.; Preston, R.J.

    1985-11-01

    Cell line ML-1 was established from a myelogenous leukemia of an RFM mouse. The ML-1 cells and in vitro normal mouse bone marrow cells were analyzed to determine if there was a differential sensitivity to X-ray-induced chromosome aberrations in G1 cells and/or differences in postirradiation cell cycle progression. Cells identified as being in G1 at the time of irradiation by their staining pattern after replication in 5-bromodeoxyuridine were analyzed for all types of chromosomal aberrations following X-ray doses of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 Gy. ML-1 cells showed a greater sensitivity to the induction of both chromosome-type aberrations and chromatid-type aberrations compared to normal mouse bone marrow cells, which only contained chromosome-type aberrations. The presence of chromatid-type aberrations in the ML-1 cells and not normal bone marrow cells suggested a differential progression through the cell cycle for the two cell types after irradiation. Mitotic index and flow cytometric analyses were performed and showed that both cell types have a delay in progression from G2 into mitosis, but only the normal mouse bone marrow cells have a delay in progression from G1 into S, as well as delayed progression through the S phase following X-irradiation. These results indicate that the ML-1 leukemia cells have an increased radiosensitivity. These same characteristics have been observed in ataxia telangiectasia cells and may well represent a general feature of cells with increased radiosensitivity.

  15. Analysis of Normal Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Contents in Childhood Acute Leukemia Bone Marrow.

    PubMed

    Balandrán, Juan Carlos; Vadillo, Eduardo; Dozal, David; Reyes-López, Alfonso; Sandoval-Cabrera, Antonio; Laffont-Ortiz, Merle Denisse; Prieto-Chávez, Jessica L; Vilchis-Ordoñez, Armando; Quintela-Nuñez Del Prado, Henry; Mayani, Héctor; Núñez-Enríquez, Juan Carlos; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; López-Martínez, Briceida; Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Pelayo, Rosana

    2016-11-01

    Childhood acute leukemias (AL) are characterized by the excessive production of malignant precursor cells at the expense of effective blood cell development. The dominance of leukemic cells over normal progenitors may result in either direct suppression of functional hematopoiesis or remodeling of microenvironmental niches, contributing to BM failure and AL-associated mortality. We undertook this study to investigate the contents and functional activity of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) and their relationship to immune cell production and risk status in AL pediatric patients. Multiparametric flow cytometry of BM aspirates was performed to classify AL on the basis of lineage and differentiation stages and to analyze HSPC and immune cell frequencies. Controlled co-culture systems were conducted to evaluate functional lineage potentials of primitive cells. Statistical correlations and inter-group significant differences were established. Among 113 AL BM aspirates, 26.5% corresponded to ProB, 19.5% to PreB and 32% contain ProB and PreB differentiation stages, whereas nearly 9% of the cases were T- and 13% myeloid-lineage leukemias. We identified ProB-ALL as the subtype endowed with the highest relative contents of HSPC, whereas T-ALL and PreB-ALL showed a critically reduced size of both HSC and MLP compartments. Notably, lower cell frequencies of HSPC in ProB-ALL correlated to high-risk prognosis at disease debut. HSPC abundance at initial diagnosis may aid to predict the clinical course of ALL and to identify high-risk patients. A clearer understanding of their population dynamics and functional properties in the leukemia setting will potentially pave the way for targeted therapies. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A European interlaboratory testing of three well-known procedures for immunocytochemical detection of epithelial cells in bone marrow. Results from analysis of normal bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Borgen, E; Pantel, K; Schlimok, G; Müller, P; Otte, M; Renolen, A; Ehnle, S; Coith, C; Nesland, J M; Naume, B

    2006-11-15

    This investigation intended to study the unspecific background to be expected in normal bone marrow (BM), comparing three well recognized protocols for immunocytochemical detection of disseminated carcinoma cells. The interlaboratory variation in screening and evaluation of stained cells was analyzed and different screening methods were compared. BM mononuclear cells (BM MNC) from 48 normal BMs were immunostained in parallel by three participating laboratories. The protocols, based on three different anti-cytokeratin antibodies, have all been in common use for detection of disseminated carcinoma cells: the A45-B/B3 protocol (Hamburg), the CK2 protocol (Augsburg) and the AE1AE3 protocol (Oslo). For all protocols, the immunostained cells were visualized by the same alkaline-phosphatase (AP) detection system (APAAP) followed by detection of the cells by manual screening and by two different automated screening systems (ACIS from Chromavision and MDS1 from Applied Imaging). Detected AP-visualized cells were morphologically classified into unambiguous hematopoietic (Uhc) and questionable cells (Qc, potentially interpreted as tumor cells). Seven of 48 BMs (15%) harbored > or = 1 AP-visualized cell(s) among 1 x 10(6) BM MNC, both for the A45-B/B3- and for the AE1AE3 protocol, while for CK2 a higher proportion of BMs (21 BMs; 44%) harbored AP-visualized cells (P < 0.01, McNemar's test). The number of Qc was, for all protocols, 1 log lower than the total number of AP-visualized cells. On average, the frequency of Qc was 0.04, 0.08, and 0.02 per 10(6) BM MNC with A45-B/B3, CK2 and AE1AE3, respectively, and the number of Qc-positive BMs 1, 4, and 1. The MDS1 screening sensitivity was similar to manual screening, while ACIS detected fewer cells (P < 0.001, McNemar's test). All protocols resulted in AP-visualization of occasional hematopoietic cells. However, morphological classification brings the specificity to a satisfactory high level. Approximately 10% of AP

  17. Normal Untreated Jurkat Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. The objective of the research was to define a way to differentiate between effects due to microgravity and those due to possible stress from non-optimal spaceflight conditions. These Jurkat cells, a human acute T-cell leukemia was obtained to evaluate three types of potential experimental stressors: a) Temperature elevation; b) Serum starvation; and c) Centrifugal force. The data from previous spaceflight experiments showed that actin filaments and cell shape are significantly different for the control. These normal cells serve as the baseline for future spaceflight experiments.

  18. Normal Untreated Jurkat Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. The objective of the research was to define a way to differentiate between effects due to microgravity and those due to possible stress from non-optimal spaceflight conditions. These Jurkat cells, a human acute T-cell leukemia was obtained to evaluate three types of potential experimental stressors: a) Temperature elevation; b) Serum starvation; and c) Centrifugal force. The data from previous spaceflight experiments showed that actin filaments and cell shape are significantly different for the control. These normal cells serve as the baseline for future spaceflight experiments.

  19. Difference in glycerol levels between leukemia and normal bone marrow stem cells

    PubMed Central

    QIN, YING-SONG; BU, DAN-XIA; CUI, YING-YING; ZHANG, XIANG-YU

    2014-01-01

    Aquaglyceroporin 9 (AQP9) is considered to be involved in numerous types of carcinogenic processes, particularly in liver carcinoma. AQP9 expression is significantly decreased in the human hepatocellular carcinoma when compared with the non-tumourigenic liver, which leads to increased resistance to apoptosis. In addition, AQP9 is permeable to glycerol and urea. The involvement of AQP9 in leukemia has not been fully delineated. It is proposed that abnormal proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) contributes to leukemia carcinogenesis. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the possible roles of AQP9 in HSCs and its effect on the intracellular glycerol content. HSCs and non-HSCs (nHSCs) were isolated via magnetic-activated cell sorting and then subjected to flow cytometry for evaluation of purity. White blood cells (WBCs) were isolated from peripheral blood from healthy volunteers. Furthermore, AQP9 expression was examined at the mRNA and protein levels using western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The glycerol content of HSCs, nHSCs and WBCs was evaluated by ELISA. Finally, in order to observe the morphology of HSCs and nHSCs, a blood smear was conducted and the cells were observed with Wright-Giemsa staining. The results indicated that the glycerol content in the HSCs was markedly greater than that in the nHSCs. AQP9 mRNA and protein expression was not detected in the HSCs and nHSCs, but was identified in the WBCs. Moreover, the HSC morphological characteristics included round or oval cells with round, slightly oval or irregularly shaped nuclei. Additionally, the nuclei occupied almost the entire cell, were located in the middle or were biased toward one side, and were stained light purple or red. Overall, our results indicated that intracellular glycerol is involved in HSC proliferation, despite the fact that glycerol is not mediated by AQP9. Hence, our findings may be useful in further understanding the

  20. Cell-cycle distribution of different cell compartments in normal versus reactive bone marrow: a frame of reference for the study of dysplastic hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Matarraz, Sergio; Fernandez, Carlos; Albors, Manuel; Teodosio, Cristina; López, Antonio; Jara-Acevedo, María; Cervero, Carlos; Caballero, Gonzalo; Gutierrez, Oliver; Orfao, Alberto

    2011-11-01

    Limited information is currently available about the proliferation activity and cell-cycle distribution of different bone marrow (BM) cell subsets defined according to their lineage and maturation stage in normal versus cytopenia-associated reactive BM samples. Here, we report a three-color flow cytometry approach to investigate the cell-cycle distribution of different BM cell compartments-CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor and precursor cells (HPC), maturing neutrophils and monocytic cells, mature lymphocytes, eosinophils, and nucleated red blood cell precursors (NRBC)-from normal (n = 47) versus cytopenia-associated reactive (n = 47) BM samples. Highly similar proliferation profiles were detected in normal versus reactive BM, with a higher proliferation index (PI) for the more immature CD34(+) HPC, CD11b(-) maturing neutrophils and NRBC versus other BM cell compartments. The only differences observed between normal and reactive BM were restricted to the more mature (CD13(hi) /CD11b(+) ) bands/neutrophils and to monocytic cells, which showed an increased PI (0.9% ± 0.8% vs. 0.6% ± 0.5% and 6 ± 3.6 vs. 4.6 ± 4.5, respectively) at the expense of a lower PI of CD34(+) HPC in reactive conditions. Of note, bands/mature neutrophils and mature lymphocytes showed either residual numbers or absence of S + G₂ /M-phase cells in both normal and reactive BM. Our results suggest that a slight shift of proliferation from the early precursors to the more mature granulomonocytic compartment occurs in reactive BM, which could reflect an attempt of the hematopoietic system to rapidly produce functional neutrophils and monocytes, at the expense of a lower expansion of the minor compartments of CD34(+) HPC. 2011 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  1. Neuroblastoma cell death is induced by inorganic arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) and inhibited by a normal human bone marrow cell-derived factor.

    PubMed

    Gesundheit, Benjamin; Malach, Lea; Or, Reuven; Hahn, Talia

    2008-12-01

    Three phenotypically distinct cell types are present in human neuroblastomas (NB) and NB cell lines: I-type stem cells, N-type neuroblastic precursors, and S-type Schwannian/melanoblastic precursors. The stimulation of human N-type neuroblastoma cell proliferation by normal human bone marrow monocytic cell conditioned medium (BMCM) has been demonstrated in vitro, a finding consistent with the high frequency of bone marrow (BM) metastases in patients with advanced NB. Inorganic arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)), already clinically approved for the treatment of several hematological malignancies, is currently under investigation for NB. Recent studies show that As(2)O(3) induces apoptosis in NB cells. We examined the impact of BMCM on growth and survival of As(2)O(3)-treated NB cell lines, to evaluate the response of cultured NB cell variants to regulatory agents. We studied the effect of BMCM on survival and clonogenic growth of eleven As(2)O(3)-treated NB cell lines grown in sparsely seeded, non-adherent, semi-solid cultures. As(2)O(3) had a strong inhibitory effect on survival of all tested NB cell lines. BMCM augmented cell growth and survival and reversed the inhibitory action of As(2)O(3) in all tested cell lines, but most strongly in N-type cells(.) While As(2)O(3) effectively reduced survival of all tested NB cell lines, BMCM effectively impacted its inhibitory action. Better understanding of micro-environmental regulators affecting human NB tumor cell growth and survival may be seminal to the development of therapeutic strategies and clinically effective agents for this condition.

  2. Neuroblastoma Cell Death is Induced by Inorganic Arsenic Trioxide (As2O3) and Inhibited by a Normal Human Bone Marrow Cell-Derived Factor

    PubMed Central

    Malach, Lea; Or, Reuven; Hahn, Talia

    2008-01-01

    Three phenotypically distinct cell types are present in human neuroblastomas (NB) and NB cell lines: I-type stem cells, N-type neuroblastic precursors, and S-type Schwannian/melanoblastic precursors. The stimulation of human N-type neuroblastoma cell proliferation by normal human bone marrow monocytic cell conditioned medium (BMCM) has been demonstrated in vitro, a finding consistent with the high frequency of bone marrow (BM) metastases in patients with advanced NB. Inorganic arsenic trioxide (As2O3), already clinically approved for the treatment of several hematological malignancies, is currently under investigation for NB. Recent studies show that As2O3 induces apoptosis in NB cells. We examined the impact of BMCM on growth and survival of As2O3-treated NB cell lines, to evaluate the response of cultured NB cell variants to regulatory agents. We studied the effect of BMCM on survival and clonogenic growth of eleven As2O3-treated NB cell lines grown in sparsely seeded, non-adherent, semi-solid cultures. As2O3 had a strong inhibitory effect on survival of all tested NB cell lines. BMCM augmented cell growth and survival and reversed the inhibitory action of As2O3 in all tested cell lines, but most strongly in N-type cells. While As2O3 effectively reduced survival of all tested NB cell lines, BMCM effectively impacted its inhibitory action. Better understanding of micro-environmental regulators affecting human NB tumor cell growth and survival may be seminal to the development of therapeutic strategies and clinically effective agents for this condition. PMID:19308693

  3. Bone morphogenic protein 6: a member of a novel class of prognostic factors expressed by normal and malignant plasma cells inhibiting proliferation and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Seckinger, Anja; Meissner, Tobias; Moreaux, Jérôme; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Fuhler, Gwenny M.; Benner, Axel; Hundemer, Michael; Rème, Thierry; Shaughnessy, John D.; Barlogie, Bart; Bertsch, Uta; Hillengass, Jens; Ho, Anthony D.; Pantesco, Véronique; Jauch, Anna; De Vos, John; Rossi, Jean-François; Möhler, Thomas; Klein, Bernard; Hose, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Pathogenesis of multiple myeloma is associated with an aberrant expression of pro-proliferative, pro-angiogenic and bone-metabolism modifying factors by malignant plasma cells. Given the frequently long time-span from diagnosis of early-stage plasma cell dyscrasias to overt myeloma and the mostly low proliferation rate of malignant plasma cells, we hypothesize these likewise to express a novel class of inhibitory factors of potential prognostic relevance. Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) represent possible candidates as they inhibit proliferation, stimulate bone formation, and have impact on the survival of cancer patients. We assessed expression of BMPs and their receptors by Affymetrix DNA-microarrays (n=779) including CD138-purified primary myeloma cell samples (n=635) of previously untreated patients. BMP6 is the only BMP expressed by malignant and normal plasma cells. Its expression is significantly lower in proliferating myeloma cells, myeloma cell lines, or plasmablasts. BMP6 significantly inhibits proliferation of myeloma cell lines, survival of primary myeloma cells, and in vitro angiogenesis. High BMP6-expression in primary myeloma cell samples delineates significantly superior overall survival for patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy independent of conventional prognostic factors (ISS-stage, beta-2-microglobulin). PMID:19718049

  4. Bone Vascularization in Normal and Disease Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Carulli, Christian; Innocenti, Massimo; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Bone vasculature is essential for many processes, such as skeletal development and growth, bone modeling and remodeling, and healing processes. Endothelium is an integral part of bone tissue, expressing a physiological paracrine function via growth factors and chemokines release, and interacting with several cellular lines. Alterations of the complex biochemical interactions between vasculature and bone cells may lead to various clinical manifestations. Two different types of pathologies result: a defect or an excess of bone vasculature or endothelium metabolism. Starting from the molecular basis of the interactions between endothelial and bone cells, the Authors present an overview of the recent acquisitions in the physiopathology of the most important clinical patterns, and the modern therapeutic strategies for their treatments. PMID:23986744

  5. [Effects of various antibiotics and natural mycotoxins on the hematopoietic stem cells of the bone marrow in normal and adjuvant-treated rats].

    PubMed

    Aoki, I; Toyama, K

    1983-07-01

    This experiment was carried out, in order to investigate the effect of antibiotics and natural mycotoxin on the hematopoietic stem cells at the normal and inflammatory condition. Adjuvant-treated rats (Aj-rats) are considered as a model of human rheumatoid arthritis. We measured the CFU-C and CFU-E of bone marrow of normal and Aj-rats which were injected with large (1.0 g/kg X 3) and small doses (0.5 g/kg X 3) of ampicillin (ABPC), cefazolin (CEZ), chloramphenicol (CP) and fusarenon-X (F-X). In Aj-rats the number of CFU-C was 1.5 times higher and CFU-E 60% less than normal. Injection of large doses of ABPC enhanced markedly the numbers of CFU-C in Aj-rats and suppressed slightly CFU-E in normal rats. Large doses of CEZ inclined to increase CFU-C and decreased CFU-E in normal and Aj-rats. Injection of small doses of CP tended to increase CFU-C and to decrease CFU-E, and large doses of CP to suppress both CFU-C and CFU-E levels in normal or Aj-rats. F-X, natural mycotoxin suppressed markedly both CFU-C and CFU-E levels of normal rats, and slightly the CFU-E in Aj-rats. These results suggest that one should pay attention to the fact that some doses of antibiotics or natural mycotoxin might be harmful on the bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells.

  6. Under a nonadherent state, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can be efficiently induced into functional islet-like cell clusters to normalize hyperglycemia in mice: a control study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yihua; Dou, Zhongying

    2014-05-08

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) possess low immunogenicity and immunosuppression as an allograft, can differentiate into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) by in vitro induction, and may be a valuable cell source to regenerate pancreatic islets. However, the very low differentiation efficiency of BMSCs towards IPCs under adherent induction has thus far hindered the clinical exploitation of these cells. The aim of this study is to explore a new way to efficiently induce BMSCs into IPCs and lay the groundwork for their clinical exploitation. In comparison with adherent induction, BMSCs of human first-trimester abortus (hfBMSCs) under a nonadherent state were induced towards IPCs in noncoated plastic dishes using a three-stage induction procedure developed by the authors. Induction effects were evaluated by statistics of the cell clustering rate of induced cells, and ultrastructural observation, dithizone staining, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence assay, insulin and c-peptide release under glucose stimulus of cell clusters, as well as transplantation test of the cell clusters in diabetic model mice. With (6.175 ± 0.263) × 105 cells in 508.5 ± 24.5 cell clusters, (3.303 ± 0.331) × 105 single cells and (9.478 ± 0.208) × 105 total cell count on average, 65.08 ± 2.98% hfBMSCs differentiated into pancreatic islet-like cell clusters after nonadherent induction. With (3.993 ± 0.344) × 105 cells in 332.3 ± 41.6 cell clusters, (5.437 ± 0.434) × 105 single cells and (9.430 ± 0.340) × 105 total cell count on average, 42.37 ± 3.70% hfBMSCs differentiated into pancreatic islet-like cell clusters after adherent induction (P < 0.01, n = 10). The former is significantly higher than the latter. Calculated according to the cell clustering rate and IPC percentage in the cell clusters, 29.80 ± 3.95% hfBMSCs differentiated into IPCs after nonadherent induction

  7. Under a nonadherent state, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can be efficiently induced into functional islet-like cell clusters to normalize hyperglycemia in mice: a control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) possess low immunogenicity and immunosuppression as an allograft, can differentiate into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) by in vitro induction, and may be a valuable cell source to regenerate pancreatic islets. However, the very low differentiation efficiency of BMSCs towards IPCs under adherent induction has thus far hindered the clinical exploitation of these cells. The aim of this study is to explore a new way to efficiently induce BMSCs into IPCs and lay the groundwork for their clinical exploitation. Methods In comparison with adherent induction, BMSCs of human first-trimester abortus (hfBMSCs) under a nonadherent state were induced towards IPCs in noncoated plastic dishes using a three-stage induction procedure developed by the authors. Induction effects were evaluated by statistics of the cell clustering rate of induced cells, and ultrastructural observation, dithizone staining, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence assay, insulin and c-peptide release under glucose stimulus of cell clusters, as well as transplantation test of the cell clusters in diabetic model mice. Results With (6.175 ± 0.263) × 105 cells in 508.5 ± 24.5 cell clusters, (3.303 ± 0.331) × 105 single cells and (9.478 ± 0.208) × 105 total cell count on average, 65.08 ± 2.98% hfBMSCs differentiated into pancreatic islet-like cell clusters after nonadherent induction. With (3.993 ± 0.344) × 105 cells in 332.3 ± 41.6 cell clusters, (5.437 ± 0.434) × 105 single cells and (9.430 ± 0.340) × 105 total cell count on average, 42.37 ± 3.70% hfBMSCs differentiated into pancreatic islet-like cell clusters after adherent induction (P < 0.01, n = 10). The former is significantly higher than the latter. Calculated according to the cell clustering rate and IPC percentage in the cell clusters, 29.80 ± 3.95% hfBMSCs differentiated into IPCs

  8. Bone regeneration and stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Arvidson, K; Abdallah, B M; Applegate, L A; Baldini, N; Cenni, E; Gomez-Barrena, E; Granchi, D; Kassem, M; Konttinen, Y T; Mustafa, K; Pioletti, D P; Sillat, T; Finne-Wistrand, A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This invited review covers research areas of central importance for orthopaedic and maxillofacial bone tissue repair, including normal fracture healing and healing problems, biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering, mesenchymal and foetal stem cells, effects of sex steroids on mesenchymal stem cells, use of platelet-rich plasma for tissue repair, osteogenesis and its molecular markers. A variety of cells in addition to stem cells, as well as advances in materials science to meet specific requirements for bone and soft tissue regeneration by addition of bioactive molecules, are discussed. PMID:21129153

  9. Effects of short-term administration of G-CSF (filgrastim) on bone marrow progenitor cells: analysis of serial marrow samples from normal donors.

    PubMed

    Martínez, C; Urbano-Ispizua, A; Rozman, M; Rovira, M; Marín, P; Montfort, N; Carreras, E; Montserrat, E

    1999-01-01

    To determine the effect of G-CSF administration on both the total number of CD34+ cells and the primitive CD34+ subsets in bone marrow (BM), we have analyzed BM samples serially obtained from 10 normal donors in steady-state and during G-CSF treatment. Filgrastim was administered subcutaneously at a dosage of 10 microg/kg/day (n = 7) or 10 microg/kg/12 h (n = 3) for 4 consecutive days. Peripheral blood sampling and BM aspirates were performed on day 1 (just before G-CSF administration), day 3 (after 2 days of G-CSF), and day 5 (after 4 days of G-CSF). During G-CSF administration, a significant increase in the total number of BM nucleated cells was observed. The percentage (range) of CD34+ cells decreased in BM from a median of 0.88 (0.47-1.44) on day 1 to 0.57 (0.32-1.87), and to 0.42 (0.16-0.87) on days 3 and 5, respectively. We observed a slight increase in the total number of BM CD34+ cells on day 3 (0.66 x 10(9)/l (0.13-0.77)), and a decrease on day 5 (0.23 x 10(9)/l (0.06-1.23)) as compared with steady-state (0.40 x 10(9)/l (0.06-1.68)). The proportion of primitive BM hematopoietic progenitor cells (CD34+CD38-, CD34+HLA-DR-, CD34+CD117-) decreased during G-CSF administration. In parallel, a significant increase in the total number of CD34+ cells in peripheral blood was observed, achieving the maximum value on day 5. These results suggest that in normal subjects the administration of G-CSF for 5 days may reduce the number of progenitor cells in BM, particularly the most primitive ones.

  10. Conversion of Normal Ly-1-Positive B-Lineage Cells into Ly-1-Positive Macrophages in Long-Term Bone Marrow Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Katoh, Shigeki; Tominaga, Akira; Migita, Masahiro; Kudo, Akira

    1990-01-01

    We obtained eight different cell lines in the long-term bone marrow culture system that showed a germ-line configuration of the joining (J) region segments of the Ig heavy-chain (IgH) genes. Their surface markers were CD45R+, Ly-1+, Lyb-2+, cIgM-, sIgM-, Ia-, Thy-1-, Mac-1-, and IL-2R (Tac)+. Use of very young mice and the presence of IL-5 were important for preferential promotion of the survival of B-lineage lymphocytes bearing the Ly-1 markers. When we treated two of them (J8 and J10) with 5-azacytidine for 24 h followed by co-culture with stromal cells and IL-.5, they became Ly-1+, sIgM+ B cells, and Ly-1+, Mac-1+ macrophagelike cells, respectively. After other early lymphoid lines (J1, J8, and J13) were maintained by co-culture with ST2 and IL-5 for more than a year, they showed a heterogeneous DNA rearrangement profile of the J region segment of the IgH gene, although only J13 rearranged the κ-light chain gene. Northern blot analysis revealed that these cell lines expressed Cμ-mRNA, and λ5-mRNA, consistent with normal pre-B cells. Intriguingly, J1, J8, and J13 expressed c-fms mRNA constitutively. When J13 cells were co-cultured with ST2 and GM-CSF in place of ST2 and IL-5, they acquired Mac-1 expression and retained Ly-1 expression. They were morphologically macrophages, nonspecific-esterase-positive, and showed phagocytosis of latex beads. These results support evidence for a close relationship between the myeloid and Ly-1+ B-cell pathways of differentiation, and indicate that our IL- 5-dependent clones are multipotential intermediates in differentiation from pro-B cells to B cells and macrophages. PMID:2136207

  11. Normal bone mass in bulimic women.

    PubMed

    Sundgot-Borgen, J; Bahr, R; Falch, J A; Schneider, L S

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship among exercise, menstrual function, and bone mineral density (BMD) in different groups of age-matched patients with eating disorders. Dieting and eating disorder history, physical activity history, and menstrual history were assessed by clinical interview in 43 bulimic and 13 anorectic young women as well as in 17 healthy control subjects (18-29 yr). BMD was assessed by dual x-ray absorptiometry. All the anorectics but only 30% of the bulimics exercised regularly from the onset of their eating disorder (P < 0.01), mainly using aerobic dancing and running. All of the anorectics had been amenorrheic since the start of their symptoms, and 68% of the bulimics had a history of menstrual dysfunction. Within the exercise subgroups of bulimic patients, there was no significant relationship between BMD and current or previous menstrual function. Anorectic patients had lower BMD than bulimics and controls in all skeletal regions studied (P < 0.01). Bulimic patients who had exercised regularly during their illness had higher total body BMD than bulimics classified as sedentary (P < 0.01). Bulimics who had exercised regularly or intermittently since the onset of their eating disorder had higher BMD than sedentary bulimics in the lumbar vertebrae, femoral neck, and legs (P < 0.05). It appears that weight-bearing exercise can prevent or attenuate bone loss at specific skeletal sites in normal weight bulimic patients, but not in anorectics.

  12. Bone-immune cell crosstalk: bone diseases.

    PubMed

    Mori, Giorgio; D'Amelio, Patrizia; Faccio, Roberta; Brunetti, Giacomina

    2015-01-01

    Bone diseases are associated with great morbidity; thus, the understanding of the mechanisms leading to their development represents a great challenge to improve bone health. Recent reports suggest that a large number of molecules produced by immune cells affect bone cell activity. However, the mechanisms are incompletely understood. This review aims to shed new lights into the mechanisms of bone diseases involving immune cells. In particular, we focused our attention on the major pathogenic mechanism underlying periodontal disease, psoriatic arthritis, postmenopausal osteoporosis, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, metastatic solid tumors, and multiple myeloma.

  13. Enhancement of erythroid colony growth by triiodothyronine in cell cultures from bone marrow of normal and anemic rats with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Malgor, L A; Valsecia, M E; Verges, E G; de Markowsky, E E

    1995-01-01

    In order to make a contribution in clarifying the role of thyroid hormones on modulation of erythropoiesis and to gain a further insight on the effects of these hormones in the anemia of chronic renal failure (CRF), we studied the action of triiodo-1-thyronine (LT3) and DT3, a dextrorotary non-calorigenic isomer of T3 on late (CFU-E) and early (BFU-E) committed erythroid precursor cells from bone marrow of normal and anemic uremic rats. Cultures were prepared using the methylcellulose technique containing a standard dose (182 mU/ml) of erythropoietin (Ep), LT3 and DT3 in doses of 0.5 and 1.5 micrograms/ml. Thyroid hormones were added to cultures in the absence of Ep. Our results demonstrated that LT3 and DT3 produced a direct and significant stimulation of CFU-E formation and a moderate increase of BFU-E. A dose-correlation was apparent in cultures containing thyroid hormones. DT3 was somewhat less active than LT3. As expected, Ep also produced a significant increase in erythroid colony formation, mainly CFU-E. It is notheworthy that the effects of LT3, DT3 and Ep on erythroid colony growth were significantly higher in marrow cultures from anemic rats with CRF, indicating an increased proliferative cell kinetics of committed erythroid cells in response to these drugs.

  14. Bone Marrow Blood Vessels: Normal and Neoplastic Niche

    PubMed Central

    Shahrabi, Saeid; Rezaeeyan, Hadi; Ahmadzadeh, Ahmad; Shahjahani, Mohammad; Saki, Najmaldin

    2016-01-01

    Blood vessels are among the most important factors in the transport of materials such as nutrients and oxygen. This study will review the role of blood vessels in normal bone marrow hematopoiesis as well as pathological conditions like leukemia and metastasis. Relevant literature was identified by a Pubmed search (1992-2016) of English-language papers using the terms bone marrow, leukemia, metastasis, and vessel. Given that blood vessels are conduits for the transfer of nutrients, they create a favorable situation for cancer cells and cause their growth and development. On the other hand, blood vessels protect leukemia cells against chemotherapy drugs. Finally, it may be concluded that the vessels are an important factor in the development of malignant diseases. PMID:27994770

  15. Differential effects of transforming growth factor-beta on the synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins by normal fetal rat calvarial bone cell populations

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    To determine the effects of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) on the different cell types that exist in bone, cell populations (I- IV), progressively enriched in osteoblastic cells relative to fibroblastic cells, were prepared from fetal rat calvaria using timed collagenase digestions. TGF-beta did not induce anchorage-independent growth of these cells, nor was anchorage-dependent growth stimulated in most populations studied, despite a two- to threefold increase in the synthesis of cellular proteins. In all populations the synthesis of secreted proteins increased 2-3.5-fold. In particular, collagen, fibronectin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor synthesis was stimulated. However, different degrees of stimulation of individual proteins were observed both within and between cell populations. A marked preferential stimulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor was observed in each population, together with a slight preferential stimulation of collagen; the effect on collagen expression being directed primarily at type I collagen. In contrast, the synthesis of SPARC (secreted protein acidic rich in cysteine/osteonectin was stimulated approximately two-fold by TGF-beta, but only in fibroblastic populations. Collectively, these results demonstrate that TGF-beta stimulates matrix production by bone cells and, through differential effects on individual matrix components, may also influence the nature of the matrix formed by different bone cell populations. In the presence of TGF-beta, osteoblastic cells lost their polygonal morphology and alkaline phosphatase activity was decreased, reflecting a suppression of osteoblastic features. The differential effects of TGF- beta on bone cell populations are likely to be important in bone remodeling and fracture repair. PMID:3162238

  16. Efficient generation of transgene-free induced pluripotent stem cells from normal and neoplastic bone marrow and cord blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kejin; Yu, Junying; Suknuntha, Kran; Tian, Shulan; Montgomery, Karen; Choi, Kyung-Dal; Stewart, Ron; Thomson, James A; Slukvin, Igor I

    2011-04-07

    Reprogramming blood cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provides a novel tool for modeling blood diseases in vitro. However, the well-known limitations of current reprogramming technologies include low efficiency, slow kinetics, and transgene integration and residual expression. In the present study, we have demonstrated that iPSCs free of transgene and vector sequences could be generated from human BM and CB mononuclear cells using non-integrating episomal vectors. The reprogramming described here is up to 100 times more efficient, occurs 1-3 weeks faster compared with the reprogramming of fibroblasts, and does not require isolation of progenitors or multiple rounds of transfection. Blood-derived iPSC lines lacked rearrangements of IGH and TCR, indicating that their origin is non-B- or non-T-lymphoid cells. When cocultured on OP9, blood-derived iPSCs could be differentiated back to the blood cells, albeit with lower efficiency compared to fibroblast-derived iPSCs. We also generated transgene-free iPSCs from the BM of a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). CML iPSCs showed a unique complex chromosomal translocation identified in marrow sample while displaying typical embryonic stem cell phenotype and pluripotent differentiation potential. This approach provides an opportunity to explore banked normal and diseased CB and BM samples without the limitations associated with virus-based methods.

  17. [Interaction between myeloma cells and bone tissue].

    PubMed

    Seckinger, A; Hose, D

    2014-06-01

    Multiple myeloma is the malignant disease which most frequently leads to bone lesions. Approximately 80% of myeloma patients develop osteoporosis, lytic bone lesions (osteolysis) or fractures during the course of the disease. Of these patients 43% suffer pathological fractures most often of the vertebrae followed by fractures of the long bones. The methods used in the described articles include, e.g. gene expression profiling, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and radiological techniques. Myeloma bone disease represents a threefold therapeutic problem: (i) per se because of the associated morbidity, mortality and the accompanying decrease of quality of life, (ii) as survival space for (residual) myeloma cells after primarily successful chemotherapy and subsequently necessary chemotherapeutic treatment, and (iii) the occurrence of bone lesions in asymptomatic patients is the most common cause for the initiation of treatment to avoid myeloma-induced fractures. Myeloma cells harbor a high median number of chromosomal aberrations and multiple changes in gene expression compared to normal bone marrow plasma cells leading to the aberrant production of survival, proliferation, pro-angiogenic and bone turnover influencing factors or the induction of those factors in the bone marrow microenvironment. This causes an imbalanced bone turnover in the sense of an increased number and activity of osteoclasts while bone formation by osteoblasts is almost completely suspended. Therapeutic approaches, systemically and locally therefore aim at stimulation of osteoblasts and inhibition of bone resorption.

  18. Bone mineral content in normal US whites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazess, R. B.; Cameron, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Photon absorptiometry with I-125 was used to measure the bone mineral content and the bone width on 763 children between the ages of 5 and 19 years, on 538 adults between the ages of 20 and 49 years, and on 550 adults over the age of 50 years. Measurements were made on the midshaft and the distal end of the radius and the ulna, and on the humerus midshaft. This has permitted analysis of annual bone growth in children, and the rate of change in elderly adults per decade. Male and female children grew at about the same rate until adolescence. After adolescence females grew at a slow rate until the mid-twenties, while males reached adult mineralization by age 20. Males remained relatively constant until the fifties, and females began their decline in the forties.

  19. Mice deficient in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 lack bone marrow adipocytes, but maintain normal bone formation.

    PubMed

    Justesen, Jeannette; Mosekilde, Lis; Holmes, Megan; Stenderup, Karin; Gasser, Jürg; Mullins, John J; Seckl, Jonathan R; Kassem, Moustapha

    2004-04-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) exert potent, but poorly characterized, effects on the skeleton. The cellular activity of GCs is regulated at a prereceptor level by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11betaHSDs). The type 1 isoform, which predominates in bone, functions as a reductase in intact cells and regenerates active cortisol (corticosterone) from circulating inert 11-keto forms. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of this intracrine activation of GCs on normal bone physiology in vivo using mice deficient in 11betaHSD1 (HSD1(-/-)). The HSD1(-/-) mice exhibited no significant changes in cortical or trabecular bone mass compared with wild-type (Wt) mice. Aged HSD1(-/-) mice showed age-related bone loss similar to that observed in Wt mice. Histomorphometric analysis showed similar bone formation and bone resorption parameters in HSD1(-/-) and Wt mice. However, examination of bone marrow composition revealed a total absence of marrow adipocytes in HSD1(-/-) mice. Cells from Wt and HSD1(-/-) mice exhibited similar growth rates as well as similar levels of production of osteoblastic markers. The adipocyte-forming capacity of in vitro cultured bone marrow stromal cells and trabecular osteoblasts was similar in HSD1(-/-) and Wt mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that 11betaHSD1 amplification of intracellular GC actions in mice may be required for bone marrow adipocyte formation, but not for bone formation. The clinical relevance of this observation remains to be determined.

  20. Bone repair and stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ono, Noriaki; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2016-10-01

    Bones are an important component of vertebrates; they grow explosively in early life and maintain their strength throughout life. Bones also possess amazing capabilities to repair-the bone is like new without a scar after complete repair. In recent years, a substantial progress has been made in our understanding on mammalian bone stem cells. Mouse genetic models are powerful tools to understand the cell lineage, giving us better insights into stem cells that regulate bone growth, maintenance and repair. Recent findings about these stem cells raise new questions that require further investigations.

  1. Human T cell leukemia virus type I and neurologic disease: events in bone marrow, peripheral blood, and central nervous system during normal immune surveillance and neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Grant, Christian; Barmak, Kate; Alefantis, Timothy; Yao, Jing; Jacobson, Steven; Wigdahl, Brian

    2002-02-01

    Human T cell lymphotropic/leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) has been identified as the causative agent of both adult T cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Although the exact sequence of events that occur during the early stages of infection are not known in detail, the initial route of infection may predetermine, along with host, environmental, and viral factors, the subset of target cells and/or the primary immune response encountered by HTLV-I, and whether an HTLV-I-infected individual will remain asymptomatic, develop ATL, or progress to the neuroinflammatory disease, HAM/TSP. Although a large number of studies have indicated that CD4(+) T cells represent an important target for HTLV-I infection in the peripheral blood (PB), additional evidence has accumulated over the past several years demonstrating that HTLV-I can infect several additional cellular compartments in vivo, including CD8(+) T lymphocytes, PB monocytes, dendritic cells, B lymphocytes, and resident central nervous system (CNS) astrocytes. More importantly, extensive latent viral infection of the bone marrow, including cells likely to be hematopoietic progenitor cells, has been observed in individuals with HAM/TSP as well as some asymptomatic carriers, but to a much lesser extent in individuals with ATL. Furthermore, HTLV-I(+) CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells can maintain the intact proviral genome and initiate viral gene expression during the differentiation process. Introduction of HTLV-I-infected bone marrow progenitor cells into the PB, followed by genomic activation and low level viral gene expression may lead to an increase in proviral DNA load in the PB, resulting in a progressive state of immune dysregulation including the generation of a detrimental cytotoxic Tax-specific CD8(+) T cell population, anti-HTLV-I antibodies, and neurotoxic cytokines involved in disruption of myelin-producing cells and neuronal degradation

  2. Occurrence and pattern of long bone fractures in growing dogs with normal and osteopenic bones.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K; Mogha, I V; Aithal, H P; Kinjavdekar, P; Singh, G R; Pawde, A M; Kushwaha, R B

    2007-11-01

    A retrospective study was undertaken to record the occurrence and pattern of long bone fractures, and the efficacy of Intramedullary (IM) Steinmann pin fixing in growing dogs. All the records of growing dogs during a 10-year-period were screened to record the cause of trauma, the age and sex of the animal, the bone involved, the type and location of the fracture, the status of fixation, alignment, maintenance of fixation and fracture healing. The results were analysed and comparisons were made between growing dogs with normal and osteopenic bones. Among the 310 cases of fractures recorded, the bones were osteopenic in 91 cases (29%). Minor trauma was the principal cause of fracture in dogs with osteopenia (25%), and indigenous breeds were most commonly affected (38%). Fractures in dogs with osteopenic bones were most commonly recorded in the age group of 2-4 months (53%), whereas fractures in normal dogs were almost equally distributed between 2 and 8 months of age. Male dogs were affected significantly more often in both groups. In osteopenic bones, most fractures were recorded in the femur (56%), and they were distributed equally along the length of the bone. Whereas in normal bones, fractures were almost equally distributed in radius/ulna, femur and tibia, and were more often recorded at the middle and distal third of long bones. Oblique fractures were most common in both groups; however, comminuted fractures were more frequent in normal bones, whereas incomplete fractures were more common in osteopenic bones. Ninety-nine fracture cases treated with IM pinning (66 normal, 33 osteopenic) were evaluated for the status of fracture reduction and healing. In a majority of the cases (61%) with osteopenic bones, the diameter of the pin was relatively smaller than the diameter of the medullary cavity (<70-75%), whereas in 68% of the cases in normal bones the pin diameter was optimum. The status of fracture fixing was satisfactory to good in significantly more

  3. Microgravity and bone cell mechanosensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein-Nulend, J.; Bacabac, R. G.; Veldhuijzen, J. P.; Van Loon, J. J. W. A.

    2003-10-01

    The capacity of bone tissue to alter its mass and structure in response to mechanical demands has long been recognized but the cellular mechanisms involved remained poorly understood. Bone not only develops as a structure designed specifically for mechanical tasks, but it can adapt during life toward more efficient mechanical performance. Mechanical adaptation of bone is a cellular process and needs a biological system that senses the mechanical loading. The loading information must then be communicated to the effector cells that form new bone or destroy old bone. The in vivo operating cell stress derived from bone loading is likely the flow of interstitial fluid along the surface of osteocytes and lining cells. The response of bone cells in culture to fluid flow includes prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and expression of prostaglandin G/H synthase inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2). Cultured bone cells also rapidly produce nitric oxide (NO) in response to fluid flow as a result of activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS), which enzyme also mediates the adaptive response of bone tissue to mechanical loading. Earlier studies have shown that the disruption of the actin-cytoskeleton abolishes the response to stress, suggesting that the cytoskeleton is involved in cellular mechanotransduction. Microgravity, or better near weightlessness, is associated with the loss of bone in astronauts, and has catabolic effects on mineral metabolism in bone organ cultures. This might be explained as resulting from an exceptional form of disuse under near weightlessness conditions. However, under near weightlessness conditions the assembly of cytoskeletal elements may be altered since it has been shown that the direction of the gravity vector determines microtubular pattern formation in vivo. We found earlier that the transduction of mechanical signals in bone cells also involves the cytoskeleton and is related to PGEZ production. Therefore it is possible that the

  4. Microgravity and Bone Cell Mechanosensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein-Nulend, J.; Bacabac, R.; Veldhuijzen, J.; van Loon, J.

    The capacity of bone tissue to alter its mass and structure in response to mechanical demands has long been recognized but the cellular mechanisms involved remained poorly understood. Bone not only develops as a structure designed specifically for mechanical tasks, but it can adapt during life toward more efficient mechanical performance. Mechanical adaptation of bone is a cellular process and needs a biological system that senses the mechanical loading. The loading information must then be communicated to the effector cells that form new bone or destroy old bone.The in vivo operating cell stress derived from bone loading is likely flow of interstitial fluid along the surface of osteocytes and lining cells. The response of bone cells in culture to fluid flow includes prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and expression of prostaglandin G/H synthase inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2). Cultured bone cells also rapidly produce nitric oxide (NO) in response to fluid flow as a result of activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS), which enzyme also mediates the adaptive response of bone tissue to mechanical loading. Disruption of the actin-cytoskeleton abolishes the response to stress, suggesting that the cytoskeleton is involved in cellular mechanotransduction.Microgravity, or better near weightlessness, has catabolic effects on the skeleton of astronauts, and on mineral metabolism in bone organ cultures. This might be explained as resulting from an exceptional form of disuse under near weightlessness conditions. However, under near weightlessness conditions the assembly of cytoskeletal elements may be altered since it has been shown that the direction of the gravity vector determines microtubular pattern formation in vivo. We found that the transduction of mechanical signals in bone cells also involves the cytoskeleton and is related to PGE2 production. Therefore it is possible that the mechanosensitivity of bone cells is altered under near weightlessness conditions

  5. Strontium ranelate normalizes bone mineral density in osteopenic patients.

    PubMed

    Malaise, Olivier; Bruyere, Olivier; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2007-08-01

    To assess the capacity of strontium ranelate to restore normal bone mineral density (WHO definition: T-score >or=-1) in post-menopausal osteopenic women (T-score between -1 and -2.5) at baseline. Post-hoc analysis from SOTI and TROPOS studies of 1428 patients randomly assigned to receive either 2 g of strontium ranelate a day or placebo for three years. Bone mineral density was measured at baseline and each year for three years. Results were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. At lumbar spine, after one, two and three years of treatment with strontium ranelate, 26.4, 42.1 and 58.2% respectively of osteopenic patients normalized their bone mineral density, compared with 6.6, 8.9 and 11.9% in the placebo group (all p<0.001). At total hip, the percentage of patients normalizing their bone mineral density was 5.4, 10.0 and 19.6% in the strontium ranelate group and 1.8, 1.4 and 1.6% in the placebo one (all p<0.001). Strontium ranelate is able to normalize bone mineral density in a significant proportion of osteopenic patients after one, two and three years of treatment. The clinical relevance of these results should be confirmed by direct demonstration of the anti-fracture efficacy of strontium ranelate in osteopenic patients.

  6. Flow cytometric differentiation of abnormal and normal plasma cells in the bone marrow in patients with multiple myeloma and its precursor diseases.

    PubMed

    Tembhare, Prashant R; Yuan, Constance M; Venzon, David; Braylan, Raul; Korde, Neha; Manasanch, Elisabet; Zuchlinsky, Diamond; Calvo, Katherine; Kurlander, Roger; Bhutani, Manisha; Tageja, Nishant; Maric, Irina; Mulquin, Marcia; Roschewski, Mark; Kwok, Mary; Liewehr, David; Landgren, Ola; Stetler-Stevenson, Maryalice

    2014-03-01

    Flow cytometric (FC) enumeration of abnormal plasma cells (APCs) for diagnosis and prognostication of plasma cell dyscrasias (PCD) is challenging. We studied antigen expression in normal plasma cells (NPC) (N = 34) and APC in a series of unselected PCD (N = 59). NPC subpopulations often demonstrated CD19(-), CD20(+), CD45(-) or dim and CD56(+), an immunophenotype observed in PCD. However abnormal CD81 was only observed in APCs (APC detection sensitivity 95%; specificity 100%). We evaluated differences in antigen expression patterns among MGUS (N = 14), SMM (N = 35) and MM (N = 10), finding the combination of CD45 and CD56 helpful in differentiating MGUS from SMM and MM (p = 0.0002). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Cell proliferation in normal epidermis

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, G.D.; McCullough, J.L.; Ross, P.

    1984-06-01

    A detailed examination of cell proliferation kinetics in normal human epidermis is presented. Using tritiated thymidine with autoradiographic techniques, proliferative and differentiated cell kinetics are defined and interrelated. The proliferative compartment of normal epidermis has a cell cycle duration (Tc) of 311 h derived from 3 components: the germinative labeling index (LI), the duration of DNA synthesis (ts), and the growth fraction (GF). The germinative LI is 2.7% +/- 1.2 and ts is 14 h, the latter obtained from a composite fraction of labeled mitoses curve obtained from 11 normal subjects. The GF obtained from the literature and from human skin xenografts to nude mice is estimated to be 60%. Normal-appearing epidermis from patients with psoriasis appears to have a higher proliferation rate. The mean LI is 4.2% +/- 0.9, approximately 50% greater than in normal epidermis. Absolute cell kinetic values for this tissue, however, cannot yet be calculated for lack of other information on ts and GF. A kinetic model for epidermal cell renewal in normal epidermis is described that interrelates the rate of birth/entry, transit, and/or loss of keratinocytes in the 3 epidermal compartments: proliferative, viable differentiated (stratum malpighii), and stratum corneum. Expected kinetic homeostasis in the epidermis is confirmed by the very similar ''turnover'' rates in each of the compartments that are, respectively, 1246, 1417, and 1490 cells/day/mm2 surface area. The mean epidermal turnover time of the entire tissue is 39 days. The Tc of 311 h in normal cells in 8-fold longer than the psoriatic Tc of 36 h and is necessary for understanding the hyperproliferative pathophysiologic process in psoriasis.

  8. RanBPM (RanBP9) regulates mouse c-Kit receptor level and is essential for normal development of bone marrow progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Satyendra; Klarmann, Kimberly D.; Coppola, Vincenzo; Keller, Jonathan R.; Tessarollo, Lino

    2016-01-01

    c-Kit is a tyrosine kinase receptor important for gametogenesis, hematopoiesis, melanogenesis and mast cell biology. Dysregulation of c-Kit function is oncogenic and its expression in the stem cell niche of a number of tissues has underlined its relevance for regenerative medicine and hematopoietic stem cell biology. Yet, very little is known about the mechanisms that control c-Kit protein levels. Here we show that the RanBPM/RanBP9 scaffold protein binds to c-Kit and is necessary for normal c-Kit protein expression in the mouse testis and subset lineages of the hematopoietic system. RanBPM deletion causes a reduction in c-Kit protein but not its mRNA suggesting a posttranslational mechanism. This regulation is specific to the c-Kit receptor since RanBPM reduction does not affect other membrane proteins examined. Importantly, in both mouse hematopoietic system and testis, RanBPM deficiency causes defects consistent with c-Kit loss of expression suggesting that RanBPM is an important regulator of c-Kit function. The finding that this regulatory mechanism is also present in human cells expressing endogenous RanBPM and c-Kit suggests a potential new strategy to target oncogenic c-Kit in malignancies. PMID:27835883

  9. Accessory navicular bone: not such a normal variant.

    PubMed

    Bernaerts, A; Vanhoenacker, F M; Van de Perre, S; De Schepper, A M; Parizel, P M

    2004-01-01

    The accessory navicular is often erroneously considered as a normal anatomic and roentgenographic variant. Three distinct types of accessory navicular bones have been described. The type 2 and 3 variants have been associated with pathologic conditions such as posterior tibial tendon tear and painful navicular syndrome and therefore should not be arbitrarily dismissed as a roentgenologic variant in a symptomatic patient. The pathogenesis and radiologic findings are discussed and illustrated.

  10. Increased Bone Mass in Female Mice Lacking Mast Cell Chymase

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Thomas; Gustafson, Ann-Marie; Calounova, Gabriela; Hu, Lijuan; Rasmusson, Annica; Jonsson, Kenneth B.; Wernersson, Sara; Åbrink, Magnus; Andersson, Göran; Larsson, Sune; Melhus, Håkan; Pejler, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Here we addressed the potential impact of chymase, a mast-cell restricted protease, on mouse bone phenotype. We show that female mice lacking the chymase Mcpt4 acquired a persistent expansion of diaphyseal bone in comparison with wild type controls, reaching a 15% larger diaphyseal cross sectional area at 12 months of age. Mcpt4-/- mice also showed increased levels of a bone anabolic serum marker and higher periosteal bone formation rate. However, they were not protected from experimental osteoporosis, suggesting that chymase regulates normal bone homeostasis rather than the course of osteoporosis. Further, the absence of Mcpt4 resulted in age-dependent upregulation of numerous genes important for bone formation but no effects on osteoclast activity. In spite of the latter, Mcpt4-/- bones had increased cortical porosity and reduced endocortical mineralization. Mast cells were found periosteally and, notably, bone-proximal mast cells in Mcpt4-/- mice were degranulated to a larger extent than in wild type mice. Hence, chymase regulates degranulation of bone mast cells, which could affect the release of mast cell-derived factors influencing bone remodelling. Together, these findings reveal a functional impact of mast cell chymase on bone. Further studies exploring the possibility of using chymase inhibitors as a strategy to increase bone volume may be warranted. PMID:27936149

  11. Multicellular tumor spheroid interactions with bone cells and bone

    SciTech Connect

    Wezeman, F.H.; Guzzino, K.M.; Waxler, B.

    1985-10-01

    In vitro coculture techniques were used to study HSDM1C1 murine fibrosarcoma multicellular tumor spheroid (HSDM1C1-MTS) interactions with mouse calvarial bone cells having osteoblastic characteristics and mouse bone explants. HSDM1C1-MTS attached to confluent bone cell monolayers and their attachment rate was quantified. HSDM1C1-MTS interaction with bone cells was further demonstrated by the release of /sup 3/H-deoxyuridine from prelabeled bone cells during coculture with multicellular tumor spheroids. HSDM1C1-MTS-induced cytotoxicity was mimicked by the addition of 10(-5) M prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to /sup 3/H-deoxyuridine-labeled bone cells. The effects of low (10(-9) M) and high (10(-5) M) concentrations of PGE2 on bone cell proliferation were also studied. Higher concentrations of PGE2 inhibited bone cell proliferation. HSDM1C1-MTS resorbed living explants in the presence of indomethacin, suggesting that other tumor cell products may also participate in bone resorption. HSDM1C1-MTS caused direct bone resorption as measured by the significantly elevated release of /sup 45/Ca from prelabeled, devitalized calvaria. However, the growth of a confluent bone cell layer on devitalized, /sup 45/Ca-prelabeled calvaria resulted in a significant reduction in the amount of /sup 45/Ca released subsequent to the seeding of HSDM1C1-MTS onto the explants. Bone cells at the bone surface may act as a barrier against invasion and tumor cell-mediated bone resorption. Violation of this cellular barrier is achieved, in part, by tumor cell products.

  12. Computed tomography of temporal bone pneumatization. 1. Normal pattern and morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Virapongse, C.; Sarwar, M.; Bhimani, S.; Sasaki, C.; Shapiro, R.

    1985-09-01

    The pneumatization of 141 normal temporal bones on computed tomography (CT) was evaluated in 100 patients. Because of the controversy surrounding the sclerotic squamomastoid (mastoid), temporal bones with this finding were discarded. A CT index of pneumatization was based on the pneumatized area and the number of cells seen within a representative scanning section. Results suggest that squamomastoid pneumatization follows the classic normal distribution and does not correlate with age, gender, or laterality. A high degree of symmetry was found in 41 patients who had both ears examined. Air-cell configuration was variable. Air-cell size tended to increase progressively from the mastoid antrum. The scutum pseudotumor appearance caused by incomplete pneumatization was seen frequently, and should not be mistaken for mastoiditis or an osteoma. Thick sections producing partial-volume effect may also produce this spurious finding. Therefore, when searching for mucosal thickening due to mastoiditis, large air cells should preferably be analyzed.

  13. Specific bone cells produce DLL4 to generate thymus-seeding progenitors from bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Vionnie W.C.; Saez, Borja; Cook, Colleen; Lotinun, Sutada; Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Wang, Ying-Hua; Lymperi, Stefania; Ferraro, Francesca; Raaijmakers, Marc H.G.P.; Wu, Joy Y.; Zhou, Lan; Rajagopal, Jayaraj; Kronenberg, Henry M.; Baron, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Production of the cells that ultimately populate the thymus to generate α/β T cells has been controversial, and their molecular drivers remain undefined. Here, we report that specific deletion of bone-producing osteocalcin (Ocn)-expressing cells in vivo markedly reduces T-competent progenitors and thymus-homing receptor expression among bone marrow hematopoietic cells. Decreased intrathymic T cell precursors and decreased generation of mature T cells occurred despite normal thymic function. The Notch ligand DLL4 is abundantly expressed on bone marrow Ocn+ cells, and selective depletion of DLL4 from these cells recapitulated the thymopoietic abnormality. These data indicate that specific mesenchymal cells in bone marrow provide key molecular drivers enforcing thymus-seeding progenitor generation and thereby directly link skeletal biology to the production of T cell–based adaptive immunity. PMID:25918341

  14. Smurf Control in Bone Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Lianping; Zhang, Ming; Chen, Di

    2010-01-01

    The homologous to the E6-assosiated protein carboxyl terminus (HECT) domain E3 ubiquitin ligase Smurf1 is the first E3 ligase to be implicated in regulating bone cell function. The involvement of Smurf1 in multiple signaling pathways and pathological conditions is presently an area of extensive scientific interest. This review highlights recent works exploring Smurf-regulated biological processes in bone cells and highlights recent discoveries surrounding the regulatory mechanisms modulating its catalytic activity and substrate recognition capability. Moreover, we discuss the relevance of targeting the HECT E3s through the development of small-molecule inhibitors as an anticancer therapeutic strategy. PMID:20512916

  15. Bone cells and bone turnover in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Mishaela R

    2015-06-01

    Substantial evidence exists that in addition to the well-known complications of diabetes, increased fracture risk is an important morbidity. This risk is probably due, at least in part, to altered bone remodeling and bone cell function in diabetes. Circulating biochemical markers of bone formation, including P1NP, osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase have been found to be decreased in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and may be predictive of fractures independently of bone mineral density (BMD). These findings have been corroborated by preliminary histomorphometric data. Reductions in the bone resorption marker serum CTx in T2D have also been reported. Serum sclerostin levels have been found to be increased in T2D and appear to be predictive of fracture risk independent of BMD. Other factors such as bone marrow fat saturation, advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) accumulation, and microarchitectural changes might also relate to bone cell function and fracture risk in diabetes.

  16. Generation of clinical grade human bone marrow stromal cells for use in bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Robey, Pamela G; Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Ren, Jiaqiang; Klein, Harvey G; Sabatino, Marianna; Stroncek, David F

    2015-01-01

    In current orthopaedic practice, there is a need to increase the ability to reconstruct large segments of bone lost due to trauma, resection of tumors and skeletal deformities, or when normal regenerative processes have failed such as in non-unions and avascular necrosis. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells), when used in conjunction with appropriate carriers, represent a means by which to achieve bone regeneration in such cases. While much has been done at the bench and in pre-clinical studies, moving towards clinical application requires the generation of clinical grade cells. What is described herein is an FDA-approved cell manufacturing procedure for the ex vivo expansion of high quality, biologically active human BMSCs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Stem Cells and Bone.

  17. Cancer Cell Colonisation in the Bone Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Casina; Vargas, Geoffrey; Le Pape, François; Clézardin, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Bone metastases are a common complication of epithelial cancers, of which breast, prostate and lung carcinomas are the most common. The establishment of cancer cells to distant sites such as the bone microenvironment requires multiple steps. Tumour cells can acquire properties to allow epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, extravasation and migration. Within the bone metastatic niche, disseminated tumour cells may enter a dormancy stage or proliferate to adapt and survive, interacting with bone cells such as hematopoietic stem cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Cross-talk with the bone may alter tumour cell properties and, conversely, tumour cells may also acquire characteristics of the surrounding microenvironment, in a process known as osteomimicry. Alternatively, these cells may also express osteomimetic genes that allow cell survival or favour seeding to the bone marrow. The seeding of tumour cells in the bone disrupts bone-forming and bone-resorbing activities, which can lead to macrometastasis in bone. At present, bone macrometastases are incurable with only palliative treatment available. A better understanding of how these processes influence the early onset of bone metastasis may give insight into potential therapies. This review will focus on the early steps of bone colonisation, once disseminated tumour cells enter the bone marrow. PMID:27782035

  18. Seasonal variations in indices of bone formation precede appropriate bone mineral changes in normal men

    SciTech Connect

    Hyldstrup, L.; McNair, P.; Jensen, G.F.; Transbol, I.

    1986-01-01

    In 10 normal males aged 23-50 years measurements of serum alkaline phosphatase (s-AP) and the 24-h whole body retention of 99mTc-diphosphonate (WBR), as indices of bone formation, and the fasting urinary hydroxyproline:creatinine ratio (OHPr:Cr), as an index of bone resorption, were performed monthly from January 1983 to May 1984. Bone mineral content of the distal forearm (BMC) was measured in the middle of each quarter. From January to May BMC exhibited a reproducible, significant average increase of 2.5%, returning to baseline level between May and August. During the first quarter of both 1983 and 1984 a significant increase in s-AP and WBR was seen. Subsequently, during the second quarter of 1983, these variables fell below the mean of the year. Confirming their interrelationship, the deviations of s-AP and WBR were positively correlated throughout the study period (r = 0.51, P less than 0.05). Since the urinary OHPr:Cr ratio remained constant, the reported seasonal changes in bone mass of normal, adult males appear to result from primary changes in bone formation.

  19. Human fetal bone cells in delivery systems for bone engineering.

    PubMed

    Tenorio, Diene M H; Scaletta, Corinne; Jaccoud, Sandra; Hirt-Burri, Nathalie; Pioletti, Dominique P; Jaques, Bertrand; Applegate, Lee Ann

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to culture human fetal bone cells (dedicated cell banks of fetal bone derived from 14 week gestation femurs) within both hyaluronic acid gel and collagen foam, to compare the biocompatibility of both matrices as potential delivery systems for bone engineering and particularly for oral application. Fetal bone cell banks were prepared from one organ donation and cells were cultured for up to 4 weeks within hyaluronic acid (Mesolis®) and collagen foams (TissueFleece®). Cell survival and differentiation were assessed by cell proliferation assays and histology of frozen sections stained with Giemsa, von Kossa and ALP at 1, 2 and 4 weeks of culture. Within both materials, fetal bone cells could proliferate in three-dimensional structure at ∼70% capacity compared to monolayer culture. In addition, these cells were positive for ALP and von Kossa staining, indicating cellular differentiation and matrix production. Collagen foam provides a better structure for fetal bone cell delivery if cavity filling is necessary and hydrogels would permit an injectable technique for difficult to treat areas. In all, there was high biocompatibility, cellular differentiation and matrix deposition seen in both matrices by fetal bone cells, allowing for easy cell delivery for bone stimulation in vivo. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Immunoarchitecture of normal human bone marrow: a study of frozen and fixed tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Shin, S S; Sheibani, K; Kezirian, J; Nademanee, A; Forman, S J; Lee, S K; Winberg, C D

    1992-06-01

    To provide baseline information on the immunoarchitecture of normal bone marrow, we studied cryostat-cut, frozen, and paraffin-embedded, fixed tissue sections prepared from 21 core biopsies of normal bone marrow obtained during bone marrow harvests for transplantation. A large panel of antibodies was applied that included, for frozen tissue, Leu-6 (CD1), T11 (CD2), Leu-3a (CD4), Leu-1 (CD5), Leu-2a (CD8), J5 (CD10), My7 (CD13), Leu-11 (CD16), B4 (CD19), B1 (CD20), B2 (CD21), Tac (CD25), My9 (CD33), T200 (CD45), NKH-1 (CD56), kappa and lambda chains, beta F1, Ki-67, HLA-DR, TQ1, and keratin, and for fixed tissue, leukocyte common antigen (CD45), L26 (CD20), LN1 (CDw75), LN2 (CD74), LN3, LN4, LN5, MB1 (CD45R), MB2, MT1 (CD43), MT2 (CD45R), UCHL1 (CD45R0), BM1, Ki-1 (CD30), Leu-M1 (CD15), lysozyme, KP1 (CD68), actin, S100, neuron-specific enolase, vimentin, and keratin. On fresh-frozen sections CD19 and CD2 were the most reliable and sensitive markers for B and T cells, staining 5% and 9% of marrow cells, respectively. Immunoglobulins generally showed heavy background staining, which frequently precluded an accurate assessment. The CD4 to CD8 ratio in the bone marrow was reversed from that of peripheral blood. On fixed tissues, leukocyte common antigen was found in 14% of the marrow cells, corresponding roughly to the lymphocyte population. L26, a pan-B-cell marker, stained 3% of the marrow cells. Among the other B-cell markers, LN1 and MB2 stained a large number of cells (40% to 70%), indicating reactivity with cells of the myeloid or erythroid series in addition to lymphocytes. Among the T-cell markers, UCHL1 and MT1 stained 66% and 50% of the cells, respectively, which could be explained by their cross-reactivity with myeloid cells. Nonspecific myelomonocytic markers (Leu-M1, KP1, and lysozyme) also showed reactivity in a high percentage of cells. No particular architectural distribution patterns of B or T lymphocytes were noted in either frozen or fixed bone

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells for bone repair and metabolic bone diseases.

    PubMed

    Undale, Anita H; Westendorf, Jennifer J; Yaszemski, Michael J; Khosla, Sundeep

    2009-10-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells offer a potential alternative to embryonic stem cells in clinical applications. The ability of these cells to self-renew and differentiate into multiple tissues, including bone, cartilage, fat, and other tissues of mesenchymal origin, makes them an attractive candidate for clinical applications. Patients who experience fracture nonunion and metabolic bone diseases, such as osteogenesis imperfecta and hypophosphatasia, have benefited from human mesenchymal stem cell therapy. Because of their ability to modulate immune responses, allogeneic transplant of these cells may be feasible without a substantial risk of immune rejection. The field of regenerative medicine is still facing considerable challenges; however, with the progress achieved thus far, the promise of stem cell therapy as a viable option for fracture nonunion and metabolic bone diseases is closer to reality. In this review, we update the biology and clinical applicability of human mesenchymal stem cells for bone repair and metabolic bone diseases.

  2. Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Bone Repair and Metabolic Bone Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Undale, Anita H.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2009-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells offer a potential alternative to embryonic stem cells in clinical applications. The ability of these cells to self-renew and differentiate into multiple tissues, including bone, cartilage, fat, and other tissues of mesenchymal origin, makes them an attractive candidate for clinical applications. Patients who experience fracture nonunion and metabolic bone diseases, such as osteogenesis imperfecta and hypophosphatasia, have benefited from human mesenchymal stem cell therapy. Because of their ability to modulate immune responses, allogeneic transplant of these cells may be feasible without a substantial risk of immune rejection. The field of regenerative medicine is still facing considerable challenges; however, with the progress achieved thus far, the promise of stem cell therapy as a viable option for fracture nonunion and metabolic bone diseases is closer to reality. In this review, we update the biology and clinical applicability of human mesenchymal stem cells for bone repair and metabolic bone diseases. PMID:19797778

  3. Bone marrow transfusions in previously irradiated, hematologically normal syngeneic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Brecher, G.; Lawce, H.; Tjio, J.H.

    1981-03-01

    Transfusion of syngeneic marrow into normal, nonirradiated recipients results only in minimal proliferation of donor cells. However, irradiated recipients, restored to hematologic normalcy by an initial marrow transfusion, subsequently sustain proliferation which replaces approximately 10% of endogenous marrow after a single transfusion of 4 x 10/sup 7/ marrow cells of the same strain as the host. Cells from histoincompatible donors proliferate only rarely or minimally in the marrows of these irradiated, but hematologically normal recipients without reirradiation. Syngeneic male donor cells proliferate in irradiated and restored female mice, while female donor cells fail to proliferate in the marrow of syngeneic male recipients. A possible explanation is that transfused female cells respond immunologically to the abundant H-Y antigen in the male environment and are eliminated as a result.

  4. Cell Sources for Bone Tissue Engineering: Insights from Basic Science

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    One of the goals of bone tissue engineering is to design delivery methods for skeletal stem/progenitor cells to repair or replace bone. Although the materials used to retain cells play a central role in the quality of the constructs, the source of cells is key for bone regeneration. Bone marrow is the most common cell source, but other tissues are now being explored, such as the periosteum, fat, muscle, cord blood, and embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells. The therapeutic effect of exogenous stem/progenitor cells is accepted, yet their contribution to bone repair is not well defined. The in vitro osteo- and/or chondrogenic potential of these skeletal progenitors do not necessarily predict their differentiation potential in vivo and their function may be affected by their ability to home correctly to bone. This review provides an overview of animal models used to test the efficacy of cell-based approaches. We examine the mechanisms of endogenous cell recruitment during bone repair and compare the role of local versus systemic cell recruitment. We discuss how the normal repair process can help define efficacious cell sources for bone tissue engineering and improve their methods of delivery. PMID:21902612

  5. The cell biology of bone growth.

    PubMed

    Price, J S; Oyajobi, B O; Russell, R G

    1994-02-01

    The field of bone cell biology is clearly of relevance to the problem of stunting in children, as in the final analysis the cells of the growing long bone are the ultimate 'regulators'. It is the alterations in the functions of these cells that manifests as a reduction in height. Normal longitudinal growth is achieved by the coordinated recruitment, proliferation, differentiation, maturation and eventual death of the cells of growth plate and bone. Cellular activity is closely regulated by endocrine factors acting directly or indirectly, with factors produced locally and stored within the bone and cartilage microenvironment having a critical role in intercellular communication. Disruption of any of these processes can lead to growth disturbances, since it only requires a defect in a single gene to have profound effects. Studies in recent years have shed light on the biochemical and molecular effects of cytokines and growth factors and have shown that these regulatory molecules may mediate the effects of certain hormones important in controlling growth. However, the complex interrelationship of these molecules is still not clear. Notwithstanding, understanding of the mechanisms involved in bone remodelling is increasing, as this area attracts much research because of the high incidence of metabolic bone disease in Western society. Although studies of adult bone remodelling are of relevance, there is a requirement for increased research directed specifically at the mechanisms of endochondral ossification and its regulation. Longitudinal bone growth is a challenge to the cell biologist, since it is an accelerated cycle of cellular division and differentiation, within which it is not easy to separate events temporally and spatially. In addition, different regulatory mechanisms are probably important at different stages of growth. Another difficulty impeding progress in this field is the lack of appropriate animal models for research. Much information has come from

  6. Haemopoietic recovery in spleen and marrow after transplantation of bone marrow from either normal or hydroxyurea treated mice.

    PubMed

    Hasthorpe, S; Hodgson, G S

    1977-09-01

    Haemopoietic regeneration was studied following x-irradiation and transplantation of bone marrow from either normal or hydroxyurea-treated donor mice, to ascertain the contribution of proliferating progenitor cells to regeneration. With transplantation of equivalent numbers of CFU-S, total DNA and 3HTdR uptake into DNA in spleen and femoral bone marrow and the erythroid, granulocytic and mononuclear cell populations were not significantly different between normal (NBM) and hydroxyurea-treated (HUBM) marrow. The response of hypertransfused x-irradiated mice to erythropoietin (EPO) administration was also not significantly different in spleens of mice receiving normal or hydroxyurea-treated marrow.

  7. Bone tissue engineering with human stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of extensive bone defects requires autologous bone grafting or implantation of bone substitute materials. An attractive alternative has been to engineer fully viable, biological bone grafts in vitro by culturing osteogenic cells within three-dimensional scaffolds, under conditions supporting bone formation. Such grafts could be used for implantation, but also as physiologically relevant models in basic and translational studies of bone development, disease and drug discovery. A source of human cells that can be derived in large numbers from a small initial harvest and predictably differentiated into bone forming cells is critically important for engineering human bone grafts. We discuss the characteristics and limitations of various types of human embryonic and adult stem cells, and their utility for bone tissue engineering. PMID:20637059

  8. Engineering injectable bone using bone marrow stromal cell aggregates.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dongyang; Zhong, Cuiping; Yao, Hong; Liu, Yanpu; Chen, Fulin; Li, Jianxue; Zhao, Jinlong; Mao, Tianqiu; Ren, Liling

    2011-06-01

    With the increasing popularity of minimally invasive surgery, to develop an injectable bone would be highly preferable for the repair of bone nonunions and defects. However, the use of dissociated cells and exogenous carriers to construct injectable bone faces several drawbacks. To circumvent these limitations, we first harvested a cell sheet from rabbit bone marrow stromal cells using a continuous culture method and a scraping technique. The obtained sheet was then cut into fragments of multicellular aggregates, each of which was composed of a certain number of cells, extracellular matrix, and intercellular connections. The aggregates showed apparent mineralization properties, high alkaline phosphatase activity, increased osteocalcin content, and upregulated bone markers, implying their in vitro osteogenic potential. Then, serum-free medium (the control group), dissociated cell suspension (the cell group), and suspension of multicellular aggregates (the aggregate group) were injected subcutaneously on the back of the nude mice to evaluate ectopic bone formation. The results revealed that the aggregate group showed significantly larger and denser bone at the injection sites than the cell group, whereas bone formation did not occur in the control group. Additionally, when injecting them locally into the mandibular fracture gap of delayed healing in a rabbit model, we observed the most improved bone healing in the aggregate group. More cells survive and retain at the injection sites in the aggregate group than that in the cell group postoperatively. Our study indicates that the multicellular aggregates might be considered a promising strategy to generate injectable bone tissue and improve the efficacy of cell therapy.

  9. Histological characterization of bone marrow in ectopic bone, induced by devitalized Saos-2 human osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Niru N; Tague, Sarah E; Wang, Jinxi; Danley, Marsha; Garimella, Rama; Anderson, H Clarke

    2013-01-01

    Devitalized Saos-2, cultured human osteosarcoma cells, or guanidinium-hydrochloride (GuHCl) extracts of these cells, induce ectopic bone and marrow formation when implanted subcutaneously in Nu/Nu mice. The aim of the present study was to characterize the bone marrow induced by Saos-2 cell extracts, specifically to determine which of the four major hematopoietic cell lineages: erythropoietic, granulopoietic, lymphopoietic and megakaryocytic, are induced by Saos-2 cell derivatives. Immunohistochemical localization of specific antigens was used to determine the presence of each major cell type (glycophorin A for erythropoietic, neutrophil elastase for granulopoietic, factor-VIII related antigen for megakaryocytes, and CD79a for B lymphocytes). Standard H & E stains confirmed the presence of normally organized apparently complete bone marrow within all newly induced bone at 3 weeks post-implantation of devitalized Saos-2 cells. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of erythropoietic cells, granulopoietic cells, megakaryocytes and B lymphocytes in the ectopic marrow. Saos-2 cells (freeze-dried) or their extracts, implanted subcutaneously into Nu/Nu mice, can induce normal marrow that is host-derived, and contains all major hematopoietic cell lineages. Saos-2 induced marrow could potentially restore deficient marrow and promote bone repair.

  10. Histological characterization of bone marrow in ectopic bone, induced by devitalized Saos-2 human osteosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Niru N; Tague, Sarah E; Wang, Jinxi; Danley, Marsha; Garimella, Rama; Anderson, H Clarke

    2013-01-01

    Devitalized Saos-2, cultured human osteosarcoma cells, or guanidinium-hydrochloride (GuHCl) extracts of these cells, induce ectopic bone and marrow formation when implanted subcutaneously in Nu/Nu mice. The aim of the present study was to characterize the bone marrow induced by Saos-2 cell extracts, specifically to determine which of the four major hematopoietic cell lineages: erythropoietic, granulopoietic, lymphopoietic and megakaryocytic, are induced by Saos-2 cell derivatives. Methods: Immunohistochemical localization of specific antigens was used to determine the presence of each major cell type (glycophorin A for erythropoietic, neutrophil elastase for granulopoietic, factor-VIII related antigen for megakaryocytes, and CD79a for B lymphocytes). Results: Standard H & E stains confirmed the presence of normally organized apparently complete bone marrow within all newly induced bone at 3 weeks post-implantation of devitalized Saos-2 cells. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of erythropoietic cells, granulopoietic cells, megakaryocytes and B lymphocytes in the ectopic marrow. Conclusion: Saos-2 cells (freeze-dried) or their extracts, implanted subcutaneously into Nu/Nu mice, can induce normal marrow that is host-derived, and contains all major hematopoietic cell lineages. Clinical Significance: Saos-2 induced marrow could potentially restore deficient marrow and promote bone repair. PMID:23386915

  11. Evidence for multiple bone resorption-stimulating factors produced by normal human keratinocytes in culture.

    PubMed

    Fried, R M; Voelkel, E F; Rice, R H; Levine, L; Tashjian, A H

    1988-06-01

    Conditioned medium from cultured normal human foreskin keratinocytes enhanced the release of calcium from neonatal mouse calvaria in organ culture. Unfractionated keratinocyte-conditioned medium (KCM) stimulated bone resorption in a dose-dependent manner, but it did not increase the concentration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the bone culture medium until a maximal dose of KCM for resorption was used. Furthermore, inhibitors of PGE2 synthesis, indomethacin, ibuprofen, and piroxicam, did not inhibit KCM-induced calcium release. High concentrations of KCM increased cAMP production by calvaria in the presence of isobutylmethylxanthine, but the increase was small compared with that produced by a dose of bovine PTH that caused a similar level of bone resorption. The bone resorption-stimulating activity of KCM was not lost after incubation at 56 C for 60 min, but it was lost after heating at 100 C for 10 min. Fractionation of KCM by gel filtration chromatography revealed two distinct peaks of bone resorption-stimulating activity. One peak, KCMI, caused a significant increase in bone resorption at 2 micrograms protein/ml. KCMI did not increase medium PGE2, and inhibition of PGE2 synthesis in bone had no effect on KCMI-induced bone resorption. KCMI failed to increase cAMP production by human osteosarcoma SaOS-2 cells. Another peak, KCMII, caused a dose-dependent increase in bone resorption, and a significant increase in medium calcium was noted at a 20-fold lower concentration (0.1 microgram protein/ml) than with KCMI. In contrast to KCMI, the increase in bone resorption stimulated by KCMII was accompanied by a parallel increase in the production of PGE2, and inhibition of PGE2 synthesis completely inhibited the bone resorption-stimulating activity of KCMII. KCMII also caused an increase in cAMP production by SaOS-2 cells. We conclude that KCM contains at least two distinct bone resorption-stimulating factors, one of which acts via a PG-mediated mechanism and the other by

  12. [Bone and Stem Cells. Intravital imaging of bone marrow microenvironment].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Hiroki; Kikuta, Junichi; Ishii, Masaru

    2014-04-01

    Various kinds of cell types, such as osteoclasts, osteoblasts, hematopoietic cells, and mesenchymal cells, have been reported to exist in the bone marrow and communicate with each other. Although there have been many previous studies about bone marrow microenvironment, most of them were analyzed by conventional methods such as histological analysis and flow cytometry. These methods could not observe the dynamic cell movement in living bone marrow. Recently rapid development of fluorescent imaging techniques enables us to understand the cellular dynamics in vivo . That's why we have originally established an advanced imaging system for visualizing living bone tissues with intravital two-photon microscopy. Here we show the latest data and the detailed methodology of intravital imaging of bone marrow microenvironment, and also discuss its further application.

  13. Characteristics of bone turnover in the long bone metaphysis fractured patients with normal or low Bone Mineral Density (BMD).

    PubMed

    Wölfl, Christoph; Schweppenhäuser, Daniela; Gühring, Thorsten; Takur, Caner; Höner, Bernd; Kneser, Ulrich; Grützner, Paul Alfred; Kolios, Leila

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of osteoporotic fractures increases as our population ages. Until now, the exact biochemical processes that occur during the healing of metaphyseal fractures remain unclear. Diagnostic instruments that allow a dynamic insight into the fracture healing process are as yet unavailable. In the present matched pair analysis, we study the time course of the osteoanabolic markers bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), as well as the osteocatabolic markers crosslinked C-telopeptide of type-I-collagen (β-CTX) and serum band 5 tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP5b), during the healing of fractures that have a low level of bone mineral density (BMD) compared with fractures that have a normal BMD. Between March 2007 and February 2009, 30 patients aged older than 50 years who suffered a metaphyseal fracture were included in our study. BMDs were verified by dual energy Xray absorptiometry (DXEA) scans. The levels of BTMs were examined over an 8-week period. Osteoanabolic BAP levels in those with low levels of BMD were significantly different from the BAP levels in those with normal BMD. BAP levels in the former group increased constantly, whereas the latter group showed an initial strong decrease in BAP followed by slowly rising values. Osteocatabolic β-CTX increased in the bone of the normal BMD group constantly, whereas these levels decreased significantly in the bone of the group with low BMD from the first week. TRAP5b was significantly reduced in the low level BMD group. With this work, we conduct first insights into the molecular biology of the fracture healing process in patients with low levels of BMD that explains the mechanism of its fracture healing. The results may be one reason for the reduced healing qualities in bones with low BMD.

  14. Cell interactions in bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Pirraco, R P; Marques, A P; Reis, R L

    2010-01-01

    Bone fractures, where the innate regenerative bone response is compromised, represent between 4 and 8 hundred thousands of the total fracture cases, just in the United States. Bone tissue engineering (TE) brought the notion that, in cases such as those, it was preferable to boost the healing process of bone tissue instead of just adding artificial parts that could never properly replace the native tissue. However, despite the hype, bone TE so far could not live up to its promises and new bottom-up approaches are needed. The study of the cellular interactions between the cells relevant for bone biology can be of essential importance to that. In living bone, cells are in a context where communication with adjacent cells is almost permanent. Many fundamental works have been addressing these communications nonetheless, in a bone TE approach, the 3D perspective, being part of the microenvironment of a bone cell, is as crucial. Works combining the study of cell-to-cell interactions in a 3D environment are not as many as expected. Therefore, the bone TE field should not only gain knowledge from the field of fundamental Biology but also contribute for further understanding the biology of bone. In this review, a summary of the main works in the field of bone TE, aiming at studying cellular interactions in a 3D environment, and how they contributed towards the development of a functional engineered bone tissue, is presented.

  15. Normalization of nano-sized TiO2-induced clastogenicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity by chlorophyllin administration in mice brain, liver, and bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    El-Ghor, Akmal A; Noshy, Magda M; Galal, Ahmad; Mohamed, Hanan Ramadan H

    2014-11-01

    The intensive uses of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in sunscreens, toothpaste, sweats, medications, etc. making humans exposed to it daily by not little amounts and also increased its risks including genotoxicity. Thus, the present study was designed as one way to reduce nano-titanium-induced clastogenicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity in mice by co-administration of the free radical scavenger chlorophyllin (CHL). In addition, markers of oxidative stress were detected to shed more light on mechanism(s) underlying nano-sized TiO2 genotoxicity. Male mice were exposed to multiple injection into the abdominal cavity for five consecutive days with either CHL (40 mg/kg bw/day), or each of three dose levels of nano-sized TiO2 (500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg bw/day) alone, or both simultaneously and sacrificed by cervical dislocation 24 h after the last treatment. After CHL co-administration, the observed dose-dependent genotoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles indicated by the significant elevations in frequencies of both micronuclei and DNA damage induction was significantly decreased and returned to the negative control level. The observed induced mutations in p53 exons 5, 7, & 8 and 5 & 8 in the liver and brain, respectively, were declined in most cases. Moreover, CHL significantly decreased hepatic malondialdehyde level and significantly increased glutathione level and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities that were significantly disrupted in animal groups treated with nano-TiO2 alone. In conclusion, the evidenced in vivo genotoxicity of nano-TiO2 in the present study was normalized after CHL co-administration which supports the previously suggested oxidative stress as the possible mechanism for titanium toxicity.

  16. The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Vorinostat, Reduces Tumor Growth at the Metastatic Bone Site and Associated Osteolysis, but Promotes Normal Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Pratap, Jitesh; Akech, Jacqueline; Wixted, John J.; Szabo, Gabriela; Hussain, Sadiq; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Li, Xiaodong; Bedard, Krystin; Dhillon, Robinder J.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Stein, Janet L.; Stein, Gary S.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; Lian, Jane B.

    2010-01-01

    Vorinostat, an oral histone deacetylase inhibitor with anti-tumor activity, is in clinical trials for hematological and solid tumors that metastasize and compromise bone structure. Consequently, there is a requirement to establish the effects of vorinostat on tumor growth within bone. Breast (MDA-231) and prostate (PC3) cancer cells were injected into tibias of SCID/NCr mice and the effects of vorinostat on tumor growth and osteolytic disease were assessed by radiography, μCT, histological and molecular analyses. Vorinostat-treated and control mice without tumors were also examined. Tumor growth in bone was reduced ~33% by vorinostat with inhibited osteolysis in the first few weeks of the experiment; however, osteolysis became more severe in both the vehicle and vorinostat-treated groups. Vorinostat increased the expression of tumor-derived factors promoting bone resorption, including PTHrP, IL-8 and osteopontin. After four weeks of vorinostat therapy the non-tumor bearing contra-lateral femurs as well as limbs from vorinostat-treated tumor-free SCID mice, showed significant bone loss (50% volume density of controls). Thus, our studies indicate that vorinostat effectively inhibits tumor growth in bone, but has a negative systemic effect reducing normal trabecular bone mass. Vorinostat treatment reduces tumor growth in bone and accompanying osteolytic disease as a result of decreased tumor burden in bone. However, vorinostat can promote osteopenia throughout the skeleton independent of tumor cell activity. PMID:21159607

  17. Isolation and identification of normal killer cells from Syrian hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Matveeva, V.A.; Klyuchareva, T.E.

    1986-09-01

    This paper gives data on isolation of normal killer cells from the blood and various tissues of Syrian hamsters in a Percoll density gradient and their identification on the basis of morphologic criteria and cytotoxic activity (CTA). CTA of the isolated cells was studied in the cytotoxic test with target cells of a human MOLT-4 thymoma cell labeled with /sup 51/Cr. Isolation of large granular lymphocytes from blood, spleen, and bone marrow of Syrian hamsters in Percoll density gradient is shown in the results of five experiments used for cells of each type.

  18. Maturation-associated gene expression profiles along normal human bone marrow monopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Mello, Fabiana V; Alves, Liliane R; Land, Marcelo G P; Teodósio, Cristina; Sanchez, María-Luz; Bárcena, Paloma; Peres, Rodrigo T; Pedreira, Carlos E; Costa, Elaine S; Orfao, Alberto

    2017-02-01

    Human monopoiesis is a tightly coordinated process which starts in the bone marrow (BM) haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment and leads to the production of circulating blood mature monocytes. Although mature monocytes/macrophages have been extensively studied in both normal or inflammatory conditions, monopoiesis has only been assessed in vitro and in vivo animal models, due to low frequency of the monocytic precursors in the normal human BM. Here we investigated the transcriptional profile along normal human BM monopoiesis. Five distinct maturation-associated stages of monocytic precursors were identified and isolated from (fresh) normal human BM through fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and the gene expression profile (GEP) of each monocytic precursor subset was analysed by DNA-oligonucleotide microarrays. Overall, >6000 genes (18% of the genes investigated) were expressed in ≥1 stage of BM monopoiesis at stable or variable amounts, showing early decrease in cell proliferation with increased levels of expression of genes linked with cell differentiation. The here-defined GEP of normal human BM monopoiesis might contribute to better understand monocytic differentiation and the identification of novel monocytic candidate markers, while also providing a frame of reference for the study of monocytic maturation in both neoplastic and non-neoplastic disease conditions involving monocytic precursor cells.

  19. Memory T-cell competition for bone marrow seeding

    PubMed Central

    Di Rosa, Francesca; Santoni, Angela

    2003-01-01

    The presence in the bone marrow of memory CD8 T cells is well recognized. However, it is still largely unclear how T-cell migration from the lymphoid periphery to the bone marrow is regulated. In the present report, we show that antigen-specific CD4 T cells, as well as antigen-specific CD8 T cells, localize to the bone marrow of immunized mice, and are sustained there over long periods of time. To investigate the rules governing T-cell migration to the bone marrow, we generated chimeric mice in which the lymphoid periphery contained two genetically or phenotypically distinct groups of T cells, one of which was identical to the host. We then examined whether a distinct type of T cell had an advantage over the others in the colonization of bone marrow. Our results show that whereas ICAM1 and CD18 molecules are both involved in homing to lymph nodes, neither is crucial for T-cell bone marrow colonization. We also observed that memory-phenotype CD44high T cells, but not virgin-type CD44−/low T cells, preferentially home to the bone marrow upon adoptive transfer to normal young mice, but not to thymectomized old recipients where an existing memory T-cell pool precludes their free access. Thus, T-cell colonization of the bone marrow uses distinct molecules from those implicated in lymph node homing, and is regulated both by the properties of the T cell and by the competitive efficacy of other T cells inhabiting the same, saturable niche. This implies that the homing potential of an individual lymphocyte is not merely an intrinsic property of the cell, but rather a property of the lymphoid system taken as a whole. PMID:12603595

  20. Normal Collagen and Bone Production by Gene-targeted Human Osteogenesis Imperfecta iPSCs

    PubMed Central

    Deyle, David R; Khan, Iram F; Ren, Gaoying; Wang, Pei-Rong; Kho, Jordan; Schwarze, Ulrike; Russell, David W

    2012-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is caused by dominant mutations in the type I collagen genes. In principle, the skeletal abnormalities of OI could be treated by transplantation of patient-specific, bone-forming cells that no longer express the mutant gene. Here, we develop this approach by isolating mesenchymal cells from OI patients, inactivating their mutant collagen genes by adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene targeting, and deriving induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) that were expanded and differentiated into mesenchymal stem cells (iMSCs). Gene-targeted iMSCs produced normal collagen and formed bone in vivo, but were less senescent and proliferated more than bone-derived MSCs. To generate iPSCs that would be more appropriate for clinical use, the reprogramming and selectable marker transgenes were removed by Cre recombinase. These results demonstrate that the combination of gene targeting and iPSC derivation can be used to produce potentially therapeutic cells from patients with genetic disease. PMID:22031238

  1. Bone Cells Dynamics during Peri-Implantitis: a Theoretical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Pedro de Sousa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The present manuscript aims a detailed characterization of the bone cells dynamics during physiological bone remodelling and, subsequently, to address the cellular and molecular mechanisms that play a fundamental role in the immune-inflammatory-induced uncoupled bone remodelling observed in peri-implantitis. Results An intimate relationship between the immune system and bone is acknowledged to be determinant for bone tissue remodelling and integrity. Due to the close interaction of immune and bone cells, the two systems share a number of surface receptors, cytokines, signalling pathways and transcription factors that are involved in mutual regulatory mechanisms. This physiological equilibrium is disturbed in pathological conditions, as verified in peri-implantitis establishment and development. Activation of the innate and adaptive immune response, challenged by the local bacterial infection, induces the synthesis of high levels of a variety of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines that disturb the normal functioning of the bone cells, by uncoupling bone resorption and formation, ending up with a net alveolar bone loss and subsequent implant failure. Most data points to an immune-inflammatory induced osteoclast differentiation and function, as the major underlying mechanism to the uncoupled bone resorption to bone formation. Further, the disturbed functioning of osteoblasts, reflected by the possible expression of a fibro-osteoblastic phenotype, may also play a role. Conclusions Alveolar bone loss is a hallmark of peri-implantitis. A great deal of data is still needed on the cellular and humoral crosstalk in the context of an integrated view of the osteoimmunologic interplay occurring in the peri-implantitis environment subjacent to the bone loss outcome. PMID:27833731

  2. Differential Intracochlear Sound Pressure Measurements in Normal Human Temporal Bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Dong, Wei; Olson, Elizabeth S.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2009-02-01

    We present the first simultaneous sound pressure measurements in scala vestibuli and scala tympani of the cochlea in human cadaveric temporal bones. Micro-scale fiberoptic pressure sensors enabled the study of differential sound pressure at the cochlear base. This differential pressure is the input to the cochlear partition, driving cochlear waves and auditory transduction. Results showed that: pressure of scala vestibuli was much greater than scala tympani except at low and high frequencies where scala tympani pressure affects the input to the cochlea; the differential pressure proved to be an excellent measure of normal ossicular transduction of sound (shown to decrease 30-50 dB with ossicular disarticulation, whereas the individual scala pressures were significantly affected by non-ossicular conduction of sound at high frequencies); the middle-ear gain and differential pressure were generally bandpass in frequency dependence; and the middle-ear delay in the human was over twice that of the gerbil. Concurrent stapes velocity measurements allowed determination of the differential impedance across the partition and round-window impedance. The differential impedance was generally resistive, while the round-window impedance was consistent with a compliance in conjunction with distributed inertia and damping. Our techniques can be used to study inner-ear conductive pathologies (e.g., semicircular dehiscence), as well as non-ossicular cochlear stimulation (e.g., round-window stimulation) - situations that cannot be completely quantified by measurements of stapes velocity or scala-vestibuli pressure by themselves.

  3. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasized to Pagetic Bone

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Ashley; Liu, Bo; Rop, Baiywo; Edison, Michelle; Valente, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Paget’s disease of the bone, historically known as osteitis deformans, is an uncommon disease typically affecting individuals of European descent. Patients with Paget’s disease of the bone are at increased risk for primary bone neoplasms, particularly osteosarcoma. Many cases of metastatic disease to pagetic bone have been reported. However, renal cell carcinoma metastasized to pagetic bone is extremely rare. A 94-year-old male presented to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen demonstrated a large mass in the right kidney compatible with renal cell carcinoma. The patient was also noted to have Paget’s disease of the pelvic bones and sacrum. Within the pagetic bone of the sacrum, there was an enhancing mass compatible with renal cell carcinoma. A subsequent biopsy of the renal lesion confirmed renal cell carcinoma. Paget’s disease of the bone places the patient at an increased risk for bone neoplasms. The most commonly reported sites for malignant transformation are the femur, pelvis, and humerus. In cases of malignant transformation, osteosarcoma is the most common diagnosis. Breast, lung, and prostate carcinomas are the most common to metastasize to pagetic bone. Renal cell carcinoma associated with Paget’s disease of the bone is very rare, with only one prior reported case. Malignancy in Paget's disease of the bone is uncommon with metastatic disease to pagetic bone being extremely rare. We report a patient diagnosed with concomitant renal cell carcinoma and metastatic disease within Paget’s disease of the sacrum. Further research is needed to assess the true incidence of renal cell carcinoma associated with pagetic bone. PMID:27660736

  4. Homing of cancer cells to the bone.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Anjali; Shiozawa, Yusuke; Pienta, Kenneth J; Taichman, Russell S

    2011-12-01

    A variety of tumor cells preferentially home to the bone. The homing of cancer cells to the bone represents a multi-step process that involves malignant progression of the tumor, invasion of the tumor through the extracellular matrix and the blood vessels and settling of the tumor cells in the bone. Gaining a greater understanding as to the mechanisms used by cancer cells in these processes will facilitate the design of drugs which could specifically target the homing process. In this review we will discuss the properties of tumor cells and the bone microenvironment which promote homing of a cancer cell to the bone. We will highlight the different steps and the molecular pathways involved when a cancer cell metastasize to the bone. Since bone is the major home for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), we will also highlight the similarities between the homing of cancer and HSC to the bone. Finally we will conclude with therapeutic and early detection strategies which can prevent homing of a cancer cell to the bone.

  5. Cell therapy in bone healing disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Marcus; Hernigou, Philippe; Zilkens, Christoph; Herten, Monika; Li, Xinning; Fischer, Johannes; Krauspe, Rüdiger

    2010-01-01

    In addition to osteosynthetic stabilizing techniques and autologous bone transplantations, so-called orthobiologics play an increasing role in the treatment of bone healing disorders. Besides the use of various growth factors, more and more new data suggest that cell-based therapies promote local bone regeneration. For ethical and biological reasons, clinical application of progenitor cells on the musculoskeletal system is limited to autologous, postpartum stem cells. Intraoperative one-step treatment with autologous progenitor cells, in particular, delivered promising results in preliminary clinical studies. This article provides an overview of the rationale for, and characteristics of the clinical application of cell-based therapy to treat osseous defects based on a review of existing literature and our own experience with more than 100 patients. Most clinical trials report successful bone regeneration after the application of mixed cell populations from bone marrow. The autologous application of human bone marrow cells which are not expanded ex vivo has medico-legal advantages. However, there is a lack of prospective randomized studies including controls for cell therapy for bone defects. Autologous bone marrow cell therapy seems to be a promising treatment option which may reduce the amount of bone grafting in future. PMID:21808710

  6. A detailed assessment of alterations in bone turnover, calcium homeostasis, and bone density in normal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Black, A J; Topping, J; Durham, B; Farquharson, R G; Fraser, W D

    2000-03-01

    The effects of pregnancy on bone turnover and the potential risk of developing an osteoporotic fracture in pregnancy are controversial. Utilizing biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), bone turnover before, during, and after pregnancy was studied in detail. Ten women (mean age 30 years; range 23-40) were recruited. Prepregnancy data were obtained and then a review was performed at 2-week intervals , once pregnancy was confirmed, until 14 weeks of gestation and thereafter monthly until term. Bone mineral density (BMD) was estimated by DEXA scanning of hip, spine, and forearm preconception and postpartum. In addition, BMD of the forearm at 14 weeks and 28 weeks gestation was obtained. All pregnancies had a successful outcome. Urinary free pyridinium cross-links, free pyridinoline (fPyr) and free deoxypyridinoline (fDPyr), were normal prepregnancy (mean [+/-SD]) 14.6 nmol/mmol (1.8) and 5.0 nmol/mmol (1.0) creat, respectively. By 14 weeks, they had increased to 20.8 nmol/mmol (4.3) and 6.1 nmol mmol (1.4) (both p < 0.02) and by 28 weeks to 26.3 nmol/mmol (5.6) and 7.4 nmol/mmol (1.6) (both p < 0.01). The ratio of fPyr to fDPyr remained constant. A similar significant increase was observed in N-telopeptide (NTx). Bone formation was assessed by measurement of carboxyterminal propeptide of type 1 collagen (P1CP) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP). Neither were altered significantly before 28 weeks, but subsequently mean P1CP increased from 110 microg/liter (23) to 235 microg/liter (84) at 38 weeks and mean BSAP increased from 11.1 U/liter (5.0) to 28.6 U/liter (11.1) (p < 0.01 for both variables). Lumbar spine (L1-L4) BMD decreased from a prepregnancy mean of 1.075 g/cm (0.115) to 1.054 g/cm2 (0.150) postpartum (p < 0.05). Total hip BMD decreased from a prepregnancy mean of 0.976 g/cm2 (0.089) to 0.941 g/cm2 (0.097) (p < 0.05). Forearm BMD at midradius, one-third distal and ultradistal decreased but

  7. Facial bone infarcts in sickle cell syndromes.

    PubMed

    Royal, J E; Harris, V J; Sansi, P K

    1988-11-01

    Bone infarction in the sickle cell syndromes (sickle cell anemia, sickle beta thalassemia, and sickle C disease) is common in the long bones, but the facial bones, particularly the orbits, are infrequently involved. In a review of the literature, only 13 cases of facial bone infarcts in sickle cell syndromes were found. Seven episodes of facial bone infarcts--four orbital, two mandibular, and one in the zygomatic arch--in six patients encountered at the authors' institution are reported. Five patients had hemoglobin SS, and one had hemoglobin SC. Bone marrow scans were positive for infarction in five of the six episodes during which they were obtained, which highlights the usefulness of this technique in the diagnosis of facial bone infarction.

  8. A Study of Ossification of Carpal and Tarsal Bones in Normal and Hypothyroid Foals

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, B. G.; Doige, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    The degree of ossification of carpal and tarsal bones was determined in normal foals of various ages and in hypothyroid and thyroidectomized foals. In normal foals ossification occurred very rapidly in the last few weeks of gestation and less rapidly from birth to 33 days. The ulnar carpal bone was consistently less ossified than other carpal or tarsal bones. Foals with congenital hyperplastic goitre had retarded ossification of the cuboidal bones, especially the central and third tarsal bones. Thyroidectomized foals had retarded ossification of lesser degree. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:17422143

  9. Canine Cranial Reconstruction Using Autologous Bone Marrow Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mankani, Mahesh H.; Kuznetsov, Sergei A.; Shannon, Brian; Nalla, Ravi K.; Ritchie, Robert O.; Qin, Yixian; Robey, Pamela Gehron

    2006-01-01

    Limited-sized transplants of culture-expanded autologous or allogeneic bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) form cortico-cancellous bone in rodent models. Initiation of clinical studies using autologous BMSC transplantation requires effective bone formation among sizable transplants in a large animal model as well as noninvasive techniques for evaluating transplant success. Here, we obtained bone marrow from the femurs of six dogs and expanded BMSCs in tissue culture. Autologous BMSC-hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) transplants were introduced into critical-sized calvarial defects and contralateral control skull defects received HA/TCP vehicle alone. At intervals ranging from 2 to 20 months, transplants were biopsied or harvested for histological and mechanical analysis. Noninvasive studies, including quantitative computed tomography scans and ultrasound, were simultaneously obtained. In all animals, BMSC-containing transplants formed significantly more bone than their control counterparts. BMSC-associated bone possessed mechanical properties similar to the adjacent normal bone, confirmed by both ultrasound and ex vivo analysis. Evaluation by quantitative computed tomography confirmed that the extent of bone formation demonstrated by histology could be discerned through noninvasive means. These results show that autologous cultured BMSC transplantation is a feasible therapy in clinical-sized bone defects and that such transplants can be assessed noninvasively, suggesting that this technique has potential for use in patients with certain bone defects. PMID:16436668

  10. Recovery of hair coat color in Gray Collie (cyclic neutropenia)-normal bone marrow transplant chimeras.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Gray Collie-normal bone marrow transplantation chimeras showed normal coloration of the hair coat on tails and several other areas 2 years after successful transplantation of bone marrow to correct cyclic neutropenia of the Gray Collie syndrome. Images Figures 1-2 PMID:347941

  11. Ethanol inhibits human bone cell proliferation and function in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Friday, K.E.; Howard, G.A. )

    1991-06-01

    The direct effects of ethanol on human bone cell proliferation and function were studied in vitro. Normal human osteoblasts from trabecular bone chips were prepared by collagenase digestion. Exposure of these osteoblasts to ethanol in concentrations of 0.05% to 1% for 22 hours induced a dose-dependent reduction in bone cell DNA synthesis as assessed by incorporation of 3H-thymidine. After 72 hours of ethanol exposure in concentrations of 0.01% to 1%, protein synthesis as measured by 3H-proline incorporation into trichbroacetic acid (TCA)-precipitable material was reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Human bone cell protein concentrations and alkaline phosphatase total activity were significantly reduced after exposure to 1% ethanol for 72 hours, but not with lower concentrations of ethanol. This reduction in osteoblast proliferation and activity may partially explain the development of osteopenia in humans consuming excessive amounts of ethanol.

  12. Smpd3 Expression in both Chondrocytes and Osteoblasts Is Required for Normal Endochondral Bone Development

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingjing; Manickam, Garthiga; Ray, Seemun; Oh, Chun-do; Yasuda, Hideyo; Moffatt, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 3 (SMPD3), a lipid-metabolizing enzyme present in bone and cartilage, has been identified to be a key regulator of skeletal development. A homozygous loss-of-function mutation called fragilitas ossium (fro) in the Smpd3 gene causes poor bone and cartilage mineralization resulting in severe congenital skeletal deformities. Here we show that Smpd3 expression in ATDC5 chondrogenic cells is downregulated by parathyroid hormone-related peptide through transcription factor SOX9. Furthermore, we show that transgenic expression of Smpd3 in the chondrocytes of fro/fro mice corrects the cartilage but not the bone abnormalities. Additionally, we report the generation of Smpd3flox/flox mice for the tissue-specific inactivation of Smpd3 using the Cre-loxP system. We found that the skeletal phenotype in Smpd3flox/flox; Osx-Cre mice, in which the Smpd3 gene is ablated in both late-stage chondrocytes and osteoblasts, closely mimics the skeletal phenotype in fro/fro mice. On the other hand, Smpd3flox/flox; Col2a1-Cre mice, in which the Smpd3 gene is knocked out in chondrocytes only, recapitulate the fro/fro mouse cartilage phenotype. This work demonstrates that Smpd3 expression in both chondrocytes and osteoblasts is required for normal endochondral bone development. PMID:27325675

  13. [Characterization of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, Toshihide

    Bones support the body as part of the human musculoskeletal system. They also contain bone marrow, which is a site of hematopoiesis. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells play a vital role by regulating skeletal tissue formation and maintaining hematopoiesis. While the presence of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells has been indicated, they have yet to be fully understood in vivo. Recent studies using genetic mouse models revealed that perivascular stromal cells function as mesenchymal stem cells, and their differentiation status may vary during the early stage of life to adulthood. Furthermore, studies have investigated the underlying mechanisms that regulate the cell fate decision of mesenchymal stem cells. These findings could lead to the design of new therapeutic approaches for metabolic bone disease and hematopoietic disease.

  14. Detection of Bone Marrow Derived Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kassmer, Susannah H.; Krause, Diane S.

    2010-01-01

    Studies on the ability of bone marrow derived cells to adopt the morphology and protein expression of epithelial cells in vivo have expanded rapidly over the last decade, and hundreds of publications report that bone marrow derived cells can become epithelial cells of multiple organs including lung, liver, GI tract, skin, pancreas and others. In this review, we critically evaluate the literature related to engraftment of bone marrow derived cells as epithelial cells in the lung. Over 40 manuscripts focused on whether bone marrow cells can differentiate into lung epithelial cells have been published, nearly all of which claim to identify marrow derived epithelial cells. A few investigations have concluded that no such cells are present and that the phenomenon of marrow derived epithelial cells is based on detection artifacts. Here we discuss the problems that exist in published papers identifying marrow derived epithelial cells, and propose standards for detection methods that provide the most definitive data. Identification of BM derived epithelial cells requires reliable and sensitive techniques for their detection, which must include cell identification based on the presence of an epithelial marker and the absence of blood cell markers as well as a marker for donor BM origin. In order for these studies to be rigorous, they must also use approaches to rule out cell overlap by microscopy or single cell isolation. Once these stringent criteria for identification of marrow derived epithelial cells are used universally, then the field can move forward to address the critical questions regarding which bone marrow derived cells are responsible for engraftment as epithelial cells, the mechanisms by which this occurs, whether these cells play a role in normal tissue repair, and whether specific cell subsets can be used for therapeutic benefit. PMID:20447442

  15. Autologous bone marrow stromal cells are promising candidates for cell therapy approaches to treat bone degeneration in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Lebouvier, Angélique; Poignard, Alexandre; Coquelin-Salsac, Laura; Léotot, Julie; Homma, Yasuhiro; Jullien, Nicolas; Bierling, Philippe; Galactéros, Frédéric; Hernigou, Philippe; Chevallier, Nathalie; Rouard, Hélène

    2015-11-01

    Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a frequent complication in adult patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). To delay hip arthroplasty, core decompression combined with concentrated total bone marrow (BM) treatment is currently performed in the early stages of the osteonecrosis. Cell therapy efficacy depends on the quantity of implanted BM stromal cells. For this reason, expanded bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also known as bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells) can be used to improve osteonecrosis treatment in SCD patients. In this study, we quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated the function of BMSCs isolated from a large number of SCD patients with osteonecrosis (SCD-ON) compared with control groups (patients with osteonecrosis not related to SCD (ON) and normal donors (N)). BM total nuclear cells and colony-forming efficiency values (CFE) were significantly higher in SCD-ON patients than in age and sex-matched controls. The BMSCs from SCD-ON patients were similar to BMSCs from the control groups in terms of their phenotypic and functional properties. SCD-ON patients have a higher frequency of BMSCs that retain their bone regeneration potential. Our findings suggest that BMSCs isolated from SCD-ON patients can be used clinically in cell therapy approaches. This work provides important preclinical data that is necessary for the clinical application of expanded BMSCs in advanced therapies and medical products.

  16. Bone marrow chimera experiments to determine the contribution of hematopoietic stem cells to cerebral angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Machein, Marcia Regina; Plate, Karl H

    2014-01-01

    The generation of bone marrow chimera in mice is a valuable tool to study a variety of cellular processes. Donor bone marrow cells expressing reporter genes have been used to study the process of cell differentiation and the mechanisms involved in bone marrow cell recruitment. Bone marrow cells bearing genetic manipulation have been used in bone marrow chimeras to elucidate the role of molecules in different physiological and pathological settings. Since in the normal adult brain angiogenesis does not occur, models of brain injury like ischemia and tumor growth have been used to study the contribution of bone marrow-derived cells to the cerebral vasculature. This chapter describes the procedures to perform bone marrow transplantation in order to study the contribution of bone marrow-derived cells to vascularization in an orthotopic glioma model.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of bone targeting salmon calcitonin analogs in normal and osteoporotic rats.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Krishna Hari; Newa, Madhuri; Chapman, Jillian; Doschak, Michael R

    2012-02-28

    In order to assess the therapeutic efficacy of an antiresorptive drug with imparted bone targeting potential using bisphosphonate (BP) conjugation and an improved pharmacokinetic profile using PEGylation, we synthesized, characterized and evaluated in vivo efficacy of bone-targeting PEGylated salmon calcitonin (sCT) analog (sCT-PEG-BP). sCT-PEG-BP was compared with non-PEGylated bone targeting sCT analog (sCT-BP) and unmodified, commercially available sCT. sCT-PEG-BP conjugates were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis. The effect of PEG-BP or BP upon sCT secondary structure was examined by Circular Dichroism and sCT-PEG-BP was evaluated for in vitro bone mineral Hydroxyapatite (HA) binding ability and calcium salts specificity using a binding assay for bone HA and several calcium salts. Anti-calcitonin antibody binding ability of these analogs was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), by reacting bone targeting sCT analogs with calcium phosphate coated Osteologic® plates and detecting the bound sCT using anti-sCT antibody. Potential cytotoxicity of these compounds was evaluated in monocytic RAW 264.7 cells, and sCT bioactivity was evaluated using an in vitro intracellular cAMP stimulation assay in human T47D breast cancer cells. Finally, in vivo efficacy of each compound was evaluated by determining the plasma levels of calcium after s.c. administration in normal rats, and in a rat model of Osteoporosis, secondary to ovariectomy (OVX). In vivo micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) was used to temporally map and quantify alterations in bone volume and bone mineral density (BMD) in the same animals at 1, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after OVX surgery. Sixteen 6 week old virgin female rats underwent OVX surgery followed by the daily s.c. injection of 2.5IU/kg/day sCT or equivalent analogs, and compared to four sham-operated, placebo treated control rats. Our results showed the chemical coupling of

  18. Bone disease in patients with long-term renal transplantation and normal renal function.

    PubMed

    Carlini, R G; Rojas, E; Weisinger, J R; Lopez, M; Martinis, R; Arminio, A; Bellorin-Font, E

    2000-07-01

    Renal osteodystrophy may persist during the early years after renal transplantation. However, information on bone status after a successful long-term renal transplantation is limited. We examined biochemical parameters, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone histomorphometry in 25 asymptomatic men with normal renal function after 7.5 +/- 5.7 years of a renal transplantation. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels and urinary calcium level and cyclic andenosine monophosphate excretion were within normal range in all patients. Serum intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) level was elevated in 11 subjects (133.6 +/- 78 pg/mL) and normal in the other 14 subjects (47.9 +/- 13.6 pg/mL). Mean BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck was low in the entire group. However, it progressively increased as time after transplantation increased, approaching normal values after 10 years. Bone histomorphometric analysis showed bone resorption, osteoid volume, and osteoid surface greater than normal range in the majority of patients. Bone formation rate and mineralization surface were low, and mineralization time was delayed in most patients. These lesions were more severe in patients after 3 to 4 years of transplantation but improved with time and approached normal values after a period of 10 years. PTH values did not correlate with bone histological characteristics or BMD. These results show that the bone alterations observed after long-term renal transplantation consist of a mixed bone disease in which features of high bone turnover coexist with altered bone formation and delayed mineralization. These findings may result from the combined effect of preexisting bone disease and immunosuppressive therapy.

  19. Schwann cells induce neuronal differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Zurita, Mercedes; Vaquero, Jesús; Oya, Santiago; Miguel, Miriam

    2005-04-04

    Bone marrow stromal cells are multipotent stem cells that have the potential to differentiate into bone, cartilage, fat and muscle. Recently, bone marrow stromal cells have been shown to have the capacity to differentiate into neurons under specific experimental conditions, using chemical factors. We now describe how bone marrow stromal cells can be induced to differentiate into neuron-like cells when they are co-cultured with Schwann cells. When compared with chemical differentiation, expression of neuronal differentiation markers begins later, but one week after beginning co-culture, most bone marrow stromal cells showed a typical neuronal morphology. Our present findings support the transdifferentiation of bone marrow stromal cells, and the potential utility of these cells for the treatment of degenerative and acquired disorders of the nervous system.

  20. Normalized volume of interest selection and measurement of bone volume in microCT scans.

    PubMed

    Snoeks, T J A; Kaijzel, E L; Que, I; Mol, I M; Löwik, C W G M; Dijkstra, J

    2011-12-01

    Quantification of osteolytic lesions in bone is pivotal in the research of metastatic bone disease in small animal models. Osteolytic lesions are quantified using 2D X-ray photographs, which often neglects to take into account any changes in 3D structure. Furthermore, measurement errors are inadvertently introduced when a region of interest with predefined dimensions is used during MicroCT analysis. To study osteolytic processes, a normalized method of selecting a region of interest is required. Here we describe a new method to select volumes of interest in a normalized way regardless of curvature, fractures or dislocations within the bone. In addition, this method enables the user to visualize normalized cross sections in an exact 90° angle or along the longitudinal axis of bone, at any given point. As a result, the user can compare measurements of diameter, volume and structure between different bones in a normalized manner.

  1. Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Generate Muscle Cells and Repair Muscle Degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezawa, Mari; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Itokazu, Yutaka; Yoshihara, Tomoyuki; Hoshino, Mikio; Takeda, Shin-ichi; Ide, Chizuka; Nabeshima, Yo-ichi

    2005-07-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) have great potential as therapeutic agents. We report a method for inducing skeletal muscle lineage cells from human and rat general adherent MSCs with an efficiency of 89%. Induced cells differentiated into muscle fibers upon transplantation into degenerated muscles of rats and mdx-nude mice. The induced population contained Pax7-positive cells that contributed to subsequent regeneration of muscle upon repetitive damage without additional transplantation of cells. These MSCs represent a more ready supply of myogenic cells than do the rare myogenic stem cells normally found in muscle and bone marrow.

  2. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection of bone marrow dendritic cells from multiple myeloma patients.

    PubMed

    Rettig, M B; Ma, H J; Vescio, R A; Põld, M; Schiller, G; Belson, D; Savage, A; Nishikubo, C; Wu, C; Fraser, J; Said, J W; Berenson, J R

    1997-06-20

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) was found in the bone marrow dendritic cells of multiple myeloma patients but not in malignant plasma cells or bone marrow dendritic cells from normal individuals or patients with other malignancies. In addition the virus was detected in the bone marrow dendritic cells from two out of eight patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), a precursor to myeloma. Viral interleukin-6, the human homolog of which is a growth factor for myeloma, was found to be transcribed in the myeloma bone marrow dendritic cells. KSHV may be required for transformation from MGUS to myeloma and perpetuate the growth of malignant plasma cells.

  3. Cell-based therapies for regenerating bone

    PubMed Central

    GOODMAN, S. B.

    2013-01-01

    Cellular therapies to replenish bone lost due to acquired conditions such as trauma, infection, tumor, periprosthetic osteolysis and other etiologies have become widespread. Traditional, open, surgical bone grafting techniques have given way to newer cellular therapies that are potentially less invasive and have a lower complication rate and faster recovery time. These new technologies include bone marrow harvesting with concentration of osteoprogenitor cells with/without cell culture, scaffolds which are both osteoconductive and osteoinductive, attempts to facilitate mesenchymal stem cell and osteoprogenitor cell homing both locally and systemically, genetic engineering of specialized stem cells, and the use of potentially immune-privileged fetal and other types of stem cells. Some of these techniques have already been introduced into the orthopaedic clinic, whereas others are still in the pre-clinical testing phase. Given the limited supply of autologous graft, these new techniques will have a dramatic impact on bone regeneration in the future. PMID:24436510

  4. Accelerated Bone Mass Senescence After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Serio, B; Pezzullo, L; Fontana, R; Annunziata, S; Rosamilio, R; Sessa, M; Giudice, V; Ferrara, I; Rocco, M; De Rosa, G; Ricci, P; Tauchmanovà, L; Montuori, N; Selleri, C.

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis and avascular necrosis (AVN) are long-lasting and debilitating complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We describe the magnitude of bone loss, AVN and impairment in osteogenic cell compartment following autologous (auto) and allogeneic (allo) HSCT, through the retrospective bone damage revaluation of 100 (50 auto- and 50 allo-HSCT) long-term survivors up to 15 years after transplant. Current treatment options for the management of these complications are also outlined. We found that auto- and allo-HSCT recipients show accelerated bone mineral loss and micro-architectural deterioration during the first years after transplant. Bone mass density (BMD) at the lumbar spine, but not at the femur neck, may improve in some patients after HSCT, suggesting more prolonged bone damage in cortical bone. Phalangeal BMD values remained low for even more years, suggesting persistent bone micro-architectural alterations after transplant. The incidence of AVN was higher in allo-HSCT recipients compared to auto-HSCT recipients. Steroid treatment length, but not its cumulative dose was associated with a higher incidence of bone loss. Allo-HSCT recipients affected by chronic graft versus host disease seem to be at greater risk of continuous bone loss and AVN development. Reduced BMD and higher incidence of AVN was partly related to a reduced regenerating capacity of the normal marrow osteogenic cell compartment. Our results suggest that all patients after auto-HSCT and allo-HSCT should be evaluated for their bone status and treated with anti-resorptive therapy as soon as abnormalities are detected. PMID:23905076

  5. Stem cells and bone diseases: new tools, new perspective.

    PubMed

    Riminucci, Mara; Remoli, Cristina; Robey, Pamela G; Bianco, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Postnatal skeletal stem cells are a unique class of progenitors with biological properties that extend well beyond the limits of stemness as commonly defined. Skeletal stem cells sustain skeletal tissue homeostasis, organize and maintain the complex architectural structure of the bone marrow microenvironment and provide a niche for hematopoietic progenitor cells. The identification of stem cells in the human post-natal skeleton has profoundly changed our approach to the physiology and pathology of this system. Skeletal diseases have been long interpreted essentially in terms of defective function of differentiated cells and/or abnormal turnover of the matrix that they produce. The notion of a skeletal stem cell has brought forth multiple, novel concepts in skeletal biology that provide potential alternative concepts. At the same time, the recognition of the complex functions played by skeletal progenitors, such as the structural and functional organization of the bone marrow, has provided an innovative, unifying perspective for understanding bone and bone marrow changes simultaneously occurring in many disorders. Finally, the possibility to isolate and highly enrich for skeletal progenitors, enables us to reproduce perfectly normal or pathological organ miniatures. These, in turn, provide suitable models to investigate and manipulate the pathogenetic mechanisms of many genetic and non-genetic skeletal diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Stem cells and Bone.

  6. Enumeration of the colony-forming units–fibroblast from mouse and human bone marrow in normal and pathological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, Sergei A.; Mankani, Mahesh H.; Bianco, Paolo; Robey, Pamela G.

    2009-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cell populations, containing a subset of multipotential skeletal stem cells, are increasingly contemplated for use in tissue engineering and stem cell therapy, whereas their involvement in the pathogenetic mechanisms of skeletal disorders is far less recognized. We compared the concentrations of stromal clonogenic cells, colony forming units–fibroblast (CFU-Fs), in norm and pathology. Initially, culture conditions were optimized by demonstrating that fetal bovine serum heat inactivation could significantly repress colony formation. Using non-heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum, the concentration of CFU-Fs (colony-forming efficiency, CFE) ranged from 3.5 ± 1.0 to 11.5 ± 4.0 per 1 × 105 nucleated cells in five inbred mouse strains. In four transgenic lines with profound bone involvement, CFE was either significantly reduced or increased compared to wild-type littermates. In normal human donors, CFE decreased slightly with age and averaged 52.2 ± 4.1 for children and 32.3 ± 3.0 for adults. CFE was significantly altered in patients with several skeletal, metabolic, and hematological disorders: reduced in congenital generalized lipodystrophy, achondroplasia (SADDAN), pseudoachondroplasia, and Paget disease of bone and elevated in alcaptonuria and sickle cell anemia. Our findings indicate that under appropriate culture conditions, CFE values may provide useful insights into bone/bone marrow pathophysiology. PMID:19383412

  7. Mobilization of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vivo augments bone healing in a mouse model of segmental bone defect.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjay; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan

    2012-04-01

    Although the number of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in the bone marrow is sufficient to maintain skeletal homeostasis, in osteopenic pathology, aggravated osteoclast activity or insufficient osteoblast numbers ensue, affecting normal bone remodeling. Most of the currently available therapies are anti-resorptive with limited osteogenic potential. Since mobilization of stem/progenitors from the BM is a prerequisite for their participation in tissue repair, amplification of endogenous stem cells may provide an alternative approach in these conditions. The present study determined the potential of MSC mobilization in vivo, using combinations of different growth factors with the CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100, in a mouse model of segmental bone defect. Results indicated that among several factors tested IGF1 had maximum proliferative ability of MSC in vitro. Results of the in vivo studies indicated that the combination of IGF1 and AMD3100 provided significant augmentation of bone growth as determined by DXA, micro-CT and histomorphometry in mice bearing segmental fractures. Further, characterization of MSC isolated from mice treated with IGF1 and AMD3100 indicated Akt/PI3K, MEK1/2-Erk1/2 and smad2/3 as key signaling pathways mediating this effect. These data indicate the potential of in vivo stem cell mobilization as a novel alternative for bone healing.

  8. [Bone and Stem Cells. Immune cell regulation by the bone marrow niche].

    PubMed

    Terashima, Asuka; Takayanagi, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained in the bone marrow and give rise to all blood cell types. The maintenance and the differentiation of blood cells including immune cells are essential for host defense and oxygen delivery. HSCs are maintained in microenvironments called stem cell niches, which consists of various cell types in bone marrow. Recently, new visualization technologies and assay systems brought advances in studies on the stem cell niche. In addition, several reports demonstrated that osteoblasts and osteocytes regulate not only HSC homeostasis but also immune cell differentiation, suggesting a close relationship between bone cells and HSCs.

  9. Bone cell interactions through Eph/ephrin

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Koichi; Otaki, Natsuko

    2012-01-01

    Bones cannot properly form or be maintained without cell-cell interactions through ephrin ligands and Eph receptors. Cell culture analysis and evaluation of genetic mouse models and human diseases reveal various ephrins and Eph functions in the skeletal system. Migration, attachment and spreading of mesenchymal stem cells are regulated by ephrinB ligands and EphB receptors. ephrinB1 loss-of-function is associated with craniofrontonasal syndrome (CFNS) in humans and mice. In bone remodeling, ephrinB2 is postulated to act as a “coupling stimulator.” In that case, bidirectional signaling between osteoclastic ephrinB2 and osteoblastic EphB4 suppresses osteoclastic bone resorption and enhances osteoblastic bone formation, facilitating the transition between these two states. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) induces ephrinB2 in osteoblasts and enhances osteoblastic bone formation. In contrast to ephrinB2, ephrinA2 acts as a “coupling inhibitor,” since ephrinA2 reverse signaling into osteoclasts enhances osteoclastogenesis and EphA2 forward signaling into osteoblasts suppresses osteoblastic bone formation and mineralization. Furthermore, ephrins and Ephs likely modulate pathological conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple myeloma and osteosarcoma. This review focuses on ephrin/Eph-mediated cell-cell interactions in bone biology. PMID:22660185

  10. Human progenitor cells for bone engineering applications.

    PubMed

    de Peppo, G M; Thomsen, P; Karlsson, C; Strehl, R; Lindahl, A; Hyllner, J

    2013-06-01

    In this report, the authors review the human skeleton and the increasing burden of bone deficiencies, the limitations encountered with the current treatments and the opportunities provided by the emerging field of cell-based bone engineering. Special emphasis is placed on different sources of human progenitor cells, as well as their pros and cons in relation to their utilization for the large-scale construction of functional bone-engineered substitutes for clinical applications. It is concluded that, human pluripotent stem cells represent a valuable source for the derivation of progenitor cells, which combine the advantages of both embryonic and adult stem cells, and indeed display high potential for the construction of functional substitutes for bone replacement therapies.

  11. Computer modelling of bone's adaptation: the role of normal strain, shear strain and fluid flow.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Abhishek Kumar; Prasad, Jitendra

    2017-04-01

    Bone loss is a serious health problem. In vivo studies have found that mechanical stimulation may inhibit bone loss as elevated strain in bone induces osteogenesis, i.e. new bone formation. However, the exact relationship between mechanical environment and osteogenesis is less clear. Normal strain is considered as a prime stimulus of osteogenic activity; however, there are some instances in the literature where osteogenesis is observed in the vicinity of minimal normal strain, specifically near the neutral axis of bending in long bones. It suggests that osteogenesis may also be induced by other or secondary components of mechanical environment such as shear strain or canalicular fluid flow. As it is evident from the literature, shear strain and fluid flow can be potent stimuli of osteogenesis. This study presents a computational model to investigate the roles of these stimuli in bone adaptation. The model assumes that bone formation rate is roughly proportional to the normal, shear and fluid shear strain energy density above their osteogenic thresholds. In vivo osteogenesis due to cyclic cantilever bending of a murine tibia has been simulated. The model predicts results close to experimental findings when normal strain, and shear strain or fluid shear were combined. This study also gives a new perspective on the relation between osteogenic potential of micro-level fluid shear and that of macro-level bending shear. Attempts to establish such relations among the components of mechanical environment and corresponding osteogenesis may ultimately aid in the development of effective approaches to mitigating bone loss.

  12. Bone marrow-derived cells are present in Mooren's ulcer.

    PubMed

    Ye, Juan; Chen, Jian; Kim, Jae Chan; Yao, Ke

    2004-01-01

    To investigate whether bone marrow-derived cells are present in Mooren's ulcer and involved in its destructive and regenerative disease course, tissue specimens were collected from 3 eyes of 3 patients with Mooren's ulcer that underwent lamellar keratectomy. Three normal donor limbal corneoscleras served as controls. Immunohistochemical staining patterns were analyzed by using the following antibodies: CD34 (a marker of hematopoietic progenitor cells and endothelium), c-kit (a marker of hematopoietic and stromal progenitor cells) and STRO-1 (a differentiation antigen present on bone marrow fibroblast cells and on various nonhematopoietic progenitor cells). Strong positive CD34, c-kit and STRO-1 cells were revealed in Mooren's ulcer specimens, especially in the superficial stroma. A few weakly expressed CD34 stromal cells were seen in normal limbal cornea, but no immunoreactivity for c-kit and STRO-1 was found. Bone marrow-derived cells are present in Mooren's ulcer and contribute to its destructive and regeneration process by synergizing with other factors. Specific therapeutic strategies that target the role of these cells in Mooren's ulcer are anticipated.

  13. Responds of Bone Cells to Microgravity: Ground-Based Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian; Li, Jingbao; Xu, Huiyun; Yang, Pengfei; Xie, Li; Qian, Airong; Zhao, Yong; Shang, Peng

    2015-11-01

    Severe loss of bone occurs due to long-duration spaceflight. Mechanical loading stimulates bone formation, while bone degradation happens under mechanical unloading. Bone remodeling is a dynamic process in which bone formation and bone resorption are tightly coupled. Increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation caused by reduced mechanical loading, generally result in disrupted bone remodeling. Bone remodeling is orchestrated by multiple bone cells including osteoblast, osteocyte, osteoclast and mesenchymal stem cell. It is yet not clear that how these bone cells sense altered gravity, translate physical stimulus into biochemical signals, and then regulate themselves structurally and functionally. In this paper, studies elucidating the bioeffects of microgravity on bone cells (osteoblast, osteocyte, osteoclast, mesenchymal stem cell) using various platforms including spaceflight and ground-based simulated microgravity were summarized. Promising gravity-sensitive signaling pathways and protein molecules were proposed.

  14. Immunosuppressive therapy in bone marrow aplasia: the stroma functions normally to support hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Novitzky, N; Jacobs, P

    1995-12-01

    In aplastic anemia (AA) patients responsive to antilymphocyte globulin (ALG) therapy, abnormalities in both stroma and progenitor cell (PC) pool have been described. The relevance of each pathophysiologic defect was characterized in 16 individuals, and data were compared to results from seven normal volunteers. Bone marrow mononuclear cells were split into two fractions. Stromal layers (SL) were prepared from the first, and a CD34+ enriched population was obtained by immunomagnetic selection from the second. In cross-culture experiments, 1 x 10(4) of the latter from patients or controls were seeded on preformed SL, and adhesive PC were scored for the formation of blast colonies (CFU-Bl) on day 5 of culture. Nonadherent progenitors were recovered and quantitated in a standard clonogenic assay (CFU-GM). There were significantly fewer CD34+ cells in the AA group (median 0.65%, SD 0.39%, vs. 1.62%, SD 1.4%; p = 0.002). No morphological or cytologic differences between normal and aplastic SL were detected. Both equally supported the growth of CFU-Bl from normal progenitors (mean 117, SD 20.4, and 103.1, SD 30.4), while this value was reduced for the aplastic PC (mean 41.06, SD 42.9; p = 0.0002, exact two-tailed test). Similarly, the AA nonadherent PC had a decreased CFU-GM growth (mean 142.6, SD 104.8, vs. mean 361.7; SD 91.3), with a lower total clonogenic output (p = 0.0009). We conclude that aplastic stroma appropriately supports the growth of normal progenitors, whereas the depressed clonogenicity of the corresponsing population derived from AA is unrelated to their attachment to SL but intrinsic to the CD34+ cells, whether adherent or not.

  15. Bone regeneration at dental implant sites with suspended stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, R C; Park, Y K; Cho, J J; Kim, S K; Heo, S J; Koak, J Y; Lee, J H

    2014-10-01

    During the maintenance of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs), suspended cells are discarded normally. We noted the osteogenic potential of these cells to be like that of anchorage-dependent BMMSCs. Therefore, we characterized suspended BMMSCs from rabbit bone marrow by bioengineering and applied the suspended BMMSCs to double-canaled dental implants inserted into rabbits. After primary isolation of BMMSCs, we collected the suspended cells during primary culture on the third day. The cells were transferred and maintained on an extracellular-matrix-coated culture plate. The cells were characterized and compared with BMMSCs by colony-forming-unit fibroblast (CFU-f) and cell proliferation assay, fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS), in vitro multipotency, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We also analyzed the osteogenic potential of cells mixed with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) and transplanted into immunocompromised mice. We compared the viability and proliferation of the suspended BMMSCs and BMMSCs on the titanium implant surface and observed cell morphology. Then, the cells mixed with HA/TCP were applied to the double-canaled implants during installation into rabbit tibia. Four weeks later, we analyzed bone formation inside the canal by histomorphometry. The suspended cells showed higher CFU-f on the extracellular matrix (ECM)-coated culture plate and similar results of proliferation capacity compared with BMMSCs. The cells also showed osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic ability. The suspended cells showed levels of attachment survival and proliferation on the surfaces of titanium implant discs to be higher than or similar to those of BMMSCs. The suspended cells as well as BMMSCs showed stronger bone formation ability in both upper and lower canals of the implants compared with controls on double-canaled implants inserted into rabbit tibia. In this study, we showed that suspended cells after

  16. Normalization of glenohumeral articular contact pressures after Latarjet or iliac crest bone-grafting.

    PubMed

    Ghodadra, Neil; Gupta, Aman; Romeo, Anthony A; Bach, Bernard R; Verma, Nikhil; Shewman, Elizabeth; Goldstein, Jordan; Provencher, Matthew T

    2010-06-01

    Multiple bone-grafting procedures have been described for patients with glenoid bone loss and shoulder instability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the alterations in glenohumeral contact pressure associated with the placement and orientation of Latarjet or iliac crest bone graft augmentation and to compare the amount of glenoid bone reconstruction with two coracoid face orientations. Twelve fresh-frozen cadaver shoulders were tested in static positions of humeral abduction (30 degrees , 60 degrees , and 60 degrees with 90 degrees of external rotation) with a 440-N compressive load. Glenohumeral contact pressure and area were determined sequentially for (1) the intact glenoid; (2) a glenoid with an anterior bone defect involving 15% or 30% of the glenoid surface area; (3) a 30% glenoid defect treated with a Latarjet or iliac crest bone graft placed 2 mm proud, placed flush, or recessed 2 mm in relation to the level of the glenoid; and (4) a Latarjet bone block placed flush and oriented with either the lateral (Latarjet-LAT) or the inferior (Latarjet-INF) surface of the coracoid as the glenoid face. The amount of glenoid bone reconstructed was compared between the Latarjet-LAT and Latarjet-INF conditions. Bone grafts in the flush position restored the mean peak contact pressure to 116% of normal when the iliac crest bone graft was used (p < 0.03 compared with the pressure with the 30% defect), 120% when the Latarjet-INF bone block was used (p < 0.03), and 137% when the Latarjet-LAT bone block was used (p < 0.04). Use of the Latarjet-LAT bone block resulted in mean peak pressures that were significantly higher than those associated with the iliac crest bone graft (p < 0.02) or the Latarjet-INF bone block (p < 0.03) at 60 degrees of abduction and 90 degrees of external rotation. With the bone grafts placed in a proud position, peak contact pressure increased to 250% of normal (p < 0.01) in the anteroinferior quadrant and there was a concomitant increase

  17. Biology of Bone Tissue: Structure, Function, and Factors That Influence Bone Cells.

    PubMed

    Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Sasso, Gisela Rodrigues da Silva; Sasso-Cerri, Estela; Simões, Manuel Jesus; Cerri, Paulo Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue is continuously remodeled through the concerted actions of bone cells, which include bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts, whereas osteocytes act as mechanosensors and orchestrators of the bone remodeling process. This process is under the control of local (e.g., growth factors and cytokines) and systemic (e.g., calcitonin and estrogens) factors that all together contribute for bone homeostasis. An imbalance between bone resorption and formation can result in bone diseases including osteoporosis. Recently, it has been recognized that, during bone remodeling, there are an intricate communication among bone cells. For instance, the coupling from bone resorption to bone formation is achieved by interaction between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Moreover, osteocytes produce factors that influence osteoblast and osteoclast activities, whereas osteocyte apoptosis is followed by osteoclastic bone resorption. The increasing knowledge about the structure and functions of bone cells contributed to a better understanding of bone biology. It has been suggested that there is a complex communication between bone cells and other organs, indicating the dynamic nature of bone tissue. In this review, we discuss the current data about the structure and functions of bone cells and the factors that influence bone remodeling.

  18. Biology of Bone Tissue: Structure, Function, and Factors That Influence Bone Cells

    PubMed Central

    Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Sasso-Cerri, Estela; Simões, Manuel Jesus; Cerri, Paulo Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue is continuously remodeled through the concerted actions of bone cells, which include bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts, whereas osteocytes act as mechanosensors and orchestrators of the bone remodeling process. This process is under the control of local (e.g., growth factors and cytokines) and systemic (e.g., calcitonin and estrogens) factors that all together contribute for bone homeostasis. An imbalance between bone resorption and formation can result in bone diseases including osteoporosis. Recently, it has been recognized that, during bone remodeling, there are an intricate communication among bone cells. For instance, the coupling from bone resorption to bone formation is achieved by interaction between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Moreover, osteocytes produce factors that influence osteoblast and osteoclast activities, whereas osteocyte apoptosis is followed by osteoclastic bone resorption. The increasing knowledge about the structure and functions of bone cells contributed to a better understanding of bone biology. It has been suggested that there is a complex communication between bone cells and other organs, indicating the dynamic nature of bone tissue. In this review, we discuss the current data about the structure and functions of bone cells and the factors that influence bone remodeling. PMID:26247020

  19. The Effect of Spaceflight on Bone Cell Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Understanding the response of bone to mechanical loading (unloading) is extremely important in defining the means of adaptation of the body to a variety of environmental conditions such as during heightened physical activity or in extended explorations of space or the sea floor. The mechanisms of the adaptive response of bone are not well defined, but undoubtedly they involve changes occurring at the cellular level of bone structure. This proposal has intended to examine the hypothesis that the loading (unloading) response of bone is mediated by specific cells through modifications of their activity cytoskeletal elements, and/or elaboration of their extracellular matrices. For this purpose, this laboratory has utilized the results of a number of previous studies defining molecular biological, biochemical, morphological, and ultrastructural events of the reproducible mineralization of a primary bone cell (osteoblast) culture system under normal loading (1G gravity level). These data and the culture system then were examined following the use of the cultures in two NASA shuttle flights, STS-59 and STS-63. The cells collected from each of the flights were compared to respective synchronous ground (1G) control cells examined as the flight samples were simultaneously analyzed and to other control cells maintained at 1G until the time of shuttle launch, at which point they were terminated and studied (defined as basal cells). Each of the cell cultures was assayed in terms of metabolic markers- gene expression; synthesis and secretion of collagen and non-collagenous proteins, including certain cytoskeletal components; assembly of collagen into macrostructural arrays- formation of mineral; and interaction of collagen and mineral crystals during calcification of the cultures. The work has utilized a combination of biochemical techniques (radiolabeling, electrophoresis, fluorography, Western and Northern Blotting, and light microscopic immunofluorescence) and structural

  20. HOW DO BONE CELLS SENSE MECHANICAL LOADING?

    PubMed Central

    Gusmão, Carlos Vinícius Buarque de; Belangero, William Dias

    2015-01-01

    Influenced by gravidity, bone tissue experiences stronger or lighter deformation according to the strength of the activities of daily life. Activities resulting in impact are particularly known to stimulate osteogenesis, thus reducing bone mass loss. Knowing how bone cells recognize the mechanical deformation imposed to the bone and trigger a series of biochemical chain reactions is of crucial importance for the development of therapeutic and preventive practices in orthopaedic activity. There is still a long way to run until we can understand the whole process, but current knowledge has shown a strong progression, with researches being conducted focused on therapies. For a mechanical sign to be transformed into a biological one (mechanotransduction), it must be amplified at cell level by the histological structure of bone tissue, producing tensions in cell membrane proteins (integrins) and changing their spatial structure. Such change activates bindings between these and the cytoskeleton, producing focal adhesions, where cytoplasmatic proteins are recruited to enable easier biochemical reactions. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is the most important one being self-activated when its structure is changed by integrins. Activated FAK triggers a cascade of reactions, resulting in the activation of ERK-1/2 and Akt, which are proteins that, together with FAK, regulate the production of bone mass. Osteocytes are believed to be the mechanosensor cells of the bone and to transmit the mechanical deformation to osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Ionic channels and gap junctions are considered as intercellular communication means for biochemical transmission of a mechanical stimulus. These events occur continuously on bone tissue and regulate bone remodeling. PMID:27022510

  1. Bisphosphonates Improve Trabecular Bone Mass and Normalize Cortical Thickness in Ovariectomized, Osteoblast Connexin43 Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Marcus P.; Norris, Jin Yi; Grimston, Susan K.; Zhang, Xiaowen; Phipps, Roger J.; Ebetino, Frank H.; Civitelli, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The gap junction protein, connexin43 (Cx43) controls both bone formation and osteoclastogenesis via osteoblasts and/or osteocytes. Cx43 has also been proposed to mediate an anti-apoptotic effect of bisphosphonates, potent inhibitors of bone resorption. We studied whether bisphosphonates are effective in protecting mice with a conditional Cx43 gene deletion in osteoblasts and osteocytes (cKO) from the consequences of ovariectomy on bone mass and strength. Ovariectomy resulted in rapid loss of trabecular bone followed by a slight recovery in wild type (WT) mice, and a similar degree of trabecular bone loss, albeit slightly delayed, occurred in cKO mice. Treatment with either risedronate (20µg/kg) or alendronate (40µg/kg) prevented ovariectomy-induced bone loss in both genotypes. In basal conditions, bones of cKO mice have larger marrow area, higher endocortical osteoclast number, and lower cortical thickness and strength relative to WT. Ovariectomy increased endocortical osteoclast number in WT but not in cKO mice. Both bisphosphonates prevented these increases in WT mice, and normalized endocortical osteoclast number, cortical thickness and bone strength in cKO mice. Thus, lack of osteoblast/osteocyte Cx43 does not alter bisphosphonate action on bone mass and strength in estrogen deficiency. These results support the notion that one of the main functions of Cx43 in cortical bone is to restrain osteoblast and/or osteocytes from inducing osteoclastogenesis at the endocortical surface. PMID:22750450

  2. Bisphosphonates improve trabecular bone mass and normalize cortical thickness in ovariectomized, osteoblast connexin43 deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Marcus P; Norris, Jin Yi; Grimston, Susan K; Zhang, Xiaowen; Phipps, Roger J; Ebetino, Frank H; Civitelli, Roberto

    2012-10-01

    The gap junction protein, connexin43 (Cx43) controls both bone formation and osteoclastogenesis via osteoblasts and/or osteocytes. Cx43 has also been proposed to mediate an anti-apoptotic effect of bisphosphonates, potent inhibitors of bone resorption. We studied whether bisphosphonates are effective in protecting mice with a conditional Cx43 gene deletion in osteoblasts and osteocytes (cKO) from the consequences of ovariectomy on bone mass and strength. Ovariectomy resulted in rapid loss of trabecular bone followed by a slight recovery in wild type (WT) mice, and a similar degree of trabecular bone loss, albeit slightly delayed, occurred in cKO mice. Treatment with either risedronate (20 μg/kg) or alendronate (40 μg/kg) prevented ovariectomy-induced bone loss in both genotypes. In basal conditions, bones of cKO mice have larger marrow area, higher endocortical osteoclast number, and lower cortical thickness and strength relative to WT. Ovariectomy increased endocortical osteoclast number in WT but not in cKO mice. Both bisphosphonates prevented these increases in WT mice, and normalized endocortical osteoclast number, cortical thickness and bone strength in cKO mice. Thus, lack of osteoblast/osteocyte Cx43 does not alter bisphosphonate action on bone mass and strength in estrogen deficiency. These results support the notion that one of the main functions of Cx43 in cortical bone is to restrain osteoblast and/or osteocytes from inducing osteoclastogenesis at the endocortical surface.

  3. Bone marrow cells and myocardial regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fu-Sheng; Trester, Cathy

    2004-05-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) plasticity and its clinical application have been studied profoundly in the past few years. Recent investigations indicate that HSC and other bone marrow stem cells can develop into other tissues. Because of the high morbidity and mortality of myocardial infarction and other heart disorders, myocardial regeneration is a good example of the clinical application of HSC plasticity in regenerative medicine. Preclinical studies in animals suggest that the use of this kind of treatment can reconstruct heart blood vessels, muscle, and function. Some clinical study results have been reported in the past 2 years. In 2003, reports of myocardial regeneration treatment increased significantly. Other studies include observations on the cell surface markers of transplanted cells and treatment efficacy. Some investigations, such as HSC testing, have focused on clinical applications using HSC plasticity and bone marrow transplantation to treat different types of disorders. In this review, we focus on the clinical application of bone marrow cells for myocardial regeneration.

  4. Repair of bone defects with prefabricated vascularized bone grafts and double-labeled bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiao-Rui; Yang, Hui-Ying; Zhang, Xin-Xin; Lin, Guo-Dong; Meng, Yong-Chun; Zhang, Pei-Xun; Jiang, Shan; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Huang, Fei; Xu, Lin

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the repair of bone defects with prefabricated vascularized bone grafts and double-labeled bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in a rat model. BMSCs were separated from rat bone marrow. LTR-CMVpro-RFP and LTR-CMVpro-GFP were transfected into the BMSCs for in vitro and in vivo tracking. BMSCs-RFP and BMSCs-GFP were induced into endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and osteoblasts (OBs). Rats were divided into five groups: Group A: in vitro prefabrication with EPCs-RFP + in vivo prefabrication with arteriovenous vascular bundle + secondary OBs-GFP implantation; Group B: in vitro prefabrication with EPCs-RFP + secondary OBs-GFP implantation; Group C: in vivo prefabrication with arteriovenous vascular bundle + secondary OBs-GFP implantation; Group D: implantation of EPCs-RFP + implantation of with arteriovenous vascular bundle + simultaneous OBs-GFP implantation; Group E: demineralized bone matrix (DBM) grafts (blank control). Among five groups, Group A had the fastest bone regeneration and repair, and the regenerated bone highly resembled normal bone tissues; Group D also had fast bone repair, but the repair was slightly slower than Group A. Therefore, in vitro prefabrication with EPCs-RFP plus in vivo prefabrication with arteriovenous vascular bundle and secondary OBs-GFP implantation could be the best treatment for bone defect. PMID:28150691

  5. The acrophysis: a unifying concept for enchondral bone growth and its disorders. I. Normal growth.

    PubMed

    Oestreich, Alan E

    2003-03-01

    In order to discuss and illustrate the common effects on normal and abnormal enchondral bone at the physes and at all other growth plates of the developing child, the term "acrophysis" is proposed. Acrophyses include the growth plates of secondary growth centers including carpals and tarsals and apophyses, and the growth plates at the non-physeal ends of small tubular bones. The last layer of development of both physes and acrophysis is the cartilaginous zone of provisional calcification (ZPC). The enchondral bone abutting the ZPC shares similar properties at physes and acrophyses, including the relatively lucent metaphyseal bands of many normal infants at several weeks of age. The bone-in-bone pattern of the normal vertebral bodies and bands of demineralization of the tarsal bones just under the ZPC are the equivalent of those bands. The growth arrest/recovery lines of metaphyses similarly have equivalent lines in growth centers and other acrophyseal sites. Nearly the same effects can also be anticipated from the relatively similar growth plate at the cartilaginous cap of benign exostoses ("paraphysis"). The companion article will explore abnormalities at acrophyseal sites, including metabolic bone disease and dysplasias.

  6. IL-1RI participates in normal growth plate development and bone modeling.

    PubMed

    Simsa-Maziel, Stav; Zaretsky, Janna; Reich, Adi; Koren, Yoav; Shahar, Ron; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat

    2013-07-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) signals through IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) and induces osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption mainly during pathological conditions. Little is known about the effect of excess or absence of IL-1 signaling on the physiological development of the growth plate and bone. In this study, we examine growth plate morphology, bone structure, and mechanical properties as well as osteoclast number in IL-1RI knockout mice to evaluate the role of IL-1RI in the normal development of the growth plate and bone. We show for the first time that IL-1RI knockout mice have narrower growth plates due to a smaller hypertrophic zone, suggesting a role for this cytokine in hypertrophic differentiation, together with higher proteoglycan content. The bones of theses mice exhibit higher trabecular and cortical mass, increased mineral density, and superior mechanical properties. In addition, IL-1RI knockout mice have significantly reduced osteoclast numbers in the chondro-osseous junction, trabecular bone, and cortical bone. These results suggest that IL-1RI is involved in normal growth plate development and ECM homeostasis and that it is significant in the physiological process of bone modeling.

  7. Identification of apoptotic changes in osteocytes in normal and pathological human bone.

    PubMed

    Noble, B S; Stevens, H; Loveridge, N; Reeve, J

    1997-03-01

    Previous work on bone growth and biomechanics suggests that osteocytes might sense the requirement for bone remodeling and signal to cells in the basic multicellular unit that undertake this function. The present study looked for evidence of apoptosis in human osteocytes in adult, pediatric, and pathological bone to compare these situations of differing levels of turnover and considered the possibility of a functional role for this death mechanism in bone modeling and remodeling. Apoptosis was identified in bone tissue by agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA (to demonstrate DNA ladders). In cryostat sections it was possible to visualize individual cells with fragmented DNA in situ using a modified nick translation technique (NT). In addition, visualization of apoptotic morphology was undertaken using light and electron microscopy. Adult femoral head and iliac crest bone showed no evidence of DNA ladders and very small numbers of osteocytes with DNA fragmentation using NT. In contrast, samples of pediatric calvaria, adult heterotopic bone, and osteophytes all displayed characteristic laddering of extracted DNA and showed evidence of potentially apoptotic osteocytes in situ using NT. In agreement with these findings, transmission electron microscopy showed numbers of osteocytes in infant calvaria with advanced chromatin condensation and cell shrinkage indicative of apoptosis. Since all three types of positive bone are involved in rapid matrix turnover, apoptotic changes in human osteocytes in vivo might be related in general terms to the modeling and remodeling activity level of the bone sampled. It was further found that the distribution of potentially apoptotic cells in the infant and pathological bone was anatomically nonuniform, raising the intriguing possibility of a functional relationship between bone turnover and the controlled cell death of osteocytes.

  8. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Roney, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    While much is understood about dendritic cells and their role in the immune system, the study of these cells is critical to gain a more complete understanding of their function. Dendritic cell isolation from mouse body tissues can be difficult and the number of cells isolated small. This protocol describes the growth of large number of dendritic cells from the culture of mouse bone marrow cells. The dendritic cells grown in culture facilitate experiments that may require large number of dendritic cells without great expense or use of large number of mice.

  9. Influence of parathyroid hormone on bone cell ultrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, J.L.; Talmage, R.V.

    1981-05-01

    A study in rats demonstrated that morphologic changes in the bone osteocytes and osteoblasts are produced following parathyroid hormone (PTH) injection into thyroparathyroidectomized animals. It further showed that similar changes occur in normal rats as the result of extended fasting. The most significant morphologic alterations involved surface microvilli and blebs as determined by scanning electron microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy studies showed alterations in the cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Additionally, cell shape varied markedly from the control cuboidal morphology. These morphologic changes occurred during peak periods of plasma calcium change and returned to control morphology as plasma calcium levels normalized. The study supports the concept that osteocytes and lining cells on the surface of bone play a role in maintenance of plasma calcium concentrations. (JMT)

  10. [Bone and Stem Cells. Bone marrow microenvironment niches for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells].

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Takashi

    2014-04-01

    In bone marrow, the special microenvironments known as niches control proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) . However, the identity and functions of the niches has been a subject of longstanding debate. Although it has been reported previously that osteoblasts lining the bone surface act as HSC niches, their precise role in HSC maintenance remains unclear. On the other hand, the adipo-osteogenic progenitors with long processes, termed CXCL12-abundant reticular (CAR) cells, which preferentially express the chemokine CXCL12, stem cell factor (SCF) , leptin receptor and PDGF receptor-β were identified in the bone marrow. Recent studies revealed that endothelial cells of bone marrow vascular sinuses and CAR cells provided niches for HSCs. The identity and functions of various other candidate HSC niche cells, including nestin-expressing cells and Schwann cells would also be discussed in this review.

  11. Hairy Cell Leukemia and Bone Pain.

    PubMed

    Streu, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Hairy cell leukemia is a relatively rare but distinct B-cell lympho-proliferative disorder of the blood, bone marrow, and spleen that accounts for only 2% of all adult leukemia cases. The median age at presentation is 50-55 years, with a 4:1 male to female predominance. Although considered uncommon, a number of unusual clinical presentations have been noted in the literature, including the presence of peripheral lymphadenopathy, lytic bone lesions, skin involvement, organ involvement, and central nervous system involvement. Unlike the clinical management of other hematologic malignancies, no current system is used to stage hairy cell leukemia.

  12. Noninvasive markers of bone metabolism in the rhesus monkey: normal effects of age and gender

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahoon, S.; Boden, S. D.; Gould, K. G.; Vailas, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    Measurement of bone turnover in conditions such as osteoporosis has been limited by the need for invasive iliac bone biopsy to reliably determine parameters of bone metabolism. Recent advances in the area of serum and urinary markers of bone metabolism have raised the possibility for noninvasive measurements; however, little nonhuman primate data exist for these parameters. The purpose of this experiment was to define the normal range and variability of several of the newer noninvasive bone markers which are currently under investigation in humans. The primary intent was to determine age and gender variability, as well as provide some normative data for future experiments in nonhuman primates. Twenty-four rhesus macaques were divided into equal groups of male and female according to the following age groupings: 3 years, 5-10 years, 15-20 years, and > 25 years. Urine was collected three times daily for a four-day period and measured for several markers of bone turnoverm including pyridinoline (PYD), deoxypyrodinoline (DPD), hydroxyproline, and creatinine. Bone mineral density measurements of the lumbar spine were performed at the beginning and end of the study period. Serum was also obtained at the time of bone densitometry for measurement of osteocalcin levels by radioimmunoassay. There were no significant differences in bone mineral density, urine PYD, or urine DPD based on gender. Bone density was lowest in the youngest animals, peaked in the 15-20-year group, but again decreased in the oldest animals. The osteocalcin, PYD, and DPD levels followed an inversely related pattern to bone density. The most important result was the relative age insensitivity of the ratio of PYD:DPD in monkeys up to age 20 years. Since bone density changes take months or years to become measurable and iliac biopsies are invasive, the PYD/DPD marker ratio may have important implications for rapid noninvasive measurement of the effects of potential treatments for osteoporosis in the non

  13. Noninvasive markers of bone metabolism in the rhesus monkey: normal effects of age and gender

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahoon, S.; Boden, S. D.; Gould, K. G.; Vailas, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    Measurement of bone turnover in conditions such as osteoporosis has been limited by the need for invasive iliac bone biopsy to reliably determine parameters of bone metabolism. Recent advances in the area of serum and urinary markers of bone metabolism have raised the possibility for noninvasive measurements; however, little nonhuman primate data exist for these parameters. The purpose of this experiment was to define the normal range and variability of several of the newer noninvasive bone markers which are currently under investigation in humans. The primary intent was to determine age and gender variability, as well as provide some normative data for future experiments in nonhuman primates. Twenty-four rhesus macaques were divided into equal groups of male and female according to the following age groupings: 3 years, 5-10 years, 15-20 years, and > 25 years. Urine was collected three times daily for a four-day period and measured for several markers of bone turnoverm including pyridinoline (PYD), deoxypyrodinoline (DPD), hydroxyproline, and creatinine. Bone mineral density measurements of the lumbar spine were performed at the beginning and end of the study period. Serum was also obtained at the time of bone densitometry for measurement of osteocalcin levels by radioimmunoassay. There were no significant differences in bone mineral density, urine PYD, or urine DPD based on gender. Bone density was lowest in the youngest animals, peaked in the 15-20-year group, but again decreased in the oldest animals. The osteocalcin, PYD, and DPD levels followed an inversely related pattern to bone density. The most important result was the relative age insensitivity of the ratio of PYD:DPD in monkeys up to age 20 years. Since bone density changes take months or years to become measurable and iliac biopsies are invasive, the PYD/DPD marker ratio may have important implications for rapid noninvasive measurement of the effects of potential treatments for osteoporosis in the non

  14. Bone enhancement in digital dual energy radiographs from normalization with a synthetic background image.

    PubMed

    Berthiaume, François; Gravel, Pierre; de Guise, Jacques A

    2008-03-07

    We have developed a method to enhance bone contrast in dual x-ray images. The method relies on the creation of a synthetic background image representing soft tissues and air in the image. The original image is normalized with this background image, thus enhancing bone contrast and eliminating soft tissues and air holes. The central idea of the method resides in the proper combination of information contained in equivalent aluminum and plastic thicknesses, calculated from well-known dual-energy algorithms.

  15. VDR in Osteoblast-Lineage Cells Primarily Mediates Vitamin D Treatment-Induced Increase in Bone Mass by Suppressing Bone Resorptiontdg%ang*tok.

    PubMed

    Nakamichi, Yuko; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Horibe, Kanji; Mizoguchi, Toshihide; Yamamoto, Yoko; Nakamura, Takashi; Hosoya, Akihiro; Kato, Shigeaki; Suda, Tatsuo; Takahashi, Naoyuki

    2017-02-08

    Long-term treatment with active vitamin D [1α,25(OH)2 D3 ] and its derivatives is effective for increasing bone mass in patients with primary and secondary osteoporosis. Derivatives of 1α,25(OH)2 D3 , including eldecalcitol (ELD), exert their actions through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). ELD is more resistant to metabolic degradation than 1α,25(OH)2 D3 . It is reported that ELD treatment causes a net increase in bone mass by suppressing bone resorption rather than by increasing bone formation in animals and humans. VDR in bone and extraskeletal tissues regulates bone mass and secretion of osteotropic hormones. Therefore, it is unclear what types of cells expressing VDR preferentially regulate the vitamin D-induced increase in bone mass. Here, we examined the effects of 4-week treatment with ELD (50 ng/kg/day) on bone using osteoblast lineage-specific VDR conditional knockout (Ob-VDR-cKO) and osteoclast-specific VDR cKO (Ocl-VDR-cKO) male mice aged 10 weeks. Immunohistochemically, VDR in bone was detected preferentially in osteoblasts and osteocytes. Ob-VDR-cKO mice showed normal bone phenotypes, despite no appreciable immunostaining of VDR in bone. Ob-VDR-cKO mice failed to increase bone mass in response to ELD treatment. Ocl-VDR-cKO mice also exhibited normal bone phenotypes, but normally responded to ELD. ELD-induced FGF23 production in bone was regulated by VDR in osteoblast-lineage cells. These findings suggest that the vitamin D treatment-induced increase in bone mass is mediated by suppressing bone resorption through VDR in osteoblast-lineage cells. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  16. Cells of the immune system orchestrate changes in bone cell function.

    PubMed

    Wythe, Sarah E; Nicolaidou, Vicky; Horwood, Nicole J

    2014-01-01

    There is a complex interplay between the cells of the immune system and bone. Immune cells, such as T and NK cells, are able to enhance osteoclast formation via the production of RANKL. Yet there is increasing evidence to show that during the resolution of inflammation or as a consequence of increased osteoclastogenesis there is an anabolic response via the formation of more osteoblasts. Furthermore, osteoblasts themselves are involved in the control of immune cell function, thus promoting the resolution of inflammation. Hence, the concept of "coupling"-how bone formation is linked to resorption-needs to be more inclusive rather than restricting our focus to osteoblast-osteoclast interactions as in a whole organism these cells are never in isolation. This review will investigate the role of immune cells in normal bone homeostasis and in inflammatory diseases where the balance between resorption and formation is lost.

  17. Concentrations of vancomycin in bone and serum of normal rabbits and those with osteomyelitis.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, K J; Mader, J T

    1984-01-01

    The concentrations of vancomycin in the bone and serum of rabbits with Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis were assessed after each rabbit was given a single dose of vancomycin. Simultaneous mean concentrations of vancomycin in infected rabbits 1 h after administration of the antibiotic were 36.4 +/- 4.6 micrograms/ml (serum), 5.3 +/- 0.8 microgram/g (infected bone), and 3.0 +/- 0.2 micrograms/g (noninfected bone). Concentrations of vancomycin in serum of normal controls were higher than concentrations of vancomycin in serum of osteomyelitic rabbits after 1, 2, 3, and 6 h. PMID:6703678

  18. High calcium concentration in bones promotes bone metastasis in renal cell carcinomas expressing calcium-sensing receptor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The prognosis for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is related to a high rate of metastasis, including 30% of bone metastasis. Characteristic for bone tissue is a high concentration of calcium ions. In this study, we show a promoting effect of an enhanced extracellular calcium concentration on mechanisms of bone metastasis via the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and its downstream signaling molecules. Methods Our analyses were performed using 33 (11/category) matched specimens of normal and tumor tissue and 9 (3/category) primary cells derived from RCC patients of the 3 categories: non-metastasized, metastasized into the lung and metastasized into bones during a five-year period after nephrectomy. Expression of CaSR was determined by RT-PCR, Western blot analyses and flow cytometry, respectively. Cells were treated by calcium and the CaSR inhibitor NPS 2143. Cell migration was measured in a Boyden chamber with calcium (10 μM) as chemotaxin and proliferation by BrdU incorporation. The activity of intracellular signaling mediators was quantified by a phospho-kinase array and Western blot. Results The expression of CaSR was highest in specimens and cells of patients with bone metastases. Calcium treatment induced an increased migration (19-fold) and proliferation (2.3-fold) exclusively in RCC cells from patients with bone metastases. The CaSR inhibitor NPS 2143 elucidated the role of CaSR on the calcium-dependent effects. After treatment with calcium, the activity of AKT, PLCγ-1, p38α and JNK was clearly enhanced and PTEN expression was almost completely abolished in bone metastasizing RCC cells. Conclusions Our results indicate a promoting effect of extracellular calcium on cell migration and proliferation of bone metastasizing RCC cells via highly expressed CaSR and its downstream signaling pathways. Consequently, CaSR may be regarded as a new prognostic marker predicting RCC bone metastasis. PMID:24576174

  19. High calcium concentration in bones promotes bone metastasis in renal cell carcinomas expressing calcium-sensing receptor.

    PubMed

    Joeckel, Elke; Haber, Tobias; Prawitt, Dirk; Junker, Kerstin; Hampel, Christian; Thüroff, Joachim W; Roos, Frederik C; Brenner, Walburgis

    2014-02-28

    The prognosis for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is related to a high rate of metastasis, including 30% of bone metastasis. Characteristic for bone tissue is a high concentration of calcium ions. In this study, we show a promoting effect of an enhanced extracellular calcium concentration on mechanisms of bone metastasis via the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and its downstream signaling molecules. Our analyses were performed using 33 (11/category) matched specimens of normal and tumor tissue and 9 (3/category) primary cells derived from RCC patients of the 3 categories: non-metastasized, metastasized into the lung and metastasized into bones during a five-year period after nephrectomy. Expression of CaSR was determined by RT-PCR, Western blot analyses and flow cytometry, respectively. Cells were treated by calcium and the CaSR inhibitor NPS 2143. Cell migration was measured in a Boyden chamber with calcium (10 μM) as chemotaxin and proliferation by BrdU incorporation. The activity of intracellular signaling mediators was quantified by a phospho-kinase array and Western blot. The expression of CaSR was highest in specimens and cells of patients with bone metastases. Calcium treatment induced an increased migration (19-fold) and proliferation (2.3-fold) exclusively in RCC cells from patients with bone metastases. The CaSR inhibitor NPS 2143 elucidated the role of CaSR on the calcium-dependent effects. After treatment with calcium, the activity of AKT, PLCγ-1, p38α and JNK was clearly enhanced and PTEN expression was almost completely abolished in bone metastasizing RCC cells. Our results indicate a promoting effect of extracellular calcium on cell migration and proliferation of bone metastasizing RCC cells via highly expressed CaSR and its downstream signaling pathways. Consequently, CaSR may be regarded as a new prognostic marker predicting RCC bone metastasis.

  20. Expression of vascular antigens by bone cells during bone regeneration in a membranous bone distraction system.

    PubMed

    Lewinson, D; Maor, G; Rozen, N; Rabinovich, I; Stahl, S; Rachmiel, A

    2001-11-01

    An in vivo system of membranous bone formation during distraction has been investigated in order to follow cells that express vascular markers with the objective of understanding the neovascularization process. Concomitantly, sustained proliferation of preskeletal cells was achieved through the application of mechanical force. New capillaries and leading edges that arose by angiogenesis from the periosteal and mucosal surfaces and invaded the central zone of the regenerating distraction tissue temporally preceded the growth of delicate woven bone trabeculae from both edges of the cut bone. Concentrically arranged 'onion-like' configurations were abundant in paracentral zones and in association with mesenchymal condensations, suggesting their de novo formation in situ. Vascular specific markers, the angiopoietin receptor Tie-2 and factor VIII-related antigen (FVIIIrAg), were localized immunohistochemically in order to follow cells of vascular origin. Endothelial cells of the new capillaries, centrally located cells of the concentric configurations, pericytes, and most of the adjacent polygonal mesenchymal cells stained positively with specific antibodies to both antigens. Moreover, preosteoblasts and osteoblasts that lie adjacent to or already embedded in the osteiod of the newly formed trabeculae were also FVIIIrAg and Tie-2 immunopositive. As the source of the bone-forming cells in regenerating tissue during distraction is not yet fully understood, this observation might support the possibility of their vascular origin.

  1. [Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Bone marrow and cortical bone structures].

    PubMed

    Schernberg, A; Hennequin, C

    2017-10-01

    In patients undergoing external radiation therapy, bone marrow and cortical bone structures are all often neglected as organs at risk. Still, from increased febrile neutropenia risk in patients undergoing chemoradiation for a pelvic tumour to increased risk of vertebral fracture when undergoing hypofractioned stereotactic radiotherapy of a spinal metastasis, adverse effects are frequent and sometimes serious. This literature review first defines the rules for contouring these structures, then the dose constraints currently recommended. This article focuses first on conventional irradiation or intensity modulation radiotherapy considering classical fractionation. Secondly, it focuses on stereotactic radiotherapy. The considered organs will be haematopoietic structures, and bone cortical structures. Current recommendations are summarised in a table. Copyright © 2017 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Differentiation of bone and bone marrow infarcts from osteomyelitis in sickle cell disorders.

    PubMed

    Kim, H C; Alavi, A; Russell, M O; Schwartz, E

    1989-04-01

    To determine whether imaging techniques can differentiate osteomyelitis from bone infarction in sickle cell disorders, 39 sets of bone scans (BS) and bone marrow scans (BMS) were performed on 31 patients with sickling disorders and bone pain. In addition, three patients who had either a BS or a BMS were included. Results were analyzed according to whether scans were performed three days or less (Period 1), four to six days (Period 2), or seven or more days (Period 3) after the onset of pain. Regardless of the period, all but five BMS for 34 episodes of assumed infarction showed decreased uptake. BS findings varied depending on the time interval, with none of the ten in Period 1 showing increased uptake, but all 11 in Period 3 showing increased uptake. However, in Period 2, about half of the 13 BS showed increased uptake. All three patients with osteomyelitis in Period 3 had increased uptake on BS. The BMS done in one of these patients showed decreased uptake. Three patients with cellulitis had normal BS and BMS. One patient with septic arthritis had normal BMS, but slightly increased uptake on BS. Although typical imaging patterns are present in early and late infarction (Periods 1 and 3), the patterns for late infarction may not differ from those of advanced osteomyelitis. Therefore, imaging studies are only of value in differentiating infarction from osteomyelitis when both BS and BMS are performed soon after the appearance of symptoms.

  3. [CHARACTERISTICS OF OSTEOCYTE CELL LINES FROM BONES FORMED AS A RESULT OF MEMBRANOUS (SKULL BONES) AND CHONDRAL (LONG BONES) OSSIFICATION].

    PubMed

    Avrunin, A S; Doktorov, A A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the literature data and the results of authors' own research, to answer the question--if the osteocytes of bone tissues resulting from membranous and chondral ossification, belong to one or to different cell lines. The differences between the cells of osteocyte lines derived from bones resulting from membranous and chondral ossification were established in: 1) the magnitude of the mechanical signal, initiating the development of the process of mechanotransduction; 2) the nature of the relationship between the magnitude of the mechanical signal that initiates the reorganization of the architecture of bone structures and the resource of their strength; in membranous bones significantly lower mechanical signal caused a substantially greater increment of bone strength resource; 3) the biological activity of bone structures, bone fragments formed from membranous tissue were more optimal for transplantation; 4) the characteristics of expression of functional markers of bone cells at different stages of their differentiation; 5) the nature of the reaction of bone cells to mechanical stress; 6) the sensitivity of bone cells to one of the factors controlling the process of mechanotransduction (PGI2); 7) the functioning of osteocytes during lactation. These differences reflect the functional requirements to the bones of the skeleton--the supporting function in the bones of the limbs and the shaping and protection in the bones of the cranial vault. These data suggest that the results of research conducted on the bones of the skull, should not be transferred to the entire skeleton as a whole.

  4. Counteracting bone fragility with human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ranzoni, Anna M.; Corcelli, Michelangelo; Hau, Kwan-Leong; Kerns, Jemma G.; Vanleene, Maximilien; Shefelbine, Sandra; Jones, Gemma N.; Moschidou, Dafni; Dala-Ali, Benan; Goodship, Allen E.; De Coppi, Paolo; Arnett, Timothy R.; Guillot, Pascale V.

    2016-01-01

    The impaired maturation of bone-forming osteoblasts results in reduced bone formation and subsequent bone weakening, which leads to a number of conditions such as osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Transplantation of human fetal mesenchymal stem cells has been proposed as skeletal anabolic therapy to enhance bone formation, but the mechanisms underlying the contribution of the donor cells to bone health are poorly understood and require further elucidation. Here, we show that intraperitoneal injection of human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (AFSCs) into a mouse model of OI (oim mice) reduced fracture susceptibility, increased bone strength, improved bone quality and micro-architecture, normalised bone remodelling and reduced TNFα and TGFβ sigalling. Donor cells engrafted into bones and differentiated into osteoblasts but importantly, also promoted endogenous osteogenesis and the maturation of resident osteoblasts. Together, these findings identify AFSC transplantation as a countermeasure to bone fragility. These data have wider implications for bone health and fracture reduction. PMID:27995994

  5. Mast cell distribution in normal adult skin.

    PubMed

    Janssens, A S; Heide, R; den Hollander, J C; Mulder, P G M; Tank, B; Oranje, A P

    2005-03-01

    To investigate mast cell distribution in normal adult skin to provide a reference range for comparison with mastocytosis. Mast cells (MCs) were counted in uninvolved skin adjacent to basal cell carcinomas and other dermatological disorders in adults. There was an uneven distribution of MCs in different body sites using the anti-tryptase monoclonal antibody technique. Numbers of MCs on the trunk, upper arm, and upper leg were similar, but were significantly different from those found on the lower leg and forearm. Two distinct groups were formed--proximal and distal. There were 77.0 MCs/mm2 at proximal body sites and 108.2 MCs/mm2 at distal sites. Adjusted for the adjacent diagnosis and age, this difference was consistent. The numbers of MCs in uninvolved skin adjacent to basal cell carcinomas and other dermatological disorders were not different from those in the control group. Differences in the numbers of MCs between the distal and the proximal body sites must be considered when MCs are counted for a reliable diagnosis of mastocytosis. A pilot study in patients with mastocytosis underlined the variation in the numbers of MCs in mastocytosis and normal skin, but showed a considerable overlap. The observed numbers of MCs in adults cannot be extrapolated to children. MC numbers varied significantly between proximal and distal body sites and these differences must be considered when MCs are counted for a reliable diagnosis of mastocytosis. There was a considerable overlap between the numbers of MCs in mastocytosis and normal skin.

  6. Skeletal cell fate decisions within periosteum and bone marrow during bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Colnot, Céline

    2009-02-01

    Bone repair requires the mobilization of adult skeletal stem cells/progenitors to allow deposition of cartilage and bone at the injury site. These stem cells/progenitors are believed to come from multiple sources including the bone marrow and the periosteum. The goal of this study was to establish the cellular contributions of bone marrow and periosteum to bone healing in vivo and to assess the effect of the tissue environment on cell differentiation within bone marrow and periosteum. Results show that periosteal injuries heal by endochondral ossification, whereas bone marrow injuries heal by intramembranous ossification, indicating that distinct cellular responses occur within these tissues during repair. [corrected] Next, lineage analyses were used to track the fate of cells derived from periosteum, bone marrow, and endosteum, a subcompartment of the bone marrow. Skeletal progenitor cells were found to be recruited locally and concurrently from periosteum and/or bone marrow/endosteum during bone repair. Periosteum and bone marrow/endosteum both gave rise to osteoblasts, whereas the periosteum was the major source of chondrocytes. Finally, results show that intrinsic and environmental signals modulate cell fate decisions within these tissues. In conclusion, this study sheds light into the origins of skeletal stem cells/progenitors during bone regeneration and indicates that periosteum, endosteum, and bone marrow contain pools of stem cells/progenitors with distinct osteogenic and chondrogenic potentials that vary with the tissue environment.

  7. [Importance of immunomorphometric evaluation of the size and number of megakaryocytes in normal and pathologic bone marrow].

    PubMed

    Marisavljević, D; Rolović, Z; Mitrović, D

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the significance of immunomorphometric assessment of megakaryocyte size and number in normal and pathologic human bone marrow. Thus, we compared morphometric characteristics of megakaryocytes in 56 bone marrow trephine biopsies stained by immunohistochemical and conventional techniques. Morphometric results showed that precise megakaryocyte size in normal and pathologic samples can be calculated even by using conventional staining technique, but only employing specific stereological corrections. Immunomorphometric evaluation revealed populations of "small" megakaryocytes (< 14 microns), "morphologically unrecognized" by conventional staining technique (promegakaryoblasts in normal and stimulated as well as micromegakaryocytes in pathologic bone marrow). In patients with normal and stimulated megakaryocytopoises percentage of "small" megakaryocytes was generally low (10.6% and 14%, respect.); so, megakaryocyte number was similar in immunohistochemically and conventionally stained sections. In contrast, percentages of "small" megakaryocytes were significantly higher in patients with stem cell disorders (namely, myelodisplastic syndrome and chronic granulocytic leukaemia), as compared to controls (35.3% in MDS; 22.9% in CML and 10.6% in controls). In those patients megakaryocyte numbers were more sensitively detected by immunohistochemistry than by conventional staining.

  8. Imaging of giant cell tumor of bone

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Shaligram; Pardiwala, Dinshaw N

    2007-01-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a benign but locally aggressive and destructive lesion generally occurring in skeletally mature individuals. Typically involving the epiphysiometaphyseal region of long bones, the most common sites include the distal femur, proximal tibia and distal radius. On radiographs, GCT demonstrates a lytic lesion centered in the epiphysis but involving the metaphysis and extending at least in part to the adjacent articular cortex. Most are eccentric, but become symmetric and centrally located with growth. Most cases show circumscribed borders or so-called geographical destruction with no periosteal reaction unless a pathological fracture is present. There is no mineralized tumor matrix. Giant cell tumor can produce wide-ranging appearances depending on site, complications such as hemorrhage or pathological fracture and after surgical intervention. This review demonstrates a spectrum of these features and describes the imaging characteristics of GCT in conventional radiographs, computerized tomography scans, magnetic resonance imaging, bone scans, positron emission tomography scans and angiography. PMID:21139758

  9. Spaceflight effects on cultured embryonic chick bone cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, W. J.; Hodgens, K. J.; Block, D.; Toma, C. D.; Gerstenfeld, L. C.

    2000-01-01

    A model calcifying system of primary osteoblast cell cultures derived from normal embryonic chicken calvaria has been flown aboard the shuttle, Endeavour, during the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission STS-59 (April 9-20, 1994) to characterize unloading and other spaceflight effects on the bone cells. Aliquots of cells (approximately 7 x 10(6)) grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) + 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) were mixed with microcarrier beads, inoculated into cartridge culture units of artificial hollow fiber capillaries, and carried on the shuttle. To promote cell differentiation, cartridge media were supplemented with 12.5 microg/ml ascorbate and 10 mM beta-glycerophosphate for varying time periods before and during flight. Four cartridges contained cells from 17-day-old embryos grown for 5 days in the presence of ascorbate prior to launch (defined as flight cells committed to the osteoblastic lineage) and four cartridges supported cells from 14-day-old embryos grown for 10 days with ascorbate before launch (uncommitted flight cells). Eight cartridges prepared in the same manner were maintained under normal gravity throughout the flight (control cells) and four additional identical cartridges under normal gravity were terminated on the day of launch (basal cells). From shuttle launch to landing, all cartridges were contained in closed hardware units maintaining 5% CO2, 37 degrees C, and media delivery at a rate of approximately 1.5 ml/6 h. During day 3 and day 5 of flight, duplicate aliquots of conditioned media and accumulated cell products were collected in both the flight and the control hardware units. At the mission end, comparisons among flight, basal, and control samples were made in cell metabolism, gene expression for type I collagen and osteocalcin, and ultrastructure. Both committed and uncommitted flight cells were metabolically active, as measured by glucose uptake and lactate production, at approximately the

  10. Spaceflight effects on cultured embryonic chick bone cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, W. J.; Hodgens, K. J.; Block, D.; Toma, C. D.; Gerstenfeld, L. C.

    2000-01-01

    A model calcifying system of primary osteoblast cell cultures derived from normal embryonic chicken calvaria has been flown aboard the shuttle, Endeavour, during the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission STS-59 (April 9-20, 1994) to characterize unloading and other spaceflight effects on the bone cells. Aliquots of cells (approximately 7 x 10(6)) grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) + 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) were mixed with microcarrier beads, inoculated into cartridge culture units of artificial hollow fiber capillaries, and carried on the shuttle. To promote cell differentiation, cartridge media were supplemented with 12.5 microg/ml ascorbate and 10 mM beta-glycerophosphate for varying time periods before and during flight. Four cartridges contained cells from 17-day-old embryos grown for 5 days in the presence of ascorbate prior to launch (defined as flight cells committed to the osteoblastic lineage) and four cartridges supported cells from 14-day-old embryos grown for 10 days with ascorbate before launch (uncommitted flight cells). Eight cartridges prepared in the same manner were maintained under normal gravity throughout the flight (control cells) and four additional identical cartridges under normal gravity were terminated on the day of launch (basal cells). From shuttle launch to landing, all cartridges were contained in closed hardware units maintaining 5% CO2, 37 degrees C, and media delivery at a rate of approximately 1.5 ml/6 h. During day 3 and day 5 of flight, duplicate aliquots of conditioned media and accumulated cell products were collected in both the flight and the control hardware units. At the mission end, comparisons among flight, basal, and control samples were made in cell metabolism, gene expression for type I collagen and osteocalcin, and ultrastructure. Both committed and uncommitted flight cells were metabolically active, as measured by glucose uptake and lactate production, at approximately the

  11. Clinical and experimental observations of peripheral blood leukocytes and nucleated bone marrow cells after local irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X G; Du, A N; Geng, C; Guo, F; He, M; Gu, F; Wang, J; Song, W B; Xu, H; Sheng, W; Liu, Y; Ye, T

    2014-02-01

    Aim of the study was to observe the impact of bone marrow damage induced by local irradiation on leukopenia. For the human study, five cancer patients received local radiation therapy. Bone marrow aspiration was conducted to measure nucleated cell count and 99mTc-Sc sulfur colloid ECT imaging was carried out to examine bone marrow function. For the animal study, fifty New Zealand white rabbits were divided into 3 groups: non-irradiated control group (N.=10), abdomen irradiation group (irradiation area did not cover bone marrow) (N.=20), chest irradiation group (irradiation area covered bone marrow) (N.=20). Nucleated cell counts were taken after confirming onset of leukopenia. Bone marrow of five patients proliferated normally. ECT imaging showed no abnormality in the pattern of red bone marrow distribution. Hematopoietic function was mildly active. Suppressed myeloproliferative function does not fully account for irradiation-induced leukopenia.

  12. Rare Giant Cell Tumor of Olecranon Bone!!!!

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Pawan; Gautam, Vishal; Saini, Narender; Sharma, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Giant cell tumor (GCT) is a bone tumor involving epiphyseal area of bone abutting the subchondral bone. Commonly found in long bones such as proximal tibia and distal femur. We report a case of GCT of olecranon bone in a 23-year-old male. Case Report: A 23-year-old patient presented to our outpatient department with pain and mild swelling at the elbow from last 2 to 3 months. On examination, it was seen that there was a moderate swelling at the tip of the olecranon. The magnetic resonance imaging reported a lytic lesion in the olecranon but sparing the coronoid process of the ulna, the biopsy report confirmed that histologically it was a GCT of the bone. Total excision of the tumor was done after lifting the aponeurosis of the triceps muscle. The area remaining after excision of the tumor was phenol cauterized and cleaned with hydrogen peroxide solution. Triceps was reinserted on the remaining ulna. At follow-up the radiographs showed adequate excision of the tumor. The patient gained a full range of movement at the elbow and was functionally restored. There were no signs of any systemic spread of the tumor. Conclusion: GCT though a very common bone tumor could be missed if present in atypical locations. Radiographically soap bubble appearance might not be present in every case, and there could be multiple diagnoses for lytic lesion in bone. Proper investigations and histopathological examination are necessary for accurate diagnosis and further treatment planning. Early treatment helps in complete excision of tumor along with return of adequate function of the patient. PMID:28164048

  13. The development of NK cell activity in thymectomized bone marrow chimaeras.

    PubMed Central

    Sihvola, M; Hurme, M

    1984-01-01

    Most of the natural killer (NK) cells, recently derived from the bone marrow (14 days after injection of bone marrow cells into lethally irradiated mice), express the Thy-1 antigen; after some period of time (by day 28) a normal proportion (50%) of Thy-1+ NK cells is found. This study demonstrates that the shift of these Thy-1+ NK cells to Thy-1- NK cells is influenced by the thymus: NK cells developing in the total absence of the thymus--bone marrow (bm) cells from adult thymectomized (Tx) or nude (nu) mice injected into thymectomized recipients, (Tx) bm----(Tx) or nu bm----(Tx)--remain Thy-1+, while the presence of the thymus at some stage of the NK cell maturation--bone marrow cells injected into thymectomized recipients, bm----(Tx), or normal recipients reconstituted with bone marrow cells from thymectomized or nude mice, (Tx) bm----or nu bm----normal recipients--is sufficient for the development of normal ratio of Thy-1+ and Thy-1- NK cells. PMID:6147307

  14. Regenerative Stem Cell Therapy for Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    mice challenged with CAGhep cells. Similarly, significant bone destruction was observed in the spine, particularly the L4 bone of the lumbar region...However, images of bone 3D reconstruction for cohorts treated with OPG therapy showed intact tibia and lumbar spinal bone with bone density and...ological fractures, nerve compression syndromes, and hypercal- cemia (2). Current therapies for bone metastasis in breast cancer patients are limited and are

  15. Giant cell tumor of bone: Multimodal approach

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, AK; Nath, R; Mishra, MP

    2007-01-01

    Background: The clinical behavior and treatment of giant cell tumor of bone is still perplexing. The aim of this study is to clarify the clinico-pathological correlation of tumor and its relevance in treatment and prognosis. Materials and Methods: Ninety -three cases of giant cell tumor were treated during 1980-1990 by different methods. The age of the patients varied from 18-58 yrs with male and female ratio as 5:4. The upper end of the tibia was most commonly involved (n=31), followed by the lower end of the femur(n=21), distal end of radius(n=14), upper end of fibula (n=9), proximal end of femur(n=5), upper end of the humerus(n=3), iliac bone(n=2), phalanx (n=2) and spine(n=1). The tumors were also encountered on uncommon sites like metacarpals (n=4) and metatarsal(n=1). Fifty four cases were treated by curettage and bone grafting. Wide excision and reconstruction was performed in twenty two cases. Nine cases were treated by wide excision while primary amputation was performed in four cases. One case required only curettage. Three inaccessible lesions of ilium and spine were treated by radiotherapy. Results: 19 of 54 treated by curettage and bone grafting showed a recurrence. The repeat curettage and bone grafting was performed in 18 cases while amputation was done in one. One each out of the cases treated by wide excision and reconstruction and wide excision alone recurred. In this study we observed that though curettage and bone grafting is still the most commonly adopted treatment, wide excision of tumor with reconstruction has shown lesser recurrence. Conclusion: For radiologically well-contained and histologically typical tumor, curettage and autogenous bone grafting is the treatment of choice. The typical tumors with radiologically deficient cortex, clinically aggressive tumors and tumors with histological Grade III should be treated by wide excision and reconstruction. PMID:21139762

  16. Cell Biology of Thiazide Bone Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamba, Gerardo; Riccardi, Daniela

    2008-09-01

    The thiazide-sensitive Na+:Cl- cotransporter (NCC) is the major pathway for salt reabsorption in the mammalian kidney. The activity of NCC is not only related to salt metabolism, but also to calcium and magnesium homeostasis due to the inverse relationship between NCC activity and calcium reabsorption. Hence, the thiazide-type diuretics that specifically block NCC have been used for years, not only for treatment of hypertension and edematous disease, but also for the management of renal stone disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic thiazide treatment is associated with higher bone mineral density and reduced risk of bone fractures, which can only partly be explained in terms of their effects on the kidney. In this regard, we have recently shown that NCC is expressed in bone cells and that inhibition of NCC in bone, either by thiazides or by reduction of NCC protein with specific siRNA, is associated with increased mineralization in vitro. These observations open a field of study to begin to understand the cell biology of the beneficial effects of thiazides in bone.

  17. Ras activation in normal white blood cells and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    von Lintig, F C; Huvar, I; Law, P; Diccianni, M B; Yu, A L; Boss, G R

    2000-05-01

    Ras is an important cellular switch, relaying growth-promoting signals from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. In cultured cells, Ras is activated by various hematopoietic cytokines and growth factors, but the activation state of Ras in peripheral WBCs and bone marrow cells has not been studied nor has Ras activation been assessed in cells from patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Using an enzyme-based method, we assessed Ras activation in peripheral WBCs, lymphocytes, and bone marrow cells from normal subjects and from children with T-cell ALL (T-ALL) and B-lineage ALL (B-ALL). In normal subjects, we found mean Ras activations of 14.3, 12.5, and 17.2% for peripheral blood WBCs, lymphocytes, and bone marrow cells, respectively. All three of these values are higher than we have found in other normal human cells, compatible with constitutive activation of Ras by cytokines and growth factors present in serum and bone marrow. In 9 of 18 children with T-ALL, Ras activation exceeded two SDs above the mean of the corresponding cells from normal subjects, whereas in none of 11 patients with B-ALL did Ras show increased activation; activating genetic mutations in ras occur in less than 10% of ALL patients. Thus, Ras is relatively activated in peripheral blood WBCs, lymphocytes, and bone marrow cells compared with other normal human cells, and Ras is activated frequently in T-ALL but not in B-ALL. Increased Ras activation in T-ALL compared with B-ALL may contribute to the more aggressive nature of the former disease.

  18. Total bone calcium in normal women: effect of age and menopause status

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, J.C.; Goldgar, D.; Moy, A.

    1987-12-01

    Bone density in different regions of the skeleton was measured in 392 normal women aged 20-80 years by dual photon absorpiometry. In premenopausal women, aged 25-50 years, multiple regression analysis of regional bone density on age, height, and weight showed a small significant decrease in total bone density (less than 0.01) but no significant change in other regions of the skeleton. In postmenopausal women there were highly significant decreases in all regions of the skeleton (p less than 0.001), and bone density in these areas decreased as a logarithmic function of years since menopause. Based on multiple regression analyses, the decrease in spine density and total bone calcium was 2.5-3.0 times greater in the 25 years after menopause than the 25 years before menopause. The largest change, however, occurred in the first five years after menopause. During this time the estimated annual change in spine density and total bone calcium was about 10 times greater than that in the premenopausal period. These results demonstrate the important effect of the menopause in determining bone mass in later life.

  19. Impairing effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor Captopril on bone of normal mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Xia, Chao; Song, Yan; Zhao, Xi; Wong, Man-Sau; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-15

    There are contradicting results about the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) on bones. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of ACEI, Captopril, on bone metabolism and histology as well as the action of Captopril on skeletal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and bradykinin receptor pathway in normal male mice. The urine, serum, tibias and femurs from normal control mice and Captopril-treated (10mg/kg) mice were collected for biochemical, histological and molecular analyses after drug administration for eight weeks. The mice after the treatment with Captopril had a significant decrease of serum testosterone level. The histological measurements showed the loss of trabecular bone mass and trabecular bone number, and the breakage of trabecular bone network as well as the changes of chondrocyte zone at epiphyseal plate in Captopril-treated mice. The defect of Captopril on trabecular bone was reflected by the quantitative bio-parameters from micro-CT. The expression of renin receptor and bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R) was significantly up-regulated in tibia of mice upon to the Captopril treatment, which decreased the ratio of OPG/RANKL and the expression of osteoblastic factor RUNX2. Furthermore, Captopril treatment resulted in the increase of pAkt/Akt and pNFκB expression in tibia. The present study revealed the impairing effects of Captopril on bone via interfering with the circulating sex hormone level and B2R pathway, which suggests that the bone metabolism of patients need to be carefully monitored when being prescribed for ACEIs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Acetate inhibition of chick bone cell proliferation and bone growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Saitta, J C; Lipkin, E W; Howard, G A

    1989-06-01

    A hypothesis has been advanced that parenteral solutions as commonly formulated for use in clinical practice have a toxic effect on cell metabolism. A specific component of these solutions, sodium acetate, has been suggested to disrupt normal bone turnover and therefore to contribute to the osteopenia observed in patients receiving hemodialysis and parenteral nutrition (PN). We developed an in vitro model to test the hypothesis that sodium acetate at concentrations that are infused in PN solutions has a deleterious effect on bone metabolism. Osteoblasts and preosteoblasts from 16- to 17-day-old embryonic chick calvaria, and tibiae and femora from 10-day-old embryonic chicks were grown in BGJb medium (control) or in BGJb medium plus sodium acetate (5, 10, or 20 mM). Calvarial cell proliferation was quantified by direct cell counts as well as by incorporation of [3H]TdR into DNA as an index of cell proliferation. Calvarial cell alkaline phosphatase activity was quantified by the ability of extracts of the cultured cells to hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl phosphate to p-nitrophenol, and bone growth was determined by measuring final dry weight. Calvarial cell counts as well as DNA synthesis showed a dose-dependent decrease in the presence of sodium acetate (5-20 mM) compared with controls. [3H]TdR incorporation was decreased a mean 19% with 5 mM, 38% with 10 mM, and 63% with 20 mM acetate. Alkaline phosphatase activity per cell increased 48% with 5 mM, 140% with 10 mM, and 355% with 20 mM acetate. Cell viability as assessed by trypan blue exclusion was identical for test and control media (greater than 95%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Knight, M. Noelle; Hankenson, Kurt D.

    2013-01-01

    Significance Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play a key role in fracture repair by differentiating to become bone-forming osteoblasts and cartilage-forming chondrocytes. Cartilage then serves as a template for additional bone formation through the process of endochondral ossification. Recent Advances Endogenous MSCs that contribute to healing are primarily derived from the periosteum, endosteum, and marrow cavity, but also may be contributed from the overlying muscle or through systemic circulation, depending on the type of injury. A variety of growth factor signaling pathways, including BMP, Wnt, and Notch signaling, influence MSC proliferation and differentiation. These MSCs can be therapeutically manipulated to promote differentiation. Furthermore, MSCs can be harvested, cultivated, and delivered to promote bone healing. Critical Issues Pharmacologically manipulating the number and differentiation capacity of endogenous MSCs is one potential therapeutic approach to improve healing; however, ideal agents to influence signaling pathways need to be developed and additional therapeutics that activate endogenous MSCs are needed. Whether isolated and purified, MSCs participate directly in the healing process or serve a bystander effect and indirectly influence healing is not well defined. Future Directions Studies must focus on better understanding the regulation of endogenous MSCs durings fracture healing. This will reveal novel molecules and pathways to therapeutically target. Similarly, while animal models have demonstrated efficacy in the delivery of MSCs to promote healing, more research is needed to understand ideal donor cells, cultivation methods, and delivery before stem cell therapy approaches can be utilized to repair bone. PMID:24527352

  2. Osteomimicry: how tumor cells try to deceive the bone.

    PubMed

    Rucci, Nadia; Teti, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Bone metastases are complications of multiple myeloma and solid tumors, including breast and prostate carcinomas. Several reports have demonstrated that the preference to metastasize to bone by tumor cells is not a casual but an addressed event, which relies on specific interactions among tumor cells, bone marrow microenvironment and bone cells. One of the features that gives tumor cells more chances to survive and proliferate into the bone tissue is osteomimicry, that is the ability to acquire a bone cell phenotype, especially osteoblast-like. As clearly demonstrated, prostate and breast cancer cells try to resemble osteoblasts by expressing bone matrix proteins, the specific marker alkaline phosphatase, and molecules regulating the osteoblast/osteoclast cross-talk. Based on this evidence it is crucial to dissect in more detail the molecular mechanisms underlying the osteomimetic properties of cancer cells and identify new therapeutic targets eventually leading to a better and prolonged life expectation for patients with bone.

  3. Endogenous glucocorticoid signalling in osteoblasts is necessary to maintain normal bone structure in mice.

    PubMed

    Kalak, Robert; Zhou, Hong; Street, Janine; Day, Robert E; Modzelewski, James R K; Spies, Cornelia M; Liu, Peter Y; Li, Gang; Dunstan, Colin R; Seibel, Markus J

    2009-07-01

    The role of endogenous glucocorticosteroids (GC) in bone development is ill-defined. Using the Col2.3-11betaHSD2 transgenic (tg) mouse model, we examined the effect of osteoblast-targeted disruption of intracellular GC signalling on bone growth and strength, and its modulation by factors such as age, gender and skeletal site. Tibiae and L3 vertebrae of 3 and 7-week-old, male and female wild type (WT) mice and their tg, age and sex matched littermates were analysed by micro-CT and mechanical testing. Data were analysed separately for 3 and 7-week-old mice by 2-way ANOVA using genotype (WT, tg), gender and their interactions as factors. Transgenic mice were characterised by lower bone volume, lower trabecular number and higher trabecular separation in tibial trabecular bone, as well as lower tibial cortical bone area and periosteal and endosteal perimeters. These changes resulted in a marked decrease in mechanical bone strength and stiffness in sexually mature, 7-week-old mice. In the tibia, the observed transgene effect was present in 3 and 7-week-old animals, indicating that the biological effect of disrupted GC signalling was independent of sexual maturity. This was not the case for the vertebral bones, where significant differences between tg and WT mice were seen in 7 but not in 3-week-old animals, suggesting that the effects of the transgene at this site may be modulated by age and/or changes in circulating sex hormone levels. Taken together, our results demonstrate that endogenous glucocorticoids may be required for normal bone growth but that their effect on bone structure and strength varies according to the skeletal site and sexual maturity of the animals.

  4. Bone microenvironment-mediated resistance of cancer cells to bisphosphonates and impact on bone osteocytes/stem cells.

    PubMed

    Alasmari, Abeer; Lin, Shih-Chun; Dibart, Serge; Salih, Erdjan

    2016-08-01

    Anti-resorptive bisphosphonates (BPs) have been clinically used to prevent cancer-bone metastasis and cancer-induced bone pathologies despite the fact that the phenotypic response of the cancer-bone interactions to BP exposure is "uncharted territory". This study offers unique insights into the interplay between cancer stem cells and osteocytes/osteoblasts and mesenchymal stem cells using a three-dimensional (3D) live cancer-bone interactive model. We provide extraordinary cryptic details of the biological events that occur as a result of alendronate (ALN) treatment using 3D live cancer-bone model systems under specific bone remodeling stages. While cancer cells are susceptible to BP treatment in the absence of bone, they are totally unaffected in the presence of bone. Cancer cells colonize live bone irrespective of whether the bone is committed to bone resorption or formation and hence, cancer-bone metastasis/interactions are though to be "independent of bone remodeling stages". In our 3D live bone model systems, ALN inhibited bone resorption at the osteoclast differentiation level through effects of mineral-bound ALN on osteocytes and osteoblasts. The mineral-bound ALN rendered bone incapable of osteoblast differentiation, while cancer cells colonize the bone with striking morphological adaptations which led to a conclusion that a direct anti-cancer effect of BPs in a "live or in vivo" bone microenvironment is implausible. The above studies were complemented with mass spectrometric analysis of the media from cancer-bone organ cultures in the absence and presence of ALN. The mineral-bound ALN impacts the bone organs by limiting transformation of mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblasts and leads to diminished endosteal cell population and degenerated osteocytes within the mineralized bone matrix.

  5. Cell of origin associated classification of B-cell malignancies by gene signatures of the normal B-cell hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Hans Erik; Bergkvist, Kim Steve; Schmitz, Alexander; Kjeldsen, Malene Krag; Hansen, Steen Møller; Gaihede, Michael; Nørgaard, Martin Agge; Bæch, John; Grønholdt, Marie-Louise; Jensen, Frank Svendsen; Johansen, Preben; Bødker, Julie Støve; Bøgsted, Martin; Dybkær, Karen

    2014-06-01

    Recent findings have suggested biological classification of B-cell malignancies as exemplified by the "activated B-cell-like" (ABC), the "germinal-center B-cell-like" (GCB) and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBL) subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and "recurrent translocation and cyclin D" (TC) classification of multiple myeloma. Biological classification of B-cell derived cancers may be refined by a direct and systematic strategy where identification and characterization of normal B-cell differentiation subsets are used to define the cancer cell of origin phenotype. Here we propose a strategy combining multiparametric flow cytometry, global gene expression profiling and biostatistical modeling to generate B-cell subset specific gene signatures from sorted normal human immature, naive, germinal centrocytes and centroblasts, post-germinal memory B-cells, plasmablasts and plasma cells from available lymphoid tissues including lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus, peripheral blood and bone marrow. This strategy will provide an accurate image of the stage of differentiation, which prospectively can be used to classify any B-cell malignancy and eventually purify tumor cells. This report briefly describes the current models of the normal B-cell subset differentiation in multiple tissues and the pathogenesis of malignancies originating from the normal germinal B-cell hierarchy.

  6. Bone fragility and decline in stem cells in prematurely aging DNA repair deficient trichothiodystrophy mice.

    PubMed

    Diderich, Karin E M; Nicolaije, Claudia; Priemel, Matthias; Waarsing, Jan H; Day, Judd S; Brandt, Renata M C; Schilling, Arndt F; Botter, Sander M; Weinans, Harrie; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T J; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M

    2012-08-01

    Trichothiodystrophy (TTD) is a rare, autosomal recessive nucleotide excision repair (NER) disorder caused by mutations in components of the dual functional NER/basal transcription factor TFIIH. TTD mice, carrying a patient-based point mutation in the Xpd gene, strikingly resemble many features of the human syndrome and exhibit signs of premature aging. To examine to which extent TTD mice resemble the normal process of aging, we thoroughly investigated the bone phenotype. Here, we show that female TTD mice exhibit accelerated bone aging from 39 weeks onwards as well as lack of periosteal apposition leading to reduced bone strength. Before 39 weeks have passed, bones of wild-type and TTD mice are identical excluding a developmental defect. Albeit that bone formation is decreased, osteoblasts in TTD mice retain bone-forming capacity as in vivo PTH treatment leads to increased cortical thickness. In vitro bone marrow cell cultures showed that TTD osteoprogenitors retain the capacity to differentiate into osteoblasts. However, after 13 weeks of age TTD females show decreased bone nodule formation. No increase in bone resorption or the number of osteoclasts was detected. In conclusion, TTD mice show premature bone aging, which is preceded by a decrease in mesenchymal stem cells/osteoprogenitors and a change in systemic factors, identifying DNA damage and repair as key determinants for bone fragility by influencing osteogenesis and bone metabolism.

  7. Mesenchymal precursor cells in the blood of normal individuals

    PubMed Central

    Zvaifler, Nathan J; Marinova-Mutafchieva, Lilla; Adams, Gill; Edwards, Christopher J; Moss, Jill; Burger, Jan A; Maini, Ravinder N

    2000-01-01

    Introduction: Adult human bone marrow contains a minority population of MSCs that contribute to the regeneration of tissues such as bone, cartilage, muscle, ligaments, tendons, fat, and stroma. Evidence that these MSCs are pluripotent, rather than being a mixture of committed progenitor cells each with a restricted potential, includes their rapid proliferation in culture, a characteristic morphology, the presence of typical marker proteins, and their consistent differentiation into various mesenchymal lineages. These attributes are maintained through multiple passages and are identifiable in individual stem cells. Aims: Since stem cells are present in both the bone marrow and other tissues, we thought it possible that cells with a similar appearance and pluripotent mesenchymal potential would be present in the blood. We applied techniques used successfully with marrow MSCs to identify similar cells in elutriation fractions of normal human blood. Methods: BMPCs were elutriated by diluting the buffy coats from 500 ml of anticoagulant-treated, platelet-depleted blood 1:4 in RPMI-1640 medium (RPMI) and layering 25-ml portions over 20 ml of Lymphoprep™. These samples were centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 20 min. The leukocyte-rich interface cells were collected, made up to 20 ml in RPMI, and separated by density-gradient centrifugation. The interface cells, now depleted of red blood cells, were collected, resuspended in 50 ml of sterile RMPI and 5% heat-inactivated FCS, and introduced into the sample line of the flow system of a Beckman JE-50 cell elutriator charged with elutriation buffer. The chamber was centrifuged at 25 000 rpm at 10°C and the flow rate adjusted to 12 ml/min. After about 150 ml had been collected, the flow rate was increased by 1 ml/min. Fractions nos. 1-6 (flow rates of 12-16 ml/min) contained most of the lymphocytes. Monocytes usually appeared in fractions 6 or 7 (as determined by flow cytometric analysis in a fluorescence-activated cell sorter

  8. Bone Cell Bioenergetics and Skeletal Energy Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Ryan C; Clemens, Thomas L

    2017-04-01

    The rising incidence of metabolic diseases worldwide has prompted renewed interest in the study of intermediary metabolism and cellular bioenergetics. The application of modern biochemical methods for quantitating fuel substrate metabolism with advanced mouse genetic approaches has greatly increased understanding of the mechanisms that integrate energy metabolism in the whole organism. Examination of the intermediary metabolism of skeletal cells has been sparked by a series of unanticipated observations in genetically modified mice that suggest the existence of novel endocrine pathways through which bone cells communicate their energy status to other centers of metabolic control. The recognition of this expanded role of the skeleton has in turn led to new lines of inquiry directed at defining the fuel requirements and bioenergetic properties of bone cells. This article provides a comprehensive review of historical and contemporary studies on the metabolic properties of bone cells and the mechanisms that control energy substrate utilization and bioenergetics. Special attention is devoted to identifying gaps in our current understanding of this new area of skeletal biology that will require additional research to better define the physiological significance of skeletal cell bioenergetics in human health and disease. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Modelling the anabolic response of bone using a cell population model.

    PubMed

    Buenzli, Pascal R; Pivonka, Peter; Gardiner, Bruce S; Smith, David W

    2012-08-21

    To maintain bone mass during bone remodelling, coupling is required between bone resorption and bone formation. This coordination is achieved by a network of autocrine and paracrine signalling molecules between cells of the osteoclastic lineage and cells of the osteoblastic lineage. Mathematical modelling of signalling between cells of both lineages can assist in the interpretation of experimental data, clarify signalling interactions and help develop a deeper understanding of complex bone diseases. Several mathematical models of bone cell interactions have been developed, some including RANK-RANKL-OPG signalling between cells and systemic parathyroid hormone PTH. However, to our knowledge these models do not currently include key aspects of some more recent biological evidence for anabolic responses. In this paper, we further develop a mathematical model of bone cell interactions by Pivonka et al. (2008) to include the proliferation of precursor osteoblasts into the model. This inclusion is important to be able to account for Wnt signalling, believed to play an important role in the anabolic responses of bone. We show that an increased rate of differentiation to precursor cells or an increased rate of proliferation of precursor osteoblasts themselves both result in increased bone mass. However, modelling these different processes separately enables the new model to represent recent experimental discoveries such as the role of Wnt signalling in bone biology and the recruitment of osteoblast progenitor cells by transforming growth factor β. Finally, we illustrate the power of the new model's capabilities by applying the model to prostate cancer metastasis to bone. In the bone microenvironment, prostate cancer cells are believed to release some of the same signalling molecules used to coordinate bone remodelling (i.e.,Wnt and PTHrP), enabling the cancer cells to disrupt normal signalling and coordination between bone cells. This disruption can lead to either bone

  10. Dissecting the role of bone marrow stromal cells on bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Buenrostro, Denise; Park, Serk In; Sterling, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-induced bone disease is a dynamic process that involves interactions with many cell types. Once metastatic cancer cells reach the bone, they are in contact with many different cell types that are present in the cell-rich bone marrow. These cells include the immune cells, myeloid cells, fibroblasts, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and mesenchymal stem cells. Each of these cell populations can influence the behavior or gene expression of both the tumor cells and the bone microenvironment. Additionally, the tumor itself can alter the behavior of these bone marrow cells which further alters both the microenvironment and the tumor cells. While many groups focus on studying these interactions, much remains unknown. A better understanding of the interactions between the tumor cells and the bone microenvironment will improve our knowledge on how tumors establish in bone and may lead to improvements in diagnosing and treating bone metastases. This review details our current knowledge on the interactions between tumor cells that reside in bone and their microenvironment.

  11. Technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scan. False-normal findings in elderly patients with hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Schlaeffer, F.; Mikolich, D.J.; Mates, S.M.

    1987-11-01

    Hematogenous osteomyelitis is usually diagnosed by an abnormal technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scan in symptomatic patients who have positive blood cultures. False-normal 99mTc bone scans have been described recently in neonates with biopsy-proved osteomyelitis. This phenomenon seems to be extremely rare in adults. Two elderly patients with hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis had normal technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scans when first evaluated. In both cases the bone scans became abnormal four to six weeks after onset of symptoms and two to four weeks after the initial normal results of the study. When suggested by the clinical picture, hematogenous osteomyelitis cannot be ruled out by a normal 99mTc bone scan at any age. Gallium scan, computed tomographic scan, or bone biopsy can be helpful in such cases.

  12. Hip contact force in presence of aberrant bone geometry during normal and pathological gait.

    PubMed

    Bosmans, Lode; Wesseling, Mariska; Desloovere, Kaat; Molenaers, Guy; Scheys, Lennart; Jonkers, Ilse

    2014-11-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) often present aberrant hip geometry, specifically increased femoral anteversion and neck-shaft angle. Furthermore, altered gait patterns are present within this population. We analyzed the effect of aberrant femoral geometry, as present in CP subjects, on hip contact force (HCF) during pathological and normal gait. We ran dynamic simulations of CP-specific and normal gait using two musculoskeletal models (MSMs), one reflecting normal femoral geometry and one reflecting proximal femoral deformities. The combination of aberrant bone geometry and CP-specific gait characteristics reduced HCF compared to normal gait on a CP subject-specific MSM, but drastically changed the orientation of the HCF vector. The HCF was orientated more vertically and anteriorly than compared to HCF orientation during normal gait. Furthermore, subjects with more pronounced bony deformities encountered larger differences in resultant HCF and HCF orientation. When bone deformities were not accounted for in MSMs of pathologic gait, the HCF orientation was more similar to normal children. Thus, our results support a relation between aberrant femoral geometry and joint loading during pathological/normal gait and confirm a compensatory effect of altered gait kinematics on joint loading.

  13. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone - An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Sobti, Anshul; Agrawal, Pranshu; Agarwala, Sanjay; Agarwal, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Giant Cell tumors (GCT) are benign tumors with potential for aggressive behavior and capacity to metastasize. Although rarely lethal, benign bone tumors may be associated with a substantial disturbance of the local bony architecture that can be particularly troublesome in peri-articular locations. Its histogenesis remains unclear. It is characterized by a proliferation of mononuclear stromal cells and the presence of many multi- nucleated giant cells with homogenous distribution. There is no widely held consensus regarding the ideal treatment method selection. There are advocates of varying surgical techniques ranging from intra-lesional curettage to wide resection. As most giant cell tumors are benign and are located near a joint in young adults, several authors favor an intralesional approach that preserves anatomy of bone in lieu of resection. Although GCT is classified as a benign lesion, few patients develop progressive lung metastases with poor outcomes. Treatment is mainly surgical. Options of chemotherapy and radiotherapy are reserved for selected cases. Recent advances in the understanding of pathogenesis are essential to develop new treatments for this locally destructive primary bone tumor. PMID:26894211

  14. In Vitro Bone Cell Models: Impact of Fluid Shear Stress on Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Wittkowske, Claudia; Reilly, Gwendolen C.; Lacroix, Damien; Perrault, Cecile M.

    2016-01-01

    This review describes the role of bone cells and their surrounding matrix in maintaining bone strength through the process of bone remodeling. Subsequently, this work focusses on how bone formation is guided by mechanical forces and fluid shear stress in particular. It has been demonstrated that mechanical stimulation is an important regulator of bone metabolism. Shear stress generated by interstitial fluid flow in the lacunar-canalicular network influences maintenance and healing of bone tissue. Fluid flow is primarily caused by compressive loading of bone as a result of physical activity. Changes in loading, e.g., due to extended periods of bed rest or microgravity in space are associated with altered bone remodeling and formation in vivo. In vitro, it has been reported that bone cells respond to fluid shear stress by releasing osteogenic signaling factors, such as nitric oxide, and prostaglandins. This work focusses on the application of in vitro models to study the effects of fluid flow on bone cell signaling, collagen deposition, and matrix mineralization. Particular attention is given to in vitro set-ups, which allow long-term cell culture and the application of low fluid shear stress. In addition, this review explores what mechanisms influence the orientation of collagen fibers, which determine the anisotropic properties of bone. A better understanding of these mechanisms could facilitate the design of improved tissue-engineered bone implants or more effective bone disease models. PMID:27896266

  15. In Vitro Bone Cell Models: Impact of Fluid Shear Stress on Bone Formation.

    PubMed

    Wittkowske, Claudia; Reilly, Gwendolen C; Lacroix, Damien; Perrault, Cecile M

    2016-01-01

    This review describes the role of bone cells and their surrounding matrix in maintaining bone strength through the process of bone remodeling. Subsequently, this work focusses on how bone formation is guided by mechanical forces and fluid shear stress in particular. It has been demonstrated that mechanical stimulation is an important regulator of bone metabolism. Shear stress generated by interstitial fluid flow in the lacunar-canalicular network influences maintenance and healing of bone tissue. Fluid flow is primarily caused by compressive loading of bone as a result of physical activity. Changes in loading, e.g., due to extended periods of bed rest or microgravity in space are associated with altered bone remodeling and formation in vivo. In vitro, it has been reported that bone cells respond to fluid shear stress by releasing osteogenic signaling factors, such as nitric oxide, and prostaglandins. This work focusses on the application of in vitro models to study the effects of fluid flow on bone cell signaling, collagen deposition, and matrix mineralization. Particular attention is given to in vitro set-ups, which allow long-term cell culture and the application of low fluid shear stress. In addition, this review explores what mechanisms influence the orientation of collagen fibers, which determine the anisotropic properties of bone. A better understanding of these mechanisms could facilitate the design of improved tissue-engineered bone implants or more effective bone disease models.

  16. Cure of murine thalassemia by bone marrow transplantation without eradication of endogenous stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wagemaker, G.; Visser, T.P.; van Bekkum, D.W.

    1986-09-01

    alpha-Thalassemic heterozygous (Hbath/+) mice were used to investigate the possible selective advantage of transplanted normal (+/+) hemopoietic cells. Without conditioning by total-body irradiation (TBI), infusion of large numbers of normal bone marrow cells failed to correct the thalassemic peripheral blood phenotype. Since the recipients' stem cells are normal with respect to number and differentiation capacity, it was thought that the transplanted stem cells were not able to lodge, or that they were not stimulated to proliferate. Therefore, a nonlethal dose of TBI was given to temporarily reduce endogenous stem cell numbers and hemopoiesis. TBI doses of 2 or 3 Gy followed by infusion of normal bone marrow cells proved to be effective in replacing the thalassemic red cells by normal red cells, whereas a dose of 1 Gy was ineffective. It is concluded that cure of thalassemia by bone marrow transplantation does not necessarily require eradication of thalassemic stem cells. Consequently, the objectives of conditioning regimens for bone marrow transplantation of thalassemic patients (and possibly other nonmalignant hemopoietic disorders) should be reconsidered.

  17. Targeted delivery of mesenchymal stem cells to the bone.

    PubMed

    Yao, Wei; Lane, Nancy E

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease of excess skeletal fragility that results from estrogen loss and aging. Age related bone loss has been attributed to both elevated bone resorption and insufficient bone formation. We developed a hybrid compound, LLP2A-Ale in which LLP2A has high affinity for the α4β1 integrin on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and alendronate has high affinity for bone. When LLP2A-Ale was injected into mice, the compound directed MSCs to both trabecular and cortical bone surfaces and increased bone mass and bone strength. Additional studies are underway to further characterize this hybrid compound, LLP2A-Ale, and how it can be utilized for the treatment of bone loss resulting from hormone deficiency, aging, and inflammation and to augment bone fracture healing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Stem Cells and Bone".

  18. Using cell and organ culture models to analyze responses of bone cells to mechanical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Pitsillides, Andrew A; Rawlinson, Simon C F

    2012-01-01

    Bone cells of the osteoblastic lineage are responsive to the local mechanical environment. Through integration of a number of possible loading-induced regulatory stimuli, osteocyte, osteoblast, and osteoclast behaviour is organized to fashion a skeletal element of sufficient strength and toughness to resist fracture and crack propagation. Early pre-osteogenic responses had been determined in vivo and this led to the development of bone organ culture models to elucidate other pre-osteogenic responses where osteocytes and osteoblasts retain the natural orientation, connections and attachments to their native extracellular matrix. The application of physiological mechanical loads to bone in these organ culture models generates the regulatory stimuli. As a consequence, these experiments can be used to illustrate the distinctive mechanisms by which osteocytes and osteoblasts respond to mechanical loads and also differences in these responses, suggesting co-ordinated and cooperatively between cell populations. Organ explant cultures are awkward to maintain, and have a limited life, but length of culture times are improving. Monolayer cultures are much easier to maintain and permit the application of a particular mechanical stimulation to be studied in isolation; mainly direct mechanical strain or fluid shear strains. These allow for the response of a single cell type to the applied mechanical stimulation to be monitored precisely.The techniques that can be used to apply mechanical strain to bone and bone cells have not advanced greatly since the first edition. The output from such experiments has, however, increased substantially and their importance is now more broadly accepted. This suggests a growing use of these approaches and an increasing awareness of the importance of the mechanical environment in controlling normal bone cell behaviour. We expand the text to include additions and modifications made to the straining apparatus and update the research cited to

  19. Bone marrow-derived lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Krause, Diane S

    2008-08-15

    Bone marrow-derived cells can take on the phenotype of epithelial cells and express epithelial-specific genes in multiple organs. Here, we focus on recent data on the appearance of marrow-derived epithelial cells in the adult lung. These findings have garnered significant skepticism because in most cases marrow-derived epithelial cells are very rare, the marrow cell of origin is not known, the techniques for detection have needed improvement, and there seem to be multiple mechanisms by which this occurs. Recent studies have focused on these concerns. Once these important concerns are addressed, further studies on the function(s) of these cells will need to be performed to determine whether this engraftment has any clinical significance-either beneficial or detrimental.

  20. Normal development, oncogenesis and programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Liebermann, D A

    1998-09-10

    Meeting's Report -- June 2, 1998, Sugarload Estate Conference Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. A symposium on Normal Development, Oncogenesis and Programmed Cell Death, was held at the Sugarload Estate Conference Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA sponsored by the Fels Cancer Institute, Temple University School of Medicine, with the support of the Alliance Pharmaceutical Corporation. The symposium was organized by Drs Dan A Liebermann and Barbara Hoffman at the Fels. Invited speakers included: Dr Andrei V Gudkov (University of Illinois) who started the symposium talking about 'New cellular factors modulating the tumor suppressor function of p53'; Dr Yuri Lazebnik (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratories) spoke about 'Caspases considered as enemies within'; Dr E Premkumar Reddy (Fels Institute, Temple University) talked about recent exciting findings in his laboratory regarding 'JAK-STATs dedicated signaling pathways'; Dr Michael Greenberg (Harvard University) spoke about 'Signal transduction pathways that regulate differentiation and survival in the developing nervous system'; Dr Richard Kolesnick's (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center) talk has been focused at 'Stress signals for apoptosis, including Ceramide and c-Jun Kinase/Stress-activated Protein Kinase'; Dr Barbara Hoffman (Fels Institute, Temple University) described research, conducted in collaboration with Dr Dan A Liebermann, aimed at deciphering the roles of 'myc, myb, and E2F as negative regulators of terminal differentiation', using hematopoietic cells as model system. Dr Daniel G Tenen (Harvard Medical School), described studies aimed at understanding the 'Regulation of hematopoietic cell development by lineage specific transcription regulators'. Dr George C Prendergast (The Wistar Institute) talked about the 'Myc-Bin1 signaling pathway in cell death and differentiation. Dr Ruth J Muschel (University of Pennsylvania) spoke about work, conducted in collaboration with Dr WG McKenna, aimed at

  1. Nanostructured magnesium increases bone cell density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Lucy; Webster, Thomas J.

    2012-12-01

    Magnesium has attracted some attention in orthopedics due to its biodegradability and mechanical properties. Since magnesium is an essential natural mineral for bone growth, it can be expected that as a biomaterial, it would support bone formation. However, upon degradation in the body, magnesium releases OH- which results in an alkaline pH that can be detrimental to cell density (for example, osteoblasts or bone forming cells). For this reason, modification of magnesium may be necessary to compensate for such detrimental effects to cells. This study created biologically inspired nanoscale surface features on magnesium by soaking magnesium in various concentrations of NaOH (from 1 to 10 N) and for various periods of time (from 10 to 30 min). The results provided the first evidence of increased roughness, surface energy, and consequently greater osteoblast adhesion, after 4 h as well as density up to 7 days on magnesium treated with any concentration of NaOH for any length of time compared to untreated controls. For these reasons, this study suggests that soaking magnesium in NaOH could be an inexpensive, simple and effective manner to promote osteoblast functions for numerous orthopedic applications and, thus, should be further studied.

  2. Painful scoliosis due to superposed giant cell bone tumor and aneurysmal bone cyst in a child.

    PubMed

    Togral, Guray; Arikan, Murat; Hasturk, Askin E; Gungor, Safak

    2014-07-01

    Giant cell bone tumors are the most common precursor lesions of aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) developing secondarily. In giant cell bone tumors containing an explicit ABC component, the observation of the solid component of the giant cell bone tumor plays a critical role in the separation of the primary ABC. In general, ABC cases together with giant cell tumors in the bone are diagnosed histopathologically. The combination of giant cell bone tumor with superposed ABC and that of painful scoliosis with backache is rarely seen in children. In this case study, we discussed the diagnosis and the treatment of a giant cell tumor and superposed an ABC present in the fifth lumbar spine in a pediatric patient admitted to our clinic with a complaint of acute scoliotic back pain.

  3. Multiple myeloma cells promote migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by altering their translation initiation.

    PubMed

    Dabbah, Mahmoud; Attar-Schneider, Oshrat; Zismanov, Victoria; Tartakover Matalon, Shelly; Lishner, Michael; Drucker, Liat

    2016-10-01

    The role of the bone marrow microenvironment in multiple myeloma pathogenesis and progression is well recognized. Indeed, we have shown that coculture of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from normal donors and multiple myeloma cells comodulated translation initiation. Here, we characterized the timeline of mesenchymal stem cells conditioning by multiple myeloma cells, the persistence of this effect, and the consequences on cell phenotype. Normal donor mesenchymal stem cells were cocultured with multiple myeloma cell lines (U266, ARP1) (multiple myeloma-conditioned mesenchymal stem cells) (1.5 h,12 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 3 d) and were assayed for translation initiation status (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G; regulators: mechanistic target of rapamycin, MNK, 4EBP; targets: SMAD family 5, nuclear factor κB, cyclin D1, hypoxia inducible factor 1, c-Myc) (immunoblotting) and migration (scratch assay, inhibitors). Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases in mesenchymal stem cell conditioning and altered migration was also tested (immunoblotting, inhibitors). Multiple myeloma-conditioned mesenchymal stem cells were recultured alone (1-7 d) and were assayed for translation initiation (immunoblotting). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction of extracted ribonucleic acid was tested for microRNAs levels. Mitogen-activated protein kinases were activated within 1.5 h of coculture and were responsible for multiple myeloma-conditioned mesenchymal stem cell translation initiation status (an increase of >200%, P < 0.05) and elevated migration (16 h, an increase of >400%, P < 0.05). The bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells conditioned by multiple myeloma cells were reversible after only 1 d of multiple myeloma-conditioned mesenchymal stem cell culture alone. Decreased expression of microRNA-199b and microRNA-125a (an increase of <140%, P < 0.05) in multiple myeloma-conditioned mesenchymal stem cells supported elevated

  4. Time-intensity trade of bilaterally bone-conducted sounds in normal hearing subjects.

    PubMed

    Schmerber, S; Sheykholeslami, K; Kermany, M H; Hotta, S; Kaga, K

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to examine the rules by which information of bilaterally applied bone-conducted signals arising from interaural time differences (ITD) and interaural intensity differences (IID) is combined, data were measured for continuous 500 Hz narrow-band noise at 60 dBHL in 30 normal-hearing subjects using a centering method. Time-intensity trading functions were obtained by means of a sound image shifted towards one side by presenting an ITD, and shifted back to a centered sound image by varying the IID in the same ear. ITD values were varied from -600 to +600 microseconds at 200 microseconds steps, where negative values indicate delays to the right ear. Time-intensity trading functions in response to bone-conducted signals showed significantly lower discrimination thresholds across IIDs, when compared to a control group with applied air-conducted signals. These findings can be interpreted as a constructive interference effect related to the intimate mechanism of bilateral bone conduction, where interaural time differences play a major role. Time-intensity trade of bilaterally bone-conducted sounds in normal-hearing subjects is the highly sensitive. The high speed of sound through the skull may be the main reason for the high sensitivity of time-intensity trading.

  5. Neurologic complications following bone marrow transplantation for sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Abboud, M R; Jackson, S M; Barredo, J; Holden, K R; Cure, J; Laver, J

    1996-03-01

    A boy with sickle cell anemia underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT). He was normal on neurological examination, but had radiologic evidence of an old left frontal lobe infarct, multiple cerebral vascular stenoses and moyamoya collaterals. After BMT he developed seizures with extension of the infarct and subarachnoid hemorrhage. One year later angiography revealed worsening stenosis of the M1 segments of both middle cerebral arteries. At that time an increase in von Willebrand's factor with decreased large molecular weight multimers (LvWF) was observed. We speculate that LvWF dependent, shear-induced platelet aggregation, together with endothelial damage may have contributed to the development of neurologic complications in this patient.

  6. Characterizing gait induced normal strains in a murine tibia cortical bone defect model.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Jitendra; Wiater, Brett P; Nork, Sean E; Bain, Steven D; Gross, Ted S

    2010-10-19

    The critical role that mechanical stimuli serve in mediating bone repair is recognized but incompletely understood. Further, previous attempts to understand this role have utilized application of externally applied mechanical loads to study the tissue's response. In this project, we have therefore endeavored to capitalize on bone's own consistently diverse loading environment to develop a novel model that would enable assessment of the influence of physiologically engendered mechanical stimuli on cortical defect repair. We used an inverse dynamics approach with finite element analysis (FEA) to first quantify normal strain distributions generated in mouse tibia during locomotion. The strain environment of the tibia, as previously reported for other long bones, was found to arise primarily due to bending and was consistent in orientation through the stance phase of gait. Based on these data, we identified three regions within a transverse cross-section of the mid-diaphysis as uniform locations of either peak tension, peak compression, or the neutral axis of bending (i.e. minimal strain magnitude). We then used FEA to quantify the altered strain environment that would be produced by a 0.6mm diameter cylindrical cortical bone defect at each diaphyseal site and, in an in situ study confirmed our ability to accurately place defects at the desired diaphyseal locations. The resulting model will enable the exploration of cortical bone healing within the context of physiologically engendered mechanical strain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Normalization of bone mineral density after five years of treatment with strontium ranelate.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Julio Ariel

    2015-01-01

    E.F., female, age 58, mother of 4 children and otherwise healthy, had gone into menopause when she was 42. She had received hormone replacement therapy during 8 years. Due to low bone mass she had been treated with oral alendronate during 7 years. She had a normal calcium intake in her diet and engaged in regular physical activity. She did not smoke, and drank alcohol only occasionally. Her mother had sustained a hip fracture at age 90. Bone densitometry of her lumbar spine by DXA showed a T-score of -3.0; standardized bone mineral density (sBMD) had decreased by 11% in the previous 3 years. She was advised to start treatment with strontium ranelate (SrR) 2 g/day, plus oral cholecalciferol (1,000 IU/day). Three months later serum alkaline phosphatase had increased 10%, and serum osteocalcin was 18.9 ng/ml (upper normal limit 13.7). One year later her lumbar BMD had increased by 13.5%. After five years of treatment the BMD value was normal (1.357 g/cm(2); T-score -0.3). The case presented here is noteworthy for two reasons. Firstly, the patient maintained low bone mass after several years of combined treatment with alendronate and hormone replacement; this combination usually induces greater densitometric responses than either treatment given alone. Secondly, she responded promptly and significantly to SrR in spite of the previous long exposure to alendronate. SrR is widely used for the treatment of osteoporosis. It is an effective and safe drug, provided the patients are properly selected. As shown here, it can help some patients to achieve a normal BMD.

  8. Connecting Mechanics and Bone Cell Activities in the Bone Remodeling Process: An Integrated Finite Element Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Hambli, Ridha

    2014-01-01

    Bone adaptation occurs as a response to external loadings and involves bone resorption by osteoclasts followed by the formation of new bone by osteoblasts. It is directly triggered by the transduction phase by osteocytes embedded within the bone matrix. The bone remodeling process is governed by the interactions between osteoblasts and osteoclasts through the expression of several autocrine and paracrine factors that control bone cell populations and their relative rate of differentiation and proliferation. A review of the literature shows that despite the progress in bone remodeling simulation using the finite element (FE) method, there is still a lack of predictive models that explicitly consider the interaction between osteoblasts and osteoclasts combined with the mechanical response of bone. The current study attempts to develop an FE model to describe the bone remodeling process, taking into consideration the activities of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. The mechanical behavior of bone is described by taking into account the bone material fatigue damage accumulation and mineralization. A coupled strain–damage stimulus function is proposed, which controls the level of autocrine and paracrine factors. The cellular behavior is based on Komarova et al.’s (2003) dynamic law, which describes the autocrine and paracrine interactions between osteoblasts and osteoclasts and computes cell population dynamics and changes in bone mass at a discrete site of bone remodeling. Therefore, when an external mechanical stress is applied, bone formation and resorption is governed by cells dynamic rather than adaptive elasticity approaches. The proposed FE model has been implemented in the FE code Abaqus (UMAT routine). An example of human proximal femur is investigated using the model developed. The model was able to predict final human proximal femur adaptation similar to the patterns observed in a human proximal femur. The results obtained reveal complex spatio-temporal bone

  9. Connecting mechanics and bone cell activities in the bone remodeling process: an integrated finite element modeling.

    PubMed

    Hambli, Ridha

    2014-01-01

    Bone adaptation occurs as a response to external loadings and involves bone resorption by osteoclasts followed by the formation of new bone by osteoblasts. It is directly triggered by the transduction phase by osteocytes embedded within the bone matrix. The bone remodeling process is governed by the interactions between osteoblasts and osteoclasts through the expression of several autocrine and paracrine factors that control bone cell populations and their relative rate of differentiation and proliferation. A review of the literature shows that despite the progress in bone remodeling simulation using the finite element (FE) method, there is still a lack of predictive models that explicitly consider the interaction between osteoblasts and osteoclasts combined with the mechanical response of bone. The current study attempts to develop an FE model to describe the bone remodeling process, taking into consideration the activities of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. The mechanical behavior of bone is described by taking into account the bone material fatigue damage accumulation and mineralization. A coupled strain-damage stimulus function is proposed, which controls the level of autocrine and paracrine factors. The cellular behavior is based on Komarova et al.'s (2003) dynamic law, which describes the autocrine and paracrine interactions between osteoblasts and osteoclasts and computes cell population dynamics and changes in bone mass at a discrete site of bone remodeling. Therefore, when an external mechanical stress is applied, bone formation and resorption is governed by cells dynamic rather than adaptive elasticity approaches. The proposed FE model has been implemented in the FE code Abaqus (UMAT routine). An example of human proximal femur is investigated using the model developed. The model was able to predict final human proximal femur adaptation similar to the patterns observed in a human proximal femur. The results obtained reveal complex spatio-temporal bone

  10. Bone formation in trabecular bone cell seeded scaffolds used for reconstruction of the rat mandible.

    PubMed

    Schliephake, H; Zghoul, N; Jäger, V; van Griensven, M; Zeichen, J; Gelinsky, M; Szubtarsky, N

    2009-02-01

    This study tested whether different in vitro cultivation techniques for tissue-engineered scaffolds seeded with human trabecular bone cells affect in vivo bone formation when implanted into critical-size defects in rat mandibles. Human trabecular cells were isolated and seeded into three types of scaffolds (porous CaCO(3), mineralized collagen, porous tricalcium phosphate). Four in vitro groups were produced: empty control scaffolds incubated with cell culture medium for 24 h; scaffolds seeded with trabecular bone cells, cultivated under static conditions for 24 h; scaffolds seeded with trabecular bone cells, cultivated for 14 days under static conditions; scaffolds seeded with trabecular bone cells, cultivated for 14 days in a continuous flow perfusion bioreactor. The scaffolds were implanted press fit into non-healing defects, 5 mm diameter, in rat mandibles. After 6 weeks the presence of human cells was assessed; none were detected. Histomorphometric evaluation showed that neither seeding human trabecular bone cells nor the culturing technique increased the amount of early bone formation compared with the level provided by osteoconductive bone ingrowth from the defect edges. It is concluded that human bone marrow stroma cells in tissue-engineered scaffolds and associated in vitro technology are difficult to test in the mandible in animal models.

  11. Osteogenic activity of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) seeded on irradiated allogenic bone.

    PubMed

    Tohma, Yasuaki; Dohi, Yoshiko; Ohgushi, Hajime; Tadokoro, Mika; Akahane, Manabu; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2012-02-01

    Allogenic bone grafting, a technique used in orthopaedic surgery, has several problems, including low osteogenic activity. To overcome the problem, this study aimed to determine whether in vivo osteogenesis could be enhanced using allogenic irradiated bone grafts after seeding with autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The allogenic bone cylinders were extracted from ACI rats and sterilized by irradiation. Donor BMSCs were obtained from fresh Fischer 344 (F344) rat bone marrow by cell culture. The allogenic bone with or without BMSCs were transplanted subcutaneously into syngeneic F344 rats. At 4 weeks after transplantation, high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, bone-specific osteocalcin mRNA expression and newly formed bone were detected in the allogenic bone with BMSCs. The origin of the newly formed bone was derived from cultured donor BMSCs. However, none of these identifiers of osteogenesis were detected in either the fresh or the irradiated allogenic bone without BMSCs. These results indicate the availability of autologous BMSCs to heighten the osteogenic response of allogenic bone. Our present tissue-engineering method might contribute to a wide variety of allogenic bone grafting techniques in clinical settings.

  12. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Functional Bone Tissue Engineering: Lessons from Bone Mechanobiology

    PubMed Central

    Bodle, Josephine C.; Hanson, Ariel D.

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to highlight the current and significant work in the use of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) in functional bone tissue engineering framed through the bone mechanobiology perspective. Over a century of work on the principles of bone mechanosensitivity is now being applied to our understanding of bone development. We are just beginning to harness that potential using stem cells in bone tissue engineering. ASC are the primary focus of this review due to their abundance and relative ease of accessibility for autologous procedures. This article outlines the current knowledge base in bone mechanobiology to investigate how the knowledge from this area has been applied to the various stem cell-based approaches to engineering bone tissue constructs. Specific emphasis is placed on the use of human ASC for this application. PMID:21338267

  13. [Comparative investigations of osteotropic radionucleides. IV. The dynamics of uptake in normal and abnormal bone (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Creutzig, H; Gerdts, K G; Creutzig, A

    1977-03-01

    The dynamics of uptake of osteotropic radionucleides in normal and abnormal bone were studied by means of sequential and functional scans. Various phosphate and phosphonate complexes were compared in vivo and in vitro. Only phosphonates were considered as suitable for bone scanning. In normal bones in beagles, radioactivity after HEDP fell to 65% after two hours, but was 105% with 18F. In relation to healing fractures, the curves differ quantitatively and qualitatively. In this situation, functional curves derived from dynamic scans provide a better parallel with histological findings than does static scintigraphy with an uptake quotient. Sequential and functional scanning are able to document the therapeutic effect of irradiation of bone metastases.

  14. Different radiosensitivities of mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow and skin of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kitamura, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Sonoda, T.; Mori, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    Although tissue mast cells are derived from the bone marrow, some descendants of bone marrow-derived precursors retain the ability to proliferate and differentiate into mast cells even after localization in the skin. The purpose of the present study was to determine the D/sub 0/ values for mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow and those localized in the skin. Bone marrow cells were removed from (WB X C57BL/6)F/sub 1/+/+ mice after various doses of irradiation and injected into the skin of the congenic W/W/sup v/ mice which were genetically without mast cells. Radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow was evaluated by determining the proportion of the injection sites at which mast cells did not appear. For the assay of the radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors localized in the skin, pieces of skin were removed from beige C57BL/6 (bg/sup J//bg/sup J/, Chediak-Higashi syndrome) mice after various doses of irradiation and grafted onto the backs of the normal C57BL/6 mice. Radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors in the skin was evaluated by determining the decrease of beige-type mast cells which possessed giant granules. Mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow were much more radiosenitive than those localized in the skin. D/sup 0/ value was about 100 rad for the former and about 800 rad for the latter.

  15. Different radiosensitivities of mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow and skin of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kitamura, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Sonoda, T.; Mori, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    Although tissue mast cells are derived from the bone marrow, some descendants of bone marrow-derived precursors retain the ability to proliferate and differentiate into mast cells even after localization in the skin. The purpose of the present study was to determine the D0 values for mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow and those localized in the skin. Bone marrow cells were removed from (WB X C57BL/6)F1-+/+ mice after various doses of irradiation and injected into the skin of the congenic W/Wv mice which were genetically without mast cells. Radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow was evaluated by determining the proportion of the injection sites at which mast cells did not appear. For the assay of the radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors localized in the skin, pieces of skin were removed from beige C57BL/6 (bgJ/bgJ. Chediak-Higashi syndrome) mice after various doses of irradiation and grafted onto the back of the normal C57BL/6 mice. Radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors in the skin was evaluated by determining the decrease of beige-type mast cells which possessed giant granules. Mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow were much more radiosensitive than those localized in the skin. D0 value was about 100 rad for the former and about 800 rad for the latter.

  16. Normal masticatory function partially protects the rat mandibular bone from estrogen-deficiency induced osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Mavropoulos, Anestis; Kiliaridis, Stavros; Rizzoli, René; Ammann, Patrick

    2014-08-22

    In a previous study we showed that mandibular alveolar (trabecular) bone appears to be less sensitive to estrogen deficiency than the proximal tibia spongiosa. We hypothesized that the mechanical loading of the alveolar process during mastication may protect the alveolar bone from the detrimental effects observed in other skeletal sites. To test this hypothesis we compared the effect of ovariectomy on the mandibular alveolar bone and the proximal tibia spongiosa of rats fed either a normal (hard) or a soft diet. Forty six-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent trans-abdominal ovariectomy (OVX) or sham operation (SHAM). Half of the animals received their food in the usual form of pellets (hard consistency), while the other half received a soft, porridge-like, isocaloric diet of identical composition (soft consistency). Micro-computed tomographic histomorphometry was used to evaluate the trabecular micro-architecture. A two-factor analysis of variance was used to test for effects and interaction of ovariectomy and/or soft diet. OVX had a significantly negative effect on the proximal tibia spongiosa (all parameters under study except trabecular thickness; p<0.001) and on the mandibular alveolar bone (trabecular number and spacing; p<0.05). Soft diet led to a further decrease of mandibular BV/TV (p<0.01), trabecular thickness (p<0.05) and number (p<0.05), as well as increase of separation (p<0.001). A significant interaction was observed between OVX and soft diet concerning the mandibular BV/TV, as well as trabecular thickness and spacing (p<0.05). Normal (hard) diet limited significantly the negative effects of estrogen deficiency on mandibular alveolar bone micro-architecture four months after ovariectomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tocotrienols are needed for normal bone calcification in growing female rats.

    PubMed

    Norazlina, Mohamed; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman; Abul Gapor, Mohd Top; Abdul Kadir Khalid, B

    2002-01-01

    In this study the effects of vitamin E deficiency and supplementation on bone calcification were determined using 4-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats weighed between 180 and 200 g. The study was divided in three parts. In experiment I the rats were given normal rat chow (RC, control group), a vitamin E deficient (VED) diet or a 50% vitamin E deficient (50%VED) diet. In experiment 2 the rats were given VED supplemented with 30 mg/kg palm vitamin E (PVE30), 60 mg/kg palm vitamin E (PVE60) or 30 mg/kg pure alpha-tocopherol (ATF). In experiment 3 the rats were fed RC and given the same supplements as in experiment 2. The treatment lasted 8 months. Vitamin E derived from palm oil contained a mixture of ATF and tocotrienols. Rats on the VED and 50%VED diets had lower bone calcium content in the left femur compared to the RC group (91.6 +/- 13.3 mg and 118.3 +/- 26.0 mg cf 165.7 +/- 15.2 mg; P < 0.05) and L5 vertebra (28.3 +/- 4.0 mg and 39.5 +/- 6.2 mg compared with 51.4 +/- 5.8 mg; P < 0.05). Supplementing the VED group with PVE60 improved bone calcification in the left femur (133.6 +/- 5.0 mg compared with 91.6 +/- 13.3 mg; P < 0.05) and L5 vertebra (41.3 +/- 3.3 mg compared with 28.3 +/- 4.0 mg; P < 0.05) while supplementation with PVE30 improved bone calcium content in the L5 vertebra (35.6 +/- 3.1 mg compared with 28.3 +/- 4.0 mg; P < 0.05). However, supplementation with ATF did not change the lumbar and femoral bone calcium content compared to the VED group. Supplementing the RC group with PVE30, PVE60 or ATF did not cause any significant changes in bone calcium content. In conclusion, vitamin E deficiency impaired bone calcification. Supplementation with the higher dose of palm vitamin E improved bone calcium content, but supplementation with pure ATF alone did not. This effect may be attributed to the tocotrienol content of palm vitamin E. Therefore, tocotrienols play an important role in bone calcification.

  18. The effect of autologous bone marrow stromal cells differentiated on scaffolds for canine tibial bone reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Özdal-Kurt, F; Tuğlu, I; Vatansever, H S; Tong, S; Deliloğlu-Gürhan, S I

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow contains mesenchymal stem cells that form many tissues. Various scaffolds are available for bone reconstruction by tissue engineering. Osteoblastic differentiated bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) promote osteogenesis on scaffolds and stimulate bone regeneration. We investigated the use of cultured autologous BMSC on different scaffolds for healing defects in tibias of adult male canines. BMSC were isolated from canine humerus bone marrow, differentiated into osteoblasts in culture and loaded onto porous ceramic scaffolds including hydroxyapatite 1, hydroxyapatite gel and calcium phosphate. Osteoblast differentiation was verified by osteonectine and osteocalcine immunocytochemistry. The scaffolds with stromal cells were implanted in the tibial defect. Scaffolds without stromal cells were used as controls. Sections from the defects were processed for histological, ultrastructural, immunohistochemical and histomorphometric analyses to analyze the healing of the defects. BMSC were spread, allowed to proliferate and differentiate to osteoblasts as shown by alizarin red histochemistry, and osteocalcine and osteonectine immunostaining. Scanning electron microscopy showed that BMSC on the scaffolds were more active and adhesive to the calcium phosphate scaffold compared to the others. Macroscopic bone formation was observed in all groups, but scaffolds with stromal cells produced significantly better results. Bone healing occurred earlier and faster with stromal cells on the calcium phosphate scaffold and produced more callus compared to other scaffolds. Tissue healing and osteoblastic marker expression also were better with stromal cells on the scaffolds. Increased trabecula formation, cell density and decreased fibrosis were observed in the calcium phosphate scaffold with stromal cells. Autologous cultured stromal cells on the scaffolds were useful for healing of canine tibial bone defects. The calcium phosphate scaffold was the best for both cell

  19. Effects of ionizing radiation on bone cell differentiation in an experimental murine bone cell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Lau, Patrick; Hellweg, Christine; Reitz, Guenther

    During long-term space travel astronauts are exposed to a complex mixture of different radiation types under conditions of dramatically reduced weight-bearing activity. It has been validated that astronauts loose a considerable amount of bone mass at a rate up to one to two percent each month in space. Therapeutic doses of ionizing radiation cause bone damage and increase fracture risks after treatment for head-and-neck cancer and in pelvic irradiation. For low radiation doses, the possibility of a disturbed healing potential of bone was described. Radiation induced damage has been discussed to inflict mainly on immature and healing bone. Little is known about radiation effects on bone remodelling and even less on the combined action of microgravity and radiation. Bone remodelling is a life-long process performed by balanced action of cells from the osteoblast and osteoclast lineages. While osteoblasts differentiate either into bone-lining cells or into osteocytes and play a crucial role in bone matrix synthesis, osteoclasts are responsible for bone resorption. We hypothesize that the balance between bone matrix assembly by osteocytes and bone degradation by osteoclasts is modulated by microgravity as well as by ionizing radiation. To address this, a cell model consisting of murine cell lines with the potential to differentiate into bone-forming osteoblasts (OCT-1, MC3T3-E1 S24, and MC3T3-E1 S4) was used for studying radiation response after exposure to simulated components of cosmic radiation. Cells were exposed to graded doses of 150 kV X-rays, α particles (0.525 MeV/u, 160 keV/µm; PTB, Braunschweig, Germany) and accelerated heavy ions (75 MeV/u carbon, 29 keV/µm; 95 MeV/u argon, 230 keV/µm; GANIL, Caen, France). Cell survival was measured as colony forming ability; cell cycle progression was analyzed via fluorescence-activated cell scanning (FACS) by measurement of the content of propidium iodide-stained DNA, DNA damage was visualized by γH2AX

  20. Spine fusion using cell matrix composites enriched in bone marrow-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Muschler, George F; Nitto, Hironori; Matsukura, Yoichi; Boehm, Cynthia; Valdevit, Antonio; Kambic, Helen; Davros, William; Powell, Kimerly; Easley, Kirk

    2003-02-01

    Bone marrow-derived cells including osteoblastic progenitors can be concentrated rapidly from bone marrow aspirates using the surface of selected implantable matrices for selective cell attachment. Concentration of cells in this way to produce an enriched cellular composite graft improves graft efficacy. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that the biologic milieu of a bone marrow clot will significantly improve the efficacy of such a graft. An established posterior spinal fusion model and cancellous bone matrix was used to compare an enriched cellular composite bone graft alone, bone matrix plus bone marrow clot, and an enriched bone matrix composite graft plus bone marrow clot. Union score, quantitative computed tomography, and mechanical testing were used to define outcome. The union score for the enriched bone matrix plus bone marrow clot composite was superior to the enriched bone matrix alone and the bone matrix plus bone marrow clot. The enriched bone matrix plus bone marrow clot composite also was superior to the enriched bone matrix alone in fusion volume and in fusion area. These data confirm that the addition of a bone marrow clot to an enriched cell-matrix composite graft results in significant improvement in graft performance. Enriched composite grafts prepared using this strategy provide a rapid, simple, safe, and inexpensive method for intraoperative concentration and delivery of bone marrow-derived cells and connective tissue progenitors that may improve the outcome of bone grafting.

  1. Human Placenta-Derived Adherent Cells Prevent Bone loss, Stimulate Bone formation, and Suppress Growth of Multiple Myeloma in Bone

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Ling, Wen; Pennisi, Angela; Wang, Yuping; Khan, Sharmin; Heidaran, Mohammad; Pal, Ajai; Zhang, Xiaokui; He, Shuyang; Zeitlin, Andy; Abbot, Stewart; Faleck, Herbert; Hariri, Robert; Shaughnessy, John D.; van Rhee, Frits; Nair, Bijay; Barlogie, Bart; Epstein, Joshua; Yaccoby, Shmuel

    2011-01-01

    Human placenta has emerged as a valuable source of transplantable cells of mesenchymal and hematopoietic origin for multiple cytotherapeutic purposes, including enhanced engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells, modulation of inflammation, bone repair, and cancer. Placenta-derived adherent cells (PDACs) are mesenchymal-like stem cells isolated from postpartum human placenta. Multiple myeloma is closely associated with induction of bone disease and large lytic lesions, which are often not repaired and are usually the sites of relapses. We evaluated the antimyeloma therapeutic potential, in vivo survival, and trafficking of PDACs in the severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)–rab model of medullary myeloma-associated bone loss. Intrabone injection of PDACs into non-myelomatous and myelomatous implanted bone in SCID-rab mice promoted bone formation by stimulating endogenous osteoblastogenesis, and most PDACs disappeared from bone within 4 weeks. PDACs inhibitory effects on myeloma bone disease and tumor growth were dose-dependent and comparable with those of fetal human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Intrabone, but not subcutaneous, engraftment of PDACs inhibited bone disease and tumor growth in SCID-rab mice. Intratumor injection of PDACs had no effect on subcutaneous growth of myeloma cells. A small number of intravenously injected PDACs trafficked into myelomatous bone. Myeloma cell growth rate in vitro was lower in coculture with PDACs than with MSCs from human fetal bone or myeloma patients. PDACs also promoted apoptosis in osteoclast precursors and inhibited their differentiation. This study suggests that altering the bone marrow microenvironment with PDAC cytotherapy attenuates growth of myeloma and that PDAC cytotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach for myeloma osteolysis. PMID:21732484

  2. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 mediates changes of bone marrow stem cells during the bone repair process.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kiyotaka; Kawao, Naoyuki; Yano, Masato; Tamura, Yukinori; Kurashimo, Shinzi; Okumoto, Katsumi; Kojima, Kotarou; Kaji, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Osteoblasts, osteoclasts, chondrocytes, and macrophages that participate in the bone repair process are derived from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, the roles of these stem cells during the repair of injured bone tissue are still unclear. In the present study, we examined the effects of bone defect on HSCs and MSCs in bone marrow and spleen in 75 mice and its mechanism. We analyzed the HSC and MSC populations in these tissues of a mouse with femoral bone damage by using flow cytometry. The number of HSCs in the bone marrow of mice with damaged femurs was significantly lower than the number of these cells in the bone marrow of the contralateral intact femurs on day 2 after injury. Meanwhile, the number of MSCs in the bone marrow of mice with damaged femurs was significantly higher than that of the contralateral femurs. Both intraperitoneal administration of AMD3100, a C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) antagonist, and local treatment with an anti-stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) antibody blunted the observed decrease in HSC and increase in MSC populations within the bone marrow of injured femurs. In conclusion, the present study revealed that there is a concurrent decrease and increase in the numbers of HSCs and MSCs, respectively, in the bone marrow during repair of mouse femoral bone damage. Furthermore, the SDF-1/CXCR4 system was implicated as contributing to the changes in these stem cell populations upon bone injury.

  3. Cell Fate and Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jimi, Eijiro

    2016-01-01

    Osteoblasts and bone marrow adipocytes originate from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and there appears to be a reciprocal relationship between adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis. Alterations in the balance between adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis in BMMSCs wherein adipogenesis is increased relative to osteoblastogenesis are associated with decreased bone quality and quantity. Several proteins have been reported to regulate this reciprocal relationship but the exact nature of the signals regulating the balance between osteoblast and adipocyte formation within the bone marrow space remains to be determined. In this review, we focus on the role of Transducin-Like Enhancer of Split 3 (TLE3), which was recently reported to regulate the balance between osteoblast and adipocyte formation from BMMSCs. We also discuss evidence implicating canonical Wnt signalling, which plays important roles in both adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis, in regulating TLE3 expression. Currently, there is demand for new effective therapies that target the stimulation of osteoblast differentiation to enhance bone formation. We speculate that reducing TLE3 expression or activity in BMMSCs could be a useful approach towards increasing osteoblast numbers and reducing adipogenesis in the bone marrow environment. PMID:27298623

  4. VEGF expression in mesenchymal stem cells promotes bone formation of tissue-engineered bones.

    PubMed

    Liu, Boling; Li, Xihai; Liang, Guiqing; Liu, Xianxiang

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo vascularization and bone formation activity of tissue-engineered bone constructed using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transfected with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The expression of VEGF165 in rat bone marrow MSCs was confirmed using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The MSCs were cultured together with nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen (NHAC) to form tissue-engineered bone. Untransfected MSCs were used as controls. The mice were sacrificed, and the bone xenografts were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and quantified for the degree of vascularization and new bone formation. Based on our results, expression of the VEGF165 gene was detected using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry following transfection and 4 weeks of selection. The co-cultured NHAC- and VEGF-transfected MSCs had significantly higher alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity compared to the controls (P<0.05). In the mice that received the tissue-engineered bone xenografts, clumps of cartilage cells, irregular bone-like tissue and microvessels were observed. The growth of these structures progressed with time. In the control mice, however, only small amounts of bone-like and fibrotic tissue were observed. The differences between the control and experimental groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). In conclusion, VEGF165‑transfected bone marrow MSCs promotes vascularization of tissue-engineered bone and ectopic osteogenesis.

  5. Modeling of bone adaptative behavior based on cells activities.

    PubMed

    Bonfoh, Napo; Novinyo, Edem; Lipinski, Paul

    2011-10-01

    Bone remodeling occurs in an adult's skeleton to adapt its architecture to external loadings. This involves bone resorption by osteoclasts cells followed by formation of new bone by osteoblasts cells. During bone remodeling, osteoclasts and osteoblasts interact with each other by expressing autocrine and paracrine factors that regulate cells' population. Therefore, changes in bone density depend on the amount of each acting cell population. The aim of this paper is to propose a model for the bone remodeling process, which takes into account the opposite activity of both types of cells. For this purpose, a system of differential equations, proposed by Komarova et al. (Bone 33:206-215, 2003), is introduced to describe bone cell interactions using parameters which characterize the autocrine and paracrine factors. Such equations allow us to determine how the autocrine and paracrine factors vary in response to an external stimulus. It is assumed that an equilibrium state can be obtained for values of stimulus near to some reference quantity. Far from this value, unbalanced activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts is observed, which leads to bone apposition or resorption. The proposed model has been implemented into the finite element software ABAQUS to analyze the qualitative response of a bone structure when subjected to certain mechanical loadings. Obtained results are satisfactory and in accordance with the expected bone remodeling behavior.

  6. Genetic modification of stem cells to enhance bone repair.

    PubMed

    Gamradt, Seth C; Lieberman, Jay R

    2004-01-01

    Orthopaedic surgeons are often faced with difficult bone loss problems. Conventional bone grafting is usually accomplished with autogenous iliac crest bone graft that provides osteogenic cells, osteoinductive growth factors, and an osteoconductive matrix. Cadaveric bone allograft and bone graft substitutes are inferior to autogenous bone graft because they fail to supply osteogenic cells or a significant amount of osteoinductive growth factors. Recombinant growth factors such as bone morphogenetic protein-2 and osteogenic protein-1 are currently in clinical use but these proteins require supraphysiologic dosing and considerable expense while failing to provide a sustained osteoinductive signal at the implantation site. Mesenchymal stem cells capable of differentiating into mesodermal tissues have been isolated and expanded in culture from several different sources including bone marrow, adipose tissue, and muscle. In the presence of appropriate growth factors these cells can differentiate into osteoblast lineage cells that will form bone in vitro and in vivo. Recent attention has focused on genetic modification of mesenchymal stem cells to both produce and respond to osteogenic growth factors with the goal of developing a tissue engineering strategy for bone repair. This review examines the current potential and limitations of these cellular systems for bone repair.

  7. The use of bone marrow stromal cells (bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells) for alveolar bone tissue engineering: basic science to clinical translation.

    PubMed

    Kagami, Hideaki; Agata, Hideki; Inoue, Minoru; Asahina, Izumi; Tojo, Arinobu; Yamashita, Naohide; Imai, Kohzoh

    2014-06-01

    Bone tissue engineering is a promising field of regenerative medicine in which cultured cells, scaffolds, and osteogenic inductive signals are used to regenerate bone. Human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are the most commonly used cell source for bone tissue engineering. Although it is known that cell culture and induction protocols significantly affect the in vivo bone forming ability of BMSCs, the responsible factors of clinical outcome are poorly understood. The results from recent studies using human BMSCs have shown that factors such as passage number and length of osteogenic induction significantly affect ectopic bone formation, although such differences hardly affected the alkaline phosphatase activity or gene expression of osteogenic markers. Application of basic fibroblast growth factor helped to maintain the in vivo osteogenic ability of BMSCs. Importantly, responsiveness of those factors should be tested under clinical circumstances to improve the bone tissue engineering further. In this review, clinical application of bone tissue engineering was reviewed with putative underlying mechanisms.

  8. Fibromodulin reprogrammed cells: A novel cell source for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen-Shuang; Yang, Pu; Ting, Kang; Aghaloo, Tara; Lee, Soonchul; Zhang, Yulong; Khalilinejad, Kambiz; Murphy, Maxwell C; Pan, Hsin Chuan; Zhang, Xinli; Wu, Benjamin; Zhou, Yan-Heng; Zhao, Zhihe; Zheng, Zhong; Soo, Chia

    2016-03-01

    Pluripotent or multipotent cell-based therapeutics are vital for skeletal reconstruction in non-healing critical-sized defects since the local endogenous progenitor cells are not often adequate to restore tissue continuity or function. However, currently available cell-based regenerative strategies are hindered by numerous obstacles including inadequate cell availability, painful and invasive cell-harvesting procedures, and tumorigenesis. Previously, we established a novel platform technology for inducing a quiescent stem cell-like stage using only a single extracellular proteoglycan, fibromodulin (FMOD), circumventing gene transduction. In this study, we further purified and significantly increased the reprogramming rate of the yield multipotent FMOD reprogrammed (FReP) cells. We also exposed the 'molecular blueprint' of FReP cell osteogenic differentiation by gene profiling. Radiographic analysis showed that implantation of FReP cells into a critical-sized SCID mouse calvarial defect, contributed to the robust osteogenic capability of FReP cells in a challenging clinically relevant traumatic scenario in vivo. The persistence, engraftment, and osteogenesis of transplanted FReP cells without tumorigenesis in vivo were confirmed by histological and immunohistochemical staining. Taken together, we have provided an extended potency, safety, and molecular profile of FReP cell-based bone regeneration. Therefore, FReP cells present a high potential for cellular and gene therapy products for bone regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cytokines and growth factors which regulate bone cell function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seino, Yoshiki

    Everybody knows that growth factors are most important in making bone. Hormones enhance bone formation from a long distance. Growth factors promote bone formation as an autocrine or paracrine factor in nearby bone. BMP-2 through BMP-8 are in the TGF-β family. BMP makes bone by enchondral ossification. In bone, IGF-II is most abundant, second, TGF-β, and third IGF-I. TGF-β enhances bone formation mainly by intramembranous ossification in vivo. TGF-β affects both cell proliferation and differentiation, however, TGF-β mainly enhances bone formation by intramembranous ossification. Interestingly, TGF-β is increased by estrogen(E 2), androgen, vitamin D, TGF-β and FGF. IGF-I and IGF-II also enhance bone formation. At present it remains unclear why IGF-I is more active in bone formation than IGF-II, although IGF-II is more abundant in bone compared to IGF-I. However, if only type I receptor signal transduction promotes bone formation, the strong activity of IGF-I in bone formation is understandable. GH, PTH and E 2 promotes IGF-I production. Recent data suggest that hormones containing vitamin D or E 2 enhance bone formation through growth factors. Therefore, growth factors are the key to clarifying the mechanism of bone formation.

  10. Ibandronate affects bone growth and mineralization in rats with normal and reduced renal function.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Dagmar-Christiane; Jensen, Claudia; Rahn, Anja; Salewski, Birgit; Kundt, Günther; Behets, Geert J; D'Haese, Patrick; Haffner, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Bisphosphonates have been shown to attenuate ectopic calcification in experimental uremia. While they are known to reduce bone turnover, the effects on endochondral bone formation have not yet been addressed. To address this issue, we administered male Sprague-Dawley rats weekly subcutaneous injections of either vehicle or ibandronate (1.25 μg/kg body weight) for a total of 10 weeks. The rats were randomly allocated into one of four groups: (1) vehicle-treated, sham-operated rats; (2) ibandronate-treated, sham-operated rats; (3) vehicle-treated, 5/6 nephrectomized rats; (4) ibandronate-treated, 5/6 nephrectomized rats. Bones were double labeled with tetracycline and demeclocycline in vivo, and tibiae were removed for analysis. Weight gain was similar in all groups. Ibandronate reduced body length gain and tibial growth rate in the sham-operated animals but not in the rats showing chronic renal failure (CRF). The height of the proliferative zone of the epiphyseal growth plate was reduced in the ibandronate-treated controls and tended to be reduced in CRF rats. A significant correlation between tibial growth rate and height of the proliferative zone was observed. Mineral apposition rates were significantly reduced in ibandronate-treated, sham-operated rats and tended to be reduced in CRF rats. In conclusion, ibandronate interferes with tibial growth and bone mineralization in young rats with normal and reduced renal function.

  11. External and internal bone micro-architecture in normal and Kienböck's lunates: a whole-bone micro-computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Low, Stephanie C; Bain, Gregory I; Findlay, David M; Eng, Kevin; Perilli, Egon

    2014-06-01

    Kienböck's disease is idiopathic osteonecrosis of the lunate, leading to its fracture and collapse. This study compares internal and external bone micro-architecture of normal and fractured lunates (Kienböck's), by using high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) on the whole bone of the two lunate types, and histology. Fractured Kienböck-diseased lunates were obtained from patients undergoing proximal-row-carpectomy, while normal cadaveric lunates served as controls. 3D-micro-CT-imaging of control lunates revealed an encircling cortex surrounding trabecular bone. Trabeculae were arranged in a radial pattern, spanning from the distal to the proximal subchondral plate. Kienböck's lunates exhibited clear fracture lines, with fragmented bone, both proximally and distally, in areas the radially-patterned trabeculae and enveloping cortex were absent, producing height loss. In trabecular bone, Kienböck's lunates revealed increased bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness and number, and decreased trabecular separation and structure model index. Histologically, Kienböck's lunates revealed osteonecrosis, as well as remodeling fronts with osteoblasts and osteoid surrounding bone marrow. Whole-bone high-resolution 3D examination of normal and Kienböck's diseased lunates contributes to a better understanding of micro-architectural changes occurring in the pathology.

  12. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Nano-Bioceramics for Bone Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kankilic, Berna; Köse, Sevil; Korkusuz, Petek; Timuçin, Muharrem; Korkusuz, Feza

    Orthopedic disorders and trauma usually result in bone loss. Bone grafts are widely used to replace this tissue. Bone grafts excluding autografts unfortunately have disadvantages like evoking immune response, contamination and rejection. Autografts are of limited sources and optimum biomaterials that can replace bone have been searched for several decades. Bioceramics, which have the similar inorganic structure of natural bone, are widely used to regenerate bone or coat metallic implants. As people continuously look for a higher life quality, there are developments in technology almost everyday to meet their expectations. Nanotechnology is one of such technologies and it attracts everyone's attention in biomaterial science. Nano scale biomaterials have many advantages like larger surface area and higher biocompatibility and these properties make them more preferable than micro scale. Also, stem cells are used for bone regeneration besides nano-bioceramics due to their differentiation characteristics. This review covers current research on nano-bioceramics and mesenchymal stem cells and their role in bone regeneration.

  13. B Cell IgD Deletion Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss Following Murine Oral Infection.

    PubMed

    Baker, Pamela J; Boutaugh, Nicole Ryan; Tiffany, Michaela; Roopenian, Derry C

    2009-01-01

    Periodontal disease is one of the most common infectious diseases of humans. Immune responses to infection trigger loss of alveolar bone from the jaw and eventual tooth loss. We investigated the contribution of B cell IgD to alveolar bone loss by comparing the response of B cell normal BALB/cJ mice and IgD deficient BALB/c-Igh-5(-/-J) mice to oral infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis, a gram-negative periodontopathic bacterium from humans. P. gingivalis-infected normal mice lost bone. Specific antibody to P. gingivalis was lower and oral colonization was higher in IgD deficient mice; yet bone loss was completely absent. Infection increased the proportion of CD69(+) activated B cells and CD4(+) T cells in immune normal mice compared to IgD deficient mice. These data suggest that IgD is an important mediator of alveolar bone resorption, possibly through antigen-specific coactivation of B cells and CD4(+) T cells.

  14. Morphologic and histochemical studies of bone cells from SL-3 rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, S. B.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies of rat bone following space flight indicate a significant reduction in new bone formation as a result of hypogravity. In the present study of animals from SL-3 flight, the cellular activity of the bone forming cells, the osteoblasts, was investigated. Measurements of alkaline and acid phosphatase, Golgi activity, secretory granule size, and lysosomal activity, all indicated very little difference between flight and flight-simulated controls. However, there was a tendency for osteoblasts in compact bone of flight animals to show a smaller cytoplasmic volume compared to non-flight controls. If, as in previous studies, a significant reduction in bone formation occurred, it could be due to a normal level of procollagen degradation within these smaller osteoblasts, resulting in less collagen secretion per cell.

  15. Morphologic and histochemical studies of bone cells from SL-3 rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, S. B.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies of rat bone following space flight indicate a significant reduction in new bone formation as a result of hypogravity. In the present study of animals from SL-3 flight, the cellular activity of the bone forming cells, the osteoblasts, was investigated. Measurements of alkaline and acid phosphatase, Golgi activity, secretory granule size, and lysosomal activity, all indicated very little difference between flight and flight-simulated controls. However, there was a tendency for osteoblasts in compact bone of flight animals to show a smaller cytoplasmic volume compared to non-flight controls. If, as in previous studies, a significant reduction in bone formation occurred, it could be due to a normal level of procollagen degradation within these smaller osteoblasts, resulting in less collagen secretion per cell.

  16. Low-frequency vibration treatment of bone marrow stromal cells induces bone repair in vivo

    PubMed Central

    He, Shengwei; Zhao, Wenzhi; Zhang, Lu; Mi, Lidong; Du, Guangyu; Sun, Chuanxiu; Sun, Xuegang

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): To study the effect of low-frequency vibration on bone marrow stromal cell differentiation and potential bone repair in vivo. Materials and Methods: Forty New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into five groups with eight rabbits in each group. For each group, bone defects were generated in the left humerus of four rabbits, and in the right humerus of the other four rabbits. To test differentiation, bones were isolated and demineralized, supplemented with bone marrow stromal cells, and implanted into humerus bone defects. Varying frequencies of vibration (0, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 Hz) were applied to each group for 30 min each day for four weeks. When the bone defects integrated, they were then removed for histological examination. mRNA transcript levels of runt-related transcription factor 2, osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligan, and pre-collagen type 1 α were measured. Results: Humeri implanted with bone marrow stromal cells displayed elevated callus levels and wider, more prevalent, and denser trabeculae following treatment at 25 and 50 Hz. The mRNA levels of runt-related transcription factor 2, osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand, and pre-collagen type 1 α were also markedly higher following 25 and 50 Hz treatment. Conclusion: Low frequency (25–50 Hz) vibration in vivo can promote bone marrow stromal cell differentiation and repair bone injury. PMID:28133520

  17. Low-frequency vibration treatment of bone marrow stromal cells induces bone repair in vivo.

    PubMed

    He, Shengwei; Zhao, Wenzhi; Zhang, Lu; Mi, Lidong; Du, Guangyu; Sun, Chuanxiu; Sun, Xuegang

    2017-01-01

    To study the effect of low-frequency vibration on bone marrow stromal cell differentiation and potential bone repair in vivo. Forty New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into five groups with eight rabbits in each group. For each group, bone defects were generated in the left humerus of four rabbits, and in the right humerus of the other four rabbits. To test differentiation, bones were isolated and demineralized, supplemented with bone marrow stromal cells, and implanted into humerus bone defects. Varying frequencies of vibration (0, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 Hz) were applied to each group for 30 min each day for four weeks. When the bone defects integrated, they were then removed for histological examination. mRNA transcript levels of runt-related transcription factor 2, osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligan, and pre-collagen type 1 α were measured. Humeri implanted with bone marrow stromal cells displayed elevated callus levels and wider, more prevalent, and denser trabeculae following treatment at 25 and 50 Hz. The mRNA levels of runt-related transcription factor 2, osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand, and pre-collagen type 1 α were also markedly higher following 25 and 50 Hz treatment. Low frequency (25-50 Hz) vibration in vivo can promote bone marrow stromal cell differentiation and repair bone injury.

  18. Disseminated mast cell tumor infiltrating the sphenoid bone and causing blindness in a dog.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Elsa; de Stefani, Alberta; Stewart, Jennifer; De Risio, Luisa; Johnson, Victoria

    2010-05-01

    Mast cell tumors are found in most organs and tissues with variable biologic behavior in dogs. This case illustrates the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in a dog with disseminated mast cell tumor infiltrating the sphenoid bones. A 6-year-old male neutered Greyhound presented with a 3-day history of acute onset of blindness. General physical examination was normal. Neurological examination revealed mildly disorientated mental status, absent menace response in both eyes, bilaterally decreased vestibulo-oculocephalic reflexes and absent direct and consensual pupillary light reflex in both eyes. An electroretinogram indicated normal retinal function in both eyes. A lesion involving the middle and rostral cranial fossa was suspected. Hematology and serum biochemistry were normal except decreased urea (1.2 mmol/L). MRI of the head revealed heterogeneous signal intensity of the sphenoid bones on T2-weighted images and loss of their normal internal architecture. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis was normal. Abdominal ultrasound revealed hepatosplenomegaly and mesenteric lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspirates were taken from the jejunal lymph nodes and the spleen. Results were consistent with disseminated mast cell tumor. The owner declined any treatment and the dog was euthanatized. Postmortem examination confirmed disseminated mast cell tumor affecting multiple organs, including the sphenoid bones. To our knowledge, this is the first case describing MRI features of disseminated mast cell tumor affecting the sphenoid bones and causing acute onset of blindness in a dog.

  19. The WWOX tumor suppressor is essential for postnatal survival and normal bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Aqeilan, Rami I; Hassan, Mohammad Q; de Bruin, Alain; Hagan, John P; Volinia, Stefano; Palumbo, Titziana; Hussain, Sadiq; Lee, Suk-Hee; Gaur, Tripti; Stein, Gary S; Lian, Jane B; Croce, Carlo M

    2008-08-01

    The WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) gene encodes a tumor suppressor. We have previously shown that targeted ablation of the Wwox gene in mouse increases the incidence of spontaneous and chemically induced tumors. To investigate WWOX function in vivo, we examined Wwox-deficient (Wwox(-/-)) mice for phenotypical abnormalities. Wwox(-/-) mice are significantly reduced in size, die at the age of 2-3 weeks, and suffer a metabolic disorder that affects the skeleton. Wwox(-/-) mice exhibit a delay in bone formation from a cell autonomous defect in differentiation beginning at the mineralization stage shown in calvarial osteoblasts ex vivo and supported by significantly decreased bone formation parameters in Wwox(-/-) mice by microcomputed tomography analyses. Wwox(-/-) mice develop metabolic bone disease, as a consequence of reduced serum calcium, hypoproteinuria, and hypoglycemia leading to increased osteoclast activity and bone resorption. Interestingly, we find WWOX physically associates with RUNX2, the principal transcriptional regulator of osteoblast differentiation, and on osteocalcin chromatin. We show WWOX functionally suppresses RUNX2 transactivation ability in osteoblasts. In breast cancer MDA-MB-242 cells that lack endogenous WWOX protein, restoration of WWOX expression inhibited Runx2 and RUNX2 target genes related to metastasis. Affymetrix mRNA profiling revealed common gene targets in multiple tissues. In Wwox(-/-) mice, genes related to nucleosome assembly and cell growth genes were down-regulated, and negative regulators of skeletal metabolism exhibited increased expression. Our results demonstrate an essential requirement for the WWOX tumor suppressor in postnatal survival, growth, and metabolism and suggest a central role for WWOX in regulation of bone tissue formation.

  20. Strain-rate dependence of the compressive properties of normal and carbon-fiber-reinforced bone cement.

    PubMed

    Saha, S; Pal, S

    1983-11-01

    Normal and carbon-fiber-reinforced (1 wt. %) bone cement samples were tested in compression at various strain rates. Both the compressive strength and proportional limit increased in general with increasing strain rate. Similar strain-rate sensitivity was also shown by the carbon-fiber-reinforced bone cement. The mechanical properties, namely the modulus of elasticity, the proportional limit, and the compressive strength of the carbon-fiber-reinforced bone cement showed highly significant positive correlations with the strain rate.

  1. The Alliance of Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Bone, and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, Nicola; Paladini, Angela; Briganti, Silvia I.; Pozzilli, Paolo; Epstein, Sol

    2014-01-01

    Bone fragility has emerged as a new complication of diabetes. Several mechanisms in diabetes may influence bone homeostasis by impairing the action between osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes and/or changing the structural properties of the bone tissue. Some of these mechanisms can potentially alter the fate of mesenchymal stem cells, the initial precursor of the osteoblast. In this review, we describe the main factors that impair bone health in diabetic patients and their clinical impact. PMID:25140176

  2. Cranial bone regeneration via BMP-2 encoding mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Vural, Altugan Cahit; Odabas, Sedat; Korkusuz, Petek; Yar Sağlam, Atiye Seda; Bilgiç, Elif; Çavuşoğlu, Tarık; Piskin, Erhan; Vargel, İbrahim

    2017-05-01

    Cranial bone repair and regeneration via tissue engineering principles has attracted a great deal of interest from researchers during last decade. Here, within this study, 6 mm critical-sized bone defect regeneration via genetically modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were monitored up to 4 months. Cranial bone repair and new bone formations were evaluated by histological staining and real time PCR analysis in five different groups including autograft and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) transfected MSC groups. Results presented here indicate a proper cranial regeneration in autograft groups and a prospering regeneration for hBMP-2 encoding mesenchymal stem cells.

  3. Communication of bone cells with hematopoiesis, immunity and energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Asada, Noboru; Sato, Mari; Katayama, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    The bone contains the bone marrow. The functional communication between bone cells and hematopoiesis has been extensively studied in the past decade or so. Osteolineage cells and their modulators, such as the sympathetic nervous system, macrophages and osteoclasts, form a complex unit to maintain the homeostasis of hematopoiesis, called the ‘microenvironment'. Recently, bone-embedded osteocytes, the sensors of gravity and mechanical stress, have joined the microenvironment, and they are demonstrated to contribute to whole body homeostasis through the control of immunity and energy metabolism. The inter-organ communication orchestrated by the bone is summarized in this article. PMID:26512322

  4. Chondrocytes Directly Transform into Bone Cells in Mandibular Condyle Growth

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Y.; Zhou, X.; Han, X.; Jing, J.; von der Mark, K.; Wang, J.; de Crombrugghe, B.; Hinton, R.J.; Feng, J.Q.

    2015-01-01

    For decades, it has been widely accepted that hypertrophic chondrocytes undergo apoptosis prior to endochondral bone formation. However, very recent studies in long bone suggest that chondrocytes can directly transform into bone cells. Our initial in vivo characterization of condylar hypertrophic chondrocytes revealed modest numbers of apoptotic cells but high levels of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 expression, some dividing cells, and clear alkaline phosphatase activity (early bone marker). Ex vivo culture of newborn condylar cartilage on a chick chorioallantoic membrane showed that after 5 d the cells on the periphery of the explants had begun to express Col1 (bone marker). The cartilage-specific cell lineage–tracing approach in triple mice containing Rosa 26tdTomato (tracing marker), 2.3 Col1GFP (bone cell marker), and aggrecan CreERT2 (onetime tamoxifen induced) or Col10-Cre (activated from E14.5 throughout adult stage) demonstrated the direct transformation of chondrocytes into bone cells in vivo. This transformation was initiated at the inferior portion of the condylar cartilage, in contrast to the initial ossification site in long bone, which is in the center. Quantitative data from the Col10-Cre compound mice showed that hypertrophic chondrocytes contributed to ~80% of bone cells in subchondral bone, ~70% in a somewhat more inferior region, and ~40% in the most inferior part of the condylar neck (n = 4, P < 0.01 for differences among regions). This multipronged approach clearly demonstrates that a majority of chondrocytes in the fibrocartilaginous condylar cartilage, similar to hyaline cartilage in long bones, directly transform into bone cells during endochondral bone formation. Moreover, ossification is initiated from the inferior portion of mandibular condylar cartilage with expansion in one direction. PMID:26341973

  5. Cutaneous mast cell maturation does not depend on an intact bone marrow microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Charley, M.R.; Mikhael, A.; Sontheimer, R.D.; Gilliam, J.N.; Bennett, M.

    1984-01-01

    A study was made to determine whether the maturation of murine cutaneous mast cells from stem cells depends on an intact bone marrow microenvironment. Normal bone marrow cells (+/+) were infused into 2 groups of mast cell-deficient mice: WBB6F1-W/Wv mice and /sup 89/Sr-pretreated W/Wv mice. /sup 89/Sr is a long-lived bone-seeking radioisotope which provides continuous irradiation of the marrow and thereby ablates the marrow microenvironment. Skin biopsies revealed that the /sup 89/Sr-pretreated mice and the controls had repopulated their skin with mast cells equally well. Natural killer cell function was significantly depressed in the /sup 89/Sr-treated mice, confirming that the marrow microenvironment had been functionally altered. It appears that, although the precursors for cutaneous mast cells are marrow derived, they do not need an intact marrow microenvironment for maturation.

  6. Resveratrol Increases the Bone Marrow Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Rimmelé, Pauline; Lofek-Czubek, Sébastien; Ghaffari, Saghi

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol is a plant-derived polyphenol that has shown protective effects against many disorders including, several types of cancers and other age-associated diseases as well as blood disorders in cultured cells and/or animal models. However, whether resveratrol has any impact specifically on normal blood stem cells remains unknown. Here we show that a three-week treatment of resveratrol increases the frequency and total numbers of normal bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) without any impact on their competitive repopulation capacity. In addition, we show that resveratrol enhances the bone marrow multipotent progenitor capacity in vivo. These results have therapeutic value for disorders of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) as well as for bone marrow transplantation settings. PMID:25163926

  7. The Role of Bone Marrow Cells in the Phenotypic Changes Associated with Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guang; Cheng, Qingli; Liu, Sheng; Zhao, Jiahui

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the role of bone marrow cells in the phenotypic changes that occur in diabetic nephropathy. Bone marrow cells were obtained from either streptozotocin-induced diabetic or untreated control C3H/He mice and transplanted into control C3H/He mice. Eight weeks after bone marrow cell transplantation, renal morphologic changes and clinical parameters of diabetic nephropathy, including the urine albumin/creatinine ratio and glucose tolerance, were measured in vivo. Expression levels of the genes encoding α1 type IV collagen and transforming growth factor-β1 in the kidney were assayed. Our results demonstrated that glucose tolerance was normal in the recipients of bone marrow transplants from both diabetic and control donors. However, compared with recipients of the control bone marrow transplant, the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, glomerular size, and the mesangial/glomerular area ratio increased 3.3-fold (p < 0.01), 1.23-fold (p < 0.01), and 2.13-fold (p < 0.001), respectively, in the recipients of the diabetic bone marrow transplant. Expression levels of the genes encoding glomerular α1 type IV collagen and transforming growth factor-β1 were also significantly increased (p < 0.01) in the recipients of the diabetic bone marrow transplant. Our data suggest that bone marrow cells from the STZ-induced diabetic mice can confer a diabetic phenotype to recipient control mice without the presence of hyperglycemia. PMID:26340671

  8. Quantitative evaluation of regularized phase retrieval algorithms on bone scaffolds seeded with bone cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, L.; Langer, M.; Tavella, S.; Ruggiu, A.; Peyrin, F.

    2016-05-01

    In the field of regenerative medicine, there has been a growing interest in studying the combination of bone scaffolds and cells that can maximize newly formed bone. In-line phase-contrast x-ray tomography was used to image porous bone scaffolds (Skelite©), seeded with bone forming cells. This technique allows the quantification of both mineralized and soft tissue, unlike with classical x-ray micro-computed tomography. Phase contrast images were acquired at four distances. The reconstruction is typically performed in two successive steps: phase retrieval and tomographic reconstruction. In this work, different regularization methods were applied to the phase retrieval process. The application of a priori terms for heterogeneous objects enables quantitative 3D imaging of not only bone morphology, mineralization, and soft tissue formation, but also cells trapped in the pre-bone matrix. A statistical study was performed to derive statistically significant information on the different culture conditions.

  9. Assessment of trabecular bone mineral density using quantitative computed tomography in normal cats.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Haengbok; Choi, Wooshin; Lee, Youngjae; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Juhyung; Kang, Ji-Houn; Na, Kijeong; Chang, Jinhwa; Chang, Dongwoo

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess age-related changes and anatomic variation in trabecular bone mineral density (tBMD) using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) in normal cats. Seventeen normal cats were included in this study and divided into the following 3 age groups:<6 months (n=4), 2-5 years (n=10) and >6 years (n=3). A computed tomographic scan of each vertebra from the 12th thoracic to the 7th lumbar spine and the pelvis was performed with a bone-density phantom (50, 100 and 150 mg/cm(3), calcium hydroxyapatite, CIRS phantom(®)). On the central transverse section, the elliptical region of interest (ROI) was drawn to measure the mean Hounsfield unit (HU) value. Those values were converted to equivalent tBMD (mg/cm(3)) by use of the bone-density phantom and linear regression analysis (r(2) >0.95). The mean tBMD value of the thoracic vertebrae (369.4 ± 31.8 mg/cm(3)) was significantly higher than that of the lumbar vertebrae (285 ± 58.1 mg/cm(3)). The maximum tBMD occurred at the T12, T13 and L1 levels in all age groups. There was a statistically significant difference in the mean tBMD value among the 3 age groups at the T12 (P<0.001), T13 (P<0.001) and L4 levels (P=0.013), respectively. The present study suggests that age-related changes and anatomic variation in tBMD values should be considered when assessing tBMD using QCT in cats with bone disorders.

  10. Response and adaptation of bone cells to simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lifang; Li, Runzhi; Su, Peihong; Arfat, Yasir; Zhang, Ge; Shang, Peng; Qian, Airong

    2014-11-01

    Bone loss induced by microgravity during space flight is one of the most deleterious factors on astronaut's health and is mainly attributed to an unbalance in the process of bone remodeling. Studies from the space microgravity have demonstrated that the disruption of bone remodeling is associated with the changes of four main functional bone cells, including osteoblast, osteoclast, osteocyte, and mesenchymal stem cells. For the limited availability, expensive costs and confined experiment conditions for conducting space microgravity studies, the mechanism of bone cells response and adaptation to microgravity is still unclear. Therefore, some ground-based simulated microgravity methods have been developed to investigate the bioeffects of microgravity and the mechanisms. Here, based on our studies and others, we review how bone cells (osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes and mesenchymal stem cells) respond and adapt to simulated microgravity.

  11. Biofabrication and Bone Tissue Regeneration: Cell Source, Approaches, and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Orciani, Monia; Fini, Milena; Di Primio, Roberto; Mattioli-Belmonte, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The growing occurrence of bone disorders and the increase in aging population have resulted in the need for more effective therapies to meet this request. Bone tissue engineering strategies, by combining biomaterials, cells, and signaling factors, are seen as alternatives to conventional bone grafts for repairing or rebuilding bone defects. Indeed, skeletal tissue engineering has not yet achieved full translation into clinical practice because of several challenges. Bone biofabrication by additive manufacturing techniques may represent a possible solution, with its intrinsic capability for accuracy, reproducibility, and customization of scaffolds as well as cell and signaling molecule delivery. This review examines the existing research in bone biofabrication and the appropriate cells and factors selection for successful bone regeneration as well as limitations affecting these approaches. Challenges that need to be tackled with the highest priority are the obtainment of appropriate vascularized scaffolds with an accurate spatiotemporal biochemical and mechanical stimuli release, in order to improve osseointegration as well as osteogenesis.

  12. Biofabrication and Bone Tissue Regeneration: Cell Source, Approaches, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Orciani, Monia; Fini, Milena; Di Primio, Roberto; Mattioli-Belmonte, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The growing occurrence of bone disorders and the increase in aging population have resulted in the need for more effective therapies to meet this request. Bone tissue engineering strategies, by combining biomaterials, cells, and signaling factors, are seen as alternatives to conventional bone grafts for repairing or rebuilding bone defects. Indeed, skeletal tissue engineering has not yet achieved full translation into clinical practice because of several challenges. Bone biofabrication by additive manufacturing techniques may represent a possible solution, with its intrinsic capability for accuracy, reproducibility, and customization of scaffolds as well as cell and signaling molecule delivery. This review examines the existing research in bone biofabrication and the appropriate cells and factors selection for successful bone regeneration as well as limitations affecting these approaches. Challenges that need to be tackled with the highest priority are the obtainment of appropriate vascularized scaffolds with an accurate spatiotemporal biochemical and mechanical stimuli release, in order to improve osseointegration as well as osteogenesis. PMID:28386538

  13. Epigenetic Regulation of Normal and Transformed Breast Epithelial Cell Phenotype

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    of nine cell lines corresponding to two different normal breast cell types isolated from three different individuals ( BPE 2, HME2, BPE3, HME3, BPE4...normal breast cell subtypes a ( BPE and HME) and their transformed derivatives (BPLER and HMLER) The results in Figure 1 indicate that the...process. 5 Table1 Karyotype analysis of two different normal breast cell subtypes a ( BPE and HME) and their

  14. Benefits of small volume and small syringe for bone marrow aspirations of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe; Homma, Yasuhiro; Flouzat Lachaniette, Charles Henri; Poignard, Alexandre; Allain, Jerome; Chevallier, Nathalie; Rouard, Helene

    2013-11-01

    Aspirating bone marrow from the iliac crest using small volumes of 1-4 ml with a 10-ml syringe has been historically proposed for harvesting adult mesenchymal stem cells and described as a standard technique to avoid blood dilution. The disadvantage of repeated small aspirations is that there is a significantly increased time to harvest the bone marrow. However, it is not known if a large volume syringe can improve the rate of bone marrow aspiration without increasing blood dilution, thus reducing the quality of the aspirate. We compared the concentrations of mesenchymal stem cells obtained under normal conditions with two different size syringes. Thirty adults (16 men and 14 women with a mean age of 49 ± 14 years) underwent surgery with aspiration of bone marrow from their iliac crest. Bilateral aspirates were obtained from the iliac crest of the same patients with a 10-ml syringe and a 50-ml syringe. Cell analysis determined the frequencies of mesenchymal stem cells (as determined by the number of colonies) from each size of syringe. The cell count, progenitor cell concentration (colonies/ml marrow) and progenitor cell frequency (per million nucleated cells) were calculated. All bone marrow aspirates were harvested by the same surgeon. Aspirates of bone marrow demonstrated greater concentrations of mesenchymal stem cells with a 10-ml syringe compared with matched controls using a 50-ml syringe. Progenitor cell concentrations were on average 300 % higher using a 10-ml syringe than matched controls using a 50-ml syringe (p < 0.01). In normal human donors, bone marrow aspiration from 30 patients demonstrated a reduced mesenchymal stem cell number in aspirates obtained using a larger volume syringe (50 ml) as compared with a smaller volume syringe (10 ml).

  15. [The effect of cells presenting the erythroblast antigen on the natural suppressor activity of nonadhesive bone marrow cells].

    PubMed

    Kusmartsev, S A; Agranovich, I M; Bel'skiĭ, Iu P; Goncharskaia, M A

    1993-06-01

    Concanavalin A-induced proliferation of spleen cells of C57B1/6 mice was inhibited by syngeneic normal bone marrow cells. Elimination of Ag-Eb-positive cells by panning was shown to result in markedly reduced inhibitory activity of bone marrow cells. To evaluate the role of Ag-Eb in natural suppressor activity, bone marrow cells were preincubated with different dilutions of MAE-15 monoclonal antibody and then added to spleen cells. The inhibitory effect of bone marrow cells decreased with the increasing concentration of the monoclonal antibody in a dose-dependent manner and nearly disappeared at a concentration of MAE-15 of 150 m micrograms/ml and 300 m micrograms/ml. In control experiments, bone marrow cells were preincubated with antibodies non-reactive with Ag-Eb under the same conditions. It is concluded that the decrease of natural suppressor activity after incubation of bone marrow cells with MAE-15 monoclonal antibody is specific for anti-Ag-Eb antibodies.

  16. Mechanical property and tissue mineral density differences among severely suppressed bone turnover (SSBT) patients, osteoporotic patients, and normal subjects

    PubMed Central

    Tjhia, Crystal; Odvina, Clarita V.; Rao, D. Sudhaker; Stover, Susan M.; Wang, Xiang; Fyhrie, David

    2011-01-01

    Pathogenesis of atypical fractures in patients on long term bisphosphonate therapy is poorly understood, and the type, the manner in which they occur and the fracture sites are quite different from the usual osteoporotic fractures. We hypothesized that the tissue-level mechanical properties and mean degree of mineralization of the iliac bone would differ among 1) patients with atypical fractures and severely suppressed bone turnover (SSBT) associated with long-term bisphosphonate therapy, 2) age-matched, treatment-naïve osteoporotic patients with vertebral fracture, 3) age-matched normals and 4) young normals. Large differences in tissue-level mechanical properties and/or mineralization among these groups could help explain the underlying mechanism(s) for the occurrence of typical osteoporotic and the atypical femoral shaft fractures. Elastic modulus, contact hardness, plastic deformation resistance, and tissue mineral densities of cortical and trabecular bone regions of 55 iliac bone biopsies—12 SSBT patients (SSBT; aged 49–77), 11 age-matched untreated osteoporotic patients with vertebral fracture (Osteoporotic), 12 age-matched subjects without bone fracture (Age-Matched Normal), and 20 younger subjects without bone fracture (Young Normal)—were measured using nanoindentation and quantitative backscattered electron microscopy. For cortical bone nanoindentation properties, only plastic deformation resistance was different among the groups (p<0.05), with greater resistance to plastic deformation in the SSBT group compared to all other groups. For trabecular bone, all nanoindentation properties and mineral density of the trabecular bone were different among the groups (p<0.05). The SSBT group had greater plastic deformation resistance and harder trabecular bone compared to the other three groups, stiffer bone compared to the Osteoporotic and Young Normal groups, and a trend of higher mineral density compared to the Age-Matched Normal and Osteoporotic groups

  17. Mechanical property and tissue mineral density differences among severely suppressed bone turnover (SSBT) patients, osteoporotic patients, and normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Tjhia, Crystal K; Odvina, Clarita V; Rao, D Sudhaker; Stover, Susan M; Wang, Xiang; Fyhrie, David P

    2011-12-01

    Pathogenesis of atypical fractures in patients on long term bisphosphonate therapy is poorly understood, and the type, the manner in which they occur and the fracture sites are quite different from the usual osteoporotic fractures. We hypothesized that the tissue-level mechanical properties and mean degree of mineralization of the iliac bone would differ among 1) patients with atypical fractures and severely suppressed bone turnover (SSBT) associated with long-term bisphosphonate therapy, 2) age-matched, treatment-naïve osteoporotic patients with vertebral fracture, 3) age-matched normals and 4) young normals. Large differences in tissue-level mechanical properties and/or mineralization among these groups could help explain the underlying mechanism(s) for the occurrence of typical osteoporotic and the atypical femoral shaft fractures. Elastic modulus, contact hardness, plastic deformation resistance, and tissue mineral densities of cortical and trabecular bone regions of 55 iliac bone biopsies--12 SSBT patients (SSBT; aged 49-77), 11 age-matched untreated osteoporotic patients with vertebral fracture (Osteoporotic), 12 age-matched subjects without bone fracture (Age-Matched Normal), and 20 younger subjects without bone fracture (Young Normal)--were measured using nanoindentation and quantitative backscattered electron microscopy. For cortical bone nanoindentation properties, only plastic deformation resistance was different among the groups (p<0.05), with greater resistance to plastic deformation in the SSBT group compared to all other groups. For trabecular bone, all nanoindentation properties and mineral density of the trabecular bone were different among the groups (p<0.05). The SSBT group had greater plastic deformation resistance and harder trabecular bone compared to the other three groups, stiffer bone compared to the Osteoporotic and Young Normal groups, and a trend of higher mineral density compared to the Age-Matched Normal and Osteoporotic groups. Lower

  18. Normal bone marrow signal-transduction profiles: a requisite for enhanced detection of signaling dysregulations in AML

    PubMed Central

    Marvin, James; Swaminathan, Suchitra; Kraker, Geoffrey; Chadburn, Amy; Jacobberger, James

    2011-01-01

    Molecular and cytogenetic alterations are involved in virtually every facet of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), including dysregulation of major signal-transduction pathways. The present study examines 5 phosphoproteins (pErk, pAkt, pS6, pStat3, and pStat5) in response to 5 cytokine/growth factors (stem cell factor [SCF], Flt-3/Flk-2 ligand [FL], granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor [GM-CSF], interleukin-3 [IL-3], and granulocyte-CSF [G-CSF]) within 7 immunophenotypically defined populations, spanning progenitor to mature myeloid/myelomonocytic cells in normal bone marrows with further comparison to AML samples. The normal cohort showed pathway-specific responses related to lineage, maturation, and stimulus. Heterogeneous-signaling responses were seen in homogeneous immunophenotypic subsets emphasizing the additive information of signaling. These profiles provided a critical baseline for detection of dysregulated signaling in AML falling into 4 broad categories, viz lack of response, increased activation, altered constitutive expression, and dysregulated response kinetics, easily identified in 10 of 12 AMLs. These studies clearly show robust and reproducible flow cytometry phosphoprotein analyses capable of detecting abnormal signal-transduction responses in AML potentially contributing to definitive reliable identification of abnormal cells. As functional correlates of underlying genetic abnormalities, signal-transduction abnormalities may provide more stable indicators of abnormal cells than immunophenotyping which frequently changes after therapy and disease recurrence. PMID:21233314

  19. Osteoclast activity modulates B-cell development in the bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Anna; Anginot, Adrienne; Mancini, Stéphane J C; Schiff, Claudine; Carle, Georges F; Wakkach, Abdelilah; Blin-Wakkach, Claudine

    2011-07-01

    B-cell development is dependent on the interactions between B-cell precursors and bone marrow stromal cells, but the role of osteoclasts (OCLs) in this process remains unknown. B lymphocytopenia is a characteristic of osteopetrosis, suggesting a modulation of B lymphopoiesis by OCL activity. To address this question, we first rescued OCL function in osteopetrotic oc/oc mice by dendritic cell transfer, leading to a restoration of both bone phenotype and B-cell development. To further explore the link between OCL activity and B lymphopoiesis, we induced osteopetrosis in normal mice by injections of zoledronic acid (ZA), an inhibitor of bone resorption. B-cell number decreased specifically in the bone marrow of ZA-treated mice. ZA did not directly affect B-cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, but induced a decrease in the expression of CXCL12 and IL-7 by stromal cells, associated with reduced osteoblastic engagement. Equivalent low osteoblastic engagement in oc/oc mice confirmed that it resulted from the reduced OCL activity rather than from a direct effect of ZA on osteoblasts. These dramatic alterations of the bone microenvironment were disadvantageous for B lymphopoiesis, leading to retention of B-cell progenitors outside of their bone marrow niches in the ZA-induced osteopetrotic model. Altogether, our data revealed that OCLs modulate B-cell development in the bone marrow by controlling the bone microenvironment and the fate of osteoblasts. They provide novel basis for the regulation of the retention of B cells in their niche by OCL activity.

  20. Characterization of Insulin-Secreting Porcine Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Ex Vivo and Autologous Cell Therapy In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Do, Hai Van Thi; Loke, Wan Ting; Kee, Irene; Liang, Vivienne; David, Sebastian J; Gan, Shu Uin; Lee, Sze Sing; Ng, Wai Har; Koong, Heng Nung; Ong, Hock Soo; Lee, Kok Onn; Calne, Roy Y; Kon, Oi Lian

    2015-01-01

    Cell therapy could potentially meet the need for pancreas and islet transplantations in diabetes mellitus that far exceeds the number of available donors. Bone marrow stromal cells are widely used in clinical trials mainly for their immunomodulatory effects with a record of safety. However, less focus has been paid to developing these cells for insulin secretion by transfection. Although murine models of diabetes have been extensively used in gene and cell therapy research, few studies have shown efficacy in large preclinical animal models. Here we report optimized conditions for ex vivo expansion and characterization of porcine bone marrow stromal cells and their permissive expression of a transfected insulin gene. Our data show that these cells resemble human bone marrow stromal cells in surface antigen expression, are homogeneous, and can be reproducibly isolated from outbred Yorkshire-Landrace pigs. Porcine bone marrow stromal cells were efficiently expanded in vitro to >10(10) cells from 20 ml of bone marrow and remained karyotypically normal during expansion. These cells were electroporated with an insulin expression plasmid vector with high efficiency and viability, and secreted human insulin and C-peptide indicating appropriate processing of proinsulin. We showed that autologous insulin-secreting bone marrow stromal cells implanted and engrafted in the liver of a streptozotocin-diabetic pig that modeled type 1 diabetes resulted in partial, but significant, improvement in hyperglycemia that could not be ascribed to regeneration of endogenous β-cells. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vivo from implanted cells in the treated pig was documented by a rise in serum human C-peptide levels during intravenous glucose tolerance tests. Compared to a sham-treated control pig, this resulted in significantly reduced fasting hyperglycemia, a slower rise in serum fructosamine, and prevented weight loss. Taken together, this study suggests that bone marrow stromal

  1. Radiosensitivity of Cancer Initiating Cells and Normal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Wendy Ann; Bristow, Robert Glen

    2009-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that parallels between normal stem cell biology and cancer biology may provide new targets for cancer therapy. Prospective identification and isolation of cancer initiating cells from solid tumors has promoted the descriptive and functional identification of these cells allowing for characterization of their response to contemporary cancer therapies including chemotherapy and radiation. In clinical radiation therapy, the failure to clinically eradicate all tumor cells (e.g. a lack of response, partial response or non-permanent complete response by imaging) is considered a treatment failure. As such, biologists have explored the characteristics of the small population of clonogenic cancer cells that can survive and are capable of re-populating the tumor after sub-curative therapy. Herein, we discuss the convergence of these clonogenic studies with contemporary radiosensitivity studies that employ cell surface markers to identify cancer initiating cells. Implications for and uncertainties regarding incorporation of these concepts into the practice of modern radiation oncology are discussed. PMID:19249646

  2. Responses of bone cells to biomechanical forces in vitro.

    PubMed

    Burger, E H; Klein-Nulen, J

    1999-06-01

    In this paper, we review recent studies of the mechanism by which mechanical loading of bone is transduced into cellular signals of bone adaptation. Current biomechanical theory and in vivo as well as in vitro experiments agree that the three-dimensional network of osteocytes and bone-lining cells provides the cellular basis for mechanosensing in bone, leading to adaptive bone (re)modeling. They also agree that flow of interstitial fluid through the lacunar-canalicular porosity of bone, as a result of mechanical loading, most likely provides the stimulus for mechanosensing, and informs the bone cellular network about the adequacy of the existing bone structure. Important signaling molecules involved in in vivo adaptive bone formation, as well as in in vitro cellular response to fluid flow, are nitric oxide and prostaglandins. The expression of key enzymes for nitric oxide and prostaglandin production in bone cells is altered by fluid shear stress in vitro. Together, these studies have increased our understanding of the cell biology underlying Wolff's Law. This may lead to new strategies for combating disuse-related osteoporosis, and may also be of use in understanding and predicting the long-term integration of bone-replacing implants.

  3. Selenium in Bone Health: Roles in Antioxidant Protection and Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Huawei; Cao, Jay J.; Combs, Gerald F.

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for humans and animals, and several findings suggest that dietary Se intake may be necessary for bone health. Such findings may relate to roles of Se in antioxidant protection, enhanced immune surveillance and modulation of cell proliferation. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which Se supports these cellular processes can lead to a better understanding of the role of this nutrient in normal bone metabolism. This article reviews the current knowledge concerning the molecular functions of Se relevant to bone health. PMID:23306191

  4. Selenium in bone health: roles in antioxidant protection and cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huawei; Cao, Jay J; Combs, Gerald F

    2013-01-10

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for humans and animals, and several findings suggest that dietary Se intake may be necessary for bone health. Such findings may relate to roles of Se in antioxidant protection, enhanced immune surveillance and modulation of cell proliferation. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which Se supports these cellular processes can lead to a better understanding of the role of this nutrient in normal bone metabolism. This article reviews the current knowledge concerning the molecular functions of Se relevant to bone health.

  5. Diploid and tetraploid precursors of megakaryocytes in normal human bone marrow detected by immunofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Renner, D; Propp, H; Queisser, W

    1987-11-01

    A sequential preparation method is described which allows immunological identification, morphological characterization, cytophotometric determination of relative DNA content of the megakaryocyte lineage as well as quantitation of megakaryocyte precursors in human bone marrow aspirates. We compared several monoclonal (anti-GP IIIa and HD 19) and polyclonal (A225, RAHPS) antiplatelet antibodies for immunofluorescent staining. Among the identified cells, a small number of cells showing a diploid and tetraploid DNA content were found which must be regarded as promegakaryoblasts, representing 2.5-4.7% of all megakaryocytes. The heterogenous morphology of these precursors in panoptically stained smears is described.

  6. Heparanase inhibits osteoblastogenesis and shifts bone marrow progenitor cell fate in myeloma bone disease

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Jian; Trotter, Timothy N.; Nan, Li; Luo, Rongcheng; Javed, Amjad; Sanderson, Ralph D.; Suva, Larry J.; Yang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    A major cause of morbidity in patients with multiple myeloma is the development and progression of bone disease. Myeloma bone disease is characterized by rampant osteolysis in the presence of absent or diminished bone formation. Heparanase, an enzyme that acts both at the cell-surface and within the extracellular matrix to degrade polymeric heparan sulfate chains, is upregulated in a variety of human cancers including multiple myeloma. We and others have shown that heparanase enhances osteoclastogenesis and bone loss. However, increased osteolysis is only one element of the spectrum of myeloma bone disease. In the present study, we hypothesized that heparanase would also affect mesenchymal cells in the bone microenvironment and investigated the effect of heparanase on the differentiation of osteoblast/stromal lineage cells. Using a combination of molecular, biochemical, cellular and in vivo approaches, we demonstrated that heparanase significantly inhibited osteoblast differentiation and mineralization, and reduced bone formation in vivo. In addition, heparanase also shifts the differentiation potential of osteoblast progenitors from osteoblastogenesis to adipogenesis. Mechanistically, this shift in cell fate is due, at least in part, to heparanase-enhanced production and secretion of the Wnt signaling pathway inhibitor DKK1 by both osteoblast progenitors and myeloma cells. Collectively, these data provide important new insights into the role of heparanase in all aspects of myeloma bone disease and strongly support the use of heparanase inhibitors in the treatment of multiple myeloma. PMID:23895995

  7. Acute Exposure to High Dose γ-Radiation Results in Transient Activation of Bone Lining Cells

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Russell T.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Wong, Carmen P.; Lindenmaier, Laurence B.; Wagner, Lindsay A.; Branscum, Adam J.; Menn, Scott A.; Taylor, James; Zhang, Ye; Wu, Honglu; Sibonga, Jean D.

    2014-01-01

    The present studies investigated the cellular mechanisms for the detrimental effects of high dose whole body γ-irradiation on bone. In addition, radioadaptation and bone marrow transplantation were assessed as interventions to mitigate the skeletal complications of irradiation. Increased trabecular thickness and separation and reduced fractional cancellous bone volume, connectivity density, and trabecular number were detected in proximal tibia and lumbar vertebra 14 days following γ-irradiation with 6 Gy. To establish the cellular mechanism for the architectural changes, vertebrae were analyzed by histomorphometry 1, 3, and 14 days following irradiation. Marrow cell density decreased within 1 day (67% reduction, p<0.0001), reached a minimum value after 3 days (86% reduction, p<0.0001), and partially rebounded by 14 days (30% reduction, p=0.0025) following irradiation. In contrast, osteoblast-lined bone perimeter was increased by 290% (1 day, p=0.04), 1230% (3 days, p<0.0001), and 530% (14 days, p=0.003), respectively. There was a strong association between radiation-induced marrow cell death and activation of bone lining cells to express the osteoblast phenotype (Pearson correlation −0.85, p<0.0001). An increase (p=0.004) in osteoclast-lined bone perimeter was also detected with irradiation. A priming dose of γ-radiation (0.5 mGy), previously shown to reduce mortality, had minimal effect on the cellular responses to radiation and did not prevent detrimental changes in bone architecture. Bone marrow transplantation normalized marrow cell density, bone turnover, and most indices of bone architecture following irradiation. In summary, radiation-induced death of marrow cells is associated with 1) a transient increase in bone formation due, at least in part, to activation of bone lining cells, and 2) an increase in bone resorption due to increased osteoclast perimeter. Bone marrow transplantation is effective in mitigating the detrimental effects of acute exposure

  8. Restoration of normal phenotype in cancer cells

    DOEpatents

    Bissell, M.J.; Weaver, V.M.

    1998-12-08

    A method for reversing expression of malignant phenotype in cancer cells is described. The method comprises applying {beta}{sub 1} integrin function-blocking antibody to the cells. The method can be used to assess the progress of cancer therapy. Human breast epithelial cells were shown to be particularly responsive. 14 figs.

  9. Restoration of normal phenotype in cancer cells

    DOEpatents

    Bissell, Mina J.; Weaver, Valerie M.

    1998-01-01

    A method for reversing expression of malignant phenotype in cancer cells is described. The method comprises applying .beta..sub.1 integrin function-blocking antibody to the cells. The method can be used to assess the progress of cancer therapy. Human breast epithelial cells were shown to be particularly responsive.

  10. Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Neural-crest Derived Bone Marrow.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nan; Chen, Mo; Yang, Guodong; Xiang, Lusai; He, Ling; Hei, Thomas K; Chotkowski, Gregory; Tarnow, Dennis P; Finkel, Myron; Ding, Lei; Zhou, Yanheng; Mao, Jeremy J

    2016-12-21

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the endosteum of mesoderm-derived appendicular bones have been extensively studied. Neural crest-derived bones differ from appendicular bones in developmental origin, mode of bone formation and pathological bone resorption. Whether neural crest-derived bones harbor HSCs is elusive. Here, we discovered HSC-like cells in postnatal murine mandible, and benchmarked them with donor-matched, mesoderm-derived femur/tibia HSCs, including clonogenic assay and long-term culture. Mandibular CD34 negative, LSK cells proliferated similarly to appendicular HSCs, and differentiated into all hematopoietic lineages. Mandibular HSCs showed a consistent deficiency in lymphoid differentiation, including significantly fewer CD229 + fractions, PreProB, ProB, PreB and B220 + slgM cells. Remarkably, mandibular HSCs reconstituted irradiated hematopoietic bone marrow in vivo, just as appendicular HSCs. Genomic profiling of osteoblasts from mandibular and femur/tibia bone marrow revealed deficiencies in several HSC niche regulators among mandibular osteoblasts including Cxcl12. Neural crest derived bone harbors HSCs that function similarly to appendicular HSCs but are deficient in the lymphoid lineage. Thus, lymphoid deficiency of mandibular HSCs may be accounted by putative niche regulating genes. HSCs in craniofacial bones have functional implications in homeostasis, osteoclastogenesis, immune functions, tumor metastasis and infections such as osteonecrosis of the jaw.

  11. Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Neural-crest Derived Bone Marrow

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan; Chen, Mo; Yang, Guodong; Xiang, Lusai; He, Ling; Hei, Thomas K.; Chotkowski, Gregory; Tarnow, Dennis P.; Finkel, Myron; Ding, Lei; Zhou, Yanheng; Mao, Jeremy J.

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the endosteum of mesoderm-derived appendicular bones have been extensively studied. Neural crest-derived bones differ from appendicular bones in developmental origin, mode of bone formation and pathological bone resorption. Whether neural crest-derived bones harbor HSCs is elusive. Here, we discovered HSC-like cells in postnatal murine mandible, and benchmarked them with donor-matched, mesoderm-derived femur/tibia HSCs, including clonogenic assay and long-term culture. Mandibular CD34 negative, LSK cells proliferated similarly to appendicular HSCs, and differentiated into all hematopoietic lineages. Mandibular HSCs showed a consistent deficiency in lymphoid differentiation, including significantly fewer CD229 + fractions, PreProB, ProB, PreB and B220 + slgM cells. Remarkably, mandibular HSCs reconstituted irradiated hematopoietic bone marrow in vivo, just as appendicular HSCs. Genomic profiling of osteoblasts from mandibular and femur/tibia bone marrow revealed deficiencies in several HSC niche regulators among mandibular osteoblasts including Cxcl12. Neural crest derived bone harbors HSCs that function similarly to appendicular HSCs but are deficient in the lymphoid lineage. Thus, lymphoid deficiency of mandibular HSCs may be accounted by putative niche regulating genes. HSCs in craniofacial bones have functional implications in homeostasis, osteoclastogenesis, immune functions, tumor metastasis and infections such as osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:28000662

  12. The brain-bone-blood triad: traffic lights for stem-cell homing and mobilization.

    PubMed

    Lapidot, Tsvee; Kollet, Orit

    2010-01-01

    Navigation of transplanted stem cells to their target organs is essential for clinical bone marrow reconstitution. Recent studies have established that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) dynamically change their features and location, shifting from quiescent and stationary cells anchored in the bone marrow to cycling and motile cells entering the circulation. These changes are driven by stress signals. Bidirectional migrations to and from the bone marrow are active processes that form the basis for HSC transplantation protocols. However, how and why HSCs enter and exit the bone marrow as part of host defense and repair is not fully understood. The development of functional, preclinical, immune-deficient NOD/SCID (non-obese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficiency) mice transplantation models has enabled the characterization of normal and leukemic human HSCs and investigation of their biology. Intensive research has revealed multiple tasks for the chemokine SDF-1 (stromal cell-derived factor-1, also known as CXCL12) in HSC interactions with the microenvironment, as well as the existence of overlapping mechanisms controlling stress-induced mobilization and enhanced HSC homing, sequential events of major physiological relevance. These processes entail dynamically interacting, multi-system aspects that link the bone marrow vasculature and stromal cells with the nervous and immune systems. Neural cues act as an external pacemaker to synchronize HSC migration and development to balance bone remodeling via circadian rhythms in order to address blood and immune cell production for the physiological needs of the body. Stress situations and clinical HSC mobilization accelerate leukocyte proliferation and bone turnover. This review presents the concept that HSC regulation by the brain-bone-blood triad via stress signals controls the bone marrow reservoir of immature and maturing leukocytes.

  13. Natural history of giant cell tumour of the bone.

    PubMed

    Faisham, W I; Zulmi, W; Mutum, S S; Shuaib, I L

    2003-07-01

    The clinical presentation and behaviour of giant cell tumours of bone vary. The progression of the disease and metastases are unpredictable, but the overall prognosis is good. We describe the natural history and different clinical presentations of two cases of giant cell tumour of bone where the patients had refused the initial treatment and presented several years later with the disease.

  14. Does Hormone Replacement Normalize Bone Geometry in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa?

    PubMed Central

    DiVasta, Amy D.; Feldman, Henry A.; Beck, Thomas J.; LeBoff, Meryl S.; Gordon, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Young women with anorexia nervosa (AN) have reduced secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and estrogen contributing to skeletal deficits. In this randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we investigated the effects of oral DHEA+ combined oral contraceptive (COC) vs. placebo on changes in bone geometry in young women with AN. Eighty women with AN, aged 13-27 yr, received a random, double-blinded assignment to micronized DHEA (50 mg/d) + COC (20μg ethinyl estradiol/0.1mg levonorgestrel) or placebo for 18 mo. Measurements of aBMD at the total hip were obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 0, 6, 12, and 18 mo. We used the Hip Structural Analysis (HSA) Program to determine BMD, cross-sectional area (CSA), and section modulus at the femoral neck and shaft. Each measurement was expressed as a percentage of the age-, height-, and lean mass-specific mean from an independent sample of healthy adolescent females. Over the 18 months, DHEA+COC led to stabilization in femoral shaft BMD (0.0 ± 0.5 % of normal mean for age, height, and lean mass/year) compared with decreases in the placebo group (−1.1 ± 0.5% per year, p=0.03). Similarly, CSA, section modulus, and cortical thickness improved with treatment. In young women with AN, adrenal and gonadal hormone replacement improved bone health and increased cross sectional geometry. Our results indicate that this combination treatment has a beneficial impact on surrogate measures of bone strength, and not only bone density, in young women with AN. PMID:23744513

  15. DNA amplification is rare in normal human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.A.; Watt, F.M.; Hudson, D.L.; Stark, G.R. ); Smith, H.S.; Hancock, M.C. )

    1990-03-01

    Three types of normal human cells were selected in tissue culture with three drugs without observing a single amplification event from a total of 5 x 10{sup 8} cells. No drug-resistant colonies were observed when normal foreskin keratinocytes were selected with N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate or with hydroxyurea or when normal mammary epithelial cells were selected with methotrexate. Some slightly resistant colonies with limited potential for growth were obtained when normal diploid fibroblast cells derived from fetal lung were selected with methotrexate or hydroxyurea but careful copy-number analysis of the dihydrofolate reductase and ribonucleotide reductase genes revealed no evidence of amplification. The rarity of DNA amplification in normal human cells contrasts strongly with the situation in tumors and in established cell lines, where amplification of onogenes and of genes mediating drug resistance is frequent. The results suggest that tumors and cell lines have acquired the abnormal ability to amplify DNA with high frequency.

  16. Analysis of bone marrow aspiration fluid using automated blood cell counters.

    PubMed

    d'Onofrio, Giuseppe; Zini, Gina

    2015-03-01

    Cytomorphological examination of aspirate smears remains the basic method to diagnose hematologic disorders and to evaluate treatment-related changes. Last-generation hematological analyzers can count, besides cells normally circulating in peripheral blood, some types of immature and abnormal cells, such as erythroblasts and immature granulocytes. The complex nature of bone marrow fluid, however, has prevented until now the routine utilization of blood cell counters in this area. Recent studies have shown the possibility of using bone marrow fluid as a substitute for peripheral blood for clinical tests in particular situations and for repetitive cytologic examinations in specific clinical and research fields. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. SPR4-peptide Alters Bone Metabolism of Normal and HYP Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zelenchuk, Lesya V; Hedge, Anne-Marie; Rowe, Peter S N

    2015-01-01

    Context ASARM-peptides are substrates and ligands for PHEX, the gene responsible for X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (HYP). PHEX binds to the DMP1-ASARM-motif to form a trimeric-complex with α5β3-integrin on the osteocyte surface and this suppresses FGF23 expression. ASARM-peptide disruption of this complex increases FGF23 expression. We used a 4.2 kDa peptide (SPR4) that binds to ASARM-peptide and ASARM-motif to study DMP1-PHEX interactions and to assess SPR4 for treating inherited hypophosphatemic rickets. Design Subcutaneously transplanted osmotic pumps were used to infuse SPR4-peptide or vehicle into wild-type mice (WT) and HYP-mice for 4 weeks. Results Asymmetrically distributed mineralization defects occurred with WT-SPR4 femurs. Specifically, SPR4 induced negative effects on trabecular bone and increased bone volume and mineralization in cortical-bone. Markedly increased sclerostin and reduced active β-catenin occurred with HYP mice. SPR4-infusion suppressed sclerostin and increased active β-catenin in WT and HYP mice and improved HYP-mice trabecular mineralization defects but not cortical mineralization defects. Conclusions SPR4-peptide has bimodal activity and acts by: (1) preventing DMP1 binding to PHEX and (2) sequestering an inhibitor of DMP1-PHEX binding, ASARM-peptide. In PHEX defective HYP-mice the second pathway predominates. Although SPR4-peptide improved trabecular calcification defects, decreased sclerostin and increased active β-catenin it did not correct HYP-mice cortical mineralization defects on a normal phosphate diet. Thus, for inherited hypophosphatemic rickets patients on a normal phosphate diet, SPR4-peptide is not a useful therapeutic. PMID:25460577

  18. Allogenous bone grafts improved by bone marrow stem cells and platelet growth factors: clinical case reports.

    PubMed

    Filho Cerruti, Humberto; Kerkis, Irina; Kerkis, Alexandre; Tatsui, Nelson Hidekazu; da Costa Neves, Adriana; Bueno, Daniela Franco; da Silva, Marcelo Cavenaghi Pereira

    2007-04-01

    In order to increase the amount of available bone where dental implants must be placed, the present study has associated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and mononuclear cells (MNCs) from bone marrow aspirate and bone scaffold (BS) in 32 patients aged between 45 and 75 years old. The MNC attainment and the adherence to the BS were confirmed through histology, cell culture, and scanning electron microscopy. The clinical results, analyzed by computed tomography, have showed that the scaffolds were well integrated and adapted to the cortical bone. We can conclude that the process of healing observed in the patients was due to the presence of mesenchymal stem cell in MNC fraction in the bone grafts.

  19. Absence of B cells does not compromise intramembranous bone formation during healing in a tibial injury model.

    PubMed

    Raggatt, Liza J; Alexander, Kylie A; Kaur, Simranpreet; Wu, Andy C; MacDonald, Kelli P A; Pettit, Allison R

    2013-05-01

    Previous studies have generated conflicting results regarding the contribution of B cells to bone formation during physiology and repair. Here, we have investigated the role of B cells in osteoblast-mediated intramembranous anabolic bone modeling. Immunohistochemistry for CD45 receptor expression indicated that B cells had no propensity or aversion for endosteal regions or sites of bone modeling and/or remodeling in wild-type mice. In the endocortical diaphyseal region, quantitative immunohistology demonstrated that young wild-type and B-cell deficient mice had similar amounts of osteocalcin(+) osteoblast bone modeling surface. The degree of osteoblast-associated osteomac canopy was also comparable in these mice inferring that bone modeling cellular units were preserved in the absence of B cells. In a tibial injury model, only rare CD45 receptor positive B cells were located within areas of high anabolic activity, including minimal association with osterix(+) osteoblast-lineage committed mesenchymal cells in wild-type mice. Quantitative immunohistology demonstrated that collagen type I matrix deposition and macrophage and osteoclast distribution within the injury site were not compromised by the absence of B cells. Overall, osteoblast distribution during normal growth and bone healing via intramembranous ossification proceeded normally in the absence of B cells. These observations support that in vivo, these lymphoid cells have minimal influence, or at most, make redundant contributions to osteoblast function during anabolic bone modeling via intramembranous mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Normal and abnormal secretion by haemopoietic cells

    PubMed Central

    STINCHCOMBE, JANE C; GRIFFITHS, GILLIAN M

    2001-01-01

    The secretory lysosomes found in haemopoietic cells provide a very efficient mechanism for delivering the effector proteins of many immune cells in response to antigen recognition. Although secretion shows some similarities to the secretion of specialized granules in other secretory cell types, some aspects of secretory lysosome release appear to be unique to melanocytes and cells of the haemopoietic lineage. Mast cells and platelets have provided excellent models for studying secretion, but recent advances in characterizing the immunological synapse allow a very fine dissection of the secretory process in T lymphocytes. These studies show that secretory lysosomes are secreted from the centre of the talin ring at the synapse. Proper secretion requires a series of Rab and cytoskeletal elements which play critical roles in the specialized secretion of lysosomes in haemopoietic cells. PMID:11380687

  1. Effects of OK-432 on murine bone marrow and the production of natural killer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, S.B.; Rosse, C.

    1985-01-01

    The streptococcal preparation, OK-432, which augments anti-tumor responses in humans and mice, has been shown to be a potent immunomodulator. Among its effects is a pronounced augmentation of natural killer (NK) activity. The hypothesis that OK-432 alters the rates of production and maturation of NK cells in the bone marrow was tested. Studies to determine the kinetic parameters of NK cell production in normal C57BL/6J mice using tritiated thymidine, /sup 3/H-TdR, as a DNA marker are described. We are now extending those studies to determine the effect of OK-432 on the bone marrow and on the production of NK cells in the marrow. Initial observations are reported which indicate that OK-432 has profound effects on the cellularity and mitotic activity of the bone marrow, and in particular, on cells with the characteristics of natural killer cells within the marrow. 17 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Osteoprogenitor cells from bone marrow and cortical bone: understanding how the environment affects their fate.

    PubMed

    Corradetti, Bruna; Taraballi, Francesca; Powell, Sebastian; Sung, David; Minardi, Silvia; Ferrari, Mauro; Weiner, Bradley K; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2015-05-01

    Bone is a dynamic organ where skeletal progenitors and hematopoietic cells share and compete for space. Presumptive mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been identified and harvested from the bone marrow (BM-MSC) and cortical bone fragments (CBF-MSC). In this study, we demonstrate that despite the cells sharing a common ancestor, the differences in the structural properties of the resident tissues affect cell behavior and prime them to react differently to stimuli. Similarly to the bone marrow, the cortical portion of the bone contains a unique subset of cells that stains positively for the common MSC-associated markers. These cells display different multipotent differentiation capability, clonogenic expansion, and immunosuppressive potential. In particular, when compared with BM-MSC, CBF-MSC are bigger in size, show a lower proliferation rate at early passages, have a greater commitment toward the osteogenic lineage, constitutively produce nitric oxide as a mediator for bone remodeling, and more readily respond to proinflammatory cytokines. Our data suggest that the effect of the tissue's microenvironment makes the CBF-MSC a superior candidate in the development of new strategies for bone repair.

  3. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 potentiates bone morphogenetic protein-2 induced bone formation.

    PubMed

    Higashino, Kosaku; Viggeswarapu, Manjula; Bargouti, Maggie; Liu, Hui; Titus, Louisa; Boden, Scott D

    2011-02-01

    The mechanisms driving bone marrow stem cell mobilization are poorly understood. A recent murine study found that circulating bone marrow-derived osteoprogenitor cells (MOPCs) were recruited to the site of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-induced bone formation. Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) and its cellular receptor CXCR4 have been shown to mediate the homing of stem cells to injured tissues. We hypothesized that chemokines, such as SDF-1, are also involved with mobilization of bone marrow cells. The CD45(-) fraction is a major source of MOPCs. In this report we determined that the addition of BMP-2 or SDF-1 to collagen implants increased the number of MOPCs in the peripheral blood. BMP-2-induced mobilization was blocked by CXCR4 antibody, confirming the role of SDF-1 in mobilization. We determined for the first time that addition of SDF-1 to implants containing BMP-2 enhances mobilization, homing of MOPCs to the implant, and ectopic bone formation induced by suboptimal BMP-2 doses. These results suggest that SDF-1 increases the number of osteoprogenitor cells that are mobilized from the bone marrow and then home to the implant. Thus, addition of SDF-1 to BMP-2 may improve the efficiency of BMPs in vivo, making their routine use for orthopaedic applications more affordable and available to more patients.

  4. The normal flora may contribute to the quantitative preponderance of myeloid cells under physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shi; LiHua, Hu

    2011-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, the innate immune cells derived from myeloid lineage absolutely outnumber the lymphoid cells. At present, two theories are attributed to the maintenance of haemopoiesis: the asymmetric cell division and the bone marrow hematopoietic microenvironment or "niche". However, the former only explains the self-renewal of haemopoietic stem cell (HSC) and the start of haemopoietic differentiation but fails to address the inducers of cell fate decisions; the latter has to admit that the hematopoietic cytokines, despite their significance in the maintenance of haemopoiesis, have no specific effect on lineage commitment. Given these flaws, the advantageous mechanism of myeloid haemopoiesis has not yet been uncovered in the current theories. The discoveries that bacterial components (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and intestinal decontamination affect the mobilization of HSC trigger the interest in normal flora, which together with their components may have an effect on haemopoiesis. In the experiments in dogs and mice, researchers documented that the generation of myeloid cells has undergone changes in the bone marrow and periphery when antibiotics are used to regulate the normal intestinal flora and the concentration of its components. However, the same changes are not involved in lymphoid cells. Therefore, we hypothesize that in human body normal flora and its components are a driving force to maintain myeloid haemopoiesis under physiological conditions. To account for the selectiveness in haemopoiesis, these facts should be taken into consideration, such as HSC and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) functionally expressed pattern recognition receptors (PRR), and both of them can self-migrate or be recruited by normal flora or its components into periphery. Dynamically monitoring the myeloid haemopoiesis may provide an important complementary program that precludes the abuse of antibiotics, which prevents diseases triggered by the imbalance of normal

  5. The effects of twelve weeks of bed rest on bone histology, biochemical markers of bone turnover, and calcium homeostasis in eleven normal subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerwekh, J. E.; Ruml, L. A.; Gottschalk, F.; Pak, C. Y.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effects of 12 weeks of skeletal unloading on parameters of calcium homeostasis, calcitropic hormones, bone histology, and biochemical markers of bone turnover in 11 normal subjects (9 men, 2 women; 34 +/- 11 years of age). Following an ambulatory control evaluation, all subjects underwent 12 weeks of bed rest. An additional metabolic evaluation was performed after 12 days of reambulation. Bone mineral density declined at the spine (-2.9%, p = 0.092) and at the hip (-3.8%, p = 0.002 for the trochanter). Bed rest prompted a rapid, sustained, significant increase in urinary calcium and phosphorus as well as a significant increase in serum calcium. Urinary calcium increased from a pre-bed rest value of 5.3 mmol/day to values as high as 73 mmol/day during bed rest. Immunoreactive parathyroid hormone and serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D declined significantly during bed rest, although the mean values remained within normal limits. Significant changes in bone histology included a suppression of osteoblastic surface for cancellous bone (3.1 +/- 1.3% to 1.9 +/- 1.5%, p = 0.0142) and increased bone resorption for both cancellous and cortical bone. Cortical eroded surface increased from 3.5 +/- 1.1% to 7.3 +/- 4.0% (p = 0.018) as did active osteoclastic surface (0.2 +/- 0.3% to 0.7 +/- 0.7%, p = 0.021). Cancellous eroded surface increased from 2.1 +/- 1.1% to 4.7 +/- 2.2% (p = 0.002), while mean active osteoclastic surface doubled (0.2 +/- 0.2% to 0.4 +/- 0.3%, p = 0.020). Serum biochemical markers of bone formation (osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and type I procollagen extension peptide) did not change significantly during bed rest. Urinary biochemical markers of bone resorption (hydroxyproline, deoxypyridinoline, and N-telopeptide of type I collagen) as well as a serum marker of bone resorption (type I collagen carboxytelopeptide) all demonstrated significant increases during bed rest which declined toward normal

  6. The effects of twelve weeks of bed rest on bone histology, biochemical markers of bone turnover, and calcium homeostasis in eleven normal subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerwekh, J. E.; Ruml, L. A.; Gottschalk, F.; Pak, C. Y.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effects of 12 weeks of skeletal unloading on parameters of calcium homeostasis, calcitropic hormones, bone histology, and biochemical markers of bone turnover in 11 normal subjects (9 men, 2 women; 34 +/- 11 years of age). Following an ambulatory control evaluation, all subjects underwent 12 weeks of bed rest. An additional metabolic evaluation was performed after 12 days of reambulation. Bone mineral density declined at the spine (-2.9%, p = 0.092) and at the hip (-3.8%, p = 0.002 for the trochanter). Bed rest prompted a rapid, sustained, significant increase in urinary calcium and phosphorus as well as a significant increase in serum calcium. Urinary calcium increased from a pre-bed rest value of 5.3 mmol/day to values as high as 73 mmol/day during bed rest. Immunoreactive parathyroid hormone and serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D declined significantly during bed rest, although the mean values remained within normal limits. Significant changes in bone histology included a suppression of osteoblastic surface for cancellous bone (3.1 +/- 1.3% to 1.9 +/- 1.5%, p = 0.0142) and increased bone resorption for both cancellous and cortical bone. Cortical eroded surface increased from 3.5 +/- 1.1% to 7.3 +/- 4.0% (p = 0.018) as did active osteoclastic surface (0.2 +/- 0.3% to 0.7 +/- 0.7%, p = 0.021). Cancellous eroded surface increased from 2.1 +/- 1.1% to 4.7 +/- 2.2% (p = 0.002), while mean active osteoclastic surface doubled (0.2 +/- 0.2% to 0.4 +/- 0.3%, p = 0.020). Serum biochemical markers of bone formation (osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and type I procollagen extension peptide) did not change significantly during bed rest. Urinary biochemical markers of bone resorption (hydroxyproline, deoxypyridinoline, and N-telopeptide of type I collagen) as well as a serum marker of bone resorption (type I collagen carboxytelopeptide) all demonstrated significant increases during bed rest which declined toward normal

  7. [Bone Cell Biology Assessed by Microscopic Approach. A mathematical approach to understand bone remodeling].

    PubMed

    Kameo, Yoshitaka; Adachi, Taiji

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that bone tissue can change its outer shape and internal structure by remodeling according to a changing mechanical environment. However, the mechanism of bone functional adaptation induced by the collaborative metabolic activities of bone cells in response to mechanical stimuli remains elusive. In this article, we focus on the hierarchy of bone structure and function from the microscopic cellular level to the macroscopic tissue level. We provide an overview of a mathematical approach to understand the adaptive changes in trabecular morphology under the application of mechanical stress.

  8. Natural Polymer-Cell Bioconstructs for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Titorencu, Irina; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Nemecz, Miruna; Jinga, Victor V

    2017-01-01

    The major goal of bone tissue engineering is to develop bioconstructs which substitute the functionality of damaged natural bone structures as much as possible if critical-sized defects occur. Scaffolds that mimic the structure and composition of bone tissue and cells play a pivotal role in bone tissue engineering applications. First, composition, properties and in vivo synthesis of bone tissue are presented for the understanding of bone formation. Second, potential sources of osteoprogenitor cells have been investigated for their capacity to induce bone repair and regeneration. Third, taking into account that the main property to qualify one scaffold as a future bioconstruct for bone tissue engineering is the biocompatibility, the assessments which prove it are reviewed in this paper. Forth, various types of natural polymer- based scaffolds consisting in proteins, polysaccharides, minerals, growth factors etc, are discussed, and interaction between scaffolds and cells which proved bone tissue engineering concept are highlighted. Finally, the future perspectives of natural polymer-based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering are considered.

  9. Silorane resin supports proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of MLO-A5 bone cells in vitro and bone formation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Eick, J. David; Barragan-Adjemian, Cielo; Rosser, Jennifer; Melander, Jennifer R.; Dusevich, Vladimir; Weiler, Rachel A.; Miller, Bradley D.; Kilway, Kathleen V.; Dallas, Mark R.; Bi, Lianxing; Nalvarte, Elisabet L.; Bonewald, Lynda F.

    2015-01-01

    Methyl methacrylate used in bone cements has drawbacks of toxicity, high exotherm, and considerable shrinkage. A new resin, based on silorane/oxirane chemistry, has been shown to have little toxicity, low exotherm, and low shrinkage. We hypothesized that silorane-based resins may also be useful as components of bone cements as well as other bone applications and began testing on bone cell function in vitro and in vivo. MLO-A5, late osteoblast cells, were exposed to polymerized silorane (SilMix) resin (and a standard polymerized bisGMA/TEGDMA methacrylate (BT) resin and compared to culture wells without resins as control. A significant cytotoxic effect was observed with the BT resin resulting in no cell growth, whereas in contrast, SilMix resin had no toxic effects on MLO-A5 cell proliferation, differentiation, nor mineralization. The cells cultured with SilMix produced increasing amounts of alkaline phosphatase (1.8-fold) compared to control cultures. Compared to control cultures, an actual enhancement of mineralization was observed in the silorane resin-containing cultures at days 10 and 11 as determined by von Kossa (1.8–2.0 fold increase) and Alizarin red staining (1.8-fold increase). A normal bone calcium/phosphate atomic ratio was observed by elemental analysis along with normal collagen formation. When used in vivo to stabilize osteotomies, no inflammatory response was observed, and the bone continued to heal. In conclusion, the silorane resin, SilMix, was shown to not only be non cytototoxic, but actually supported bone cell function. Therefore, this resin has significant potential for the development of a nontoxic bone cement or bone stabilizer. PMID:22278990

  10. Role of whole bone marrow, whole bone marrow cultured cells, and mesenchymal stem cells in chronic wound healing.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Menocal, Luis; Shareef, Shahjahan; Salgado, Marcela; Shabbir, Arsalan; Van Badiavas, Evangelos

    2015-03-13

    Recent evidence has shown that bone marrow cells play critical roles during the inflammatory, proliferative and remodeling phases of cutaneous wound healing. Among the bone marrow cells delivered to wounds are stem cells, which can differentiate into multiple tissue-forming cell lineages to effect, healing. Gaining insight into which lineages are most important in accelerating wound healing would be quite valuable in designing therapeutic approaches for difficult to heal wounds. In this report we compared the effect of different bone marrow preparations on established in vitro wound healing assays. The preparations examined were whole bone marrow (WBM), whole bone marrow (long term initiating/hematopoietic based) cultured cells (BMC), and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC). We also applied these bone marrow preparations in two murine models of radiation induced delayed wound healing to determine which had a greater effect on healing. Angiogenesis assays demonstrated that tube formation was stimulated by both WBM and BMC, with WBM having the greatest effect. Scratch wound assays showed higher fibroblast migration at 24, 48, and 72 hours in presence of WBM as compared to BM-MSC. WBM also appeared to stimulate a greater healing response than BMC and BM-MSC in a radiation induced delayed wound healing animal model. These studies promise to help elucidate the role of stem cells during repair of chronic wounds and reveal which cells present in bone marrow might contribute most to the wound healing process.

  11. Bone marrow derived stem cells in joint and bone diseases: a concise review.

    PubMed

    Marmotti, Antonio; de Girolamo, Laura; Bonasia, Davide Edoardo; Bruzzone, Matteo; Mattia, Silvia; Rossi, Roberto; Montaruli, Angela; Dettoni, Federico; Castoldi, Filippo; Peretti, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    Stem cells have huge applications in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Their use is currently not restricted to the life-threatening diseases but also extended to disorders involving the structural tissues, which may not jeopardize the patients' life, but certainly influence their quality of life. In fact, a particularly popular line of research is represented by the regeneration of bone and cartilage tissues to treat various orthopaedic disorders. Most of these pioneering research lines that aim to create new treatments for diseases that currently have limited therapies are still in the bench of the researchers. However, in recent years, several clinical trials have been started with satisfactory and encouraging results. This article aims to review the concept of stem cells and their characterization in terms of site of residence, differentiation potential and therapeutic prospective. In fact, while only the bone marrow was initially considered as a "reservoir" of this cell population, later, adipose tissue and muscle tissue have provided a considerable amount of cells available for multiple differentiation. In reality, recently, the so-called "stem cell niche" was identified as the perivascular space, recognizing these cells as almost ubiquitous. In the field of bone and joint diseases, their potential to differentiate into multiple cell lines makes their application ideally immediate through three main modalities: (1) cells selected by withdrawal from bone marrow, subsequent culture in the laboratory, and ultimately transplant at the site of injury; (2) bone marrow aspirate, concentrated and directly implanted into the injury site; (3) systemic mobilization of stem cells and other bone marrow precursors by the use of growth factors. The use of this cell population in joint and bone disease will be addressed and discussed, analysing both the clinical outcomes but also the basic research background, which has justified their use for the

  12. Sclerostin Antibody Administration Converts Bone Lining Cells Into Active Osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Wan; Lu, Yanhui; Williams, Elizabeth A; Lai, Forest; Lee, Ji Yeon; Enishi, Tetsuya; Balani, Deepak H; Ominsky, Michael S; Ke, Hua Zhu; Kronenberg, Henry M; Wein, Marc N

    2016-11-14

    Sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) increases osteoblast activity, in part through increasing modeling-based bone formation on previously quiescent surfaces. Histomorphometric studies have suggested that this might occur through conversion of bone lining cells into active osteoblasts. However, direct data demonstrating Scl-Ab-induced conversion of lining cells into active osteoblasts are lacking. Here, we used in vivo lineage tracing to determine if Scl-Ab promotes the conversion of lining cells into osteoblasts on periosteal and endocortical bone surfaces in mice. Two independent, tamoxifen-inducible lineage-tracing strategies were used to label mature osteoblasts and their progeny using the DMP1 and osteocalcin promoters. After a prolonged "chase" period, the majority of labeled cells on bone surfaces assumed a thin, quiescent morphology. Then, mice were treated with either vehicle or Scl-Ab (25 mg/kg) twice over the course of the subsequent week. After euthanization, marked cells were enumerated, their thickness quantified, and proliferation and apoptosis examined. Scl-Ab led to a significant increase in the average thickness of labeled cells on periosteal and endocortical bone surfaces, consistent with osteoblast activation. Scl-Ab did not induce proliferation of labeled cells, and Scl-Ab did not regulate apoptosis of labeled cells. Therefore, direct reactivation of quiescent bone lining cells contributes to the acute increase in osteoblast numbers after Scl-Ab treatment in mice. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  13. Defective bone repair in mast cell-deficient Cpa3Cre/+ mice

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Daniel; Samberg, Robert; Abou-Rjeili, Mira; Wong, Timothy H.; Li, Ailian; Feyerabend, Thorsten B.; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Henderson, Janet E.; Martineau, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    In the adult skeleton, cells of the immune system interact with those of the skeleton during all phases of bone repair to influence the outcome. Mast cells are immune cells best known for their pathologic role in allergy, and may be involved in chronic inflammatory and fibrotic disorders. Potential roles for mast cells in tissue homeostasis, vascularization and repair remain enigmatic. Previous studies in combined mast cell- and Kit-deficient KitW-sh/W-sh mice (KitW-sh) implicated mast cells in bone repair but KitW-sh mice suffer from additional Kit-dependent hematopoietic and non- hematopoietic deficiencies that could have confounded the outcome. The goal of the current study was to compare bone repair in normal wild type (WT) and Cpa3Cre/+ mice, which lack mast cells in the absence of any other hematopoietic or non- hematopoietic deficiencies. Repair of a femoral window defect was characterized using micro CT imaging and histological analyses from the early inflammatory phase, through soft and hard callus formation, and finally the remodeling phase. The data indicate 1) mast cells appear in healing bone of WT mice but not Cpa3Cre/+ mice, beginning 14 days after surgery; 2) re-vascularization of repair tissue and deposition of mineralized bone was delayed and dis-organised in Cpa3Cre/+ mice compared with WT mice; 3) the defects in Cpa3Cre/+ mice were associated with little change in anabolic activity and biphasic alterations in osteoclast and macrophage activity. The outcome at 56 days postoperative was complete bridging of the defect in most WT mice and fibrous mal-union in most Cpa3Cre/+ mice. The results indicate that mast cells promote bone healing, possibly by recruiting vascular endothelial cells during the inflammatory phase and coordinating anabolic and catabolic activity during tissue remodeling. Taken together the data indicate that mast cells have a positive impact on bone repair. PMID:28350850

  14. Defective bone repair in mast cell-deficient Cpa3Cre/+ mice.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-GarciaLuna, Jose Luis; Chan, Daniel; Samberg, Robert; Abou-Rjeili, Mira; Wong, Timothy H; Li, Ailian; Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Henderson, Janet E; Martineau, Paul A

    2017-01-01

    In the adult skeleton, cells of the immune system interact with those of the skeleton during all phases of bone repair to influence the outcome. Mast cells are immune cells best known for their pathologic role in allergy, and may be involved in chronic inflammatory and fibrotic disorders. Potential roles for mast cells in tissue homeostasis, vascularization and repair remain enigmatic. Previous studies in combined mast cell- and Kit-deficient KitW-sh/W-sh mice (KitW-sh) implicated mast cells in bone repair but KitW-sh mice suffer from additional Kit-dependent hematopoietic and non- hematopoietic deficiencies that could have confounded the outcome. The goal of the current study was to compare bone repair in normal wild type (WT) and Cpa3Cre/+ mice, which lack mast cells in the absence of any other hematopoietic or non- hematopoietic deficiencies. Repair of a femoral window defect was characterized using micro CT imaging and histological analyses from the early inflammatory phase, through soft and hard callus formation, and finally the remodeling phase. The data indicate 1) mast cells appear in healing bone of WT mice but not Cpa3Cre/+ mice, beginning 14 days after surgery; 2) re-vascularization of repair tissue and deposition of mineralized bone was delayed and dis-organised in Cpa3Cre/+ mice compared with WT mice; 3) the defects in Cpa3Cre/+ mice were associated with little change in anabolic activity and biphasic alterations in osteoclast and macrophage activity. The outcome at 56 days postoperative was complete bridging of the defect in most WT mice and fibrous mal-union in most Cpa3Cre/+ mice. The results indicate that mast cells promote bone healing, possibly by recruiting vascular endothelial cells during the inflammatory phase and coordinating anabolic and catabolic activity during tissue remodeling. Taken together the data indicate that mast cells have a positive impact on bone repair.

  15. Osteoblastic Wnts differentially regulate bone remodeling and the maintenance of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yong; Lu, Cheng; Cao, Jingjing; Zhou, Rujiang; Yao, Yiyun; Yu, Jian; Zhang, Lingling; Zhao, Haixia; Li, Hanjun; Zhao, Jianzhi; Zhu, Xuming; He, Lin; Liu, Yongzhong; Yao, Zhengju; Yang, Xiao; Guo, Xizhi

    2013-07-01

    Wnt signaling has important roles in embryonic bone development and postnatal bone remodeling, but inconsistent impact on bone property is observed in different genetic alterations of Lrp5 and β-catenin. More importantly, it is still controversial whether Lrp5 regulate bone formation locally or globally through gut-derived serotonin. Here we explored the function of Wnt proteins in osteoblastic niche through inactivation of the Wntless (Wls) gene, which abrogates the secretion of Wnts. The depletion of Wls in osteoblast progenitor cells resulted in severe osteopenia with more profound defects in osteoblastogenesis, osteoclastogenesis and maintenance of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) compared to that observed in Lrp5 and β-catenin mutants. These findings support the point of view that Wnt/Lrp5 signaling locally regulates bone mass accrual through multiple effects of osteoblastic Wnts on osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption. Moreover, osteoblastic Wnts confer a niche role for maintenance of BMSCs, providing novel cues for the definition of BMSCs niche in bone marrow.

  16. Connexin 43 hemichannels and intracellular signaling in bone cells

    PubMed Central

    Plotkin, Lilian I.

    2014-01-01

    Cell function and survival are controlled by intracellular signals, and modulated by surrounding cells and the extracellular environment. Connexin channels participate in these processes by mediating cell-to-cell communication. In bone cells, gap junction channels were detected in the early 1970s, and are present among bone resorbing osteoclasts, bone forming osteoblasts, and osteocytes - mature osteoblasts embedded in the mineralized matrix. These channels are composed mainly by Cx43, although the expression of other connexins (45, 46, and 37) has also been reported. It is now believed that undocked Cx43 hemichannels (connexons) formed in unopposed cell membranes facing the extracellular environment participate in the interaction of bone cells with the extracellular environment, and in their communication with neighboring cells. Thus, we and others demonstrated the presence of active hemichannels in osteoblastic and osteocytic cells. These hemichannels open in response to pharmacological and mechanical stimulation. In particular, preservation of the viability of osteoblasts and osteocytes by the anti-osteoporotic drugs bisphosphonates depends on Cx43 expression in vitro and in vivo, and is mediated by undocked hemichannels. Cx43 hemichannels are also required for the release of prostaglandins and ATP by osteocytes, and for cell survival induced by mechanical stimulation in vitro. Moreover, they are required for the anti-apoptotic effect of parathyroid hormone in osteoblastic cells. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the presence and function of undocked connexons, and the role of hemichannel regulation for the maintenance of bone cell viability and, potentially, bone health. PMID:24772090

  17. Treatment of hairy-cell leukemia with chemoradiotherapy and identical-twin bone-marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheever, M.A.; Fefer, A.; Greenberg, P.D.; Appelbaum, F.; Armitage, J.O.; Buckner, C.D.; Sale, G.E.; Storb, R.; Witherspoon, R.P.; Thomas, E.D.

    1982-08-01

    A patient with progressive hairy-cell leukemia and a normal genetically identical twin presented an opportunity to determine the sensitivity of this disease to high-dose alkylating-agent chemotherapy and total-body irradiation, since the marrow aplasia induced could potentially be overcome by reconstitution with normal marrow stem cells from the twin. After such therapy the patient rapidly recovered normal marrow function with no evidence of infiltrating hairy cells; he is still in complete remission four years after transplantation. In contrast to other patients with this disorder, he has had no predisposition to infections since transplantation. These results demonstrate that hairy-cell leukemia is sensitive to high-dose cytotoxic therapy and is not associated with any microenvironmental abnormalities that prevent repopulation with normal stem cells. Thus, high-dose chemoradiotherapy followed by bone-marrow transplantation is an effective and potentially curative therapy for hairy-cell leukemia. (JMT)

  18. Effect of human milk on blood and bone marrow cells in a malnourished mice model; comparative study with cow milk.

    PubMed

    García, Isabel; Salva, Susana; Zelaya, Hortensia; Villena, Julio; Agüero, Graciela

    2013-11-01

    We studied the impact of human (HM) and cow (CM) milk on the recovery of blood and bone marrow cells in malnourished mice. Results: both milks normalized serum albumin levels and improved thymus weight. HM was less effective than CM to increase body weight and serum transferrin levels. In contrast, HM was more effective than CM to increase the number of leukocytes and lymphocytes in peripheral blood. Both milks induced an increment in mitotic pool cells in bone marrow and α-naphthyl butyrate esterase positive cells in peripheral blood. They also normalized phagocytic function in blood neutrophils and oxidative burst in peritoneal cells. Conclusion: both milks were equally effective to exert favorable effects on the number of the bone marrow cells and the functions of the blood and peritoneal cells involved in immune response. However, only HM normalized the number of leukocytes and increased the number of neutrophils in peripheral blood.

  19. Prospective assessment of bone turnover and clinical bone diseases after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Petropoulou, Anna D; Porcher, Raphael; Herr, Andrée-Laure; Devergie, Agnès; Brentano, Thomas Funck; Ribaud, Patricia; Pinto, Fernando O; Rocha, Vanderson; Peffault de Latour, Régis; Orcel, Philippe; Socié, Gérard; Robin, Marie

    2010-06-15

    Bone complications after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) are relatively frequent. Evaluation of biomarkers of bone turnover and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) are not known in this context. We prospectively evaluated bone mineral density, biomarkers of bone turnover, and the cumulative incidence of bone complications after allogeneic HSCT. One hundred forty-six patients were included. Bone mineral density was measured by DEXA 2-month and 1-year post-HSCT. The markers of bone turnover were serum C-telopeptide (C-TP), 5 tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (bone resorption), and osteocalcin (bone formation) determined pre-HSCT and 2 months and 1 year thereafter. Potential association between osteoporosis at 2 months, osteoporotic fracture or avascular necrosis and, individual patient's characteristics and biologic markers were tested. C-TP was high before and 2 months after transplant. At 2 months, DEXA detected osteoporosis in more than half the patients tested. Male sex, median age less than or equal to 15 years, and abnormal C-TP before HSCT were risk factors significantly associated with osteoporosis. Three-year cumulative incidences of fractures and avascular necrosis were 8% and 11%, respectively. Children were at higher risk of fracture, whereas corticosteroid treatment duration was a significant risk factor for developing a clinical bone complication post-HSCT. Bone complications and osteoporosis are frequent after HSCT. Bone biologic markers and DEXA showed that subclinical bone abnormalities appeared early post-HSCT. The risk factors, age, gender, and C-TP easily available at the time of transplantation were identified. Biphosphonates should probably be given to patients with those risk factors.

  20. B cell autoimmunity and bone damage in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bugatti, S; Bogliolo, L; Montecucco, C; Manzo, A

    2016-12-16

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic immune-inflammatory disease associated with significant bone damage. Pathological bone remodeling in RA is primarily driven by persistent inflammation. Indeed, pro-inflammatory cytokines stimulate the differentiation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and, in parallel, suppress osteoblast function, resulting in net loss of bone. Abating disease activity thus remains the major goal of any treatment strategy in patients with RA. Autoantibody-positive patients, however, often show a rapidly progressive destructive course of the disease, disproportionate to the level of inflammation. The epidemiological association between RA-specific autoantibodies, in particular anti-citrullinated protein autoantibodies, and poor structural outcomes has recently found mechanistic explanation in the multiple roles that B cells play in bone remodeling. In this review, we will summarize the substantial progress that has been made in deciphering how B cells and autoantibodies negatively impact on bone in the course of RA, through both inflammation-dependent and independent mechanisms.

  1. Stem and progenitor cells: advancing bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Tevlin, R; Walmsley, G G; Marecic, O; Hu, Michael S; Wan, D C; Longaker, M T

    2016-04-01

    Unlike many other postnatal tissues, bone can regenerate and repair itself; nevertheless, this capacity can be overcome. Traditionally, surgical reconstructive strategies have implemented autologous, allogeneic, and prosthetic materials. Autologous bone--the best option--is limited in supply and also mandates an additional surgical procedure. In regenerative tissue engineering, there are myriad issues to consider in the creation of a functional, implantable replacement tissue. Importantly, there must exist an easily accessible, abundant cell source with the capacity to express the phenotype of the desired tissue, and a biocompatible scaffold to deliver the cells to the damaged region. A literature review was performed using PubMed; peer-reviewed publications were screened for relevance in order to identify key advances in stem and progenitor cell contribution to the field of bone tissue engineering. In this review, we briefly introduce various adult stem cells implemented in bone tissue engineering such as mesenchymal stem cells (including bone marrow- and adipose-derived stem cells), endothelial progenitor cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. We then discuss numerous advances associated with their application and subsequently focus on technological advances in the field, before addressing key regenerative strategies currently used in clinical practice. Stem and progenitor cell implementation in bone tissue engineering strategies have the ability to make a major impact on regenerative medicine and reduce patient morbidity. As the field of regenerative medicine endeavors to harness the body's own cells for treatment, scientific innovation has led to great advances in stem cell-based therapies in the past decade.

  2. Identification of Bone Marrow-Derived Soluble Factors Regulating Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Bone Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Lin; Li, Wan-Ju

    2017-02-14

    Maintaining properties of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in culture for regenerative applications remains a great challenge. An emerging approach of constructing a culture environment mimicking the bone marrow niche to regulate BMSC activities has been developed. In this study, we have demonstrated a systematic approach to identify soluble factors of interest extracted from human bone marrow and used them in BMSC culture for tissue regeneration. We have found that lipocalin-2 and prolactin are key factors in bone marrow, involved in regulating BMSC activities. Treating the cell with lipocalin-2 and prolactin delays cellular senescence of BMSCs and primes the cell for osteogenesis and chondrogenesis. We have also demonstrated that BMSCs pretreated with lipocalin-2 and prolactin can enhance the repair of calvarial defects in mice. Together, our study provides research evidence of using a viable approach to prime BMSC properties in vitro for improving cell-based tissue regeneration in vivo.

  3. Comparison of manual and automated cultures of bone marrow stromal cells for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Asako; Ichimura, Masaki; Tone, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Masaru; Inoue, Minoru; Tojo, Arinobu; Kagami, Hideaki

    2015-11-01

    The development of an automated cell culture system would allow stable and economical cell processing for wider clinical applications in the field of regenerative medicine. However, it is crucial to determine whether the cells obtained by automated culture are comparable to those generated by manual culture. In the present study, we focused on the primary culture process of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) for bone tissue engineering and investigated the feasibility of its automation using a commercially available automated cell culture system in a clinical setting. A comparison of the harvested BMSCs from manual and automated cultures using clinically acceptable protocols showed no differences in cell yields, viabilities, surface marker expression profiles, and in vivo osteogenic abilities. Cells cultured with this system also did not show malignant transformation and the automated process was revealed to be safe in terms of microbial contamination. Taken together, the automated procedure described in this report provides an approach to clinical bone tissue engineering.

  4. Mild cerebellar neurodegeneration of aged heterozygous PCD mice increases cell fusion of Purkinje and bone marrow-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Díaz, David; Recio, Javier S; Weruaga, Eduardo; Alonso, José R

    2012-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived cells have different plastic properties, especially regarding cell fusion, which increases with time and is prompted by tissue injury. Several recessive mutations, including Purkinje Cell Degeneration, affect the number of Purkinje cells in homozygosis; heterozygous young animals have an apparently normal phenotype but they undergo Purkinje cell loss as they age. Our findings demonstrate that heterozygous pcd mice undergo Purkinje cell loss at postnatal day 300, this slow but steadily progressing cell death starting sooner than has been reported previously and without massive reactive gliosis or inflammation. Here, transplantation of bone marrow stem cells was performed to assess the arrival of bone marrow-derived cells in the cerebellum in these heterozygous mice. Our results reveal that a higher number of cell fusion events occurs in heterozygous animals than in the controls, on days 150 and 300 postnatally. In sum, this study indicates that mild cell death promotes the fusion of bone marrow-derived cells with surviving Purkinje neurons. This phenomenon suggests new therapies for long-lasting neurodegenerative disorders.

  5. Bone pulsating metastasis due to renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cınar, Murat; Derincek, Alihan; Karan, Belgin; Akpınar, Sercan; Tuncay, Cengiz

    2010-11-01

    Pulsation on the bone cortex surface is a rare condition. Pulsative palpation of the superficial-located bone tumors can be misperceived as an aneurysm. Fifty-eight-year-old man is presented with pulsating bone mass in his proximal tibia. During angiographic examination, hypervascular masses were diagnosed both at right kidney and at right proximal tibia. Renal cell carcinoma was diagnosed after abdominal CT scan. Proximal tibia biopsy was complicated with projectile bleeding.

  6. Prospective 10-year study of the determinants of bone density and bone loss in normal postmenopausal women, including the effect of hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fiona; Ames, Ruth; Clearwater, Judy; Evans, Margaret C; Gamble, Greg; Reid, Ian R

    2002-06-01

    To prospectively assess bone density and the factors determining the rate of bone loss over a 10-year period of postmenopausal life. Prospective, observational study. One hundred and four normal White postmenopausal women, baseline mean age 59 years (range 47-71 years) completed the study (mean duration of follow-up 10.2 years, range 9.4-10.6 years). None had diseases or were taking medications affecting bone metabolism at entry to the study. Information was collected on medical, fracture and smoking history, alcohol use, dietary calcium intake and physical activity. Body composition and bone density were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and at 10 years. Biochemical, haematological and hormonal analyses were performed. Twenty-four percent of the women started hormone replacement therapy (HRT) during the study period; most of these remained on therapy at follow-up. The mean duration of therapy was 6.6 years (range 2.8-10.4 years). The use of HRT was associated with significant gains in bone density (total body + 3.0%, trochanter + 4.2%, Ward's triangle + 4.4%, spine + 10.5%) and a significant reduction in vertebral fracture risk [standardized risk ratio compared with non-HRT users 0.42 (confidence interval 0.18-0.83)]. HRT use was not associated with greater weight gain than that occurring in other members of the cohort. The baseline and follow-up bone densities in the non-HRT users were highly correlated (0.82 < or = r < or = 0.91, P < or = 0.0001) and baseline bone density accounted for the majority of the variance in the 10-year results. Multivariate analyses showed that the independent correlates of rate of change of bone density were weight and fat mass (both baseline values and changes during follow-up), time after menopause, sex hormone concentrations, urinary calcium loss, PTH levels and haemoglobin concentration (which may reflect nutrition and health). Bone density is highly predictable over an extended period of time in normal

  7. Cell-based resorption assays for bone graft substitutes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ziyang; Egaña, José T; Reckhenrich, Ann K; Schenck, Thilo Ludwig; Lohmeyer, Jörn A; Schantz, Jan Thorsten; Machens, Hans-Günther; Schilling, Arndt F

    2012-01-01

    The clinical utilization of resorbable bone substitutes has been growing rapidly during the last decade, creating a rising demand for new resorbable biomaterials. An ideal resorbable bone substitute should not only function as a load-bearing material but also integrate into the local bone remodeling process. This means that these bone substitutes need to undergo controlled resorption and then be replaced by newly formed bone structures. Thus the assessment of resorbability is an important first step in predicting the in vivo clinical function of bone substitute biomaterials. Compared with in vivo assays, cell-based assays are relatively easy, reproducible, inexpensive and do not involve the suffering of animals. Moreover, the discovery of RANKL and M-CSF for osteoclastic differentiation has made the differentiation and cultivation of human osteoclasts possible and, as a result, human cell-based bone substitute resorption assays have been developed. In addition, the evolution of microscopy technology allows advanced analyses of the resorption pits on biomaterials. The aim of the current review is to give a concise update on in vitro cell-based resorption assays for analyzing bone substitute resorption. For this purpose models using different cells from different species are compared. Several popular two-dimensional and three-dimensional optical methods used for resorption assays are described. The limitations and advantages of the current ISO degradation assay in comparison with cell-based assays are discussed.

  8. Bone marrow long label-retaining cells reside in the sinusoidal hypoxic niche

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, Yoshiaki; Takubo, Keiyo; Suda, Toshio

    2008-02-08

    In response to changing signals, quiescent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can be induced to an activated cycling state and provide multi-lineage hematopoietic cells to the whole body via blood vessels. However, the precise localization of quiescent HSCs in bone marrow microenvironment is not fully characterized. Here, we performed whole-mount immunostaining of bone marrow and found that BrdU label-retaining cells (LRCs) definitively reside in the sinusoidal hypoxic zone distant from the 'vascular niche'. Although LRCs expressed very low level of a well-known HSC marker, c-kit in normal circumstances, myeloablation by 5-FU treatment caused LRCs to abundantly express c-kit and proliferate actively. These results demonstrate that bone marrow LRCs reside in the sinusoidal hypoxic niche, and function as a regenerative cell pool of HSCs.

  9. [Cell sheet technology and its application in bone tissue engineering].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yali; Zhou, Nuo; Huang, Xuanping

    2012-09-01

    To review the progress of cell sheet technology (CST) and its application in bone tissue engineering. The literature concerning CST and its application was extensively reviewed and analyzed. CST using temperature-responsive culture dishes is applied to avoid the shortcomings of traditional tissue engineering. All cultured cells are harvested as intact sheets along with their deposited extracellular matrix. Avoiding the use of proteolytic enzymes, cell sheet composed of the cells and extracellular matrix derived from the cells, and remained the relative protein and biological activity factors. Consequently, cell sheet can provide a suitable microenvironment for the bone regeneration in vivo. With CST, cell sheet engineering is allowed for tissue regeneration by the creation of three-dimensional structures via the layering of individual cell sheets, be created by wrapping scaffold with cell sheets, or be created by folding the cell sheets, showing great potential in tissue engineered bone. Constructing tissue engineered bone using CST and traditional method of bone tissue engineering will promote the development of the bone tissue engineering.

  10. Semaphorin III is needed for normal patterning and growth of nerves, bones and heart.

    PubMed

    Behar, O; Golden, J A; Mashimo, H; Schoen, F J; Fishman, M C

    1996-10-10

    The expression patterns of the recently discovered family of semaphorin genes suggests that they have widespread roles in embryonic development. Some seem to guide neuronal growth cones, but otherwise their functions are unknown. Semaphorin III is a membrane-associated secreted protein with a developmentally dynamic pattern of expression, including particular domains of the nervous system, the borders of developing bones, and the heart. In vitro, semaphorin III causes growth-cone collapse, and repels cutaneous sensory axons from the ventral spinal cord. Mutants in the Drosophila gene semaII, which encodes a related semaphorin, die after eclosion, but no responsible abnormality is evident. We have generated mice mutant in the semaIII gene by homologous recombination. Here we show that in the mutants, some sensory axons project into inappropriate regions of the spinal cord where semaIII is normally expressed. The cerebral cortex of homozygous mutant mice shows a paucity of neuropil and abnormally oriented neuronal processes, especially of the large pyramidal neurons. Certain embryonic bones and cartilaginous structures develop abnormally, with vertebral fusions and partial rib duplications. The few mice that survive more than a few days postnatally manifest pronounced and selective hypertrophy of the right ventricle of the heart and dilation of the right atrium. Thus, semaphorin III might serve as a signal that restrains growth in several developing organs.

  11. Advances in bone marrow stem cell therapy for retinal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Park, Susanna S; Moisseiev, Elad; Bauer, Gerhard; Anderson, Johnathon D; Grant, Maria B; Zam, Azhar; Zawadzki, Robert J; Werner, John S; Nolta, Jan A

    2017-01-01

    The most common cause of untreatable vision loss is dysfunction of the retina. Conditions, such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma remain leading causes of untreatable blindness worldwide. Various stem cell approaches are being explored for treatment of retinal regeneration. The rationale for using bone marrow stem cells to treat retinal dysfunction is based on preclinical evidence showing that bone marrow stem cells can rescue degenerating and ischemic retina. These stem cells have primarily paracrine trophic effects although some cells can directly incorporate into damaged tissue. Since the paracrine trophic effects can have regenerative effects on multiple cells in the retina, the use of this cell therapy is not limited to a particular retinal condition. Autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells are being explored in early clinical trials as therapy for various retinal conditions. These bone marrow stem cells include mesenchymal stem cells, mononuclear cells and CD34(+) cells. Autologous therapy requires no systemic immunosuppression or donor matching. Intravitreal delivery of CD34(+) cells and mononuclear cells appears to be tolerated and is being explored since some of these cells can home into the damaged retina after intravitreal administration. The safety of intravitreal delivery of mesenchymal stem cells has not been well established. This review provides an update of the current evidence in support of the use of bone marrow stem cells as treatment for retinal dysfunction. The potential limitations and complications of using certain forms of bone marrow stem cells as therapy are discussed. Future directions of research include methods to optimize the therapeutic potential of these stem cells, non-cellular alternatives using extracellular vesicles, and in vivo high-resolution retinal imaging to detect cellular changes in the retina following cell therapy.

  12. The bone-related Zn finger transcription factor Osterix promotes proliferation of mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Nam; Park, Eui-Kyun; Lee, Byung-Heon; Ryoo, Hyun-Mo; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Kim, In-San; Stein, Janet L; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Gary S; van Wijnen, Andre J; Choi, Je-Yong

    2006-01-17

    Osterix is a bone-related transcription factor that functions genetically downstream of Runx2, which controls both growth and differentiation in osteoblasts. Here we assessed the biological function of Osterix in mesenchymal cells that are not normally committed to the osteogenic lineage. Stably transfected NIH3T3 fibroblasts that express exogenous Osterix were examined for their ability to convert into osteoblastic cells by analyzing gene expression profiles of bone phenotype related markers, as well as by measuring bone nodule formation and cell proliferation. Forced expression of Osterix stimulates osteopontin gene expression but not the expression or activity of other bone-related markers, including collagen type I, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, or osteonectin. Moreover, cells stably expressing Osterix do not induce bone nodule formation. Strikingly, both polyclonal and monoclonal cells expressing Osterix exhibit enhanced proliferation. Collectively, these results indicate that Osterix is insufficient to establish osteogenic lineage commitment, perhaps due to the ability of Osterix to promote cell growth. We propose that regulatory pathways operating upstream of or in parallel with Osterix are required for osteogenic conversion of uncommitted mesenchymal cells.

  13. The role of bone marrow-derived cells during the bone healing process in the GFP mouse bone marrow transplantation model.

    PubMed

    Tsujigiwa, Hidetsugu; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Katase, Naoki; Buery, Rosario Rivera; Tamamura, Ryo; Ito, Satoshi; Takagi, Shin; Iida, Seiji; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi

    2013-03-01

    Bone healing is a complex and multistep process in which the origin of the cells participating in bone repair is still unknown. The involvement of bone marrow-derived cells in tissue repair has been the subject of recent studies. In the present study, bone marrow-derived cells in bone healing were traced using the GFP bone marrow transplantation model. Bone marrow cells from C57BL/6-Tg (CAG-EGFP) were transplanted into C57BL/6 J wild mice. After transplantation, bone injury was created using a 1.0-mm drill. Bone healing was histologically assessed at 3, 7, 14, and 28 postoperative days. Immunohistochemistry for GFP; double-fluorescent immunohistochemistry for GFP-F4/80, GFP-CD34, and GFP-osteocalcin; and double-staining for GFP and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase were performed. Bone marrow transplantation successfully replaced the hematopoietic cells into GFP-positive donor cells. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that osteoblasts or osteocytes in the repair stage were GFP-negative, whereas osteoclasts in the repair and remodeling stages and hematopoietic cells were GFP-positive. The results indicated that bone marrow-derived cells might not differentiate into osteoblasts. The role of bone marrow-derived cells might be limited to adjustment of the microenvironment by differentiating into inflammatory cells, osteoclasts, or endothelial cells in immature blood vessels.

  14. Donor T-cell alloreactivity against host thymic epithelium limits T-cell development after bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hauri-Hohl, Mathias M; Keller, Marcel P; Gill, Jason; Hafen, Katrin; Pachlatko, Esther; Boulay, Thomas; Peter, Annick; Holländer, Georg A; Krenger, Werner

    2007-05-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) impairs thymus-dependent T-cell regeneration in recipients of allogeneic bone marrow transplants through yet to be defined mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate in mice that MHC-mismatched donor T cells home into the thymus of unconditioned recipients. There, activated donor T cells secrete IFN-gamma, which in turn stimulates the programmed cell death of thymic epithelial cells (TECs). Because TECs themselves are competent and sufficient to prime naive allospecific T cells and to elicit their effector function, the elimination of host-type professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) does not prevent donor T-cell activation and TEC apoptosis, thus precluding normal thymopoiesis in transplant recipients. Hence, strategies that protect TECs may be necessary to improve immune reconstitution following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

  15. Bone marrow transplantation for CVID-like humoral immune deficiency associated with red cell aplasia.

    PubMed

    Sayour, Elias J; Mousallem, Talal; Van Mater, David; Wang, Endi; Martin, Paul; Buckley, Rebecca H; Barfield, Raymond C

    2016-10-01

    Patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) have a higher incidence of autoimmune disease, which may mark the disease onset; however, anemia secondary to pure red cell aplasia is an uncommon presenting feature. Here, we describe a case of CVID-like humoral immune deficiency in a child who initially presented with red cell aplasia and ultimately developed progressive bone marrow failure. Although bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has been associated with high mortality in CVID, our patient was successfully treated with a matched sibling BMT and engrafted with >98% donor chimerism and the development of normal antibody titers to diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Bone marrow (BM) transplantation promotes beta-cell regeneration after acute injury through BM cell mobilization.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yutaka; Ogihara, Takehide; Yamada, Tetsuya; Ishigaki, Yasushi; Imai, Junta; Uno, Kenji; Gao, Junhong; Kaneko, Keizo; Ishihara, Hisamitsu; Sasano, Hironobu; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Oka, Yoshitomo; Katagiri, Hideki

    2007-05-01

    There is controversy regarding the roles of bone marrow (BM)-derived cells in pancreatic beta-cell regeneration. To examine these roles in vivo, mice were treated with streptozotocin (STZ), followed by bone marrow transplantation (BMT; lethal irradiation and subsequent BM cell infusion) from green fluorescence protein transgenic mice. BMT improved STZ-induced hyperglycemia, nearly normalizing glucose levels, with partially restored pancreatic islet number and size, whereas simple BM cell infusion without preirradiation had no effects. In post-BMT mice, most islets were located near pancreatic ducts and substantial numbers of bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells were detected in islets and ducts. Importantly, green fluorescence protein-positive, i.e. BM-derived, cells were detected around islets and were CD45 positive but not insulin positive. Then to examine whether BM-derived cell mobilization contributes to this process, we used Nos3(-/-) mice as a model of impaired BM-derived cell mobilization. In streptozotocin-treated Nos3(-/-) mice, the effects of BMT on blood glucose, islet number, bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells in islets, and CD45-positive cells around islets were much smaller than those in streptozotocin-treated Nos3(+/+) controls. A series of BMT experiments using Nos3(+/+) and Nos3(-/-) mice showed hyperglycemia-improving effects of BMT to correlate inversely with the severity of myelosuppression and delay of peripheral white blood cell recovery. Thus, mobilization of BM-derived cells is critical for BMT-induced beta-cell regeneration after injury. The present results suggest that homing of donor BM-derived cells in BM and subsequent mobilization into the injured periphery are required for BMT-induced regeneration of recipient pancreatic beta-cells.

  17. Chemosensitizing AML cells by targeting bone marrow endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Raphael C; Wasserstrom, Briana; Meacham, Amy; Wise, Elizabeth; Drusbosky, Leylah; Walter, Glenn A; Chaplin, David J; Siemann, Dietmar W; Purich, Daniel L; Cogle, Christopher R

    2016-05-01

    Refractory disease is the greatest challenge in treating patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Blood vessels may serve as sanctuary sites for AML. When AML cells were co-cultured with bone marrow endothelial cells (BMECs), a greater proportion of leukemia cells were in G0/G1. This led us to a strategy of targeting BMECs with tubulin-binding combretastatins, causing BMECs to lose their flat phenotype, degrade their cytoskeleton, cease growth, and impair migration despite unchanged BMEC viability and metabolism. Combretastatins also caused downregulation of BMEC adhesion molecules known to tether AML cells, including vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 and vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin. When AML-BMEC co-cultures were treated with combretastatins, a significantly greater proportion of AML cells dislodged from BMECs and entered the G2/M cell cycle, suggesting enhanced susceptibility to cell cycle agents. Indeed, the combination of combretastatins and cytotoxic chemotherapy enhanced additive AML cell death. In vivo mice xenograft studies confirmed this finding by revealing complete AML regression after treatment with combretastatins and cytotoxic chemotherapy. Beyond highlighting the pathologic role of BMECs in the leukemia microenvironment as a protective reservoir of disease, these results support a new strategy for using vascular-targeting combretastatins in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy to treat AML.

  18. Alterations in bone forming cells due to reduced weight bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, S. B.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1984-01-01

    A reduction in new bone formation occurred as a result of space flight (Cosmos 1129) and in the suspended animal model of Morey-Holton (1979, 1980). The results indicate that alkaline phosphatase activity of the bone-forming cells is also reduced under these conditions, and the cells in the diaphysis are more affected than those in the metaphyseal region. In addition, these cells show (1) reduced proline incorporation into bone matrix, and (2) increased intracellular lysosomal activity. A change in the cytoskeleton could be the common factor in explaining these results. This suggestion is futher supported by the previous observations that colchicine injections result in decreased osteoblastic function.

  19. Alterations in bone forming cells due to reduced weight bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, S. B.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1984-01-01

    A reduction in new bone formation occurred as a result of space flight (Cosmos 1129) and in the suspended animal model of Morey-Holton (1979, 1980). The results indicate that alkaline phosphatase activity of the bone-forming cells is also reduced under these conditions, and the cells in the diaphysis are more affected than those in the metaphyseal region. In addition, these cells show (1) reduced proline incorporation into bone matrix, and (2) increased intracellular lysosomal activity. A change in the cytoskeleton could be the common factor in explaining these results. This suggestion is futher supported by the previous observations that colchicine injections result in decreased osteoblastic function.

  20. Catch up in bone acquisition in young adult men with late normal puberty.

    PubMed

    Darelid, Anna; Ohlsson, Claes; Nilsson, Martin; Kindblom, Jenny M; Mellström, Dan; Lorentzon, Mattias

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in relation to peak height velocity (PHV), and to investigate whether late normal puberty was associated with remaining low BMD and BMC in early adulthood in men. In total, 501 men (mean ± SD, 18.9 ± 0.5 years of age at baseline) were included in this 5-year longitudinal study. Areal BMD (aBMD) and BMC, volumetric BMD (vBMD) and cortical bone size were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and pQCT. Detailed growth and weight charts were used to calculate age at PHV, an objective assessment of pubertal timing. Age at PHV was a strong positive predictor of the increase in aBMD and BMC of the total body (R(2) aBMD 11.7%; BMC 4.3%), radius (R(2) aBMD 23.5%; BMC 22.3%), and lumbar spine (R(2) aBMD 11.9%; BMC 10.5%) between 19 and 24 years (p < 0.001). Subjects were divided into three groups according to age at PHV (early, middle, and late). Men with late puberty gained markedly more in aBMD and BMC at the total body, radius, and lumbar spine, and lost less at the femoral neck (p < 0.001) than men with early puberty. At age 24 years, no significant differences in aBMD or BMC of the lumbar spine, femoral neck, or total body were observed, whereas a deficit of 4.2% in radius aBMD, but not in BMC, was seen for men with late versus early puberty (p < 0.001). pQCT measurements of the radius at follow-up demonstrated no significant differences in bone size, whereas cortical and trabecular vBMD were 0.7% (p < 0.001) and 4.8% (p < 0.05) lower in men with late versus early puberty. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that late puberty in males was associated with a substantial catch up in aBMD and BMC in young adulthood, leaving no deficits of the lumbar spine, femoral neck, or total body at age 24 years.

  1. Multiple melanocortin receptors are expressed in bone cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhong, Qing; Sridhar, Supriya; Ruan, Ling; Ding, Ke-Hong; Xie, Ding; Insogna, Karl; Kang, Baolin; Xu, Jianrui; Bollag, Roni J.; Isales, Carlos M.

    2005-01-01

    Melanocortin receptors belong to the seven transmembrane domain, G-protein coupled family of receptors. There are five members of this receptor family labeled MC1R-MC5R. These receptors are activated by fragments derived from a larger molecule, proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and include ACTH, alpha beta and gamma-MSH and beta-endorphin. Because of in vitro and in vivo data suggesting direct effects of these POMC molecules on bone and bone turnover, we examined bone and bone derived cells for the presence of the various members of the melanocortin receptor family. We report that the five known melanocortin receptors are expressed to varying degrees in osteoblast-like and osteoclastic cells. POMC fragments increased proliferation and expression of a variety of genes in osteoblastic cells. Furthermore, POMC mRNA was detected in osteoclastic cells. These data demonstrate that POMC-derived peptide hormones acting through high affinity melanocortin receptors have specific effects on bone cells. Thus, in addition to the indirect effects of POMC-derived hormones on bone turnover through their modulation of steroid hormone secretion, POMC fragments may have direct and specific effects on bone cell subpopulations.

  2. Multiple melanocortin receptors are expressed in bone cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhong, Qing; Sridhar, Supriya; Ruan, Ling; Ding, Ke-Hong; Xie, Ding; Insogna, Karl; Kang, Baolin; Xu, Jianrui; Bollag, Roni J.; Isales, Carlos M.

    2005-01-01

    Melanocortin receptors belong to the seven transmembrane domain, G-protein coupled family of receptors. There are five members of this receptor family labeled MC1R-MC5R. These receptors are activated by fragments derived from a larger molecule, proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and include ACTH, alpha beta and gamma-MSH and beta-endorphin. Because of in vitro and in vivo data suggesting direct effects of these POMC molecules on bone and bone turnover, we examined bone and bone derived cells for the presence of the various members of the melanocortin receptor family. We report that the five known melanocortin receptors are expressed to varying degrees in osteoblast-like and osteoclastic cells. POMC fragments increased proliferation and expression of a variety of genes in osteoblastic cells. Furthermore, POMC mRNA was detected in osteoclastic cells. These data demonstrate that POMC-derived peptide hormones acting through high affinity melanocortin receptors have specific effects on bone cells. Thus, in addition to the indirect effects of POMC-derived hormones on bone turnover through their modulation of steroid hormone secretion, POMC fragments may have direct and specific effects on bone cell subpopulations.

  3. Thermal effects generated by high-intensity focused ultrasound beams at normal incidence to a bone surface.

    PubMed

    Nell, Diane M; Myers, Matthew R

    2010-01-01

    Experiments and computations were performed to study factors affecting thermal safety when high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) beams are normally incident (i.e., beam axis normal to the interface) upon a bone/soft-tissue interface. In particular, the temperature rise and thermal dose were determined as a function of separation between the beam focus and the interface. Under conditions representative of clinical HIFU procedures, it was found that the thermal dose at the bone surface can exceed the threshold for necrosis even when the beam focus is more than 4 cm from the bone. Experiments showed that reflection of the HIFU beam from the bone back into the transducer introduced temperature fluctuations of as much as +/-15% and may be an important consideration for safety analyses at sufficiently high acoustic power. The applicability of linear propagation models in predicting thermal dose near the interface was also addressed. Linear models, while underpredicting thermal dose at the focus, provided a conservative (slight overprediction) estimate of thermal dose at the bone surface. Finally, temperature rise due to absorption of shear waves generated by the HIFU beam in the bone was computed. Modeling shear-wave propagation in the thermal analysis showed that the predicted temperature rise off axis was as much as 30% higher when absorption of shear waves is included, indicating that enhanced heating due to shear-wave absorption is potentially important, even for normally incident HIFU beams.

  4. Leukemia cells induce changes in human bone marrow stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are multipotent cells that support angiogenesis, wound healing, and immunomodulation. In the hematopoietic niche, they nurture hematopoietic cells, leukemia, tumors and metastasis. BMSCs secrete of a wide range of cytokines, growth factors and matrix proteins which contribute to the pro-tumorigenic marrow microenvironment. The inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α change the BMSC secretome and we hypothesized that factors produced by tumors or leukemia would also affect the BMSC secretome and investigated the interaction of leukemia cells with BMSCs. Methods BMSCs from healthy subjects were co-cultured with three myeloid leukemia cell lines (TF-1, TF-1α and K562) using a trans-well system. Following co-culture, the BMSCs and leukemia cells were analyzed by global gene expression analysis and culture supernatants were analyzed for protein expression. As a control, CD34+ cells were also cocultured with BMSCs. Results Co-culture induced leukemia cell gene expression changes in stem cell pluripotency, TGF-β signaling and carcinoma signaling pathways. BMSCs co-cultured with leukemia cells up-regulated a number of proinflammatory genes including IL-17 signaling-related genes and IL-8 and CCL2 levels were increased in co-culture supernatants. In contrast, purine metabolism, mTOR signaling and EIF2 signaling pathways genes were up-regulated in BMSCs co-cultured with CD34+ cells. Conclusions BMSCs react to the presence of leukemia cells undergoing changes in the cytokine and chemokine secretion profiles. Thus, BMSCs and leukemia cells both contribute to the creation of a competitive niche more favorable for leukemia stem cells. PMID:24304929

  5. Modulation of gene expression in bone cells during strain-adapted bone remodeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein-Nulend, J.; Bacabac, R. G.; Vatsa, A.; Tan, S. D.; Smit, Th. H.; van Loon, J. J. W. A.

    2005-08-01

    Bone tissue can adapt to changing mechanical demands. The osteocytes are believed to play a role as the "professional" mechanosensory cells of bone, and the lacuno-canalicular network as the structure that mediates mechanosensing. Loading on bone produces flow of interstitial fluid in the lacunar-canalicular network along the surface of osteocytes, which is likely the physiological signal for bone cell adaptive responses in vivo. The alignment of secondary osteons along the dominant loading direction suggests that bone remodeling is guided by mechanical strain. We propose that alignment during remodeling occurs as a result of different canalicular flow patterns around cutting cone and reversal zone during loading.The response of osteocytes to fluid flow includes prostaglandin synthesis and expression of inducible cyclooxygenase-2, an enzyme that mediates mechanical loading-induced bone formation in vivo. The response of osteocytes to fluid flow also includes nitric oxide production, and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Nitric oxide has been shown to mediate the mechanical effects in bone, leading to enhanced prostaglandin E2 release. These studies have increased our understanding of the cell biology underlying Wolff's Law. This may lead to new strategies for combating disuse-related osteoporosis, such as occurs during long- mission spaceflights.

  6. Age-Related Change in Vestibular Ganglion Cell Populations in Individuals With Presbycusis and Normal Hearing.

    PubMed

    Gluth, Michael B; Nelson, Erik G

    2017-04-01

    We sought to establish that the decline of vestibular ganglion cell counts uniquely correlates with spiral ganglion cell counts, cochlear hair cell counts, and hearing phenotype in individuals with presbycusis. The relationship between aging in the vestibular system and aging in the cochlea is a topic of ongoing investigation. Histopathologic age-related changes the vestibular system may mirror what is seen in the cochlea, but correlations with hearing phenotype and the impact of presbycusis are not well understood. Vestibular ganglion cells, spiral ganglion cells, and cochlear hair cells were counted in specimens from individuals with presbycusis and normal hearing. These were taken from within a large collection of processed human temporal bones. Correlations between histopathology and hearing phenotype were investigated. Vestibular ganglion cell counts were positively correlated with spiral ganglion cell counts and cochlear hair cell counts and were negatively correlated with hearing phenotype. There was no statistical evidence on linear regression to suggest that the relationship between age and cell populations differed significantly according to whether presbycusis was present or not. Superior vestibular ganglion cells were more negatively correlated with age than inferior ganglion cells. No difference in vestibular ganglion cells was noted based on sex. Vestibular ganglion cell counts progressively deteriorate with age, and this loss correlates closely with changes in the cochlea, as well as hearing phenotype. However, these correlations do not appear to be unique in individuals with presbycusis as compared with those with normal hearing.

  7. Image-guided transplantation of single cells in the bone marrow of live animals.

    PubMed

    Turcotte, Raphaël; Alt, Clemens; Runnels, Judith M; Ito, Kyoko; Wu, Juwell W; Zaher, Walid; Mortensen, Luke J; Silberstein, Lev; Côté, Daniel C; Kung, Andrew L; Ito, Keisuke; Lin, Charles P

    2017-06-20

    Transplantation of a single hematopoietic stem cell is an important method for its functional characterization, but the standard transplantation protocol relies on cell homing to the bone marrow after intravenous injection. Here, we present a method to transplant single cells directly into the bone marrow of live mice. We developed an optical platform that integrates a multiphoton microscope with a laser ablation unit for microsurgery and an optical tweezer for cell micromanipulation. These tools allow image-guided single cell transplantation with high spatial control. The platform was used to deliver single hematopoietic stem cells. The engraftment of transplants was tracked over time, illustrating that the technique can be useful for studying both normal and malignant stem cells in vivo.

  8. Human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells are superior to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for cell therapy in regenerative medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Tomar, Geetanjali B.; Srivastava, Rupesh K.; Gupta, Navita; Barhanpurkar, Amruta P.; Pote, Satish T.; Jhaveri, Hiral M.; Mishra, Gyan C.; Wani, Mohan R.

    2010-03-12

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell lineages. Presently, bone marrow is considered as a prime source of MSCs; however, there are some drawbacks and limitations in use of these MSCs for cell therapy. In this study, we demonstrate that human gingival tissue-derived MSCs have several advantages over bone marrow-derived MSCs. Gingival MSCs are easy to isolate, homogenous and proliferate faster than bone marrow MSCs without any growth factor. Importantly, gingival MSCs display stable morphology and do not loose MSC characteristic at higher passages. In addition, gingival MSCs maintain normal karyotype and telomerase activity in long-term cultures, and are not tumorigenic. Thus, we reveal that human gingiva is a better source of MSCs than bone marrow, and large number of functionally competent clinical grade MSCs can be generated in short duration for cell therapy in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

  9. Cell Mechanisms of Bone Tissue Loss Under Space Flight Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionova, Natalia

    Investigations on the space biosatellites has shown that the bone skeleton is one of the most im-portant targets of the effect space flight factors on the organism. Bone tissue cells were studied by electron microscopy in biosamples of rats' long bones flown on the board american station "SLS-2" and in experiments with modelling of microgravity ("tail suspension" method) with using autoradiography. The analysis of data permits to suppose that the processes of remod-eling in bone tissue at microgravity include the following succession of cell-to-cell interactions. Osteocytes as mechanosensory cells are first who respond to a changing "mechanical field". The next stage is intensification of osteolytic processes in osteocytes, leading to a volume en-largement of the osteocytic lacunae and removal of the "excess bone". Then mechanical signals have been transmitted through a system of canals and processes of the osteocytic syncitium to certain superficial bone zones and are perceived by osteoblasts and bone-lining cells (superficial osteocytes), as well as by the bone-marrow stromal cells. The sensitivity of stromal cells, pre-osteoblasts and osteoblasts, under microgravity was shown in a number of works. As a response to microgravity, the system of stromal cells -preosteoblasts -osteoblasts displays retardation of proliferation, differentiation and specific functions of osteogenetic cells. This is supported by the 3H-thymidine studies of the dynamics of differentiation of osteogenetic cells in remodeling zones. But unloading is not adequate and in part of the osteocytes are apoptotic changes as shown by our electron microscopic investigations. An osteocytic apoptosis can play the role in attraction the osteoclasts and in regulation of bone remodeling. The apoptotic bodies with a liquid flow through a system of canals are transferred to the bone surface, where they fulfil the role of haemoattractants for monocytes come here and form osteoclasts. The osteoclasts destroy

  10. Are bone marrow regenerative cells ideal seed cells for the treatment of cerebral ischemia?★

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Hua, Xuming; Hua, Fang; Mao, Wenwei; Wan, Liang; Li, Shiting

    2013-01-01

    Bone marrow cells for the treatment of ischemic brain injury may depend on the secretion of a large number of neurotrophic factors. Bone marrow regenerative cells are capable of increasing the secretion of neurotrophic factors. In this study, after tail vein injection of 5-fluorouracil for 7 days, bone marrow cells and bone marrow regenerative cells were isolated from the tibias and femurs of rats, and then administered intravenously via the tail vein after focal cerebral ischemia. Immunohistological staining and reverse transcription-PCR detection showed that transplanted bone marrow cells and bone marrow regenerative cells could migrate and survive in the ischemic regions, such as the cortical and striatal infarction zone. These cells promote vascular endothelial cell growth factor mRNA expression in the ischemic marginal zone surrounding the ischemic penumbra of the cortical and striatal infarction zone, and have great advantages in promoting the recovery of neurological function, reducing infarct size and promoting angiogenesis. Bone marrow regenerative cells exhibited stronger neuroprotective effects than bone marrow cells. Our experimental findings indicate that bone marrow regenerative cells are preferable over bone marrow cells for cell therapy for neural regeneration after cerebral ischemia. Their neuroprotective effect is largely due to their ability to induce the secretion of factors that promote vascular regeneration, such as vascular endothelial growth factor. PMID:25206414

  11. Altered Mechanical Environment of Bone Cells in an Animal Model of Short- and Long-Term Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Verbruggen, Stefaan W.; Mc Garrigle, Myles J.; Haugh, Matthew G.; Voisin, Muriel C.; McNamara, Laoise M.

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in bone tissue composition during osteoporosis likely disrupt the mechanical environment of bone cells and may thereby initiate a mechanobiological response. It has proved challenging to characterize the mechanical environment of bone cells in vivo, and the mechanical environment of osteoporotic bone cells is not known. The objective of this research is to characterize the local mechanical environment of osteocytes and osteoblasts from healthy and osteoporotic bone in a rat model of osteoporosis. Using a custom-designed micromechanical loading device, we apply strains representative of a range of physical activity (up to 3000 με) to fluorescently stained femur samples from normal and ovariectomized rats. Confocal imaging was simultaneously performed, and digital image correlation techniques were applied to characterize cellular strains. In healthy bone tissue, osteocytes experience higher maximum strains (31,028 ± 4213 με) than osteoblasts (24,921 ± 3,832 με), whereas a larger proportion of the osteoblast experiences strains >10,000 με. Most interestingly, we show that osteoporotic bone cells experience similar or higher maximum strains than healthy bone cells after short durations of estrogen deficiency (5 weeks), and exceeded the osteogenic strain threshold (10,000 με) in a similar or significantly larger proportion of the cell (osteoblast, 12.68% vs. 13.68%; osteocyte, 15.74% vs. 5.37%). However, in long-term estrogen deficiency (34 weeks), there was no significant difference between bone cells in healthy and osteoporotic bone. These results suggest that the mechanical environment of bone cells is altered during early-stage osteoporosis, and that mechanobiological responses act to restore the mechanical environment of the bone tissue after it has been perturbed by ovariectomy. PMID:25863050

  12. Altered mechanical environment of bone cells in an animal model of short- and long-term osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Verbruggen, Stefaan W; Mc Garrigle, Myles J; Haugh, Matthew G; Voisin, Muriel C; McNamara, Laoise M

    2015-04-07

    Alterations in bone tissue composition during osteoporosis likely disrupt the mechanical environment of bone cells and may thereby initiate a mechanobiological response. It has proved challenging to characterize the mechanical environment of bone cells in vivo, and the mechanical environment of osteoporotic bone cells is not known. The objective of this research is to characterize the local mechanical environment of osteocytes and osteoblasts from healthy and osteoporotic bone in a rat model of osteoporosis. Using a custom-designed micromechanical loading device, we apply strains representative of a range of physical activity (up to 3000 με) to fluorescently stained femur samples from normal and ovariectomized rats. Confocal imaging was simultaneously performed, and digital image correlation techniques were applied to characterize cellular strains. In healthy bone tissue, osteocytes experience higher maximum strains (31,028 ± 4213 με) than osteoblasts (24,921 ± 3,832 με), whereas a larger proportion of the osteoblast experiences strains >10,000 με. Most interestingly, we show that osteoporotic bone cells experience similar or higher maximum strains than healthy bone cells after short durations of estrogen deficiency (5 weeks), and exceeded the osteogenic strain threshold (10,000 με) in a similar or significantly larger proportion of the cell (osteoblast, 12.68% vs. 13.68%; osteocyte, 15.74% vs. 5.37%). However, in long-term estrogen deficiency (34 weeks), there was no significant difference between bone cells in healthy and osteoporotic bone. These results suggest that the mechanical environment of bone cells is altered during early-stage osteoporosis, and that mechanobiological responses act to restore the mechanical environment of the bone tissue after it has been perturbed by ovariectomy.

  13. Bone marrow and bone marrow derived mononuclear stem cells therapy for the chronically ischemic myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Waksman, Ron; Baffour, Richard

    2003-09-01

    Bone marrow stem cells have been shown to differentiate into various phenotypes including cardiomyocytes, vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle. Bone marrow stem cells are mobilized and home in to areas of injured myocardium where they are involved in tissue repair. In addition, bone marrow secretes multiple growth factors, which are essential for angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. In some patients, these processes are not enough to avert clinical symptoms of ischemic disease. Therefore, in vivo administration of an adequate number of stem cells would be a significant therapeutic advance. Unfractionated bone marrow derived mononuclear stem cells, which contain both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells may be more appropriate for cell therapy. Studies in animal models suggest that implantation of different types of stem cells improve angiogenesis and arteriogenesis, tissue perfusion as well as left ventricular function. Several unanswered questions remain. For example, the optimal delivery approach, dosage and timing of the administration of cell therapy as well as durability of improvements need to be studied. Early clinical studies have demonstrated safety and feasibility of various cell therapies in ischemic disease. Randomized, double blind and placebo-controlled clinical trials need to be completed to determine the effectiveness of stem cell.

  14. Adipocyte-Lineage Cells Support Growth and Dissemination of Multiple Myeloma in Bone.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Timothy N; Gibson, Justin T; Sherpa, Tshering Lama; Gowda, Pramod S; Peker, Deniz; Yang, Yang

    2016-11-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) cells reside in the bone marrow microenvironment and form complicated interactions with nonneoplastic, resident stromal cells. We previously found that aggressive MM cells shift osteoblast progenitors toward adipogenesis. In addition, adipocytes are among the most common cell types in the adult skeleton; both mature adipocytes and preadipocytes serve as endocrine cells that secrete a number of soluble molecules into the microenvironment. Therefore, we used a combination of in vivo and in vitro methods to test the hypothesis that an increase in adipocyte lineage cells feeds back to promote MM progression. The results of this study revealed that bone marrow from patients with MM indeed contains increased preadipocytes and significantly larger mature adipocytes than normal bone marrow. We also found that preadipocytes and mature adipocytes secrete many molecules important for supporting MM cells in the bone marrow and directly recruit MM cells through both monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and stromal cell-derived factor-1α. Co-culture experiments found that preadipocytes activate Wnt signaling and decrease cleaved caspase-3, whereas mature adipocytes activate ERK signaling in MM cells. Furthermore, mature adipocyte conditioned medium promotes MM growth, whereas co-culture with preadipocytes results in enhanced MM cell chemotaxis in vitro and increased tumor growth in bone in vivo. Combined, these data reveal the importance of preadipocytes and mature adipocytes on MM progression and represent a unique target in the bone marrow microenvironment. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Human CD34+ stem cells produce bone nodules in vivo.

    PubMed

    Graziano, A; d'Aquino, R; Laino, G; Proto, A; Giuliano, M T; Pirozzi, G; De Rosa, A; Di Napoli, D; Papaccio, G

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to select and provide enough stem cells for quick transplantation in bone engineering procedures, avoiding any in vitro expansion step. Dental germ pulp, collected from 25 healthy subjects aged 13-20 years, were subjected to magnetic-activated cell sorting to select a CD34(+) stem cell population capable of differentiating into pre-osteoblasts. These cells were allowed to adhere to an absorbable polylactic-coglycolic acid scaffold for 30 min, without any prior expansion, and the CD34(+) cell-colonized scaffolds were then transplanted into immunocompromised rats, subcutaneously. After 60 days, analysis of recovered transplants revealed that they were formed of nodules of bone, of the same dimensions as the original scaffold. Bone-specific proteins were detected by immunofluorescence, within the nodules, and X-ray diffraction patterns revealed characteristic features of bone. In addition, presence of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule and von Willebrand factor immunoreactivity were suggestive of neo-angiogenesis and neovasculogenesis taking place within nodules. Importantly, these vessels were HLA-1(+) and, thus, clearly human in origin. This study indicates that CD34(+) cells obtained from dental pulp can be used for engineering bone, without the need for prior culture expanding procedures. Using autologous stem cells, this schedule could be used to provide the basis for bone regenerative surgery, with limited sacrifice of tissue, low morbidity at the collection site, and significant reduction in time needed for clinical recovery.

  16. Factors affecting mesenchymal stromal cells yield from bone marrow aspiration.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Chan, Shing; Chim, James Chor-San; Cheung, Kenneth Man-Chee; Lee, Tsz-Leung; Au, Wing-Yan; Ha, Shau-Yin; Lie, Albert Kwok-Wei; Lau, Yu-Lung; Liang, Raymond Hin-Suen; Chan, Godfrey Chi-Fung

    2011-03-01

    This study was to investigate the variables in bone marrow harvesting procedure and individual donor factors which can potentially affect the yield of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). WE DETERMINED THE YIELD OF MSC FROM BONE MARROW UNDER DIFFERENT CLINICAL CONDITIONS BY COMPARING THE MSC COLONY NUMBERS FROM: (1) donors of different ages; (2) healthy donors and patients with leukemia; (3) bone marrow aspirated at different time points during marrow harvesting; (4) bone marrow harvested by different needles. During the process of harvesting, the number of MSC significantly decreased with increase number of aspiration, from 675/ml at the initial decreased to 60/ml after 100 ml bone marrow aspirated, and 50/ml after 200 ml bone marrow aspirated. The number of MSC retrieved from leukemia patients (99/ml bone marrow) was significantly lower than that of healthy donors (708/ml bone marrow). However, there was no significant difference in growth rate. There was no significant age-related difference of MSC yielded from donors <55 years. And there was no significant difference in MSC number between the samples from single end-holed needle and those from multiple-side-hole needle. The optimal bone marrow samples for MSC collection should be obtained earlier in the process of harvesting procedure. Bone marrow from donors <55 years was equally good as MSC sources. The autologous MSC from leukemia patients can be utilized for in-vitro MSC expansion.

  17. A clinicopathological study of giant cell tumor of small bones.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Michiro; Okada, Kyoji; Tajino, Takahiro; Torigoe, Tomoaki; Kawai, Akira; Nishida, Jun

    2011-11-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) of the small bones (small-bone GCT) is usually rare and considered somewhat different from conventional GCT. The purpose of this study was to investigate and report the clinicopathological features of 11 cases with small-bone GCT. Patient information was obtained with the help of questionnaires. X-rays and paraffin blocks obtained from several institutions were clinically, radiographically, and histologically evaluated. Small-bone GCT was observed in younger patients compared to conventional GCT; 5 of the 11 (45%) patients were below 20 years of age, whereas the corresponding figure for all GCT patients is 16% in Japan. Excessive cortical bone expansion is a special feature. There were two cases of recurrence and one case of lung metastasis; the primary lesion was in the hand for all three cases. In contrast, no primary lesion of the foot recurred or metastasized. Varying degrees of positive p63 immunostaining were observed in all examined cases (n = 9) of small-bone GCT but were negative in case of giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG) and solid variant of aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC). One case that demonstrated high-intensity positive staining had two episodes of recurrence. Small-bone GCT tends to develop in younger patients than does conventional GCT. Primary GCTs of the hand may be biologically more aggressive than those of the feet. The p63 immunostaining may be useful not only for differential diagnosis but also for prognostication of small-bone GCT.

  18. Raman spectroscopic identification of normal and malignant human stomach cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jipeng; Guo, Jianyu; Wu, Liangping; Sun, Zhenrong; Cai, Weiying; Wang, Zugeng

    2005-12-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy is employed to identify the normal and malignant human stomach cells. For the cancer cell, the reduced intensity of the Raman peak at 1250 cm^(-1) indicates that the protein secondary structure transforms from ?-sheet or disordered structures to ?-helical, while the increased intensity of the symmetric PO2 stretching vibration mode at 1094 cm^(-1) shows the increased DNA content. The ratio of the intensity at 1315 cm^(-1) to that at 1340 cm^(-1) reduces from 1.8 for the normal cell to 1.1 for the cancer cell in the course of canceration, and the ratio of the intensity at 1655 cm^(-1) to that at 1450 cm^(-1) increases from 1.00 for the cancer cell to 1.26 for the normal cell which indicates that the canceration of stomach cell may induce saturation of the lipid chain.

  19. Normalizing single-cell RNA sequencing data: Challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Dudoit, Sandrine; Marioni, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Single-cell transcriptomics is becoming an important component of the molecular biologist’s toolkit. A critical step when analyzing this type of data is normalization. However, normalization is typically performed using methods developed for bulk RNA sequencing or even microarray data, whose suitability for single-cell transcriptomics has not been assessed. In this perspective, we discuss commonly used normalization approaches and illustrate how these can lead to misleading results. Finally, we present alternative approaches and provide recommendations for single-cell RNA sequencing users. PMID:28504683

  20. Potency Biomarker Signature Genes from Multiparametric Osteogenesis Assays: Will cGMP Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Make Bone?

    PubMed Central

    Murgia, Alba; Veronesi, Elena; Candini, Olivia; Caselli, Anna; D’souza, Naomi; Rasini, Valeria; Giorgini, Andrea; Catani, Fabio; Iughetti, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    In skeletal regeneration approaches using human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBM-MSC), functional evaluation before implantation has traditionally used biomarkers identified using fetal bovine serum-based osteogenic induction media and time courses of at least two weeks. However, emerging pre-clinical evidence indicates donor-dependent discrepancies between these ex vivo measurements and the ability to form bone, calling for improved tests. Therefore, we adopted a multiparametric approach aiming to generate an osteogenic potency assay with improved correlation. hBM-MSC populations from six donors, each expanded under clinical-grade (cGMP) conditions, showed heterogeneity for ex vivo growth response, mineralization and bone-forming ability in a murine xenograft assay. A subset of literature-based biomarker genes was reproducibly upregulated to a significant extent across all populations as cells responded to two different osteogenic induction media. These 12 biomarkers were also measurable in a one-week assay, befitting clinical cell expansion time frames and cGMP growth conditions. They were selected for further challenge using a combinatorial approach aimed at determining ex vivo and in vivo consistency. We identified five globally relevant osteogenic signature genes, notably TGF-ß1 pathway interactors; ALPL, COL1A2, DCN, ELN and RUNX2. Used in agglomerative cluster analysis, they correctly grouped the bone-forming cell populations as distinct. Although donor #6 cells were correlation slope outliers, they contrastingly formed bone without showing ex vivo mineralization. Mathematical expression level normalization of the most discrepantly upregulated signature gene COL1A2, sufficed to cluster donor #6 with the bone-forming classification. Moreover, attenuating factors causing genuine COL1A2 gene down-regulation, restored ex vivo mineralization. This suggested that the signature gene had an osteogenically influential role; nonetheless no single

  1. Bone density, microstructure and strength in obese and normal weight men and women in younger and older adulthood.

    PubMed

    Evans, Amy L; Paggiosi, Margaret A; Eastell, Richard; Walsh, Jennifer S

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is associated with greater areal BMD (aBMD) and is considered protective against hip and vertebral fracture. Despite this, there is a higher prevalence of lower leg and proximal humerus fracture in obesity. We aimed to determine if there are site-specific differences in BMD, bone structure, or bone strength between obese and normal-weight adults. We studied 100 individually-matched pairs of normal (body mass index [BMI] 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2) and obese (BMI >30 kg/m2) men and women, aged 25 to 40 years or 55 to 75 years. We assessed aBMD at the whole body (WB), hip (TH), and lumbar spine (LS) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), LS trabecular volumetric BMD (Tb.vBMD) by quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and vBMD and microarchitecture and strength at the distal radius and tibia with high-resolution peripheral QCT (HR-pQCT) and micro-finite element analysis. Serum type 1 procollagen N-terminal peptide (P1NP) and collagen type 1 C-telopeptide (CTX) were measured by automated electrochemiluminescent immunoassay (ECLIA). Obese adults had greater WB, LS, and TH aBMD than normal adults. The effect of obesity on LS and WB aBMD was greater in older than younger adults (p < 0.01). Obese adults had greater vBMD than normal adults at the tibia (p < 0.001 both ages) and radius (p < 0.001 older group), thicker cortices, higher cortical BMD and tissue mineral density, lower cortical porosity, higher trabecular BMD, and higher trabecular number than normal adults. There was no difference in bone size between obese and normal adults. Obese adults had greater estimated failure load at the radius (p < 0.05) and tibia (p < 0.01). Differences in HR-pQCT measurements between obese and normal adults were seen more consistently in the older than the younger group. Bone turnover markers were lower in obese than in normal adults. Greater BMD in obesity is not an artifact of DXA measurement. Obese adults have higher BMD, thicker and denser cortices, and higher

  2. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptors in Osteoclast Lineage Cells Are a Negative Regulator of Bone Mass

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tai-yong; Pang, Wei-jun; Yang, Gong-she

    2015-01-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs) play a critical role in various pathological and physiological processes. Although recent research has identified AhRs as a key contributor to bone metabolism following studies in systemic AhR knockout (KO) or transgenic mice, the cellular and molecular mechanism(s) in this process remain unclear. In this study, we explored the function of AhR in bone metabolism using AhRRANKΔOc/ΔOc (RANKCre/+;AhRflox/flox) mice. We observed enhanced bone mass together with decreased resorption in both male and female 12 and 24-week-old AhRRANKΔOc/ΔOc mice. Control mice treated with 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC), an AhR agonist, exhibited decreased bone mass and increased bone resorption, whereas AhRCtskΔOc/ΔOc (CtskCre/+;AhRflox/flox) mice injected with 3MC appeared to have a normal bone phenotype. In vitro, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from AhRRANKΔOc/ΔOc mice exhibited impaired osteoclastogenesis and repressed differentiation with downregulated expression of B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp1), and cytochrome P450 genes Cyp1b1 and Cyp1a2. Collectively, our results not only demonstrated that AhR in osteoclast lineage cells is a physiologically relevant regulator of bone resorption, but also highlighted the need for further studies on the skeletal actions of AhR inhibitors in osteoclast lineage cells commonly associated with bone diseases, especially diseases linked to environmental pollutants known to induce bone loss. PMID:25615839

  3. Aryl hydrocarbon receptors in osteoclast lineage cells are a negative regulator of bone mass.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tai-yong; Pang, Wei-jun; Yang, Gong-she

    2015-01-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs) play a critical role in various pathological and physiological processes. Although recent research has identified AhRs as a key contributor to bone metabolism following studies in systemic AhR knockout (KO) or transgenic mice, the cellular and molecular mechanism(s) in this process remain unclear. In this study, we explored the function of AhR in bone metabolism using AhR(RANKΔOc/ΔOc) (RANK(Cre/+);AhR(flox/flox)) mice. We observed enhanced bone mass together with decreased resorption in both male and female 12 and 24-week-old AhR(RANKΔOc/ΔOc) mice. Control mice treated with 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC), an AhR agonist, exhibited decreased bone mass and increased bone resorption, whereas AhR(CtskΔOc/ΔOc) (Ctsk(Cre/+);AhR(flox/flox)) mice injected with 3MC appeared to have a normal bone phenotype. In vitro, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from AhR(RANKΔOc/ΔOc) mice exhibited impaired osteoclastogenesis and repressed differentiation with downregulated expression of B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp1), and cytochrome P450 genes Cyp1b1 and Cyp1a2. Collectively, our results not only demonstrated that AhR in osteoclast lineage cells is a physiologically relevant regulator of bone resorption, but also highlighted the need for further studies on the skeletal actions of AhR inhibitors in osteoclast lineage cells commonly associated with bone diseases, especially diseases linked to environmental pollutants known to induce bone loss.

  4. Mesenchymal Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling Is Required for Normal Pancreas Development

    PubMed Central

    Ahnfelt-Rønne, Jonas; Ravassard, Philippe; Pardanaud-Glavieux, Corinne; Scharfmann, Raphaél; Serup, Palle

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Pancreas organogenesis is orchestrated by interactions between the epithelium and the mesenchyme, but these interactions are not completely understood. Here we investigated a role for bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling within the pancreas mesenchyme and found it to be required for the normal development of the mesenchyme as well as for the pancreatic epithelium. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed active BMP signaling by immunostaining for phospho-Smad1,5,8 and tested whether pancreas development was affected by BMP inhibition after expression of Noggin and dominant negative BMP receptors in chicken and mouse pancreas. RESULTS Endogenous BMP signaling is confined to the mesenchyme in the early pancreas and inhibition of BMP signaling results in severe pancreatic hypoplasia with reduced epithelial branching. Notably, we also observed an excessive endocrine differentiation when mesenchymal BMP signaling is blocked, presumably secondary to defective mesenchyme to epithelium signaling. CONCLUSIONS We conclude that BMP signaling plays a previously unsuspected role in the mesenchyme, required for normal development of the mesenchyme as well as for the epithelium. PMID:20522595

  5. Blood and Bone Marrow Hematopoietic Stem Cells for Transplantation: A Comparative Review.

    PubMed

    Janssen; Hiemenz; Fields; Zorsky; Ballester; Goldstein; Elfenbein

    1994-05-01

    Classical bone marrow transplantation collects bone marrow from a normal individual. This is infused into a patient rendered aplastic by high-dose chemoradiotherapy. Shortcomings include a limited donor pool and morbidity and mortality from graft-vs-host and graft rejection phenomena. Autologous marrow transplantation, in which the marrow of the patient to be transplanted is harvested, cryopreserved, and stored until needed, is not so constrained. Although marrow cannot be collected from some individuals due to hypocellularity, fibrosis, or infiltration with malignant disease, the presence of peripheral blood stem cells in the circulation allows these individuals to be treated with autologous transplantation therapy. It has been postulated that these hematopoietic progenitors have advantages over bone marrow collected stem cells, including safer and less expensive collections and accelerated rates of hematopoietic recovery following high-dose therapy and stem cell reinfusion.

  6. Pure red-cell aplasia of long duration after major ABO-incompatible bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Volin, L; Ruutu, T

    1990-01-01

    We describe a patient with an exceptionally long-lasting red-cell aplasia of 330 days following ABO-incompatible bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Before BMT, the anti-B titre was high, 1:1,024, and it was only temporarily reduced by extensive plasma exchange. The anti-B titre remained above the level of 1:64 for 270 days, and host-derived isoagglutinin could still be detected 3 years after BMT. In vitro bone marrow cultures during the red-cell aplasia showed greatly reduced numbers or total absence of CFU-E, while the number of BFU-E colonies was only moderately subnormal. Six years after BMT, bone marrow and peripheral-blood cell counts are normal.

  7. Bone mass density in adults with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Sarrai, Mona; Duroseau, Herold; D'Augustine, Jean; Moktan, Sabita; Bellevue, Rita

    2007-02-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) leads to many complications including osteoporosis and osteopenia. We studied the prevalence and predisposing factors of low bone mass density (BMD) in adults with SCD. In this retrospective study, dual X-ray absorptiometry bone scans were used to determine BMD in the lumbar spine, femoral neck and ultra distal radius of 103 patients (73 females, 30 males, aged 15-80 years). Chart reviews and a patient questionnaire were used to collect patient characteristics, disease course and severity, and low BMD risk factors. The 79.6% of patients (mean age 36.5 +/- 12.5 years) had an abnormal BMD, with a predilection for the lumbar spine (P = 0.001). Analysis by 3 (low BMD versus very low BMD versus normal) or by 2 groups (abnormal versus normal) showed that abnormal BMD was associated with lower body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.003), lower Hb level (P = 0.001) and higher ferritin (P = 0.003). Low BMD patients were more likely to be SS, SC or Sbeta(0)thal than Sbeta(+)thal (P = 0.022). Abnormal BMD was not related to age, sex, menarche, SCD complications, number of crises, iron overload, treatment with hydroxycarbamide or desferal, renal disease, smoking or alcohol. Patients treated with hydroxycarbamide for at least 6 months were more likely to have an abnormal BMD. In this SCD population, abnormal BMD seemed to be independent of sex, age and menopause, whereas BMI, ferritin level, Hb type and level appeared to play a major role.

  8. Symptomatic and scintigraphic improvement after intravenous pamidronate treatment of Paget's disease of bone in patients with normal serum alkaline phosphatase levels.

    PubMed

    Ang, George; Feiglin, David; Moses, Arnold M

    2003-01-01

    To describe three patients with symptomatic Paget's disease of bone who presented with normal levels of serum alkaline phosphatase. We present three cases of Paget's disease of bone and chronicle the laboratory, scintigraphic, and clinical findings relative to treatment with intravenously administered pamidronate. Although measurement of serum total alkaline phosphatase usually provides a general indication of bone turnover in Paget's disease, about 15% of patients present with normal serum alkaline phosphatase levels. Nonetheless, these patients may have active Paget's disease when assessed with bone scintigraphy or urinary markers of bone resorption. All three study patients had xray findings characteristic of Paget's disease of bone, increased uptake of radiotracer material on bone scans, and elevated levels of urinary markers of bone resorption but normal alkaline phosphatase levels. They were treated with intravenously administered pamidronate, 60 mg once weekly for 2 to 3 consecutive weeks. After treatment, the serum alkaline phosphatase level decreased by 19 to 36%, markers of bone resorption normalized, bone scans showed improvement, and bone pain resolved. Pagetic activity in bone and related clinical manifestations may be present in the setting of a normal serum alkaline phosphatase level. Appropriate therapy should not be withheld because of the normal alkaline phosphatase.

  9. S1P3 confers differential S1P migration by autoreactive and non-autoreactive immature B cells and is required for normal B cell development

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Erin E.; Pelanda, Roberta; Torres, Raul M.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY During B cell development, immature B cell fate is determined by whether the B cell antigen receptor is engaged in the bone marrow. Immature B cells that are non-autoreactive continue maturation and emigrate from the marrow whereas autoreactive immature B cells remain and are tolerized. However, the microenvironment where these events occur and the chemoattractants responsible for immature B cell trafficking within and out of the bone marrow remain largely undefined. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a chemoattractant that directs lymphocyte trafficking and thymocyte egress and in this study we investigated whether S1P contributed to B cell development, egress and positioning within the bone marrow. Our findings show that immature B cells are chemotactic towards S1P but that this response is dependent on antigen receptor specificity: non-autoreactive, but not autoreactive, immature B cells migrate towards S1P and are shown to require S1P3 receptor for this response. Despite this response, S1P3 is shown not to facilitate immature B cell egress but is required for normal B cell development including the positioning of transitional B cells within bone marrow sinusoids. These data indicate that S1P3 signaling directs immature B cells to a bone marrow microenvironment important for both tolerance induction and maturation. PMID:20039302

  10. Ewing's sarcoma of bone tumor cells produces MCSF that stimulates monocyte proliferation in a novel mouse model of Ewing's sarcoma of bone.

    PubMed

    Margulies, B S; DeBoyace, S D; Damron, T A; Allen, M J

    2015-10-01

    Ewing's sarcoma of bone is a primary childhood malignancy of bone that is treated with X-radiation therapy in combination with surgical excision and chemotherapy. To better study Ewing's sarcoma of bone we developed a novel model of primary Ewing's sarcoma of bone and then treated animals with X-radiation therapy. We identified that uncontrolled tumor resulted in lytic bone destruction while X-radiation therapy decreased lytic bone destruction and increased limb-length asymmetry, a common, crippling complication of X-radiation therapy. Osteoclasts were indentified adjacent to the tumor, however, we were unable to detect RANK-ligand in the Ewing's tumor cells in vitro, which lead us to investigate alternate mechanisms for osteoclast formation. Ewing's sarcoma tumor cells and archival Ewing's sarcoma of bone tumor biopsy samples were shown to express MCSF, which could promote osteoclast formation. Increased monocyte numbers were detected in peripheral blood and spleen in animals with untreated Ewing's sarcoma tumor while monocyte number in animals treated with x-radiation had normal numbers of monocytes. Our data suggest that our Ewing's sarcoma of bone model will be useful in the study Ewing's sarcoma tumor progression in parallel with the effects of chemotherapy and X-radiation therapy.

  11. Ewing's Sarcoma of Bone Tumor Cells Produce MCSF that Stimulates Monocyte Proliferation in a Novel Mouse Model of Ewing's Sarcoma of Bone

    PubMed Central

    Margulies, BS; DeBoyace, SD; Damron, TA; Allen, MJ

    2015-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma of bone is a primary childhood malignancy of bone that is treated with X-radiation therapy in combination with surgical excision and chemotherapy. To better study Ewing's sarcoma of bone we developed a novel model of primary Ewing's sarcoma of bone and then treated animals with X-radiation therapy. We identified that uncontrolled tumor resulted in lytic bone destruction while X-radiation therapy decreased lytic bone destruction and increased limb-length asymmetry, a common, crippling complication of X-radiation therapy. Osteoclasts were indentified adjacent to the tumor, however, we were unable to detect RANK-ligand in the Ewing's tumor cells in vitro, which lead us to investigate alternate mechanisms for osteoclast formation. Ewing's sarcoma tumor cells and archival Ewing's sarcoma of bone tumor biopsy samples were shown to express MCSF, which could promote osteoclast formation. Increased monocyte numbers were detected in peripheral blood and spleen in animals with untreated Ewing's sarcoma tumor while monocyte number in animals treated with x-radiation had normal numbers of monocytes. Our data suggest that our Ewing's sarcoma of bone model will be useful in the study Ewing's sarcoma tumor progression in parallel with the effects of chemotherapy and X-radiation therapy. PMID:26051470

  12. Effects of Spaceflight on Cells of Bone Marrow Origin

    PubMed Central

    Özçivici, Engin

    2013-01-01

    Once only a subject for science fiction novels, plans for establishing habitation on space stations, the Moon, and distant planets now appear among the short-term goals of space agencies. This article reviews studies that present biomedical issues that appear to challenge humankind for long-term spaceflights. With particularly focus on cells of bone marrow origin, studies involving changes in bone, immune, and red blood cell populations and their functions due to extended weightlessness were reviewed. Furthermore, effects of mechanical disuse on primitive stem cells that reside in the bone marrow were also included in this review. Novel biomedical solutions using space biotechnology will be required in order to achieve the goal of space exploration without compromising the functions of bone marrow, as spaceflight appears to disrupt homeostasis for all given cell types. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24385745

  13. Bone cell autophagy is regulated by environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Zahm, Adam M; Bohensky, Jolene; Adams, Christopher S; Shapiro, Irving M; Srinivas, Vickram

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to ascertain whether bone cells undergo autophagy and to determine if this process is regulated by environmental factors. We showed that osteocytes in both murine and human cortical bone display a punctuate distribution of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3, indicative of autophagy. In addition, we noted a basal level of autophagy in preosteocyte-like murine long bone-derived osteocytic (MLO)-A5 cells. Autophagy was upregulated following nutrient deprivation and hypoxic culture, stress conditions that osteocytes encounter in vivo. Furthermore, in response to calcium stress, the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor 1 regulated MLO-A5 autophagy. Finally, we showed that the more differentiated MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells exhibited a significant basal autophagic flux. Based on these findings, we suggest that raising the level of autophagic flux is a mechanism by which differentiated bone cells survive in a stressful environment. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Beneficial effects of vitamin E isomer supplementation on static and dynamic bone histomorphometry parameters in normal male rats.

    PubMed

    Mehat, Muhammad Zulfadli; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Mohamed, Norazlina; Muhammad, Norliza; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana

    2010-09-01

    Bone is a specialized connective tissue that functions as the load-bearing structure of the body. Free radicals may affect bone remodeling by regulating osteoclast activity in either the physiological or pathological condition. Vitamin E, a lipid-soluble antioxidant, has been demonstrated to offer protection against osteoporosis and to improve the bone material and structure of animal models. The aim of this study was to observe and compare the effects of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-tocopherol), delta-tocotrienol (delta-tocotrienol), and gamma-tocotrienol (gamma-tocotrienol) on the static and dynamic bone histomorphometric parameters in normal male rats. Thirty-two normal Sprague-Dawley male rats aged 3 months and weighing 200-250 g were randomly divided into four groups. The control group was supplemented with oral gavages of olive oil (vehicle), whereas the alpha-tocopherol, delta-tocotrienol, and gamma-tocotrienol groups were given oral gavages of 60 mg/kg alpha-tocopherol, delta-tocotrienol, and gamma-tocotrienol, respectively. The rats were injected twice with calcein to fluorochrome-label the bones. After 4 months of treatment, the rats were killed, and the left femurs were dissected out and prepared for bone histomorphometry. Both the static and dynamic parameters of the vitamin E-treated groups were better than those of the normal control group. Among the vitamin E-treated groups, the tocotrienol groups showed better histomorphometry results compared to the α-tocopherol group, with the γ-tocotrienol group demonstrating the best effects on both sets of parameters. We concluded that vitamin E can promote bone formation in normal rats, with gamma-tocotrienol being the most potent form of vitamin E.

  15. Effects of ionizing radiation on differentiation of murine bone marrow cells into mast cells.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Sho; Yoshino, Hironori; Ishikawa, Junya; Yamaguchi, Masaru; Tsujiguchi, Takakiyo; Nishiyama, Ayaka; Yokoyama, Kouki; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2015-11-01

    Mast cells, immune effector cells produced from bone marrow cells, play a major role in immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic responses. Ionizing radiation affects the functions of mast cells, which are involved in radiation-induced tissue damage. However, whether ionizing radiation affects the differential induction of mast cells is unknown. Here we investigated whether bone marrow cells of X-irradiated mice differentiated into mast cells. To induce mast cells, bone marrow cells from X-irradiated and unirradiated mice were cultured in the presence of cytokines required for mast cell induction. Although irradiation at 0.5 Gy and 2 Gy decreased the number of bone marrow cells 1 day post-irradiation, the cultured bone marrow cells of X-irradiated and unirradiated mice both expressed mast cell-related cell-surface antigens. However, the percentage of mast cells in the irradiated group was lower than in the unirradiated group. Similar decreases in the percentage of mast cells induced in the presence of X-irradiation were observed 10 days post irradiation, although the number of bone marrow cells in irradiated mice had recovered by this time. Analysis of mast cell function showed that degranulation of mast cells after immunoglobulin E-mediated allergen recognition was significantly higher in the X-irradiated group compared with in the unirradiated group. In conclusion, bone marrow cells of X-irradiated mice differentiated into mast cells, but ionizing radiation affected the differentiation efficiency and function of mast cells.

  16. Conception on the cell mechanisms of bone tissue loss under spase flight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionova, Natalia; Oganov, Victor; Kabitskaya, Olga

    Basing on the analysis of available literature and the results of our own electron microscopic and radioautographic researches the data are presented about the morpho-functional peculiarities and succession of cellular interactions in adaptive remodeling of bone structures under normal conditions and after exposure of animals (rats, monkeys, mice) to microgravity (SLS-2, Bion-11, BionM-1). The probable cellular mechanisms of the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis are considered. Our conception on remodeling proposes the following sequence in the development of cellular interactions after decrease of the mechanical loading: a primary response of osteocytes (mechanosensory cells) to the mechanical stimulus; osteocytic remodeling (osteolysis); transmission of the mechanical signals through a system of canals and processes to functionally active osteoblasts and surface osteocytes as well as to the bone-marrow stromal cells and to those lying on bone surfaces. As a response to the mechanical stimulus (microgravity) the system of stromal cell-preosteoblast-osteoblast shows a delay in proliferation, differentiation and specific functioning of the osteogenetic cells, some of the osteoblasts undergo apoptosis. Then the osteoclastic reaction occurs (attraction of monocytes and formation of osteoclasts and bone matrix resorption in the loci of apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes). The macrophagal reaction is followed by osteoblastogenesis, which appears to be a rehabilitating process. However, during prolonged absence of mechanical stimuli (microgravity, long-time immobilization) the adaptive activization of osteoblastogenesis doesn’t occur (as it is the case during the physiological remodeling of bone tissue) or it occurs to a smaller degree. The loading deficit leads to an adaptive differentiation of stromal cells to fibroblastic cells and adipocytes in these remodeling loci. These cell reactions are considered as adaptive-compensatory, but they don’t result

  17. T cell regeneration after allogenic bone marrow transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Favrot, Marie; Janossy, G.; Tidman, N.; Blacklock, Hilary; Lopez, Elisa; Bofill, Margarita; Lampert, I.; Morgenstein, G.; Powles, R.; Prentice, H. G.; Hoffbrand, A. V.

    1983-01-01

    Various T cell subsets were characterized by double immunofluorescent staining using monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) in blood, bone marrow (BM) and tissues of 29 patients after allogeneic BM transplantation (BMT). In an attempt to prevent graft versus host disease (GvHD), 15 patients received cyclosporin A (Cy A). In the remaining 14 patients the BM was pre-incubated with a MoAb, OKT3. The regeneration of T4+ subset was delayed and the level of T8+ cells was abnormally high even 1 year after engraftment. This did not have any predictive value for the appearance of complications such as GvHD or severe viral infections. The number of T8+ cells was lower in the group of patients who received Cy A than in the OKT3 group (0·7±0·2 vs 1·5±0·3×109/1 at day 90). In contrast to normal individuals, the T4/T8 ratio in both blood and regenerating BM of BMT patients was <1. A sizeable subset of circulating T cells expressed the phenotype T8+,T10+,HNK-1+,DR+. Circulating cells of this phenotype were transiently very high (up to 50%) in patients with active GvHD or suffering from severe viral infection. This subpopulation of lymphocytes was not found in the epidermal infiltrate that accompanied GvHD where the predominant phenotype was T8+,T1-,T10-,HNK-1-,DR-. We conclude therefore that after BMT the number and phenotype of circulating T cells reflects the T cell distribution seen in the regenerating BM. PMID:6352107

  18. Microfluidic channel for characterizing normal and breast cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TruongVo, T. N.; Kennedy, R. M.; Chen, H.; Chen, A.; Berndt, A.; Agarwal, M.; Zhu, L.; Nakshatri, H.; Wallace, J.; Na, S.; Yokota, H.; Ryu, J. E.

    2017-03-01

    A microfluidic channel was designed and fabricated for the investigation of behaviors of normal and cancer cells in a narrow channel. A specific question addressed in this study was whether it is possible to distinguish normal versus cancer cells by detecting their stationary and passing behaviors through a narrow channel. We hypothesized that due to higher deformability, softer cancer cells will pass through the channel further and quicker than normal cells. Two cell lines, employed herein, were non-tumor breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A; 11.2  ±  2.4 µm in diameter) and triple negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231; 12.4  ±  2.1 µm in diameter). The microfluidic channel was 300 µm long and linearly tapered with a width of 30 µm at an inlet to 5 µm at an outlet. The result revealed that MDA-MB-231 cells entered and stuck further toward the outlet than MCF-10A cells in response to a slow flow (2 µl min‑1). Further, in response to a fast flow (5 µl min‑1), the passage time (mean  ±  s.d.) was 26.6  ±  43.9 s for normal cells (N  =  158), and 1.9  ±  1.4 s for cancer cells (N  =  128). The measurement of stiffness by atomic force microscopy as well as model-based predictions pointed out that MDA-MB-231 cells are significantly softer than MCF-10A cells. Collectively, the result in this study suggests that analysis of an individual cell’s behavior through a narrow channel can characterize deformable cancer cells from normal ones, supporting the possibility of enriching circulating tumor cells using novel microfluidics-based analysis.

  19. Metabolomic analysis of normal and sickle cell erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Darghouth, D; Koehl, B; Junot, C; Roméo, P-H

    2010-09-01

    Metabolic signatures of specialized circulating hematopoietic cells in physiological or human hematological diseases start to be described. We use a simple and highly reproductive extraction method of erythrocytes metabolites coupled with a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based metabolites profiling method to determine metabolomes of normal and sickle cell erythrocytes. Sickle cell erythrocytes and normal erythrocytes metabolomes display major differences in glycolysis, in glutathione, in ascorbate metabolisms and in metabolites associated to membranes turnover. In addition, the amounts of metabolites derived from urea cycle and NO metabolism that partly take place within erythrocyte were different between normal and sickle cell erythrocytes. These results show that metabolic profiling of red blood cell diseases can now be determined and might indicate new biomarkers that can be used for the follow-up of sickle cell patients.

  20. The separation of a mixture of bone marrow stem cells from tumor cells: an essential step for autologous bone marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, P.; Wheeler, K.T.; Keng, P.C.; Gregory, P.K.; Croizat, H.

    1981-10-01

    KHT tumor cells were mixed with mouse bone marrow to simulate a sample of bone marrow containing metastatic tumor cells. This mixture was separated into a bone marrow fraction and a tumor cell fraction by centrifugal elutriation. Elutriation did not change the transplantability of the bone marrow stem cells as measured by a spleen colony assay and an in vitro erythroid burst forming unit assay. The tumorogenicity of the KHT cells was similarly unaffected by elutriation. The data showed that bone marrow cells could be purified to less than 1 tumor cell in more than 10/sup 6/ bone marrow cells. Therefore, purification of bone marrow removed prior to lethal radiation-drug combined therapy for subsequent autologous transplantation appears to be feasible using modifications of this method if similar physical differences between human metastatic tumor cells and human bone marrow cells exist. This possibility is presently being explored.

  1. The interleukin-6 receptor alpha-chain (CD126) is expressed by neoplastic but not normal plasma cells.

    PubMed

    Rawstron, A C; Fenton, J A; Ashcroft, J; English, A; Jones, R A; Richards, S J; Pratt, G; Owen, R; Davies, F E; Child, J A; Jack, A S; Morgan, G

    2000-12-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is reported to be central to the pathogenesis of myeloma, inducing proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis in neoplastic plasma cells. Therefore, abrogating IL-6 signaling is of therapeutic interest, particularly with the development of humanized anti-IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) antibodies. The use of such antibodies clinically requires an understanding of IL-6R expression on neoplastic cells, particularly in the cycling fraction. IL-6R expression levels were determined on plasma cells from patients with myeloma (n = 93) and with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) or plasmacytoma (n = 66) and compared with the levels found on normal plasma cells (n = 11). In addition, 4-color flow cytometry was used to assess the differential expression by stage of differentiation and cell cycle status of the neoplastic plasma cells. IL-6R alpha chain (CD126) was not detectable in normal plasma cells, but was expressed in approximately 90% of patients with myeloma. In all groups, the expression levels showed a normal distribution. In patients with MGUS or plasmacytoma, neoplastic plasma cells expressed significantly higher levels of CD126 compared with phenotypically normal plasma cells from the same marrow. VLA-5(-) "immature" plasma cells showed the highest levels of CD126 expression, but "mature" VLA-5(+) myeloma plasma cells also overexpressed CD126 when compared with normal subjects. This study demonstrates that CD126 expression is restricted to neoplastic plasma cells, with little or no detectable expression by normal cells. Stromal cells in the bone marrow microenvironment do not induce the overexpression because neoplastic cells express higher levels of CD126 than normal plasma cells from the same bone marrow in individuals with MGUS. (Blood. 2000;96:3880-3886)

  2. Conditioned media from mesenchymal stem cells enhanced bone regeneration in rat calvarial bone defects.

    PubMed

    Osugi, Masashi; Katagiri, Wataru; Yoshimi, Ryoko; Inukai, Takeharu; Hibi, Hideharu; Ueda, Minoru

    2012-07-01

    Tissue engineering has recently become available as a treatment procedure for bone augmentation. However, this procedure has several problems, such as high capital investment and expensive cell culture, complicated safety and quality management issues regarding cell handling, and patient problems with the invasive procedure of cell collection. Moreover, it was reported that stem cells secrete many growth factors and chemokines during their cultivation, which could affect cellular characteristics and behavior. This study investigated the effect of stem-cell-cultured conditioned media on bone regeneration. Cultured conditioned media from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-CM) enhanced the migration, proliferation, and expression of osteogenic marker genes, such as osteocalcin and Runx2, of rat MSCs (rMSCs) in vitro. MSC-CM includes cytokines such as insulin-like growth factor-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. In vivo, a prepared bone defect of a rat calvarial model was implanted in five different rat groups using one of the following graft materials: human MSCs/agarose (MSCs), MSC-CM/agarose (MSC-CM), Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium without serum [DMEM(-)]/agarose [DMEM(-)], PBS/agarose (PBS), and defect only (Defect). After 4 and 8 weeks, implant sections were evaluated using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and histological analysis. Micro-CT analysis indicated that the MSC-CM group had a greater area of newly regenerated bone compared with the other groups (p<0.05) and histological analysis at 8 weeks indicated that the newly regenerated bone bridge almost covered the defect. Interestingly, the effects of MSC-CM were stronger than those of the MSC group. In vivo imaging and immunohistochemical staining of transgenic rats expressing green fluorescent protein also showed that migration of rMSCs to the bone defect in the MSC-CM group was greater than in the other groups. These results demonstrated that MSC-CM can regenerate bone

  3. Conditioned Media from Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhanced Bone Regeneration in Rat Calvarial Bone Defects

    PubMed Central

    Osugi, Masashi; Yoshimi, Ryoko; Inukai, Takeharu; Hibi, Hideharu; Ueda, Minoru

    2012-01-01

    Tissue engineering has recently become available as a treatment procedure for bone augmentation. However, this procedure has several problems, such as high capital investment and expensive cell culture, complicated safety and quality management issues regarding cell handling, and patient problems with the invasive procedure of cell collection. Moreover, it was reported that stem cells secrete many growth factors and chemokines during their cultivation, which could affect cellular characteristics and behavior. This study investigated the effect of stem-cell-cultured conditioned media on bone regeneration. Cultured conditioned media from human bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-CM) enhanced the migration, proliferation, and expression of osteogenic marker genes, such as osteocalcin and Runx2, of rat MSCs (rMSCs) in vitro. MSC-CM includes cytokines such as insulin-like growth factor-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. In vivo, a prepared bone defect of a rat calvarial model was implanted in five different rat groups using one of the following graft materials: human MSCs/agarose (MSCs), MSC-CM/agarose (MSC-CM), Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium without serum [DMEM(−)]/agarose [DMEM(−)], PBS/agarose (PBS), and defect only (Defect). After 4 and 8 weeks, implant sections were evaluated using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and histological analysis. Micro-CT analysis indicated that the MSC-CM group had a greater area of newly regenerated bone compared with the other groups (p<0.05) and histological analysis at 8 weeks indicated that the newly regenerated bone bridge almost covered the defect. Interestingly, the effects of MSC-CM were stronger than those of the MSC group. In vivo imaging and immunohistochemical staining of transgenic rats expressing green fluorescent protein also showed that migration of rMSCs to the bone defect in the MSC-CM group was greater than in the other groups. These results demonstrated that MSC-CM can regenerate bone

  4. Double-layered cell transfer technology for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Akazawa, Keiko; Iwasaki, Kengo; Nagata, Mizuki; Yokoyama, Naoki; Ayame, Hirohito; Yamaki, Kazumasa; Tanaka, Yuichi; Honda, Izumi; Morioka, Chikako; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Komaki, Motohiro; Kishida, Akio; Izumi, Yuichi; Morita, Ikuo

    2016-09-14

    For cell-based medicine, to mimic in vivo cellular localization, various tissue engineering approaches have been studied to obtain a desirable arrangement of cells on scaffold materials. We have developed a novel method of cell manipulation called "cell transfer technology", enabling the transfer of cultured cells onto scaffold materials, and controlling cell topology. Here we show that using this technique, two different cell types can be transferred onto a scaffold surface as stable double layers or in patterned arrangements. Various combinations of adherent cells were transferred to a scaffold, amniotic membrane, in overlapping bilayers (double-layered cell transfer), and transferred cells showed stability upon deformations of the material including folding and trimming. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells from periodontal ligaments (PDLSC) and osteoblasts, using double-layered cell transfer significantly enhanced bone formation, when compared to single cell type transplantation. Our findings suggest that this double-layer cell transfer is useful to produce a cell transplantation material that can bear two cell layers. Moreover, the transplantation of an amniotic membrane with PDLSCs/osteoblasts by cell transfer technology has therapeutic potential for bone defects. We conclude that cell transfer technology provides a novel and unique cell transplantation method for bone regeneration.

  5. Double-layered cell transfer technology for bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Akazawa, Keiko; Iwasaki, Kengo; Nagata, Mizuki; Yokoyama, Naoki; Ayame, Hirohito; Yamaki, Kazumasa; Tanaka, Yuichi; Honda, Izumi; Morioka, Chikako; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Komaki, Motohiro; Kishida, Akio; Izumi, Yuichi; Morita, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    For cell-based medicine, to mimic in vivo cellular localization, various tissue engineering approaches have been studied to obtain a desirable arrangement of cells on scaffold materials. We have developed a novel method of cell manipulation called “cell transfer technology”, enabling the transfer of cultured cells onto scaffold materials, and controlling cell topology. Here we show that using this technique, two different cell types can be transferred onto a scaffold surface as stable double layers or in patterned arrangements. Various combinations of adherent cells were transferred to a scaffold, amniotic membrane, in overlapping bilayers (double-layered cell transfer), and transferred cells showed stability upon deformations of the material including folding and trimming. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells from periodontal ligaments (PDLSC) and osteoblasts, using double-layered cell transfer significantly enhanced bone formation, when compared to single cell type transplantation. Our findings suggest that this double-layer cell transfer is useful to produce a cell transplantation material that can bear two cell layers. Moreover, the transplantation of an amniotic membrane with PDLSCs/osteoblasts by cell transfer technology has therapeutic potential for bone defects. We conclude that cell transfer technology provides a novel and unique cell transplantation method for bone regeneration. PMID:27624174

  6. Genotoxicity of ibuprofen in mouse bone marrow cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Rina; Pancholi, Shyam S; Tripathi, Pankaj

    2012-10-01

    Genotoxicity of ibuprofen was evaluated by employing the mouse in vivo chromosomal aberration (CA) test. Ibuprofen administered orally at doses of 10, 20, 40, and 60 mg/kg body weight to mice resulted in mitotic depression and induction of CAs. A dose-related decrease in mitotic index (MI) and an increase in the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations per cell (CAs/cell) were recorded in bone marrow cells. However, a statistically significant reduction in MI and an increase in CAs/cell were found for both the higher doses. The results obtained indicate that ibuprofen is capable of inducing dose-dependent genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of mice.

  7. Bone marrow myeloid cells in regulation of multiple myeloma progression.

    PubMed

    Herlihy, Sarah E; Lin, Cindy; Nefedova, Yulia

    2017-08-01

    Survival, growth, and response to chemotherapy of cancer cells depends strongly on the interaction of cancer cells with the tumor microenvironment. In multiple myeloma, a cancer of plasma cells that localizes preferentially in the bone marrow, the microenvironment is highly enriched with myeloid cells. The majority of myeloid cells are represented by mature and immature neutrophils. The contribution of the different myeloid cell populations to tumor progression and chemoresistance in multiple myeloma is discussed.

  8. Changes in calciotrophic hormones and biochemical markers of bone turnover in normal human pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gallacher, S J; Fraser, W D; Owens, O J; Dryburgh, F J; Logue, F C; Jenkins, A; Kennedy, J; Boyle, I T

    1994-10-01

    Plasma concentrations of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin and albumin-adjusted calcium were measured along with nephrogenous cyclic adenosine monophosphate (NcAMP) in 10 normal women longitudinally through pregnancy. In addition, an assessment of bone resorption was made in these same subjects by the measurement in true fasting urine specimens of the calcium/creatinine ratio (Ca/Cr), hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio (HP/Cr), pyridinoline/creatinine ratio (Pyr/Cr) and deoxypyridinoline/creatine ratio (Dpyr/Cr). The PTHrP level rose through pregnancy from (mean +/- SEM) 0.8 +/- 0.2 pmol/l in the first trimester to 2.7 +/- 0.2 pmol/l 6 weeks postpartum (p < 0.0001). Serum alkaline phosphatase rose from 94 +/- 8 U/l (first trimester) to 347 +/- 25 U/l at term (p < 0.0001). A significant positive correlation was evident between PTHrP and alkaline phosphatase up to term (r = 0.44, p < 0.005). Parathyroid hormone concentrations remained unchanged during pregnancy but rose significantly postpartum from 1.8 +/- 0.2 pmol/l (first trimester) to 3.1 +/- 0.5 pmol/l (p < 0.0001). Similarly, osteocalcin, a marker of bone formative activity, remained unchanged through pregnancy but rose significantly at 6 weeks after delivery to 0.38 +/- 0.05 nmol/l from 0.19 +/- 0.03 nmol/l (first trimester) (p = 0.019). No significant change was noted in serum-adjusted calcium or NcAMP, either through pregnancy or at the postpartum assessment. Fasting urinary Ca/Cr fell through pregnancy from 0.70 +/- 0.11 (first trimester) to a nadir of 0.19 +/- 0.04 6 weeks postpartum (p = 0.007).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Repair of orbital bone defects in canines using grafts of enriched autologous bone marrow stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Backgroud Bone tissue engineering is a new approach for the repair of orbital defects. The aim of the present study was to explore the feasibility of tissue-engineered bone constructed using bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) that were rapidly isolated and concentrated from bone marrow (BM) by the red cell lysis method, then combined with β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) to create grafts used to restore orbital bone defects in canines. Methods In the experimental group, grafts were constructed using BMSCs obtained by red cell lysis from 20 ml bone marrow, combined with β-TCP and BM via the custom-made stem cell-scaffold device, then used to repair 10 mm diameter medial orbital wall bony defects in canines. Results were compared with those in groups grafted with BM/β-TCP or β-TCP alone, or with defects left untreated as controls. The enrichment of BMSCs and nucleated cells (NCs) in the graft was calculated from the number in untreated bone marrow and in suspensions after red cell lysis. Spiral computed tomography (CT) scans were performed 1, 4, 12 and 24 weeks after implantation in all groups. Gross examination, micro-CT and histological measurements were performed 24 weeks after surgery. The results were analyzed to evaluate the efficacy of bone repair. Results The number of NCs and of colony-forming units within the scaffolds were increased 54.8 times and 53.4 times, respectively, compared with untreated bone marrow. In the BMSC-BM/β-TCP group, CT examination revealed that the scaffolds were gradually absorbed and the bony defects were restored. Micro-CT and histological examination confirmed that the implantations led to good repair of the defects, with 6 out 8 orbital defects completely restored in the experimental group, while by contrast, the grafts in the control groups did not fully repair the bony defects, a difference which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusions Tissue-engineered bone, constructed using BMSCs isolated by red cell

  10. Cells Derived from Young Bone Marrow Alleviate Renal Aging

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hai-Chun; Rossini, Michele; Ma, Li-Jun; Zuo, Yiqin; Ma, Ji

    2011-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived stem cells may modulate renal injury, but the effects may depend on the age of the stem cells. Here we investigated whether bone marrow from young mice attenuates renal aging in old mice. We radiated female 12-mo-old 129SvJ mice and reconstituted them with bone marrow cells (BMC) from either 8-wk-old (young-to-old) or 12-mo-old (old-to-old) male mice. Transfer of young BMC resulted in markedly decreased deposition of collagen IV in the mesangium and less β-galactosidase staining, an indicator of cell senescence. These changes paralleled reduced expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), PDGF-B (PDGF-B), the transdifferentiation marker fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1), and senescence-associated p16 and p21. Tubulointerstitial and glomerular cells derived from the transplanted BMC did not show β-galactosidase activity, but after 6 mo, there were more FSP-1-expressing bone marrow-derived cells in old-to-old mice compared with young-to-old mice. Young-to-old mice also exhibited higher expression of the anti-aging gene Klotho and less phosphorylation of IGF-1 receptor β. Taken together, these data suggest that young bone marrow-derived cells can alleviate renal aging in old mice. Direct parenchymal reconstitution by stem cells, paracrine effects from adjacent cells, and circulating anti-aging molecules may mediate the aging of the kidney. PMID:21965376

  11. Cells derived from young bone marrow alleviate renal aging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hai-Chun; Rossini, Michele; Ma, Li-Jun; Zuo, Yiqin; Ma, Ji; Fogo, Agnes B

    2011-11-01

    Bone marrow-derived stem cells may modulate renal injury, but the effects may depend on the age of the stem cells. Here we investigated whether bone marrow from young mice attenuates renal aging in old mice. We radiated female 12-mo-old 129SvJ mice and reconstituted them with bone marrow cells (BMC) from either 8-wk-old (young-to-old) or 12-mo-old (old-to-old) male mice. Transfer of young BMC resulted in markedly decreased deposition of collagen IV in the mesangium and less β-galactosidase staining, an indicator of cell senescence. These changes paralleled reduced expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), PDGF-B (PDGF-B), the transdifferentiation marker fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1), and senescence-associated p16 and p21. Tubulointerstitial and glomerular cells derived from the transplanted BMC did not show β-galactosidase activity, but after 6 mo, there were more FSP-1-expressing bone marrow-derived cells in old-to-old mice compared with young-to-old mice. Young-to-old mice also exhibited higher expression of the anti-aging gene Klotho and less phosphorylation of IGF-1 receptor β. Taken together, these data suggest that young bone marrow-derived cells can alleviate renal aging in old mice. Direct parenchymal reconstitution by stem cells, paracrine effects from adjacent cells, and circulating anti-aging molecules may mediate the aging of the kidney.

  12. Dendritic Cell-Mediated In Vivo Bone Resorption

    PubMed Central

    Maitra, Radhashree; Follenzi, Antonia; Yaghoobian, Arash; Montagna, Cristina; Merlin, Simone; Cannizzo, Elvira S.; Hardin, John A.; Cobelli, Neil; Stanley, E. Richard; Santambrogio, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Osteoclasts are resident cells of the bone that are primarily involved in the physiological and pathological remodeling of this tissue. Mature osteoclasts are multinucleated giant cells that are generated from the fusion of circulating precursors originating from the monocyte/macrophage lineage. During inflammatory bone conditions in vivo, de novo osteoclastogenesis is observed but it is currently unknown whether, besides increased osteoclast differentiation from undifferentiated precursors, other cell types can generate a multinucleated giant cell phenotype with bone resorbing activity. In this study, an animal model of calvaria-induced aseptic osteolysis was used to analyze possible bone resorption capabilities of dendritic cells (DCs). We determined by FACS analysis and confocal microscopy that injected GFP-labeled immature DCs were readily recruited to the site of osteolysis. Upon recruitment, the cathepsin K-positive DCs were observed in bone-resorbing pits. Additionally, chromosomal painting identified nuclei from female DCs, previously injected into a male recipient, among the nuclei of giant cells at sites of osteolysis. Finally, osteolysis was also observed upon recruitment of CD11c-GFP conventional DCs in Csf1r–/– mice, which exhibit a severe depletion of resident osteoclasts and tissue macrophages. Altogether, our analysis indicates that DCs may have an important role in bone resorption associated with various inflammatory diseases. PMID:20581147

  13. Involvement of Renin-Angiotensin System in Damage of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Captopril on Bone of Normal Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Xin; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, on bone metabolism and histology, and the action of captopril on the components of the skeletal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and bradykinin receptor in normal male mice. The mice were orally administered captopril (10 mg/kg) for 4 weeks with vehicle-treated mice as normal control. The histology of trabecular bone at the distal femoral end was determined by hematoxylin & eosin, Safranin O and Masson-Trichrome staining. The captopril-treated mice showed a decreased level of testosterone (p<0.05) and procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (p<0.05) in serum as compared to those in the control group. Captopril has detrimental effects on trabecular bone as demonstrated by the loss of cancellous bone mass and network connections as well as changes to the chondrocytes zone. The expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (p<0.05), renin receptor (p<0.01), angiotensin II (p<0.05) and bradykinin receptor 2 (p<0.05) was significantly up-regulated following the captopril treatment. Thus, the potential underlying mechanism of the damage of captopril on bone can be attributed the increased activity of local bone RAS and the activation of bradykinin receptor.

  14. Requirement of donor-derived stromal cells in the bone marrow for successful allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Complete prevention of recurrence of autoimmune diseases in MRL/MP-Ipr/Ipr mice by transplantation of bone marrow plus bones (stromal cells) from the same donor.

    PubMed

    Ishida, T; Inaba, M; Hisha, H; Sugiura, K; Adachi, Y; Nagata, N; Ogawa, R; Good, R A; Ikehara, S

    1994-03-15

    MRL/MP-Ipr/Ipr (MRL/Ipr) mice possess radioresistant (9.5 Gy) abnormal stem cells and show a recurrence of autoimmune diseases within 5 mo of conventional allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. We recently have found that the MHC preference exists between hemopoietic stem cells and stromal cells; when bones are engrafted, donor-derived stromal cells present in the engrafted bones can migrate into the recipient bone marrows, which are replaced with both donor-derived stromal cells and hematopoietic cells. Based on these findings, we attempted to prevent the recurrence of autoimmune diseases in MRL/Ipr mice by the transplantation of both bone marrow cells and bone (as a source of stromal cells). MRL/Ipr mice were irradiated (8.5 Gy) and then reconstituted with C57BL/6 bone marrow cells plus bone grafts. The mice survived more than 48 wk after this treatment. Immunohistologic studies revealed that the mice were completely free from both lymphadenopathy and autoimmune diseases such as lupus nephritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Sera from these mice showed normal levels of circulating immune complexes and rheumatoid factors. Normal functions of both T cells and B cells were noted. Abnormal T cells such as Thy-1+B220+ cells present in nontreated MRL/Ipr mice could not be seen in the thus-treated mice. In addition, to our surprise, spleen cells from treated mice showed completely normal in vitro primary anti-SRBC responses. These results indicate that stromal cells in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation play a crucial role not only in the prevention of graft failure but also in the successful cooperation among APCs, T cells, and B cells. Although MRL/Ipr mice are radiosensitive and usually die of interstitial pneumonia or fatty liver due to the side effects of radiation, it should be noted that this strategy allows a reduction in the radiation dose (9.5 Gy-->8.5 Gy), and that these mice can survive more than 48 wk without showing any symptoms of autoimmune diseases.

  15. Fungal Invasion of Normally Non-Phagocytic Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Filler, Scott G; Sheppard, Donald C

    2006-01-01

    Many fungi that cause invasive disease invade host epithelial cells during mucosal and respiratory infection, and subsequently invade endothelial cells during hematogenous infection. Most fungi invade these normally non-phagocytic host cells by inducing their own uptake. Candida albicans hyphae interact with endothelial cells in vitro by binding to N-cadherin on the endothelial cell surface. This binding induces rearrangement of endothelial cell microfilaments, which results in the endocytosis of the organism. The capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans is composed of glucuronoxylomannan, which binds specifically to brain endothelial cells, and appears to mediate both adherence and induction of endocytosis. The mechanisms by which other fungal pathogens induce their own uptake are largely unknown. Some angioinvasive fungi, such as Aspergillus species and the Zygomycetes, invade endothelial cells from the abluminal surface during the initiation of invasive disease, and subsequently invade the luminal surface of endothelial cells during hematogenous dissemination. Invasion of normally non-phagocytic host cells has different consequences, depending on the type of invading fungus. Aspergillus fumigatus blocks apoptosis of pulmonary epithelial cells, whereas Paracoccidioides brasiliensis induces apoptosis of epithelial cells. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which diverse fungal pathogens invade normally non-phagocytic host cells and discusses gaps in our knowledge that provide opportunities for future research. PMID:17196036

  16. Fungal invasion of normally non-phagocytic host cells.

    PubMed

    Filler, Scott G; Sheppard, Donald C

    2006-12-01

    Many fungi that cause invasive disease invade host epithelial cells during mucosal and respiratory infection, and subsequently invade endothelial cells during hematogenous infection. Most fungi invade these normally non-phagocytic host cells by inducing their own uptake. Candida albicans hyphae interact with endothelial cells in vitro by binding to N-cadherin on the endothelial cell surface. This binding induces rearrangement of endothelial cell microfilaments, which results in the endocytosis of the organism. The capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans is composed of glucuronoxylomannan, which binds specifically to brain endothelial cells, and appears to mediate both adherence and induction of endocytosis. The mechanisms by which other fungal pathogens induce their own uptake are largely unknown. Some angioinvasive fungi, such as Aspergillus species and the Zygomycetes, invade endothelial cells from the abluminal surface during the initiation of invasive disease, and subsequently invade the luminal surface of endothelial cells during hematogenous dissemination. Invasion of normally non-phagocytic host cells has different consequences, depending on the type of invading fungus. Aspergillus fumigatus blocks apoptosis of pulmonary epithelial cells, whereas Paracoccidioides brasiliensis induces apoptosis of epithelial cells. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which diverse fungal pathogens invade normally non-phagocytic host cells and discusses gaps in our knowledge that provide opportunities for future research.

  17. The anabolic activity of bone tissue, suppressed by disuse, is normalized by brief exposure to extremely low-magnitude mechanical stimuli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, C.; Xu, G.; Judex, S.

    2001-01-01

    It is generally believed that mechanical signals must be large in order to be anabolic to bone tissue. Recent evidence indicates, however, that extremely low-magnitude (<10 microstrain) mechanical signals readily stimulate bone formation if induced at a high frequency. We examined the ability of extremely low-magnitude, high-frequency mechanical signals to restore anabolic bone cell activity inhibited by disuse. Adult female rats were randomly assigned to six groups: baseline control, age-matched control, mechanically stimulated for 10 min/day, disuse (hind limb suspension), disuse interrupted by 10 min/day of weight bearing, and disuse interrupted by 10 min/day of mechanical stimulation. After a 28 day protocol, bone formation rates (BFR) in the proximal tibia of mechanically stimulated rats increased compared with age-matched control (+97%). Disuse alone reduced BFR (-92%), a suppression only slightly curbed when disuse was interrupted by 10 min of weight bearing (-61%). In contrast, disuse interrupted by 10 min per day of low-level mechanical intervention normalized BFR to values seen in age-matched controls. This work indicates that this noninvasive, extremely low-level stimulus may provide an effective biomechanical intervention for the bone loss that plagues long-term space flight, bed rest, or immobilization caused by paralysis.

  18. The anabolic activity of bone tissue, suppressed by disuse, is normalized by brief exposure to extremely low-magnitude mechanical stimuli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, C.; Xu, G.; Judex, S.

    2001-01-01

    It is generally believed that mechanical signals must be large in order to be anabolic to bone tissue. Recent evidence indicates, however, that extremely low-magnitude (<10 microstrain) mechanical signals readily stimulate bone formation if induced at a high frequency. We examined the ability of extremely low-magnitude, high-frequency mechanical signals to restore anabolic bone cell activity inhibited by disuse. Adult female rats were randomly assigned to six groups: baseline control, age-matched control, mechanically stimulated for 10 min/day, disuse (hind limb suspension), disuse interrupted by 10 min/day of weight bearing, and disuse interrupted by 10 min/day of mechanical stimulation. After a 28 day protocol, bone formation rates (BFR) in the proximal tibia of mechanically stimulated rats increased compared with age-matched control (+97%). Disuse alone reduced BFR (-92%), a suppression only slightly curbed when disuse was interrupted by 10 min of weight bearing (-61%). In contrast, disuse interrupted by 10 min per day of low-level mechanical intervention normalized BFR to values seen in age-matched controls. This work indicates that this noninvasive, extremely low-level stimulus may provide an effective biomechanical intervention for the bone loss that plagues long-term space flight, bed rest, or immobilization caused by paralysis.

  19. Histomorphometric Assessment of Cancellous and Cortical Bone Material Distribution in the Proximal Humerus of Normal and Osteoporotic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Sprecher, Christoph M.; Schmidutz, Florian; Helfen, Tobias; Richards, R. Geoff; Blauth, Michael; Milz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Osteoporosis is a systemic disorder predominantly affecting postmenopausal women but also men at an advanced age. Both genders may suffer from low-energy fractures of, for example, the proximal humerus when reduction of the bone stock or/and quality has occurred. The aim of the current study was to compare the amount of bone in typical fracture zones of the proximal humerus in osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic individuals. The amount of bone in the proximal humerus was determined histomorphometrically in frontal plane sections. The donor bones were allocated to normal and osteoporotic groups using the T-score from distal radius DXA measurements of the same extremities. The T-score evaluation was done according to WHO criteria. Regional thickness of the subchondral plate and the metaphyseal cortical bone were measured using interactive image analysis. At all measured locations the amount of cancellous bone was significantly lower in individuals from the osteoporotic group compared to the non-osteoporotic one. The osteoporotic group showed more significant differences between regions of the same bone than the non-osteoporotic group. In both groups the subchondral cancellous bone and the subchondral plate were least affected by bone loss. In contrast, the medial metaphyseal region in the osteoporotic group exhibited higher bone loss in comparison to the lateral side. This observation may explain prevailing fracture patterns, which frequently involve compression fractures and certainly has an influence on the stability of implants placed in this medial region. It should be considered when planning the anchoring of osteosynthesis materials in osteoporotic patients with fractures of the proximal humerus. PMID:26705200

  20. Lactoferrin is a potent regulator of bone cell activity and increases bone formation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Jillian; Callon, Karen E; Naot, Dorit; Palmano, Kate P; Banovic, Tatjana; Bava, Usha; Watson, Maureen; Lin, Jian-Ming; Tong, P C; Chen, Qi; Chan, Vincent A; Reid, Helen E; Fazzalari, Nick; Baker, Heather M; Baker, Edward N; Haggarty, Neill W; Grey, Andrew B; Reid, Ian R

    2004-09-01

    Lactoferrin is an iron-binding glycoprotein present in epithelial secretions, such as milk, and in the secondary granules of neutrophils. We found it to be present in fractions of milk protein that stimulated osteoblast growth, so we assessed its effects on bone cell function. Lactoferrin produced large, dose-related increases in thymidine incorporation in primary or cell line cultures of human or rat osteoblast-like cells, at physiological concentrations (1-100 microg/ml). Maximal stimulation was 5-fold above control. Lactoferrin also increased osteoblast differentiation and reduced osteoblast apoptosis by up to 50-70%. Similarly, lactoferrin stimulated proliferation of primary chondrocytes. Purified, recombinant, human, or bovine lactoferrins had similar potencies. In mouse bone marrow cultures, osteoclastogenesis was dose-dependently decreased and was completely arrested by lactoferrin, 100 microg/ml, associated with decreased expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand. In contrast, lactoferrin had no effect on bone resorption by isolated mature osteoclasts. Lactoferrin was administered over calvariae of adult mice for 5 d. New bone formation, assessed using fluorochrome labels, was increased 4-fold by a 4-mg dose of lactoferrin. Thus, lactoferrin has powerful anabolic, differentiating, and antiapoptotic effects on osteoblasts and inhibits osteoclastogenesis. Lactoferrin is a potential therapeutic target in bone disorders such as osteoporosis and is possibly an important physiological regulator of bone growth.

  1. Role of T cells in sex differences in syngeneic bone marrow transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Raveche, E.S.; Santoro, T.; Brecher, G.; Tjio, J.H.

    1985-11-01

    Transferred marrow cells will proliferate in normal mice not exposed to irradiation or any other type of stem cell depletion when five consecutive transfers of 40 million cells are given. Approximately 25% of the mitotic cells are of male donor origin observed cytogenetically in all of the female recipient spleens and marrow analyzed from two weeks to one and one-half years after transfusions. Male donor stem cells are accepted and form a stable component of the self-renewing stem cell pool. In contrast, only 5% female cells are found in male recipients. This sex difference in engraftment is not hormonal since castration of recipients does not alter the percentage of donor cells. Rigorous T depletion of female donor bone marrow, however, increases the percentage of donor engraftment to the level observed when male marrow, either whole or T depleted, is transferred to female recipients. The success of T-depleted female stem cells to seed male recipients is observed in both C57BL/6 and CBA/J. In addition, recipient nude BALB/c males, which lack a thymus, fail to accept whole bone marrow from BALB/c females. However, male bone marrow cells seed BALB/c nude females. These studies demonstrate that the poor engraftment of female cells in transfused male recipients is abrogated by the removal of T cells from the donor female marrow.

  2. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induces leukemic but not normal hematopoietic cell death in a dose-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few years, studies have suggested that oxidative stress plays a role in the regulation of hematopoietic cell homeostasis. In particular, the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) range from hematopoietic cell proliferation to cell death, depending on its concentration in the intracellular milieu. In this work, we evaluated the effects of an oxidative environment on normal and leukemic hematopoietic cells by stimulating normal human (umbilical cord blood) and murine (bone marrow) hematopoietic cells, as well as human myeloid leukemic cells (HL-60 lineage), upon H2O2 stimulus. Total cell populations and primitive subsets were evaluated for each cell type. H2O2 stimulus induces HL-60 cell death, whereas the viability of human and murine normal cells was not affected. The effects of H2O2 stimulus on hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell subsets were examined and the normal primitive cells were found to be unaffected; however, the percentage of leukemic stem cells (LSC) increased in response to H2O2, while clonogenic ability of these cells to generate myeloid clones was inhibited. In addition, H2O2 stimulus caused a decrease in the levels of p-AKT in HL-60 cells, which most likely mediates the observed decrease of viability. In summary, we found that at low concentrations, H2O2 preferentially affects both the LSC subset and total HL-60 cells without damage normal cells. PMID:24365069

  3. Gallium scintigraphy in bone infarction. Correlation with bone imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Armas, R.R.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The appearance of gallium-67 images in bone infarction was studied in nine patients with sickle cell disease and correlated with the bone scan findings. Gallium uptake in acute infarction was decreased or absent with a variable bone scan uptake, and normal in healing infarcts, which showed increased uptake on bone scan. The significance of these findings is discussed.

  4. Modulating endochondral ossification of multipotent stromal cells for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Gawlitta, Debby; Farrell, Eric; Malda, Jos; Creemers, Laura B; Alblas, Jacqueline; Dhert, Wouter J A

    2010-08-01

    For years it has been recognized that engineering of large bone constructs will be feasible only if the hurdle of vascularization is overcome. Attempts to engineer bone tissue have predominantly focused on intramembranous (direct) bone formation. A relatively new and most likely more physiological approach in this line is endochondral bone formation, comprising an intermediate cartilaginous stage. Cartilage in nature is an avascular tissue and its cells are equipped to survive the poor oxygenation and nutritional conditions inherent to implanted tissues. Subsequent terminal differentiation (hypertrophy) of the chondrocytes initiates the formation of a mineralized matrix that will then be converted into bone. Through this mechanism, our long bones grow and most fractures heal through the process of secondary fracture healing. The feasibility of the attractive concept of endochondral bone tissue engineering has already been shown. Most emphasis has gone to the multipotent stromal cells because of their great potential for expansion and differentiation and immunoprivileged nature. This review will focus on the promises and current status of this new field. Further, potent modulators of endochondral bone tissue engineering, including oxygen tension and mechanical stimuli, will be discussed.

  5. Effects of developmental exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on long bone morphology and bone cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Koskela, A; Finnilä, M A; Korkalainen, M; Spulber, S; Koponen, J; Håkansson, H; Tuukkanen, J; Viluksela, M

    2016-06-15

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a ubiquitous and persistent environmental chemical, which has been used extensively due to its stability and surface tension-lowering properties. Toxicological effects include induction of neonatal mortality and reproductive toxicity. In this study, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed orally to 0.3mg PFOA/kg/day throughout pregnancy, and female offspring were studied at the age of 13 or 17months. Morphometrical and biomechanical properties of femurs and tibias were analyzed with micro-computed tomography and 3-point bending, and bone PFOA concentrations were determined by mass spectrometry. The effects of PFOA on bone cell differentiation were studied in osteoclasts from C57BL/6 mice and in the MC3T3 pre-osteoblast cell line. PFOA exposed mice showed increased femoral periosteal area as well as decreased mineral density of tibias. Biomechanical properties of these bones were not affected. Bone PFOA concentrations were clearly elevated even at the age of 17months. In osteoblasts, low concentrations of PFOA increased osteocalcin (OCN) expression and calcium secretion, but at PFOA concentrations of 100μM and above osteocalcin (OCN) expression and calcium secretion were decreased. The number of osteoclasts was increased at all PFOA concentrations tested and resorption activity dose-dependently increased from 0.1-1.0μM, but decreased at higher concentrations. The results show that PFOA accumulates in bone and is present in bones until the old age. PFOA has the potential to influence bone turnover over a long period of time. Therefore bone is a target tissue for PFOA, and altered bone geometry and mineral density seem to persist throughout the life of the animal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of hematopoietic cells and myeloid/erythroid ratio in the bone marrow of the pheasant (Phasianus colchicus).

    PubMed

    Tadjalli, Mina; Nazifi, Saeed; Haghjoo, Rahil

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the normal hematopoiesis, cellular components and myeloid/erythroid (M/E) ratio in the bone marrow of the pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), bone marrow samples were collected from the proximal tibiotarsus bone of 16 clinically healthy adult pheasant. The bone marrow smears were stained using the Giemsa stain. The results indicated that the development and formation of blood cells in the bone marrow of pheasant were similar to other birds, whereas the morphology of the cells was similar to chickens, ducks, quail, and black-head gull. The mean M/E ratio was 1.24, the mean erythroid percentage was 42.24, the mean myeloid percentage was 52.62, and the mean percentage of all other cells percentage was 5.38. There was no significant difference in any of the cellular composition between male and female.

  7. TGF-β in cancer and bone: implications for treatment of bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Juárez, Patricia; Guise, Theresa A

    2011-01-01

    Bone metastases are common in patients with advanced breast, prostate and lung cancer. Tumor cells co-opt bone cells to drive a feed-forward cycle which disrupts normal bone remodeling to result in abnormal bone destruction or formation and tumor growth in bone. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is a major bone-derived factor, which contributes to this vicious cycle of bone metastasis. TGF-β released from bone matrix during osteoclastic resorption stimulates tumor cells to produce osteolytic factors further increasing bone resorption adjacent to the tumor cells. TGF-β also regulates 1) key components of the metastatic cascade such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition, tumor cell invasion, angiogenesis and immunosuppression as well as 2) normal bone remodeling and coupling of bone resorption and formation. Preclinical models demonstrate that blockade of TGF-β signaling is effective to treat and prevent bone metastases as well as to increase bone mass.

  8. Measurement of the normalized broadband ultrasound attenuation in trabecular bone by using a bidirectional transverse transmission technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kang Il

    2015-01-01

    A new method for measuring the normalized broadband ultrasound attenuation (nBUA) in trabecular bone by using a bidirectional transverse transmission technique was proposed and validated with measurements obtained by using the conventional transverse transmission technique. There was no significant difference between the nBUA measurements obtained for 14 bovine femoral trabecular bone samples by using the bidirectional and the conventional transverse transmission techniques. The nBUA measured by using the two transverse transmission techniques showed strong positive correlations of r = 0.87 to 0.88 with the apparent bone density, consistent with the behavior in human trabecular bone invitro. We expect that the new method can be usefully applied for improved accuracy and precision in clinical measurements.

  9. Histochemistry of blood and bone marrow cells in pangolins.

    PubMed

    Caxton-Martins, A E

    1977-04-01

    Blood and bone marrow cells of pangolins have been examined histochemically. Sudanophilia, PAS positivity and acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase reactivity were confined to cells of the granulocytic and monocytic series, while peroxidase reactivity was confined to cells of the erythroid series. In this latter respect the pangolin is unique among mammals so far studied.

  10. Giant-cell lesions of the facial bones

    SciTech Connect

    Som, P.M.; Lawson, W.; Cohen, B.A.

    1983-04-01

    Giant-cell lesions of the paranasal sinuses, including the giant-cell reparative granuloma, the brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism, the true giant-cell tumor, cherubism, and the aneurysmal bone cyst, are uncommon entities. Plain radiographic and computed-tomographic studies of these lesions are described and the differential diagnosis is discussed.

  11. Exposure to Low-Dose X-Ray Radiation Alters Bone Progenitor Cells and Bone Microarchitecture.

    PubMed

    Lima, Florence; Swift, Joshua M; Greene, Elisabeth S; Allen, Matthew R; Cunningham, David A; Braby, Leslie A; Bloomfield, Susan A

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation during medical treatment exerts well-documented deleterious effects on bone health, reducing bone density and contributing to bone growth retardation in young patients and spontaneous fracture in postmenopausal women. However, the majority of human radiation exposures occur in a much lower dose range than that used in the radiation oncology clinic. Furthermore, very few studies have examined the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation on bone integrity and results have been inconsistent. In this study, mice were irradiated with a total-body dose of 0.17, 0.5 or 1 Gy to quantify the early (day 3 postirradiation) and delayed (day 21 postirradiation) effects of radiation on bone microarchitecture and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Female BALBc mice (4 months old) were divided into four groups: irradiated (0.17, 0.5 and 1 Gy) and sham-irradiated controls (0 Gy). Micro-computed tomography analysis of distal femur trabecular bone from animals at day 21 after exposure to 1 Gy of X-ray radiation revealed a 21% smaller bone volume (BV/TV), 22% decrease in trabecular numbers (Tb.N) and 9% greater trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) compared to sham-irradiated controls (P < 0.05). We evaluated the differentiation capacity of bone marrow stromal cells harvested at days 3 and 21 postirradiation into osteoblast and adipocyte cells. Osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation was decreased when cells were harvested at day 3 postirradiation but enhanced in cells isolated at day 21 postirradiation, suggesting a compensatory recovery process. Osteoclast differentiation was increased in 1 Gy irradiated BMSCs harvested at day 3 postirradiation, but not in those harvested at day 21 postirradiation, compared to controls. This study provides evidence of an early, radiation-induced decrease in osteoblast activity and numbers, as well as a later recovery effect after exposure to 1 Gy of X-rays, whereas osteoclastogenesis was enhanced. A better

  12. Gap Junctional Regulation of Signal Transduction in Bone Cells

    PubMed Central

    Buo, Atum M.; Stains, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    The role of gap junctions, particularly that of connexin43 (Cx43), has become an area of increasing interest in bone physiology. An abundance of studies have shown that Cx43 influences the function of osteoblasts and osteocytes, which ultimately impacts bone mass acquisition and skeletal homeostasis. However, the molecular details underlying how Cx43 regulates bone are only coming into focus and have proven to be more complex than originally thought. In this review, we focus on the diverse molecular mechanisms by which Cx43 gap junctions and hemichannels regulate cell signaling pathways, gene expression, mechanotransduction and cell survival in bone cells. This review will highlight key signaling factors that have been identified as downstream effectors of Cx43 and the impact of these pathways on distinct osteoblast and osteocyte functions. PMID:24486014

  13. Prevascularisation with endothelial progenitor cells improved restoration of the architectural and functional properties of newly formed bone for bone reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Pang, Hao; Wu, Xue-Hui; Fu, Sheng-Long; Luo, Fei; Zhang, Ze-Hua; Hou, Tian-Yong; Li, Zhi-Qiang; Chang, Zheng-Qi; Yu, Bo; Xu, Jian-Zhong

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the addition of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contributes to restoring the architectural and functional properties of newly formed bone for reconstruction of bone defects. Bone marrow-derived EPCs and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were co-seeded onto demineralized bone matrix (DBM) as a prevascularized tissue-engineered bone (TEB) for the repair of segmental bone defects to evaluate the effects of prevascularization of TEB on ameliorating morphological, haemodynamic and mechanical characteristics. The restoration of the intraosseous vasculature and medullary cavity was improved markedly compared to the non-prevascularized groups. The blood supply, biomechanical strength, and bone mineral density of the prevascularized group were significantly higher than those of the non-prevascularized groups during bone reconstruction. The present study indicates that EPC-dependent prevascularization contributes to bone healing with structural reconstruction and functional recovery and may improve the understanding of correlation between angiogenesis and osteogenesis.

  14. Polymeric scaffolds as stem cell carriers in bone repair.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Filippo; Santoro, Marco; Perale, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    Although bone has a high potential to regenerate itself after damage and injury, the efficacious repair of large bone defects resulting from resection, trauma or non-union fractures still requires the implantation of bone grafts. Materials science, in conjunction with biotechnology, can satisfy these needs by developing artificial bones, synthetic substitutes and organ implants. In particular, recent advances in polymer science have provided several innovations, underlying the increasing importance of macromolecules in this field. To address the increasing need for improved bone substitutes, tissue engineering seeks to create synthetic, three-dimensional scaffolds made from polymeric materials, incorporating stem cells and growth factors, to induce new bone tissue formation. Polymeric materials have shown a great affinity for cell transplantation and differentiation and, moreover, their structure can be tuned in order to maintain an adequate mechanical resistance and contemporarily be fully bioresorbable. This review emphasizes recent progress in polymer science that allows relaible polymeric scaffolds to be synthesized for stem cell growth in bone regeneration.

  15. Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Contribute to Bone Formation Following Infusion into Femoral Cavities of a Mouse Model of Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng; Wang, Xujun; Niyibizi, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there are conflicting data in literature regarding contribution of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) to bone formation when the cells are systemically delivered in recipient animals. To understand if BMSCs contribute to bone cell phenotype and bone formation in osteogenesis imperfecta bones (OI), MSCs marked with GFP were directly infused into the femurs of a mouse model of OI (oim). The contribution of the cells to the cell phenotype and bone formation was assessed by histology, immunohistochemistry and biomechanical loading of recipient bones. Two weeks following infusion of BMSCs, histological examination of the recipient femurs demonstrated presence of new bone when compared to femurs injected with saline which showed little or no bone formation. The new bone contained few donor cells as demonstrated by GFP fluorescence. At six weeks following cell injection, new bone was still detectable in the recipient femurs but was enhanced by injection of the cells suspended in pepsin solublized type I collagen. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical staining showed that donor GFP positive cells in the new bone were localized with osteocalcin expressing cells suggesting that the cells differentiated into osteoblasts in vivo. Biomechanical loading to failure in thee point bending, revealed that, femurs infused with BMSCs in PBS or in soluble type I collagen were biomechanically stronger than those injected with PBS or type I collagen alone. Taken together, the results indicate that transplanted cells differentiated into osteoblasts in vivo and contributed to bone formation in vivo; we also speculate that donor cells induced differentiation or recruitment of endogenous cells to initiate reparative process at early stages following transplantation. PMID:20570757

  16. Phenotypic plasticity in normal breast derived epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Normal, healthy human breast tissue from a variety of volunteer donors has become available for research thanks to the establishment of the Susan G. Komen for the Cure® Tissue Bank at the IU Simon Cancer Center (KTB). Multiple epithelial (K-HME) and stromal cells (K-HMS) were established from the donated tissue. Explant culture was utilized to isolate the cells from pieces of breast tissue. Selective media and trypsinization were employed to select either epithelial cells or stromal cells. The primary, non-transformed epithelial cells, the focus of this study, were characterized by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and in vitro cell culture. Results All of the primary, non-transformed epithelial cells tested have the ability to differentiate in vitro into a variety of cell types when plated in or on biologic matrices. Cells identified include stratified squamous epithelial, osteoclasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, neural progenitors/neurons, immature muscle and melanocytes. The cells also express markers of embryonic stem cells. Conclusions The cell culture conditions employed select an epithelial cell that is pluri/multipotent. The plasticity of the epithelial cells developed mimics that seen in metaplastic carcinoma of the breast (MCB), a subtype of triple negative breast cancer; and may provide clues to the origin of this particularly aggressive type of breast cancer. The KTB is a unique biorepository, and the normal breast epithelial cells isolated from donated tissue have significant potential as new research tools. PMID:24915897

  17. Direct and indirect contribution of bone marrow-derived cells to cancer.

    PubMed

    Guest, Ian; Ilic, Zoran; Ma, Jun; Grant, Denise; Glinsky, Gennadi; Sell, Stewart

    2010-05-15

    Stromal-epithelial interactions may control the growth and initiation of cancers. Here, we not only test the hypothesis that bone marrow-derived cells may effect development of cancers arising from other tissue cells by forming tumor stroma but also that sarcomas may arise by transformation of stem cells from the bone marrow and epithelial cancers may arise by transdifferentiation of bone marrow stem cells to epithelial cancers. Lethally irradiated female FVB/N mice were restored with bone marrow (BM) transplants from a male transgenic mouse carrying the polyoma middle T-oncoprotein under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter (MMTV-PyMT) and followed for development of lesions. All of 8 lethally irradiated female FVB/N recipient mice, restored with BM transplants from a male MMTV-PyMT transgenic mouse, developed Y-chromosome negative (Y-) cancers of various organs surrounded by Y+ stroma. One of the female FVB/N recipient mice also developed fibrosarcoma and 1, a diploid breast adenocarcinoma containing Y chromosomes. In contrast, only 1 of 12 control female mice restored with normal male BM developed a tumor (lymphoma) during the same time period. These results indicate not only that the transgenic BM-derived stromal cells may indirectly contribute to development of tumors in recipient mice but also that sarcomas may arise by transformation of BM stem cells and that breast cancers arise by transdifferentiation of BM stem cells, presumably by mesenchymal-epithelial transition.

  18. Glycosaminoglycans enhance osteoblast differentiation of bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Smitha; Mathew, Suja Ann; Gupta, Pawan Kumar; Bhonde, Ramesh; Totey, Satish

    2014-02-01

    Extracellular matrix plays an important role in regulating cell growth and differentiation. The biomimetic approach of cell-based tissue engineering is based on mirroring this in vivo micro environment for developing a functional tissue engineered construct. In this study, we treated normal tissue culture plates with selected extracellular matrix components consisting of glycosaminoglycans such as chondroitin-4-sulphate, dermatan sulphate, chondroitin-6-sulphate, heparin and hyaluronic acid. Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from adult human bone marrow were cultured on the glycosaminoglycan treated culture plates to evaluate their regulatory role in cell growth and osteoblast differentiation. Although no significant improvement on human mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and proliferation was observed on the glycosaminoglycan-treated tissue culture plates, there was selective osteoblast differentiation, indicating its potential role in differentiation rather than proliferation. Osteoblast differentiation studies showed high osteogenic potential for all tested glycosaminoglycans except chondroitin-4-sulphate. Osteoblast differentiation-associated genes such as osterix, osteocalcin, integrin binding sialoprotein, osteonectin and collagen, type 1, alpha 1 showed significant upregulation. We identified osterix as the key transcription factor responsible for the enhanced bone matrix deposition observed on hyaluronic acid, heparin and chondroitin-6-sulphate. Hyaluronic acid provided the most favourable condition for osteoblast differentiation and bone matrix synthesis. Our results confirm and emphasise the significant role of extracellular matrix in regulating cell differentiation. To summarise, glycosaminoglycans of extracellular matrix played a significant role in regulating osteoblast differentiation and could be exploited in the biomimetic approach of fabricating or functionalizing scaffolds for stem cell based bone tissue engineering.

  19. BONE FORMATION INDUCED IN MOUSE THIGH BY CULTURED HUMAN CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, H. Clarke; Coulter, P. R.

    1967-01-01

    Cultured FL human amnion cells injected intramuscularly into cortisone-conditioned mice proliferate to form discrete nodules which become surrounded by fibroblasts. Within 12 days, fibroblastic zones differentiate into cartilage which calcifies to form bone. Experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that FL cells behave as an inductor of bone formation. In the electron microscope, FL cells were readily distinguished from surrounding fibroblasts. Transitional forms between the two cell types were not recognized. Stains for acid mucopolysaccharides emphasized the sharp boundary between metachromatic fibroblastic and cartilaginous zones and nonmetachromatic FL cells. 35S was taken up preferentially by fibroblasts and chondrocytes and then deposited extracellularly in a manner suggesting active secretion of sulfated mucopolysaccharides. FL cells showed negligible 35S utilization and secretion. FL cells, labeled in vitro with thymidine-3H, were injected and followed radioautographically, during bone formation. Nuclear label of injected FL cells did not appear in adjacent fibroblasts in quantities sufficient to indicate origin of the latter from FL cells. The minimal fibroblast nuclear labeling seen may represent reutilization of label from necrotic FL cells. It is suggested that FL cells injected into the mouse thigh induced cartilage and bone formation by host fibroblasts. PMID:4226746

  20. Bone formation induced in mouse thigh by cultured human cells.

    PubMed

    Anderson, H C; Coulter, P R

    1967-04-01

    Cultured FL human amnion cells injected intramuscularly into cortisone-conditioned mice proliferate to form discrete nodules which become surrounded by fibroblasts. Within 12 days, fibroblastic zones differentiate into cartilage which calcifies to form bone. Experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that FL cells behave as an inductor of bone formation. In the electron microscope, FL cells were readily distinguished from surrounding fibroblasts. Transitional forms between the two cell types were not recognized. Stains for acid mucopolysaccharides emphasized the sharp boundary between metachromatic fibroblastic and cartilaginous zones and nonmetachromatic FL cells. (35)S was taken up preferentially by fibroblasts and chondrocytes and then deposited extracellularly in a manner suggesting active secretion of sulfated mucopolysaccharides. FL cells showed negligible (35)S utilization and secretion. FL cells, labeled in vitro with thymidine-(3)H, were injected and followed radioautographically, during bone formation. Nuclear label of injected FL cells did not appear in adjacent fibroblasts in quantities sufficient to indicate origin of the latter from FL cells. The minimal fibroblast nuclear labeling seen may represent reutilization of label from necrotic FL cells. It is suggested that FL cells injected into the mouse thigh induced cartilage and bone formation by host fibroblasts.

  1. Efficient generation of canine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Isotani, Mayu; Katsuma, Kensuke; Tamura, Kyoichi; Yamada, Misato; Yagihara, Hiroko; Azakami, Daigo; Ono, Kenichiro; Washizu, Tsukimi; Bonkobara, Makoto

    2006-08-01

    Because of their unsurpassed potency in presenting antigens to naive T cells, dendritic cells are considered to be an important candidate in the development of immunotherapeutic strategies. Despite the high potential of dendritic cell-based immunotherapy, as a so-called dendritic cell vaccination, few clinical approaches using dendritic cell vaccination have been performed in the dog because of very limited information regarding the generation of canine dendritic cells and their functional properties. We therefore established a protocol for the efficient generation of dendritic cells from canine bone marrow cells using recombinant feline granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and canine interleukin-4. Dendritic cells were generated efficiently: a yield of 1-9 x 10(6) cells per approximately 0.5 ml of canine bone marrow aspiration was achieved. These dendritic cells showed features shared with mouse and human dendritic cells: dendrite morphology, expression of surface markers MHC class II and CD11c, and up-regulation of molecules related to antigen presentation (MHC class II, B7-1, and B7-2) by activation with lipopolysaccharide. Moreover, the dendritic cells demonstrated phagocytic activity, processing activity of pinocytosed proteins, and activation of allogeneic T cells far more potent than that by macrophages. Our findings suggest that the bone marrow-derived dendritic cells are functional for the capturing and processing of antigens and the initiation of T cell responses.

  2. Small Molecule Protection of Bone Marrow Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-14-1-0297 TITLE: Small Molecule Protection of Bone Marrow Hematopoietic Stem Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Raymond J...Molecule Protection of Bone Marrow Hematopoietic Stem Cells Stem Cells ’ 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0297 W81XWH-14-1-0297 W81XWH-14-1-0297 5b...hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from damage or killing by endogenous aldehydes. Proof-of-concept for these experiments has been developed using isogenic

  3. Enhancement of bone marrow allografts from nude mice into mismatched recipients by T cells void of graft-versus-host activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lapidot, T.; Lubin, I.; Terenzi, A.; Faktorowich, Y.; Erlich, P.; Reisner, Y. )

    1990-06-01

    Transplantation of 8 x 10(6) C57BL/6-Nu+/Nu+ (nude) bone marrow cells into C3H/HeJ recipients after conditioning with 8 Gy of total body irradiation has resulted in a markedly higher rate of graft rejection or graft failure compared to that found in recipients of normal C57BL/6 or C57BL/6-Bg+/Bg+ (beige) T-cell-depleted bone marrow. Mixing experiments using different numbers of nude bone marrow cells with or without mature thymocytes (unagglutinated by peanut agglutinin) revealed that engraftment of allogeneic T-cell-depleted bone marrow is T-cell dependent. To ensure engraftment, a large inoculum of nude bone marrow must be supplemented with a trace number of donor T cells, whereas a small bone marrow dose from nude donors requires a much larger number of T cells for engraftment. Marked enhancement of donor type chimerism was also found when F1 thymocytes were added to nude bone marrow cells, indicating that the enhancement of bone marrow engraftment by T cells is not only mediated by alloreactivity against residual host cells but may rather be generated by growth factors, the release of which may require specific interactions between T cells and stem cells or between T cells and bone marrow stroma cells.

  4. [Safety evaluation of tissue engineered medical devices using normal human mesenchymal stem cells].

    PubMed

    Sawada, Rumi; Ito, Tomomi; Tsuchiya, Toshie

    2007-05-01

    Several recent studies demonstrated the potential of bioengineering using somatic stem cells in regenerative medicine. Adult human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) derived from bone marrow have the pluripotency to differentiate into cells of mesodermal origin, e.g., bone, cartilage, adipose, and muscle cells; they, therefore, have many potential clinical applications. On the other hand, stem cells possess a self-renewal capability similar to cancer cells. For safety evaluation of tissue engineered medical devices using normal hMSCs, in this study, we investigated the expression levels of several genes that affect cell proliferation in hMSCs during in vitro culture. We focused on the relationship between the hMSC proliferation and their transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) signaling during in vitro culture. The proliferation rate of hMSCs gradually decreased and cellular senescence was observed for about 3 months. The mRNA expressions of TGFbeta1, TGFbeta2, and TGFbeta receptor type I (TGFbetaRI) in hMSCs increased with the length of cell culture. The mRNA expressions of Smad3 increased, but those of c-myc and nucleostemin decreased with the length hMSCs were in in vitro culture. In addition, the expression profiles of the genes which regulate cellular proliferation in hMSCs were significantly different from those of cancer cells. In conclusion, hMSCs derived from bone marrow seldom underwent spontaneous transformation during 1-2 months in vitro culture for use in clinical applications. In hMSCs as well as in epithelial cells, growth might be controlled by the TGFbeta family signaling.

  5. Differential Uptake Of Benzoporphyrin Derivative (BPD) By Leukemic Versus Normal Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David; Julia G.; Levy

    1989-06-01

    Spectrofluorometric and FACS (Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting) analyses were employed to determine 1) the maximal fluorescence excitation and emission peaks characteristic of BPD, benzoporphyrin derivative, 2) which structural analogue of BPD, BPD-monoacid ring A (BPD-MA), BPD-monoacid ring B (BPD-MB), BPD-diacid ring A (BPD-DA) or BPD-diacid ring B (BPD-DB) fluoresced to the greatest extent in the presence of leukemic cells and 3) to determine whether substantive differences existed in the uptake of BPD by human or murine leukemic versus normal human or murine mononuclear cells. Spectrofluorometric analysis revealed that the maximal fluorescence excitation peak of BPD (BPD-diacid ring A) was situated at 420 nm with a less prominent peak at 356 nm. Fluorescence emission scans, in which 420 nm was used as the excitation wavelength, revealed a single prominent fluorescence peak at 690 nm. FACS analysis revealed that negligible differences in fluorescence existed between leukemic cells incubated with BPD-MA, BPD-MB, BPD-DA, or BPD-DB upon excitation with visible light (488nm). However, subsequent to uv excitation cells incubated with BPD-MA fluoresced to the greatest extent followed by BPD-MB, BPD-DA, and BPD-DB respectively. Pronounced differences in red fluorescence were consistently observed between leukemic cells (HL60, K562, and L1210) and normal human or murine bone marrow cells incubated with BPD-MA. These observed differences in BPD-mediated fluorescence provide the rationale for sorting leukemic from normal cells via FACS and may constitute a novel method for extra-corporeal purging of remission marrow in autologous bone marrow transplantation.

  6. Giant cell reparative granuloma of the sphenoid bone.

    PubMed

    Aralasmak, A; Aygun, N; Westra, W H; Yousem, D M

    2006-09-01

    We present 2 patients with giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG) of the sphenoid bone. The first patient is an 8-year-old boy with involvement of the greater wing, and the second is a 53- year-old man with a lateral pterygoid plate mass. Both patients presented with rapid expansion of lytic bone lesions, which had solid and cystic components and lacked matrix calcification. Biopsies were indeterminate for definitive diagnoses. The radiologic appearance, location, and incidence of the lesions, and the patient's age and medical history are helpful aids in narrowing the differential diagnosis of sphenoid bone lesions. However, the imaging and, occasionally, even the histologic findings may not suggest the specific diagnosis of GCRG, which must be added into the differential diagnosis of rapidly enlarging cystic bone lesions of the sphenoid bone.

  7. Mice with hypomorphic expression of the sodium-phosphate cotransporter PiT1/Slc20a1 have an unexpected normal bone mineralization.

    PubMed

    Bourgine, Annabelle; Pilet, Paul; Diouani, Sara; Sourice, Sophie; Lesoeur, Julie; Beck-Cormier, Sarah; Khoshniat, Solmaz; Weiss, Pierre; Friedlander, Gérard; Guicheux, Jérôme; Beck, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    The formation of hydroxyapatite crystals and their insertion into collagen fibrils of the matrix are essential steps for bone mineralization. As phosphate is a main structural component of apatite crystals, its uptake by skeletal cells is critical and must be controlled by specialized membrane proteins. In mammals, in vitro studies have suggested that the high-affinity sodium-phosphate cotransporter PiT1 could play this role. In vivo, PiT1 expression was detected in hypertrophic chondrocytes of murine metatarsals, but its implication in bone physiology is not yet deciphered. As the complete deletion of PiT1 results in embryonic lethality at E12.5, we took advantage of a mouse model bearing two copies of PiT1 hypomorphic alleles to study the effect of a low expression of PiT1 on bone mineralization in vivo. In this report, we show that a 85% down-regulation of PiT1 in long bones resulted in a slight (6%) but significant reduction of femur length in young mice (15- and 30-day-old). However, despite a defect in alcian blue / alizarin red S and Von Kossa staining of hypomorphic 1-day-old mice, using X-rays micro-computed tomography, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and histological staining techniques we could not detect differences between hypomorphic and wild-type mice of 15- to 300-days old. Interestingly, the expression of PiT2, the paralog of PiT1, was increased 2-fold in bone of PiT1 hypomorphic mice accounting for a normal phosphate uptake in mutant cells. Whether this may contribute to the absence of bone mineralization defects remains to be further deciphered.

  8. Bone Matrix Osteonectin Limits Prostate Cancer Cell Growth and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Kapinas, Kristina; Lowther, Katie M.; Kessler, Catherine B.; Tilbury, Karissa; Lieberman, Jay R.; Tirnauer, Jennifer S.; Campagnola, Paul; Delany, Anne M.

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable interest in understanding prostate cancer metastasis to bone and the interaction of these cells with the bone microenvironment. Osteonectin/SPARC/BM-40 is a collagen binding matricellular protein that is enriched in bone. Its expression is increased in prostate cancer metastases, and it stimulates the migration of prostate carcinoma cells. However, the presence of osteonectin in cancer cells and the stroma may limit prostate tumor development and progression. To determine how bone matrix osteonectin affects the behavior of prostate cancer cells, we modeled prostate cancer cell-bone interactions using the human prostate cancer cell line PC-3, and mineralized matrices synthesized by wild type and osteonectin-null osteoblasts in vitro. We developed this in vitro system because the structural complexity of collagen matrices in vivo is not mimicked by reconstituted collagen scaffolds or by more complex substrates, like basement membrane extracts. Second harmonic generation imaging demonstrated that the wild type matrices had thick collagen fibers organized into longitudinal bundles, whereas osteonectin-null matrices had thinner fibers in random networks. Importantly, a mouse model of prostate cancer metastases to bone showed a collagen fiber phenotype similar to the wild type matrix synthesized in vitro. When PC-3 cells were grown on the wild type matrices, they displayed decreased cell proliferation, increased cell spreading, and decreased resistance to radiation-induced cell death, compared to cells grown on osteonectin-null matrix. Our data support the idea that osteonectin can suppress prostate cancer pathogenesis, expanding this concept to the microenvironment of skeletal metastases. PMID:22525512

  9. [Connexin 43 expression and interacellular communicating function in acute leukemia bone marrow stroma cells].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao; Zhang, Xi; Si, Ying-Jian; Gao, Lei; Gao, Li; Chen, Xing-Hua

    2007-08-01

    This study was purposed to investigate the connexin 43 (Cx43) expression level in acute leukemia bone marrow stromal cells (ABMSCs) and normal bone marrow stromal cells (NBMSCs), and to explore the difference in communicating functions between these cells. The Cx43 expression levels of ABMSCs and NBMSCs were detected by using immunohistochemistry and computer gray scale assay, and the difference of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) was examined through dry transfer technique. The results showed that expression level of Cx43 in ABMSCs was lower than that in NBMSCs and its function of GJIC in ABMSCs was also weaker than that in NBMSCs. It is concluded that cell-cell communication function is lowered in ABMSCs.

  10. Mesenchymal stem cells cooperate with bone marrow cells in therapy of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Urbán, Veronika S; Kiss, Judit; Kovács, János; Gócza, Elen; Vas, Virág; Monostori, Eva; Uher, Ferenc

    2008-01-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that the adult bone marrow harbors cells that can influence beta-cell regeneration in diabetic animals. Other reports, however, have contradicted these findings. To address this issue, we used an animal model of type 1 diabetes in which the disease was induced with streptozotocin in mice. Freshly prepared sex-mismatched bone marrow cells (BMCs) and syngeneic or allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were concomitantly administrated into sublethally irradiated diabetic mice. Blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations rapidly returned to normal levels, accompanied by efficient tissue regeneration after a single injection of a mixture of 10(6) BMCs per 10(5) MSCs. Neither BMC nor MSC transplantation was effective alone. Successful treatment of diabetic animals was not due to the reconstitution of the damaged islet cells from the transplant, since no donor-derived beta-cells were found in the recovered animals, indicating a graft-initiated endogenous repair process. Moreover, MSC injection caused the disappearance of beta-cell-specific T lymphocytes from diabetic pancreas. Therefore, we suggest that two aspects of this successful treatment regimen operate in parallel and synergistically in our model. First, BMCs and MSCs induce the regeneration of recipient-derived pancreatic insulin-secreting cells. Second, MSCs inhibit T-cell-mediated immune responses against newly formed beta-cells, which, in turn, are able to survive in this altered immunological milieu. Thus, the application of this therapy in human patients suffering from diabetes and/or other tissue destructive autoimmune diseases may be feasible.

  11. Cardiomyocyte regeneration from circulating bone marrow cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Kuramochi, Yukio; Fukazawa, Ryuji; Migita, Makoto; Hayakawa, Jun; Hayashida, Mari; Uchikoba, Yohko; Fukumi, Daichi; Shimada, Takashi; Ogawa, Shunichi

    2003-09-01

    We investigated the role of circulating bone marrow cells (BMC) in cardiomyocyte regeneration. BMC, isolated from transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP), were transplanted into lethally irradiated C57BL6 mice. Five weeks after bone marrow transplantation (BMT), flow cytometric analysis for GFP-positive cells confirmed reconstitution of transplanted bone marrow. Bone marrow transplant mice subsequently underwent left coronary artery ligation (myocardial infarction) or sham-operation, and were killed at 1 mo or 3 mo after operation. Infarct size was similar in bone marrow transplant mice at 1 mo (47.1 +/- 5.9%) and at 3 mo (45.3 +/- 7.8%), and echocardiography at 2 and 8 wk revealed decreasing left ventricular function. In infarcted heart, GFP-positive cells that expressed desmin and troponin T-C were identified by confocal microscopy. GFP and troponin T-C double-positive cells were predominantly in the peri-infarcted region (1 mo, 365 +/- 45 cells/50 sections; 3 mo: 458 +/- 100 cells/50 sections; p < 0.05 versus noninfarct, infarct, and sham-operated regions). Furthermore, BMC mobilization and differentiation into cardiomyocytes was found to be complete within 1 mo after myocardial infarction. These results demonstrate that circulating BMC undergo mobilization and differentiation in cardiac cells after myocardial infarction. Future studies are required to determine the molecular signaling mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon.

  12. Viable cells survive in fresh frozen human bone allografts.

    PubMed

    Simpson, David; Kakarala, Gopikrishna; Hampson, Karen; Steele, Niall; Ashton, Brian

    2007-02-01

    Fresh frozen bone allograft is available for human recipients after at least 6 months of quarantine at -80 degrees C. It is assumed that cryopreservation without cryoprotectant removes all viable donor cells. We studied the in vitro cell growth from samples of fresh frozen human femoral head allografts after they had been released for patient use, and compared it with cell growth from a control group of fresh cancellous bone specimens from excised femoral heads (8 samples in each group). Cell outgrowths were seen in all of the fresh cancellous bone specimens (100% of replicates, 48 replicates per specimen) but only in a small minority of replicates from 4 of the allograft samples (mean 3.1%). Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) investigations revealed that cell outgrowths from both groups contained mRNA for transcription factors Runx2 and Osterix, and also for matrix proteins collagen type I, osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein. This is consistent with the cells being osteoblast-related. This study confirms that fresh frozen human bone allograft cells have the potential to grow in vitro, but the significance of this in recipients is currently unknown.

  13. Multipotent adult progenitor cells from bone marrow differentiate into functional hepatocyte-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Robert E.; Reyes, Morayma; Koodie, Lisa; Jiang, Yuehua; Blackstad, Mark; Lund, Troy; Lenvik, Todd; Johnson, Sandra; Hu, Wei-Shou; Verfaillie, Catherine M.

    2002-01-01

    We have derived from normal human, mouse, and rat postnatal bone marrow primitive, multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) that can differentiate into most mesodermal cells and neuroectodermal cells in vitro and into all embryonic lineages in vivo. Here, we show that MAPCs can also differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro. Human, mouse, and rat MAPCs, cultured on Matrigel with FGF-4 and HGF, differentiated into epithelioid cells that expressed hepatocyte nuclear factor-3β (HNF-3β), GATA4, cytokeratin 19 (CK19), transthyretin, and α-fetoprotein by day 7, and expressed CK18, HNF-4, and HNF-1α on days 14–28. Virtually all human, as well as a majority of rodent cells stained positive for albumin and CK18 on day 21; 5% (rodent) to 25% (human) cells were binucleated by day 21. These cells also acquired functional characteristics of hepatocytes: they secreted urea and albumin, had phenobarbital-inducible cytochrome p450, could take up LDL, and stored glycogen. MAPCs, which can be expanded in vitro and maintained in an undifferentiated state for more than 100 population doublings, can thus differentiate into cells with morphological, phenotypic, and functional characteristics of hepatocytes. MAPCs may therefore be an ideal cell for in vivo therapies for liver disorders or for use in bioartificial liver devices. PMID:12021244

  14. Phospholipase C Signaling via the Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)/PTH-Related Peptide Receptor Is Essential for Normal Bone Responses to PTH

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jun; Liu, Minlin; Yang, Dehong; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Thomas, Clare C.; Schipani, Ernestina; Bringhurst, F. Richard; Kronenberg, Henry M.

    2010-01-01

    We have previously shown that differentiation of hypertrophic chondrocytes is delayed in mice expressing a mutated PTH/PTHrP receptor (PTHR) (called DSEL here) that stimulates adenylyl cyclase normally but fails to activate phospholipase C (PLC). To better understand the role of PLC signaling via the PTHR in skeletal and mineral homeostasis, we examined these mice fed a normal or calcium-deficient diet. On a standard diet, DSEL mice displayed a modest decrease in bone mass. Remarkably, when fed a low-calcium diet or infused with PTH, DSEL mice exhibited strikingly curtailed peritrabecular stromal cell responses and attenuated new bone formation when compared with Wt mice. Attenuated in vitro colony formation was also observed in bone marrow cells derived from DSEL mice fed a low-calcium diet. Furthermore, PTH stimulated proliferation and increased mRNAs encoding cyclin D1 in primary osteoblasts derived from Wt but not from DSEL mice. Our data indicate that PLC signaling through the PTHR is required for skeletal homeostasis. PMID:20501677

  15. Phospholipase C signaling via the parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide receptor is essential for normal bone responses to PTH.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun; Liu, Minlin; Yang, Dehong; Bouxsein, Mary L; Thomas, Clare C; Schipani, Ernestina; Bringhurst, F Richard; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2010-08-01

    We have previously shown that differentiation of hypertrophic chondrocytes is delayed in mice expressing a mutated PTH/PTHrP receptor (PTHR) (called DSEL here) that stimulates adenylyl cyclase normally but fails to activate phospholipase C (PLC). To better understand the role of PLC signaling via the PTHR in skeletal and mineral homeostasis, we examined these mice fed a normal or calcium-deficient diet. On a standard diet, DSEL mice displayed a modest decrease in bone mass. Remarkably, when fed a low-calcium diet or infused with PTH, DSEL mice exhibited strikingly curtailed peritrabecular stromal cell responses and attenuated new bone formation when compared with Wt mice. Attenuated in vitro colony formation was also observed in bone marrow cells derived from DSEL mice fed a low-calcium diet. Furthermore, PTH stimulated proliferation and increased mRNAs encoding cyclin D1 in primary osteoblasts derived from Wt but not from DSEL mice. Our data indicate that PLC signaling through the PTHR is required for skeletal homeostasis.

  16. Epidemiology and imaging appearance of the normal Bi-/multipartite hallux sesamoid bone.

    PubMed

    Favinger, Jennifer L; Porrino, Jack Anthony; Richardson, Michael L; Mulcahy, Hyojeong; Chew, Felix S; Brage, Michael E

    2015-02-01

    Turf toe is a hyperextension injury of the hallux metatarsophalangeal joint that can be difficult to diagnose on physical examination and imaging. Diastasis of the bi- or multipartite sesamoid of the hallux has been implicated as 1 potential radiographic finding of turf toe injury, and when present may require operative management. However, the normal interval for the bi-/multipartite sesamoid has not yet been established. A total of 671 foot radiograph series were reviewed in effort to quantify the dominant interval of the bi-/multipartite sesamoid bone with respect to potential influencing factors including right versus left foot, medial and/or lateral sesamoid involvement, patient age and gender, and weight versus non-weight-bearing radiograph technique. The prevalence of a bi-/multipartite hallux sesamoid was 14.3% in our population. The dominant sesamoid interval ranged from 0-2 mm, with an average of 0.79 mm. We conclude that sesamoid diastasis should be considered, in the appropriate clinical setting, when the sesamoid interval is greater than 2 mm on a routine AP radiograph of the foot. Level III, comparative study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Cytotoxicity of Algae Extracts on Normal and Malignant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bechelli, Jeremy; Coppage, Myra; Rosell, Karen; Liesveld, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Algae preparations are commonly used in alternative medicine. We examined the effects of algae extracts on normal hematopoietic cells and leukemia cells. Ethanol extracts were prepared of Dunaliella salina (Dun), Astaxanthin (Ast), Spirulina platensis (Spir), and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA). Cell viability effects were completed by Annexin staining. Ast and AFA inhibited HL-60 and MV-4-11 whereas Dun and Spir had no effect. Primary AML blasts demonstrated increased apoptosis in AFA. Primary CLL cells showed apoptosis at 24 hours after exposure to Dun, Ast, Spir, and AFA. High AFA concentrations decreased viability of normal marrow cells. Normal CD34+ viability was inhibited by Dun. Dun and AFA inhibited BFU-E, but all extracts inhibited CFU-GM. Cell-cycle analysis of AML cell lines showed G0/G1 arrest in the presence of AFA. These data suggest that algae extracts may inhibit AML cell lines and leukemia blasts, but they may also have potential inhibitory effects on normal hematopoiesis. PMID:23213541

  18. Cytotoxicity of algae extracts on normal and malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Bechelli, Jeremy; Coppage, Myra; Rosell, Karen; Liesveld, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Algae preparations are commonly used in alternative medicine. We examined the effects of algae extracts on normal hematopoietic cells and leukemia cells. Ethanol extracts were prepared of Dunaliella salina (Dun), Astaxanthin (Ast), Spirulina platensis (Spir), and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA). Cell viability effects were completed by Annexin staining. Ast and AFA inhibited HL-60 and MV-4-11 whereas Dun and Spir had no effect. Primary AML blasts demonstrated increased apoptosis in AFA. Primary CLL cells showed apoptosis at 24 hours after exposure to Dun, Ast, Spir, and AFA. High AFA concentrations decreased viability of normal marrow cells. Normal CD34+ viability was inhibited by Dun. Dun and AFA inhibited BFU-E, but all extracts inhibited CFU-GM. Cell-cycle analysis of AML cell lines showed G0/G1 arrest in the presence of AFA. These data suggest that algae extracts may inhibit AML cell lines and leukemia blasts, but they may also have potential inhibitory effects on normal hematopoiesis.

  19. Citalopram increases the differentiation efficacy of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into neuronal-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Verdi, Javad; Mortazavi-Tabatabaei, Seyed Abdolreza; Sharif, Shiva; Verdi, Hadi; Shoae-Hassani, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants can promote neuronal cell proliferation and enhance neuroplasticity both in vitro and in vivo. It is hypothesized that citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, can promote the neuronal differentiation of adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Citalopram strongly enhanced neuronal characteristics of the cells derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The rate of cell death was decreased in citalopram-treated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells than in control cells in neurobasal medium. In addition, the cumulative population doubling level of the citalopram-treated cells was significantly increased compared to that of control cells. Also BrdU incorporation was elevated in citalopram-treated cells. These findings suggest that citalopram can improve the neuronal-like cell differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by increasing cell proliferation and survival while maintaining their neuronal characteristics. PMID:25206899

  20. Citalopram increases the differentiation efficacy of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into neuronal-like cells.

    PubMed

    Verdi, Javad; Mortazavi-Tabatabaei, Seyed Abdolreza; Sharif, Shiva; Verdi, Hadi; Shoae-Hassani, Alireza

    2014-04-15

    Several studies have demonstrated that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants can promote neuronal cell proliferation and enhance neuroplasticity both in vitro and in vivo. It is hypothesized that citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, can promote the neuronal differentiation of adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Citalopram strongly enhanced neuronal characteristics of the cells derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The rate of cell death was decreased in citalopram-treated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells than in control cells in neurobasal medium. In addition, the cumulative population doubling level of the citalopram-treated cells was significantly increased compared to that of control cells. Also BrdU incorporation was elevated in citalopram-treated cells. These findings suggest that citalopram can improve the neuronal-like cell differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by increasing cell proliferation and survival while maintaining their neuronal characteristics.

  1. Expression of Pitx2 in stromal cells is required for normal hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Kieusseian, Aurélie; Chagraoui, Jalila; Kerdudo, Cécile; Mangeot, Philippe-Emmanuel; Gage, Philip J; Navarro, Nicole; Izac, Brigitte; Uzan, Georges; Forget, Bernard G; Dubart-Kupperschmitt, Anne

    2006-01-15

    Although the expression of Pitx2, a bicoid family homeodomain transcription factor, is highly regulated during hematopoiesis, its function during this process was not documented; we thus studied hematopoiesis in Pitx2-null mice. We found that Pitx2(-/-) embryos display hypoplastic livers with reduced numbers of hematopoietic cells, but these cells had normal hematopoietic potential, as evidenced by colony-forming assays, immature progenitor cell assays, and long-term repopulation assays. Because the microenvironment is also crucial to the development of normal hematopoiesis, we established Pitx2(-/-) and Pitx2(+/+) stromas from fetal liver and studied their hematopoietic supportive capacity. We showed that the frequency of cobblestone area-forming cells was 4-fold decreased when using Pitx2(-/-) stromal cells compared with Pitx2(+/+) stromal cells, whatever the Pitx2 genotype of hematopoietic cells tested in this assay. This defect was rescued by expression of Pitx2 into Pitx2(-/-) fetal liver stromal cells, demonstrating a major and direct role of Pitx2 in the hematopoietic supportive capacity of fetal liver stroma. Finally, we showed a reduced capacity of MS5 stromal cells expressing Pitx2 RNAi to support human hematopoiesis. Altogether these data showed that Pitx2 has major functions in the hematopoietic supportive capacity of fetal liver and adult bone marrow stromal cells.

  2. Expression of Pitx2 in stromal cells is required for normal hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Kieusseian, Aurélie; Chagraoui, Jalila; Kerdudo, Cécile; Mangeot, Philippe-Emmanuel; Gage, Philip J.; Navarro, Nicole; Izac, Brigitte; Uzan, Georges; Forget, Bernard G.; Dubart-Kupperschmitt, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Although the expression of Pitx2, a bicoid family homeodomain transcription factor, is highly regulated during hematopoiesis, its function during this process was not documented; we thus studied hematopoiesis in Pitx2-null mice. We found that Pitx2–/– embryos display hypoplastic livers with reduced numbers of hematopoietic cells, but these cells had normal hematopoietic potential, as evidenced by colony-forming assays, immature progenitor cell assays, and long-term repopulation assays. Because the microenvironment is also crucial to the development of normal hematopoiesis, we established Pitx2–/– and Pitx2+/+ stromas from fetal liver and studied their hematopoietic supportive capacity. We showed that the frequency of cobblestone area-forming cells was 4-fold decreased when using Pitx2–/– stromal cells compared with Pitx2+/+ stromal cells, whatever the Pitx2 genotype of hematopoietic cells tested in this assay. This defect was rescued by expression of Pitx2 into Pitx2–/– fetal liver stromal cells, demonstrating a major and direct role of Pitx2 in the hematopoietic supportive capacity of fetal liver stroma. Finally, we showed a reduced capacity of MS5 stromal cells expressing Pitx2 RNAi to support human hematopoiesis. Altogether these data showed that Pitx2 has major functions in the hematopoietic supportive capacity of fetal liver and adult bone marrow stromal cells. PMID:16195330

  3. Development of osteogenic cell sheets for bone tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Pirraco, Rogério P; Obokata, Haruko; Iwata, Takanori; Marques, Alexandra P; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Yamato, Masayuki; Reis, Rui L; Okano, Teruo

    2011-06-01

    The use of scaffolds in combination with osteogenic cells has been the gold standard in bone tissue engineering strategies. These strategies have, however, in many cases failed to produce the desired results due to issues such as the immunogenicity of the biomaterials used and cell necrosis at the bulk of the scaffold related to deficient oxygen and nutrients diffusion. Here, we originally propose the use of cell sheet (CS) engineering as a possible way to overcome some of these obstacles. Osteogenic CSs were fabricated by culturing rat bone marrow stromal cells in thermoresponsive culture dishes. The CSs were recovered from the dishes using a low-temperature treatment and then were implanted subcutaneously in nude mice. New bone formation was verified from day 7 post-transplantation using X-ray, microcomputed tomography, and histological analysis. The presence of a vascularized marrow was also verified in the newly formed bone after 6 weeks of transplantation. Further, osteocytes were found in this newly formed tissue, supporting the conclusion that mature bone was formed after ectopically transplanting osteogenic CSs. These results therefore confirm the great potentiality of CS engineering to be used in bone tissue engineering applications.

  4. [Bone homeostasis and Mechano biology.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Tomoki

    The weight-bearing exercises help to build bones and to maintain them strength. Bone is constantly renewed by the balanced action of osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption both of which mainly occur at the bone surface. This restructuring process called "bone remodeling" is important not only for normal bone mass and strength, but also for mineral homeostasis. Bone remodeling is stringently regulated by communication between bone component cells such as osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes. An imbalance of this process is often linked to various bone diseases. During bone remodeling, resorption by osteoclasts precedes bone formation by osteoblasts. Based on the osteocyte location within the bone matrix and the cellular morphology, it is proposed that osteocytes potentially contribute to the regulation of bone remodeling in response to mechanical and endocrine stimuli.

  5. Impaired Function of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells in Systemic Mastocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, K.; Wilson, T.M.; Ren, J.J.; Sabatino, M.; Stroncek, D.F.; Krepuska, M.; Bai, Y.; Robey, P.G.; Metcalfe, D.D.; Mezey, E.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM) have a wide variety of problems, including skeletal abnormalities. The disease results from a mutation of the stem cell receptor (c-kit) in mast cells and we wondered if the function of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs; also known as MSCs or mesenchymal stem cells) might be affected by the invasion of bone marrow by mutant mast cells. As expected, BMSCs from SM patients do not have a mutation in c-kit, but they proliferate poorly. In addition, while osteogenic differentiation of the BMSCs seems to be deficient, their adipogenic potential appears to be increased. Since the hematopoietic supportive abilities of BMSCs are also important, we also studied the engraftment in NSG mice of human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors, after being co-cultured with BMSCs of healthy volunteers vs. BMSCs derived from patients with SM. BMSCs derived from the bone marrow of patients with SM could not support hematopoiesis to the extent that healthy BMSCs do. Finally, we performed an expression analysis and found significant differences between healthy and SM derived BMSCs in the expression of genes with a variety of functions, including the WNT signaling, ossification, and bone remodeling. We suggest that some of the symptoms associated with SM might be driven by epigenetic changes in BMSCs caused by dysfunctional mast cells in the bone marrow of the patients. PMID:26001169

  6. Tumor-host cell interactions in the bone disease of myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Jessica A.; Edwards, Claire M.; Croucher, Peter I.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a hematological malignancy that is associated with the development of a destructive osteolytic bone disease, which is a major cause of morbidity for patients with myeloma. Interactions between myeloma cells and cells of the bone marrow microenvironment promote both tumor growth and survival and bone destruction, and the osteolytic bone disease is now recognized as a contributing component to tumor progression. Since myeloma bone disease is associated with both an increase in osteoclastic bone resorption and a suppression of osteoblastic bone formation, research to date has largely focused upon the role of the osteoclast and osteoblast. However, it is now clear that other cell types within the bone marrow, including cells of the immune system, mesenchymal stem cells and bone marrow stromal cells, can contribute to the development of myeloma bone disease. This review discusses the cellular mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets that have been implicated in myeloma bone disease. PMID:20615487

  7. Sensitivity of bone cell populations to weightlessness and simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. E.; Morey-Holton, E. R.; Gonsalves, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    A rat suspension model for simulating certain aspects of weightlessness is discussed. Perturbations in physiological systems induced by this head down suspension model are verified by flight data. Findings of a suppression of osteoblast differentiation help explain the inhibition of bone formation inflight and during Earth-bound simulations. Since the anatomical site for these studies was in the maxilla, which is gravity loaded but non weightbearing in ground-based simulations, the similarity of bone cell kinetic changes, both inflight and in the ground-based model, suggest that fluid shifts rather than unloading may play an important role in bone alterations, at least at this sampling site.

  8. Treating Achilles tendon rupture in rats with bone-marrow-cell transplantation therapy.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Naofumi; Kushida, Taketoshi; Oe, Kenichi; Umeda, Masayuki; Ikehara, Susumu; Iida, Hirokazu

    2010-12-01

    Bone marrow cells possess multipotentiality and have been used for several treatments. We hypothesized that bone marrow cells might differentiate into regenerated tendon and that several cytokines within bone marrow cells might accelerate tendon healing. Therefore, we treated Achilles tendon ruptures in a rat model with transplantation of whole bone marrow cells. Nine F344/Nslc (Fisher) rats were the source of bone marrow cells and mesenchymal stem cells as well as normal Achilles tendons. Eighty-seven Fisher rats were used for the experiments. The rats were divided into three groups: the BMC group (bone marrow cells injected around the tendon), the MSC group (mesenchymal stem cells injected around the tendon), and the non-treated control group (incision only). Outcome measures included mechanical testing, collagen immunohistochemistry, histological analysis, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to detect expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The ultimate failure load in the BMC group was significantly greater than that in the non-treated or the MSC group at seven days after incision (3.8 N vs. 0.9 N or 2.1 N, p < 0.016) and at fourteen days after incision (10.2 N vs. 6.1 N or 8.2 N, p < 0.016). The ultimate failure load in the BMC group at twenty-eight days after incision (33.8 N) was the same as that of normal tendon (34.8 N). The BMC group demonstrated stronger staining for type-III collagen at seven days after incision and stronger staining for type-I collagen at twenty-eight days than did the MSC group. Expression of TGF-β and VEGF in the BMC group was significantly increased compared with that in the other groups at four days after incision (TGF-β: 1.6 vs. 1.3 or 0.6, p < 0.01; VEGF: 1.7 vs. 1.1 or 0.9, p < 0.01). Transplantation of whole bone marrow cells may be a better and more readily available treatment for Achilles tendon rupture than cultured mesenchymal stem cells.

  9. Cell-to-cell communication in guided bone regeneration: molecular and cellular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Reinhard; Stadlinger, Bernd; Terheyden, Hendrik

    2016-08-23

    This overview provides insights into the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in guided bone regeneration, in particular focusing on aspects presented in the 3D movie, Cell-To-Cell Communication in Guided Bone Regeneration. The information presented here is based almost exclusively on genetic mouse models in which single genes can be deleted or overexpressed, even in a specific cell type. This information needs to be extrapolated to humans and related to aspects relevant to graft consolidation under the clinical parameters of guided bone regeneration. The overview follows the ground tenor of the Cell-To-Cell Communication series and focuses on aspects of cell-to-cell communication in bone regeneration and guided bone regeneration. Here, we discuss (1) the role of inflammation during bone regeneration, including (2) the importance of the fibrin matrix, and (3) the pleiotropic functions of macrophages. We highlight (4) the origin of bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts as well as (5) what causes a progenitor cell to mature into an effector cell. (6) We touch on the complex bone adaptation and maintenance after graft consolidation and (7) how osteocytes control this process. Finally, we speculate on (8) how barrier membranes and the augmentation material can modulate graft consolidation.

  10. Stem cells in normal mammary gland and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Yin, Xin; Ma, Tao; Lu, Jun

    2010-04-01

    The mammary gland is a structurally dynamic organ that undergoes dramatic alterations with age, menstrual cycle, and reproductive status. Mammary gland stem cells, the minor cell population within the mature organ, are thought to have multiple functions in regulating mammary gland development, tissue maintenance, major growth, and structural remodeling. In addition, accumulative evidence suggests that breast cancers are initiated and maintained by a subpopulation of tumor cells with stem cell features (called cancer stem cells). A variety of methods have been developed to identify and characterize mammary stem cells, and several signal transduction pathways have been identified to be essential for the self-renewal and differentiation of mammary gland stem cells. Understanding the origin of breast cancer stem cells, their relationship to breast cancer development, and the differences between normal and cancer stem cells may lead to novel approaches to breast cancer diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.

  11. Topographical variations in articular cartilage and subchondral bone of the normal rat knee are age-related.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Nina; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Niehoff, Anja

    2014-09-01

    In osteoarthritis animal models the rat knee is one of the most frequently investigated joint. However, it is unknown whether topographical variations in articular cartilage and subchondral bone of the normal rat knee exist and how they are linked or influenced by growth and maturation. Detailed knowledge is needed in order to allow interpretation and facilitate comparability of published osteoarthritis studies. For the first time, the present study maps topographical variations in cartilage thickness, cartilage compressive properties and subchondral bone microarchitecture between the medial and lateral tibial compartment of normal growing rat knees (7 vs. 13 weeks). Thickness and compressive properties (aggregate modulus) of cartilage were determined and the subchondral bone was analyzed by micro-computed tomography. We found that articular cartilage thickness is initially homogenous in both compartments, but then differentiates during growth and maturation resulting in greater cartilage thickness in the medial compartment in the 13-week-old animals. Cartilage compressive properties did not vary between the two sites independently of age. In both age-groups, subchondral plate thickness as well as trabecular bone volume ratio and trabecular thickness were greater in the medial compartment. While a high porosity of subchondral bone plate with a high topographical variation (medial/lateral) could be observed in the 7-week-old animals, the porosity was reduced and was accompanied by a reversion in topographical variation when reaching maturity. Our findings highlight that there is a considerable topographical variation in articular cartilage and subchondral bone within the normal rat knee in relation to the developmental status.

  12. Quantification and comparison of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase with two methods in normal and paget’s specimens

    PubMed Central

    Masrour Roudsari, Jila; Mahjoub, Soleiman

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) is synthesized by the osteoblasts and is presumed to be involved in the calcification of bone matrix, though its precise role in the formation process is unknown. The aim of the present study was to measure the BAP activity in Paget's and normal specimens by two different techniques. Methods: Total ALP (TAP) as well as BAP activity-measuring tests were repeatedly undertaken at different times during the day and different days on the serum samples (inter and intra assay). Precision and repeatability of the phenylalanine inhibition (PHI) and heat inactivation (HI) techniques were approved during ten times repetition of all the tests on two normal samples besides one sample from Paget's disease of bone. The measurement of TAP and BAP activities was also carried out on 50 serum samples from normal adults using the standard IFCC-AACC and the established methods, respectively. Results: Coefficients of Variation (CV) for intra-assay of BAP were 2.33% and 3.16% by HI and PHI methods, respectively. Also, the inter-assay CV of BAP was 2.87% and 3.49% for mentioned methods in Paget's sample, respectively. In addition, the correlation of HI and PHI methods was found to be r= +0.873 for bone-specific isoenzyme. Conclusion: Regarding the appropriate precision, repeatability and correlation of HI and PHI techniques, as well as their cost effectiveness can be of use in the quantification of bone alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme activity, especially when bone is involved. PMID:24009918

  13. Quantitative image analysis of cell colocalization in murine bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Zeinab; Mech, Franziska; Zehentmeier, Sandra; Hauser, Anja E; Figge, Marc Thilo

    2015-06-01

    Long-term antibody production is a key property of humoral immunity and is accomplished by long-lived plasma cells. They mainly reside in the bone marrow, whose importance as an organ hosting immunological memory is becoming increasingly evident. Signals provided by stromal cells and eosinophils may play an important role for plasma cell maintenance, constituting a survival microenvironment. In this joint study of experiment and theory, we investigated the spatial colocalization of plasma cells, eosinophils and B cells by applying an image-based systems biology approach. To this end, we generated confocal fluorescence microscopy images of histological sections from murine bone marrow that were subsequently analyzed in an automated fashion. This quantitative analysis was combined with computer simulations of the experimental system for hypothesis testing. In particular, we tested the observed spatial colocalization of cells in the bone marrow against the hypothesis that cells are found within available areas at positions that were drawn from a uniform random number distribution. We find that B cells and plasma cells highly colocalize with stromal cells, to an extent larger than in the simulated random situation. While B cells are preferentially in contact with each other, i.e., form clusters among themselves, plasma cells seem to be solitary or organized in aggregates, i.e., loosely defined groups of cells that are not necessarily in direct contact. Our data suggest that the plasma cell bone marrow survival niche facilitates colocalization of plasma cells with stromal cells and eosinophils, respectively, promoting plasma cell longevity. © 2015 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  14. Normalization of cell responses in cat striate cortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heeger, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Simple cells in the striate cortex have been depicted as half-wave-rectified linear operators. Complex cells have been depicted as energy mechanisms, constructed from the squared sum of the outputs of quadrature pairs of linear operators. However, the linear/energy model falls short of a complete explanation of striate cell responses. In this paper, a modified version of the linear/energy model is presented in which striate cells mutually inhibit one another, effectively normalizing their responses with respect to stimulus contrast. This paper reviews experimental measurements of striate cell responses, and shows that the new model explains a significantly larger body of physiological data.

  15. Cephalometric evaluation of the airway space and hyoid bone in children with normal and atypical deglutition: correlation study.

    PubMed

    Machado, Almiro José; Crespo, Agrício Nubiato

    2012-01-01

    Although there is a close relationship between swallowing and breathing, there are no studies evaluating the radiographic anatomy of the airway and its possible correlation with the radiographic position of the hyoid bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible correlation of the radiographic position of the hyoid bone and airway space (PAS) in lateral radiographs on children with atypical deglutition, in comparison with those with normal swallowing. Cross-sectional analytical study with control group in a public university. Using cephalometric analysis on lateral teleradiographs, the distance from the hyoid bone to the mandibular plane (MP-H) and the distance from the hyoid bone to the tuber (T-H) were correlated with the PAS measurement (airway) in two groups: 55 teleradiographs in the experimental group (with atypical deglutition) and 55 teleradiographs in the control group (normal deglutition). Both groups included subjects at the mixed dentition stage. The variable T-H presented a statistically significant correlation with PAS (0.0286) and the variable MP-H had a significant correlation with the variable PAS (0.0053). This positive correlation was significant only in the control group and not in the group with atypical swallowing. There was a positive correlation between the MP-H and PAS measurements and between the T-H and PAS measurements only in the group with normal swallowing. These correlations were not observed in the group with atypical swallowing.

  16. Preparing normal tissue cells for space flight experiments.

    PubMed

    Koch, Claudia; Kohn, Florian P M; Bauer, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Deterioration of health is a problem in modern space flight business. In order to develop countermeasures, research has been done on human bodies and also on single cells. Relevant experiments on human cells in vitro are feasible when microgravity is simulated by devices such as the Random Positioning Machine or generated for a short time during parabolic flights. However, they become difficult in regard to performance and interpretation when long-term experiments are designed that need a prolonged stay on the International Space Station (ISS). One huge problem is the transport of living cells from a laboratory on Earth to the ISS. For this reason, mainly rapidly growing, rather robust human cells such as cancer cells, embryonic cells, or progenitor cells have been investigated on the ISS up to now. Moreover, better knowledge on the behavior of normal mature cells, which mimic the in vivo situation, is strongly desirable. One solution to the problem could be the use of redifferentiable cells, which grow rapidly and behave like cancer cells in plain medium, but are reprogrammed to normal cells when substances like retinoic acid are added. A list of cells capable of redifferentiation is provided, together with names of suitable drugs, in this review.

  17. Microcarriers designed for cell culture and tissue engineering of bone.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong-Hui; Pérez, Román A; Jin, Guang-Zhen; Choi, Seung-Jun; Kim, Hae-Won; Wall, Ivan B

    2013-04-01

    Microspherical particulates have been an attractive form of biomaterials that find usefulness in cell delivery and tissue engineering. A variety of compositions, including bioactive ceramics, degradable polymers, and their composites, have been developed into a microsphere form and have demonstrated the potential to fill defective bone and to populate tissue cells on curved matrices. To enhance the capacity of cell delivery, the conventional solid form of spheres is engineered to have either a porous structure to hold cells or a thin shell to in-situ encapsulate cells within the structure. Microcarriers can also be a potential reservoir system of bioactive molecules that have therapeutic effects in regulating cell behaviors. Due to their specific form, advanced technologies to culture cell-loaded microcarriers are required, such as simple agitation or shaking, spinner flask, and rotating chamber system. Here, we review systematically, from material design to culture technology, the microspherical carriers used for the delivery of cells and tissue engineering, particularly of bone.

  18. Mesenchymal Stem and Progenitor Cells in Normal and Dysplastic Hematopoiesis-Masters of Survival and Clonality?

    PubMed

    Pleyer, Lisa; Valent, Peter; Greil, Richard

    2016-06-27

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are malignant hematopoietic stem cell disorders that have the capacity to progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Accumulating evidence suggests that the altered bone marrow (BM) microenvironment in general, and in particular the components of the stem cell niche, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their progeny, play a pivotal role in the evolution and propagation of MDS. We here present an overview of the role of MSCs in the pathogenesis of MDS, with emphasis on cellular interactions in the BM microenvironment and related stem cell niche concepts. MSCs have potent immunomodulatory capacities and communicate with diverse immune cells, but also interact with various other cellular components of the microenvironment as well as with normal and leukemic stem and progenitor cells. Moreover, compared to normal MSCs, MSCs in MDS and AML often exhibit altered gene expression profiles, an aberrant phenotype, and abnormal functional properties. These alterations supposedly contribute to the "reprogramming" of the stem cell niche into a disease-permissive microenvironment where an altered immune system, abnormal stem cell niche interactions, and an impaired growth control lead to disease progression. The current article also reviews molecular targets that play a role in such cellular interactions and possibilities to interfere with abnormal stem cell niche interactions by using specific targeted drugs.

  19. Mesenchymal Stem and Progenitor Cells in Normal and Dysplastic Hematopoiesis—Masters of Survival and Clonality?

    PubMed Central

    Pleyer, Lisa; Valent, Peter; Greil, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Myelodysplastic synd