Science.gov

Sample records for normal cholesterol levels

  1. High blood cholesterol levels

    MedlinePlus

    ... Outlook (Prognosis) High cholesterol levels can lead to hardening of the arteries , also called atherosclerosis. This occurs ... and safe drinking Coronary heart disease Cushing syndrome Hardening of the arteries Hypothyroidism Overweight Stroke Triglyceride level ...

  2. What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean Updated:Apr 3,2017 Keeping your ... content was last reviewed on 04/21/2014. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Good vs. Bad Cholesterol ...

  3. Detecting Elevated Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, H.L.; Elford, R.W.; Shumak, S.

    1991-01-01

    The Reflotron dry chemistry reflectance photometer was studied as a case-finding method in physicians' offices. A total of 713 adult patients had their risk factor profiles determined along with fingerprick blood cholesterol measurements. Blood cholesterol levels were classified into three categories, (<5.2 mmol/L), 51%; borderline high (5.2 to 6.1 mmol/L), 28%; and high (≥6.2 mmol/L), 21%. The physicians' predictions from clinical risk factor profiles of which patients had elevated serum cholesterol levels were inaccurate. PMID:21229051

  4. Detecting Elevated Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, H.L.; Elford, R.W.; Shumak, S.

    1991-01-01

    To assess accuracy of blood cholesterol measurements in the office, fingerprick blood cholesterol assays by a dry reagent chemistry analyzer were compared in 151 patients with simultaneous venipuncture cholesterol assays by standard laboratory methods. Compared with the laboratory assay, seven of eight analyzers had total absolute biases less than 5%. Variability in results was comparable to that of community laboratories. PMID:21229050

  5. Normal Non-HDL Cholesterol, Low Total Cholesterol, and HDL Cholesterol Levels in Sickle Cell Disease Patients in the Steady State: A Case-Control Study of Tema Metropolis

    PubMed Central

    Adu, Patrick; Ake, Edem; Agbodzakey, Hope; Adoba, Prince; Cudjoe, Obed; Agoni, Clement

    2016-01-01

    Background. Abnormal lipid homeostasis in sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by defects in plasma and erythrocyte lipids and may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study assessed the lipid profile and non-HDL cholesterol level of SCD patients. Methods. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 50 SCD patients, in the steady state, aged 8–28 years, attending the SCD clinic, and 50 healthy volunteers between the ages of 8–38 years. Serum lipids were determined by enzymatic methods and non-HDL cholesterol calculated by this formula: non-HDL-C = TC-HDL-C. Results. Total cholesterol (TC) (p = 0.001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (p < 0.0001) were significantly decreased in cases compared to controls. The levels of non-HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) were similar among the participants. The levels of decrease in TC and HDL were associated with whether a patient was SCD-SS or SCD-SC. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were each significantly associated with increased VLDL [SBP, p = 0.01, OR: 0.74 (CI: 0.6–0.93); DBP, p = 0.023, OR: 1.45 (CI: 1.05–2.0)]. Conclusion. Dyslipidemia is common among participants in this study. It was more pronounced in the SCD-SS than in SCD-SC. This dyslipidemia was associated with high VLDL as well as increased SBP and DBP. PMID:28078142

  6. 1 in 7 Obese People Has Normal Blood Pressure, Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... in 7 Obese People Has Normal Blood Pressure, Cholesterol But that doesn't mean the excess weight ... people studied, 14 percent had normal blood sugar, cholesterol and blood pressure readings, the study found. Doctors ...

  7. Role of bran in normals. Serum levels of cholesterols, triglyceride, calcium and total 3 alpha-hydroxycholanic acid, and intestinal transit time.

    PubMed

    Winreich, J; Pedersen, O; Dinesen, K

    1977-01-01

    After the intake of approximately 24 g wheat bran daily for 5 weeks, 25 trainee nurses showed no changes in the serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, calcium or total 3 alpha-hydroxycholanic acid. On the other hand, the study revealed a reduced intestinal transit time with good correlation to an increased frequency of bowel movements. Average body weight fell significantly, by 0.4 kg. The daily caloric intake remained constant throughout the study period, whereas the calcium intake was significantly increased. Among the serum parameters and the dietary constituents, good correlation was found only between serum cholesterol and the dietary cholesterol content. In addition, an inverse relationship was demonstrated between the serum levels of cholesterol and total 3 alpha-hydroxycholanic acid. The significance of this observation is as yet unknown.

  8. CHOLESTEROL UPTAKE IN THE SERUM OF NORMAL AND HOSPITALIZED INDIVIDUALS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    cardiovascular disease . All sera dissolved additional cholesterol. Sera from the hospitalized group dissolved at least as much additional cholesterol as did sera from the normal group. This finding suggests that in atherosclerosis the reserve cholesterol transport capacity is not diminished. This statement, however, must be accepted within the limitations of the method and the unknown effects of therapeutic regimens. The amount of additional cholesterol dissolved by a sample of serum is not correlated with the original concentration of cholesterol in the serum.

  9. Do You Know Your Cholesterol Levels?

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Health Information Center Do You Know Your Cholesterol Levels? Print-friendly Version (PDF, 6.1 MB) ... Eat Smart Did you know that high blood cholesterol is a serious problem among Latinos? About one ...

  10. Cholesterol Level: Can It Be Too Low?

    MedlinePlus

    ... low? Can your total cholesterol level be too low? Answers from Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, M.D. A high blood cholesterol level increases your ... better, but in rare cases having a very low level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL, or "bad") ...

  11. Americans' Cholesterol Levels Keep Falling

    MedlinePlus

    ... and 2013-2014, the CDC reported. Dr. David Friedman is chief of heart failure services at Long ... for cholesterol treatment, all seem to be working," Friedman said. The study was published online Nov. 30 ...

  12. Amelioration of cholesterol induced atherosclerosis by normalizing gene expression, cholesterol profile and antioxidant enzymes by Vigna unguiculata.

    PubMed

    Janeesh, P A; Abraham, Annie

    2013-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, especially atherosclerosis, have found to be the dreadful diseases worldwide and therapeutic interventions using plant sources have wide therapeutic value. Vigna unguiculata (VU) leaves have been used as food and therapeutics. Hence, our study was designed to evaluate the hypolipidemic as well as anti-atherogenic potential of VU leaves in normalizing atherogenic gene expression, cholesterol profile, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant enzyme system on cholesterol fed rabbit model. For the study New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and experimental period was three months; group -i - ND [normal diet (40 g feed)], group-ii- ND (normal diet) +EAVU [ethyl acetate fraction of Vigna unguiculata (150 mg/kg body weight)], group -iii- ND [normal diet ]+ CFD [cholesterol fed diet (cholesterol 1 % of 40 g feed and cholic acid 0.5 % of 40 g feed)] and group-iv - ND [normal diet] +CFD [cholesterol fed diet ]+EAVU [ethyl acetate fraction of Vigna unguiculata (150 mg/kg body weight)]. Atherosclerosis was induced by feeding the rabbit with cholesterol (1 % of 40 g feed) and cholic acid (0.5 % of 40 g feed). Supplementation of EAVU normalized cholesterol profile, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation products like thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), antioxidant system and important genes of cardiovascular diseases like interleukin-10 (IL 10), paraoxanase-1 (PON I), interleukin-6 (IL 6), and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox 2) to near normal level as compared with normal diet. The result obtained showed the antioxidant as well as anti-atherogenic potential of Vigna unguiculata leaves in ameliorating cholesterol induced atherosclerosis, and thus it is good task to include VU leaves in daily diet for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases especially atherosclerosis.

  13. ARH missense polymorphisms and plasma cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Hyatt, Tommy

    2004-01-01

    Mutations in a putative low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor adaptor protein called ARH have been recently described in patients with autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH). ARH plays a tissue-specific role in determination of LDL receptor function. In the ARH gene three mismatched polymorphisms have been detected: Pro202Ser, Pro202His and Arg238Trp. These are of putative interest in plasma cholesterol level determination. To evaluate the effect of polymorphisms on plasma cholesterol levels, all polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR and restriction enzyme analysis by MnII, HpyCH4IV and SacII in 100 Caucasian males with high (>90%, 6.29 +/- 0.89 mmol/l), and 100 males with low (<10%, 3.60 +/- 0.57 mmol/l), total plasma cholesterol levels. No significant differences were observed in frequencies of ARH genotypes or alleles between these two extreme groups. These results suggest that ARH polymorphisms are unlikely to be important genetic determinants of plasma cholesterol levels.

  14. Antihyperlipidemic effect of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) protein isolate in rats fed a normal and high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Arundhati; Dhar, Pubali; Ghosh, Santinath

    2010-01-01

    The dietary influence of sesame protein isolate (protein content 91.5%), produced from dehulled, defatted sesame meal, on blood and tissue lipid profile and lipid peroxidation has been assessed in normal and hypercholesterolemic rats. To evaluate their hypocholesterolemic and antioxidative activity in vivo, we fed 18% sesame protein isolate with or without 2% cholesterol in comparison with casein to rats for 28 d. We determined plasma total protein, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triacylglycerol as well as susceptibility of plasma and erythrocyte membrane lipid to oxidation ex vivo. Liver tissue lipid, cholesterol, phospholipids, and lipid peroxidations were also determined. The total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were significantly reduced in the sesame protein isolate and isolate containing cholesterol group than the corresponding control casein groups. HDL-cholesterol level was also increased in sesame protein isolate (41%) and protein isolate containing cholesterol group (38%) than the corresponding control casein and casein containing cholesterol groups. There was 49% and 64% lowering of plasma lipid peroxidation as well as 36% and 56% lowering of lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility (LOS) in the 2 experimental groups (sesame protein isolate and isolate containing cholesterol group) than the corresponding control (casein and casein containing cholesterol) groups. There was significant lowering of erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation (68% and 63% lowering in sesame protein isolate and isolate containing cholesterol groups) and liver lipid peroxidation (61% and 76% lowering in the 2 experimental groups than the corresponding control casein groups). Therefore, our results indicate that sesame protein isolate decreases cholesterol concentration in plasma, increases HDL-cholesterol, and also decreases plasma and erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation with or

  15. Effect of ezetimibe on plasma cholesterol levels, cholesterol absorption, and secretion of biliary cholesterol in laboratory opossums with high and low responses to dietary cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jeannie; Kushwaha, Rampratap S; Vandeberg, Jane F; Vandeberg, John L

    2008-12-01

    Partially inbred lines of laboratory opossums differ in plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and cholesterol absorption on a high-cholesterol diet. The aim of the present studies was to determine whether ezetimibe inhibits cholesterol absorption and eliminates the differences in plasma cholesterol and hepatic cholesterol metabolism between high and low responders on a high-cholesterol diet. Initially, we determined that the optimum dose of ezetimibe was 5 mg/(kg d) and treated 6 high- and 6 low-responding opossums with this dose (with equal numbers of controls) for 3 weeks while the opossums consumed a high-cholesterol and low-fat diet. Plasma and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased significantly (P < .05) in treated but not in untreated high-responding opossums. Plasma cholesterol concentrations increased slightly (P < .05) in untreated low responders but not in treated low responders. The percentage of cholesterol absorption was significantly higher in untreated high responders than in other groups. Livers from high responders with or without treatment were significantly (P < .01) heavier than livers from low responders with or without treatment. Hepatic cholesterol concentrations in untreated high responders were significantly (P < .05) higher than those in low responders with or without treatment (P < .001). The gall bladder bile cholesterol concentrations in untreated high responders were significantly (P < .05) lower than those in other groups. A decrease in biliary cholesterol in low responders treated with ezetimibe was associated with a decrease in hepatic expression of ABCG5 and ABCG8. These studies suggest that ezetimibe decreases plasma cholesterol levels in high responders mainly by decreasing cholesterol absorption and increasing biliary cholesterol concentrations. Because ezetimibe's target is NPC1L1 and NPC1L1 is expressed in the intestine of opossums, its effect on cholesterol absorption may be mediated

  16. The transport of cholesterol through the plasma in normal man.

    PubMed

    Myant, N B

    1983-09-30

    This review includes a brief account of the routes of entry of cholesterol into the plasma by (a) secretion of lipoproteins and (b) uptake of tissue free cholesterol by lipoproteins in the interstitial fluid, the metabolic transformation undergone by cholesterol within the plasma, with particular reference to the esterification of plasma free cholesterol by lecithin:cholesteryl acyltransferase and the redistribution of esterified cholesterol from high-density to low-density and very-low-density lipoprotein, and the routes by which cholesterol is removed from the plasma by bulk transport. The review end with a balance sheet showing the approximate amounts of cholesterol entering and leaving the plasma by different routes.

  17. Trypanosoma cruzi Epimastigotes Are Able to Manage Internal Cholesterol Levels under Nutritional Lipid Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Miria Gomes; Visbal, Gonzalo; Salgado, Leonardo T.; Vidal, Juliana Cunha; Godinho, Joseane L. P.; De Cicco, Nuccia N. T.; Atella, Geórgia C.; de Souza, Wanderley; Cunha-e-Silva, Narcisa

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes store high amounts of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in reservosomes. These unique organelles are responsible for cellular digestion by providing substrates for homeostasis and parasite differentiation. Here we demonstrate that under nutritional lipid stress, epimastigotes preferentially mobilized reservosome lipid stocks, instead of lipid bodies, leading to the consumption of parasite cholesterol reservoirs and production of ergosterol. Starved epimastigotes acquired more LDL-NBD-cholesterol by endocytosis and distributed the exogenous cholesterol to their membranes faster than control parasites. Moreover, the parasites were able to manage internal cholesterol levels, alternating between consumption and accumulation. With normal lipid availability, parasites esterified cholesterol exhibiting an ACAT-like activity that was sensitive to Avasimibe in a dose-dependent manner. This result also implies that exogenous cholesterol has a role in lipid reservoirs in epimastigotes. PMID:26068009

  18. Cholesterol transfer from normal and atherogenic low density lipoproteins to Mycoplasma membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Mitschelen, J.J.; St. Clair, R.W.; Hester, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the free cholesterol of hypercholesterolemic low density lipoprotein from cholesterol-fed nonhuman primates has a greater potential for surface transfer to cell membranes than does the free cholesterol of normal low density lipoprotein. The low density lipoproteins were isolated from normal and hypercholesterolemic rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys, incubated with membranes from Acholeplasma laidlawii, a mycoplasma species devoid of cholesterol in its membranes, and the mass transfer of free cholesterol determined by measuring membrane cholesterol content. Since these membranes neither synthesize nor esterify cholesterol, nor degrade the protein or cholesterol ester moieties of low density lipoprotein, they are an ideal model with which to study differences in the cholesterol transfer potential of low density lipoprotein independent of the uptake of the intact low density lipoprotein particle. These studies indicate that, even though there are marked differences in the cholesterol composition of normal and hypercholesterolemic low density lipoproteins, this does not result in a greater chemical potential for surface transfer of free cholesterol. Consequently, if a difference in the surface transfer of free cholesterol is responsible for the enhanced ability of hypercholesterolemic low density lipoprotein to promote cellular cholesterol accumulation and, perhaps, also atherosclerosis, it must be the result of differences in the interaction to the hypercholesterolemic low density lipoprotein with the more complicated mammalian cell membranes, rather than differences in the chemical potential for cholesterol transfer.

  19. Dietary Cholesterol Impairs Memory and Memory Increases Brain Cholesterol and Sulfatide Levels

    PubMed Central

    Darwish, Deya S.; Wang, Desheng; Konat, Gregory W.; Schreurs, Bernard G.

    2011-01-01

    Cholesterol and sulfatides play many important roles in learning and memory. To date, our observations about the effects of cholesterol on learning have been assessed during response acquisition i.e., the learning of a new memory. Here we report for the first time on the effect of a cholesterol diet on a previously formed memory. Rabbits were given trace conditioning of the nictitating membrane response for ten days, then fed a 2% cholesterol diet for eight weeks, and then assessed for memory recall of the initially learned task. We show that dietary cholesterol had an adverse effect on memory recall. Second, we investigated whether dietary cholesterol caused an increase in brain cholesterol and sulfatide levels in four major brain structures (hippocampus, frontal lobe, brainstem, and cerebellum) using a technique for analyzing myelin and myelin-free fractions separately. Although our data confirm previous findings that dietary cholesterol does not directly affect cholesterol and establish that it does not affect sulfatide levels in the brain, these levels did increase rather significantly in the hippocampus and frontal lobe as a function of learning and memory. PMID:20141286

  20. [Phytosterols: another way to reduce LDL cholesterol levels].

    PubMed

    Bitzur, Rafael; Cohen, Hofit; Kamari, Yehuda; Harats, Dror

    2013-12-01

    Phytosterols are sterols found naturally in various oils from plants. Phytosterols compete with cholesterol for a place in the mixed micelles, needed for cholesterol absorption by the small intestine. As a result, cholesterol absorption, either from food or from bile salts is lowered by about 50%, leading to a towering of about 10% of blood cholesterol level, despite an increase in hepatic cholesterol synthesis. This reduction is achieved when phytosterols are given both as monotherapy, and in addition to statin therapy. The average Western diet contains about 400-800 mg of phytosterols per day, while the dose needed for lowering the blood cholesterol level is about 2-3 grams per day. Therefore, for the purpose of reducing blood cholesterol, they should be given either as phytosterol-enriched food or as supplements. The reduction in the level of LDL-choLesterol achieved with phytosterols may reduce the risk of coronary disease by about 25%. Hence, the American Heart Association recommended the consumption of phytosterols, as part of a balanced diet, for towering blood cholesterol levels.

  1. Has westernization influenced serum cholesterol levels in Bougainvillian males?

    PubMed

    Iser, D J; Avera, K

    1993-12-01

    This study was performed to see if there was any difference in cholesterol levels between three socioeconomic groups of Bougainvillian males, each with different levels of exposure to western influences. Serum cholesterol levels were measured in 50 subjects from each of 1) village people leading a traditional lifestyle, 2) town dwellers exposed to western influences, and 3) mine workers who regularly dined in the company mess. Mean cholesterol levels were significantly higher in the mine workers (5.3 +/- SD 0.9 mmol/l) and the town dwellers (4.8 +/- SD 0.8 mmol/l) than in the village people (3.7 +/- SD 1.0 mmol/l). There was a positive correlation between serum cholesterol level and age in two groups, the town dwellers and the village people, even though the latter group had a low mean cholesterol level. There was a significant correlation between body mass index (BMI) and serum cholesterol level for the entire group as well as the town dwellers and mine workers. The higher mean cholesterol levels in the mine workers and town dwellers than in the village people may reflect a difference in lifestyle, particularly in diet, between these groups, and may represent an increased risk for ischaemic heart disease.

  2. Injected phytosterols/stanols suppress plasma cholesterol levels in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Vanstone, C A.; Raeini-Sarjaz, M; Jones, P J.H.

    2001-10-01

    Although plant sterols are known to suppress intestinal cholesterol absorption, whether plasma and hepatic lipid levels are influenced through non-gut related internal mechanisms has not been established. To examine this question 50 male hamsters were divided into 5 groups and fed semi-purified diets containing 20% energy as fat and 0.25% (w/w) cholesterol ad libitum for 60 days. The control group (i) received diet alone, while four additional groups consumed the diet plus one of four equivalent phytosterol mixtures (5 mg/kg/day) given either as (ii) tall oil phytosterols/stanols mixed with diet (oralSA), (iii) tall oil phytosterols/stanols subcutaneously injected (subSA), (iv) soybean oil phytosterols alone mixed with diet (oralSE), or (v) soybean oil subcutaneous injected phytosterols alone (subSE). The control group and both orally supplemented groups also received placebo subcutaneous sham injections. Neither food consumption, body weight, nor liver weight differed across treatment groups. Subcutaneous administration of SA and SE decreased plasma total cholesterol levels by 21% and 23% (p < 0.0001) and non-apolipoprotein-A cholesterol concentrations by 22% and 15% (p < 0.0002), respectively, compared to control. HDL cholesterol and TG concentrations remained unchanged across all groups, except for a decline of 25% (p < 0.0001) in HDL concentration in the subSE group versus control. Plasma campesterol levels were lower (p < 0.05) in the subSA group relative to all other groups. Plasma campesterol:cholesterol and campesterol:sitosterol ratios were, however, higher (p < 0.0001) for both the oral and subSE groups. Hepatic cholesterol levels were higher (p < 0.0001) in the oral and subSE phytosterol groups by 30% and 31%, respectively, relative to control. We conclude that low doses of subcutaneously administered plant sterols reduce circulating cholesterol levels through mechanisms other than inhibiting intestinal cholesterol absorption.

  3. Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus NS1 on plasma cholesterol levels in diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Song, M; Park, S; Lee, H; Min, B; Jung, S; Park, S; Kim, E; Oh, S

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the probiotic properties of Lactobacillus acidophilus NS1, such as acid resistance, bile tolerance, adherence to HT-29 cells, and cholesterol assimilation activity. In an animal study, 7-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), or an HFD with L. acidophilus NS1 (ca. 1.0×10(8) cfu/mL) for 10 wk. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were significantly lower in mice fed an HFD with L. acidophilus NS1 than in those fed an HFD only, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were similar between these 2 groups. To understand the mechanism of the cholesterol-lowering effect of L. acidophilus NS1 on the HFD-mediated increase in plasma cholesterol levels, we determined mRNA levels of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis in the liver. Expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (Srebp2) and LDL receptor (Ldlr) in the liver was dramatically reduced in mice fed a HFD compared with those fed a normal diet. When L. acidophilus NS1 was administered orally to HFD-fed mice, an HFD-induced suppression of Srebp2 and Ldlr expression in the liver was abolished. These results suggest that the oral administration of L. acidophilus NS1 to mice fed an HFD increased the expression of Srebp2 and Ldlr in the liver, which was inhibited by high fat intake, thus leading to a decrease in plasma cholesterol levels. Lactobacillus acidophilus NS1 could be a useful probiotic microorganism for cholesterol-lowering dairy products and the improvement of hyperlipidemia and hepatic lipid metabolism.

  4. Cholesterol Levels: What You Need to Know | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Cholesterol Cholesterol Levels: What You Need to Know Past Issues / Summer 2012 Table of Contents Measuring Cholesterol Levels Learn more at MedlinePlus: https://medlineplus.gov/ ...

  5. Improvements in cholesterol-related knowledge and behavior and plasma cholesterol levels in youths during the 1980s.

    PubMed

    Frank, E; Winkleby, M; Fortmann, S P; Rockhill, B; Farquhar, J W

    1993-01-01

    This article examines cholesterol-related knowledge, cholesterol-related behaviors, and plasma cholesterol levels in 12-24-year-olds, using data collected from four community-based cross-sectional surveys conducted 1979-1980, 1981-1982, 1985-1986, and 1989-1990. Participants included 1,552 individuals from randomly sampled households in two control cities (San Luis Obispo and Modesto, California) of the Stanford Five-City Project. Over the eleven-year study period, cholesterol-related knowledge improved in both control cities (P < .0002). Cholesterol-related behavior (P < .0003) and plasma cholesterol levels (P < .002) significantly improved only in San Luis Obispo (a college city with more 19-24-year-olds and a better-educated population than Modesto). In general, knowledge and behavior scores and plasma cholesterol levels were lower in these 12-24-year-olds than in 25-74-year-olds, although trends at all ages were similar over time and by demographic variables. Although the cholesterol-related interventions that began in the mid-1980s primarily targeted adults, these 12-24-year-olds' cholesterol-related knowledge improved (as did, to a lesser extent, their cholesterol-related behavior and plasma cholesterol levels). These findings have implications for upcoming youth-related cholesterol interventions.

  6. Treating elevated cholesterol levels: the great Satan in perspective.

    PubMed

    Gibaldi, M; Kradjan, W

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide perspective on the developments leading to the recognition of high cholesterol levels as a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Another objective is to consider the unfolding controversies regarding the relative value of cholesterol-lowering drug therapy in primary and secondary prevention. Should physicians use lipid-lowering drugs to treat patients with elevated cholesterol levels but no clinical evidence of coronary disease, or limit intervention to patients with a previous history of angina, coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass surgery, or myocardial infarction? This review finds inadequate data to support a recommendation for screening large populations for the presence of elevated cholesterol levels or for primary prevention in those known to have high cholesterol. On the other hand, there is mounting evidence to support vigorous intervention in those with known coronary disease. Further study is needed to determine whether a subset of patients with one or more well-defined risk factors would benefit from primary prevention.

  7. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in patients with acute myocardial infarction having percutaneous coronary intervention (the cholesterol paradox).

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung Hoon; Jeong, Myung Ho; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Young Jo; Chae, Shung Chull; Hong, Taek Jong; Seong, In Whan; Chae, Jei Keon; Kim, Chong Jin; Cho, Myeong Chan; Seung, Ki Bae; Park, Seung Jung

    2010-10-15

    The relation between low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has not been described. A total of 9,571 eligible patients (mean age 62.6 ± 12.5 years, 6,967 men) who underwent PCI with a final diagnosis of AMI from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) were divided into 5 groups according to LDL cholesterol level: < 70, 70 to 99, 100 to 129, 130 to 159, and ≥ 160 mg/dl. Clinical outcomes in hospital and 1 and 12 months after PCI in patients with AMI were examined. Age and co-morbidities decreased as LDL cholesterol increased. Patients with higher LDL cholesterol levels had favorable hemodynamic status and laboratory findings. Lifesaving medications, including lipid-lowering drugs, were underused in patients with lower LDL cholesterol levels. Clinical outcomes in hospital and 1 and 12 months after PCI showed better results as LDL cholesterol increased, except for patients with LDL cholesterol levels ≥ 160 mg/dl. In a Cox proportional-hazards model, LDL cholesterol level was not an independent predictor of mortality at 12 months, after adjusting for clinical characteristics including demographics and biologic data. In conclusion, the cholesterol paradox in patients with AMI is related to confounding by baseline characteristics associated with survival. More intensive treatment including lipid-lowering therapy for AMI in patients with lower LDL cholesterol level may result in better clinical outcomes.

  8. Cholesterol and triglycerides lowering activities of caraway fruits in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Lemhadri, A; Hajji, L; Michel, J-B; Eddouks, M

    2006-07-19

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of single and repeated oral administration of the aqueous extract of Carum carvi L. fruits at a dose of (20mg/kg) on lipid metabolism in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ). After a single oral administration, Carum carvi extract produced a significant decrease on triglycerides levels in normal rats (p<0.05). In STZ diabetic rats, cholesterol levels were decreased significantly 6h after Carum carvi treatment (p<0.05). On the other hand, repeated oral administration of Carum carvi extract exhibited a significant hypotriglyceridemic and hypocholesterolemic activities in both normal (p<0.01 and <0.001 respectively) and STZ diabetic rats (p<0.001) 15 days after Carum carvi treatment. We conclude that the aqueous extract of Carum carvi (20mg/kg) exhibits a potent lipid lowering activity in both normal and severe hyperglycemic rats after repeated oral administration of Carum carvi aqueous extract.

  9. Lysosomal acid lipase: at the crossroads of normal and atherogenic cholesterol metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Dubland, Joshua A.; Francis, Gordon A.

    2015-01-01

    Unregulated cellular uptake of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins in the arterial intima leads to the formation of foam cells in atherosclerosis. Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) plays a crucial role in both lipoprotein lipid catabolism and excess lipid accumulation as it is the primary enzyme that hydrolyzes cholesteryl esters derived from both low density lipoprotein (LDL) and modified forms of LDL. Evidence suggests that as atherosclerosis progresses, accumulation of excess free cholesterol in lysosomes leads to impairment of LAL activity, resulting in accumulation of cholesteryl esters in the lysosome as well as the cytosol in foam cells. Impaired metabolism and release of cholesterol from lysosomes can lead to downstream defects in ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 regulation, needed to offload excess cholesterol from plaque foam cells. This review focuses on the role LAL plays in normal cholesterol metabolism and how the associated changes in its enzymatic activity may ultimately contribute to atherosclerosis progression. PMID:25699256

  10. Relationship of drinking water disinfectants to plasma cholesterol and thyroid hormone levels in experimental studies

    SciTech Connect

    Revis, N.W.; McCauley, P.; Bull, R.; Holdsworth, G.

    1986-03-01

    The effects of drinking water containing 2 or 15 ppm chlorine (pH 6.5 and 8.5), chlorine dioxide, and monochloramine on thyroid function and plasma cholesterol were studied because previous investigators have reported cardiovascular abnormalities in experimental animals exposed to chlorinated water. Plasma thyroxine (T4) levels, as compared to controls, were significantly decreased in pigeons fed a normal or high-cholesterol diet and drinking water containing these drinking water disinfectants at a concentration of 15 ppm (the exception was chlorine at pH 6.5) for 3 months. In most of the treatment groups, T4 levels were significantly lower following the exposure to drinking water containing the 2 ppm dose. Increase in plasma cholesterol were frequently observed in the groups with lower T4 levels. This association was most evident in pigeons fed the high-cholesterol diet and exposed to these disinfectants at a dose of 15 ppm. The factor(s) associated with the effect of these disinfectants on plasma T4 and cholesterol is not known. The authors suggest however that these effects are probably mediated by products formed when these disinfectants react with organic matter in the upper gastrointestinal tract.

  11. Highlights of the Report of the Expert Panel on Blood Cholesterol Levels in Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Studies have shown that high blood cholesterol levels play a role in the development of coronary heart disease in adults, and that the process leading to atherosclerosis begins in childhood. To address the problem of high cholesterol levels in children, the Panel on Blood Cholesterol Levels recommends complementary approaches for individuals and…

  12. Association between blood cholesterol level with periodontal status of coronary heart disease patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valensia, Rosy; Masulili, Sri Lelyati C.; Lessang, Robert; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is an abnormal narrowing of heart arteries associated with local accumulation of lipids, in the form of cholesterol and triglycerides. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory that suggests link to the development of CHD. In periodontitis have been reported changes in lipid profile, include increased of cholesterol levels of blood. Objective: to analyse correlation between blood cholesterol level with periodontal status of CHD and non CHD subjects. Methods: Periodontal status and blood cholesterol level of 60 CHD and 40 non CHD subjects was measured. Result: Blood cholesterol level in CHD subjects differs from non CHD subjects (p=0.032). Blood cholesterol level correlates with pocket depth (p=0.003) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) (p=0.000) in CHD subjects. Blood cholesterol level correlates with pocket depth (p=0.010) in non CHD subjects. There is no significant correlation between blood cholesterol level and bleeding on probing (BOP) in CHD subjects. There is no significant correlation between blood cholesterol level with BOP and CAL in non CHD subjects. Conclusion: Blood cholesterol level in control group is higher than CHD patients. Blood cholesterol level positively associated with pocket depth (r=0.375) and CAL (r=0.450) in CHD patients. Blood cholesterol level is positively associated with pocket depth (r=0.404) in control group.

  13. Serum specific vasopressin-degrading activity is related to blood total cholesterol levels in men but not in women.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; Arrazola, Marcelina; Carrera-González, María Pilar; Arias de Saavedra, José Manuel; Sánchez-Agesta, Rafael; Mayas, María Dolores; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2012-07-01

    The role of vasopressin (AVP) in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease is controversial, but this peptide hormone is elevated in heart failure and some forms of hypertension. Also, AVP has vasoconstrictor, mitogenic, hyperplasic and renal fluid retaining properties which, by analogy with angiotensin II, may have deleterious effects when present in chronic excess. Furthermore, cholesterol blood levels are also associated with hypertension, although the underlying mechanism is not known. Here we analyze the relationship between blood total cholesterol levels and serum vasopressin- degrading cystyl-aminopeptidase activity (AVP-DA) in healthy humans, and the differences between men and women. Linear correlation coefficients were calculated to test relationships between AVP-DA and blood total cholesterol levels. Sex differences were observed for AVP-DA, being this activity higher in men than in women. According to the linear model of the regression analysis, AVP-DA showed a significant negative correlation with blood total cholesterol levels in men, whereas no correlation was observed in women. Several studies in humans demonstrate the existence of greater plasma AVP concentrations in normal men compared to normal women, which could explain the gender-differences observed in the present work in relation with AVP-DA. However, AVP-DA is related to blood cholesterol levels only in men, although in our hands, women showed higher blood cholesterol levels than men. This could indicate that the risk of high cholesterol-related hypertension is more probable in men than in women. Although AVP-DA misregulation could be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, its relation with cholesterol levels appears only in men, but not in women.

  14. Serum Cholesterol Levels in College Students: Opportunities for Education and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparling, Phillip B.; Snow, Teresa K.; Beavers, Bill D.

    1999-01-01

    Analyzed lipid profiles in 1,088 college students at a university where lipid profiles were available to students in selected health/wellness courses. Mean total cholesterol levels were similar for men and women, but men had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol than women. About 11…

  15. Hypercholesterolemia screening. Does knowledge of blood cholesterol level affect dietary fat intake?

    PubMed Central

    Aubin, M.; Godin, G.; Vézina, L.; Maziade, J.; Desharnais, R.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether knowing blood cholesterol test results influences people's intention to lower their dietary fat intake and to assess changes in diet after 3 months. DESIGN: Randomized clinical study. SETTING: Two hospital-based family medicine centres. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 526 patients aged 18 to 65, without prior knowledge of their blood cholesterol levels, were recruited. Seventy did not appear for their appointments, and 37 did not meet study criteria, leaving 419 participants. From that group, 391 completed the study. INTERVENTIONS: Patients submitted to cholesterol screening were randomly assigned to one of two groups, completing the study questionnaires either before (control group) or after (experimental group) being informed of their screening test results. All participants were called 3 months after transmission of test results to assess their dietary fat intake at that time. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Differences in intention to adopt a low-fat diet reported between the experimental and control groups and differences in dietary fat intake modification after 3 months between patients with normal and abnormal blood cholesterol test results. RESULTS: Knowledge of test results influenced patients' intentions to adopt low-fat diets (F1,417 = 5.4, P = .02). Patients reported lower mean dietary fat intake after 3 months than at baseline (P < .0001). The reduction was greater in patients with abnormal screening results (F2,388 = 3.6, P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Being informed of personal blood cholesterol levels effects an immediate change in eating habits that translates into reduced dietary fat intake. PMID:9640523

  16. Effect of extracorporeal ultraviolet blood irradiation on blood cholesterol level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Laskina, O. V.; Mitkovskaya, N. P.; Kirkovsky, V. V.

    2012-07-01

    We have studied the effect of extracorporeal ultraviolet blood irradiation on cholesterol metabolism in patients with cardiovascular diseases. We have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the spectral characteristics of blood and plasma, gas-exchange and oximetry parameters, and the results of a complete blood count and chemistry panel before and after UV blood irradiation. We have assessed the changes in concentrations of cholesterols (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides) in the blood of the patients in response to a five-day course of UV blood irradiation. The changes in the spectral characteristics of blood and plasma, the chemistry panel, the gas composition, and the fractional hemoglobin composition initiated by absorption of UV radiation are used to discuss the molecular mechanisms for the effect of therapeutic doses of UV radiation on blood cholesterols.

  17. Work, sleep, and cholesterol levels of U.S. long-haul truck drivers

    PubMed Central

    LEMKE, Michael K.; APOSTOLOPOULOS, Yorghos; HEGE, Adam; WIDEMAN, Laurie; SÖNMEZ, Sevil

    2016-01-01

    Long-haul truck drivers in the United States experience elevated cardiovascular health risks, possibly due to hypercholesterolemia. The current study has two objectives: 1) to generate a cholesterol profile for U.S. long-haul truck drivers; and 2) to determine the influence of work organization characteristics and sleep quality and duration on cholesterol levels of long-haul truck drivers. Survey and biometric data were collected from 262 long-haul truck drivers. Descriptive analyses were performed for demographic, work organization, sleep, and cholesterol measures. Linear regression and ordinal logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine for possible predictive relationships between demographic, work organization, and sleep variables, and cholesterol outcomes. The majority (66.4%) of drivers had a low HDL (<40 mg/dL), and nearly 42% of drivers had a high-risk total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio. Sleep quality was associated with HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol, and daily work hours were associated with LDL cholesterol. Workday sleep duration was associated with non-HDL cholesterol, and driving experience and sleep quality were associated with cholesterol ratio. Long-haul truck drivers have a high risk cholesterol profile, and sleep quality and work organization factors may induce these cholesterol outcomes. Targeted worksite health promotion programs are needed to curb these atherosclerotic risks. PMID:28049935

  18. Work, sleep, and cholesterol levels of U.S. long-haul truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Michael K; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Hege, Adam; Wideman, Laurie; Sönmez, Sevil

    2017-04-07

    Long-haul truck drivers in the United States experience elevated cardiovascular health risks, possibly due to hypercholesterolemia. The current study has two objectives: 1) to generate a cholesterol profile for U.S. long-haul truck drivers; and 2) to determine the influence of work organization characteristics and sleep quality and duration on cholesterol levels of long-haul truck drivers. Survey and biometric data were collected from 262 long-haul truck drivers. Descriptive analyses were performed for demographic, work organization, sleep, and cholesterol measures. Linear regression and ordinal logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine for possible predictive relationships between demographic, work organization, and sleep variables, and cholesterol outcomes. The majority (66.4%) of drivers had a low HDL (<40 mg/dL), and nearly 42% of drivers had a high-risk total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio. Sleep quality was associated with HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol, and daily work hours were associated with LDL cholesterol. Workday sleep duration was associated with non-HDL cholesterol, and driving experience and sleep quality were associated with cholesterol ratio. Long-haul truck drivers have a high risk cholesterol profile, and sleep quality and work organization factors may induce these cholesterol outcomes. Targeted worksite health promotion programs are needed to curb these atherosclerotic risks.

  19. Prospective multicentre study of the effect of voluntary plasmapheresis on plasma cholesterol levels in donors

    PubMed Central

    Rosa-Bray, M; Wisdom, C; Wada, S; Johnson, BR; Grifols-Roura, V; Grifols-Lucas, V

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives LDL apheresis is used to treat patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia, and low-volume plasmapheresis for plasma donation may similarly lower cholesterol levels in some donors. This study was designed to assess the effect of plasmapheresis on total, LDL and HDL cholesterol levels in a plasma donor population. Materials and Methods This was a prospective, unblinded longitudinal cohort study in which a blood sample was obtained for analysis before each donation. Data from 663 donors were analysed using a multivariable repeated measures regression model with a general estimating equations approach with changes in cholesterol as the primary outcome measure. Results The model predicted a significant decrease in total and LDL cholesterol for both genders and all baseline cholesterol levels (P < 0·01). The greatest total cholesterol decreases (women, −46·8 mg/dL; men, −32·2 mg/dL) were associated with high baseline levels and 2–4 days between donations. Small but statistically significant increases (P ≤ 0·01) in HDL cholesterol were predicted for donors with low baseline levels. Conclusions These results suggest that, in donors with elevated baseline cholesterol levels, total and LDL cholesterol levels may decrease during routine voluntary plasmapheresis. PMID:23517282

  20. Tartary buckwheat sprout powder lowers plasma cholesterol level in rats.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Tomoko; Han, Kyu-Ho; Hashimoto, Naoto; Yamauchi, Hiroaki; Shimada, Ken-Ichiro; Sekikawa, Mitsuo; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2007-12-01

    We examined the effects of different types of buckwheat sprouts on the plasma cholesterol concentration, fecal steroid excretion and hepatic mRNA expression related to cholesterol metabolism in rats. Rats were fed a cholesterol-free diet with 5 g of Kitawasesoba common buckwheat sprout powder (KS)/100 g, 5 g of Hokkai T no. 8 tartary buckwheat sprout powder (HS-8)/100 g or 5 g of Hokkai T no. 9 tartary buckwheat sprout powder (HS-9)/100 g of diet for 4 wk. Control rats were fed a diet with alpha-cornstarch instead of sprout powder for 4 wk. There were no significant differences in food intake, body weight, liver weight or cecal contents among the groups. Plasma total cholesterol concentrations in the HS-8 and HS-9 groups were significantly lower than in the control group, whereas there was no significant difference between the KS and control groups. Fecal bile acid excretion and cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the KS, HS-8 and HS-9 groups were significantly greater than in the control group. Furthermore, fecal matter excretion in the KS, HS-8 and HS-9 groups tended to be increased compared to the control group, with that in the HS-8 group being significantly higher than in the control group. Hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase mRNA expression in the KS, HS-8 and HS-9 groups and hepatic HMG-CoA reductase mRNA expression in the HS-9 group were significantly higher than in the control group. The results suggest that tartary buckwheat sprout powder has a serum cholesterol-lowering function by enhancing fecal bile acid excretion through increased fecal matter excretion or the upregulation of hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase mRNA expression in rats.

  1. Banana Blossom (Musa acuminate Colla) Incorporated Experimental Diets Modulate Serum Cholesterol and Serum Glucose Level in Wistar Rats Fed with Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Gunasegaram, Saranya; Jayathilake, Chathuni; Weththasinghe, Pabodha; Jayawardana, Barana Chaminda; Vidanarachchi, Janak Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Hypocholesterolaemic and hypoglycaemic effect of banana blossom were studied in high-cholesterol fed rats. Experimental groups were fed for 4 weeks, with casein as the basal diet (CN), in comparison with two diets containing 0.5% cholesterol (CD) and 0.5% cholesterol + 21% banana blossom powder (CDB). Serum total cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol level, and serum glucose concentrations were lower in CDB fed group compared with CD fed group. Lower serum cholesterol and glucose level (P < 0.05) in CDB fed group were followed by higher faecal weight, caecal weight, caecal Lactobacilli, and Bifidobacteria population in CDB fed group compared to CD diet fed group. Lower serum AST level in banana blossom fed rats showed the reduction in oxidative stress induced by high cholesterol diet. Based on these data, it could be speculated that banana blossom incorporated experimental diets may modulate the hypocholesterolaemic and hypoglycaemic responses in Wistar rats. PMID:28042480

  2. Cardiovascular risk in parents of children with extreme lipoprotein cholesterol levels: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Croft, J B; Cresanta, J L; Webber, L S; Srinivasan, S R; Freedman, D S; Burke, G L; Berenson, G S

    1988-03-01

    Fasting serum lipids, lipoprotein cholesterol, and other cardiovascular disease risk factors were examined in 321 natural parents of children with low and/or high levels of beta- and pre-beta-lipoprotein cholesterol. Parents of children from low pre-beta-lipoprotein groups had elevated alpha- and lower pre-beta-lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Parents whose children had high beta-lipoprotein cholesterol levels also had high serum total and beta-lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Parents of children with high levels of both beta- and pre-beta-lipoprotein cholesterol had a high prevalence of both abnormal risk factor levels, as well as clinical evidence of early coronary artery disease (before age 50 years). These observations show that parents of children with high beta- and/or pre-beta-lipoprotein cholesterol levels have greatly enhanced risk for cardiovascular disease, and children mirror their parents' lipoprotein cholesterol levels. These observations emphasize the need for cardiovascular risk evaluation early in life, especially in high-risk families.

  3. The Relationship of Daily Stress and Health-Related Behaviors to Adolescents' Cholesterol Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Chris A.; Friedman, Alice G.; Burright, Richard G.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between daily life events and total cholesterol levels among high school students (N=104) and examines contributions of health-related behaviors. Analyses showed that scores on a scale of daily life events explained a significant portion of variance in cholesterol levels. Females reported a greater degree of negative…

  4. Effects of simvastatin on bone regeneration in the mandibles of ovariectomized rats and on blood cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Juliana C; Mancini, Maria N G; Carvalho, Yasmin R; Anbinder, Ana Lia; Balducci, Ivan; Rocha, Rosilene F

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of simvastatin on guided bone regeneration in the mandibles of ovariectomized rats, and to observe their blood cholesterol levels. Seventy female rats were divided into two groups: control and treated, both groups containing normal and ovariectomized rats. A month after ovariectomy a bone defect was created in the mandible, and was covered by a polytetrafluoroethylene membrane. The treated groups received simvastatin orally for 15 or 30 days. The rats were sacrificed 15, 30 or 60 days after surgery, at which time a blood sample was extracted for blood cholesterol level analysis and the mandible was extracted for densitometric, histological and morphometric analysis. All specimens underwent analysis of variance. The ovariectomized animals had higher cholesterol levels than the treated normal animals, and no significant difference was found between the different treatment periods and the sacrifice times. The densitometric, histological and morphometric analysis showed that the treated ovariectomized animals developed more new bone than the control ovariectomized rats, but no significant difference was observed between the treatment periods. It can be concluded that the deficiency of estrogen increased the level of blood cholesterol and that the simvastatin aided new bone formation in the ovariectomized animals.

  5. Knowledge of cholesterol levels and targets in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Susan; Lichtman, Judith H; Amatruda, Joan M; Smith, Grace L; Mattera, Jennifer A; Roumanis, Sarah A; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about the extent to which patients are aware of nationally-recommended cholesterol and lipid subfraction targets. The authors interviewed 738 patients hospitalized with coronary artery disease to assess their knowledge of their low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol levels as well as corresponding national targets. Only 8%, 8%, and 43% of patients could recall their low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol values, respectively. Only 5%, 2%, and 50% could correctly name targets for these values. Knowledge of cholesterol targets was particularly poor among women, nonwhites, and patients without any college education. Patients with multiple cardiac risk factors and patients with a previous history of cardiovascular disease were no more knowledgeable about their cholesterol targets than those without these conditions. These findings suggest that current cholesterol education efforts appear inadequate, particularly for women, nonwhites, and patients without any college education.

  6. Effects of an Aerobic Activity Program on the Cholesterol Levels of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.; Rimmer, James H.

    1997-01-01

    Reports a study that examined the effects of a 15-week aerobic activity program on high school students' cholesterol levels. Analysis of control and participating students indicated that there were significant reductions in total cholesterol in the training group. There were no significant differences between groups in high density lipoprotein…

  7. NMR-Based Lipid Profiling of High Density Lipoprotein Particles in Healthy Subjects with Low, Normal, and Elevated HDL-Cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Kostara, Christina E; Tsimihodimos, Vasilis; Elisaf, Moses S; Bairaktari, Eleni T

    2017-03-21

    Recent studies suggest that the cholesterol content of HDL (high density lipoproteins) may provide limited information on their antiatherogenic properties and that the composition and particles' structure provide more information on their functionality. We used NMR-based (nuclear magnetic resonance-based) lipidomics to study the relationships of serum HDL-C (HDL-cholesterol) levels with the lipid composition of HDL particles in three groups of subjects selected on the basis of their HDL-C levels. Subjects with low and high HDL-C levels exhibited differences in HDL lipidome compared to those with normal HDL-C levels. In pattern recognition analysis, the discrimination power among all groups was of high significance. The low HDL-C group presented enrichment of the core in triglycerides and depletion in cholesterol esters, whereas the high HDL-C group showed a decrease in triglycerides content. Additionally, as HDL-C increases, all lipid classes are esterified with higher percentage of unsaturated than saturated fatty acids. In addition to the aforementioned differences, the surface layer is enriched in sphingomyelin and free cholesterol in the high HDL-C level group. NMR-based lipidomic analysis of HDL can be particularly useful since it provides insights into molecular features and helps in the characterization of the atheroprotective function of HDL lipoproteins and in the identification of novel biomarkers of cardiovascular risk.

  8. [Reducing low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels by apheresis].

    PubMed

    Reiber, I; Gógl, A

    1994-03-13

    The predominate number of homozygote familial hypercholesterolemic and approximately 20% of heterozygotes are resistant to low cholesterol diet and lipid lowering pharmacological treatment even in combination of 2 or more drugs. In such cases, the selective lipoprotein apheresis has become a promising alternative and indicated absolute (homozygotes) or relative (heterozygotes). The combination of low density lipoprotein apheresis, together with diet and drugs, should allow a maximal lowering of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (-60-70%). Besides low density lipoprotein, various apheresis procedures may also eliminate other potentially atherogenic factors, such as lipoprotein(a) and fibrinogen and acutely improve the haemo-rheological status of the patient. The authors review several lipoprotein apheresis procedures with varying degrees of selectivity, those have and furthermore analysis the advantages and disadvantages and cost of each procedure.

  9. L-Carnitine effects on chemical composition of plasma lipoproteins of rabbits fed with normal and high cholesterol diets.

    PubMed

    Diaz, M; Lopez, F; Hernandez, F; Urbina, J A

    2000-06-01

    L-Carnitine plays an important role in the mitochondrial uptake of long-chain fatty acids in mammals. It has recently been shown that this compound has a marked hypo-cholesterolemic effect when used in conjunction with lipid-rich diets. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of L-carnitine on the fatty acid composition of plasma lipoproteins in rabbits fed with different diets. Four different groups were investigated: group I (standard diet), group II (standard diet supplemented with L-carnitine at 80 mg/kg), group III (standard diet supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol), and group IV (standard diet supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol plus L-carnitine at 80 mg/kg). The feeding period was 126 d. Total plasma cholesterol was indistinguishable in groups I and II, but increased nearly 40-fold in group III. This increment was reduced by 50% in group IV. Correspondingly, total cholesterol content in lipoprotein fractions [very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) separated by agarose gel chromatography was the same for groups I and II, while for animals fed a cholesterol-rich diet (III) total cholesterol in VLDL + LDL increased nearly 100-fold when compared with groups I and II but, again, the increment was reduced by 50% in group IV. In contrast, total cholesterol in HDL increased only fivefold for both groups III and IV when compared with groups I and II, indicating no effects of L-carnitine on this parameter. The reduction of total cholesterol in VLDL + LDL particles in animals fed a cholesterol-rich diet plus L-carnitine was associated with a marked decrease in the ratio of cholesteryl ester to free cholesterol and a dramatic increase in their phospholipid content; opposite effects were observed for HDL. L-Carnitine induced a marked decrease in the saturated to unsaturated C16 + C18 fatty acid ratio in cholesteryl esters associated with VLDL and LDL from animals fed with both normal and cholesterol

  10. The Effects of Altered Membrane Cholesterol Levels on Sodium Pump Activity in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Metabolic dysfunctions characteristic of overt hypothyroidism (OH) start at the early stage of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). Na+/K+-ATPase (the sodium pump) is a transmembrane enzyme that plays a vital role in cellular activities in combination with membrane lipids. We evaluated the effects of early changes in thyroid hormone and membrane cholesterol on sodium pump activity in SCH and OH patients. Methods In 32 SCH patients, 35 OH patients, and 34 euthyroid patients, sodium pump activity and cholesterol levels in red blood cell membranes were measured. Serum thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Differences in their mean values were analysed using post hoc analysis of variance. We assessed the dependence of the sodium pump on other metabolites by multiple regression analysis. Results Sodium pump activity and membrane cholesterol were lower in both hypothyroid groups than in control group, OH group exhibiting lower values than SCH group. In SCH group, sodium pump activity showed a significant direct dependence on membrane cholesterol with an inverse relationship with serum TSH levels. In OH group, sodium pump activity depended directly on membrane cholesterol and serum T4 levels. No dependence on serum cholesterol was observed in either case. Conclusion Despite the presence of elevated serum cholesterol in hypothyroidism, membrane cholesterol contributed significantly to maintain sodium pump activity in the cells. A critical reduction in membrane cholesterol levels heralds compromised enzyme activity, even in the early stage of hypothyroidism, and this can be predicted by elevated TSH levels alone, without any evident clinical manifestations. PMID:28256112

  11. Correlation of Friedewald's calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels with direct low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Nanda, Sunil Kumar; Bharathy, M; Dinakaran, Asha; Ray, Lopamudra; Ravichandran, K

    2017-01-01

    Background: One of the risk factors for the development of coronary heart disease is high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. National Cholesterol Education Program ATP III guidelines suggest drug therapy to be considered at LDL-cholesterol levels >130 mg/dl. This makes accurate reporting of LDL cholesterol crucial in the management of Coronary heart disease. Estimation of LDL cholesterol by direct LDL method is accurate, but it is expensive. Hence, We compared Friedewald's calculated LDL values with direct LDL values. Aim: To evaluate the correlation of Friedewalds calculated LDL with direct LDL method. Materials and Methods: We compared LDL cholesterol measured by Friedewald's formula with direct LDL method in 248 samples between the age group of 20–70 years. Paired t-test was used to test the difference in LDL concentration obtained by a direct method and Friedewald's formula. The level of significance was taken as P < 0.05. Pearsons correlation formula was used to test the correlation between direct LDL values with Friedewald's formula. Results: There was no significant difference between the direct LDL values when compared to calculated LDL by Friedewalds formula (P = 0.140). Pearson correlation showed there exists good correlation between direct LDL versus Friedewalds formula (correlation coefficient = 0.98). The correlation between direct LDL versus Friedewalds calculated LDL was best at triglycerides values between 101 and 200 mg/dl. Conclusion: This study indicates calculated LDL by Friedewalds equation can be used instead of direct LDL in patients who cannot afford direct LDL method. PMID:28251110

  12. Correlation between pretreatment serum LDL-cholesterol levels and prognosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Qiu; Hu, Qiao-Ying; Piao, Yong-feng; Hua, Yong-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the correlations between long-term survival outcomes in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and pretreatment serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Patients and methods Between January 2008 and December 2011, 935 patients with newly diagnosed NPC who were treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy were included in this retrospective clinical analysis. Patients were divided into two groups based on pretreatment LDL-C levels: normal LDL-C (≤3.64 mmol/L; n=816) and elevated LDL-C (>3.64 mmol/L; n=119). Associations between pretreatment LDL-C levels and treatment outcome were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results The overall patient follow-up rate was 95.1%, and 726 patients received more than 5 years of follow-up. Five-year overall survival (OS), local control (LC), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates of the entire patient population were 87.1%, 91.1%, and 87.2%, respectively. Rates of 5-year OS, LC, and DMFS for the elevated versus normal LDL-C groups were 77.0% vs 89.1% (P<0.001), 85.8% vs 91.9% (P=0.041), and 81.1% vs 88.1% (P=0.038), respectively. Compared with normal LDL-C levels, elevated LDL-C levels were identified as an independent prognostic factor of a poorer OS (hazard ratio [HR] =2.171; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.424–3.309), LC rate (HR =1.762; 95% CI =1.021–3.942), and DMFS (HR =1.594; 95% CI =1.003–2.532). Conclusion This study found that elevated pretreatment LDL-C levels are negative prognostic indicators of NPC. Elevated LDL-C levels may be useful indicators of locoregional control and distant metastasis in NPC patients. PMID:27217776

  13. High-Cholesterol Diet Disrupts the Levels of Hormones Derived from Anterior Pituitary Basophilic Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Zhang, X; Liu, Z; Yuan, Z; Song, Y; Shao, S; Zhou, X; Yan, H; Guan, Q; Gao, L; Zhang, H; Zhao, J

    2016-03-01

    Emerging evidence shows that elevated cholesterol levels are detrimental to health. However, it is unclear whether there is an association between cholesterol and the pituitary. We investigated the effects of a high-cholesterol diet on pituitary hormones using in vivo animal studies and an epidemiological study. In the animal experiments, rats were fed a high-cholesterol or control diet for 28 weeks. In rats fed the high-cholesterol diet, serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; also known as thyrotrophin), luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) produced by the basophilic cells of the anterior pituitary were elevated in a time-dependent manner. Among these hormones, TSH was the first to undergo a significant change, whereas adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), another hormone produced by basophilic cells, was not changed significantly. As the duration of cholesterol feeding increased, cholesterol deposition increased gradually in the pituitary. Histologically, basophilic cells, and especially thyrotrophs and gonadotrophs, showed an obvious increase in cell area, as well as a potential increase in their proportion of total pituitary cells. Expression of the β-subunit of TSH, FSH and LH, which controls hormone specificity and activity, exhibited a corresponding increase. In the epidemiological study, we found a similar elevation of serum TSH, LH and FSH and a decrease in ACTH in patients with hypercholesterolaemia. Significant positive correlations existed between serum total cholesterol and TSH, FSH or LH, even after adjusting for confounding factors. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that the high-cholesterol diet affected the levels of hormones derived from anterior pituitary basophilic cells. This phenomenon might contribute to the pituitary functional disturbances described in hypercholesterolaemia.

  14. Effect of cholesterol and triglycerides levels on the rheological behavior of human blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Leonardo; Calderas, Fausto; Sanchez-Olivares, Guadalupe; Medina-Torres, Luis; Sanchez-Solis, Antonio; Manero, Octavio

    2015-02-01

    Important public health problems worldwide such as obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and coronary diseases are quite common. These problems arise from numerous factors, such as hyper-caloric diets, sedentary habits and other epigenetic factors. With respect to Mexico, the population reference values of total cholesterol in plasma are around 200 mg/dL. However, a large proportion has higher levels than this reference value. In this work, we analyze the rheological properties of human blood obtained from 20 donors, as a function of cholesterol and triglyceride levels, upon a protocol previously approved by the health authorities. Samples with high and low cholesterol and triglyceride levels were selected and analyzed by simple-continuous and linear-oscillatory shear flow. Rheometric properties were measured and related to the structure and composition of human blood. In addition, rheometric data were modeled by using several constitutive equations: Bautista-Manero-Puig (BMP) and the multimodal Maxwell equations to predict the flow behavior of human blood. Finally, a comparison was made among various models, namely, the BMP, Carreau and Quemada equations for simple shear rate flow. An important relationship was found between cholesterol, triglycerides and the structure of human blood. Results show that blood with high cholesterol levels (400 mg/dL) has flow properties fully different (higher viscosity and a more pseudo-plastic behavior) than blood with lower levels of cholesterol (tendency to Newtonian behavior or viscosity plateau at low shear rates).

  15. Effect of Lactobacillus brevis 119-2 isolated from Tsuda kabu red turnips on cholesterol levels in cholesterol-administered rats.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shinobu; Katsube, Takuya; Hattori, Hideki; Sato, Hiromasa; Ishijima, Tomoko; Nakai, Yuji; Abe, Keiko; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2013-07-01

    In a previous in vitro study, we reported that the potential mechanism of the cholesterol-lowering effect of Lactobacillus brevis 119-2 isolated from turnip Tsuda kabu was the incorporation of cholesterol to cell membrane. In this study, we analyzed serum cholesterol and hepatic gene expression of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats kept on a cholesterol diet with or without L. brevis 119-2 for 2 weeks, to evaluate the cholesterol-lowering effect in vivo. Serum cholesterol levels were significantly reduced in SD rats kept on a diet including L. brevis 119-2 compared with that in SD rats kept on a diet without L. brevis 119-2, and both viable and dead L. brevis 119-2 induced this effect. Hepatic gene analysis by DNA microarray suggested that the potential mechanism of the cholesterol-lowering effect of L. brevis 119-2 in vivo was inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity by insulin induced gene (Insig) protein, and induction of catabolism of cholesterol to bile acid by Cyp7a1 (cytochrome P450 a1). In addition, we found that inclusion of L. brevis 119-2 in the diet decreased serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels by inducing overexpression of the LDL receptor gene. In contrast, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121 increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by inducing overexpression of the ATP-binding cassette sub-family. A member 1 (Abca1) and Angiopoietin-like 3 (Angptl3) genes. These results suggest that L. brevis 119-2 decreases the risk of atherosclerosis by lowering serum cholesterol, ameliorating the effect of fatty liver.

  16. Combination of cadmium and high cholesterol levels as a risk factor for heart fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Türkcan, Adrian; Scharinger, Bernhard; Grabmann, Gerlinde; Keppler, Bernhard K; Laufer, Günther; Bernhard, David; Messner, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    The deleterious effects of increased cadmium (Cd) serum levels on the cardiovascular system are proven by epidemiological and basic science studies. Cd exposure of animals and humans is known to impair myocardial function, possibly leading to heart failure. This study aims at investigating the effect of Cd treatment on the cardiac system with emphasis on the combined effect of Cd and high serum cholesterol levels as an important cardiovascular risk factor. Detailed analyses of Cd-induced effects on the heart of ApoE-/- mice fed a high fat diet (HFD), ApoE-/- mice fed a normal diet (ND), and C57BL/6J mice fed a ND revealed proinflammatory and fibrotic changes in the presence of cellular hypertrophy but in the absence of organ hypertrophy. Hypercholesterolemia in ApoE-/- mice alone and in combination with Cd treatment resulted in significant cardiomyocyte cell death. Based on further analyses of heart sections, we conclude that severe hypercholesterolemia in combination with ApoE-/- genotype as well as Cd treatment results in necrotic cardiomyocyte death. These data were supported by in vitro experiments showing a Cd-induced depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane and the permeabilization of the plasma membrane arguing for the occurrence of Cd-induced necrotic cell death. In summary, we were able to show for the first time that the combination of high cholesterol and Cd levels increase the risk for heart failure through cardiac fibrosis. This observation could in part be explained by the dramatically increased deposition of Cd in the hearts of ApoE-/- mice fed a HFD.

  17. Macadamia nut consumption lowers plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic men.

    PubMed

    Garg, Manohar L; Blake, Robert J; Wills, Ron B H

    2003-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the cholesterol-lowering potential of macadamia nuts. Seventeen hypercholesterolemic men (mean age 54 y) were given macadamia nuts (40-90 g/d), equivalent to 15% energy intake, for 4 wk. Plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and homocysteine concentrations and the fatty acid composition of plasma lipids were determined before and after treatment. Plasma MUFA 16:1(n-7), 18:1(n-7) and 20:1(n-9) were elevated after intervention with macadamia nuts. Plasma (n-6) and (n-3) PUFA concentrations were unaffected by macadamia nut consumption. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations decreased by 3.0 and 5.3%, respectively, and HDL cholesterol levels increased by 7.9% in hypercholesterolemic men after macadamia nut consumption. Plasma triglyceride and homocysteine concentrations were not affected by treatment. Macadamia nut consumption was associated with a significant increase in the relative intake of MUFA and a reduced relative intake of saturated fatty acids and PUFA. This study demonstrates that macadamia nut consumption as part of a healthy diet favorably modifies the plasma lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic men despite their diet being high in fat.

  18. Central Nervous System Demyelination and Remyelination is Independent from Systemic Cholesterol Level in Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Raddatz, Barbara B; Sun, Wenhui; Brogden, Graham; Sun, Yanyong; Kammeyer, Patricia; Kalkuhl, Arno; Colbatzky, Florian; Deschl, Ulrich; Naim, Hassan Y; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    High dietary fat and/or cholesterol intake is a risk factor for multiple diseases and has been debated for multiple sclerosis. However, cholesterol biosynthesis is a key pathway during myelination and disturbances are described in demyelinating diseases. To address the possible interaction of dyslipidemia and demyelination, cholesterol biosynthesis gene expression, composition of the body's major lipid repositories and Paigen diet-induced, systemic hypercholesterolemia were examined in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis (TME) using histology, immunohistochemistry, serum clinical chemistry, microarrays and high-performance thin layer chromatography. TME-virus (TMEV)-infected mice showed progressive loss of motor performance and demyelinating leukomyelitis. Gene expression associated with cholesterol biosynthesis was overall down-regulated in the spinal cord of TMEV-infected animals. Spinal cord levels of galactocerebroside and sphingomyelin were reduced on day 196 post TMEV infection. Paigen diet induced serum hypercholesterolemia and hepatic lipidosis. However, high dietary fat and cholesterol intake led to no significant differences in clinical course, inflammatory response, astrocytosis, and the amount of demyelination and remyelination in the spinal cord of TMEV-infected animals. The results suggest that down-regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis is a transcriptional marker for demyelination, quantitative loss of myelin-specific lipids, but not cholesterol occurs late in chronic demyelination, and serum hypercholesterolemia exhibited no significant effect on TMEV infection.

  19. The Effect of Deployment on Cholesterol Levels of Active Duty Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    cardiac death ( American Heart Association , www.americanheart.org). The Framingham Heart Study laid foundation for great medical advances in the way of...What is patient’s age? 36 REFERENCES American Heart Association , (2004). Cholesterol levels. Retrieved September 22, 2004 from http...www.americanheart.org/presenter.ihtml?identifier=987. American Heart Association (2004). High blood cholesterol and other lipids - statistics. Retrieved September 28

  20. Non-Cholesterol Sterol Levels Predict Hyperglycemia and Conversion to Type 2 Diabetes in Finnish Men

    PubMed Central

    Cederberg, Henna; Gylling, Helena; Miettinen, Tatu A.; Paananen, Jussi; Vangipurapu, Jagadish; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Stančáková, Alena; Smith, Ulf; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the levels of non-cholesterol sterols as predictors for the development of hyperglycemia (an increase in the glucose area under the curve in an oral glucose tolerance test) and incident type 2 diabetes in a 5-year follow-up study of a population-based cohort of Finnish men (METSIM Study, N = 1,050) having non-cholesterol sterols measured at baseline. Additionally we determined the association of 538,265 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with non-cholesterol sterol levels in a cross-sectional cohort of non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetes (the Kuopio cohort of the EUGENE2 Study, N = 273). We found that in a cross-sectional METSIM Study the levels of sterols indicating cholesterol absorption were reduced as a function of increasing fasting glucose levels, whereas the levels of sterols indicating cholesterol synthesis were increased as a function of increasing 2-hour glucose levels. A cholesterol synthesis marker desmosterol significantly predicted an increase, and two absorption markers (campesterol and avenasterol) a decrease in the risk of hyperglycemia and incident type 2 diabetes in a 5-year follow-up of the METSIM cohort, mainly attributable to insulin sensitivity. A SNP of ABCG8 was associated with fasting plasma glucose levels in a cross-sectional study but did not predict hyperglycemia or incident type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, the levels of some, but not all non-cholesterol sterols are markers of the worsening of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. PMID:23840693

  1. Modulation of cholesterol levels in broiler meat by dietary garlic and copper.

    PubMed

    Konjufca, V H; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I

    1997-09-01

    Male Ross x Ross 208 chickens were fed from hatching to 21 d of age either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% of a commercial garlic powder in Experiments 1 and 2. Once the dose-response relationship was established, 3% garlic powder or 63 or 180 mg/kg copper as cupric citrate or cupric sulfate pentahydrate were supplemented to the diet (Experiments 3, 4, 5, and 6). In the first two experiments, reductions of plasma cholesterol (P = 0.006) and triacylglycerols (P = 0.013) and liver (P = 0.012) and breast muscle (P = 0.165) cholesterol were observed in garlic-supplemented birds. Feeding either garlic powder or copper (63 and 180 mg/kg) resulted in reduced levels of plasma cholesterol, liver cholesterol, blood reduced glutathione, and breast and thigh muscle cholesterol. Differences were significant at P < 0.05 in at least one experiment. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl reductase activity was decreased due to dietary garlic (P = 0.0369), but not by pharmacological levels of dietary copper (P = 0.982). The activity of fatty acid synthetase was decreased in birds fed copper (P = 0.035). Both garlic and copper supplements decreased cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity (P = 0.024 and P = 0.022, respectively). The results of these trials confirm the findings that garlic and copper alter lipid and cholesterol metabolism. However, they do not work by the same mechanism. Feeding dietary garlic or copper for 21 d reduced cholesterol levels of broiler meat without altering growth of the chickens or feed efficiency.

  2. The Level of Cholesterol in COPD Patients with Severe and Very Severe Stage of the Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zafirova-Ivanovska, Beti; Stojkovikj, Jagoda; Dokikj, Dejan; Anastasova, Sasha; Debresliovska, Angela; Zejnel, Sead; Stojkovikj, Dragana

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High blood cholesterol is part of metabolic syndrome and can be caused by medical conditions or bad dietary habits. AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia in privies diagnosed patients with the severe and very severe stage of COPD, which were stable. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We investigated 100 subjects, all of them smokers, with smoking status >10 years, stratified into two groups: with severe and very severe stage of the disease. It was clinical, randomized, cross-sectional study. Besides demographic parameters and functional parameters, body mass index, cholesterol, LDL, and HDL were investigated. RESULTS: In the group of patients with very severe COPD were recorded significantly higher average values of cholesterol (6.16 ± 1.5 vs. 5.61 ± 1.1, p = 0.039). As independent significant factors influencing cholesterol in the group with a very severe COPD were confirmed the age of the patients (p = 0.005), LDL (p = 0.004) and HDL (p = 0.002). In the group with severe COPD, only LDL was confirmed as an independent significant factor that has an impact on cholesterol (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: The results of our survey demonstrated a high level of blood cholesterol and LDL, and low level of blood HDL in both investigated group’s patients with COPD. PMID:27335600

  3. Efficacy of Statin Therapy in Inducing Coronary Plaque Regression in Patients with Low Baseline Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Nozue, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Shingo; Tohyama, Shinichi; Fukui, Kazuki; Umezawa, Shigeo; Onishi, Yuko; Kunishima, Tomoyuki; Sato, Akira; Miyake, Shogo; Morino, Yoshihiro; Yamauchi, Takao; Muramatsu, Toshiya; Hibi, Kiyoshi; Terashima, Mitsuyasu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Michishita, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The efficacy of statin therapy in inducing coronary plaque regression may depend on baseline cholesterol levels. We aimed to determine the efficacy of statin therapy in inducing coronary plaque regression in statin-naïve patients with low cholesterol levels using serial intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) data from the treatment with statin on atheroma regression evaluated by virtual histology IVUS (TRUTH) study. Methods: The TRUTH study is a prospective, multicenter trial, comparing the efficacies of pitavastatin and pravastatin in coronary plaque regression in 164 patients. All patients were statin-naïve and received statin therapy only after study enrollment. The primary endpoint was the observation of coronary plaque progression, despite statin therapy. Results: Serial IVUS data, at baseline and after an 8-month follow-up, were available for 119 patients. The patients were divided into three groups based on non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels—low: ≤ 140 mg/dl, n = 38; moderate: 141–169 mg/dl, n = 42; and high: ≥ 170 mg/dl, n = 39. Coronary plaque progression was noted in the low cholesterol group, whereas plaque regression was noted in the moderate and high cholesterol groups [%Δplaque volume: 2.3 ± 7.4 vs. − 2.7 ± 10.7 vs. − 3.2 ± 7.5, p = 0.004 (analysis of variance)]. After adjusting for all variables, a low non-HDLC level (≤ 140 mg/dl) was identified as an independent predictor of coronary plaque progression [odds ratio, 3.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.5–9.1, p = 0.004]. Conclusion: Serial IVUS data analysis indicated that statin therapy was less effective in inducing coronary plaque regression in patients with low cholesterol levels but more effective in those with high cholesterol levels at baseline. University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) (UMIN ID: C000000311). PMID:27040362

  4. Circulating Levels of Irisin in Hypopituitary and Normal Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Pena-Bello, Lara; Pértega-Diaz, Sonia; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Outeiriño-Blanco, Elena; Eiras-Leal, Raquel; Varela-Rodriguez, Bárbara; Juiz-Valiña, Paula; Pérez-Fontán, Miguel; Cordido, María; Cordido, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Context The recently identified myokine irisin conveys some of the benefits of exercise. Hypopituitarism with adult growth hormone deficiency (HP) is a situation characterized by decreased GH secretion and an altered body composition. Objective Our aim was to study the skeletal muscle hormone irisin in HP, and compare the results with a similar group of normal subjects. Participants and Methods Seventeen HP patients and fifty-one normal subjects of similar age and sex were studied. The diagnosis of GH deficiency was confirmed by the presence of pituitary disease and a peak GH secretion below 3 μg/L after an insulin tolerance test. The patients were adequately treated for all pituitary hormone deficits, except for GH. Fasting serum irisin was measured with an enzyme immunoassay, and HOMA-IR, QUICKI and HOMA-β were calculated. Results Fasting irisin levels (ng/ml) were similar in normal [208.42 (168.44–249.23)] and HP patients [195.13 (178.44–241.44)]. In the control group there were moderate significant positive correlations between irisin and BMI, waist circumference, leptin, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β, triglycerides, and cholesterol. In the control group there were moderate significant negative correlations between irisin and IGF-I and QUICKI. In the hypopituitary group there were moderate significant positive correlations between irisin and body fat and HOMA-β. Conclusions We found similar irisin levels in GH deficiency hypopituitary patients when compared with normal subjects. The correlation between irisin and adiposity related factors suggests that that in the case of this clinical model, irisin is regulated by adiposity and not by GH. PMID:27472279

  5. Persimmon fruit tannin-rich fiber reduces cholesterol levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Gato, Nobuki; Kadowaki, Akio; Hashimoto, Natsumi; Yokoyama, Shin-ichiro; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Bile acid-binding agents are known to lower blood cholesterol levels and have been clinically used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. We previously showed that tannin-rich fiber from young persimmon (Diospyros kaki) fruits had bile acid-binding properties. In this study, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the hypocholesterolemic effects of tannin-rich fiber in humans. The subjects (n = 40, plasma total cholesterol levels 180-259 mg/dl) were divided into 3 groups and ingested cookie bars containing 0 g (placebo group, n = 14), 3 g (low-dose group, n = 13), or 5 g (high-dose group, n = 13) of tannin-rich fiber 3 times daily before meals for 12 weeks. Plasma total cholesterol levels decreased significantly in the low-dose (12 weeks, p < 0.005) and high-dose (6 weeks, p < 0.05; 12 weeks, p < 0.001) groups. In addition, plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased significantly in the high-dose group (6 weeks, p < 0.05; 12 weeks, p < 0.001). These improvements were not accompanied by changes in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or plasma triglyceride levels. Our findings indicate that tannin-rich fiber from young persimmon fruits is a useful food material for treating hypercholesterolemia.

  6. Changes in cholesterol level correlate with the course of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ji Young; Yang, Go Eun; Ko, Yousang; Park, Yong Bum; Sim, Yun Su; Park, Sung Hoon; Lee, Chang Youl; Jung, Ki-Suck

    2016-01-01

    Background Nutritional assessment is important in patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (PNTM) disease. The therapeutic effect of a cholesterol-rich diet in tuberculosis (TB) patients has been demonstrated, but the role of cholesterol in PNTM disease is unclear. This study evaluated the sequential changes in nutritional markers, including cholesterol, total lymphocyte count and visceral fat volume, according to the PNTM disease course. Methods This was an age-, sex- and number of comorbid diseases-matched case-control analysis of 89 patients with PNTM disease and 356 controls, who were participants in a Korean national survey. Results The median body mass index (BMI) and cholesterol level in the PNTM group [BMI =19.7 kg/m2; interquartile range (IQR): 17.8–21.6; cholesterol: 159 mg/dL; IQR, 135–185] were lower than those in controls (BMI: 23.1 kg/m2; IQR, 21.3–25.3; cholesterol: 188 mg/dL; IQR, 164-217; both P<0.001). In a multivariate analysis, Age more than 70 years (OR =3.38; 95% CI: 1.13–10.15, P=0.029), BMI <19.5 kg/m2 (OR =5.09; 95% CI: 1.67–15.48; P=0.004) and cavitary lesions (OR: 3.86; 95% CI: 1.30–11.47; P=0.015) were independently associated with extensive pulmonary lesions involving more than four lobes. The total cholesterol level, total lymphocyte count showed a tendency to decrease in PNTM patients with disease progression (both, P value <0.05), but not in those with a stable disease course. A decrease in cholesterol concentration of >20 mg/dL and a decrease in lymphocyte count more than 200/µL were predictive factors for disease progression (cholesterol: OR =10.50, 95% CI: 2.51–43.98, P=0.001; lymphocyte count: OR =5.32, 95% CI: 1.46–19.35, P=0.011). Conclusions These findings suggest that the change in cholesterol level may be a marker of disease progression in patients with PNTM disease. PMID:27867565

  7. Recurring exon deletions in the haptoglobin (HP) gene associate with lower blood cholesterol levels

    PubMed Central

    Boettger, Linda M.; Salem, Rany M.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Peloso, Gina; Kathiresan, Sekar; Hirschhorn, Joel; McCarroll, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Two exons of the human haptoglobin (HP) gene exhibit copy number variation that affects HP multimerization and underlies one of the first protein polymorphisms identified in humans. The evolutionary origins and medical significance of this polymorphism have been uncertain. Here we show that this variation has likely arisen from the recurring reversion of an ancient hominin-specific duplication of these exons. Though this polymorphism has been largely invisible to genome-wide genetic studies to date, we describe a way to analyze it by imputation from SNP haplotypes and find among 22,288 individuals that these HP exonic deletions associate with reduced LDL and total cholesterol levels. We show that these deletions, and a SNP that affects HP expression, are the likely drivers of the strong but complex association of cholesterol levels to SNPs near HP. Recurring exonic deletions in the haptoglobin gene likely enhance human health by lowering cholesterol levels in the blood. PMID:26901066

  8. Interferon lambda genotype and low serum LDL cholesterol levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Josephine H.; Lao, Xiang Qian; Tillmann, Hans L.; Rowell, Jennifer; Patel, Keyur; Thompson, Alexander; Suchindran, Sunil; Muir, Andrew J.; Guyton, John R.; Gardner, Stephen D.; McHutchison, John G.; McCarthy, Jeanette J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recently, genetic polymorphisms occurring in the interferon lambda gene region were associated with response to interferon-based treatment of hepatitis C infection. Both infection with the hepatitis C virus and interferon therapy are associated with decreased serum cholesterol and high cholesterol has been associated with increased likelihood to respond to interferon. We sought to determine if the interferon lambda gene variant was also associated with serum lipid levels in chronic hepatitis C patients. We compared genotypes of the rs12979860 polymorphism, located proximal to the IL28 gene, with serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels in 746 subjects with chronic HCV infection, not currently undergoing treatment, using multivariable analysis of variance. Results Levels of total cholesterol (p=6.0×10-4), apolipoprotein B (p=1.3×10-6) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (p=8.9×10-10) were significantly higher in subjects carrying the rs12979860 CC ‘responder’ genotype compared to those with the CT or TT genotype. Levels of triglycerides (p=0.03), apolipoprotein A-I (p=0.06) and apolipoprotein E (p=0.01) were slightly lower in the rs12979860 CC genotype group, while levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (p=0.78) and apolipoprotein C-III (p=0.74) did not vary by rs12979860 genotype. Conclusions Our results suggest that low levels of LDL cholesterol in chronic hepatitis C patients may be a marker of host endogenous interferon response to hepatitis C and that subjects with the rs12979860 CC ‘responder’ genotype may have a lower endogenous interferon response to the virus. PMID:20235331

  9. Changes during hibernation in different phospholipid and free and esterified cholesterol serum levels in black bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chauhan, V.; Sheikh, A.; Chauhan, A.; Tsiouris, J.; Malik, M.; Vaughan, M.

    2002-01-01

    During hibernation, fat is known to be the preferred source of energy. A detailed analysis of different phospholipids, as well as free and esterified cholesterol, was conducted to investigate lipid abnormalities during hibernation. The levels of total phospholipids and total cholesterol in the serum of black bears were found to increase significantly in hibernation as compared with the active state. Both free and esterified cholesterol were increased in the hibernating state in comparison with the active state (P < 0.05). The percentage increase during hibernation was more in free cholesterol (57%) than in esterified cholesterol (27%). Analysis of subclasses of serum phospholipids showed that choline containing phospholipids, i.e., sphingomyelin (SPG) (14%) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) (76%), are the major phospholipids in the serum of bear. The minor phospholipids included 8% of phosphatidylserine (PS) + phosphatidylinositol (PI), while phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was only 2% of the total phospholipids. A comparison of phospholipid subclasses showed that PC, PS + PI and SPG were significantly increased, while PE was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in the hibernating state as compared with the active state in black bears. These results suggest that the catabolism of phospholipids and cholesterol is decreased during hibernation in black bears, leading to their increased levels in the hibernating state as compared with the active state. In summary, our results indicate that serum cholesterol and phospholipid fractions (except PE) are increased during hibernation in bears. It is proposed that the increase of these lipids may be due to the altered metabolism of lipoproteins that are responsible for the clearance of the lipids. ?? 2002 E??ditions scientifiques et me??dicales Elsevier SAS and Socie??te?? franc??aise de biochimie et biologie mole??culaire. All rights reserved.

  10. Control of Cholesterol Metabolism and Plasma HDL Levels by miRNA-144

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Cristina M.; Rotllan, Noemi; Vlassov, Alexander V.; Dávalos, Alberto; Li, Mu; Goedeke, Leigh; Aranda, Juan F.; Cirera-Salinas, Daniel; Araldi, Elisa; Salerno, Alessandro; Wanschel, Amarylis; Zavadil, Jiri; Castrillo, Antonio; Kim, Jungsu; Suárez, Yajaira; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Foam cell formation due to excessive accumulation of cholesterol by macrophages is a pathological hallmark of atherosclerosis, the major cause of morbidity and mortality in Western societies. Liver X nuclear receptors (LXRs) regulate the expression of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, including ABCA1 and ABCG1. ABCA1 and ABCG1 facilitate the efflux of cholesterol from macrophages and regulate high-density lipoprotein (HDL) biogenesis. Increasing evidence supports the role of microRNA (miRNAs) in regulating cholesterol metabolism through ABC transporters. Objective We aimed to identify novel miRNAs that regulate cholesterol metabolism in macrophages stimulated with LXR agonists. Methods and Results To map the miRNA expression signature of macrophages stimulated with LXR agonists, we performed a miRNA profiling microarray analysis in primary mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with LXR ligands. We report that LXR ligands increase miR-144 expression in macrophages and mouse livers. Overexpression of miR-144 reduces ABCA1 expression and attenuates cholesterol efflux to ApoA1 in macrophages. Delivery of miR-144 oligonucleotides to mice attenuates ABCA1 expression in the liver, reducing HDL levels. Conversely, silencing of miR-144 in mice increases the expression of ABCA1 and plasma HDL levels. Thus, miR-144 appears to regulate both macrophage cholesterol efflux and HDL biogenesis in the liver. Conclusions 1) miR-144 regulates cholesterol metabolism via suppressing ABCA1 expression; and 2) modulation of miRNAs may represent a potential therapeutical intervention for treating dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic vascular disease. PMID:23519695

  11. WWOX gene is associated with HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Altered lipid profile, and in particular low HDL and high triglyceride (TG) plasma levels, are within the major determinants of cardiovascular diseases. The identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting these lipid levels is a relevant issue for predictive purposes. The WWOX gene has been recently associated with HDL levels. This gene is located at chromosome 16q23, a region previously linked to familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) and HDL. Our objective is to perform a genetic association analysis at the WWOX gene region with HDL, TG and TG/HDL ratio. Methods A quantitative association analysis performed in 801 individuals selected from the Spanish general population. Results For HDL levels, two regions of intron 8 display clustering of positive signals (p < 0.05) but none of them was associated in the haplotypic analysis (0.07 ≤ p ≤ 0.165). For TG levels not only intron 8 but also a 27 kb region spanning from the promoter region to intron 4 are associated in this study. For the TG/HDL genetic association analysis, positive signals are coincident with those of the isolated traits. Interestingly, haplotypic analysis at the 5' region showed that variation in this region modified both HDL and TG levels, especially the latter (p = 0.003). Conclusions Our results suggest that WWOX is a QTL for both TG and HDL. PMID:20942981

  12. Resveratrol counters systemic lupus erythematosus-associated atherogenicity by normalizing cholesterol efflux

    PubMed Central

    Teboul, Isaac; Littlefield, Michael J; Siegart, Nicolle M; Turi, George K; Fazzari, Melissa J; Carsons, Steven E; DeLeon, Joshua; Reiss, Allison B

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol is a bioactive molecule used in dietary supplements and herbal medicines and consumed worldwide. Numerous investigations by our group and others have indicated cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory properties of resveratrol. The present study explored potential atheroprotective actions of resveratrol on cholesterol efflux in cultured human macrophages exposed to plasma from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. These results were confirmed in ApoE−/−Fas−/− double knockout mice, displaying a lupus profile with accelerated atherosclerosis. Resveratrol treatment attenuated atherosclerosis in these mice. THP-1 human macrophages were exposed to 10% pooled or individual plasma from patients who met diagnostic criteria for SLE. Expression of multiple proteins involved in reverse cholesterol transport (ABCA1, ABCG1, SR-B1, and cytochrome P450 27-hydroxylase) was assessed using QRT-PCR and Western blotting techniques. Ten-week-old ApoE−/−Fas−/− double knockout mice (n = 30) were randomly divided into two equal groups of 15, one of which received 0.01% resveratrol for 10 consecutive weeks. Atherosclerosis progression was evaluated in murine aortas. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) were cultured and expression of cholesterol efflux proteins was analyzed in each group of mice. Our data indicate that inhibition of cholesterol efflux by lupus plasma in THP-1 human macrophages is rescued by resveratrol. Similarly, administration of resveratrol in a lupus-like murine model reduces plaque formation in vivo and augments cholesterol efflux in BMDM. This study presents evidence for a beneficial role of resveratrol in atherosclerosis in the specific setting of SLE. Therefore, resveratrol may merit investigation as an additional resource available to reduce lipid deposition and atherosclerosis in humans, especially in such vulnerable populations as lupus patients. PMID:27190277

  13. Serum cholesterol levels in axenic mice colonized with Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Zacconi, C; Bottazzi, V; Rebecchi, A; Bosi, E; Sarra, P G; Tagliaferri, L

    1992-10-01

    Hypocholesterolemic effect was shown in axenic, mono, bicolonized and conventional mice: the effect was different depending on probiotic properties of intestinal microorganisms. Contamination by Enterococcus faecium CX determined the highest effect: haematic cholesterol level decrease was 16.9% in females and 7.8% in males. In mice contaminated by Lactobacillus acidophilus N5 the decrease of haematic cholesterol levels was less and not relevant in mice contaminated by conventional microflora. Enterococcus faecium CX and Lactobacillus acidophilus N5 strains were able to grow in presence of bile salts, to colonize intestinal tract, to survive at gastric conditions and to assimilate cholesterol (E. faecium more than L. acidophilus). The authors consider the possibility to associate probiotic strains with these characteristics for the health of consumers.

  14. Elevated levels of serum cholesterol are associated with better performance on tasks of episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Leritz, Elizabeth C; McGlinchey, Regina E; Salat, David H; Milberg, William P

    2016-04-01

    We examined how serum cholesterol, an established risk factor for cerebrovascular disease (CVD), relates to cognitive function in healthy middle-older aged individuals with no neurologic or CVD history. A complete lipid panel was obtained from a cohort of one hundred twenty individuals, ages 43-85, who also underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological examination. In order to reduce the number of variables and empirically identify broad cognitive domains, scores from neuropsychological tests were submitted into a factor analysis. This analysis revealed three explainable factors: Memory, Executive Function and Memory/Language. Three separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted using individual cholesterol metrics (total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein; LDL, high density lipoprotein; HDL, and triglycerides), as well as age, education, medication status (lipid lowering agents), ApoE status, and additional risk factors for CVD to predict neuropsychological function. The Memory Factor was predicted by a combination of age, LDL, and triglyceride levels; both age and triglycerides were negatively associated with factor score, while LDL levels revealed a positive relationship. Both the Executive and Memory/Language factor were only explained by education, whereby more years were associated with better performance. These results provide evidence that individual cholesterol lipoproteins and triglycerides may differentially impact cognitive function, over and above other common CVD risk factors and ApoE status. Our findings demonstrate the importance of consideration of vascular risk factors, such as cholesterol, in studies of cognitive aging.

  15. Plant sterol consumption frequency affects plasma lipid levels and cholesterol kinetics in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background/Objectives: To compare the efficacy of single versus multiple doses of plant sterols on circulating lipid level and cholesterol trafficking. Subjects/Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled, three-phase (6 days/phase) crossover, supervised feeding trial was conducted in 19 subjects. Sub...

  16. Effects of intensive atorvastatin and rosuvastatin treatment on apolipoprotein B-48 and remnant lipoprotein cholesterol levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atorvastatin and rosuvastatin at maximal doses are both highly effective in lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels. Rosuvastatin has been shown to be more effective than atorvastatin in lowering LDL-C, small dense LDL-C and in raising high-density lipoprote...

  17. Effect of frequency of dosing of plant sterols on plasma cholesterol levels and synthesis rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to compare the effects of plant sterols (PS) consumed as a single dose (single) at breakfast or as three doses consumed with breakfast, lunch and dinner (divided) on plasma lipoprotien levels and cholesterol endogenous fractional synthesis rate (FSR). A randomized, placebo-controll...

  18. Cholesterol - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor; What to ask your doctor about cholesterol ... What is my cholesterol level? What should my cholesterol level be? What are HDL ("good") cholesterol and LDL ("bad") cholesterol? Does my cholesterol ...

  19. Should we take high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at face value?

    PubMed

    Leite, Jose Oyama; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2010-01-01

    The inverse correlation between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and cardiovascular disease has driven several investigators to target the increase in this lipoprotein to prevent atherosclerosis and its complications. However, many reports have demonstrated that the use of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels as a means to prevent and treat atherosclerosis has mainly resulted in negative outcomes. These findings may help to increase our knowledge of HDL metabolism and its protective effect. There is evidence that the mechanism by which HDL-C levels are raised has a great impact on cardiovascular outcomes. When the increase in HDL-C levels is secondary to greater synthesis, a strong beneficial effect in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases is observed. Even small increases in HDL-C levels induce a marked reduction in cardiovascular events; this has been observed during treatment with fibrates. In contrast, when the increase in HDL-C levels is secondary to a reduction in HDL catabolism, unexpectedly, the opposite effects are usually noted. Even dramatic increases in HDL-C levels are not associated with better cardiovascular outcomes. In fact, these increases have been related to a greater number of cardiovascular-related deaths. This became clear from the results of trials that tested inhibitors of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). We suggest that increases in reverse cholesterol transport are more important than HDL-C levels. Strong evidence is provided by individuals that express apolipoprotein (apo)A-I Milano. These individuals have extremely low HDL-C levels due to greater catabolism of the lipoprotein. However, reverse cholesterol transport is increased in these individuals and, as a consequence, they have a low incidence of cardiovascular diseases. We reinforce that, in clinical practice, the currently recommended levels of HDL-C should still be a major target to be aimed for. However, in the research field, we emphasize the need to look for other

  20. The Drosophila DHR96 nuclear receptor binds cholesterol and regulates cholesterol homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Michael A.; Pardee, Keith; Liu, Suya; King-Jones, Kirst; Lajoie, Gilles; Edwards, Aled; Krause, Henry M.; Thummel, Carl S.

    2009-01-01

    Cholesterol homeostasis is required to maintain normal cellular function and avoid the deleterious effects of hypercholesterolemia. Here we show that the Drosophila DHR96 nuclear receptor binds cholesterol and is required for the coordinate transcriptional response of genes that are regulated by cholesterol and involved in cholesterol uptake, trafficking, and storage. DHR96 mutants die when grown on low levels of cholesterol and accumulate excess cholesterol when maintained on a high-cholesterol diet. The cholesterol accumulation phenotype can be attributed to misregulation of npc1b, an ortholog of the mammalian Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 gene NPC1L1, which is essential for dietary cholesterol uptake. These studies define DHR96 as a central regulator of cholesterol homeostasis. PMID:19952106

  1. The Drosophila DHR96 nuclear receptor binds cholesterol and regulates cholesterol homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Horner, Michael A; Pardee, Keith; Liu, Suya; King-Jones, Kirst; Lajoie, Gilles; Edwards, Aled; Krause, Henry M; Thummel, Carl S

    2009-12-01

    Cholesterol homeostasis is required to maintain normal cellular function and avoid the deleterious effects of hypercholesterolemia. Here we show that the Drosophila DHR96 nuclear receptor binds cholesterol and is required for the coordinate transcriptional response of genes that are regulated by cholesterol and involved in cholesterol uptake, trafficking, and storage. DHR96 mutants die when grown on low levels of cholesterol and accumulate excess cholesterol when maintained on a high-cholesterol diet. The cholesterol accumulation phenotype can be attributed to misregulation of npc1b, an ortholog of the mammalian Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 gene NPC1L1, which is essential for dietary cholesterol uptake. These studies define DHR96 as a central regulator of cholesterol homeostasis.

  2. Consumption of tall oil-derived phytosterols in a chocolate matrix significantly decreases plasma total and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    De Graaf, Jacqueline; De Sauvage Nolting, Pernette R W; Van Dam, Marjel; Belsey, Elizabeth M; Kastelein, John J P; Haydn Pritchard, P; Stalenhoef, Anton F H

    2002-11-01

    In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial we evaluated the effect of dietary chocolates enriched with a wood-based phytosterol-phytostanol mixture, containing 18 % (w/w) sitostanol, compared with placebo dietary chocolates in seventy subjects with primary hypercholesterolaemia (total cholesterol levels below 8 mmol/l). For 4 weeks, participants consumed three servings of the phytosterol-enriched chocolate/d that provided 1.8 g unesterified phytosterols/d or a placebo chocolate in conjunction with a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet. Plasma total and LDL-cholesterol levels were statistically significantly reduced by 6.4 % (-0.44 mmol/l) and 10.3 % (-0.49 mmol/l), respectively, after 4 weeks of phytosterol-enriched-chocolate treatment. Plasma HDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were not affected. Consumption of phytosterol-enriched chocolates significantly increased plasma lathosterol concentration (+20.7 %), reflecting an increased endogenous cholesterol synthesis in response to phytosterol-induced decreased intestinal cholesterol absorption. Furthermore, the chocolates enriched with phytosterols significantly increased both plasma sitosterol (+95.8 %) and campesterol (+64.1 %) levels, compared with the placebo chocolate group. However, the absolute values of plasma sitosterol and campesterol remained within the normal range, that is, below 10 mg/l. The chocolates with phytosterols were palatable and induced no clinical or biochemical side effects. These findings indicate that dietary chocolate enriched with tall oil-derived phytosterols (1.8 g/d) is effective in lowering blood total and LDL-cholesterol levels in subjects with mild hypercholesterolaemia and thus may be helpful in reducing the risk of CHD in these individuals.

  3. Effects of policosanols and phytosterols on lipid levels and cholesterol biosynthesis in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y W; Jones, P J H; Pischel, I; Fairow, C

    2003-02-01

    The current study was carried out to examine the effects of policosanols and phytosterols, alone and in combination, on lipid profiles, cholesterol biosynthesis, and tissue histopathological changes in hamsters. Fifty male Golden Syrian hamsters, weighing 100 to 120 g, were fed a regular rodent chow for 2 wk before being randomly assigned into 5 groups of 10 animals each fed semisynthetic diets for 4 wk. Group 1 was given a control diet that contained 0.25% cholesterol and 5% fat with a PUFA to saturated FA ratio of 0.4. Groups 2 to 5 were fed the control diet and given Octa-6 [a policosanol mixture from sugar cane wax, 25 mg/kg body weight (BW)], Ricewax (a policosanol mixture from rice wax with 50% being converted to the corresponding acids, 50 mg/kg BW), phytosterols (Cholestatin; 1,000 mg/kg BW), and Ricewax (50 mg/kg BW) plus phytosterols (1,000 mg/kg BW), respectively. The results showed that there was no difference between Octa-6 and Ricewax treatments in any of the lipid parameters measured, and both had similar levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (T-C), and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) as the control. Octa-6 but not Ricewax increased (P = 0.03) non-HDL-C as compared with the control. Phytosterols reduced T-C (P < 0.0003) and HDL-C (P < 0.004) without a significant effect on TG and non-HDL-C as compared to the control. Ricewax plus phytosterols had effects similar to those with phytosterols alone. Free cholesterol synthetic rates were not different among the treatments. Policosanols or phytosterols did not show any toxic effects in liver, heart, brain, or kidney. Results suggest that, although phytosterols reduce T-C and HDL-C levels, policosanols have no significant favorable effect in changing lipid levels in hamsters.

  4. Short-term administration of tall oil phytosterols improves plasma lipid profiles in subjects with different cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Jones, P J; Howell, T; MacDougall, D E; Feng, J Y; Parsons, W

    1998-06-01

    To assess the short-term cholesterol-lowering potential of sitostanol-containing tall oil plant sterols, 22 subjects consumed fixed-food diets over two 10-day periods with or without 21.2 mg/kg body weight/d tall oil phytosterols (sitosterol 62%, sitostanol 21%, campesterol 16%, and campestanol 1%) in a randomized crossover study design. On day 10 of each diet, plasma lipoprotein cholesterol levels, plasma phytosterol concentrations, and cholesterol biosynthesis rates were determined. Total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were lower (P < .01) after administration of tall oil phytosterol (4.7 +/- 0.3 and 3.0 +/- 0.3 mmol/L, respectively) versus placebo (5.0 +/- 0.3 and 3.2 +/- 0.3 mmol/L, respectively). Tall oil treatment had no effect on the plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level (1.1 +/- 0.1 mmol/L) versus placebo (1.1 +/- 0.1 mmol/L). Similarly, plasma triglyceride (TG) levels did not differ between tall oil (1.3 +/- 0.2 mmol/L) and placebo (1.4 +/- 0.2 mmol/L) treatments. Plasma campesterol (15.8 +/- 3.7 mmol/mol cholesterol) and sitosterol (6.0 +/- 2.1 mmol/mol cholesterol) levels were not different after tall oil treatment versus placebo treatment (15.4 +/- 2.3 and 6.4 +/- 2.0 mmol/mol cholesterol, respectively). Plasma sitostanol levels were essentially undetectable. No difference was observed in cholesterol biosynthesis between tall oil (0.045 +/- 0.004 pools/d) and placebo (0.034 +/- 0.004 pools/d) treatments; however, the effect of treatments in subjects with different cholesterol levels varied. In subjects with lower cholesterol values, the red blood cell cholesterol fractional synthesis rate (FSR) increased from 0.0291 +/- 0.0054 pools/d after placebo to 0.0509 +/- 0.0049 pools/d (P < .05) after phytosterol treatment. In subjects with higher cholesterol values, the red blood cell cholesterol FSR did not change significantly after treatment. These results demonstrate the short-term efficacy of tall

  5. A fiber optic biosensor for the detection of cholesterol levels based on chitosan coated long period grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, C. Bobby; Libish, T. M.; Kaushalkumar, B.; Vivek, V.; Prabhu, Radhakrishna; Radhakrishnan, P.

    2016-01-01

    A fiber optic sensor for the measurement of total cholesterol is designed and developed. The developed chitosan coated long period grating (LPG) sensor shows a sensitivity of 5.025×106 pm·mL/g in the measurement range of the sensor. The sensor also shows a linear response in the measured range of cholesterol levels, which is highly desirable for exploitation as a commercial cholesterol sensor.

  6. Cholesterol-induced suppression of membrane elastic fluctuations at the atomistic level.

    PubMed

    Molugu, Trivikram R; Brown, Michael F

    2016-09-01

    Applications of solid-state NMR spectroscopy for investigating the influences of lipid-cholesterol interactions on membrane fluctuations are reviewed in this paper. Emphasis is placed on understanding the energy landscapes and fluctuations at an emergent atomistic level. Solid-state (2)H NMR spectroscopy directly measures residual quadrupolar couplings (RQCs) due to individual C-(2)H labeled segments of the lipid molecules. Moreover, residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) of (13)C-(1)H bonds are obtained in separated local-field NMR spectroscopy. The distributions of RQC or RDC values give nearly complete profiles of the order parameters as a function of acyl segment position. Measured equilibrium properties of glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids including their binary and tertiary mixtures with cholesterol show unequal mixing associated with liquid-ordered domains. The entropic loss upon addition of cholesterol to sphingolipids is less than for glycerophospholipids and may drive the formation of lipid rafts. In addition relaxation time measurements enable one to study the molecular dynamics over a wide time-scale range. For (2)H NMR the experimental spin-lattice (R1Z) relaxation rates follow a theoretical square-law dependence on segmental order parameters (SCD) due to collective slow dynamics over mesoscopic length scales. The functional dependence for the liquid-crystalline lipid membranes is indicative of viscoelastic properties as they emerge from atomistic-level interactions. A striking decrease in square-law slope upon addition of cholesterol denotes stiffening relative to the pure lipid bilayers that is diminished in the case of lanosterol. Measured equilibrium properties and relaxation rates infer opposite influences of cholesterol and detergents on collective dynamics and elasticity at an atomistic scale that potentially affects lipid raft formation in cellular membranes.

  7. Cholesterol-Induced Suppression of Membrane Elastic Fluctuations at the Atomistic Level

    PubMed Central

    Molugu, Trivikram R.

    2017-01-01

    Applications of solid-state NMR spectroscopy for investigating the influences of lipid-cholesterol interactions on membrane fluctuations are reviewed in this paper. Emphasis is placed on understanding the energy landscapes and fluctuations at an emergent atomistic level. Solid-state 2H NMR spectroscopy directly measures residual quadrupolar couplings (RQCs) due to individual C–2H labeled segments of the lipid molecules. Moreover, residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) of 13C–1H bonds are obtained in separated local-field NMR spectroscopy. The distributions of RQC or RDC values give nearly complete profiles of the order parameters as a function of acyl segment position. Measured equilibrium properties of glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids including their binary and tertiary mixtures with cholesterol show unequal mixing associated with liquid-ordered domains. The entropic loss upon addition of cholesterol to sphingolipids is less than for glycerophospholipids and may drive the formation of lipid rafts. In addition relaxation time measurements enable one to study the molecular dynamics over a wide time-scale range. For 2H NMR the experimental spin-lattice (R1Z) relaxation rates follow a theoretical square-law dependence on segmental order parameters (SCD) due to collective slow dynamics over mesoscopic length scales. The functional dependence for the liquid-crystalline lipid membranes is indicative of viscoelastic properties as they emerge from atomistic-level interactions. A striking decrease in square-law slope upon addition of cholesterol denotes stiffening relative to the pure lipid bilayers that is diminished in the case of lanosterol. Measured equilibrium properties and relaxation rates infer opposite influences of cholesterol and detergents on collective dynamics and elasticity at an atomistic scale that potentially affects lipid raft formation in cellular membranes. PMID:27154600

  8. Cholesterol lowering and mortality: the importance of considering initial level of risk.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G D; Song, F; Sheldon, T A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the level of risk of death from coronary heart disease above which cholesterol lowering treatment produces net benefits. DESIGN--Meta-analysis of results of randomised controlled trials of cholesterol lowering treatments. METHODS--Published and unpublished data from all identified randomised controlled trials of cholesterol lowering treatments with six months or more follow up and with at least one death were included in the meta-analysis. The analyses were stratified by the rate of death from coronary heart disease in the control arms of the trials. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Death from all causes, from coronary heart disease, and from causes other than coronary heart disease. RESULTS--In the pooled analysis, net benefit in terms of total mortality from cholesterol lowering was seen only for trials including patients at very high initial risk of coronary heart disease (odds ratio 0.74; 95% confidence interval 0.60 to 0.92). In a medium risk group no net effect was seen, and in the low risk group there were adverse treatment effects (1.22; 1.06 to 1.42). In a weighted regression analysis a significant (p < 0.001) trend of increasing benefit with increasing initial risk of coronary heart disease was shown. Raised mortality from causes other than coronary heart disease was seen in trials of drug treatment (1.21; 1.05 to 1.39) but not in the trials of non-drug treatments (1.02; 0.88 to 1.19). Cumulative meta-analysis showed that these results seem to have been stable as new trials appeared. CONCLUSION--Currently evaluated cholesterol lowering drugs seem to produce mortality benefits in only a small proportion of patients at very high risk of death from coronary heart disease. Population cholesterol screening could waste resources and even result in net harm in substantial groups of patients. Overall risk of coronary heart disease should be the main focus of clinical guidelines, and a cautious approach to the use of cholesterol lowering drugs

  9. Greater decreases in cholesterol levels among individuals with high cardiovascular risk than among the general population: the northern Sweden MONICA study 1994 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Marie; Forslund, Ann-Sofi; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Söderberg, Stefan; Wennberg, Maria; Eliasson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Aim Decreasing cholesterol levels in Western populations is the main reason for decreasing mortality due to coronary heart disease. Our aim was to analyze trends in cholesterol levels in the population during a period of 20 years in relation to previous cardiovascular disease (CVD), other cardiovascular risk factors, and socioeconomic status. Methods and results A total of 4546 women and 4349 men aged 25–74 years participated in five population-based surveys in the Northern Sweden MONICA Study between 1994 and 2014 (participation rate 76.8–62.5%). Total cholesterol levels decreased from 6.2 mmol/L (95% confidence interval, CI, 6.1–6.2) in 1994 to 5.5 mmol/L (CI 5.4–5.5) in 2014. The decrease was more pronounced in elderly vs. younger participants (1.0 vs. 0.5 mmol/L). In 2014, participants with previous CVD, diabetes, or hypertension had lower cholesterol levels than the general population, whereas their levels were higher or similar to the general population in 1994. The use of lipid-lowering drugs increased markedly and was used by 14.3% in 2014. Previously described differences in cholesterol levels between participants with obesity and normal weight, and between those with and without university education, diminished, or vanished over time. Conclusion Cholesterol levels decreased by 0.7 mmol/L over 20 years with no sign of abating. The improvement occurred in all age and gender groups but more prominently among those at high risk of ischaemic heart disease. PMID:26941200

  10. Evidence for several independent genetic variants affecting lipoprotein (a) cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wensheng; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Chen, Keping; Wang, Hong; Gerhard, Glenn S; Still, Christopher D; Chu, Xin; Yang, Rongze; Parihar, Ankita; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Pollin, Toni I; Angles-Cano, Eduardo; Quon, Michael J; Mitchell, Braxton D; Shuldiner, Alan R; Fu, Mao

    2015-04-15

    Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis-related events that is under strong genetic control (heritability = 0.68-0.98). However, causal mutations and functional validation of biological pathways modulating Lp(a) metabolism are lacking. We performed a genome-wide association scan to identify genetic variants associated with Lp(a)-cholesterol levels in the Old Order Amish. We confirmed a previously known locus on chromosome 6q25-26 and found Lp(a) levels also to be significantly associated with a SNP near the APOA5-APOA4-APOC3-APOA1 gene cluster on chromosome 11q23 linked in the Amish to the APOC3 R19X null mutation. On 6q locus, we detected associations of Lp(a)-cholesterol with 118 common variants (P = 5 × 10(-8) to 3.91 × 10(-19)) spanning a ∼5.3 Mb region that included the LPA gene. To further elucidate variation within LPA, we sequenced LPA and identified two variants most strongly associated with Lp(a)-cholesterol, rs3798220 (P = 1.07 × 10(-14)) and rs10455872 (P = 1.85 × 10(-12)). We also measured copy numbers of kringle IV-2 (KIV-2) in LPA using qPCR. KIV-2 numbers were significantly associated with Lp(a)-cholesterol (P = 2.28 × 10(-9)). Conditional analyses revealed that rs3798220 and rs10455872 were associated with Lp(a)-cholesterol levels independent of each other and KIV-2 copy number. Furthermore, we determined for the first time that levels of LPA mRNA were higher in the carriers than non-carriers of rs10455872 (P = 0.0001) and were not different between carriers and non-carriers of rs3798220. Protein levels of apo(a) were higher in the carriers than non-carriers of both rs10455872 and rs3798220. In summary, we identified multiple independent genetic determinants for Lp(a)-cholesterol. These findings provide new insights into Lp(a) regulation.

  11. Evidence for several independent genetic variants affecting lipoprotein (a) cholesterol levels

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wensheng; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Chen, Keping; Wang, Hong; Gerhard, Glenn S.; Still, Christopher D.; Chu, Xin; Yang, Rongze; Parihar, Ankita; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Pollin, Toni I.; Angles-Cano, Eduardo; Quon, Michael J.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Fu, Mao

    2015-01-01

    Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis-related events that is under strong genetic control (heritability = 0.68–0.98). However, causal mutations and functional validation of biological pathways modulating Lp(a) metabolism are lacking. We performed a genome-wide association scan to identify genetic variants associated with Lp(a)-cholesterol levels in the Old Order Amish. We confirmed a previously known locus on chromosome 6q25-26 and found Lp(a) levels also to be significantly associated with a SNP near the APOA5–APOA4–APOC3–APOA1 gene cluster on chromosome 11q23 linked in the Amish to the APOC3 R19X null mutation. On 6q locus, we detected associations of Lp(a)-cholesterol with 118 common variants (P = 5 × 10−8 to 3.91 × 10−19) spanning a ∼5.3 Mb region that included the LPA gene. To further elucidate variation within LPA, we sequenced LPA and identified two variants most strongly associated with Lp(a)-cholesterol, rs3798220 (P = 1.07 × 10−14) and rs10455872 (P = 1.85 × 10−12). We also measured copy numbers of kringle IV-2 (KIV-2) in LPA using qPCR. KIV-2 numbers were significantly associated with Lp(a)-cholesterol (P = 2.28 × 10−9). Conditional analyses revealed that rs3798220 and rs10455872 were associated with Lp(a)-cholesterol levels independent of each other and KIV-2 copy number. Furthermore, we determined for the first time that levels of LPA mRNA were higher in the carriers than non-carriers of rs10455872 (P = 0.0001) and were not different between carriers and non-carriers of rs3798220. Protein levels of apo(a) were higher in the carriers than non-carriers of both rs10455872 and rs3798220. In summary, we identified multiple independent genetic determinants for Lp(a)-cholesterol. These findings provide new insights into Lp(a) regulation. PMID:25575512

  12. Disturbed Cholesterol Traffic but Normal Proteolytic Function in LAMP-1/LAMP-2 Double-deficient FibroblastsD⃞

    PubMed Central

    Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa; Schmidt, Christine Katrin; Neu, Silja; Willenborg, Marion; Fuertes, Graciela; Salvador, Natalia; Tanaka, Yoshitaka; Lüllmann-Rauch, Renate; Hartmann, Dieter; Heeren, Jörg; von Figura, Kurt; Knecht, Erwin; Saftig, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Mice double deficient in LAMP-1 and -2 were generated. The embryos died between embryonic days 14.5 and 16.5. An accumulation of autophagic vacuoles was detected in many tissues including endothelial cells and Schwann cells. Fibroblast cell lines derived from the double-deficient embryos accumulated autophagic vacuoles and the autophagy protein LC3II after amino acid starvation. Lysosomal vesicles were larger and more peripherally distributed and showed a lower specific density in Percoll gradients in double deficient when compared with control cells. Lysosomal enzyme activities, cathepsin D processing and mannose-6-phosphate receptor expression levels were not affected by the deficiency of both LAMPs. Surprisingly, LAMP-1 and -2 deficiencies did not affect long-lived protein degradation rates, including proteolysis due to chaperone-mediated autophagy. The LAMP-1/2 double-deficient cells and, to a lesser extent, LAMP-2 single-deficient cells showed an accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in endo/lysosomal, rab7, and NPC1 positive compartments as well as reduced amounts of lipid droplets. The cholesterol accumulation in LAMP-1/2 double-deficient cells could be rescued by overexpression of murine LAMP-2a, but not by LAMP-1, highlighting the more prominent role of LAMP-2. Taken together these findings indicate partially overlapping functions for LAMP-1 and -2 in lysosome biogenesis, autophagy, and cholesterol homeostasis. PMID:15121881

  13. Anti-annexin antibodies, cholesterol levels and disability in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mandoj, Chiara; Renna, Rosaria; Plantone, Domenico; Sperduti, Isabella; Cigliana, Giovanni; Conti, Laura; Koudriavtseva, Tatiana

    2015-10-08

    So far, no studies have been conducted to evaluate possible correlations between lipid/lipoprotein levels and the anti-phospholipid antibody (aPL) positivity in multiple sclerosis (MS). In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to investigate the relationships between serum lipid profile and aPL positivity rates in MS patients, and their possible differences among secondary-progressive MS (SPMS) patients, relapsing-remitting MS patients in remission (REM) and in relapse (REL). We included 16 SPMS, 58 REM and 26 REL. Their sera were tested for aPL (anti-cardiolipin, anti-β2glycoproteinI, anti-prothrombin, anti-annexinV), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG) and lipoprotein(a) levels. High TC levels were more frequent in SPMS patients than other groups (p=0.05). The REL had significantly higher rates of positivity for anti-β2glycoproteinI IgM (p<0.0001), anti-prothrombin IgG and IgM (both p=0.05) than the other groups. A significant positive correlation was found between age and both TC and LDL-C, disability and both TC and LDL-C, disease duration and LDL-C. TC levels were significantly higher (p=0.007) in anti-annexinV-IgG positive patients. The anti-annexinV-IgG positivity significantly associated with high levels of TC (p=0.002) and LDL-C (p=0.03). Our results support the hypothesis that both thrombogenic and neurodegenerative mechanisms associated with an abnormal cholesterol homeostasis might contribute to MS progression. Our study may have interesting practical implications, which could potentially open new therapeutic approaches in the context of appropriately designed clinical trials.

  14. Choline supplementation protects against liver damage by normalizing cholesterol metabolism in Pemt/Ldlr knockout mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Al Rajabi, Ala; Castro, Gabriela S F; da Silva, Robin P; Nelson, Randy C; Thiesen, Aducio; Vannucchi, Helio; Vine, Donna F; Proctor, Spencer D; Field, Catherine J; Curtis, Jonathan M; Jacobs, René L

    2014-03-01

    Dietary choline is required for proper structure and dynamics of cell membranes, lipoprotein synthesis, and methyl-group metabolism. In mammals, choline is synthesized via phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (Pemt), which converts phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine. Pemt(-/-) mice have impaired VLDL secretion and developed fatty liver when fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Because of the reduction in plasma lipids, Pemt(-/-)/low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (Ldlr(-/-)) mice are protected from atherosclerosis. The goal of this study was to investigate the importance of dietary choline in the metabolic phenotype of Pemt(-/-)/Ldlr(-/-) male mice. At 10-12 wk of age, Pemt(+/+)/Ldlr(-/-) (HF(+/+)) and half of the Pemt(-/-)/Ldlr(-/-) (HF(-/-)) mice were fed an HF diet with normal (1.3 g/kg) choline. The remaining Pemt(-/-)/Ldlr(-/-) mice were fed an HF diet supplemented (5 g/kg) with choline (HFCS(-/-) mice). The HF diet contained 60% of calories from fat and 1% cholesterol, and the mice were fed for 16 d. HF(-/-) mice lost weight and developed hepatomegaly, steatohepatitis, and liver damage. Hepatic concentrations of free cholesterol, cholesterol-esters, and triglyceride (TG) were elevated by 30%, 1.1-fold and 3.1-fold, respectively, in HF(-/-) compared with HF(+/+) mice. Choline supplementation normalized hepatic cholesterol, but not TG, and dramatically improved liver function. The expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport and esterification increased by 50% to 5.6-fold in HF(-/-) mice when compared with HF(+/+) mice. Markers of macrophages, oxidative stress, and fibrosis were elevated in the HF(-/-) mice. Choline supplementation normalized the expression of these genes. In conclusion, HF(-/-) mice develop liver failure associated with altered cholesterol metabolism when fed an HF/normal choline diet. Choline supplementation normalized cholesterol metabolism, which was sufficient to prevent nonalcoholic steatohepatitis development

  15. Intestinal epithelial cell caveolin 1 regulates fatty acid and lipoprotein cholesterol plasma levels

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Meng-Chieh; Quinlivan, Vanessa; Anderson, Jennifer L.; Farber, Steven A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Caveolae and their structural protein caveolin 1 (CAV1) have roles in cellular lipid processing and systemic lipid metabolism. Global deletion of CAV1 in mice results in insulin resistance and increases in atherogenic plasma lipids and cholesterol, but protects from diet-induced obesity and atherosclerosis. Despite the fundamental role of the intestinal epithelia in the regulation of dietary lipid processing and metabolism, the contributions of CAV1 to lipid metabolism in this tissue have never been directly investigated. In this study the cellular dynamics of intestinal Cav1 were visualized in zebrafish and the metabolic contributions of CAV1 were determined with mice lacking CAV1 in intestinal epithelial cells (CAV1IEC-KO). Live imaging of Cav1–GFP and fluorescently labeled caveolae cargos shows localization to the basolateral and lateral enterocyte plasma membrane (PM), suggesting Cav1 mediates transport between enterocytes and the submucosa. CAV1IEC-KO mice are protected from the elevation in circulating fasted low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol associated with a high-fat diet (HFD), but have increased postprandial LDL cholesterol, total free fatty acids (FFAs), palmitoleic acid, and palmitic acid. The increase in circulating FAs in HFD CAV1IEC-KO mice is mirrored by decreased hepatic FAs, suggesting a non-cell-autonomous role for intestinal epithelial cell CAV1 in promoting hepatic FA storage. In conclusion, CAV1 regulates circulating LDL cholesterol and several FA species via the basolateral PM of enterocytes. These results point to intestinal epithelial cell CAV1 as a potential therapeutic target to lower circulating FFAs and LDL cholesterol, as high levels are associated with development of type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:28130355

  16. Effect of Dietary Fiber Intake on Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels Independent of Estradiol in Healthy Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Sunni L.; Schisterman, Enrique F.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; VanderWeele, Tyler J.

    2011-01-01

    High-fiber diets are associated with improved lipid profiles. However, pre- and postmenopausal women respond differently to fiber intake, suggesting that endogenous estradiol mediates the effect. The authors' objective was to determine the direct effect of fiber intake on lipoprotein cholesterol levels independent of estradiol among premenopausal women. The BioCycle Study, a prospective cohort study conducted at the State University of New York at Buffalo from 2005 to 2007, followed 259 healthy women for up to 2 complete menstrual cycles. Serum lipoprotein and hormone levels were measured at 16 visits timed using fertility monitors. Fiber intake was assessed by 8 24-hour recalls. Marginal structural models with inverse probability weights for both lipoprotein and estradiol levels were used to estimate controlled direct effects of the highest category of fiber intake (≥22 g/day vs. <22 g/day) while accounting for age, body mass index, total energy, vitamin E intake, physical activity, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and progesterone. Reductions were observed in total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in women with higher fiber intakes. Direct effects were greater than total effects. These analyses suggested that estradiol mediates at least part of the association between fiber and cholesterol among premenopausal women. More research is needed to elucidate the biologic mechanisms driving these associations. PMID:21148240

  17. Effects of maximal doses of atorvastatin versus rosuvastatin on small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maximal doses of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin are highly effective in lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels; however, rosuvastatin has been shown to be significantly more effective than atorvastatin in lowering LDL cholesterol and in increasing high-density lipo...

  18. Improved plasma cholesterol levels in men after a nutrition education program at the worksite.

    PubMed

    Baer, J T

    1993-06-01

    Eighty management-level male employees participated in a company-sponsored comprehensive physical that included determination of plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels and percentage of body fat. After the lipid screening, each employee met with a registered dietitian who explained the results of the lipid analysis and discussed risk factors for coronary heart disease with an emphasis on diet. Seventy employees had a triglyceride level above 5.17 mmol/L and were invited to participate in a nutrition education program. Thirty-three (mean age = 44 years) chose to participate (intervention group); the other 37 (mean age = 35 years) served as controls (control group). Thus, the design of the study was not random. All subjects completed 3-day dietary records before and after the nutrition education program. Nutrition intervention consisted of (a) individualized instruction about the step 1 diet; (b) group sessions (1 hour every 3 months) on eating out, dietary fiber, and maintaining heart healthy behaviors; and (c) individualized follow-up by telephone (one call per month). The results of the year-long program revealed that men in the intervention group decreased dietary intake of energy (2,546 +/- 162 kcal to 2,246 +/- 125 kcal) and cholesterol (444 +/- 5.3 mg to 304 +/- 1.6 mg) and percentage of energy from total fat (38 +/- 3.4% to 31 +/- 2.6%) and protein (24 +/- 3.5% to 20 +/- 2.2%). Their consumption of carbohydrate and dietary fiber increased (38 +/- 2.1% to 45 +/- 2.5% and 8.0 +/- 2.3 g to 23.0 +/- 3.5 g, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Localization of genes for V+LDL plasma cholesterol levels on two diets in the opossum Monodelphis domestica[S

    PubMed Central

    Kammerer, Candace M.; Rainwater, David L.; Gouin, Nicolas; Jasti, Madhuri; Douglas, Kory C.; Dressen, Amy S.; Ganta, Prasanth; VandeBerg, John L.; Samollow, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    Plasma cholesterol levels among individuals vary considerably in response to diet. However, the genes that influence this response are largely unknown. Non-HDL (V+LDL) cholesterol levels vary dramatically among gray, short-tailed opossums fed an atherogenic diet, and we previously reported that two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) influenced V+LDL cholesterol on two diets. We used hypothesis-free, genome-wide linkage analyses on data from 325 pedigreed opossums and located one QTL for V+LDL cholesterol on the basal diet on opossum chromosome 1q [logarithm of the odds (LOD) = 3.11, genomic P = 0.019] and another QTL for V+LDL on the atherogenic diet (i.e., high levels of cholesterol and fat) on chromosome 8 (LOD = 9.88, genomic P = 5 × 10−9). We then employed a novel strategy involving combined analyses of genomic resources, expression analysis, sequencing, and genotyping to identify candidate genes for the chromosome 8 QTL. A polymorphism in ABCB4 was strongly associated (P = 9 × 10−14) with the plasma V+LDL cholesterol concentrations on the high-cholesterol, high-fat diet. The results of this study indicate that genetic variation in ABCB4, or closely linked genes, is responsible for the dramatic differences among opossums in their V+LDL cholesterol response to an atherogenic diet. PMID:20650928

  20. Localization of genes for V+LDL plasma cholesterol levels on two diets in the opossum Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Kammerer, Candace M; Rainwater, David L; Gouin, Nicolas; Jasti, Madhuri; Douglas, Kory C; Dressen, Amy S; Ganta, Prasanth; Vandeberg, John L; Samollow, Paul B

    2010-10-01

    Plasma cholesterol levels among individuals vary considerably in response to diet. However, the genes that influence this response are largely unknown. Non-HDL (V+LDL) cholesterol levels vary dramatically among gray, short-tailed opossums fed an atherogenic diet, and we previously reported that two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) influenced V+LDL cholesterol on two diets. We used hypothesis-free, genome-wide linkage analyses on data from 325 pedigreed opossums and located one QTL for V+LDL cholesterol on the basal diet on opossum chromosome 1q [logarithm of the odds (LOD) = 3.11, genomic P = 0.019] and another QTL for V+LDL on the atherogenic diet (i.e., high levels of cholesterol and fat) on chromosome 8 (LOD = 9.88, genomic P = 5 x 10(-9)). We then employed a novel strategy involving combined analyses of genomic resources, expression analysis, sequencing, and genotyping to identify candidate genes for the chromosome 8 QTL. A polymorphism in ABCB4 was strongly associated (P = 9 x 10(-14)) with the plasma V+LDL cholesterol concentrations on the high-cholesterol, high-fat diet. The results of this study indicate that genetic variation in ABCB4, or closely linked genes, is responsible for the dramatic differences among opossums in their V+LDL cholesterol response to an atherogenic diet.

  1. Regulation of biliary cholesterol secretion in the rat. Role of hepatic cholesterol esterification.

    PubMed Central

    Nervi, F; Bronfman, M; Allalón, W; Depiereux, E; Del Pozo, R

    1984-01-01

    Although the significance of the enterohepatic circulation of bile salts in the solubilization and biliary excretion of cholesterol is well established, little is known about the intrahepatic determinants of biliary cholesterol output. Studies were undertaken to elucidate some of these determinants in the rat. Feeding 1% diosgenin for 1 wk increased biliary cholesterol output and saturation by 400%. Bile flow, biliary bile salt, phospholipid and protein outputs remained in the normal range. When ethynyl estradiol (EE) was injected into these animals, biliary cholesterol output decreased to almost normal levels under circumstances of minor changes in the rates of biliary bile salt and phospholipid outputs. Similarly, when chylomicron cholesterol was intravenously injected into diosgenin-fed animals, biliary cholesterol output significantly decreased as a function of the dose of chylomicron cholesterol administered. Relative rates of hepatic cholesterol synthesis and esterification were measured in isolated hepatocytes. Although hepatic cholesterogenesis increased 300% in diosgenin-fed animals, the contribution of newly synthesized cholesterol to total biliary cholesterol output was only 19 +/- 9%, compared with 12 +/- 6% in control and 15 +/- 5% in diosgenin-fed and EE-injected rats. The rate of oleate incorporation into hepatocytic cholesterol esters was 30% inhibited in diosgenin-fed rats. When EE was injected into these animals, the rate of cholesterol esterification increased to almost 300%. To investigate further the interrelationship between hepatic cholesterol esterification and biliary cholesterol output, we studied 21 diosgenin-fed rats. Six of them received in addition EE and 10 received chylomicron cholesterol. The relationships between biliary cholesterol output as a function of both microsomal acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity and hepatic cholesterol ester concentration were significantly correlated in a reciprocal manner. From these

  2. Relationship of Serum Cholesterol Levels to Atopy in the U.S. Population

    PubMed Central

    Fessler, Michael B.; Jaramillo, Renee; Crockett, Patrick W.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholesterol promotes Th2 immunity and allergic inflammation in rodents; whether this occurs in humans is unclear. Reports of both direct and inverse associations between serum cholesterol and atopy in different populations suggest that race and/or other demographic variables may modify these relationships. Aims of the study To determine relationships between levels of three serum cholesterol measures (total cholesterol [TC], high density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], and non-HDL-C), and atopy in a sample representative of the U.S. population. Methods Cross-sectional study of 6,854 participants aged ≥6 years from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results In the overall population, adjusted odds ratios (AORs) per 2-standard deviation increase of TC and non-HDL-C for biochemical atopy (defined as ≥1 allergen-specific IgE to 19 allergens) were 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.38) and 1.19 (95% CI, 1.03-1.39), respectively. Interactions by race were noted for the two relationships (interaction p=0.004 and p=0.009, respectively), with non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) having direct relationships (TC: AOR 1.27 [95% CI, 1.03-1.57]; non-HDL-C: AOR 1.27 [95% CI, 1.03-1.56]) and non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs) inverse relationships (TC: AOR 0.77 [95% CI, 0.62-0.95]; non-HDL-C: AOR 0.86 [95% CI, 0.69-1.08]). The adjusted HDL-C-atopy relationship was nonsignificant for NHWs and inverse for NHBs (AOR 0.77 [95% CI, 0.61-0.96]). Relationships were independent of body mass index and serum C-reactive protein, and unmodified by corticosteroid or statin usage. Results were similar using current hay fever/allergy as the atopy outcome. Conclusions There are marked inter-racial differences in the relationship between serum cholesterol and atopy in the U.S population. PMID:20015326

  3. Low and moderate-fat plant sterol fortified soymilk in modulation of plasma lipids and cholesterol kinetics in subjects with normal to high cholesterol concentrations: report on two randomized crossover studies

    PubMed Central

    Rideout, Todd C; Chan, Yen-Ming; Harding, Scott V; Jones, Peter JH

    2009-01-01

    Background Although consumption of various plant sterol (PS)-enriched beverages is effective in lowering plasma cholesterol, the lipid-lowering potential of PS in a soymilk format has not been investigated thoroughly. Therefore, to evaluate the efficacy of PS-enriched soy beverages on plasma lipids and cholesterol kinetics, we conducted two separate 28 d dietary controlled cross-over studies. In study 1, the cholesterol-lowering efficacy of a low-fat (2 g/serving) PS enriched soy beverage was examined in 33 normal cholesterolemic subjects in comparison with 1% dairy milk. In study 2, we investigated the efficacy of a moderate-fat (3.5 g/serving) PS-enriched soy beverage on plasma cholesterol concentrations and cholesterol kinetic responses in 23 hypercholesterolemic subjects compared with 1% dairy milk. Both the low and moderate-fat PS-enriched soymilk varieties provided 1.95 g PS/d. Endpoint plasma variables were analyzed by repeated-measures ANOVA using baseline values as covariates for plasma lipid measurements. Results In comparison with the 1% dairy milk control, the low-fat soy beverage reduced (P < 0.05) total and LDL-cholesterol by 10 and 13%, respectively. Consumption of the moderate-fat PS-enriched soy beverage reduced (P < 0.05) plasma total and LDL-cholesterol by 12 and 15% respectively. Fasting triglycerides were reduced by 9.4% following consumption of the moderate-fat soy beverage in comparison with the 1% dairy milk. Both low and moderate-fat PS-enriched soy varieties reduced (P < 0.05) LDL:HDL and TC:HDL ratios compared with the 1% dairy milk control. Consumption of the moderate-fat PS-enriched soymilk reduced (P < 0.05) cholesterol absorption by 27%, but did not alter cholesterol synthesis in comparison with 1% dairy milk. Conclusion We conclude that, compared to 1% dairy milk, consumption of low and moderate-fat PS-enriched soy beverages represents an effective dietary strategy to reduce circulating lipid concentrations in normal to

  4. Long-term vegetarians have low oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Cho, Sang Woon; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2012-04-01

    Excessive oxidative stress and abnormal blood lipids may cause chronic diseases. This risk can be reduced by consuming an antioxidant- and fiber-rich vegetarian diet. We compared biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and lipid profiles of sex- and age-matched long-term vegetarians and omnivores in Korea. Forty-five vegetarians (23 men and 22 women; mean age, 49.5 ± 5.3 years), who had maintained a vegetarian diet for a minimum of 15 years, and 30 omnivores (15 men and 15 women; mean age, 48.9 ± 3.6 years) participated in this study. Their 1-day, 24-h recall, and 2-day dietary records were analyzed. Oxidative stress was measured by the levels of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM). Antioxidant status was determined by the biological antioxidant potential (BAP) and levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. We observed that vegetarians had a significantly lower body fat percentage (21.6 ± 6.4%) than that of omnivores (25.4 ± 4.6%; P < 0.004). d-ROM levels were significantly lower in vegetarians than those in omnivores (331.82 ± 77.96 and 375.80 ± 67.26 Carratelli units; P < 0.011). Additionally, total cholesterol levels in the vegetarians and omnivores were 173.73 ± 31.42 mg/dL and 193.17 ± 37.89 mg/dL, respectively (P < 0.018). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 101.36 ± 23.57 mg/dL and 120.60 ± 34.62 mg/dL (P < 0.005) in the vegetarians and omnivores, respectively, indicating that vegetarians had significantly lower lipid levels. Thus, oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels were lower in long-term vegetarians than those in omnivores.

  5. White button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) lowers blood glucose and cholesterol levels in diabetic and hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sang Chul; Jeong, Yong Tae; Yang, Byung Keun; Islam, Rezuanul; Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao; Pang, Gerald; Cho, Kai Yip; Song, Chi Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom; WBM) contains high levels of dietary fibers and antioxidants including vitamin C, D, and B(12); folates; and polyphenols that may provide beneficial effects on cardiovascular and diabetic diseases. The objective of this study was to examine the hypothesis that intake of the fruiting bodies of WBM regulates anticholesterolemic and antiglycemic responses in rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet (0.5% cholesterol; 14% fat) and rats with type 2 diabetes induced by injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg body weight), respectively. The STZ-induced diabetic male Sprague-Dawley rats fed the Agaricus bisporus powder (ABP; 200 mg/kg of body weight) for 3 weeks had significantly reduced plasma glucose and triglyceride (TG) concentrations (24.7% and 39.1%, respectively), liver enzyme activities, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (11.7% and 15.7%, respectively), and liver weight gain (P < .05). In hypercholesterolemic rats, oral feeding of ABP for 4 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (22.8% and 33.1%, respectively) (P < .05). A similar significant decrease in hepatic cholesterol and TG concentrations was observed (36.2% and 20.8%, respectively) (P < .05). Decrease in TC, LDL, and TG concentrations was accompanied by a significant increase in plasma high-density lipoprotein concentrations. It was concluded that A bisporus mushroom had both hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity in rats.

  6. Low cell cholesterol levels increase NFkappaB activity through a p38 MAPK-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Calleros, Laura; Lasa, Marina; Toro, María J; Chiloeches, Antonio

    2006-12-01

    Cholesterol, p38 MAPK and NFkappaB have been shown to participate in inflammation and cellular differentiation. Here, we examined the effect of cholesterol on NFkappaB-dependent transcription and the mechanisms underlying this effect in NIH3T3 cells. We show that chronic cholesterol depletion achieved with lipoprotein-deficient serum (LPDS) and 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) treatment resulted in a significant increase in NFkappaB-dependent transcription, NFkappaB-DNA binding, IkappaBalpha degradation and p65/NFkappaB translocation to the nucleus, and the addition of exogenous cholesterol reversed these effects. Previously, we have shown that low cell cholesterol levels activate p38 MAPK. Here, we found that inhibition of p38 MAPK with the specific inhibitor SB203580 blocked the increase in NFkappaB activity, IkappaBalpha degradation and p65/NFkappaB translocation to the nucleus induced by cholesterol depletion. Moreover, the inhibition of the p38 MAPK downstream effector MSK1 with the specific inhibitor H89, or the overexpression of a kinase defective MSK1 abrogated the NFkappaB-dependent transcription induced by cholesterol depletion. On the other hand, the transactivation potential of p65/NFkappaB depends on phosphorylation of S276 by MSK1. We observed that cholesterol depletion increased the p65/NFkappaB transactivation capacity. This effect was reversed by cell cholesterol repletion or incubation with the SB203580 inhibitor. Moreover, the expression of a p65/NFkappaB S276A mutant was insensitive to cholesterol depletion. Together, our results demonstrate that cholesterol depletion induces NFkappaB transcriptional activity, not only by affecting the IkappaBalpha degradation and the translocation of p65/NFkappaB to the nucleus, but also regulating the p65/NFkappaB transactivating potential through a p38 MAPK/MSK1 mediated pathway.

  7. 3-Deoxyschweinfurthin B Lowers Cholesterol Levels by Decreasing Synthesis and Increasing Export in Cultured Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Kuder, Craig H; Weivoda, Megan M; Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Junjia; Neighbors, Jeffrey D; Wiemer, David F; Hohl, Raymond J

    2015-12-01

    The schweinfurthins have potent antiproliferative activity in multiple glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines; however, the mechanism by which growth is impeded is not fully understood. Previously, we demonstrated that the schweinfurthins reduce the level of key isoprenoid intermediates in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. Herein, we describe the effects of the schweinfurthins on cholesterol homeostasis. Intracellular cholesterol levels are greatly reduced in cells incubated with 3-deoxyschweinfurthin B (3dSB), an analog of the natural product schweinfurthin B. Decreased cholesterol levels are due to decreased cholesterol synthesis and increased cholesterol efflux; both of these cellular actions can be influenced by liver X-receptor (LXR) activation. The effects of 3dSB on ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 levels and other LXR targets are similar to that of 25-hydroxycholesterol, an LXR agonist. Unlike 25-hydroxycholesterol, 3dSB does not act as a direct agonist for LXR α or β. These data suggest that cholesterol homeostasis plays a significant role in the growth inhibitory activity of the schweinfurthins and may elucidate a mechanism that can be targeted in human cancers such as GBM.

  8. Bilirubin Increases Insulin Sensitivity by Regulating Cholesterol Metabolism, Adipokines and PPARγ Levels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinfeng; Dong, Huansheng; Zhang, Yong; Cao, Mingjun; Song, Lili; Pan, Qingjie; Bulmer, Andrew; Adams, David B; Dong, Xiao; Wang, Hongjun

    2015-05-28

    Obesity can cause insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Moderate elevations in bilirubin levels have anti-diabetic effects. This study is aimed at determining the mechanisms by which bilirubin treatment reduces obesity and insulin resistance in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. DIO mice were treated with bilirubin or vehicle for 14 days. Body weights, plasma glucose, and insulin tolerance tests were performed prior to, immediately, and 7 weeks post-treatment. Serum lipid, leptin, adiponectin, insulin, total and direct bilirubin levels were measured. Expression of factors involved in adipose metabolism including sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP-1), insulin receptor (IR), and PPARγ in liver were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot. Compared to controls, bilirubin-treated mice exhibited reductions in body weight, blood glucose levels, total cholesterol (TC), leptin, total and direct bilirubin, and increases in adiponectin and expression of SREBP-1, IR, and PPARγ mRNA. The improved metabolic control achieved by bilirubin-treated mice was persistent: at two months after treatment termination, bilirubin-treated DIO mice remained insulin sensitive with lower leptin and higher adiponectin levels, together with increased PPARγ expression. These results indicate that bilirubin regulates cholesterol metabolism, adipokines and PPARγ levels, which likely contribute to increased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in DIO mice.

  9. Angiotensin converting enzyme gene polymorphism is associated with severity of coronary artery disease in men with high total cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Borzyszkowska, Joanna; Stanislawska-Sachadyn, Anna; Wirtwein, Marcin; Sobiczewski, Wojciech; Ciecwierz, Dariusz; Targonski, Radoslaw; Gruchala, Marcin; Rynkiewicz, Andrzej; Limon, Janusz

    2012-05-01

    This study examines whether renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system gene polymorphisms: ACE (encoding for angiotensin converting enzyme) c.2306-117_404 I/D, AGTR1 (encoding for angiotensin II type-1 receptor) c.1080*86A>C and CYP11B2 (encoding for aldosterone synthase) c.-344C>T are associated with the extension of coronary atherosclerosis in a group of 647 patients who underwent elective coronary angiography. The extension of CAD was evaluated using the Gensini score. The polymorphisms were determined by PCR and RFLP assays. The associations between genotypes and the extent of coronary atherosclerosis were tested by the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by pairwise comparisons using Wilcoxon test. The population has been divided into groups defined by: sex, smoking habit, past myocardial infarction, BMI (>, ≤ 25), age (>, ≤ 55), diabetes mellitus, level of total cholesterol (>, ≤ 200 mg/dl), LDL cholesterol (>, ≤ 130 mg/dl), HDL cholesterol (>, ≤ 40 mg/dl), triglycerides (>, ≤ 150 mg/dl). Significant associations between the ACE c.2306-117_404 I/D polymorphism and the Gensini score in men with high total cholesterol levels (P(Kruskal-Wallis) = 0.008; P(adjusted) = 0.009), high level of LDL cholesterol (P(Kruskal-Wallis) = 0.016; P(adjusted) = 0.028) and low level of HDL cholesterol (P(Kruskal-Wallis) = 0.04; P(adjusted) = 0.055) have been found. No association between the AGTR1 c.1080*86A>C and CYP11B2 c.-344C>T and the Gensini score has been found. These results suggest that men who carry ACE c.2306-117_404 DD genotype and have high total cholesterol, high LDL cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol levels may be predisposed to the development of more severe CAD.

  10. Impaired HDL2-mediated cholesterol efflux is associated with metabolic syndrome in families with early onset coronary heart disease and low HDL-cholesterol level

    PubMed Central

    Paavola, Timo; Kuusisto, Sanna; Jauhiainen, Matti; Kakko, Sakari; Kangas-Kontio, Tiia; Metso, Jari; Soininen, Pasi; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Bloigu, Risto; Hannuksela, Minna L.; Savolainen, Markku J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The potential of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to facilitate cholesterol removal from arterial foam cells is a key function of HDL. We studied whether cholesterol efflux to serum and HDL subfractions is impaired in subjects with early coronary heart disease (CHD) or metabolic syndrome (MetS) in families where a low HDL-cholesterol level (HDL-C) predisposes to early CHD. Methods HDL subfractions were isolated from plasma by sequential ultracentrifugation. THP-1 macrophages loaded with acetyl-LDL were used in the assay of cholesterol efflux to total HDL, HDL2, HDL3 or serum. Results While cholesterol efflux to serum, total HDL and HDL3 was unchanged, the efflux to HDL2 was 14% lower in subjects with MetS than in subjects without MetS (p<0.001). The efflux to HDL2 was associated with components of MetS such as plasma HDL-C (r = 0.76 in men and r = 0.56 in women, p<0.001 for both). The efflux to HDL2 was reduced in men with early CHD (p<0.01) only in conjunction with their low HDL-C. The phospholipid content of HDL2 particles was a major correlate with the efflux to HDL2 (r = 0.70, p<0.001). A low ratio of HDL2 to total HDL was associated with MetS (p<0.001). Conclusion Our results indicate that impaired efflux to HDL2 is a functional feature of the low HDL-C state and MetS in families where these risk factors predispose to early CHD. The efflux to HDL2 related to the phospholipid content of HDL2 particles but the phospholipid content did not account for the impaired efflux in cardiometabolic disease, where a combination of low level and poor quality of HDL2 was observed. PMID:28207870

  11. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and risk of cancer in HIV-infected subjects

    PubMed Central

    Squillace, Nicola; Galli, Laura; Bandera, Alessandra; Castagna, Antonella; Madeddu, Giordano; Caramello, Pietro; Antinori, Andrea; Cattelan, Annamaria; Maggiolo, Franco; Cingolani, Antonella; Gori, Andrea; Monforte, Antonella d’Arminio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Investigation of the relationship between high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) and the risk of developing cancer in a prospective cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. The Italian Cohort of Antiretroviral-naïve Patients Foundation Cohort is an Italian multicenter observational study recruiting HIV-positive patients while still antiretroviral treatment-naïve, regardless of the reason since 1997. Patients with at least 1 HDL-c value per year since enrollment and one such value before antiretroviral treatment initiation were included. HDL-c values were categorized as either low (<39 mg/dL in males or <49 mg/dL in females) or normal. Cancer diagnoses were classified as AIDS-defining malignancies (ADMs) or non-AIDS-defining malignancies (NADMs). Kaplan–Meier curves and Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used. Among 4897 patients (13,440 person-years of follow-up [PYFU]), 104 diagnoses of cancer were observed (56 ADMs, 48 NADMs) for an overall incidence rate of 7.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.3–9.2) per 1000 PYFU. Low HDL-c values at enrollment were associated with higher risk both of cancer (crude hazard ratio [HR] 1.72, 95% CI 1.16–2.56, P = 0.007) and of NADM (crude HR 2.50, 95% CI 1.35–4.76, P = 0.003). Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of cancer diagnosis was higher in patients with low HDL-c values (adjusted HR [AHR] 1.87, 95% CI 1.18–2.95, P = 0.007) in older patients, those patients more recently enrolled, and in those with low current cluster of differentiation 4+ levels, and/or high current HIV-ribonucleic acid. The multivariate model confirmed an association between HDL-c (AHR 2.61, 95% CI 1.40–4.89, P = 0.003) and risk of NADM. Low HDL-c is an independent predictor of cancer in HIV-1-infected subjects. PMID:27603338

  12. IL-1 regulates the Cyp7a1 gene and serum total cholesterol level at steady state in mice.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Misaki; Ashino, Takashi; Yoshida, Takemi; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Sekimoto, Masashi; Degawa, Masakuni

    2009-02-06

    We examined the role of hepatic interleukin (IL)-1alpha/beta in serum total cholesterol homeostasis using male and female IL-1-knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice. Serum total cholesterol level was higher in males than in females in WT and KO mice. The difference between sexes was closely correlated with the difference in gene expression level of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1), a rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. No significant sex difference in gene expression level of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, a rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol synthesis, was observed in WT mice. Interestingly, the gene expression level of hepatic Cyp7a1 was lower in KO mice than in sex-matched WT mice, while the serum total cholesterol level was the opposite. The present findings demonstrate that IL-1alpha and IL-1beta are positive regulators for the Cyp7a1 gene in steady-state mice and that Cyp7a1 is one of the factors that mediate the difference in serum total cholesterol level between sexes.

  13. Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Bays, Harold E

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and/or progressive loss of β-cell function. T2DM patients are at increased risk of micro- and macrovascular disease, and are often considered as representing an atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD) risk equivalent. Interventions directed at glucose and lipid level control in T2DM patients may reduce micro- and macrovascular disease. The optimal T2DM agent is one that lowers glucose levels with limited risk for hypoglycemia, and with no clinical trial evidence of worsening CHD risk. Lipid-altering drugs should preferably reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B (apo B) and have evidence that the mechanism of action reduces CHD risk. Statins reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apo B and have evidence of improving CHD outcomes, and are thus first-line therapy for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. In patients who do not achieve optimal lipid levels with statin therapy, or who are intolerant to statin therapy, add-on therapy or alternative therapies may be indicated. Additional available agents to treat hypercholesterolemic patients with T2DM include bile acid sequestrants, fibrates, niacin, and ezetimibe. This review discusses the use of these alternative agents to treat hypercholesterolemia in patients with T2DM, either as monotherapy or in combination with statin therapy. PMID:25045281

  14. Longitudinal trends in total serum cholesterol levels in a Japanese cohort, 1958-1986.

    PubMed

    Yamada, M; Wong, F L; Kodama, K; Sasaki, H; Shimaoka, K; Yamakido, M

    1997-04-01

    The 28-year follow-up of a Japanese cohort, having collected vast amounts of data collected on total serum cholesterol (TC), provided an exceptional opportunity to examine TC temporal trends. The longitudinal statistical method of growth-curve analysis was used to elucidate the age-related changes in TC levels and to characterize these trends in relation to sex, birth cohort, time period, place of residence, and body mass index (BMI). Japanese TC levels at initial examination were remarkably lower than those in western countries. During the study period from 1958 to 1986, TC levels increased dramatically with age in both sexes. The slope of the cholesterol growth curve was steeper for women than for men, with the difference growing larger after age 40 years. Drastic changes in Japanese behavior and lifestyle, especially westernization of the diet, are thought to have affected the TC values as time-period effects. As a result of this temporal change, which affected different cohorts at different ages, TC values were higher in members of the younger cohort. The increase of the TC values as time-period effects were larger in earlier period than in later period. These time-period effects appeared to be almost similar in men and women. The TC growth curves also varied by city of residence. Subjects in urban areas had higher TC values than subjects in rural areas. Changes associated with BMI from 1958 to 1986 were only partially responsible for the increased steepness of the TC growth curve.

  15. Are low levels of HDL2-cholesterol a risk factor for atherosclerosis of cerebral vascular disease? Case report.

    PubMed

    Cordova, C; Alessandri, C; Basili, S; Peverini, F; Ferro, D; Barsi, R; Paradiso, M

    1990-01-01

    A case of a 45 years old man with an atherosclerotic stenosis of right internal carotid and TIA event is reported. The patient showed an increase of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol serum levels and, in particular, a very low familiar HDL2-cholesterol serum value. The possibility that this last condition could represent an important co-factor of the extracranial cerebrovascular disease is discussed. The usefulness of a long-term follow-up of all family members, showing the same lipids pattern, is also suggested.

  16. Eicosapentaenoic acid reduces membrane fluidity, inhibits cholesterol domain formation, and normalizes bilayer width in atherosclerotic-like model membranes.

    PubMed

    Mason, R Preston; Jacob, Robert F; Shrivastava, Sandeep; Sherratt, Samuel C R; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2016-12-01

    Cholesterol crystalline domains characterize atherosclerotic membranes, altering vascular signaling and function. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce membrane lipid peroxidation and subsequent cholesterol domain formation. We evaluated non-peroxidation-mediated effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), other TG-lowering agents, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and other long-chain fatty acids on membrane fluidity, bilayer width, and cholesterol domain formation in model membranes. In membranes prepared at 1.5:1 cholesterol-to-phospholipid (C/P) mole ratio (creating pre-existing domains), EPA, glycyrrhizin, arachidonic acid, and alpha linolenic acid promoted the greatest reductions in cholesterol domains (by 65.5%, 54.9%, 46.8%, and 45.2%, respectively) compared to controls; other treatments had modest effects. EPA effects on cholesterol domain formation were dose-dependent. In membranes with 1:1 C/P (predisposing domain formation), DHA, but not EPA, dose-dependently increased membrane fluidity. DHA also induced cholesterol domain formation without affecting temperature-induced changes in-bilayer unit cell periodicity relative to controls (d-space; 57Å-55Å over 15-30°C). Together, these data suggest simultaneous formation of distinct cholesterol-rich ordered domains and cholesterol-poor disordered domains in the presence of DHA. By contrast, EPA had no effect on cholesterol domain formation and produced larger d-space values relative to controls (60Å-57Å; p<0.05) over the same temperature range, suggesting a more uniform maintenance of lipid dynamics despite the presence of cholesterol. These data indicate that EPA and DHA had different effects on membrane bilayer width, membrane fluidity, and cholesterol crystalline domain formation; suggesting omega-3 fatty acids with differing chain length or unsaturation may differentially influence membrane lipid dynamics and structural organization as a result of distinct phospholipid/sterol interactions.

  17. High HDL cholesterol level after treatment with pitavastatin is an important factor for regression in carotid intima-media thickness.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Kenji; Tsukamoto, Hideto; Tsuboi, Hideyuki; Hirayama, Haruo; Kamiya, Haruo; Watarai, Masato; Ishiki, Ryoji; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2015-03-01

    This study is a prospective multicenter study designed to investigate the effects of lipid-lowering therapy with pitavastatin on atherosclerotic plaque in patients with coronary heart disease, and to determine which factor is more closely associated with plaque regression. Participants (n = 63) were treated with pitavastatin for 12 months, and the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was measured by ultrasound before and after treatment. Mean IMT slightly but significantly decreased (from 0.99 ± 0.33 to 0.94 ± 0.28 mm for overall, P = 0.01) regardless of the presence of pretreatment with other statins. There were no significant relations with hs-CRP, malondialdehyde-LDL, LDL cholesterol, and smaller LDL cholesterol levels despite their decrease by pitavastatin. Decreases in mean IMT were observed significantly more frequently in subjects with high on-treatment HDL cholesterol levels than with low HDL cholesterol levels (P = 0.017). The change in mean IMT tended to be inversely correlated with increments in HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I. The IMT regression was more often observed in the absence of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, we demonstrated that treatment with pitavastatin attenuated atherosclerotic plaque. This effect was associated with the level of HDL cholesterol, and was stronger in the absence of diabetes and metabolic syndrome in our ischemic heart disease patients.

  18. Detecting Elevated Cholesterol Levels: Part 1: How accurate is the Reflotron?

    PubMed

    Reimer, H L; Elford, R W; Shumak, S

    1991-11-01

    To assess accuracy of blood cholesterol measurements in the office, fingerprick blood cholesterol assays by a dry reagent chemistry analyzer were compared in 151 patients with simultaneous venipuncture cholesterol assays by standard laboratory methods. Compared with the laboratory assay, seven of eight analyzers had total absolute biases less than 5%. Variability in results was comparable to that of community laboratories.

  19. Bivariate linkage analysis of cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuyang; Wang, Kai

    2003-01-01

    We performed a bivariate analysis on cholesterol and triglyceride levels on data from the Framingham Heart Study using a new score statistic developed for the detection of potential pleiotropic, or cluster, genes. Univariate score statistics were also computed for each trait. At a significance level 0.001, linkage signals were found at markers GATA48B01 on chromosome 1, GATA21C12 on chromosome 8, and ATA55A11 on chromosome 16 using the bivariate analysis. At the same significance level, linkage signals were found at markers 036yb8 on chromosome 3 and GATA3F02 on chromosome 12 using the univariate analysis. A strong linkage signal was also found at marker GATA112F07 by both the bivariate analysis and the univariate analysis, a marker for which evidence for linkage had been reported previously in a related study. PMID:14975130

  20. Relationships between birth weight and serum cholesterol levels in healthy Japanese late adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ito, Sanae; Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Hiromi; Uemura, Yukari; Kodama, Momoko; Fukuoka, Hideoki

    2014-01-01

    Poor growth in utero has been suggested to be associated with adverse levels of serum cholesterol concentrations in later life. In Asia, there have only been a limited number of studies examining the relationship between fetal status and serum lipids, especially in adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between birth weight and serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels; adjusting for current physical status including percent body fat, physical activity and nutrient intake in healthy Japanese late adolescents. The data of 573 late adolescents with an average age of 17.6 (287 boys and 286 girls) who underwent physical examinations which included blood sampling and who had all the required data, were analyzed. Birth weight was obtained from their maternal and child health handbook. Multiple regression analysis showed that birth weight was positively associated with serum HDL in girls, independently of percent body fat or fat intake, when adjusted for current body height and weight. There were no associations between birth weight and serum HDL in boys, or serum LDL in either sex.

  1. Gene Transfection in High Serum Levels: Case Studies with New Cholesterol Based Cationic Gemini Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Santosh K.; Biswas, Joydeep; Kondaiah, Paturu; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    Background Six new cationic gemini lipids based on cholesterol possessing different positional combinations of hydroxyethyl (-CH2CH2OH) and oligo-oxyethylene -(CH2CH2O)n- moieties were synthesized. For comparison the corresponding monomeric lipid was also prepared. Each new cationic lipid was found to form stable, clear suspensions in aqueous media. Methodology/Principal Findings To understand the nature of the individual lipid aggregates, we have studied the aggregation properties using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential measurements and X-ray diffraction (XRD). We studied the lipid/DNA complex (lipoplex) formation and the release of the DNA from such lipoplexes using ethidium bromide. These gemini lipids in presence of a helper lipid, 1, 2-dioleoyl phophatidyl ethanol amine (DOPE) showed significant enhancements in the gene transfection compared to several commercially available transfection agents. Cholesterol based gemini having -CH2-CH2-OH groups at the head and one oxyethylene spacer was found to be the most effective lipid, which showed transfection activity even in presence of high serum levels (50%) greater than Effectene, one of the potent commercially available transfecting agents. Most of these geminis protected plasmid DNA remarkably against DNase I in serum, although the degree of stability was found to vary with their structural features. Conclusions/Significance -OH groups present on the cationic headgroups in combination with oxyethylene linkers on cholesterol based geminis, gave an optimized combination of new genera of gemini lipids possessing high transfection efficiency even in presence of very high percentage of serum. This property makes them preferential transfection reagents for possible in vivo studies. PMID:23861884

  2. Cholesterol metabolism and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Broitman, S A; Cerda, S; Wilkinson, J

    1993-01-01

    While epidemiologic and concordant experimental data indicate a direct relationship between dietary fat (and presumably caloric) intake and the development of colon cancer, the effect of dietary cholesterol on this disease is still not clear. However, there appears to be a developing literature concerning an inverse relationship between serum and plasma cholesterol levels, and the risk for colon cancer. Findings that low serum cholesterol levels are apparent as early as ten years prior to the detection of colon cancer implies that sub clinical disease is probably not involved initially in this process. The possibility of low serum cholesterol as a bio-marker was considered in epidemiologic studies which focused upon obese men with lower than normal serum cholesterol levels who were found to be at increased risk to colon cancer. While the relationship between low serum cholesterol and colonic or intestinal cholesterol metabolism is presently not understood, current genetic studies provide a promising though as yet unexplored potential association. Alterations which occur during the developmental progression of colonic cancer include changes in chromosome 5, which also carries two genes vital to the biosynthesis and regulation of systemic and cellular cholesterol metabolism, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCoA R). Regulation of cholesterol metabolism in intestinal cells in vivo and in vitro varies from that seen in normal fibroblasts or hepatocytes in terms of exogenous sources of cholesterol and how these sources regulate internal synthesis. Colonic cancer cells have been used to assess small bowel enterocyte cholesterol metabolism, which has been possible because of their ability to differentiate in culture, however information regarding true colonic enterocyte cholesterol metabolism is relatively scarce. Colonic cancer cells have been shown to possess a diminished or nonexistent ability to use

  3. Effect of honey intake on serum cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoprotein levels in albino rats and potential benefits on risks of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Alagwu, E A; Okwara, J E; Nneli, R O; Osim, E E

    2011-12-20

    The beneficial effect of honey has been widely reported particularly in the treatment of wounds and gastrointestinal tract disorders. However there is paucity of reports on its effect on the plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglycerides (TG) including cholesterol levels despite common consumption of honey worldwide including, Nigeria. The effect of the widely consumed unrefined Nigeria honey on plasma HDL, VLDL, LDL, TG, cholesterol and cardiovascular risk predictive index (CVPI) was studied using 20 adult male albino rats to ascertain its scientific and clinical relevance. The rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups, the control and honey-fed (test) groups, ten in each group. The rats weighed between 190-200gm at the start of the study. The control group was fed on normal rat (Pfizer-Nigeria) while the test group was fed on normal rat feed and honey (1ml of honey was added to 10ml of drinking water given once every day) for 22 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the rats were anesthetized with thiopentone sodium and blood collected by cardiac puncture. Serum TG, HDL, VLDL, LDL and total cholesterol in the control and the test groups were determined. The results showed significant increase in the level of plasma TG, HDL, and VLDL in the test group when compared with the control group. In contrast, there were significant decreases in the levels of plasma LDL and total cholesterol in the test when compared with the control group. Computed values of CVPI showed significant increase in the test values compared to that of the control. It is concluded that consumption of unrefined Nigeria honey significantly improved lipid profile and computed cardiovascular disease predictive index in male albino rats.

  4. Association between tumour status and serum lipoprotein cholesterol in hemopoietic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Venkatanarayanan, S; Nagarajan, B

    1988-09-01

    Total and lipoprotein cholesterol in serum have been determined in patients with leukemia and lymphoma. Untreated patients were hypocholesterolemic with reduced lipoprotein cholesterol content. On successful chemotherapy most of the patients showed near normal total cholesterol levels with a subsequent increase in LDL cholesterol content. A rapid, sensitive and inexpensive method is reported using agarose electrophoresis and quantitation of cholesterol by Liebermann-Burchard reaction.

  5. Correlation between High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL) Level and Aerobic Activity Level.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    over a 40 day period for HDtJICholesteroll and Total Choleis- added with the "reverse" technique, This technique is only poai- tarot . The results are...Stand- tarot and Total Cholestero levels, it is beat that eet laoatr ard and a control Serum were each analyzed 10 times giving the * determinle its

  6. From evolution to revolution: miRNAs as pharmacological targets for modulating cholesterol efflux and reverse cholesterol transport.

    PubMed

    Dávalos, Alberto; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    There has been strong evolutionary pressure to ensure that an animal cell maintains levels of cholesterol within tight limits for normal function. Imbalances in cellular cholesterol levels are a major player in the development of different pathologies associated to dietary excess. Although epidemiological studies indicate that elevated levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, recent genetic evidence and pharmacological therapies to raise HDL levels do not support their beneficial effects. Cholesterol efflux as the first and probably the most important step in reverse cholesterol transport is an important biological process relevant to HDL function. Small non-coding RNAs (microRNAs), post-transcriptional control different aspects of cellular cholesterol homeostasis including cholesterol efflux. miRNA families miR-33, miR-758, miR-10b, miR-26 and miR-106b directly modulates cholesterol efflux by targeting the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1). Pre-clinical studies with anti-miR therapies to inhibit some of these miRNAs have increased cellular cholesterol efflux, reverse cholesterol transport and reduce pathologies associated to dyslipidemia. Although miRNAs as therapy have benefits from existing antisense technology, different obstacles need to be solved before we incorporate such research into clinical care. Here we focus on the clinical potential of miRNAs as therapeutic target to increase cholesterol efflux and reverse cholesterol transport as a new alternative to ameliorate cholesterol-related pathologies.

  7. Serum Adipsin Levels throughout Normal Pregnancy and Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Poveda, Natalia E.; Garcés, María F.; Ruiz-Linares, Carlos E.; Varón, Diana; Valderrama, Sergio; Sanchez, Elizabeth; Castiblanco-Cortes, Adriana; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Leal, Luis G.; Ángel-Müller, Edith; Ruíz-Parra, Ariel I.; González-Clavijo, Angélica M.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Adipsin is a protease produced at high levels by adipose tissue. It is involved in complement activation and metabolic control. The objective of this study was to determine the changes in adipsin levels during different stages of normal pregnancy, and its association with obstetric outcomes, such as preeclampsia. This nested case-control study in a longitudinal cohort included normal pregnant (n = 54) and preeclamptic (n = 18) women, both followed throughout pregnancy. Additionally, some of the normal pregnant women were followed up three months postpartum (n = 18). Healthy non-pregnant women were also studied during their menstrual cycle (n = 20). The results of this study show that in healthy non-pregnant women, adipsin levels did not change significantly during the menstrual cycle. In normal pregnant women, adipsin levels were lower (p < 0.01) when compared with non-pregnant healthy women, but these serum levels increased again during postpartum (p < 0.001). Adipsin levels were significantly elevated in preeclamptic women in late pregnancy (P < 0.01). A significant correlation was not found between leptin and adipsin during the three periods of gestation studied in healthy pregnant and preeclamptic women. Our results suggest that adipsin may be involved in pregnancy-associated metabolic changes. Moreover, the increase of adipsin levels towards late gestation in preeclamptic women could be related to the pathophysiology of this disease. PMID:26832661

  8. Plasma obestatin levels in normal weight, obese and anorectic women.

    PubMed

    Zamrazilová, H; Hainer, V; Sedlácková, D; Papezová, H; Kunesová, M; Bellisle, F; Hill, M; Nedvídková, J

    2008-01-01

    Obestatin is a recently discovered peptide produced in the stomach, which was originally described to suppress food intake and decrease body weight in experimental animals. We investigated fasting plasma obestatin levels in normal weight, obese and anorectic women and associations of plasma obestatin levels with anthropometric and hormonal parameters. Hormonal (obestatin, ghrelin, leptin, insulin) and anthropometric parameters and body composition were examined in 15 normal weight, 21 obese and 15 anorectic women. Fasting obestatin levels were significantly lower in obese than in normal weight and anorectic women, whereas ghrelin to obestatin ratio was increased in anorectic women. Compared to leptin, only minor differences in plasma obestatin levels were observed in women who greatly differed in the amount of fat stores. However, a negative correlation of fasting obestatin level with body fat indexes might suggest a certain role of obestatin in the regulation of energy homeostasis. A significant relationship between plasma obestatin and ghrelin levels, independent of anthropometric parameters, supports simultaneous secretion of both hormones from the common precursor. Lower plasma obestatin levels in obese women compared to normal weight and anorectic women as well as increased ghrelin to obestatin ratio in anorectic women might play a role in body weight regulation in these pathologies.

  9. Extract of black tea (pu-ehr) inhibits postprandial rise in serum cholesterol in mice, and with long term use reduces serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels and renal fat weight in rats.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Hiroyuki; Yamagami, Tomohide

    2008-10-01

    A water-soluble extract of a traditional Chinese fermented black tea, pu-ehr, decomposes bile acid cholesterol micelles. This black tea extract (BTE) was studied to see if it could decrease the postprandial elevation of blood cholesterol levels after a single administration in ddY mice. It was found that BTE (0.3 g/kg) significantly decreased the postprandial rise in blood cholesterol levels after oral administration of cholesterol (130 mg/kg). A non-fermented tea (i.e. green tea) extract did not prevent the postprandial increase in blood cholesterol. In a subsequent study, 5-week-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed BTE for 3 weeks, following which a dose-dependent and significant decrease in serum total cholesterol levels (1.36 mmol/L, 0.1% BTE, p < 0.05) was found and also in renal fat weight (0.3% BTE, p < 0.05). LDL cholesterol levels (0.51 mmol/L, 0.1% BTE, p < 0.05) were also significantly decreased. There were no significant changes in the weights of other organs or in the serum levels of other clinical markers. Thus, BTE has a specific antihypercholesterol effect in rodents, which might potentially aid in the management of hyperlipidaemia in man.

  10. Cardioprotective Effects of Tualang Honey: Amelioration of Cholesterol and Cardiac Enzymes Levels

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Md. Ibrahim; Tanvir, E. M.; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Malaysian Tualang honey against isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats by investigating changes in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), lipid peroxidation (LPO) products, and antioxidant defense system combined with histopathological examination. Male albino Wistar rats (n = 40) were pretreated orally with Tualang honey (3 g/kg/day) for 45 days. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg in saline) for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in serum cardiac marker enzymes (creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and aspartate transaminase (AST)), cTnI, serum TC, and TG levels. In addition, ISO-induced myocardial injury was confirmed by a significant increase in heart lipid peroxidation (LPO) products (TBARS) and a significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, GRx, and GST). Pretreatment of ischemic rats with Tualang honey conferred significant protective effects on all of the investigated biochemical parameters. The biochemical findings were further confirmed by histopathological examination in both Tualang-honey-pretreated and ISO-treated hearts. The present study demonstrates that Tualang honey confers cardioprotective effects on ISO-induced oxidative stress by contributing to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation. PMID:26064893

  11. Cardioprotective Effects of Tualang Honey: Amelioration of Cholesterol and Cardiac Enzymes Levels.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Tanvir, E M; Afroz, Rizwana; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Malaysian Tualang honey against isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats by investigating changes in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), lipid peroxidation (LPO) products, and antioxidant defense system combined with histopathological examination. Male albino Wistar rats (n = 40) were pretreated orally with Tualang honey (3 g/kg/day) for 45 days. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg in saline) for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in serum cardiac marker enzymes (creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and aspartate transaminase (AST)), cTnI, serum TC, and TG levels. In addition, ISO-induced myocardial injury was confirmed by a significant increase in heart lipid peroxidation (LPO) products (TBARS) and a significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, GRx, and GST). Pretreatment of ischemic rats with Tualang honey conferred significant protective effects on all of the investigated biochemical parameters. The biochemical findings were further confirmed by histopathological examination in both Tualang-honey-pretreated and ISO-treated hearts. The present study demonstrates that Tualang honey confers cardioprotective effects on ISO-induced oxidative stress by contributing to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  12. Aggregated LDL in contact with macrophages induces local increases in free cholesterol levels that regulate local actin polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Grosheva, Inna; Haka, Abigail S.; Qin, Chunbo; Pierini, Lynda M.; Maxfield, Frederick R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Interaction of macrophages with aggregated matrix-anchored lipoprotein deposits is an important initial step in atherogenesis. Aggregated lipoproteins require different cellular uptake processes than those used for endocytosis of monomeric lipoproteins. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that engagement of aggregated LDL (agLDL) by macrophages could lead to local increases in free cholesterol levels and that these increases in free cholesterol regulate signals that control cellular actin. Methods and Results AgLDL resides for prolonged periods in surface-connected compartments. While agLDL is still extracellular, we demonstrate that an increase in free cholesterol occurs at sites of contact between agLDL and cells due to hydrolysis of agLDL-derived cholesteryl ester. This increase in free cholesterol causes enhanced actin polymerization around the agLDL. Inhibition of cholesteryl ester hydrolysis results in decreased actin polymerization. Conclusions We describe a novel process that occurs during agLDL-macrophage interactions in which local release of free cholesterol causes local actin polymerization, promoting a pathologic positive feedback loop for increased catabolism of agLDL and eventual foam cell formation. PMID:19556523

  13. Orange juice decreases low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic subjects and improves lipid transfer to high-density lipoprotein in normal and hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Cesar, Thais B; Aptekmann, Nancy P; Araujo, Milena P; Vinagre, Carmen C; Maranhão, Raul C

    2010-10-01

    Orange juice (OJ) is regularly consumed worldwide, but its effects on plasma lipids have rarely been explored. This study hypothesized that consumption of OJ concentrate would improve lipid levels and lipid metabolism, which are important in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function in normolipidemic (NC) and hypercholesterolemic (HCH) subjects. Fourteen HCH and 31 NC adults consumed 750 mL/day OJ concentrate (1:6 OJ/water) for 60 days. Eight control subjects did not consume OJ for 60 days. Plasma was collected before and on the last day for biochemical analysis and an in vitro assay of transfers of radioactively labeled free-cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids, and triglycerides from lipoprotein-like nanoemulsions to HDL. Orange juice consumption decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (160 ± 17 to 141 ± 26 mg/dL, P < .01) in the HCH group but not in the NC group. HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides remained unchanged in both groups. Free-cholesterol transfer to HDL increased (HCH: 4.4 ± 2 to 5.6 ± 1%, NC: 3.2 ± 2 to 6.2 ± 1%, P< .05) whereas triglyceride (HCH 4.9 ± 1 to 3.1 ± 1%, NC 4.4 ± 1 to 3.4 ± 1%, P< .05) and phospholipid (HCH 21.6 ± 2 to 18.6 ± 3%, NC 20.2 ± 2 to 18.4 ± 2%, P < .05) transfers decreased in both groups. Cholesteryl-ester transfer decreased only in HCH (3.6 ± 1 to 3.1 ± 1%, P < .05), but not in NC. In control subjects, plasma lipids and transfers were unaltered for 60 days. Thus, by decreasing atherogenic low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in HCH and increasing HDL ability to take up free cholesterol in HCH and NC, OJ may be beneficial to both groups as free-cholesterol transfer to HDL is crucial for cholesterol esterification and reverse cholesterol transport.

  14. Calpain-5 gene variants are associated with diastolic blood pressure and cholesterol levels

    PubMed Central

    Sáez, María E; Martínez-Larrad, María T; Ramírez-Lorca, Reposo; González-Sánchez, José L; Zabena, Carina; Martinez-Calatrava, María J; González, Alejandro; Morón, Francisco J; Ruiz, Agustín; Serrano-Ríos, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Background Genes implicated in common complex disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or cardiovascular diseases are not disease specific, since clinically related disorders also share genetic components. Cysteine protease Calpain 10 (CAPN10) has been associated with T2DM, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, increased body mass index (BMI) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a reproductive disorder of women in which isunlin resistance seems to play a pathogenic role. The calpain 5 gene (CAPN5) encodes a protein homologue of CAPN10. CAPN5 has been previously associated with PCOS by our group. In this new study, we have analysed the association of four CAPN5 gene variants(rs948976A>G, rs4945140G>A, rs2233546C>T and rs2233549G>A) with several cardiovascular risk factors related to metabolic syndrome in general population. Methods Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, insulin, glucose and lipid profiles were determined in 606 individuals randomly chosen from a cross-sectional population-based epidemiological survey in the province of Segovia in Central Spain (Castille), recruited to investigate the prevalence of anthropometric and physiological parameters related to obesity and other components of the metabolic syndrome. Genotypes at the four polymorphic loci in CAPN5 gene were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Genotype association analysis was significant for BMI (p ≤ 0.041), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.015) and HDL-cholesterol levels (p = 0.025). Different CAPN5 haplotypes were also associated with diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (0.0005 ≤ p ≤ 0.006) and total cholesterol levels (0.001 ≤ p ≤ 0.029). In addition, the AACA haplotype, over-represented in obese individuals, is also more frequent in individuals with metabolic syndrome defined by ATPIII criteria (p = 0.029). Conclusion As its homologue CAPN10, CAPN5 seems to influence traits related to increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Our results also

  15. Enhanced serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in bulimia nervosa: relationships to psychiatric comorbidity, psychopathology and hormonal variables.

    PubMed

    Monteleone, Palmiero; Santonastaso, Paolo; Pannuto, Marilena; Favaro, Angela; Caregaro, Lorenza; Castaldo, Eloisa; Zanetti, Tatiana; Maj, Mario

    2005-04-30

    Increased levels of cholesterol have been reported in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), but all but one of the published studies were performed on non-fasting subjects, which limits the interpretation of this finding. Moreover, the relationships between serum lipids and comorbid psychiatric disorders or bulimic psychopathology have scarcely been investigated. We measured serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, 17beta-estradiol and thyroid hormones in 75 bulimic women and 64 age-matched healthy females after an overnight fast. Compared with healthy women, bulimic patients exhibited significantly enhanced serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, but similar values of glucose, 17beta-estradiol, FT3 and FT4. No significant differences emerged in these variables between patients with or without comorbid depression, borderline personality disorder or lifetime anorexia nervosa. Circulating cholesterol was positively correlated to the patients' drive for thinness, ineffectiveness, enteroceptive awareness and impulse regulation sub-item scores of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2. These findings confirm that BN is associated with increased levels of serum lipids. This alteration may be involved in the pathophysiology of certain psychopathological characteristics of BN and cannot be explained by the co-occurrence of other psychiatric disorders.

  16. A study of serum cholesterol level in young adults and its relation to body mass index and waist-circumference.

    PubMed

    Nath, Soumitra; Jahan, Wasima

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the serum total cholesterol (TC) level in young adults of Dibrugarh town of Assam and to find the association of serum cholesterol level with body mass index (BMI) and waist-circumference (WC). A cross-sectional study was done among 150 healthy young adults aged 20-30 years. TC was estimated by the enzymatic method. Hypercholesterolemia was defined as TC > 200 mg/dl. Cases were classified into different categories of BMI and WC according to the recommendations of WHO/IASO/IOTF (2000). The range of TC level in the study group was found to be (146-212) mg/dl. Mean cholesterol level in males and females were 169.5±3.6 and 172.3±15.09 mg/dl respectively. 7% of the cases had hypercholesterolemia. TC was significantly correlated with BMI (r=0.90, p<0.001) and WC (r=0.73, p<0.001 in males and r=0.86, p<0.001 in females). We conclude that young adults ≥20 years of age and especially who are overweight should be advised routine cholesterol testing so that preventive measures can be adopted to avoid hypercholesterolemia and it's complications in future life.

  17. Impact of physiological levels of chenodeoxycholic acid supplementation on intestinal and hepatic bile acid and cholesterol metabolism in Cyp7a1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ryan D; Lopez, Adam M; Tong, Ernest Y; Posey, Kenneth S; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Repa, Joyce J; Turley, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Mice deficient in cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1) have a diminished bile acid pool (BAP) and therefore represent a useful model for investigating the metabolic effects of restoring the pool with a specific BA. Previously we carried out such studies in Cyp7a1(-/-) mice fed physiological levels of cholic acid (CA) and achieved BAP restoration, along with an increased CA enrichment, at a dietary level of just 0.03% (w/w). Here we demonstrate that in Cyp7a1(-/-) mice fed chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) at a level of 0.06% (w/w), the BAP was restored to normal size and became substantially enriched with muricholic acid (MCA) (>70%), leaving the combined contribution of CA and CDCA to be <15%. This resulted in a partial to complete reversal of the main changes in cholesterol and BA metabolism associated with Cyp7a1 deficiency such as an elevated rate of intestinal sterol synthesis, an enhanced level of mRNA for Cyp8b1 in the liver, and depressed mRNA levels for Ibabp, Shp and Fgf15 in the distal small intestine. When Cyp7a1(-/-) and matching Cyp7a1(+/+) mice were fed a diet with added cholesterol (0.2%) (w/w), either alone, or also containing CDCA (0.06%) (w/w) or CA (0.03%) (w/w) for 18days, the hepatic total cholesterol concentrations (mg/g) in the Cyp7a1(-/-) mice were 26.9±3.7, 16.4±0.9 and 47.6±1.9, respectively, vs. 4.9±0.4, 5.0±0.7 and 6.4±1.9, respectively in the corresponding Cyp7a1(+/+) controls. These data affirm the importance of using moderate levels of dietary BA supplementation to elicit changes in hepatic cholesterol metabolism through shifts in BAP size and composition.

  18. Omentin-1 plasma levels and cholesterol metabolism in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 1: impact of weight reduction

    PubMed Central

    Lesná, J; Tichá, A; Hyšpler, R; Musil, F; Bláha, V; Sobotka, L; Zadák, Z; Šmahelová, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Omentin-1 is an anti-inflammatory adipokine produced preferentially by visceral adipose tissue. Plasma levels of omentin-1 are decreased in obesity and other insulin-resistant states. Insulin resistance contributes to the changes of cholesterol synthesis and absorption as well. The aim of this study was to characterise omentin-1 plasma levels in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 during weight reduction, and to elucidate the relationship between cholesterol metabolism and omentin-1. Methods: Plasma levels of omentin-1 were measured in obese type 1 diabetics (n=14, body mass index >30 kg m−2, age 29–62 years) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (BioVendor). Gas chromatography with flame ionisation detector (Fisons Plc.,) was used to measure squalene and non-cholesterol sterols—markers of cholesterol synthesis and absorption (phase I). Measurements were repeated after 1 month (phase II; 1 week of fasting in the hospital setting and 3 weeks on a diet containing 150 g saccharides per day) and after 1 year (phase III) on a diet with 225 g saccharides per day. Results: Omentin-1 plasma levels were stable during phases I and II, but significantly increased (P<0.001) during phase III. Omentin-1 plasma dynamics were significantly associated with plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (P=0.005) and triacylglycerols (P=0.01), as well as with lathosterol (P=0.03). Conclusion: Omentin-1 plasma levels significantly increased during the weight reduction programme. Omentin-1 plasma dynamics suggest a close relationship with cholesterol metabolism. PMID:26524638

  19. Effects of radiation on the longitudinal trends of total serum cholesterol levels in the atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Wong, F L; Yamada, M; Sasaki, H; Kodama, K; Hosoda, Y

    1999-06-01

    The effects of radiation on the long-term trends of the total serum cholesterol levels of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors were examined using data collected in the Adult Health Study over a 28-year period (1958-1986). The growth-curve method was used to model the longitudinal age-dependent changes in cholesterol levels. For each sex, temporal trends of cholesterol levels were characterized with respect to age, body mass index, city and birth year. We then examined whether the temporal trends differed by radiation dose. We showed that the mean growth curve of cholesterol levels for the irradiated subjects were significantly higher than that for the unirradiated subjects, and that the increase was greater for women than for men. No difference in dose response was detected between Hiroshima and Nagasaki. An increased mean level of cholesterol was evident for irradiated women in general, but a notable increase was apparent in males only for the youngest birth cohort of 1935-1945. The difference in the mean cholesterol levels between the irradiated and unirradiated subjects diminished past 70 years of age. It is not known whether this is due to natural progression or is an artifact of nonrandom variation in the rate of participation in the examinations. The maximum predicted increase at 1 Gy for women occurred at age 52 years for the 1930 cohort: 2.5 mg/dl (95% CI 1.6-3.3 mg/dl) for Hiroshima and 2.3 mg/dl (95% CI 1.5-3.1 mg/dl) for Nagasaki. The corresponding increase for men occurred at age 29 years for the 1940 cohort: 1.6 mg/dl (95% CI 0.4-2.8) for Hiroshima and 1.4 mg/dl (95% CI 0.3-2.6) for Nagasaki. Controlling for cigarette smoking did not alter the dose-response relationship. Although the difference in the mean growth curves of the irradiated and unirradiated groups was statistically significant, there was a considerable overlap in the individual growth curves of the two groups. The significant sex difference and the greater magnitude of

  20. Enhanced efficacy of sitostanol-containing versus sitostanol-free phytosterol mixtures in altering lipoprotein cholesterol levels and synthesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ling, W H; Jones, P J

    1995-12-01

    To investigate the action and mechanism of a dietary phytosterol mixture naturally containing sitostanol, derived from tall-oil, on circulating cholesterol and lipoprotein levels, five groups of rats were fed a control elemental diet (group 1), a control elemental diet with 1% cholesterol alone (group 2) or with sitostanol mixtures or a sitostanol-free mixture supplemented at 0.2% (group 3), 0.5% (group 4) or 1% (group 5) of dietary levels. One per cent supplementation of sitostanol (21%) compared with sitostanol-free mixtures decreased (P < 0.02) total serum cholesterol. Dietary sitostanol (16% or 21%) mixture at 1% dietary levels decreased (P < 0.05) low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and increased (P < 0.05) high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. The decrease of LDL and increase of HDL cholesterol were correlated (P < 0.01) with the level of sitostanol mixture in the diet. Consumption of the sitostanol-containing mixture (1% dietary levels) caused a compensatory increase in cholesterol synthesis as indicated by elevated (P < 0.05) lathosterol/ cholesterol ratios in plasma and hepatic cholesterol fractional synthesis rate (FSR) (P < 0.02). Both sitostanol and sitostanol-free mixtures at 0.5% or 1% dietary intake levels increased plasma campesterol and beta-sitosterol levels, while plasma sitostanol levels were negligible. The absence of sitostanol in plasma and the increase in cholesterol synthesis induced by dietary sitostanol mixtures in addition to elevation of plasma campesterol and beta-sitosterol by sitostanol or sitostanol-free mixtures suggest that sitostanol mixtures effectively modify circulating lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations at the level of the intestine, rather than internally at the level of cholesterogenesis.

  1. Impacts of High Serum Total Cholesterol Level on Brain Functional Connectivity in Non-Demented Elderly.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Li, He; Zhang, Junying; Li, Xin; Qi, Di; Wang, Nuo; Zhang, Zhanjun

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that high serum cholesterol is a risk factor of dementia. However, the effects of cholesterol on cognition and brain remain largely unclear. This study aims to investigate the associations between serum total cholesterol (TC) and neuropsychological performance, and intrinsic functional networks in non-demented elderly. Among a cohort of 120 community-dwelling Beijing residents, 29 subjects in the high-TC group (1st quartile) and 31 in the low-TC group (4th quartile) were included in this study, and underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, including T2- and T1-weighted imaging, and resting-state functional MRI. No significant group difference was found in any of the neuropsychological tests used. Stronger connectivity in the default mode network was observed in the high-TC group compared to that in the low-TC group (p <  0.001, uncorrected). While in the salience network (SN), the high-TC group showed lower connectivity in the anterior cingulate cortex and frontal regions, compared to the low-TC group (p <  0.05, FWE corrected). Our findings suggest that in non-demented elderly persons, high serum cholesterol is associated with disruption of functional connectivity in the SN. The results not only deepen our understanding of how cholesterol affects the brain, but are also significant for selecting sensitive indicators for monitoring the impairments of cholesterol on the neural system.

  2. Cholesterol Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Cholesterol Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Blood Cholesterol Formal name: Total Cholesterol Related tests: HDL Cholesterol , ...

  3. What's Cholesterol?

    MedlinePlus

    ... los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray What's Cholesterol? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cholesterol? Print A A ... thing for food to be low in it? Cholesterol and Your Body Cholesterol (say: kuh-LES-tuh- ...

  4. What's Cholesterol?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? What's Cholesterol? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cholesterol? A A A ... thing for food to be low in it? Cholesterol and Your Body Cholesterol (say: kuh-LES-tuh- ...

  5. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol? Many factors can affect the cholesterol levels in your blood. You can control some ... but not others. Factors You Can Control Diet Cholesterol is found in foods that come from animal ...

  6. Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome produced in rats with AY 9944 treated by intravenous injection of lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Chambers, C M; McLean, M P; Ness, G C

    1997-01-31

    A limitation to treating Smith-Lemli-Opitz infants by giving dietary cholesterol is their impaired ability to absorb cholesterol due to a deficiency of bile acids. Since intravenously administered lipoprotein cholesterol should not require bile acids for uptake into tissues, we tested the effects of this form of cholesterol on tissue cholesterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol levels in an animal model of SLO, created by feeding rats 0.02% AY 9944. Intravenous administration of 15 mg of bovine cholesterol supertrate twice daily increased serum cholesterol levels from 11 to over 250 mg/dl. This treatment increased liver cholesterol levels from 309 to over 900 micrograms/g and lowered hepatic 7-dehydrocholesterol levels from 1546 to 909 micrograms/g. A combination of iv cholesterol and 2% dietary cholesterol was most effective as it raised hepatic cholesterol levels to 1950 micrograms/g, which is 50% above normal. 7-Dehydrocholesterol levels were decreased to 760 micrograms/g. Similar responses were seen for heart, lung, kidney, and testes. Brain sterol levels were not significantly affected. AY 9944 caused a modest increase in hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity. Administration of dietary cholesterol together with iv cholesterol lowered hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity to barely detectable levels. The data indicate that the combination of iv and dietary cholesterol was most effective in raising cholesterol levels, lowering 7-dehydrocholesterol levels, and inhibiting de novo cholesterol biosynthesis.

  7. NORMAL NASAL GENE EXPRESSION LEVELS USING CDNA ARRAY TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Normal Nasal Gene Expression Levels Using cDNA Array Technology.

    The nasal epithelium is a target site for chemically-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. To detect and analyze genetic events which contribute to nasal tumor development, we first defined the gene expressi...

  8. Sevelamer Does Not Decrease Lipopolysaccharide or Soluble CD14 Levels But Decreases Soluble Tissue Factor, Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Cholesterol, and Oxidized LDL Cholesterol Levels in Individuals With Untreated HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, Netanya G.; Zhang, Xinyan; Bosch, Ronald J.; Funderburg, Nicholas T.; Choi, Andrew I.; Robinson, Janet K.; Fine, Derek M.; Coombs, Robert W.; Jacobson, Jeffrey M.; Landay, Alan L.; Douek, Daniel C.; Tressler, Randall; Read, Sarah W.; Wilson, Cara C.; Deeks, Steven G.; Lederman, Michael M.; Gandhi, Rajesh T.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal levels of inflammation are associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients. Microbial translocation, which may cause inflammation, is decreased by sevelamer in patients undergoing hemodialysis. In this single-arm study, we evaluated the effects of 8 weeks of sevelamer therapy on 36 HIV-infected subjects who were not receiving antiretroviral therapy. Sevelamer did not significantly change markers of microbial translocation, inflammation, or T-cell activation. During sevelamer treatment, however, levels of soluble tissue factor, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and oxidized LDL cholesterol decreased significantly, whereas D-dimer levels increased. Thus, in this study population, sevelamer did not reduce microbial translocation but may have yielded cardiovascular benefits. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT 01543958. PMID:24864123

  9. Effect of tomato consumption on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level: a randomized, single-blinded, controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas-Ramos, Daniel; Almeda-Valdés, Paloma; Chávez-Manzanera, Emma; Meza-Arana, Clara Elena; Brito-Córdova, Griselda; Mehta, Roopa; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco J

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiologic evidence suggests that tomato-based products could reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. One of the main cardiovascular risk factors is low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). This study aimed to prospectively evaluate the effect of tomato consumption on HDL-C levels. Subject and methods We conducted a randomized, single-blinded, controlled clinical trial. We screened 432 subjects with a complete lipid profile. Those individuals with low HDL-C (men <40 mg/dL and women <50 mg/dL) but normal triglyceride levels (<150 mg/dL) were included. Selected participants completed a 2-week run-in period on an isocaloric diet and then were randomized to receive 300 g of cucumber (control group) or two uncooked Roma tomatoes a day for 4 weeks. Results A total of 50 individuals (women = 41; 82%) with a mean age of 42 ± 15.5 years and a mean body mass index of 27.6 ± 5.0 kg/m2 completed the study. A significant increase in HDL-C levels was observed in the tomato group (from 36.5 ± 7.5 mg/dL to 41.6 ± 6.9 mg/dL, P < 0.0001 versus the control group). After stratification by gender, the difference in HDL-C levels was only significant in women. The mean HDL-C increase was 5.0 ± 2.8 mg/dL (range 1–12 mg/dL). Twenty patients (40%) finished the study with levels >40 mg/dL. A linear regression model that adjusted for those parameters that impact HDL-C levels (age, gender, waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index, fasting triglyceride concentration, simple sugars, alcohol, physical activity, and omega-3 consumption) showed an independent association between tomato consumption and the increase in HDL-C (r2 = 0.69; P < 0.0001). Conclusion Raw tomato consumption produced a favorable effect on HDL-C levels in overweight women. PMID:23935376

  10. Genetic alterations of IL-1 receptor antagonist in mice affect plasma cholesterol level and foam cell lesion size.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Cecilia M; Kuriakose, George; Hirsch, Emmet; Tabas, Ira

    2002-04-30

    Inflammatory cytokines have been linked to atherosclerosis by using cell culture models and acute inflammation in animals. The goal of this study was to examine lipoprotein levels and early atherosclerosis in chronic animal models of altered IL-1 physiology by using mice with deficient or excess IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra). IL-1ra knockout C57BL/6J mice fed a cholesterol/cholate diet for 3 mo had a 3-fold decrease in non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and a trend toward increased foam-cell lesion area compared to wild-type littermate controls. IL-1ra transgenic/low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) knockout mice fed a cholesterol-saturated fat diet for 10 wk showed a 40% increase in non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, consistent with the IL-1ra knockout data, although there was no change in lesion size. When these IL1-ra overexpressing transgenic mice on the LDLR knockout background were fed a high-cholesterol/high-fat diet containing cholate, however, a statistically significant 40% decrease in lesion area was observed compared to LDLR knockout mice lacking the transgene. By immunohistochemistry, IL-1ra was present in C57BL/6J and LDLR knockout aortae, absent in IL-1ra knockout aortae, and present at high levels in LDLR knockout/IL-1ra transgene aortae. In summary, IL-1ra tended to increase plasma lipoprotein levels and, when fed a cholate-containing diet, decrease foam-cell lesion size. These data demonstrate that in selected models of murine atherosclerosis, chronic IL-1ra depletion or overexpression has potentially important effects on lipoprotein metabolism and foam-cell lesion development.

  11. Comparative Study of Tomato and Tomato Paste Supplementation on the Level of Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins Levels in Rats Fed With High Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Khayat Nouri, Mir Hadi; Namvaran Abbas Abad, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypercholesterolemia is one of the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Increased blood cholesterol affects general health and increases mortality due to cardiovascular disease. Poor nutrition increases LDL cholesterol and decreases LDL receptor activities in the liver. Scientists have shown that consumption of antioxidants can reduce hypercholesterolemia and proved benefits of fruit and vegetables. Tomato reduces oxidative stress by increasing serum total antioxidant level. Objectives This study compared the tomato and tomato paste supplementation on the level of serum lipids and lipoproteins in rats fed with high cholesterol. Materials and Methods In this study, four male rat groups (10 rats per group) were used. Control group received basal diet, second group received basal diet and 2% cholesterol (Chol), third and fourth groups received basal diet, 2% cholesterol tomato and tomato paste respectively (20 percent of the diet) for a month. Then serum TC, LDL, HDL and TG were measured. Results Results showed that in Chol group, all lipids increased significantly (P < 0.05) except HDL compared to the control group. Tomato and tomato paste supplementation decreased TC, LDL and TG concentration significantly (P < 0.05) compared to Chol group. Tomato paste had the higher effect on lipids decreasing than tomato. Conclusions Decreases of TC, LDL and TG may be related to tomato antioxidant effect. This course in human required more investigations. PMID:24082999

  12. High intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, affects serum concentrations of TAG and HDL-cholesterol in healthy, normal-weight adults: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Ingrid V; Helland, Anita; Bratlie, Marianne; Brokstad, Karl A; Rosenlund, Grethe; Sveier, Harald; Mellgren, Gunnar; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether high intake of lean or fatty fish (cod and farmed salmon, respectively) by healthy, normal-weight adults would affect risk factors of type 2 diabetes and CVD when compared with lean meat (chicken). More knowledge is needed concerning the potential health effects of high fish intake (>300 g/week) in normal-weight adults. In this randomised clinical trial, thirty-eight young, healthy, normal-weight participants consumed 750 g/week of lean or fatty fish or lean meat (as control) for 4 weeks at dinner according to provided recipes to ensure similar ways of preparations and choices of side dishes between the groups. Energy and macronutrient intakes at baseline and end point were similar in all groups, and there were no changes in energy and macronutrient intakes within any of the groups during the course of the study. High intake of fatty fish, but not lean fish, significantly reduced TAG and increased HDL-cholesterol concentrations in fasting serum when compared with lean meat intake. When compared with lean fish intake, fatty fish intake increased serum HDL-cholesterol. No differences were observed between lean fish, fatty fish and lean meat groups regarding fasting and postprandial glucose regulation. These findings suggest that high intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, could beneficially affect serum concentrations of TAG and HDL-cholesterol, which are CVD risk factors, in healthy, normal-weight adults, when compared with high intake of lean meat.

  13. Very long chain fatty acids (policosanols) and phytosterols affect plasma lipid levels and cholesterol biosynthesis in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanwen; Ebine, Naoyuki; Jia, Xiaoming; Jones, Peter J H; Fairow, Clint; Jaeger, Ralf

    2005-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) alone at 2 dietary levels, or in combination of VLCFA at the lower level with lecithin (LT) or phytosterols (PS), on lipid profiles and cholesterol biosynthesis in hamsters. Seventy-five male Golden Syrian hamsters, weighing 100 to 120 g, were fed a regular rodent chow for 2 weeks before being randomly assigned into 5 groups of 15 animals each fed semisynthetic diets for 4 weeks. Group 1 was given a control diet that contained 0.25% cholesterol and 5% fat with a polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio of 0.4. Groups 2 to 5 were fed the control diet and given 25 mg/kg BW per day of VLCFA (Licowax) (VLCFA25), 50 mg/kg BW per day of VLCFA (VLCFA50), 25 mg/kg BW per day of VLCFA+1000 mg/kg BW per day of LT (VLCFA25/LT), and 25 mg/kg BW per day of VLCFA+1000 mg/kg BW per day of PS (Cholestatin, VLCFA25/PS), respectively. Results showed that HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were not changed by VLCFA25, although increased by VLCFA50 (P<.05) relative to control. Total cholesterol (T-C) and non-HDL-C levels were not affected by VLCFA25 and VLCFA50 as compared with control. VLCFA25/LT had higher (P<.02) T-C and HDL-C levels than any other treatments and increased (P<.05) liver weight relative to control. In contrast, VLCFA25/PS reduced T-C (P=.0004) and non-HDL-C (P=.007) without effect on HDL-C levels compared with control. Triglyceride levels were not affected by any treatment. Cholesterol biosynthesis rate was higher (P<.05) in animals fed VLCFA25 and VLCFA50 than those fed control or VLCFA25/LT or VLCFA25/PS. Results suggest that PSs can decrease total and non-HDL-C cholesterol, whereas VLCFA may increase HDL-C in hamsters.

  14. DISJUNCTIVE NORMAL LEVEL SET: AN EFFICIENT PARAMETRIC IMPLICIT METHOD

    PubMed Central

    Mesadi, Fitsum; Cetin, Mujdat; Tasdizen, Tolga

    2016-01-01

    Level set methods are widely used for image segmentation because of their capability to handle topological changes. In this paper, we propose a novel parametric level set method called Disjunctive Normal Level Set (DNLS), and apply it to both two phase (single object) and multiphase (multi-object) image segmentations. The DNLS is formed by union of polytopes which themselves are formed by intersections of half-spaces. The proposed level set framework has the following major advantages compared to other level set methods available in the literature. First, segmentation using DNLS converges much faster. Second, the DNLS level set function remains regular throughout its evolution. Third, the proposed multiphase version of the DNLS is less sensitive to initialization, and its computational cost and memory requirement remains almost constant as the number of objects to be simultaneously segmented grows. The experimental results show the potential of the proposed method.

  15. Relation of serum cholesterol, lipid, serotonin and tryptophan levels to severity of depression and to suicide attempts.

    PubMed Central

    Almeida-Montes, L G; Valles-Sanchez, V; Moreno-Aguilar, J; Chavez-Balderas, R A; García-Marín, J A; Cortés Sotres, J F; Hheinze-Martin, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if there is a relation to low serum cholesterol, lipoprotein, serotonin or tryptophan levels in patients with depression who have recently attempted suicide. DESIGN: Biochemical and behavioural study. SETTING: Inpatient and outpatient treatment at the Instituto Mexicano de Psiquiatría. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-three patients with a diagnosis of major depressive episode. Eighteen of these patients had attempted suicide in the month before the start of the study; 15 patients had never attempted suicide. OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, serotonin (5-HT) and tryptophan. Scores on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Carroll Depression Rating Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale and Beck Suicide Attempt Severity Scale. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between patients who had attempted suicide and those who had not in terms of serum cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglyceride levels. Serum levels of 5-HT and tryptophan were significantly lower in patients with depression who had a recent suicide attempt than in those patients who had never attempted suicide. A comparison of patients not taking antidepressant medication found serum 5-HT levels to be more than 3 times lower in those patients with a recent suicide attempt than in patients with no history of suicide attempt. CONCLUSIONS: The study found no difference in lipid profiles between patients who had attempted suicide and those who had not. Low serum levels of 5-HT may increase the risk of suicide attempt in patients who are depressed. PMID:11022402

  16. How to Get Your Cholesterol Tested

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More How To Get Your Cholesterol Tested Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol plays a ... factors for heart disease and stroke . How is cholesterol tested? A cholesterol screening measures your level of ...

  17. Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Cayan, H.; Erener, G.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05) while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p<0.05). Dietary olive leaf powder increased yellowness in yolk color (p<0.01) without affecting other quality parameters. Yolk cholesterol content was tended to decrease about 10% (p>0.05). To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets. PMID:25656181

  18. Changes of some vitamin levels during and after normal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bruinse, H W; van den Berg, H

    1995-07-01

    Most vitamin status parameters change significantly during pregnancy. A number of factors have been associated with this hypovitaminaemia of pregnancy. From our data, it was concluded that the initial value of a vitamin status parameter was by far the main determinant of the changes of vitamin levels during pregnancy: the higher the value, the steeper the decrease. Some hormonal variables were associated with these changes as well. This is highly suggestive of a resetting of vitamin homeostasis in blood, with a retention of vitamins in maternal tissues. The postpartum changes of vitamin levels provide insight into the 'net cost' of vitamins during pregnancy. Most serum blood levels of vitamins normalized shortly after delivery. Serum vitamin B6 levels increased slowly with 25% below the acceptable range at 6 months postpartum. However, the GGOT stimulation ratio, indicative for vitamin B6 cellular content, was completely normal at the time. Serum folacin was the only exception, with 45% serum levels in the marginal or deficient range; 20% of this group had deficient or marginal red cell folacin levels as well. This indicates that the 'net cost' of folacin during pregnancy is considerable, and repletion of folacin stores takes more than 6 months.

  19. Association of Renal Manifestations with Serum Uric Acid in Korean Adults with Normal Uric Acid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Dong-Hyuk; Lee, Yong-Jae; Lee, Hye-Ree; Lee, Jung-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have reported that hyperuricemia is associated with the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Increasing evidences also suggest that hyperuricemia may have a pathogenic role in the progression of renal disease. Paradoxically, uric acid is also widely accepted to have antioxidant activity in experimental studies. We aimed to investigate the association between glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and uric acid in healthy individuals with a normal serum level of uric acid. We examined renal function determined by GFR and uric acid in 3,376 subjects (1,896 men; 1,480 women; aged 20-80 yr) who underwent medical examinations at Gangnam Severance Hospital from November 2006 to June 2007. Determinants for renal function and uric acid levels were also investigated. In both men and women, GFR was negatively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, uric acid, log transformed C reactive protein, and log transformed triglycerides. In multivariate regression analysis, total uric acid was found to be an independent factor associated with estimated GFR in both men and women. This result suggests that uric acid appears to contribute to renal impairment in subjects with normal serum level of uric acid. PMID:21165292

  20. Genetic-epidemiological evidence on genes associated with HDL cholesterol levels: a systematic in-depth review.

    PubMed

    Boes, Eva; Coassin, Stefan; Kollerits, Barbara; Heid, Iris M; Kronenberg, Florian

    2009-03-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles exhibit multiple antiatherogenic effects. They are key players in the reverse cholesterol transport which shuttles cholesterol from peripheral cells (e.g. macrophages) to the liver or other tissues. This complex process is thought to represent the basis for the antiatherogenic properties of HDL particles. The amount of cholesterol transported in HDL particles is measured as HDL cholesterol (HDLC) and is inversely correlated with the risk for coronary artery disease: an increase of 1mg/dL of HDLC levels is associated with a 2% and 3% decrease of the risk for coronary artery disease in men and women, respectively. Genetically determined conditions with high HDLC levels (e.g. familial hyperalphalipoproteinemia) often coexist with longevity, and higher HDLC levels were found among healthy elderly individuals. HDLC levels are under considerable genetic control with heritability estimates of up to 80%. The identification and characterization of genetic variants associated with HDLC concentrations can provide new insights into the background of longevity. This review provides an extended overview on the current genetic-epidemiological evidence from association studies on genes involved in HDLC metabolism. It provides a path through the jungle of association studies which are sometimes confusing due to the varying and sometimes erroneous names of genetic variants, positions and directions of associations. Furthermore, it reviews the recent findings from genome-wide association studies which have identified new genes influencing HDLC levels. The yet identified genes together explain only a small amount of less than 10% of the HDLC variance, which leaves an enormous room for further yet to be identified genetic variants. This might be accomplished by large population-based genome-wide meta-analyses and by deep-sequencing approaches on the identified genes. The resulting findings will probably result in a re-drawing and extension of

  1. Deficiency and supplementation of PUFA in the diet have similar effects on the age-associated changes in rat-plasma cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Straniero, Sara; Cavallini, Gabriella; Donati, Alessio; Metelli, Maria Rita; Tamburini, Ilaria; Pietrini, Pietro; Bergamini, Ettore

    2008-12-01

    Levels of plasma cholesterol, particularly LDL cholesterol, increase with increasing age in humans and rodents. Feeding a fish oil-rich diet may exert hypocholesterolemic effects. The aim of this work was to examine the effects of a life-long administration of a PUFA-enriched diet and of a PUFA-deficient diet in male Sprague-Dawley rats on the age-associated increases in plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. Diet had small effects on body-weight, and had dramatic effects on liver phospholipids-fatty acids. Surprisingly, both diets counteracted the age-associated changes in plasma cholesterol and triglycerides similarly and benefits were already visible in adult rats.

  2. Loss of von Hippel-Lindau Protein (VHL) Increases Systemic Cholesterol Levels through Targeting Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2α and Regulation of Bile Acid Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Sadeesh K.; Taylor, Matthew; Qu, Aijuan; Ahn, Sung-Hoon; Suresh, Madathilparambil V.; Raghavendran, Krishnan; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol synthesis is a highly oxygen-dependent process. Paradoxically, hypoxia is correlated with an increase in cellular and systemic cholesterol levels and risk of cardiovascular diseases. The mechanism for the increase in cholesterol during hypoxia is unclear. Hypoxia signaling is mediated through hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and HIF-2α. The present study demonstrates that activation of HIF signaling in the liver increases hepatic and systemic cholesterol levels due to a decrease in the expression of cholesterol hydroxylase CYP7A1 and other enzymes involved in bile acid synthesis. Specifically, activation of hepatic HIF-2α (but not HIF-1α) led to hypercholesterolemia. HIF-2α repressed the circadian expression of Rev-erbα, resulting in increased expression of E4BP4, a negative regulator of Cyp7a1. To understand if HIF-mediated decrease in bile acid synthesis is a physiologically relevant pathway by which hypoxia maintains or increases systemic cholesterol levels, two hypoxic mouse models were assessed, an acute lung injury model and mice exposed to 10% O2 for 3 weeks. In both models, cholesterol levels increased with a concomitant decrease in expression of genes involved in bile acid synthesis. The present study demonstrates that hypoxic activation of hepatic HIF-2α leads to an adaptive increase in cholesterol levels through inhibition of bile acid synthesis. PMID:24421394

  3. Direct Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Glycated Albumin Levels in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), renal failure, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Lowering glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as well as low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) have been associated with a decreased risk of these complications. The aim in this st...

  4. Glycated albumin and direct low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), renal failure, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Lowering glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as well as low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) has been associated with a decreased risk of these complications. We evaluated the ut...

  5. Are plant-based diets efficacious in lowering total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels?

    PubMed

    Ware, Kathrine M

    2014-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the U.S. and around the globe. A large body of literature accumulated over the past several decades has shown the benefit of lowering serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels to reduce cardiovascular risk. National guidelines suggest therapeutic lifestyle changes, beginning with diet, as a first step toward lowering TC and LDL-C. It has been suggested a plant-based, low fat diet can substantially reduce TC and LDL- C and thereby reduce risk of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this review is to examine the state of the science regarding the efficacy of plant-based diets in reducing serum TC and LDL-C levels. While results of the research review indicate some benefit, strong evidence supporting the efficacy of plant-based diet in reducing atherogenic lipids is lacking.

  6. BmNHR96 participate BV entry of BmN-SWU1 cells via affecting the cellular cholesterol level.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiao-Long; Liu, Tai-Hang; Wang, Wei; Pan, Cai-Xia; Du, Guo-Yu; Wu, Yun-Fei; Pan, Min-Hui; Lu, Cheng

    2017-01-22

    B.mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), which produces BV and ODV two virion phenotypes in its life cycle, caused the amount of economic loss in sericulture. But the mechanism of its infection was still unclear. In this study we characterized B.mori nuclear hormone receptor 96 (BmNHR96) as a NHR96 family member, which was localized in the nucleus. We also found BmNHR96 over-expression could enhance the entry of BV as well as cellular cholesterol level. Furthermore, we validated that BmNHR96 increased membrane fusion mediated by GP64, which could probably promote BV-infection. In summary, our study suggested that BmNHR96 plays an important role in BV infection and this function probably actualized by affecting cellular cholesterol level, and our results provided insights to the mechanisms of BV-infection of B.mori.

  7. Normal cardiac function in mice with supraphysiological cardiac creatine levels.

    PubMed

    Santacruz, Lucia; Hernandez, Alejandro; Nienaber, Jeffrey; Mishra, Rajashree; Pinilla, Miguel; Burchette, James; Mao, Lan; Rockman, Howard A; Jacobs, Danny O

    2014-02-01

    Creatine and phosphocreatine levels are decreased in heart failure, and reductions in myocellular phosphocreatine levels predict the severity of the disease and portend adverse outcomes. Previous studies of transgenic mouse models with increased creatine content higher than two times baseline showed the development of heart failure and shortened lifespan. Given phosphocreatine's role in buffering ATP content, we tested the hypothesis whether elevated cardiac creatine content would alter cardiac function under normal physiological conditions. Here, we report the creation of transgenic mice that overexpress the human creatine transporter (CrT) in cardiac muscle under the control of the α-myosin heavy chain promoter. Cardiac transgene expression was quantified by qRT-PCR, and human CrT protein expression was documented on Western blots and immunohistochemistry using a specific anti-CrT antibody. High-energy phosphate metabolites and cardiac function were measured in transgenic animals and compared with age-matched, wild-type controls. Adult transgenic animals showed increases of 5.7- and 4.7-fold in the content of creatine and free ADP, respectively. Phosphocreatine and ATP levels were two times as high in young transgenic animals but declined to control levels by the time the animals reached 8 wk of age. Transgenic mice appeared to be healthy and had normal life spans. Cardiac morphometry, conscious echocardiography, and pressure-volume loop studies demonstrated mild hypertrophy but normal function. Based on our characterization of the human CrT protein expression, creatine and phosphocreatine content, and cardiac morphometry and function, these transgenic mice provide an in vivo model for examining the therapeutic value of elevated creatine content for cardiac pathologies.

  8. Similar Reduction of Cholesterol-Adjusted Vitamin E Serum Levels in Simple Steatosis and Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Pastori, Daniele; Baratta, Francesco; Carnevale, Roberto; Cangemi, Roberto; Del Ben, Maria; Bucci, Tommaso; Polimeni, Licia; Labbadia, Giancarlo; Nocella, Cristina; Scardella, Laura; Pani, Arianna; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Violi, Francesco; Angelico, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Reduced vitamin E levels have been reported in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but no conclusive data on patients with simple steatosis (SS) are available. Aim of this study was to investigate the association between serum vitamin E levels and SS. Methods: A cohort of 312 patients with cardio-metabolic risk factors was screened for liver steatosis by ultrasonography (US). We reasonably classified as SS patients with US-fatty liver, normal liver function tests (LFTs) and with Cytokeratin 18 <246 mIU/ml. Liver biopsy was performed in 41 patients with US-fatty liver and persistent elevation of LFTs (>6 months). Serum cholesterol-adjusted vitamin E (Vit E/chol) levels were measured. Results: Mean age was 53.9±12.5 years and 38.4% were women. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was detected at US in 244 patients; of those 39 had biopsy-proven NASH and 2 borderline NASH. Vit E/chol was reduced in both SS (3.4±2.0, P<0.001), and NASH (3.5±2.1, P=0.006) compared with non-NAFLD patients (4.8±2.0 μmol/mmol chol). No difference was found between SS and NASH (P=0.785). After excluding patients with NASH, a multivariable logistic regression analysis found that Vit E/chol (odds ratio (OR): 0.716, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.602–0.851, P<0.001), alanine aminotransferase (ALT, OR: 1.093, 95% CI 1.029–1.161, P=0.004), body mass index (OR: 1.162, 95% CI 1.055–1.279, P=0.002) and metabolic syndrome (OR: 5.725, 95% CI 2.247–14.591, P<0.001) were factors independently associated with the presence of SS. Conclusions: Reduced vitamin E serum levels are associated with SS, with a similar reduction between patients with SS and NASH, compared with non-NAFLD patients. Our findings suggest that the potential benefit of vitamin E supplementation should be investigated also in patients with SS. PMID:26426796

  9. An antibody against the C-terminal domain of PCSK9 lowers LDL cholesterol levels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Felix; Park, John; Redemann, Norbert; Luippold, Gerd; Nar, Herbert

    2014-02-20

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is associated with autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia, a state of elevated levels of LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol. Autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia can result in severe implications such as stroke and coronary heart disease. The inhibition of PCSK9 function by therapeutic antibodies that block interaction of PCSK9 with the epidermal growth factor-like repeat A domain of LDL receptor (LDLR) was shown to successfully lower LDL cholesterol levels in clinical studies. Here we present data on the identification, structural and biophysical characterization and in vitro and in vivo pharmacology of a PCSK9 antibody (mAb1). The X-ray structure shows that mAb1 binds the module 1 of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of PCSK9. It blocks access to an area bearing several naturally occurring gain-of-function and loss-of-function mutations. Although the antibody does not inhibit binding of PCSK9 to epidermal growth factor-like repeat A, it partially reverses PCSK9-induced reduction of the LDLR and LDL cholesterol uptake in a cellular assay. mAb1 is also effective in lowering serum levels of LDL cholesterol in cynomolgus monkeys in vivo. Complete loss of PCSK9 is associated with insufficient liver regeneration and increased risk of hepatitis C infections. Blocking of the CTD is sufficient to partially inhibit PCSK9 function. Antibodies binding the CTD of PCSK9 may thus be advantageous in patients that do not tolerate complete inhibition of PCSK9.

  10. [Association between food intake and the serum total cholesterol level among adults in 9 regions of China].

    PubMed

    Song, J; He, J J; Fang, A P; Li, H; Guo, M H; Shen, X; Li, K J

    2017-03-24

    Objective: To analyze the association between food intake and the serum total cholesterol(TC) level in adult Chinese population. Methods: This study included apparent healthy residents aged between 20 and 70 years who participated in the eighth round of China Health and Nutrition Study (CHNS) in 9 regions of China including Liaoning, Helongjiang, Shandong, Jiangsu, Henan, Hunan, Hubei, Guizhou provinces and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in 2009. The association between the serum TC level and the diet and other related factors were analyzed. Results: (1) Linear trend test showed that age, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were positively related with serum TC level in 20-45 and 46-70 years old male and female (all P<0.01), while physical activity level was negatively related with serum TC level in 20-45 and 46-70 years old male and 46-70 years old female (all P<0.01). (2) Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that livestock meat intake was positively related with serum TC level in following populations: 20-45 years old male, β=0.133, P<0.001; 46-70 years old male, β=0.102, P=0.001; 20-45 years old male, β=0.065, P=0.041; years old female, β=0.059, P=0.045. Vegetable oil intake was negatively related with serum TC level in 20-45 years old male (β=-0.071, P=0.021). Saturated fat intake was positively related with serum TC level in 46-70 years old female (β=0.084, P=0.019). Total dietary cholesterol intake was positively related with serum TC level in male (20-45 years old, β=0.067, P=0.021; 46-70 years old, β=0.070, P=0.012), but not in female (20-45 years old, β=0.007, P=0.809; 46-70 years old, β=0.038, P=0.144). Cholesterol intake from livestock meat was positively related with serum TC level in male (20-45 years old, β=0.156, P<0.001; 46-70 years old, β=0.099, P=0.001), and positively related with serum TC level in 46-70 years old female (β=0.063, P=0.028). Cholesterol intake from egg was positively

  11. Diabetes-induced impairments of the exocytosis process and the effect of gabapentin: the link with cholesterol level in neuronal plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Trikash, Irene; Gumenyuk, Vitaliy; Kuchmerovska, Tamara

    2015-04-01

    Diabetic neuropathy represents one of the most prevalent complications of diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diabetes-induced disturbances in neurons on the Ca(2+)-triggered membrane fusion process in cell-free system in relation to plasmalemma cholesterol level. The gabapentin therapy on the exocytosis process was also studied. The diabetes in rats was induced by streptozotocin (60 mg/kg of body weight, i.p.). After 4 weeks of diabetes induction the one group of diabetic rats was treated with gabapentin (50 mg/kg, i.p.) during 1 month. Fusion experiments were performed in the cell-free model system using fluorescent dye octadecylrhodamine B. The [2-(14)C]serotonin preloaded synaptosomes were used for assay of stimulated neurotransmitter release. The synaptosomal plasma membrane cholesterol level in diabetic rats was on 12 % higher than in control and was decreased on 5 % after gabapentin therapy. The rate of synaptic vesicles fusion with plasma membranes in the presence of Ca(2+) and synaptosomal cytosolic proteins was decreased to 14.5 % in diabetic rats as compared to control (23 %) and after gabapentin administration to diabetic rats was raised to 18 %. At diabetes the stimulated synaptosomal serotonin release was increased in 1.7-2 folds and was partially normalized by gabapentin therapy. Together, these findings suggest that elevated cholesterol content in neuronal plasma membranes at diabetes impairs the membrane fusion process in neurons that can induce the development of neuropathy. Diabetes-evoked impairments of the exocytotic process can be attenuated by gabapentin therapy.

  12. Dietary capsanthin, the main carotenoid in paprika (Capsicum annuum), alters plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and hepatic gene expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Koichi; Inakuma, Takahiro

    2009-12-01

    The effects of dietary capsanthin, the main carotenoid in paprika (Capsicum annuum), on lipid metabolism were examined. Young male Wistar rats were fed diets containing paprika powder, paprika organic solvent extract, residue of paprika extract, and purified capsanthin. Administration of purified capsanthin for 2 weeks resulted in a significant increase in plasma HDL-cholesterol (P < 0.05) without detectable differences in plasma total cholesterol and TAG concentrations. A statistically significant correlation (r 0.567; P < 0.001) was found between dietary capsanthin concentrations and plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Animals receiving diets containing two different capsanthin concentrations exhibited dose-dependent increases in plasma HDL-cholesterol (r 0.597; P < 0.005). While capsanthin was absent in the liver of animals fed the basal diet, it increased markedly in capsanthin-fed animals (P < 0.001). Quantitative analyses of hepatic mRNA levels revealed that capsanthin administration resulted in up-regulation of mRNA for apoA5 and lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), without significant differences in other mRNA levels related to HDL-cholesterol metabolism. These results suggest that capsanthin had an HDL-cholesterol-raising effect on plasma, and the potential to increase cholesterol efflux to HDL particles by increasing apoA5 levels and/or enhancement of LCAT activity.

  13. A pooled analysis of the association of isolated low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with cardiovascular mortality in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Takumi; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Nagasawa, Shin-Ya; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Okayama, Akira; Iso, Hiroyasu; Irie, Fujiko; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Michiko; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori

    2016-10-05

    Low levels of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) have been shown to be associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, because this is usually observed in the context of other lipid abnormalities, it is not known whether isolated low serum HDL-C levels are an independent risk factor for CHD. We performed a large pooled analysis in Japan using data from nine cohorts with 41,206 participants aged 40-89 years who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. We divided participants into three groups: isolated low HDL-C, non-isolated low HDL-C, and normal HDL-C. Cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for death due to CHD, ischemic stroke, and intracranial cerebral hemorrhage; during a 12.9-year follow-up, we observed 355, 286, and 138 deaths, respectively, in these groups. Non-isolated low HDL-C was significantly associated with increased risk of CHD compared with normal HDL-C (HR 1.37, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.80); however, isolated low HDL-C was not. Although isolated low HDL-C was significantly associated with decreased risk of CHD (HR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.29-0.89) in women, it was significantly associated with increased risk of intracranial cerebral hemorrhage in all participants (HR 1.62, 95 % CI 1.04-2.53) and in men (HR 2.00, 95 % CI 1.04-3.83). In conclusion, isolated low HDL-C levels are not associated with increased risk of CHD in Japan. CHD risk may, therefore, be more strongly affected by serum total cholesterol levels in this population.

  14. About Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More About Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 It may surprise you ... our bodies to keep us healthy. What is cholesterol and where does it come from? Cholesterol is ...

  15. Comparison of constitutive gene expression levels of hepatic cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes between Wistar-Kyoto and stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Ikeda, Ayaka; Ito, Sei; Miyata, Misaki; Yoshida, Chiaki; Degawa, Masakuni

    2013-01-01

    Serum total cholesterol amounts in the stroke-prone hypertensive rat (SHRSP) strain are lower than in the normotensive control strain, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat. To understand the strain difference, constitutive gene expression levels of hepatic cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes in male 8-week-old SHRSP and WKY rats were comparatively examined by DNA microarray and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses. Of 22 cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme genes, expression levels of 8 genes, Pmvk, Idi1, Fdps, Fdft1, Sqle, Lss, Sc4mol, and Hsd17b7, in SHRSP were less than 50% those of the WKY rats; especially, the expression level of Sqle gene, encoding squalene epoxidase, a rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, was about 20%. The gene expression level of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), which functions as a transcription factor upregulating gene expression of cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes, in SHRSP was about 70% of that in WKY rats. These results demonstrate the possibility that the lower serum total cholesterol level in SHRSP is defined by lower gene expression of most hepatic cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes. In particular, decreased gene expression level of Sqle gene might be the most essential factor. Moreover, the broad range of lowered rates of these genes in SHRSP suggests that the abnormal function and/or expression not only of SREBP-2 but also of one or more other transcription factors for those gene expressions exist in SHRSP.

  16. Lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are associated with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuemei; Chen, Honglei; Miller, William C; Mailman, Richard B; Woodard, Jennifer L; Chen, Peter C; Xiang, Dong; Murrow, Richard W; Wang, Yi-Zhe; Poole, Charles

    2007-02-15

    The apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon2 allele has been associated with both Parkinson's disease (PD) and lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). We tested the hypothesis that lower LDL-C may be associated with PD. This case-control study used fasting lipid profiles obtained from 124 PD cases and 112 controls. The PD cases were recruited from consecutive cases presenting at our tertiary Movement Disorder Clinic, and the controls were recruited from the spouse populations of the same clinic. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated from unconditional logistic regressions, adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, and use of cholesterol-lowering agents. Lower LDL-C concentrations were associated with a higher occurrence of PD. Compared with participants with the highest LDL-C (> or =138 mg/dL), the OR was 2.2 (95% CI = 0.9-5.1) for participants with LDL-C of 115 to 137, 3.5 (95% CI = 1.6-8.1) for LDL-C of 93 to 114, and 2.6 (95% CI = 1.1-5.9) for LDL-C of < or = 92. Interestingly, use of either cholesterol-lowering drugs, or statins alone, was related to lower PD occurrence. Thus, our data provide preliminary evidence that low LDL-C may be associated with higher occurrence of PD, and/or that statin use may lower PD occurrence, either of which finding warrants further investigation.

  17. Differential effects of aging, drinking and exercise on serum cholesterol levels dependent on the PPARA-V227A polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Naito, Hisao; Kamijima, Michihiro; Yamanoshita, Osamu; Nakahara, Ai; Katoh, Takahiko; Tanaka, Naoki; Aoyama, Toshifumi; Gonzalez, Frank J; Nakajima, Tamie

    2007-09-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARA alpha) plays a pivotal role in lipid metabolism. Our previous study reported that PPARA-V227A was a major polymorphism in Japanese, which was associated with markedly lower serum total cholesterol (TC) levels, which were significantly affected by alcohol drinking compared to subjects with the wild-type (PPARA-WT) allele. However, serum lipids are also associated with aging and exercise frequency. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between PPARA-V227A and these factors. Genetic analysis of the polymorphism was performed in 1058 Japanese men and 281 women, and the relationship with aging, drinking and exercise on serum lipids was analyzed in 989 men and 245 women after exclusion criteria had been applied. In men, drinking increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in both PPARA-WT and A227 carriers, but to a significantly higher degree in the latter. In women, TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in the A227 carriers drinking at least once a week were significantly higher than in PPARA-WT carriers. TC and LDL-C levels in males with PPARA-WT increased with aging regardless of drinking habit, while LDL-C levels in the A227 drinking carriers were significantly lower in 45-yr-old or older subjects than in 35- to 45-yr-olds. In addition, no effect of exercising was observed in the A227 carriers, while increase in the HDL-C of the PPARA-WT carriers was exercise frequency dependent. These results suggest that the influence of drinking, aging or exercise on TC, LDL-C and HDL-C levels in the A227 carriers may be different from those in the PPARA-WT subjects.

  18. Independence of sialic acid levels in normal and malignant growth.

    PubMed

    Khadapkar, S V; Sheth, N A; Bhide, S V

    1975-06-01

    Sialic acid content in breast or tumor tissue and serum of mouse strains that are either susceptible or resistant to breast cancer was measured at various age periods. Sialic acid content was also studied in normal lung tissue and in lung adenoma and hepatoma. Sialic acid levels during nonmalignant growth of a tissue were measured in breast tissue during pregnancy and lactation, and in regenerating liver, as well as in newborn and postnatal liver. The sialic acid content, when expressed per mg of protein, increased in mammary tumor, lung adenoma, and hepatoma. It also increased in nonmalignant growth of breast tissue during pregnancy and lactation and of regenerating liver and postnatal liver. Increase in sialic acid per mg DNA was observed only in lung tumors, regenerating liver, and postnatal liver. It appears that the changes in sialic acid level are independent of the normal or malignant growth of a tissue and that these changes might be the function of the parameter used to express the sialic acid values, i.e., either the DNA content or protein content of a given tissue.

  19. Study of cholesterol and vitamin E levels in broiler meat from different feeding regimens by TOF-SIMS.

    PubMed

    Marzec, Magdalena E; Wojtysiak, Dorota; Połtowicz, Katarzyna; Nowak, Joanna; Pedrys, Roman

    2016-06-10

    The quality of chicken meat, which is one of the most widely consumed meats in the world, has been the subject of research and studies for many years. There are several ways to improve the quality of this type of meat, including changing the concentrations of individual molecular components. Such important components of meat are inter alia, cholesterol, vitamin E, and some fatty acids such as ω-3 and ω-6. Manipulation of ingredient levels may be achieved by enriching chicken feed with elements of different types such as vegetable oils, garlic, or selenium. Thus far, various biochemical and biophysical methods have been used to study quality of different meat types, especially broiler meat. Here, the authors demonstrate the use of high-resolution time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) mass spectrometry to assess how variations in animal nutrition affect concentrations of specific lipids in the meat, such as cholesterol and vitamin E. In the presented experiment, there were four different dietary treatments. Feed for animals in the first group was supplemented with soy oil in 50%, the second group's feed was supplemented with linseed oil in 50%, a combination of these two oils in the proportion of 44%:56% was used for the third group, and in the reference group, animals were fed with beef tallow. From each group, four individuals were selected for further analysis. Positive and negative ion mass spectra were generated from the pectoralis superficialis muscle tissue of the left carcass side of each one animal. Using TOF-SIMS with a bismuth cluster ion source (Bi3 (+)), and based on characteristic peaks for cholesterol in the positive mode and vitamin E in the negative mode, the authors have illustrated the relationship of these lipids levels to the various feeding regimens. Simultaneously, the authors characterized the varying dependences on the concentrations of measured lipids in fat and muscle fibers. The cholesterol concentration in muscle

  20. Level of Dietary Fat Does Not Affect Fuel Oxidation or Endurance Exercise Performance of Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-15

    METHODS Eight male military volunteers with normal fsting blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels and no history of diabetes gave their informed consent...measured by radloimmunoassay. Glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, cholesterol , triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol , total protein...significant. All basal postabsorptive blood chemistries (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total cholesterol , HDL cholesterol , total protein, albumin, sodium

  1. Cholesterol turnover and metabolism in two patients with abetalipoproteinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, D.S.; Deckelbaum, R.J.; Palmer, R.H.; Dell, R.B.; Ramakrishnan, R.; Delpre, G.; Beigel, Y.; Cooper, M.

    1983-12-01

    Total body turnover of cholesterol was studied in two patients with abetalipoproteinemia, a 32-year-old man and a 31-year-old woman. The patients received (14C)cholesterol intravenously, and the resulting specific activity-time curves (for 40 and 30 weeks, respectively) were fitted with a three-pool model. Parameters were compared with those from studies of cholesterol turnover in 82 normal and hyperlipidemic subjects. A three-pool model gave the best fit for the abetalipoproteinemic patients, as well as for the 82 previously studied subjects, suggesting general applicability of this model. Cholesterol production rates in the two abetalipoproteinemic subjects (0.82 and 0.89 g/day) were close to values predicted for persons of their body weight. Thus, total body turnover rate of cholesterol was quite normal in abetalipoproteinemia, confirming previous reports. Very low values (9.2 and 8.4 g) were found for M1, the size of the rapidly exchanging compartment pool 1, in the two abetalipoproteinemic subjects. These values were well below the values predicted (from the comparison study population) for normal persons of this size with low plasma cholesterol levels. For one patient, total body exchangeable cholesterol was very low, although not significantly below the predicted values for a person of his size. In the second patient, the observed estimate for total body exchangeable cholesterol was well within the range of values predicted for persons of her size with low to extremely low cholesterol levels.

  2. NCKX5, a natural regulator of human skin colour variation, regulates the expression of key pigment genes MC1R and alpha-MSH and alters cholesterol homeostasis in normal human melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stephen; Ginger, Rebecca S; Dadd, Tony; Gunn, David; Lim, Fei-Ling; Sawicka, Magdalena; Sandel, Melanie; Schnetkamp, Paul P M; Green, Martin R

    2013-01-01

    Natural human skin colour is determined both by environmental exposure to ultraviolet light and through inherited genetic variation in a very limited number of genes. Variation of a non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism (nsSNP; rs1426654) in the gene (SLC24A5) encoding the NCKX5 protein is associated with differences in constitutive skin colour in South Asians. The nsSNP encodes the substitution of alanine for threonine at residue 111 (A111T) near a transmembrane region required for exchanger activity, a region which is highly conserved across different species and between NCKX family members. We have shown that NCKX5 is located at the trans-Golgi network of melanocytes and functions as a potassium-dependent sodium-calcium exchanger. When heterologously expressed, the 111T variant of NCKX5 shows significantly lower exchanger activity than the A111 variant. We have postulated that lower exchanger activity causes the reduced melanogenesis and lighter skin in Thr111-positive individuals. We used gene expression microarrays with qPCR replication and validation to assess the impact of siRNA-mediated knockdown of SLC24A5 on the transcriptome of cultured normal human melanocytes (NHM). Very few genes associated with melanogenesis were altered at the transcript level except for MC1R, suggesting that SLC24A5 interacts with at least one well-characterized melanogenic signalling pathway. More surprisingly, the expression of a number of cholesterol homeostatic genes was altered after SLC24A5 knockdown, and the total cholesterol content of NHM was increased. Cholesterol has previously been identified as a potential melanogenic regulator, and our data imply that NCKX5 exchanger function influences natural variation in skin pigmentation via a novel, unknown mechanism affecting cellular sterol levels.

  3. In situ probing of cholesterol in astrocytes at the single-cell level using laser desorption ionization mass spectrometric imaging with colloidal silver.

    PubMed

    Perdian, D C; Cha, Sangwon; Oh, Jisun; Sakaguchi, Donald S; Yeung, Edward S; Lee, Young Jin

    2010-04-30

    Mass spectrometric imaging has been utilized to localize individual astrocytes and to obtain cholesterol populations at the single-cell level in laser desorption ionization (LDI) with colloidal silver. The silver ion adduct of membrane-bound cholesterol was monitored to detect individual cells. Good correlation between mass spectrometric and optical images at different cell densities indicates the ability to perform single-cell studies of cholesterol abundance. The feasibility of quantification is confirmed by the agreement between the LDI-MS ion signals and the results from a traditional enzymatic fluorometric assay. We propose that this approach could be an effective tool to study chemical populations at the cellular level.

  4. In Situ Probing of Cholesterol in Astrocytes at the Single Cell Level using Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometric Imaging with Colloidal Silver

    SciTech Connect

    Perdian, D.C.; Cha, Sangwon; Oh, Jisun; Sakaguchi, Donald S.; Yeung, Edward S.; and Lee, Young Jin

    2010-03-18

    Mass spectrometric imaging has been utilized to localize individual astrocytes and to obtain cholesterol populations at the single-cell level in laser desorption ionization (LDI) with colloidal silver. The silver ion adduct of membrane-bound cholesterol was monitored to detect individual cells. Good correlation between mass spectrometric and optical images at different cell densities indicates the ability to perform single-cell studies of cholesterol abundance. The feasibility of quantification is confirmed by the agreement between the LDI-MS ion signals and the results from a traditional enzymatic fluorometric assay. We propose that this approach could be an effective tool to study chemical populations at the cellular level.

  5. Cellular cholesterol efflux and cholesterol loading capacity of serum: effects of LDL-apheresis[S

    PubMed Central

    Adorni, M. P.; Zimetti, F.; Puntoni, M.; Bigazzi, F.; Sbrana, F.; Minichilli, F.; Bernini, F.; Ronda, N.; Favari, E.; Sampietro, T.

    2012-01-01

    High LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) characterizes familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH). LDL-apheresis, used in these patients to reduce LDL-C levels, has been shown to also affect HDL levels and composition. We studied LDL-apheresis effects on six FH and nine FCH subjects’ serum capacity to modulate cellular cholesterol efflux, an index of HDL functionality, and to load macrophages with cholesterol. Serum cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) and macrophage cholesterol loading capacity (CLC) were measured before, immediately after, and two days after LDL-apheresis. The procedure reduced total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, and apoB plasma levels (−69%, −80% and −74%, respectively), parameters only partially restored two days later. HDL-C and apoA-I plasma levels, reduced after LDL-apheresis (−27% and −16%, respectively), were restored to almost normal levels two days later. LDL-apheresis reduced serum aqueous diffusion (AD) CEC, SR-BI-CEC, and ABCA1-CEC. AD and SR-BI were fully restored whereas ABCA1-CEC remained low two days later. Sera immediately and two days after LDL-apheresis had a lower CLC than pre-LDL-apheresis sera. In conclusion, LDL-apheresis transiently reduces HDL-C levels and serum CEC, but it also reduces also serum capacity to deliver cholesterol to macrophages. Despite a potentially negative effect on HDL levels and composition, LDL-apheresis may counteract foam cells formation. PMID:22414482

  6. Effects of a high-complex-carbohydrate, low-fat, low-cholesterol diet on levels of serum lipids and estradiol.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, M B; Barnard, R J; Rose, D P; Inkeles, S; Hall, J; Pritikin, N

    1985-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated elevated levels of serum estradiol in males as the major predisposing factor for myocardial infarction, with serum cholesterol playing a secondary role. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of a high-complex-carbohydrate, low-fat, low-cholesterol diet and daily exercise on levels of serum estradiol, testosterone, and lipids in males. Twenty-one males participating in the Pritikin Longevity Center 26-day residential program volunteered for the study. During the program, serum estradiol levels were significantly reduced from 47.2 +/- 4.6 to 23.8 +/- 2.5 pg/ml (mean +/- SE) whereas serum testosterone levels were unchanged (5.1 +/- 0.3 versus 5.1 +/- 0.2 ng/ml). Total serum cholesterol levels were reduced from 229 +/- 9 to 181 +/- 7 mg/dl whereas triglyceride levels were reduced from 301 +/- 66 to 151 +/- 13 mg/dl. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels fell from 41 +/- 3 to 35 +/- 1 mg/dl whereas the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol was unchanged (5.5 +/- 0.4 versus 5.1 +/- 0.3).

  7. Levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) among children with steady-state sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The search for sickle cell disease (SCD) prognosis biomarkers is a challenge. These markers identification can help to establish further therapy, later severe clinical complications and with patients follow-up. We attempted to study a possible involvement of levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in steady-state children with SCD, once that this lipid marker has been correlated with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-aggregation, anti-coagulant and pro-fibrinolytic activities, important aspects to be considered in sickle cell disease pathogenesis. Methods We prospectively analyzed biochemical, inflammatory and hematological biomarkers of 152 steady-state infants with SCD and 132 healthy subjects using immunochemistry, immunoassay and electronic cell counter respectively. Clinical data were collected from patient medical records. Results Of the 152 infants investigated had a significant positive association of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with hemoglobin (P < 0.001), hematocrit (P < 0.001) and total cholesterol (P < 0.001) and a negative significant association with reticulocytes (P = 0.046), leukocytes (P = 0.015), monocytes (P = 0.004) and platelets (P = 0.005), bilirubins [total bilirubin (P < 0.001), direct bilirubin (P < 0.001) and indirect bilirubin (P < 0.001], iron (P < 0.001), aminotransferases [aspartate aminotransferase (P = 0.004), alanine aminotransferase (P = 0.035)], lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.001), urea (P = 0.030), alpha 1-antitrypsin (P < 0.001), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.003), triglycerides (P = 0.005) and hemoglobin S (P = 0.002). Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was associated with the history of cardiac abnormalities (P = 0.025), pneumonia (P = 0.033) and blood transfusion use (P = 0.025). Lipids and inflammatory markers were associated with the presence of cholelithiasis. Conclusions We hypothesize that some SCD patients can have a specific dyslipidemic

  8. Control of Angiogenesis by AIBP-mediated Cholesterol Efflux

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Longhou; Choi, Soo-Ho; Baek, Ji Sun; Liu, Chao; Almazan, Felicidad; Ulrich, Florian; Wiesner, Philipp; Taleb, Adam; Deer, Elena; Pattison, Jennifer; Torres-Vázquez, Jesús; Li, Andrew C.; Miller, Yury I.

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol is a structural component of the cell, indispensable for normal cellular function, but its excess often leads to abnormal proliferation, migration, inflammatory responses and/or cell death. To prevent cholesterol overload, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters mediate cholesterol efflux from the cells to apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) and to the ApoA-I-containing high-density lipoprotein (HDL)1-3. Maintaining efficient cholesterol efflux is essential for normal cellular function4-6. However, the role of cholesterol efflux in angiogenesis and the identity of its local regulators are poorly understood. Here we show that ApoA-I binding protein (AIBP) accelerates cholesterol efflux from endothelial cells (EC) to HDL and thereby regulates angiogenesis. AIBP/HDL-mediated cholesterol depletion reduces lipid rafts, interferes with VEGFR2 dimerization and signaling, and inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro and mouse aortic neovascularization ex vivo. Remarkably, Aibp regulates the membrane lipid order in embryonic zebrafish vasculature and functions as a non-cell autonomous regulator of zebrafish angiogenesis. Aibp knockdown results in dysregulated sprouting/branching angiogenesis, while forced Aibp expression inhibits angiogenesis. Dysregulated angiogenesis is phenocopied in Abca1/Abcg1-deficient embryos, and cholesterol levels are increased in Aibp-deficient and Abca1/Abcg1-deficient embryos. Our findings demonstrate that secreted AIBP positively regulates cholesterol efflux from EC and that effective cholesterol efflux is critical for proper angiogenesis. PMID:23719382

  9. Amyloid Beta Peptides Affect Pregnenolone and Pregnenolone Sulfate Levels in PC-12 and SH-SY5Y Cells Depending on Cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Calan, Ozlem Gursoy; Akan, Pinar; Cataler, Aysenur; Dogan, Cumhur; Kocturk, Semra

    2016-07-01

    Increased amyloid beta (AB) peptide concentration is one of the initiating factors in the neurodegeneration process. It has been suggested that cholesterol induces the synthesis of AB peptide from amyloid precursor protein or facilitates the formation of amyloid plaque by lowering the aggregation threshold of the peptide. It is also shown that AB peptides may affect cholesterol metabolism and the synthesis of steroid hormones such as progesterone and estradiol. Pregnenolone (P) and pregnenolone sulfate (PS) are the major steroids produced from cholesterol in neural tissue. In toxicity conditions, the effect of AB peptides on P and PS levels has not yet been determined. Furthermore, it has not been clearly defined how changes in cellular P and PS levels affect neuronal cell survival. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of AB peptides on cellular changes in P and PS levels depending on the level of their main precursor, cholesterol. Cholesterol and toxic concentrations of AB fragments (AB 25-35, AB 1-40 and AB 1-42) were applied to PC-12 and SH-SY5Y cells. Changes in cellular cholesterol, P and PS levels were determined simultaneously in a dose-and time-dependent manner. The cell viability and cell death types were also evaluated. AB peptides affected both cell viability and P/PS levels. Steroid levels were altered depending on AB fragment type and the cholesterol content of the cells. Treatment with each of the AB fragments alone increased P levels by twofold. However, combined treatment with AB peptides and cholesterol increased P levels by approximately sixfold, while PS levels were increased only about 2.5 fold in both cell lines. P levels in the groups treated with AB 25-35 were higher than those in AB 1-40 and AB 1-42 groups. The cell viabilities were significantly low in the group treated by AB and cholesterol (9 mM). The effect of AB peptides on P levels might be a result of cellular self-defense. On the other hand, the rate of P increase

  10. Effects of treatment with a commercially available St John's Wort product (Movina®) on cholesterol levels in patients with hypercholesterolemia treated with simvastatin

    PubMed Central

    Eggertsen, Robert; Andreasson, Åke; Andrén, Lennart

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of treatment with a St John's Wort product (Movina®) on cholesterol levels (total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol) in patients with hypercholesterolemia on treatment with a stable dose of simvastatin. Design Controlled, randomized, open, crossover pharmacodynamic study. Setting Two primary healthcare centres. Intervention Patients were treated with Movina® one tablet (containing 300 mg of Hypericum perforatum) twice daily and control (a commercially available multivitamin tablet, Vitamineral®). The trial started with a run-in period of 4 weeks. Then the treatment order between control and active treatment was decided (randomization using sealed envelopes). The duration of each treatment period was 4 weeks and simvastatin treatment was kept unchanged during the whole study period (12 weeks). Subjects Twenty-four patients with hypercholesterolemia treated with a stable dose of simvastatin (10–40 mg daily) for at least three months. Main outcome measures Assessments of total cholesterol, HDL- cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides were performed in the morning with the patients in a fasting condition. Results All patients completed the study. LDL-cholesterol was significantly increased during active treatment compared with control. Thus, the mean LDL-cholesterol after 4 weeks’ active treatment was 2.72 mmol/L compared with 2.30 mmol/L after treatment with control (p <0.0001). An increase in total-cholesterol was also observed (5.08 mmol/L compared with 4.56 mmol/L, p <0.0001). Conclusion Products containing St John's Wort should not be given to patients with hypercholesterolemia who are on treatment with simvastatin. PMID:17846933

  11. Combined effect of blood pressure and total cholesterol levels on long-term risks of subtypes of cardiovascular death: Evidence for Cardiovascular Prevention from Observational Cohorts in Japan.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Michihiro; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Asayama, Kei; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Sakurai, Masaru; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Iso, Hiroyasu; Okayama, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Imai, Yutaka; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori

    2015-03-01

    No large-scale, longitudinal studies have examined the combined effects of blood pressure (BP) and total cholesterol levels on long-term risks for subtypes of cardiovascular death in an Asian population. To investigate these relationships, a meta-analysis of individual participant data, which included 73 916 Japanese subjects (age, 57.7 years; men, 41.1%) from 11 cohorts, was conducted. During a mean follow-up of 15.0 years, deaths from coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, and intraparenchymal hemorrhage occurred in 770, 724, and 345 cases, respectively. Cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazard models were used. After stratifying the participants by 4 systolic BP ×4 total cholesterol categories, the group with systolic BP ≥160 mm Hg with total cholesterol ≥5.7 mmol/L had the greatest risk for coronary heart disease death (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.39; P<0.0001 versus group with systolic BP <120 mm Hg and total cholesterol <4.7 mmol/L). The adjusted hazard ratios of systolic BP (per 20 mm Hg) increased with increases in total cholesterol categories (hazard ratio, 1.52; P<0.0001 in group with total cholesterol ≥5.7 mmol/L). Similarly, the adjusted hazard ratios of total cholesterol increased with increases in systolic BP categories (P for interaction ≤0.04). Systolic BP was positively associated with ischemic stroke and intraparenchymal hemorrhage death, and total cholesterol was inversely associated with intraparenchymal hemorrhage, but no significant interactions between BP and total cholesterol were observed for stroke. High BP and high total cholesterol can synergistically increase the risk for coronary heart disease death but not for stroke in the Asian population.

  12. High systemic levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: fuel to the flames in inflammatory osteoarthritis?

    PubMed

    de Munter, Wouter; van der Kraan, Peter M; van den Berg, Wim B; van Lent, Peter L E M

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol plays a role in the pathology of OA. Specifically, oxidized LDL (oxLDL), which has been shown to play an essential role during development of atherosclerosis, could be involved in processes such as synovial inflammation, cartilage destruction and bone deformations. OxLDL can activate synovial cells such as macrophages, endothelial cells and synovial fibroblasts, resulting in release of growth factors, MMP and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this review article, we discuss the role of LDL and oxLDL in OA joint pathology and share our viewpoint of possible mechanisms by which these proteins could influence the development and progression of OA. The proposed theory could provide insight into the aetiopathology of OA and give rise to new potential treatments.

  13. Adenylate kinase 1 knockout mice have normal thiamine triphosphate levels.

    PubMed

    Makarchikov, Alexander F; Wins, Pierre; Janssen, Edwin; Wieringa, Bé; Grisar, Thierry; Bettendorff, Lucien

    2002-10-21

    Thiamine triphosphate (ThTP) is found at low concentrations in most animal tissues and it may act as a phosphate donor for the phosphorylation of proteins, suggesting a potential role in cell signaling. Two mechanisms have been proposed for the enzymatic synthesis of ThTP. A thiamine diphosphate (ThDP) kinase (ThDP+ATP if ThTP+ADP) has been purified from brewer's yeast and shown to exist in rat liver. However, other data suggest that, at least in skeletal muscle, adenylate kinase 1 (AK1) is responsible for ThTP synthesis. In this study, we show that AK1 knockout mice have normal ThTP levels in skeletal muscle, heart, brain, liver and kidney, demonstrating that AK1 is not responsible for ThTP synthesis in those tissues. We predict that the high ThTP content of particular tissues like the Electrophorus electricus electric organ, or pig and chicken skeletal muscle is more tightly correlated with high ThDP kinase activity or low soluble ThTPase activity than with non-stringent substrate specificity and high activity of adenylate kinase.

  14. ABCG1 regulates mouse adipose tissue macrophage cholesterol levels and ratio of M1 to M2 cells in obesity and caloric restriction.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hao; Tarling, Elizabeth J; McMillen, Timothy S; Tang, Chongren; LeBoeuf, Renée C

    2015-12-01

    In addition to triacylglycerols, adipocytes contain a large reserve of unesterified cholesterol. During adipocyte lipolysis and cell death seen during severe obesity and weight loss, free fatty acids and cholesterol become available for uptake and processing by adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs). We hypothesize that ATMs become cholesterol enriched and participate in cholesterol clearance from adipose tissue. We previously showed that ABCG1 is robustly upregulated in ATMs taken from obese mice and further enhanced by caloric restriction. Here, we found that ATMs taken from obese and calorie-restricted mice derived from transplantation of WT or Abcg1-deficient bone marrow are cholesterol enriched. ABCG1 levels regulate the ratio of classically activated (M1) to alternatively activated (M2) ATMs and their cellular cholesterol content. Using WT and Abcg1(-/-) cultured macrophages, we found that Abcg1 is most highly expressed by M2 macrophages and that ABCG1 deficiency is sufficient to retard macrophage chemotaxis. However, changes in myeloid expression of Abcg1 did not protect mice from obesity or impaired glucose homeostasis. Overall, ABCG1 modulates ATM cholesterol content in obesity and weight loss regimes leading to an alteration in M1 to M2 ratio that we suggest is due to the extent of macrophage egress from adipose tissue.

  15. From Evolution to Revolution: miRNAs as Pharmacological Targets for Modulating Cholesterol Efflux and Reverse Cholesterol Transport

    PubMed Central

    Dávalos, Alberto; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    There has been strong evolutionary pressure to ensure that an animal cell maintain levels of cholesterol within tight limits for normal function. Imbalances in cellular cholesterol levels are a major player in the development of different pathologies associated to dietary excess. Although epidemiological studies indicate that elevated levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, recent genetic evidence and pharmacological therapies to raise HDL levels do not support their beneficial effects. Cholesterol efflux as the first and probably the most important step in reverse cholesterol transport is an important biological process relevant to HDL function. Small non-coding RNAs (microRNAs), post-transcriptional control different aspects of cellular cholesterol homeostasis including cholesterol efflux. miRNA families miR-33, miR-758, miR-10b, miR-26 and miR-106b directly modulates cholesterol efflux by targeting the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1). Pre-clinical studies with anti-miR therapies to inhibit some of these miRNAs have increased cellular cholesterol efflux, reverse cholesterol transport and reduce pathologies associated to dyslipidemia. Although miRNAs as therapy have benefits from existing antisense technology, different obstacles need to be solved before we incorporate such research into clinical care. Here we focus on the clinical potential of miRNAs as therapeutic target to increase cholesterol efflux and reverse cholesterol transport as a new alternative to ameliorate cholesterol-related pathologies. PMID:23435093

  16. Cholesterol accumulation in prostate cancer: a classic observation from a modern perspective.

    PubMed

    Krycer, James Robert; Brown, Andrew John

    2013-04-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer in men in developed countries. Epidemiological studies have associated high blood-cholesterol levels with an increased risk of PCa, whilst cholesterol-lowering drugs (statins) reduce the risk of advanced PCa. Furthermore, normal prostate epithelial cells have an abnormally high cholesterol content, with cholesterol levels increasing further during progression to PCa. In this review, we explore why and how this occurs. Concurrent to this observation, intense efforts have been expended in cardiovascular research to better understand the regulators of cholesterol homeostasis. Here, we apply this knowledge to elucidate the molecular mechanisms driving the accumulation of cholesterol in PCa. For instance, recent evidence from our group and others shows that major signalling players in prostate growth and differentiation, such as androgens and Akt, modulate the key transcriptional regulators of cholesterol homeostasis to enhance cholesterol levels. This includes adjusting central carbon metabolism to sustain greater lipid synthesis. Perturbations in cholesterol homeostasis appear to be maintained even when PCa approaches the advanced, 'castration-resistant' state. Overall, this provides a link between cholesterol accumulation and PCa cell growth. Given there is currently no cure for castration-resistant PCa, could cholesterol metabolism be a novel target for PCa therapy? Overall, this review presents a picture that cholesterol metabolism is important for PCa development: growth-promoting factors stimulate cholesterol accumulation, which in turn presents a possible target for chemotherapy. Consequently, we recommend future investigations, both to better elucidate the mechanisms driving this accumulation and applying it in novel chemotherapeutic strategies.

  17. Association of total cholesterol and HDL-C levels and outcome in coronary heart disease patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qin; Li, Jianfei; Yang, Jin; Li, Rongshan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate associations of total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels with prognosis in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients with heart failure (HF). Patients who were angiographical-diagnosis of CHD and echocardiographical-diagnosis of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 45% were enrolled. Baseline characteristics were collected and association of TC and HDL-C levels with rehospitalization for HF and all-cause mortality was assessed. A total of 118 patients were recruited. Mean age was 58.6 ± 10.9 years and male accounted for 65%. Mean LVEF was 39.5 ± 4.0%. Twenty-eight patients were rehospitalized for HF and 6 patients were dead. In patients with poor prognosis, lower body mass index (BMI), TC, HDL-C and albumin while higher high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) was observed. TC was positively correlated with BMI and albumin, and HDL-C was inversely correlated with Hs-CRP. The associations of TC level and rehospitalization for HF and all-cause mortality were attenuated but consistently significant through model 1 to 4, with odds ratio (OR) of 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.92–0.99). Associations of HDL-C level and rehospitalization for HF and all-cause mortality were also consistently significant through model 1 to 4, with OR of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.90–0.98). Strength of association was attenuated prominently in model 3 after adjusted for Hs-CRP, and no change was observed after further adjusted for BMI and albumin. Higher baseline TC and HDL-C levels are associated with better outcome in CHD patients with HF. PMID:28248864

  18. Cholesterol (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Cholesterol is a soft, waxy substance that is present in all parts of the body including the ... and obtained from animal products in the diet. Cholesterol is manufactured in the liver and is needed ...

  19. Sequential estrogen-progestin replacement therapy in healthy postmenopausal women: effects on cholesterol efflux capacity and key proteins regulating high-density lipoprotein levels.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Natalia; Arteaga, Eugenio; Bustos, Paulina; Durán-Sandoval, Daniel; Schulze, Kim; Castro, Graciela; Jauhiainen, Matti; Fruchart, Jean Charles; Calvo, Carlos

    2002-11-01

    Thirty healthy postmenopausal women were randomized into 2 groups that received a sequential combined hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) (n = 18; conjugated equine estrogen 0.625 mg/d for 28 days and 5 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate during the last 14 days) or placebo (n = 12). Plasma samples were collected before and during treatment (days 0, 15, 43, 71). High-density lipoprotein (HDL) lipid content, lipoprotein (Lp)A-I and LpA-I:LpA-II concentration, lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase activity (LCAT), phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity, and the plasma capacity to carry out cholesterol efflux from Fu5AH cells were measured. Most significant changes were found within the first 15 days after HRT. After 71 days of HRT, we found an increase in LpA-I lipoparticles (27%) and the following HDL lipids: phospholipids (21%), triglycerides (45%), and free cholesterol (43%), as well as an increase in cholesterol efflux (12.5%). PLTP activity, on the other hand, decreased 21% after 71 days of treatment. No significant changes in LCAT activity, HDL-cholesterol ester or LpA-I:LpA-II particles were found. Positive correlation between cholesterol efflux and the variables LpA-I and HDL-phospholipids were observed. PLTP was negatively correlated with apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, LpA-I, and LpA-I:LpA-II. In summary, our study, performed during 3 hormonal cycles, shows that HRT not only modifies HDL-cholesterol level, but also its lipid composition and HDL lipoparticle distribution. HRT enhances the plasma capacity to carry out cholesterol efflux from the Fu5AH system and decreases the activity of PLTP, a key protein regulating HDL levels. Considering the protocol sampling, these results represent mainly the estrogenic effect of HRT.

  20. Anti-TNFα therapy transiently improves high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and microvascular endothelial function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). This can be only partially attributed to traditional CVD risk factors such as dyslipidaemia and their downstream effects on endothelial function. The most common lipid abnormality in RA is reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, probably due to active inflammation. In this longitudinal study we hypothesised that anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNFα) therapy in patients with active RA improves HDL cholesterol, microvascular and macrovascular endothelial function. Methods Twenty-three RA patients starting on anti-TNFα treatment were assessed for HDL cholesterol level, and endothelial-dependent and -independent function of microvessels and macrovessels at baseline, 2-weeks and 3 months of treatment. Results Disease activity (CRP, fibrinogen, DAS28) significantly decreased during the follow-up period. There was an increase in HDL cholesterol levels at 2 weeks (p < 0.05) which was paralleled by a significant increase in microvascular endothelial-dependent function (p < 0.05). However, both parameters returned towards baseline at 12 weeks. Conclusion Anti-TNFα therapy in RA patients appears to be accompanied by transient but significant improvements in HDL cholesterol levels, which coexists with an improvement in microvascular endothelial-dependent function. PMID:22824166

  1. Effects of coconut oil, butter, and safflower oil on lipids and lipoproteins in persons with moderately elevated cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Cox, C; Mann, J; Sutherland, W; Chisholm, A; Skeaff, M

    1995-08-01

    The physiological effects of coconut oil, butter, and safflower oil on lipids and lipoproteins have been compared in moderately hypercholesterolemic individuals. Twenty eight participants (13 men, 15 women) followed three 6-week experimental diets of similar macronutrient distribution with the different test fats providing 50% total dietary fat. Total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher (P < 0.001) on the diet containing butter [6.8 +/- 0.9, 4.5 +/- 0.8 mmol/l] (mean +/- SD), respectively than on the coconut oil diet (6.4 +/- 0.8; 4.2 +/- 0.7 mmol/l) when levels were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than on the safflower diet (6.1 +/- 0.8; 3.9 +/- 0.7 mmol/l). Findings with regard to the other measures of lipids and lipoproteins were less consistent. Apolipoprotein A-I was significantly higher on coconut oil (157 +/- 17 mg/dl) and on butter (141 +/- 23 mg/dl) than on safflower oil (132 +/- 22 mg/dl). Apolipoprotein B was also higher on butter (86 +/- 20 mg/dl) and coconut oil (91 +/- 32 mg/dl) than on safflower oil (77 +/- 19 mg/dl). However gender differences were apparent. In the group as a whole, high density lipoprotein did not differ significantly on the three diets whereas levels in women on the butter and coconut oil diet were significantly higher than on the safflower oil diet. Triacylglycerol was higher on the butter diet than on the safflower and coconut oil diets but the difference only reached statistical significance in women. Cholesteryl ester transfer activity was significantly higher on butter than safflower oil in the group as a whole and in women.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. The cholesterol content of the erythrocyte membrane is an important determinant of phosphatidylserine exposure.

    PubMed

    van Zwieten, Rob; Bochem, Andrea E; Hilarius, Petra M; van Bruggen, Robin; Bergkamp, Ferry; Hovingh, G Kees; Verhoeven, Arthur J

    2012-12-01

    Maintenance of the asymmetric distribution of phospholipids across the plasma membrane is a prerequisite for the survival of erythrocytes. Various stimuli have been shown to induce scrambling of phospholipids and thereby exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS). In two types of patients, both with aberrant plasma cholesterol levels, we observed an aberrant PS exposure in erythrocytes upon stimulation. We investigated the effect of high and low levels of cholesterol on the ATP-dependent flippase, which maintains phospholipid asymmetry, and the ATP-independent scrambling activity, which breaks down phospholipid asymmetry. We analyzed erythrocytes of a patient with spur cell anemia, characterized by elevated plasma cholesterol, and the erythrocytes of Tangier disease patients with very low levels of plasma cholesterol. In normal erythrocytes, loaded with cholesterol or depleted of cholesterol in vitro, the same analyses were performed. Changes in the cholesterol/phospholipid ratio of erythrocytes had marked effects on PS exposure upon cell activation. Excess cholesterol profoundly inhibited PS exposure, whereas cholesterol depletion led to increased PS exposure. The activity of the ATP-dependent flippase was not changed, suggesting a major influence of cholesterol on the outward translocation of PS. The effects of cholesterol were not accompanied by eminent changes in cytoskeletal and membrane proteins. These findings emphasize the importance of cholesterol exchange between circulating plasma and the erythrocyte membrane as determinant for phosphatidylserine exposure in erythrocytes.

  3. Cellular Cholesterol Transport Proteins in Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Tsun, Joseph G. S.; Yung, Susan; Chau, Mel K. M.; Shiu, Sammy W. M.; Chan, Tak Mao; Tan, Kathryn C. B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lipid accumulation has been shown to accelerate renal injury, and the intracellular accumulation of lipids may be caused by alterations in synthesis as well as lipid uptake and efflux. We have investigated the role of cellular cholesterol transport proteins including adenosine triphosphate binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), G1 (ABCG1) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) in diabetic nephropathy. Methods Protein expression and the ability to mediate cholesterol efflux of ABCA1, ABCG1 and SR-BI was determined in human renal mesangial cells and proximal tubular epithelial cells cultured under normal or high glucose conditions. Renal expression of these cholesterol transporters was examined in a murine model of streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes. Results ABCA1, ABCG1 and SR-BI were expressed in both human renal mesangial cells and proximal tubular epithelial cells, and mediated cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein AI and HDL. In vitro, hyperglycemia reduced the expression and the ability to mediate cholesterol efflux of all three cholesterol transporters (p<0.05). In vivo studies showed that intra-renal accumulation of lipids was increased in diabetic mice, particularly in mice with nephropathy. This was associated with a significant reduction in the expression of ABCA1, ABCG1 and SR-BI in the kidneys. These changes were already seen in diabetic mice without nephropathy and preceded the development of nephropathy. Diabetic mice with nephropathy had the lowest level of these cholesterol transporters. Conclusion Inducing diabetes with streptozotocin significantly reduced renal expression of ABCA1, ABCG1 and SR-BI. Defects in cholesterol export pathway in renal cells could therefore promote cholesterol accumulation and might contribute to the development of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:25181357

  4. Intestinal SR-BI does not impact cholesterol absorption or transintestinal cholesterol efflux in mice.

    PubMed

    Bura, Kanwardeep S; Lord, Caleb; Marshall, Stephanie; McDaniel, Allison; Thomas, Gwyn; Warrier, Manya; Zhang, Jun; Davis, Matthew A; Sawyer, Janet K; Shah, Ramesh; Wilson, Martha D; Dikkers, Arne; Tietge, Uwe J F; Collet, Xavier; Rudel, Lawrence L; Temel, Ryan E; Brown, J Mark

    2013-06-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) can proceed through the classic hepatobiliary route or through the nonbiliary transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) pathway. Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) plays a critical role in the classic hepatobiliary route of RCT. However, the role of SR-BI in TICE has not been studied. To examine the role of intestinal SR-BI in TICE, sterol balance was measured in control mice and mice transgenically overexpressing SR-BI in the proximal small intestine (SR-BI(hApoCIII-ApoAIV-Tg)). SR-BI(hApoCIII-ApoAIV-Tg) mice had significantly lower plasma cholesterol levels compared with wild-type controls, yet SR-BI(hApoCIII-ApoAIV-Tg) mice had normal fractional cholesterol absorption and fecal neutral sterol excretion. Both in the absence or presence of ezetimibe, intestinal SR-BI overexpression had no impact on the amount of cholesterol excreted in the feces. To specifically study effects of intestinal SR-BI on TICE we crossed SR-BI(hApoCIII-ApoAIV-Tg) mice into a mouse model that preferentially utilized the TICE pathway for RCT (Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 liver transgenic), and likewise found no alterations in cholesterol absorption or fecal sterol excretion. Finally, mice lacking SR-BI in all tissues also exhibited normal cholesterol absorption and fecal cholesterol disposal. Collectively, these results suggest that SR-BI is not rate limiting for intestinal cholesterol absorption or for fecal neutral sterol loss through the TICE pathway.

  5. Decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at puberty in boys with delayed adolescence: correlation with plasma testosterone levels

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkland, R.T.; Keenan, B.S.; Probstfield, J.L.; Patsch, W.; Lin, T.L.; Clayton, G.W.; Insull, W. Jr.

    1987-01-23

    A three-phase study tested the hypothesis that the decrease in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level observed in boys at puberty is related to an increase in the plasma testosterone concentration. In phase I, 57 boys aged 10 to 17 years were categorized into four pubertal stages based on clinical parameters and plasma testosterone levels. These four groups showed increasing plasma testosterone values and decreasing HDL-C levels. In phase II, 14 boys with delayed adolescence were treated with testosterone enanthate. Plasma testosterone levels during therapy were in the adult male range. Levels of HDL-C decreased by a mean of 7.4 mg/dL (0.20 mmol/L) and 13.7 mg/dL (0.35 mmol/L), respectively, after the first two doses. In phase III, 13 boys with delayed adolescence demonstrated increasing plasma testosterone levels and decreasing HDL-C levels during spontaneous puberty. Levels of HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-1 were correlated during induced and spontaneous puberty. Testosterone should be considered a significant determinant of plasma HDL-C levels during pubertal development.

  6. Validity of a Novel Method for Estimation of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chaen, Hideto; Kinchiku, Shigesumi; Kajiya, Shoko; Uenomachi, Hitoshi; Yuasa, Toshinori; Takasaki, Kunitsugu; Ohishi, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is routinely estimated using the Friedewald equation [LDL-C(F)]. A novel method for LDL-C [LDL-C(M)] estimation recently proposed by Martin et al. was reported to be more accurate than the Friedewald formula in subjects in the United States. The validity of LDL-C(M) in different races and patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) has not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to validate the LDL-C(M) estimates in Japanese population with type 2 DM by comparing with LDL-C(F) and directly measured LDL-C [LDL-C(D)]. Methods: Both LDL-C(M) and LDL-C(F) levels were compared against LDL-C(D) measured by selective solubilization method in 1,828 Japanese patients with type 2 DM. Results: On linear regression analysis, LDL-C(M) showed a stronger correlation than that shown by LDL-C(F) (R = 0.979 vs. R = 0.953, respectively) with LDL-C(D). We further analyzed the effect of serum triglyceride (TG) concentrations on the accuracy of LDL-C(F) and LDL-C(M). Although LDL-C levels showed a positive correlation with TG levels, the LDL-C(F) levels tended to show a greater divergence from LDL-C(D) levels than that shown by LDL-C(M) with changes in TG levels. Conclusion: We for the first time demonstrated a more useful measurement of LDL-C levels estimated by Martin's method than that estimated by the Friedewald equation in Japanese patients with DM. PMID:27592628

  7. Oxidative stress elevated DNA damage and homocysteine level in normal pregnant women in a segment of Pakistani population.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, Shazia A; Rajoka, Muhammad Ibrahim; Ibrahim, Z; Jalal, Fatima; Rana, Shahid Mahboob; Nagra, Saeed A

    2011-04-01

    Maternal oxidative stress during pregnancy may impair fetal growth and help in the development of diseases in adulthood. The aim of current study was to assess total oxidation status (TOS), related parameters and their relationship to DNA damage (%) and homocysteine level in normal pregnant women in low-income participants. In a cross-sectional study healthy women were grouped as normal, while age matched nulliparous and singleton pregnancies were included for first, second and third trimester groups. TOS (P<0.01), melanodialdehyde (MDA) (P<0.001), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (P<0.01), triiodothyronine (T3) (P<0.01), thyroxine (T4) (P<0.01), and homocysteine (P<0.001), in pregnant women were significantly higher as compared to normal healthy women. While serum total proteins (P<0.01), albumin (P<0.01) and total antioxidant status (TAS) (P<0.001) decreased significantly as compared to normal healthy women. Women in third trimester showed a significantly high level of body temperature (P<0.01), triglyceride (P<0.01), LDL-cholesterol (P<0.05), AST (P<0.01), T3 (P<0.01), homocysteine (P<0.001), TOS (P<0.01) and MDA (P<0.001) but a lower concentration of serum proteins, albumin and TAS at the end of the pregnancy. Pearson correlation indicated a positive relationship of homocysteine with triglycerides (P<0.027), TOS (P<0.01), MDA (P<0.035) and had a negative relationship with total protein (P<0.026). DNA damage was strongly related with T3 (P<0.008), TOS (P<0.02), MDA (P<0.037) and MBI (P<0.048) profiles of pregnant women. These changes were considered normal for pregnant women having optimum blood pressure and normal child birth. Hormonal influences and hemodilution may contribute towards the observed changes in this study.

  8. Modulation of endothelial inward-rectifier K+ current by optical isomers of cholesterol.

    PubMed Central

    Romanenko, Victor G; Rothblat, George H; Levitan, Irena

    2002-01-01

    Membrane potential of aortic endothelial cells under resting conditions is dominated by inward-rectifier K(+) channels belonging to the Kir 2 family. Regulation of endothelial Kir by membrane cholesterol was studied in bovine aortic endothelial cells by altering the sterol composition of the cell membrane. Our results show that enriching the cells with cholesterol decreases the Kir current density, whereas depleting the cells of cholesterol increases the density of the current. The dependence of the Kir current density on the level of cellular cholesterol fits a sigmoid curve with the highest sensitivity of the Kir current at normal physiological levels of cholesterol. To investigate the mechanism of Kir regulation by cholesterol, endogenous cholesterol was substituted by its optical isomer, epicholesterol. Substitution of approximately 50% of cholesterol by epicholesterol results in an early and significant increase in the Kir current density. Furthermore, substitution of cholesterol by epicholesterol has a stronger facilitative effect on the current than cholesterol depletion. Neither single channel properties nor membrane capacitance were significantly affected by the changes in the membrane sterol composition. These results suggest that 1) cholesterol modulates cellular K(+) conductance by changing the number of the active channels and 2) that specific cholesterol-protein interactions are critical for the regulation of endothelial Kir. PMID:12496090

  9. Cholesterol excretion and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Broitman, S A

    1981-09-01

    Populations consuming diets high in fat and cholesterol exhibit a greater incidence of colon cancer than those consuming less fat and cholesterol. Lowering elevated serum cholesterol levels experimentally or clinically is associated with increased large-bowel tumorigenesis. Thus, cholesterol lost to the gut, either dietary or endogenously synthesized, appears to have a role in large-bowel cancer. Whether the effect(s) is mediated by increases in fecal bile acid excretion or some other mechanism is not clear.

  10. Reduction of blood serum cholesterol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    By feeding a human subject as the sole source of sustenance a defined diet wherein the carbohydrate consists substantially entirely of glucose, maltose or a polysaccharide of glucose, the blood serum cholesterol level of the human subject is substantially reduced. If 25 percent of the carbohydrate is subsequently supplied in the form of sucrose, an immediate increase from the reduced level is observed. The remainder of the defined diet normally includes a source of amino acids, such as protein or a protein hydrolysate, vitamins, minerals and a source of essential fatty acid.

  11. The effect of compactin, a potent inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A reductase activity, on cholesterogenesis and serum cholesterol levels in rats and chicks.

    PubMed

    Fears, R; Richards, D H; Ferres, H

    1980-04-01

    Compactin, [7-(1,2,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-2-methyl-8-(2-methylbutyrylox)naphthyl)-3-hydroxyheptan-5-olide], a potent competitive inhibitor of the rate-determining step in cholesterol biosynthesis, was used to study the influence of changes in cholesterogenesis on serum cholesterol levels. Up to 3 h after a single oral dose (20 or 50 mg/kg) or after the last of a series of daily oral doses (50 mg/kg for 7 or 28 days) to young, male normolipidaemic rats, compactin consistently inhibited cholesterogenesis measured using 3H20 in liver, ileum and other extrahepatic tissues without affecting fatty acid synthesis. Compactin did not reduce serum or tissue cholesterol nor affect the serum concentration of other lipids nor the ratio between lipoprotein classes. A diurnal variation in the effect of compactin on cholesterogenesis was observed. For example, by 12--20 h after dosing, cholesterogenesis at all sites was increased above the comparable control value, indicating the induction of enzyme synthesis and overall there was little effect on the mass of cholesterol synthesized per day. Similar results were obtained using male chicks. Inhibition of cholesterogenesis by compactin was also observed in cholestyramine-treated rats, in which cholesterol turnover was markedly increased, and even in cholesterol-fed rats, in which cholesterogenesis already was repressed. In neither case, however, was inhibition of cholesterogenesis accompanied by a hypocholesterolaemic effect. It is concluded that a more persistent suppression of cholesterogenesis, than that observed with compactin in the rat, may be required in order to affect serum cholesterol concentrations.

  12. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    PubMed

    Alkhouri, Naim; Eng, Katharien; Lopez, Rocio; Nobili, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in children. Non-high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) has been shown to be a good predictor of cardiovascular events. Recent data in adults found non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to be associated with significantly higher levels of non-HDL-C than simple steatosis, suggestive it might be used as a non-invasive tool to diagnose NASH. The goal of our study was to assess non-HDL-C levels in children with NAFLD. Our cohort consisted of pediatric patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Anthropometric, laboratory, and histologic data were obtained on all patients. Univariable analysis was performed to assess differences in clinical characteristics between groups. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the correlation between non-HDL-C levels and clinical variables. ANCOVA was used to adjust for possible confounders. 302 subjects with NAFLD were included in our study; 203 with NASH and 99 without NASH. Subjects with NASH had significantly higher non-HDL-C levels than those without (p = 0.004). Histologic features of NASH, including ballooning, inflammation, and fibrosis were found to be weakly correlated with non-HDL-C levels, (p < 0.05 for all). After adjusting for the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), ALT, and GGT, the association between non-HDL-C and NASH was not significant (p = 0.66). In Conclusion, non-HDL-C levels are higher in children with NASH than those with simple steatosis, suggesting increased CVD risk. This may be a reflection of the higher prevalence of MetS. Non-HDL-C had a positive association with histologic features of NASH.

  13. Good vs. Bad Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Good vs. Bad Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol can't dissolve ... test . View an animation of cholesterol . LDL (Bad) Cholesterol LDL cholesterol is considered the “bad” cholesterol because ...

  14. Malformation syndromes caused by disorders of cholesterol synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Forbes D.; Herman, Gail E.

    2011-01-01

    Cholesterol homeostasis is critical for normal growth and development. In addition to being a major membrane lipid, cholesterol has multiple biological functions. These roles include being a precursor molecule for the synthesis of steroid hormones, neuroactive steroids, oxysterols, and bile acids. Cholesterol is also essential for the proper maturation and signaling of hedgehog proteins, and thus cholesterol is critical for embryonic development. After birth, most tissues can obtain cholesterol from either endogenous synthesis or exogenous dietary sources, but prior to birth, the human fetal tissues are dependent on endogenous synthesis. Due to the blood-brain barrier, brain tissue cannot utilize dietary or peripherally produced cholesterol. Generally, inborn errors of cholesterol synthesis lead to both a deficiency of cholesterol and increased levels of potentially bioactive or toxic precursor sterols. Over the past couple of decades, a number of human malformation syndromes have been shown to be due to inborn errors of cholesterol synthesis. Herein, we will review clinical and basic science aspects of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, desmosterolosis, lathosterolosis, HEM dysplasia, X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata, Congenital Hemidysplasia with Ichthyosiform erythroderma and Limb Defects Syndrome, sterol-C-4 methyloxidase-like deficiency, and Antley-Bixler syndrome. PMID:20929975

  15. Leoligin, the major lignan from Edelweiss, inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase and reduces cholesterol levels in ApoE-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Scharinger, Bernhard; Messner, Barbara; Türkcan, Adrian; Schuster, Daniela; Vuorinen, Anna; Pitterl, Florian; Heinz, Katharina; Arnhard, Kathrin; Laufer, Günther; Grimm, Michael; Stuppner, Hermann; Oberacher, Herbert; Eller, Philipp; Ritsch, Andreas; Bernhard, David

    2016-10-01

    The health benefit through the control of lipid levels in hyperlipidaemic individuals is evident from a large number of studies. The pharmacological options to achieve this goal shall be as specific and personalized as the reasons for and co-factors of hyperlipidaemia. It was the goal of this study to reveal the impact of leoligin on cholesterol levels and to define its mechanism of action. Oral application of leoligin in ApoE-/- mice led to significantly reduced total serum cholesterol levels and a reduction in postprandial blood glucose peak levels. In the absence of biochemical signs of toxicity, leoligin treatment resulted in reduced weight gain in mice. The effects of leoligin on serum cholesterol levels may be due to a direct inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) by a unique, non-statin-like binding mode. Postprandial serum glucose peaks may be reduced by a mild peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) agonistic activity of leoligin. No effect on atherosclerotic plaque size was observed. As a non-toxic, cholesterol-, peak glucose-, and weight gain-lowering compound, leoligin continues to fulfil characteristics of a potential agent for the treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The counterregulatory overexpression of hepatic HMGCR in leoligin treated animals possibly explains the missing permanent anti-atherosclerotic effect.

  16. Cholesterol and Kir channels

    PubMed Central

    Levitan, Irena

    2009-01-01

    To date, most of the major types of Kir channels, Kir2s, Kir3s, Kir4s and Kir6s, have been found to partition into cholesterol-rich membrane domains and/or to be regulated by changes in the level of membrane cholesterol. Surprisingly, however, in spite of the structural similarities between different Kirs, effects of cholesterol on different types of Kir channels vary from cholesterol-induced decrease in the current density (Kir2 channels) to the loss of channel activity by cholesterol depletion (Kir4 channels) and loss of channel coupling by different mediators (Kir3 and Kir6 channels). Recently, we have gained initial insights into the mechanisms responsible for cholesterol-induced suppression Kir2 channels, but mechanisms underlying cholesterol sensitivity of other Kir channels are mostly unknown. The goal of this review is to present a summary of the current knowledge of the distinct effects of cholesterol on different types of Kir channels in vitro and in vivo. PMID:19548316

  17. Cholesterol and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Michael R; Solomon, Keith R

    2004-01-01

    Cholesterol is a neutral lipid that accumulates in liquid-ordered, detergent-resistant membrane domains called lipid rafts. Lipid rafts serve as membrane platforms for signal transduction mechanisms that mediate cell growth, survival, and a variety of other processes relevant to cancer. A number of studies, going back many years, demonstrate that cholesterol accumulates in solid tumors and that cholesterol homeostasis breaks down in the prostate with aging and with the transition to the malignant state. This review summarizes the established links between cholesterol and prostate cancer (PCa), with a focus on how accumulation of cholesterol within the lipid raft component of the plasma membrane may stimulate signaling pathways that promote progression to hormone refractory disease. We propose that increases in cholesterol in prostate tumor cell membranes, resulting from increases in circulating levels or from dysregulation of endogenous synthesis, results in the coalescence of raft domains. This would have the effect of sequestering positive regulators of oncogenic signaling within rafts, while maintaining negative regulators in the liquid-disordered membrane fraction. This approach toward examining the function of lipid rafts in prostate cancer cells may provide insight into the role of circulating cholesterol in malignant growth and on the potential relationship between diet and aggressive disease. Large-scale characterization of proteins that localize to cholesterol-rich domains may help unveil signaling networks and pathways that will lead to identification of new biomarkers for disease progression and potentially to novel targets for therapeutic intervention.

  18. Regulation of cholesterol synthesis in four colonic adenocarcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Cerda, S R; Wilkinson, J; Broitman, S A

    1995-12-01

    Colon tumor cells, unlike normal human fibroblasts, exhibited an uncoupling of low density lipoprotein (LDL)-derived cholesterol from cellular growth, when endogenous cholesterol synthesis was inhibited by mevinolin, a hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoAR) competitive inhibitor [Fabricant, M., and Broitman, S.A. (1990) Cancer Res. 50, 632-636]. Further evaluation of cholesterol metabolism was conducted in two undifferentiated (SW480, SW1417) and two differentiated (HT29, CACO2) colonic adenocarcinoma (adeno-CA) cell lines and an untransformed human fibroblast, AG1519A. Cells grown in monolayer culture to near subconfluency were used to assess endogenous cholesterol synthesis by 14C-acetate incorporation, in response to the following treatments in lipoprotein-deficient serum (LPDS)-supplemented minimum essential medium (MEM): LPDS alone, LDL, mevinolin, mevinolin with LDL, and 25-hydroxy-cholesterol (25-OH-CH). Complete fetal bovine serum (FBS)-supplemented MEM was used as control. All colon tumor lines exhibited similarly high endogenous cholesterol synthesis in both FBS and LPDS relative to the fibroblasts which demonstrated low basal levels in FBS and maximal synthesis in LPDS. LDL treatment did not inhibit cholesterol synthesis in colon tumor cells, but suppressed that in the fibroblast by 70%. Sterol repression of cholesterol synthesis mediated by 25-OH-CH occurred in all cells. Mevinolin caused a reduction in cholesterol synthesis in the colonic cancer cell lines, which was not further decreased by concurrent addition of LDL. In contrast, in mevinolin-treated fibroblasts, LDL further inhibited cholesterol synthesis. When the effect of cell density on cholesterol synthesis regulation was evaluated under conditions of sparse density in SW480 and SW147, results indicated that (i) basal rates of cholesterol synthesis were higher, (ii) LDL inhibited cholesterol synthesis more effectively, and (iii) mevinolin or 25-OH-CH had a more pronounced effect than in

  19. Effect of High Glucose Concentration on Collagen Synthesis and Cholesterol Level in the Phenotypic Modulation of Aortic Cultured Smooth Muscle Cells of Sand Rat (Psammomys obesus)

    PubMed Central

    Bouguerra, S. Aouichat; Benazzoug, Y.; Bekkhoucha, F.; Bourdillon, M. C.

    2004-01-01

    To simulate diabetic conditions, the effects of high glucose concentration on collagen synthesis and cholesterol level in cultured aortic smooth muscle cells of Psammomys were investigated. For collagen biosynthesis, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were incubated in synthetic proliferative phase and in postconfluent phase with 3H-proline. Cellular cholesterol was determined by enzymatic method. Under high glucose concentration, the results showed morphological modifications characterized by morphometric cellular, nuclear, and nucleolar changes. In biochemical studies, the authors observed an increase of free and esterified cellular cholesterol as well as of total proteins, collagen biosynthesis, and α1 (I+III) and α2 (I) chains of collagen contained in the SMCs and in the extracellular matrix. These results showed the sensitivity of Psammomys aortic SMCs to high glucose concentration and would constitute an interesting cellular model to study atherosclerosis pathogeny in experimental diabetes. PMID:15512791

  20. Effect of the consumption of a new symbiotic shake on glycemia and cholesterol levels in elderly people with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The consumption of foods containing probiotic and prebiotic ingredients is growing consistently every year, and in view of the limited number of studies investigating their effect in the elderly. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the consumption of a symbiotic shake containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum and fructooligosaccharides on glycemia and cholesterol levels in elderly people. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on twenty volunteers (ten for placebo group and ten for symbiotic group), aged 50 to 60 years. The criteria for inclusion in the study were: total cholesterol > 200 mg/dL; triglycerides > 200 mg/dL and glycemia > 110 mg/dL. Over a total test period of 30 days, 10 individuals (the symbiotic group) consumed a daily dose of 200 mL of a symbiotic shake containing 108 UFC/mL Lactobacillus acidophilus, 108 UFC/mL Bifidobacterium bifidum and 2 g oligofructose, while 10 other volunteers (the placebo group) drank daily the same amount of a shake that did not contain any symbiotic bacteria. Blood samples were collected 15 days prior to the start of the experiment and at 10-day intervals after the beginning of the shake intake. The standard lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol) and glycemia, or blood sugar levels, were evaluated by an enzyme colorimetric assay. Results The results of the symbiotic group showed a non-significant reduction (P > 0.05) in total cholesterol and triglycerides, a significant increase (P < 0.05) in HDL cholesterol and a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in fasting glycemia. No significant changes were observed in the placebo group. Conclusion The consumption of symbiotic shake resulted in a significant increase in HDL and a significant decrease of glycemia. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00123456 PMID:22356933

  1. Essentially All Excess Fibroblast Cholesterol Moves from Plasma Membranes to Intracellular Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Yvonne; Ye, Jin; Steck, Theodore L.

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that modestly increasing plasma membrane cholesterol beyond its physiological set point greatly increases the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial pools, thereby eliciting manifold feedback responses that return cell cholesterol to its resting state. The question arises whether this homeostatic mechanism reflects the targeting of cell surface cholesterol to specific intracellular sites or its general equilibration among the organelles. We now show that human fibroblast cholesterol can be increased as much as two-fold from 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin without changing the size of the cell surface pool. Rather, essentially all of the added cholesterol disperses rapidly among cytoplasmic membranes, increasing their overall cholesterol content by as much as five-fold. We conclude that the level of plasma membrane cholesterol is normally at capacity and that even small increments above this physiological set point redistribute essentially entirely to intracellular membranes, perhaps down their chemical activity gradients. PMID:25014655

  2. Cholesterol and Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Levitan, Irena; Fang, Yun; Rosenhouse-Dantsker, Avia; Romanenko, Victor

    2010-01-01

    A variety of ion channels, including members of all major ion channel families, have been shown to be regulated by changes in the level of membrane cholesterol and partition into cholesterol-rich membrane domains. In general, several types of cholesterol effects have been described. The most common effect is suppression of channel activity by an increase in membrane cholesterol, an effect that was described for several types of inwardly-rectifying K+ channels, voltage-gated K+ channels, Ca+2 sensitive K+ channels, voltage-gated Na+ channels, N-type voltage-gated Ca+2 channels and volume-regulated anion channels. In contrast, several types of ion channels, such as epithelial amiloride-sensitive Na+ channels and Transient Receptor Potential channels, as well as some of the types of inwardly-rectifying and voltage-gated K+ channels were shown to be inhibited by cholesterol depletion. Cholesterol was also shown to alter the kinetic properties and current-voltage dependence of several voltage-gated channels. Finally, maintaining membrane cholesterol level is required for coupling ion channels to signalling cascades. In terms of the mechanisms, three general mechanisms have been proposed: (i) specific interactions between cholesterol and the channel protein, (ii) changes in the physical properties of the membrane bilayer and (iii) maintaining the scaffolds for protein-protein interactions. The goal of this review is to describe systematically the role of cholesterol in regulation of the major types of ion channels and to discuss these effects in the context of the models proposed. PMID:20213557

  3. A rare entity in ED: Normal lipase level in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Limon, Onder; Sahin, Erkan; Kantar, Funda Ugur; Oray, Deniz; Ugurhan, Asli Aydinoglu

    2016-03-01

    Acute pancreatitis can have a variable presentation and diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, serum amylase and lipase levels and computed tomography. Negative predictive value of serum lipase in diagnosing acute pancreatitis is approximately to 100 percent and a normal blood lipase level in acute pancreatitis is an extremely rare condition. Here we reported two cases with normal serum amylase and lipase levels.

  4. Calcium and magnesium levels during automated plateletpheresis in normal donors.

    PubMed

    Das, S S; Chaudhary, R; Khetan, D; Shukla, J S; Agarwal, P; Mishra, R B

    2005-06-01

    It is well known that citrate induces ionized hypocalcaemia by the chelating effect during plateletpheresis. However, the kinetics of serum magnesium (Mg) ions has not been well documented. We, therefore, evaluated biochemical changes in healthy donors during plateletpheresis procedure. Ten healthy donors underwent plateletpheresis on continuous cell separator (CS3000, Baxter, Round Lake, IL, USA) and 10 on intermittent flow cell separator (MCS 3p, Hemonetics, Braintree, MA, USA). Serum levels of total and ionized calcium (tCa and iCa, respectively) and Mg (tMg and iMg, respectively) were measured before, during and after the procedures. Although, the fall in tCa (from 2.62 +/- 0.12 to 2.36 +/- 0.12 mmol L(-1)) and tMg (from 0.89 +/- 0.01 to 0.79 +/- 0.01 mmol L(-1)) was modest and not significant; drop in iCa (from 1.33 +/- 0.1 to 0.84 +/- 0.1 mmol L(-1)) and iMg (from 0.53 +/- 0.01 to 0.35 +/- 0.1 mmol L(-1)) was statistically significant (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences observed between the CS3000 and MCS 3p cell separators regarding the fall in Ca and Mg. None of the donors experienced any adverse reactions during the procedures. In the study, an acute ionized hypocalcaemia and hypomagnesaemia have been observed after the plateletpheresis; therefore, measurement of both the ions may be monitored. However, there is no justification for prophylactic supplementation of either of these elements.

  5. Relation between high density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary artery disease in asymptomatic men

    SciTech Connect

    Uhl, G.S.; Troxler, R.G.; Hickman, J.R. Jr.; Clark, D.

    1981-11-01

    The well established inverse relation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and the risk of coronary artery disease was tested in a cross-sectional group of 572 asymptomatic aircrew members who were being screened for risk of coronary artery disease. A battery of tests was performed, including determinations of fasting serum cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides and performance of a maximal symptom-limited exercise tolerance test. Of the 572 patients, 132 also had an abnormal S-T segment response to exercise testing or were otherwise believed to have an increased risk of organic heart disease and subsequently underwent coronary angiography. Significant coronary artery disease was found in 16 men and minimal or subcritical coronary disease in 14; coronary angiograms were normal in the remaining 102 men. The remaining 440 men, who were believed to have a 1 percent chance of having coronary artery disease by sequential testing of risk factors and treadmill testing, had a mean cholesterol level of 213 mg/100 ml, a mean HDL cholesterol of 51 mg/100 ml and a mean cholesterol/HDL ratio of 4.4. The mean values of cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and cholesterol/HDL cholesterol did not differ significantly in men with normal angiographic finding and those with subcritical coronary disease. However, 14 of 16 men with coronary artery disease had a cholesterol/HDL ratio of 6.0 or more whereas only 4 men with normal coronary arteries had a ratio of 6.0 or more. Of the classical coronary risk factors evaluated, the cholesterol/HDL ratio of 6.0 or more had the highest odds ratio (172:1). It appears that determination of HDL cholesterol level helps to identify asymptomatic persons with a greater risk of having coronary artery disease.

  6. Food prices and blood cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Rahkovsky, Ilya; Gregory, Christian A

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) cost Americans billions of dollars per year. High cholesterol levels, which are closely related to dietary habits, are a major contributor to CVD. In this article, we study whether changes in food prices are related to cholesterol levels and whether taxes or subsidies on particular foods would be effective in lowering cholesterol levels and, consequently, CVD costs. We find that prices of vegetables, processed foods, whole milk and whole grains are significantly associated with blood cholesterol levels. Having analyzed the costs and benefits of government interventions, we find that a subsidy of vegetables and whole grains would be an efficient way to reduce CVD expenditures.

  7. The effects of clozapine on levels of total cholesterol and related lipids in serum of patients with schizophrenia: a prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Dursun, S M; Szemis, A; Andrews, H; Reveley, M A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of 12 weeks of clozapine treatment on levels of cholesterol and related lipids in patients with schizophrenia. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: University department associated with a teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Eight patients (6 women and 2 men) with a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia consistent with DSM-IV criteria. The patients were classified as treatment-resistant and had not responded to treatment with at least 2 conventional antipsychotics. INTERVENTIONS: Current antipsychotic medications were tapered and treatment with clozapine was initiated. OUTCOME MEASURES: Cholesterol and serum lipid levels, as well as Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) scores were measured before and after 12 weeks of treatment with clozapine. RESULTS: Clozapine treatment significantly improved the BPRS scores but did not significantly alter serum lipid levels, except triglyceride levels, which increased. CONCLUSION: The previously reported lower levels of cholesterol in treatment-resistant patients with schizophrenia cannot be attributed to the effects of clozapine administration. Further research is required to support and clarify the effects of antipsychotic drugs on lipid levels. Images Fig. 1 PMID:10586536

  8. Differential effect of walnut oil and safflower oil on the serum cholesterol level and lesion area in the aortic root of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Masako; Kono, Misaki; Kawamoto, Daisuke; Tomoyori, Hiroko; Sato, Masao; Imaizumi, Katsumi

    2002-01-01

    Walnut oil (WO) is a good source of alpha-linolenic acid. We compared the effects of WO and high-linoleic safflower oil (HLSO) on the serum lipid level and atherosclerosis development in male and female apolipoprotein (apo) E-deficient mice. The WO diet resulted in a higher level of serum cholesterol than with HLSO. Female mice fed on the WO diet had a greater lesion area in the aortic root than did those on the HLSO diet. There was no diet-dependent difference in the level of cholesterol and its oxidation products in the abdominal and thoracic aorta. These results suggest that the unpleasant effects of the WO diet on apo E-deficient mice may be attributable to alpha-linolenic acid.

  9. Effect of Chromium Niacinate and Chromium Picolinate Supplementation on Lipid Peroxidation, TNF-α, IL-6, CRP, Glycated Hemoglobin, Triglycerides and Cholesterol Levels in blood of Streptozotocin-treated Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sushil K.; Rains, Justin L.; Croad, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Chromium (Cr3+) supplementation facilitate normal protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism, and is widely used by public in many countries. This study examined the effect of chromium niacinate (Cr-N) or chromium picolinate (Cr-P) supplementation on lipid peroxidation (LP), TNF-α, IL-6, CRP, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1), cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) in diabetic rats. Diabetes (D) was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by streptozotocin (STZ) (ip, 65 mg/kg BW). Control buffer, Cr-N or Cr-P (400 µg Cr/Kg BW) was administered by gavages daily for 7 wks. Blood was collected by heart puncture using light anesthesia. Diabetes caused a significant increase in blood levels of TNF-α, IL-6, glucose, HbA1, cholesterol, TG and LP. Compared with D, Cr-N supplementation lowered the blood levels of TNF-α (p=0.04), IL-6 (p=0.02), CRP (p=0.02) LP (p=0.01), HbA1 (p=0.02), TG (p=0.04) and cholesterol (p=0.04). Compared with D, Cr-P supplementation showed a decrease in TNF-α (p=0.02), IL-6 (p=0.02) and LP (p=0.01). Chromium niacinate lowers blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, CRP), oxidative stress and lipids levels in diabetic rats, and appears to be more effective form of Cr3+-supplementation. This study suggests that Cr3+-supplementation can lower risk of vascular inflammation in diabetes. PMID:17854708

  10. Effect of chromium niacinate and chromium picolinate supplementation on lipid peroxidation, TNF-alpha, IL-6, CRP, glycated hemoglobin, triglycerides, and cholesterol levels in blood of streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sushil K; Rains, Justin L; Croad, Jennifer L

    2007-10-15

    Chromium (Cr(3+)) supplementation facilitates normal protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism, and is widely used by the public in many countries. This study examined the effect of chromium niacinate (Cr-N) or chromium picolinate (Cr-P) supplementation on lipid peroxidation (LP), TNF-alpha, IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1)), cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG) in diabetic rats. Diabetes (D) was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by streptozotocin (STZ) (ip, 65 mg/kg BW). Control buffer, Cr-N, or Cr-P (400 microg Cr/kg BW) was administered by gavages daily for 7 weeks. Blood was collected by heart puncture using light anesthesia. Diabetes caused a significant increase in blood levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6, glucose, HbA(1), cholesterol, TG, and LP. Compared with D, Cr-N supplementation lowered the blood levels of TNF-alpha (P=0.04), IL-6 (P=0.02), CRP (P=0.02), LP (P=0.01), HbA(1) (P=0.02), TG (P=0.04), and cholesterol (P=0.04). Compared with D, Cr-P supplementation showed a decrease in TNF-alpha (P=0.02), IL-6 (P=0.02), and LP (P=0.01). Chromium niacinate lowers blood levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-6, CRP), oxidative stress, and lipids levels in diabetic rats, and appears to be a more effective form of Cr(3+) supplementation. This study suggests that Cr(3+) supplementation can lower the risk of vascular inflammation in diabetes.

  11. High Blood Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Cholesterol? To understand high blood cholesterol (ko-LES-ter- ... cholesterol from your body. What Is High Blood Cholesterol? High blood cholesterol is a condition in which ...

  12. Pioglitazone improves lipid and insulin levels in overweight rats on a high cholesterol and fructose diet by decreasing hepatic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Collino, Massimo; Aragno, Manuela; Castiglia, Sara; Miglio, Gianluca; Tomasinelli, Chiara; Boccuzzi, Giuseppe; Thiemermann, Christoph; Fantozzi, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Nutrient overload leads to obesity and insulin resistance. Pioglitazone, a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ agonist, is currently used to manage insulin resistance, but the specific molecular mechanisms activated by PPARγ are not yet fully understood. Recent studies suggest the involvement of suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS)-3 in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. This study aimed to investigate the hepatic signalling pathway activated by PPARγ activation in a non-genetic insulin-resistant animal model. Experimental approach: Male Wistar rats were maintained on a high-cholesterol fructose (HCF) diet for 15 weeks. Pioglitazone (3 mg·kg−1) was administered orally for the last 4 weeks of this diet. At the end of the treatment, serum was collected for biochemical analysis. Levels of PPARγ, SOCS-3, pro-inflammatory markers, insulin receptor substrate-2 and Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3β phosphorylation were assesed in rat liver. Key results: Rats fed the HCF diet exhibited hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. Pioglitazone administration evoked a significant improvement in lipid metabolism and insulin responsiveness. This was accompanied by reduced hepatic expression of SOCS-3, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-α and markers of neutrophil infiltration. Diet-induced PPARγ expression was unaffected by the pioglitazone treatment. Conclusion and implications: Chronic pioglitazone administration reduced hepatic inflammatory responses in rats fed a HCF diet. These effects were associated with changes in hepatic expression of SOCS-3, which may be a crucial link between the reduced local inflammation and the improved insulin signalling. This article is commented on by Chatterjee, pp. 1889–1891 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00739.x PMID:20233219

  13. THE INTAKE OF FIBER MESOCARP PASSIONFRUIT (PASSIFLORA EDULIS) LOWERS LEVELS OF TRIGLYCERIDE AND CHOLESTEROL DECREASING PRINCIPALLY INSULIN AND LEPTIN

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, E.M.; Medina, L.; Barros-Monteiro, J.; Valle, N.O.; Sales, R.; Magalães, A.; Souza, F.C.A.; Carvalho, T.B.; Lemos, J.R.; Lira, E.F.; Lima, E.S.; Galeno, D.M.L.; Morales, L.; Ortiz, C.; Carvalho, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, renal failure, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Over the last years, there has been an increasing demand in folk medicine for natural sources that could help in the treatment of chronic diseases, including diabetes. The rind of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. Flavicarpa) is traditionally used as a functional food due to its high concentration of soluble and insoluble fiber. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high-fiber diet albedo of passion fruit on the metabolic and biochemical profile in diabetic rats induced by alloxan (2%). Design The passion fruit mesocarp fiber was dried in an oven with circulating air at 60°C and pulverized. We used 32 adult male rats, divided into 4 groups: Wistar group 1 control (GC), Wistar group 2, 15% fiber (GF15), Wistar group 3, 30% fiber (GF30), Wistar group 4, fiber disolved in water (GFH2O). The ratio of passion fruit was prepared according to the AIN 93M guidelines, varying only the source of dietary fiber. The corresponding diet for each group was offered to the animals for 60 days. Results There was a statically significant decrease in plasma glucose for GFH2O, GF15%, and GF30% groups with 27.0%, 37.4%, and 40.2%, respectively. Conclusion The use of mesocarp fiber of passion fruit at concentrations of 15% and 30% are an important dietary supplement for the treatment of DM due to its potential hypoglycemic effect, and its ability to reduce triglycerides and VLDL-cholesterol levels with a principal reduction of insulin and leptin. PMID:25346913

  14. The Level of Serum Cholesterol is Negatively Associated with Lean Body Mass in Korean non-Diabetic Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Han, Ji Eun; Lee, Jun Yeup; Bu, So Young

    2016-04-01

    Due to poor nutrition and abnormal energy metabolism, cancer patients typically experience the loss of muscle mass. Although the diabetic conditions or dyslipidemia have been reported as a causal link of cancer but the consequence of such conditions in relation to gain or loss of skeletal muscle mass in cancer patients has not been well documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of lean body mass and systemic parameters related to lipid metabolism in non-diabetic cancer patients using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2011. As results the level of serum total cholesterol (total-C) was negatively associated with both total lean body mass and appendicular lean body mass in cancer patients after adjustment for sex, physical activity, energy intake and comorbidity. The associations between consumption of dietary factors (energy, carbohydrate, protein and fat) and lean body mass were disappeared after adjusting comorbidities of cancer patients. Multivariate-adjusted linear regression analysis by quartiles of serum total-C showed that higher quartile group of total-C had significantly lower percent of lean body mass than reference group in cancer patients. The data indicate that serum lipid status can be the potential estimate of loss of skeletal muscle mass in cancer patients and be referenced in nutrition care of cancer patients under the onset of cachexia or parenteral/enteral nutrition. This data need to be confirmed with large pool of subjects and should be specified by stage of cancer or the site of cancer in future studies.

  15. The Level of Serum Cholesterol is Negatively Associated with Lean Body Mass in Korean non-Diabetic Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Due to poor nutrition and abnormal energy metabolism, cancer patients typically experience the loss of muscle mass. Although the diabetic conditions or dyslipidemia have been reported as a causal link of cancer but the consequence of such conditions in relation to gain or loss of skeletal muscle mass in cancer patients has not been well documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of lean body mass and systemic parameters related to lipid metabolism in non-diabetic cancer patients using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2011. As results the level of serum total cholesterol (total-C) was negatively associated with both total lean body mass and appendicular lean body mass in cancer patients after adjustment for sex, physical activity, energy intake and comorbidity. The associations between consumption of dietary factors (energy, carbohydrate, protein and fat) and lean body mass were disappeared after adjusting comorbidities of cancer patients. Multivariate-adjusted linear regression analysis by quartiles of serum total-C showed that higher quartile group of total-C had significantly lower percent of lean body mass than reference group in cancer patients. The data indicate that serum lipid status can be the potential estimate of loss of skeletal muscle mass in cancer patients and be referenced in nutrition care of cancer patients under the onset of cachexia or parenteral/enteral nutrition. This data need to be confirmed with large pool of subjects and should be specified by stage of cancer or the site of cancer in future studies. PMID:27152302

  16. Treatment with PPARα Agonist Clofibrate Inhibits the Transcription and Activation of SREBPs and Reduces Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels in Liver of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijun; Li, Chunyan; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Shenghua; Shangguan, Mingjun; Xue, Lina; Zhang, Bianying; Ding, Fuxiang; Hui, Dequan; Liang, Aihua; He, Dongchang

    2015-01-01

    PPARα agonist clofibrate reduces cholesterol and fatty acid concentrations in rodent liver by an inhibition of SREBP-dependent gene expression. In present study we investigated the regulation mechanisms of the triglyceride- and cholesterol-lowering effect of the PPARα agonist clofibrate in broiler chickens. We observed that PPARα agonist clofibrate decreases the mRNA and protein levels of LXRα and the mRNA and both precursor and nuclear protein levels of SREBP1 and SREBP2 as well as the mRNA levels of the SREBP1 (FASN and GPAM) and SREBP2 (HMGCR and LDLR) target genes in the liver of treated broiler chickens compared to control group, whereas the mRNA level of INSIG2, which inhibits SREBP activation, was increased in the liver of treated broiler chickens compared to control group. Taken together, the effects of PPARα agonist clofibrate on lipid metabolism in liver of broiler chickens involve inhibiting transcription and activation of SREBPs and SREBP-dependent lipogenic and cholesterologenic gene expression, thereby resulting in a reduction of the triglyceride and cholesterol levels in liver of broiler chickens. PMID:26693219

  17. Evaluation of the high density lipoprotein cholesterol protective effect against atherogenesis in rabbits fed cholesterol supplemented diets.

    PubMed

    Neuman, M P; Neuman, J; Mosso, H E; Ibarra, R; Rodríguez, S; Scavini, L M; Achille, A; Pecorini, V

    1990-01-01

    Plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was evaluated in 15 rabbits fed cholesterol supplemented diets to assess its protective effect on the atherogenic process. From a baseline level of 29 +/- 11 mg/dl (mean +/- SD) the maximum attained for HDL-C was twofold in only three rabbits, whereas total cholesterol (TC) increased 20 fold. Plasma TC/HDL-C ratio rose 80 fold from the baseline (2.4 +/- 0.9) and it was the best parameter that correlated with aortic cholesterol accumulation and pathological scores. Aortic TC content increased 10 fold and free cholesterol/cholesterol esters ratio decreased 20 fold. Pathological studies showed that aortic lesion scores rose from 0 to 4. It can be concluded that the high correlations obtained when TC/HDL-C ratio was plotted against both aortic cholesterol deposition and lesion scores, support the theory of the reverse cholesterol transport and the effectiveness of this index to predict the degree of the atherogenic process. On the other hand, the poor response of HDL-C in this model encourages future research using drugs to increase this parameter in order to normalize TC/HDL-C ratio and avoid lesions.

  18. Phosphatidylcholine: Greasing the Cholesterol Transport Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Lagace, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Negative feedback regulation of cholesterol metabolism in mammalian cells ensures a proper balance of cholesterol with other membrane lipids, principal among these being the major phospholipid phosphatidylcholine (PC). Processes such as cholesterol biosynthesis and efflux, cholesteryl ester storage in lipid droplets, and uptake of plasma lipoproteins are tuned to the cholesterol/PC ratio. Cholesterol-loaded macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions display increased PC biosynthesis that buffers against elevated cholesterol levels and may also facilitate cholesterol trafficking to enhance cholesterol sensing and efflux. These same mechanisms could play a generic role in homeostatic responses to acute changes in membrane free cholesterol levels. Here, I discuss the established and emerging roles of PC metabolism in promoting intracellular cholesterol trafficking and membrane lipid homeostasis. PMID:27081313

  19. Susceptibility of serum lipids to copper-induced peroxidation correlates with the level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Shimonov, M; Pinchuk, I; Bor, A; Beigel, I; Fainaru, M; Rubin, M; Lichtenberg, D

    1999-03-01

    As a first step in evaluating the significance of our recently developed method of monitoring the kinetics of copper-induced oxidation in unfractionated serum, we recorded the kinetics of lipid oxidation in the sera of 62 hyperlipidemic patients and analyzed the correlation between oxidation and lipid composition of the sera [high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides]. We used six factors to characterize the kinetics of oxidation, namely, the maximal absorbance of oxidation products (ODmax), the maximal rate of their production (Vmax), and the time at which the rate was maximal (t(max)) at two wavelengths (245 nm, where 7-ketocholesterol and conjugated dienic hydroperoxides absorb intensely, and 268 nm, where the absorbance is mostly due to dienals). The major conclusions of our analyses are that: (i) Both ODmax and Vmax correlate positively with the sum of concentrations of the major oxidizable lipids, cholesterol, and cholesteryl esters. (ii). The value of t(max), which is a measure of the lag preceding oxidation and therefore reflects the resistance of the serum lipids to copper-induced oxidation, exhibits a negative correlation with HDL cholesterol. Although this finding accords with the observation of shorter lags for HDL than for LDL, it is apparently inconsistent with the role of HDL as an antirisk factor in coronary heart diseases.

  20. Cholesterol Metabolism in CKD.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Allison B; Voloshyna, Iryna; De Leon, Joshua; Miyawaki, Nobuyuki; Mattana, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a substantial risk of developing coronary artery disease. Traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as hypertension and hyperlipidemia do not adequately explain the high prevalence of CVD in CKD. Both CVD and CKD are inflammatory states and inflammation adversely affects lipid balance. Dyslipidemia in CKD is characterized by elevated triglyceride levels and high-density lipoprotein levels that are both decreased and dysfunctional. This dysfunctional high-density lipoprotein becomes proinflammatory and loses its atheroprotective ability to promote cholesterol efflux from cells, including lipid-overloaded macrophages in the arterial wall. Elevated triglyceride levels result primarily from defective clearance. The weak association between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and coronary risk in CKD has led to controversy over the usefulness of statin therapy. This review examines disrupted cholesterol transport in CKD, presenting both clinical and preclinical evidence of the effect of the uremic environment on vascular lipid accumulation. Preventative and treatment strategies are explored.

  1. Prevalence and characteristics of patients with low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in northern Denmark: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Sigrun Alba Johannesdottir; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Manthripragada, Angelika D; Ehrenstein, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Background With the emergence of new lipid-lowering therapies, more patients are expected to achieve substantial lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). However, there are limited data examining the clinical experience of patients with low (<1.3 mmol/L) or very low (<0.65 mmol/L) levels of LDL-C. To provide information on patients with low LDL-C, we identified and characterized persons with low LDL-C using data from Danish medical databases. Methods Using a population-based clinical laboratory database, we identified adults with at least one LDL-C measurement in northern Denmark between 1998 and 2011 (population approximately 1.5 million persons). Based on the lowest measurement during the study period, we divided patients into groups with low (<1.3 mmol/L), moderate (1.3–3.3 mmol/L), or high (>3.3 mmol/L) LDL-C. We described their demographic characteristics, entire comorbidity history, and 90-day prescription history prior to the lowest LDL-C value measured. Finally, we further restricted the analysis to individuals with very low LDL-C (<0.65 mmol/L). Results Among 765,503 persons with an LDL-C measurement, 23% had high LDL-C, 73% had moderate LDL-C, and 4.8% had low LDL-C. In the latter group, 9.6% (0.46% of total) had very low LDL-C. Compared with the moderate and high LDL-C categories, the low LDL-C group included more males and older persons with a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic pulmonary disease, ulcer disease, and obesity, as measured by hospital diagnoses or relevant prescription drugs for these diseases. Cancer and use of psychotropic drugs were also more prevalent. These patterns of distribution became even more pronounced when restricting to individuals with very low LDL-C. Conclusion Using Danish medical databases, we identified a cohort of patients with low LDL-C and found that cohort members differed from patients with higher LDL-C levels. These differences may be explained by various factors

  2. Blood glucose may condition factor VII levels in diabetic and normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Ceriello, A; Giugliano, D; Quatraro, A; Dello Russo, P; Torella, R

    1988-12-01

    Increased factor VII levels have been reported in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic subjects. A direct correlation between fasting plasma glucose and factor VII level was found to exist in both diabetic and normal subjects. Induced-hyperglycaemia was able to increase factor VII levels in both diabetic patients and normal control subjects while, when euglycaemia was achieved in diabetic patients, factor VII values returned to normal range. This study shows that the level of factor VII may be directly conditioned by circulating blood glucose and, therefore, stresses the role of hyperglycaemia in conditioning coagulation abnormalities in diabetes mellitus.

  3. Furin-cleaved proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is active and modulates low density lipoprotein receptor and serum cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Lipari, Michael T; Li, Wei; Moran, Paul; Kong-Beltran, Monica; Sai, Tao; Lai, Joyce; Lin, S Jack; Kolumam, Ganesh; Zavala-Solorio, Jose; Izrael-Tomasevic, Anita; Arnott, David; Wang, Jianyong; Peterson, Andrew S; Kirchhofer, Daniel

    2012-12-21

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) regulates plasma LDL cholesterol levels by regulating the degradation of LDL receptors. Another proprotein convertase, furin, cleaves PCSK9 at Arg(218)-Gln(219) in the surface-exposed "218 loop." This cleaved form circulates in blood along with the intact form, albeit at lower concentrations. To gain a better understanding of how cleavage affects PCSK9 function, we produced recombinant furin-cleaved PCSK9 using antibody Ab-3D5, which binds the intact but not the cleaved 218 loop. Using Ab-3D5, we also produced highly purified hepsin-cleaved PCSK9. Hepsin cleaves PCSK9 at Arg(218)-Gln(219) more efficiently than furin but also cleaves at Arg(215)-Phe(216). Further analysis by size exclusion chromatography and mass spectrometry indicated that furin and hepsin produced an internal cleavage in the 218 loop without the loss of the N-terminal segment (Ser(153)-Arg(218)), which remained attached to the catalytic domain. Both furin- and hepsin-cleaved PCSK9 bound to LDL receptor with only 2-fold reduced affinity compared with intact PCSK9. Moreover, they reduced LDL receptor levels in HepG2 cells and in mouse liver with only moderately lower activity than intact PCSK9, consistent with the binding data. Single injection into mice of furin-cleaved PCSK9 resulted in significantly increased serum cholesterol levels, approaching the increase by intact PCSK9. These findings indicate that circulating furin-cleaved PCSK9 is able to regulate LDL receptor and serum cholesterol levels, although somewhat less efficiently than intact PCSK9. Therapeutic anti-PCSK9 approaches that neutralize both forms should be the most effective in preserving LDL receptors and in lowering plasma LDL cholesterol.

  4. Formation of Cholesterol Bilayer Domains Precedes Formation of Cholesterol Crystals in Cholesterol/Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine Membranes: EPR and DSC Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mainali, Laxman; Raguz, Marija; Subczynski, Witold K.

    2013-01-01

    Saturation-recovery EPR along with DSC were used to determine the cholesterol content at which pure cholesterol bilayer domains (CBDs) and cholesterol crystals begin to form in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) membranes. To preserve compositional homogeneity throughout the membrane suspension, lipid multilamellar dispersions were prepared using a rapid solvent exchange method. The cholesterol content increased from 0 to 75 mol%. With spin-labeled cholesterol analogs it was shown that the CBDs begin to form at ~50 mol% cholesterol. It was confirmed by DSC that the cholesterol solubility threshold for DMPC membranes is detected at ~66 mol% cholesterol. At levels above this cholesterol content, monohydrate cholesterol crystals start to form. The major finding is that formation of CBDs precedes formation of cholesterol crystals. The region of the phase diagram for cholesterol contents between 50 and 66 mol% is described as a structured one-phase region in which CBDs have to be supported by the surrounding DMPC bilayer saturated with cholesterol. Thus, the phase boundary located at 66 mol% cholesterol separates the structured one-phase region (liquid-ordered phase of DMPC with CBDs) from the two-phase region where the structured liquid-ordered phase of DMPC coexists with cholesterol crystals. It is likely that CBDs are precursors of monohydrate cholesterol crystals. PMID:23834375

  5. Cholesterol-induced stimulation of platelet aggregation is prevented by a hempseed-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Prociuk, M A; Edel, A L; Richard, M N; Gavel, N T; Ander, B P; Dupasquier, C M C; Pierce, G N

    2008-04-01

    Hypercholesterolemia indirectly increases the risk for myocardial infarction by enhancing the ability of platelets to aggregate. Diets enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to reduce the detrimental effects of cholesterol on platelet aggregation. This study investigated whether dietary hempseed, a rich source of PUFAs, inhibits platelet aggregation under normal and hypercholesterolemic conditions. Male New Zealand white rabbits were fed one of 6 dietary interventions: regular control diet (RG); control diet + 10% hempseed (HP); control diet + 10% partially delipidated hempseed (DHP); control diet + 0.5% cholesterol (OL); control diet + 0.5% cholesterol + 10% hempseed (OLHP); control diet + 5% coconut oil (CO). After 8 weeks, blood was collected to measure ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation and plasma levels of fatty acids, cholesterol, and triglycerides. The hempseed-fed animals (HP and OLHP) displayed elevated plasma levels of PUFAs and a prominent enhancement in 18:3n-6 (gamma-linolenic acid, GLA) levels, a unique PUFA found in hempseed. The cholesterol-supplemented groups (OL and OLHP) had significantly elevated plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, but platelet aggregation was significantly augmented only in the OL group. The addition of hempseed to this diet (OLHP) normalized aggregation. The direct addition of GLA to the OL platelet samples blocked the cholesterol-induced stimulation of platelet aggregation. The results of this study demonstrate that when hempseed is added to a cholesterol-enriched diet, cholesterol-induced platelet aggregation returns to control levels. This normalization is not due to a reduction in plasma cholesterol levels, but may be partly due to increased levels of plasma GLA.

  6. No changes of cholesterol levels with a commercially available glucosamine product in patients treated with lipid lowering drugs: a controlled, randomised, open cross-over trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The widespread use of natural health products is also a problem, as they could interact with prescribed drugs in patients. One commonly used product is glucosamine for osteoarthritis and some reports have found increased values of cholesterol and other lipids in patients treated with simvastatin for hypercholesterolemia. The aim of this trial was to investigate the effects of glucosamine on s-cholesterol levels (total s-cholesterol, s-HDL, s-LDL) in primary care patients on treatment with simvastatin or atorvastatin. Methods Controlled, randomized, open, crossover pharmacodynamic study in two primary health care centres. Patients were treated with Artrox® (glucosamine) 625 mg twice daily and control (a commercially available multivitamin tablet Vitamineral®). The study started with a run-in period of four weeks followed by control or active treatment with randomization of sealed envelopes. Each treatment period was four weeks and the treatment with simvastatin or atorvastatin was unchanged during the study (12 weeks). 34 patients were treated with a stable dose of simvastatin (n=21) or atorvastatin (n=13) for at least three months. Assessments of total s-cholesterol, s-HDL, S-LDL and s-triglycerides were performed in the morning with the patients in a fasting condition. T-tests for paired samples were used for statistical analyses and a p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Endpoints were the differences in lipid values at week 8 and week 12. Results All patients completed the study. No significant changes were seen on any of lipid levels in the simvastatin group. Conclusion The actual glucosamine product did not change lipid levels of patients treated with simvastatin. Atorvastatin group was too small for safe calculations but was also without changes. Trial registration EUDRACT2006-001458-28 PMID:23050945

  7. Cigarette smoking and random serum cholesterol levels in a Northern Ireland general practice population of 18- to 20-year-old students and non-students.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J S; Steele, K

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease is the commonest cause of death in Northern Ireland, but few data exist on the incidence of risk factors in young adult students and non-students. AIM: To gather data on the prevalence of cigarette smoking and raised serum total cholesterol in a population of 18- to 20-year-old students and non-students. METHOD: Subjects were patients are Mountsandel Surgery, Coleraine on 1 January 1989 and were 18-20 years of age inclusive on that date. Subjects were interviewed by a research nurse who recorded socio-demographic data, tobacco consumption and random serum total cholesterol. Smoking status validation was by serum thiocyanate and expired air carbonmonoxide estimations. RESULTS: Out of the 832 subjects surveyed, 570 were students and 262 were non-students. Cigarettes were smoked by 239 (28.7%) subjects, and a significantly greater proportion of non-students compared with students were smokers (36.6% and 25.1%, respectively; P < 0.001). The proportion of males compared with females who smoked cigarettes was not significantly different, but males smoked significantly more cigarettes per day than females (14 and 11 cigarettes, respectively; P = 0.005). The average age for commencing regular cigarette smoking was 15.3 years, and 49.9% of smokers had started regular smoking by the age of 16 years. A greater proportion of non-students (65.7%) compared with students (39.2%) had started smoking before the age of 16 years. Out of those sampled, 156 (19.2%) had random serum cholesterol levels above 5.2 mmol l-1. Mean total cholesterol for non-students was significantly higher than for students (4.61 and 4.45 mmol l-1, respectively; P = 0.01) and increased significantly with increasing age (P = 0.03). Three subjects recorded cholesterol levels above 7.8 mmol l-1. CONCLUSION: Cigarette smoking and raised serum total cholesterol were prevalent among an apparently healthy population of students and non-students. These young adults may be

  8. Normal and pathological serum levels of alpha2-macroglobulins in men and mice.

    PubMed Central

    Tunstall, A M; Merriman, J M; Milne, I; James, K

    1975-01-01

    The serum levels of alpha2-macroglobulin have been measured in normal men and mice and in a number of immunopathological conditions. Normal human concentrations are high in youth, reach their minimum in middle age, and gradually increase with old age. In all age groups the mean is higher in the female than in the male. Conversely, in normal mice the alpha2M level is low in youth, maximum in middle age, and shows a slight depression with old age, and the levels are frequently higher in males than in females; there are also strain variations. In human immunopathological conditions, there are some deviations from the normal alpha2M level but these are seen to be changes from the normal distribution of values around the mean, rather than significant elevation or depression of mean values. In some disease states studied there are differences between the sexes in the deviation from normal. "Abnormal" strains of mice had alpha2M levels within the range exhibited by "normal" mice but changes in the levels are seen in mice with various myelomas. Images PMID:47865

  9. ACAT inhibitors: the search for novel cholesterol lowering agents.

    PubMed

    Pal, Palash; Gandhi, Hardik; Giridhar, Rajani; Yadav, Mange Ram

    2013-06-01

    Increased level of serum cholesterol (hyperlipidemia) is the most significant risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. Cholesterol levels are affected by factors such as rate of endogenous cholesterol synthesis, biliary cholesterol excretion and dietary cholesterol absorption. Acyl CoA: Cholesterol O-acyl transferases (ACAT) are a small family of enzymes that catalyze cholesterol esterification and cholesterol absorption in intestinal mucosal cells and maintain the cholesterol homeostasis in the blood. Inhibition of the ACAT enzymes is one of the attractive targets to treat hyperlipidemia. Literature survey shows that structurally diverse compounds possess ACAT inhibitory properties. In this review, a comprehensive presentation of the literature on diverse ACAT inhibitors has been given.

  10. A high-cholesterol diet enriched with polyphenols from Oriental plums (Prunus salicina) improves cognitive function and lowers brain cholesterol levels and neurodegenerative-related protein expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ping-Hui; Lin, Ching-I; Chen, Yue-Hwa; Chiu, Wan-Chun; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2015-05-28

    Ageing accompanied by a decline in cognitive performance may be a result of the long-term effects of oxidative stress on neurologic processes. It has been shown that high-cholesterol contents in the blood and brain may lead to the deposition of the β-amyloid (Aβ) protein in the brain, which damages brain cells. The present study was designed to observe the effect of polyphenol-rich Oriental plums on cognitive function and cerebral neurodegeneration-related protein expression in mice that were fed a high-cholesterol diet for 5 months. The study consisted of four groups: the control (Ctrl) group, which was fed the American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93M diet; the high cholesterol (HC) group, which was fed the AIN-93M diet with 5% cholesterol; the high cholesterol + low Oriental plum (LOP) group, which was fed the AIN-93M diet with 5% cholesterol and 2% Oriental plum powder; and the high cholesterol + high Oriental plum (HOP) group, which was fed the AIN-93M diet with 5% cholesterol and 5% Oriental plum powder. Measurements of cognitive function were assessed using the Morris water maze, and the mRNA expression of cholesterol hydroxylase (Cyp46), Aβ and β-secretase 1 (BACE1) were analysed. The results showed that cholesterol concentrations in both the blood and the brain were significantly higher in the HC group than in the Ctrl and HOP groups at the end of the trial. The high-cholesterol diet per se produced significant cognitive deficits, which were accompanied by a significantly increased mRNA expression of Cyp46, BACE1, Aβ and 24-hydroxycholesterol in the brain cortex and hippocampus. However, all of these variables were non-significantly increased in the HOP group as compared to the Ctrl group. In conclusion, incorporating polyphenol-enriched Oriental plum into a high-cholesterol diet can ameliorate some of the symptoms of neurodegenerative conditions.

  11. Low normal CSF Aβ42 levels predict clinical progression in non-demented subjects.

    PubMed

    Tijms, Betty M; Bertens, Daniela; Slot, Rosalinde E; Gouw, Alida A; Teunissen, Charlotte E; Scheltens, Philip; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Visser, Pieter Jelle

    2017-03-20

    We studied whether continuous lower normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid β 1-42 (≥640 pg/ml) levels related with rate of clinical progression in a sample of 393 non-demented memory clinic patients. Lower normal levels were associated with faster clinical progression and this depended on baseline cognitive status (subjective cognitive decline: HR = 0.59, p <.05; mild cognitive impairment: HR=0.12, p <.001), indicating that normal CSF amyloid levels do not exclude incident Alzheimer's disease. These findings suggest that research on preclinical markers for Alzheimer's disease should take the continuum of CSF amyloid β 1-42 levels within the normal range into account. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Serum fatty acid composition in normal Japanese and its relationship with dietary fish and vegetable oil contents and blood lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Takebe, K; Tando, Y; Arai, Y; Yamada, N; Ishii, M; Kikuchi, H; Machida, K; Imamura, K; Terada, A

    1995-01-01

    A survey was conducted on 110 normal Japanese adults (55 men and 55 women) to determine their caloric intake, dietary fat content and its origin (animal, plant, or marine). In addition, their blood lipid levels and fatty acid compositions were examined. Men in their 30s-50s consumed 2,600-2,800 calories and 60 g of fats, while women in the same age range consumed 2,000-2,200 calories and 52-58 g of fats. In both sexes, caloric, fat, and cholesterol intakes were lower for those in their 60s but protein and crude fiber consumption remained generally unchanged. When the dietary fats were classified according to origin, men and women in their 30s were found to consume less oil of marine origin. This appeared to be the result of a western style diet for Japanese adults in their 30s. Compared with men, women exhibited lower blood lipid levels. As age increased, the total cholesterol level of the blood rose in women. Thus the blood lipid level was generally equal in the two groups in their 60s. There was a positive correlation between the blood eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels and dietary consumption of fish oil. The marine/plant lipid ratio was positively correlated with the blood EPA/arachidonic acid ratio. Therefore, it was believed that the origin of the dietary fats consumed is a factor in determining the blood fatty acid profile. The linoleic acid (18:2), arachidonic acid (20:4), and 18:2 + 20:4 contents were negatively correlated to the total cholesterol level in the blood but positively correlated to the HDL-cholesterol level. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4 + 20:5 + 22:6) were negatively correlated with the blood triglyceride level. From the findings presented above, we concluded that dietary fats not derived from animal sources should be classified into fish and vegetable oils to evaluate their dietary significance. We also noted that Japanese in their 30s consume less fish oil, indicating the western trend in their

  13. An overview on therapeutics attenuating amyloid β level in Alzheimer’s disease: targeting neurotransmission, inflammation, oxidative stress and enhanced cholesterol levels

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoling; Li, Yifei; Shi, Xiaozhe; Ma, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common underlying cause of dementia, and novel drugs for its treatment are needed. Of the different theories explaining the development and progression of AD, “amyloid hypothesis” is the most supported by experimental data. This hypothesis states that the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) leads to the formation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides that congregate with formation and deposition of Aβ plaques in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Risk factors including neurotransmitter modulation, chronic inflammation, metal-induced oxidative stress and elevated cholesterol levels are key contributors to the disease progress. Current therapeutic strategies abating AD progression are primarily based on anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors as cognitive enhancers. The AChE inhibitor, donepezil, is proven to strengthen cognitive functions and appears effective in treating moderate to severe AD patients. N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, memantine, is also useful, and its combination with donepezil demonstrated a strong stabilizing effect in clinical studies on AD. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs delayed the onset and progression of AD and attenuated cognitive dysfunction. Based upon epidemiological evidence and animal studies, antioxidants emerged as potential AD preventive agents; however, clinical trials revealed inconsistencies. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiling demonstrated pleiotropic functions of the hypolipidemic class of drugs, statins, potentially contributing towards the prevention of AD. In addition, targeting the APP processing pathways, stimulating neuroprotective signaling mechanisms, using the amyloid anti-aggregants and Aβ immunotherapy surfaced as well-tested strategies in reducing the AD-like pathology. Overall, this review covers mechanism of inducing the Aβ formation, key risk factors and major therapeutics prevalent in the AD treatment nowadays. It also delineates the

  14. Plasma membrane cholesterol level and agonist-induced internalization of δ-opioid receptors; colocalization study with intracellular membrane markers of Rab family.

    PubMed

    Brejchova, Jana; Vosahlikova, Miroslava; Roubalova, Lenka; Parenti, Marco; Mauri, Mario; Chernyavskiy, Oleksandr; Svoboda, Petr

    2016-08-01

    Decrease of cholesterol level in plasma membrane of living HEK293 cells transiently expressing FLAG-δ-OR by β-cyclodextrin (β-CDX) resulted in a slight internalization of δ-OR. Massive internalization of δ-OR induced by specific agonist DADLE was diminished in cholesterol-depleted cells. These results suggest that agonist-induced internalization of δ-OR, which has been traditionally attributed exclusively to clathrin-mediated pathway, proceeds at least partially via membrane domains. Identification of internalized pools of FLAG-δ-OR by colocalization studies with proteins of Rab family indicated the decreased presence of receptors in early endosomes (Rab5), late endosomes and lysosomes (Rab7) and fast recycling vesicles (Rab4). Slow type of recycling (Rab11) was unchanged by cholesterol depletion. As expected, agonist-induced internalization of oxytocin receptors was totally suppressed in β-CDX-treated cells. Determination of average fluorescence lifetime of TMA-DPH, the polar derivative of hydrophobic membrane probe diphenylhexatriene, in live cells by FLIM indicated a significant alteration of the overall PM structure which may be interpreted as an increased "water-accessible space" within PM area. Data obtained by studies of HEK293 cells transiently expressing FLAG-δ-OR by "antibody feeding" method were extended by analysis of the effect of cholesterol depletion on distribution of FLAG-δ-OR in sucrose density gradients prepared from HEK293 cells stably expressing FLAG-δ-OR. Major part of FLAG-δ-OR was co-localized with plasma membrane marker Na,K-ATPase and β-CDX treatment resulted in shift of PM fragments containing both FLAG-δ-OR and Na,K-ATPase to higher density. Thus, the decrease in content of the major lipid constituent of PM resulted in increased density of resulting PM fragments.

  15. Association analyses of East Asian individuals and trans-ancestry analyses with European individuals reveal new loci associated with cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Spracklen, Cassandra N; Chen, Peng; Kim, Young Jin; Wang, Xu; Cai, Hui; Li, Shengxu; Long, Jirong; Wu, Ying; Wang, Ya Xing; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Jung, Keum-Ji; Hu, Cheng; Akiyama, Koichi; Zhang, Yonghong; Moon, Sanghoon; Johnson, Todd A; Li, Huaixing; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; He, Meian; Cannon, Maren E; Roman, Tamara S; Salfati, Elias; Lin, Keng-Hung; Guo, Xiuqing; Sheu, Wayne H H; Absher, Devin; Adair, Linda S; Assimes, Themistocles L; Aung, Tin; Cai, Qiuyin; Chang, Li-Ching; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Chien, Li-Hsin; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Du, Shufa; Fan, Qiao; Fann, Cathy S J; Feranil, Alan B; Friedlander, Yechiel; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Gu, Dongfeng; Gui, Lixuan; Guo, Zhirong; Heng, Chew-Kiat; Hixson, James; Hou, Xuhong; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Hu, Yao; Hwang, Mi Yeong; Hwu, Chii-Min; Isono, Masato; Juang, Jyh-Ming Jimmy; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Kim, Yun Kyoung; Koh, Woon-Puay; Kubo, Michiaki; Lee, I-Te; Lee, Sun-Ju; Lee, Wen-Jane; Liang, Kae-Woei; Lim, Blanche; Lim, Sing-Hui; Liu, Jianjun; Nabika, Toru; Pan, Wen-Harn; Peng, Hao; Quertermous, Thomas; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Sandow, Kevin; Shi, Jinxiu; Sun, Liang; Tan, Pok Chien; Tan, Shu-Pei; Taylor, Kent D; Teo, Yik-Ying; Toh, Sue-Anne; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; van Dam, Rob M; Wang, Aili; Wang, Feijie; Wang, Jie; Wei, Wen Bin; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yao, Jie; Yuan, Jian-Min; Zhang, Rong; Zhao, Wanting; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Rich, Stephen S; Rotter, Jerome I; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Wu, Tangchun; Lin, Xu; Han, Bok-Ghee; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Cho, Yoon Shin; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Jia, Weiping; Jee, Sun-Ha; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Kato, Norihiro; Jonas, Jost B; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Shu, Xiao-Ou; He, Jiang; Zheng, Wei; Wong, Tien-Yin; Huang, Wei; Kim, Bong-Jo; Tai, E-Shyong; Mohlke, Karen L; Sim, Xueling

    2017-02-21

    Large-scale meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >175 loci associated with fasting cholesterol levels, including total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG). With differences in linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure and allele frequencies between ancestry groups, studies in additional large samples may detect new associations. We conducted staged GWAS meta-analyses in up to 69,414 East Asian individuals from 24 studies with participants from Japan, the Philippines, Korea, China, Singapore, and Taiwan. These meta-analyses identified (P < 5 × 10-8) three novel loci associated with HDL-C near CD163-APOBEC1 (P = 7.4 × 10-9), NCOA2 (P = 1.6 × 10-8), and NID2-PTGDR (P = 4.2 × 10-8), and one novel locus associated with TG near WDR11-FGFR2 (P = 2.7 × 10-10). Conditional analyses identified a second signal near CD163-APOBEC1. We then combined results from the East Asian meta-analysis with association results from up to 187,365 European individuals from the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium in a trans-ancestry meta-analysis. This analysis identified (log10Bayes Factor ≥6.1) eight additional novel lipid loci. Among the twelve total loci identified, the index variants at eight loci have demonstrated at least nominal significance with other metabolic traits in prior studies, and two loci exhibited coincident eQTLs (P < 1 × 10-5) in subcutaneous adipose tissue for BPTF and PDGFC. Taken together, these analyses identified multiple novel lipid loci, providing new potential therapeutic targets.

  16. Cholesterol diet counteracts repeated anesthesia/infusion-induced cognitive deficits in male Brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Hohsfield, Lindsay A; Ehrlich, Daniela; Humpel, Christian

    2013-11-01

    A variety of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are associated with alterations in cholesterol levels and metabolism. Moreover, convincing evidence shows that high cholesterol diet can lead to learning and memory impairments. On the other hand, a significant body of research has also demonstrated that learning is improved by elevated dietary cholesterol. Despite these conflicting findings, it is clear that cholesterol plays an important role in these cognitive properties. However, it remains unclear how this blood-brain barrier (BBB)-impenetrable molecule affects the brain and under what circumstances it provides either detrimental or beneficial effects to learning and memory. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of 5% cholesterol diet on six-month-old inbred Brown Norway rats. More important, we sought to examine the role that cholesterol can play when repeated anesthesia and intravenous infusion disrupts cognitive function. This present study supports previous work showing that enriched cholesterol diet leads to significant alterations in neuroinflammation and BBB disruption. Following repeated anesthesia and intravenous infusion of saline we observe that animals under normal diet conditions exhibit significant deficiencies in spatial learning and cholinergic neuron populations compared to animals under enriched cholesterol diet, which do not show such deficiencies. These findings indicate that cholesterol diet can protect against or counteract anesthesia/infusion-induced cognitive deficits. Ultimately, these results suggest that cholesterol homeostasis serves an important functional role in the brain and that altering this homeostasis can either exert positive or negative effects on cognitive properties.

  17. Cholesterol and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cholesterol and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Cholesterol and ... child's risk of developing heart disease later. About Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy substance produced by the ...

  18. Women and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Women and Cholesterol Updated:Apr 1,2016 The female sex hormone ... 2014. Related Sites Nutrition Center My Life Check Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • Why Cholesterol Matters • Understand Your ...

  19. LDL Cholesterol Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities LDL Cholesterol Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... LDL; LDL-C Formal name: Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Related tests: Cholesterol ; HDL Cholesterol ; Triglycerides ; Lipid Profile ; ...

  20. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol can be both ... misconceptions about cholesterol. Click on each misconception about cholesterol to see the truth: My choices about diet ...

  1. Lifestyle Changes and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Lifestyle Changes and Cholesterol Updated:Sep 26,2016 As part of a ... to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • Why Cholesterol Matters • Understand Your ...

  2. HDL Cholesterol Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities HDL Cholesterol Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... HDL; HDL-C Formal name: High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Related tests: Cholesterol ; LDL Cholesterol ; Triglycerides ; Lipid Profile ; ...

  3. Cholesterol IQ Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cholesterol IQ Quiz Updated:Feb 2,2015 Begin the quiz Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Good vs. Bad Cholesterol ...

  4. [Oil of Piper longum unsaponifiable matter prevents cholesterol gallstone formation].

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuang; Hu, Jin-Feng; Chu, Shi-Feng; Han, Ning; Li, Jing-Wei; Li, Yue-Ting; Chen, Nai-Hong

    2013-07-01

    To observe the effect of various doses of oil of Piper longum unsaponifiable matter (OPUM) to cholesterol gallstones in experimental mice. C57BL/6 mice (n = 60) were randomly divided into 6 groups: control group, model group, OPUM (15, 30 and 60 mg x kg(-1)) group and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, 60 mg x kg(-1)) group, administered for 10 weeks. The level of serum lipid and liver function enzymes were tested. The gallbladder was removed and bile was obtained by centrifugation. Next, the levels of the bile total cholesterol (TC), phospholipid (PL) and bile acid (TBA) were measured. The indicators of lipid peroxidation were determined and cholesterol saturation index (CSI) was calculated. The liver histological changes were observed by HE staining. The results showed that serum TC, TG (triglycerides) and AST (aspartate transaminase) contents, gallbladder cholesterol crystallization and CSI increased significantly (P < 0.05). In addition, the activity of SOD decreased significantly and MDA content increased significantly in liver (P < 0.05). HE staining results showed that the hepatic cord disorder and intracellular lipid droplets increased significantly. All results indicate that lithogenic diet lead to the formation of cholesterol gallstones. In OPUM (30 and 60 mg x kg(-1)) group, serum TC, TG and AST content, gallbladder cholesterol crystallization and CSI decreased significantly, the activity of SOD increased significantly and MDA content decreased significantly. HE staining results showed that OPUM can improve the morphology of liver cell, reduce the degree of hepatic cord disorders and restore the cell morphology close to normal. The cause of OPUM prevents cholesterol gallstone formation maybe due to protect the integrity of the liver cells, lower CSI, and reduce cholesterol crystal formation and hence prevent cholesterol gallstone formation.

  5. Effects of dietary maritime pine (Pinus pinaster)-seed oil on high-density lipoprotein levels and in vitro cholesterol efflux in mice expressing human apolipoprotein A-I.

    PubMed

    Asset, G; Leroy, A; Bauge, E; Wolff, R L; Fruchart, J C; Dallongeville, J

    2000-09-01

    Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster)-seed oil contains two Delta5 unsaturated polymethylene interrupted fatty acids (all cis-5,9, 12-18:3 and all cis-5,11,14-20:3 acids) one of which resembles eicosapentaenoic acid. The goal of the present study was to test whether maritime pine-seed oil consumption affects HDL and apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I levels as well as the ability of serum to promote efflux of cholesterol from cultured cells. To this end, wild type (WT) non-transgenic mice and transgenic mice expressing human ApoA-I (HuA-ITg) were fed on isoenergetic diet containing either 200 g maritime pine-seed oil/kg or 200 g lard/kg for 2 weeks. WT and HuA-ITg mice fed maritime pine-seed oil had lower cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HuA-ITg mice had lower human ApoA-I than those fed lard. The differences in cholesterol (P < 0.0001) and HDL-cholesterol (P < 0.003) levels between mice fed on the two diets were more pronounced in the HuA-ITg than in the WT mice. The ability of HuA-ITg serum to promote cholesterol efflux in cultured cells was greater (P < 0.008) than that of WT animals. However, the maritime pine-seed oil diet was associated with lower (P < 0.005) in vitro cholesterol efflux ability than the lard diet in both mice genotypes. This suggests a negative effect of the maritime pine-seed oil on reverse cholesterol transport. Cholesterol efflux was correlated with serum free or esterified cholesterol and phospholipid levels. The slope of the regression line was smaller in the HuA-ITg than in the WT mice indicating that overexpression of human ApoA-I reduces the negative impact of maritime pine-seed oil on cholesterol efflux. In conclusion, maritime pine-seed oil diet lowers HDL-cholesterol and diminishes in vitro cholesterol efflux. This potentially detrimental effect is attenuated by overexpression of human ApoA-I in mice.

  6. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: High Blood Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease High Blood Cholesterol High blood cholesterol is another major risk factor for heart disease ... can do something about. The higher your blood cholesterol level, the greater your risk for developing heart ...

  7. High Blood Cholesterol: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Audiences Contact The Health Information Center High Blood Cholesterol: What You Need To Know Table of Contents ... Lifestyle Changes (TLC) Drug Treatment Resources Why Is Cholesterol Important? Your blood cholesterol level has a lot ...

  8. Alcohol Dehydrogenase-1B (rs1229984) and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (rs671) Genotypes Are Strong Determinants of the Serum Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels of Japanese Alcoholic Men

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Akira; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Matsui, Toshifumi; Mizukami, Takeshi; Kimura, Mitsuru; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated serum triglyceride (TG) and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are common in drinkers. The fast-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B encoded by the ADH1B*2 allele (vs. ADH1B*1/*1 genotype) and inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 encoded by the ALDH2*2 allele (vs. ALDH2*1/*1 genotype) modify ethanol metabolism and are prevalent (≈90% and ≈40%, respectively) in East Asians. We attempted to evaluate the associations between the ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes and lipid levels in alcoholics. Methods The population consisted of 1806 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years) who had undergone ADH1B and ALDH2 genotyping and whose serum TG, total cholesterol, and HDL-C levels in the fasting state had been measured within 3 days after admission. Results High serum levels of TG (≥150 mg/dl), HDL-C (>80 mg/dl), and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C calculated by the Friedewald formula ≥140 mg/dl) were observed in 24.3%, 16.8%, and 15.6%, respectively, of the subjects. Diabetes, cirrhosis, smoking, and body mass index (BMI) affected the serum lipid levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of the ADH1B*2 allele and the active ALDH2*1/*1 genotype increased the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval) for a high TG level (2.22 [1.67–2.94] and 1.39 [0.99–1.96], respectively), and decreased the OR for a high HDL-C level (0.37 [0.28–0.49] and 0.51 [0.37–0.69], respectively). The presence of the ADH1B*2 allele decreased the OR for a high LDL-C level (0.60 [0.45–0.80]). The ADH1B*2 plus ALDH2*1/*1 combination yielded the highest ORs for high TG levels and lowest OR for a high HDL-C level. The genotype effects were more prominent in relation to the higher levels of TG (≥220 mg/dl) and HDL-C (≥100 mg/dl). Conclusions The fast-metabolizing ADH1B and active ALDH2, and especially a combination of the two were strongly associated with higher serum TG levels and lower serum HDL-C levels of alcoholics. The fast

  9. Increased plasma cholesterol esterification by LCAT reduces diet-induced atherosclerosis in SR-BI knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Seth G; Rousset, Xavier; Esmail, Safiya; Zarzour, Abdalrahman; Jin, Xueting; Collins, Heidi L; Sampson, Maureen; Stonik, John; Demosky, Stephen; Malide, Daniela A; Freeman, Lita; Vaisman, Boris L; Kruth, Howard S; Adelman, Steven J; Remaley, Alan T

    2015-07-01

    LCAT, a plasma enzyme that esterifies cholesterol, has been proposed to play an antiatherogenic role, but animal and epidemiologic studies have yielded conflicting results. To gain insight into LCAT and the role of free cholesterol (FC) in atherosclerosis, we examined the effect of LCAT over- and underexpression in diet-induced atherosclerosis in scavenger receptor class B member I-deficient [Scarab(-/-)] mice, which have a secondary defect in cholesterol esterification. Scarab(-/-)×LCAT-null [Lcat(-/-)] mice had a decrease in HDL-cholesterol and a high plasma ratio of FC/total cholesterol (TC) (0.88 ± 0.033) and a marked increase in VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C) on a high-fat diet. Scarab(-/-)×LCAT-transgenic (Tg) mice had lower levels of VLDL-C and a normal plasma FC/TC ratio (0.28 ± 0.005). Plasma from Scarab(-/-)×LCAT-Tg mice also showed an increase in cholesterol esterification during in vitro cholesterol efflux, but increased esterification did not appear to affect the overall rate of cholesterol efflux or hepatic uptake of cholesterol. Scarab(-/-)×LCAT-Tg mice also displayed a 51% decrease in aortic sinus atherosclerosis compared with Scarab(-/-) mice (P < 0.05). In summary, we demonstrate that increased cholesterol esterification by LCAT is atheroprotective, most likely through its ability to increase HDL levels and decrease pro-atherogenic apoB-containing lipoprotein particles.

  10. Anacetrapib and dalcetrapib differentially alters HDL metabolism and macrophage-to-feces reverse cholesterol transport at similar levels of CETP inhibition in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Briand, François; Thieblemont, Quentin; Muzotte, Elodie; Burr, Noémie; Urbain, Isabelle; Sulpice, Thierry; Johns, Douglas G

    2014-10-05

    Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors dalcetrapib and anacetrapib differentially alter LDL- and HDL-cholesterol levels, which might be related to the potency of each drug to inhibit CETP activity. We evaluated the effects of both drugs at similar levels of CETP inhibition on macrophage-to-feces reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in hamsters. In normolipidemic hamsters, both anacetrapib 30 mg/kg QD and dalcetrapib 200 mg/kg BID inhibited CETP activity by ~60%. After injection of 3H-cholesteryl oleate labeled HDL, anacetrapib and dalcetrapib reduced HDL-cholesteryl esters fractional catabolic rate (FCR) by 30% and 26% (both P<0.001 vs. vehicle) respectively, but only dalcetrapib increased HDL-derived 3H-tracer fecal excretion by 30% (P<0.05 vs. vehicle). After 3H-cholesterol labeled macrophage intraperitoneal injection, anacetrapib stimulated 3H-tracer appearance in HDL, but both drugs did not promote macrophage-derived 3H-tracer fecal excretion. In dyslipidemic hamsters, both anacetrapib 1 mg/kg QD and dalcetrapib 200 mg/kg BID inhibited CETP activity by ~65% and reduced HDL-cholesteryl ester FCR by 36% (both P<0.001 vs. vehicle), but only anacetrapib increased HDL-derived 3H-tracer fecal excretion significantly by 39%. After 3H-cholesterol labeled macrophage injection, only anacetrapib 1 mg/kg QD stimulated macrophage-derived 3H-tracer appearance in HDL. These effects remained weaker than those observed with anacetrapib 60 mg/kg QD, which induced a maximal inhibition of CETP and stimulation of macrophage-derived 3H-tracer fecal excretion. In contrast, dalcetrapib 200 mg/kg BID reduced macrophage-derived 3H-tracer fecal excretion by 23% (P<0.05 vs. vehicle). In conclusion, anacetrapib and dalcetrapib differentially alter HDL metabolism and RCT in hamsters. A stronger inhibition of CETP may be required to promote macrophage-to-feces reverse cholesterol transport in dyslipidemic hamsters.

  11. Effect of chlorpromazine on lipid metabolism in aortas from cholesterol-fed rabbits and normal rats, in vitro: inhibition of sterol esterification and modification of phospholipid synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, F.P.

    1983-06-01

    Chlorpromazine (CPZ), a major tranquilizer, was found to be a potent inhibitor of acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT, EC 2.3.1.26) in isolated arterial microsomes and in intact arterial tissue from the rat and cholesterol-fed rabbit in vitro. In isolated rabbit arterial microsomes, CPZ resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of ACAT with 50% inhibition of (1-14C)oleoylCoA incorporation into (14C)cholesteryl esters occurring at 0.1 mM CPZ. CPZ also effectively inhibited the incorporation of (14C)oleate into triglycerides without affecting incorporation into diglycerides. Additionally, CPZ altered the pattern of arterial phospholipids synthesized from (1-14C)oleate. Incorporation into phosphatidylcholine was depressed while incorporation into phosphatidylinositol was increased. Since diglyceride synthesis appeared to be unaffected by CPZ, a redirection of phosphatidic acid into the CDP-diglyceride pathway of glycerolipid synthesis does not adequately account for the effect of CPZ on arterial phospholipid and triglyceride synthesis in these experiments.

  12. Knowledge-driven analysis identifies a gene-gene interaction affecting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in multi-ethnic populations.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Brautbar, Ariel; Boerwinkle, Eric; Sing, Charles F; Clark, Andrew G; Keinan, Alon

    2012-01-01

    Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are among the most important risk factors for coronary artery disease. We tested for gene-gene interactions affecting the level of these four lipids based on prior knowledge of established genome-wide association study (GWAS) hits, protein-protein interactions, and pathway information. Using genotype data from 9,713 European Americans from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, we identified an interaction between HMGCR and a locus near LIPC in their effect on HDL-C levels (Bonferroni corrected P(c) = 0.002). Using an adaptive locus-based validation procedure, we successfully validated this gene-gene interaction in the European American cohorts from the Framingham Heart Study (P(c) = 0.002) and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA; P(c) = 0.006). The interaction between these two loci is also significant in the African American sample from ARIC (P(c) = 0.004) and in the Hispanic American sample from MESA (P(c) = 0.04). Both HMGCR and LIPC are involved in the metabolism of lipids, and genome-wide association studies have previously identified LIPC as associated with levels of HDL-C. However, the effect on HDL-C of the novel gene-gene interaction reported here is twice as pronounced as that predicted by the sum of the marginal effects of the two loci. In conclusion, based on a knowledge-driven analysis of epistasis, together with a new locus-based validation method, we successfully identified and validated an interaction affecting a complex trait in multi-ethnic populations.

  13. A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans.

    PubMed

    Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hünemeier, Tábita; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Ortiz-López, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramírez-Jiménez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D; Granados-Silvestre, Ma de Angeles; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, José; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Gómez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vázquez, Adriana; González-Martín, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M; Knowler, William C; Bortolini, M Cátira; Hayden, Michael R; Baier, Leslie J; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2010-07-15

    It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, obesity and type 2 diabetes in Mexican Mestizos. We performed a more extensive analysis of this variant in 4405 Native Americans and 863 individuals from other ethnic groups to investigate genetic evidence of positive selection, to assess its functional effect in vitro and to explore associations with HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits. The C230 allele was found in 29 of 36 Native American groups, but not in European, Asian or African individuals. C230 was observed on a single haplotype, and C230-bearing chromosomes showed longer relative haplotype extension compared with other haplotypes in the Americas. Additionally, single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Human Genome Diversity Panel Native American populations were enriched in significant integrated haplotype score values in the region upstream of the ABCA1 gene. Cells expressing the C230 allele showed a 27% cholesterol efflux reduction (P< 0.001), confirming this variant has a functional effect in vitro. Moreover, the C230 allele was associated with lower HDL-C levels (P = 1.77 x 10(-11)) and with higher body mass index (P = 0.0001) in the combined analysis of Native American populations. This is the first report of a common functional variant exclusive to Native American and descent populations, which is a major determinant of HDL-C levels and may have contributed to the adaptive evolution of Native American populations.

  14. A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans

    PubMed Central

    Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K.; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hünemeier, Tábita; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Ortiz-López, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramírez-Jiménez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D.; de Ángeles Granados-Silvestre, Ma; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M.; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, José; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Gómez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P.; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vázquez, Adriana; González-Martín, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S.; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M.; Knowler, William C.; Bortolini, M. Cátira; Hayden, Michael R.; Baier, Leslie J.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, obesity and type 2 diabetes in Mexican Mestizos. We performed a more extensive analysis of this variant in 4405 Native Americans and 863 individuals from other ethnic groups to investigate genetic evidence of positive selection, to assess its functional effect in vitro and to explore associations with HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits. The C230 allele was found in 29 of 36 Native American groups, but not in European, Asian or African individuals. C230 was observed on a single haplotype, and C230-bearing chromosomes showed longer relative haplotype extension compared with other haplotypes in the Americas. Additionally, single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Human Genome Diversity Panel Native American populations were enriched in significant integrated haplotype score values in the region upstream of the ABCA1 gene. Cells expressing the C230 allele showed a 27% cholesterol efflux reduction (P< 0.001), confirming this variant has a functional effect in vitro. Moreover, the C230 allele was associated with lower HDL-C levels (P = 1.77 × 10−11) and with higher body mass index (P = 0.0001) in the combined analysis of Native American populations. This is the first report of a common functional variant exclusive to Native American and descent populations, which is a major determinant of HDL-C levels and may have contributed to the adaptive evolution of Native American populations. PMID:20418488

  15. Cholesterol, inflammasomes, and atherogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plasma cholesterol levels have been strongly associated with atherogenesis, underscoring the role of lipid metabolism in defining cardiovascular disease risk. However, atherosclerotic plaque is highly dynamic and contains elements of both the innate and adaptive immune system that respond to the abe...

  16. Lysosomes, cholesterol and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Jerome, W Gray

    2011-01-01

    Cholesterol-engorged macrophage foam cells are a critical component of the atherosclerotic lesion. Reducing the sterol deposits in lesions reduces clinical events. Sterol accumulations within lysosomes have proven to be particularly hard to mobilize out of foam cells. Moreover, excess sterol accumulation in lysosomes has untoward effects, including a complete disruption of lysosome function. Recently, we demonstrated that treatment of sterol-engorged macrophages in culture with triglyceride-containing particles can reverse many of the effects of cholesterol on lysosomes and dramatically reduce the sterol burden in these cells. This article describes what is known about lysosomal sterol engorgement, discusses the possible mechanisms by which triglyceride could produce its effects, and evaluates the possible positive and negative effects of reducing the lysosomal cholesterol levels in foam cells. PMID:21643524

  17. Dietary levels of chia: influence on yolk cholesterol, lipid content and fatty acid composition for two strains of hens.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W

    2000-05-01

    Four hundred fifty H&N laying hens, half white and half brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet to diets containing 7, 14, 21, and 28% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined 30, 43, 58, 72, and 90 d from the start of the trial. Significantly less cholesterol was found in the egg yolks produced by the hens fed the diets with 14, 21, and 28% chia compared with the control, except at Day 90. Palmitic fatty acid content and total saturated fatty acid content decreased as chia percentage increased and as the trial progressed. Total omega-3 fatty acid content was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for both strains for all chia diets compared with the control diet. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of the yolks from the chia diets was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than from the control diet. Generally, total PUFA content tended to be highest in the yolks of the white hens.

  18. Cholesterol self-powered biosensor.

    PubMed

    Sekretaryova, Alina N; Beni, Valerio; Eriksson, Mats; Karyakin, Arkady A; Turner, Anthony P F; Vagin, Mikhail Yu

    2014-10-07

    Monitoring the cholesterol level is of great importance, especially for people with high risk of developing heart disease. Here we report on reagentless cholesterol detection in human plasma with a novel single-enzyme, membrane-free, self-powered biosensor, in which both cathodic and anodic bioelectrocatalytic reactions are powered by the same substrate. Cholesterol oxidase was immobilized in a sol-gel matrix on both the cathode and the anode. Hydrogen peroxide, a product of the enzymatic conversion of cholesterol, was electrocatalytically reduced, by the use of Prussian blue, at the cathode. In parallel, cholesterol oxidation catalyzed by mediated cholesterol oxidase occurred at the anode. The analytical performance was assessed for both electrode systems separately. The combination of the two electrodes, formed on high surface-area carbon cloth electrodes, resulted in a self-powered biosensor with enhanced sensitivity (26.0 mA M(-1) cm(-2)), compared to either of the two individual electrodes, and a dynamic range up to 4.1 mM cholesterol. Reagentless cholesterol detection with both electrochemical systems and with the self-powered biosensor was performed and the results were compared with the standard method of colorimetric cholesterol quantification.

  19. Phenotypic factors influencing the variation in response of circulating cholesterol level to personalised dietary advice in the Food4Me study.

    PubMed

    Kirwan, Laura; Walsh, Marianne C; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Livingstone, Katherine M; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Fallaize, Rosalind; O'Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; Forster, Hannah; Kolossa, Silvia; Daniel, Hannelore; Moschonis, George; Manios, Yannis; Surwillo, Agnieszka; Godlewska, Magdalena; Traczyk, Iwona; Drevon, Christian A; Gibney, Mike J; Lovegrove, Julie A; Martinez, J Alfredo; Saris, Wim H M; Mathers, John C; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine

    2016-12-01

    Individual response to dietary interventions can be highly variable. The phenotypic characteristics of those who will respond positively to personalised dietary advice are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to compare the phenotypic profiles of differential responders to personalised dietary intervention, with a focus on total circulating cholesterol. Subjects from the Food4Me multi-centre study were classified as responders or non-responders to dietary advice on the basis of the change in cholesterol level from baseline to month 6, with lower and upper quartiles defined as responder and non-responder groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between demographic and anthropometric profiles of the groups. Furthermore, with the exception of alcohol, there was no significant difference in reported dietary intake, at baseline. However, there were marked differences in baseline fatty acid profiles. The responder group had significantly higher levels of stearic acid (18 : 0, P=0·034) and lower levels of palmitic acid (16 : 0, P=0·009). Total MUFA (P=0·016) and total PUFA (P=0·008) also differed between the groups. In a step-wise logistic regression model, age, baseline total cholesterol, glucose, five fatty acids and alcohol intakes were selected as factors that successfully discriminated responders from non-responders, with sensitivity of 82 % and specificity of 83 %. The successful delivery of personalised dietary advice may depend on our ability to identify phenotypes that are responsive. The results demonstrate the potential use of metabolic profiles in identifying response to an intervention and could play an important role in the development of precision nutrition.

  20. Maternal and cord serum vitamin E levels in normal and abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    von Mandach, U; Huch, R; Huch, A

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether there is an association between reduced vitamin E levels and an abnormal pregnancy. Levels were measured by HPLC in maternal and, where possible, in paired umbilical cord serum from normal and abnormal pregnancies at delivery and in serial serum samples from healthy women during gestation. Abnormal pregnancies were compared with normals. In normal pregnancies, mean vitamin E levels rose from 12.9 +/- 1.1 micrograms/ml in early pregnancy to 22.5 +/- 1.5 micrograms/ml at term (p < 0.05, n = 11). In pregnancies with fetal complications or maternal risks, levels were lower than in normals at corresponding gestational age (p < 0.005 in smokers, n = 20 at > or = 30 weeks & p < 0.01 in hypertensives, n = 4 at 16-23 weeks). Mean maternal and paired cord serum levels in normal pregnancies at delivery > or = 37 weeks were 21.3 +/- 0.6 and 3.8 +/- 0.1 micrograms/ml respectively (p < 0.001, n = 56). Maternal levels in women with a low birthweight infant and in smokers (> 10 cig/day) were significantly lower (p < 0.05, n = 13 & p < 0.0005, n = 12); levels in women with a malformed infant (n = 6) were also reduced, but just barely below the level of significance (p = 0.06). Cord serum levels in complicated pregnancies, however, were unchanged. The results show lower maternal levels of vitamin E in abnormal pregnancies, suggesting a changed vitamin E metabolism.

  1. Defective cholesterol metabolism in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis[S

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Khalik, Jonas; Yutuc, Eylan; Crick, Peter J.; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Warner, Margaret; Roman, Gustavo; Talbot, Kevin; Gray, Elizabeth; Turner, Martin R.; Wang, Yuqin

    2017-01-01

    As neurons die, cholesterol is released in the central nervous system (CNS); hence, this sterol and its metabolites may represent a biomarker of neurodegeneration, including in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), in which altered cholesterol levels have been linked to prognosis. More than 40 different sterols were quantified in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from ALS patients and healthy controls. In CSF, the concentration of cholesterol was found to be elevated in ALS samples. When CSF metabolite levels were normalized to cholesterol, the cholesterol metabolite 3β,7α-dihydroxycholest-5-en-26-oic acid, along with its precursor 3β-hydroxycholest-5-en-26-oic acid and product 7α-hydroxy-3-oxocholest-4-en-26-oic acid, were reduced in concentration, whereas metabolites known to be imported from the circulation into the CNS were not found to differ in concentration between groups. Analysis of serum revealed that (25R)26-hydroxycholesterol, the immediate precursor of 3β-hydroxycholest-5-en-26-oic acid, was reduced in concentration in ALS patients compared with controls. We conclude that the acidic branch of bile acid biosynthesis, known to be operative in-part in the brain, is defective in ALS, leading to a failure of the CNS to remove excess cholesterol, which may be toxic to neuronal cells, compounded by a reduction in neuroprotective 3β,7α-dihydroxycholest-5-en-26-oic acid. PMID:27811233

  2. Molecular dynamics simulations on the interaction of the transmembrane NavAb channel with cholesterol and lipids in the membrane.

    PubMed

    Suwattanasophon, Chonticha; Wolschann, Peter; Faller, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Increased cholesterol levels are associated with multiple pathological conditions. In this work, molecular dynamics simulations were applied to observe the influence of membrane cholesterol levels on a voltage-gated sodium channel. Different lipid compositions are modeled around the channel to obtain information about the possible effects by which cholesterol influences NavAb channels. Cholesterol was normally not directly interacting with either the closed or inactivated conformation. Cholesterol increased lipid packing implying that it plays a crucial role in restricting lipid movement in the region around 1 nm of the channel in a 1-palmitoyl-2-oeleoyl phosphatidylcholine matrix. Our results provide the first computational indication of an indirect modulation of NavAb channels by membrane cholesterol.

  3. Cholesterol Depletion from a Ceramide/Cholesterol Mixed Monolayer: A Brewster Angle Microscope Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Pritam; Noutsi, Pakiza; Chaieb, Sahraoui

    2016-06-01

    Cholesterol is crucial to the mechanical properties of cell membranes that are important to cells’ behavior. Its depletion from the cell membranes could be dramatic. Among cyclodextrins (CDs), methyl beta cyclodextrin (MβCD) is the most efficient to deplete cholesterol (Chol) from biomembranes. Here, we focus on the depletion of cholesterol from a C16 ceramide/cholesterol (C16-Cer/Chol) mixed monolayer using MβCD. While the removal of cholesterol by MβCD depends on the cholesterol concentration in most mixed lipid monolayers, it does not depend very much on the concentration of cholesterol in C16-Cer/Chol monolayers. The surface pressure decay during depletion were described by a stretched exponential that suggested that the cholesterol molecules are unable to diffuse laterally and behave like static traps for the MβCD molecules. Cholesterol depletion causes morphology changes of domains but these disrupted monolayers domains seem to reform even when cholesterol level was low.

  4. Sleep-related violence and low serum cholesterol: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Agargun, Mehmed Yucel; Sekeroğlu, M Ramazan; Kara, Hayrettin; Ozer, Omer Akil; Tombul, Temel; Kiran, Umit; Selvi, Yavuz

    2002-04-01

    To examine whether there is a relationship between serum cholesterol level and sleep-related violence, we evaluated 15 patients with violent behavior during sleep (VBS) and 15 normal control subjects. The patient and control groups were matched for sex, age, and weight. There were 13 women and two men in each group. The patients with VBS had lower serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein levels than the healthy subjects. Low cholesterol may effect serotonergic neuronal activity and some types of 5-HT receptors, then may be related to violent behavior during sleep.

  5. [Creatinine clearance and contrast nephropathy in patients with normal creatinine levels].

    PubMed

    de Agustín, José A; Carda, Rocío; Manzano, María del C; Ruiz-Mateos, Borja; García-Rubira, Juan C; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Vilacosta, Isidre; Macaya, Carlos

    2007-07-01

    The main risk factor for contrast nephropathy is the presence of poor renal function. Plasma creatinine level is not a reliable measure of renal function as its value could lie within the normal range despite the presence of significant nephropathy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the creatinine clearance rate as a predictor of contrast nephropathy in patients with a normal plasma creatinine level. The study included 273 consecutive patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS) and a normal plasma creatinine level at admission who underwent coronary angiography. Patients who developed contrast nephropathy had a lower creatinine clearance rate at admission (66.3 mL/min vs. 83.4 mL/min; P<.001). A creatinine clearance rate < 80 mL/min had a sensitivity of 81% for predicting contrast nephropathy. Creatinine clearance should be measured routinely in patients with NSTEACS who are scheduled for coronary angiography.

  6. Transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor levels in normal human gastrointestinal mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Cartlidge, S. A.; Elder, J. B.

    1989-01-01

    Acid soluble proteins from 23 samples of normal human gastrointestinal mucosa derived from four normal adult organ donors were extracted and subjected to specific radiommunoassays for transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) and urogastrone epidermal growth factor (URO-EGF). All tissues were found to contain immunoreactive TGF alpha and levels ranged from 57 to 4,776 pg-1 wet weight of tissue. Although levels varied between tissue donors, the distribution of TGF alpha throughout the gastrointestinal tract appeared similar in all cases. URO-EGF levels were much lower (0-216 pg g-1 wet weight). TGF alpha levels in extracts of gastrointestinal mucosa from a 7-year-old female donor were higher and the observed distribution was markedly different from adult levels. URO-EGF was not detected in mucosal or submucosal tissue extracts from this patient. Further studies in juveniles are indicated. PMID:2803941

  7. [The real measurement of non-HDL-cholesterol: Atherogenic cholesterol].

    PubMed

    Millán, Jesús; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; Ascaso, Juan F; Blasco, Mariano; Brea, Angel; Díaz, Ángel; González-Santos, Pedro; Mantilla, Teresa; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Pintó, Xavier

    Lowe density lipoproteins (LDL) are the causal agent of cardiovascular diseases. In practice, we identify LDL with cholesterol transported in LDL (cLDL). So, cLDL has become the major target for cardiovascular prevention. Howewer, we have progressive evidences about the role of triglycerides rich lipoproteins, particularly those very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) in promotion and progression of atherosclerosis, that leads cholesterol in VLDL and its remanents as a potential therapeutic target. This feature is particularly important and of a great magnitude, in patients with hypertiglyceridemia. We can to considere, that the non-HDL cholesterol -cLDL+cVLDL+c-remmants+Lp(a)- is the real measurement of atherogenic cholesterol. In addition, non-HDL-cholesterol do not show any variations between postprandial states. In fact, non-HDL-cholesterol should be an excellent marker of atherogenic cholesterol, and an major therapeutic target in patients with atherogenic dyslipidaemia. According with different clinical trials and with the epidemiological and mendelian studies, in patients with high cardiovascular risk, optimal level of cLDL will be under 70mg/dl, and under 100 ng/dl for non-HDL-cholesterol; and in high risk patients, 100mg/dl and 130mg/dl, respectively.

  8. PKCβ: Expanding role in hepatic adaptation of cholesterol homeostasis to dietary fat/cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Devina; Mehta, Kamal D

    2017-03-01

    Cholesterol homeostasis relies on an intricate network of cellular processes whose deregulation in response to Western type high-fat/cholesterol diets can lead to several life-threatening pathologies. Significant advances have been made in resolving the molecular identity and regulatory function of transcription factors sensitive to fat, cholesterol, or bile acids, but whether body senses the presence of both fat and cholesterol simultaneously is not known. Assessing the impact of a high-fat/cholesterol load, rather than an individual component alone, on cholesterol homeostasis is more physiologically relevant because Western diets deliver both fat and cholesterol at the same time. Moreover, dietary fat and dietary cholesterol are reported to act synergistically to impair liver cholesterol homeostasis. A key insight into the role of protein kinase C-β (PKCβ) in hepatic adaptation to high-fat/cholesterol diets was gained recently through the use of knockout mice. The emerging evidence indicates that PKCβ is an important regulator of cholesterol homeostasis that ensures normal adaptation to high-fat/cholesterol intake. Consistent with this function, high-fat/cholesterol diets induce PKCβ expression and signaling in the intestine and liver, while systemic PKCβ deficiency promotes accumulation of cholesterol in the liver and bile. PKCβ disruption results in profound dysregulation of hepatic cholesterol and bile homeostasis and imparts sensitivity to cholesterol gallstone formation. The available results support involvement of a two-pronged mechanism by which intestine and liver PKCβ signaling converge on liver ERK1/2 to dictate diet-induced cholesterol and bile acid homeostasis. Collectively, PKCβ is an integrator of dietary fat/cholesterol signal and mediates changes to cholesterol homeostasis.

  9. Polymorphism of rs1044925 in the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 gene and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of rs1044925 polymorphism in the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) gene and serum lipid profiles is not well known in different ethnic groups. Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was carried out to clarify the association of rs1044925 polymorphism in the ACAT-1 gene and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 626 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 624 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of rs1044925 polymorphism in the ACAT-1 gene was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of A and C alleles was 79.0% and 21.0% in Bai Ku Yao, and 87.3% and 12.7% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of AA, AC and CC genotypes was 63.2%, 31.4% and 5.2% in Bai Ku Yao, and 75.6%, 23.2% and 1.1% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The levels of TC, LDL-C and ApoB in Bai Ku Yao but not in Han were different between the AA and AC/CC genotypes in females but not in males (P < 0.05 for all). The C allele carriers had lower serum TC, LDL-C and ApoB levels as compared with the C allele noncarriers. The levels of TC, LDL-C and ApoB in Bai Ku Yao but not in Han were correlated with genotypes in females but not in males (P < 0.05 for all). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and blood pressure in both ethnic groups (P < 0.05-0.001). Conclusions These results suggest that the polymorphism of rs1044925 in the ACAT-1 gene is mainly associated with female serum TC, LDL-C and

  10. The Effect of Residing Altitude on Levels of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol: A Pilot Study From the Omani Arab Population.

    PubMed

    Al Riyami, Nafila B; Banerjee, Yajnavalka; Al-Waili, Khalid; Rizvi, Syed G; Al-Yahyaee, Said; Hassan, Mohammed O; Albarwani, Sulayma; Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Bayoumi, Riad A

    2015-07-01

    Lower mortality rates from coronary heart disease and higher levels of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) have been observed in populations residing at high altitude. However, this effect has not been investigated in Arab populations, which exhibit considerable genetic homogeneity. We assessed the relationship between residing altitude and HDL-C in 2 genetically similar Omani Arab populations residing at different altitudes. The association between the levels of HDL-C and other metabolic parameters was also investigated. The levels of HDL-C were significantly higher in the high-altitude group compared with the low-altitude group. Stepwise regression analysis showed that altitude was the most significant factor affecting HDL-C, followed by gender, serum triglycerides, and finally the 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose. This finding is consistent with previously published studies from other populations and should be taken into consideration when comparing cardiovascular risk factors in populations residing at different altitudes.

  11. Effect of different dietary levels of Yucca schidigera powder on the performance, blood parameters and egg yolk cholesterol of laying quails.

    PubMed

    Kaya, S; Erdogan, Z; Erdogan, S

    2003-02-01

    A total of 135 laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica), 9 weeks old, were divided into three dietary treatment groups. Three replicates were assigned to each treatment group consisting of 15 birds per cage. The diet was supplemented with 0, 100 and 200 ppm Yucca schidigera powder and given ad libitum to the quails for a period of 14 weeks. Body weight, egg production, feed consumption and feed efficiency were not different due to dietary treatments among the groups. Increased egg weight was determined in the control group. Yucca powder supplementation decreased serum glucose, cholesterol triglyceride level in laying quails. Serum total protein concentration was not changed by dietary treatments but albumin level was decreased in quails fed 100 ppm yucca powder. Egg yolk cholesterol concentration was not significantly different among the groups but tended to decline (11.5%) as a result of yucca supplementation. Red Blood Cell (RBC) and White Blood Cell (WBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) were not affected by supplementation of yucca powder. However, haemoglobin (HB) concentration was slightly increased and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) was significantly increased by 200 ppm yucca powder supplementation to the diet.

  12. Epigenetic regulation of cholesterol homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Meaney, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Although best known as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, cholesterol is a vital component of all mammalian cells. In addition to key structural roles, cholesterol is a vital biochemical precursor for numerous biologically important compounds including oxysterols and bile acids, as well as acting as an activator of critical morphogenic systems (e.g., the Hedgehog system). A variety of sophisticated regulatory mechanisms interact to coordinate the overall level of cholesterol in cells, tissues and the entire organism. Accumulating evidence indicates that in additional to the more “traditional” regulatory schemes, cholesterol homeostasis is also under the control of epigenetic mechanisms such as histone acetylation and DNA methylation. The available evidence supporting a role for these mechanisms in the control of cholesterol synthesis, elimination, transport and storage are the focus of this review. PMID:25309573

  13. Influence of high-normal serum TSH levels on major cardiovascular risk factors and Visceral Adiposity Index in euthyroid type 2 diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Giandalia, A; Russo, G T; Romeo, E L; Alibrandi, A; Villari, P; Mirto, A A; Armentano, G; Benvenga, S; Cucinotta, D

    2014-09-01

    Although several observations indicate that serum TSH levels in the high normal range are related to cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors in the general population, similar data are limited in diabetic subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential associations between TSH serum levels within the normal range and major metabolic and non-metabolic CVD risk factors in a cohort of euthyroid type 2 diabetic subjects. Thyroid hormones, TSH levels, anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, glucose control, and blood pressure were measured in 490 euthyroid type 2 diabetic subjects, consecutively attending two outpatient diabetic units in Southern Italy. In all subjects, we also calculated the Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI), an obesity-related index associated with CVD risk. Diabetic women showed higher mean serum TSH levels and lower FT4 concentration than diabetic men, while FT3 levels were comparable in the two genders. Stratifying the study population according to quartiles of TSH levels, subjects in the highest TSH quartile were more likely to be female and younger, with higher values of BMI and waist circumference (P = 0.05 both), higher triglycerides (P = 0.002) and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations (P = 0.01), higher VAI values (P = 0.02), and lower FT4 levels (P = 0.05), when compared to those in the lowest quartile. At multivariate analysis, a younger age, female gender, triglycerides levels, and waist circumference were independently associated with higher TSH levels. In conclusion, in type 2 diabetic subjects with no evidence of thyroid disease, higher TSH concentrations within the normal range were more frequent in women and in younger subjects, and they were associated with visceral obesity and higher triglycerides concentrations, two well-known CVD risk factors.

  14. What Is Cholesterol?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cholesterol KidsHealth > For Teens > Cholesterol Print A A A ... High Cholesterol? en español ¿Qué es el colesterol? Cholesterol Is a Fat in the Blood Cholesterol (kuh- ...

  15. What Is Cholesterol?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cholesterol KidsHealth > For Teens > Cholesterol A A A What's ... High Cholesterol? en español ¿Qué es el colesterol? Cholesterol Is a Fat in the Blood Cholesterol (kuh- ...

  16. Docosahexaenoic acid-induced amelioration on impairment of memory learning in amyloid beta-infused rats relates to the decreases of amyloid beta and cholesterol levels in detergent-insoluble membrane fractions.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Michio; Hossain, Shahdat; Agdul, Haqu; Shido, Osamu

    2005-12-30

    We investigated the effects of dietary administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3) on the levels of amyloid beta (A beta) peptide (1-40) and cholesterol in the nonionic detergent Triton 100 x-insoluble membrane fractions (DIFs) of the cerebral cortex and, also, on learning-related memory in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) rats infused with A beta peptide (1-40) into the cerebral ventricle. The infusion increased the levels of A beta peptide and cholesterol in the DIFs concurrently with a significant increase in reference memory errors (measured by eight-arm radial-maze tasks) compared with those of vehicle rats. Conversely, the dietary administration of DHA to AD-model rats decreased the levels of A beta peptide and cholesterol in the DIFs, with the decrease being more prominent in the DHA-administered rats. Regression analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between A beta peptide and each of cholesterol, palmitic acid and stearic acid, and between the number of reference memory errors and each of cholesterol, palmitic, stearic and oleic acid; moreover, a significant negative correlation was observed between the number of reference memory errors and the molar ratio of DHA to palmitic plus stearic acid. These results suggest that DHA-induced protection of memory deficits in AD-model rats is related to the interactions of cholesterol, palmitic acid or stearic acid with A beta peptides in DIFs where DHA ameliorates these interactions.

  17. Accuracy and reproducibility of cholesterol assay in the western Cape.

    PubMed

    Berger, G M; Christopher, K; Juritz, J M; Liesegang, F

    1988-11-19

    The accuracy and precision of cholesterol assay in the western Cape region is reported. The survey was carried out over 15 weeks utilising three human EDTA plasma pools with normal, borderline high and high cholesterol levels respectively. All 11 laboratories in the region providing a service to academic, provincial or military hospitals or to the private medical sector were included in the study. Ten of the 11 laboratories utilised automated enzymatic methods of cholesterol assay whereas 1 used a manual procedure based on the Liebermann-Burchard reaction. Methods were standardised by means of a variety of commercial calibrator material in all except 1 laboratory which used reference sera from the Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta. The performance of the 4 best laboratories met the standard of precision recommended for cholesterol assay, viz. total coefficient of variation of less than or equal to 2.5%. However, only 2 of the 11 laboratories achieved the optimum objective of an overall bias of less than 2.0% together with precision of less than or equal to 2.5%. Rational use of cholesterol assay for diagnosis and management will therefore require standardisation of cholesterol assay on a common reference material and greater attention to analytical factors influencing the reproducibility of results. Intrinsic biological variation also contributes uncertainty to the interpretation of a single value. Thus important clinical decisions must be based on two or more assays carried out using appropriate methodology.

  18. The Level of Serum and Urinary Nephrin in Normal Pregnancy and Pregnancy with Subsequent Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yun Ji; Cho, Hee Young; Cho, SiHyun; Kim, Young Han; Jeon, Jin-Dong; Kim, Young-Jin; Lee, Sanghoo; Park, Jimyeong; Kim, Ha Yan; Park, Yong-Won

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate serum and urinary nephrin levels of normal pregnancy to establish a standard reference value and to compare them with patients who subsequently developed preeclampsia (PE). Materials and Methods In this prospective study, 117 healthy singleton pregnancies were enrolled between 6 to 20 weeks of gestation at 2 participating medical centers during October 2010 to March 2012. Urine and serum samples were collected at the time of enrollment, each trimester, and at 4 to 6 weeks postpartum. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for nephrin was performed and samples from patients who subsequently developed PE were compared to the normal patients. Results Of 117 patients initially enrolled, 99 patients delivered at the study centers and of those patients, 12 (12.1%) developed PE at a median gestational age of 34+4 weeks (range 29+5–36+6). In the normal patients (n=68), serum nephrin level decreased and urinary nephrin level increased during the latter of pregnancy. In 12 patients who subsequently developed PE, a significant rise in the 3rd trimester serum and urinary nephrin levels, compared to the controls, was observed (p<0.001), and this increase occurred 9 days prior to the onset of clinical disease. Conclusion As the onset of PE was preceded by the rise in the serum and urinary nephrin in comparison to normal pregnancy, serum and urinary nephrin may be a useful predictive marker of PE. PMID:28120572

  19. Confirmation of Correlation between Brain Nerve Conduction Velocity and Intelligence Level in Normal Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, T. Edward; Vernon, Philip A.; Johnson, Andrew M.

    2004-01-01

    In 1992, Reed and Jensen ["Intelligence" 16 (1992) 259-272] reported a positive correlation (0.26; "p"= 0.002; 0.37 after correcting for restricted intelligence range) between a brain nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and intelligence level in 147 normal male students. In the first follow-up of their study, we report on a study…

  20. Early steps in steroidogenesis: intracellular cholesterol trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Walter L.; Bose, Himangshu S.

    2011-01-01

    Steroid hormones are made from cholesterol, primarily derived from lipoproteins that enter cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis. In endo-lysosomes, cholesterol is released from cholesterol esters by lysosomal acid lipase (LAL; disordered in Wolman disease) and exported via Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) proteins (disordered in NPC disease). These diseases are characterized by accumulated cholesterol and cholesterol esters in most cell types. Mechanisms for trans-cytoplasmic cholesterol transport, membrane insertion, and retrieval from membranes are less clear. Cholesterol esters and “free” cholesterol are enzymatically interconverted in lipid droplets. Cholesterol transport to the cholesterol-poor outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) appears to involve cholesterol transport proteins. Cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1) then initiates steroidogenesis by converting cholesterol to pregnenolone on the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM). Acute steroidogenic responses are regulated by cholesterol delivery from OMM to IMM, triggered by the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). Chronic steroidogenic capacity is determined by CYP11A1 gene transcription. StAR mutations cause congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia, with absent steroidogenesis, potentially lethal salt loss, and 46,XY sex reversal. StAR mutations initially destroy most, but not all steroidogenesis; low levels of StAR-independent steroidogenesis are lost later due to cellular damage, explaining the clinical findings. Rare P450scc mutations cause a similar syndrome. This review addresses these early steps in steroid biosynthesis. PMID:21976778

  1. Cholesterol autoxidation in phospholipid membrane bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Sevanian, A.; McLeod, L.L.

    1987-09-01

    Lipid peroxidation in unilamellar liposomes of known cholesterol-phospholipid composition was monitored under conditions of autoxidation or as induced by a superoxide radical generating system, gamma-irradiation or cumene hydroperoxide. Formation of cholesterol oxidation products was indexed to the level of lipid peroxidation. The major cholesterol oxidation products identified were 7-keto-cholesterol, isomeric cholesterol 5,6-epoxides, isomeric 7-hydroperoxides and isomeric 3,7-cholestane diols. Other commonly encountered products included 3,5-cholestadiene-7-one and cholestane-3 beta, 5 alpha, 6 beta-triol. Superoxide-dependent peroxidation required iron and produced a gradual increase in 7-keto-cholesterol and cholesterol epoxides. Cholesterol oxidation was greatest in liposomes containing high proportions of unsaturated phospholipid to cholesterol (4:1 molar ratio), intermediate with low phospholipid to cholesterol ratios (2:1) and least in liposomes prepared with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. This relationship held regardless of the oxidizing conditions used. Cumene hydroperoxide-dependent lipid peroxidation and/or more prolonged oxidations with other oxidizing systems yielded a variety of products where cholesterol-5 beta,6 beta-epoxide, 7-ketocholesterol and the 7-hydroperoxides were most consistently elevated. Oxyradical initiation of lipid peroxidation produced a pattern of cholesterol oxidation products distinguishable from the pattern derived by cumene hydroperoxide-dependent peroxidation.

  2. Epiberberine reduces serum cholesterol in diet-induced dyslipidemia Syrian golden hamsters via network pathways involving cholesterol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zong-Yao; Hu, Yin-Ran; Ma, Hang; Feng, Min; Li, Xue-Gang; Ye, Xiao-Li

    2016-03-05

    This study aimed to evaluate the cholesterol-lowering effect of epiberberine in dyslipidemia Syrian golden hamsters induced by high fat and high cholesterol (HFHC) diet and its regulation mechanism on some key genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. Hamsters were divided into six groups: normal control group (NC), HFHC group, simvastatin (Sim) and three doses of epiberberine group. The body weight, organs weight and serum lipid levels, as well as total cholesterol (TC) and total bile acids (TBA) levels in liver and feces were determined. Furthermore, the antidyslipidemia effect of epiberberine on key genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis, uptake, conversion and elimination such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL receptor), 7-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and apical sodium dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) were investigated. The results showed that epiberberine at high dosage significantly reduced serum TC, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and TBA levels by 20.2%, 22.3% and 43.8%, respectively, and increased TBA and TC levels in feces. Epiberberine inhibited HMGCR mRNA and protein expressions and slightly reduced the protein level of ASBT, as well as dramatically up-regulated mRNA and protein expressions of CYP7A1 and LDL receptor. These findings suggested that the antidyslipidemia effects of epiberberine can be achieved via inhibiting the synthesis of cholesterol, promoting the uptake and conversion of TC in liver and increasing the excretion of TC and TBA in feces. Thus, epiberberine should be considered as one of the promising natural drugs for the treatment of dyslipidemia.

  3. Think Again About Cholesterol Survey.

    PubMed

    Catapano, Alberico L; Wiklund, Olov

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still the main cause of death in Europe. Elevated plasma cholesterol, specifically low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), is the main causative risk factor for CVD, most prominently associated with coronary heart disease. A widespread disinformation about cholesterol and CVD is one factor underlying a poor compliance to lipid-lowering therapy. To investigate how cholesterol, CVD and cholesterol reduction is perceived in the population, a survey was commissioned by the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS). Nearly half of people above 25 years of age are most worried about cancer (45%), compared to just over one in four who are worried about heart disease (27%). A majority believe being overweight (72%), blood pressure (70%) and smoking (67%) most affect heart health, far more than note cholesterol (59%) and family history (39%). The majority of adults recognize that high LDL (or "bad") cholesterol should be a health priority for everyone, including those younger than 40 and those who are not overweight. However, 1 in 4 (25%) incorrectly believe that it does not need to be a concern until someone shows signs or symptoms. Although 89% of adults surveyed agreed it is important for people to know whether or not they have high LDL-C, an overwhelming 92% did not know their LDL-C levels or had never had their cholesterol levels tested. A high 63% had never heard of familial hypercholesterolemia: France had the lowest level of awareness (41%) to Denmark with a high 80%, and the association of the disease with high levels of LDL-C is quite poor (only 36%), with Sweden only at 22% versus a high in Spain of 54%. A large part of the people participating in the survey were quite uncertain about the modality of transmission for familial hypercholesterolemia in the family. All in all, this survey highlights the need for more information among citizens for the role of cholesterol in determining CVD.

  4. Expression and Chloroplast Targeting of Cholesterol Oxidase in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, David R.; Grebenok, Robert J.; Ohnmeiss, Thomas E.; Greenplate, John T.; Purcell, John P.

    2001-01-01

    Cholesterol oxidase represents a novel type of insecticidal protein with potent activity against the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman). We transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants with the cholesterol oxidase choM gene and expressed cytosolic and chloroplast-targeted versions of the ChoM protein. Transgenic leaf tissues expressing cholesterol oxidase exerted insecticidal activity against boll weevil larvae. Our results indicate that cholesterol oxidase can metabolize phytosterols in vivo when produced cytosolically or when targeted to chloroplasts. The transgenic plants exhibiting cytosolic expression accumulated low levels of saturated sterols known as stanols, and displayed severe developmental aberrations. In contrast, the transgenic plants expressing chloroplast-targeted cholesterol oxidase maintained a greater accumulation of stanols, and appeared phenotypically and developmentally normal. These results are discussed within the context of plant sterol distribution and metabolism. PMID:11457962

  5. 24S-hydroxycholesterol: a marker of brain cholesterol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lütjohann, D; von Bergmann, K

    2003-09-01

    The enzymatic conversion of CNS cholesterol to 24S-hydroxycholesterol, which readily crosses the blood-brain barrier, is the major pathway for brain cholesterol elimination and brain cholesterol homeostasis maintenance. The enzyme mediating this conversion has been characterized at the molecular level (CYP46) and is mainly located in neurons. Like other oxysterols, 24S-hydroxycholesterol is efficiently converted into normal bile acids or excreted in bile in its sulfated and glucuronidated form. Levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol in the circulation decrease with age in infants and children. In adults, however, the levels appear to be stable. There is accumulating evidence pointing toward a potentially important link between cholesterol, beta-amyloid, and Alzheimer's disease. Concentrations of 24S-hydroxycholesterol in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are significantly higher in Alzheimer's disease and vascular demented patients at early stages of the disease compared to healthy subjects. Variations in genetic background, time of disease onset, and severity of dementia are potential sources of variance. Inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis, also termed statins, seem to have a reductive influence on the generation of the amyloid precursor protein, the neuronal secretion of beta-amyloid, and on de novo cholesterol synthesis. Recent epidemiological studies indicate that the prevalence of diagnosed AD and vascular dementia is reduced among people taking statins for a longer period of time. High-dose simvastatin treatment (80 mg/day) in patients with hypercholesterolemia leads to a significant decrease in brain-specific serum 24S-hydroxycholesterol concentrations and indicates a diminished cholesterol metabolism in the brain. CSF levels of cholesterol and lathosterol, a cholesterol precursor considered to be an indicator for cholesterol neogenesis, were significantly decreased in statin-treated subjects compared to non-treated normo- and hypercholesterolemic subjects

  6. Reduction of blood glucose level by orexins in fasting normal and streptozotocin-diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Tsuneki, Hiroshi; Sugihara, Yoshitaka; Honda, Ritsu; Wada, Tsutomu; Sasaoka, Toshiyasu; Kimura, Ikuko

    2002-07-19

    Orexin-A and orexin-B are neuropeptides implicated in the maintenance of energy homeostasis. In the present study, we examined the effects of orexins on blood glucose levels in response to fasting in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. After the injection of orexin-A and orexin-B (0.01-1 nmol/kg, i.v.), the blood glucose levels in both normal mice and diabetic mice in the fasting state decreased. In contrast, neither orexin-A nor orexin-B affected the glucose levels in the animals allowed free access to food. Intracerebroventricular administration of orexin-A and orexin-B was associated with glucose-lowering effects in fasting diabetic mice. The serum insulin level did not significantly change following the administration of orexin-A or orexin-B, in either the normal or the diabetic mice in the fasting state. These results demonstrate that orexins lower the blood glucose levels exclusively in the fasting state. The orexins may stimulate some neural and hormonal network and thereby promote blood glucose utilization.

  7. Levels of plasma soluble complement receptor 1 (sCR1) in normal Indian adult population.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, B; Raju, K R; Anand, V; Malu, S; Padmanabhan, S; Tiwari, S C; Das, N; Srivastava, L M

    1999-07-01

    A decrease in the membrane anchored erythrocyte complement receptor 1 (CR1) is reported as an acquired phenomenon in a number of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases with concomitant rise in soluble CR1 (sCR1) levels in plasma. There is a need to establish the normal range of sCR1 in Indian adults to assess the function and disease association of this protein. The plasma sCR1 levels of 50 healthy individuals have been estimated by an indigenously developed sandwich ELISA. sCR1 levels from 26 patients suffering from nephropathies had also been assayed which was much higher than the normal controls. This observation suggests sCR1 as a potential market for the assessment of disease activity in nephropathies.

  8. Get Your Cholesterol Checked

    MedlinePlus

    ... Checked Print This Topic En español Get Your Cholesterol Checked Browse Sections The Basics Overview Cholesterol Test ... How often do I need to get my cholesterol checked? The general recommendation is to get your ...

  9. Cholesterol Facts and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Pressure Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program High Cholesterol Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As ... the facts about high cholesterol [PDF-281K] . High Cholesterol in the United States 73.5 million adults ( ...

  10. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 7 March 2017. + ... saturated fat found in red meat. What is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a fatlike substance that’s found in ...

  11. Effect of VULM 1457, an ACAT inhibitor, on serum lipid levels and on real time red blood cell flow in diabetic and non-diabetic hamsters fed high cholesterol-lipid diet.

    PubMed

    Vojtassáková, E; Syneková, M; Tazká, D; Mátyás, S; Hózová, R; Sadlonová, I; Svec, P

    2007-12-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol O-acyltransferase (ACAT) catalyzes the formation of cholesterol/fatty acyl-coenzyme A esters. Accumulation of cholesterol esters leads to pathological changes connected with atherosclerosis. We have evaluated effects of a newly synthesized ACAT inhibitor, 1-(2,6-diisopropyl-phenyl)-3-[4-(4'-nitrophenylthio)phenyl] urea (VULM 1457), on serum lipid (cholesterol and triglycerides) levels and velocity of red blood cells (RBC) in non-diabetic and diabetic hamsters fed on high cholesterol-lipid (HCHL) diet during 3 months. The VULM 1457 effects on the paw microcirculation were assessed using capillary microscopy by measuring (RBC) velocity in vivo. Hamsters fed on HCHL diet became hypercholesterolemic with a dramatic increase in serum lipids accompanied with significantly decreased RBC velocity. Diabetic hamsters fed on HCHL diet had further increased serum lipids with reduction of RBC velocity. The VULM 1457 inhibitor lowered cholesterol levels in both non-diabetic and diabetic hamsters fed on HCHL diet. The greater VULM 1457 effect was shown in diabetic hamsters fed on HCHL diet where VULM 1457 expressed hypotriglycerides effects, too. An improved RBC velocity-pronounced effect was observed in diabetic hamsters fed on HCHL diet treated with VULM 1457. These results suggest that the ACAT inhibitor, VULM 1457, is a prospective hypolipidemic and anti-atherogenic drug which treats diabetes.

  12. The inhibitory effect of black soybean on hepatic cholesterol accumulation in high cholesterol and high fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji-Hye; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2013-10-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined as excess of fat in the liver. We investigated the effects of black soybean on the cholesterol metabolism and insulin resistance of mice fed high cholesterol/fat diets. Mice were randomly allocated into four groups that were fed different diets: the normal cholesterol/fat diet; high cholesterol/fat diets (HCD); and HCD with 1%, and 4% black soybean powder (1B-HCD, and 4B-HCD). Liver total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were significantly lower in the black soybean-supplemented groups than that in the HCD group. PCR revealed significantly lower hepatic SREBP2 and HMG-CoA reductase mRNA levels of black soybean-supplemented mice. Real-time PCR revealed significantly higher hepatic ABCA1 mRNA level of black soybean-supplemented mice, which may increase cholesterol efflux. Liver bile acids concentration was significantly high in the 4B-HCD group. Black soybean stimulated secretion of adiponectin, activation of pAMPK, and eliminated free fatty acids in the liver. Black soybean supplementation decreased MDA and nitrate level. The activities of SOD, catalase, and GPx were restored by black soybean supplementation. Our data strongly indicate that black soybean influences the balance between oxidative and antioxidative stress. We suggest that black soybean improves cholesterol metabolism, insulin resistance, and alleviates oxidative damage in NAFLD.

  13. Fish protein hydrolysates affect cholesterol metabolism in rats fed non-cholesterol and high-cholesterol diets.

    PubMed

    Hosomi, Ryota; Fukunaga, Kenji; Arai, Hirofumi; Kanda, Seiji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro

    2012-03-01

    Fish consumption is well known to provide health benefits in both experimental animals and human subjects. Numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of various protein hydrolysates on lipid metabolism. In this context, this study examined the effect of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) on cholesterol metabolism compared with the effect of casein. FPHs were prepared from Alaska pollock meat using papain as a protease. Male Wistar rats were divided into the following four dietary groups of seven rats each: either casein (20%) or FPH (10%) + casein (10%), with or without 0.5% cholesterol and 0.1% sodium cholate. Serum and liver lipid levels, fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions, and the hepatic expression of genes encoding proteins involved in cholesterol homeostasis were examined. In rats fed the FPH diets compared with casein diets with or without cholesterol and sodium cholate, the indexes of cholesterol metabolism-namely, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels-were significantly lower, whereas fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions were higher. Rats fed the FPH diets compared with casein with cholesterol exhibited a lower liver cholesterol level via an increased liver cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) expression level. This study demonstrates that the intake of FPH has hypocholesterolemic effects through the enhancement of fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions and CYP7A1 expression levels. Therefore, fish peptides prepared by papain digestion might provide health benefits by decreasing the cholesterol content in the blood, which would contribute to the prevention of circulatory system diseases such as arteriosclerosis.

  14. Cell Cholesterol Homeostasis: Mediation by Active Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Steck, Theodore L.; Lange, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the major pathways mediating cell cholesterol homeostasis respond to a common signal: active membrane cholesterol. Active cholesterol is that fraction which exceeds the complexing capacity of the polar bilayer lipids. Increments in plasma membrane cholesterol exceeding this threshold have an elevated chemical activity (escape tendency) and redistribute via diverse transport proteins to both circulating plasma lipoproteins and intracellular organelles. Active cholesterol prompts several feedback responses thereby. It is the substrate for its own esterification and for the synthesis of regulatory side-chain oxysterols. It also stimulates manifold pathways that down-regulate the biosynthesis, curtail the ingestion and increase the export of cholesterol. Thus, the abundance of cholesterol is tightly coupled to that of its polar lipid partners through active cholesterol. PMID:20843692

  15. The efficacy of vitamin C supplementation on reducing total serum cholesterol in human subjects: a review and analysis of 51 experimental trials

    PubMed Central

    McRae, Marc P.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Objective Observational studies in humans have shown an inverse relationship between plasma vitamin C concentration and total serum cholesterol. However, experimental studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the ability of vitamin C to reduce total serum cholesterol. Methods Published reports of trials studying the effects of vitamin C on serum lipids were identified by a search of Medline from 1966 to 2004. Data from 51 experimental studies comprising of 1666 pooled subjects were selected for analysis. Results A very strong negative association was observed between baseline total serum cholesterol and the percent change in cholesterol (r = −0.585, p<0.001). When subjects were divided into 4 groups based on their baseline total serum cholesterol levels, the following weighted mean percent changes in cholesterol from baseline were observed: normal cholesterol (<199mg/dl): 0.91±6.8% (n=508); borderline high cholesterol (200–239mg/dl): 3.90±5.78% (n=605); high cholesterol (240–279mg/dl): 11.40±7.96% (n=300); severe cholesterol (>280mg/dl): 14.30±8.36% (n=253). A significant inverse relationship was found between the baseline plasma vitamin C concentrations and mean percent change in total cholesterol from baseline (r = −0.500, p<0.005). It was also observed that the high and severe baseline cholesterol groups possessed lower baseline plasma vitamin C concentrations than those in the normal cholesterol groups (0.79 and 0.55 versus 1.24 mg/dl respectively). Conclusion This finding strengthens the hypothesis that the cholesterol lowering and cardio-protective benefit of vitamin C supplementation may be in its ability to elevate plasma vitamin C concentrations in those patients who initially possess lower than normal vitamin C plasma concentrations. PMID:19674666

  16. An elevated level of physical activity is associated with normal lipoprotein(a) levels in individuals from Maracaibo, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Valmore; Aparicio, Daniel; Rojas, Edward; Peñaranda, Lianny; Finol, Freddy; Acosta, Luis; Mengual, Edgardo; Rojas, Joselyn; Arráiz, Nailet; Toledo, Alexandra; Colmenares, Carlos; Urribarí, Jesica; Sanchez, Wireynis; Pineda, Carlos; Rodriguez, Dalia; Faria, Judith; Añez, Roberto; Cano, Raquel; Cano, Clímaco; Sorell, Luis; Velasco, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the main cause of death worldwide. Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease in which concentrations are genetically regulated. Contradictory results have been published about physical activity influence on Lp(a) concentration. This research aimed to determine associations between different physical activity levels and Lp(a) concentration. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was made in 1340 randomly selected subjects (males = 598; females = 712) to whom a complete clinical history, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Lp(a) level determination were made. Statistical analysis was carried out to assess qualitative variables relationship by chi2 and differences between means by one-way analysis of variance considering a P value <0.05 as statistically significant. Results are shown as absolute frequencies, percentages, and mean +/- standard deviation according to case. Physical activity levels were ordinal classified as follows: low activity with 24.3% (n = 318), moderate activity with 35.0% (n = 458), and high physical activity with 40.8% (n = 534). Lp(a) concentration in the studied sample was 26.28 +/- 12.64 (IC: 25.59-26.96) mg/dL. Lp(a) concentration according to low, moderate, and high physical activity levels were 29.22 +/- 13.74, 26.27 +/- 12.91, and 24.53 +/- 11.35 mg/dL, respectively, observing statistically significant differences between low and moderate level (P = 0.004) and low and high level (P < 0.001). A strong association (chi2 = 9.771; P = 0.002) was observed among a high physical activity level and a normal concentration of Lp(a) (less than 30 mg/dL). A lifestyle characterized by high physical activity is associated with normal Lp(a) levels.

  17. Return to normal streamflows and water levels: summary of hydrologic conditions in Georgia, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knaak, Andrew E.; Caslow, Kerry; Peck, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Drought conditions, persistent in the area since 2010, continued into the 2013 WY. In February 2013, Georgia was free of extreme (D3) drought conditions, as defined by the U.S. Drought Monitor, for the first time since August 2010 due to extended periods of heavy rainfall (U.S. Drought Monitor, 2013). According to the Office of the State Climatologist, the city of Savannah recorded 9.75 inches of rain in February 2013, the highest monthly total in February out of 143 years of record. Macon and Columbus also received record rainfalls in February 2013. Above-normal precipitation continued in June 2013, and the cities of Augusta and Savannah recorded the wettest June on record. In July, precipitation for the entire State of Georgia was 3.53 inches above normal (Dunkley, 2013). Above-normal rainfall from February to September 2013 increased streamflow and raised groundwater levels, and lakes and reservoirs were raised to full-pool elevations.

  18. Comparison of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and Calcium Levels between Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and Normal Women

    PubMed Central

    Moini, Ashraf; Shirzad, Nooshin; Ahmadzadeh, Marzieh; Hosseini, Reihaneh; Hosseini, Ladan; Sadatmahalleh, Shahideh Jahanian

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the relationship of vitamin D deficiency with insulin resistance syndrome as the component of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the main aim of this study was to compare serum level of 25hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] between PCOS patients and normal individuals. Materials and Methods A cross sectional study was conducted to compare 25(OH)D level between117 normal and 125 untreated PCOS cases at our clinic in Arash Hospital, Tehran, Iran, during 2011-2012. The obtained levels of 25(OH)D were classified as follows: lower than 25 nmol/ml as severe deficiency, between 25-49.9 nmol/ml as deficiency, 50-74.9 nmol/ml as insufficiency, and above 75 nmol/ml asnormal. In addition, endocrine and metabolic variables were evaluated. Results Among PCOS patients, our findings shows 3(2.4%) normal, 7(5.6%) with insufficiency, 33(26.4%) with deficiency and 82(65.6%) with severe deficiency, whereas in normal participants, 5(4.3%) normal, 4(3.4%) with insufficiency, 28(23.9%) with deficiency and 80(68.4%) with severe deficiency. Comparison of 25(OH)D level between two main groups showed no significant differences (p= 0.65). Also, the calcium and 25(OH)D levels had no significant differences in patients with overweight (p=0.22) and insulin resistance (p=0.64). But we also found a relationship between 25(OH)D level and metabolic syndrome (p=0.01). Furthermore, there was a correlation between 25(OH)D and body mass index (BMI) in control group (p=0.01), while the C-reactive protein (CRP) level was predominantly higher in PCOS group (p<0.001). Conclusion Although the difference of 25(OH)D level between PCOS and healthy women is not significant, the high prevalence of 25(OH)D deficiency is a real alarm for public health care system and may influence our results. PMID:25918586

  19. Modulation of cholesterol transport by maternal hypercholesterolemia in human full-term placenta

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wei-wei; Cai, Xue-ping; Le, Zhi-yin; Xiao, Rong; Zhou, Qi; Yu, Huan-ling

    2017-01-01

    The significance of maternal cholesterol transporting to the fetus under normal as well as pathological circumstances is less understood. The objective of this study was to observe the effects of maternal hypercholesterolemia on placental cholesterol transportation. Human full-time placenta, maternal and venous cord blood were sampled at delivery from the pregnant women with serum total cholesterol (TC) concentrations at third trimester higher than 7.25 mM (n = 19) and the pregnant women with normal TC concentrations (n = 19). Serum lipids and expression of genes related to cholesterol transportation were measured by western blot or real-time PCR. The results indicated that serum TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly increased, in pregnancies, but decreased in cord blood in hypercholesterolemic group compared to the matched control group. All the subjects were no-drinking, non-smoker, and gestational disease free. The mRNA expression of lipoprotein receptors, including LDLR and VLDLR were significantly increased, while the protein expression of PCSK9 was significantly increased in hypercholesterolemic placenta. In conclusion, maternal hypercholesterolemia might decrease the transportation of cholesterol from mother to fetus because of the high levels of PCSK9 protein expression. PMID:28199412

  20. Blood zinc protoporphyrin, serum total protein, and total cholesterol levels in automobile workshop workers in relation to lead toxicity: Our experience.

    PubMed

    Pachathundikandi, Suneesh Kumar; Varghese, Earaly Thomas

    2006-09-01

    Blood zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), serum total protein (TP), and total cholesterol (TC) levels in automobile workshop workers in relation to lead toxicity were analysed. In the present study, automobile workshop workers (healthy male workers at an age between 28 and 35 from four major automobile workshops in Kottayam, Kerala State, India) and the control (male healthy adults at an age between 28 and 35 residing at Aymanam, a distant village at Kottayam District, Kerala having reduced or no chance of lead exposure) displayed significant difference in blood lead (BPb) and blood ZZP (BZPP) level. The mean value of BPb in automobile workshop workers was 15.76±0.33 μg/dl, while in the control it was 8.20±0.15 μg/dl. In automobile workshop workers, the mean value of BZPP was 34.2±0.62 μg/dl. The control group exhibited a mean of 11.5±0.22 μg/dl. Automobile workshop workers exhibited significant increase in BZPP was corresponding to the increase in BPb level. The total protein levels estimated in automobile workshop workers showed significant decrease compared to control individuals, but was within the reference range of healthy individuals. The mean value of TP level in automobile workshop workers and control was 6.9±0.13 g/dl and 7.71±0.18 g/dl, respectively. There was no significant difference in blood haemoglobin (BHb) level among the automobile workshop workers and control. The serum TC level in automobile workshop workers showed significant decrease compared to the control individuals, but was with in the reference range of healthy individuals. The mean level of serum TC in automobile workshop workers was 162.00±3.44 mg/dl and the same in control was 172.86±4.32 mg/dl. The present study affirms occupational lead toxicity in automobile workshop workers and its effect on serum protein and cholesterol levels.

  1. Inhibition of Intestinal Bile Acid Transporter Slc10a2 Improves Triglyceride Metabolism and Normalizes Elevated Plasma Glucose Levels in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Snaith, Michael; Lindmark, Helena; Lundberg, Johanna; Östlund-Lindqvist, Ann-Margret; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats

    2012-01-01

    Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids increases cholesterol catabolism, thereby stimulating hepatic cholesterol synthesis from acetate. We hypothesized that such treatment should lower the hepatic acetate pool which may alter triglyceride and glucose metabolism. We explored this using mice deficient of the ileal sodium-dependent BA transporter (Slc10a2) and ob/ob mice treated with a specific inhibitor of Slc10a2. Plasma TG levels were reduced in Slc10a2-deficient mice, and when challenged with a sucrose-rich diet, they displayed a reduced response in hepatic TG production as observed from the mRNA levels of several key enzymes in fatty acid synthesis. This effect was paralleled by a diminished induction of mature sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (Srebp1c). Unexpectedly, the SR-diet induced intestinal fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15 mRNA and normalized bile acid synthesis in Slc10a2−/− mice. Pharmacologic inhibition of Slc10a2 in diabetic ob/ob mice reduced serum glucose, insulin and TGs, as well as hepatic mRNA levels of Srebp1c and its target genes. These responses are contrary to those reported following treatment of mice with a bile acid binding resin. Moreover, when key metabolic signal transduction pathways in the liver were investigated, those of Mek1/2 - Erk1/2 and Akt were blunted after treatment of ob/ob mice with the Slc10a2 inhibitor. It is concluded that abrogation of Slc10a2 reduces hepatic Srebp1c activity and serum TGs, and in the diabetic ob/ob model it also reduces glucose and insulin levels. Hence, targeting of Slc10a2 may be a promising strategy to treat hypertriglyceridemia and diabetes. PMID:22662222

  2. Piperine prevents cholesterol gallstones formation in mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiu-Yun; Xu, Shuang; Hu, Jin-Feng; Tang, Jia; Chu, Shi-Feng; Liu, Hang; Han, Ning; Li, Jing-Wei; Zhang, Dong-Ming; Li, Yue-Ting; Chen, Nai-Hong

    2015-03-15

    Biliary cholesterol may contribute to the formation of cholesterol gallstones, and regulation of these levels could be a useful therapeutic strategy for gallstones disease. Piperine (PA) is a potential cholesterol lowering agent. In this study, we assessed the effect and mechanism of PA in preventing cholesterol gallstones formation induced by feeding lithogenic diet containing high cholesterol levels to mice. C57BL/6 inbred mice were fed lithogenic or chow diets for 10 weeks, with or without PA (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg) or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, 60 mg/kg) administration. Cholesterol, phospholipids and crystals in bile, the lipid in serum, pathological changes and proteins expression in liver were analyzed. The results showed that PA could decrease the cholesterol potency and crystals in bile, reduce total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and increase high-density lipoprotein/low-density lipoprotein (HDL/LDL) levels in serum. Furthermore, PA treatment reduced liver lipid peroxidation and protected hepatobiliary cells from liver injury by decreasing malondialdehyde (MDA) and increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD). In addition, PA inhibited the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporters G5/8 (ABCG5/8) and liver X receptor (LXR) in liver, and reduced cholesterol transport from the hepatocytes to the gallbladder. It may be the mechanism of PA in preventing cholesterol gallstones formation. PA as a potential drug for prevention cholesterol gallstones merits further investigation.

  3. Radioimmunoassay of erythropoietin: circulating levels in normal and polycythemic human beings

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, J.F.; Ebbe, S.N.; Hollander, L.; Cutting, H.O.; Miller, M.E.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1982-05-01

    Techniques are described in detail for the RIA of human Ep in unextracted plasma or serum. With 100 ..mu..l of sample, the assay is sensitive at an Ep concentration of approximately 4 mU/ml, and when required, the sensitivity can be increased to 0.4 mU/ml, a range considerably less than the concentration observed in normal human beings. This is approximately 100 times more sensitive than existing in vivo bioassays for this hormone. Studies concerned with the validation of the Ep RIA show a high degree of correlation with the polycythemic mouse bioassay. Dilutions of a variety of human serum samples show a parallel relationship with the standard reference preparation for Ep. Validation of the RIA is further confirmed by observations of appropriate increases or decreases of circulating Ep levels in physiological and clinical conditions known to be associated with stimulation or suppression of Ep secretion. Significantly different mean serum concentrations of 17.2 mU/ml for normal male subjects and 18.8 mU/ml for normal female subjects were observed. Mean plasma Ep concentrations in patients with polycythemia vera are significantly decreased, and those of patients with secondary polycythemia are significantly increased as compared to plasma levels in normal subjects. These results demonstrate an initial practical value of the Ep RA in the hematology clinic, which will most certainly be expanded with its more extensive use.

  4. Insulin resistance and normal thyroid hormone levels: prospective study and metabolomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferrannini, Ele; Iervasi, Giorgio; Cobb, Jeff; Ndreu, Rudina; Nannipieri, Monica

    2017-02-28

    While hyper/hypothyroidism causes dysglycemia, the relationship between thyroid hormone levels within the normal range and insulin resistance (IR) is unclear. In 940 participants with strictly normal serum concentrations of free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)) followed up for 3 years, we measured insulin sensitivity (by the insulin clamp technique) and a panel of 35 circulating metabolites. At baseline, across quartiles of increasing fT3 levels (or fT3/fT4 ratio) there emerged most features of IR (male sex, higher BMI, waist circumference, heart rate, blood pressure, fatty liver index, free fatty acids, and triglycerides levels, reduced insulin-mediated glucose disposal and ß-cell glucose sensitivity). In multiadjusted analyses, fT3 was reciprocally related to insulin sensitivity and, in a subset of 303 subjects, directly related to endogenous glucose production. In multiple regression models adjusting for sex, age, BMI and baseline value of insulin sensitivity, higher baseline fT3 levels were significant predictors of the decreases in insulin sensitivity. Moreover, baseline fT3 predicted follow-up increases in glycemia independently of sex, age, BMI, insulin sensitivity, ß-cell glucose sensitivity and baseline glycemia. Serum tyrosine levels were higher in IR and were directly associated with fT3; higher α-hydroxybutyrate levels signaled enhanced oxidative stress impairing tyrosine degradation. In 25 morbidly obese patients, surgery-induced weight loss improved IR and consensually lowered fT3 High-normal fT3 levels are associated with IR both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, and predict deterioration of glucose tolerance. This association is supported by a metabolite pattern that points at increased oxidative stress as part of the IR syndrome.

  5. Four Statin Benefit Groups Defined by The 2013 ACC/AHA New Cholesterol Guideline are Characterized by Increased Plasma Level of Electronegative Low-Density Lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chih-Sheng; Ke, Liang-Yin; Chan, Hua-Chen; Chan, Hsiu-Chua; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Cheng, Kai-Hung; Lee, Hsiang-Chun; Kuo, Hsuan-Fu; Chang, Ching-Tang; Chang, Kuan-Cheng; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung; Chen, Chu-Huang; Lai, Wen-Ter

    2016-01-01

    Background Significantly higher cytotoxic and thrombogenic human electronegative low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or L5, has been found in patients with stable coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndrome. We hypothesized that the statin-benefit groups (SBGs) defined by the new cholesterol guideline were of higher electronegative L5. Methods In total, 62 hyperlipidemia patients (mean age 59.4 ± 10.5, M/F 40/22) were retrospectively divided into SBGs (n = 44) and N-SBGs (n = 18). The levels of complete basic lipid panel, biochemical profile and electronegative L5 of each individual were obtained before and after rosuvastatin 10 mg/day for 3 months. Results After 3 months’ statin therapy, significant reduction of total cholesterol, LDL-C and triglyceride were demonstrated (all p-values < 0.05), with 38.4% LDL-C reduction. The percentage of L5 was significantly reduced by 40.9% (from 4.4% to 2.6%) after statin therapy (p = 0.001). Regarding absolute L5 concentration, derived from L5% multiplied by LDL-C, there was approximate 63.8% reduction (from 6.3 mg/dL to 2.3 mg/dL) of absolute L5 (p < 0.001) after statin treatment. Notably, while plasma LDL-C levels were similar between SBGs and N-SBGs (152.8 ± 48.6 vs. 146.9 ± 35.0 mg/dL), the SBGs had significantly elevated L5% (5.2 ± 7.4% vs. 2.6 ± 1.9%, p = 0.031) and higher absolute L5 concentration (7.4 ± 10.4 vs. 3.7 ± 3.1 mg/dL, p = 0.036). Linear regression showed the significantly positive correlation between the plasma L5 concentration and the 10-year cardiovascular risk by pooled cohort equation (r = 0.297, p < 0.05). Conclusions The four SBGs defined by the 2013 ACC/AHA new cholesterol guideline tend to have increased atherogenic electronegative L5. Statin therapy can effectively reduce the electronegative L5 of these four major SBGs. PMID:27899853

  6. Interaction of dietary cholesterol and triglycerides in the regulation of hepatic low density lipoprotein transport in the hamster.

    PubMed Central

    Spady, D K; Dietschy, J M

    1988-01-01

    These studies report the effects of dietary cholesterol and triglyceride on rates of receptor-dependent and receptor-independent LDL transport in the liver of the hamster. In animals fed diets enriched with 0.1, 0.25, or 1% cholesterol for 1 mo, receptor-dependent LDL transport in the liver was suppressed by 43, 63, and 77%, respectively, and there were reciprocal changes in plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations. In addition, dietary triglycerides modified the effect of dietary cholesterol on hepatic LDL transport and plasma LDL concentrations so that at each level of cholesterol intake, polyunsaturated triglycerides diminished and saturated triglycerides accentuated the effect of dietary cholesterol. When animals were raised from weaning on diets containing small amounts of cholesterol, the decline in receptor-dependent LDL transport was nearly abolished by the addition of polyunsaturated or monounsaturated triglycerides, but was markedly augmented by the addition of saturated lipids. When animals raised on diets containing cholesterol and saturated triglycerides were returned to the low cholesterol, low triglyceride control diet, hepatic receptor-dependent LDL transport and plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations returned essentially to normal within 2 wk. Neither receptor-independent LDL transport nor the receptor-dependent uptake of asialofetuin was significantly altered by dietary cholesterol or triglyceride suggesting that the effect of these lipids on hepatic LDL receptor activity was specific and not due to a generalized alteration in the physiochemical properties of hepatic membranes. These studies demonstrate the important role of saturated triglycerides in augmenting the effect of cholesterol in suppressing hepatic LDL receptor activity and elevating LDL-cholesterol levels. PMID:2448340

  7. Serum immunoglobulin levels in normal, premature and postmature newborns and their mothers.

    PubMed

    Salimonu, L S; Ladipo, O A; Adeniran, S O; Osukoya, B O

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) levels (IgG, IgA, IgM and IgD) were measured in 92 paired maternal and cord sera by the modified single radial immunodiffusion method. There was a progressive increase in mean IgG levels as the gestational age increased which reached a maximum of 1771 mg/100 ml in the postmature babies. The mean IgG level of infants of 32--36 weeks' gestation was lowest (1395 mg/100 ml). The maternal IgG levels were generally higher than those of the cord sera. The mean maternal IgG level (1773 mg/100 ml) was considerably higher than the corresponding level in the cord sera of the lowest gestational age group. Such marked difference was not present in newborns who were of normal gestational ages. The mean IgA and IgM levels of the cord sera were low. There were no significant differences between the mean IgA and IgM levels of newborns in different gestational age groups, even when their mothers showed variations in mean IgA and IgM levels. There was no detectable level of IgD in the cord sera.

  8. Impact of Statins Therapy for Ischemic Heart Disease Patients with Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels Less Than 100 mg/dL

    PubMed Central

    Kuwabara, Masanori; Kondo, Fumiaki; Hamada, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Jun-ichi; Takenaka, Nanae; Furuno, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to determine whether the use of statins prevents the progression of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in patients with low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Methods We reviewed data obtained from IHD patients who underwent first percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients underwent follow-up coronary angiography (re-CAG) after PCI. However, only patients with LDL-C levels less than 100 mg/dL at PCI were included in this study. Ultimately, 92 patients were enrolled. All patients were divided into two groups: 1) patients who were treated with statins (n = 69), and 2) patients who were not treated with statins (n = 23). Results The two groups had similar LDL-C levels at PCI. At re-CAG, the ratio of patients who underwent PCI for de novo lesion in the statin group was lower than that in the non-statin group (12% vs. 48%) (p < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, statin usage and LDL-C level at PCI were independent predictors of the ratio of patients undergoing PCI for de novo lesion. Conclusions Statins therapy for patients whose LDL-C levels are less than 100 mg/dL has a beneficial effect on secondary prevention of IHD. PMID:27713605

  9. Distortion product otoacoustic emission level maps from normal and noise-damaged cochleae.

    PubMed

    Meinke, Deanna K; Clavier, Odile H; Norris, Jesse; Kline-Schoder, Robert; Allen, Lindsay; Buckey, Jay C

    2013-01-01

    Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) level mapping may be useful for detecting noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) early. Employing DPOAE mapping effectively requires knowledge of the optimal mapping parameters to use for detecting noise-induced changes. The goal of this project was to show the map regions that differ most between normal and noise-damaged cochlea to determine the optimal mapping parameters for detecting NIHL. DPOAE level maps were generated for the 2f 1 -f 2 and the 2f 2 -f 1 DPOAEs for 17 normal hearing male subjects and 19 male subjects with NIHL. DPOAEs were measured in DPOAE frequency steps of approximately 44 Hz from 0.5 kHz to 6 kHz using constant f 2 /f 1 ratios incremented in 0.025 steps from 1.025 to 1.5 using both unequal-level (L1,L2 = 65,55 dB sound pressure level (SPL)) and equi-level (L1,L2 = 75,75 dB SPL) stimulus paradigms. Maximal responses for the 2f 2 -f 1 emission at L1,L2 = 65,55 dB SPL were found at lower ratios compared to previous studies. The map regions where NIHL eliminated or reduced DPOAE magnitude were identified. DPOAE level mapping using higher-level, equi-level primaries produced significantly more detectable emissions particularly for the 2f 2 -f 1 emission. The data from this study can be used to optimize DPOAE level mapping parameters for tracking noise-exposed subjects longitudinally.

  10. Quercetin regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism by promoting cholesterol-to-bile acid conversion and cholesterol efflux in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Xie, Zongkai; Gao, Weina; Pu, Lingling; Wei, Jingyu; Guo, Changjiang

    2016-03-01

    Quercetin, a common member of the flavonoid family, is widely present in plant kingdom. Despite that quercetin is implicated in regulating cholesterol metabolism, the molecular mechanism is poorly understood. We hypothesized that quercetin regulates cholesterol homeostasis through regulating the key enzymes involved in hepatic cholesterol metabolism. To test this hypothesis, we compared the profile of key enzymes and transcription factors involved in the hepatic cholesterol metabolism in rats with or without quercetin supplementation. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control and quercetin-supplemented groups. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total bile acids in feces and bile were measured. Hepatic enzymatic activities were determined by activity assay kit and high-performance liquid chromatography-based analyses. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses, respectively. The results showed that the activity of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, a critical enzyme in the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, was significantly elevated by quercetin. The expression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, as well as liver X receptor α, an important transcription factor, was also increased at both mRNA and protein levels by quercetin. However, quercetin exposure had no impact on the activity of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of cholesterol. We also found that quercetin treatment significantly increased ATP binding cassette transporter G1 mRNA and protein expression in the liver, suggesting that quercetin may increase hepatic cholesterol efflux. Collectively, the results presented here indicate that quercetin regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism mainly through the pathways that promote cholesterol-to-bile acid conversion and

  11. Knowledge-driven multi-locus analysis reveals gene-gene interactions influencing HDL cholesterol level in two independent EMR-linked biobanks.

    PubMed

    Turner, Stephen D; Berg, Richard L; Linneman, James G; Peissig, Peggy L; Crawford, Dana C; Denny, Joshua C; Roden, Dan M; McCarty, Catherine A; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Wilke, Russell A

    2011-05-11

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are routinely being used to examine the genetic contribution to complex human traits, such as high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Although HDL-C levels are highly heritable (h(2)∼0.7), the genetic determinants identified through GWAS contribute to a small fraction of the variance in this trait. Reasons for this discrepancy may include rare variants, structural variants, gene-environment (GxE) interactions, and gene-gene (GxG) interactions. Clinical practice-based biobanks now allow investigators to address these challenges by conducting GWAS in the context of comprehensive electronic medical records (EMRs). Here we apply an EMR-based phenotyping approach, within the context of routine care, to replicate several known associations between HDL-C and previously characterized genetic variants: CETP (rs3764261, p = 1.22e-25), LIPC (rs11855284, p = 3.92e-14), LPL (rs12678919, p = 1.99e-7), and the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 locus (rs964184, p = 1.06e-5), all adjusted for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and smoking status. By using a novel approach which censors data based on relevant co-morbidities and lipid modifying medications to construct a more rigorous HDL-C phenotype, we identified an association between HDL-C and TRIB1, a gene which previously resisted identification in studies with larger sample sizes. Through the application of additional analytical strategies incorporating biological knowledge, we further identified 11 significant GxG interaction models in our discovery cohort, 8 of which show evidence of replication in a second biobank cohort. The strongest predictive model included a pairwise interaction between LPL (which modulates the incorporation of triglyceride into HDL) and ABCA1 (which modulates the incorporation of free cholesterol into HDL). These results demonstrate that gene-gene interactions modulate complex human traits, including HDL cholesterol.

  12. Cooking for Lower Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cooking for Lower Cholesterol Updated:Oct 28,2016 A heart-healthy eating ... content was last reviewed on 04/21/2014. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • Why Cholesterol Matters • Understand Your ...

  13. Noise levels in cockpits of aircraft during normal cruise and considerations of auditory risk.

    PubMed

    Gasaway, D C

    1986-02-01

    Noise data, including A-levels and C-minus-A values, are summarized for exposures associated with normal cruise flight in 13 groups of 593 aircraft; means and standard deviations are reported; degrees of auditory risk using OSHA-1983 criterion are presented; and at-the-ear protected and unprotected exposures are revealed. Mean A-levels were 95.0 for 528 fixed-wing; 100.9 for 65 rotary-wing; and 95.7 for all 593 aircraft. Of 13 sub-groups, the lowest mean A-level (85.5) was exhibited in the cockpits of tail-mounted turbojet/fan-powered aircraft, and the highest (105.0) was found in both reciprocating and turbine-powered twin-rotor helicopters. All mean A-levels exceeded the OSHA damage-risk criterion for 8 h.d-1 exposures. At-the-ear exposures while wearing hearing protection are presented. Results clearly illustrate the potential for auditory damage of unprotected aircrews. Hearing protection must be considered to effectively control routinely encountered exposures. The material and illustrations resulting from this study will help health and safety monitors during indoctrination and counseling of aircrews concerning the need to protect their hearing against noise exposures during normal and routine flight operations.

  14. The effects of prednisone and azathioprine on circulating immunoglobulin levels and lymphocyte subpopulations in normal dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Rinkardt, N E; Kruth, S A; Kaushik, A

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates serum immunoglobulin (SIg) levels and lymphocyte subpopulations in normal dogs in response to putative immunosuppressive doses of prednisone and/or azathioprine. The objectives were to quantify SIg levels and lymphocyte subpopulations, including Thy-1+, CD4+, CD8+ and B cells, in normal dogs both before and after the administration of prednisone and/or azathioprine at 2 mg/kg, PO, each. Eighteen beagles were divided into 3 groups of 6 dogs each. Blood samples for radial immunodiffusion assay of IgG, IgM and IgA, complete blood count (CBC)and flow cytometry were collected prior to the administration of any drugs and again after 14 d of azathioprine, prednisone or azathioprine and prednisone. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated using density centrifugation and were incubated with monoclonal antibodies reacting with CD4+, CD8+, Thy-1+ and membrane immunoglobulin. Lymphocyte subsets were quantified using flow cytometry. Azathioprine-treated dogs had no significant changes in SIg levels or lymphocyte subpopulations. Prednisone-treated dogs had significant (P < 0.05) decreases in all SIg levels, all lymphocyte subpopulations and erythrocyte numbers, and had an increase in neutrophil counts. Prednisone and azathioprine-treated dogs had significant (P < 0.05) decreases in serum IgG levels and Thy-1+ and CD8+ lymphocyte subpopulations, with an increase in the CD4:CD8. These dogs also had a significant decrease in erythrocyte number and a significant increase in the monocyte count. These findings suggest that azathioprine and prednisone in combination or prednisone alone may be useful for the treatment of T cell-mediated diseases since decreased circulating T cell levels were demonstrated following treatment. The combination of drugs or azathioprine alone may not be appropriate for treatment of acute or autoantibody-mediated immune disease, because SIg levels were minimally affected by treatment. PMID:9918329

  15. Prosopis farcta beans increase HDL cholesterol and decrease LDL cholesterol in ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    Omidi, Arash; Ansari nik, Hossein; Ghazaghi, Mahmood

    2013-02-01

    Ten blue-neck male ostriches (Struthio camelus) were fed Prosopis farcta beans throughout a 30-day experiment. Blood samples were collected from ostriches on days 0 and 30 to measure levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, total serum protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, the activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT). From days 0 to 30, HDL cholesterol, total protein, and globulins levels increased significantly whereas LDL cholesterol, inorganic phosphorus, and γ-GT activity decreased significantly.

  16. A radioimmunoassay for erythropoietin: serum levels in normal human subjects and patients with hemopoietic disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Rege, A.B.; Brookins, J.; Fisher, J.W.

    1982-12-01

    An RIA for Ep has been developed that is highly sensitive and specific. A homogeneous Ep preparation was labeled with /sup 125/I by the chloramine-T method to a specific activity of 90 to 136 ..mu..Ci/..mu..g and immunoreactivity of 80%. Ep antiserum, which was produced to a human urinary Ep preparation (80 U/mg of protein), was adsorbed with normal human urinary and serum proteins without any loss in sensitivity of the RIA to increase the specificity of the assay. A good correlation was seen between the RIA and the exhypoxic polycythemic mouse assay (corr. coef. 0.967; slope 1.05 and ''y'' intercept 0.75). Ep titers in sera from 175 hematologically normal human subjects exhibited a normal frequency distribution and ranged between 5.8 and 36.6 mU/ml with a mean of 14.9 +/- 4.7 (S.D.) and median of 14.3. Serum Ep titers were markedly elevated in seven patients with aplastic anemia and one patient with pure red cell aplasia (1350 to 20,640 mU/ml) and were lower than normal in two patients with polycythemia vera (8.1 and 9.4 mU/ml). The serum Ep titers in a prenephrectomy patient with chronic glomerulonephritis (31.1 mU/ml) decreased to below normal levels (9.04 mU/ml) after nephrectomy. The cord serum erythropoietin titers in 10 IDM (90.82 +/- 134.1 (S.D.) mu/ml) returned to values within the normal range (13.86 +/- 5.55) on day 3 after birth, suggesting the utility of the RIA in elucidating the role of hypoxia and/or insulin in increased erythropoiesis in IDM. The serum Ep titers in patients with anemias and polycythemias were compared to those of normal human subjects and agreed well with pathophysiologic mechanisms of these hemopoietic disorders, confirming the validity of the RIA.

  17. A radioimmunoassay for erythropoietin: serum levels in normal human subjects and patients with hemopoietic disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Rege, A.B.; Brookins, J.; Fisher, J.W.

    1982-12-01

    An RIA for Ep has been developed that is highly sensitive and specific. A homogeneous Ep preparation was labeled with /sup 125/I by the chloramine-T method to a specific activity of 90 to 136 micro Ci/microgram and immunoreactivity of 80%. Ep antiserum, which was produced to a human urinary Ep preparation (80 U/mg of protein), was adsorbed with normal human urinary and serum proteins without any loss in sensitivity of the RIA to increase the specificity of the assay. A good correlation was seen between the RIA and the exhypoxic polycythemic mouse assay (corr. coef. 0.967; slope 1.05 and y intercept 0.75). Ep titers in sera from 175 hematologically normal human subjects exhibited a normal frequency distribution and ranged between 5.8 and 36.6 mU/ml with a mean of 14.9 +/- 4.7 (S.D.) and median of 14.3 Serum Ep titers were markedly elevated in seven patients with aplastic anemia and one patient with pure red cell aplasia (1350 to 20,640 mU/ml) and were lower than normal in two patients with polycythemia vera (8.1 and 9.4 mU/ml). The serum Ep titers in a prenephrectomy patient with chronic glomerulonephritis (32.1 mU/ml) decreased to below normal levels (9.04 mU/ml) after nephrectomy. The cord serum erythropoietin titers in 10 IDM (90.82 +/- 134.1 (S.D.) mu/ml) returned to values within the normal range (13.86 +/- 5.55) on day 3 after birth, suggesting the utility of the RIA in elucidating the role of hypoxia and/or insulin in increased erythropoiesis in IDM. The serum Ep titers in patients with anemias and polycythemias were compared to those of normal human subjects and agreed well with pathophysiologic mechanisms of these hemopoietic disorders, confirming the validity of the RIA.

  18. Effect of extended-release niacin on serum lipids and on endothelial function in adults with sickle cell anemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Scoffone, Heather M; Krajewski, Megan; Zorca, Suzana; Bereal-Williams, Candice; Littel, Patricia; Seamon, Catherine; Mendelsohn, Laurel; Footman, Eleni; Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Sachdev, Vandana; Machado, Roberto F; Cuttica, Michael; Shamburek, Robert; Cannon, Richard O; Remaley, Alan; Minniti, Caterina P; Kato, Gregory J

    2013-11-01

    Through bound apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase, inducing vasodilation. Because patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) have low apoA-I and endothelial dysfunction, we conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to test whether extended-release niacin (niacin-ER) increases apoA-I-containing HDL-C and improves vascular function in SCD. Twenty-seven patients with SCD with levels of HDL-C <39 mg/dl or apoA-I <99 mg/dl were randomized to 12 weeks of niacin-ER, increased in 500-mg increments to a maximum of 1,500 mg/day, or placebo. The primary outcome was the absolute change in HDL-C level after 12 weeks, with endothelial function assessed before and at the end of treatment. Niacin-ER-treated patients trended to greater increase in HDL-C level compared with placebo treatment at 12 weeks (5.1 ± 7.7 vs 0.9 ± 3.8 mg/dl, 1-tailed p = 0.07), associated with significantly greater improvements in the ratios of low-density lipoprotein to HDL-C levels (1.24 vs 1.95, p = 0.003) and apolipoprotein B to apoA-I levels (0.46 vs 0.58, p = 0.03) compared with placebo-treated patients. No improvements were detected in 3 independent vascular physiology assays of endothelial function. Thus, the relatively small changes in HDL-C levels achieved by the dose of niacin-ER used in our study are not associated with improved vascular function in patients with SCD with initially low levels of apoA-I or HDL-C.

  19. Crystalline domain structure and cholesterol crystal nucleation in single hydrated DPPC:cholesterol:POPC bilayers.

    PubMed

    Ziblat, Roy; Leiserowitz, Leslie; Addadi, Lia

    2010-07-21

    Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on single hydrated bilayers and monolayers of DPPC:Cholesterol:POPC at varying concentrations. There are substantial differences in the phase and structure behavior of the crystalline domains formed within the bilayers relative to the corresponding monolayers, due to interactions between the opposing leaflets. Depending on the lipid composition, these interactions led to phase separation, changes in molecular tilt angle, or formation of cholesterol crystals. In monolayers, DPPC and cholesterol form a single crystalline phase at all compositions studied. In bilayers, a second crystalline phase appears when cholesterol levels are increased: domains of cholesterol and DPPC form monolayer thick crystals where each of the lipid leaflets diffracts independently, whereas excess cholesterol forms cholesterol bilayer thick crystals at a DPPC:Chol ratio < 46:54 +/- 2 mol %. The nucleation of the cholesterol crystals occurs at concentrations relevant to the actual cell plasma membrane composition.

  20. Evaluating computational models of cholesterol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Paalvast, Yared; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Groen, Albert K

    2015-10-01

    Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis has been studied extensively during the last decades. Many of the metabolic pathways involved have been discovered. Yet important gaps in our knowledge remain. For example, knowledge on intracellular cholesterol traffic and its relation to the regulation of cholesterol synthesis and plasma cholesterol levels is incomplete. One way of addressing the remaining questions is by making use of computational models. Here, we critically evaluate existing computational models of cholesterol metabolism making use of ordinary differential equations and addressed whether they used assumptions and make predictions in line with current knowledge on cholesterol homeostasis. Having studied the results described by the authors, we have also tested their models. This was done primarily by testing the effect of statin treatment in each model. Ten out of eleven models tested have made assumptions in line with current knowledge of cholesterol metabolism. Three out of the ten remaining models made correct predictions, i.e. predicting a decrease in plasma total and LDL cholesterol or increased uptake of LDL upon treatment upon the use of statins. In conclusion, few models on cholesterol metabolism are able to pass a functional test. Apparently most models have not undergone the critical iterative systems biology cycle of validation. We expect modeling of cholesterol metabolism to go through many more model topologies and iterative cycles and welcome the increased understanding of cholesterol metabolism these are likely to bring.

  1. Elevated cholesterol and bile acid synthesis in an adult patient with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Reduction by a high glucose diet.

    PubMed

    Stacpoole, P W; Grundy, S M; Swift, L L; Greene, H L; Slonim, A E; Burr, I M

    1981-11-01

    Elevated levels of cholesterol synthesis are reported for several young children with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HFH) and are considered to contribute directly to their hypercholesterolemia. In contrast, increased cholesterol production has not previously been found in adult patients with HFH. Using the fecal steroid balance technique, we studied rates of cholesterol and bile acid synthesis in a 24-yr-old man who had severe hypercholesterolemia typical of HFH and who lacked skin fibroblast low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor activity. On an average diet (45% carbohydrate, 40% fat, 15% protein) mean +/- SEM cholesterol (24.8 +/- 1.4 mg/kg per d) and bile acid (11.1 +/- 1.6 mg/kg per d) excretion were approximately threefold higher than normal. When an isocaloric high carbohydrate, low fat diet (90.5% glucose oligosaccharides, 1.3% safflower oil, 8.2% crystalline amino acids was substituted, mean cholesterol (13.0 +/- 0.5 mg/kg per d) and bile acid (8.6 +/- 0.4 mg/kg per d) fell markedly. The decline in fecal steroid excretion was accompanied by modest reductions in plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations and by a softening of cutaneous xanthomata. Although the patient phenotypically and biochemically resembled the HFH state, his family pedigree was not noteable for hypercholesterolemia. While the patient's father had premature cardiovascular disease, his mother had no evidence of heart disease, had normal plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels, and had normal fibroblast LDL receptor activity. Likewise, the plasma cholesterol levels of three other members of the patient's family were normal. Despite the unusual genotypic background of this individual, however, the fecal balance data shows that elevated cholesterol and bile acid synthesis may occur in adult, as well as juvenile, patients with HFH and may be responsive to dietary control.

  2. Renal failure in a patient with postpolio syndrome and a normal creatinine level.

    PubMed

    Leming, Melissa K; Breyer, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Patients with renal failure who are taking trimethoprim have an increased risk of developing hyperkalemia, which can cause muscle weakness. In patients with postpolio syndrome, a normal creatinine level could be abnormally high, renal failure is possible because of lack of creatinine production, and the muscle weakness from resultant hyperkalemia could be more severe because of their underlying condition. This abnormally high creatinine level has been termed from this point relative renal failure. The objective of the study was to review a case in which relative renal failure and hyperkalemia caused muscle weakness that manifested as shortness of breath and confusion with electrocardiographic changes. A dehydrated patient with relative renal failure and postpolio syndrome had taken trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole that caused symptomatic hyperkalemia. The patient presented with muscle weakness, shortness of breath, and confusion, with her postpolio syndrome compounding the situation and likely making the muscle weakness more severe. A patient on trimethoprim with renal failure is at an increased risk of developing hyperkalemia. Patients with postpolio syndrome could have severe muscle weakness from the hyperkalemia and could have renal failure even with a normal creatinine level. This case report will remind treating physicians to evaluate such patients for hyperkalemia if they present with muscle weakness, especially if the patient has renal failure and is on trimethoprim.

  3. Cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA mixture does not change body composition, induces insulin resistance and increases serum HDL cholesterol level in rats.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Mariana Macedo; de Souza, Yamara Oliveira; Dutra Luquetti, Sheila Cristina Potente; Sabarense, Céphora Maria; do Amaral Corrêa, José Otávio; da Conceição, Ellen Paula Santos; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Andrade Soares, Sara Malaguti; Moura Gualberto, Ana Cristina; Gameiro, Jacy; da Gama, Marco Antônio Sundfeld; Ferraz Lopes, Fernando César; González Garcia, Raúl Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic supplements of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) containing 50:50 mixture of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers have been commercialized in some places for reducing body fat. However the safety of this CLA mixture is controversial and in some countries the CLA usage as food supplement is not authorized. Changes in insulinemic control and serum lipids profile are potential negative effects related to consumption of CLA mixture. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of a diet containing mixture of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA on prevention of obesity risk as well as on potential side effects such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in Wistar rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following dietary treatments (n=10/group), for 60 days: Normolipidic Control (NC), diet containing 4.0% soybean oil (SO); High Fat-Control (HF-C), diet containing 24.0% SO; High Fat-synthetic CLA (HF-CLA), diet containing 1.5% of an isomeric CLA mixture (Luta-CLA 60) and 22.5% SO. Luta-CLA 60 (BASF) contained nearly 60% of CLA (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA at 50:50 ratio). The HF-CLA diet contained 0.3% of each CLA isomer. HF-CLA diet had no effect on dietary intake and body composition. HF-CLA-fed rats had lower levels of PPARγ protein in retroperitoneal adipose tissue, hyperinsulinemia compared to HF-C-fed rats, hyperglycemia compared to NC-fed rats while no differences in glycemia were observed between NC and HF-C groups, increased HOMA index and higher levels of serum HDL cholesterol. Thus, feeding rats with a high fat diet containing equal parts of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers had no effect on body composition and induced insulin resistance. Despite HF-CLA-fed rats had increased serum HDL cholesterol levels, caution should be taken before synthetic supplements containing cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA are recommended as a nutritional strategy for weight management.

  4. Step by Step: Eating To Lower Your High Blood Cholesterol. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This booklet offers advice for adults who want to lower their blood cholesterol level. The first section, "What You Need To Know about High Blood Cholesterol," discusses blood cholesterol and why it matters, what cholesterol numbers mean, and what affects blood cholesterol levels. Section 2, "What You Need To Do To Lower Blood…

  5. Normal level of thyroglobulin messenger ribonucleic acid in a human congenital goiter with thyroglobulin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cabrer, B; Brocas, H; Perez-Castillo, A; Pohl, V; Navas, J J; Targovnik, H; Centenera, J A; Vassart, G

    1986-10-01

    Two siblings with congenital goiter were investigated from clinical, biochemical, and molecular biology standpoints. The association of clinical and biological hypothyroidism with undetectable levels of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and the presence of iodohistidines in the urine suggested the diagnosis of defective Tg gene expression. This conclusion was confirmed by analysis of proteins present in goiter extracts. Only minute amounts of Tg-related material was detected by RIA (0.28 and 0.17 mg/g tissue compared to 80-100 mg/g in normal thyroid tissue), by Sepharose 6B chromatography, and by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Surprisingly, the goiters contained normal amounts of Tg mRNA. The size of the mRNA and the sequence organization of its first five exons also were normal. We conclude that no gross alteration of structure or transcription of the Tg gene was present in these patients. The results are compatible with a lesion affecting the mRNA sequence (point mutation, splicing error etc.), leading to defective translation or abnormal routing of the translation product through the membrane system of the cell. This latter hypothesis is supported by the extreme distension of the goiter endoplasmic reticulum found on electron microscopy.

  6. Synbiotic food consumption reduces levels of triacylglycerols and VLDL, but not cholesterol, LDL, or HDL in plasma from pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Hashemi, Teibeh; Shakeri, Hossein; Abedi, Fatemeh; Sabihi, Sima-Sadat; Alizadeh, Sabihe-Alsadat; Asemi, Zatolla

    2014-02-01

    To our knowledge, no reports are available indicating the effects of synbiotic food consumption on blood lipid profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress among pregnant women. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of daily consumption of a synbiotic food on blood lipid profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress in pregnant women. This randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was performed among 52 primigravida pregnant women, aged 18 to 35-year-old at their third trimester. After a 2-week run-in period, subjects were randomly assigned to consume either a synbiotic (n = 26) or control food (n = 26) for 9 weeks. The synbiotic food consisted of a probiotic viable and heat-resistant Lactobacillus sporogenes (1 × 10⁷ CFU) and 0.04 g inulin (HPX)/g as the prebiotic. Patients were asked to consume the synbiotic and control foods two times a day. Biochemical measurements including blood lipid profiles, plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total glutathione (GSH) were conducted before and after 9 weeks of intervention. Consumption of a synbiotic food for 9 weeks resulted in a significant reduction in serum TAG (P = 0.04), VLDL (P = 0.04) and a significant rise in plasma GSH levels (P = 0.004) compared to the control food. No significant effects of the synbiotic food consumption on serum TC, LDL, HDL and plasma TAC levels (P > 0.05) were observed. Trial registry code: http://www.irct.ir . IRCT201212105623N3.

  7. Serum non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and the incidence of ischemic stroke in a Japanese population: the Jichi Medical School cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kakehi, Eiichi; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Gotoh, Tadao; Kayaba, Kazunori; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Kajii, Eiji

    2015-03-01

    The predictive value of serum non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels for the incidence of ischemic stroke and its subtypes has not yet been established. The present cohort study investigated their relationships in a Japanese population. The first incidence of ischemic stroke and its subtypes was documented as the primary outcome. A total of 249 ischemic stroke patients (men/women = 145/104) were identified during a follow-up period of 10.7 years among 10 760 community-dwelling subjects (men/women = 4212/6548). Cox proportional hazard model analyses revealed that when compared with the lowest tertile of non-HDL-C, multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for the highest tertile were 0.55 (95% confidence interval = 0.32-0.95, P = .03) on ischemic stroke and 0.29 (95% confidence interval = 0.08-1.05, P = .06) on cardioembolic infarction in women. Men did not show such significant relationships. Low serum non-HDL-C levels may be a predictive marker associated with an increase in the incidence of ischemic stroke and possibly of cardioembolic infarction in Japanese women.

  8. Plasma Tau Levels in Cognitively Normal Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Ming-Jang; Fan, Ling-Yun; Chen, Ta-Fu; Chen, Ya-Fang; Chieh, Jen-Jei; Horng, Herng-Er

    2017-01-01

    Using an ultra-sensitive technique, an immunomagnetic reduction assay, the plasma tau level can be measured to a limit of quantification of pg/ml. In total 126 cognitively normal middle-aged and older adults (45–95 years old) were recruited. The plasma tau levels were significantly higher in the older group (aged 65–95 years) 18.14 ± 7.33 pg/ml than those in the middle-aged group (aged 45–64 years) 14.35 ± 6.49 pg/ml when controlled gender and ApoEε4 carrier status (F = 3.102, P = 0.029). The ApoEε4 carriers had higher plasma tau levels than the non-carriers when controlled age and gender (F = 6.149, P = 0.001). Men had higher plasma tau levels than their women counterparts when controlled ApoEε4 carrier status and gender (F = 6.149, P = 0.001). The plasma tau levels were found to be positively associated with their ages (r = 0.359, P < 0.001). Regression analysis showed that age explained approximately 13% of the variance in the plasma tau levels, and explained more than 10% of the variance in the volumes of the hippocampus and white matter hypodensity (R2 change 0.123~0.167, all P < 0.001), and explained less than 10% of the variance in the volume of the amygdala, and central part of the corpus callosum (R2 change 0.085~0.097, all P = 0.001). However, the plasma tau levels do not further explain any residual variance in the volume of brain structures. In conclusion, the effect of age on the plasma tau levels should always be considered in clinical applications of this surrogate biomarker to middle-aged and elderly subjects. PMID:28321189

  9. Plasma Tau Levels in Cognitively Normal Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Ming-Jang; Fan, Ling-Yun; Chen, Ta-Fu; Chen, Ya-Fang; Chieh, Jen-Jei; Horng, Herng-Er

    2017-01-01

    Using an ultra-sensitive technique, an immunomagnetic reduction assay, the plasma tau level can be measured to a limit of quantification of pg/ml. In total 126 cognitively normal middle-aged and older adults (45-95 years old) were recruited. The plasma tau levels were significantly higher in the older group (aged 65-95 years) 18.14 ± 7.33 pg/ml than those in the middle-aged group (aged 45-64 years) 14.35 ± 6.49 pg/ml when controlled gender and ApoEε4 carrier status (F = 3.102, P = 0.029). The ApoEε4 carriers had higher plasma tau levels than the non-carriers when controlled age and gender (F = 6.149, P = 0.001). Men had higher plasma tau levels than their women counterparts when controlled ApoEε4 carrier status and gender (F = 6.149, P = 0.001). The plasma tau levels were found to be positively associated with their ages (r = 0.359, P < 0.001). Regression analysis showed that age explained approximately 13% of the variance in the plasma tau levels, and explained more than 10% of the variance in the volumes of the hippocampus and white matter hypodensity (R(2) change 0.123~0.167, all P < 0.001), and explained less than 10% of the variance in the volume of the amygdala, and central part of the corpus callosum (R(2) change 0.085~0.097, all P = 0.001). However, the plasma tau levels do not further explain any residual variance in the volume of brain structures. In conclusion, the effect of age on the plasma tau levels should always be considered in clinical applications of this surrogate biomarker to middle-aged and elderly subjects.

  10. A study of changes in homocysteine levels during normal pregnancy and pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Singh, Urmila; Gupta, H P; Singh, R K; Shukla, Manju; Singh, Ranjana; Mehrotra, Seema Sinha Nee; Prasad, Shweta

    2008-08-01

    To find out changes in homocysteine levels that occur during normal pregnancy and pregnancy with pre-eclamptic toxaemia and also to find out correlation between homocysteine concentration and preeclamptic toxaemia a study was carried out among 90 women of which 30 were control which included normotensive non-pregnant women and the study group I comprised 30 pregnant normotensive women and the study group II comprised 30 pregnant women with pre-eclamptic toxaemia. Serum homocysteine was measured in all subjects using fluorescence polarisation immuno-assay. Control group had highest mean homocysteine levels while the study group I had least mean homocysteine levels (p < 0.001). Levels were significantly higher in subjects with BP > 146/100 mm Hg as compared to subjects with BP >140/90 and <146/100 mm Hg (p=0.017). There was significant difference between study group I and II at same gestational age. Hyperhomocysteinaemia was observed in pre-eclamptic females, also it was found that homocysteine levels were directly correlated with severity of pre-eclampsia.

  11. Is there an association between fibromyalgia and below-normal levels of urinary cortisol?

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo–Álvarez, Silvia; Bocos–Terraz, Julia Pilar; Bancalero–Flores, Jose Luis; Pavón–Romero, Lenin; Serrano–Ostariz, Enrique; de Miquel, Cayetano Alegre

    2008-01-01

    Background Adynamia in fibromyalgia (FM) may be an expression of a functional deficit of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and be associated with below-normal levels of urinary cortisol. Our aim was to demonstrate that urinary cortisol was lower in patients with FM than in healthy subjects. Findings We measured urinary cortisol levels for a sample of 47 women aged 29 to 64 years (mean age 53 years), diagnosed with FM 2–3 years previously, and compared the results with those for a control sample of 58 healthy women of a similar age. Samples of 24-hour urine were appropriately collected and levels of urinary cortisol were measured using the fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The mean cortisol value for the women with FM was 65.40 ± 27.10 μg/L, significantly lower than the mean cortisol level for the control group, at 90.83 ± 38.17 μg/L (p < 0.001). Conclusion Our study confirms that women with FM have significantly lower urinary cortisol levels than healthy women. PMID:19102778

  12. Clinical relevance of non-fasting and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and remnant cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Freiberg, Jacob J

    2011-05-01

    Non-fasting triglycerides are measured at any time within up to 8 h (14 h) after any normal meal, while postprandial triglycerides are measured at a fixed time point within up to 8 h (14 h) of a standardised fat tolerance test. The simplest possible way of evaluating remnant cholesterol is non-fasting/postprandial total cholesterol minus low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol minus high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Elevated levels of non-fasting/postprandial triglycerides directly correlate with elevated remnant cholesterol. In the general population, 38% of men have non-fasting/postprandial triglycerides > 2mmol/L (>176 mg/dL) while 45% of men have non-fasting/postprandial triglyceride levels of 1-2 mmol/L (89-176 mg/dL); corresponding fractions in women are 20% and 47%. Also, 31% of men have remnant cholesterol levels > 1mmol/L (>39 mg/dL) while 46% of men have remnant cholesterol levels of 0.5-1 mmol/L (19-39 mg/dL); corresponding fractions in women are 15% and 43%. Non-fasting triglycerides ≥5 mmol/L vs. <1 mmol/L marked a 17 and 5 fold increased risk of myocardial infarction, a 5 and 3 fold increased risk of ischemic stroke, and a 4 and 2 fold increased risk of early death in women and men in the general population. As all cells can degrade triglycerides it is biologically unlikely that it is the triglyceride molecules themselves that cause atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. However, elevated remnant cholesterol may lead to cholesterol entrapment in the arterial intima and consequently to accelerated atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.

  13. Identification of Sequence Variation in the Apolipoprotein A2 Gene and Their Relationship with Serum High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Bandarian, Fatemeh; Daneshpour, Maryam Sadat; Hedayati, Mehdi; Naseri, Mohsen; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Apolipoprotein A2 (APOA2) is the second major apolipoprotein of the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The study aim was to identify APOA2 gene variation in individuals within two extreme tails of HDL-C levels and its relationship with HDL-C level. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted on participants from Tehran Glucose and Lipid Study (TLGS) at Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Tehran, Iran from April 2012 to February 2013. In total, 79 individuals with extreme low HDL-C levels (≤5th percentile for age and gender) and 63 individuals with extreme high HDL-C levels (≥95th percentile for age and gender) were selected. Variants were identified using DNA amplification and direct sequencing. Results: Screen of all exons and the core promoter region of APOA2 gene identified nine single nucleotide substitutions and one microsatellite; five of which were known and four were new variants. Of these nine variants, two were common tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and seven were rare SNPs. Both exonic substitutions were missense mutations and caused an amino acid change. There was a significant association between the new missense mutation (variant Chr.1:16119226, Ala98Pro) and HDL-C level. Conclusion: None of two common tag SNPs of rs6413453 and rs5082 contributes to the HDL-C trait in Iranian population, but a new missense mutation in APOA2 in our population has a significant association with HDL-C. PMID:26590203

  14. LDL-Cholesterol Increases the Transcytosis of Molecules through Endothelial Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Magalhaes, Ana; Matias, Inês; Palmela, Inês; Brito, Maria Alexandra; Dias, Sérgio

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol has been identified as a causative factor in numerous pathologies including atherosclerosis and cancer. One of the frequent effects of elevated cholesterol levels in humans is the compromise of endothelial function due to activation of pro-inflammatory signalling pathways. While the mechanisms involved in endothelial activation by cholesterol during an inflammatory response are well established, less is known about the mechanisms by which cholesterol may affect endothelial barrier function, which were the subject of the present study. Here we show that low density lipoprotein (LDL) increases the permeability of endothelial monolayers to high molecular weight dextrans in an LDL receptor and cholesterol-dependent manner. The increased permeability seen upon LDL treatment was not caused by disruption of cell-to-cell junctions as determined by a normal localization of VE-Cadherin and ZO-1 proteins, and no major alterations in transendothelial electrical resistance or permeability to fluorescein. We show instead that LDL increases the level of high molecular weight transcytosis and that this occurs in an LDL receptor, cholesterol and caveolae-dependent way. Our findings contribute to our understanding of the systemic pathological effects of elevated cholesterol and the transport of cargo through endothelial monolayers. PMID:27695052

  15. Unexpected inhibition of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase by cholesterol in New Zealand white and Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, G; Salen, G; Shefer, S; Ness, G C; Nguyen, L B; Parker, T S; Chen, T S; Zhao, Z; Donnelly, T M; Tint, G S

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the effect of cholesterol feeding on plasma cholesterol concentrations, hepatic activities and mRNA levels of HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase and hepatic LDL receptor function and mRNA levels in 23 New Zealand White (NZW) and 17 Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits. Plasma cholesterol concentrations were 9.9 times greater in WHHL than NZW rabbits and rose significantly in both groups when cholesterol was fed. Baseline liver cholesterol levels were 50% higher but rose only 26% in WHHL as compared with 3.6-fold increase with the cholesterol diet in NZW rabbits. In both rabbit groups, hepatic total HMG-CoA reductase activity was similar and declined > 60% without changing enzyme mRNA levels after cholesterol was fed. In NZW rabbits, cholesterol feeding inhibited LDL receptor function but not mRNA levels. As expected, receptor-mediated LDL binding was reduced in WHHL rabbits. Hepatic cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity and mRNA levels were 2.8 and 10.4 times greater in NZW than WHHL rabbits. Unexpectedly, cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity was reduced 53% and mRNA levels were reduced 79% in NZW rabbits with 2% cholesterol feeding. These results demonstrate that WHHL as compared with NZW rabbits have markedly elevated plasma and higher liver cholesterol concentrations, less hepatic LDL receptor function, and very low hepatic cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity and mRNA levels. Feeding cholesterol to NZW rabbits increased plasma and hepatic concentrations greatly, inhibited LDL receptor-mediated binding, and unexpectedly suppressed cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity and mRNA to minimum levels similar to WHHL rabbits. Dietary cholesterol accumulates in the plasma of NZW rabbits, and WHHL rabbits are hypercholesterolemic because reduced LDL receptor function is combined with decreased catabolism of cholesterol to bile acids. Images PMID:7706454

  16. The role of cholesterol absorption and hepatic cholesterol content in high and low responses to dietary cholesterol and fat in pedigreed baboons (Papio species).

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, R S; Rice, K S; Lewis, D S; McGill, H C; Carey, K D

    1993-06-01

    Selective breeding has produced baboon families with low and high plasma cholesterol responses to dietary cholesterol and fat. We used 12 high- and 12 low-responding (mainly in low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol) pedigreed baboons to determine whether cholesterol absorption and hepatic cholesterol concentration are associated with these responses. We measured cholesterol absorption first on the chow diet, which was low in cholesterol and fat, and after 3 and 13 weeks on the challenge diets, which contained 0.45 mg cholesterol/kcal and 40% of calories as either coconut oil or corn oil. Plasma, lipoprotein, and hepatic cholesterol concentrations were measured 1 week after cholesterol absorption measurements. High-responding baboons had higher percentage cholesterol absorption than low-responding baboons on both chow and challenge diets, regardless of the type of dietary fat. Both high and low responders had higher percentage cholesterol absorption with corn oil than with coconut oil. High responders also had higher hepatic cholesterol concentrations than low responders on chow and after consuming the challenge diets for 4 weeks. After consuming the challenge diets for 14 weeks, low responders fed coconut oil had hepatic cholesterol levels equal to those of high responders, while low responders fed corn oil continued to have low hepatic cholesterol levels. Thus, percentage cholesterol absorption is consistently higher in high-responding baboons regardless of diet, but hepatic cholesterol concentration varies with duration of challenge and type of fat. The results suggest that both cholesterol absorption and hepatic cholesterol concentration regulate cholesterolemic responses to diet, but by different mechanisms.

  17. Cholesterol and late-life cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Peter

    2012-01-01

    High cholesterol levels are a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but their role in dementia and cognitive decline is less clear. This review highlights current knowledge on the role of cholesterol in late-life cognitive function, cognitive decline, and dementia. When measured in midlife, high cholesterol levels associate with an increased risk of late-life dementia and cognitive decline. However, when measured in late-life, high cholesterol levels show no association with cognitive function, or even show an inverse relation. Although statin treatment has been shown to associate with a lower risk of dementia and cognitive decline in observational studies, randomized controlled trials show no beneficial effect of statin treatment on late-life cognitive function. Lowering cholesterol levels may impair brain function, since cholesterol is essential for synapse formation and maturation and plays an important role in the regulation of signal transduction through its function as a component of the cell membrane. However, membrane cholesterol also plays a role in the formation and aggregation of amyloid-β. Factors that influence cholesterol metabolism, such as dietary intake, are shown to play a role in late-life cognitive function and the risk of dementia. In conclusion, cholesterol associates with late-life cognitive function, but the association is strongly age-dependent. There is no evidence that treatment with statins in late-life has a beneficial effect on cognitive function.

  18. Low Normal TSH levels are Associated with Impaired BMD and Hip Geometry in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Kyoung Min; Lee, Eun Young; Song, Mi Kyung; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Youm, Yoosik; Yun, Young Mi; Park, Hyun-Young; Kim, Chang Oh; Rhee, Yumie

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is known to be associated with the risk of fractures in elderly people. However, there are few studies assessing whether low normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels affect bone density and geometry. Here, we aimed to assess the influence of the TSH level on bone mineral density (BMD) and geometry in elderly euthyroid subjects. This was a cross-sectional cohort study. A total of 343 men and 674 women with euthyroidism were included and analyzed separately. The subjects were divided into tertiles based on the serum TSH level. The BMD and geometry were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and a hip structural analysis program. Multiple regression analysis was used to compute the odds ratios of osteoporosis in the lower TSH tertile group and the association between geometry parameters and the TSH level. We found that the femoral neck and total hip BMDs were lower in the lower TSH tertile group. In women, the cross-sectional area and cortical thickness of the femur were negatively associated with the TSH level in all three regions (the narrow neck, intertrochanter, and femoral shaft); however, in men, these geometry parameters were significantly associated with the TSH level only in the intertrochanter region. The buckling ratio, a bone geometry parameter representing cortical instability, was significantly higher in the lower TSH tertile group in all three regions in women, but not in men. Our results indicated that lower TSH levels in the euthyroid range are related to lower BMD and weaker femoral structure in elderly women. PMID:28053824

  19. Low Normal TSH levels are Associated with Impaired BMD and Hip Geometry in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Kyoung Min; Lee, Eun Young; Song, Mi Kyung; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Youm, Yoosik; Yun, Young Mi; Park, Hyun-Young; Kim, Chang Oh; Rhee, Yumie

    2016-12-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is known to be associated with the risk of fractures in elderly people. However, there are few studies assessing whether low normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels affect bone density and geometry. Here, we aimed to assess the influence of the TSH level on bone mineral density (BMD) and geometry in elderly euthyroid subjects. This was a cross-sectional cohort study. A total of 343 men and 674 women with euthyroidism were included and analyzed separately. The subjects were divided into tertiles based on the serum TSH level. The BMD and geometry were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and a hip structural analysis program. Multiple regression analysis was used to compute the odds ratios of osteoporosis in the lower TSH tertile group and the association between geometry parameters and the TSH level. We found that the femoral neck and total hip BMDs were lower in the lower TSH tertile group. In women, the cross-sectional area and cortical thickness of the femur were negatively associated with the TSH level in all three regions (the narrow neck, intertrochanter, and femoral shaft); however, in men, these geometry parameters were significantly associated with the TSH level only in the intertrochanter region. The buckling ratio, a bone geometry parameter representing cortical instability, was significantly higher in the lower TSH tertile group in all three regions in women, but not in men. Our results indicated that lower TSH levels in the euthyroid range are related to lower BMD and weaker femoral structure in elderly women.

  20. Aspirin Increases the Solubility of Cholesterol in Lipid Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsop, Richard; Barrett, Matthew; Zheng, Sonbo; Dies, Hannah; Rheinstadter, Maikel

    2014-03-01

    Aspirin (ASA) is often prescribed for patients with high levels of cholesterol for the secondary prevention of myocardial events, a regimen known as the Low-Dose Aspirin Therapy. We have recently shown that Aspirin partitions in lipid bilayers. However, a direct interplay between ASA and cholesterol has not been investigated. Cholesterol is known to insert itself into the membrane in a dispersed state at moderate concentrations (under ~37.5%) and decrease fluidity of membranes. We prepared model lipid membranes containing varying amounts of both ASA and cholesterol molecules. The structure of the bilayers as a function of ASA and cholesterol concentration was determined using high-resolution X-ray diffraction. At cholesterol levels of more than 40mol%, immiscible cholesterol plaques formed. Adding ASA to the membranes was found to dissolve the cholesterol plaques, leading to a fluid lipid bilayer structure. We present first direct evidence for an interaction between ASA and cholesterol on the level of the cell membrane.

  1. HDL Cholesterol Level Is Associated with Contrast Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Undergoing PCI

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hoon Suk; Kim, Chan Joon; Hwang, Byung-Hee; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Koh, Yoon Seok; Park, Hun-Jun; Her, Sung-Ho; Jang, Sung Won; Park, Chul-Soo; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Hee-Yeol; Jeon, Doo Soo; Kim, Pum-Joon; Yoo, Ki-Dong; Chang, Kiyuk; Jin, Dong Chan; Seung, Ki-Bae

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant risk factor for contrast induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This study included 1592 CKD patients extracted from a prospective multicenter, all comer-based registry of patients undergoing PCI. In multivariate logistic analysis for CI-AKI development, a significant linear trend was observed between the quartiles of HDL-C (quartile 1 vs. 2: odds ratio [OR], 0.716; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.421–1.219; quartile 1 vs. 3: OR, 0.534; 95% CI, 0.301–0.947; quartile 1 vs. 4: OR, 0.173; 95% CI, 0.079–0.377; P for trend < 0.001). HDL-C quartiles were also negatively correlated with the incidence of CI-AKI; 19.0%, 12.1%, 8.7%, and 3.7% for quartile 1(Q1) (<34 mg/dL), Q2 (34–40 mg/dL), Q3 (40–48 mg/dL), and Q4 (>48 mg/dL) respectively (P < 0.001 overall and for the trend). Multivariate Cox regression analysis for the long term mortality, the highest HDL-C quartile was associated with decreased mortality compared with the lowest HDL-C quartile (hazard ratio [HR] 0.516, 95% CI, 0.320–0.832, P = 0.007). Our study suggests more intensive strategies should be considered for preventing CI-AKI in CKD patients with low serum HDL-C level who is planned for PCI. PMID:27775043

  2. Defective removal of cellular cholesterol and phospholipids by apolipoprotein A-I in Tangier Disease.

    PubMed Central

    Francis, G A; Knopp, R H; Oram, J F

    1995-01-01

    Tangier disease is a rare genetic disorder characterized by extremely low plasma levels of HDL and apo A-I, deposition of cholesteryl esters in tissues, and a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease. We examined the possibility that HDL apolipoprotein-mediated removal of cellular lipids may be defective in Tangier disease. With fibroblasts from normal subjects, purified apo A-I cleared cells of cholesteryl esters, depleted cellular free cholesterol pools available for esterification, and stimulated efflux of radiolabeled cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine, and sphingomyelin. With fibroblasts from two unrelated Tangier patients, however, apo A-I had little or no effect on any of these lipid transport processes. Intact HDL also was unable to clear cholesteryl esters from Tangier cells even though it promoted radiolabeled cholesterol efflux to levels 50-70% normal. Passive desorption of radiolabeled cholesterol or phospholipids into medium containing albumin or trypsinized HDL was normal for Tangier cells. Binding studies showed that the interaction of apo A-I with high-affinity binding sites on Tangier fibroblasts was abnormal. These results indicate that apo A-I has an impaired ability to remove cholesterol and phospholipid from Tangier fibroblasts, possibly because of a defective interaction of apo A-I with cell-surface binding sites. Failure of apo A-I to acquire cellular lipids may account for the rapid catabolism of nascent HDL particles and the low plasma HDL levels in Tangier disease. Images PMID:7615839

  3. Elevated high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels correlate with decreased apolipoprotein A-I and A-II fractional catabolic rate in women.

    PubMed Central

    Brinton, E A; Eisenberg, S; Breslow, J L

    1989-01-01

    High levels of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) protect against coronary heart disease susceptibility, but the metabolic mechanisms underlying elevated HDL-C levels are poorly understood. We now report the turnover of isologous radioiodinated HDL apolipoproteins, apo A-I and apo A-II, in 15 female subjects on a metabolic diet with HDL-C levels ranging from 51 to 122 mg/dl. The metabolic parameters, fractional catabolic rate (FCR) and absolute synthetic rate (SR), were determined for apo A-I and apo A-II in all subjects. There was an inverse correlation between plasma HDL-C and the FCR of apo A-I and apo A-II (r = -0.75, P less than 0.001, and r = -0.54, P = 0.036, respectively), but no correlation with the SR of either apo A-I or apo A-II (r = 0.09, and r = -0.16, respectively, both P = NS). Apo A-I levels correlated inversely with apo A-I FCR (r = -0.64, P = 0.01) but not with apo A-I SR (r = 0.30, P = NS). In contrast, plasma levels of apo A-II did not correlate with apo A-II FCR (r = -0.38, P = 0.16), but did correlate with apo A-II SR (r = 0.65, P = 0.009). Further analysis showed that apo A-I and apo A-II FCR were inversely correlated with the HDL-C/apo A-I + A-II ratio (r = -0.69 and -0.61, P = 0.005 and 0.015, respectively). These data suggest that: (a) low HDL apolipoprotein FCR is the predominant metabolic mechanism of elevated HDL-C levels; (b) apo A-I FCR is the primary factor in controlling plasma apo A-I levels, but apo A-II SR is the primary factor controlling plasma apo A-II levels; (c) low HDL apolipoprotein FCR is associated with a lipid-rich HDL fraction. These findings elucidate aspects of HDL metabolism which contribute to high HDL-C levels and which may constitute mechanisms for protection against coronary heart disease. PMID:2500457

  4. Metabolism of adrenal cholesterol in man

    PubMed Central

    Borkowski, Abraham; Delcroix, Claude; Levin, Sam

    1972-01-01

    The kinetics of plasma and adrenal cholesteral equilibration were analyzed in patients undergoing bilateral adrenalectomy for generalized mammary carcinoma. A biological model is proposed to help in the understanding of adrenal cholesterol physiology. It comprises two intracellular compartments: (1) A compartment of free adrenal cholesterol which is small (of the order of 17 mg) but turns over very fast; it is renewed approximately 8 times per day: 3 times by the inflow of free plasma cholesterol, and 5 times by the hydrolysis of esterified adrenal cholesterol, the contribution of adrenal cholesterol synthesis appearing to be relatively small. (2) A compartment of esterified adrenal cholesterol which is 20 times larger; it is constantly renewed by in situ esterification and hydrolysis with a daily fractional turnover rate of the order of 0.25. The direct and selective accumulation of plasma cholesteryl esters is practically absent. Only free adrenal cholesterol returns to plasma, mostly after conversion into steroid “hormones.” However small the synthesis of adrenal cholesterol may be, it seems more important in the zona “reticularis.” On the other hand, the inflow of plasma cholesterol and the turnover of the free adrenal compartment tend to be faster in the zona “fasciculata.” The equilibration of plasma and adrenal cholesterol can proceed unmodified under conditions of ACTH suppression. In one patient with Cushing's disease the size of the two adrenal compartments was clearly increased but their equilibration with plasma cholesterol proceeded normally. In another patient the kinetics of hydrocortisone corresponded to those of free adrenal cholesterol in the control studies. PMID:4338119

  5. MLN64 induces mitochondrial dysfunction associated with increased mitochondrial cholesterol content.

    PubMed

    Balboa, Elisa; Castro, Juan; Pinochet, María-José; Cancino, Gonzalo I; Matías, Nuria; José Sáez, Pablo; Martínez, Alexis; Álvarez, Alejandra R; Garcia-Ruiz, Carmen; Fernandez-Checa, José C; Zanlungo, Silvana

    2017-03-02

    MLN64 is a late endosomal cholesterol-binding membrane protein that has been implicated in cholesterol transport from endosomal membranes to the plasma membrane and/or mitochondria, in toxin-induced resistance, and in mitochondrial dysfunction. Down-regulation of MLN64 in Niemann-Pick C1 deficient cells decreased mitochondrial cholesterol content, suggesting that MLN64 functions independently of NPC1. However, the role of MLN64 in the maintenance of endosomal cholesterol flow and intracellular cholesterol homeostasis remains unclear. We have previously described that hepatic MLN64 overexpression increases liver cholesterol content and induces liver damage. Here, we studied the function of MLN64 in normal and NPC1-deficient cells and we evaluated whether MLN64 overexpressing cells exhibit alterations in mitochondrial function. We used recombinant-adenovirus-mediated MLN64 gene transfer to overexpress MLN64 in mouse liver and hepatic cells; and RNA interference to down-regulate MLN64 in NPC1-deficient cells. In MLN64-overexpressing cells, we found increased mitochondrial cholesterol content and decreased glutathione (GSH) levels and ATPase activity. Furthermore, we found decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial fragmentation and increased mitochondrial superoxide levels in MLN64-overexpressing cells and in NPC1-deficient cells. Consequently, MLN64 expression was increased in NPC1-deficient cells and reduction of its expression restore mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial superoxide levels. Our findings suggest that MLN64 overexpression induces an increase in mitochondrial cholesterol content and consequently a decrease in mitochondrial GSH content leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, we demonstrate that MLN64 expression is increased in NPC cells and plays a key role in cholesterol transport into the mitochondria.

  6. Cerebral and extracerebral cholesterol metabolism and CSF markers of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Popp, Julius; Meichsner, Sabrina; Kölsch, Heike; Lewczuk, Piotr; Maier, Wolfgang; Kornhuber, Johannes; Jessen, Frank; Lütjohann, Dieter

    2013-07-01

    The disturbances of the cholesterol synthesis and metabolism described in Alzheimer's disease (AD) may be both a consequence of the neurodegenerative process and a contributor to the pathogenesis. These putative relationships and their underlying mechanisms are not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the cerebral and extracerebral cholesterol synthesis and metabolism, and the AD pathology as reflected by CSF markers in humans. We evaluated the relationships between the plasma and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of cholesterol, the cholesterol precursors lanosterol, lathosterol and desmosterol, and the cholesterol elimination products 24S-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol, and the CSF markers for AD pathology Aβ1-42 and p-tau181 in 86 subjects with normal cognition and in 107 AD patients. CSF desmosterol, cholesterol and 24S-hydroxycholesterol in the AD group, and CSF 24S-hydroxycholesterol in the control group correlated with the p-tau181 levels. Neither CSF nor plasma concentrations of the included compounds correlated with the CSF Aβ1-42 levels. In multivariate regression tests including age, gender, albumin ratio, number of the APOEε4 alleles, and diagnosis, p-tau181 levels independently predicted the CSF desmosterol, cholesterol and 24S-hydroxycholesterol concentrations. The associations remained significant for CSF cholesterol and 24S-hydroxycholesterol when analyses were separately performed in the AD group. The results suggest that alterations of CNS cholesterol de novo genesis and metabolism are related to neurodegeneration and in particular to the cerebral accumulation of phosphorylated tau.

  7. Cholesterol, the central lipid of mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Maxfield, Frederick R.; van Meer, Gerrit

    2010-01-01

    Summary of recent advances Despite its importance for mammalian cell biology and human health, there are many basic aspects of cholesterol homeostasis that are not well understood. Even for the well-characterized delivery of cholesterol to cells via lipoproteins, a novel regulatory mechanism has been discovered recently, involving a serum protein called PCSK9, which profoundly affects lipoproteins and their receptors. Cells can export cholesterol by processes that require the activity of ABC transporters, but the molecular mechanisms for cholesterol transport remain unclear. Cholesterol levels in different organelles vary by 5–10 fold, and the mechanisms for maintaining these differences are now partially understood. Several proteins have been proposed to play a role in the inter-organelle movement of cholesterol, but many aspects of the mechanisms for regulating intracellular transport and distribution of cholesterol remain to be worked out. The endoplasmic reticulum is the main organelle responsible for regulation of cholesterol synthesis, and careful measurements have shown that the proteins responsible for sterol sensing respond over a very narrow range of cholesterol concentrations to provide very precise, switch-like control over cholesterol synthesis. PMID:20627678

  8. Increased levels of oxidative and carbonyl stress markers in normal ovarian cortex surrounding endometriotic cysts.

    PubMed

    Di Emidio, Giovanna; D'Alfonso, Angela; Leocata, Pietro; Parisse, Valentina; Di Fonso, Adina; Artini, Paolo Giovanni; Patacchiola, Felice; Tatone, Carla; Carta, Gaspare

    2014-11-01

    Many evidence support the view that endometriotic cyst may exert detrimental effect on the surrounding ovarian microenvironment so representing a risk to functionality of adjacent follicles. Patients with benign ovarian cyst (endometriotic, follicular and dermoid cysts) subjected to laparoscopic cystectomy were enrolled in the present retrospective study in order to analyze whether endometriotic tissue could negatively affect the surrounding normal ovarian cortex more severely than other ovarian cysts. To this end we carried out immunohistochemistry analysis and comparative determination of the transcription factor FOXO3A, oxidized DNA adduct 8-OHdG (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine) and damaged proteins known as AGEs (Advanced Glycation End products) as markers of ovarian stress response and molecular damage. Our results show that all the markers analyzed were present in normal ovarian tissue surrounding benign cysts. We observed higher levels of FOXO3A (15.90 ± 0.28), 8-OHdG (13.33 ± 2.07) and AGEs (12.58 ± 4.34) staining in normal ovarian cortex surrounding endometriotic cysts in comparison with follicular cysts (9.04 ± 0.29, 2.67 ± 2.67, 11.31 ± 2.95, respectively) and dermoid cysts (2.02 ± 0.18, 4.33 ± 2.58 and 10.56 ± 4.03, respectively). These results provide evidence that ovarian endometrioma is responsible for more severe alterations to cellular biomolecules than follicular and dermoid cysts.

  9. The Effect of Carvedilol on Blood Glucose Levels In Normal Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    R.N., Suresha; V., Ashwini; B., Pragathi; H.L., Kalabharathi; A.M., Satish; V.H., Pushpa; M.K., Jayanthi; P., Snehalatha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Carvedilol is a commonly used drug in hypertension, congestive heart failure in diabetics. It has moderate calcium channel blocking property in addition to α1 and non selective β antagonistic activity. Though some studies bring forth the beneficial effects of Carvedilol in cardiovascular comorbidities in diabetes, there is no consensus on its effects on glycaemic levels. Aims: To evaluate the effect of oral Carvedilol administration for 5 days on blood glucose levels in normal albino rats through Oral Glucose Tolerance Test. Material and Methods: Twelve adult albino rats of either sex weighing between 150 – 200 g were selected from central animal facility and randomly divided into 2 groups – Control [Distilled water (1ml/rat orally)] and Test (0.8mg/kg body weight orally) and the respective drugs were administered over 5 days. Following overnight fasting, on the fifth day 1 hour after the last dose of the respective drug, OGTT was performed. The CBG (Capillary Blood Glucose) levels were measured at 0 min, glucose (2g/kg body weight) dissolved in water was administered to all the rats orally. The blood sample from tail vein (obtained by tail snipping) at 60 and 150 minutes were analysed for CBG levels using a standardized glucometer. Statistical Analysis: Data was presented as Mean ± SEM. One way ANOVA, independent samples t-test, non–parametric tests, percentages and cross tabs were used in the analysis of data within the same group and between different groups when required. Results: Carvedilol group showed higher CBG levels at all time intervals of OGTT as compared to the Control group i.e., 0, 60 and 150 minutes, the highest being (103.8±5.029 )mg/dl at 60 minutes and was statistically significant. Carvedilol group however showed lesser inter–interval variation compared to the Control group at the same time intervals respectively but was statistically insignificant. Conclusions: Carvedilol has hyperglycaemic potential when given orally

  10. Controlling Cholesterol with Statins

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Controlling Cholesterol with Statins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... not, the following tips can help keep your cholesterol in check: Talk with your healthcare provider about ...

  11. Cholesterol - drug treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000314.htm Cholesterol - drug treatment To use the sharing features on ... treatment; Hardening of the arteries - statin Statins for Cholesterol Statins reduce your risk of heart disease, stroke, ...

  12. Cholesterol testing and results

    MedlinePlus

    Cholesterol test results; LDL test results; VLDL test results; HDL test results; Coronary risk profile results; Hyperlipidemia- ... Some cholesterol is considered good and some is considered bad. Different blood tests can be done to measure each ...

  13. Cholesterol and Statins

    MedlinePlus

    ... away from cells and back to the liver. saturated fat and cholesterol in the food you eat can ... care professionals advise a program of reduced dietary saturated fat and cholesterol, together with physical activity and weight ...

  14. Alternative normalization method of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution level recorded by tree bark.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuli; Wang, Qiuquan; Yang, Limin; Li, Zhenji; Satake, Kenichi; Tsunoda, Kin-Ichi

    2006-10-01

    An alternative normalization method was developed for evaluating atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution level when using tree bark as a passive sampling medium. Perylene (PER), which mainly stems from natural biogenic processes, was proposed as a "natural internal compound" (NIC) of atmospheric PAHs accumulation processes from air into the bark, and a concentration ratio of target PAH to PER (RPAH/PER) was used to minimize the uncertainty in the evaluation of atmospheric PAHs pollution level. Systematic investigation of the effects of intrinsic bark characteristics and extrinsic seasonal meteorological conditions on the partition processes of atmospheric PAHs indicated that RPAH/PER is as an alternative index as compared to bark mass concentration (BMCPAH, ng/g dry bark), lipid mass concentration (LMCPAH, ng/g lipid of bark), and area mass concentration (AMCPAH, ng/m2 surface area of bark) for the evaluation of atmospheric PAHs pollution and that it allows more flexible sampling of tree barks. Clearly, the methodology should be expected to be useful for the objective evaluation of atmospheric pollution levels of other persistent organic pollutants when using tree bark and other passive sampling media if corresponding NICs are found in the future.

  15. Numerical simulation of the processes in the normal incidence tube for high acoustic pressure levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotov, E. S.; Khramtsov, I. V.; Kustov, O. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    Numerical simulation of the acoustic processes in an impedance tube at high levels of acoustic pressure is a way to solve a problem of noise suppressing by liners. These studies used liner specimen that is one cylindrical Helmholtz resonator. The evaluation of the real and imaginary parts of the liner acoustic impedance and sound absorption coefficient was performed for sound pressure levels of 130, 140 and 150 dB. The numerical simulation used experimental data having been obtained on the impedance tube with normal incidence waves. At the first stage of the numerical simulation it was used the linearized Navier-Stokes equations, which describe well the imaginary part of the liner impedance whatever the sound pressure level. These equations were solved by finite element method in COMSOL Multiphysics program in axisymmetric formulation. At the second stage, the complete Navier-Stokes equations were solved by direct numerical simulation in ANSYS CFX in axisymmetric formulation. As the result, the acceptable agreement between numerical simulation and experiment was obtained.

  16. Normal level of sepsis-associated phenylcarboxylic acids in human serum.

    PubMed

    Beloborodova, N V; Moroz, V V; Osipov, A A; Bedova, A Yu; Olenin, A Yu; Getsina, M L; Karpova, O V; Olenina, E G

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies showed that large amounts of phenylcarboxylic acids (PhCAs) are accumulated in a septic patient's blood due to increased endogenous and microbial phenylalanine and tyrosine biotransformation. Frequently, biochemical aromatic amino acid transformation into PhCAs is considered functionally insignificant for people without monogenetic hereditary diseases. The blood of healthy people contains the same PhCAs that are typical for septic patients as shown in this paper. The overall serum PhCAs level was 6 µM on average as measured by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. This level is a stable biochemical parameter indicating the normal metabolism of aromatic amino acids. The concentrations of PhCAs in the metabolic profile of healthy people are distributed as follows: phenylacetic ≈ p-hydroxyphenyllactic > p-hydroxyphenylacetic > phenyllactic ≈ phenylpropionic > benzoic. We conclude that maintaining of stable PhCAs level in the serum is provided as the result of integration of human endogenous metabolic pathways and microbiota.

  17. Liquor Bilirubin Levels in Normal Pregnancy: A Reassessment of Early Prediction of Haemolytic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Murray, John; Norrie, D. L.; Ruthven, C. R. J

    1970-01-01

    A comparison was made between chemically and spectrophotometrically determined concentrations of total bile pigment in the liquor amnii. For the period 16 to 26 weeks' gestation the upper limit of normal bile pigment to protein ratio was found to be 0·4. Levels above this would be required as an indication for intrauterine transfusion. In 110 cases of isoimmunization of pregnancy these criteria were applied in the diagnosis of severity of the condition. The ratio of the bile pigment to protein was used rather than a simple bile pigment measurement, and found to be valuable. Nevertheless, it is important to emphasize that fallacious high bilirubin readings may arise by using whatever method, particularly owing to bilirubin and other breakdown products of blood contaminating the liquor. PMID:4991485

  18. Fitness Level is Associated with Sex-Specific Regional Fat Differences in Normal Weight Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Tyler A.; Dengel, Donald R.; Ryder, Justin R.; Kelly, Aaron S.; Chow, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To characterize regional body composition and insulin sensitivity differences between young adults who were normal weight with either high or low fitness determined by VO2 peak. We hypothesized that higher fitness levels would be associated with reduced visceral fat (VAT) and improved insulin sensitivity. Design A cross-sectional comparison of normal weight males and females with high or low fitness matched on age and sex. Methods A total of 38 (20M/18F) individuals were recruited for this study. Thirty-two young adults (18M/14F) were matched on age (mean 22.5 ± 3 yrs.) and BMI (22.4 ± 2.4 kg/m2) and sex and classified by high or low fitness based on VO2 peak difference (≥ 8ml/kg/min). Total and regional body composition, including VAT, was measured by Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Insulin sensitivity was measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. An analysis of variance compared regional body composition and insulin sensitivity between high and low fitness young adults with a normal BMI. Results Higher fitness was associated with significantly lower percent body fat, lower android fat mass and higher insulin sensitivity in males (−7.2%, P<0.001; −0.5kg, P=0.048; 5.6mg/kg (FFM)/min, p=0.002). In females, higher fitness was associated with significantly lower percent body fat, lower leg fat but no difference in insulin sensitivity (−6.7%, P=0.001; −2.7kg, P<0.001; 2.5 mg/kg(FFM)/min, P=0.40). No differences in VAT were observed between high and low fitness groups. Interestingly in females, there was no difference in total lean mass, trunk lean mass or leg lean mass (P=0.59, P=0.17, P=0.99). Conclusion Higher fitness does not influence VAT in normal weight individuals. Sex influenced regional fat and insulin sensitivity differences between high fitness and low fitness groups. PMID:27054196

  19. Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Syrian Mesquite (Prosopis farcta) Root in High Cholesterol Diet-Fed Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Mohammad Reza; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Miraghaee, Shahram; Babaei, Atefeh; Mohammadi, Bahareh; Bahrami, Mohammad Taher; Bahrami, Gholamreza

    2016-10-01

    Prosopis farcta root has been proposed as an efficacious natural drug for cardiovascular disorders in traditional medicine. The present study evaluates the efficacy of aqueous extract of Prosopis farcta root on experimental atherosclerosis development in rabbits with high cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemia. Serum lipid parameters were significantly increased in the high cholesterol diet groups in comparison with the normal control group (P < .050). Histopathological findings revealed that atheromatous plaques were formed in both thoracic and abdominal aorta of hypercholestrolemic rabbits. Treatment with Prosopis farcta root significantly reduced total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein levels compared to high cholesterol diet rabbits (P < .050). This finding may reflect a reduction of chest pain or the beneficial effects of this plant root extract on cardiovascular health. The present study can serve as a basis for future investigations on the other effects of this plant on cardiovascular health.

  20. Imbalanced cholesterol metabolism in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Xue-shan, Zhao; Juan, Peng; Qi, Wu; Zhong, Ren; Li-hong, Pan; Zhi-han, Tang; Zhi-sheng, Jiang; Gui-xue, Wang; Lu-shan, Liu

    2016-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex and multifactorial neurodegenerative disease that is mainly caused by β-amyloid accumulation. A large number of studies have shown that elevated cholesterol levels may perform a function in AD pathology, and several cholesterol-related gene polymorphisms are associated with this disease. Although numerous studies have shown the important function of cholesterol in AD pathogenesis and development, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To further elucidate cholesterol metabolism disorder and AD, we first, review metabolism and regulation of the cholesterol in the brain. Second, we summarize the literature stating that hypercholesterolemia is one of the risk factors of AD. Third, we discuss the main mechanisms of abnormal cholesterol metabolism that increase the risk of AD. Finally, the relationships between AD and apolipoprotein E, PCSK9, and LRP1 are discussed in this article.

  1. microRNAs and cholesterol metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Kathryn J.; Rayner, Katey J.; Suárez, Yajaira; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Cholesterol metabolism is tightly regulated at the cellular level. In addition to classic transcriptional regulation of cholesterol metabolism (e.g., by SREBP and LXR), members of a class of non-coding RNAs termed microRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been identified to be potent post-transcriptional regulators of lipid metabolism genes, including cholesterol homeostasis. We and others have recently shown that miR-33 regulates cholesterol efflux and HDL biogenesis by downregulating the expression of the ABC transporters, ABCA1 and ABCG1. In addition to miR-33, miR-122 and miR-370 have been shown to play important roles in regulating cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. These new data suggest important roles of microRNAs in the epigenetic regulation of cholesterol metabolism and have opened new avenues for the treatment of dyslipidemias. PMID:20880716

  2. Normal Cerebrospinal Fluid Histamine and tele-Methylhistamine Levels in Hypersomnia Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Delallée, Nathalie; Jaussent, Isabelle; Scholz, Sabine; Bayard, Sophie; Croyal, Mickael; Schwartz, Jean-Charles; Robert, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    useful in assessing the etiology or severity of centrally mediated hypersomnia. Citation: Dauvilliers Y; Delalléee N; Jaussent I; Scholz S; Bayard S; Croyal M; Schwartz JC; Robert P. Normal cerebrospinal fluid histamine and tele-methylhistamine levels in hypersomnia conditions. SLEEP 2012;35(10):1359-1366. PMID:23024434

  3. Dietary plant sterols and cholesterol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ellegård, Lars H; Andersson, Susan W; Normén, A Lena; Andersson, Henrik A

    2007-01-01

    Plant sterols, naturally occurring in foods of plant origin, reduce cholesterol absorption. Experimental studies show plant sterols to be an important part of the serum-cholesterol lowering effect of certain diets and dietary components. Epidemiological data show that individuals with higher intakes of plant sterols from their habitual diets have lower serum-cholesterol levels. To date, the role of naturally occurring plant sterols for lowering serum cholesterol has probably been underestimated. The consumption of dietary plant sterols should be a part of dietary advice to patients with hypercholesterolemia and the general public for the prevention and management of coronary heart disease.

  4. Natesto™ , a novel testosterone nasal gel, normalizes androgen levels in hypogonadal men.

    PubMed

    Rogol, A D; Tkachenko, N; Bryson, N

    2016-01-01

    Advantages of testosterone nasal gel include ease of administration, low dose, and no risk of secondary transference. The efficacy and safety of testosterone nasal gel was evaluated in hypogonadal males. The ninety-day, randomized, open-label, dose-ranging study, included potential dose titration and sequential safety extensions to 1 year. At 39 US outpatient sites, 306 men (mean age 54.4 years) with two fasting morning total serum testosterone levels <300 ng/dL were randomized (n = 228, b.i.d. dosing; n = 78, t.i.d. dosing). Natesto(™) Testosterone Nasal Gel was self-administered, using a multiple-dose dispenser, as two or three daily doses (5.5 mg per nostril, 11.0 mg single dose). Total daily doses were 22 mg or 33 mg. The primary endpoint was the Percentage of patients with Day-90 serum total testosterone average concentration (C(avg)) value within the eugonadal range (≥300 ng/dL, ≤1050 ng/dL). At Day 90, 200/273 subjects (73%; 95% CI 68, 79) in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population and 180/237 subjects (76%; 71, 81) in the per-protocol (PP) population were in the normal range. Also, in the normal range were 68% (61, 74) of ITT subjects and 70% (63, 77) of PP subjects in the titration arm, as well as, 90% (83, 97) of ITT subjects and 91% (84, 98) of PP subjects in the fixed-dose arm. Natesto(™) 11 mg b.i.d. or 11 mg t.i.d. restores normal serum total testosterone levels in most hypogonadal men. Erectile function, mood, body composition, and bone mineral density improved from baseline. Treatment was well tolerated; adverse event rates were low. Adverse event discontinuation rates were 2.1% (b.i.d.) and 3.7% (t.i.d.). This study lacked a placebo or an active comparator control which limited the ability to adequately assess some measures.

  5. All about Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    Toolkit No. 6 All About Cholesterol Managing your cholesterol and other blood fats (also called blood lipids) can help you prevent health problems. ... it’s likely that your cholesterol may be off. All of these are risk factors for diabetes, heart ...

  6. Cholesterol and Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, E. J.; Gopalan, Venkat

    2005-01-01

    There is a widespread belief among the public and even among chemist that plants do not contain cholesterol. This wrong belief is the result of the fact that plants generally contain only small quantities of cholesterol and that analytical methods for the detection of cholesterol in this range were not developed until recently.

  7. Increased plasma cholesterol esterification by LCAT reduces diet-induced atherosclerosis in SR-BI knockout mice[S

    PubMed Central

    Thacker, Seth G.; Rousset, Xavier; Esmail, Safiya; Zarzour, Abdalrahman; Jin, Xueting; Collins, Heidi L.; Sampson, Maureen; Stonik, John; Demosky, Stephen; Malide, Daniela A.; Freeman, Lita; Vaisman, Boris L.; Kruth, Howard S.; Adelman, Steven J.; Remaley, Alan T.

    2015-01-01

    LCAT, a plasma enzyme that esterifies cholesterol, has been proposed to play an antiatherogenic role, but animal and epidemiologic studies have yielded conflicting results. To gain insight into LCAT and the role of free cholesterol (FC) in atherosclerosis, we examined the effect of LCAT over- and underexpression in diet-induced atherosclerosis in scavenger receptor class B member I-deficient [Scarab(−/−)] mice, which have a secondary defect in cholesterol esterification. Scarab(−/−)×LCAT-null [Lcat(−/−)] mice had a decrease in HDL-cholesterol and a high plasma ratio of FC/total cholesterol (TC) (0.88 ± 0.033) and a marked increase in VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C) on a high-fat diet. Scarab(−/−)×LCAT-transgenic (Tg) mice had lower levels of VLDL-C and a normal plasma FC/TC ratio (0.28 ± 0.005). Plasma from Scarab(−/−)×LCAT-Tg mice also showed an increase in cholesterol esterification during in vitro cholesterol efflux, but increased esterification did not appear to affect the overall rate of cholesterol efflux or hepatic uptake of cholesterol. Scarab(−/−)×LCAT-Tg mice also displayed a 51% decrease in aortic sinus atherosclerosis compared with Scarab(−/−) mice (P < 0.05). In summary, we demonstrate that increased cholesterol esterification by LCAT is atheroprotective, most likely through its ability to increase HDL levels and decrease pro-atherogenic apoB-containing lipoprotein particles. PMID:25964513

  8. Normal total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels in adults with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ziai, S; Elisha, B; Hammana, I; Tardif, A; Berthiaume, Y; Coderre, L; Rabasa-Lhoret, R

    2011-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis related diabetes (CFRD) is an important complication of CF that increases mortality. Adiponectin, an adipokine secreted from adipose tissue, plays an important role in fatty acid and glucose metabolism. Lower total adiponectin (TA) levels have been linked to the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. However, studies show that the high molecular weight isoform (HMW), thought to be more active than TA, might be a better indicator of insulin sensitivity. Our aim was to determine the association between HMW and insulin sensitivity in CF subjects and determine if other factors might modulate its levels. Thirteen control subjects and 47 CF adults (16 with normal glucose tolerance, 16 prediabetic and 15 with CFRD) underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Blood samples were taken at time 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min. Body mass index, fibrinogen, glucose and insulin, TA and HMW were measured in every subject. Regression analysis was used to determine the association between TA, HMW and glucose (fasting glucose, 2h glucose and glucose AUC) as well as insulin (fasting insulin, insulin AUC, and Stumvoll insulin sensitivity index) parameters. TA and HMW levels were similar between CF patients and controls and were not associated to insulin sensitivity. TA was negatively associated to insulin AUC (p=0.0108) and 2h glucose (p=0.0116) in controls while these relationships were either weakly negative (p=0.0208) or weakly positive (p=0.0105) in CF patients. Also, HMW was negatively associated to insulin (p=0.00301) and glucose AUC (p=0.0546) in controls whereas these associations were positive in CF patients (p=0.0388, p=0.0232 respectively). In conclusion, our exploratory study on HMW adiponectin demonstrated similar levels of TA and HMW between CF patients and controls and different relationships between forms of adiponectin to glucose metabolism and insulin in CF.

  9. Differential Benefit of Statin in Secondary Prevention of Acute Myocardial Infarction according to the Level of Triglyceride and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Cheol Hwan; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Young Jo; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Wan; Kim, Jong Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The differential benefit of statin according to the state of dyslipidemia has been sparsely investigated. We sought to address the efficacy of statin in secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI) according to the level of triglyceride and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on admission. Subjects and Methods Acute MI patients (24653) were enrolled and the total patients were divided according to level of triglyceride and HDL-C on admission: group A (HDL-C≥40 mg/dL and triglyceride<150 mg/dL; n=11819), group B (HDL-C≥40 mg/dL and triglyceride≥150 mg/dL; n=3329), group C (HDL-C<40 mg/dL and triglyceride<150 mg/dL; n=6062), and group D (HDL-C<40 mg/dL & triglyceride≥150 mg/dL; n=3443). We evaluated the differential efficacy of statin according to the presence or absence of component of dyslipidemia. The primary end points were major adverse cardiac events (MACE) for 2 years. Results Statin therapy significantly reduced the risk of MACE in group A (hazard ratio=0.676; 95% confidence interval: 0.582-0.785; p<0.001). However, the efficacy of statin was not prominent in groups B, C, or D. In a propensity-matched population, the result was similar. In particular, the benefit of statin in group A was different compared with group D (interaction p=0.042) Conclusion The benefit of statin in patients with MI was different according to the presence or absence of dyslipidemia. In particular, because of the insufficient benefit of statin in patients with MI and dyslipidemia, a different lipid-lowering strategy is necessary in these patients. PMID:27275169

  10. Ratio of fat to energy intake independently associated with the duration of diabetes and total cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yim, Jung-Eun; Kim, Young-Seol; Cho, Mi-Ran; Choue, Ryowon

    2011-04-01

    The importance of dietary intake in the treatment of type 2 diabetes was emphasized. This study was performed to investigate the dietary intakes of Korean type 2 diabetes patients according to the treatment and duration of diabetes and to examine the relationships between their diet and serum lipid profiles. The subjects were 111 type 2 diabetic patients who were treated by medical nutrition therapy only, oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA), or insulin with medical nutrition therapy. Dietary intake was assessed by a registered dietitian using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires. Comparisons according to treatment type were made using covariance analyses. General linear models identified the independent effects of the different treatments after covarying for age, duration of diabetes, and 2-way interactions. There were no significant differences in age and BMI but was in duration of diabetes according to treatment type in these subjects. Carbohydrate to energy ratio was higher in the OHA group (P < 0.05), whereas the fat to energy ratio was higher in the insulin group for males (P < 0.05). Carbohydrate (R(2) = 0.24, P = 0.005) and fat (R(2) = 0.26, P = 0.02) to energy ratios were independently associated with the duration of diabetes after covarying for age, sex, treatment, and 2-way interactions. The levels of triglyceride (TG; R(2) = 0.32, P = 0.02) and total cholesterol (TC) were associated independently with energy intake and the carbohydrate (R(2) = 0.15, P = 0.02) and fat (R(2) = 0.15, P = 0.01) to energy ratios, respectively. The concern that the independent association of dietary intake with either duration of diabetes or dietary factors affects blood lipid levels could suggest that specific dietary recommendations may work better for identifiable groups of diabetes patients.

  11. Home-Use Tests - Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Home Use Tests Cholesterol Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... a home-use test kit to measure total cholesterol. What cholesterol is: Cholesterol is a fat (lipid) ...

  12. Profound induction of hepatic cholesteryl ester transfer protein transgene expression in apolipoprotein E and low density lipoprotein receptor gene knockout mice. A novel mechanism signals changes in plasma cholesterol levels.

    PubMed Central

    Masucci-Magoulas, L; Plump, A; Jiang, X C; Walsh, A; Breslow, J L; Tall, A R

    1996-01-01

    The plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mediates the transfer of cholesteryl esters from HDL to other lipoproteins and is a key regulated component of reverse cholesterol transport. Dietary hypercholesterolemia results in increased hepatic CETP gene transcription and higher plasma CETP levels. To investigate the mechanisms by which the liver senses hypercholesterolemia, mice containing a natural flanking region CETP transgene (NFR-CETP transgene) were bred with apo E or LDL receptor gene knockout mice (E0 or LDLr0 mice). Compared to NFR-CETP transgenic (Tg) mice with intact apo E genes, in NFR-CETP Tg/E0 mice there was an eightfold induction of plasma CETP levels and a parallel increase in hepatic CETP mRNA levels. Other sterol-responsive genes (LDL receptor and hydroxymethyl glutaryl CoA reductase) also showed evidence of altered regulation with decreased abundance of their mRNAs in the E0 background. A similar induction of plasma CETP and hepatic CETP mRNA levels resulted from breeding the NFR-CETP transgene into the LDL receptor gene knockout background. When placed on a high cholesterol diet, there was a further increase in CETP levels in both E0 and LDLr0 backgrounds. In CETP Tg, CETP Tg/E0, and CETP Tg/LDLr0 mice on different diets, plasma CETP and CETP mRNA levels were highly correlated with plasma cholesterol levels. The results indicate that hepatic CETP gene expression is driven by a mechanism which senses changes in plasma cholesterol levels independent of apo E and LDL receptors. Hepatic sterol-sensitive genes have mechanisms to sense hypercholesterolemia that do not require classical receptor-mediated lipoprotein uptake. PMID:8550828

  13. Cholesterol regulates HERG K+ channel activation by increasing phospholipase C β1 expression.

    PubMed

    Chun, Yoon Sun; Oh, Hyun Geun; Park, Myoung Kyu; Cho, Hana; Chung, Sungkwon

    2013-01-01

    Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) K(+) channel underlies the rapidly activating delayed rectifier K(+) conductance (IKr) during normal cardiac repolarization. Also, it may regulate excitability in many neuronal cells. Recently, we showed that enrichment of cell membrane with cholesterol inhibits HERG channels by reducing the levels of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] due to the activation of phospholipase C (PLC). In this study, we further explored the effect of cholesterol enrichment on HERG channel kinetics. When membrane cholesterol level was mildly increased in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells expressing HERG channel, the inactivation and deactivation kinetics of HERG current were not affected, but the activation rate was significantly decelerated at all voltages tested. The application of PtdIns(4,5)P2 or inhibitor for PLC prevented the effect of cholesterol enrichment, while the presence of antibody against PtdIns(4,5)P2 in pipette solution mimicked the effect of cholesterol enrichment. These results indicate that the effect of cholesterol enrichment on HERG channel is due to the depletion of PtdIns(4,5)P2. We also found that cholesterol enrichment significantly increases the expression of β1 and β3 isoforms of PLC (PLCβ1, PLCβ3) in the membrane. Since the effects of cholesterol enrichment on HERG channel were prevented by inhibiting transcription or by inhibiting PLCβ1 expression, we conclude that increased PLCβ1 expression leads to the deceleration of HERG channel activation rate via downregulation of PtdIns(4,5)P2. These results confirm a crosstalk between two plasma membrane-enriched lipids, cholesterol and PtdIns(4,5)P2, in the regulation of HERG channels.

  14. All in the Family: When High Blood Cholesterol Occurs in Families

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Cholesterol All in the Family: When High Blood Cholesterol Occurs ... A / Cholesterol Levels: What You Need to Know / All In The Family Summer 2012 Issue: Volume 7 ...

  15. Significance of plasma lead levels in normal and lead-intoxicated children.

    PubMed

    Rosen, J F; Trinidad, E E

    1974-05-01

    Plasma lead (Pb) levels have been measured in normal and lead-intoxicated children, newborns, and children with sickle cell disease. The results in all groups were contant over a wide range of red cell Pb concentration. These results support the thesis that the red cell represents a large repository for Pb, maintaining plasma Pb concentration within closely defined limits, and that methods other than measurements of plasma Pb will be necessary to uncover a presumably dynamic transport system between red cell and plasma. Indeed, we have demonstrated in vitro that ionized calcium (Ca(2+)) lowers red cell Pb content according to a linear dose-response curve. Ca(2+) may thereby control Pb transport from red cell to plasma, and fluctuations in the concentration of Ca(2+) in serum and extracellular fluid may influence the toxic activities of Pb. In bone organ culture, changes in the concentration of Ca(2+) and phosphate in the medium alter the release of previously incorporated (210)Pb from fetal rat bones in response to parathyroid hormone (PTH). Therefore, both PTH and the ionic milieu of the medium apparently regulate bone Pb metabolism.We would expect that understanding further the dynamics of Pb transport in plasma and bone may lead to a more exact definition of the real hazards of low level Pb toxicity in children.

  16. Impact of Millimeter-Level Margins on Peripheral Normal Brain Sparing for Gamma Knife Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Lijun; Sahgal, Arjun; Larson, David A.; Pinnaduwage, Dilini; Fogh, Shannon; Barani, Igor; Nakamura, Jean; McDermott, Michael; Sneed, Penny

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate how millimeter-level margins beyond the gross tumor volume (GTV) impact peripheral normal brain tissue sparing for Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Methods and Materials: A mathematical formula was derived to predict the peripheral isodose volume, such as the 12-Gy isodose volume, with increasing margins by millimeters. The empirical parameters of the formula were derived from a cohort of brain tumor and surgical tumor resection cavity cases (n=15) treated with the Gamma Knife Perfexion. This was done by first adding margins from 0.5 to 3.0 mm to each individual target and then creating for each expanded target a series of treatment plans of nearly identical quality as the original plan. Finally, the formula was integrated with a published logistic regression model to estimate the treatment-induced complication rate for stereotactic radiosurgery when millimeter-level margins are added. Results: Confirmatory correlation between the nominal target radius (ie, R{sub T}) and commonly used maximum target size was found for the studied cases, except for a few outliers. The peripheral isodose volume such as the 12-Gy volume was found to increase exponentially with increasing Δ/R{sub T}, where Δ is the margin size. Such a curve fitted the data (logarithmic regression, R{sup 2} >0.99), and the 12-Gy isodose volume was shown to increase steeply with a 0.5- to 3.0-mm margin applied to a target. For example, a 2-mm margin on average resulted in an increase of 55% ± 16% in the 12-Gy volume; this corresponded to an increase in the symptomatic necrosis rate of 6% to 25%, depending on the Δ/R{sub T} values for the target. Conclusions: Millimeter-level margins beyond the GTV significantly impact peripheral normal brain sparing and should be applied with caution. Our model provides a rapid estimate of such an effect, particularly for large and/or irregularly shaped targets.

  17. Effects of past and recent blood pressure and cholesterol level on coronary heart disease and stroke mortality, accounting for measurement error.

    PubMed

    Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Lanti, Mariapaola; Menotti, Alessandro; Moschandreas, Joanna; Tolonen, Hanna; Nissinen, Aulikki; Nedeljkovic, Srecko; Kafatos, Anthony; Kromhout, Daan

    2007-02-15

    The authors aimed to quantify the effects of current systolic blood pressure (SBP) and serum total cholesterol on the risk of mortality in comparison with SBP or serum cholesterol 25 years previously, taking measurement error into account. The authors reanalyzed 35-year follow-up data on mortality due to coronary heart disease and stroke among subjects aged 65 years or more from nine cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. The two-step method of Tsiatis et al. (J Am Stat Assoc 1995;90:27-37) was used to adjust for regression dilution bias, and results were compared with those obtained using more commonly applied methods of adjustment for regression dilution bias. It was found that the commonly used univariate adjustment for regression dilution bias overestimates the effects of both SBP and cholesterol compared with multivariate methods. Also, the two-step method makes better use of the information available, resulting in smaller confidence intervals. Results comparing recent and past exposure indicated that past SBP is more important than recent SBP in terms of its effect on coronary heart disease mortality, while both recent and past values seem to be important for effects of cholesterol on coronary heart disease mortality and effects of SBP on stroke mortality. Associations between serum cholesterol concentration and risk of stroke mortality are weak.

  18. Estradiol levels in girls with Turner's syndrome compared to normal prepubertal girls as determined by an ultrasensitive assay.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Courtnay A; Heinrichs, Claudine; Larmore, Kimberly A; Craen, Marguerita; Brown-Dawson, Jacquelyn; Shaywitz, Sally; Ross, Judith; Klein, Karen Oerter

    2003-01-01

    Based on growing evidence that estradiol is produced in small amounts even in the prepubertal ovary, we hypothesized that estradiol levels in girls with Turner's syndrome (TS) are lower than in normal prepubertal girls secondary to the lack of normally functioning ovaries. Estradiol levels in untreated girls with TS have not been previously well defined because of the lack of adequate sensitivity of previously available estradiol assays. We utilized an ultrasensitive assay to study estradiol levels in 34 girls with TS and 34 normal age-matched prepubertal girls between the ages of 5 and 12 years. The average estradiol level in the girls with TS (6.4 +/- 4.9 pmol/l estradiol equivalents) was significantly lower than in the normal prepubertal girls (12.7 +/- 10.8 pmol/l estradiol equivalents; p < 0.01). Girls with TS were significantly shorter, and weighed less than the normal prepubertal girls, as expected. The estradiol level was not significantly correlated with height, bone age, or degree of bone age delay. In conclusion, girls with TS have significantly lower estradiol levels than normal age-matched prepubertal girls. This report is consistent with the hypothesis that the lack of normal ovarian function in girls with TS is evident even before puberty.

  19. Cholesterol-Loaded Cyclodextrin Increases the Cholesterol Content of Goat Sperm to Improve Cold and Osmotic Resistance and Maintain Sperm Function after Cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Vianney M; Leclerc, Pierre; Bailey, Janice L

    2016-04-01

    The success of semen cryopreservation depends on sperm membrane integrity and function after thawing. Cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin (CLC) is used for in vitro incorporation of cholesterol to protect cells against cold temperatures. We hypothesized that CLC treatment also enhances sperm cholesterol content to increase tolerance to osmotic shock and cryoresistance, thereby improving fertility. We confirmed the fact that treatment of goat semen with 3 mg/ml CLC increases sperm cholesterol content using both the Liebermann-Burchard approach and filipin III labeling of membrane cholesterol. Sperm were then treated with or without CLC and cryopreserved. After thawing, sperm cholesterol dramatically fell, even in the presence of CLC, which explains the mechanism of cryocapacitation. CLC treatment, however, maintained a normal prefreeze cholesterol level in sperm after cryopreservation. Furthermore, fresh sperm treated with CLC and subjected to either cold shock or incubated in hypo-, iso-, and hyperosmotic media, designed to mimic stresses associated with freezing/thawing, displayed increased temperature and osmotic tolerance. CLC treatment also improved sperm viability, motility, and acrosome integrity after thawing. Furthermore, CLC treatment did not affect the sperm's ability to undergo in vitro capacitation according to chlortetracycline fluorescence and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. A pilot field trial demonstrated that artificial insemination with sperm that underwent increased cholesterol levels following CLC treatment yielded higher fertility ( ITALIC! P< 0.1) and proliferation ( ITALIC! P< 0.05) rates in vivo than untreated semen from the same ejaculate samples. These observations suggest that CLC treatment could be used to improve cryoprotection during the freezing and thawing of goat sperm.

  20. [Maternal serum levels of cystine-aminopeptidase (C.A.P.) in normal and pathological pregnancies (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Thoumsin, H J; Loos, A B; Krausch, C; Lambotte, R

    1980-01-01

    The variations of the maternal serum levels of cystine-aminopeptidase or oxytocinase (C.A.P.) have been studied in 399 measurements from 326 pregnant patients, 226 normal pregnancies were used as control and allowed us to set up a range of normal values for the age of pregnancy; the mean levels increase exponentially. It has not been possible from this study to establish conclusively a direct relationship between the C.A.P. levels, or variations of these levels and the onset of a fetal and/or placental pathology. In twin pregnancies only, the levels were constantly elevated.

  1. MUC Expression in Gallbladder Epithelial Tissues in Cholesterol-Associated Gallbladder Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Kyo-Sang; Choi, Ho Soon; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Hang Lak; Lee, Oh Young; Yoon, Byung Chul; Lee, Kyeong Geun; Paik, Seung Sam; Kim, Yong Seok; Lee, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Gallstone pathogenesis is linked to mucin hypersecretion and bacterial infection. Several mucin genes have been identified in gallbladder epithelial cells (GBECs). We investigated MUC expression in cholesterol-associated gallbladder disease and evaluated the relationship between mucin and bacterial infection. Methods The present study involved 20 patients with cholesterol stones with cholecystitis, five with cholesterol stones with cholesterolosis, six with cholesterol polyps, two with gallbladder cancer, and six controls. Canine GBECs treated with lipopolysaccharide were also studied. MUC3, MUC5AC, MUC5B, and MUC6 antibodies were used for dot/slot immunoblotting and immunohistochemical studies of the gallbladder epithelial tissues, canine GBECs, and bile. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to evaluate MUC3 and MUC5B expression. Results MUC3, MUC5AC, MUC5B, and MUC6 were expressed in the normal gallbladder epithelium, and of those, MUC3 and MUC5B exhibited the highest expression levels. Greatly increased levels of MUC3 and MUC5B expression were observed in the cholesterol stone group, and slightly increased levels were observed in the cholesterol polyp group; MUC3 and MUC5B mRNA was also upregulated in those groups. Canine GBECs treated with lipopolysaccharide also showed upregulation of MUC3 and MUC5B. Conclusions The mucin genes with the highest expression levels in gallbladder tissue in cholesterol-associated diseases were MUC3 and MUC5B. Cholesterol stones and gallbladder infections were associated with increased MUC3 and MUC5B expression. PMID:27563024

  2. Regulation of biliary cholesterol secretion. Functional relationship between the canalicular and sinusoidal cholesterol secretory pathways in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Nervi, F; Marinović, I; Rigotti, A; Ulloa, N

    1988-01-01

    The functional interrelationship between biliary cholesterol secretion, sinusoidal lipoprotein cholesterol secretion and bile salt synthesis was studied in the rat. Diosgenin, fructose, and colestipol in the diet were used to, respectively, influence biliary cholesterol output, VLDL production and bile salt synthesis. In the acute bile fistula rat, biliary cholesterol output was 700% increased by diosgenin and 50% decreased by fructose. In the rats fed both diosgenin and fructose, biliary cholesterol secretion was increased only by approximately 200%, whereas biliary bile salts and phospholipid outputs were unchanged. In the isolated perfused liver, VLDL-cholesterol output was 50% reduced by diosgenin alone, but was unchanged following feeding of diosgenin plus fructose. However, the livers of rats fed diosgenin plus fructose exhibited a 700% increase in VLDL-triglyceride production and a 200% increase in VLDL-cholesterol output. A significant reciprocal relationship between VLDL-cholesterol secretion and the coupling ratio of cholesterol to bile salts in bile was observed. Colestipol added to the diet maintained both sinusoidal and biliary cholesterol outputs within the normal range. In the chronic bile fistula rat, colestipol increased bile salt synthesis by 100% while diosgenin and fructose diets had no effect. Similarly, the addition of fructose to the colestipol diet did not decrease bile salt synthesis. These data suggest a reciprocal relationship between biliary cholesterol secretion and hepatic secretion of cholesterol as VLDL particles. The free cholesterol pool used for bile salt synthesis seems functionally unrelated to the pool from which VLDL-cholesterol and biliary cholesterol originate. These findings support the idea that metabolic compartmentalization of hepatic cholesterol is a major determinant of the quantity of cholesterol available for recruitment by the bile salt-dependent biliary cholesterol secretory mechanism. PMID:3198756

  3. Blood levels and renal effects of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal man.

    PubMed Central

    Weidmann, P; Hasler, L; Gnädinger, M P; Lang, R E; Uehlinger, D E; Shaw, S; Rascher, W; Reubi, F C

    1986-01-01

    Since mammalian atria were recently found to contain vasoactive and natriuretic peptides, we investigated the following in normal humans: plasma human atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations, effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urinary water and electrolyte excretion, blood pressure (BP), and catecholamine, antidiuretic hormone (ADH), angiotensin II, and aldosterone levels before, during, and after intravenous administration of the newly synthetized alpha-human atrial natriuretic peptide (alpha hANP). In 10 subjects alpha hANP given as an initial bolus of 50 micrograms followed by a 45-min maintenance infusion at 6.25 micrograms/min increased plasma alpha hANP from 58 +/- 12 to 625 +/- 87 (mean +/- SEM) pg/ml; caused an acute fall in diastolic BP (-12%, P less than 0.001) and a hemoconcentration (hematocrit +7%, P less than 0.01) not fully explained by a negative body fluid balance; increased GFR (+15%, P less than 0.05) despite unchanged or decreased ERPF (filtration fraction +37%, P less than 0.001); augmented (P less than 0.05- less than 0.001) urinary chloride (+317%), sodium (+224%), calcium (+158%), magnesium (+110%), phosphate excretion (+88%), and free water clearance (from -0.76 to +2.23 ml/min, P less than 0.001) with only little change in potassium excretion; and increased plasma norepinephrine (P less than 0.001) while plasma and urinary epinephrine and dopamine, and plasma ADH, angiotensin II, and aldosterone levels were unchanged. The magnitude and pattern of electrolyte and water excretion during alpha hANP infusion could not be accounted for by increased GFR alone. Therefore, in normal man, endogenous alpha hANP seems to circulate in blood. alpha hANP can cause a BP reduction and hemoconcentration which occur, at least in part, independently of diuresis and are accompanied by sympathetic activation. An increase in GFR that occurs in the presence of unchanged or even decreased total renal blood flow is an important

  4. Comparison of relative and attributable risk of myocardial infarction and stroke according to C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Pischon, Tobias; Möhlig, Matthias; Hoffmann, Kurt; Spranger, Joachim; Weikert, Cornelia; Willich, Stefan N; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Boeing, Heiner

    2007-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) was proposed as a stronger predictor of cardiovascular events than low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C); however, these associations may differ between myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. We compared statistically the associations of CRP and LDL-C levels with risk of MI versus stroke and examined to what extent consideration of CRP or LDL-C increases the population attributable fractions (PAFs) of MI and stroke beyond traditional risk factors among 27,548 subjects from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam Study in a case-cohort design. Among subjects without prior MI or stroke, 156 developed MI and 132 stroke during 6.0 years of follow-up. In adjusted competing risk analyses CRP was positively related to MI and stroke (P difference between endpoints = 0.55), whereas LDL-C was related to MI but not stroke (P difference between endpoints = 0.003). The PAF for smoking, diabetes, and hypertension combined was 0.76 for MI, and 0.58 for stroke. With additional consideration of CRP the PAFs were 0.80 and 0.68, while with addition of LDL-C the PAFs were 0.88 and 0.55. We conclude that CRP is equally strongly related to risk of MI and stroke, whereas LDL-C is related to risk of MI but not stroke. Consideration of LDL-C beyond smoking, diabetes and hypertension may increase the PAF of MI slightly more than CRP. In contrast, consideration of CRP but not of LDL-C may increase the PAF of stroke beyond these factors.

  5. Cholesterol homeostasis: How do cells sense sterol excess?

    PubMed

    Howe, Vicky; Sharpe, Laura J; Alexopoulos, Stephanie J; Kunze, Sarah V; Chua, Ngee Kiat; Li, Dianfan; Brown, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    Cholesterol is vital in mammals, but toxic in excess. Consequently, elaborate molecular mechanisms have evolved to maintain this sterol within narrow limits. How cells sense excess cholesterol is an intriguing area of research. Cells sense cholesterol, and other related sterols such as oxysterols or cholesterol synthesis intermediates, and respond to changing levels through several elegant mechanisms of feedback regulation. Cholesterol sensing involves both direct binding of sterols to the homeostatic machinery located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and indirect effects elicited by sterol-dependent alteration of the physical properties of membranes. Here, we examine the mechanisms employed by cells to maintain cholesterol homeostasis.

  6. Association of Elevated Amyloid Levels With Cognition and Biomarkers in Cognitively Normal People From the Community

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ronald C.; Wiste, Heather J.; Weigand, Stephen D.; Rocca, Walter A.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Lowe, Val J.; Knopman, David S.; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Machulda, Mary M.; Geda, Yonas E.; Jack, Clifford R.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The role of amyloid in the progression of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathophysiology is of central interest to the design of randomized clinical trials. The presence of amyloid has become a prerequisite for enrollment in several secondary prevention trials for AD, yet the precise effect of elevated amyloid levels on subsequent clinical and biomarker events is less certain. OBJECTIVE To explore the effect of elevated amyloid levels on subsequent changes in cognition and biomarkers. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A total of 564 cognitively normal individuals (median age, 78 years) from the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, a population-based longitudinal study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, with serial cognitive data were selected for this study. The data used in this study were collected from January 12, 2006, to January 9, 2014. Individuals included in this study had undergone magnetic resonance imaging, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) PET at baseline were not cognitively impaired at baseline and had at least 1 clinical follow-up. A subset of 286 individuals also underwent serial imaging. Elevated amyloid level was defined as a standardized uptake value ratio of greater than 1.5 on PiB PET. Associations with baseline amyloid status and baseline and longitudinal change in clinical and imaging measures were evaluated after adjusting for age and hippocampal volume. APOE4 effects were also evaluated. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Cognitive measures of memory, language, attention/executive function, visuospatial skills, PiB levels, hippocampal and ventricular volumes, and FDG-PET measures. RESULTS At baseline, 179 (31.7%) individuals with elevated amyloid levels had poorer cognition in all domains measured, reduced hippocampal volume, and greater FDG-PET hypometabolism. Elevated amyloid levels at baseline were associated with a greater rate of cognitive decline in all domains (0.04 to 0.09 z score units per year

  7. The Role of Dietary Cholesterol in Lipoprotein Metabolism and Related Metabolic Abnormalities: A Mini-review.

    PubMed

    Kapourchali, Fatemeh Ramezani; Surendiran, Gangadaran; Goulet, Amy; Moghadasian, Mohammed H

    2016-10-25

    Cholesterol plays a vital role in cell biology. Dietary cholesterol or "exogenous" cholesterol accounts for approximately one-third of the pooled body cholesterol, and the remaining 70% is synthesized in the body (endogenous cholesterol). Increased dietary cholesterol intake may result in increased serum cholesterol in some individuals, while other subjects may not respond to dietary cholesterol. However, diet-increased serum cholesterol levels do not increase the low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein (LDL/HDL) cholesterol ratio, nor do they decrease the size of LDL particles or HDL cholesterol levels. Elevated levels of LDL cholesterol, reduced HDL cholesterol levels, and small, dense LDL particles are independent risk factors for coronary artery disease. Dietary cholesterol is the primary approach for treatment of conditions such as the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. Recent studies have highlighted mechanisms for absorption of dietary cholesterol. These studies have help understand how dietary and/or pharmaceutical agents inhibit cholesterol absorption and thereby reduce LDL cholesterol concentrations. In this article, various aspects of cholesterol metabolism, including dietary sources, absorption, and abnormalities in cholesterol metabolism, have been summarized and discussed.

  8. Comparing the level of bystander effect in a couple of tumor and normal cell lines.

    PubMed

    Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman; Bahreyni, Mohammad T Toossi

    2012-04-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect refers to radiation responses which occur in non-irradiated cells. The purpose of this study was to compare the level of bystander effect in a couple of tumor and normal cell lines (QU-DB and MRC5). To induce bystander effect, cells were irradiated with 0.5, 2, and 4 Gy of (60)Co gamma rays and their media were transferred to non-irradiated (bystander) cells of the same type. Cells containing micronuclei were counted in bystander subgroups, non-irradiated, and 0.5 Gy irradiated cells. Frequencies of cells containing micronuclei in QU-DB bystander subgroups were higher than in bystander subgroups of MRC5 cells (P < 0.001). The number of micronucleated cells counted in non-irradiated and 0.5 Gy irradiated QU-DB cells was also higher than the corresponding values for MRC5 cells (P < 0.001). Another difference between the two cell lines was that in QU-DB bystander cells, a dose-dependent increase in the number of micronucleated cells was observed as the dose increased, but at all doses the number of micronucleated cells in MRC5 bystander cells was constant. It is concluded that QU-DB cells are more susceptible than MRC5 cells to be affected by bystander effect, and in the two cell lines there is a positive correlation between DNA damages induced directly and those induced due to bystander effect.

  9. Erythrocytes encapsulated with phenylalanine hydroxylase exhibit improved pharmacokinetics and lowered plasma phenylalanine levels in normal mice.

    PubMed

    Yew, Nelson S; Dufour, Emmanuelle; Przybylska, Malgorzata; Putelat, Julie; Crawley, Cristin; Foster, Meta; Gentry, Sarah; Reczek, David; Kloss, Alla; Meyzaud, Aurélien; Horand, Françoise; Cheng, Seng H; Godfrin, Yann

    2013-08-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy is often hampered by the rapid clearance and degradation of the administered enzyme, limiting its efficacy and requiring frequent dosing. Encapsulation of therapeutic molecules into red blood cells (RBCs) is a clinically proven approach to improve the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of biologics and small molecule drugs. Here we evaluated the ability of RBCs encapsulated with phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) to metabolize phenylalanine (Phe) from the blood and confer sustained enzymatic activity in the circulation. Significant quantities of PAH were successfully encapsulated within murine RBCs (PAH-RBCs) with minimal loss of endogenous hemoglobin. While intravenously administered free PAH enzyme was rapidly eliminated from the blood within a few hours, PAH-RBCs persisted in the circulation for at least 10days. A single injection of PAH-RBCs was able to decrease Phe levels by nearly 80% in normal mice. These results demonstrate the ability of enzyme-loaded RBCs to metabolize circulating amino acids and highlight the potential to treat disorders of amino acid metabolism.

  10. Balanced levels of nerve growth factor are required for normal pregnancy progression.

    PubMed

    Frank, Pierre; Barrientos, Gabriela; Tirado-González, Irene; Cohen, Marie; Moschansky, Petra; Peters, Eva M; Klapp, Burghard F; Rose, Matthias; Tometten, Mareike; Blois, Sandra M

    2014-08-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF), the first identified member of the family of neurotrophins, is thought to play a critical role in the initiation of the decidual response in stress-challenged pregnant mice. However, the contribution of this pathway to physiological events during the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy remains largely elusive. Using NGF depletion and supplementation strategies alternatively, in this study, we demonstrated that a successful pregnancy is sensitive to disturbances in NGF levels in mice. Treatment with NGF further boosted fetal loss rates in the high-abortion rate CBA/J x DBA/2J mouse model by amplifying a local inflammatory response through recruitment of NGF-expressing immune cells, increased decidual innervation with substance P(+) nerve fibres and a Th1 cytokine shift. Similarly, treatment with a NGF-neutralising antibody in BALB/c-mated CBA/J mice, a normal-pregnancy model, also induced abortions associated with increased infiltration of tropomyosin kinase receptor A-expressing NK cells to the decidua. Importantly, in neither of the models, pregnancy loss was associated with defective ovarian function, angiogenesis or placental development. We further demonstrated that spontaneous abortion in humans is associated with up-regulated synthesis and an aberrant distribution of NGF in placental tissue. Thus, a local threshold of NGF expression seems to be necessary to ensure maternal tolerance in healthy pregnancies, but when surpassed may result in fetal rejection due to exacerbated inflammation.

  11. Corn silk extract improves cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mouse fed high-fat diets

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jae Hoon; Kim, Sun Rim; Kang, Hyun Joong; Kim, Myung Hwan; Ha, Ae Wha

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Corn silk (CS) extract contains large amounts of maysin, which is a major flavonoid in CS. However, studies regarding the effect of CS extract on cholesterol metabolism is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CS extract on cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mouse fed high-fat diets. MATERIALS/METHODS Normal-fat group fed 7% fat diet, high-fat (HF) group fed 25% fat diet, and high-fat with corn silk (HFCS) group were orally administered CS extract (100 mg/kg body weight) daily. Serum and hepatic levels of total lipids, triglycerides, and total cholesterol as well as serum free fatty acid, glucose, and insulin levels were determined. The mRNA expression levels of acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase (CYP7A1), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), low-density lipoprotein receptor, 3-hyroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), adiponectin, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor α were determined. RESULTS Oral administration of CS extract with HF improved serum glucose and insulin levels as well as attenuated HF-induced fatty liver. CS extracts significantly elevated mRNA expression levels of adipocytokines and reduced mRNA expression levels of HMG-CoA reductase, ACAT, and FXR. The mRNA expression levels of CYP7A1 and LCAT between the HF group and HFCS group were not statistically different. CONCLUSIONS CS extract supplementation with a high-fat diet improves levels of adipocytokine secretion and glucose homeostasis. CS extract is also effective in decreasing the regulatory pool of hepatic cholesterol, in line with decreased blood and hepatic levels of cholesterol though modulation of mRNA expression levels of HMG-CoA reductase, ACAT, and FXR. PMID:27698957

  12. Mechanism of the promotion of steatotic HepG2 cell apoptosis by cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chunyan; Xie, Ping; Zhao, Fei; Zhang, Lingqiang; An, Wei; Zhan, Yutao

    2014-01-01

    The role of cholesterol in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains unclear. It is known that apoptosis of hepatocytes is an important characteristics of NASH. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cholesterol on steatotic HepG2 cell apoptosis and the possible mechanism in vitro. In this study, HepG2 cells were divided into three groups: (1) normal group, (2) steatosis group and (3) cholesterol group. HepG2 cells were treated with oleic acid to establish a steatosis study model. Steatosis was assessed by Oil Red O staining and triglyceride content assay. Cell apoptosis was measured using an apoptosis kit. The expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins (P53, Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, cyclin A, cyclin B1 and cyclin E) were determined by western blot analyses. We found that a hepatocyte steatosis model was successfully established by oleic acid (200 μmol/L) induction. The cholesterol (50 mg/L) group had similar amount of lipid droplets and triglyceride content as steatosis group (P > 0.5). However, the apoptosis rate (P < 0.01) of the cholesterol group was significantly higher than that of the normal group or the steatosis group, and the protein expressions of Bax and caspase-3, but not P53, Bcl-2, cyclin A, cyclin B1 and cyclin E, were also increased in the cholesterol group. Those results suggested that cholesterol markedly promoted apoptosis of steatosis HepG2 cells in vitro, likely through the up-regulation of Bax and caspase-3 expression. This study contributes to explain the effect of cholesterol on NASH pathogenesis. PMID:25400762

  13. Protein and cholesterol electrophoresis of plasma samples from captive cownose ray (Rhinoptera bonasus).

    PubMed

    Cray, Carolyn; Rodriguez, Marilyn; Field, Cara; McDermott, Alexa; Leppert, Lynda; Clauss, Tonya; Bossart, Gregory D

    2015-11-01

    Our study was undertaken to assess the application of semiautomated methods available at the reference laboratory level for the evaluation of plasma protein and cholesterol via electrophoresis in samples from cownose rays (Rhinoptera bonasus). Three groups of animals were assessed: clinically normal, clinically abnormal, and parasitized with leeches. As reported previously, the albumin band was negligible; the protein electrophoretograms were dominated by a large beta-globulin fraction. While the group of samples from the leech-parasitized rays did not show any large differences, the abnormal group exhibited significantly elevated total solids and cholesterol levels. The latter was related to a significant increase in very low density lipoprotein levels. The results demonstrate the potential application of these laboratory methods in quantitation of plasma proteins and cholesterol fractions in subclass Elasmobranchii.

  14. Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis.

    PubMed

    van der Wulp, Mariëtte Y M; Verkade, Henkjan J; Groen, Albert K

    2013-04-10

    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is caused by a disturbed balance between cholesterol secretion into the blood versus uptake. The pathways involved are regulated via a complex interplay of enzymes, transport proteins, transcription factors and non-coding RNA's. The last two decades insight into underlying mechanisms has increased vastly but there are still a lot of unknowns, particularly regarding intracellular cholesterol transport. After decades of concentration on the liver, in recent years the intestine has come into focus as an important control point in cholesterol homeostasis. This review will discuss current knowledge of cholesterol physiology, with emphasis on cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis and fecal excretion, and new (possible) therapeutic options for hypercholesterolemia.

  15. Cholesterol Synthesis Increased in the MMI-Induced Subclinical Hypothyroidism Mice Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiujuan; Chen, Wenbin

    2017-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is defined as increased serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations and normal serum thyroid hormone (TH) levels as well as an increased serum cholesterol level, which is an important cause of secondary hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular diseases. Some studies have demonstrated a direct effect of TSH on cholesterol metabolism via in vivo and in vitro experiments. However, because no suitable SCH model has been established until now, the changes in cholesterol synthesis that occur in SCH patients remain unknown. Here, we establish an SCH mouse model by using long-term low-dose MMI administered in drinking water. Compared with the control group, the MMI-treated mice had elevated circulating TSH levels, but the serum FT3 levels in these mice did not change. Additionally, the TC levels increased in both the serum and liver of the experimental mice. Both the protein expression and activity of hepatic HMGCR, the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol synthesis in the liver, increased in these mice. We also found that the SCH mice had decreased phospho-HMGCR and phospho-AMPK expression, while the expression of AMPK showed no change. In conclusion, we established a suitable SCH model in which cholesterol synthesis is increased. PMID:28386276

  16. Cholesterol Synthesis Increased in the MMI-Induced Subclinical Hypothyroidism Mice Model.

    PubMed

    Song, Yongfeng; Zhang, Xiujuan; Chen, Wenbin; Gao, Ling

    2017-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is defined as increased serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations and normal serum thyroid hormone (TH) levels as well as an increased serum cholesterol level, which is an important cause of secondary hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular diseases. Some studies have demonstrated a direct effect of TSH on cholesterol metabolism via in vivo and in vitro experiments. However, because no suitable SCH model has been established until now, the changes in cholesterol synthesis that occur in SCH patients remain unknown. Here, we establish an SCH mouse model by using long-term low-dose MMI administered in drinking water. Compared with the control group, the MMI-treated mice had elevated circulating TSH levels, but the serum FT3 levels in these mice did not change. Additionally, the TC levels increased in both the serum and liver of the experimental mice. Both the protein expression and activity of hepatic HMGCR, the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol synthesis in the liver, increased in these mice. We also found that the SCH mice had decreased phospho-HMGCR and phospho-AMPK expression, while the expression of AMPK showed no change. In conclusion, we established a suitable SCH model in which cholesterol synthesis is increased.

  17. Observations on Diseased Pigs with High Sulfate Intake and Normal Tissue Copper Levels

    PubMed Central

    Jericho, K. W. F.; Strausz, K. I.; Martin, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    Disease in a large pig herd reared intensively and kept on sulfate-rich drinking water is described. It is the first report of diseased progeny of sows with high sulfate intake. Results of two surveys are presented, one for water with sulfate in excess of 2000 ppm and one for water with less than 1000 ppm. The management practices are described in detail. Disease of Survey I was manifested by high morbidity and mortality (50% of 600) in piglets, incoordination in piglets and some adult stock and osteopathy in piglets and weaners. In Survey II disease was less severe and restricted to piglets. Detailed histopathological studies revealed myelin deficiency in brain and spinal cord of sows and piglets, interferred endochondreal ossification of long bones of piglets and weaners, fatty changes of livers and interstitial nephritis in piglets and weaners. The changes in the nervous tissue were considered due to delayed fixation as tissue was only immersed in fixative and not perfused with it immediately after death. Similar changes have been described for pigs deficient in copper. Copper content of tissue and body fluids of pigs of this study were normal, as were the serum inorganic phosphate and total calcium levels. The bone changes observed have also been reported for rats given dextran sulfate injections, for pigs on experimental low-copper sulfate-enriched diet and for pigs reported low in copper and fed a diet supplemented with sulfide. The cause of the locomotor disturbance and mortality in piglets was not established. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:4270430

  18. Cholesterol Depletion from a Ceramide/Cholesterol Mixed Monolayer: A Brewster Angle Microscope Study

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Pritam; Noutsi, Pakiza; Chaieb, Sahraoui

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol is crucial to the mechanical properties of cell membranes that are important to cells’ behavior. Its depletion from the cell membranes could be dramatic. Among cyclodextrins (CDs), methyl beta cyclodextrin (MβCD) is the most efficient to deplete cholesterol (Chol) from biomembranes. Here, we focus on the depletion of cholesterol from a C16 ceramide/cholesterol (C16-Cer/Chol) mixed monolayer using MβCD. While the removal of cholesterol by MβCD depends on the cholesterol concentration in most mixed lipid monolayers, it does not depend very much on the concentration of cholesterol in C16-Cer/Chol monolayers. The surface pressure decay during depletion were described by a stretched exponential that suggested that the cholesterol molecules are unable to diffuse laterally and behave like static traps for the MβCD molecules. Cholesterol depletion causes morphology changes of domains but these disrupted monolayers domains seem to reform even when cholesterol level was low. PMID:27245215

  19. Hyperspectral imaging for detection of cholesterol in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanič, Matija; Bjorgan, Asgeir; Larsson, Marcus; Marraccini, Paolo; Strömberg, Tomas; Randeberg, Lise L.

    2015-03-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is characterized by high levels of cholesterol in the blood and is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Early detection of hypercholesterolemia is necessary to prevent onset and progress of cardiovascular disease. Optical imaging techniques might have a potential for early diagnosis and monitoring of hypercholesterolemia. In this study, hyperspectral imaging was investigated for this application. The main aim of the study was to identify spectral and spatial characteristics that can aid identification of hypercholesterolemia in facial skin. The first part of the study involved a numerical simulation of human skin affected by hypercholesterolemia. A literature survey was performed to identify characteristic morphological and physiological parameters. Realistic models were prepared and Monte Carlo simulations were performed to obtain hyperspectral images. Based on the simulations optimal wavelength regions for differentiation between normal and cholesterol rich skin were identified. Minimum Noise Fraction transformation (MNF) was used for analysis. In the second part of the study, the simulations were verified by a clinical study involving volunteers with elevated and normal levels of cholesterol. The faces of the volunteers were scanned by a hyperspectral camera covering the spectral range between 400 nm and 720 nm, and characteristic spectral features of the affected skin were identified. Processing of the images was done after conversion to reflectance and masking of the images. The identified features were compared to the known cholesterol levels of the subjects. The results of this study demonstrate that hyperspectral imaging of facial skin can be a promising, rapid modality for detection of hypercholesterolemia.

  20. Brain levels of sex steroid hormones in men and women during normal aging and in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Emily R.; Chang, Lilly; Head, Elizabeth H.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Pike, Christian J.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationships between normal aging, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and brain levels of sex steroid hormones in men and women. In postmortem brain tissue from neuropathologically normal, postmenopausal women, we found no age-related changes in brain levels of either androgens or estrogens. In comparing women with and without AD at different ages, brain levels of estrogens and androgens were lower in AD cases aged 80 years and older but not significantly different in the 60–79 year age range. In male brains, we observed that normal aging was associated with significant decreases in androgens but not estrogens. Further, in men aged 60–79 years, brain levels of testosterone but not estrogens were lower in cases with mild neuropathological changes as well as those with advanced AD neuropathology. In male cases over age 80, brain levels hormones did not significantly vary by neuropathological status. To begin investigating the relationships between hormone levels and indices of AD neuropathology, we measured brain levels of soluble β-amyloid (Aβ). In male cases with mild neuropathological changes, we found an inverse relationship between brain levels of testosterone and soluble Aβ. Collectively, these findings demonstrate sex-specific relationships between normal, age-related depletion of androgens and estrogens in men and women, which may be relevant to development of AD. PMID:19428144

  1. Hypertriglyceridaemia, postprandial lipaemia and non-HDL cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Stefanutti, Claudia; Labbadia, Giancarlo; Athyros, Vasilios G

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels within healthy limits decreases the risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD) and cardiovascular (CV) events. The predictive value of elevated TG levels for coronary artery disease (CAD) seen in univariate analysis tends to disappear on multivariate analyses, especially when correction is made for HDL-C. The relationship between TG and HDL-C is complex and not fully understood. Hydrolysis of TG by lipoprotein lipase converts HDL subclass 3 to a larger lipoprotein enriched in both phospholipid and TG. This process occurs in postprandial lipaemia (PPL). An additional factor for the complex relationship between TGs and CV risk is that the lipoproteins which transport plasma TG (chylomicrons, very low density lipoproteins and their remnants) are heterogeneous particles. Therefore, they may differ in their level of atherogenicity. PPL is a physiological process during which plasma lipoproteins and their subclasses undergo variations in concentration and composition following consumption of food, particularly fatty food. "Postprandial hyperlipidaemia" is the quantitative/qualitative alteration of this normal process. These lipoprotein alterations could play a role in the development of CV disease (CVD). However, lipid levels used to evaluate CV risk are usually measured in the fasting state. This review focuses on TG, PPL, postprandial hyperlipidaemia and non-HDL-C, their relationships and potential predictive role in atherogenesis and CVD.

  2. Cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols.

    PubMed

    AbuMweis, Suhad S; Jones, Peter J H

    2008-12-01

    Plant sterols are plant components that have a chemical structure similar to cholesterol except for the addition of an extra methyl or ethyl group; however, plant sterol absorption in humans is considerably less than that of cholesterol. In fact, plant sterols reduce cholesterol absorption and thus reduce circulating levels of cholesterol. Earlier studies that have tested the efficacy of plant sterols as cholesterol-lowering agents incorporated plant sterols into fat spreads. Later on, plant sterols were added to other food matrices, including juices, nonfat beverages, milk and yogurt, cheese, meat, croissants and muffins, and cereal and chocolate bars. The beneficial physiologic effects of plant sterols could be further enhanced by combining them with other beneficial substances, such as olive and fish oils, fibers, and soy proteins, or with exercise. The addition of plant sterols to the diet is suggested by health experts as a safe and effective way to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.

  3. Rapid turn-over of plasma membrane sphingomyelin and cholesterol in baby hamster kidney cells after exposure to sphingomyelinase.

    PubMed

    Slotte, J P; Härmälä, A S; Jansson, C; Pörn, M I

    1990-12-14

    Plasma membrane sphingomyelin in baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells was hydrolyzed with sphingomyelinase (Staphylococcus aureus) and the effects on membrane cholesterol translocation and the properties of membrane bound adenylate cyclase and Na+/K(+)-ATPase were determined. Exposure of confluent BHK-21 cells to 0.1 U/ml of sphingomyelinase led to the degradation (at 37 degrees C) of about 60% of cell sphingomyelin. No simultaneous hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine occurred. The hydrolysis of sphingomyelin subsequently led to the translocation (within 40 min) of about 50-60% of cell [3H]cholesterol from a cholesterol oxidase susceptible pool to an oxidase resistant compartment. The translocation of [3H]cholesterol from the cell surface to intracellular membranes was accompanied by a paralleled increase in [3H]cholesterol ester formation. When cells were first exposed to sphingomyelinase (to degrade sphingomyelin) and then incubated without the enzyme in serum-free media, the mass of cell sphingomyelin decreased initially (by 60%), but then began to increase and reached control levels within 3-4 h. The rapid re-synthesis of sphingomyelin was accompanied by an equally rapid normalization of cell [3H]cholesterol distribution. The re-formation of cell sphingomyelin also led to a decreased content of cellular [3H]cholesterol esters, indicating that unesterified [3H]cholesterol was pulled out of the cholesterol ester cycle and transported to the cell surface. Exposure of BHK-21 cells to sphingomyelinase further led to a dramatically decreased activity of ouabain-sensitive Na+/K(+)-ATPase, whereas forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was not affected. The activity of Na+/K(+)-ATPase returned to normal in parallel with the normalization of cell sphingomyelin mass and cholesterol distribution. We conclude that sphingomyelin has profound effects on the steady-state distribution of cell cholesterol, and that manipulations of cell sphingomyelin levels directly and

  4. Dietary cholesterol supplementation improves growth and behavioral response of pigs selected for genetically high and low serum cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Schoknecht, P A; Ebner, S; Pond, W G; Zhang, S; McWhinney, V; Wong, W W; Klein, P D; Dudley, M; Goddard-Finegold, J; Mersmann, H J

    1994-02-01

    We hypothesized that, in pigs selected for low (L) or high (H) serum cholesterol for four generations, neonatal endogenous cholesterol synthesis would be sufficient to meet requirements for brain and body growth. In Experiment 1, eight 16-wk-old L pigs received a diet with or without 200 mg cholesterol/100 g diet for 35 d. Supplemented pigs grew approximately 25% faster and had a significantly greater concentration of free cholesterol in the cerebrum. In Experiment 2, 16 H and 16 L newborn pigs were fed a milk replacer with or without 200 mg cholesterol/100 g diet for 28 d. Pigs fed cholesterol had greater average daily gain (P < or = 0.09), significantly reduced liver 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase activity, and significantly increased cerebral cholesterol content than pigs not fed cholesterol. One of three indices of exploratory behavior was significantly greater in the L pigs that received cholesterol compared with L pigs that did not receive cholesterol. These data suggest that these neonatal pigs are unable to produce sufficient cholesterol to meet requirements for normal growth and brain development and are dependent on dietary cholesterol in milk.

  5. Blood Cholesterol Measurement in Clinical Laboratories in the United States. Current Status. A Report from the Laboratory Standardization Panel of the National Cholesterol Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Precise and accurate cholesterol measurements are required to identify and treat individuals with high blood cholesterol levels. However, the current state of reliability of blood cholesterol measurements suggests that considerable inaccuracy in cholesterol testing exists. This report describes the Laboratory Standardization Panel findings on the…

  6. Cholesterol overloading leads to hepatic L02 cell damage through activation of the unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Liu, Zhiguo; Guo, Jianli; Chen, Jiangyuan; Yang, Pu; Tian, Jun; Sun, Jun; Zong, Yiqiang; Qu, Shen

    2009-10-01

    Reported data indicate that cholesterol loading in the liver can cause hepatic injury. To explore the possible mechanisms of cell damage resulting from cholesterol overloading in hepatocytes, cell apoptosis, the unfolded protein response (UPR) and the correlation between them were assessed in the cholesterol-overloaded normal human hepatic cell line L02. L02 cells were incubated with 200 microg/ ml of low density lipoprotein (LDL) for 24 h with or without 20 microg/ml 58035, an inhibitor of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT). In the LDL+58035 group, the intracellular cholesterol level was dramatically increased, which was measured by an enzymatic combined high performance liquid chromatography assay. Expression of immunoglobulin-binding protein, X-box binding protein 1, activating transcription factor 6, activating transcription factor 4, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein-10, markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)/ UPR, were up-regulated as determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or Western blot analysis. The rate of cell apoptic death increased 21.3+/-2.4%. Meanwhile, the active caspase-3 protein expression was increased 8.4-fold compared to the active caspase-3 protein expression in the controls. Furthermore, 4-phenylbutyric acid, an inhibitor of UPR, partly reduced cell apoptosis and activation of caspase-3. This study suggests that cholesterol overloading in hepatic L02 cells induces ERS and activates the UPR which, in part, leads to the apoptotic damage of cells.

  7. Cardiovascular protection of deep-seawater drinking water in high-fat/cholesterol fed hamsters.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chin-Lin; Chang, Yuan-Yen; Chiu, Chih-Hsien; Yang, Kuo-Tai; Wang, Yu; Fu, Shih-Guei; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2011-08-01

    Cardiovascular protection of deep-seawater (DSW) drinking water was assessed using high-fat/cholesterol-fed hamsters in this study. All hamsters were fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet (12% fat/0.2% cholesterol), and drinking solutions were normal distiled water (NDW, hardness: 2.48ppm), DSW300 (hardness: 324.5ppm), DSW900 (hardness: 858.5ppm), and DSW1500 (hardness: 1569.0ppm), respectively. After a 6-week feeding period, body weight, heart rates, and blood pressures of hamsters were not influenced by DSW drinking waters. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), atherogenic index, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were decreased (p<0.05) in the DSW-drinking-water groups, as compared to those in the NDW group. Additionally, increased (p<0.05) serum Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and faecal TC, TAG, and bile acid outputs were measured in the DSW-drinking-water groups. Hepatic low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDL receptor) and cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) gene expressions were upregulated (p<0.05) by DSW drinking waters. These results demonstrate that DSW drinking water benefits the attenuation of high-fat/cholesterol-diet-induced cardiovascular disorders in hamsters.

  8. Physiological and pathological implications of cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Victor A; Busso, Dolores; Maiz, Alberto; Arteaga, Antonio; Nervi, Flavio; Rigotti, Attilio

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol has evolved to fulfill sophisticated biophysical, cell signaling and endocrine requirements of animal systems. At a cellular level, cholesterol is found in membranes, where it increases both bilayer stiffness and impermeability to water and ions. Furthermore, cholesterol is integrated into specialized lipid-protein membrane microdomains with critical topographical and signaling functions. At an organismal level, cholesterol is the precursor for all steroid hormones, including gluco- and mineralo-corticoids, sex hormones and vitamin D, all of which regulate carbohydrate, sodium, reproductive and bone homeostasis, respectively. This sterol is also the precursor for bile acids, which are important for intestinal absorption of dietary lipids as well as energy and glucose metabolic regulation. Importantly, complex mechanisms maintain cholesterol within physiological ranges and the disregulation of these mechanisms results in embryonic or adult diseases, caused by either excessive or reduced tissue cholesterol levels. The causative role of cholesterol in these diseases has been demonstrated by diverse genetic and pharmacologic animal models that are commented in this review.

  9. LXR driven induction of HDL-cholesterol is independent of intestinal cholesterol absorption and ABCA1 protein expression.

    PubMed

    Kannisto, Kristina; Gåfvels, Mats; Jiang, Zhao-Yan; Slätis, Katharina; Hu, Xiaoli; Jorns, Carl; Steffensen, Knut R; Eggertsen, Gösta

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether: (1) liver X receptor (LXR)-driven induction of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and other LXR-mediated effects on cholesterol metabolism depend on intestinal cholesterol absorption; and (2) combined treatment with the LXR agonist GW3965 and the cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe results in synergistic effects on cholesterol metabolism that could be beneficial for treatment of atherosclerosis. Mice were fed 0.2 % cholesterol and treated with GW3965+ezetimibe, GW3965 or ezetimibe. GW3965+ezetimibe treatment elevated serum HDL-C and Apolipoprotein (Apo) AI, effectively reduced the intestinal cholesterol absorption and increased the excretion of faecal neutral sterols. No changes in intestinal ATP-binding cassette (ABC) A1 or ABCG5 protein expression were observed, despite increased mRNA expression, while hepatic ABCA1 was slightly reduced. The combined treatment caused a pronounced down-regulation of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) and reduced hepatic and intestinal cholesterol levels. GW3965 did not affect the intestinal cholesterol absorption, but increased serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels. GW3965 also increased Apoa1 mRNA levels in primary mouse hepatocytes and HEPA1-6 cells. Ezetimibe reduced the intestinal cholesterol absorption, ABCA1 and ABCG5, but did not affect the serum HDL-C or ApoAI levels. Thus, the LXR-driven induction of HDL-C and ApoAI was independent of the intestinal cholesterol absorption and increased expression of intestinal or hepatic ABCA1 was not required. Inhibited influx of cholesterol via NPC1L1 and/or low levels of intracellular cholesterol prevented post-transcriptional expression of intestinal ABCA1 and ABCG5, despite increased mRNA levels. Combined LXR activation and blocked intestinal cholesterol absorption induced effective faecal elimination of cholesterol.

  10. Electrochemical oxidation of cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Indirect cholesterol electrochemical oxidation in the presence of various mediators leads to electrophilic addition to the double bond, oxidation at the allylic position, oxidation of the hydroxy group, or functionalization of the side chain. Recent studies have proven that direct electrochemical oxidation of cholesterol is also possible and affords different products depending on the reaction conditions. PMID:25977713

  11. Kids and Cholesterol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ficklen, Ellen

    1992-01-01

    According to a 1991 National Cholesterol Education Program report, the best way to avoid heart trouble is to take early preventive measures. This means that children over age two should follow the same low-fat, low-cholesterol guidelines already recommended for adults. Sidebars contain a fat glossary and tips for cutting fat in school lunches.…

  12. Cholesterol-rich Fluid Membranes Solubilize Ceramide Domains

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Bruno M.; Silva, Liana C.; Fedorov, Alexander; de Almeida, Rodrigo F. M.; Prieto, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    A uniquely sensitive method for ceramide domain detection allowed us to study in detail cholesterol-ceramide interactions in lipid bilayers with low (physiological) ceramide concentrations, ranging from low or no cholesterol (a situation similar to intracellular membranes, such as endoplasmic reticulum) to high cholesterol (similar to mammalian plasma membrane). Diverse fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy experiments were conducted showing that for low cholesterol amounts ceramide segregates into gel domains that disappear upon increasing cholesterol levels. This was observed in different raft (sphingomyelin/cholesterol-containing) and non-raft (sphingomyelin-absent) membranes, i.e. mimicking different types of cell membranes. Cholesterol-ceramide interactions have been described mainly as raft sphingomyelin-dependent. Here sphingomyelin independence is demonstrated. In addition, ceramide-rich domains re-appear when either cholesterol is converted by cholesterol oxidase to cholestenone or the temperature is decreased. Ceramide is more soluble in cholesterol-rich fluid membranes than in cholesterol-poor ones, thereby increasing the chemical potential of cholesterol. Ceramide solubility depends on the average gel-fluid transition temperature of the remaining membrane lipids. The inability of cholestenone-rich membranes to dissolve ceramide gel domains shows that the cholesterol ordering and packing properties are fundamental to the mixing process. We also show that the solubility of cholesterol in ceramide domains is low. The results are rationalized by a ternary phospholipid/ceramide/cholesterol phase diagram, providing the framework for the better understanding of biochemical phenomena modulated by cholesterol-ceramide interactions such as cholesterol oxidase activity, lipoprotein metabolism, and lipid targeting in cancer therapy. It also suggests that the lipid compositions of different organelles are such that ceramide gel domains are not formed unless a

  13. Transport of circulating serum cholesterol by human renal cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Clayman, R.V.; Figenshau, R.S.; Prigge, W.F.; Forstrom, L.; Gebhard, R.L.

    1987-06-01

    Clear cell renal cancer contains a large quantity of cholesterol ester (300-mg./gm. protein). To determine whether abnormalities in cholesterol transport could account for this sterol accumulation, the uptake, release, and imaging capabilities of intravenously injected /sup 131/I-6-iodomethyl-29-norcholesterol, a cholesterol analogue, were studied preoperatively in five patients with clear cell renal cancer. At surgery, samples of the liver, tumor, adrenal, and non-tumor kidney were obtained for analysis. /sup 131/I-sterol uptake by the tumor, when normalized for cholesterol content, was less than for adrenal, liver or kidney. In contrast, release of preloaded /sup 131/I-sterol from the human tumors was consistently slower than for normal kidney. The reduced release of free cholesterol from renal cancer cells may, in part, be responsible for the accumulation of cholesterol in human renal cancer.

  14. Plasma glycine and serine levels in schizophrenia compared to normal controls and major depression: relation to negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Anil, A Elif; Jin, Dai; Jayathilake, Karu; Lee, Myung; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2004-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested decreased N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor function may contribute to increased negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Consistent with this hypothesis, glycine, a co-agonist at NMDA receptors, has been reported to improve negative symptoms associated with the illness. This study was performed to determine if plasma levels of glycine or its ratio to serine, a precursor of glycine, are decreased in patients with schizophrenia compared to normal control subjects or patients with major depression. We also tested the hypothesis that these amino acids were correlated with negative symptoms in subjects with schizophrenia. Plasma levels of glycine, serine, and their ratio, were compared in 144 patients with schizophrenia, 44 patients with major depression, and 49 normal control subjects. All subjects were medication-free. Psychopathology was evaluated using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Plasma glycine levels and glycine/serine ratios were decreased in patients with schizophrenia relative to control subjects and patients with major depression. By contrast, serine levels were increased in patients with schizophrenia compared to normal subjects but not compared to major depression. Patients with major depression also had increased plasma serine levels and decreased glycine/serine ratios compared to normal controls, but glycine levels were not different from those of normal controls. In subjects with schizophrenia, glycine levels predicted the Withdrawal-Retardation score (BPRS), whereas no such correlation was found in subjects with major depression. These results provide additional evidence that decreased availability of glycine may be related to the pathophysiology of negative symptoms. The decreases in plasma glycine levels support the evidence for an abnormality in the glutamatergic system in schizophrenia, and provide additional support for efforts to improve negative symptoms by augmentation of

  15. HDL Function, Dysfunction, and Reverse Cholesterol Transport

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Edward A.; Feig, Jonathan E.; Hewing, Bernd; Hazen, Stanley L.; Smith, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    Although high HDL-cholesterol levels are associated with decreased cardiovascular risk in epidemiological studies, recent genetic and pharmacological findings have raised doubts about the beneficial effects of HDL. Raising HDL levels in animal models by infusion or over expression of apolipoprotein A-I has shown clear vascular improvements, such as delayed atherosclerotic lesion progression and accelerated lesion regression, along with increased reverse cholesterol transport. Inflammation and other factors, such as myeloperoxidase mediated oxidation, can impair HDL production and HDL function, in regard to its reverse cholesterol transport, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Thus, tests of HDL function, which have not yet been developed as routine diagnostic assays, may prove useful and be a better predictor of cardiovascular risk than HDL-cholesterol levels. PMID:23152494

  16. Communicative Interactions of Mildly Delayed and Normally Developing Preschool Children: Effects of Listener's Developmental Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Paul-Brown, Diane

    1986-01-01

    The communicative interactions of 32 mildly delayed and normally developing preschoolers were recorded during free play in a mainstreamed program. Analyses of syntactic complexity, semantic diversity, functional aspects of speech, and the use of selected discourse devices indicated that mildly delayed children adjusted important characteristics of…

  17. Free Recall in Boys of Normal and Poor Reading Levels as a Function of Task Manipulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallago, Maria Lucia Lopes; Moely, Barbara E.

    1980-01-01

    Results indicated recall and category clustering were highest following a manipulation to produce semantic encoding of items and lowest when children focused on items' physical features. Reading disabled boys failed to organize or study as effectively as normals. The reading disabled had difficulty in spontaneously generating effective study…

  18. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  19. Prostate size correlates with fasting blood glucose in non-diabetic benign prostatic hyperplasia patients with normal testosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Tae; Yun, Seok Joong; Choi, Young Deuk; Kim, Gi-Young; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Isaac Yi; Kim, Wun-Jae

    2011-09-01

    We evaluated the correlations between BMI, fasting glucose, insulin, testosterone level, insulin resistance, and prostate size in non-diabetic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients with normal testosterone levels. Data from 212 non-diabetic BPH patients with normal testosterone levels, who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) due to medical treatment failure, were evaluated retrospectively. Patients with prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels of ≥ 3 ng/mL underwent multicore transrectal prostate biopsy before TURP to rule out prostate cancer. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or serum testosterone levels of < 3.50 ng/mL were excluded from analysis. Correlations between clinical and laboratory parameters were determined. Prostate size correlated positively with age (r = 0.227, P < 0.001), PSA (r = 0.510, P < 0.001), and fasting glucose level (r = 0.186, P = 0.007), but not with BMI, testosterone, insulin level, or insulin resistance (each P > 0.05). Testosterone level inversely correlated with BMI (r = -0.327, P < 0.001), insulin level (r = -0.207, P = 0.003), and insulin resistance (r = -0.221, P = 0.001), but not with age, prostate size, PSA, or fasting glucose level (each P > 0.05). Upon multiple adjusted linear regression analysis, prostate size correlated with elevated PSA (P < 0.001) and increased fasting glucose levels (P = 0.023). In non-DM BPH patients with normal testosterone levels, fasting glucose level is an independent risk factor for prostate hyperplasia.

  20. Gamma-magnetic normalization - new effect to reduce flux-gate magnetometer noise level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, V.

    2012-04-01

    It is the author's opinion confirmed by numerous experiments, that the FGM noise level (NL) is determined not by Barkhausen jumps during the core remagnetization from positive to negative state as the majority of designers believe, but by non-repeatability of the magnetic domains transition from negative to positive states and back. This shows the way how to reduce the magnetic noise: to manufacture the magnetic material with a structure which will create conditions for magnetic domain walls to glide easily and uniformly when changing their orientation leading to minimal efforts at cyclic remagnetization. Ideally, such a material may be represented as a solid "liquid" with freely floating uniform magnetic domains without walls friction. To reduce the specific NL of the materials, several post-melting processing technologies were developed. A set of experiments made by many investigators has shown that the best results gives the magnetic materials annealing in vacuum or in any inert gas applying by this during all annealing time the alternative magnetic field, imitating core excitation field during FGM operation. If to accept the "solid liquid" model, this mechanism of NL decreasing has clear physical explanation: permanent re-magnetization of domains leads to the structural improvements favorable namely for the homogenization of transitions, rise of temperature gives necessary energy for the impurities liquidation. Probably, M. Acuna was the first who reported that during FGM operation in space its NL is decreasing with time and attributed this to the relaxation of mechanical stresses in the core material in weightlessness conditions [1]. We studied in details the conditions in which the core material is in space: weightlessness, vacuum and radiation. Mechanical stresses relaxation hypothesis was rejected because the internal forces in any solid body are much stronger as those to which a gravity force might have influence. Also the tests of FGM sensor in vacuum

  1. Changes in free and esterified cholesterol: hallmarks of acute renal tubular injury and acquired cytoresistance.

    PubMed

    Zager, R A; Kalhorn, T F

    2000-09-01

    Acute tubular cell injury is accompanied by plasma membrane phospholipid breakdown. Although cholesterol is a dominant membrane lipid which interdigitates with, and impacts, phospholipid homeostasis, its fate during the induction and recovery phases of acute renal failure (ARF) has remained ill defined. The present study was performed to ascertain whether altered cholesterol expression is a hallmark of evolving tubular damage. Using gas chromatographic analysis, free cholesterol (FC) and esterified cholesterol (CE) were quantified in: 1) isolated mouse proximal tubule segments (PTS) after 30 minutes of hypoxic or oxidant (ferrous ammonium sulfate) injury; 2) cultured proximal tubule (HK-2) cells after 4 or 18 hours of either ATP depletion/Ca(2+) ionophore- or ferrous ammonium sulfate-mediated injury; and 3) in renal cortex 18 hours after induction of glycerol-induced myoglobinuric ARF, a time corresponding to the so-called "acquired cytoresistance" state (ie, resistance to further renal damage). Hypoxic and oxidant injury each induced approximately 33% decrements in CE (but not FC) levels in PTS, corresponding with lethal cell injury ( approximately 50 to 60% LDH release). When comparable CE declines were induced in normal PTS by exogenous cholesterol esterase treatment, proportionate lethal cell injury resulted. During models of slowly evolving HK-2 cell injury, progressive CE increments occurred: these were first noted at 4 hours, and reached approximately 600% by 18 hours. In vivo myoglobinuric ARF produced comparable renal cortical CE (and to a lesser extent FC) increments. Renal CE accumulation strikingly correlated with the severity of ARF (eg, blood urea nitrogen versus CE; r, 0.84). Mevastatin blocked cholesterol accumulation in injured HK-2 cells, indicating de novo synthesis was responsible. Acute tubule injury first lowers, then raises, tubule cholesterol content. Based on previous observations that cholesterol has cytoprotectant properties, the present

  2. Patients with normal-range CA19-9 levels represent a distinct subgroup of pancreatic cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Guopei; Jin, Kaizhou; Guo, Meng; Cheng, He; Liu, Zuqiang; Xiao, Zhiwen; Lu, Yu; Long, Jiang; Liu, Liang; Xu, Jin; Liu, Chen; Gao, Yutang; Ni, Quanxing; Yu, Xianjun

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer remains a lethal disease that responds poorly to multiple types of treatment. Therefore, the identification of distinct subgroups that exhibit unique therapeutic responses is an urgent requirement. In the present multicenter study (1,912 cases), the differences between the therapeutic responses and clinical characteristics of two subgroups of pancreatic cancer, carbohydrate antigen 19–9 (CA19-9)-normal (baseline serum level, ≤37 U/ml) and CA19-9-elevated (baseline serum level, >37 U/ml), were analyzed. CA19-9-normal expression was identified to be an independent prognostic factor for patients with stage I–II [hazard ratio (HR)=0.77; P=0.037] and stage III–IV (HR=0.68; P<0.001) pancreatic cancer. The 5-year survival rate of the stage III–IV CA19-9-normal subgroup was increased compared with the stage I–II CA19-9-elevated subgroup (15.4 vs. 13.8%). In the stage I–II CA19-9-normal and CA19-9-elevated subgroups, gemcitabine-based chemotherapy was a significant positive prognostic factor for survival (CA19-9-normal, HR=0.54, P=0.013; CA19-9-elevated, HR=0.55, P<0.001). However, among stage III–IV patients, the CA19-9-normal subgroup exhibited a poor response to gemcitabine-based chemotherapy (HR=0.77; P=0.165), while the CA19-9-elevated subgroup exhibited a favorable response, resulting in a lower rate of mortality (HR=0.70; P<0.001) compared with no chemotherapy. It was concluded that CA19-9-normal pancreatic cancer is a less aggressive subgroup; however, advanced CA19-9-normal pancreatic cancer exhibits a poorer response to gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. PMID:28356973

  3. Exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise is not associated with masked hypertension in patients with high normal blood pressure levels.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Alon; Cohen, Noa; Shemesh, Joseph; Koren-Morag, Nira; Leibowitz, Avshalom; Grossman, Ehud

    2014-04-01

    The association between exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response to exercise (ExBPR) and "masked hypertension" is unclear. Medical records of patients with high-normal BP who were evaluated in the Chaim Sheba Screening Institute Ramat Gan, Israel, during the years 2002-2007 and referred for 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and exercise test were reviewed. Data on exercise tests performed in the preceding 5 years were retrieved. Reproducible ExBPR was defined when it was recorded at least twice. BP levels on 24-hour ABPM were compared between patients with a normal BP response and those with an ExBPR (systolic BP ≥200 mm Hg). Sixty-nine normotensive patients with high normal BP levels were identified. ExBPR was recorded in 43 patients and was reproducible in 28. BP levels on 24-hour ABPM were similar in patients with and without ExBPR. In patients with high-normal BP levels, ExBPR is not associated with masked hypertension.

  4. A study of the effect of diet on glycosylated haemoglobin and albumin levels and glucose tolerance in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Ryle, A J; Davie, S; Gould, B J; Yudkin, J S

    1990-12-01

    As factors other than the degree of glucose tolerance or ambient blood glucose may determine glycosylated haemoglobin levels, we have investigated the effects of dietary glucose and soluble fibre supplementation on glucose tolerance, glycosylated haemoglobin and glycosylated albumin in non-diabetic subjects. Eleven non-diabetic subjects (7 M, 4 F; age 26.5 +/- 6.5 (+/- SD) yr; BMI 21.6 +/- 3.1 kg m-2) followed a high-soluble-fibre (5 g guar gum thrice daily)/low-glucose diet, or a low-soluble-fibre/high-glucose (500 ml glucose drink providing 100 g glucose per day) diet, each for 6 weeks, in randomized order. A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test was performed at recruitment and after each diet period, and fasting blood was assayed for glycosylated albumin by affinity chromatography, and glycosylated haemoglobin by four different methods. Adherence to guar and glucose supplementation was assessed at 89.5 +/- 7.5% and 97.1 +/- 3.5%, respectively. There was no significant effect of either diet on mean fasting, 1-h or 2-h plasma glucose concentration, or glycosylated haemoglobin levels by any assay. Glycosylated albumin was 1.71 +/- 0.35% at entry, fell to 1.33 +/- 0.30% (p less than 0.01) with high-fibre and rose to 1.95 +/- 0.23% (p less than 0.02) after a high-glucose diet. Insulin, total- and HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were unaffected by either diet. A high-glucose diet increases, and a high-soluble-fibre diet decreases, levels of glycosylated albumin without effects on glucose tolerance or glycosylated haemoglobin.

  5. Immunoconglutinin levels in normal and diseased population groups in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Watson, K. C.

    1971-01-01

    Immunoconglutinin (I-K) levels were measured in adult blood donors of European and African origin and in patients with the following diseases: acute typhoid fever, amoebic liver abscess, chronic liver disease and primary hepatoma. The lowest levels were found in the white donor group and the highest in those with chronic liver disease and those with primary hepatoma. African donors had levels higher than white donors which may relate to chronic infection and particularly chronic parasitic infestation. There was poor correlation between `O' and `H' antibodies and I-K levels in the typhoid group. In those with chronic liver disease there was some correlation between I-K levels and total γ-globulin and also with raised IgM and IgA levels but not with raised IgG. PMID:4103887

  6. Elevated Cholesterol in the Coxiella burnetii Intracellular Niche Is Bacteriolytic

    PubMed Central

    Mulye, Minal; Samanta, Dhritiman; Winfree, Seth; Heinzen, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen and a significant cause of culture-negative endocarditis in the United States. Upon infection, the nascent Coxiella phagosome fuses with the host endocytic pathway to form a large lysosome-like vacuole called the parasitophorous vacuole (PV). The PV membrane is rich in sterols, and drugs perturbing host cell cholesterol homeostasis inhibit PV formation and bacterial growth. Using cholesterol supplementation of a cholesterol-free cell model system, we found smaller PVs and reduced Coxiella growth as cellular cholesterol concentration increased. Further, we observed in cells with cholesterol a significant number of nonfusogenic PVs that contained degraded bacteria, a phenotype not observed in cholesterol-free cells. Cholesterol had no effect on axenic Coxiella cultures, indicating that only intracellular bacteria are sensitive to cholesterol. Live-cell microscopy revealed that both plasma membrane-derived