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Sample records for normal colonic epithelial

  1. Cell surface glycopeptides from human intestinal epithelial cell lines derived from normal colon and colon adenocarcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Youakim, A.; Herscovics, A.

    1985-11-01

    The cell surface glycopeptides from an epithelial cell line (CCL 239) derived from normal human colon were compared with those from three cell lines (HCT-8R, HCT-15, and CaCo-2) derived independently from human colonic adenocarcinomas. Cells were incubated with D-(2-TH)mannose or L-(5,6-TH)fucose for 24 h and treated with trypsin to release cell surface components which were then digested exhaustively with Pronase and fractionated on Bio-Gel P-6 before and after treatment with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H. The most noticeable difference between the labeled glycopeptides from the tumor and CCL 239 cells was the presence in the former of an endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H-resistant high molecular weight glycopeptide fraction which was eluted in the void volume of Bio-Gel P-6. This fraction was obtained with both labeled mannose and fucose as precursors. However, acid hydrolysis of this fraction obtained after incubation with (2-TH)mannose revealed that as much as 60-90% of the radioactivity was recovered as fucose. Analysis of the total glycopeptides (cell surface and cell pellet) obtained after incubation with (2-TH)mannose showed that from 40-45% of the radioactivity in the tumor cells and less than 10% of the radioactivity in the CCL 239 cells was recovered as fucose. After incubation of the HCT-8R cells with D-(1,6-TH)glucosamine and L-(1- UC)fucose, strong acid hydrolysis of the labeled glycopeptide fraction excluded from Bio-Gel P-6 produced TH-labeled N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine.

  2. Liver X receptor ligand cytotoxicity in colon cancer cells and not in normal colon epithelial cells depends on LXRβ subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Courtaut, Flavie; Derangère, Valentin; Chevriaux, Angélique; Ladoire, Sylvain; Cotte, Alexia K; Arnould, Laurent; Boidot, Romain; Rialland, Mickaël; Ghiringhelli, François; Rébé, Cédric

    2015-09-29

    Increasing evidence indicates that Liver X Receptors (LXRs) have some anticancer properties. We recently demonstrated that LXR ligands induce colon cancer cell pyroptosis through an LXRβ-dependent pathway. In the present study, we showed that human colon cancer cell lines presented differential cytoplasmic localizations of LXRβ. This localization correlated with caspase-1 activation and cell death induction under treatment with LXR ligand. The association of LXRβ with the truncated form of RXRα (t-RXRα) was responsible for the sequestration of LXRβ in the cytoplasm in colon cancer cells. Moreover t-RXRα was not expressed in normal colon epithelial cells. These cells presented a predominantly nuclear localization of LXRβ and were resistant to LXR ligand cytotoxicity. Our results showed that predominant cytoplasmic localization of LXRβ, which occurs in colon cancer cells but not in normal colon epithelial cells, allowed LXR ligand-induced pyroptosis. This study strengthens the hypothesis that LXRβ could be a promising target in cancer therapy.

  3. Effects of a Mediterranean Diet Intervention on Anti- and Pro-Inflammatory Eicosanoids, Epithelial Proliferation, and Nuclear Morphology in Biopsies of Normal Colon Tissue.

    PubMed

    Djuric, Zora; Turgeon, D Kim; Ren, Jianwei; Neilson, Andrew; Plegue, Missy; Waters, Ian G; Chan, Alexander; Askew, Leah M; Ruffin, Mack T; Sen, Ananda; Brenner, Dean E

    2015-01-01

    This randomized trial evaluated the effects of intervention with either a Healthy Eating or a Mediterranean diet on colon biomarkers in 120 healthy individuals at increased colon cancer risk. The hypothesis was that eicosanoids and markers of proliferation would be favorably affected by the Mediterranean diet. Colon epithelial biopsy tissues and blood samples were obtained at baseline and after 6 mo of intervention. Colonic eicosanoid concentrations were evaluated by HPLC-MS-MS, and measures of epithelial proliferation and nuclear morphology were evaluated by image analysis of biopsy sections. There was little change in proinflammatory eicosanoids and in plasma cytokine concentrations with either dietary intervention. There was, however, a 50% increase in colonic prostaglandin E3 (PGE3), which is formed from eicosapentanoic acid, in the Mediterranean arm. Unlike PGE2, PGE3, was not significantly affected by regular use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs at baseline, and normal weight subjects had significantly higher colon PGE3 than overweight or obese subjects. Increased proliferation in the colon at baseline, by Ki67 labeling, was associated with morphological features that defined smaller nuclei in the epithelial cells, lower colon leukotriene concentrations and higher plasma cytokine concentrations. Dietary intervention had little effect on measures of epithelial proliferation or of nuclear morphology. The increase in PGE3 with a Mediterranean diet indicates that in normal colon, diet might affect protective pathways to a greater extent than proinflammatory and proliferative pathways. Hence, biomarkers from cancer models might not be relevant in a true prevention setting.

  4. ST6Gal-I protein expression is upregulated in human epithelial tumors and correlates with stem cell markers in normal tissues and colon cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Swindall, Amanda F; Londoño-Joshi, Angelina I; Schultz, Matthew J; Fineberg, Naomi; Buchsbaum, Donald J; Bellis, Susan L

    2013-04-01

    The ST6Gal-I sialyltransferase adds an α2-6-linked sialic acid to the N-glycans of certain receptors. ST6Gal-I mRNA has been reported to be upregulated in human cancer, but a prior lack of antibodies has limited immunochemical analysis of the ST6Gal-I protein. Here, we show upregulated ST6Gal-I protein in several epithelial cancers, including many colon carcinomas. In normal colon, ST6Gal-I localized selectively to the base of crypts, where stem/progenitor cells are found, and the tissue staining patterns were similar to the established stem cell marker ALDH1. Similarly, ST6Gal-I expression was restricted to basal epidermal layers in skin, another stem/progenitor cell compartment. ST6Gal-I was highly expressed in induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, with no detectable expression in the fibroblasts from which iPS cells were derived. On the basis of these observations, we investigated further an association of ST6Gal-I with cancer stem cells (CSC). Selection of irinotecan resistance in colon carcinoma cells led to a greater proportion of CSCs compared with parental cells, as measured by the CSC markers CD133 and ALDH1 activity (Aldefluor). These chemoresistant cells exhibited a corresponding upregulation of ST6Gal-I expression. Conversely, short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated attenuation of ST6Gal-I in colon carcinoma cells with elevated endogenous expression decreased the number of CD133/ALDH1-positive cells present in the cell population. Collectively, our results suggest that ST6Gal-I promotes tumorigenesis and may serve as a regulator of the stem cell phenotype in both normal and cancer cell populations.

  5. Cell associated urokinase activity and colonic epithelial cells in health and disease.

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, P R; van de Pol, E; Doe, W F

    1991-01-01

    It is not known if urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is associated with normal colonic epithelial cells. The aims of this study were to determine if normal colonic epithelial cells have uPA activity and whether this is concentrated at the cell membrane. In addition, the contribution of colonic epithelial cell associated uPA activity to disease related pertubations of mucosal uPA activity were examined. A highly enriched population of colonic epithelial cells was isolated from resected colon or biopsy specimens by an enzymatic technique. uPA activity was measured in cell homogenates by a specific and sensitive colorimetric method and expressed relative to cellular DNA. In two experiments subcellular fractionation of colonic epithelial cells was performed by nitrogen cavitation followed by ultracentrifugation over a linear sucrose gradient. The fractions collected were analysed for uPA and organelle-specific enzyme activities. Normal colonic epithelial cells have cell associated uPA activity (mean (SEM) 5.6 (1.1) IU/mg, n = 18). This colocalised with fractions enriched for leucine-beta-naphthylamidase and 5'-nucleotidase, markers of plasma membrane. uPA activities in epithelial cells from cancerous colons (9.8 (3.1) n = 7) or from mucosa affected by inflammatory bowel disease (3.8 (0.7) n = 15) were not significantly different from normal (paired t test), while that in epithelial cells from greatly inflamed mucosa was similar to that from autologous normal or mildly inflamed areas (4.4 (1.2) v 5.9 (3.6), n = 9). Thus normal colonic epithelial cells have cell associated uPA activity which is concentrated on the plasma membranes, suggesting the presence of uPA receptors. Increased mucosal levels of uPA previously reported in patients with inflammatory bowel disease are not due to increased colonic epithelial cell associated uPA. PMID:1650741

  6. Ursodeoxycholic acid attenuates colonic epithelial secretory function

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Orlaith B; Mroz, Magdalena S; Ward, Joseph B J; Colliva, Carolina; Scharl, Michael; Pellicciari, Roberto; Gilmer, John F; Fallon, Padraic G; Hofmann, Alan F; Roda, Aldo; Murray, Frank E; Keely, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Dihydroxy bile acids, such as chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), are well known to promote colonic fluid and electrolyte secretion, thereby causing diarrhoea associated with bile acid malabsorption. However, CDCA is rapidly metabolised by colonic bacteria to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), the effects of which on epithelial transport are poorly characterised. Here, we investigated the role of UDCA in the regulation of colonic epithelial secretion. Cl− secretion was measured across voltage-clamped monolayers of T84 cells and muscle-stripped sections of mouse or human colon. Cell surface biotinylation was used to assess abundance/surface expression of transport proteins. Acute (15 min) treatment of T84 cells with bilateral UDCA attenuated Cl− secretory responses to the Ca2+ and cAMP-dependent secretagogues carbachol (CCh) and forskolin (FSK) to 14.0 ± 3.8 and 40.2 ± 7.4% of controls, respectively (n= 18, P < 0.001). Investigation of the molecular targets involved revealed that UDCA acts by inhibiting Na+/K+-ATPase activity and basolateral K+ channel currents, without altering their cell surface expression. In contrast, intraperitoneal administration of UDCA (25 mg kg−1) to mice enhanced agonist-induced colonic secretory responses, an effect we hypothesised to be due to bacterial metabolism of UDCA to lithocholic acid (LCA). Accordingly, LCA (50–200 μm) enhanced agonist-induced secretory responses in vitro and a metabolically stable UDCA analogue, 6α-methyl-UDCA, exerted anti-secretory actions in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, UDCA exerts direct anti-secretory actions on colonic epithelial cells and metabolically stable derivatives of the bile acid may offer a new approach for treating intestinal diseases associated with diarrhoea. PMID:23507881

  7. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, M.; Rajendran, Reshmi; Ng, Mary; Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank; Jenner, Andrew Michael

    2011-10-01

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  8. Epithelial NAIPs protect against colonic tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Allam, Ramanjaneyulu; Maillard, Michel H; Tardivel, Aubry; Chennupati, Vijaykumar; Bega, Hristina; Yu, Chi Wang; Velin, Dominique; Schneider, Pascal; Maslowski, Kendle M

    2015-03-09

    NLR family apoptosis inhibitory proteins (NAIPs) belong to both the Nod-like receptor (NLR) and the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) families. NAIPs are known to form an inflammasome with NLRC4, but other in vivo functions remain unexplored. Using mice deficient for all NAIP paralogs (Naip1-6(Δ/Δ)), we show that NAIPs are key regulators of colorectal tumorigenesis. Naip1-6(Δ/Δ) mice developed increased colorectal tumors, in an epithelial-intrinsic manner, in a model of colitis-associated cancer. Increased tumorigenesis, however, was not driven by an exacerbated inflammatory response. Instead, Naip1-6(Δ/Δ) mice were protected from severe colitis and displayed increased antiapoptotic and proliferation-related gene expression. Naip1-6(Δ/Δ) mice also displayed increased tumorigenesis in an inflammation-independent model of colorectal cancer. Moreover, Naip1-6(Δ/Δ) mice, but not Nlrc4-null mice, displayed hyper-activation of STAT3 and failed to activate p53 18 h after carcinogen exposure. This suggests that NAIPs protect against tumor initiation in the colon by promoting the removal of carcinogen-elicited epithelium, likely in a NLRC4 inflammasome-independent manner. Collectively, we demonstrate a novel epithelial-intrinsic function of NAIPs in protecting the colonic epithelium against tumorigenesis.

  9. Commentary: acetaldehyde and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in colon.

    PubMed

    Rao, Radhakrishna K

    2014-02-01

    Elamin and colleagues in this issue report that acetaldehyde activates Snail, a transcription factor involved in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, in an intestinal epithelium. Snail mediates acetaldehyde-induced tight junction disruption and increase in paracellular permeability. Results of this study and other previous studies raise several important questions. This commentary addresses these questions by discussing the acetaldehyde concentration in colon, disruption of epical junctional complexes in the intestinal epithelium by acetaldehyde, and the consequence of long-term exposure to acetaldehyde on colonic epithelial regeneration, carcinogenesis, and metastases. The precise role of acetaldehyde in colonic epithelial modifications and promotion of colorectal cancers still remains to be understood.

  10. Potentiation of Colon Cancer Susceptibility in Mice by Colonic Epithelial PPAR-δ/β Overexpression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ/β (PPAR-d) is upregulated in human colorectal cancers, but its role in colonic tumorigenesis remains controversial. Methods We generated a novel mouse model of intestinally targeted PPAR-d overexpression to simulate PPAR-d upregulation in human colon carcinogenesis. Colon-specific PPAR-d overexpression was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and activity assays. Mice with and without targeted PPAR-d overexpression were tested for azoxymethane (AOM)–induced colonic tumorigenesis. Mouse whole-genome transcriptome microarray analyses were performed to identify PPAR-d target genes to promote tumorigenesis. We used linear models to test for PPAR-d overexpression trend effects on tumor multiplicity. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Targeted PPAR-d overexpression markedly increased colonic tumor incidence (from 0 of 10 wild-type [WT] littermate mice to 9 of 10 mice [P < .001] in 2 FVB/N background mouse lines [villin-PPAR-d-1 and villin-PPAR-d-2] at a 5-mg/kg AOM dose) and multiplicity (number of tumors per mouse per mg/kg dose of AOM increased from 0.47 [95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.22 to 0.72] for the WT littermates to 2.15 [95% CI = 1.90 to 2.40] [P < .001] for the villin-PPAR-d-1 mice and from 0.44 [95% CI = 0.09 to 0.79] for the WT littermates to 1.91 [95% CI = 1.57 to 2.25] [P < .001] for the villin-PPAR-d-2 mice). PPAR-d overexpression reversed resistance to AOM-induced colonic tumorigenesis in C57BL/6 mice. PPAR-d overexpression modulated expression of several novel PPAR-d target genes in normal-appearing colonic epithelial cells of mice with PPAR-d overexpression in a pattern that matched the changes in colonic tumors. Conclusions Our finding that PPAR-d upregulation profoundly enhances susceptibility to colonic tumorigenesis should impact the development of strategies of molecularly targeting PPAR-d in cancer and

  11. Small molecule and RNAi induced phenotype transition of expanded and primary colonic epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Sharbati, Jutta; Hanisch, Carlos; Pieper, Robert; Einspanier, Ralf; Sharbati, Soroush

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress in mammalian intestinal epithelial cell culture led to novel concepts of tissue modeling. Especially the development of phenotypically stable cell lines from individual animals enables an investigation of distinct intestinal loci and disease states. We here report primary and prolonged culture of normal porcine epithelial cells from colon for cell line development. In addition, a novel primary three-dimensional intestinal culture system is presented, which generated organoids composed of a highly polarized epithelial layer lining a core of subepithelial tissue. Cellular characterization of monolayer cell lines revealed epithelial identity and pointed to a proliferative crypt cell phenotype. We evaluated both RNAi and chemical approaches to induce epithelial differentiation in generated cell lines by targeting promoters of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). By in silico prediction and ectopic expression, miR-147b was proven to be a potent trigger of intestinal epithelial cell differentiation. Our results outline an approach to generate phenotypically stable cell lines expanded from primary colonic epithelial cultures and demonstrate the relevance of miR-147b and chemical inhibitors for promoting epithelial differentiation features. PMID:26223582

  12. Epithelial cell adhesion and gastrointestinal colonization of Lactobacillus in poultry.

    PubMed

    Spivey, Megan A; Dunn-Horrocks, Sadie L; Duong, Tri

    2014-11-01

    Administration of probiotic Lactobacillus cultures is an important alternative to the use of antibiotic growth promoters and has been demonstrated to improve animal health, growth performance, and preharvest food safety in poultry production. Whereas gastrointestinal colonization is thought to be critical to their probiotic functionality, factors important to Lactobacillus colonization in chickens are not well understood. In this study we investigate epithelial cell adhesion in vitro and colonization of Lactobacillusin vivo in broiler chickens. Adhesion of Lactobacillus cultures to epithelial cells was evaluated using the chicken LMH cell line. Lactobacillus cultures were able adhere effectively to LMH cells relative to Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella Typhimurium. Epithelial cell adhesion was similar for Lactobacillus crispatus TDCC 75, L. cristpatus TDCC 76, and Lactobacillus gallinarum TDCC 77, and all 3 were more adherent than L. gallinarum TDCC 78. However, when colonization was evaluated in the ileum and cecum of broiler chicks, L. crispatus TDCC 75 and L. gallinarum TDCC 77 were more persistent than L. crispatus TDCC 76 and L. gallinarum TDCC 78. The reduction of growth in medium supplemented with oxgal was greater for L. gallinarum TDCC 78 than L. gallinarum TDCC 77, suggesting that whereas adhesion was similar for the 2 strains, the difference in colonization between L. gallinarum strains may be due in part to their bile sensitivity. This study demonstrates that whereas adhesion to epithelial cells may be important in predicting gastrointestinal colonization, other factors including bile tolerance may also contribute to the colonization of Lactobacillus in poultry. Additionally, the chicken LMH cell line is expected to provide a platform for investigating mechanisms of Lactobacillus adhesion to epithelial tissue and evaluating the probiotic potential Lactobacillus in poultry.

  13. Normal morphogenesis of epithelial tissues and progression of epithelial tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun-Chao; Jamal, Leen; Janes, Kevin A.

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial cells organize into various tissue architectures that largely maintain their structure throughout the life of an organism. For decades, the morphogenesis of epithelial tissues has fascinated scientists at the interface of cell, developmental, and molecular biology. Systems biology offers ways to combine knowledge from these disciplines by building integrative models that are quantitative and predictive. Can such models be useful for gaining a deeper understanding of epithelial morphogenesis? Here, we take inventory of some recurring themes in epithelial morphogenesis that systems approaches could strive to capture. Predictive understanding of morphogenesis at the systems level would prove especially valuable for diseases such as cancer, where epithelial tissue architecture is profoundly disrupted. PMID:21898857

  14. Normal morphogenesis of epithelial tissues and progression of epithelial tumors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Chao; Jamal, Leen; Janes, Kevin A

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial cells organize into various tissue architectures that largely maintain their structure throughout the life of an organism. For decades, the morphogenesis of epithelial tissues has fascinated scientists at the interface of cell, developmental, and molecular biology. Systems biology offers ways to combine knowledge from these disciplines by building integrative models that are quantitative and predictive. Can such models be useful for gaining a deeper understanding of epithelial morphogenesis? Here, we take inventory of some recurring themes in epithelial morphogenesis that systems approaches could strive to capture. Predictive understanding of morphogenesis at the systems level would prove especially valuable for diseases such as cancer, where epithelial tissue architecture is profoundly disrupted.

  15. Serotonin disturbs colon epithelial tolerance of commensal E. coli by increasing NOX2-derived superoxide.

    PubMed

    Banskota, Suhrid; Regmi, Sushil Chandra; Gautam, Jaya; Gurung, Pallavi; Lee, Yu-Jeong; Ku, Sae Kwang; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Lee, Jintae; Chang, Hyeun Wook; Park, Sang Joon; Kim, Jung-Ae

    2017-02-17

    Adherent-invasive E. coli colonization and Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression are increased in the gut of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. However, the underlying mechanism of such changes has not been determined. In the current study, it was examined whether gut serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) can induce adherent-invasive E. coli colonization and increase TLR expression. In a co-culture system, commensal E. coli strain (BW25113, BW) adhered minimally to colon epithelial cells, but this was significantly enhanced by 5-HT to the level of a pathogenic strain (EDL933). Without inducing bacterial virulence, such as, biofilm formation, 5-HT enhanced BW-induced signaling in colon epithelial cells, that is, NADPH oxidase (NOX)-dependent superoxide production, the up-regulations of IL-8, TLR2, TLR4, and ICAM-1, and the down-regulations of E-cadherin and claudin-2. In a manner commensurate with these gene modulations, BW induced an increase in NF-κB and a decrease in GATA reporter signals in colon epithelial cells. However, 5-HT-enhanced BW adhesion and colon epithelial responses were blocked by knock-down of NOX2, TLR2, or TLR4. In normal mice, 5-HT induced the invasion of BW into gut submucosa, and the observed molecular changes were similar to those observed in vitro, except for significant increases in TNFα and IL-1β, and resulted in death. In dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis mice (an IBD disease model), in which colonic 5-HT levels were markedly elevated, BW administration induced death in along with large amount of BW invasion into colon submucosa, and time to death was negatively related to the amount of BW injected. Taken together, our results demonstrate that 5-HT induces the invasion of commensal E. coli into gut submucosa by amplifying commensal bacteria-induced epithelial signaling (superoxide production and the inductions of NOX2 and TLR2/TLR4). The authors suggest that these changes may constitute the molecular basis for the

  16. Aldosterone induces myofibroblast EGF secretion to regulate epithelial colonic permeability.

    PubMed

    Miró, Lluïsa; Pérez-Bosque, Anna; Maijó, Mònica; Amat, Concepció; Naftalin, Richard J; Moretó, Miquel

    2013-05-01

    In vivo studies show that raised aldosterone (Aldo) during low-Na adaptation regulates the growth of pericryptal myofibroblasts and reduces the permeability of the colonic epithelium. The aim of this study was to reproduce in vitro the in vivo condition of increased Aldo using human CCD-18Co myofibroblasts and T84 colonic epithelial cells to measure myofibroblast and epithelial proliferation and the expression of intercellular junction proteins. Proliferation was quantified by measuring 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation. The myofibroblast expression of EGF, VEGFa, and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was measured by real-time PCR and the expression of junctional complex proteins by Western blot. Aldo stimulated the proliferation of myofibroblasts by 70% (P < 0.05) and increased EGF mRNA expression by 30% (P < 0.05) without affecting VEGFa and TGF-β1. EGF concentration in the incubation medium increased by 30% (P < 0.05) 24 h after Aldo addition, and these effects were prevented by the addition of spironolactone. Myofibroblast proliferation in response to Aldo was mediated by EGF receptor (EGFR) and involved both MAPKK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways. When T84 cells were incubated with medium from myofibroblasts stimulated with Aldo (conditioned medium), the expression of β-catenin and claudin IV was increased by 30% (P < 0.05) and proliferation by 40% (P < 0.05). T84 proliferation decreased when α-EGF, or the EGFR antagonist AG1478, was present. Results in vivo indicate that rats fed a low-salt diet showed an increased expression of EGF and EGFR in the colonic mucosa. These results support the view that changes in colonic permeability during low-Na adaptation are mediated by the EGF secreted by myofibroblasts in response to raised Aldo.

  17. Phenotypic plasticity in normal breast derived epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Normal, healthy human breast tissue from a variety of volunteer donors has become available for research thanks to the establishment of the Susan G. Komen for the Cure® Tissue Bank at the IU Simon Cancer Center (KTB). Multiple epithelial (K-HME) and stromal cells (K-HMS) were established from the donated tissue. Explant culture was utilized to isolate the cells from pieces of breast tissue. Selective media and trypsinization were employed to select either epithelial cells or stromal cells. The primary, non-transformed epithelial cells, the focus of this study, were characterized by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and in vitro cell culture. Results All of the primary, non-transformed epithelial cells tested have the ability to differentiate in vitro into a variety of cell types when plated in or on biologic matrices. Cells identified include stratified squamous epithelial, osteoclasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, neural progenitors/neurons, immature muscle and melanocytes. The cells also express markers of embryonic stem cells. Conclusions The cell culture conditions employed select an epithelial cell that is pluri/multipotent. The plasticity of the epithelial cells developed mimics that seen in metaplastic carcinoma of the breast (MCB), a subtype of triple negative breast cancer; and may provide clues to the origin of this particularly aggressive type of breast cancer. The KTB is a unique biorepository, and the normal breast epithelial cells isolated from donated tissue have significant potential as new research tools. PMID:24915897

  18. A link between lipid metabolism and epithelial-mesenchymal transition provides a target for colon cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martínez, Ruth; Cruz-Gil, Silvia; Gómez de Cedrón, Marta; Álvarez-Fernández, Mónica; Vargas, Teodoro; Molina, Susana; García, Belén; Herranz, Jesús; Moreno-Rubio, Juan; Reglero, Guillermo; Pérez-Moreno, Mirna; Feliu, Jaime; Malumbres, Marcos; Ramírez de Molina, Ana

    2015-11-17

    The alterations in carbohydrate metabolism that fuel tumor growth have been extensively studied. However, other metabolic pathways involved in malignant progression, demand further understanding. Here we describe a metabolic acyl-CoA synthetase/stearoyl-CoA desaturase ACSL/SCD network causing an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program that promotes migration and invasion of colon cancer cells. The mesenchymal phenotype produced upon overexpression of these enzymes is reverted through reactivation of AMPK signaling. Furthermore, this network expression correlates with poorer clinical outcome of stage-II colon cancer patients. Finally, combined treatment with chemical inhibitors of ACSL/SCD selectively decreases cancer cell viability without reducing normal cells viability. Thus, ACSL/SCD network stimulates colon cancer progression through conferring increased energetic capacity and invasive and migratory properties to cancer cells, and might represent a new therapeutic opportunity for colon cancer treatment.

  19. IL1{beta}-mediated Stromal COX-2 signaling mediates proliferation and invasiveness of colonic epithelial cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Yingting; Zhu, Min; Lance, Peter

    2012-11-15

    COX-2 is a major inflammatory mediator implicated in colorectal inflammation and cancer. However, the exact origin and role of COX-2 on colorectal inflammation and carcinogenesis are still not well defined. Recently, we reported that COX-2 and iNOS signalings interact in colonic CCD18Co fibroblasts. In this article, we investigated whether activation of COX-2 signaling by IL1{beta} in primary colonic fibroblasts obtained from normal and cancer patients play a critical role in regulation of proliferation and invasiveness of human colonic epithelial cancer cells. Our results demonstrated that COX-2 level was significantly higher in cancer associated fibroblasts than that in normal fibroblasts with or without stimulation of IL-1{beta}, a powerful stimulator of COX-2. Using in vitro assays for estimating proliferative and invasive potential, we discovered that the proliferation and invasiveness of the epithelial cancer cells were much greater when the cells were co-cultured with cancer associated fibroblasts than with normal fibroblasts, with or without stimulation of IL1{beta}. Further analysis indicated that the major COX-2 product, prostaglandin E{sub 2}, directly enhanced proliferation and invasiveness of the epithelial cancer cells in the absence of fibroblasts. Moreover, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398, blocked the proliferative and invasive effect of both normal and cancer associate fibroblasts on the epithelial cancer cells, with or without stimulation of IL-1{beta}. Those results indicate that activation of COX-2 signaling in the fibroblasts plays a major role in promoting proliferation and invasiveness of the epithelial cancer cells. In this process, PKC is involved in the activation of COX-2 signaling induced by IL-1{beta} in the fibroblasts.

  20. Red meat and colon cancer: dietary haem-induced colonic cytotoxicity and epithelial hyperproliferation are inhibited by calcium.

    PubMed

    Sesink, A L; Termont, D S; Kleibeuker, J H; Van der Meer, R

    2001-10-01

    High intake of red meat is associated with increased colon cancer risk. We have shown earlier that this may be due to the high haem content of red meat, because dietary haem increased cytolytic activity of faecal water and colonic epithelial proliferation. Dietary calcium inhibits diet-induced epithelial hyperproliferation. Furthermore, it has been shown that supplemental calcium inhibited the recurrence of colorectal adenomas. Therefore, we studied whether dietary calcium phosphate can exert its protective effects by inhibiting the deleterious effects of haem. In vitro, calcium phosphate precipitated haem and inhibited the haem-induced cytotoxicity. Subsequently, rats were fed diets, differing in haem (0 or 1.3 micromol/g) and calcium phosphate content only (20 or 180 micromol/g). Faeces were collected for biochemical analyses. Cytolytic activity of faecal water was determined from the degree of lysis of erythrocytes by faecal water. Colonic epithelial proliferation was measured in vivo using [(3)H]thymidine incorporation. In rats fed low calcium diets, dietary haem increased cytolytic activity of faecal water (98 +/- 1 versus 1 +/- 1%, P < 0.001) and the concentration of cations in faeces (964 +/- 31 versus 254 +/- 20 micromol/g), when compared with controls. This indicates that dietary haem increased colonic mucosal exposure to luminal irritants. Colonic epithelial proliferation was increased compared with controls (70 +/- 4 versus 48 +/- 8 d.p.m./microg DNA, P < 0.001). This was accompanied by metabolism of the ingested haem and solubilization of haem compounds in the faecal water. A high calcium diet largely prevented this metabolism and solubilization. It also inhibited the haem-induced cytolytic activity of faecal water and increase in faecal cation concentration. In accordance, the haem-induced colonic epithelial hyperproliferation was prevented. We therefore suggest that dietary calcium phosphate acts as a chemopreventive agent in colon carcinogenesis by

  1. Quantification of pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in colonic carcinoma and normal adjacent colonic mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Bohe, H; Bohe, M; Jönsson, P; Lindström, C; Ohlsson, K

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To measure the content of immunoreactive human pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (irPSTI) in colonic carcinoma and adjacent normal colonic mucosa. METHODS: From a stable hybridoma cell line producing monoclonal antibodies specific for human PSTI, a specific enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for human PSTI was developed. In a precipitation assay system these antibodies bound human PSTI in a dose-dependent manner. The specimens were obtained from resectional surgery. RESULTS: The content of irPSTI was 19.9 micrograms/g protein (0.55 micrograms/g tissue wet weight) in colonic carcinoma. In adjacent normal colonic mucosa 43.6 micrograms/g protein (1.12 micrograms/g tissue wet weight) was shown. CONCLUSIONS: The enzymatic degradation of surrounding tissue necessary for tumour cell invasion could be facilitated by this relative deficit of the inhibitor in infiltrative carcinoma. PMID:1479031

  2. Validation of methylation biomarkers that distinguish normal colon mucosa of cancer patients from normal colon mucosa of patients without cancer.

    PubMed

    Cesaroni, Matteo; Powell, Jasmine; Sapienza, Carmen

    2014-07-01

    We have validated differences in DNA methylation levels of candidate genes previously reported to discriminate between normal colon mucosa of patients with colon cancer and normal colon mucosa of individuals without cancer. Here, we report that CpG sites in 16 of the 30 candidate genes selected show significant differences in mean methylation level in normal colon mucosa of 24 patients with cancer and 24 controls. A support vector machine trained on these data and data for an additional 66 CpGs yielded an 18-gene signature, composed of ten of the validated candidate genes plus eight additional candidates. This model exhibited 96% sensitivity and 100% specificity in a 40-sample training set and classified all eight samples in the test set correctly. Moreover, we found a moderate-strong correlation (Pearson coefficients r = 0.253-0.722) between methylation levels in colon mucosa and methylation levels in peripheral blood for seven of the 18 genes in the support vector model. These seven genes, alone, classified 44 of the 48 patients in the validation set correctly and five CpGs selected from only two of the seven genes classified 41 of the 48 patients in the discovery set correctly. These results suggest that methylation biomarkers may be developed that will, at minimum, serve as useful objective and quantitative diagnostic complements to colonoscopy as a cancer-screening tool. These data also suggest that it may be possible to monitor biomarker methylation levels in tissues collected much less invasively than by colonoscopy.

  3. Infrared spectroscopic characteristics of normal and malignant colonic epithelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupnik, Eduardo; Jackson, Michael; Bird, Ranjana P.; Smith, Ian C. P.; Mantsch, Henry H.

    1998-04-01

    IR spectroscopy is being widely used to study the biochemical changes associated with cancer. In particular, based upon the hypothesis that biochemical changes associated with cancer precede morphological manifestations of the disease, IR spectroscopy is being evaluated as a potential early diagnostic and prognostic tool. In the current study, IR spectroscopy was applied to the study of colon tissue from rats treated with the specific colon carcinogen azoxymethane, to determine whether tumor induction was associated with identifiable spectroscopic changes in the colon. Characteristic spectra were found for each layer of the colon. Spectra of normal-appearing mucosa and tumors form treated animals then compared to spectra of control mucosa. Differences between tumors and control mucosa were apparent, indicating changes in cellular biochemistry associated with tumor development. In particular, differences in absorptions attributed to nucleic acids were seen, indicating alterations in the structure of cellular DNA in malignant and carcinogen treated tissues. Interestingly, spectra of carcinogen treated rates exhibit characteristics intermediate between those of normal mucosa and tumors. Application of multivariate analysis allowed non-subjective classification of the spectra into three distinct classes with and accuracy of 86.7 percent. The separate classification of control and treated mucosa suggests that IR spectroscopy, when combined with the appropriate classifier, can indeed detect biochemical changes in tissue before physical manifestation of the disease process.

  4. Extracellular calcium sensing receptor stimulation in human colonic epithelial cells induces intracellular calcium oscillations and proliferation inhibition.

    PubMed

    Rey, Osvaldo; Young, Steven H; Jacamo, Rodrigo; Moyer, Mary P; Rozengurt, Enrique

    2010-10-01

    The extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaR) is increasingly implicated in the regulation of multiple cellular functions in the gastrointestinal tract, including secretion, proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells. However, the signaling mechanisms involved remain poorly defined. Here we examined signaling pathways activated by the CaR, including Ca(2+) oscillations, in individual human colon epithelial cells. Single cell imaging of colon-derived cells expressing the CaR, including SW-480, HT-29, and NCM-460 cells, shows that stimulation of this receptor by addition of aromatic amino acids or by an elevation of the extracellular Ca(2+) concentration promoted striking intracellular Ca(2+) oscillations. The intracellular calcium oscillations in response to extracellular Ca(2+) were of sinusoidal pattern and mediated by the phospholipase C/diacylglycerol/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate pathway as revealed by a biosensor that detects the accumulation of diacylglycerol in the plasma membrane. The intracellular calcium oscillations in response to aromatic amino acids were of transient type, that is, Ca(2+) spikes that returned to baseline levels, and required an intact actin cytoskeleton, a functional Rho, Filamin A and the ion channel TRPC1. Further analysis showed that re-expression and stimulation of the CaR in human epithelial cells derived from normal colon and from colorectal adenocarcinoma inhibits their proliferation. This inhibition was associated with the activation of the signaling pathway that mediates the generation of sinusoidal, but not transient, intracellular Ca(2+) oscillations. Thus, these results indicate that the CaR can function in two signaling modes in human colonic epithelial cells offering a potential link between gastrointestinal responses and food/nutrients uptake and metabolism.

  5. The influence of aqueous extracts of selected Potentilla species on normal human colon cells.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Michał; Paduch, Roman; Wiater, Adrian; Pleszczyńska, Małgorzata; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna; Szczodrak, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Potentilla L. (Rosaceae) species have been used in traditional medicine in Asia, Europe and Northern America. This study analyzed the biological activity of aqueous extracts of Potentilla species (Rosaceae): Dasiphora fruticosa (syn. P. fruticosa), P. norvegica, P. pensylvanica, P. thuringiaca, P. crantzii and P. nepalensis. The activities were tested using MTT, NR and DPPH assays on normal human colon epithelium (CCD 841 CoTr) and colon myofibroblast (CCD-18Co) cells. Moreover, cell morphology using the May-Grünwald-Giemsa method, IL-6 by ELISA, and nitric oxide (NO) analysis with the Griess method in culture supernatants were performed after 24 h. Extracts were tested at dose levels between 25 and 250 microg/mL. For ELISA, 15 microg/mL was chosen. All extracts suppressed the metabolism of myofibroblasts, while epithelial cells' mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity decreased after incubation with extracts. All extracts showed a free radical scavenging (DPPH) effect in a concentration-dependent manner. The most potent was the extract from D. fruticosa, while the least action was observed for P. thuringiaca. Potentilla extracts stimulated, IL-6 production in tested cells but the level of the cytokine was found to decrease in epithelial cells. Pre-incubation of cells with LPS resulted in increased IL-6 secretion. Modulation of NO production after extract addition and cell pre-incubation with LPS was also observed. Potentilla extracts may be interesting natural factors modulating the main features of cells forming the colon wall, and thus may be potentially useful in the prophylaxis or healing of colon disorders.

  6. Growth control in colon epithelial cells: gadolinium enhances calcium-mediated growth regulation.

    PubMed

    Attili, Durga; Jenkins, Brian; Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Dame, Michael K; Varani, James

    2012-12-01

    Gadolinium, a member of the lanthanoid family of transition metals, interacts with calcium-binding sites on proteins and other biological molecules. The overall goal of the present investigation was to determine if gadolinium could enhance calcium-induced epithelial cell growth inhibition in the colon. Gadolinium at concentrations as low as 1-5 μM combined with calcium inhibits proliferation of human colonic epithelial cells more effectively than calcium alone. Gadolinium had no detectable effect on calcium-induced differentiation in the same cells based on change in cell morphology, induction of E-cadherin synthesis, and translocation of E-cadherin from the cytosol to the cell surface. When the colon epithelial cells were treated with gadolinium and then exposed to increased calcium concentrations, movement of extracellular calcium into the cell was suppressed. In contrast, gadolinium treatment had no effect on ionomycin-induced release of stored intracellular calcium into the cytoplasm. Whether these in vitro observations can be translated into an approach for reducing abnormal proliferation in the colonic mucosa (including polyp formation) is not known. These results do, however, provide an explanation for our recent findings that a multi-mineral supplement containing all of the naturally occurring lanthanoid metals including gadolinium are more effective than calcium alone in preventing colon polyp formation in mice on a high-fat diet.

  7. Butyrate and bioactive proteolytic form of Wnt-5a regulate colonic epithelial proliferation and spatial development

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Sakiyama, Toshio; Hasebe, Takumu; Musch, Mark W.; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Yasushi; He, Tong-Chuan; Lichtenstein, Lev; Naito, Yuji; Itoh, Yoshito; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Jabri, Bana; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus; Chang, Eugene B.

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation and spatial development of colonic epithelial cells are highly regulated along the crypt vertical axis, which, when perturbed, can result in aberrant growth and carcinogenesis. In this study, two key factors were identified that have important and counterbalancing roles regulating these processes: pericrypt myofibroblast-derived Wnt-5a and the microbial metabolite butyrate. Cultured YAMC cell proliferation and heat shock protein induction were analzyed after butryate, conditioned medium with Wnt5a activity, and FrzB containing conditioned medium. In vivo studies to modulate Hsp25 employed intra-colonic wall Hsp25 encoding lentivirus. To silence Wnt-5a in vivo, intra-colonic wall Wnt-5a silencing RNA was used. Wnt-5a, secreted by stromal myofibroblasts of the lower crypt, promotes proliferation through canonical β-catenin activation. Essential to this are two key requirements: (1) proteolytic conversion of the highly insoluble ~40 kD Wnt-5a protein to a soluble 36 mer amino acid peptide that activates epithelial β-catenin and cellular proliferation, and (2) the simultaneous inhibition of butyrate-induced Hsp25 by Wnt-5a which is necessary to arrest the proliferative process in the upper colonic crypt. The interplay and spatial gradients of these factors insures that crypt epithelial cell proliferation and development proceed in an orderly fashion, but with sufficient plasticity to adapt to physiological perturbations including inflammation. PMID:27561676

  8. A Novel Role of Spred2 in the Colonic Epithelial Cell Homeostasis and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Sakuma; Yoshimura, Teizo; Ohkura, Takahiro; Fujisawa, Masayoshi; Fushimi, Soichiro; Ito, Toshihiro; Itakura, Junya; Hiraoka, Sakiko; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide; Matsukawa, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and adequate mucosal healing is important for a remission of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. Here, we examined whether Spred2, a member of the Sprouty-related EVH1-domain-containing proteins that inhibit the Ras/Raf/ERK pathway, plays a role in colonic mucosal homeostasis and inflammation by using Spred2 knockout (KO) mice. We first detected increased epithelial cell proliferation and cadherin 1 expression in the colon of naïve Spred2 KO mice compared to wild-type mice. Interestingly, Spred2 KO mice were resistant to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis as indicated by lower levels of body weight loss and disease activity index. Histologically, epithelial cell injury and inflammation were milder in the colonic mucosa of Spred2 KO mice on day 3 and almost undetectable by day 8. Experiments with bone chimeric mice indicated that Spred2-deficiency in non-hematopoietic cells was responsible for the reduced sensitivity to DSS. Finally, Spred2 KO mice developed significantly fewer tumors in response to azoxymethane plus DSS. Taken together, our results demonstrate, for the first time, that Spred2 plays an important role in the regulation of colonic epithelial cell proliferation and inflammation by potentially down-regulating the activation of ERK. Thus, Spred2 may be a new therapeutic target for the treatment of UC. PMID:27869219

  9. Epithelial-specific A2B adenosine receptor signaling protects the colonic epithelial barrier during acute colitis

    PubMed Central

    Aherne, CM; Saeedi, B; Collins, CB; Masterson, JC; McNamee, EN; Perrenoud, L; Rapp, CR; Curtis, VF; Bayless, A; Fletcher, A; Glover, LE; Evans, CM; Jedlicka, P; Furuta, GT; de Zoeten, EF; Colgan, SP; Eltzschig, HK

    2015-01-01

    Central to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis is loss of mucosal barrier function. Emerging evidence implicates extracellular adenosine signaling in attenuating mucosal inflammation. We hypothesized that adenosine-mediated protection from intestinal barrier dysfunction involves tissue-specific signaling through the A2B adenosine receptor (Adora2b) at the intestinal mucosal surface. To address this hypothesis, we combined pharmacologic studies and studies in mice with global or tissue-specific deletion of the Adora2b receptor. Adora2b−/− mice experienced a significantly heightened severity of colitis, associated with a more acute onset of disease and loss of intestinal epithelial barrier function. Comparison of mice with Adora2b deletion on vascular endothelial cells (Adora2bfl/flVeCadCre+) or intestinal epithelia (Adora2bfl/flVillinCre+) revealed a selective role for epithelial Adora2b signaling in attenuating colonic inflammation. In vitro studies with Adora2b knockdown in intestinal epithelial cultures or pharmacologic studies highlighted Adora2b-driven phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) as a specific barrier repair response. Similarly, in vivo studies in genetic mouse models or treatment studies with an Adora2b agonist (BAY 60-6583) recapitulate these findings. Taken together, our results suggest that intestinal epithelial Adora2b signaling provides protection during intestinal inflammation via enhancing mucosal barrier responses. PMID:25850656

  10. Malignant transformation of colonic epithelial cells by a colon-derived long noncoding RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, Jeffrey L.; Rankin, Carl R.; Levy, Shawn; Snoddy, Jay R.; Zhang, Bing; Washington, Mary Kay; Thomson, J. Michael; Whitehead, Robert H.; Coffey, Robert J.

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •Non-coding RNAs are found in the colonic crypt progenitor compartment. •Colonocytes transformed by ncNRFR are highly invasive and metastatic. •ncNRFR has a region similar to the miRNA, let-7 family. •ncNRFR expression alters let-7 activity as measured by reporter construct. •ncNRFR expression upregulates let-7b targets. -- Abstract: Recent progress has been made in the identification of protein-coding genes and miRNAs that are expressed in and alter the behavior of colonic epithelia. However, the role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in colonic homeostasis is just beginning to be explored. By gene expression profiling of post-mitotic, differentiated tops and proliferative, progenitor-compartment bottoms of microdissected adult mouse colonic crypts, we identified several lncRNAs more highly expressed in crypt bottoms. One identified lncRNA, designated non-coding Nras functional RNA (ncNRFR), resides within the Nras locus but appears to be independent of the Nras coding transcript. Stable overexpression of ncNRFR in non-transformed, conditionally immortalized mouse colonocytes results in malignant transformation, as determined by growth in soft agar and formation of highly invasive tumors in nude mice. Moreover, ncNRFR appears to inhibit the function of the tumor suppressor let-7. These results suggest precise regulation of ncNRFR is necessary for proper cell growth in the colonic crypt, and its misregulation results in neoplastic transformation.

  11. Normal Function of the Colon and Anorectal Area

    MedlinePlus

    ... it to be expelled as stool. This prolonged transit time is an important aspect of colonic function ... occur in adults. Nerves and muscles regulate the transit time of the colon. Derangements in either element ...

  12. Synergic production of neutrophil chemotactic activity by colonic epithelial cells and eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Dent, Gordon; Loweth, Sam C; Hasan, Anwar Matar; Leslie, Fiona M

    2014-10-01

    The presence of eosinophils in the lumen and mucosa of the intestine is characteristic of both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). There is evidence of eosinophil activation in the intestine during acute inflammatory episodes of these diseases; these episodes are also characterized by an influx of neutrophils, which have the potential to cause extensive tissue damage. We undertook a study to determine whether eosinophils in contact with colonic epithelial cells produce factors that may attract neutrophils in response to immunological stimulation. Neutrophil chemotactic activity (NCA) and concentrations of three neutrophil-attracting CXC chemokines - CXCL1 (Groα), CXCL5 (Ena78) and CXCL8 (IL8) - were measured in supernatants of T84 colonic epithelial cells and blood eosinophils or eosinophil-like myeloid leukaemia cells (AML14.3D10), alone or in combination. Cells were stimulated with serum-opsonized zymosan (OZ) particles. NCA (P<0.005) and CXCL5 levels (P<0.05) in the supernatants of OZ-stimulated epithelial/eosinophil co-cultures were significantly higher than in the supernatants of either cell type alone. Release of CXCL1 (P<0.05) and CXCL8 (P<0.01) from OZ-stimulated co-culture supernatants was significantly higher than from OZ-stimulated eosinophils but not higher than from OZ-stimulated epithelial cells. Eosinophils and colonic epithelial cells exhibit synergy in production of neutrophil chemoattractants in response to immunological stimulation. This may represent a mechanism for exaggerated recruitment of neutrophils to the intestine in response to acute infection in conditions that are characterized by the presence of eosinophils in the bowel.

  13. Increased expression of chemokine receptor CCR3 and its ligands in ulcerative colitis: the role of colonic epithelial cells in in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Manousou, P; Kolios, G; Valatas, V; Drygiannakis, I; Bourikas, L; Pyrovolaki, K; Koutroubakis, I; Papadaki, H A; Kouroumalis, E

    2010-11-01

    Human colonic epithelial cells express T helper type 1 (Th1)-associated chemoattractants, yet little is known about the production of Th2-associated chemoattractants. CCL11/eotaxin-1, CCL24/eotaxin-2 and CCL26/eotaxin-3 are known to attract CCR3-expressing, Th2-polarized lymphocytes. We studied constitutive and inflammation-induced expression and production of CCR3 together with its ligands in the colon and peripheral blood of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by flow cytometry, reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We further defined the regulated expression of these chemokines by RT–PCR and ELISA using cultured human epithelial cell lines. A higher fraction of peripheral T lymphocytes were found to be positive for CCR3 in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) compared to Crohn’s disease (CD), while almost no CCR3(+) T cells were found in normal controls (NC). Similarly, higher and more frequent expression of CCR3 was observed in colonic biopsies from patients with UC, regardless of the disease activity, when compared to CD or NCs. Serum CCL11/eotaxin-1 was increased significantly in UC (306 ± 87 pg/ml) and less so in CD (257 ± 43 pg/ml), whereas CCL24/eotaxin-2, and CCL26/eotaxin-3 were increased only in UC. Colonic expression of the three chemokines was minimal in NCs but high in inflammatory bowel diseases (especially UC) and was independent of disease activity. Th2, and to a lesser extent Th1, cytokines were able to induce expression and production of all three eotaxins from colonic epithelial cells in culture. CCR3 and ligands over-expression would appear to be a characteristic of UC. The production of CCR3 ligands by human colonic epithelial cells suggests further that epithelium can play a role in modulating pathological T cell-mediated mucosal inflammation.

  14. Characterisation of colonic dysplasia-like epithelial atypia in murine colitis

    PubMed Central

    Randall-Demllo, Sarron; Fernando, Ruchira; Brain, Terry; Sohal, Sukhwinder Singh; Cook, Anthony L; Guven, Nuri; Kunde, Dale; Spring, Kevin; Eri, Rajaraman

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine if exacerbation of pre-existing chronic colitis in Winnie (Muc2 mutant) mice induces colonic dysplasia. METHODS Winnie mice and C57BL6 as a genotype control, were administered 1% w/v dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) orally, followed by drinking water alone in week-long cycles for a total of three cycles. After the third cycle, mice were killed and colonic tissue collected for histological and immunohistochemical evaluation. Inflammation and severity of dysplasia in the colonic mucosa were assessed in H&E sections of the colon. Epithelial cell proliferation was assessed using Ki67 and aberrant β-catenin signalling assessed with enzyme-based immunohistochemistry. Extracted RNA from colonic segments was used for the analysis of gene expression using real-time quantitative PCR. Finally, the distribution of Cxcl5 was visualised using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS Compared to controls, Winnie mice exposed to three cycles of DSS displayed inflammation mostly confined to the distal-mid colon with extensive mucosal hyperplasia and regenerative atypia resembling epithelial dysplasia. Dysplasia-like changes were observed in 100% of Winnie mice exposed to DSS, with 55% of these animals displaying changes similar to high-grade dysplasia, whereas high-grade changes were absent in wild-type mice. Occasional penetration of the muscularis mucosae by atypical crypts was observed in 27% of Winnie mice after DSS. Atypical crypts however displayed no evidence of oncogenic nuclear β-catenin accumulation, regardless of histological severity. Expression of Cav1, Trp53 was differentially regulated in the distal colon of Winnie relative to wild-type mice. Expression of Myc and Ccl5 was increased by DSS treatment in Winnie only. Furthermore, increased Ccl5 expression correlated with increased complexity in abnormal crypts. While no overall difference in Cxcl5 mucosal expression was observed between treatment groups, epithelial Cxcl5 protein appeared to be diminished in the

  15. Changes in the Luminal Environment of the Colonic Epithelial Cells and Physiopathological Consequences.

    PubMed

    Blachier, François; Beaumont, Martin; Andriamihaja, Mireille; Davila, Anne-Marie; Lan, Annaïg; Grauso, Marta; Armand, Lucie; Benamouzig, Robert; Tomé, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Evidence, mostly from experimental models, has accumulated, indicating that modifications of bacterial metabolite concentrations in the large intestine luminal content, notably after changes in the dietary composition, may have important beneficial or deleterious consequences for the colonic epithelial cell metabolism and physiology in terms of mitochondrial energy metabolism, reactive oxygen species production, gene expression, DNA integrity, proliferation, and viability. Recent data suggest that for some bacterial metabolites, like hydrogen sulfide and butyrate, the extent of their oxidation in colonocytes affects their capacity to modulate gene expression in these cells. Modifications of the luminal bacterial metabolite concentrations may, in addition, affect the colonic pH and osmolarity, which are known to affect colonocyte biology per se. Although the colonic epithelium appears able to face, up to some extent, changes in its luminal environment, notably by developing a metabolic adaptive response, some of these modifications may likely affect the homeostatic process of colonic epithelium renewal and the epithelial barrier function. The contribution of major changes in the colonocyte luminal environment in pathological processes, like mucosal inflammation, preneoplasia, and neoplasia, although suggested by several studies, remains to be precisely evaluated, particularly in a long-term perspective.

  16. Aberrant, ectopic expression of VEGF and VEGF receptors 1 and 2 in malignant colonic epithelial cells. Implications for these cells growth via an autocrine mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, Amrita; Jones, Michael K.; Szabo, Sandor; Tarnawski, Andrzej S.

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •Malignant colonic epithelial cells express VEGF and its receptors. •Cultured colon cancer cells secrete VEGF into the medium. •Inhibition of VEGF receptor significantly decreases colon cancer cell proliferation. •VEGF is critical for colon cancer cell growth. -- Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor A (referred to as VEGF) is implicated in colon cancer growth. Currently, the main accepted mechanism by which VEGF promotes colon cancer growth is via the stimulation of angiogenesis, which was originally postulated by late Judah Folkman. However, the cellular source of VEGF in colon cancer tissue; and, the expression of VEGF and its receptors VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 in colon cancer cells are not fully known and are subjects of controversy. Material and methods: We examined and quantified expression of VEGF, VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 in three different human colonic tissue arrays containing sections of adenocarcinoma (n = 43) and normal mucosa (n = 41). In human colon cancer cell lines HCT116 and HT29 and normal colon cell lines NCM356 and NCM460, we examined expression of VEGF, VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 mRNA and protein, VEGF production and secretion into the culture medium; and, the effect of a potent, selective inhibitor of VEGF receptors, AL-993, on cell proliferation. Results: Human colorectal cancer specimens had strong expression of VEGF in cancer cells and also expressed VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2.In vitro studies showed that human colon cancer cell lines, HCT116 and HT29, but not normal colonic cell lines, express VEGF, VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 and secrete VEGF into the medium up to a concentration 2000 pg/ml within 48 h. Furthermore, we showed that inhibition of VEGF receptors using a specific VEGF-R inhibitor significantly reduced proliferation (by >50%) of cultured colon cancer cell lines. Conclusions: Our findings support the contention that VEGF generated by colon cancer cells stimulates their growth directly through an autocrine mechanism that is

  17. A high-affinity and specific carrier-mediated mechanism for uptake of thiamine pyrophosphate by human colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nabokina, Svetlana M; Said, Hamid M

    2012-08-01

    All mammals require exogenous sources of thiamine (vitamin B1), as they lack the ability to synthesize the vitamin. These sources are dietary and bacterial (the latter is in reference to the vitamin, which is synthesized by the normal microflora of the large intestine). Bacterially generated thiamine exists in the free, as well as the pyrophosphorylated [thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)], form. With no (or very little) phosphatase activity in the colon, we hypothesized that the bacterially generated TPP can also be taken up by colonocytes. To test this hypothesis, we examined [(3)H]TPP uptake in the human-derived, nontransformed colonic epithelial NCM460 cells and purified apical membrane vesicles isolated from the colon of human organ donors. Uptake of TPP by NCM460 cells occurred without metabolic alterations in the transported substrate and 1) was pH- and Na(+)-independent, but energy-dependent, 2) was saturable as a function of concentration (apparent K(m) = 0.157 ± 0.028 μM), 3) was highly specific for TPP and not affected by free thiamine (or its analogs) or by thiamine monophosphate and unrelated folate derivatives, 4) was adaptively regulated by extracellular substrate (TPP) level via what appears to be a transcriptionally mediated mechanism(s), and 5) appeared to be influenced by an intracellular Ca(2+)/calmodulin-mediated regulatory pathway. These findings suggest the involvement of a carrier-mediated mechanism for TPP uptake by colonic NCM460 cells, which was further confirmed by results from studies of native human colonic apical membrane vesicles. The results also suggest that the bacterially synthesized TPP in the large intestine is bioavailable and may contribute to overall body homeostasis of vitamin B1 and, especially, to the cellular nutrition of the local colonocytes.

  18. Depth-cumulated epithelial redox ratio and stromal collagen quantity as quantitative intrinsic indicators for differentiating normal, inflammatory, and dysplastic epithelial tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zheng, Liqin; Chen, Jianxin; Xie, Shusen; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Jiang, Xingshan

    2010-10-01

    Multiphoton microscopy was used to isolate the intrinsic emission contribution of epithelial cellular origins and stromal collagen in normal, inflammatory, and dysplastic epithelial tissues, and quantify the depth-cumulated epithelial redox ratio and stromal collagen quantity. It was found that both inflammatory and dysplastic epithelial tissues display a large decrease in stromal collagen quantity but have very different epithelial redox ratio. These results suggest that probing differences in epithelial redox ratio in addition to stromal collagen quantity can serve as quantitative intrinsic indicators for differentiating normal, inflammatory, and dysplastic epithelial tissues.

  19. Role of reactive oxygen in bile salt stimulation of colonic epithelial proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Craven, P A; Pfanstiel, J; DeRubertis, F R

    1986-01-01

    Our previous studies had suggested a link between bile salt stimulation of colonic epithelial proliferation and the release and oxygenation of arachidonate via the lipoxygenase pathway. In the present study, we examined the role of reactive oxygen versus end products of arachidonate metabolism via the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways in bile salt stimulation of rat colonic epithelial proliferation. Intracolonic instillation of 5 mM deoxycholate increased mucosal ornithine decarboxylase activity and [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA. Responses to deoxycholate were abolished by the superoxide dismutase mimetic CuII (3,5 diisopropylsalicylic acid)2 (CuDIPS), and by phenidone or esculetin, which inhibit both lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase activities. By contrast, indomethacin potentiated the response. Phenidone and esculetin suppressed deoxycholate-induced increases in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and 5, 12, and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), whereas CuDIPS had no effect. Indomethacin suppressed only PGE2. Deoxycholate (0.5-5 mM) increased superoxide dismutase sensitive chemiluminescence 2-10-fold and stimulated superoxide production as measured by cytochrome c reduction in colonic mucosal scrapings or crypt epithelium. Bile salt-induced increases in chemiluminescence were abolished by CuDIPS, phenidone, and esculetin, but not by indomethacin. Intracolonic generation of reactive oxygen by xanthine-xanthine oxidase increased colonic mucosal ornithine decarboxylase activity and [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA approximately twofold. These effects were abolished by superoxide dismutase. The findings support a key role for reactive oxygen, rather than more distal products of either the lipoxygenase or cyclooxygenase pathways, in the stimulation of colonic mucosal proliferation by bile salts. PMID:3005368

  20. Substance P induces CCN1 expression via histone deacetylase activity in human colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Koon, Hon Wai; Shih, David Q; Hing, Tressia C; Chen, Jeremy; Ho, Samantha; Zhao, Dezheng; Targan, Stephan R; Pothoulakis, Charalabos

    2011-11-01

    We have shown that substance P (SP) and its neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) regulate intestinal angiogenesis by increasing expression of protein CYR61 (the cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61, or CCN1) in colonic epithelial cells. However, the mechanism involved in SP-induced CCN1 expression has not been studied, and the outcome of increased CCN1 expression in the development of colitis is not fully understood. Because histone deacetylase (HDAC) modulates transcription of several genes involved in inflammation, we investigated participation of HDAC in SP-induced CCN1 expression in human colonic epithelial NCM460 cells overexpressing NK-1R (NCM460-NK-1R) and in primary colonocytes. SP increased HDAC activity with deacetylation and dephosphorylation of nucleosome protein histone H3 in NCM460-NK-1R and/or primary colonocytes. Histone deacetylation and dephosphorylation was observed in colonic mucosa from irritable bowel disease patients. Similarly, colonic mucosal tissues from mice exposed to dextran sulfate sodium showed histone H3 deacetylation and dephosphorylation and increased HDAC activity that was reversed by the NK-1R antagonist CJ-12255. SP-induced increased CCN1 expression in NCM460-NK-1R cells was abolished by pharmacological HDAC inhibition. HDAC overexpression activated basal and SP-induced CCN1 promoter activity. Intracolonic CCN1 overexpression significantly ameliorated dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis, with reduction of proinflammatory cytokine expression in mice. Thus, SP-mediated CCN1 expression in the inflamed human and mouse colon involves increased HDAC activity. Our results strongly suggest that increased CCN1 expression may be involved in mucosal healing during colitis.

  1. Epithelial cell differentiation in normal and transgenic mouse intestinal isografts

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Transgenes consisting of segments of the rat liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) gene's 5' non-transcribed domain linked to the human growth hormone (hGH) gene (minus its regulatory elements) have provided useful tools for analyzing the mechanisms that regulate cellular and spatial differentiation of the continuously renewing gut epithelium. We have removed the jejunum from normal and transgenic fetal mice before or coincident with, cytodifferentiation of its epithelium. These segments were implanted into the subcutaneous tissues of young adult CBY/B6 nude mouse hosts to determine whether the bipolar, migration- dependent differentiation pathways of gut epithelial cells can be established and maintained in the absence of its normal luminal environment. Immunocytochemical analysis of isografts harvested 4-6 wk after implantation revealed that activation of the intact endogenous mouse L-FABP gene (fabpl) in differentiating enterocytes is perfectly recapitulated as these cells are translocated along the crypt-to-villus axis. Similarly, Paneth and goblet cells appear to appropriately differentiate as they migrate to the crypt base and villus tip, respectively. The enteroendocrine cell subpopulations present in intact 4-6-wk-old jejunum are represented in these isografts. Their precise spatial distribution along the crypt-to-villus axis mimics that seen in the intact gut. A number of complex interrelationships between enteroendocrine subpopulations are also recapitulated. In both "intact" and isografted jejunum, nucleotides -596 to +21 of the rat L-FABP gene were sufficient to direct efficient expression of the hGH reporter to enterocytes although precocious expression of the transgene occurred in cells located in the upper crypt, before their translocation to the villus base. Inappropriate expression of hGH occurred in a high percentage (greater than 80%) of secretin, gastrin, cholecystokinin, and gastric inhibitory peptide producing enteroendocrine cells present

  2. Commensal Bacteria-Dependent Indole Production Enhances Epithelial Barrier Function in the Colon

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Yosuke; Kinoshita, Makoto; Harada, Kazuo; Mizutani, Masafumi; Masahata, Kazunori; Kayama, Hisako; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Microbiota have been shown to have a great influence on functions of intestinal epithelial cells (ECs). The role of indole as a quorum-sensing (QS) molecule mediating intercellular signals in bacteria has been well appreciated. However, it remains unknown whether indole has beneficial effects on maintaining intestinal barriers in vivo. In this study, we analyzed the effect of indole on ECs using a germ free (GF) mouse model. GF mice showed decreased expression of junctional complex molecules in colonic ECs. The feces of specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice contained a high amount of indole; however the amount was significantly decreased in the feces of GF mice by 27-fold. Oral administration of indole-containing capsules resulted in increased expression of both tight junction (TJ)- and adherens junction (AJ)-associated molecules in colonic ECs in GF mice. In accordance with the increased expression of these junctional complex molecules, GF mice given indole-containing capsules showed higher resistance to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. A similar protective effect of indole on DSS-induced epithelial damage was also observed in mice bred in SPF conditions. These findings highlight the beneficial role of indole in establishing an epithelial barrier in vivo. PMID:24278294

  3. Entamoeba histolytica contains an occludin-like protein that can alter colonic epithelial barrier function.

    PubMed

    Goplen, Michael; Lejeune, Manigandan; Cornick, Steve; Moreau, France; Chadee, Kris

    2013-01-01

    The exact mechanism by which Entamoeba histolytica disrupts the human colonic epithelium and invades the mucosa has yet to be clearly elucidated. E. histolytica produces a diverse array of putative virulent factors such as glycosidase, cysteine proteinases and amebapore that can modulate and/or disrupt epithelial barrier functions. However, it is currently thought that E. histolytica produces numerous other molecules and strategies to disrupt colonic mucosal defenses. In this study, we document a putative mechanism whereby the parasite alters the integrity of human epithelium by expressing a cognate tight junction protein of the host. We detected this protein as "occludin-like" as revealed by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation studies and visualization by confocal microscopy using antibodies highly specific for human occludin. We propose that E. histolytica occludin-like protein might displace mucosal epithelial occludin-occludin tight junction interactions resulting in epithelial disruption analogous to sub mucosal human dendritic cells sampling luminal contents. These results indicate that E. histolytica occludin is a putative virulent component that can play a role in the pathogenesis of intestinal amebiasis.

  4. Targeted Colonic Claudin-2 Expression Renders Resistance to Epithelial Injury, Induces Immune Suppression and Protects from Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Rizwan; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Olivares-Villagómez, Danyvid; Habib, Tanwir; Asim, Mohammad; Shivesh, Punit; Polk, Brent D.; Wilson, Keith T.; Washington, Mary K.; Van Kaer, Luc; Dhawan, Punita; Singh, Amar B.

    2014-01-01

    Expression of claudin-2, a tight junction protein, is highly upregulated during inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and, due to its association with epithelial permeability, has been postulated to promote inflammation. Notably, claudin-2 has also been implicated in the regulation of intestinal epithelial proliferation. However, precise role of claudin-2 in regulating colonic homeostasis remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate, using Villin-Claudin-2 transgenic mice, that increased colonic claudin-2 expression augments mucosal permeability as well as colon and crypt length. Most notably, despite leaky colon, Cl-2TG mice were significantly protected against experimental colitis. Importantly, claudin-2 expression increased colonocyte proliferation and provided protection against colitis-induced colonocyte death in a PI-3Kinase/Bcl-2-dependent manner. However, Cl-2TG mice also demonstrated marked suppression of colitis-induced increases in immune activation and associated signaling, suggesting immune tolerance. Accordingly, colons from naïve Cl-2TG mice harbored significantly increased numbers of regulatory (CD4+Foxp3+) T-cells than WT-littermates. Furthermore, macrophages isolated from Cl-2TG mice colon exhibited immune anergy. Importantly, these immunosuppressive changes were associated with increased synthesis of the immunoregulatory cytokine TGF-β by colonic epithelial cells in Cl-2TG mice compared to WT-littermates. Taken together, our findings reveal a critical albeit complex role of claudin-2 in intestinal homeostasis by regulating epithelial permeability, inflammation and proliferation and suggest novel therapeutic opportunities. PMID:24670427

  5. Entamoeba histolytica induces cell death of HT29 colonic epithelial cells via NOX1-derived ROS.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeong Ah; Kim, Ju Young; Lee, Young Ah; Min, Arim; Bahk, Young Yil; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2013-02-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, which causes amoebic colitis and occasionally liver abscess in humans, is able to induce host cell death. However, signaling mechanisms of colon cell death induced by E. histolytica are not fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the signaling role of NOX in cell death of HT29 colonic epithelial cells induced by E. histolytica. Incubation of HT29 cells with amoebic trophozoites resulted in DNA fragmentation that is a hallmark of apoptotic cell death. In addition, E. histolytica generate intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a contact-dependent manner. Inhibition of intracellular ROS level with treatment with DPI, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidases (NOXs), decreased Entamoeba-induced ROS generation and cell death in HT29 cells. However, pan-caspase inhibitor did not affect E. histolytica-induced HT29 cell death. In HT29 cells, catalytic subunit NOX1 and regulatory subunit Rac1 for NOX1 activation were highly expressed. We next investigated whether NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1)-derived ROS is closely associated with HT29 cell death induced by E. histolytica. Suppression of Rac1 by siRNA significantly inhibited Entamoeba-induced cell death. Moreover, knockdown of NOX1 by siRNA, effectively inhibited E. histolytica-triggered DNA fragmentation in HT29 cells. These results suggest that NOX1-derived ROS is required for apoptotic cell death in HT29 colon epithelial cells induced by E. histolytica.

  6. Epithelial IL-22RA1-mediated fucosylation promotes intestinal colonization resistance to an opportunistic pathogen.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tu Anh N; Clare, Simon; Goulding, David; Arasteh, Julia M; Stares, Mark D; Browne, Hilary P; Keane, Jacqueline A; Page, Andrew J; Kumasaka, Natsuhiko; Kane, Leanne; Mottram, Lynda; Harcourt, Katherine; Hale, Christine; Arends, Mark J; Gaffney, Daniel J; Dougan, Gordon; Lawley, Trevor D

    2014-10-08

    Our intestinal microbiota harbors a diverse microbial community, often containing opportunistic bacteria with virulence potential. However, mutualistic host-microbial interactions prevent disease by opportunistic pathogens through poorly understood mechanisms. We show that the epithelial interleukin-22 receptor IL-22RA1 protects against lethal Citrobacter rodentium infection and chemical-induced colitis by promoting colonization resistance against an intestinal opportunistic bacterium, Enterococcus faecalis. Susceptibility of Il22ra1(-/-) mice to C. rodentium was associated with preferential expansion and epithelial translocation of pathogenic E. faecalis during severe microbial dysbiosis and was ameloriated with antibiotics active against E. faecalis. RNA sequencing analyses of primary colonic organoids showed that IL-22RA1 signaling promotes intestinal fucosylation via induction of the fucosyltransferase Fut2. Additionally, administration of fucosylated oligosaccharides to C. rodentium-challenged Il22ra1(-/-) mice attenuated infection and promoted E. faecalis colonization resistance by restoring the diversity of anaerobic commensal symbionts. These results support a model whereby IL-22RA1 enhances host-microbiota mutualism to limit detrimental overcolonization by opportunistic pathogens.

  7. Epithelial IL-22RA1-Mediated Fucosylation Promotes Intestinal Colonization Resistance to an Opportunistic Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Tu Anh N.; Clare, Simon; Goulding, David; Arasteh, Julia M.; Stares, Mark D.; Browne, Hilary P.; Keane, Jacqueline A.; Page, Andrew J.; Kumasaka, Natsuhiko; Kane, Leanne; Mottram, Lynda; Harcourt, Katherine; Hale, Christine; Arends, Mark J.; Gaffney, Daniel J.; Dougan, Gordon; Lawley, Trevor D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Our intestinal microbiota harbors a diverse microbial community, often containing opportunistic bacteria with virulence potential. However, mutualistic host-microbial interactions prevent disease by opportunistic pathogens through poorly understood mechanisms. We show that the epithelial interleukin-22 receptor IL-22RA1 protects against lethal Citrobacter rodentium infection and chemical-induced colitis by promoting colonization resistance against an intestinal opportunistic bacterium, Enterococcus faecalis. Susceptibility of Il22ra1−/− mice to C. rodentium was associated with preferential expansion and epithelial translocation of pathogenic E. faecalis during severe microbial dysbiosis and was ameloriated with antibiotics active against E. faecalis. RNA sequencing analyses of primary colonic organoids showed that IL-22RA1 signaling promotes intestinal fucosylation via induction of the fucosyltransferase Fut2. Additionally, administration of fucosylated oligosaccharides to C. rodentium-challenged Il22ra1−/− mice attenuated infection and promoted E. faecalis colonization resistance by restoring the diversity of anaerobic commensal symbionts. These results support a model whereby IL-22RA1 enhances host-microbiota mutualism to limit detrimental overcolonization by opportunistic pathogens. PMID:25263220

  8. Anthrax edema toxin inhibits Nox1-mediated formation of reactive oxygen species by colon epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Sub; Bokoch, Gary M

    2009-01-01

    One major route of intoxication by Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) spores is via their ingestion and subsequent uptake by the intestinal epithelium. Anthrax edema toxin (ETx) is an adenylate cyclase that causes persistent elevation of cAMP in intoxicated cells. NADPH oxidase enzymes (Nox1-Nox5, Duox1 and 2) generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) as components of the host innate immune response to bacteria, including Nox1 in gastrointestinal epithelial tissues. We show that ETx effectively inhibits ROS formation by Nox1 in HT-29 colon epithelial cells. This inhibition requires the PKA-mediated phosphorylation of the Nox1-regulatory component, NoxA1, and the subsequent binding of 14-3-3zeta. Inhibition of Nox1-mediated ROS formation in the gut epithelium may be a mechanism used by B. anthracis to circumvent the innate immune response.

  9. HDAC inhibitors induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Meiying; Lee, Eun Jeoung; Kim, Ki Bae; Kim, Yangmi; Sung, Rohyun; Lee, Sang-Jeon; Kim, Don Soo; Park, Seon Mee

    2015-05-01

    The effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) differ in various types of cancers. We investigated the EMT phenotype in four colon cancer cell lines when challenged with HDAC inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA) and valproic acid (VPA) with or without transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) treatment. Four colon cancer cell lines with different phenotypes in regards to tumorigenicity, microsatellite stability and DNA mutation were used. EMT phenotypes were assessed by the expression of E-cadherin and vimentin using western blot analysis, immunofluorescence, quantitative real-time RT-PCR following treatment with TSA (100 or 200 nM) or VPA (0.5 mM) with or without TGF-β1 (5 ng/ml) for 24 h. Biological EMT phenotypes were also evaluated by cell morphology, migration and invasion assays. TSA or VPA induced mesenchymal features in the colon carcinoma cells by a decrease in E-cadherin and an increase in vimentin expression at the mRNA and protein levels. Confocal microscopy revealed membranous attenuation or nuclear translocation of E-cadherin and enhanced expression of vimentin. These responses occurred after 6 h and increased until 24 h. Colon cancer cells changed from a round or rectangular shape to a spindle shape with increased migration and invasion ability following TSA or VPA treatment. The susceptibility to EMT changes induced by TSA or VPA was comparable in microsatellite stable (SW480 and HT29) and microsatellite unstable cells (DLD1 and HCT116). TSA or VPA induced a mesenchymal phenotype in the colon carcinoma cells and these effects were augmented in the presence of TGF-β1. HDAC inhibitors require careful caution before their application as new anticancer drugs for colon cancers.

  10. Increased production of BDNF in colonic epithelial cells induced by fecal supernatants from diarrheic IBS patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Chen, Fei-Xue; Du, Chao; Li, Chang-Qing; Yu, Yan-Bo; Zuo, Xiu-Li; Li, Yan-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Colonic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an essential role in pathogenesis of abdominal pain in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D), but regulation on its expression remains unclear. We investigated the role of fecal supernatants (FSN) from IBS-D patients on regulating BDNF expression in colonic epithelial cells of human and mice. Using human Caco-2 cells, we found that IBS-D FSN significantly increased BDNF mRNA and protein levels compared to control FSN, which were remarkably suppressed by the serine protease inhibitor. To further explore the potential mechanisms, we investigated the impact of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) on BDNF expression. We found a significant increase in PAR-2 expression in Caco-2 after IBS-D FSN stimulation. Knockdown of PAR-2 significantly inhibited IBS-D FSN-induced upregulation of BDNF. Moreover, we found that phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, not NF-κB p65, contributed to PAR-2-mediated BDNF overexpression. To confirm these results, we intracolonically infused IBS-D or control FSN in mice and found that IBS-D FSN significantly elevated colonic BDNF and visceral hypersensitivity in mice, which were both suppressed by the inhibitor of serine protease or antagonist of PAR-2. Together, our data indicate that activation of PAR-2 signaling by IBS-D FSN promotes expression of colonic BDNF, thereby contributing to IBS-like visceral hypersensitivity. PMID:25998025

  11. Increased production of BDNF in colonic epithelial cells induced by fecal supernatants from diarrheic IBS patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Chen, Fei-Xue; Du, Chao; Li, Chang-Qing; Yu, Yan-Bo; Zuo, Xiu-Li; Li, Yan-Qing

    2015-05-22

    Colonic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an essential role in pathogenesis of abdominal pain in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D), but regulation on its expression remains unclear. We investigated the role of fecal supernatants (FSN) from IBS-D patients on regulating BDNF expression in colonic epithelial cells of human and mice. Using human Caco-2 cells, we found that IBS-D FSN significantly increased BDNF mRNA and protein levels compared to control FSN, which were remarkably suppressed by the serine protease inhibitor. To further explore the potential mechanisms, we investigated the impact of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) on BDNF expression. We found a significant increase in PAR-2 expression in Caco-2 after IBS-D FSN stimulation. Knockdown of PAR-2 significantly inhibited IBS-D FSN-induced upregulation of BDNF. Moreover, we found that phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, not NF-κB p65, contributed to PAR-2-mediated BDNF overexpression. To confirm these results, we intracolonically infused IBS-D or control FSN in mice and found that IBS-D FSN significantly elevated colonic BDNF and visceral hypersensitivity in mice, which were both suppressed by the inhibitor of serine protease or antagonist of PAR-2. Together, our data indicate that activation of PAR-2 signaling by IBS-D FSN promotes expression of colonic BDNF, thereby contributing to IBS-like visceral hypersensitivity.

  12. AMP-18 protects barrier function of colonic epithelial cells: role of tight junction proteins

    PubMed Central

    Walsh-Reitz, Margaret M.; Huang, Erick F.; Musch, Mark W.; Chang, Eugene B.; Martin, Terence E.; Kartha, Sreedharan; Toback, F. Gary

    2005-01-01

    AMP-18, a novel gastric antrum mucosal protein, and a synthetic peptide of amino acids 77-97, have mitogenic and motogenic properties for epithelial cells. The possibility that AMP-18 is also protective was evaluated in the colonic mucosa of mice and monolayer cultures of human colonic epithelial Caco2/bbe (C2) cells. Administration of AMP peptide to mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colonic injury delayed the onset of bloody diarrhea, and reduced weight loss. Treatment of C2 cells with AMP peptide protected monolayers against decreases in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) induced by the oxidant monochloramine, indomethacin, or DSS. A molecular mechanism for these barrier-protective effects was sought by asking if AMP peptide acted on specific tight junction (TJ) proteins. Immunoblots of detergent-insoluble fractions of C2 cells treated with AMP peptide exhibited increased accumulation of specific TJ proteins. Occludin immunoreactivity was also increased in detergent-insoluble fractions obtained from colonic mucosal cells of mice injected with AMP peptide. Laser scanning confocal microscopy (CF) supported the capacity of AMP peptide to enhance accumulation of occludin and ZO-1 in TJ domains of C2 cell monolayers, and together with immunoblot analysis showed that the peptide protected against loss of these TJ proteins following oxidant injury. AMP peptide also protected against a fall in TER during disruption of actin filaments by cytochalasin D, and stabilized perijunctional actin during oxidant injury when assessed by CF. These findings suggest that AMP-18 could protect the intestinal mucosal barrier by acting on specific TJ proteins and stabilizing perijunctional actin. PMID:15961882

  13. Vulnerability of Normal Human Mammary Epithelial Cells to Oncogenic Transformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    diverse transformed HMEC lines with defined genetic alterations may aid the identification of potential therapeutic treatments , including...human model systems to test potential therapeutics, could facilitate individualized treatment and possibly prevention. The main variables thought to...epithelial cells. Middle, corresponding cell culture models used in this study. Red, treatment or genetic manipulation used. Cell models are described in

  14. Effects of vasopressin on electrolyte transport across isolated colon from normal and dexamethasone-treated rats.

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, R J; Rummel, W; Wollenberg, P

    1984-01-01

    Vasopressin enhanced the absorption of Na+ and Cl- across the short-circuited colon descendens from normal rats. This effect of vasopressin results from an increase in the mucosal to serosal movement of Na+ and Cl- and a decrease in the serosal to mucosal movement of Cl- and was accompanied with a decrease in the short-circuit current (ISC). Neither the base-line absorption of Na+ and Cl-, the vasopressin-induced increase in Na+ and Cl- absorption nor the decrease in ISC were inhibited by amiloride in the colon from normal rats. Colon descendens from rats treated for 3 days with dexamethasone had remarkably higher transmural potential difference (p.d.), tissue conductance (Gt) and ISC. The absorption of Na+ across the short-circuited colon descendens from dexamethasone-treated rats was increased 3-fold when compared to colon from normal rats. The absorption of Cl- in normal rats was reversed to Cl- secretion in treated rats. Amiloride rapidly and reversibly decreased the p.d., Gt and ISC in colon from dexamethasone-treated rats. The transport of Na+ was nearly completely inhibited by amiloride in treated rats. In contrast to its enhancing effects on Na+ absorption in colon from normal rats vasopressin did not enhance Na+ absorption in colon from dexamethasone-treated rats. This enhancement of Cl- absorption by vasopressin was retained in colon from treated rats. This enhancement of Cl- transport was due solely to a decrease in the serosal to mucosal movement of Cl- and was accompanied with a decrease in ISC and Gt. The results support the hypothesis that vasopressin causes inhibition of the electrogenic secretion of Cl- in colon from dexamethasone-treated rats. Furthermore, the results suggest that the increase in the mucosal to serosal movement of Na+ and Cl- and the decrease in the serosal to mucosal movement of Cl- in colon from normal rats are caused by independent effects of vasopressin. PMID:6491990

  15. Melanosis coli. A consequence of anthraquinone-induced apoptosis of colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, N. I.; Bennett, R. E.; Axelsen, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    A condition closely resembling human melanosis coli was induced in the guinea pig large intestine by daily oral administration of the anthraquinone danthron. Each treatment caused a transient, dose-related wave of apoptosis of the colonic surface epithelial cells. Most of the resulting apoptotic bodies were phagocytosed by intraepithelial macrophages and carried by them through fenestrae in the epithelial basement membrane to the lamina propria. Here, the apoptotic bodies were transformed into typical lipofuscin pigment in macrophage heterolysosomes. Continued danthron administration caused progressive accumulation of pigmented macrophages in the bowel wall, whereas ongoing migration of pigmented macrophages to regional lymph nodes resulted, after danthron was ceased, in sequential loss of the pigmented cells from the superficial and deep lamina propria. Examination of colonic biopsies from patients with melanosis coli shows increased numbers of apoptotic bodies in the surface epithelium and lamina propria, suggesting implication of the same cellular processes in the formation of the pigment in man. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:3381879

  16. Mesenchymal Cancer Cell-Stroma Crosstalk Promotes Niche Activation, Epithelial Reversion, and Metastatic Colonization

    PubMed Central

    del Pozo Martin, Yaiza; Park, Danielle; Ramachandran, Anassuya; Ombrato, Luigi; Calvo, Fernando; Chakravarty, Probir; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Derzsi, Stefanie; Hill, Caroline S.; Sahai, Erik; Malanchi, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Summary During metastatic colonization, tumor cells must establish a favorable microenvironment or niche that will sustain their growth. However, both the temporal and molecular details of this process remain poorly understood. Here, we found that metastatic initiating cells (MICs) exhibit a high capacity for lung fibroblast activation as a result of Thrombospondin 2 (THBS2) expression. Importantly, inhibiting the mesenchymal phenotype of MICs by blocking the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated kinase AXL reduces THBS2 secretion, niche-activating ability, and, consequently, metastatic competence. Subsequently, disseminated metastatic cells revert to an AXL-negative, more epithelial phenotype to proliferate and decrease the phosphorylation levels of TGF-β-dependent SMAD2-3 in favor of BMP/SMAD1-5 signaling. Remarkably, newly activated fibroblasts promote this transition. In summary, our data reveal a crosstalk between cancer cells and their microenvironment whereby the EMT status initially triggers and then is regulated by niche activation during metastatic colonization. PMID:26670048

  17. Effects of luminal thymol on epithelial transport in human and rat colon.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Izumi; Karaki, Shin-ichiro; Kuwahara, Atsukazu

    2011-06-01

    Gut lumen is continually exposed to a great variety of agents, including noxious compounds. Chemical receptors that detect the luminal environment are thought to play an important role as sensors and to modulate gastrointestinal functions. Recently, it has been reported that odorant receptors (ORs) are expressed in the small intestinal mucosa and that odorants stimulate serotonin secretion. However, ion transport in the responses to odorants has rarely been discussed, particularly in relation to the large intestine. In the present study, we examined the effects of the OR ligand thymol on ion transport in human and rat colonic epithelia using an Ussing chamber. In the mucosal-submucosal preparations, the mucosal addition of thymol evoked anion secretion concentration dependently. In addition, dextran (4 kDa) permeability was enhanced by the mucosal treatment with thymol. The response to thymol was not affected by tetrodotoxin (TTX) or piroxicam treatments in human or rat colon. Thymol-evoked electrogenic anion secretion was abolished under Ca(2+)-free conditions or mucosal treatment with transient receptor potential (TRP) A1 blocker (HC-030031). Pretreatment of thymol did not affect electrical field stimulation-evoked anion secretion but significantly attenuated short-chain fatty acid-evoked secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. OR1G1 and TRPA1 expression was investigated in isolated colonic mucosa by RT-PCR. The present results provide evidence that the OR ligand thymol modulates epithelial permeability and electrogenic anion secretion in human and rat colon. The anion secretion by luminal thymol is most likely mediated by direct activation of TRPA1 channel. We suggest that the sensing and responding to odorants in the colon also plays a role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis.

  18. Epithelial transport pathways of rat colon determined in vivo by impulse response analysis.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, C J; Smith, T

    1979-11-01

    1. A method is described for studying transepithelial pathways for the movement of different solutes and water. Using the blood and the secretory curves of changing tracer activity following an intravenous bolus, the rate of transit of molecules together with their impulse response functions, which reflect the transfer processes can be examined. 2. Movements of Na, Cl, I, urea and water from blood to lumen across rat colonic epithelium were all consistent with simple diffusion through a paracellular route. Most of the secreted K, however, passed through a K selective route associated with a significant K epithelial pool. 3. Adding cyanide to the luminal solution caused a reversible fall of transepithelial potential difference associated with changes in the impulse response functions of water, urea and K indicating reduction of the restriction on diffusion. Cellular K content was unaffected. 4. K entered the bulk of the epithelial cellular K almost exclusively from the blood side. A small epithelial K pool, identified by studies with a miniature GM counter, had kinetic characteristics like those of the K selective pathway observed in the studies of impulse response functions.

  19. Gut microbiota facilitates dietary heme-induced epithelial hyperproliferation by opening the mucus barrier in colon

    PubMed Central

    Ijssennagger, Noortje; Belzer, Clara; Hooiveld, Guido J.; Dekker, Jan; van Mil, Saskia W. C.; Müller, Michael; Kleerebezem, Michiel; van der Meer, Roelof

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer risk is associated with diets high in red meat. Heme, the pigment of red meat, induces cytotoxicity of colonic contents and elicits epithelial damage and compensatory hyperproliferation, leading to hyperplasia. Here we explore the possible causal role of the gut microbiota in heme-induced hyperproliferation. To this end, mice were fed a purified control or heme diet (0.5 μmol/g heme) with or without broad-spectrum antibiotics for 14 d. Heme-induced hyperproliferation was shown to depend on the presence of the gut microbiota, because hyperproliferation was completely eliminated by antibiotics, although heme-induced luminal cytotoxicity was sustained in these mice. Colon mucosa transcriptomics revealed that antibiotics block heme-induced differential expression of oncogenes, tumor suppressors, and cell turnover genes, implying that antibiotic treatment prevented the heme-dependent cytotoxic micelles to reach the epithelium. Our results indicate that this occurs because antibiotics reinforce the mucus barrier by eliminating sulfide-producing bacteria and mucin-degrading bacteria (e.g., Akkermansia). Sulfide potently reduces disulfide bonds and can drive mucin denaturation and microbial access to the mucus layer. This reduction results in formation of trisulfides that can be detected in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, trisulfides can serve as a novel marker of colonic mucolysis and thus as a proxy for mucus barrier reduction. In feces, antibiotics drastically decreased trisulfides but increased mucin polymers that can be lysed by sulfide. We conclude that the gut microbiota is required for heme-induced epithelial hyperproliferation and hyperplasia because of the capacity to reduce mucus barrier function. PMID:26216954

  20. Gut microbiota facilitates dietary heme-induced epithelial hyperproliferation by opening the mucus barrier in colon.

    PubMed

    Ijssennagger, Noortje; Belzer, Clara; Hooiveld, Guido J; Dekker, Jan; van Mil, Saskia W C; Müller, Michael; Kleerebezem, Michiel; van der Meer, Roelof

    2015-08-11

    Colorectal cancer risk is associated with diets high in red meat. Heme, the pigment of red meat, induces cytotoxicity of colonic contents and elicits epithelial damage and compensatory hyperproliferation, leading to hyperplasia. Here we explore the possible causal role of the gut microbiota in heme-induced hyperproliferation. To this end, mice were fed a purified control or heme diet (0.5 μmol/g heme) with or without broad-spectrum antibiotics for 14 d. Heme-induced hyperproliferation was shown to depend on the presence of the gut microbiota, because hyperproliferation was completely eliminated by antibiotics, although heme-induced luminal cytotoxicity was sustained in these mice. Colon mucosa transcriptomics revealed that antibiotics block heme-induced differential expression of oncogenes, tumor suppressors, and cell turnover genes, implying that antibiotic treatment prevented the heme-dependent cytotoxic micelles to reach the epithelium. Our results indicate that this occurs because antibiotics reinforce the mucus barrier by eliminating sulfide-producing bacteria and mucin-degrading bacteria (e.g., Akkermansia). Sulfide potently reduces disulfide bonds and can drive mucin denaturation and microbial access to the mucus layer. This reduction results in formation of trisulfides that can be detected in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, trisulfides can serve as a novel marker of colonic mucolysis and thus as a proxy for mucus barrier reduction. In feces, antibiotics drastically decreased trisulfides but increased mucin polymers that can be lysed by sulfide. We conclude that the gut microbiota is required for heme-induced epithelial hyperproliferation and hyperplasia because of the capacity to reduce mucus barrier function.

  1. Colonic epithelial ion transport is not affected in patients with diverticulosis

    PubMed Central

    Osbak, Philip S; Bindslev, Niels; Poulsen, Steen S; Kaltoft, Nicolai; Tilotta, Maria C; Hansen, Mark B

    2007-01-01

    Background Colonic diverticular disease is a bothersome condition with an unresolved pathogenesis. It is unknown whether a neuroepithelial dysfunction is present. The aim of the study was two-fold; (1) to investigate colonic epithelial ion transport in patients with diverticulosis and (2) to adapt a miniaturized Modified Ussing Air-Suction (MUAS) chamber for colonic endoscopic biopsies. Methods Biopsies were obtained from the sigmoid part of the colon. 86 patients were included. All patients were referred for colonoscopy on suspicion of neoplasia and they were without pathological findings at colonoscopy (controls) except for diverticulosis in 22 (D-patients). Biopsies were mounted in MUAS chambers with an exposed area of 5 mm2. Electrical responses to various stimulators and inhibitors of ion transport were investigated together with histological examination. The MUAS chamber was easy to use and reproducible data were obtained. Results Median basal short circuit current (SCC) was 43.8 μA·cm-2 (0.8 – 199) for controls and 59.3 μA·cm-2 (3.0 – 177.2) for D-patients. Slope conductance was 77.0 mS·cm-2 (18.6 – 204.0) equal to 13 Ω·cm2 for controls and 96.6 mS·cm-2 (8.4 – 191.4) equal to 10.3 Ω·cm2 for D-patients. Stimulation with serotonin, theophylline, forskolin and carbachol induced increases in SCC in a range of 4.9 – 18.6 μA·cm-2, while inhibition with indomethacin, bumetanide, ouabain and amiloride decreased SCC in a range of 6.5 – 27.4 μA·cm-2, and all with no significant differences between controls and D-patients. Histological examinations showed intact epithelium and lamina propria before and after mounting for both types of patients. Conclusion We conclude that epithelial ion transport is not significantly altered in patients with diverticulosis and that the MUAS chamber can be adapted for studies of human colonic endoscopic biopsies. PMID:17888183

  2. Epigenetic Regulation of Normal and Transformed Breast Epithelial Cell Phenotype

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    of nine cell lines corresponding to two different normal breast cell types isolated from three different individuals ( BPE 2, HME2, BPE3, HME3, BPE4...normal breast cell subtypes a ( BPE and HME) and their transformed derivatives (BPLER and HMLER) The results in Figure 1 indicate that the...process. 5 Table1 Karyotype analysis of two different normal breast cell subtypes a ( BPE and HME) and their

  3. Detection of elements and trace elements in endoscopy biopsies of colonic mucosa in normal and high risks colon cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buoso, M. C.; Fazinic, S.; Galassini, S.; Lecis, P. E.; Moschini, G.; Makarewicz, M.; Naccarato, R.; Ogris, R.; Shao, H. R.; Sturniolo, G. C.; Valkovic, V.

    1991-05-01

    In the present study efforts are made to obtain a correlation between the trace element (TE) levels in patients and the presence of digestive cancer. The aim of the study is to detect selenium (Se), zinc (Zn) and other TE concentrations in different segments of colonic mucosa and to find out if there is any difference between the normal and pathological colonic mucosa. The concentration data (averages, standard deviations and ranges) obtained by neutron activation analysis and proton induced X-ray emission are presented and the data distribution is analyzed.

  4. Normal and keratoconic corneal epithelial thickness mapping using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Tan, Ou; Huang, David

    2011-03-01

    The detection of early-stage keratoconus is one of the most important safety issues in screening candidates for corneal refractive surgeries. We propose to use epithelial thickness maps to assist the diagnosis of keratoconus. The corneal epithelial thickness in normal and keratoconic eyes was mapped with optical coherence tomography (OCT). A Fourier-domain OCT system capable of acquiring 26,000 axial-scans per second was used. It has an axial resolution of 5μm in cornea. A pachymetry scan pattern (8 radials, 1024 axial-scans each, 6mm diameter, repeat 3 times) centered at the pupil center was used to image the cornea. The 3 repeated radial scans on each meridian were registered and averaged. Then the anterior corneal, posterior corneal and epithelial boundaries were segmented automatically with a computer algorithm by increased signal intensity at corresponding boundaries. The epithelial thickness map was generated by interpolating epithelial thickness profile calculated from each meridian. Normal and keratoconic eyes (24 eyes each) were scanned 3 times. The central epithelial thickness in normal eyes was thicker than those of keratoconic eyes (mean difference 2.1 μm, t-test p=0.05). The epithelium was thinner superiorly than inferiorly in normal eyes (mean difference -1.4+/-1.1μm, p<0.001) while thicker superiorly than inferiorly in keratoconic eyes (2.0+/-4.1 μm, p=0.02).

  5. Bile acids modulate the Golgi membrane fission process via a protein kinase Ceta and protein kinase D-dependent pathway in colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Anne-Marie; Foran, Eilis; Sharma, Ruchika; Davies, Anthony; Mahon, Ciara; O'Sullivan, Jacintha; O'Donoghue, Diarmuid; Kelleher, Dermot; Long, Aideen

    2010-04-01

    Deoxycholic acid (DCA) is a secondary bile acid that modulates signalling pathways in epithelial cells. DCA has been implicated in pathogenesis of colon carcinoma, particularly by activation of the protein kinase C (PKC) pathway. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a tertiary bile acid, has been observed to have chemopreventive effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of DCA and UDCA on the subcellular localization and activity of PKCeta and its downstream effects on Golgi structure in a colon cancer cell model. PKCeta expression was localized to the Golgi in HCT116 colon cancer cells. DCA induced fragmentation of the Golgi in these cells following activation of PKCeta and its downstream effector protein kinase D (PKD). Pretreatment of cells with UDCA or a glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, inhibited DCA-induced PKCeta/PKD activation and Golgi fragmentation. Knockdown of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression using small interfering RNA or inhibition using the GR antagonist mifepristone attenuated the inhibitory effect of UDCA on Golgi fragmentation. Elevated serum and faecal levels of DCA have been previously reported in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and colon cancer. Analysis of Golgi architecture in vivo using tissue microarrays revealed Golgi fragmentation in UC and colorectal cancer tissue. We have demonstrated that DCA can disrupt the structure of the Golgi, an organelle critical for normal cell function. Inhibition of this DCA-induced Golgi fragmentation by UDCA was mediated via the GR. This represents a potential mechanism of observed chemopreventive effects of UDCA in benign and malignant disease of the colon.

  6. Induction of the adenoma-carcinoma progression and Cdc25A-B phosphatases by the trefoil factor TFF1 in human colon epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, S; Rodrigue, C M; Attoub, S; Fléjou, J F; Bruyneel, E; Bracke, M; Emami, S; Gespach, C

    2006-10-26

    TFF1 is overexpressed in inflammatory diseases and human cancers of the digestive and urogenital systems. To examine the transforming potential of TFF1 in human colon epithelial cells, premalignant PC/AA/C1 adenoma cells (PC) derived from a patient with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) were transformed by the TFF1 cDNA and used as a model of the adenoma-carcinoma transition. Constitutive expression of TFF1 increased anchorage-independent cell growth in soft agar, and induced or potentiated the growth of colon PC-TFF1 and kidney MDCKts.src-TFF1 tumor xenografts in athymic mice. This resulted in reduction of thapsigargin-induced apoptosis and promotion of collagen type I invasion through several oncogenic pathways. Using the differential display approach to identify TFF1 target genes, we found that the dual specific phosphatases Cdc25A and B implicated in cell cycle transitions are strongly upregulated under active forms in both PC-TFF1 and HCT8/S11-TFF1 colon cancer cells. Accordingly, TFF1 expression is absent in normal human colon crypts but is induced in correlation with Cdc25a and b transcript levels and tumor grade in familial and sporadic colon adenomas and carcinomas. We propose that TFF1 and Cdc25A-B cooperate with other dominant oncogenic pathways to induce the adenoma and adenocarcinoma transitions. Agents that target TFF1/Cdc25 signaling pathways may be useful for treating patients with TFF1-positive solid tumors.

  7. Low glucose stress decreases cellular NADH and mitochondrial ATP in colonic epithelial cancer cells: Influence of mitochondrial substrates.

    PubMed

    Circu, Magdalena L; Maloney, Ronald E; Aw, Tak Yee

    2017-02-25

    In this study, we investigated how colonic epithelial cells maintained pyridine nucleotide (NADH/NAD(+)) redox homeostasis upon acute metabolic variation imposed by glucose deprivation or supplementation with mitochondrial substrates, succinate and malate/glutamate (M/G). Our results showed that low glucose caused cellular NADH/NAD(+) redox imbalance that diminished lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and resulted in lower lactate contents. The concurrent activation of malic enzyme (ME) suggested a role for malate in preserving cellular pyruvate that remained unchanged at low glucose. Mitochondrial substrates restored cellular NADH/NAD(+) redox homeostasis at low glucose in association with specific compartmental catabolism of mitochondrial substrates. As compared with normal glucose, M/G and low glucose promoted glycolytic ATP production but inhibited mitochondrial-derived ATP generation in association with decreased glucose availability for mitochondrial respiration. At normal glucose, succinate and M/G enhanced mitochondrial respiratory activity, but had minimal impact on mitochondrial-derived ATP production. Collectively, these results are consistent with low glucose-induced NADH/NAD(+) redox imbalance in association with decreased aerobic glycolysis that is reversed by supplementation with M/G but not succinate.

  8. Specific epidermal growth factor receptor autophosphorylation sites promote mouse colon epithelial cell chemotaxis and restitution.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Toshimitsu; Frey, Mark R; Dise, Rebecca S; Bernard, Jessica K; Polk, D Brent

    2011-08-01

    Upon ligand binding, epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (R) autophosphorylates on COOH-terminal tyrosines, generating docking sites for signaling partners that stimulate proliferation, restitution, and chemotaxis. Specificity for individual EGFR tyrosines in cellular responses has been hypothesized but not well documented. Here we tested the requirement for particular tyrosines, and associated downstream pathways, in mouse colon epithelial cell chemotactic migration. We compared these requirements to those for the phenotypically distinct restitution (wound healing) migration. Wild-type, Y992/1173F, Y1045F, Y1068F, and Y1086F EGFR constructs were expressed in EGFR(-/-) cells; EGF-induced chemotaxis or restitution were determined by Boyden chamber or modified scratch wound assay, respectively. Pharmacological inhibitors of p38, phospholipase C (PLC), Src, MEK, JNK/SAPK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), and protein kinase C (PKC) were used to block EGF-stimulated signaling. Pathway activation was determined by immunoblot analysis. Unlike wild-type EGFR, Y992/1173F and Y1086F EGFR did not stimulate colon epithelial cell chemotaxis toward EGF; Y1045F and Y1068F EGFR partially stimulated chemotaxis. Only wild-type EGFR promoted colonocyte restitution. Inhibition of p38, PLC, and Src, or Grb2 knockdown, blocked chemotaxis; JNK, PI 3-kinase, and PKC inhibitors or c-Cbl knockdown blocked restitution but not chemotaxis. All four EGFR mutants stimulated downstream signaling in response to EGF, but Y992/1173F EGFR was partially defective in PLCγ activation whereas both Y1068F and Y1086F EGFR failed to activate Src. We conclude that specific EGFR tyrosines play key roles in determining cellular responses to ligand. Chemotaxis and restitution, which have different migration phenotypes and physiological consequences, have overlapping but not identical EGFR signaling requirements.

  9. Comparison and correlation of candidal colonization in diabetic patients and normal individuals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a common universal endocrine disorder with decreased host immunity towards infections. In these people the most common opportunistic infection is oral candidiasis. Oral candidiasis is most commonly caused by yeast like fungus Candida albicans. In healthy individuals these microorganisms are believed to be commensals but in diabetic patients, it forms severe colonization, even in the absence of any clinically evident oral candidiasis. This type of subclinical colonization can make them more prone to develop deeper mucosal colonization with further dissemination via blood. The aim of this study is to compare the frequency and severity of oral candidal colonization in diabetic patients with normal individuals through cytological method. Methods 30 cases of diabetic patients and 30 cases of normal healthy individuals were examined to determine the oral candidal colonization through oral exfoliative cytological methods. Statistical analysis was done using the Chi - square test. Results A statistically significant increase in the candidal colonization was observed in diabetic patients as compared to normal individuals. Conclusions Oral exfoliative cytological method is an easy and effective chair side technique to assess the oral candidal colonization in the diabetic group. PMID:24991533

  10. LINE-1 hypomethylation in normal colon mucosa is associated with poor survival in Chinese patients with sporadic colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuchen; Li, Yiwei; Nie, Jia; Li, Dawei; Peng, Junjie; Lian, Peng; Li, Bin; Cai, Guoxiang; Li, Xinxiang; Cai, Sanjun

    2015-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic pathways are not independent in colorectal cancer (CRC) carcinogenesis. We aimed to determine the influence of various molecular features on Chinese patients' colon cancer-specific survival (CCSS). Various genetic and epigenetic modifications were detected in paired tumor and normal mucosa tissue samples. The prognostic variables regarding patient CCSS were determined. Overall, 127 patients, including 83 males and 44 females, completed a median follow-up of 65 (3–85) months. A mean LINE-1 methylation rate of 64.62% (range, 9.45–86.93) was observed. Hypermethylation at the hMLH1 gene promoter was detected in 26 (20.47%) patients. KRAS was mutated in 52 (40.94%) patients. Sixteen (12.60%) patients were confirmed as microsatellite instability (MSI)-High, and 76 (59.84%) were found to have loss of heterozygosity at 18q. The LINE-1 methylation level, MSI status, perineural invasion and distant metastases were confirmed as independent prognostic factors for patient CCSS. A stratified survival analysis further revealed that certain subgroups of patients with LINE-1 hypomethylation had significantly worse survival (all p < 0.05). Our data revealed that both genetic and epigenetic abnormalities can concurrently exist during colonic tumorigenesis. As a global epigenetic change, LINE-1 hypomethylation in normal colon mucosa might be associated with a worse outcome in certain Chinese patients with colon cancer. PMID:26172297

  11. ApoE deficiency promotes colon inflammation and enhances the inflammatory potential of oxidized-LDL and TNF-α in primary colon epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    El-Bahrawy, Ali H.; Tarhuni, Abdelmetalab; Kim, Hogyoung; Subramaniam, Venkat; Benslimane, Ilyes; Elmajeed, Zakaria Y. Abd; Okpechi, Samuel C.; Ghonim, Mohamed A.; Hemeida, Ramadan A.M.; Abo-yousef, Amira M.; El-Sherbiny, Gamal A.; Abdel-Raheem, Ihab T.; Kim, Jong; Naura, Amarjit S.; Boulares, A. Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Although deficiency in Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is linked to many diseases, its effect on colon homoeostasis remains unknown. ApoE appears to control inflammation by regulating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). The present study was designed to examine whether ApoE deficiency affects factors of colon integrity in vivo and given the likelihood that ApoE deficiency increases oxidized lipids and TNF-α, the present study also examined whether such deficiency enhances the inflammatory potential of oxidized-LDL (oxLDL) and TNF-α in colon epithelial cells (CECs), in vitro. Here we show that ApoE deficiency is associated with chronic inflammation systemically and in colonic tissues as assessed by TNF-α levels. Increased colon TNF-α mRNA coincided with a substantial increase in cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. ApoE deficiency enhanced the potential of oxLDL and TNF-α to induce COX-2 expression as well as several other inflammatory factors in primary CECs. Interestingly, oxLDL enhanced TGF-β expression only in ApoE−/−, but not in wild-type, epithelial cells. ApoE deficiency appears to promote COX-2 expression enhancement through a mechanism that involves persistent NF-κB nuclear localization and PI3 and p38 MAP kinases but independently of Src. In mice, ApoE deficiency promoted a moderate increase in crypt length, which was associated with opposing effects of an increase in cell proliferation and apoptosis at the bottom and top of the crypt respectively. Our results support the notion that ApoE plays a central role in colon homoeostasis and that ApoE deficiency may constitute a risk factor for colon pathologies. PMID:27538678

  12. Phyllanthus emblica Fruit Extract Activates Spindle Assembly Checkpoint, Prevents Mitotic Aberrations and Genomic Instability in Human Colon Epithelial NCM460 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xihan; Wang, Xu

    2016-01-01

    The fruit of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (PE) has been widely consumed as a functional food and folk medicine in Southeast Asia due to its remarkable nutritional and pharmacological effects. Previous research showed PE delays mitotic progress and increases genomic instability (GIN) in human colorectal cancer cells. This study aimed to investigate the similar effects of PE by the biomarkers related to spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), mitotic aberrations and GIN in human NCM460 normal colon epithelial cells. Cells were treated with PE and harvested differently according to the biomarkers observed. Frequencies of micronuclei (MN), nucleoplasmic bridge (NPB) and nuclear bud (NB) in cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay were used as indicators of GIN. Mitotic aberrations were assessed by the biomarkers of chromosome misalignment, multipolar division, chromosome lagging and chromatin bridge. SAC activity was determined by anaphase-to- metaphase ratio (AMR) and the expression of core SAC gene budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles related 1 (BubR1). Compared with the control, PE-treated cells showed (1) decreased incidences of MN, NPB and NB (p < 0.01); (2) decreased frequencies of all mitotic aberration biomarkers (p < 0.01); and (3) decreased AMR (p < 0.01) and increased BubR1 expression (p < 0.001). The results revealed PE has the potential to protect human normal colon epithelial cells from mitotic and genomic damages partially by enhancing the function of SAC. PMID:27598149

  13. Phyllanthus emblica Fruit Extract Activates Spindle Assembly Checkpoint, Prevents Mitotic Aberrations and Genomic Instability in Human Colon Epithelial NCM460 Cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xihan; Wang, Xu

    2016-09-03

    The fruit of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (PE) has been widely consumed as a functional food and folk medicine in Southeast Asia due to its remarkable nutritional and pharmacological effects. Previous research showed PE delays mitotic progress and increases genomic instability (GIN) in human colorectal cancer cells. This study aimed to investigate the similar effects of PE by the biomarkers related to spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), mitotic aberrations and GIN in human NCM460 normal colon epithelial cells. Cells were treated with PE and harvested differently according to the biomarkers observed. Frequencies of micronuclei (MN), nucleoplasmic bridge (NPB) and nuclear bud (NB) in cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay were used as indicators of GIN. Mitotic aberrations were assessed by the biomarkers of chromosome misalignment, multipolar division, chromosome lagging and chromatin bridge. SAC activity was determined by anaphase-to- metaphase ratio (AMR) and the expression of core SAC gene budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles related 1 (BubR1). Compared with the control, PE-treated cells showed (1) decreased incidences of MN, NPB and NB (p < 0.01); (2) decreased frequencies of all mitotic aberration biomarkers (p < 0.01); and (3) decreased AMR (p < 0.01) and increased BubR1 expression (p < 0.001). The results revealed PE has the potential to protect human normal colon epithelial cells from mitotic and genomic damages partially by enhancing the function of SAC.

  14. Vasopressin regulation of epithelial colonic proliferation and permeability is mediated by pericryptal platelet-derived growth factor A.

    PubMed

    Miró, Lluïsa; Pérez-Bosque, Anna; Maijó, Mònica; Naftalin, Richard J; Moretó, Miquel

    2014-10-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) has trophic effects on the rat distal colon, increasing the growth of pericryptal myofibroblasts and reducing the colonic crypt wall permeability. This study aimed to reproduce in vitro the effects of AVP observed in vivo using cultures of human CCD-18Co myofibroblasts and T84 colonic epithelial cells. Proliferation of myofibroblasts was quantified by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation; the expression of platelet-derived growth factor A (PDGFA), platelet-derived growth factor B, epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-β and vascular endothelial growth factor was measured by PCR and the expression of epithelial junction proteins by Western blot. Arginine vasopressin stimulated myofibroblast proliferation and the expression of PDGFA without affecting the expression of platelet-derived growth factor B, epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-β or vascular endothelial growth factor. These effects were prevented when AVP receptor inhibitors were present in the medium. Pre-incubation of CCD-18Co cells with anti-PDGF antibody or with an inhibitor of the PDGF receptor abolished the effects of AVP. When colonocytes were incubated with medium obtained from myofibroblasts incubated with AVP, both cell proliferation and the expression of epithelial junction proteins increased; however, direct incubation of colonocytes with AVP did not modify these variables. These results demonstrate that AVP stimulates myofibroblast proliferation and induces PDGFA secretion, implying that PDGFA mediates local myofibroblast proliferation by an autocrine feedback loop and regulates epithelial proliferation and permeability by a paracrine mechanism.

  15. Short hairpin RNA screen indicates that Klotho beta/FGF19 protein overcomes stasis in human colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinyong; Eskiocak, Ugur; Stadler, Guido; Lou, Zhenjun; Kuro-o, Makoto; Shay, Jerry W; Wright, Woodring E

    2011-12-16

    Normal human colonic epithelial cells (HCECs) are not immortalized by telomerase alone but also require CDK4. Some human cell types growth-arrest due to stress- or aberrant signaling-induced senescence (stasis). Stasis represents the consequences of growth conditions culture that are inadequate to maintain long-term proliferation. Overexpressed CDK4 titers out p16 and allows cells to ignore the growth arrest signals produced by stasis. To identify factors contributing to the inadequate culture environment, we used a 62,000-member shRNA library to knock down factors cooperating with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) in the immortalization of HCECs. Knockdown of Klotho gamma (KLG; also known as KLPH and LCTL) allowed hTERT to immortalize HCECs. KLG is one isoform of the Klotho family of factors that coordinate interaction between different FGF ligands and the FGF receptor. We also found that knockdown of KLG induced another member of the Klotho family, Klotho beta (KLB). Induction of KLB was maintained and could activate ERK1/2 in immortalized cells. Supplementation of the culture medium with the KLB ligand FGF19 had a similar effect on hTERT-expressing HCECs as knockdown of KLG regarding both immortalization and down-regulation of the tumor suppressor Klotho alpha. Together, these data suggest that KLB is an important regulator in the immortalization of HCECs by facilitating FGF19 growth factor signaling.

  16. DEMONSTRATION OF AN EPITHELIAL ANTIGEN IN COLON BY MEANS OF FLUORESCENT ANTIBODIES FROM CHILDREN WITH ULCERATIVE COLITIS

    PubMed Central

    Broberger, Ove; Perlmann, Peter

    1962-01-01

    Thirteen sera from children with ulcerative colitis were examined for antibodies reacting with constituents of human colonic tissue by means of immunofluorescent methods. 3 out of 10 sera reacted positively when tested by the direct staining method while 6 out of 13 reacted positively when tested by the indirect method with conjugates of rabbit anti-human gamma globulin. The specificity of the reactions could be confirmed by inhibition tests. 16 sera from healthy children and adults yielded completely negative results. The staining capacity of various sera was correlated to their hemagglutinating titer when they were tested with sheep erythrocytes, coated with phenol-water extract of human colon. Absorption experiments indicated that the stainable antigen was also present in the extracts used for the hemagglutination experiments. In unfixed tissue sections, fluorescent antibodies were adsorbed onto the epithelial cells of the mucosa. Adsorption on epithelial basement membranes could not be demonstrated. Fluorescent H agglutinins, isolated from eel serum, were adsorbed onto the same mucosal structures of human colon (blood group O) as the antibodies in the sera of patients with ulcerative colitis. However, any immunological relationship between H substance and the colonic antigen of ulcerative colitis could be ruled out by cross-inhibition and hemagglutination inhibition experiments. Fluorescent serum from patients with rheumatoid arthritis also stained sections of human colon but the localization of the stainable antigens was different from that visualized with the ulcerative colitis sera. Inhibition experiments indicated that the rheumatoid arthritis serum contained antibodies staining colon antigens different from those reacting with antibodies in the ulcerative colitis sera. Sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or with the nephrotic syndrome, which all hemagglutinated erythrocytes coated with colon extract, did not stain the sections of the colon

  17. Biobanking of Fresh-Frozen Human Adenocarcinomatous and Normal Colon Tissues: Which Parameters Influence RNA Quality?

    PubMed Central

    Galissier, Thibaut; Schneider, Christophe; Nasri, Saviz; Kanagaratnam, Lukshe; Fichel, Caroline; Coquelet, Christelle; Diebold, Marie-Danièle; Kianmanesh, Reza; Bellon, Georges; Dedieu, Stéphane; Marchal Bressenot, Aude

    2016-01-01

    Medical research projects become increasingly dependent on biobanked tissue of high quality because the reliability of gene expression is affected by the quality of extracted RNA. Hence, the present study aimed to determine if clinical, surgical, histological, and molecular parameters influence RNA quality of normal and tumoral frozen colonic tissues. RNA Quality Index (RQI) was evaluated on 241 adenocarcinomas and 115 matched normal frozen colon tissues collected between October 2006 and December 2012. RQI results were compared to patients’ age and sex, tumor site, kind of surgery, anastomosis failure, adenocarcinoma type and grade, tumor cell percentage, necrosis extent, HIF-1α and cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry, and BRAF, KRAS and microsatellites status. The RQI was significantly higher in colon cancer tissue than in matched normal tissue. RQI from left-sided colonic cancers was significantly higher than RQI from right-sided cancers. The RNA quality was not affected by ischemia and storage duration. According to histological control, 7.9% of the samples were unsatisfactory because of inadequate sampling. Biobanked tumoral tissues with RQI ≥5 had lower malignant cells to stromal cells ratio than samples with RQI <5 (p <0.05). Cellularity, necrosis extent and mucinous component did not influence RQI results. Cleaved caspase-3 and HIF-1α immunolabelling were not correlated to RQI. BRAF, KRAS and microsatellites molecular status did not influence RNA quality. Multivariate analysis revealed that the tumor location, the surgical approach (laparoscopy versus open colectomy) and the occurrence of anastomotic leakage were the only parameters influencing significantly RQI results of tumor samples. We failed to identify parameter influencing RQI of normal colon samples. These data suggest that RNA quality of colonic adenocarcinoma biospecimens is determined by clinical and surgical parameters. More attention should be paid during the biobanking procedure of

  18. Tissue-specific patterns of gene expression in the epithelium and stroma of normal colon in healthy individuals in an aspirin intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sushma S; Makar, Karen W; Li, Lin; Zheng, Yingye; Yang, Peiying; Levy, Lisa; Rudolph, Rebecca Y; Lampe, Paul D; Yan, Min; Markowitz, Sanford D; Bigler, Jeannette; Lampe, Johanna W; Potter, John D

    2015-12-01

    Regular aspirin use reduces colon adenoma and carcinoma incidence. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) are involved in aspirin metabolism and clearance, and variant alleles in UGT1A6 have been shown to alter salicylic acid metabolism and risk of colon neoplasia. In a randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial of 44 healthy men and women, homozygous for UGT1A6*1 or UGT1A6*2, we explored differences between global epithelial and stromal expression, using Affymetrix U133 + 2.0 microarrays and tested effects of 60-day aspirin supplementation (325 mg/d) on epithelial and stromal gene expression and colon prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels. We conducted a comprehensive study of differential gene expression between normal human colonic epithelium and stroma from healthy individuals. Although no statistically significant differences in gene expression were observed in response to aspirin or UGT1A6 genotype, we have identified the genes uniquely and reproducibly expressed in each tissue type and have analyzed the biologic processes they represent. Here we describe in detail how the data, deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) - accession number GSE71571 - was generated including the basic analysis as contained in the manuscript published in BMC Medical Genetics with the PMID 25927723 (Thomas et al., 2015 [9]).

  19. Effect of resveratrol and zinc on intracellular zinc status in normal human prostate epithelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the influence of resveratrol on cellular zinc status, normal human prostate epithelial (NHPrE) cells were treated with 6 levels of resveratrol (0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 microM) and 4 levels of zinc [0, 4, 16, and 32 microM for zinc-deficient (ZD), zinc-normal (ZN), zinc-adequate (ZA), an...

  20. α-Synuclein in the colon and premotor markers of Parkinson disease in neurologically normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong-Seok; Park, In-Seok; Park, Hyung-Eun; Kim, Su-Young; Yun, Jung A; Jung, Chan Kwon; Sung, Hye-Young; Lee, Jin-Kwon; Kang, Won-Kyung

    2017-01-01

    Extranigral non-motor signs precede the first motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease by many years in some patients. The presence of α-synuclein deposition within colon tissues in patients with Parkinson's disease can aid in identifying early neuropathological changes prior to disease onset. In the present study, we evaluated the roles of non-motor symptoms and signs and imaging biomarkers of nigral neuronal changes and α-synuclein accumulation in the colon. Twelve subjects undergoing colectomy for primary colon cancer were recruited for this study. Immunohistochemical staining for α-synuclein in normal and phosphorylated forms was performed in normally appearing colonic tissue. We evaluated 16 candidate premotor risk factors in this study cohort. Among them, ten subjects showed positive immunostaining with normal- and phosphorylated-α-synuclein. An accumulation of premotor markers in each subject was accompanied with positive normal- and phosphorylated-α-synuclein immunostaining, ranging from 2 to 7 markers per subject, whereas the absence of Lewy bodies in the colon was associated with relative low numbers of premotor signs. A principal component analysis and a cluster analysis of these premotor markers suggest that urinary symptoms were commonly clustered with deposition of peripheral phosphorylated-α-synuclein. Among other premotor marker, color vision abnormalities were related to non-smoking. This mathematical approach confirmed the clustering of premotor markers in preclinical stage of Parkinson's disease. This is the first report showing that α-synuclein in the colon and other premotor markers are related to each other in neurologically normal subjects.

  1. Aqueous Extracts of Selected Potentilla Species Modulate Biological Activity of Human Normal Colon Cells.

    PubMed

    Paduch, Roman; Wiater, Adrian; Locatelli, Marcello; Pleszczyńska, Malgorzata; Tomczyk, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Potentilla L. (Rosaceae) species have been used in traditional and in folk medicine for many years. This study characterized the activity of extracts from aerial parts of selected Potentilla species: P. argentea, P. anserina, P. grandiflora and P. erecta as well as one species of closely related to the genus Potentilla, Drymocallis rupestris (syn. P. rupestris). The biological activities were analyzed using MTT, NR and DPPH assays on CCD 841 CoTr and CCD-18Co cells. Moreover, cell morphology and cytoskeletal actin F-filaments organization and IL-6 and IL-10 levels by ELISA were analyzed after 24 h of incubation. Potentilla extracts at dose levels between 25 and 250 µg/mL were analyzed. For ELISA, 15 µg/mL and 30 μg/mL were chosen. When mitochondrial succinyl dehydrogenase activity was tested (MTT assay) only extract obtained from P. erecta at lower concentrations (up to 125 µg/mL) suppressed metabolism of myofibroblasts, while epithelial cells mitochondrial enzyme activity increased after incubation with all extracts. In Neutral Red (NR) method cellular membrane disturbance of both cell cultures was found after D. rupestris and P. grandiflora addition. Moreover, strong influence on epithelial cells was also found for P. anserina. All extracts showed similar, concentration-dependent free radical scavenging (DPPH) effect. Potentilla extracts, especially at lower concentration, decreased IL-6 production in myofibroblasts but the level of the cytokine was found to be stable in epithelial cells. IL-10 analysis revealed that P. argentea, D. rupestris, P. erecta extracts decrease cytokine level in myofibroblasts, while only when higher concentration were applied, decreased cytokine level produced by epithelial cells was found. F-actin filaments staining revealed that Potentilla extracts significantly influence on cellular cytoskeleton organization. Potentilla extracts influence on cells of human colon wall lining modulating the main features of them (viability

  2. Cigarette smoke extracts induced the colon cancer migration via regulating epithelial mesenchymal transition and metastatic genes in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cho-Won; Go, Ryeo-Eun; Lee, Hae-Miru; Hwang, Kyung-A; Lee, Kyuhong; Kim, Bumseok; Lee, Moo-Yeol; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2017-02-01

    There was considerable evidence that exposure to cigarette smoke is associated with an increased risk for colon cancer. Nevertheless, the mechanism underlying the relationship between cigarette smoking and colon cancer remains unclear. Moreover, there were only a few studies on effects of complexing substance contained in cigarette smoke on colon cancer. Thus, we further investigated whether cigarette smoke extract (CSE) affects the cell cycle, apoptosis and migration of human metastatic colon cancer cells, SW-620. MTT assay revealed that SW-620 cell proliferation was significantly inhibited following treatments with all CSEs, 3R4F, and two-domestic cigarettes, for 9 days in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, CSE treatments decreased cyclin D1 and E1, and increased p21 and p27 proteins by Western blot analysis in SW-620 cells. Additionally, the treatment of the cells with CSE contributed to these effects expressing by apoptosis-related proteins. An increased migration or invasion ability of SW-620 cells following CSE treatment was also confirmed by a scratch or fibronectin invasion assay in vitro. In addition, the protein levels of E-cadherin as an epithelial maker were down-regulated, while the mesenchymal markers, N-cadherin, snail, and slug, were up-regulated in a time-dependent manner. A metastatic marker, cathepsin D, was also down-regulated by CSE treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that CSE exposure in colon cancer cells may deregulate the cell growth by altering the expression of cell cycle-related proteins and pro-apoptotic protein, and stimulate cell metastatic ability by altering epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers and cathepsin D expression. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 690-704, 2017.

  3. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles activate IL8-related inflammatory pathways in human colonic epithelial Caco-2 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Kristin; Cossais, François; Neve, Horst; Klempt, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Nanosized titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles are widely used as food additive or coating material in products of the food and pharmaceutical industry. Studies on various cell lines have shown that TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) induced the inflammatory response and cytotoxicity. However, the influences of TiO2 NPs' exposure on inflammatory pathways in intestinal epithelial cells and their differentiation have not been investigated so far. This study demonstrates that TiO2 NPs with particle sizes ranging between 5 and 10 nm do not affect enterocyte differentiation but cause an activation of inflammatory pathways in the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2. 5 and 10 nm NPs' exposures transiently induce the expression of ICAM1, CCL20, COX2 and IL8, as determined by quantitative PCR, whereas larger particles (490 nm) do not. Further, using nuclear factor (NF)-κB reporter gene assays, we show that NP-induced IL8 mRNA expression occurs, in part, through activation of NF-κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

  4. Okadaic Acid Toxin at Sublethal Dose Produced Cell Proliferation in Gastric and Colon Epithelial Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    del Campo, Miguel; Toledo, Héctor; Lagos, Néstor

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of Okadaic Acid (OA) on the proliferation of gastric and colon epithelial cells, the main target tissues of the toxin. We hypothesized that OA, at sublethal doses, activates multiple signaling pathways, such as Erk and Akt, through the inhibition of PP2A. To demonstrate this, we carried out curves of doses and time response against OA in AGS, MKN-45 and Caco 2 cell lines, and found an increase in the cell proliferation at sublethal doses, at 24 h or 48 h exposure. Indeed, cells can withstand high concentrations of the toxin at 4 h exposure, the time chosen considering the maximum time before total gastric emptying. We have proved that this increased proliferation is due to an overexpression of Cyclin B, a cyclin that promotes the passage from G2 to mitosis. In addition, we have demonstrated that OA induces activation of Akt and Erk in the three cells lines, showing that OA can activate pathways involved in oncogenesis. In conclusion, this study contributes to the knowledge about the possible effects of chronic OA consumption. PMID:24317467

  5. Normal human epithelial cells regulate the size and morphology of tissue-engineered capillaries.

    PubMed

    Rochon, Marie-Hélène; Fradette, Julie; Fortin, Véronique; Tomasetig, Florence; Roberge, Charles J; Baker, Kathleen; Berthod, François; Auger, François A; Germain, Lucie

    2010-05-01

    The survival of thick tissues/organs produced by tissue engineering requires rapid revascularization after grafting. Although capillary-like structures have been reconstituted in some engineered tissues, little is known about the interaction between normal epithelial cells and endothelial cells involved in the in vitro angiogenic process. In the present study, we used the self-assembly approach of tissue engineering to examine this relationship. An endothelialized tissue-engineered dermal substitute was produced by adding endothelial cells to the tissue-engineered dermal substitute produced by the self-assembly approach. The latter consists in culturing fibroblasts in the medium supplemented with serum and ascorbic acid. A network of tissue-engineered capillaries (TECs) formed within the human extracellular matrix produced by dermal fibroblasts. To determine whether epithelial cells modify TECs, the size and form of TECs were studied in the endothelialized tissue-engineered dermal substitute cultured in the presence or absence of epithelial cells. In the presence of normal keratinocytes from skin, cornea or uterine cervix, endothelial cells formed small TECs (cross-sectional area estimated at less than 50 microm(2)) reminiscent of capillaries found in the skin's microcirculation. In contrast, TECs grown in the absence of epithelial cells presented variable sizes (larger than 50 microm(2)), but the addition of keratinocyte-conditioned media or exogenous vascular endothelial growth factor induced their normalization toward a smaller size. Vascular endothelial growth factor neutralization inhibited the effect of keratinocyte-conditioned media. These results provide new direct evidence that normal human epithelial cells play a role in the regulation of the underlying TEC network, and advance our knowledge in tissue engineering for the production of TEC networks in vitro.

  6. HLA-A, -B, -C expression in colon carcinoma mimics that of the normal colonic mucosa and is prognostically relevant.

    PubMed

    Benevolo, Maria; Mottolese, Marcella; Piperno, Giulia; Sperduti, Isabella; Cione, Antonio; Sibilio, Leonardo; Martayan, Aline; Donnorso, Raffaele Perrone; Cosimelli, Maurizio; Giacomini, Patrizio

    2007-01-01

    Whether human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, -B, -C expression has any predictive value on the prognosis of human malignancies remains controversial. Herein, monoclonal antibodies with preferential reactivity for HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C (HCA2, HC10, and L31) were used to stain an archival collection of 291 formalin-fixed/paraffin-embedded tissues, comprising neoplastic lesions from stages II and III colon carcinoma patients (n=165), and the uninvolved, morphologically normal mucosae from a subset (n=126) of these patients. Marked staining variability was detected not only in the tumors as in previous studies, but also in the normal paired mucosae. HLA-A, -B, -C expression was similar in approximately two thirds of the available 126 normal/neoplastic pairs, confirming in vivo our previous observation that most tumor cells mimic the HLA phenotypes of their normal counterparts. Both up and down-regulation occurred in the remaining third of the pairs, but did not coincide with high and low expression, respectively, conventionally evaluated on the tumor lesion only. Remarkably, a "paired" evaluation, but not high or low expression in the tumor, was predictive of the clinical outcome. Deviations from the expression in the normal paired mucosa (both increases and decreases) of HCA2-reactive class I molecules (possibly HLA-A), and down-regulation of L31-reactive class I molecules (possibly HLA-C), particularly in tumors from stage II patients, correlated with poor 5-year overall and disease-free survival, hazard risk ranging from 2 to 6, approximately. Thus, a paired immunohistochemical comparison reveals a novel immune evasion strategy that may impact on the prognosis of colon carcinoma.

  7. Epidermal growth factor stimulates Rac activation through Src and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to promote colonic epithelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Dise, Rebecca S; Frey, Mark R; Whitehead, Robert H; Polk, D Brent

    2008-01-01

    Regulated intestinal epithelial cell migration plays a key role in wound healing and maintenance of a healthy gastrointestinal tract. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates cell migration and wound closure in intestinal epithelial cells through incompletely understood mechanisms. In this study we investigated the role of the small GTPase Rac in EGF-induced cell migration using an in vitro wound-healing assay. In mouse colonic epithelial (MCE) cell lines, EGF-stimulated wound closure was accompanied by a doubling of the number of cells containing lamellipodial extensions at the wound margin, increased Rac membrane translocation in cells at the wound margin, and rapid Rac activation. Either Rac1 small interfering (si)RNA or a Rac1 inhibitor completely blocked EGF-stimulated wound closure. Whereas EGF failed to activate Rac in colon cells from EGF receptor (EGFR) knockout mice, stable expression of wild-type EGFR restored EGF-stimulated Rac activation and migration. Pharmacological inhibition of either phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or Src family kinases reduced EGF-stimulated Rac activation. Cotreatment of cells with both inhibitors completely blocked EGF-stimulated Rac activation and localization to the leading edge of cells and lamellipodial extension. Our results present a novel mechanism by which the PI3K and Src signaling cascades cooperate to activate Rac and promote intestinal epithelial cell migration downstream of EGFR.

  8. Empirical comparison of color normalization methods for epithelial-stromal classification in H and E images

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Amit; Sha, Lingdao; Vahadane, Abhishek Ramnath; Deaton, Ryan J.; Kumar, Neeraj; Macias, Virgilia; Gann, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Color normalization techniques for histology have not been empirically tested for their utility for computational pathology pipelines. Aims: We compared two contemporary techniques for achieving a common intermediate goal – epithelial-stromal classification. Settings and Design: Expert-annotated regions of epithelium and stroma were treated as ground truth for comparing classifiers on original and color-normalized images. Materials and Methods: Epithelial and stromal regions were annotated on thirty diverse-appearing H and E stained prostate cancer tissue microarray cores. Corresponding sets of thirty images each were generated using the two color normalization techniques. Color metrics were compared for original and color-normalized images. Separate epithelial-stromal classifiers were trained and compared on test images. Main analyses were conducted using a multiresolution segmentation (MRS) approach; comparative analyses using two other classification approaches (convolutional neural network [CNN], Wndchrm) were also performed. Statistical Analysis: For the main MRS method, which relied on classification of super-pixels, the number of variables used was reduced using backward elimination without compromising accuracy, and test - area under the curves (AUCs) were compared for original and normalized images. For CNN and Wndchrm, pixel classification test-AUCs were compared. Results: Khan method reduced color saturation while Vahadane reduced hue variance. Super-pixel-level test-AUC for MRS was 0.010–0.025 (95% confidence interval limits ± 0.004) higher for the two normalized image sets compared to the original in the 10–80 variable range. Improvement in pixel classification accuracy was also observed for CNN and Wndchrm for color-normalized images. Conclusions: Color normalization can give a small incremental benefit when a super-pixel-based classification method is used with features that perform implicit color normalization while the gain is

  9. Differential expression in normal-adenoma-carcinoma sequence suggests complex molecular carcinogenesis in colon.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungkoo; Bang, Seunghyun; Song, Kyuyoung; Lee, Inchul

    2006-10-01

    The majority of colon cancers develop from pre-existing adenomas. We analyzed the expression profiles in the sequence of normal colon crypts, adenomas and early-stage carcinomas using microdissected cells from tubular adenomas with foci of malignant transformation. Differentially expressed genes were detected between normal-adenoma and adenoma-carcinoma, and were grouped according to the patterns of expression changes in the sequence. Down-regulated genes in the sequence included PLA2G2A, TSPAN1, PDCD4, FCGBP, AATK, EPLIN, FABP1, AGR2, MTUS1, TSC1, galectin 4 and MT1F. PLA2G2A has been shown to suppress colon tumorigenesis in mice, but the pathobiological role in humans has been controversial. Our data showed continuous down-regulation of PLA2G2A in the sequence supporting an implication in human colon cancer. Tumor suppressor and/ or proapoptotic activities have also been reported in other genes. Up-regulated genes included ribosomal proteins, IER3 and TPR. TGF-beta2 and matrix metalloproteinase 23B were up-regulated in carcinoma but not in adenoma, supporting the pathobiological roles in malignant transformation. Differentially expressed genes partly coincided with those in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence of the stomach, which was published previously, suggesting a partial overlap between the adenoma-carcinoma sequences of the colon and stomach.

  10. Ex vivo characterization of normal and adenocarcinoma colon samples by Mueller matrix polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Ahmad, Manzoor; Khan, Karim; Ashraf, Sumara; Ahmad, Shakil; Ikram, Masroor

    2015-05-01

    Mueller matrix polarimetry along with polar decomposition algorithm was employed for the characterization of ex vivo normal and adenocarcinoma human colon tissues by polarized light in the visible spectral range (425-725 nm). Six derived polarization metrics [total diattenuation (DT), retardance (RT), depolarization (ΔT), linear diattenuation (DL), retardance (δ), and depolarization (ΔL)] were compared for normal and adenocarcinoma colon tissue samples. The results show that all six polarimetric properties for adenocarcinoma samples were significantly higher as compared to the normal samples for all wavelengths. The Wilcoxon rank sum test illustrated that total retardance is a good candidate for the discrimination of normal and adenocarcinoma colon samples. Support vector machine classification for normal and adenocarcinoma based on the four polarization properties spectra (ΔT, ΔL, RT,and δ) yielded 100% accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, while both DT and D showed 66.6%, 33.3%, and 83.3% accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, respectively. The combination of polarization analysis and given classification methods provides a framework to distinguish the normal and cancerous tissues.

  11. Notch signaling is required for normal prostatic epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi-De; Leow, Ching Ching; Zha, Jiping; Tang, Zhijun; Modrusan, Zora; Radtke, Freddy; Aguet, Michel; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Gao, Wei-Qiang

    2006-02-01

    Notch pathway is crucial for stem/progenitor cell maintenance, growth and differentiation in a variety of tissues. Using a transgenic cell ablation approach, we found in our previous study that cells expressing Notch1 are crucial for prostate early development and re-growth. Here, we further define the role of Notch signaling in regulating prostatic epithelial cell growth and differentiation using biochemical and genetic approaches in ex vivo or in vivo systems. Treatment of developing prostate grown in culture with inhibitors of gamma-secretase/presenilin, which is required for Notch cleavage and activation, caused a robust increase in proliferation of epithelial cells co-expressing cytokeratin 8 and 14, lack of luminal/basal layer segregation and dramatically reduced branching morphogenesis. Using conditional Notch1 gene deletion mouse models, we found that inactivation of Notch1 signaling resulted in profound prostatic alterations, including increased tufting, bridging and enhanced epithelial proliferation. Cells within these lesions co-expressed both luminal and basal cell markers, a feature of prostatic epithelial cells in predifferentiation developmental stages. Microarray analysis revealed that the gene expression in a number of genetic networks was altered following Notch1 gene deletion in prostate. Furthermore, expression of Notch1 and its effector Hey-1 gene in human prostate adenocarcinomas were found significantly down-regulated compared to normal control tissues. Taken together, these data suggest that Notch signaling is critical for normal cell proliferation and differentiation in the prostate, and deregulation of this pathway may facilitate prostatic tumorigenesis.

  12. Fluticasone Induces Epithelial Injury and Alters Barrier Function in Normal Subjects

    PubMed Central

    MacRedmond, Ruth E.; Singhera, Gurpreet K.; Wadsworth, Samuel J.; Attridge, Susan; Bahzad, Mohammed; Williams, Kristy; Coxson, Harvey O.; White, Steven R.; Dorscheid, Delbert R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The airway epithelium has a number of roles pivotal to the pathogenesis of asthma, including provision of a physical and immune barrier to the inhaled environment. Dysregulated injury and repair responses in asthma result in loss of airway epithelial integrity. Inhaled corticosteroids are a corner stone of asthma treatment. While effective in controlling asthma symptoms, they fail to prevent airway remodeling. Direct cytopathic effects on the airway epithelium may contribute to this. Methods This study examined the effects of a 4-week treatment regimen of inhaled fluticasone 500 μg twice daily in healthy human subjects. Induced sputum was collected for cell counts and markers of inflammation. Barrier function was examined by diethylenetriaminepentacetic acid (DTPA) clearance measured by nuclear scintillation scan, and albumin concentration in induced sputum. Results Steroid exposure resulted in epithelial injury as measured by a significant increase in the number of airway epithelial cells in induced sputum. There was no change in airway inflammation by induced sputum inflammatory cell counts or cytokine levels. Epithelial shedding was associated with an increase in barrier function, as measured by both a decrease in DTPA clearance and decreased albumin in induced sputum. This likely reflects the normal repair response. Conclusion Inhaled corticosteroids cause injury to normal airway epithelium. These effects warrant further evaluation in asthma, where the dysregulated repair response may contribute to airway remodeling. PMID:25324978

  13. Human Normal Bronchial Epithelial Cells: A Novel In Vitro Cell Model for Toxicity Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haiyan; Xia, Bo; Liu, Hongya; Li, Jie; Lin, Shaolin; Li, Tiyuan; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Human normal cell-based systems are needed for drug discovery and toxicity evaluation. hTERT or viral genes transduced human cells are currently widely used for these studies, while these cells exhibited abnormal differentiation potential or response to biological and chemical signals. In this study, we established human normal bronchial epithelial cells (HNBEC) using a defined primary epithelial cell culture medium without transduction of exogenous genes. This system may involve decreased IL-1 signaling and enhanced Wnt signaling in cells. Our data demonstrated that HNBEC exhibited a normal diploid karyotype. They formed well-defined spheres in matrigel 3D culture while cancer cells (HeLa) formed disorganized aggregates. HNBEC cells possessed a normal cellular response to DNA damage and did not induce tumor formation in vivo by xenograft assays. Importantly, we assessed the potential of these cells in toxicity evaluation of the common occupational toxicants that may affect human respiratory system. Our results demonstrated that HNBEC cells are more sensitive to exposure of 10~20 nm-sized SiO2, Cr(VI) and B(a)P compared to 16HBE cells (a SV40-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells). This study provides a novel in vitro human cells-based model for toxicity evaluation, may also be facilitating studies in basic cell biology, cancer biology and drug discovery. PMID:25861018

  14. Discrimination between normal and malignant gastric epithelial cells by computer image analysis.

    PubMed

    Weinreb, M; Zajicek, G; Levij, I S

    1984-09-01

    The nuclei of 21 normal and 23 malignant epithelial cells from gastric smears obtained by brushing were analyzed by a black-and-white video camera under computer control. Each nucleus was digitized and its relief smoothed and displayed. A Sobel operator determined the nuclear boundaries and nuclear core area. Eighteen nuclear parameters (form descriptors and gray-value descriptors) were extracted for each nucleus and used as variables for discriminant analysis. Nine of these parameters proved useful for discrimination between normal and malignant gastric epithelial cells, with a correct classification rate of 100%. Of these, the best discriminating variables were the maximal gray value in the core, the maximal horizontal and vertical diameters, the core area and the mean derivative value in the core.

  15. Screening of the residual normal ovarian tissue adjacent to orthotopic epithelial ovarian carcinomas in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, G H; Wang, S T; Yao, M Z; Cai, J H; Chen, C Y; Yang, Z X; Hong, L; Yang, S Y

    2014-04-16

    The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility and methods of screening the residual normal ovarian tissue adjacent to orthotopic ovarian carcinomas in nude mice. Human epithelial ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR3) were subcutaneously implanted for a tumor source and ovarian orthotopic transplantation. The cancer tissue, proximal paraneoplastic tissue, middle paraneoplastic tissue, remote paraneoplastic tissue, and normal ovarian tissue were removed. CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 expression was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We obtained 35 paraneoplastic residual ovarian tissues with normal biopsies from 40 cases of an orthotopic epithelial ovarian carcinoma model (87.5%). CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 expression was lower in proximal paraneoplastic tissue than in cancer tissue (P < 0.05) and higher than in middle and remote paraneoplastic tissue (P < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference between the expression of these genes in middle and proximal paraneoplastic tissue as well as among residual normal ovarian tissues with different severity (P > 0.05). In ovarian tissues of 20 normal nude mice, the expression of CK- 7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 was negative. Overall, the expression levels of CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, TIMP-2, and other molecular markers showed a decreasing trend in the non-cancer tissue direction. The expression levels can be used as standards to screen residual normal ovarian tissue. We can obtain relatively safe normal ovarian tissues adjacent to epithelial ovarian cancer.

  16. Aloe vera gel facilitates re-epithelialization of corneal alkali burn in normal and diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Atiba, Ayman; Wasfy, Tamer; Abdo, Walied; Ghoneim, Ahmed; Kamal, Tarek; Shukry, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the efficacy of topical applied aloe vera (AV) and to facilitate the repair of the standardized alkaline corneal ulcer in normal and diabetic rats. Materials and methods The corneal alkali-burn injury model was established unilaterally in Wistar rats by filter paper saturated with 0.01 M NaOH contacting the eyes for 45 seconds. Rats were divided into four groups: normal control (NC), normal AV (NAV), diabetic control (DC), and diabetic AV (DAV). NAV and DAV groups were treated with AV gel eye drops four times daily, and NC and DC groups were treated with normal saline for 3 days. Corneal epithelial wound closure and degree of edema were recorded using slit lamp and optical coherence tomography at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours postwounding. Histological examination was conducted to evaluate the degree of inflammation and the healing effect. Results Corneal epithelial wound healing was better in the NAV group than in the NC group, and it was significantly higher in the DAV group than in the DC group (P<0.05). In comparison to the DC group, DAV treated with AV demonstrated a marked reduction in edema at 48 and 72 hours. Histologically, corneal re-epithelialization was complete and higher in DAV group than that in DC group; moreover, the inflammatory cells were increased in DC group than DAV group (P<0.05). Conclusion This study demonstrated the efficacy of AV for enhanced corneal re-epithelialization, as well as reduced inflammatory response after alkali burn in rats; therefore, it could be useful as a therapy for diabetic keratopathy. PMID:26604672

  17. Scaffold-Free Coculture Spheroids of Human Colonic Adenocarcinoma Cells and Normal Colonic Fibroblasts Promote Tumorigenicity in Nude Mice123

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-il; Lee, Jisu; Kwon, Ju-Lee; Park, Hong-Bum; Lee, Su-Yel; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Sung, Jaekye; Kim, Jin Man; Song, Kyu Sang; Kim, Kyung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to form a scaffold-free coculture spheroid model of colonic adenocarcinoma cells (CACs) and normal colonic fibroblasts (NCFs) and to use the spheroids to investigate the role of NCFs in the tumorigenicity of CACs in nude mice. We analysed three-dimensional (3D) scaffold-free coculture spheroids of CACs and NCFs. CAC Matrigel invasion assays and tumorigenicity assays in nude mice were performed to examine the effect of NCFs on CAC invasive behaviour and tumorigenicity in 3D spheroids. We investigated the expression pattern of fibroblast activation protein-α (FAP-α) by immunohistochemical staining. CAC monocultures did not form densely-packed 3D spheroids, whereas cocultured CACs and NCFs formed 3D spheroids. The 3D coculture spheroids seeded on a Matrigel extracellular matrix showed higher CAC invasiveness compared to CACs alone or CACs and NCFs in suspension. 3D spheroids injected into nude mice generated more and faster-growing tumors compared to CACs alone or mixed suspensions consisting of CACs and NCFs. FAP-α was expressed in NCFs-CACs cocultures and xenograft tumors, whereas monocultures of NCFs or CACs were negative for FAP-α expression. Our findings provide evidence that the interaction between CACs and NCFs is essential for the tumorigenicity of cancer cells as well as for tumor propagation. PMID:26947885

  18. Ultrasonic differentiation of normal versus malignant breast epithelial cells in monolayer cultures

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Timothy E.; Goodrich, Jeffrey B.; Ambrose, Brady J.; Patel, Hemang; Kwon, Soonjo; Pearson, Lee H.

    2010-01-01

    Normal and malignant mammary epithelial cells were studied using laboratory measurements, wavelet analysis, and numerical simulations of monolayer cell cultures to determine whether microscopic breast cancer can be detected in vitro with high-frequency ultrasound. Pulse-echo waveforms were acquired by immersing a broadband, unfocused 50-MHz transducer in the growth media of cell culture well plates and collecting the first reflection from the well bottoms. The simulations included a multilayer pulse-reflection model and a model of two-dimensional arrays of spherical cells and nuclei. The results show that normal and malignant cells produce time-domain signals and spectral features that are significantly different. PMID:21110531

  19. Nitric oxide regulation of colonic epithelial ion transport: a novel role for enteric glia in the myenteric plexus.

    PubMed

    MacEachern, Sarah J; Patel, Bhavik A; McKay, Derek M; Sharkey, Keith A

    2011-07-01

    Enteric glia are increasingly recognized as important in the regulation of a variety of gastrointestinal functions.Here we tested the hypothesis that nicotinic signalling in the myenteric plexus results in the release of nitric oxide (NO) from neurons and enteric glia to modulate epithelial ion transport. Ion transport was assessed using full-thickness or muscle-stripped segments of mouse colon mounted in Ussing chambers. The cell-permeant NO-sensitive dye DAR-4M AM and amperometry were utilized to identify the cellular sites of NO production within the myenteric plexus and the contributions from specific NOS isoforms. Nicotinic receptors were localized using immunohistochemistry. Nicotinic cholinergic stimulation of colonic segments resulted in NO-dependent changes in epithelial active electrogenic ion transport that were TTX sensitive and significantly altered in the absence of the myenteric plexus. Nicotinic stimulation of the myenteric plexus resulted in NO production and release from neurons and enteric glia, which was completely blocked in the presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) I and NOS II inhibitors. Using the NO scavenger 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO), neuronal and enteric glial components of NO production were demonstrated. Nicotinic receptors were identified on enteric neurons, which express NOS I, and enteric glia, which express NOS II. These data identify a unique pathway in the mouse colon whereby nicotinic cholinergic signalling in myenteric ganglia mobilizes NO from NOS II in enteric glia, which in coordinated activity with neurons in the myenteric plexus modulates epithelial ion transport, a key component of homeostasis and innate immunity.

  20. Progesterone facilitates chromosome instability (aneuploidy) in p53 null normal mammary epithelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goepfert, T. M.; McCarthy, M.; Kittrell, F. S.; Stephens, C.; Ullrich, R. L.; Brinkley, B. R.; Medina, D.

    2000-01-01

    Mammary epithelial cells from p53 null mice have been shown recently to exhibit an increased risk for tumor development. Hormonal stimulation markedly increased tumor development in p53 null mammary cells. Here we demonstrate that mammary tumors arising in p53 null mammary cells are highly aneuploid, with greater than 70% of the tumor cells containing altered chromosome number and a mean chromosome number of 56. Normal mammary cells of p53 null genotype and aged less than 14 wk do not exhibit aneuploidy in primary cell culture. Significantly, the hormone progesterone, but not estrogen, increases the incidence of aneuploidy in morphologically normal p53 null mammary epithelial cells. Such cells exhibited 40% aneuploidy and a mean chromosome number of 54. The increase in aneuploidy measured in p53 null tumor cells or hormonally stimulated normal p53 null cells was not accompanied by centrosome amplification. These results suggest that normal levels of progesterone can facilitate chromosomal instability in the absence of the tumor suppressor gene, p53. The results support the emerging hypothesis based both on human epidemiological and animal model studies that progesterone markedly enhances mammary tumorigenesis.

  1. Inhibition of microRNA-31-5p protects human colonic epithelial cells against ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Bum; Zhang, Lu; Barron, Summer; Shay, Jerry W.

    2014-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), endogenous non-coding small RNAs, are sensitive to environmental changes, and their differential expression is important for adaptation to the environment. However, application of miRNAs as a clinical prognostic or diagnostic tool remains unproven. In this study we demonstrate a chronic/persistent change of miRNAs from the plasma of a colorectal cancer susceptible mouse model (CPC;Apc) about 250 days after exposure to a simulated solar particle event (SPE). Differentially expressed miRNAs were identified compared to unirradiated control mice, including miR-31-5p, which we investigated further. To address the cellular function of miR-31-5p, we transfected a miR-31-5p mimic (sense) or inhibitor (antisense) into immortalized human colonic epithelial cells followed by gamma-irradiation. A miR-31-5p mimic sensitized but a miR-31-5p inhibitor protected colonic epithelial cells against radiation induced killing. We found that the miR-31-5p mimic inhibited the induction of hMLH1 expression after irradiation, whereas the miR-31-5p inhibitor increased the basal level of hMLH1 expression. The miR-31-5p inhibitor failed to modulate radiosensitivity in an hMLH1-deficient HCT116 colon cancer cell line but protected HCT116 3-6 and DLD-1 (both hMLH1-positive) colon cancer cell lines. Our findings demonstrate that miR-31-5p has an important role in radiation responses through regulation of hMLH1 expression. Targeting this pathway could be a promising therapeutic strategy for future personalized anti-cancer radiotherapy.

  2. The expression of CD44v6 in colon: from normal to malignant.

    PubMed

    Afify, Alaa; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Virdi, Avnit; Jess, Heidi

    2016-02-01

    CD44v6, an integral transmembrane protein belonging to a family of adhesion molecule receptors, plays an important role in tumor growth, progression and metastasis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of CD44v6 in normal, hyperplastic, adenomatous, and malignant colonic epithelium and to determine its correlation with tumor pathologic stage and lymph node metastasis. We examined the immunohistochemical expression of CD44v6 in normal colonic tissue (n = 25), hyperplastic polyps (n = 45), tubular adenomas (n = 57), tubulovillous adenomas (n = 25), villous adenomas (n = 9), adenocarcinomas stage I (n = 26), adenocarcinomas stage III (n = 26), and lymph node metastasis (n = 26). The percentage of positive cells and the staining intensity were assessed and scored. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression and McNemar test. All normal colonic tissue and hyperplastic polyps showed CD44v6 staining confined to the base of the crypt. In tubular adenomas, the dysplastic surface adenomatous epithelium expressed CD44v6 in 49 (86%) cases. CD44v6 was expressed in the glandular areas of tubulovillous adenomas in 21 (84%) cases and in the villous portion in 18 (72%) cases. All villous adenomas expressed CD44v6. CD44v6 was expressed in 23 (88%) cases of stage I adenocarcinomas, in 24 (92%) cases of stage III adenocarcinomas, and in 9 (35%) cases of metastatic adenocarcinomas. We concluded that the gain of CD44v6 expression in premalignant and malignant colonic lesions suggests that CD44v6 may be functionally involved in the adenoma-to-carcinoma progression. CD44v6 did not correlate to tumor pathologic stage and is lost during the acquisition of migratory function by metastatic tumor cells.

  3. Diets High in Heat-Treated Soybean Meal Reduce the Histamine-Induced Epithelial Response in the Colon of Weaned Piglets and Increase Epithelial Catabolism of Histamine

    PubMed Central

    Kröger, Susan; Pieper, Robert; Schwelberger, Hubert G.; Wang, Jing; Villodre Tudela, Carmen; Aschenbach, Jörg R.; Van Kessel, Andrew G.; Zentek, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of dietary fermentable protein (fCP) and fermentable carbohydrates (fCHO) on the colonic epithelial response to histamine in pigs. Thirty-two weaned piglets were fed 4 diets in a 2 × 2 factorial design with low fCP/low fCHO, low fCP/high fCHO, high fCP/low fCHO and high fCP/high fCHO. After 21-23 days, the pigs were killed and tissue from the proximal colon was stimulated with carbachol, histamine, PGE2 or sodium hydrogen sulphide in Ussing chambers. Changes in short-circuit current and tissue conductance were measured. Diamine oxidase, histamine N-methyltransferase, stem cell growth factor receptor, Fc-epsilon receptor I and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene expression was determined. Activities of diamine oxidase and histamine N-methyltransferase and numbers of colonic mast cells were measured. The change in the short-circuit current in response to histamine was lower (P = 0.002) and tended to be lower for PGE2 (P = 0.053) in high fCP groups compared to low fCP groups, irrespective of fCHO. Additionally, the change in tissue conductance after the application of histamine was lower (P = 0.005) in the high fCP groups. The expression of histamine N-methyltransferase mRNA (P = 0.033) and the activities of diamine oxidase (P = 0.001) and histamine N-methyltransferase (P = 0.006) were higher with high fCP in comparison with low fCP. The expression of mast cell markers, stem cell growth factor receptor (P = 0.005) and Fc-epsilon receptor I (P = 0.049) was higher with high fCP diets compared to diets low in fCP, whereas the mast cell count did not differ between groups. The expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator was reduced (P = 0.001) with high fCP diets compared to low fCP diets. The lower epithelial response to histamine and PGE2 and elevated epithelial histamine inactivation suggests an adaptation to high fCP diets. PMID:24260435

  4. Can Villin be Used to Identify Malignant and Undifferentiated Normal Digestive Epithelial Cells?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robine, S.; Huet, C.; Moll, R.; Sahuquillo-Merino, C.; Coudrier, E.; Zweibaum, A.; Louvard, D.

    1985-12-01

    We have investigated the presence of villin (a Ca2+-regulated actin binding protein) in various tissues (normal or malignant) and in established cell lines by using sensitive immunochemical techniques on cell extracts and immunofluorescence analysis on frozen sections. Our results show that villin is a marker that can be used to distinguish normal differentiated epithelial cells from the simple epithelia lining the gastrointestinal tract and renal tubules. Villin is found in the absorptive cells of the small and large intestines, in the duct cells of pancreas and biliary system, and in the cells of kidney proximal tubules. Furthermore, undifferentiated normal and tumoral cells of intestinal origin in vivo and in cell culture express villin. Therefore, expression of villin is seen in cells that do not necessarily display the morphological features characteristic of their terminally differentiated state, such as the microvilli-lined brush border. We suggest the possible clinical implications of using villin as a marker in the diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinomas.

  5. CDDO-Me protects normal lung and breast epithelial cells but not cancer cells from radiation.

    PubMed

    El-Ashmawy, Mariam; Delgado, Oliver; Cardentey, Agnelio; Wright, Woodring E; Shay, Jerry W

    2014-01-01

    Although radiation therapy is commonly used for treatment for many human diseases including cancer, ionizing radiation produces reactive oxygen species that can damage both cancer and healthy cells. Synthetic triterpenoids, including CDDO-Me, act as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant modulators primarily by inducing the transcription factor Nrf2 to activate downstream genes containing antioxidant response elements (AREs). In the present series of experiments, we determined if CDDO-Me can be used as a radioprotector in normal non-cancerous human lung and breast epithelial cells, in comparison to lung and breast cancer cell lines. A panel of normal non-cancerous, partially cancer progressed, and cancer cell lines from both lung and breast tissue was exposed to gamma radiation with and without pre-treatment with CDDO-Me. CDDO-Me was an effective radioprotector when given ∼18 hours before radiation in epithelial cells (average dose modifying factor (DMF) = 1.3), and Nrf2 function was necessary for CDDO-Me to exert these radioprotective effects. CDDO-Me did not protect cancer lines tested from radiation-induced cytotoxicity, nor did it protect experimentally transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) with progressive oncogenic manipulations. CDDO-Me also protected human lymphocytes against radiation-induced DNA damage. A therapeutic window exists in which CDDO-Me protects normal cells from radiation by activating the Nrf2 pathway, but does not protect experimentally transformed or cancer cell lines. This suggests that use of this oral available, non-toxic class of drug can protect non-cancerous healthy cells during radiotherapy, resulting in better outcomes and less toxicity for patients.

  6. CDDO-Me Protects Normal Lung and Breast Epithelial Cells but Not Cancer Cells from Radiation

    PubMed Central

    El-Ashmawy, Mariam; Delgado, Oliver; Cardentey, Agnelio; Wright, Woodring E.; Shay, Jerry W.

    2014-01-01

    Although radiation therapy is commonly used for treatment for many human diseases including cancer, ionizing radiation produces reactive oxygen species that can damage both cancer and healthy cells. Synthetic triterpenoids, including CDDO-Me, act as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant modulators primarily by inducing the transcription factor Nrf2 to activate downstream genes containing antioxidant response elements (AREs). In the present series of experiments, we determined if CDDO-Me can be used as a radioprotector in normal non-cancerous human lung and breast epithelial cells, in comparison to lung and breast cancer cell lines. A panel of normal non-cancerous, partially cancer progressed, and cancer cell lines from both lung and breast tissue was exposed to gamma radiation with and without pre-treatment with CDDO-Me. CDDO-Me was an effective radioprotector when given ∼18 hours before radiation in epithelial cells (average dose modifying factor (DMF) = 1.3), and Nrf2 function was necessary for CDDO-Me to exert these radioprotective effects. CDDO-Me did not protect cancer lines tested from radiation-induced cytotoxicity, nor did it protect experimentally transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) with progressive oncogenic manipulations. CDDO-Me also protected human lymphocytes against radiation-induced DNA damage. A therapeutic window exists in which CDDO-Me protects normal cells from radiation by activating the Nrf2 pathway, but does not protect experimentally transformed or cancer cell lines. This suggests that use of this oral available, non-toxic class of drug can protect non-cancerous healthy cells during radiotherapy, resulting in better outcomes and less toxicity for patients. PMID:25536195

  7. Analysis of differential protein expression in normal and neoplastic human breast epithelial cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.; Chubb, C.; Huberman, E.; Giometti, C.S.

    1997-07-01

    High resolution two dimensional get electrophoresis (2DE) and database analysis was used to establish protein expression patterns for cultured normal human mammary epithelial cells and thirteen breast cancer cell lines. The Human Breast Epithelial Cell database contains the 2DE protein patterns, including relative protein abundances, for each cell line, plus a composite pattern that contains all the common and specifically expressed proteins from all the cell lines. Significant differences in protein expression, both qualitative and quantitative, were observed not only between normal cells and tumor cells, but also among the tumor cell lines. Eight percent of the consistently detected proteins were found in significantly (P < 0.001) variable levels among the cell lines. Using a combination of immunostaining, comigration with purified protein, subcellular fractionation, and amino-terminal protein sequencing, we identified a subset of the differentially expressed proteins. These identified proteins include the cytoskeletal proteins actin, tubulin, vimentin, and cytokeratins. The cell lines can be classified into four distinct groups based on their intermediate filament protein profile. We also identified heat shock proteins; hsp27, hsp60, and hsp70 varied in abundance and in some cases in the relative phosphorylation levels among the cell lines. Finally, we identified IMP dehydrogenase in each of the cell lines, and found the levels of this enzyme in the tumor cell lines elevated 2- to 20-fold relative to the levels in normal cells.

  8. Propagation of normal human epithelial cell populations using an in vivo culture system. Description and applications.

    PubMed Central

    Klein-Szanto, A. J.; Terzaghi, M.; Mirkin, L. D.; Martin, D.; Shiba, M.

    1982-01-01

    A new model using xenotransplanted human epithelia was developed for the study of toxic and carcinogenic effects of chemicals. Epithelial cells from the respiratory tract of 4 male and 3 female premature and fullterm fetuses were enzymatically removed and inoculated into deepithelialized rat tracheas. These were sealed at both ends and transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice. After 3-4 weeks, a normal mucociliary epithelium covered the tracheal lumen. At this stage the epithelial cells could be isolated again and transplanted into new denuded rat tracheas. This passaging could be repeated up to six times, each permitting an amplification factor of approximately 3. Tracheal transplants containing cells of human origin (in vivo Passages 2-4) were treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Hyperplasias, squamous metaplasias, and dysplasias were seen 1-8 weeks after initiation of treatment, indicating that the responses of human and rodent epithelial cells to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are similar. Initial experiments with skin and esophageal epithelia suggest that other covering epithelia could also be used in this fashion for evaluation of toxicants and carcinogens that are likely to come into contact with these tissues. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:6821529

  9. Human papilloma virus DNAs immortalize normal human mammary epithelial cells and reduce their growth factor requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Band, V.; Zajchowski, D.; Kulesa, V.; Sager, R. )

    1990-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are most commonly associated with cervical carcinoma in patients and induce immortalization of human keratinocytes in culture. HPV has not been associated with breast cancer. This report describes the immortalization of normal human mammary epithelial cells (76N) by plasmid pHPV18 or pHPV16, each containing the linearized viral genome. Transfectants were grown continuously for more than 60 passages, whereas 76N cells senesce after 18-20 passages. The transfectants also differ from 76N cells in cloning in a completely defined medium called D2 and growing a minimally supplemented defined medium (D3) containing epidermal growth factor. All transfectant tested contain integrated HPV DNA, express HPV RNA, and produce HPV E7 protein. HPV transfectants do not form tumors in a nude mouse assay. It is concluded that products of the HPV genome induce immortalization of human breast epithelial cells and reduce their growth factor requirements. This result raises the possibility that HPV might be involved in breast cancer. Furthermore, other tissue-specific primary epithelial cells that are presently difficult to grown and investigate may also be immortalized by HPV.

  10. Transfection of normal human bronchial epithelial cells with the bcl-2 oncogene

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.H.; Kenyon, K.D.; Tesfaigzi, J.

    1995-12-01

    In vitro, studies examining the transformation of virus-immortalized human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells after exposure to chemical and physical carcinogens have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the development of lung cancer. Virus-immortalized HBE cells have been used because of both the limited life span of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells in culture (approximately 30-35 population doublins) and their resistance to in vitro malignant transformation. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV)-immortalized HBE cells have been used to study the genetic changes that occur after exposure to {alpha}-particles in vitro. Although this model may prove to be useful for studying the 18% or less of bronchogenic carcinomas found to contain HPV sequences, it is not an appropriate model for studying the majority of lung epithelial malignancies in which HPV DNA is not detected. This view is supported by the fact that HPV-immortalized cell lines commonly exhibit aneuploidy. This results of this study suggest that: (1) NHBE cells can be transiently transfected with the pCMV{Beta} vector; and (2) the antibiotic hygromycin-resistant transfected cells.

  11. R-spondin1 is required for normal epithelial morphogenesis during mammary gland development.

    PubMed

    Chadi, Sead; Buscara, Laurine; Pechoux, Christine; Costa, José; Laubier, Johann; Chaboissier, Marie-Christine; Pailhoux, Eric; Vilotte, Jean-Luc; Chanat, Eric; Le Provost, Fabienne

    2009-12-18

    The R-spondin (Rspo) proteins constitute a novel class of ligands that induce Wnt signalling. Rspo1 knockout XX mice were previously shown to be sex-reversed, but some remain sub-fertile. These last were unable to feed their pups for some unknown reason. Using these mice and transplanted mammary tissues from Rspo1(-/-) virgin mice in nude mice, we report that the lack of Rspo1 expression results in the absence of duct side-branching development and subsequent alveolar formation, explaining the above mentioned phenotype. Our data demonstrate that local epithelial Rspo1 signalling is required for normal development of the mammary gland.

  12. Wild-type and IL10-null mice have differential colonic epithelial gene expression responses to dietary supplementation with synbiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis and inulin.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Shiu-Ming; Chan, Wan-Chun; Hu, Zihua

    2014-03-01

    Prebiotic plus probiotic (synbiotic) supplementations promote fermentation and have shown anti-inflammatory activity in colonic epithelium. However, in many instances, patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have demonstrated adverse effects after prebiotic supplementation at a dose well tolerated by normal individuals. To test the hypothesis that the host inflammation affects the colonic epithelial response to increased fermentation, the gene expression of colonic epithelium was analyzed. In a 1-way experimental design to test the effect of supplements in wild-type mice using the standard diet formulated by the American Institute of Nutrition (AIN-93G) as the control diet, fermentable fiber inulin (5%) in the absence or presence of the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis (Bb12) (10(8) CFU/kg diet) showed limited effects on gene expression as determined by whole-genome microarray. Bb12 supplementation alone was known not to increase fermentation and here instead significantly upregulated genes in nucleic acid metabolic processes. The effects of the synbiotic diet were then determined in mice exposed to LPS-induced inflammation in a 2-way experimental design testing the effect of diet and LPS. The microarray and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses on the wild-type mice revealed that LPS-induced changes in the colonic epithelium were 4- to 10-fold less in the synbiotic diet group compared with the control diet group. Unlike the wild-type mice, anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL10)-null mice (susceptible to IBD) given the synbiotic diet, compared with those given the control diet, had 3- to 40-fold increased expression of inflammation-related genes such as Cxcl1 (chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 1) and S100a9 (S100 calcium binding protein A9) in the absence and presence of LPS exposure. These contrasting intestinal epithelial responses to increased fermentation in wild-type and IL10-null mice are similar

  13. TRAF-4 expression in epithelial progenitor cells. Analysis in normal adult, fetal, and tumor tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Krajewska, M.; Krajewski, S.; Zapata, J. M.; Van Arsdale, T.; Gascoyne, R. D.; Berern, K.; McFadden, D.; Shabaik, A.; Hugh, J.; Reynolds, A.; Clevenger, C. V.; Reed, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    TRAF-4 was discovered because of its expression in breast cancers and is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor (TRAF) family of putative signal-transducing proteins. In vitro binding assays demonstrated that TRAF-4 interacts with the cytosolic domain of the lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LT beta R) and weakly with the p75 nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) but not with TNFR1, TNFR2, Fas, or CD40. Immunofluorescence analysis of TRAF-4 in transfected cells demonstrated localization to cytosol but not nucleus. Immunohistochemical assays of normal human adult tissues revealed prominent cytosolic immunostaining in thymic epithelial cells and lymph node dendritic cells but not in lymphocytes or thymocytes, paralleling the reported patterns of LT beta R expression. The basal cell layer of most epithelia in the body was very strongly TRAF-4 immunopositive, including epidermis, nasopharynx, respiratory tract, salivary gland, and esophagus. Similar findings were obtained in 12- to 18-week human fetal tissue, indicating a highly restricted pattern of expression even during development in the mammary gland, epithelial cells of the terminal ducts were strongly TRAF-4 immunopositive whereas myoepithelial cells and most of the mammary epithelial cells lining the extralobular ducts were TRAF-4 immunonegative. Of 84 primary breast cancers evaluated, only 7 expressed TRAF-4. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions were uniformly TRAF-4 immunonegative (n = 21). In the prostate, the basal cells were strongly immunostained for TRAF-4, whereas the secretory epithelial cells were TRAF-4 negative. Basal cells in prostate hypertrophy (n = 6) and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN; n = 6) were strongly TRAF-4 positive, but none of the 32 primary and 16 metastatic prostate cancer specimens examined contained TRAF-4-positive malignant cells. Although also expressed in some types of mesenchymal cells, these findings suggest that TRAF-4 is a marker of normal

  14. Antiapoptotic effects of estrogen in normal and cancer human cervical epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qifang; Li, Xin; Wang, Liqin; Feng, Ying-Hong; Zeng, Robin; Gorodeski, George

    2004-12-01

    The present study investigated the antiapoptotic effects of estrogen in normal and cancer human cervical cells and the mechanisms involved. Baseline apoptosis in human cervical epithelial cells is mediated predominantly by P2X7-receptor-induced, Ca(2+)-dependent activation of the mitochondrial (caspase-9) pathway. Treatment with 10 nM 17beta-estradiol blocked apoptosis induced by the P2X7-receptor ligands ATP and 2',3'-0-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP in normal human cervical epithelial cells (hECEs) and attenuated the effect in hECEs immortalized with human papillomavirus-16 (ECE16-1) and the cancer cervical cells HT3 and CaSki. Diethylstilbestrol and to a lesser degree estrone could mimic the effects of 17beta-estradiol, whereas actinomycin-D and cycloheximide attenuated the response. The antiapoptotic effect of estrogen did not depend on cell cycle phase, and in both normal and cancer cervical cells, it involved attenuation of activation of caspase-9 and the terminal caspase-3. However, involvement of cascades upstream to the caspase-9 differed in normal vs. cancer cervical cells. In the normal hECEs estrogen blocked P2X7-receptor-induced calcium influx. In contrast, in the cancer CaSki cells, estrogen up-regulated expression of Bcl-2 and attenuated Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial swelling (i.e. formation of mitochondrial permeability transition pores). Estrogen had no effect on P2X7-receptor-induced apoptosis in the anaplastic SiHa and Hela cells. These results point to a novel antiapoptotic effect of estrogen in the cervix that is independent of its mitogenic function. The results also suggest that cancer cervical cells evolved antiapoptotic mechanisms that enable the cells to evade apoptosis and could therefore promote tumor progression.

  15. Exposure of colonic epithelial cells to oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress causes rapid potassium efflux and calcium influx.

    PubMed

    Shabala, Lana; Walker, Emma J; Eklund, Annelie; Randall-Demllo, Sarron; Shabala, Sergey; Guven, Nuri; Cook, Anthony L; Eri, Rajaraman D

    2013-10-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative stress have recently been linked to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. Under physiological conditions, intestinal epithelial cells are exposed to ER and oxidative stress affecting the cellular ionic homeostasis. However, these altered ion flux 'signatures' during these stress conditions are poorly characterized. We investigated the kinetics of K(+) , Ca(2+) and H(+) ion fluxes during ER and oxidative stress in a colonic epithelial cell line LS174T using a non-invasive microelectrode ion flux estimation technique. ER and oxidative stress were induced by cell exposure to tunicamycin (TM) and copper ascorbate (CuAsc), respectively, from 1 to 24 h. Dramatic K(+) efflux was observed following acute ER stress with peak K(+) efflux being -30·6 and -138·7 nmolm(-2)  s(-1) for 10 and 50 µg ml(-1) , respectively (p < 0·01). TM-dependent Ca(2+) uptake was more prolonged with peak values of 0·85 and 2·68 nmol m(-2)  s(-1) for 10 and 50 µg ml(-1) TM, respectively (p < 0·02). Ion homeostasis was also affected by the duration of ER stress. Increased duration of TM treatment from 0 to 18 h led to increases in both K(+) efflux and Ca(2+) uptake. While K(+) changes were significantly higher at each time point tested, Ca(2+) uptake was significantly higher only after prolonged treatment (18 h). CuAsc also led to an increased K(+) efflux and Ca(2+) uptake. Functional assays to investigate the effect of inhibiting K(+) efflux with tetraethylammonium resulted in increased cell viability. We conclude that ER/oxidative stress in colonic epithelial cells cause dramatic K(+) , Ca(2+) and H(+) ion flux changes, which may predispose this lineage to poor stress recovery reminiscent of that seen in inflammatory bowel diseases.

  16. Expression of epithelial cell-derived cytokine genes in the duodenal and colonic mucosae of dogs with chronic enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    OSADA, Hironari; OGAWA, Misato; HASEGAWA, Ayana; NAGAI, Makoto; SHIRAI, Junsuke; SASAKI, Kazuaki; SHIMODA, Minoru; ITOH, Hiroshi; KONDO, Hirotaka; OHMORI, Keitaro

    2016-01-01

    It remains unclear whether epithelial cell-derived cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-25, IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), contribute to development of canine chronic enteropathy (CE), which includes antibiotic-responsive enteropathy (ARE), food-responsive enteropathy (FRE) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the present study, we examined mRNA expression of il-25, il-33 and tslp in the duodenal and colonic mucosae of dogs with ARE, FRE and IBD. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that mRNA expression of il-33 was significantly lower in the duodenum in dogs with FRE than in healthy dogs. The results suggest that epithelial cell-derived cytokines may not be an inducer of Th2-type immunity in the gut of dogs with CE, and decreased expression of IL-33 may be involved in induction of FRE. Further studies are required to clarify roles of epithelial cell-derived cytokines, especially IL-33, in the pathogenesis of canine CE. PMID:28049868

  17. Expression of epithelial cell-derived cytokine genes in the duodenal and colonic mucosae of dogs with chronic enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Osada, Hironari; Ogawa, Misato; Hasegawa, Ayana; Nagai, Makoto; Shirai, Junsuke; Sasaki, Kazuaki; Shimoda, Minoru; Itoh, Hiroshi; Kondo, Hirotaka; Ohmori, Keitaro

    2017-02-28

    It remains unclear whether epithelial cell-derived cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-25, IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), contribute to development of canine chronic enteropathy (CE), which includes antibiotic-responsive enteropathy (ARE), food-responsive enteropathy (FRE) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the present study, we examined mRNA expression of il-25, il-33 and tslp in the duodenal and colonic mucosae of dogs with ARE, FRE and IBD. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that mRNA expression of il-33 was significantly lower in the duodenum in dogs with FRE than in healthy dogs. The results suggest that epithelial cell-derived cytokines may not be an inducer of Th2-type immunity in the gut of dogs with CE, and decreased expression of IL-33 may be involved in induction of FRE. Further studies are required to clarify roles of epithelial cell-derived cytokines, especially IL-33, in the pathogenesis of canine CE.

  18. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-neuropeptide Y (NPY) crosstalk regulates inflammation, epithelial barrier functions and colonic motility

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekharan, Bindu; Jeppsson, Sabrina; Pienkowski, Stefan; Belsham, Denise D; Sitaraman, Shanthi V.; Merlin, Didier; Kokkotou, Efi; Nusrat, Asma; Tansey, Malu G.; Srinivasan, Shanthi

    2014-01-01

    Background Neuro-immune interactions play a significant role in regulating the severity of inflammation. Our previous work demonstrated that neuropeptide Y (NPY) is up regulated in the enteric nervous system (ENS) during murine colitis, and that NPY knockout mice exhibit reduced inflammation. Here we investigated if NPY expression during inflammation is induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF), the main pro-inflammatory cytokine. Methods Utilizing primary enteric neurons and colon explant cultures from WT and NPY knockout (NPY−/−) mice, we determined if NPY knockdown modulates TNF release and epithelial permeability. Further we assessed if NPY expression is inducible by TNF in enteric neuronal cells and mouse model of experimental colitis, utilizing the TNF inhibitors-etanercept (blocks transmembrane and soluble TNF) and XPro1595 (blocks soluble TNF only). Results We found that enteric neurons express TNF receptors (TNFR1 and R2). Primary enteric neurons from NPY−/− mice produced less TNF compared to WT. Further, TNF activated NPY promoter in enteric neurons via phospho-c-jun. NPY−/− mice had decreased intestinal permeability. In vitro, NPY increased epithelial permeability via phosphatidyl inositol-3-kinase (PI3-K)-induced pore-forming claudin-2. TNF inhibitors attenuated NPY expression in vitro and in vivo. TNF-inhibitor-treated colitic mice exhibited reduced NPY expression and inflammation, reduced oxidative stress, enhanced neuronal survival and improved colonic motility. XPro1595 had more protective effects on neuronal survival and motility compared to etanercept. Conclusions We demonstrate a novel TNF-NPY cross talk that modulates inflammation, barrier functions and colonic motility during inflammation. It is also suggested that selective blocking of soluble TNF maybe a better therapeutic option than using anti-TNF antibodies. PMID:24108115

  19. Surface modification of microparticles causes differential uptake responses in normal and tumoral human breast epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patiño, Tania; Soriano, Jorge; Barrios, Lleonard; Ibáñez, Elena; Nogués, Carme

    2015-06-01

    The use of micro- and nanodevices as multifunctional systems for biomedical applications has experienced an exponential growth during the past decades. Although a large number of studies have focused on the design and fabrication of new micro- and nanosystems capable of developing multiple functions, a deeper understanding of their interaction with cells is required. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of different microparticle surfaces on their interaction with normal and tumoral human breast epithelial cell lines. For this, AlexaFluor488 IgG functionalized polystyrene microparticles (3 μm) were coated with Polyethyleneimine (PEI) at two different molecular weights, 25 and 750 kDa. The effect of microparticle surface properties on cytotoxicity, cellular uptake and endocytic pathways were assessed for both normal and tumoral cell lines. Results showed a differential response between the two cell lines regarding uptake efficiency and mechanisms of endocytosis, highlighting the potential role of microparticle surface tunning for specific cell targeting.

  20. Targeting normal and neoplastic tissues in the rat jejunum and colon with boronated, cationic acrylamide copolymers.

    PubMed

    Azab, Abdel-Kareem; Srebnik, Morris; Doviner, Victoria; Rubinstein, Abraham

    2005-08-18

    A series of boronated cationic copolymers, composed of different ratios of acrylamide, N-acryloyl-3-aminophenylboronic acid and N-acryloyl-diaminoethane (the cationic moiety), were prepared with the intention of localizing boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in experimentally induced polyps on the luminal side of the gut of the rat. The goals of this study were to: (a) test the effect of cationization of the boronated copolymers on their uptake by polyps and normal adjacent epithelium; (b) compare the whole rat body distribution of aminophenylboronic acid (APB) and polymeric APB after local application; (c) measure the effect of micro-environmental parameters such as pH, the presence of mucin and cations on the interaction between the APB-copolymers and the epithelium of the rat intestines. Direct analysis of tissue boron levels showed that polymeric APB-uptake was higher in the colonic polyps than in the surrounding normal tissues. Free APB, however, was found in similar quantities in both. When tested in the normal jejunum and colon of the rat, polymeric APB uptake was directly proportional to the molar content of the cationic monomer in the copolymers. The presence of magnesium ions, free boron cationic monomer and mucin interfered with this uptake in a concentration-dependent manner. The uptake was pH-independent at pH 5, 7 and 10. APB accumulation in the colon polyps was inversely proportional to the cationic monomer content in the copolymers, suggesting an increased amount of mucus around the polyps, which probably impeded the electrostatic attachment of the polymer to the malignant tissue. The use polymeric APB for targeting BNCT in perioperative treatment of colorectal carcinoma is suggested, especially in the cases of microscopic residual disease after curative resection.

  1. The Cinnamon-derived Dietary Factor Cinnamic Aldehyde Activates the Nrf2-dependent Antioxidant Response in Human Epithelial Colon Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wondrak, Georg T.; Villeneuve, Nicole F.; Lamore, Sarah D.; Bause, Alexandra S.; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Donna D.

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of tumor-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent research suggests that pharmacological intervention using dietary factors that activate the redox sensitive Nrf2/Keap1-ARE signaling pathway may represent a promising strategy for chemoprevention of human cancer including CRC. In our search for dietary Nrf2 activators with potential chemopreventive activity targeting CRC, we have focused our studies on trans-cinnamic aldehyde (cinnamaldeyde, CA), the key flavor compound in cinnamon essential oil. Here we demonstrate that CA and an ethanolic extract (CE) prepared from Cinnamomum cassia bark, standardized for CA content by GC-MS analysis, display equipotent activity as inducers of Nrf2 transcriptional activity. In human colon cancer cells (HCT116, HT29) and non-immortalized primary fetal colon cells (FHC), CA- and CE-treatment upregulated cellular protein levels of Nrf2 and established Nrf2 targets involved in the antioxidant response including heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS, catalytic subunit). CA- and CE-pretreatment strongly upregulated cellular glutathione levels and protected HCT116 cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced genotoxicity and arsenic-induced oxidative insult. Taken together our data demonstrate that the cinnamon-derived food factor CA is a potent activator of the Nrf2-orchestrated antioxidant response in cultured human epithelial colon cells. CA may therefore represent an underappreciated chemopreventive dietary factor targeting colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:20657484

  2. The cinnamon-derived dietary factor cinnamic aldehyde activates the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response in human epithelial colon cells.

    PubMed

    Wondrak, Georg Thomas; Villeneuve, Nicole F; Lamore, Sarah D; Bause, Alexandra S; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Donna D

    2010-05-07

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of tumor-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent research suggests that pharmacological intervention using dietary factors that activate the redox sensitive Nrf2/Keap1-ARE signaling pathway may represent a promising strategy for chemoprevention of human cancer including CRC. In our search for dietary Nrf2 activators with potential chemopreventive activity targeting CRC, we have focused our studies on trans-cinnamic aldehyde (cinnamaldeyde, CA), the key flavor compound in cinnamon essential oil. Here we demonstrate that CA and an ethanolic extract (CE) prepared from Cinnamomum cassia bark, standardized for CA content by GC-MS analysis, display equipotent activity as inducers of Nrf2 transcriptional activity. In human colon cancer cells (HCT116, HT29) and non-immortalized primary fetal colon cells (FHC), CA- and CE-treatment upregulated cellular protein levels of Nrf2 and established Nrf2 targets involved in the antioxidant response including heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and gamma-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS, catalytic subunit). CA- and CE-pretreatment strongly upregulated cellular glutathione levels and protected HCT116 cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced genotoxicity and arsenic-induced oxidative insult. Taken together our data demonstrate that the cinnamon-derived food factor CA is a potent activator of the Nrf2-orchestrated antioxidant response in cultured human epithelial colon cells. CA may therefore represent an underappreciated chemopreventive dietary factor targeting colorectal carcinogenesis.

  3. Campylobacter protein oxidation influences epithelial cell invasion or intracellular survival as well as intestinal tract colonization in chickens.

    PubMed

    Lasica, A M; Wyszynska, A; Szymanek, K; Majewski, P; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, E K

    2010-01-01

    The Dsb family of redox proteins catalyzes disulfide bond formation and isomerization. Since mutations in dsb genes change the conformation and stability of many extracytoplasmic proteins, and since many virulence factors of pathogenic bacteria are extracytoplasmic, inactivation of dsb genes often results in pathogen attenuation. This study investigated the role of 2 membrane-bound oxidoreductases, DsbB and DsbI, in the Campylobacter jejuni oxidative Dsb pathway. Campylobacter mutants, lacking DsbB or DsbI or both, were constructed by allelic replacement and used in the human intestinal epithelial T84 cell line for the gentamicin protection assay (invasion assay) and chicken colonization experiments. In C. coli strain 23/1, the inactivation of the dsbB or dsbI gene separately did not significantly affect the colonization process. However, simultaneous disruption of both membrane-bound oxidoreductase genes significantly decreased the strain’s ability to colonize chicken intestines. Moreover, C. jejuni strain 81-176 with mutated dsbB or dsbI genes showed reduced invasion/intracellular survival abilities. No cells of the double mutants (dsbB⁻ dsbI⁻) of C. jejuni 81-176 were recovered from human cells after 3 h of invasion.

  4. Expression Profiles of miRNA Subsets Distinguish Human Colorectal Carcinoma and Normal Colonic Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Pellatt, Daniel F; Stevens, John R; Wolff, Roger K; Mullany, Lila E; Herrick, Jennifer S; Samowitz, Wade; Slattery, Martha L

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-protein-coding RNA molecules that are commonly dysregulated in colorectal tumors. The objective of this study was to identify smaller subsets of highly predictive miRNAs. METHODS: Data come from population-based studies of colorectal cancer conducted in Utah and the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program. Tissue samples were available for 1,953 individuals, of which 1,894 had carcinoma tissue and 1,599 had normal mucosa available for statistical analysis. Agilent Human miRNA Microarray V.19.0 was used to generate miRNA expression profiles; validation of expression levels was carried out using quantitative PCR. We used random forest analysis and verified findings with logistic modeling in separate data sets. Important microRNAs are identified and bioinformatics tools are used to identify target genes and related biological pathways. RESULTS: We identified 16 miRNAs for colon and 17 miRNAs for rectal carcinoma that appear to differentiate between carcinoma and normal mucosa; of these, 12 were important for both colon and rectal cancer, hsa-miR-663b, hsa-miR-4539, hsa-miR-17-5p, hsa-miR-20a-5p, hsa-miR-21-5p, hsa-miR-4506, hsa-miR-92a-3p, hsa-miR-93-5p, hsa-miR-145-5p, hsa-miR-3651, hsa-miR-378a-3p, and hsa-miR-378i. Estimated misclassification rates were low at 4.83% and 2.5% among colon and rectal observations, respectively. Among independent observations, logistic modeling reinforced the importance of these miRNAs, finding the primary principal components of their variation statistically significant (P<0.001 among both colon and rectal observations) and again producing low misclassification rates. Repeating our analysis without those miRNAs initially identified as important identified other important miRNAs; however, misclassification rates increased and distinctions between remaining miRNAs in terms of classification importance were reduced. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the hypothesis that while many miRNAs are

  5. Global DNA Hypomethylation (LINE-1) in the Normal Colon and Lifestyle Characteristics, Dietary and Genetic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Jane C.; Grau, Maria V.; Wallace, Kristin; Levine, A. Joan; Shen, Lanlan; Hamdan, Randala; Chen, Xinli; Bresalier, Robert S.; McKeown-Eyssen, Gail; Haile, Robert W.; Baron, John A.; Issa, Jean-Pierre J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Global loss of methylated cytosines in DNA, thought to predispose to chromosomal instability and aneuploidy, has been associated with an increased risk of colorectal neoplasia. Little is known about the relationships between global hypomethylation and lifestyle, demographics, dietary measures and genetic factors. Methods Our data were collected as part of a randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of aspirin and folic acid for the prevention of colorectal adenomas. At a surveillance colonoscopy approximately three years after the qualifying exam, we obtained two biopsies of the normal-appearing mucosa from the right colon and two from the left colon. Specimens were assayed for global hypomethylation using a pyrosequencing assay for LINE-1 (long interspersed nucleotide elements) repeats. Results The analysis included data from 388 subjects. There was relatively little variability in LINE methylation overall. Mean LINE-1 methylation levels in normal mucosa from the right bowel were significantly lower than those on the left side (p<0.0001). No significant associations were found between LINE-1 methylation and folate treatment, age, sex, body-mass-index, smoking status, alcohol use, dietary intake or circulating levels of B-vitamins, homocysteine, or selected genotypes. Race, dietary folic acid and plasma B6 showed associations with global methylation that differed between the right and left bowel. The effect of folic acid on risk of adenomas did not differ according to extent of LINE-1 methylation and we found no association between LINE-1 methylation and risk of adenomas. Conclusions LINE-1 methylation is not influenced by folic acid supplementation, but differs by colon subsite. PMID:19336559

  6. Aluminium chloride promotes tumorigenesis and metastasis in normal murine mammary gland epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Tenan, Mirna; Ferrari, Paolo; Sappino, André‐Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium salts, present in many industrial products of frequent use like antiperspirants, anti‐acid drugs, food additives and vaccines, have been incriminated in contributing to the rise in breast cancer incidence in Western societies. However, current experimental evidence supporting this hypothesis is limited. For example, no experimental evidence that aluminium promotes tumorigenesis in cultured mammary epithelial cells exists. We report here that long‐term exposure to concentrations of aluminium—in the form of aluminium chloride (AlCl3)—in the range of those measured in the human breast, transform normal murine mammary gland (NMuMG) epithelial cells in vitro as revealed by the soft agar assay. Subcutaneous injections into three different mouse strains with decreasing immunodeficiency, namely, NOD SCID gamma (NSG), NOD SCID or nude mice, revealed that untreated NMuMG cells form tumors and metastasize, to a limited extent, in the highly immunodeficient and natural killer (NK) cell deficient NSG strain, but not in the less permissive and NK cell competent NOD SCID or nude strains. In contrast, NMuMG cells transformed in vitro by AlCl3 form large tumors and metastasize in all three mouse models. These effects correlate with a mutagenic activity of AlCl3. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that concentrations of aluminium in the range of those measured in the human breast fully transform cultured mammary epithelial cells, thus enabling them to form tumors and metastasize in well‐established mouse cancer models. Our observations provide experimental evidence that aluminium salts could be environmental breast carcinogens. PMID:27541736

  7. [Bioinformatic analysis of adenoma-normal mucosa SSH library of colon].

    PubMed

    Lü, Bing-Jian; Cui, Jing; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Luo, Min-Jie; Zhu, Yi-Min; Lai, Mao-De

    2006-04-01

    We established a colonic adenoma-normal mucosa suppressive subtraction hybridization (SSH) library in 1999. In this study, we wanted to explore the expression profile of all candidate genes in this library. We developed an EST pipeline which contained two in-house software packages, nucleic acid analytical software and GetUni. The nucleic acid analytical software, an integrator of the universal bioinformatics tools including phred, phd2fasta, cross_match, repeatmasker and blast2.0, can blast sequences of differential clones with the downloaded non-redundant nucleotide (NR) database. GetUni can cluster these NR sequences into Unigene via matching with the downloaded Homo Sapiens UniGene database. Sixty-two candidate genes in A-N library were obtained via the high throughput automatic gene expression bioinformatics pipeline. Gene Ontology online analysis revealed that ribosome genes and immunity-regulating genes were the two most common categories in the KEGG or Biocarta Pathway. We also detected the expression of 2 genes with highest hits, Reg4 and FAM46A, by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Both genes were up-regulated in 10 or 9 out of 10 adenomas in comparison with the paired normal mucosa, respectively. The candidate genes in A-N library would be of great significance in disclosing the molecular mechanism underlying in colonic adenoma initiation and progression.

  8. Vitiligo patient-derived keratinocytes exhibit characteristics of normal wound healing via epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Poulomi; Venkatachalam, Sandhyaa; Mamidi, Murali Krishna; Bhonde, Ramesh; Shankar, Krupa; Pal, Rajarshi

    2015-05-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disorder that leads to depigmentation of skin via melanocyte dysfunction. Keratinocyte-induced toxicity is one among the several etiological factors implicated for vitiligo, and hence, autologous keratinocyte grafting is projected as one of the primary mode of treatment for vitiligo. However, reports indicate that perilesional keratinocytes not only display signatures of apoptosis but also could secrete cytokines and mediators which have antagonistic effect on proliferation or survival. Therefore, we investigated how vitiligo patients' derived keratinocytes respond to surplus amounts of inflammatory cytokines and whether they recapitulate events that take place during conventional wound healing. The primary objective of our study was to determine whether keratinocytes isolated from a vitiligo patient would undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition similar to their normal counterparts upon induction with inflammatory cytokines such as TGF-b1 and EGF. We found that these keratinocytes undergo EMT during wound repair accompanied with increase in the levels of mesenchymal markers and ECM proteins; decrease in the levels of epithelial markers and enhanced migratory ability. Besides, we also demonstrated that EMT induction leads to activation of SMAD and MAPK pathways via Ras, Raf, PAI 1, Snail, Slug and ZO1. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the characterization of primary keratinocytes isolated from vitiligo patients with respect to their wound healing capacity.

  9. Application of HPLC for determination of phytic acid in the colonic epithelial Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Weglarz, Ludmiła; Parfiniewicz, Beata; Bat, Beata; Orchel, Arkadiusz; Dzierzewicz, Zofia; Wilczok, Tadeusz

    2004-12-01

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexaphosphate, IP6) is currently receiving a considerable interest because of its anticancer (preventive and therapeutic) potential against colon tumors and the need for methods of its determination. The aim of this study was to analyze the uptake of IP6 by human colon adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2 cell line) and to evaluate the method of its intracellular quantification with the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. Chromatographic analysis revealed a rapid uptake of IP6 by cells. The intracellular accumulation of IP6 was saturable at 0.5 h and it did not change with the prolongation of incubation up to 72 h.

  10. Chemical carcinogen-induced decreases in genomic 5-methyldeoxycytidine content of normal human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, V.L.; Smith, R.A.; Longoria, J.; Liotta, M.A.; Harper, C.M.; Harris, C.C.

    1987-05-01

    The genomic content of DNA 5-methyldeoxycytidine (m/sup 5/dC) was measured in dividing normal human bronchial epithelial cells treated with a broad range of chemical carcinogens. At noncytotoxic concentrations, all of the carcinogenic agents tested significantly reduced cellular DNA m/sup 5/dC content whereas the weakly carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic agents, benzo(e)pyrene and phenanthrene (respectively), did not. These reductions varied from 8% to 31% depending on the agent and the donor cells. The reduction is genomic m/sup 5/dC levels were concentration dependent for the carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo(a)pyrene. The authors speculate that carcinogen-induced perturbation of DNA m/sup 5/dC patterns may lead to heritable changes in gene expression and contribute to the molecular alterations involved in the initiation and the subsequent steps of the carcinogenesis process.

  11. Listeriolysin O affects barrier function and induces chloride secretion in HT-29/B6 colon epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Richter, Jan F; Gitter, Alfred H; Günzel, Dorothee; Weiss, Siegfried; Mohamed, Walid; Chakraborty, Trinad; Fromm, Michael; Schulzke, Jörg D

    2009-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen, which is able to induce diarrhea when residing in the intestine. We studied the effect of listeriolysin O (LLO), an extracellular virulence factor of L. monocytogenes, on intestinal transport and barrier function in monolayers of HT-29/B6 human colon cells using the Ussing technique to understand the pathomechanisms involved. Mucosal addition of LLO, but not a LLO mutant, induced a dose- and pH-dependent increase in short-circuit current (I(SC)). Sodium and chloride tracer flux and DIDS sensitivity studies revealed that I(SC) was mainly due to electrogenic chloride secretion. Barrier function was impaired by LLO, as assessed by transepithelial resistance (R(t)) and mannitol flux measurements. Intracellular signal transduction occurred through Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores and PKC activation. In conclusion, listeriolysin induces chloride secretion and perturbs epithelial barrier function, thus potentially contributing to Listeria-induced diarrhea.

  12. Expression of VLA-alpha 2, VLA-alpha 6, and VLA-beta 1 chains in normal mucosa and adenomas of the colon, and in colon carcinomas and their liver metastases.

    PubMed Central

    Koretz, K.; Schlag, P.; Boumsell, L.; Möller, P.

    1991-01-01

    'Very late antigen' (VLA) proteins are members of the integrin superfamily with cell-surface receptor function and are involved in the cell-cell matrix interaction. They are heterodimers with a common beta 1 chain and different alpha chains counted through VLA-1 to VLA-6. The VLA-2 complex (alpha 2/beta 1) was found to act as collagen receptor on platelets and the VLA-6 complex (alpha 6/beta 1) as laminin receptor. Using monoclonal antibodies and an indirect immunoperoxidase method, we investigated the expression of VLA-alpha 2, VLA-alpha 6, and VLA-beta 1 chains in 20 normal colonic mucosa samples, in 20 colonic adenomas, and in 96 carcinomas together with 10 accompanying liver metastases. All three proteins were expressed throughout the colonic epithelium, except for VLA-alpha 2, which was present in the cryptic gland but was absent on the mucosal surface in some cases. In general, adenomas were strongly positive for the VLA proteins but 3 of 20 cases showed focal VLA-alpha 2-negative areas. The carcinomas revealed considerable heterogeneity of VLA-alpha 2 expression; ie, 59 tumors were completely positive, 35 tumors revealed a focal loss of antigen, and 2 cases were negative. This reduced antigen expression was statistically associated with Dukes' stage C/D (P = 0.003). VLA-alpha 6 was expressed throughout in all tumors. VLA-beta 1 was found extensively expressed in 77 carcinomas, partially expressed in 17 carcinomas, and was absent in 2 carcinomas. As compared to their primary tumors, liver metastases showed roughly corresponding patterns of antigen expression. The down regulation/loss of VLA proteins in a subset of epithelial colon tumors might cause a disturbed cell-cell/cell-matrix interaction that might augment the invasive property of their cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2000944

  13. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of tocopherols and tocotrienols on normal mouse mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, B S; Briski, K P; Tirmenstein, M A; Fariss, M W; Gapor, A; Sylvester, P W

    2000-02-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the comparative effects of tocopherols and tocotrienols on normal mammary epithelial cell growth and viability. Cells isolated from midpregnant BALB/c mice were grown within collagen gels and maintained on serum-free media. Treatment with 0-120 microM alpha- and gamma-tocopherol had no effect, whereas 12.5-100m microM tocotrienol-rich fraction of palm oil (TRF), 100-120 microM delta-tocopherol, 50-60 microM alpha-tocotrienol, and 8-14 microM gamma- or delta-tocotrienol significantly inhibited cell growth in a dose-responsive manner. In acute studies, 24-h exposure to 0-250 microM alpha-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol had no effect, whereas similar treatment with 100-250 microM TRF, 140-250 microM alpha-, 25-100 microM gamma- or delta-tocotrienol significantly reduced cell viability. Growth-inhibitory doses of TRF, delta-tocopherol, and alpha-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienol were shown to induce apoptosis in these cells, as indicated by DNA fragmentation. Results also showed that mammary epithelial cells more easily or preferentially took up tocotrienols as compared to tocopherols, suggesting that at least part of the reason tocotrienols display greater biopotency than tocopherols is because of greater cellular accumulation. In summary, these findings suggest that the highly biopotent gamma- and delta-tocotrienol isoforms may play a physiological role in modulating normal mammary gland growth, function, and remodeling.

  14. Role of activation of protein kinase C in the stimulation of colonic epithelial proliferation and reactive oxygen formation by bile acids.

    PubMed Central

    Craven, P A; Pfanstiel, J; DeRubertis, F R

    1987-01-01

    Deoxycholate (DOC), chenodeoxycholate, 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), or 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-glycerol (OAG) activated colonic epithelial protein kinase C as reflected by translocation from the soluble to the particulate cell fraction. Activation of protein kinase C was correlated with stimulation of enhanced proliferative activity of colonic mucosa and reactive oxygen production. TPA and OAG, but not DOC, directly activated soluble protein kinase C in vitro. However, DOC rapidly increased labeled inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol accumulation in colonic epithelial cells. Retinoic acid inhibited protein kinase C activity and suppressed DOC-, TPA-, and OAG-induced increases in reactive oxygen production. The results support a role for protein kinase C in the stimulation of colonic epithelial proliferative activity and reactive oxygen production induced by bile acids, TPA and OAG. In contrast to TPA and OAG, which activate protein kinase C directly, bile acids appear to activate protein kinase C indirectly by increasing the diacylglycerol content of colonic epithelium. PMID:3027128

  15. Three-dimensional telomere architecture of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: comparison of tumor and normal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sunpaweravong, S; Sunpaweravong, P; Sathitruangsak, C; Mai, S

    2016-05-01

    Telomeres are repetitive nucleotide sequences (TTAGGG)n located at the ends of chromosomes that function to preserve chromosomal integrity and prevent terminal end-to-end fusions. Telomere loss or dysfunction results in breakage-bridge-fusion cycles, aneuploidy, gene amplification and chromosomal rearrangements, which can lead to genomic instability and promote carcinogenesis. Evaluating the hypothesis that changes in telomeres contribute to the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and to determine whether there are differences between young and old patients, we compared the three-dimensional (3D) nuclear telomere architecture in ESCC tumor cells with that of normal epithelial cells obtained from the same patient. Patients were equally divided by age into two groups, one comprising those less than 45 years of age and the other consisting of those over 80 years of age. Tumor and normal epithelial cells located at least 10 cm from the border of the tumor were biopsied in ESCC patients. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed for each sample to confirm and identify the cancer and normal epithelial cells. This study was based on quantitative 3D fluorescence in situ hybridization (Q-FISH), 3D imaging and 3D analysis of paraffin-embedded slides. The 3D telomere architecture data were computer analyzed using 100 nuclei per slide. The following were the main parameters compared: the number of signals (number of telomeres), signal intensity (telomere length), number of telomere aggregates, and nuclear volume. Tumor and normal epithelial samples from 16 patients were compared. The normal epithelial cells had more telomere signals and higher intensities than the tumor cells, with P-values of P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0078, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in the numbers of telomere aggregates or the nuclear volumes between the tumor and normal epithelial cells. Secondary analyses examined the effects of age on 3D telomere

  16. Normal Human Lung Epithelial Cells Inhibit Transforming Growth Factor-β Induced Myofibroblast Differentiation via Prostaglandin E2

    PubMed Central

    Epa, Amali P.; Thatcher, Thomas H.; Pollock, Stephen J.; Wahl, Lindsay A.; Lyda, Elizabeth; Kottmann, R. M.; Phipps, Richard P.; Sime, Patricia J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive disease with very few effective treatments. The key effector cells in fibrosis are believed to be fibroblasts, which differentiate to a contractile myofibroblast phenotype with enhanced capacity to proliferate and produce extracellular matrix. The role of the lung epithelium in fibrosis is unclear. While there is evidence that the epithelium is disrupted in IPF, it is not known whether this is a cause or a result of the fibroblast pathology. We hypothesized that healthy epithelial cells are required to maintain normal lung homeostasis and can inhibit the activation and differentiation of lung fibroblasts to the myofibroblast phenotype. To investigate this hypothesis, we employed a novel co-culture model with primary human lung epithelial cells and fibroblasts to investigate whether epithelial cells inhibit myofibroblast differentiation. Measurements and Main Results In the presence of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, fibroblasts co-cultured with epithelial cells expressed significantly less α-smooth muscle actin and collagen and showed marked reduction in cell migration, collagen gel contraction, and cell proliferation compared to fibroblasts grown without epithelial cells. Epithelial cells from non-matching tissue origins were capable of inhibiting TGF-β induced myofibroblast differentiation in lung, keloid and Graves’ orbital fibroblasts. TGF-β promoted production of prostaglandin (PG) E2 in lung epithelial cells, and a PGE2 neutralizing antibody blocked the protective effect of epithelial cell co-culture. Conclusions We provide the first direct experimental evidence that lung epithelial cells inhibit TGF-β induced myofibroblast differentiation and pro-fibrotic phenotypes in fibroblasts. This effect is not restricted by tissue origin, and is mediated, at least in part, by PGE2. Our data support the hypothesis that the epithelium plays a crucial role in maintaining lung homeostasis

  17. Surface modification of microparticles causes differential uptake responses in normal and tumoral human breast epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Patiño, Tania; Soriano, Jorge; Barrios, Lleonard; Ibáñez, Elena; Nogués, Carme

    2015-01-01

    The use of micro- and nanodevices as multifunctional systems for biomedical applications has experienced an exponential growth during the past decades. Although a large number of studies have focused on the design and fabrication of new micro- and nanosystems capable of developing multiple functions, a deeper understanding of their interaction with cells is required. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of different microparticle surfaces on their interaction with normal and tumoral human breast epithelial cell lines. For this, AlexaFluor488 IgG functionalized polystyrene microparticles (3 μm) were coated with Polyethyleneimine (PEI) at two different molecular weights, 25 and 750 kDa. The effect of microparticle surface properties on cytotoxicity, cellular uptake and endocytic pathways were assessed for both normal and tumoral cell lines. Results showed a differential response between the two cell lines regarding uptake efficiency and mechanisms of endocytosis, highlighting the potential role of microparticle surface tunning for specific cell targeting. PMID:26068810

  18. E-Cigarette Affects the Metabolome of Primary Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Aug, Argo; Altraja, Siiri; Kilk, Kalle; Porosk, Rando; Soomets, Ursel; Altraja, Alan

    2015-01-01

    E-cigarettes are widely believed to be safer than conventional cigarettes and have been even suggested as aids for smoking cessation. However, while reasonable with some regards, this judgment is not yet supported by adequate biomedical research data. Since bronchial epithelial cells are the immediate target of inhaled toxicants, we hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes may affect the metabolome of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) and that the changes are, at least in part, induced by oxidant-driven mechanisms. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of e-cigarette liquid (ECL) on the metabolome of HBEC and examined the potency of antioxidants to protect the cells. We assessed the changes of the intracellular metabolome upon treatment with ECL in comparison of the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) with mass spectrometry and principal component analysis on air-liquid interface model of normal HBEC. Thereafter, we evaluated the capability of the novel antioxidant tetrapeptide O-methyl-l-tyrosinyl-γ-l-glutamyl-l-cysteinylglycine (UPF1) to attenuate the effect of ECL. ECL caused a significant shift in the metabolome that gradually gained its maximum by the 5th hour and receded by the 7th hour. A second alteration followed at the 13th hour. Treatment with CSC caused a significant initial shift already by the 1st hour. ECL, but not CSC, significantly increased the concentrations of arginine, histidine, and xanthine. ECL, in parallel with CSC, increased the content of adenosine diphosphate and decreased that of three lipid species from the phosphatidylcholine family. UPF1 partially counteracted the ECL-induced deviations, UPF1's maximum effect occurred at the 5th hour. The data support our hypothesis that ECL profoundly alters the metabolome of HBEC in a manner, which is comparable and partially overlapping with the effect of CSC. Hence, our results do not support the concept of harmlessness of e-cigarettes.

  19. Annexin II binds progastrin and gastrin-like peptides, and mediates growth factor effects of autocrine and exogenous gastrins on colon cancer and intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, P; Wu, H; Clark, C; Owlia, A

    2007-01-18

    We and others have reported the presence of novel progastrin (PG)/gastrin receptors on normal and cancerous intestinal cells. We had earlier reported the presence of 33-36 kDa gastrin-binding proteins on cellular membranes of colon cancer cells. The goal of the current study was to identify the protein(s) in the 33-36 kDa band, and analyse its functional significance. A carbodiimide crosslinker was used for crosslinking radio-labeled gastrins to membrane proteins from gastrin/PG responsive cell lines. Native membrane proteins, crosslinked to the ligand, were solubulized and enriched by >1000-fold, and analysed by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry. The peptide masses were researched against the NCBInr database using the ProFound search engine. Annexin II (ANX II) was identified, and confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry. As HCT-116 cells express autocrine PG, the in situ association of PG with ANX II was demonstrated in pulldown assays. Direct binding of PG with ANX II was confirmed in an in vitro binding assay. In order to confirm a functional importance of these observations, sense and anti-sense (AS) ANX II RNA-expressing clones of intestinal epithelial (IEC-18) and human colon cancer (HCT-116) cell lines were generated. AS clones demonstrated a significant loss in the growth response to exogenous (IEC-18) and autocrine (HCT-116) PG. We have thus discovered that membrane-associated ANX II binds PG/gastrins, and partially mediates growth factor effects of the peptides.

  20. Reciprocal Paracrine Interactions Between Normal Human Epithelial and Mesenchymal Cells Protect Cellular DNA from Radiation-Induced Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Nakazawa, Yuka; Saenko, Vladimir Rogounovitch, Tatiana; Suzuki, Keiji; Mitsutake, Norisato; Matsuse, Michiko; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To explore whether interactions between normal epithelial and mesenchymal cells can modulate the extent of radiation-induced DNA damage in one or both types of cells. Methods and Materials: Human primary thyrocytes (PT), diploid fibroblasts BJ, MRC-5, and WI-38, normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC), and endothelial human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUV-EC-C), cultured either individually or in co-cultures or after conditioned medium transfer, were irradiated with 0.25 to 5 Gy of {gamma}-rays and assayed for the extent of DNA damage. Results: The number of {gamma}-H2AX foci in co-cultures of PT and BJ fibroblasts was approximately 25% lower than in individual cultures at 1 Gy in both types of cells. Reciprocal conditioned medium transfer to individual cultures before irradiation resulted in approximately a 35% reduction of the number {gamma}-H2AX foci at 1 Gy in both types of cells, demonstrating the role of paracrine soluble factors. The DNA-protected state of cells was achieved within 15 min after conditioned medium transfer; it was reproducible and reciprocal in several lines of epithelial cells and fibroblasts, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells but not in epithelial and endothelial cells. Unlike normal cells, human epithelial cancer cells failed to establish DNA-protected states in fibroblasts and vice versa. Conclusions: The results imply the existence of a network of reciprocal interactions between normal epithelial and some types of mesenchymal cells mediated by soluble factors that act in a paracrine manner to protect DNA from genotoxic stress.

  1. Electroporation-assisted penetration of zinc oxide nanoparticles in ex vivo normal and cancerous human colon tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L. P.; Wu, G. Y.; Wei, H. J.; Guo, Z. Y.; Yang, H. Q.; He, Y. H.; Xie, S. S.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we presented the research of the penetration of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) (30 and 90 nm), and electroporation (EP) assisted penetration of the ZnO NPs in the human normal colon (NC) and adenomatous colon (AC) tissues studied with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and diffuse reflectance (DR) measurement. The results have shown that the attenuation coefficient of colon tissue after the application of 30 or 90 nm ZnO NPs alone decreased approximately by 28% and 14% for NC tissue, 35% and 22% for AC tissue, respectively; while the attenuation coefficient of colon tissue after combined application of 30 or 90 nm ZnO NPs/EP decreased approximately by 46% and 30% for NC tissue, and 53% and 42% for AC tissue, respectively. The results illustrate EP can significantly increase the penetration of ZnO NPs in the colon tissue, especially in AC tissue. Through the analysis of attenuation coefficient and reflectance intensity of the colon tissue, we find that the accumulation of the ZnO NPs in the colon tissue greatly influenced the tissue optical properties.

  2. Extensive quantitative remodeling of the proteome between normal colon tissue and adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wiśniewski, Jacek R; Ostasiewicz, Paweł; Duś, Kamila; Zielińska, Dorota F; Gnad, Florian; Mann, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    We report a proteomic analysis of microdissected material from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded colorectal cancer, quantifying >7500 proteins between patient matched normal mucosa, primary carcinoma, and nodal metastases. Expression levels of 1808 proteins changed significantly between normal and cancer tissues, a much larger fraction than that reported in transcript-based studies. Tumor cells exhibit extensive alterations in the cell-surface and nuclear proteomes. Functionally similar changes in the proteome were observed comparing rapidly growing and differentiated CaCo-2 cells. In contrast, there was minimal proteomic remodeling between primary cancer and metastases, suggesting that no drastic proteome changes are necessary for the tumor to propagate in a different tissue context. Additionally, we introduce a new way to determine protein copy numbers per cell without protein standards. Copy numbers estimated in enterocytes and cancer cells are in good agreement with CaCo-2 and HeLa cells and with the literature data. Our proteomic data set furthermore allows mapping quantitative changes of functional protein classes, enabling novel insights into the biology of colon cancer. PMID:22968445

  3. The enhancement of phase 2 enzyme activities by sodium butyrate in normal intestinal epithelial cells is associated with Nrf2 and p53.

    PubMed

    Yaku, Keisuke; Enami, Yuka; Kurajyo, Chika; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao; Konishi, Yotaro; Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko

    2012-11-01

    Dietary fiber fermentation by the colonic bacterial flora produces short-chain fatty acids, acetate, propionate and butyrate. Among them, butyrate is considered to be the major energy substrate for colonocytes and, at least in rats, seems to protect against colonic carcinogenesis. In this study, we examined the effect and the mechanisms of short-chain fatty acids on the activity of phase 2 enzymes. Sodium butyrate increased phase 2 enzyme activities in normal rat small intestine epithelial cells, Glutathione S-transferase and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) in a dose-dependent manner(;) however, other short-chain fatty acids did not increase them. The mechanism of the induction of phase 2 enzymes with sodium butyrate sodium butyrate, but not other short-chain fatty acids was related to the increase of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation and the decrease in the levels of nuclear fraction p53. Sodium butyrate also caused enhancement of Nrf2 mRNA levels and suppression of p53 mRNA levels. Sodium butyrate enhances the activities of phase 2 enzymes via an increase in the Nrf2 protein levels in the nucleus and a decrease in the mRNA and protein levels of p53.

  4. Simultaneous evaluation of tear turnover and corneal epithelial permeability by fluorophotometry in normal subjects and patients with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS).

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, J D

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: To simultaneously determine the tear turn over rate (TT) and corneal epithelial permeability (Pdc) in normal subjects and patients with KCS by a single-drop fluorophotometric technique using disodium fluorescein (DSF) or carboxyfluorescein (CF). METHODS: DSF was instilled in one eye chosen at random and CF in the fellow eye of 13 normal subjects and in 13 patients with KCS. TT and Pdc were determined using a single-drop technique on a Fluorotron Master. RESULTS: In normals and KCS subjects, TT was found to be independent of age and sex and essentially identical for DSF and CF. TT was approximately 42% lower in KCS subjects than normals (Table). TT was independent of Schirmer's I and Pdc. [table: see text] Pdc values were similar for DSF and CF in normals and increased with age. In KCS subjects, Pdc was 3-4 times higher compared to normal subjects (p < 0.01) and was directly correlated with the severity of corneal punctate staining. Pdc was independent of TT. CONCLUSION: Patients with KCS are more susceptible to the therapeutic and toxic effects of topical medications and preservatives due to increased corneal epithelial permeability. With the decreased TT in KCS patients, there is also slower elimination of substances from the tear film. This, combined with the increase in epithelial permeability, puts the KCS eye doubly at risk for the toxic effects of topically applied substances. PMID:8719697

  5. Transporter function and cyclic AMP turnover in normal colonic mucosa from patients with and without colorectal neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of colorectal neoplasia is still unresolved but has been associated with alterations in epithelial clearance of xenobiotics and metabolic waste products. The aim of this study was to functionally characterize the transport of cyclic nucleotides in colonic biopsies from patients with and without colorectal neoplasia. Methods Cyclic nucleotides were used as model substrates shared by some OATP- and ABC-transporters, which in part are responsible for clearance of metabolites and xenobiotics from the colonic epithelium. On colonic biopsies from patients with and without colorectal neoplasia, molecular transport was electrophysiologically registered in Ussing-chamber set-ups, mRNA level of selected transporters was quantified by rt-PCR, and subcellular location of transporters was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results Of four cyclic nucleotides, dibuturyl-cAMP induced the largest short circuit current in both patient groups. The induced short circuit current was significantly lower in neoplasia-patients (p = 0.024). The observed altered transport of dibuturyl-cAMP in neoplasia-patients could not be directly translated to an observed increased mRNA expression of OATP4A1 and OATP2B1 in neoplasia patients. All other examined transporters were expressed to similar extents in both patient groups. Conclusions OATP1C1, OATP4A1, OATP4C1 seem to be involved in the excretory system of human colon. ABCC4 is likely to be involved from an endoplasmic-Golgi complex and basolateral location in goblet cells. ABCC5 might be directly involved in the turnover of intracellular cAMP at the basolateral membrane of columnar epithelial cells, while OATP2B1 is indirectly related to the excretory system. Colorectal neoplasia is associated with lower transport or sensitivity to cyclic nucleotides and increased expression of OATP2B1 and OATP4A1 transporters, known to transport PGE2. PMID:22734885

  6. Influence of diet or intrarectal bile acid injections on colon epithelial cell proliferation in rats previously injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine

    SciTech Connect

    Glauert, H.P.; Bennink, M.R.

    1983-03-01

    The effects of varying colon bile acid concentrations on rat colon epithelial cell proliferation were studied. Bile acid concentrations were altered by intrarectally injecting either deoxycholic or lithocholic acid for 4 weeks or by increasing the dietary fat or fiber (wheat bran, agar, or carrageenan) intake for 4 weeks. 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH) was s.c. injected into half of the rats 1 week before treatments began. Colon epithelial cell proliferation was measured by (/sup 3/H)thymidine autoradiography of colon crypts. Rats injected with DMH had more DNA-synthesizing cells per crypt. Neither bile acid injection nor any of the diets altered the number of DNA-synthesizing cells per crypt. DMH injections, deoxycholic and lithocholic acid intrarectal injections, and dietary agar and wheat bran all increased the total number of cells per crypt. High fat diets and dietary carrageenan did not affect cell number. All diets containing fiber lowered total fecal bile acid concentrations, but increasing the fat content of the diet did not affect them. These results indicate that the bile acid injections and dietary agar and wheat bran induce a slight hyperplasia in the colon.

  7. Molecular Mechanisms of Malignant Transformation by Low Dose Cadmium in Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kluz, Thomas; Cohen, Lisa; Shen, Steven S.; Costa, Max

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium is a carcinogenic metal, the mechanisms of which are not fully understood. In this study, human bronchial epithelial cells were transformed with sub-toxic doses of cadmium (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 μM) and transformed clones were characterized for gene expression changes using RNA-seq, as well as other molecular measurements. 440 genes were upregulated and 47 genes were downregulated in cadmium clones relative to control clones over 1.25-fold. Upregulated genes were associated mostly with gene ontology terms related to embryonic development, immune response, and cell movement, while downregulated genes were associated with RNA metabolism and regulation of transcription. Several embryonic genes were upregulated, including the transcription regulator SATB2. SATB2 is critical for normal skeletal development and has roles in gene expression regulation and chromatin remodeling. Small hairpin RNA knockdown of SATB2 significantly inhibited growth in soft agar, indicating its potential as a driver of metal-induced carcinogenesis. An increase in oxidative stress and autophagy was observed in cadmium clones. In addition, the DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase was depleted by transformation with cadmium. MGMT loss caused significant decrease in cell viability after treatment with the alkylating agent temozolomide, demonstrating diminished capacity to repair such damage. Results reveal various mechanisms of cadmium-induced malignant transformation in BEAS-2B cells including upregulation of SATB2, downregulation of MGMT, and increased oxidative stress. PMID:27186882

  8. LncRNAs expression profiling in normal ovary, benign ovarian cyst and malignant epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huan; Fu, Ziyi; Dai, Chencheng; Cao, Jian; Liu, Xiaoguang; Xu, Juan; Lv, Mingming; Gu, Yun; Zhang, Jingmin; Hua, Xiangdong; Jia, Genmei; Xu, Sujuan; Jia, Xuemei; Xu, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) has been recognized as a regulator of gene expression, and the dysregulation of lncRNAs is involved in the progression of many types of cancer, including epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). To explore the potential roles of lncRNAs in EOC, we performed lncRNA and mRNA microarray profiling in malignant EOC, benign ovarian cyst and healthy control tissues. In this study, 663 transcripts of lncRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in malignant EOC compared with benign and normal control tissues. We also selected 18 altered lncRNAs to confirm the validity of the microarray analysis using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Pathway and Gene Ontology (GO) analyses demonstrated that these altered transcripts were involved in multiple biological processes, especially the cell cycle. Furthermore, Series Test of Cluster (STC) and lncRNA-mRNA co-expression network analyses were conducted to predict lncRNA expression trends and the potential target genes of lncRNAs. We also determined that two antisense lncRNAs (RP11-597D13.9 and ADAMTS9-AS1) were associated with their nearby coding genes (FAM198B, ADAMTS9), which participated in cancer progression. This study offers helpful information to understand the initiation and development mechanisms of EOC. PMID:27941916

  9. Overexpression of forkhead Box C2 promotes tumor metastasis and indicates poor prognosis in colon cancer via regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingguo; Wu, Jitao; Wei, Ping; Xu, Ye; Zhuo, Changhua; Wang, Yuwei; Li, Dawei; Cai, Sanjun

    2015-01-01

    Forkhead box protein C2 (FOXC2) plays a vital role in carcinogenesis; however, its significance and prognostic value in colon cancer remain unclear. In this study, FOXC2 expression was analyzed in a tissue microarray (TMA) containing 185 samples of primary colon cancer tumor samples and in human colon cancer cell lines. The effect of FOXC2 on cell proliferation, tumorigenesis, and metastasis was examined in vitro and in vivo. FOXC2 was overexpressed in human colon cancer cells and tissues, and correlated with colon cancer progression and patient survival. Functional study demonstrated that FOXC2 promoted cell growth, cell migration, and tumor formation in nude mice, whereas knockdown of FOXC2 by short hairpin RNA (shRNAs) significantly suppressed cell growth, cell migration and tumor formation. Further study found that FOXC2 enhanced AKT activity with subsequent GSK-3β phosphorylation and Snail stabilization, and then induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and promoted tumor invasion and metastasis. Collectively, FOXC2 promotes colon cancer metastasis by facilitating EMT and acts as a potential prognostic factor and therapeutic target in colon cancer.

  10. Intestinal Microbial Dysbiosis and Colonic Epithelial Cell Hyperproliferation by Dietary α-Mangostin is Independent of Mouse Strain

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Orozco, Fabiola; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M.; Galley, Jeffrey D.; Bailey, Michael T.; Clinton, Steven K.; Lesinski, Gregory B.; Failla, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Beverages and supplements prepared from mangosteen fruit are claimed to support gut health and immunity, despite the absence of supporting evidence from clinical trials. We recently reported that α-mangostin (α-MG), the most abundant xanthone in mangosteen fruit, altered the intestinal microbiome, promoted dysbiosis, and exacerbated colitis in C57BL/6J mice. The objective of this study was to determine whether induction of dysbiosis by dietary α-MG is limited to the C57BL/6J strain or represents a more generic response to chronic intake of the xanthone on the gut microbiota of mice. C3H, Balb/c, Nude FoxN1nu, and C57BL/6J mice, each demonstrating unique microbiomes, were fed standard diet or diet containing 0.1% α-MG for four weeks. Dietary α-MG significantly altered the cecal and colonic microbiota in all four strains of mice, promoting a reduction in generally assumed beneficial bacterial groups while increasing the abundance of pathogenic bacteria. Consumption of α-MG was associated with reduced abundance of Firmicutes and increased abundance of Proteobacteria. The abundance of Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Lactobacillaceae was reduced in α-MG-fed mice, while that of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcaceae was increased. Dietary α-MG also was associated with increased proliferation of colonic epithelial cells, infiltration of immune cells, infiltration of immune cells and increased fluid content in stool. These results suggest that ingestion of pharmacologic doses of xanthones in mangosteen-containing supplements may adversely alter the gut microbiota and should be used with caution. PMID:25621505

  11. Estrogens regulate the expression of NHERF1 in normal colon during the reproductive cycle of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Cuello-Carrión, F Darío; Troncoso, Mariana; Guiñazu, Elina; Valdez, Susana R; Fanelli, Mariel A; Ciocca, Daniel R; Kreimann, Erica L

    2010-12-01

    In breast cancer cell lines, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulator factor 1 (NHERF1) gene is regulated at the transcriptional level by estrogens, the protein expression levels correlate with the presence of estrogen receptors and the effect is blocked by anti-estrogens. However, there is limited information regarding the regulation of NHERF1 by estrogens in normal colon tissue. The NHERF1 protein has an important role in the maintenance of the intestine ultrastructure. NHERF1-deficient mice showed defects in the intestinal microvilli as well as molecular alterations in brush border membrane proteins. Here, we have studied the expression of NHERF1 in normal rat colon and uterus during the reproductive cycle of Wistar rats. We found that NHERF1 expression in rat colon during the estral cycle is modified by estrogen levels: higher expression of NHERF1 was observed during the proestrous and estrous stages and lower expression in diestrous 1 when estrogen levels decreased. In uterus, NHERF1 was expressed in the apical region of the luminal epithelium and glands in all stages of the estral cycle, and in both colon and uterus, the expression was independent of the proliferation status. Our results show that NHERF1 expression is regulated by estrogens in colon during the rat estral cycle.

  12. Lithocholic acid attenuates cAMP-dependent Cl- secretion in human colonic epithelial T84 cells.

    PubMed

    Ao, Mei; Domingue, Jada C; Khan, Nabihah; Javed, Fatima; Osmani, Kashif; Sarathy, Jayashree; Rao, Mrinalini C

    2016-06-01

    Bile acids (BAs) play a complex role in colonic fluid secretion. We showed that dihydroxy BAs, but not the monohydroxy BA lithocholic acid (LCA), stimulate Cl(-) secretion in human colonic T84 cells (Ao M, Sarathy J, Domingue J, Alrefai WA, Rao MC. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 305: C447-C456, 2013). In this study, we explored the effect of LCA on the action of other secretagogues in T84 cells. While LCA (50 μM, 15 min) drastically (>90%) inhibited FSK-stimulated short-circuit current (Isc), it did not alter carbachol-stimulated Isc LCA did not alter basal Isc, transepithelial resistance, cell viability, or cytotoxicity. LCA's inhibitory effect was dose dependent, acted faster from the apical membrane, rapid, and not immediately reversible. LCA also prevented the Isc stimulated by the cAMP-dependent secretagogues 8-bromo-cAMP, lubiprostone, or chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). The LCA inhibitory effect was BA specific, since CDCA, cholic acid, or taurodeoxycholic acid did not alter FSK or carbachol action. While LCA alone had no effect on intracellular cAMP concentration ([cAMP]i), it decreased FSK-stimulated [cAMP]i by 90%. Although LCA caused a small increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i), chelation by BAPTA-AM did not reverse LCA's effect on Isc LCA action does not appear to involve known BA receptors, farnesoid X receptor, vitamin D receptor, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3, or bile acid-specific transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor 5. LCA significantly increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation, which was completely abolished by the MEK inhibitor PD-98059. Surprisingly PD-98059 did not reverse LCA's effect on Isc Finally, although LCA had no effect on basal Isc, nystatin permeabilization studies showed that LCA both stimulates an apical cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl(-) current and inhibits a basolateral K(+) current. In summary, 50 μM LCA greatly inhibits cAMP-stimulated Cl(-) secretion, making low doses of LCA of

  13. Intracellular pH regulates basolateral K+ and Cl- conductances in colonic epithelial cells by modulating Ca2+ activation

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The role of intracellular pH as a modulator of basolateral K+ and Cl- conductances in epithelial cells was studied using digitonin- permeabilized colonic cell layers so that cytosolic pH could be clamped at specific values, while basolateral K+ and Cl- conductances were activated by stepwise increases in intracellular free Ca2+. Increasing the intracellular pH from 6.6 to 8.0 enhanced the sensitivity of both ionic conductances to intracellular Ca2+, but changing extracellular pH had no effect. Maximal K+ and Cl- currents activated by Ca2+ were not affected by changes in intracellular pH, suggesting that protons do not alter the conduction properties of the channels. Hill analysis of the Ca2+ activation process revealed that raising the cytosolic pH from 6.6 to 8.0 reduced the K1/2 for Ca2+ activation. In the absence of Ca2+, changes in intracellular pH did not have a significant effect on the basolateral K+ and Cl- conductances. These results are consistent with the notion that changes in cytosolic pH can modulate basolateral conductances by modifying the action of calcium, perhaps by acting at or near the activation site to provide a mechanism of variable "gain control." PMID:1719125

  14. The antifungal antibiotic, clotrimazole, inhibits Cl- secretion by polarized monolayers of human colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Rufo, P A; Jiang, L; Moe, S J; Brugnara, C; Alper, S L; Lencer, W I

    1996-01-01

    Clotrimazole (CLT) prevents dehydration of the human HbSS red cell through inhibition of Ca++-dependent (Gardos) K+ channels in vitro (1993. J. Clin Invest. 92:520-526.) and in patients (1996. J. Clin Invest. 97:1227-1234.). Basolateral membrane K+ channels of intestinal crypt epithelial cells also participate in secretagogue-stimulated Cl- secretion. We examined the ability of CLT to block intestinal Cl- secretion by inhibition of K+ transport. Cl- secretion was measured as short-circuit current (Isc) across monolayers of T84 cells. CLT reversibly inhibited Cl- secretory responses to both cAMP- and Ca2+-dependent agonists with IC50 values of approximately 5 microM. Onset of inhibition was more rapid when CLT was applied to the basolateral cell surface. Apical Cl- channel and basolateral NaK2Cl cotransporter activities were unaffected by CLT treatment as assessed by isotopic flux measurement. In contrast, CLT strongly inhibited basolateral 86Rb efflux. These data provide evidence that CLT reversibly inhibits Cl- secretion elicited by cAMP-, cGMP-, or Ca2+-dependent agonists in T84 cells. CLT acts distal to the generation of cAMP and Ca2+ signals, and appears to inhibit basolateral K+ channels directly. CLT and related drugs may serve as novel antidiarrheal agents in humans and animals. PMID:8903326

  15. Vitamin D Transport Proteins Megalin and Disabled-2 Are Expressed in Prostate and Colon Epithelial Cells and Are Induced and Activated by All-Trans-Retinoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Ternes, Shantel B.; Rowling, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Megalin and disabled-2 (Dab2) are essential for uptake of the 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25D3)-vitamin D binding protein (DBP) complex in tissues. In the kidney, this mechanism regulates serum 25D3 levels and production of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25D3) by CYP27B1 for systemic use. Previously, we showed that mammary epithelial cells expressing CYP27B1 express megalin and Dab2 and internalize DBP by endocytosis, indicating 25D3 was accessible for conversion to 1,25D3 in extra-renal tissues. Moreover, induction of megalin and Dab2 (protein and mRNA abundance) by all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) enhanced DBP uptake. This suggests megalin and Dab2 play a central role in uptake of vitamin D and may predict actions of vitamin D in extra-renal tissues. Here, we characterized megalin and Dab2 expression and uptake of DBP in transformed human prostate and colon epithelial cells. Megalin and Dab2 were expressed in prostate and colon epithelial cells, which was markedly enhanced following treatment with RA. Furthermore, DBP uptake was stimulated by low-dose RA supplementation in LNCaP, PC-3, and Caco-2 cells. Taken together, these are the first studies to our knowledge that have demonstrated modulated expression of megalin and Dab2, as well as an association between increased expression of endocytic proteins with DBP uptake in prostate and colon cells. PMID:23909735

  16. The Insect Peptide CopA3 Increases Colonic Epithelial Cell Proliferation and Mucosal Barrier Function to Prevent Inflammatory Responses in the Gut*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Hong; Hwang, Jae Sam; Lee, Ik Hwan; Nam, Seung Taek; Hong, Ji; Zhang, Peng; Lu, Li Fang; Lee, Junguee; Seok, Heon; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Lamont, John Thomas; Kim, Ho

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial cells of the gut form a physical barrier against the luminal contents. The collapse of this barrier causes inflammation, and its therapeutic restoration can protect the gut against inflammation. EGF enhances mucosal barrier function and increases colonocyte proliferation, thereby ameliorating inflammatory responses in the gut. Based on our previous finding that the insect peptide CopA3 promotes neuronal growth, we herein tested whether CopA3 could increase the cell proliferation of colonocytes, enhance mucosal barrier function, and ameliorate gut inflammation. Our results revealed that CopA3 significantly increased epithelial cell proliferation in mouse colonic crypts and also enhanced colonic epithelial barrier function. Moreover, CopA3 treatment ameliorated Clostridium difficile toxin As-induced inflammation responses in the mouse small intestine (acute enteritis) and completely blocked inflammatory responses and subsequent lethality in the dextran sulfate sodium-induced mouse model of chronic colitis. The marked CopA3-induced increase of colonocyte proliferation was found to require rapid protein degradation of p21Cip1/Waf1, and an in vitro ubiquitination assay revealed that CopA3 directly facilitated ubiquitin ligase activity against p21Cip1/Waf1. Taken together, our findings indicate that the insect peptide CopA3 prevents gut inflammation by increasing epithelial cell proliferation and mucosal barrier function. PMID:26655716

  17. The Insect Peptide CopA3 Increases Colonic Epithelial Cell Proliferation and Mucosal Barrier Function to Prevent Inflammatory Responses in the Gut.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Hong; Hwang, Jae Sam; Lee, Ik Hwan; Nam, Seung Taek; Hong, Ji; Zhang, Peng; Lu, Li Fang; Lee, Junguee; Seok, Heon; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Lamont, John Thomas; Kim, Ho

    2016-02-12

    The epithelial cells of the gut form a physical barrier against the luminal contents. The collapse of this barrier causes inflammation, and its therapeutic restoration can protect the gut against inflammation. EGF enhances mucosal barrier function and increases colonocyte proliferation, thereby ameliorating inflammatory responses in the gut. Based on our previous finding that the insect peptide CopA3 promotes neuronal growth, we herein tested whether CopA3 could increase the cell proliferation of colonocytes, enhance mucosal barrier function, and ameliorate gut inflammation. Our results revealed that CopA3 significantly increased epithelial cell proliferation in mouse colonic crypts and also enhanced colonic epithelial barrier function. Moreover, CopA3 treatment ameliorated Clostridium difficile toxin As-induced inflammation responses in the mouse small intestine (acute enteritis) and completely blocked inflammatory responses and subsequent lethality in the dextran sulfate sodium-induced mouse model of chronic colitis. The marked CopA3-induced increase of colonocyte proliferation was found to require rapid protein degradation of p21(Cip1/Waf1), and an in vitro ubiquitination assay revealed that CopA3 directly facilitated ubiquitin ligase activity against p21(Cip1/Waf1). Taken together, our findings indicate that the insect peptide CopA3 prevents gut inflammation by increasing epithelial cell proliferation and mucosal barrier function.

  18. Cytokine changes in gastric and colonic epithelial cell in response to Planta ovata extract.

    PubMed

    Yakoob, Javed; Jafri, Wasim; Mehmood, Malik Hassan; Abbas, Zaigham; Tariq, Kanwal

    2017-03-22

    Background Psyllium (Planta ovata, Ispaghul) seed and husk are used for treatment of altered bowel habit, i. e. constipation and diarrhea. We studied the effect of Ispaghul extract on secretion of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) by AGS (ATCC CRL 1739) and SW480 (ATCC CCL-227) epithelial cell lines and determined whether Ispaghul extract has an effect on IL-1β secretion by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-stimulated AGS cell and Escherichia coli K-12 (E. coli K-12)-stimulated SW480 cells in vitro. Methods The AGS cells and SW480 cells were pretreated with Ispaghul extract in concentrations, i. e. 3.5 and 7 μg/mL prior to infection with H. pylori and E. coli K-12. Results DNA fragmentation in AGS and SW480 cells treated with Ispaghul extract was not significant (2.3±0.8 %) compared with untreated cells (2.2±0.6 %). Ispaghul extract decreased the H. pylori-stimulated secretion of IL-1β by AGS cell (p<0.0001). This effect did not increase as the concentration of extract was increased. Ispaghul extract also decreased E. coli K-12-stimulated IL-1β secretion by SW480 cell (p<0.0001). This effect increased as the concentration of extracts was increased. Conclusions Ispaghul extract had an effect on stimulated secretion of IL-1β by the AGS and SW480 cell. It decreased pro-inflammatory reaction from both cell lines stimulated by bacteria.

  19. IL-32θ inhibits stemness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of cancer stem cells via the STAT3 pathway in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Yesol; Kwon, Taeho; Bak, In seon; Hong, Jintae; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Yoon, Do-Young

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-32 is a well-known cytokine associated with inflammation, virus infections and cancer. IL-32θ is a newly identified isoform of IL-32, whose function has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated IL-32θ function in colon cancer stem cells. Using samples from colon cancer patients, we found that the expression of IL-32θ mRNAs was significantly suppressed in tumor regions. We investigated the effects of IL-32θ on colon cancer. Ectopic expression of IL-32θ attenuated invasion, migration in vitro and in vivo tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells. IL-32θ inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), resulting in the suppression of their migratory and invasive capabilities of HT29 colon cancer cells. In addition, IL-32θ altered various properties of CSCs, including sphere formation and expression of stemness related genes. IL-32θ directly bound to STAT3 and inhibited its nuclear translocation, leading to inhibited transcription of downstream factors, including Bmi1 and ZEB1. We showed that IL-32θ inhibited the STAT3-ZEB1 pathway and consequently inhibited key factors of stemness and EMT. Taken together, our findings reveal that IL-32θ can be a tumor suppressor, indicating that IL-32θ could possibly be used in therapies for colon cancer. PMID:26824417

  20. Acquisition of 5-fluorouracil resistance induces epithelial-mesenchymal transitions through the Hedgehog signaling pathway in HCT-8 colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    LIU, YANJUN; DU, FANGFANG; ZHAO, QIANNAN; JIN, JIAN; MA, XIN; LI, HUAZHONG

    2015-01-01

    Colon cancer has a high incidence in individuals >60-years-old. The commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), has gradually lost its potency in treating colorectal cancer following the acquisition of resistance. Drug resistance is usually associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) in cancer cells. In the present study, the EMT phenotypes of two colon cancer cell lines, wild-type (HCT-8/WT) and 5-FU-resistant (HCT-8/5-FU), were characterized following the analysis of cellular migration, proliferation, morphology and molecular changes. In order to further clarify the mechanism of EMT in HCT-8/5-FU cells, the effect of EMT pathway inhibitors upon drug sensitivity was investigated. The results revealed that the Hedgehog signaling pathway inhibitor, GDC0449, reversed drug resistance. Therefore, inhibition of the Hedgehog pathway may provide a novel chemotherapeutic strategy for the treatment of patients with 5-FU-resistant colon cancer. PMID:26137127

  1. Influence of acid and bile acid on ERK activity, PPARγ expression and cell proliferation in normal human esophageal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhi-Ru; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Zhen-Ni; Qiao, Zhe

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To observe the effects of acid and bile acid exposure on cell proliferation and the expression of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in normal human esophageal epithelial cells in vitro. METHODS: In vitro cultured normal human esophageal epithelial cells were exposed to acidic media (pH 4.0 - 6.5), media containing different bile acid (250 μmol/L), media containing acid and bile acid, respectively. Cell proliferation was assessed using MTT and flow cytometry. The expressions of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and PPARγ protein were determined by the immunoblotting technique. RESULTS: Acid-exposed (3 min) esophageal cells exhibited a significant increase in proliferation ratio, S phase of the cell cycle (P < 0.05) and the level of phosphorylated ERK1/2 protein. When the acid-exposure period exceeded 6 min, we observed a decrease in proliferation ratio and S phase of the cell cycle, with an increased apoptosis ratio (P < 0.05). Bile acid exposure (3-12 min) also produced an increase in proliferation ratio, S phase of the cell cycle (P < 0.05) and phosphorylated ERK1/2 expression. On the contrary, deoxycholic acid (DCA) exposure (> 20 min) decreased proliferation ratio. Compared with bile acid exposure (pH 7.4), bile acid exposure (pH 6.5, 4) significantly decreased proliferation ratio (P < 0.05). There was no expression of PPARγ in normal human esophageal epithelial cells. CONCLUSION: The rapid stimuli of acid or bile acid increase proliferation in normal human esophageal epithelial cells by activating the ERK pathway. PMID:16688842

  2. Ex vivo 2D and 3D HSV-2 infection model using human normal vaginal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yaqi; Yang, Yan; Guo, Juanjuan; Dai, Ying; Ye, Lina; Qiu, Jianbin; Zeng, Zhihong; Wu, Xiaoting; Xing, Yanmei; Long, Xiang; Wu, Xufeng; Ye, Lin; Wang, Shubin; Li, Hui

    2017-01-27

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infects human genital mucosa and establishes life-long latent infection. It is unmet need to establish a human cell-based microphysiological system for virus biology and anti-viral drug discovery. One of barriers is lacking of culture system of normal epithelial cells in vitro over decades. In this study, we established human normal vaginal epithelial cell (HNVEC) culture using co-culture system. HNVEC cells were then propagated rapidly and stably in a defined culture condition. HNVEC cells exhibited a normal diploid karyotype and formed the well-defined and polarized spheres in matrigel three-dimension (3D) culture, while malignant cells (HeLa) formed disorganized and nonpolar solid spheres. HNVEC cells had a normal cellular response to DNA damage and had no transforming property using soft agar assays. HNVEC expressed epithelial marker cytokeratin 14 (CK14) and p63, but not cytokeratin 18 (CK18). Next, we reconstructed HNVEC-derived 3D vaginal epithelium using air-liquid interface (ALI) culture. This 3D vaginal epithelium has the basal and apical layers with expression of epithelial markers as its originated human vaginal tissue. Finally, we established an HSV-2 infection model based on the reconstructed 3D vaginal epithelium. After inoculation of HSV-2 (G strain) at apical layer of the reconstructed 3D vaginal epithelium, we observed obvious pathological effects gradually spreading from the apical layer to basal layer with expression of a viral protein. Thus, we established an ex vivo 2D and 3D HSV-2 infection model that can be used for HSV-2 virology and anti-viral drug discovery.

  3. Long-term exposure of MCF-12A normal human breast epithelial cells to ethanol induces epithelial mesenchymal transition and oncogenic features

    PubMed Central

    GELFAND, ROBERT; VERNET, DOLORES; BRUHN, KEVIN; VADGAMA, JAYDUTT; GONZALEZ-CADAVID, NESTOR F.

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholism is associated with breast cancer incidence and progression, and moderate chronic consumption of ethanol is a risk factor. The mechanisms involved in alcohol's oncogenic effects are unknown, but it has been speculated that they may be mediated by acetaldehyde. We used the immortalized normal human epithelial breast cell line MCF-12A to determine whether short- or long-term exposure to ethanol or to acetaldehyde, using in vivo compatible ethanol concentrations, induces their oncogenic transformation and/or the acquisition of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Cultures of MCF-12A cells were incubated with 25 mM ethanol or 2.5 mM acetaldehyde for 1 week, or with lower concentrations (1.0–2.5 mM for ethanol, 1.0 mM for acetaldehyde) for 4 weeks. In the 4-week incubation, cells were also tested for anchorage-independence, including isolation of soft agar selected cells (SASC) from the 2.5 mM ethanol incubations. Cells were analyzed by immunocytofluorescence, flow cytometry, western blotting, DNA microarrays, RT/PCR, and assays for miRs. We found that short-term exposure to ethanol, but not, in general, to acetaldehyde, was associated with transcriptional upregulation of the metallothionein family genes, alcohol metabolism genes, and genes suggesting the initiation of EMT, but without related phenotypic changes. Long-term exposure to the lower concentrations of ethanol or acetaldehyde induced frank EMT changes in the monolayer cultures and in SASC as demonstrated by changes in cellular phenotype, mRNA expression, and microRNA expression. This suggests that low concentrations of ethanol, with little or no mediation by acetaldehyde, induce EMT and some traits of oncogenic transformation such as anchorage-independence in normal breast epithelial cells. PMID:27035792

  4. Expression and function of the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor J (PTPRJ) in normal mammary epithelial cells and breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Smart, Chanel E; Askarian Amiri, Marjan E; Wronski, Ania; Dinger, Marcel E; Crawford, Joanna; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A; Vargas, Ana Cristina; Reid, Lynne; Simpson, Peter T; Song, Sarah; Wiesner, Christiane; French, Juliet D; Dave, Richa K; da Silva, Leonard; Purdon, Amy; Andrew, Megan; Mattick, John S; Lakhani, Sunil R; Brown, Melissa A; Kellie, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor J, PTPRJ, is a tumor suppressor gene that has been implicated in a range of cancers, including breast cancer, yet little is known about its role in normal breast physiology or in mammary gland tumorigenesis. In this paper we show that PTPRJ mRNA is expressed in normal breast tissue and reduced in corresponding tumors. Meta-analysis revealed that the gene encoding PTPRJ is frequently lost in breast tumors and that low expression of the transcript associated with poorer overall survival at 20 years. Immunohistochemistry of PTPRJ protein in normal human breast tissue revealed a distinctive apical localisation in the luminal cells of alveoli and ducts. Qualitative analysis of a cohort of invasive ductal carcinomas revealed retention of normal apical PTPRJ localization where tubule formation was maintained but that tumors mostly exhibited diffuse cytoplasmic staining, indicating that dysregulation of localisation associated with loss of tissue architecture in tumorigenesis. The murine ortholog, Ptprj, exhibited a similar localisation in normal mammary gland, and was differentially regulated throughout lactational development, and in an in vitro model of mammary epithelial differentiation. Furthermore, ectopic expression of human PTPRJ in HC11 murine mammary epithelial cells inhibited dome formation. These data indicate that PTPRJ may regulate differentiation of normal mammary epithelia and that dysregulation of protein localisation may be associated with tumorigenesis.

  5. The molecular and cellular response of normal and progressed human bronchial epithelial cells to HZE particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Minna, John; Park, Seong-mi; Larsen, Jill

    We have used a model of non-oncogenically immortalized normal human bronchial epithelial cells to determine the response of such cells to particles found outside the protection of the earth’s electromagnetic field. We have identified an enhanced frequency of cellular transformation, as measured by growth in soft agar, for both 56Fe and 28Si (1 GeV/n) that is maximal (4-6 fold) at 0.25 Gy and 0.40 Gy, respectively. At 4 months post-irradiation 38 individual soft agar clones were isolated. These clones were characterized extensively for cellular and molecular changes. Gene expression analysis suggested that these clones had down-regulated several genes associated with anti-oxidant pathways including GLS2, GPX1 and 4, SOD2, PIG3, and NQO1 amongst others. As a result, many of these transformed clones were exposed to high levels of intracellular radical oxygen species (ROS), although there appeared not to be any enhanced mitochondrial ROS. DNA repair pathways associated with ATM/ATR signaling were also upregulated. However, these transformants do not develop into tumors when injected into immune-compromised mice, suggesting that they have not progressed sufficiently to become oncogenic. Therefore we chose 6 soft agar clones for continuous culture for an additional 14 months. Amongst the 6 clones, only one clone showed any significant change in phenotype. Clone 3kt-ff.2a, propagated for 18 months, were 2-fold more radioresistant, had a shortened doubling time and the background rate of transformation more than doubled. Furthermore, the morphology of transformed clones changed. Clones from this culture are being compared to the original clone as well as the parental HBEC3KT and will be injected into immune-compromised mice for oncogenic potential. Oncogenically progressed HBECs, HBEC3KT cells that overexpress a mutant RAS gene and where p53 has been knocked down, designated HBEC3KTR53, responded quite differently to HZE particle exposure. First, these cells are more

  6. One-hit effects in cancer: Altered proteome of morphologically normal colon crypts in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Anthony T.; Patel, Bhavinkumar B.; Li, Xin-Ming; Seeholzer, Steven H.; Coudry, Renata A.; Cooper, Harry S.; Bellacosa, Alfonso; Boman, Bruce M.; Zhang, Tao; Litwin, Samuel; Ross, Eric A.; Conrad, Peggy; Crowell, James A.; Kopelovich, Levy; Knudson, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    We studied patients with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP), because they are virtually certain to develop colon cancer, and because much is known about the causative APC gene. We hypothesized that the inherited heterozygous mutation itself leads to changes in the proteome of morphologically normal crypts and the proteins that changed may represent targets for preventive and therapeutic agents. We determined the differential protein expression of morphologically normal colon crypts of FAP patients versus those of individuals without the mutation, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and validation by 2D gel Western blotting. Approximately 13% of 1,695 identified proteins were abnormally expressed in the morphologically normal crypts of APC mutation carriers, indicating that a colon crypt cell under the one-hit state is already abnormal. Many of the expression changes affect pathways consistent with the function of the APC protein, including apoptosis, cell adhesion, cell motility, cytoskeletal organization and biogenesis, mitosis, transcription and oxidative stress response. Thus, heterozygosity for a mutant APC tumor suppressor gene alters the proteome of normal-appearing crypt cells in a gene-specific manner, consistent with a detectable one-hit event. These changes may represent the earliest biomarkers of colorectal cancer development, potentially leading to the identification of molecular targets for cancer prevention. PMID:18794146

  7. p120 Catenin is required for normal tubulogenesis but not epithelial integrity in developing mouse pancreas.

    PubMed

    Hendley, Audrey M; Provost, Elayne; Bailey, Jennifer M; Wang, Yue J; Cleveland, Megan H; Blake, Danielle; Bittman, Ross W; Roeser, Jeffrey C; Maitra, Anirban; Reynolds, Albert B; Leach, Steven D

    2015-03-01

    The intracellular protein p120 catenin aids in maintenance of cell-cell adhesion by regulating E-cadherin stability in epithelial cells. In an effort to understand the biology of p120 catenin in pancreas development, we ablated p120 catenin in mouse pancreatic progenitor cells, which resulted in deletion of p120 catenin in all epithelial lineages of the developing mouse pancreas: islet, acinar, centroacinar, and ductal. Loss of p120 catenin resulted in formation of dilated epithelial tubules, expansion of ductal epithelia, loss of acinar cells, and the induction of pancreatic inflammation. Aberrant branching morphogenesis and tubulogenesis were also observed. Throughout development, the phenotype became more severe, ultimately resulting in an abnormal pancreas comprised primarily of duct-like epithelium expressing early progenitor markers. In pancreatic tissue lacking p120 catenin, overall epithelial architecture remained intact; however, actin cytoskeleton organization was disrupted, an observation associated with increased cytoplasmic PKCζ. Although we observed reduced expression of adherens junction proteins E-cadherin, β-catenin, and α-catenin, p120 catenin family members p0071, ARVCF, and δ-catenin remained present at cell membranes in homozygous p120(f/f) pancreases, potentially providing stability for maintenance of epithelial integrity during development. Adult mice homozygous for deletion of p120 catenin displayed dilated main pancreatic ducts, chronic pancreatitis, acinar to ductal metaplasia (ADM), and mucinous metaplasia that resembles PanIN1a. Taken together, our data demonstrate an essential role for p120 catenin in pancreas development.

  8. Growth of Normal Mouse Vaginal Epithelial Cells in and on Collagen Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Taisen; Uchima, Francis-Dean A.; Ostrander, Patricia L.; Bern, Howard A.

    1983-06-01

    Sustained growth in primary culture of vaginal epithelial cells from ovariectomized adult BALB/cCrg1 mice embedded within or seeded on collagen gel matrix was achieved in a serum-free medium composed of Ham's F-12 medium/Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium, 1:1 (vol/vol), supplemented with insulin, bovine serum albumin fraction V, epidermal growth factor, cholera toxin, and transferrin. Three-dimensional growth of vaginal epithelial cells occurred inside the collagen gel matrix. Cell numbers increased 4- to 8-fold in collagen gel and about 4-fold on collagen gel after 9-10 days in culture. The effect of 17β -estradiol (0.00018-180 nM in gel or 0.018-180 nM on gel) and diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.0186-186 nM in gel) on the growth of vaginal epithelial cells was examined. The addition of estrogen did not enhance the growth of vaginal epithelial cells during this time period either in the complete medium or in a suboptimal medium. Cultures on floating collagen gels in the serum-free medium are composed of 1-3 cell layers with superficial cornification. Estrogen does not appear to be a direct mitogen for vaginal epithelial cells, at least in this system.

  9. Inhibition of Transforming Growth Factor-{beta} Signaling in Normal Lung Epithelial Cells Confers Resistance to Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, Anna; Zagurovskaya, Marianna; Gupta, Seema; Shareef, Mohammed M.; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Ahmed, Mansoor M. . E-mail: mmahmed@geisinger.edu

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: To address the functional role of radiation-induced transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) signaling in a normal epithelial background, we selected a spontaneously immortalized lung epithelial cell line derived from the normal lung tissue of a dominant-negative mutant of the TGF-{beta} RII ({delta}RII) transgenic mouse that conditionally expressed {delta}RII under the control of the metallothionein promoter (MT-1), and assessed this cell line's response to radiation. Methods and Materials: A spontaneously immortalized lung epithelial cell culture (SILECC) was established and all analyses were performed within 50 passages. Colony-forming and terminal transferase dUPT nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays were used to assess clonogenic inhibition and apoptosis, respectively. Western-blot analysis was performed to assess the kinetics of p21, bax, and RII proteins. Transforming growth factor-{beta}-responsive promoter activity was measured using dual-luciferase reporter assay. Results: Exposure to ZnSO{sub 4} inhibited TGF-{beta} signaling induced either by recombinant TGF-{beta}1 or ionizing radiation. The SILECC, treated with either ZnSO{sub 4} or neutralizing antibody against TGF-{beta}, showed a significant increase in radio-resistance compared to untreated cells. Furthermore, the expression of {delta}RII inhibited the radiation-induced up-regulation of the TGF-{beta} effector gene p21{sup waf1/cip1}. Conclusions: Our findings imply that inhibition of radiation-induced TGF-{beta} signaling via abrogation of the RII function enhances the radio-resistance of normal lung epithelial cells, and this can be directly attributed to the loss of TGF-{beta} signaling function.

  10. JS-K, a nitric oxide-releasing prodrug, induces breast cancer cell death while sparing normal mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    McMurtry, Vanity; Saavedra, Joseph E; Nieves-Alicea, René; Simeone, Ann-Marie; Keefer, Larry K; Tari, Ana M

    2011-04-01

    Targeted therapy with reduced side effects is a major goal in cancer research. We investigated the effects of JS-K, a nitric oxide (NO) prodrug designed to release high levels of NO when suitably activated, on human breast cancer cell lines, on non-transformed human MCF-10A mammary cells, and on normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs). Cell viability assay, flow cytometry, electron microscopy, and Western blot analysis were used to study the effects of JS-K on breast cancer and on mammary epithelial cells. After a 3-day incubation, the IC50s of JS-K against the breast cancer cells ranged from 0.8 to 3 µM. However, JS-K decreased the viability of the MCF-10A cells by only 20% at 10-µM concentration, and HMECs were unaffected by 10 µM JS-K. Flow cytometry indicated that JS-K increased the percentages of breast cancer cells under-going apoptosis. Interestingly, flow cytometry indicated that JS-K increased acidic vesicle organelle formation in breast cancer cells, suggesting that JS-K induced autophagy in breast cancer cells. Electron microscopy confirmed that JS-K-treated breast cancer cells underwent autophagic cell death. Western blot analysis showed that JS-K induced the expression of microtubule light chain 3-II, another autophagy marker, in breast cancer cells. However, JS-K did not induce apoptosis or autophagy in normal human mammary epithelial cells. These data indicate that JS-K selectively induces programmed cell death in breast cancer cells while sparing normal mammary epithelial cells under the same conditions. The selective anti-tumor activity of JS-K warrants its further investigation in breast tumors.

  11. Metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by normal human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Van Vleet, T R; Klein, P J; Coulombe, R A

    2001-08-10

    Aflatoxin B, (AFB1) is a potent hepatocarcinogen in animal models and a suspected carcinogen in humans. High concentrations of AFB, have been found in respirable grain dusts, and may therefore be a risk factor for human lung cancer in certain occupations. To study the potential for AFB, activation in human lung, cytochrome P-450 (CYP)-mediated activation and glutathione S-transferase (GST)-mediated detoxification of AFB1 were examined in cultured normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. Cells were exposed to 0. 15 microM or 1.5 microM AFB, for 48 h and media was collected for metabolite analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). At 0. 15 microM, AFB1 was metabolized only to the detoxified metabolite aflatoxin Q1 (AFQ1). At 1.5 microM AFB1, both aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), and AFQ1 were produced. Cells pretreated with 50 degrees M 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC), a CYP 1A inducer, for 72 h prior to 0.15 microM AFB1, produced the activated AFB1 8,9-epoxide (AFBO). Similarly, microsomes prepared from 3MC-pretreated cells formed AFBO, but microsomes from noninduced cells did not. While AFB1-DNA adducts were not detected at low AFB1 concentrations in untreated NHBE, 3MC induction caused the production of AFB1-DNA adducts at 0.015 and 0.15 microM AFB1. Western immunoblots showed that the primary CYP isoforms responsible for AFB1 activation in the liver, 1A and 3A4, to be constitutively expressed in NHBE cells. Expression of CYP 1A was significantly increased in 3MC-pretreated cells, while CYP 3A4 expression increased slightly, but not to the extent of the 1A isoforms. The principal AFBO detoxifying enzyme, glutathione S-transferase (GST), was constitutively expressed in NHBE cells, and was increased approximately twofold by 3MC pretreatment. Cytosolic fractions from neither control nor 3MC-induced NHBE had measurable AFBO conjugating activity, indicating that these cells may lack AFB1-relevant GST activity. From these data, it appears that NHBE cells activate

  12. PAC exhibits potent anti-colon cancer properties through targeting cyclin D1 and suppressing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Al-Qasem, Abeer; Al-Howail, Huda A; Al-Swailem, Mashael; Al-Mazrou, Amer; Al-Otaibi, Basem; Al-Jammaz, Ibrahim; Al-Khalaf, Huda H; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although response rates and overall survival have been improved in recent years, resistance to multiple drug combinations is inevitable. Therefore, the development of more efficient drugs, with fewer side effects is urgently needed. To this end, we have investigated in the present report the effect of PAC, a novel cucumin analogue, on CRC cells both in vitro and in vivo. We have shown that PAC induces apoptosis, mainly via the internal mitochondrial route, and inhibits cell proliferation through delaying the cell cycle at G2/M phase. Interestingly, the pro-apoptotic effect was mediated through STAT3-dependent down-regulation of cyclin D1 and its downstream target survivin. Indeed, change in the expression level of cyclin D1 modulated the expression of survivin and the response of CRC cells to PAC. Furthermore, using the ChIP assay, we have shown PAC-dependent reduction in the binding of STAT3 to the cyclin D1 promoter in vivo. Additionally, PAC suppressed the epithelial-to-mesenchymal process through down-regulating the mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, vimentin and Twist1) and inhibiting the invasion/migration abilities of the CRC cells via repressing the pro-migration/invasion protein kinases AKT and ERK1/2. In addition, PAC inhibited tumor growth and repressed the JAK2/STAT3, AKT/mTOR and MEK/ERK pathways as well as their common downstream effectors cyclin D1 and survivin in humanized CRC xenografts. Collectively, these results indicate that PAC has potent anti-CRC effects, and therefore could constitute an effective alternative chemotherapeutic agent, which may consolidate the adjuvant treatment of colon cancer.

  13. Human Antibodies to PhtD, PcpA, and Ply Reduce Adherence to Human Lung Epithelial Cells and Murine Nasopharyngeal Colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Ravinder; Surendran, Naveen; Ochs, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae adherence to human epithelial cells (HECs) is the first step in pathogenesis leading to infections. We sought to determine the role of human antibodies against S. pneumoniae protein vaccine candidates PhtD, PcpA, and Ply in preventing adherence to lung HECs in vitro and mouse nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization in vivo. Human anti-PhtD, -PcpA, and -Ply antibodies were purified and Fab fragments generated. Fabs were used to test inhibition of adherence of TIGR4 and nonencapsulated strain RX1 to A549 lung HECs. The roles of individual proteins in adherence were tested using isogenic mutants of strain TIGR4. Anti-PhtD, -PcpA, and -Ply human antibodies were assessed for their ability to inhibit NP colonization in vivo by passive transfer of human antibody in a murine model. Human antibodies generated against PhtD and PcpA caused a decrease in adherence to A549 cells (P < 0.05). Anti-PhtD but not anti-PcpA antibodies showed a protective role against mouse NP colonization. To our surprise, anti-Ply antibodies also caused a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in S. pneumoniae colonization. Our results support the potential of PhtD, PcpA, and Ply protein vaccine candidates as alternatives to conjugate vaccines to prevent non-serotype-specific S. pneumoniae colonization and invasive infection. PMID:25245804

  14. Oestradiol decreases colonic permeability through oestrogen receptor β-mediated up-regulation of occludin and junctional adhesion molecule-A in epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Braniste, Viorica; Leveque, Mathilde; Buisson-Brenac, Claire; Bueno, Lionel; Fioramonti, Jean; Houdeau, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Oestradiol modulates paracellular permeability and tight junction (TJ) function in endothelia and reproductive tissues, but whether the ovarian hormones and cycle affect the paracellular pathway in the intestinal epithelium remains unclear. Oestrogen receptors (ERs) are expressed in intestinal epithelial cells, and oestradiol regulates epithelium formation. We examined the effects of oestrous cycle stage, oestradiol benzoate (EB), and progesterone (P) on colonic paracellular permeability (CPP) in the female rat, and whether EB affects expression of the TJ proteins in the rat colon and the human colon cell line Caco-2. In cyclic rats, CPP was determined through lumen-to-blood 51Cr-labelled EDTA clearance, and in Ussing chambers for dextran permeability. CPP was also examined in ovariectomized (OVX) rats treated with P or EB, with and without the ER antagonist ICI 182,780, or with the selective agonists for ERα (propyl pyrazole triol; PPT) or ERβ (diarylpropionitrile; DPN). In oestrus rats, CPP was reduced (P < 0.01) relative to dioestrus. In OVX rats, EB dose-dependently decreased CPP, an effect mimicked by DPN and blocked by ICI 182,780, whereas P had no effect. Oestradiol increased occludin mRNA and protein in the colon (P < 0.05), but not zona occludens (ZO)-1. Further, EB and DPN enhanced occludin and junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-A expression in Caco-2 cells without change in ZO-1, an effect blocked by ICI 182,780. These data show that oestrogen reinforces intestinal epithelial barrier through ERβ-mediated up-regulation of the transmembrane proteins occludin and JAM-A determining paracellular spaces. These findings highlight the importance of the ERβ pathway in the control of colonic paracellular transport and mucosal homeostasis. PMID:19433574

  15. Control of growth and squamous differentiation in normal human bronchial epithelial cells by chemical and biological modifiers and transferred genes.

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, A M; Lechner, J F; Masui, T; Reddel, R R; Mark, G E; Harris, C C

    1989-01-01

    The majority of human lung cancers arise from bronchial epithelial cells. The normal pseudostratified bronchial epithelium is composed of basal, mucous, and ciliated cells. This multi-differentiated epithelium usually responds to xenobiotics and physical injury by undergoing basal cell hyperplasia, mucous cell hyperplasia, and squamous metaplasia. One step of the multistage process of carcinogenesis is thought to involve aberrations in control of the squamous metaplastic processes. Decreased responsiveness to regulators of terminal squamous differentiation may confer a selective clonal expansion advantage to an initiated cell. We studied the effects of endogenous [e.g., transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) and serum] and exogenous [e.g., 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-phorbol-acetate (TPA), tobacco smoke condensate, and aldehydes] modifiers of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cell in a serum-free culture system. NHBE cells are growth inhibited by all of these compounds and induced to undergo squamous differentiation by TGF-beta 1 or TPA. In contrast, lung carcinoma cell lines are relatively resistant to inducers of terminal squamous differentiation which may provide them with a selective growth advantage. Chemical agents and activated protooncogenes (ras,raf,myc) altered the response to endogenous and exogenous inducers of squamous differentiation and caused extended cellular lifespan, aneuploidy, and/or tumorigenicity. The data suggest a close relationship between dysregulation of terminal differentiation pathways and neoplastic transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells. PMID:2538323

  16. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis of two protein tyrosine phosphatase receptors, R and Z1, in colorectal carcinoma, colon adenoma and normal colon tissues.

    PubMed

    Woźniak, Marta; Gamian, Elżbieta; Łaczmańska, Izabela; Sąsiadek, Maria M; Duś-Szachniewicz, Kamila; Ziółkowski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    Two classes of proteins, namely tyrosine kinases (PTK) and phosphatases (PTP), play an important role in cell proliferation and differentiation, thus leading to an acceleration or inhibition of tumour growth. The role of the above proteins in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) growth is a well-known event. In this study we carried out immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis of colorectal carcinoma, adenoma and normal colon tissue in relation to two protein tyrosine phosphatase receptors, R and Z1. Twenty-five cases of CRC were analyzed and the results were compared with similar data obtained in non-malignant tissues. High expression of both PTP receptors was observed in all examined cases of CRC, adenoma and normal colon tissue in this study. These results are not in line with recently published data, showing that genetic coding for PTPRR and PTPRZ1 were hypermethylated in CRC's. We presume that the protein tyrosine phosphatase overexpression in colorectal carcinoma is not enough to protect from the progression of disease.

  17. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING OF NORMAL HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO TRIVALENT ARSENICALS AND DIMETHYLTHIOARSINIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lung is a major target for arsenic carcinogenesis in humans. However, the carcinogenic mode of action of arsenicals is unknown. We investigated, in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS2B) cells, the effects of inorganic arsenic (iAsIII), monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII), dimethylarsi...

  18. Resveratrol and some glucosyl, glucosylacyl, and glucuronide derivatives reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes Scott A adhesion to colonic epithelial cell lines.

    PubMed

    Selma, María V; Larrosa, Mar; Beltrán, David; Lucas, Ricardo; Morales, Juan C; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco; Espín, Juan C

    2012-08-01

    The efficacy of resveratrol and some glucosyl, glucosylacyl, and glucuronide derivatives in inhibiting the adhesion of Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes Scott A to Caco-2 and HT-29 colonic cells was investigated. The three bacteria strains were capable of adhering to both colonic epithelial cell lines, which responded by producing the pro-inflammatory interleukin 8 (IL-8). Adhesion inhibition of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium to colonic cells was ≥60 and ≥40%, respectively, when resveratrol and most of the resveratrol derivatives were applied. Lower adhesion inhibition was observed for the bacteria with higher adherence potential, L. monocytogenes (≥20%). Resveratrol-3-O-(6'-O-butanoyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (BUT) (50 and 100 μM) and resveratrol-3-O-(6'-O-octanoyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (OCT) (50 μM) reduced IL-8 secretion by 100%. These results suggest that one mechanism for the beneficial attributes of resveratrol and especially the derivatives BUT and OCT could be the ability to reduce the adhesion and consequent pro-inflammatory cytokine production in intestinal epithelial cells in response to pathogen adhesion. The potential use of these compounds in the prevention of foodborne infections, intestinal homeostasis loss, and inflammatory bowel diseases could be another step in finding coadjuvants or alternatives to antibiotic treatments.

  19. Fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy of tissue autofluorescence in normal and diseased colon measured ex vivo using a fiber-optic probe.

    PubMed

    Coda, Sergio; Thompson, Alex J; Kennedy, Gordon T; Roche, Kim L; Ayaru, Lakshmana; Bansi, Devinder S; Stamp, Gordon W; Thillainayagam, Andrew V; French, Paul M W; Dunsby, Chris

    2014-02-01

    We present an ex vivo study of temporally and spectrally resolved autofluorescence in a total of 47 endoscopic excision biopsy/resection specimens from colon, using pulsed excitation laser sources operating at wavelengths of 375 nm and 435 nm. A paired analysis of normal and neoplastic (adenomatous polyp) tissue specimens obtained from the same patient yielded a significant difference in the mean spectrally averaged autofluorescence lifetime -570 ± 740 ps (p = 0.021, n = 12). We also investigated the fluorescence signature of non-neoplastic polyps (n = 6) and inflammatory bowel disease (n = 4) compared to normal tissue in a small number of specimens.

  20. Fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy of tissue autofluorescence in normal and diseased colon measured ex vivo using a fiber-optic probe

    PubMed Central

    Coda, Sergio; Thompson, Alex J.; Kennedy, Gordon T.; Roche, Kim L.; Ayaru, Lakshmana; Bansi, Devinder S.; Stamp, Gordon W.; Thillainayagam, Andrew V.; French, Paul M. W.; Dunsby, Chris

    2014-01-01

    We present an ex vivo study of temporally and spectrally resolved autofluorescence in a total of 47 endoscopic excision biopsy/resection specimens from colon, using pulsed excitation laser sources operating at wavelengths of 375 nm and 435 nm. A paired analysis of normal and neoplastic (adenomatous polyp) tissue specimens obtained from the same patient yielded a significant difference in the mean spectrally averaged autofluorescence lifetime −570 ± 740 ps (p = 0.021, n = 12). We also investigated the fluorescence signature of non-neoplastic polyps (n = 6) and inflammatory bowel disease (n = 4) compared to normal tissue in a small number of specimens. PMID:24575345

  1. A molecular signature of normal breast epithelial and stromal cells from Li-Fraumeni syndrome mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Brittney-Shea; Chanoux, Rebecca A.; Liu, Yunlong; Baenziger, Peter H.; Goswami, Chirayu P.; McClintick, Jeanette N.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Pennington, Robert E.; Lipkin, Steven M.; Kopelovich, Levy

    2010-01-01

    Specific changes in gene expression during cancer initiation should enable discovery of biomarkers for risk assessment, early detection and targets for chemoprevention. It has been previously demonstrated that altered mRNA and proteome signatures of morphologically normal cells bearing a single inherited “hit” in a tumor suppressor gene parallel many changes observed in the corresponding sporadic cancer. Here, we report on the global gene expression profile of morphologically normal, cultured primary breast epithelial and stromal cells from Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) TP53 mutation carriers. Our analyses identified multiple changes in gene expression in both morphologically normal breast epithelial and stromal cells associated with TP53 haploinsufficiency, as well as interlocking pathways. Notably, a dysregulated p53 signaling pathway was readily detectable. Pharmacological intervention with the p53 rescue compounds CP-31398 and PRIMA-1 provided further evidence in support of the central role of p53 in affecting these changes in LFS cells and treatment for this cancer. Because loss of signaling mediated by TP53 is associated with the development and survival of many human tumors, identification of gene expression profiles in morphologically normal cells that carry “one-hit” p53 mutations may reveal novel biomarkers, enabling the discovery of potential targets for chemoprevention of sporadic tumors as well. PMID:21311097

  2. Differential expression of IGF-1 mRNA isoforms in colorectal carcinoma and normal colon tissue.

    PubMed

    Kasprzak, Aldona; Szaflarski, Witold; Szmeja, Jacek; Andrzejewska, Małgorzata; Przybyszewska, Wiesława; Kaczmarek, Elżbieta; Koczorowska, Maria; Kościński, Tomasz; Zabel, Maciej; Drews, Michał

    2013-01-01

    RNA decreased as compared to the normal colon tissues, although however, with conservation of both gene promoter activities and with the continued principal splicing IGF-1 mRNA isoforms.

  3. Expression of a TGF-{beta} regulated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor in normal and immortalized airway epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, L.A.; Bloomfield, C.; Johnson, N.F.

    1995-12-01

    Tumors arising from epithelial cells, including lung cancers are frequently resistant to factors that regulate growth and differentiation in normal in normal cells. Once such factor is transforming growth factor-{Beta} (TGF-{Beta}). Escape from the growth-inhibitory effects of TGF-{Beta} is thought to be a key step in the transformation of airway epithelial cells. most lung cancer cell lines require serum for growth. In contrast, normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells are exquisitely sensitive to growth-inhibitory and differentiating effects of TGF-{Beta}. The recent identification of a novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p15{sup INK4B}, which is regulated by TGF-{Beta}, suggests a mechanism by which TGF-{Beta} mediates growth arrest in NHBE cells. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to determine if p15{sup INK4B} is induced by TGF-{Beta} in NHBE cells or immortalized bronchial epithelial (R.1) cells and if that induction corresponds to a G1/S cell-cycle arrest; (2) to determine the temporal relationship between p15{sup INK4B} induction, cell-cycle arrest, and the phosphorylation state of the pRB because it is thought that p15{sup INK4B} acts indirectly by preventing phosphorylation of the RB gene product. In this study, expression of p15{sup INK4B} was examined in NHBE cells and R.1 cells at different time intervals following TGF-{Beta} treatment. The expression of this kinase inhibitor and its relationship to the cell and the pRb phosphorylation state were examined in cells that were both sensitive (NHBE) and resistant (R.1) to the effects of TGF-{Beta}. These results suggest that the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p15{sup INK4B}, is involved in airway epithelial cell differentiation and that loss or reduction of expression plays a role in the resistance of transformed or neoplastic cells to the growth-inhibitory effects of TGF-{Beta}.

  4. MGSA/GRO transcription is differentially regulated in normal retinal pigment epithelial and melanoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Shattuck, R L; Wood, L D; Jaffe, G J; Richmond, A

    1994-01-01

    We have characterized constitutive and cytokine-regulated MGSA/GRO alpha, -beta, and -gamma gene expression in normal retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and a malignant melanoma cell line (Hs294T) to discern the mechanism for MGSA/GRO constitutive expression in melanoma. In RPE cells, constitutive MGSA/GRO alpha, -beta, and -gamma mRNAs are not detected by Northern (RNA) blot analysis although nuclear runoff experiments show that all three genes are transcribed. In Hs294T cells, constitutive MGSA/GRO alpha expression is detectable by Northern blot analysis, and the level of basal MGSA/GRO alpha transcription is 8- to 30-fold higher than in RPE cells. In contrast, in Hs294T cells, basal MGSA/GRO beta and -gamma transcription is only twofold higher than in RPE cells and no beta or gamma mRNA is detected by Northern blot. These data suggest that the constitutive MGSA/GRO alpha mRNA in Hs294T cells is due to increased basal MGSA/GRO alpha gene transcription. The cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) significantly increase the mRNA levels for all three MGSA/GRO isoforms in Hs294T and RPE cells, and both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms are operational. Nuclear runoff assays indicate that in RPE cells, a 1-h IL-1 treatment induces a 10- to 20-fold increase in transcription of MGSA/GRO alpha, -beta and -gamma but only a 2-fold increase in Hs294T cells. Similarly, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene analysis using the MGSA/GRO alpha, -beta, and -gamma promoter regions demonstrates that IL-1 treatment induces an 8- to 14-fold increase in CAT activity in RPE cells but only a 2-fold increase in Hs294T cells. The effect of deletion or mutation of the MGSA/GRO alpha NF-kappa B element, combined with data from gel mobility shift analyses, indicates that the NF-kappa B p50/p65 heterodimer in RPE cells plays an important role in IL-1- and TNF alpha-enhanced gene transcription. In Hs294T cells, gel shift

  5. Exploring processes of organization of normal and neoplastic epithelial tissues in gradient culture.

    PubMed

    Leighton, J

    1994-09-01

    The biology of animal cells in culture is often studied in individual cells or in sheets of cells. The relevance of such studies to the intact animal is unclear, since the spatial conditions encountered by cells in animals is one of dense three-dimensional masses of cells, with limits to migration, and with gradients both of diffusion of metabolites and of morphologic maturation. These spatial requisites have gradually been met in culture. A brief account describes sponge matrix culture for three-dimensional growth and unilaminar, bilaminar, and radial histophysiologic gradient cultures. Some of the common neoplastic abnormalities of surface epithelial tissues are considered. Proposals for investigating the histokinetic mechanisms regulating some epithelial tissue processes are suggested. In the most recent development of gradient culture methods, a thin permeable transparent collagen membrane is intrinsically strengthened by producing a waffle membrane pattern for histophysiologic gradient culture.

  6. Oral epithelial stem cells – implications in normal development and cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Papagerakis, Silvana; Pannone, Giuseppe; Zheng, Li; About, Imad; Taqi, Nawar; Nguyen, Nghia P.T.; Matossian, Margarite; McAlpin, Blake; Santoro, Angela; McHugh, Jonathan; Prince, Mark E.; Papagerakis, Petros

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucosa is continuously exposed to environmental forces and has to be constantly renewed. Accordingly, the oral mucosa epithelium contains a large reservoir of epithelial stem cells necessary for tissue homeostasis. Despite considerable scientific advances in stem cell behavior in a number of tissues, fewer studies have been devoted to the stem cells in the oral epithelium. Most of oral mucosa stem cells studies are focused on identifying cancer stem cells (CSC) in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) among other head and neck cancers. OSCCs are the most prevalent epithelial tumors of the head and neck region, marked by their aggressiveness and invasiveness. Due to their highly tumorigenic properties, it has been suggested that CSC may be the critical population of cancer cells in the development of OSCC metastasis. This review presents a brief overview of epithelium stem cells with implications in oral health, and the clinical implications of the CSC concept in OSCC metastatic dissemination. PMID:24803391

  7. Secondhand smoke inhibits both Cl- and K+ conductances in normal human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is an independent risk factor for asthma, rhinosinusitis, and more severe respiratory tract infections in children and adults. Impaired mucociliary clearance with subsequent mucus retention contributes to the pathophysiology of each of these diseases, suggesting that altered epithelial salt and water transport may play an etiological role. To test the hypothesis that SHS would alter epithelial ion transport, we designed a system for in vitro exposure of mature, well-differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells to SHS. We show that SHS exposure inhibits cAMP-stimulated, bumetanide-sensitive anion secretion by 25 to 40% in a time-dependent fashion in these cells. Increasing the amount of carbon monoxide to 100 ppm from 5 ppm did not increase the amount of inhibition, and filtering SHS reduced inhibition significantly. It was determined that SHS inhibited cAMP-dependent apical membrane chloride conductance by 25% and Ba2+-sensitive basolateral membrane potassium conductance by 50%. These data confirm previous findings that cigarette smoke inhibits chloride secretion in a novel model of smoke exposure designed to mimic SHS exposure. They also extend previous findings to demonstrate an effect on basolateral K+ conductance. Therefore, pharmacological agents that increase either apical membrane chloride conductance or basolateral membrane potassium conductance might be of therapeutic benefit in patients with diseases related to SHS exposure. PMID:19943936

  8. Regulating effect of TongXie-YaoFang on colonic epithelial secretion via Cl- and HCO3- channel

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cheng; Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Sheng-Sheng; An, Fang-Mei; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Qing-Lin; Zhan, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the pharmacological effect of TongXie-YaoFang (TXYF) formula, a Chinese herbal formula, on Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS) rats. METHODS In a neonatal maternal separation plus restraint stress (NMS + RS) model of D-IBS, male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups (NMS + RS group and TXYF-formula group) with no handlings were used as controls (NH group). Starting from postnatal day 60, rats in TXYF-formula group were administered TXYF-formula (4.92 g/100 g bodyweight) orally twice a day for 14 consecutive days while NH group and NMS + RS group were given distilled water. Using short-circuit current technology, we observed 5-HT-induced changes of current across ion channels, such as cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel, epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC), Ca2+-dependent Cl- channel (CACC), Na+-K+-2Cl- co-transporter (NKCC), and Na+-HCO3- co-transporter (NBC), in the colonic epithelium of three groups after exposure to drugs and specific blockers with a Power Lab System (AD Instruments International). RESULTS Under basal conditions, the changes of short-circuit current (∆Isc, µA/cm2) induced by 5-HT were similar in NH group and TXYF-formula group, and both higher than NMS + RS group (70.86 µA/cm2 ± 12.32 µA/cm2, 67.67 µA/cm2 ± 11.68 µA/cm2 vs 38.8 µA/cm2 ± 7.25 µA/cm2, P < 0.01, respectively). When CACC was blocked by 4,4′-diisothiocyanato-stilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid, 5-HT-induced ∆Isc was smaller in NMS + RS group than in NH group and TXYF-formula group, respectively (48.41 µA/cm2 ± 13.15 µA/cm2 vs 74.62 µA/cm2 ± 10.73 µA/cm2, 69.22 µA/cm2 ± 11.7 µA/cm2, P < 0.05, respectively). The similar result could be obtained when ENaC was blocked by Amiloride (44.69 µA/cm2 ± 12.58 µA/cm2 vs 62.05 µA/cm2 ± 11.26 µA/cm2, 62.11 µA/cm2 ± 12.01 µA/cm2, P < 0.05, respectively). However, when CFTR Cl- channel was blocked by 1,1-dimethyl piperidinium chloride

  9. Characterization of Epithelial Progenitors in Normal Human Palatine Tonsils and Their HPV16 E6/E7-Induced Perturbation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sung Yoon Catherine; Kannan, Nagarajan; Zhang, Lewei; Martinez, Victor; Rosin, Miriam P.; Eaves, Connie J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Human palatine tonsils are oropharyngeal lymphoid tissues containing multiple invaginations (crypts) in which the continuity of the outer surface epithelium is disrupted and the isolated epithelial cells intermingle with other cell types. We now show that primitive epithelial cells detectable in vitro in 2D colony assays and in a 3D culture system are CD44+NGFR+ and present in both surface and crypt regions. Transcriptome analysis indicated a high similarity between CD44+NGFR+ cells in both regions, although those isolated from the crypt contained a higher proportion of the most primitive (holo)clonogenic cells. Lentiviral transduction of CD44+NGFR+ cells from both regions with human papillomavirus 16-encoded E6/E7 prolonged their growth in 2D cultures and caused aberrant differentiation in 3D cultures. Our findings therefore reveal a shared, site-independent, hierarchical organization, differentiation potential, and transcriptional profile of normal human tonsillar epithelial progenitor cells. They also introduce a new model for investigating the mechanisms of their transformation. PMID:26527383

  10. [Colon adenoma detection using Kubelka-Munk spectral function of DNA and protein bands].

    PubMed

    Wei, Hua-Jiang; Guo, Zhou-Yi; Xie, Shu-Sen; He, Bo-Hua; Li, Li-Bo; Chen, Xue-Mei; Wu, Guo-Yong; Lu, Jian-Jun

    2009-06-01

    Differential diagnosis of human colon adenoma was studied using the Kubelka-Munk spectral function of the DNA and protein absorption bands at 260 and 280 nm in vitro. Diffuse reflectance spectra of tissue were measured using a spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere attachment. The results of measurement showed that for the spectral range from 590 to 1 064 nm pathological changes of colon epithelial tissues were induced so that there were significant differences in the averaged values of the Kubelka-Munk function f(r infinity) and logarithmic Kubelka-Munk function log [f(r infinity)] of the DNA absorption bands at 260 nm between normal and adenomatous colon epithelial tissues, and the differences were 218% (p < 0.05) and 68.5% (p < 0.05) respectively. Pathological changes of colon epithelial tissues were induced so that there were significant differences in the averaged values of the Kubelka-Munk function f(r infinity) and logarithmic Kubelka-Munk function log [f(r infinity)] of the protein absorption bands at 280 nm between normal and adenomatous colon epithelial tissues, and the differences were 208% (p < 0.05) and 59.0% (p < 0.05) respectively. Pathological changes of colon epithelial tissues were induced so that there were significant differences in the averaged values of the Kubelka-Munk function f(r infinity) and logarithmic Kubelka-Munk function log [f(r infinity)] of the beta-carotene absorption bands at 480 nm between normal and adenomatous colon epithelial tissues, and the differences were 41.7% (p < 0.05) and 32.9% (p < 0.05) respectively. Obviously, pathological changes of colon epithelial tissues were induced so that there were significant changes in the contents of the DNA, protein and beta-carotene of colon epithelial tissues. The conclusion can be applied to rapid, low-cost and noninvasive optical biopsy of colon adenoma, and provides a useful reference.

  11. The effects of cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors on bile-injured and normal equine colon.

    PubMed

    Campbell, N B; Jones, S L; Blikslager, A T

    2002-07-01

    A potential adverse effect of cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibitors (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs]) in horses is colitis. In addition, we have previously shown an important role for COX-produced prostanoids in recovery of ischaemic-injured equine jejunum. It was hypothesised that the nonselective COX inhibitor flunixin would retard repair of bile-injured colon by preventing production of reparative prostaglandins, whereas the selective COX-2 inhibitor, etodolac would not inhibit repair as a result of continued COX-1 activity. Segments of the pelvic flexure were exposed to 1.5 mmol/l deoxycholate for 30 min, after which they were recovered for 4 h in Ussing chambers. Contrary to the proposed hypothesis, recovery of bile-injured colonic mucosa was not affected by flunixin or etodolac, despite significantly depressed prostanoid production. However, treatment of control tissue with flunixin led to increases in mucosal permeability, whereas treatment with etodolac had no significant effect. Therefore, although recovery from bile-induced colonic injury maybe independent of COX-elaborated prostanoids, treatment of control tissues with nonselective COX inhibitors may lead to marked increases in permeability. Alternatively, selective inhibition of COX-2 may reduce the incidence of adverse effects in horses requiring NSAID therapy.

  12. Epithelial and Mesenchymal Cells in the Bovine Colonic Mucosa Differ in Their Responsiveness to Escherichia coli Shiga Toxin 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cells in the depth of the crypts in the bovine colon express CD77 molecules that potentially act as receptors for Shiga toxins (Stx). The implication of this finding for the intestinal colonization 25 of cattle with human pathogenic Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) remains undefined. We used f...

  13. HMGA1 silencing restores normal stem cell characteristics in colon cancer stem cells by increasing p53 levels

    PubMed Central

    Puca, Francesca; Colamaio, Marianna; Federico, Antonella; Gemei, Marica; Tosti, Nadia; Bastos, André Uchimura; Vecchio, Luigi Del; Pece, Salvatore; Battista, Sabrina; Fusco, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    High-mobility group A1 (HMGA1) proteins are architectural chromatinic proteins, abundantly expressed during embryogenesis and in most cancer tissues, but expressed at low levels or absent in normal adult tissues. Several studies have demonstrated that HMGA1 proteins play a causal role in neoplastic cell transformation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of these proteins in the control of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which have emerged as a preferred target in cancer therapy, because of their role in cancer recurrence. We observed that HMGA1 is overexpressed in colon tumour stem cell (CTSC) lines compared to normal and colon cancer tissues. We demonstrated that HMGA1 silencing in CTSCs increases stem cell quiescence and reduces self-renewal and sphere-forming efficiency (SFE). The latter, together with the upregulation and asymmetric distribution of NUMB, is indicative of the recovery of an asymmetric division pattern, typical of normal stem cells. We further found that HMGA1 transcriptionally regulates p53, which is known to control the balance between symmetric and asymmetric divisions in CSCs. Therefore, our data indicate a critical role for HMGA1 in regulating both self-renewal and the symmetric/asymmetric division ratio in CSCs, suggesting that blocking HMGA1 function may be an effective anti-cancer therapy. PMID:24833610

  14. Farnesoid X receptor signal is involved in deoxycholic acid-induced intestinal metaplasia of normal human gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu; Chen, Xin; Zhou, Lu; Wang, Bang-Mao

    2015-11-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling pathway is known to be involved in the metabolism of bile acid, glucose and lipid. In the present study, we demonstrated that 400 µmol/l deoxycholic acid (DCA) stimulation promotes the proliferation of normal human gastric epithelial cells (GES-1). In addition, DCA activated FXR and increased the expression of intestinal metaplasia genes, including caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2 (Cdx2) and mucin 2 (MUC2). The treatment of FXR agonist GW4064/antagonist guggulsterone (Gug.) significantly increased/decreased the expression levels of FXR, Cdx2 and MUC2 protein in DCA-induced GES-1 cells. GW4064/Gug. also enhanced/reduced the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity and binding of the Cdx2 promoter region and NF-κB, the most common subunit p50 protein. Taken together, the results indicated that DCA is capable of modulating the expression of Cdx2 and the downstream MUC2 via the nuclear receptor FXR-NF-κB activity in normal gastric epithelial cells. FXR signaling pathway may therefore be involved in the intestinal metaplasia of human gastric mucosa.

  15. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) triggers apoptosis in normal prostate epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nesterov, Alexandre; Ivashchenko, Yuri; Kraft, Andrew S

    2002-02-07

    TRAIL is a pro-apoptotic cytokine believed to selectively kill cancer cells without harming normal ones. However, we found that in normal human prostate epithelial cells (PrEC) TRAIL is capable of inducing apoptosis as efficiently as in some tumor cell lines. At the same time, TRAIL did not cause apoptosis in several other human primary cell lines: aorta smooth muscle cells, foreskin fibroblasts, and umbilical vein endothelial cells. Compared to these primary cells, PrEC were found to contain significantly fewer TRAIL receptors DcR1 and DcR2 which are not capable of conducting the apoptotic signal. This result suggests that the unusual sensitivity of PrEC to TRAIL may result from their deficiency in anti-apoptotic decoy receptors. The protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide significantly enhanced TRAIL toxicity toward PrEC as measured by tetrazolium conversion but had little or no effect on other TRAIL-induced apoptotic responses. Although cycloheximide did not further accelerate the processing of caspases 3 and 8, it significantly enhanced cleavage of the caspase 3 substrate gelsolin, indicating that in PrEC a protein(s) with a short half-life may inhibit the activity of the executioner caspases toward specific substrates. As the majority of prostate cancers are derived from epithelial cells, our data suggest the possibility that TRAIL could be a useful treatment for the early stages of prostate cancer.

  16. Detection and antibiotic treatment of Mycoplasma arginini contamination in a mouse epithelial cell line restore normal cell physiology.

    PubMed

    Boslett, Brianna; Nag, Subhra; Resnick, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma contamination of cultured cell lines is difficult to detect by routine observation. Infected cells can display normal morphology and the slow growth rate of mycoplasma can delay detection for extended periods of time, compromising experimental results. Positive identification of mycoplasma typically requires cells to be either fixed and stained for DNA or processed with PCR. We present a method to detect mycoplasma using live-cell optical microscopy typically used for routine observation of cell cultures. Images of untreated mycoplasma-infected epithelial cells alongside images of infected cells treated with Plasmocin, a commercially available antibiotic targeted to mycoplasma, are shown. We found that optical imaging is an effective screening tool for detection of mycoplasma contamination. Importantly, we found that cells regained normal function after the contamination was cleared. In conclusion, we present a technique to diagnose probable mycoplasma infections in live cultures without fixation, resulting in faster response times and decreased loss of cell material.

  17. Normal human mammary epithelial cells spontaneously escape senescence and acquire genomic changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanov, S. R.; Kozakiewicz, B. K.; Holst, C. R.; Stampfer, M. R.; Haupt, L. M.; Tlsty, T. D.

    2001-01-01

    Senescence and genomic integrity are thought to be important barriers in the development of malignant lesions. Human fibroblasts undergo a limited number of cell divisions before entering an irreversible arrest, called senescence. Here we show that human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) do not conform to this paradigm of senescence. In contrast to fibroblasts, HMECs exhibit an initial growth phase that is followed by a transient growth plateau (termed selection or M0; refs 3-5), from which proliferative cells emerge to undergo further population doublings (approximately 20-70), before entering a second growth plateau (previously termed senescence or M1; refs 4-6). We find that the first growth plateau exhibits characteristics of senescence but is not an insurmountable barrier to further growth. HMECs emerge from senescence, exhibit eroding telomeric sequences and ultimately enter telomere-based crisis to generate the types of chromosomal abnormalities seen in the earliest lesions of breast cancer. Growth past senescent barriers may be a pivotal event in the earliest steps of carcinogenesis, providing many genetic changes that predicate oncogenic evolution. The differences between epithelial cells and fibroblasts provide new insights into the mechanistic basis of neoplastic transformation.

  18. Markers of fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition demonstrate field cancerization in histologically normal tissue adjacent to breast tumors

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Kristina A.; Heaphy, Christopher M.; Mai, Minh; Vargas, Keith M.; Jones, Anna C.; Vo, Phung; Butler, Kimberly S.; Joste, Nancy E.; Bisoffi, Marco; Griffith, Jeffrey K

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a field of genetically altered but histologically normal tissue extends 1 cm or more from the margins of human breast tumors. The extent, composition and biological significance of this field are only partially understood, but the molecular alterations in affected cells could provide mechanisms for limitless replicative capacity, genomic instability and a microenvironment that supports tumor initiation and progression. We demonstrate by microarray, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry a signature of differential gene expression that discriminates between patient-matched, tumor-adjacent histologically normal breast tissues located 1 cm and 5 cm from the margins of breast adenocarcinomas (TAHN-1 and TAHN-5, respectively). The signature includes genes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling, wound healing, fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Myofibroblasts, which are mediators of wound healing and fibrosis, and intra-lobular fibroblasts expressing MMP2, SPARC, TGF-β3, which are inducers of EMT, were both prevalent in TAHN-1 tissues, sparse in TAHN-5 tissues, and absent in normal tissues from reduction mammoplasty. Accordingly, EMT markers S100A4 and vimentin were elevated in both luminal and myoepithelial cells, and EMT markers α-smooth muscle actin and SNAIL were elevated in luminal epithelial cells of TAHN-1 tissues. These results identify cellular processes that are differentially activated between TAHN-1 and TAHN-5 breast tissues, implicate myofibroblasts as likely mediators of these processes, provide evidence that EMT is occurring in histologically normal tissues within the affected field and identify candidate biomarkers to investigate whether or how field cancerization contributes to the development of primary or recurrent breast tumors. PMID:21105047

  19. Anti-inflammatory Effects of Herbal Preparations STW5 and STW5-II in Cytokine-Challenged Normal Human Colon Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Mathias; Efferth, Thomas; Abdel-Aziz, Heba

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic relapsing intestinal disorders characterized by up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines followed by invasion of immune cells to the intestinal lamina propria. Standard therapies consist of anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive drugs. Since clinical efficiency is not satisfactory and the established drugs have massive side effects, new strategies to treat IBD are required. Herein, we investigate the protective effect of the fixed combination herbal preparations STW5 and STW5-II and the contribution of the corresponding single components in an in vitro inflammation model. The normal human colon epithelial cell line, NCM460, was treated with STW5, STW5-II or their single components for 4 h followed by experimental conditions comparable to induction of colitis. A pro-inflammatory cytokine cocktail consisting of TNF-α, IL-β, and IFN-γ was used to simulate inflammatory stimuli normally caused by immune cells. The effects on NCM460 cells were investigated by enzyme-linked immunoassay and Proteome Profiler®. Levels of IP-10, MCP-1, I-TAC, Groα, and IL-8 were elevated in chemokine-treated cells compared to untreated cells, but significantly reduced upon pretreatment with STW5 or STW5-II. However, the single compounds revealed only little effects on protein expression. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of both combination preparations on pro-inflammatory transcription factors of the STAT family using Western blot. In addition, we tested the effects on upstream MAPK p38. Both, STW5 and STW5-II did not show any effect on MAPK p38, but were effective in reducing phosphorylated levels of STAT1. In conclusion, both combination preparations act in an anti-inflammatory manner by influencing cytokine secretion via reduced activity of the JAK/STAT1 pathway. Relevant differences between STW5 and STW5-II were not found indicating similar efficacies. PMID:27833553

  20. The Innate Immune Responses of Colonic Epithelial Cells to Trichuris muris Are Similar in Mouse Strains That Develop a Type 1 or Type 2 Adaptive Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    deSchoolmeester, Matthew L.; Manku, Harinder; Else, Kathryn J.

    2006-01-01

    Trichuris muris resides in intimate contact with its host, burrowing within cecal epithelial cells. However, whether the enterocyte itself responds innately to T. muris is unknown. This study investigated for the first time whether colonic intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) produce cytokines or chemokines following T. muris infection and whether divergence of the innate response could explain differentially polarized adaptive immune responses in resistant and susceptible mice. Increased expression of mRNA for the proinflammatory cytokines gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor and the chemokine CCL2 (MCP-1) were seen after infection of susceptible and resistant strains, with the only difference in expression being a delayed increase in CCL2 in BALB/c IEC. These increases were ablated in MyD88−/− mice, and NF-κB p65 was phosphorylated in response to T. muris excretory/secretory products in the epithelial cell line CMT-93, suggesting involvement of the MyD88-NF-κB signaling pathway in IEC cytokine expression. These data reveal that IEC respond innately to T. muris. However, the minor differences identified between resistant and susceptible mice are unlikely to underlie the subsequent development of a susceptible type 1 (IFN-γ-dominated) or resistant type 2 (interleukin-4 [IL-4]/IL-13-dominated) adaptive immune response. PMID:17057095

  1. Clostridium difficile-derived membrane vesicles induce the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes and cytotoxicity in colonic epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Asiimwe; Jeon, Hyejin; Selasi, Gati Noble; Na, Seok Hyeon; Kwon, Hyo Il; Kim, Yoo Jeong; Choi, Chi Won; Kim, Seung Il; Lee, Je Chul

    2017-03-09

    Clostridium difficile is the most common etiological agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients. This study investigated the secretion of membrane vesicles (MVs) from C. difficile and determined the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes and cytotoxicity of C. difficile MVs in epithelial cells in vitro. C. difficile ATCC 43255 and two clinical isolates secreted spherical MVs during in vitro culture. Proteomic analysis revealed that MVs of C. difficile ATCC 43255 contained a total of 262 proteins. Translation-associated proteins were the most commonly identified in C. difficile MVs, whereas TcdA and TcdB toxins were not detected. C. difficile ATCC 43255-derived MVs stimulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in human colorectal epithelial Caco-2 cells. Moreover, these extracellular vesicles induced cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, C. difficile MVs are important nanocomplexes that elicit a pro-inflammatory response and induce cytotoxicity in colonic epithelial cells, which may contribute, along with toxins, to intestinal mucosal injury during C. difficile infection.

  2. The innate immune responses of colonic epithelial cells to Trichuris muris are similar in mouse strains that develop a type 1 or type 2 adaptive immune response.

    PubMed

    deSchoolmeester, Matthew L; Manku, Harinder; Else, Kathryn J

    2006-11-01

    Trichuris muris resides in intimate contact with its host, burrowing within cecal epithelial cells. However, whether the enterocyte itself responds innately to T. muris is unknown. This study investigated for the first time whether colonic intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) produce cytokines or chemokines following T. muris infection and whether divergence of the innate response could explain differentially polarized adaptive immune responses in resistant and susceptible mice. Increased expression of mRNA for the proinflammatory cytokines gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor and the chemokine CCL2 (MCP-1) were seen after infection of susceptible and resistant strains, with the only difference in expression being a delayed increase in CCL2 in BALB/c IEC. These increases were ablated in MyD88-/- mice, and NF-kappaB p65 was phosphorylated in response to T. muris excretory/secretory products in the epithelial cell line CMT-93, suggesting involvement of the MyD88-NF-kappaB signaling pathway in IEC cytokine expression. These data reveal that IEC respond innately to T. muris. However, the minor differences identified between resistant and susceptible mice are unlikely to underlie the subsequent development of a susceptible type 1 (IFN-gamma-dominated) or resistant type 2 (interleukin-4 [IL-4]/IL-13-dominated) adaptive immune response.

  3. Clostridium difficile toxin B intoxicated mouse colonic epithelial CT26 cells stimulate the activation of dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tuxiong; Perez-Cordon, Gregorio; Shi, Lianfa; Li, Guangchao; Sun, Xingmin; Wang, Xiaoning; Wang, Jufang; Feng, Hanping

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium difficile causes antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis mainly through two exotoxins TcdA and TcdB that target intestinal epithelial cells. Dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in regulating intestinal inflammatory responses. In the current study, we explored the interaction of TcdB-intoxicated epithelial cells with mouse bone marrow-derived DCs. TcdB induced cell death and heat shock protein translocation in mouse intestinal epithelial CT26 cells. The intoxicated epithelial cells promoted the phagocytosis and the TNF-α secretion by DCs. Incubation with TcdB-intoxicated CT26 cells stimulated DC maturation. Moreover, TcdB-treated CT26 cells induced DC immigration when they were injected into mice subcutaneously. Taken together, these data demonstrate that TcdB-intoxicated intestinal epithelial cells are able to stimulate DC activation in vitro and attract DCs in vivo, indicating that epithelial cells may be able to regulate DC activation under the exposure of TcdB during C. difficile infection. PMID:25743476

  4. Clostridium difficile toxin B intoxicated mouse colonic epithelial CT26 cells stimulate the activation of dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tuxiong; Perez-Cordon, Gregorio; Shi, Lianfa; Li, Guangchao; Sun, Xingmin; Wang, Xiaoning; Wang, Jufang; Feng, Hanping

    2015-04-01

    Clostridium difficile causes antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis mainly through two exotoxins TcdA and TcdB that target intestinal epithelial cells. Dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in regulating intestinal inflammatory responses. In the current study, we explored the interaction of TcdB-intoxicated epithelial cells with mouse bone marrow-derived DCs. TcdB induced cell death and heat shock protein translocation in mouse intestinal epithelial CT26 cells. The intoxicated epithelial cells promoted the phagocytosis and the TNF-α secretion by DCs. Incubation with TcdB-intoxicated CT26 cells stimulated DC maturation. Moreover, TcdB-treated CT26 cells induced DC immigration when they were injected into mice subcutaneously. Taken together, these data demonstrate that TcdB-intoxicated intestinal epithelial cells are able to stimulate DC activation in vitro and attract DCs in vivo, indicating that epithelial cells may be able to regulate DC activation under the exposure of TcdB during C. difficile infection.

  5. Vibrio fischeri flagellin A is essential for normal motility and for symbiotic competence during initial squid light organ colonization.

    PubMed

    Millikan, Deborah S; Ruby, Edward G

    2004-07-01

    The motile bacterium Vibrio fischeri is the specific bacterial symbiont of the Hawaiian squid Euprymna scolopes. Because motility is essential for initiating colonization, we have begun to identify stage-specific motility requirements by creating flagellar mutants that have symbiotic defects. V. fischeri has six flagellin genes that are uniquely arranged in two chromosomal loci, flaABCDE and flaF. With the exception of the flaA product, the predicted gene products are more similar to each other than to flagellins of other Vibrio species. Immunoblot analysis indicated that only five of the six predicted proteins were present in purified flagella, suggesting that one protein, FlaF, is unique with respect to either its regulation or its function. We created mutations in two genes, flaA and flaC. Compared to a flaC mutant, which has wild-type flagellation, a strain having a mutation in the flaA gene has fewer flagella per cell and exhibits a 60% decrease in its rate of migration in soft agar. During induction of light organ symbiosis, colonization by the flaA mutant is impaired, and this mutant is severely outcompeted when it is presented to the animal as a mixed inoculum with the wild-type strain. Furthermore, flaA mutant cells are preferentially expelled from the animal, suggesting either that FlaA plays a role in adhesion or that normal motility is an advantage for retention within the host. Taken together, these results show that the flagellum of V. fischeri is a complex structure consisting of multiple flagellin subunits, including FlaA, which is essential both for normal flagellation and for motility, as well as for effective symbiotic colonization.

  6. Thymosin beta-4 knockdown in IEC-6 normal intestinal epithelial cells induces DNA re-replication via downregulating Emi1.

    PubMed

    Chao, Ta-Chung; Chen, Ke-Jay; Tang, Mei-Chuan; Chan, Li-Chuan; Chen, Po-Min; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai; Su, Yeu

    2014-11-01

    Thymosin β4 (Tβ4 ) is a multifunctional protein already used clinically to treat various diseases; however, the promoting effect of this protein on tumor malignancy should not be neglected. Here, we assessed whether Tβ4 alteration influences normal intestinal epithelial cells because Tβ4 is deemed a novel target for treating colorectal cancer (CRC). For this purpose, we examined the consequences of shRNA-mediated knockdown of Tβ4 in IEC-6 normal rat small intestinal cells and found that inhibiting Tβ4 expression significantly suppressed their growth and induced apoptosis in some cells. Flow cytometric analysis further revealed a marked decrease of G0/G1 population but a drastic increase of polyploid ones in these cells. The increase of polyploidy likely resulted from DNA re-replication because not only the de novo DNA synthesis was greatly increased but also the expression levels of Cdc6 (a replication-licensing factor), cyclin A, and phosphorylated-checkpoint kinase 1 were all dramatically elevated. Moreover, marked reductions in both RNA and protein levels of Emi1 (early mitotic inhibitor 1) were also detected in Tβ4 -downregulated IEC-6 cells which might be accounted by the downregulation of E2F1, a transcription factor capable of inducing Emi1 expression, mediated by glycogen synthase-3β (GSK-3β). To our best knowledge, this is the first report showing that inhibiting Tβ4 expression triggers DNA re-replication in normal intestinal epithelial cells, suggesting that this G-actin sequester may play a crucial role in maintaining genome stability in these cells. More importantly, clinical oncologists should take this novel activity into consideration when design CRC therapy based on targeting Tβ4 .

  7. Flow cytometric determination of stem/progenitor content in epithelial tissues: an example from nonsmall lung cancer and normal lung.

    PubMed

    Donnenberg, Vera S; Landreneau, Rodney J; Pfeifer, Melanie E; Donnenberg, Albert D

    2013-01-01

    Single cell analysis and cell sorting has enabled the study of development, growth, differentiation, repair and maintenance of "liquid" tissues and their cancers. The application of these methods to solid tissues is equally promising, but several unique technical challenges must be addressed. This report illustrates the application of multidimensional flow cytometry to the identification of candidate stem/progenitor populations in non-small cell lung cancer and paired normal lung tissue. Seventeen paired tumor/normal lung samples were collected at the time of surgical excision and processed immediately. Tissues were mechanically and enzymatically dissociated into single cell suspension and stained with a panel of antibodies used for negative gating (CD45, CD14, CD33, glycophorin A), identification of epithelial cells (intracellular cytokeratin), and detection of stem/progenitor markers (CD44, CD90, CD117, CD133). DAPI was added to measure DNA content. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue samples were stained with key markers (cytokeratin, CD117, DAPI) for immunofluorescent tissue localization of populations detected by flow cytometry. Disaggregated tumor and lung preparations contained a high proportion of events that would interfere with analysis, were they not eliminated by logical gating. We demonstrate how inclusion of doublets, events with hypodiploid DNA, and cytokeratin+ events also staining for hematopoietic markers reduces the ability to quantify epithelial cells and their precursors. Using the lung cancer/normal lung data set, we present an approach to multidimensional data analysis that consists of artifact removal, identification of classes of cells to be studied further (classifiers) and the measurement of outcome variables on these cell classes. The results of bivariate analysis show a striking similarity between the expression of stem/progenitor markers on lung tumor and adjacent tumor-free lung.

  8. GPER mediates estrogen-induced signaling and proliferations in human breast epithelial cells, and normal and malignant breast

    PubMed Central

    Scaling, Allison L.

    2014-01-01

    17β-estradiol (estrogen), through receptor binding and activation, is required for mammary gland development. Estrogen stimulates epithelial proliferation in the mammary gland, promoting ductal elongation and morphogenesis. In addition to a developmental role, estrogen promotes proliferation in tumorigenic settings, particularly breast cancer. The proliferative effects of estrogen in the normal breast and breast tumors are attributed to estrogen receptor α. Although in vitro studies have demonstrated that the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER, previously called GPR30) can modulate proliferation in breast cancer cells both positively and negatively depending on cellular context, its role in proliferation in the intact normal or malignant breast remains unclear. Estrogen-induced GPER-dependent proliferation was assessed in the immortalized non-tumorigenic human breast epithelial cell line, MCF10A, and an ex vivo organ culture model employing human breast tissue from reduction mammoplasty or tumor resections. Stimulation by estrogen and the GPER-selective agonist G-1 increased the mitotic index in MCF10A cells and proportion of cells in the cell cycle in human breast and breast cancer explants, suggesting increased proliferation. Inhibition of candidate signaling pathways that may link GPER activation to proliferation revealed a dependence on Src, epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation by heparin-bound EGF and subsequent ERK phosphorylation. Proliferation was not dependent on matrix metalloproteinase cleavage of membrane bound pro-HB-EGF. The contribution of GPER to estrogen-induced proliferation in MCF10A cells and breast tissue was confirmed by the ability of GPER-selective antagonist G36 to abrogate estrogen- and G-1-induced proliferation, and the ability of siRNA knockdown of GPER to reduce estrogen- and G-1-induced proliferation in MCF10A cells. This is the first study to demonstrate GPER-dependent proliferation in primary normal and malignant

  9. Enteric oxalate elimination is induced and oxalate is normalized in a mouse model of primary hyperoxaluria following intestinal colonization with Oxalobacter.

    PubMed

    Hatch, Marguerite; Gjymishka, Altin; Salido, Eduardo C; Allison, Milton J; Freel, Robert W

    2011-03-01

    Oxalobacter colonization of rat intestine was previously shown to promote enteric oxalate secretion and elimination, leading to significant reductions in urinary oxalate excretion (Hatch et al. Kidney Int 69: 691-698, 2006). The main goal of the present study, using a mouse model of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1), was to test the hypothesis that colonization of the mouse gut by Oxalobacter formigenes could enhance enteric oxalate secretion and effectively reduce the hyperoxaluria associated with this genetic disease. Wild-type (WT) mice and mice deficient in liver alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (Agxt) exhibiting hyperoxalemia and hyperoxaluria were used in these studies. We compared the unidirectional and net fluxes of oxalate across isolated, short-circuited large intestine of artificially colonized and noncolonized mice. In addition, plasma and urinary oxalate was determined. Our results demonstrate that the cecum and distal colon contribute significantly to enteric oxalate excretion in Oxalobacter-colonized Agxt and WT mice. In colonized Agxt mice, urinary oxalate excretion was reduced 50% (to within the normal range observed for WT mice). Moreover, plasma oxalate concentrations in Agxt mice were also normalized (reduced 50%). Colonization of WT mice was also associated with marked (up to 95%) reductions in urinary oxalate excretion. We conclude that segment-specific effects of Oxalobacter on intestinal oxalate transport in the PH1 mouse model are associated with a normalization of plasma oxalate and urinary oxalate excretion in otherwise hyperoxalemic and hyperoxaluric animals.

  10. Reg4+ deep crypt secretory cells function as epithelial niche for Lgr5+ stem cells in colon

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Nobuo; Sachs, Norman; Wiebrands, Kay; Ellenbroek, Saskia I. J.; Fumagalli, Arianna; Lyubimova, Anna; Begthel, Harry; van den Born, Maaike; van Es, Johan H.; Karthaus, Wouter R.; Li, Vivian S. W.; López-Iglesias, Carmen; Peters, Peter J.; van Rheenen, Jacco; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Clevers, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5-positive (Lgr5+) stem cells reside at crypt bottoms of the small and large intestine. Small intestinal Paneth cells supply Wnt3, EGF, and Notch signals to neighboring Lgr5+ stem cells. Whereas the colon lacks Paneth cells, deep crypt secretory (DCS) cells are intermingled with Lgr5+ stem cells at crypt bottoms. Here, we report regenerating islet-derived family member 4 (Reg4) as a marker of DCS cells. To investigate a niche function, we eliminated DCS cells by using the diphtheria-toxin receptor gene knocked into the murine Reg4 locus. Ablation of DCS cells results in loss of stem cells from colonic crypts and disrupts gut homeostasis and colon organoid growth. In agreement, sorted Reg4+ DCS cells promote organoid formation of single Lgr5+ colon stem cells. DCS cells can be massively produced from Lgr5+ colon stem cells in vitro by combined Notch inhibition and Wnt activation. We conclude that Reg4+ DCS cells serve as Paneth cell equivalents in the colon crypt niche. PMID:27573849

  11. Magnetic Nanodrug Delivery Through the Mucus Layer of Air-Liquid Interface Cultured Primary Normal Human Tracheobronchial Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Economou, E C; Marinelli, S; Smith, M C; Routt, A A; Kravets, V V; Chu, H W; Spendier, K; Celinski, Z J

    2016-09-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) and highly anisotropic barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) nanoparticles were coated with an anti-inflammatory drug and magnetically transported through mucus produced by primary human airway epithelial cells. Using wet planetary ball milling, dl-2-amino-3-phosphonopropionic acid-coated BaFe12O19 nano-particles (BaNPs) of 1-100 nm in diameter were prepared in water. BaNPs and conventional 20-30-nm Fe3O4 nanoparticles (FeNPs) were then encased in a polymer (PLGA) loaded with dexamethasone (Dex) and tagged for imaging. PLGA-Dex-coated BaNPs and FeNPs were characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry. Both PLGA-Dex-coated BaNPs and FeNPs were transferred to the surface of a ~100-μm thick mucus layer of air-liquid interface cultured primary normal human tracheobronchial epithelial (NHTE) cells. Within 30 min, the nanoparticles were pulled successfully through the mucus layer by a permanent neodymium magnet. The penetration time of the nanomedicine was monitored using confocal microscopy and tailored by varying the thickness of the PLGA-Dex coating around the particles.

  12. Magnetic Nanodrug Delivery Through the Mucus Layer of Air-Liquid Interface Cultured Primary Normal Human Tracheobronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Economou, E. C.; Marinelli, S.; Smith, M. C.; Routt, A. A.; Kravets, V. V.; Chu, H. W.; Spendier, K.; Celinski, Z. J.

    2016-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) and highly anisotropic barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) nanoparticles were coated with an anti-inflammatory drug and magnetically transported through mucus produced by primary human airway epithelial cells. Using wet planetary ball milling, dl-2-amino-3-phosphonopropionic acid-coated BaFe12O19 nano-particles (BaNPs) of 1–100 nm in diameter were prepared in water. BaNPs and conventional 20–30-nm Fe3O4 nanoparticles (FeNPs) were then encased in a polymer (PLGA) loaded with dexamethasone (Dex) and tagged for imaging. PLGA-Dex-coated BaNPs and FeNPs were characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry. Both PLGA-Dex-coated BaNPs and FeNPs were transferred to the surface of a ~100-μm thick mucus layer of air-liquid interface cultured primary normal human tracheobronchial epithelial (NHTE) cells. Within 30 min, the nanoparticles were pulled successfully through the mucus layer by a permanent neodymium magnet. The penetration time of the nanomedicine was monitored using confocal microscopy and tailored by varying the thickness of the PLGA-Dex coating around the particles. PMID:27774374

  13. Validation of Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells as a Model for Influenza A Infections in Human Distal Trachea

    PubMed Central

    Davis, A. Sally; Chertow, Daniel S.; Moyer, Jenna E.; Suzich, Jon; Sandouk, Aline; Dorward, David W.; Logun, Carolea; Shelhamer, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Primary normal human bronchial/tracheal epithelial (NHBE) cells, derived from the distal-most aspect of the trachea at the bifurcation, have been used for a number of studies in respiratory disease research. Differences between the source tissue and the differentiated primary cells may impact infection studies based on this model. Therefore, we examined how well-differentiated NHBE cells compared with their source tissue, the human distal trachea, as well as the ramifications of these differences on influenza A viral pathogenesis research using this model. We employed a histological analysis including morphological measurements, electron microscopy, multi-label immunofluorescence confocal microscopy, lectin histochemistry, and microarray expression analysis to compare differentiated NHBEs to human distal tracheal epithelium. Pseudostratified epithelial height, cell type variety and distribution varied significantly. Electron microscopy confirmed differences in cellular attachment and paracellular junctions. Influenza receptor lectin histochemistry revealed that α2,3 sialic acids were rarely present on the apical aspect of the differentiated NHBE cells, but were present in low numbers in the distal trachea. We bound fluorochrome bioconjugated virus to respiratory tissue and NHBE cells and infected NHBE cells with human influenza A viruses. Both indicated that the pattern of infection progression in these cells correlated with autopsy studies of fatal cases from the 2009 pandemic. PMID:25604814

  14. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus genome and latent infection gene expression in normal epithelia, epithelial dysplasia, and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Kentaro; Noguchi, Yoshihiro; de Rivera, Michelle Wendoline Garcia-Niño; Hoshino, Miyako; Sakashita, Hideaki; Yamada, Tsutomu; Inoue, Harumi; Miyazaki, Yuji; Nozaki, Tadashige; González-López, Blanca Silvia; Ide, Fumio; Kusama, Kaoru

    2016-03-01

    A relationship between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and cancer of lymphoid and epithelial tissues such as Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), gastric carcinoma, and oral cancer has been reported. EBV is transmitted orally and infects B cells and epithelial cells. However, it has remained uncertain whether EBV plays a role in carcinogenesis of oral mucosal tissue. In the present study, we detected the EBV genome and latent EBV gene expression in normal mucosal epithelia, epithelial dysplasia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) to clarify whether EBV is involved in carcinogenesis of the oral cavity. We examined 333 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples (morphologically normal oral mucosa 30 samples, gingivitis 32, tonsillitis 17, oral epithelial dysplasia 83, OSCC 150, and NPC 21). EBV latent infection genes (EBNA-2, LMP-1) were detected not only in OSCC (50.2 %, 10.7 %) but also in severe epithelial dysplasia (66.7 %, 44.4 %), mild to moderate epithelial dysplasia (43.1 %, 18.5 %), gingivitis (78.1 %, 21.9 %), and normal mucosa (83.3 %, 23.3 %). Furthermore, the intensity of EBV latent infection gene expression (EBER, LMP-1) was significantly higher in severe epithelial dysplasia (94.4 %, 72.2 %) than in OSCC (34.7 %, 38.7 %). These results suggest that EBV latent infection genes and their increased expression in severe epithelial dysplasia might play an important role in the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence in the oral cavity.

  15. Malignant transformation of human colon epithelial cells by benzo[c]phenanthrene dihydrodiolepoxides as well as 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Uta; Fuchs, Judith Iris; Teubner, Wera; Steinberg, Pablo . E-mail: steinber@rz.uni-potsdam.de

    2006-04-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) ingested with food have repeatedly been suggested to be involved in the malignant transformation of colon epithelial cells. In order to test this hypothesis, HCEC cells (SV40 large T antigen-immortalized human colon epithelial cells) were incubated with a racemic mixture of benzo[c]phenanthrene dihydrodiol epoxides (B[c]PhDE), extremely potent carcinogenic PAH metabolites in vivo, or with 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (N-OH-PhIP), the N-hydroxylated metabolite of the most abundant HCA in cooked meat. First, it was shown that HCEC cells express sulfotransferase 1A1, which is needed to metabolize N-OH-PhIP to the corresponding N-sulfonyloxy derivative, the direct precursor molecule of genotoxic nitrenium ions. Thereafter, exponentially growing HCEC cells were exposed five times to 0.1 {mu}g (0.37 nmol) B[c]PhDE/ml for 30 min or 0.72 {mu}g (3 nmol) N-OH-PhIP/ml for 24 h. Chemically treated HCEC cells showed an enhanced saturation density and grew faster than the corresponding solvent-treated cell cultures. After five treatment cycles, HCEC{sup B[c]PhDE} as well as HCEC {sup N-OH-PhIP} cells lost cell-cell contact inhibition and started piling up and forming foci in the culture flasks. Furthermore, HCEC{sup B[c]PhDE} and HCEC {sup N-OH-PhIP} cells were injected i.m. into SCID mice. Within 6 weeks after injection, eight animals out of eight injected with HCEC{sup B[c]PhDE} or HCEC {sup N-OH-PhIP} cells developed tumors at the site of injection, thus demonstrating the high tumorigenic potential of the HCEC{sup B[c]PhDE} and HCEC {sup N-OH-PhIP} cell cultures. Taken together, we show for the first time that the abovementioned active PAH metabolites as well as N-OH-PhIP are indeed able to malignantly transform human colon epithelial cells in vitro.

  16. Basement-membrane heparan sulphate with high affinity for antithrombin synthesized by normal and transformed mouse mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Pejler, G; David, G

    1987-01-01

    Basement-membrane proteoglycans, biosynthetically labelled with [35S]sulphate, were isolated from normal and transformed mouse mammary epithelial cells. Proteoglycans synthesized by normal cells contained mainly heparan sulphate and, in addition, small amounts of chondroitin sulphate chains, whereas transformed cells synthesized a relatively higher proportion of chondroitin sulphate. Polysaccharide chains from transformed cells were of lower average Mr and of lower anionic charge density compared with chains isolated from the untransformed counterparts, confirming results reported previously [David & Van den Berghe (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 7338-7344]. A large proportion of the chains isolated from normal cells bound with high affinity to immobilized antithrombin, and the presence of 3-O-sulphated glucosamine residues, previously identified as unique markers for the antithrombin-binding region of heparin [Lindahl, Bäckström, Thunberg & Leder (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77, 6551-6555], could be demonstrated. A significantly lower proportion of the chains derived from transformed cells bound with high affinity to antithrombin, and a corresponding decrease in the amount of incorporated 3-O-sulphate was observed. PMID:2963617

  17. Expression of nuclear membrane proteins in normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic thyroid epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jieying; Kondo, Tetsuo; Yamane, Tetsu; Nakazawa, Tadao; Oish, Naoki; Mochizuki, Kunio; Katoh, Ryohei

    2015-10-01

    Emerin, lamin A/C, lamin B, and lamin-associated polypeptide 2 (LAP2) are nuclear membrane proteins that play an important role in maintaining nuclear structure and coordinating cell activity. We studied the expression and significance of nuclear membrane proteins in neoplastic thyroid cells by immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, and real-time PCR. In papillary carcinomas (PCs), the nuclear proteins most frequently expressed at high levels were emerin (82 % positive), lamin A/C (64 %), and LAP2 (82 %). Follicular carcinomas (FCs) most frequently expressed lamin B, while none of the undifferentiated carcinomas (UCs) showed strong expression of emerin or lamin A/C. In all medullary carcinomas (MCs), intermediate to high levels of expression of lamin A/C and LAP2 were found. By RT-PCR analysis, messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of all nuclear membrane proteins except emerin was higher in PC than in normal tissue. Real-time PCR analysis showed that mRNA expression of nuclear membrane protein varied between cell lines. Our findings suggest that expression of nuclear membrane proteins may be related to follicular function in normal and hyperplastic follicles, and we hypothesize that they are also involved in the proliferation and differentiation of neoplastic thyroid cells. We suggest that they reflect the biological nature and/or function of normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic thyroid cells and may have some value in diagnosing thyroid tumors.

  18. Ethylene bisdithiocarbamate pesticides cause cytotoxicity in transformed and normal human colon cells.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Lisa; Hardej, Diane

    2012-09-01

    The effects of the fungicides Maneb, Mancozeb, and Zineb were investigated in transformed colon cells, HT-29, Caco2 and non-transformed cells, CCD-18Co. Significant decreases in viability were observed with Maneb and Mancozeb in HT-29 and CCD-18Co (80-260μM), and Caco2 cells (40-180μM). No significant decreases in viability were observed in all cell types up to 800μM with Zineb. MnCl(2) and ZnCl(2) exposure produced no loss of viability in all cell types up to 400μM. Light microscopy confirmed viability analysis. Lipid peroxidation was observed with Maneb and Mancozeb in cell types tested (60-200μM). Caspase 3/7, 8, and 9 activities were observed with Maneb and Mancozeb in cell types tested (40-200μM). Maneb and Mancozeb treated HT-29 and Caco2 cells demonstrated increases in manganese and zinc concentrations (20-200μM). The lack of toxicity observed with Zineb, MnCl(2), and ZnCl(2) suggests that both the metal moiety and the organic portion of these fungicides together contribute to toxicity.

  19. Assessing the Toxicities of Regulated and Unregulated Disinfection By-products in Normal Human Colon Cells.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presence of over six hundred disinfection by-products (DBPs) and less than half of the total organic halides present in finished water has created a need for short-term in vitro assays to address toxicities that might be associated with human exposure. . We are using a normal...

  20. Live cell imaging reveals extensive intracellular cytoplasmic colonization of banana by normally non-cultivable endophytic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Pious; Sekhar, Aparna Chandra

    2014-01-01

    colonization in bananas by normally non-cultivable endophytic bacteria in two niches, namely cytoplasmic and periplasmic, designated as 'Cytobacts' and 'Peribacts', respectively. The integral intracellular association with their clonal perpetuation suggests a mutualistic relationship between endophytes and the host.

  1. Colonic mucosal gene expression and genotype in irritable bowel syndrome patients with normal or elevated fecal bile acid excretion.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Michael; Carlson, Paula; Acosta, Andres; Busciglio, Irene

    2015-07-01

    The mucosal gene expression in rectosigmoid mucosa (RSM) in irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) is unknown. Our objectives were, first, to study mRNA expression [by RT(2) PCR of 19 genes pertaining to tight junctions, immune activation, intestinal ion transport and bile acid (BA) homeostasis] in RSM in IBS-D patients (n = 47) and healthy controls (n = 17) and study expression of a selected protein (PDZD3) in 10 IBS-D patients and 4 healthy controls; second, to assess RSM mRNA expression according to genotype and fecal BA excretion (high ≥ 2,337 μmol/48 h); and third, to determine whether genotype or mucosal mRNA expression is associated with colonic transit or BA parameters. Fold changes were corrected for false detection rate for 19 genes studied (P < 0.00263). In RSM in IBS-D patients compared with controls, mRNA expression of GUC2AB, PDZD3, and PR2Y4 was increased, whereas CLDN1 and FN1 were decreased. One immune-related gene was upregulated (C4BP4) and one downregulated (CCL20). There was increased expression of a selected ion transport protein (PDZD3) on immunohistochemistry and Western blot in IBS-D compared with controls (P = 0.02). There were no significant differences in mucosal mRNA in 20 IBS-D patients with high compared with 27 IBS-D patients with normal BA excretion. GPBAR1 (P < 0.05) was associated with colonic transit. We concluded that mucosal ion transport mRNA (for several genes and PDZD3 protein) is upregulated and barrier protein mRNA downregulated in IBS-D compared with healthy controls, independent of genotype. There are no differences in gene expression in IBS-D with high compared with normal fecal BA excretion.

  2. Anti-Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule Antibodies and the Detection of Circulating Normal-Like Breast Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kraan, Jaco; Bolt, Joan; van der Spoel, Petra; Elstrodt, Fons; Schutte, Mieke; Martens, John W. M.; Gratama, Jan-Willem; Sleijfer, Stefan; Foekens, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Identification of specific subtypes of circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood of cancer patients can provide information about the biology of metastasis and improve patient management. However, to be effective, the method used to identify circulating tumor cells must detect all tumor cell types. We investigated whether the five subtypes of human breast cancer cells that have been defined by global gene expression profiling—normal-like, basal, HER2-positive, and luminal A and B—were identified by CellSearch, a US Food and Drug Administration–approved test that uses antibodies against the cell surface–expressed epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) to isolate circulating tumor cells. We used global gene expression profiling to determine the subtypes of a well-defined panel of 34 human breast cancer cell lines (15 luminal, nine normal-like, five basal-like, and five Her2-positive). We mixed 50-150 cells from 10 of these cell lines with 7.5 mL of blood from a single healthy human donor, and the mixtures were subjected to the CellSearch test to isolate the breast cancer cells. We found that the CellSearch isolation method, which uses EpCAM on the surface of circulating tumor cells for cell isolation, did not recognize, in particular, normal-like breast cancer cells, which in general have aggressive features. New tests that include antibodies that specifically recognize normal-like breast tumor cells but not cells of hematopoietic origin are needed. PMID:19116383

  3. Cl- secretion induced by bile salts. A study of the mechanism of action based on a cultured colonic epithelial cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Dharmsathaphorn, K; Huott, P A; Vongkovit, P; Beuerlein, G; Pandol, S J; Ammon, H V

    1989-01-01

    When applied to the basolateral (serosal) side of the T84 colonic epithelial monolayer, taurodeoxycholate caused net Cl- secretion in a dose-dependent manner with a threshold effect observed at 0.2 mM. In contrast, when applied to the apical (luminal) surface, concentrations of taurodeoxycholate below 1 mM had little or no effect. Only when the concentration of taurodeoxycholate present on the apical side was greater than or equal to 1 mM did apical addition results in an electrolyte transport effect. This apical effect on electrolyte transport was associated with an abrupt increase in the permeability of the monolayer. Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in the T84 monolayers were not increased by the bile salt, but in the presence of extracellular Ca2+, free cytosolic Ca2+ increased with a graded dose effect and time course that corresponded approximately to the changes in short circuit current (Isc). The results suggest that luminal bile salts at a relatively high concentration (greater than or equal to 1 mM) increase tight junction permeability. Once tight junction permeability increases, luminal bile salts could reach the basolateral membrane of the epithelial cells where they act to increase free cytosolic Ca2+ from extracellular sources. The resulting increases in free cytosolic Ca2+, rather than in cyclic nucleotides, appear to be involved in transcellular Cl- secretion. PMID:2547841

  4. TLR4-mediated galectin-1 production triggers epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colon cancer cells through ADAM10- and ADAM17-associated lactate production.

    PubMed

    Park, Ga Bin; Kim, Daejin

    2017-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation is a key contributor to the carcinogenesis of colon cancer. Overexpression of galectin-1 (Gal-1) also correlates with increased invasive activity of colorectal cancer. Lactate production is a critical predictive factor of risk of metastasis, but the functional relationship between intracellular lactate and Gal-1 expression in TLR4-activated colon cancer remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism and role of Gal-1 in metastasis and invasion of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells after TLR4 stimulation. Exposure to the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increased expression of Gal-1, induced EMT-related cytokines, triggered the activation of glycolysis-related enzymes, and promoted lactate production. Gene silencing of TLR4 and Gal-1 in CRC cells inhibited lactate-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) after TLR4 stimulation. Gal-1-mediated activation of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) and ADAM 17 increased the invasion activity and expression of mesenchymal characteristics in LPS-activated CRC cells. Conversely, inhibition of ADAM10 or ADAM17 effectively blocked the generation of lactate and the migration capacity of LPS-treated CRC cells. Thus, the TLR4/Gal-1 signaling pathway regulates lactate-mediated EMT processes through the activation of ADAM10 and ADAM17 in CRC cells.

  5. Tumor necrosis factor alpha activates transcription of the NADPH oxidase organizer 1 (NOXO1) gene and upregulates superoxide production in colon epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kuwano, Yuki; Tominaga, Kumiko; Kawahara, Tsukasa; Sasaki, Hidekazu; Takeo, Keiko; Nishida, Kensei; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Tomoko; Teshima-Kondo, Shigetada; Rokutan, Kazuhito

    2008-12-15

    NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) is a multicomponent enzyme consisting of p22(phox), Nox organizer 1 (NOXO1), Nox1 activator 1, and Rac1. Interleukin-1beta, flagellin, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) similarly induced Nox1 in a colon cancer cell line (T84), whereas only TNF-alpha fully induced NOXO1 and upregulated superoxide-producing activity by ninefold. This upregulation was canceled by knockdown of NOXO1 with small interfering RNAs. TNF-alpha rapidly phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2, followed by phosphorylation of c-Jun and c-Fos and appearance of an AP-1 binding activity within 30 min. We cloned the 5' flank of the human NOXO1 gene (-3888 to +263 bp), and found that the region between -585 and -452 bp, which contains consensus elements of YY-1, AP-1, and Ets, and the GC-rich region encoding three putative binding sites for SP-1, was crucial for TNF-alpha-dependent promoter activity. Serial mutation analysis of the elements identified an AP-1 binding site (from -561 to -551 bp, agtAAGtcatg) as a crucial element for TNF-alpha-stimulated transcription of the human NOXO1 gene, which was also confirmed by the AP-1 decoy experiments. Thus, TNF-alpha acts as a potent activator of Nox1-based oxidase in colon epithelial cells, suggesting a potential role of this oxidase in inflammation of the colon.

  6. Comparison study of distinguishing cancerous and normal prostate epithelial cells by confocal and polarization diffraction imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wenhuan; Lu, Jun Qing; Yang, Li V.; Sa, Yu; Feng, Yuanming; Ding, Junhua; Hu, Xin-Hua

    2016-07-01

    Accurate classification of malignant cells from benign ones can significantly enhance cancer diagnosis and prognosis by detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). We have investigated two approaches of quantitative morphology and polarization diffraction imaging on two prostate cell types to evaluate their feasibility as single-cell assay methods toward CTC detection after cell enrichment. The two cell types have been measured by a confocal imaging method to obtain their three-dimensional morphology parameters and by a polarization diffraction imaging flow cytometry (p-DIFC) method to obtain image texture parameters. The support vector machine algorithm was applied to examine the accuracy of cell classification with the morphology and diffraction image parameters. Despite larger mean values of cell and nuclear sizes of the cancerous prostate cells than the normal ones, it has been shown that the morphologic parameters cannot serve as effective classifiers. In contrast, accurate classification of the two prostate cell types can be achieved with high classification accuracies on measured data acquired separately in three measurements. These results provide strong evidence that the p-DIFC method has the potential to yield morphology-related "fingerprints" for accurate and label-free classification of the two prostate cell types.

  7. DEK Proto-Oncogene Expression Interferes with the Normal Epithelial Differentiation Program

    PubMed Central

    Wise-Draper, Trisha M.; Morreale, Richard J.; Morris, Teresa A.; Mintz-Cole, Rachael A.; Hoskins, Elizabeth E.; Balsitis, Scott J.; Husseinzadeh, Nader; Witte, David P.; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A.; Lambert, Paul F.; Wells, Susanne I.

    2009-01-01

    Overexpression of the DEK gene is associated with multiple human cancers, but its specific roles as a putative oncogene are not well defined. DEK transcription was previously shown to be induced by the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E7 oncogene via E2F and Rb pathways. Transient DEK overexpression was able to inhibit both senescence and apoptosis in cultured cells. In at least the latter case, this mechanism involved the destabilization of p53 and the decreased expression of p53 target genes. We show here that DEK overexpression disrupts the normal differentiation program in a manner that is independent of either p53 or cell death. DEK expression was distinctly repressed upon the differentiation of cultured primary human keratinocytes, and stable DEK overexpression caused epidermal thickening in an organotypic raft model system. The observed hyperplasia involved a delay in keratinocyte differentiation toward a more undifferentiated state, and expansion of the basal cell compartment was due to increased proliferation, but not apoptosis. These phenotypes were accompanied by elevated p63 expression in the absence of p53 destabilization. In further support of bona fide oncogenic DEK activities, we report here up-regulated DEK protein levels in both human papilloma virus-positive hyperplastic murine skin and a subset of human squamous cell carcinomas. We suggest that DEK up-regulation may contribute to carcinoma development at least in part through increased proliferation and retardation of differentiation. PMID:19036808

  8. Quantitation of chemopreventive synergism between (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and curcumin in normal, premalignant and malignant human oral epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Khafif, A; Schantz, S P; Chou, T C; Edelstein, D; Sacks, P G

    1998-03-01

    An in vitro model for oral cancer was used to examine the growth inhibitory effects of chemopreventive agents when used singly and in combination. The model consists of primary cultures of normal oral epithelial cells, newly established cell lines derived from dysplastic leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma. Two naturally occurring substances, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) from green tea and curcumin from the spice turmeric were tested. Cells were treated singly and in combination and effects on growth determined in 5-day growth assays and by cell cycle analysis. Effective dose 50s and the combination index were calculated with the computerized Chou-Talalay method which is based on the median-effect principle. Agents were shown to differ in their inhibitory potency. EGCG was less effective with cell progression; the cancer cells were more resistant than normal or dysplastic cells. In contrast, curcumin was equally effective regardless of the cell type tested. Cell cycle analysis indicated that EGCG blocked cells in G1, whereas curcumin blocked cells in S/G2M. The combination of both agents showed synergistic interactions in growth inhibition and increased sigmoidicity (steepness) of the dose-effect curves, a response that was dose and cell type dependent. Combinations allowed for a dose reduction of 4.4-8.5-fold for EGCG and 2.2-2.8-fold for curcumin at ED50s as indicated by the dose reduction index (DRI). Even greater DRI values were observed above ED50 levels. Our results demonstrate that this model which includes normal, premalignant and malignant oral cells can be used to analyse the relative potential of various chemopreventive agents. Two such naturally-occurring agents, EGCG and curcumin, were noted to inhibit growth by different mechanisms, a factor which may account for their demonstrable interactive synergistic effect.

  9. Effects of supplemental vitamin D and calcium on normal colon tissue and circulating biomarkers of risk for colorectal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bostick, Roberd M

    2015-04-01

    This brief review, based on an invited presentation at the 17th Workshop on Vitamin D, is to summarize a line of the author's research that has been directed at the intertwined missions of clarifying and/or developing vitamin D and calcium as preventive agents against colorectal cancer in humans, understanding the mechanisms by which these agents may reduce risk for the disease, and developing 'treatable' biomarkers of risk for colorectal cancer. The biological plausibility and observational and clinical trial evidence for vitamin D and calcium in reducing risk for colorectal neoplasms, the development of pre-neoplastic biomarkers of risk for colorectal neoplasms, and the clinical trial findings from the author's research group on the efficacy of vitamin D and calcium in modulating these biomarkers are summarized. Regarding the latter, we tested the efficacy of 800 IU (20μg) of vitamin D3 and 2.0g of calcium daily, alone and combined vs. placebo over 6 months on modulating normal colon tissue and circulating hypothesis-based biomarkers of risk for colorectal neoplasms in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2×2 factorial design clinical trial (n=92). The tissue-based biomarkers were measured in biopsies of normal-appearing rectal mucosa using immunohistochemistry with quantitative image analysis, and a panel of circulating inflammation markers was measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISA). Statistically significant proportional tissue increases in the vitamin D group relative to the placebo group were found in bax (51%), p21 (141%), APC (48%), E-cadherin (78%), MSH2 (179%), the CaSR (39%), and CYP27B1 (159%). In blood, there was a 77% statistically significant decrease in a summary inflammation z-score. The findings for calcium were similar to those for vitamin D. These findings indicate that supplemental vitamin D3 or calcium can favorably modulate multiple normal colon tissue and circulating hypothesis-based biomarkers of risk for colorectal

  10. Newly Diagnosed Colonic Adenocarcinoma: The Presenting Sign in a Young Woman with Undiagnosed Crohn's Disease in the Absence of Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis and a Normal Microsatellite Instability Profile

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis has long been linked with an increased risk for colonic adenocarcinoma, whereas Crohn's disease (CD) has recently been reported to pose a similar increased risk. We report a 33-year-old healthy female with no family history who presented with abdominal pain and a colon mass. Histopathology revealed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma extending through the muscularis propria with metastatic lymph nodes and intact mismatch repair proteins by immunohistochemical expression and gene sequencing. The nonneoplastic grossly uninvolved background mucosa showed marked crypt distortion, crypt abscesses, CD-like lymphoid hyperplasia, transmural inflammation, and reactive epithelial atypia. Additional patient questioning revealed frequent loose stools since she was a teenager leading to diagnosis of a previously undiagnosed CD without primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). The adenocarcinoma is suspected to be related to the underlying CD. Newly diagnosed adenocarcinoma in a young female as the presenting sign for CD in the absence of PSC is extremely rare. PMID:28255489

  11. Effects of high levels of dietary zinc oxide on ex vivo epithelial histamine response and investigations on histamine receptor action in the proximal colon of weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Kröger, S; Pieper, R; Aschenbach, J R; Martin, L; Liu, P; Rieger, J; Schwelberger, H G; Neumann, K; Zentek, J

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the effect of high dietary zinc oxide (ZnO) levels on the histamine-induced secretory-type response and histamine metabolism in the porcine proximal colon. After weaning at d 26, 3 diets with low (LZn), normal (NZn), and high (HZn) concentrations of zinc (57, 164, or 2,425 mg/kg) were fed to a total of 120 piglets. Digesta and tissue samples were taken from the ascending colon after 7 ± 1, 14 ± 1, 21 ± 1, and 28 ± 1 d. Partially stripped tissue was mounted in Ussing chambers, and histamine was applied either to the serosal or mucosal compartments. Tissue was pretreated with or without aminoguanidine and amodiaquine to block the histamine-degrading enzymes diamine oxidase (DAO) and histamine -methyltransferase (HMT), respectively. Gene expression and catalytic activity of DAO and HMT in the tissue were analyzed. The numbers of mast cells were determined in tissue samples, and histamine concentration was measured in the colon digesta. Colon tissue from another 12 piglets was used for functional studies on histamine H and H receptors by using the neuronal conduction blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) and the H and H receptor blocker chloropyramine and famotidine, respectively. After serosal histamine application to colonic tissue in Ussing chambers, the change of short-circuit current (Δ) was not affected by pretreatment and was not different between Zn feeding groups. The Δ after mucosal histamine application was numerically lower ( = 0.168) in HZn compared to LZn and NZn pigs. Mast cell numbers increased from 32 to 46 d of life ( < 0.05). Further studies elucidated that the serosal histamine response was partly inhibited by chloropyramine or famotidine ( < 0.01). The response to mucosal histamine tended to be decreased when chloropyramine but not famotidine was applied from either the serosal or the mucosal side ( = 0.055). Tetrodotoxin alone or in combination with chloropyramine resulted in a similar reduction in the mucosal

  12. Ionizing Irradiation Not Only Inactivates Clonogenic Potential in Primary Normal Human Diploid Lens Epithelial Cells but Also Stimulates Cell Proliferation in a Subset of This Population

    PubMed Central

    Fujimichi, Yuki; Hamada, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, ionizing radiation has been known to induce cataracts in the crystalline lens of the eye, but its mechanistic underpinnings remain incompletely understood. This study is the first to report the clonogenic survival of irradiated primary normal human lens epithelial cells and stimulation of its proliferation. Here we used two primary normal human cell strains: HLEC1 lens epithelial cells and WI-38 lung fibroblasts. Both strains were diploid, and a replicative lifespan was shorter in HLEC1 cells. The colony formation assay demonstrated that the clonogenic survival of both strains decreases similarly with increasing doses of X-rays. A difference in the survival between two strains was actually insignificant, although HLEC1 cells had the lower plating efficiency. This indicates that the same dose inactivates the same fraction of clonogenic cells in both strains. Intriguingly, irradiation enlarged the size of clonogenic colonies arising from HLEC1 cells in marked contrast to those from WI-38 cells. Such enhanced proliferation of clonogenic HLEC1 cells was significant at ≥2 Gy, and manifested as increments of ≤2.6 population doublings besides sham-irradiated controls. These results suggest that irradiation of HLEC1 cells not only inactivates clonogenic potential but also stimulates proliferation of surviving uniactivated clonogenic cells. Given that the lens is a closed system, the stimulated proliferation of lens epithelial cells may not be a homeostatic mechanism to compensate for their cell loss, but rather should be regarded as abnormal. This is because these findings are consistent with the early in vivo evidence documenting that irradiation induces excessive proliferation of rabbit lens epithelial cells and that suppression of lens epithelial cell divisions inhibits radiation cataractogenesis in frogs and rats. Thus, our in vitro model will be useful to evaluate the excessive proliferation of primary normal human lens epithelial cells that

  13. Actin stress fiber disruption and tropomysin isoform switching in normal thyroid epithelial cells stimulated by thyrotropin and phorbol esters

    SciTech Connect

    Roger, P.P.; Rickaert, F.; Lamy, F.; Authelet, M.; Dumont, J.E. )

    1989-05-01

    Thyrotropin (TSH), through cyclic AMP, promotes both proliferation and differentiation expression in dog thyroid epithelial cells in primary culture, whereas the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) also stimulates proliferation but antagonizes differentiating effects of TSH. In this study, within 20 min both factors triggered the disruption of actin-containing stress fibers. This process preceded distinct morphological changes: cytoplasmic retraction and arborization in response to TSH and cyclic AMP, cell shape distortion, and increased motility in response to TPA and diacylglycerol. TSH and TPA also induced a marked decrease in the synthesis of three high M{sub r} tropomyosin isoforms, which were not present in dog thyroid tissue but appeared in culture during cell spreading and stress fiber formation. The tropomyosin isoform switching observed here closely resembled similar processes in various cells transformed by oncogenic viruses. However, it did not correlate with differentiation or mitogenic activation. Contrasting with current hypothesis on this process in transformed cells, tropomyosin isoform switching in normal thyroid cells was preceded and thus might be caused by early disruption of stress fibers.

  14. Hypoxia primes human normal prostate epithelial cells and cancer cell lines for the NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome activation

    PubMed Central

    Panchanathan, Ravichandran; Liu, Hongzhu; Choubey, Divaker

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms by which hypoxia contributes to prostatic chronic inflammation (PCI) remain largely unknown. Because hypoxia stimulates the transcriptional activity of NF-κB, which “primes” cells for inflammasome activation by inducing the expression of NLRP3 or AIM2 receptor and pro-IL-1β, we investigated whether hypoxia could activate the NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome in human normal prostate epithelial cells (PrECs) and cancer cell lines. Here we report that hypoxia (1% O2) treatment of PrECs, prostate cell lines, and a macrophage cell line (THP-1) increased the levels of NLRP3, AIM2, and pro-IL-1β. Further, hypoxia in cells potentiated activation of the NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome activity. Notably, hypoxia “primed” cells for NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome activation through stimulation of the NF-κB activity. Our observations support the idea that hypoxia in human prostatic tumors contributes to PCI, in part, by priming cells for the activation of NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome. PMID:27058421

  15. Intrinsic resistance triggered under acid loading within normal esophageal epithelial cells: NHE1- and ROS-mediated survival.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun Young; Lee, Yeon Joo; Cho, Eun Jeong; Shin, Chang Yell; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2015-07-01

    The transition to a pathological phenotype such as Barrett's esophagus occurs via induction of resistance upon repeated contact with gastric refluxate in esophagus. This study examined the molecular changes within normal esophageal epithelial cells (EECs) under short-term acid loading and the role of these changes in defensive resistance against acidic cytotoxicity. After primary cultured EECs were exposed to pH 4-acidified medium (AM4), cell viability was determined by the MTT assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX) activity were measured. Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) MEK/ERK1/2, p38 and JNK; phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) were detected by Western blot analysis or immunofluorescence staining. AM4 incubation induced intracellular ROS generation accompanied by increase in NOX activity, which was further increased by Na(+) /H(+) exchange-1 (NHE1)-dependent inhibition but was prevented by inhibition of NOX or mitochondria complex I. AM4 also induced phosphorylation of MEK/ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, PI3K/Akt, and nuclear translocation of NF-κB, and all these effects, except for p38 MAPK phosphorylation, were abolished by inhibition of ROS. ROS-dependent PI3K/Akt activation, which mediates NF-κB nuclear translocation, was inhibited by protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors and NHE1-specific inhibitor. All inhibitors of NHE, ROS, PTK, PI3K, or NF-κB further decreased AM4-induced cell viability. Acid loading in the presence of NHE1-dependent protection induced ROS generation by activating NOX and mitochondria complex I, which stimulated PTK/PI3K/Akt/NF-κB-dependent survival in EEC. Our data indicate that normal EEC initially respond to acid loading through intrinsic survival activation.

  16. Respiratory syncytial virus inhibits ciliagenesis in differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells: effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Mata, Manuel; Sarrion, Irene; Armengot, Miguel; Carda, Carmen; Martinez, Isidoro; Melero, Jose A; Cortijo, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Persistent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections have been associated with the exacerbation of chronic inflammatory diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This virus infects the respiratory epithelium, leading to chronic inflammation, and induces the release of mucins and the loss of cilia activity, two factors that determine mucus clearance and the increase in sputum volume. These alterations involve reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has proven useful in the management of COPD, reducing symptoms, exacerbations, and accelerated lung function decline. NAC inhibits RSV infection and mucin release in human A549 cells. The main objective of this study was to analyze the effects of NAC in modulating ciliary activity, ciliagenesis, and metaplasia in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cell (NHBEC) cultures infected with RSV. Our results indicated that RSV induced ultrastructural abnormalities in axonemal basal bodies and decreased the expression of β-tubulin as well as two genes involved in ciliagenesis, FOXJ1 and DNAI2. These alterations led to a decrease in ciliary activity. Furthermore, RSV induced metaplastic changes to the epithelium and increased the number of goblet cells and the expression of MUC5AC and GOB5. NAC restored the normal functions of the epithelium, inhibiting ICAM1 expression, subsequent RSV infection through mechanisms involving nuclear receptor factor 2, and the expression of heme oxygenase 1, which correlated with the restoration of the antioxidant capacity, the intracellular H(2)O(2) levels and glutathione content of NHBECs. The results presented in this study support the therapeutic use of NAC for the management of chronic respiratory diseases, including COPD.

  17. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Inhibits Ciliagenesis in Differentiated Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells: Effectiveness of N-Acetylcysteine

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Manuel; Sarrion, Irene; Armengot, Miguel; Carda, Carmen; Martinez, Isidoro; Melero, Jose A.; Cortijo, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Persistent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections have been associated with the exacerbation of chronic inflammatory diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This virus infects the respiratory epithelium, leading to chronic inflammation, and induces the release of mucins and the loss of cilia activity, two factors that determine mucus clearance and the increase in sputum volume. These alterations involve reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has proven useful in the management of COPD, reducing symptoms, exacerbations, and accelerated lung function decline. NAC inhibits RSV infection and mucin release in human A549 cells. The main objective of this study was to analyze the effects of NAC in modulating ciliary activity, ciliagenesis, and metaplasia in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cell (NHBEC) cultures infected with RSV. Our results indicated that RSV induced ultrastructural abnormalities in axonemal basal bodies and decreased the expression of β-tubulin as well as two genes involved in ciliagenesis, FOXJ1 and DNAI2. These alterations led to a decrease in ciliary activity. Furthermore, RSV induced metaplastic changes to the epithelium and increased the number of goblet cells and the expression of MUC5AC and GOB5. NAC restored the normal functions of the epithelium, inhibiting ICAM1 expression, subsequent RSV infection through mechanisms involving nuclear receptor factor 2, and the expression of heme oxygenase 1, which correlated with the restoration of the antioxidant capacity, the intracellular H2O2 levels and glutathione content of NHBECs. The results presented in this study support the therapeutic use of NAC for the management of chronic respiratory diseases, including COPD. PMID:23118923

  18. Identification of a developmental gene expression signature, including HOX genes, for the normal human colonic crypt stem cell niche: overexpression of the signature parallels stem cell overpopulation during colon tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Bhatlekar, Seema; Addya, Sankar; Salunek, Moreh; Orr, Christopher R; Surrey, Saul; McKenzie, Steven; Fields, Jeremy Z; Boman, Bruce M

    2014-01-15

    Our goal was to identify a unique gene expression signature for human colonic stem cells (SCs). Accordingly, we determined the gene expression pattern for a known SC-enriched region--the crypt bottom. Colonic crypts and isolated crypt subsections (top, middle, and bottom) were purified from fresh, normal, human, surgical specimens. We then used an innovative strategy that used two-color microarrays (∼18,500 genes) to compare gene expression in the crypt bottom with expression in the other crypt subsections (middle or top). Array results were validated by PCR and immunostaining. About 25% of genes analyzed were expressed in crypts: 88 preferentially in the bottom, 68 in the middle, and 131 in the top. Among genes upregulated in the bottom, ∼30% were classified as growth and/or developmental genes including several in the PI3 kinase pathway, a six-transmembrane protein STAMP1, and two homeobox (HOXA4, HOXD10) genes. qPCR and immunostaining validated that HOXA4 and HOXD10 are selectively expressed in the normal crypt bottom and are overexpressed in colon carcinomas (CRCs). Immunostaining showed that HOXA4 and HOXD10 are co-expressed with the SC markers CD166 and ALDH1 in cells at the normal crypt bottom, and the number of these co-expressing cells is increased in CRCs. Thus, our findings show that these two HOX genes are selectively expressed in colonic SCs and that HOX overexpression in CRCs parallels the SC overpopulation that occurs during CRC development. Our study suggests that developmental genes play key roles in the maintenance of normal SCs and crypt renewal, and contribute to the SC overpopulation that drives colon tumorigenesis.

  19. MicroRNA profiles in colorectal carcinomas, adenomas and normal colonic mucosa: variations in miRNA expression and disease progression.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Martha L; Herrick, Jennifer S; Pellatt, Daniel F; Stevens, John R; Mullany, Lila E; Wolff, Erica; Hoffman, Michael D; Samowitz, Wade S; Wolff, Roger K

    2016-03-01

    MiRNAs are small, non-protein-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression either by post-transcriptionally suppressing mRNA translation or by mRNA degradation. We examine differentially expressed miRNAs in colorectal carcinomas, adenomas and normal colonic mucosa. Data come from population-based studies of colorectal cancer conducted in Utah and the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program. A total of 1893 carcinoma/normal-paired samples and 290 adenoma tissue samples were run on the Agilent Human miRNA Microarray V19.0 which contained 2006 miRNAs. We tested for significant differences in miRNA expression between paired carcinoma/adenoma/normal colonic tissue samples. Fewer than 600 miRNAs were expressed in >80% of people for colonic tissue; of these 86.5% were statistically differentially expressed between carcinoma and normal colonic mucosa using a false discovery rate of 0.05. Roughly half of these differentially expressed miRNAs showed a progression in levels of expression from normal to adenoma to carcinoma tissue. Other miRNAs appeared to be altered at the normal to adenoma stage, while others were only altered at the adenoma to carcinoma stage or only at the normal to carcinoma stage. Evaluation of the Agilent platform showed a high degree of repeatability (r = 0.98) and reasonable agreement with the NanoString platform. Our data suggest that miRNAs are highly dysregulated in colorectal tissue among individuals with colorectal cancer; the pattern of disruption varies by miRNA as tissue progresses from normal to adenoma to carcinoma.

  20. Pien Tze Huang inhibits hypoxia-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human colon carcinoma cells through suppression of the HIF-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongwei; Shen, Aling; Zhang, Yuchen; Chen, Youqin; Lin, Jiumao; Lin, Wei; Sferra, Thomas; Peng, Jun

    2014-05-01

    Hypoxia-induced activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) signaling pathway is frequently observed in solid tumors and is strongly associated with numerous pathophysiological processes, including the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which result in cancer progression and metastasis. Thus, inhibiting EMT through the suppression of the HIF-1 pathway may be a promising strategy for anticancer chemotherapy. Pien Tze Huang (PZH), a well-established traditional Chinese medicine has been prescribed for >450 years and has been used for centuries to clinically treat various types of human cancer. We previously reported that PZH suppresses multiple intracellular signaling pathways and thereby promotes the apoptosis of cancer cells and the inhibition of cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. In the present study, to further explore the mechanisms underlying the antitumor action of PZH, HCT-8 human colon carcinoma cells were cultured under hypoxic conditions and the effect of PZH on hypoxia-induced EMT was assessed. Hypoxia was found to induce EMT-associated morphological changes in HCT-8 cells, including loss of cell adhesion and the development of spindle-shaped fibroblastoid-like morphology. In addition, hypoxia was observed to reduce the expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin, but increase that of the mesenchymal marker N-cadherin. In addition, hypoxia significantly enhanced HCT-8 cell migration and invasion and induced the activation of the HIF-1 pathway. However, treatment of the HCT-8 cells with PZH significantly inhibited the hypoxia-mediated EMT and HIF-1 signaling. These findings suggest that PZH inhibits hypoxia-induced cancer EMT through the suppression of the HIF-1 pathway, which may be one of the molecular mechanisms by which PZH exerts its antitumor activity.

  1. Pien Tze Huang inhibits hypoxia-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human colon carcinoma cells through suppression of the HIF-1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, HONGWEI; SHEN, ALING; ZHANG, YUCHEN; CHEN, YOUQIN; LIN, JIUMAO; LIN, WEI; SFERRA, THOMAS; PENG, JUN

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia-induced activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) signaling pathway is frequently observed in solid tumors and is strongly associated with numerous pathophysiological processes, including the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which result in cancer progression and metastasis. Thus, inhibiting EMT through the suppression of the HIF-1 pathway may be a promising strategy for anticancer chemotherapy. Pien Tze Huang (PZH), a well-established traditional Chinese medicine has been prescribed for >450 years and has been used for centuries to clinically treat various types of human cancer. We previously reported that PZH suppresses multiple intracellular signaling pathways and thereby promotes the apoptosis of cancer cells and the inhibition of cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. In the present study, to further explore the mechanisms underlying the antitumor action of PZH, HCT-8 human colon carcinoma cells were cultured under hypoxic conditions and the effect of PZH on hypoxia-induced EMT was assessed. Hypoxia was found to induce EMT-associated morphological changes in HCT-8 cells, including loss of cell adhesion and the development of spindle-shaped fibroblastoid-like morphology. In addition, hypoxia was observed to reduce the expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin, but increase that of the mesenchymal marker N-cadherin. In addition, hypoxia significantly enhanced HCT-8 cell migration and invasion and induced the activation of the HIF-1 pathway. However, treatment of the HCT-8 cells with PZH significantly inhibited the hypoxia-mediated EMT and HIF-1 signaling. These findings suggest that PZH inhibits hypoxia-induced cancer EMT through the suppression of the HIF-1 pathway, which may be one of the molecular mechanisms by which PZH exerts its antitumor activity. PMID:24940418

  2. Establishment of the epithelial-specific transcriptome of normal and malignant human breast cells based on MPSS and array expression data

    PubMed Central

    Grigoriadis, Anita; Mackay, Alan; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Steele, Dawn; Iseli, Christian; Stevenson, Brian J; Jongeneel, C Victor; Valgeirsson, Haukur; Fenwick, Kerry; Iravani, Marjan; Leao, Maria; Simpson, Andrew JG; Strausberg, Robert L; Jat, Parmjit S; Ashworth, Alan; Neville, A Munro; O'Hare, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Diverse microarray and sequencing technologies have been widely used to characterise the molecular changes in malignant epithelial cells in breast cancers. Such gene expression studies to identify markers and targets in tumour cells are, however, compromised by the cellular heterogeneity of solid breast tumours and by the lack of appropriate counterparts representing normal breast epithelial cells. Methods Malignant neoplastic epithelial cells from primary breast cancers and luminal and myoepithelial cells isolated from normal human breast tissue were isolated by immunomagnetic separation methods. Pools of RNA from highly enriched preparations of these cell types were subjected to expression profiling using massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) and four different genome wide microarray platforms. Functional related transcripts of the differential tumour epithelial transcriptome were used for gene set enrichment analysis to identify enrichment of luminal and myoepithelial type genes. Clinical pathological validation of a small number of genes was performed on tissue microarrays. Results MPSS identified 6,553 differentially expressed genes between the pool of normal luminal cells and that of primary tumours substantially enriched for epithelial cells, of which 98% were represented and 60% were confirmed by microarray profiling. Significant expression level changes between these two samples detected only by microarray technology were shown by 4,149 transcripts, resulting in a combined differential tumour epithelial transcriptome of 8,051 genes. Microarray gene signatures identified a comprehensive list of 907 and 955 transcripts whose expression differed between luminal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells, respectively. Functional annotation and gene set enrichment analysis highlighted a group of genes related to skeletal development that were associated with the myoepithelial/basal cells and upregulated in the tumour sample. One of the most

  3. Growth hormone is permissive for neoplastic colon growth.

    PubMed

    Chesnokova, Vera; Zonis, Svetlana; Zhou, Cuiqi; Recouvreux, Maria Victoria; Ben-Shlomo, Anat; Araki, Takako; Barrett, Robert; Workman, Michael; Wawrowsky, Kolja; Ljubimov, Vladimir A; Uhart, Magdalena; Melmed, Shlomo

    2016-06-07

    Growth hormone (GH) excess in acromegaly is associated with increased precancerous colon polyps and soft tissue adenomas, whereas short-stature humans harboring an inactivating GH receptor mutation do not develop cancer. We show that locally expressed colon GH is abundant in conditions predisposing to colon cancer and in colon adenocarcinoma-associated stromal fibroblasts. Administration of a GH receptor (GHR) blocker in acromegaly patients induced colon p53 and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), reversing progrowth GH signals. p53 was also induced in skin fibroblasts derived from short-statured humans with mutant GHR. GH-deficient prophet of pituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1 (Prop1)(-/-) mice exhibited induced colon p53 levels, and cross-breeding them with Apc(min+/-) mice that normally develop intestinal and colon tumors resulted in GH-deficient double mutants with markedly decreased tumor number and size. We also demonstrate that GH suppresses p53 and reduces apoptosis in human colon cell lines as well as in induced human pluripotent stem cell-derived intestinal organoids, and confirm in vivo that GH suppresses colon mucosal p53/p21. GH excess leads to decreased colon cell phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), increased cell survival with down-regulated APC, nuclear β-catenin accumulation, and increased epithelial-mesenchymal transition factors and colon cell motility. We propose that GH is a molecular component of the "field change" milieu permissive for neoplastic colon growth.

  4. Heat-killed probiotic bacteria differentially regulate colonic epithelial cell production of human β-defensin-2: dependence on inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Habil, N; Abate, W; Beal, J; Foey, A D

    2014-12-01

    The inducible antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2) stimulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and bacterial products is essential to antipathogen responses of gut epithelial cells. Commensal and probiotic bacteria can augment such mucosal defences. Probiotic use in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, however, may have adverse effects, boosting inflammatory responses. The aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of selected probiotic strains on hBD-2 production by epithelial cells induced by pathologically relevant pro-inflammatory cytokines and the role of cytokine modulators in controlling hBD-2. Caco-2 colonic intestinal epithelial cells were pre-incubated with heat-killed probiotics, i.e. Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) or Lactobacillus fermentum strain MS15 (LF), followed by stimulation of hBD-2 by interleukin (IL)-1β and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the absence or presence of exogenous IL-10 or anti-IL-10 neutralising antibody. Cytokines and hBD-2 mRNA and protein were analysed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. LcS augmented IL-1β-induced hBD-2, whereas LF enhanced TNF-α- and suppressed IL-1β-induced hBD-2. LF enhanced TNF-α-induced TNF-α and suppressed IL-10, whereas augmented IL-1β-induced IL-10. LcS upregulated IL-1β-induced TNF-α mRNA and suppressed IL-10. Endogenous IL-10 differentially regulated hBD-2; neutralisation of IL-10 augmented TNF-α- and suppressed IL-1β-induced hBD-2. Exogenous IL-10, however, suppressed both TNF-α- and IL-1β-induced hBD-2; LcS partially rescued suppression in TNF-α- and IL-1β-stimulation, whereas LF further suppressed IL-1β-induced hBD-2. It can be concluded that probiotic strains differentially regulate hBD-2 mRNA expression and protein secretion, modulation being dictated by inflammatory stimulus and resulting cytokine environment.

  5. Proteolytic cleavage and truncation of NDRG1 in human prostate cancer cells, but not normal prostate epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ghalayini, Mohammad K.; Dong, Qihan; Richardson, Des R.; Assinder, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    NDRG1 (N-myc downstream regulated gene-1) is a metastasis suppressor that is down-regulated in prostate cancer. NDRG1 phosphorylation is associated with inhibition of metastasis and Western blots indicate two bands at ~41 and ~46 kDa. Previous investigations by others suggest the higher band is due to NDRG1 phosphorylation. However, the current study using a dephosphorylation assay and the Phos-tag (phosphate-binding tag) SDS/PAGE assay, demonstrated that the 46 kDa NDRG1 protein band was not due to phosphorylation. Further experiments showed that the NDRG1 protein bands were not affected upon glycosidase treatment, despite marked effects of these enzymes on the glycosylated protein, fetuin. Analysis using RT–PCR (reverse transcriptase–PCR) demonstrated only a single amplicon, and thus, the two bands could not result from an alternatively spliced NDRG1 transcript. Western-blot analysis of prostate cancer cell lysates identified the 41 kDa band to be a truncated form of NDRG1, with MS confirming the full and truncated proteins to be NDRG1. Significantly, this truncated protein was not present in normal human PrECs (prostate epithelial cells). Western-blot analysis using anti-NDRG1 raised to its N-terminal sequence failed to detect the truncated protein, suggesting that it lacked N-terminus amino acids (residues 1–49). Sequence analysis predicted a pseudotrypsin protease cleavage site between Cys49–Gly50. Such cleavage of NDRG1 in cancer cells may result in loss of NDRG1 tumour suppressive activity. PMID:23634903

  6. Proteolytic cleavage and truncation of NDRG1 in human prostate cancer cells, but not normal prostate epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ghalayini, Mohammad K; Dong, Qihan; Richardson, Des R; Assinder, Stephen J

    2013-06-11

    NDRG1 (N-myc downstream regulated gene-1) is a metastasis suppressor that is down-regulated in prostate cancer. NDRG1 phosphorylation is associated with inhibition of metastasis and Western blots indicate two bands at ~41 and ~46 kDa. Previous investigations by others suggest the higher band is due to NDRG1 phosphorylation. However, the current study using a dephosphorylation assay and the Phos-tag (phosphate-binding tag) SDS/PAGE assay, demonstrated that the 46 kDa NDRG1 protein band was not due to phosphorylation. Further experiments showed that the NDRG1 protein bands were not affected upon glycosidase treatment, despite marked effects of these enzymes on the glycosylated protein, fetuin. Analysis using RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-PCR) demonstrated only a single amplicon, and thus, the two bands could not result from an alternatively spliced NDRG1 transcript. Western-blot analysis of prostate cancer cell lysates identified the 41 kDa band to be a truncated form of NDRG1, with MS confirming the full and truncated proteins to be NDRG1. Significantly, this truncated protein was not present in normal human PrECs (prostate epithelial cells). Western-blot analysis using anti-NDRG1 raised to its N-terminal sequence failed to detect the truncated protein, suggesting that it lacked N-terminus amino acids (residues 1-49). Sequence analysis predicted a pseudotrypsin protease cleavage site between Cys49-Gly50. Such cleavage of NDRG1 in cancer cells may result in loss of NDRG1 tumour suppressive activity.

  7. A Network Biology Approach Identifies Molecular Cross-Talk between Normal Prostate Epithelial and Prostate Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Trevino, Victor; Cassese, Alberto; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Herbert, John; Antzack, Philipp; Clarke, Kim; Davies, Nicholas; Rahman, Ayesha; Campbell, Moray J.; Bicknell, Roy; Vannucci, Marina; Falciani, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The advent of functional genomics has enabled the genome-wide characterization of the molecular state of cells and tissues, virtually at every level of biological organization. The difficulty in organizing and mining this unprecedented amount of information has stimulated the development of computational methods designed to infer the underlying structure of regulatory networks from observational data. These important developments had a profound impact in biological sciences since they triggered the development of a novel data-driven investigative approach. In cancer research, this strategy has been particularly successful. It has contributed to the identification of novel biomarkers, to a better characterization of disease heterogeneity and to a more in depth understanding of cancer pathophysiology. However, so far these approaches have not explicitly addressed the challenge of identifying networks representing the interaction of different cell types in a complex tissue. Since these interactions represent an essential part of the biology of both diseased and healthy tissues, it is of paramount importance that this challenge is addressed. Here we report the definition of a network reverse engineering strategy designed to infer directional signals linking adjacent cell types within a complex tissue. The application of this inference strategy to prostate cancer genome-wide expression profiling data validated the approach and revealed that normal epithelial cells exert an anti-tumour activity on prostate carcinoma cells. Moreover, by using a Bayesian hierarchical model integrating genetics and gene expression data and combining this with survival analysis, we show that the expression of putative cell communication genes related to focal adhesion and secretion is affected by epistatic gene copy number variation and it is predictive of patient survival. Ultimately, this study represents a generalizable approach to the challenge of deciphering cell communication

  8. Kefir extracts suppress in vitro proliferation of estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cells but not normal mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chujian; Chan, Hing Man; Kubow, Stan

    2007-09-01

    Anti-tumorigenic effects have been demonstrated in animal studies from the intake of kefir, a traditional fermented milk product believed to originate from the Caucasian mountains of Russia. In the present study, the antiproliferative effects of extracts of kefir, yogurt, and pasteurized cow's milk on human mammary cancer cells (MCF-7) and normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) was investigated at doses of 0.31%, 0.63%, 1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10% (vol/vol). After 6 days of culture, extracts of kefir-fermented milk depressed MCF-7 cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, showing 29% inhibition of proliferation at a concentration as low as 0.63%, whereas yogurt extracts began to show dose-dependent antiproliferative effects only at the 2.5% dose. Moreover, at the 2.5% dose, kefir extracts decreased the MCF-7 cell numbers by 56%, while yogurt extracts decreased MCF-7 cell proliferation by only 14%. No antiproliferative effects of kefir extracts were observed in the HMECs, while the yogurt extracts exerted antiproliferative effects on HMECs at the 5% and 10% doses. Unfermented milk extracts stimulated proliferation of MCF-7 cells and HMECs at concentrations above 0.31%. Peptide content and capillary electrophoresis analyses showed that kefir-mediated milk fermentation led to an increase in peptide concentrations and a change in peptide profiles relative to milk or yogurt. The present findings suggest that kefir extracts contain constituents that specifically inhibit the growth of human breast cancer cells, which might eventually be useful in the prevention or treatment of breast cancer.

  9. A Network Biology Approach Identifies Molecular Cross-Talk between Normal Prostate Epithelial and Prostate Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Trevino, Victor; Cassese, Alberto; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Herbert, John; Antczak, Philipp; Clarke, Kim; Davies, Nicholas; Rahman, Ayesha; Campbell, Moray J; Guindani, Michele; Bicknell, Roy; Vannucci, Marina; Falciani, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The advent of functional genomics has enabled the genome-wide characterization of the molecular state of cells and tissues, virtually at every level of biological organization. The difficulty in organizing and mining this unprecedented amount of information has stimulated the development of computational methods designed to infer the underlying structure of regulatory networks from observational data. These important developments had a profound impact in biological sciences since they triggered the development of a novel data-driven investigative approach. In cancer research, this strategy has been particularly successful. It has contributed to the identification of novel biomarkers, to a better characterization of disease heterogeneity and to a more in depth understanding of cancer pathophysiology. However, so far these approaches have not explicitly addressed the challenge of identifying networks representing the interaction of different cell types in a complex tissue. Since these interactions represent an essential part of the biology of both diseased and healthy tissues, it is of paramount importance that this challenge is addressed. Here we report the definition of a network reverse engineering strategy designed to infer directional signals linking adjacent cell types within a complex tissue. The application of this inference strategy to prostate cancer genome-wide expression profiling data validated the approach and revealed that normal epithelial cells exert an anti-tumour activity on prostate carcinoma cells. Moreover, by using a Bayesian hierarchical model integrating genetics and gene expression data and combining this with survival analysis, we show that the expression of putative cell communication genes related to focal adhesion and secretion is affected by epistatic gene copy number variation and it is predictive of patient survival. Ultimately, this study represents a generalizable approach to the challenge of deciphering cell communication networks

  10. Carbohydrate-binding motif in Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1/YKL-40) specifically activates Akt signaling pathway in colonic epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Chuan; Llado, Victoria; Eurich, Katrin; Tran, Hoa T.; Mizoguchi, Emiko

    2011-01-01

    Host-microbial interactions play a key role during the development of colitis. We have previously shown that chinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) is an inducible molecule overexpressed in colonic epithelial cells (CECs) under inflammatory conditions. In this study, we found that chitin-binding motif (CBM) of CHI3L1 is specifically associated with the CHI3L1-mediated activation of the Akt-signaling in CEC by transfecting the CBM-mutant CHI3L1 vectors in SW480 CECs. Downstream, CHI3L1 enhanced the secretion of IL-8 and TNFα in a dose-dependent manner. We previously show that 325 through 339 amino-acids in CBM are crucial for the biological function of CHI3L1. Here we demonstrated that 325th–339th residues of CBM in CHI3L1 is a critical region for the activation of Akt, IL-8 production, and for a specific cellular localization of CHI3L1. In conclusion, CBM region of CHI3L1 is critical in activating Akt signaling in CECs, and the activation may be associated with the development of chronic colitis. PMID:21546314

  11. IL-17A Signaling in Colonic Epithelial Cells Inhibits Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Production by Enhancing the Activity of ERK and PI3K

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yan; Zhou, Tingting; Guo, Yueling; Wang, Renxi; Zhao, Zhi; Xiao, He; Hou, Chunmei; Ma, Lingyun; Lin, Yanhua; Lang, Xiaoling; Feng, Jiannan; Chen, Guojiang; Shen, Beifen; Han, Gencheng; Li, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Our previous data suggested that IL-17A contributes to the inhibition of Th1 cell function in the gut. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that IL-17A signaling in colonic epithelial cells (CECs) increases TNF-α-induced PI3K-AKT and ERK phosphorylation and inhibits TNF-α induced expression of IL-12P35 and of a Th1 cell chemokine, CXCL11 at mRNA level. In a co-culture system using HT-29 cells and PBMCs, IL-17A inhibited TNF-ãinduced IL-12P35 expression by HT-29 cells and led to decreased expression of IFN-γ and T-bet by PBMCs. Finally, adoptive transfer of CECs from mice with Crohn's Disease (CD) led to an enhanced Th1 cell response and exacerbated colitis in CD mouse recipients. The pathogenic effect of CECs derived from CD mice was reversed by co-administration of recombinant IL-17A. Our data demonstrate a new IL-17A-mediated regulatory mechanism in CD. A better understanding of this pathway might shed new light on the pathogenesis of CD. PMID:24586980

  12. Sulforaphane Regulates NFE2L2/Nrf2-Dependent Xenobiotic Metabolism Phase II and Phase III Enzymes Differently in Human Colorectal Cancer and Untransformed Epithelial Colon Cells.

    PubMed

    Lubelska, Katarzyna; Wiktorska, Katarzyna; Mielczarek, Lidia; Milczarek, Małgorzata; Zbroińska-Bregisz, Ilona; Chilmonczyk, Zdzisław

    2016-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN), a naturally occurring chemopreventive and anticancer agent, is a nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2 (NFE2L2/Nrf2) inducer. Nrf2 plays a critical role in coordinating the cell defense system by initiating the transcription of cytoprotective genes, including detoxification enzymes such as NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1) and transport proteins such as ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C (CFTR/MRP). Recently, the essential role of Nrf2 in tumor development and progression and in the development of multidrug resistance in cancer cells has been highlighted. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of SFN on the Nrf2 system and the Nrf2-target enzymes NQO1 and MRP in human untransformed epithelial colon CRL-1790 cells and in HT-29 and Caco-2 colorectal cancer cells to elucidate the role of SFN in cancer prevention and treatment. We have demonstrated that SFN has excellent cytoprotective properties in CRL-1790 cells, as it induced Nrf2-dependent expression of MRP1 and NQO1. SFN induced Nrf2 target enzyme activity in HT-29 and Caco-2 cancer cells but regulated the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway differently in cancer and untransformed cells.

  13. Claudin-4 Undergoes Age-Dependent Change in Cellular Localization on Pig Jejunal Villous Epithelial Cells, Independent of Bacterial Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Van Kessel, Andrew G.; Wilson, Heather L.

    2015-01-01

    Newborn piglets are immunologically naïve and must receive passive immunity via colostrum within 24 hours to survive. Mechanisms by which the newborn piglet gut facilitates uptake of colostral cells, antibodies, and proteins may include FcRn and pIgR receptor-mediated endocytosis and paracellular transport between tight junctions (TJs). In the present study, FcRn gene (FCGRT) was minimally expressed in 6-week-old gut and newborn jejunum but it was expressed at significantly higher levels in the ileum of newborn piglets. pIgR was highly expressed in the jejunum and ileum of 6-week-old animals but only minimally in neonatal gut. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Claudin-5 localized to blood vessel endothelial cells. Claudin-4 was strongly localized to the apical aspect of jejunal epithelial cells for the first 2 days of life after which it was redistributed to the lateral surface between adjacent enterocytes. Claudin-4 was localized to ileal lateral surfaces within 24 hours after birth indicating regional and temporal differences. Tissue from gnotobiotic piglets showed that commensal microbiota did not influence Claudin-4 surface localization on jejunal or ileal enterocytes. Regulation of TJs by Claudin-4 surface localization requires further investigation. Understanding the factors that regulate gut barrier maturation may yield protective strategies against infectious diseases. PMID:25948883

  14. Claudin-4 undergoes age-dependent change in cellular localization on pig jejunal villous epithelial cells, independent of bacterial colonization.

    PubMed

    Pasternak, J Alex; Kent-Dennis, Coral; Van Kessel, Andrew G; Wilson, Heather L

    2015-01-01

    Newborn piglets are immunologically naïve and must receive passive immunity via colostrum within 24 hours to survive. Mechanisms by which the newborn piglet gut facilitates uptake of colostral cells, antibodies, and proteins may include FcRn and pIgR receptor-mediated endocytosis and paracellular transport between tight junctions (TJs). In the present study, FcRn gene (FCGRT) was minimally expressed in 6-week-old gut and newborn jejunum but it was expressed at significantly higher levels in the ileum of newborn piglets. pIgR was highly expressed in the jejunum and ileum of 6-week-old animals but only minimally in neonatal gut. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Claudin-5 localized to blood vessel endothelial cells. Claudin-4 was strongly localized to the apical aspect of jejunal epithelial cells for the first 2 days of life after which it was redistributed to the lateral surface between adjacent enterocytes. Claudin-4 was localized to ileal lateral surfaces within 24 hours after birth indicating regional and temporal differences. Tissue from gnotobiotic piglets showed that commensal microbiota did not influence Claudin-4 surface localization on jejunal or ileal enterocytes. Regulation of TJs by Claudin-4 surface localization requires further investigation. Understanding the factors that regulate gut barrier maturation may yield protective strategies against infectious diseases.

  15. Immortalization of Fetal Bovine Colon Epithelial Cells by Expression of Human Cyclin D1, Mutant Cyclin Dependent Kinase 4, and Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase: An In Vitro Model for Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Kengo; Kiyono, Tohru; Isogai, Emiko; Masuda, Mizuki; Narita, Moe; Okuno, Katsuya; Koyanagi, Yukako; Fukuda, Tomokazu

    2015-01-01

    Cattle are the economically important animals in human society. They are essential for the production of livestock products such as milk and meats. The production efficiency of livestock products is negatively impacted by infection with zoonotic pathogens. To prevent and control infectious diseases, it is important to understand the interaction between cattle tissue and pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we established an in vitro infection model of an immortalized bovine colon-derived epithelial cell line by transducing the cells with lentiviral vectors containing genes encoding cell cycle regulators cyclin D1, mutant cyclin dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT). The established cell line showed continuous cell proliferation, expression of epithelial markers, and an intact karyotype, indicating that the cells maintained their original nature as colon-derived epithelium. Furthermore, we exposed the established cell line to two strains of Salmonella enterica and EHEC. Interestingly, S. Typhimurium showed higher affinity for the established cell line and invaded the cytoplasm than S. Enteritidis. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that gene expression of Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1), TLR 2 and TLR 3, whereas TLR 4, 5 and 6 were not detectable in established cells. Our established immortalized colon-derived epithelial cell should be a useful tool for studies evaluating the molecular mechanisms underlying bacterial infection. PMID:26624883

  16. Vitamin E inhibition of normal mammary epithelial cell growth is associated with a reduction in protein kinase C(alpha) activation.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, P W; McIntyre, B S; Gapor, A; Briski, K P

    2001-12-01

    Tocopherols and tocotrienols represent the two subclasses within the vitamin E family of compounds. However, tocotrienols are significantly more potent than tocopherols in suppressing epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent normal mammary epithelial cell growth. EGF is a potent mitogen for normal mammary epithelial cells and an initial event in EGF-receptor mitogenic-signalling is protein kinase C (PKC) activation. Studies were conducted to determine if the antiproliferative effects of specific tocopherol and tocotrienol isoforms are associated with a reduction in EGF-receptor mitogenic signalling and/or PKC activation. Normal mammary epithelial cells isolated from midpregnant BALB/c mice were grown in primary culture, and maintained on serum-free media containing 10 ng/mL EGF as a mitogen, and treated with various doses (0-250 microm) of alpha-, gamma-, or delta-tocopherol or alpha-, gamma-, or delta-tocotrienol. Treatment with growth inhibitory doses of delta-tocopherol (100 microm), alpha-tocotrienol (50 microm), or gamma- or delta-tocotrienol (10 microm) did not affect EGF-receptor levels, EGF-induced EGF-receptor tyrosine kinase activity, or total intracellular levels of PKC(alpha). However, these treatments were found to inhibit EGF-induced PKC(alpha) activation as determined by its translocation from the cytosolic to membrane fraction. Treatment with 250 microm alpha- or gamma-tocopherol had no affect on EGF-receptor mitogenic signalling or cell growth. These findings demonstrate that the inhibitory effects of specific tocopherol and tocotrienol isoforms on EGF-dependent normal mammary epithelial cell mitogenesis occurs downstream from the EGF-receptor and appears to be mediated, at least in part, by a reduction in PKC(alpha) activation.

  17. Sclerotium rolfsii lectin induces stronger inhibition of proliferation in human breast cancer cells than normal human mammary epithelial cells by induction of cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Savanur, Mohammed Azharuddin; Eligar, Sachin M; Pujari, Radha; Chen, Chen; Mahajan, Pravin; Borges, Anita; Shastry, Padma; Ingle, Arvind; Kalraiya, Rajiv D; Swamy, Bale M; Rhodes, Jonathan M; Yu, Lu-Gang; Inamdar, Shashikala R

    2014-01-01

    Sclerotium rolfsii lectin (SRL) isolated from the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotium rolfsii has exquisite binding specificity towards O-linked, Thomsen-Freidenreich (Galβ1-3GalNAcα1-Ser/Thr, TF) associated glycans. This study investigated the influence of SRL on proliferation of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and ZR-75), non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A) and normal mammary epithelial cells (HMECs). SRL caused marked, dose-dependent, inhibition of proliferation of MCF-7 and ZR-75 cells but only weak inhibition of proliferation of non-tumorigenic MCF-10A and HMEC cells. The inhibitory effect of SRL on cancer cell proliferation was shown to be a consequence of SRL cell surface binding and subsequent induction of cellular apoptosis, an effect that was largely prevented by the presence of inhibitors against caspases -3, -8, or -9. Lectin histochemistry using biotin-labelled SRL showed little binding of SRL to normal human breast tissue but intense binding to cancerous tissues. In conclusion, SRL inhibits the growth of human breast cancer cells via induction of cell apoptosis but has substantially less effect on normal epithelial cells. As a lectin that binds specifically to a cancer-associated glycan, has potential to be developed as an anti-cancer agent.

  18. Effects of 300 mT static magnetic field on IL-6 secretion in normal human colon myofibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Gruchlik, Arkadiusz; Wilczok, Adam; Chodurek, Ewa; Polechoński, Władysław; Wolny, Daniel; Dzierzewicz, Zofia

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts play crucial role in the growth and development of the intestine. Colitis, small bowel injury, gastric ulcer disease and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) accompany the increase of number of activated myofibroblasts. In the last few years, the increasing production of electromagnetic (EMF) and static magnetic fields (SMF), due to the expanding use of electronic devices in everyday life, has led to a number of studies on the effects of these fields on living organisms. EMF therapy, because of its anti-inflammatory properties, may be used in medicine in IBD treatment. This mechanism has not been elucidated yet. In the present work normal human colon myofibroblasts CCD-18Co were exposed to SMF with a flux density of 300 mT. After 24 h incubation TNF-alpha-dependent IL-6 secretion was determined with ELISA kit (RandD Systems).The influence of magnetic field and its effect on cell proliferation were determined with TOX-2 (In Vitro Toxicology Assay Kit XTT Based, TOX-2, Sigma) and CyQUANT NF cell proliferation assay kit (Molecular Probes). It was shown that SMF inhibited TNF-alpha-dependent IL-6 secretion. The observed effects were statistically significant and depended on the time of incubation. Moreover, SMF triggered cell proliferation whereas it did not alter cell viability. IL-6 belongs to pro-inflammatory cytokines family and plays a crucial role in IBD. Inhibition of IL-6 secretion by SMF and lack of its cytotoxic effect seem to be advantageous whilst SMF is implicated in the treatment of inflammatory diseases associated by increase in number of activated myofibroblasts.

  19. ADAM28 is expressed by epithelial cells in human normal tissues and protects from C1q-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Miyamae, Yuka; Mochizuki, Satsuki; Shimoda, Masayuki; Ohara, Kentaro; Abe, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Shuji; Kazuno, Saiko; Ohtsuka, Takashi; Ochiai, Hiroki; Kitagawa, Yuko; Okada, Yasunori

    2016-05-01

    ADAM28 (disintegrin and metalloproteinase 28), which was originally reported to be lymphocyte-specific, is over-expressed by carcinoma cells and plays a key role in cell proliferation and progression in human lung and breast carcinomas. We studied ADAM28 expression in human normal tissues and examined its biological function. By using antibodies specific to ADAM28, ADAM28 was immunolocalized mainly to epithelial cells in several tissues, including epididymis, bronchus and stomach, whereas lymphocytes in lymph nodes and spleen were negligibly immunostained. RT-PCR, immunoblotting and ELISA analyses confirmed the expression in these tissues, and low or negligible expression by lymphocytes was found in the lymph node and spleen. C1q was identified as a candidate ADAM28-binding protein from a human lung cDNA library by yeast two-hybrid system, and specific binding was demonstrated by binding assays, immunoprecipitation and surface plasmon resonance. C1q treatment of normal bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B and NHBE cells, both of which showed low-level expression of ADAM28, caused apoptosis through activation of p38 and caspase-3, and cell death with autophagy through accumulation of LC3-II and autophagosomes, respectively. C1q-induced cell death was attenuated by treatment of the cells with antibodies against the C1q receptor gC1qR/p33 or cC1qR/calreticulin. Treatment of C1q with recombinant ADAM28 prior to addition to culture media reduced C1q-induced cell death, and knockdown of ADAM28 using siRNAs increased cell death. These data demonstrate that ADAM28 is expressed by epithelial cells of several normal organs, and suggest that ADAM28 plays a role in cell survival by suppression of C1q-induced cytotoxicity in bronchial epithelial cells.

  20. Effect of ginger root on cyclooxygenase-1 and 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase expression in colonic mucosa of humans at normal and increased risk for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Turgeon, Danielle K; Wright, Benjamin D; Sidahmed, Elkhansa; Ruffin, Mack T; Brenner, Dean E; Sen, Ananda; Zick, Suzanna M

    2013-09-01

    Elevated tissue levels of prostaglandin E2, produced by cyclooxygenase (COX), are an early event in colorectal cancer (CRC). Data suggest the efficacy of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as cancer preventives, in the inhibition of COX activity; however, side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory pose unacceptable limitations. Ginger has been reported to have anti-inflammatory activities with significant CRC preventive potential. We investigated whether consumption of 2.0 g ginger daily regulated the level of two key enzymes that control prostaglandin E2 production, COX-1 and NAD(+)-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH). Thirty participants at normal and 20 participants at increased risk for CRC were randomized and given 2.0 g/day ginger or placebo for 28 days. Flexible sigmoidoscopy was used to obtain colon biopsies at baseline and the end of the study. Tissue levels of COX-1 and 15-PGDH were assessed using western blotting. After ginger consumption, participants at increased risk for CRC had a significantly reduced colonic COX-1 protein level (23.8±41%) compared with the placebo group (18.9±52%; P=0.03). Protein levels of 15-PGDH in the colon were unchanged. In participants who were at normal risk for CRC, neither protein levels of COX-1 nor 15-PGDH in the colon were altered by ginger consumption. Ginger significantly lowered COX-1 protein expression in participants at increased risk for CRC but not in those at normal risk for CRC. Ginger did not alter 15-PGDH protein expression in either increased or normal-risk participants. Further investigation, in larger studies with a longer ginger intervention, is needed to examine the ability of ginger to impact tissue levels of prostaglandin.

  1. Developmental pathways in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Fred E.; Angus, C. William; Partis, William J.; Sigounas, George

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark of cancer is reactivation/alteration of pathways that control cellular differentiation during developmental processes. Evidence indicates that WNT, Notch, BMP and Hedgehog pathways have a role in normal epithelial cell differentiation, and that alterations in these pathways accompany establishment of the tumorigenic state. Interestingly, there is recent evidence that these pathways are intertwined at the molecular level, and these nodes of intersection may provide opportunities for effective targeted therapies. This review will highlight the role of the WNT, Notch, BMP and Hedgehog pathways in colon cancer. PMID:23032367

  2. The ω-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid elicits cAMP generation in colonic epithelial cells via a “store-operated” mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Jessica; Lefkimmiatis, Konstantinos; Moyer, Mary Pat; Curci, Silvana

    2010-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is an ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid abundant in fish oil that exerts a wide spectrum of documented beneficial health effects in humans. Because dietary interventions are relatively inexpensive and are widely assumed to be safe, they have broad public appeal. Their endorsement can potentially have a major impact on human health, but hard mechanistic evidence that specifies how these derivatives work at the cellular level is limited. EPA (50 μM) caused a small elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]) in intact NCM460 human colonic epithelial cells as measured by fura 2 and a profound drop of [Ca2+] within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of permeabilized cells as monitored by compartmentalized mag-fura 2. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy showed that this loss of ER store [Ca2+] led to translocation of the ER-resident transmembrane Ca2+ sensor STIM1. Using sensitive FRET-based sensors for cAMP in single cells, we further found that EPA caused a substantial increase in cellular cAMP concentration, a large fraction of which was dependent on the drop in ER [Ca2+], but independent of cytosolic Ca2+. An additional component of the EPA-induced cAMP signal was sensitive to the phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutyl methylxanthine. We conclude that EPA slowly releases ER Ca2+ stores, resulting in the generation of cAMP. The elevated cAMP is apparently independent of classical G protein-coupled receptor activation and is likely the consequence of a newly described “store-operated” cAMP signaling pathway that is mediated by STIM1. PMID:20576916

  3. Effect of benzalkonium chloride/EDTA on the ocular bioavailability of ketorolac tromethamine following ocular instillation to normal and de-epithelialized corneas of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Madhu, C; Rix, P J; Shackleton, M J; Nguyen, T G; Tang-Liu, D D

    1996-04-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of benzalkonium chloride/ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (BAK/EDTA) on the ocular bioavailability (Focular) of ketorolac tromethamine after ocular instillation to normal and de-epithelialized corneas of rabbits both in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro Focular of the formulations was measured in flow-through perfusion chambers. For in vivo studies, a 35 microL dose of 0.5% ketorolac tromethamine with or without BAK/EDTA was instilled into rabbit eyes with intact or de-epithelialized corneas. At 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h postdose, rabbits were euthanized, and the corneas and aqueous humor were collected from both eyes. The ketorolac concentrations from both in vivo and in vitro samples were quantified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The in vitro study results indicated that BAK/EDTA statistically significantly increased the Focular of ketorolac through de-epithelialized corneas but not through intact corneas. The in vivo study results showed that BAK/EDTA had no effect on the Focular of ketorolac in rabbits with intact corneas, based on the values of the area under the aqueous humor concentration versus time curves (AUC0-6h) of ketorolac. As expected, de-epithelialization of the corneas produced a faster and greater ocular absorption of ketorolac as evidenced by the smaller Tmax and larger AUC values compared to those for the intact corneas in vivo. However, BAK/EDTA decreased the ocular absorption of ketorolac in rabbits with de-epithelialized corneas. The half-lives (t 1/2) of ketorolac in corneal tissue and aqueous humor were longer in rabbits with intact corneas than those in rabbits with de-epithelialized corneas. In conclusion, the in vivo Focular of ketorolac was not altered by BAK/EDTA in rabbits with intact corneas, but it was decreased by BAK/EDTA in rabbits with de-epithelialized corneas. Therefore, the formulation with ketorolac alone may be better as a post-operative ocular analgesic.

  4. Normal and tumor-derived myoepithelial cells differ in their ability to interact with luminal breast epithelial cells for polarity and basement membrane deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Villadsen, Rene; Rank, Fritz; Bissell, Mina J.; Petersen, Ole William

    2001-10-04

    The signals that determine the correct polarity of breast epithelial structures in vivo are not understood. We have shown previously that luminal epithelial cells can be polarized when cultured within a reconstituted basement membrane gel. We reasoned that such cues in vivo may be given by myoepithelial cells. Accordingly, we used an assay where luminal epithelial cells are incorrectly polarized to test this hypothesis. We show that culturing human primary luminal epithelial cells within collagen-I gels leads to formation of structures with no lumina and with reverse polarity as judged by dual stainings for sialomucin, epithelial specific antigen or occludin. No basement membrane is deposited, and {beta}4-integrin staining is negative. Addition of purified human myoepithelial cells isolated from normal glands corrects the inverse polarity, and leads to formation of double-layered acini with central lumina. Among the laminins present in the human breast basement membrane (laminin-1, -5 and -10/11), laminin-1 was unique in its ability to substitute for myoepithelial cells in polarity reversal. Myoepithelial cells were purified also from four different breast cancer sources including a biphasic cell line. Three out of four samples either totally lacked the ability to interact with luminal epithelial cells, or conveyed only correction of polarity in a fraction of acini. This behavior was directly related to the ability of the tumor myoepithelial cells to produce {alpha}-1 chain of laminin. In vivo, breast carcinomas were either negative for laminin-1 (7/12 biopsies) or showed a focal, fragmented deposition of a less intensely stained basement membrane (5/12 biopsies). Dual staining with myoepithelial markers revealed that tumorassociated myoepithelial cells were either negative or weakly positive for expression of laminin-1, establishing a strong correlation between loss of laminin-1 and breast cancer. We conclude that the double-layered breast acinus may be

  5. The use of laser microdissection in the identification of suitable reference genes for normalization of quantitative real-time PCR in human FFPE epithelial ovarian tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jing; Li, Tao; Huang, Bangxing; Cheng, Henghui; Ding, Hui; Dong, Weihong; Xiao, Man; Liu, Ling; Wang, Zehua

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a powerful and reproducible method of gene expression analysis in which expression levels are quantified by normalization against reference genes. Therefore, to investigate the potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for epithelial ovarian cancer by qPCR, it is critical to identify stable reference genes. In this study, twelve housekeeping genes (ACTB, GAPDH, 18S rRNA, GUSB, PPIA, PBGD, PUM1, TBP, HRPT1, RPLP0, RPL13A, and B2M) were analyzed in 50 ovarian samples from normal, benign, borderline, and malignant tissues. For reliable results, laser microdissection (LMD), an effective technique used to prepare homogeneous starting material, was utilized to precisely excise target tissues or cells. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and nonparametric (Kruskal-Wallis) tests were used to compare the expression differences. NormFinder and geNorm software were employed to further validate the suitability and stability of the candidate genes. Results showed that epithelial cells occupied a small percentage of the normal ovary indeed. The expression of ACTB, PPIA, RPL13A, RPLP0, and TBP were stable independent of the disease progression. In addition, NormFinder and geNorm identified the most stable combination (ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP) and the relatively unstable reference gene GAPDH from the twelve commonly used housekeeping genes. Our results highlight the use of homogeneous ovarian tissues and multiple-reference normalization strategy, e.g. the combination of ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP, for qPCR in epithelial ovarian tissues, whereas GAPDH, the most commonly used reference gene, is not recommended, especially as a single reference gene.

  6. Fasting and postprandial volumes of the undisturbed colon: normal values and changes in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome measured using serial MRI

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, S E; Marciani, L; Garsed, K C; Hoad, C L; Thongborisute, W; Roberts, E; Gowland, P A; Spiller, R C

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous assessments of colon morphology have relied on tests which were either invasive or used ionizing radiation. We aimed to measure regional volumes of the undisturbed colon in healthy volunteers (HV) and patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). Methods 3D regional (ascending, transverse, and descending) colon volumes were measured in fasting abdominal magnetic resonance (MR) images of 75 HVs and 25 IBS-D patients. Thirty-five of the HV and all 25 IBS-D subjects were fed a standard meal and postprandial MRI data obtained over 225 min. Key Results Colonic regions were identified and 3D maps from cecum to sigmoid flexure were defined. Fasted regional volumes showed wide variation in both HVs being (mean ± SD) ascending colon (AC) 203 ± 75 mL, transverse (TC) 198 ± 79 mL, and descending (DC) 160 ± 86 mL with no difference from IBS-D subjects (AC 205 ± 69 mL, TC 232 ± 100 mL, and DC 151 ± 71 mL, respectively). The AC volume expanded by 10% after feeding (p = 0.007) in the 35 HV possibly due to increased ileo-colonic inflow. A later rise in AC volume occurred from t = 90 to t = 240 min as the meal residue entered the cecum. In contrast, IBS-D subjects showed a much reduced postprandial response of the AC (p < 0.0001) and a greater increase in TC volume after 90 min (p = 0.0244) compared to HV. Conclusions & Inferences We have defined a normal range of the regional volumes of the undisturbed colon in fasted and fed states. The AC in IBS-D appeared less able to accommodate postprandial inflow which may account for faster colonic transit. PMID:24131490

  7. Met Receptor Acts Uniquely for Survival and Morphogenesis of EGFR-Dependent Normal Mammary Epithelial and Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bersani, Francesca; Quaglino, Elena; Martignani, Eugenio; Baratta, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Mammary gland development and breast cancer growth require multiple factors both of endocrine and paracrine origin. We analyzed the roles of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor (Met) in mammary epithelial cells and mammary tumor cells derived from a mutated-ErbB2 transgenic mice. By using highly specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors we found that MCF-10A and NMuMG mammary epithelial cell lines are totally dependent on EGFR activation for their growth and survival. Proliferation and 3D-morphogenesis assays showed that HGF had no role in maintaining mammary cell viability, but was the only cytokine able to rescue EGFR-inhibited mammary cells. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I), basic-Fibroblast Growth Factor (b-FGF) and Neuregulin, which are well known mammary morphogenic factors, did not rescue proliferation or morphogenesis in these cell lines, following EGFR inhibition. Similarly, ErbB2-driven tumor cells are EGFR-dependent and also display HGF-mediated rescue. Western-blot analysis of the signaling pathways involved in rescue after EGFR inhibition indicated that concomitant ERK1/2 and AKT activation was exclusively driven by Met, but not by IGF-I or b-FGF. These results describe a unique role for EGFR and Met in mammary epithelial cells by showing that similar pathways can be used by tumorigenic cells to sustain growth and resist to EGFR-directed anti-tumorigenic drugs. PMID:23028720

  8. Genes involved in epithelial differentiation and development are differentially expressed in oral and genital lichen planus epithelium compared to normal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Karin; Coates, Philip J; Ebrahimi, Majid; Nylander, Elisabet; Wahlin, Ylva Britt; Nylander, Karin

    2014-09-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic mucocutaneous disease with unknown cause. Patients with LP often have both oral and genital lesions, but these conditions are often considered as separate diseases and treated accordingly. To find out which genes are differently expressed in mucosal LP compared to normal mucosa and establish whether oral and genital LP are in fact the same disease, whole genome expression analysis was performed on epithelium from 13 patients diagnosed with oral and/or genital LP and normal controls. For confirmation of keratin 4 and corneodesmosin expression, quantitative reverse-transcription PCR and immunohistochemistry were used. Many genes involved in epithelial development and differentiation are differently expressed in epithelium from LP compared to normal epithelium. Several of the differentially expressed genes are common for oral and genital LP and the same biological processes are altered which supports the fact that oral and genital LP are manifestations of the same disease. The change in gene expression indicates that differentiation is altered leading to changes in the epithelial barrier.

  9. Colonization of porcine intestine by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: selection of piliated forms in vivo, adhesion of piliated forms to epithelial cells in vitro, and incidence of a pilus antigen among porcine enteropathogenic E. coli.

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, B; Moon, H W; Isaacson, R E

    1977-01-01

    In contrast to K88-positive porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), K88-negative porcine ETEC strains did not adhere to isolated intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. However, they did adhere to intestinal epithelium in vivo. Growth of one such ETEC (strain 987) in pig small intestine consistently yielded a greater percentage of piliated cells than did growth in vitro. This increase was demonstrable by electron microscopy, by change in colonial morphology, and by agglutination in specific antisera against the pili of strain 987. In contrast to the stored stock culture (which contained very few piliated cells), richly piliated forms of strain 987 did adhere to isolated intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. A series of porcine E. coli strains was tested for agglutinability in antiserum against the pili of strain 987, and several K88-negative ETEC strains were agglutinated. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that pili facilitate intestinal adhesion and colonization by K88-negative ETEC strains. Images PMID:326676

  10. Colonization of porcine intestine by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: selection of piliated forms in vivo, adhesion of piliated forms to epithelial cells in vitro, and incidence of a pilus antigen among porcine enteropathogenic E. coli.

    PubMed

    Nagy, B; Moon, H W; Isaacson, R E

    1977-04-01

    In contrast to K88-positive porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), K88-negative porcine ETEC strains did not adhere to isolated intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. However, they did adhere to intestinal epithelium in vivo. Growth of one such ETEC (strain 987) in pig small intestine consistently yielded a greater percentage of piliated cells than did growth in vitro. This increase was demonstrable by electron microscopy, by change in colonial morphology, and by agglutination in specific antisera against the pili of strain 987. In contrast to the stored stock culture (which contained very few piliated cells), richly piliated forms of strain 987 did adhere to isolated intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. A series of porcine E. coli strains was tested for agglutinability in antiserum against the pili of strain 987, and several K88-negative ETEC strains were agglutinated. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that pili facilitate intestinal adhesion and colonization by K88-negative ETEC strains.

  11. Microscopical examination of the localisation patterns of two novel rhodamine derivatives in normal and neoplastic colonic mucosa.

    PubMed

    Atlamazoglou, V; Yova, D; Kavantzas, N; Loukas, S

    2001-01-01

    Tissue characterisation by fluorescence imaging, using exogenous fluorophores, is a promising method for cancer detection. Histochemical alterations in the composition of mucins, when neoplastic transformations occur, could be exploited to derive more selective fluoroprobes indicative of early malignant transformation. The aim of this work was to develop and examine tumour selective fluoroprobes for colon cancer diagnosis, as well as to determine the morphological components where selective dye accumulation has occurred. Two novel fluoroprobes: rhodamine B-L-leucine amide and rhodamine B-phenylboronic acid were synthesised and examined together with Mayer's mucicarmine, alexa 350-wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and tetramethyl rhodamine-concanavalin A (ConA). Fluorescence microscopy studies were performed with deparaffinised human colon sections, using an epifluorescence microscope equipped with a colour CCD camera. The intense accumulation of the novel fluoroprobes was localised in the amorphous material in the lumen of neoplastic crypts. To gain insight into the localisation patterns, mucicarmine, alexa 350-WGA and tetramethyl rhodamine-ConA were used. Alexa 350-WGA reacted primarily with mucin secreted in the malignant crypt lumen suggesting that this material is rich in sialic acid and N-acetylglucosaminyl residues. These derivatives clearly and consistently distinguished non-neoplastic from neoplastic human colon tissue sections. The intense accumulation at the altered mucins indicates that they could be used as fluoroprobes of biochemical alterations for carcinoma detection.

  12. Comparison of c-met Expression in Ovarian Epithelial Tumors and Normal Epithelia of the Female Reproductive Tract by Quantitative Laser Scan Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Huntsman, David; Resau, James H.; Klineberg, Eric; Auersperg, Nelly

    1999-01-01

    The transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor c-met with its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF), acts as a mitogen, motogen, and morphogen in many normal epithelia. HGF/SF-met signaling has also been implicated in neoplastic progression and metastasis. In this study, immunofluorescence staining and quantitative laser scanning confocal microscopy were used to measure c-met expression in ovarian surface epithelial tumors from 17 oophorectomy specimens. These specimens were from patients aged 25 to 81 (mean age, 52) and included 10 malignant tumors, 4 borderline tumors, and five benign tumors including a Brenner tumor. For comparison, c-met expression was measured in normal tissues from the same patients, including 4 ovarian surface epithelia, 4 fallopian tube epithelia, 2 endometria, and 3 endocervical epithelia, as well as 3 cases of endometriosis. Relative pixel intensity values of c-met expression ranged from 0.4 in a normal ovarian surface epithelium to 22.3 in a borderline serous tumor. Malignant tumors (mean, 9.6) and borderline tumors (mean, 12.9) had higher average c-met expression levels than normal tissues (mean, 3.6) and endometriosis (mean, 1.8). The expression levels of benign tumors were intermediate (mean, 7.9). Among the normal tissues, c-met expression in fallopian tubes (mean, 8.2; range, 3.4–12.9) was higher than that of the other normal epithelia (mean, 1.6; range, 0.4–4.3). In eight cases where both normal and malignant tissues were sampled, c-met expression was significantly greater in malignant than in normal epithelia (P = 0.01). These findings indicate that c-met plays a role in the biology of the normal tissues examined. They confirm that its expression increases in the malignant progression of ovarian surface epithelial tumors, and suggest that increases comparable to those in frankly malignant carcinomas have already been reached in borderline lesions, ie, early in the neoplastic process. PMID:10433927

  13. Assessing epithelial cell nuclear morphology by using azimuthal light scattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chung-Chieh; Lau, Condon; Tunnell, James W.; Hunter, Martin; Kalashnikov, Maxim; Fang-Yen, Christopher; Fulghum, Stephen F.; Badizadegan, Kamran; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.

    2006-11-01

    We describe azimuthal light scattering spectroscopy (ϕ/LSS), a novel technique for assessing epithelial-cell nuclear morphology. The difference between the spectra measured at azimuthal angles ϕ=0° and ϕ=90° preferentially isolates the single backscattering contribution due to large (˜10 μm) structures such as epithelial cell nuclei by discriminating against scattering from smaller organelles and diffusive background. We demonstrate the feasibility of using ϕ/LSS for cancer detection by showing that spectra from cancerous colon tissue exhibit significantly greater azimuthal asymmetry than spectra from normal colonic tissues.

  14. Laminin alpha 5, a major transcript of normal and malignant rat liver epithelial cells, is differentially expressed in developing and adult liver.

    PubMed

    Seebacher, T; Medina, J L; Bade, E G

    1997-11-25

    The laminin family of extracellular matrix glycoproteins plays a major role in cell migration and differentiation and in tumor cell invasion. As previously shown, the laminin deposited by normal and malignant rat liver epithelial cells in their extracellular matrix (ECM) and into their ECM migration tracks does not contain a typical (EHS-like) alpha 1 heavy chain. By RT-PCR screening we have now identified two alpha chains among a total of five additional laminin chains produced by these cells. Three of the newly identified chains were not previously known for the rat. Their sequences have been deposited in the EMBL nucleotide sequence data bank. The alpha 5 chain now identified is expressed at comparably high levels by both the normal and the malignant liver epithelial cells. The chain is also expressed in fetal liver together with the alpha 2 and beta 2 chains, but it is only vestigially expressed in the mature organ as shown by RT-PCR. These results suggest for alpha 5 a role in development and production of the chain by only a small subset of cells in adult liver. At the level of detection used, no changes were observed in regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy. In addition to the alpha 5 chain, the cultured cells express the beta 1 and beta 2 light chains, indicating the expression of more than one laminin isoform by the same cell line. The expression of the alpha 5 chain and of the other new non-EHS isoform chains was also analyzed in various tissues. The malignant liver epithelial cells, but not their nontumorigenic parental cells, also express, in addition to the alpha 5 chain the alpha 2 chain, which is expressed at high level by the NBT II bladder carcinoma cell line, suggesting a relationship with malignancy.

  15. Comparative cytotoxicity of fumonisin B1 in two cell lines derived from normal human bronchial epithelial cells using four distinct bioassay techniques.

    PubMed

    Lewis, C; Smith, J; Anderson, J; Freshney, R

    1999-06-01

    This study focuses on the cytotoxic effects of fumonisin B1 (FB1) on both immortalised and immortalised and subsequently transfected normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells of human origin using four bioassays. While the MTT, Neutral Red and hexosaminidase colorimetric assays showed little difference between the toxic effects on the two related cell lines, the clonogenic assay, measuring cell survival and proliferation, indicated that FB1 had a more toxic effect on the nontransfected cells. This kind ofin vitro approach using cells which retain many characteristics of normal cell growth and differentiation can go some way to developing evaluation models for food safety in the case of mycotoxin contamination without resorting totally to whole animal testing. Nevertheless, one or two cytotoxicity tests may be inadequate for a complete appraisal of toxic potential: rather, as wide a range of methodologies as feasible should be employed initially before meaningful conclusions may be drawn.

  16. Three-Dimensionally Engineered Normal Human Broncho-epithelial Tissue-Like Assemblies: Target Tissues for Human Respiratory Viral Infections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, T. J.; McCarthy, M.; Lin, Y-H

    2006-01-01

    In vitro three-dimensional (3D) human broncho-epithelial (HBE) tissue-like assemblies (3D HBE TLAs) from this point forward referred to as TLAs were engineered in Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) technology to mimic the characteristics of in vivo tissues thus providing a tool to study human respiratory viruses and host cell interactions. The TLAs were bioengineered onto collagen-coated cyclodextran microcarriers using primary human mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells (HBTC) as the foundation matrix and an adult human bronchial epithelial immortalized cell line (BEAS-2B) as the overlying component. The resulting TLAs share significant characteristics with in vivo human respiratory epithelium including polarization, tight junctions, desmosomes, and microvilli. The presence of tissue-like differentiation markers including villin, keratins, and specific lung epithelium markers, as well as the production of tissue mucin, further confirm these TLAs differentiated into tissues functionally similar to in vivo tissues. Increasing virus titers for human respiratory syncytial virus (wtRSVA2) and parainfluenza virus type 3 (wtPIV3 JS) and the detection of membrane bound glycoproteins over time confirm productive infections with both viruses. Therefore, TLAs mimic aspects of the human respiratory epithelium and provide a unique capability to study the interactions of respiratory viruses and their primary target tissue independent of the host's immune system.

  17. Lamellipodia-based migrations of larval epithelial cells are required for normal closure of the adult epidermis of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Bischoff, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Cell migrations are an important feature of animal development. They are, furthermore, essential to wound healing and tumour progression. Despite recent progress, it is still mysterious how cell migration is spatially and temporally regulated during morphogenesis and how cell migration is coordinated with other cellular behaviours to shape tissues and organs. The formation of the abdominal epithelium of Drosophila during metamorphosis provides an attractive system to study morphogenesis. Here, the diploid adult histoblasts replace the polyploid larval epithelial cells (LECs). Using in vivo 4D microscopy, I show that, besides apical constriction and apoptosis, the LECs undergo extensive coordinated migrations. The migrations follow a transition from a stationary (epithelial) to a migratory mode. The migratory behaviour is stimulated by autocrine Dpp signalling. Directed apical lamellipodia-like protrusions propel the cells. Initially, planar cell polarity determines the orientation of LEC migration. While LECs are migrating they also constrict apically, and changes in activity of the small GTPase Rho1 can favour one behaviour over the other. This study shows that the LECs play a more active role in morphogenesis than previously thought, with their migrations contributing to abdominal closure. It furthermore provides insights into how the migratory behaviour of cells is regulated during morphogenesis. PMID:22230614

  18. Polyamine-modulated c-Myc expression in normal intestinal epithelial cells regulates p21Cip1 transcription through a proximal promoter region

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lan; Guo, Xin; Rao, Jaladanki N.; Zou, Tongtong; Marasa, Bernard S.; Chen, Jie; Greenspon, Jose; Casero, Robert A.; Wang, Jian-Ying

    2006-01-01

    Maintenance of intestinal mucosal epithelial integrity requires cellular polyamines that regulate expression of various genes involved in cell proliferation, growth arrest and apoptosis. Our previous studies have shown that polyamines are essential for expression of the c-myc gene and that polyamine-induced c-Myc plays a critical role in stimulation of normal IEC (intestinal epithelial cell) proliferation, but the exact downstream targets of induced c-Myc are still unclear. The p21Cip1 protein is a major player in cell cycle control, which is primarily regulated at the transcriptional level. The current study was designed to determine whether induced c-Myc stimulates normal IEC proliferation by repressing p21Cip1 transcription following up-regulation of polyamines. Overexpression of the ODC (ornithine decarboxylase) gene increased levels of cellular polyamines, induced c-Myc expression and inhibited p21Cip1 transcription, as indicated by repression of p21Cip1 promoter activity and a decrease in p21Cip1 protein levels. In contrast, depletion of cellular polyamines by inhibiting ODC enzyme activity with α-difluoromethylornithine decreased c-Myc, but increased p21Cip1 transcription. Ectopic expression of wild-type c-myc not only inhibited basal levels of p21Cip1 transcription in control cells, but also prevented increased p21Cip1 in polyamine-deficient cells. Experiments using different p21Cip1 promoter mutants showed that transcriptional repression of p21Cip1 by c-Myc was mediated through Miz-1- and Sp1-binding sites within the proximal region of the p21Cip1 promoter in normal IECs. These findings confirm that p21Cip1 is one of the direct mediators of induced c-Myc following increased polyamines and that p21Cip1 repression by c-Myc is implicated in stimulation of normal IEC proliferation. PMID:16706751

  19. Catheter colonization and abscess formation due to Staphylococcus epidermidis with normal and small-colony-variant phenotype is mouse strain dependent.

    PubMed

    Sander, Gunnar; Börner, Tina; Kriegeskorte, André; von Eiff, Christof; Becker, Karsten; Mahabir, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) form a thick, multilayered biofilm on foreign bodies and are a major cause of nosocomial implant-associated infections. Although foreign body infection models are well-established, limited in vivo data are available for CoNS with small-colony-variant (SCV) phenotype described as causative agents in implant-associated infections. Therefore, we investigated the impact of the Staphylococcus epidermidis phenotype on colonization of implanted PVC catheters and abscess formation in three different mouse strains. Following introduction of a catheter subcutaneously in each flank of 8- to 12-week-old inbred C57BL/6JCrl (B6J), outbred Crl:CD1(ICR) (CD-1), and inbred BALB/cAnNCrl (BALB/c) male mice, doses of S. epidermidis O-47 wild type, its hemB mutant with stable SCV phenotype, or its complemented mutant at concentrations of 10(6) to 10(9) colony forming units (CFUs) were gently spread onto each catheter. On day 7, mice were sacrificed and the size of the abscesses as well as bacterial colonization was determined. A total of 11,500 CFUs of the complemented mutant adhered to the catheter in BALB/c followed by 9,960 CFUs and 9,900 CFUs from S. epidermidis wild type in BALB/c and CD-1, respectively. SCV colonization was highest in CD-1 with 9,500 CFUs, whereas SCVs were not detected in B6J. The minimum dose that led to colonization or abscess formation in all mouse strains was 10(7) or 10(8) CFUs of the normal phenotype, respectively. A minimum dose of 10(8) or 10(9) CFU of the hemB mutant with stable SCV phenotype led to colonization only or abscess formation, respectively. The largest abscesses were detected in BALB/c inoculated with wild type bacteria or SCV (64 mm(2) vs. 28 mm(2)). Our results indicate that colonization and abscess formation by different phenotypes of S. epidermidis in a foreign body infection model is most effective in inbred BALB/c followed by outbred CD-1 and inbred B6J mice.

  20. Immortalization of normal human mammary epithelial cells in two steps by direct targeting of senescence barriers does not require gross genomic alterations

    SciTech Connect

    Garbe, James C.; Vrba, Lukas; Sputova, Klara; Fuchs, Laura; Novak, Petr; Brothman, Arthur R.; Jackson, Mark; Chin, Koei; LaBarge, Mark A.; Watts, George; Futscher, Bernard W.; Stampfer, Martha R.

    2014-10-29

    Telomerase reactivation and immortalization are critical for human carcinoma progression. However, little is known about the mechanisms controlling this crucial step, due in part to the paucity of experimentally tractable model systems that can examine human epithelial cell immortalization as it might occur in vivo. We achieved efficient non-clonal immortalization of normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) by directly targeting the 2 main senescence barriers encountered by cultured HMEC. The stress-associated stasis barrier was bypassed using shRNA to p16INK4; replicative senescence due to critically shortened telomeres was bypassed in post-stasis HMEC by c-MYC transduction. Thus, 2 pathologically relevant oncogenic agents are sufficient to immortally transform normal HMEC. The resultant non-clonal immortalized lines exhibited normal karyotypes. Most human carcinomas contain genomically unstable cells, with widespread instability first observed in vivo in pre-malignant stages; in vitro, instability is seen as finite cells with critically shortened telomeres approach replicative senescence. Our results support our hypotheses that: (1) telomere-dysfunction induced genomic instability in pre-malignant finite cells may generate the errors required for telomerase reactivation and immortalization, as well as many additional “passenger” errors carried forward into resulting carcinomas; (2) genomic instability during cancer progression is needed to generate errors that overcome tumor suppressive barriers, but not required per se; bypassing the senescence barriers by direct targeting eliminated a need for genomic errors to generate immortalization. Achieving efficient HMEC immortalization, in the absence of “passenger” genomic errors, should facilitate examination of telomerase regulation during human carcinoma progression, and exploration of agents that could prevent immortalization.

  1. Immortalization of normal human mammary epithelial cells in two steps by direct targeting of senescence barriers does not require gross genomic alterations

    DOE PAGES

    Garbe, James C.; Vrba, Lukas; Sputova, Klara; ...

    2014-10-29

    Telomerase reactivation and immortalization are critical for human carcinoma progression. However, little is known about the mechanisms controlling this crucial step, due in part to the paucity of experimentally tractable model systems that can examine human epithelial cell immortalization as it might occur in vivo. We achieved efficient non-clonal immortalization of normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) by directly targeting the 2 main senescence barriers encountered by cultured HMEC. The stress-associated stasis barrier was bypassed using shRNA to p16INK4; replicative senescence due to critically shortened telomeres was bypassed in post-stasis HMEC by c-MYC transduction. Thus, 2 pathologically relevant oncogenic agentsmore » are sufficient to immortally transform normal HMEC. The resultant non-clonal immortalized lines exhibited normal karyotypes. Most human carcinomas contain genomically unstable cells, with widespread instability first observed in vivo in pre-malignant stages; in vitro, instability is seen as finite cells with critically shortened telomeres approach replicative senescence. Our results support our hypotheses that: (1) telomere-dysfunction induced genomic instability in pre-malignant finite cells may generate the errors required for telomerase reactivation and immortalization, as well as many additional “passenger” errors carried forward into resulting carcinomas; (2) genomic instability during cancer progression is needed to generate errors that overcome tumor suppressive barriers, but not required per se; bypassing the senescence barriers by direct targeting eliminated a need for genomic errors to generate immortalization. Achieving efficient HMEC immortalization, in the absence of “passenger” genomic errors, should facilitate examination of telomerase regulation during human carcinoma progression, and exploration of agents that could prevent immortalization.« less

  2. Immortalization of normal human mammary epithelial cells in two steps by direct targeting of senescence barriers does not require gross genomic alterations

    PubMed Central

    Garbe, James C; Vrba, Lukas; Sputova, Klara; Fuchs, Laura; Novak, Petr; Brothman, Arthur R; Jackson, Mark; Chin, Koei; LaBarge, Mark A; Watts, George; Futscher, Bernard W; Stampfer, Martha R

    2014-01-01

    Telomerase reactivation and immortalization are critical for human carcinoma progression. However, little is known about the mechanisms controlling this crucial step, due in part to the paucity of experimentally tractable model systems that can examine human epithelial cell immortalization as it might occur in vivo. We achieved efficient non-clonal immortalization of normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) by directly targeting the 2 main senescence barriers encountered by cultured HMEC. The stress-associated stasis barrier was bypassed using shRNA to p16INK4; replicative senescence due to critically shortened telomeres was bypassed in post-stasis HMEC by c-MYC transduction. Thus, 2 pathologically relevant oncogenic agents are sufficient to immortally transform normal HMEC. The resultant non-clonal immortalized lines exhibited normal karyotypes. Most human carcinomas contain genomically unstable cells, with widespread instability first observed in vivo in pre-malignant stages; in vitro, instability is seen as finite cells with critically shortened telomeres approach replicative senescence. Our results support our hypotheses that: (1) telomere-dysfunction induced genomic instability in pre-malignant finite cells may generate the errors required for telomerase reactivation and immortalization, as well as many additional “passenger” errors carried forward into resulting carcinomas; (2) genomic instability during cancer progression is needed to generate errors that overcome tumor suppressive barriers, but not required per se; bypassing the senescence barriers by direct targeting eliminated a need for genomic errors to generate immortalization. Achieving efficient HMEC immortalization, in the absence of “passenger” genomic errors, should facilitate examination of telomerase regulation during human carcinoma progression, and exploration of agents that could prevent immortalization. PMID:25485586

  3. Genetic variants in the TGFβ-signaling pathway influence expression of miRNAs in colon and rectal normal mucosa and tumor tissue.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Martha L; Trivellas, Andromahi; Pellatt, Andrew J; Mullany, Lila E; Stevens, John R; Wolff, Roger K; Herrick, Jennifer S

    2017-01-05

    The TGF-β signaling pathway is involved in regulation of cell growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. We test the hypothesis that genetic variation in the TGF-β signaling pathway alters miRNA expression.We use data from 1188 colorectal cancer cases to evaluate associations between 80 SNPs in 21 genes.Seven variants eIF4E rs12498533, NFκB1 rs230510, TGFB1 rs4803455, TGFBR1 rs1571590 and rs6478974, SMAD3 rs3743343, and RUNX1 rs8134179 were associated with expression level of miRNAs in normal colorectal mucosa. RUNX2 rs12333172 and BMPR1B rs13134042 were associated with miRNAs in normal colon mucosa; eIF4EBP3 rs250425, SMAD3 rs12904944, SMAD7 rs3736242, and PTEN rs532678 were associated with miRNA expression in normal rectal mucosa. Evaluation of the differential expression between carcinoma and normal mucosa showed that SMAD3 rs12708491 and rs2414937, NFκB1 rs230510 and rs3821958, and RUNX3 rs6672420 were associated with several miRNAs for colorectal carcinoma. Evaluation of site-specific differential miRNA expression showed that BMPR1B rs2120834, BMPR2 rs2228545, and eIF4EBP3 rs250425 were associated with differential miRNA expression in colon tissue and SMAD3 rs12901071, rs1498506, and rs2414937, BMPR2 rs2228545, and RUNX2 rs2819854, altered differential miRNA expression in rectal tissue.These data support the importance of the TGF-β signaling pathway to the carcinogenic process, possibly through their influence on miRNA expression levels.

  4. Evaluations of thyme extract effects in human normal bronchial and tracheal epithelial cell lines and in human lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Oliviero, Marinelli; Romilde, Iannarelli; Beatrice, Morelli Maria; Matteo, Valisi; Giovanna, Nicotra; Consuelo, Amantini; Claudio, Cardinali; Giorgio, Santoni; Filippo, Maggi; Massimo, Nabissi

    2016-08-25

    Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is used traditionally to prepare herbal remedies possessing expectorant, mucolytic, antitussive and antispasmodic properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a standardized hydroalcoholic extract of thyme on primary human airway (bronchial/tracheal) epithelial cell lines in a model of lung inflammation induced by LPS. In addition, the effects of thyme extract on human lung cancer cell line (H460) were analysed. Thyme extract showed significant anti-inflammatory properties by reducing the NF-κB p65 and NF-κB p52 transcription factors protein levels followed by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 beta and IL-8), and Muc5ac secretion in human normal bronchial and tracheal epithelial cells. Moreover, the extract showed cytotoxic effects on H460 cancer cells, modulated the release of IL-1 beta, IL-8 and down-regulated NF-κB p65 and NF-κB p52 proteins. Taken together, these results substantiated the traditional uses of thyme in the treatment of respiratory diseases. Thyme extract might be an effective treatment of chronic diseases based on inflammatory processes when hypersecretion of mucus overwhelms the ciliary clearance and obstructs airways, causing morbidity and mortality. Moreover thyme extract, evaluated in H460 lung cancer cell line, demonstrated to induce cell cytotoxicity in addition to reduce inflammatory cell signals.

  5. The Amount of Keratins Matters for Stress Protection of the Colonic Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Asghar, M. Nadeem; Silvander, Jonas S. G.; Helenius, Terhi O.; Lähdeniemi, Iris A. K.; Alam, Catharina; Fortelius, Lina E.; Holmsten, Rickard O.; Toivola, Diana M.

    2015-01-01

    Keratins (K) are important for epithelial stress protection as evidenced by keratin mutations predisposing to human liver diseases and possibly inflammatory bowel diseases. A role for K8 in the colon is supported by the ulcerative colitis-phenotype with epithelial hyperproliferation and abnormal ion transport in K8-knockout (K8−/−) mice. The heterozygote knockout (K8+/−) colon appears normal but displays a partial ion transport-defect. Characterizing the colonic phenotype we show that K8+/− colon expresses ~50% less keratins compared to K8 wild type (K8+/+) but de novo K7 expression is observed in the top-most cells of the K8+/− and K8−/− crypts. The K8+/− colonic crypts are significantly longer due to increased epithelial hyperproliferation, but display no defects in apoptosis or inflammation in contrast to K8−/−. When exposed to colitis using the dextran sulphate sodium-model, K8+/− mice showed higher disease sensitivity and delayed recovery compared to K8+/+ littermates. Therefore, the K8+/− mild colonic phenotype correlates with decreased keratin levels and increased sensitivity to experimental colitis, suggesting that a sufficient amount of keratin is needed for efficient stress protection in the colonic epithelia. PMID:26000979

  6. A novel extract SB-300 from the stem bark latex of Croton lechleri inhibits CFTR-mediated chloride secretion in human colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Horst; Machen, Terry E; Widdicombe, Jonathan H; Carlson, Thomas J S; King, Steven R; Chow, John W S; Illek, Beate

    2004-08-01

    An oligomeric proanthocyanidin (SP-303) extracted from the bark latex of the tree Croton lechleri (family Euphorbiaceae) is a potent inhibitor of cholera toxin-induced fluid accumulation and chloride secretion. The manufacturing process for SP-303 was optimized and simplified to produce an increased yield of the herbal extract. The novel extract (named SB-300) contained on average 70.6+/-7.2% SP-303 by weight (mean +/- S.D.; n=56 lots). Here, we describe the effectiveness of SB-300 on cAMP-regulated chloride secretion, which is mediated by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl- channel (CFTR) in human colonic T84 cells. Exposure of the apical surface to SB-300 blocked forskolin-stimulated Cl- secretion by 92.2+/-3.0% with a half-maximal inhibition constant (KB) of 4.8+/-0.8 microM. For SP-303, stimulated Cl- currents were decreased by 98.0+/-7.2 % and KB averaged 4.1+/-1.3 microM. There was no significant difference between the blocking kinetics of SP-303 and SB-300. Forskolin-stimulated whole cell Cl- currents were effectively blocked by extracellular addition of SB-300 (63+/-8.5%; n=3) and to a similar extent by SP-303 (83 +/- 0.6%; n=2; at 50 microM each). Both extracts inhibited a time- and voltage-independent Cl- conductance, which indicated the involvement of CFTR Cl- channels. We conclude that both SP-303 (used in Provir) and SB-300 (used in NSF Normal Stool Formula) are novel natural products that target the CFTR Cl- channel. SB-300 is a low cost herbal extract and may present a complementary and alternative medicine approach for the treatment of fluid loss in watery diarrhea.

  7. Degradation of the Transcription Factors NF-κB, STAT3, and STAT5 Is Involved in Entamoeba histolytica-Induced Cell Death in Caco-2 Colonic Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyeong Ah; Min, Arim; Lee, Young Ah

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a tissue-invasive protozoan parasite causing dysentery in humans. During infection of colonic tissues, amoebic trophozoites are able to kill host cells via apoptosis or necrosis, both of which trigger IL-8-mediated acute inflammatory responses. However, the signaling pathways involved in host cell death induced by E. histolytica have not yet been fully defined. In this study, we examined whether calpain plays a role in the cleavage of pro-survival transcription factors during cell death of colonic epithelial cells, induced by live E. histolytica trophozoites. Incubation with amoebic trophozoites induced activation of m-calpain in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, incubation with amoebae resulted in marked degradation of STAT proteins (STAT3 and STAT5) and NF-κB (p65) in Caco-2 cells. However, IκB, an inhibitor of NF-κB, was not cleaved in Caco-2 cells following adherence of E. histolytica. Entamoeba-induced cleavage of STAT proteins and NF-κB was partially inhibited by pretreatment of cells with a cell-permeable calpain inhibitor, calpeptin. In contrast, E. histolytica did not induce cleavage of caspase-3 in Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, pretreatment of Caco-2 cells with a calpain inhibitor, calpeptin (but not the pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk) or m-calpain siRNA partially reduced Entamoeba-induced DNA fragmentation in Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that calpain plays an important role in E. histolytica-induced degradation of NF-κB and STATs in colonic epithelial cells, which ultimately accelerates cell death. PMID:25352693

  8. Degradation of the transcription factors NF-κB, STAT3, and STAT5 is involved in Entamoeba histolytica-induced cell death in Caco-2 colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeong Ah; Min, Arim; Lee, Young Ah; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2014-10-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a tissue-invasive protozoan parasite causing dysentery in humans. During infection of colonic tissues, amoebic trophozoites are able to kill host cells via apoptosis or necrosis, both of which trigger IL-8-mediated acute inflammatory responses. However, the signaling pathways involved in host cell death induced by E. histolytica have not yet been fully defined. In this study, we examined whether calpain plays a role in the cleavage of pro-survival transcription factors during cell death of colonic epithelial cells, induced by live E. histolytica trophozoites. Incubation with amoebic trophozoites induced activation of m-calpain in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, incubation with amoebae resulted in marked degradation of STAT proteins (STAT3 and STAT5) and NF-κB (p65) in Caco-2 cells. However, IκB, an inhibitor of NF-κB, was not cleaved in Caco-2 cells following adherence of E. histolytica. Entamoeba-induced cleavage of STAT proteins and NF-κB was partially inhibited by pretreatment of cells with a cell-permeable calpain inhibitor, calpeptin. In contrast, E. histolytica did not induce cleavage of caspase-3 in Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, pretreatment of Caco-2 cells with a calpain inhibitor, calpeptin (but not the pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk) or m-calpain siRNA partially reduced Entamoeba-induced DNA fragmentation in Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that calpain plays an important role in E. histolytica-induced degradation of NF-κB and STATs in colonic epithelial cells, which ultimately accelerates cell death.

  9. Screening of an E. coli O157:H7 Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library by Comparative Genomic Hybridization to Identify Genomic Regions Contributing to Growth in Bovine Gastrointestinal Mucus and Epithelial Cell Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jianing; McAteer, Sean P.; Paxton, Edith; Mahajan, Arvind; Gally, David L.; Tree, Jai J.

    2011-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157:H7 can cause serious gastrointestinal and systemic disease in humans following direct or indirect exposure to ruminant feces containing the bacterium. The main colonization site of EHEC O157:H7 in cattle is the terminal rectum where the bacteria intimately attach to the epithelium and multiply in the intestinal mucus. This study aimed to identify genomic regions of EHEC O157:H7 that contribute to colonization and multiplication at this site. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was generated from a derivative of the sequenced E. coli O157:H7 Sakai strain. The library contains 1152 clones averaging 150 kbp. To verify the library, clones containing a complete locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) were identified by DNA hybridization. In line with a previous report, these did not confer a type III secretion (T3S) capacity to the K-12 host strain. However, conjugation of one of the BAC clones into a strain containing a partial LEE deletion restored T3S. Three hundred eighty-four clones from the library were subjected to two different selective screens; one involved three rounds of adherence assays to bovine primary rectal epithelial cells while the other competed the clones over three rounds of growth in bovine rectal mucus. The input strain DNA was then compared with the selected strains using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) on an E. coli microarray. The adherence assay enriched for pO157 DNA indicating the importance of this plasmid for colonization of rectal epithelial cells. The mucus assay enriched for multiple regions involved in carbohydrate utilization, including hexuronate uptake, indicating that these regions provide a competitive growth advantage in bovine mucus. This BAC-CGH approach provides a positive selection screen that complements negative selection transposon-based screens. As demonstrated, this may be of particular use for identifying genes with redundant functions such as adhesion and carbon

  10. The impact of adhesion peptides within hydrogels on the phenotype and signaling of normal and cancerous mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Michael S.; Bernabé, Beatriz Peñalver; Shikanov, Ariella; Bluver, Dennis A.; Mui, Michael D.; Shin, Seungjin; Broadbelt, Linda J.; Shea, Lonnie D.

    2012-01-01

    The microenviroment contributes to directing mammary epithelial cell (MEC) development and the progression of breast cancer. Three-dimensional culture models have been used to support formation of structures that display varying degrees of disorganization that parallel the degree of cancer. Synthetic hydrogels were employed to investigate the mechanisms by which specific adhesion signals in the microenvironment directed development. Polyethylene glycol-based hydrogels supported 3D growth of MECs and directed formation of a range of phenotypes that were functions of genotype, and identity and concentration of adhesion peptides RGD and YIGSR. Non-cancerous and cancerous MECs responded differentially to the same adhesion cues and produced variable structural organizations. An analysis of dynamic signaling pathways revealed differential activities of transcription factors within the MAPK and JAK/STAT pathways in response to genotype and adhesion. These results directly implicate adhesion in cancer development and demonstrate that AP1, CREB, STAT1, and STAT3 all contribute to the genotype dependence of cellular response to adhesion peptides. The tools presented in this work could be applied to other systems and connect extracellular cues with intracellular signaling to molecularly dissect tissue development and further biomaterials development. PMID:22341213

  11. Helminth co-infection in Helicobacter pylori infected INS-GAS mice attenuates gastric premalignant lesions of epithelial dysplasia and glandular atrophy and preserves colonization resistance of the stomach to lower bowel microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Whary, Mark T.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Ge, Zhongming; Feng, Yan; Lofgren, Jennifer; Shi, Hai Ning; Taylor, Nancy S.; Correa, Pelayo; Versalovic, James; Wang, Timothy C.; Fox, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Higher prevalence of helminth infections in H. pylori infected children was suggested to potentially lower the life-time risk for gastric adenocarcinoma. In rodent models, helminth co-infection does not reduce Helicobacter-induced inflammation but delays progression of pre-malignant gastric lesions. Because gastric cancer in INS-GAS mice is promoted by intestinal microflora, the impact of Heligmosomoides polygyrus co-infection on H. pylori-associated gastric lesions and microflora were evaluated. Male INS-GAS mice co-infected with H. pylori and H. polygyrus for 5 months were assessed for gastrointestinal lesions, inflammation-related mRNA expression, FoxP3+ cells, epithelial proliferation, and gastric colonization with H. pylori and Altered Schaedler Flora. Despite similar gastric inflammation and high levels of proinflammatory mRNA, helminth co-infection increased FoxP3+ cells in the corpus and reduced H. pylori-associated gastric atrophy (p<0.04), dysplasia (p<0.02) and prevented H. pylori-induced changes in the gastric flora (p<0.05). This is the first evidence of helminth infection reducing H. pylori-induced gastric lesions while inhibiting changes in gastric flora, consistent with prior observations that gastric colonization with enteric microbiota accelerated gastric lesions in INS-GAS mice. Identifying how helminths reduce gastric premalignant lesions and impact bacterial colonization of the H. pylori infected stomach could lead to new treatment strategies to inhibit progression from chronic gastritis to cancer in humans. PMID:24513446

  12. Physical stress and bacterial colonization

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial surface colonizers are subject to a variety of physical stresses. During the colonization of human epithelia such as on the skin or the intestinal mucosa, bacteria mainly have to withstand the mechanical stress of being removed by fluid flow, scraping, or epithelial turnover. To that end, they express a series of molecules to establish firm attachment to the epithelial surface, such as fibrillar protrusions (pili) and surface-anchored proteins that bind to human matrix proteins. In addition, some bacteria – in particular gut and urinary tract pathogens – use internalization by epithelial cells and other methods such as directed inhibition of epithelial turnover to ascertain continued association with the epithelial layer. Furthermore, many bacteria produce multi-layered agglomerations called biofilms with a sticky extracellular matrix, providing additional protection from removal. This review will give an overview over the mechanisms human bacterial colonizers have to withstand physical stresses with a focus on bacterial adhesion. PMID:25212723

  13. Sp1 Upregulates cAMP Response Element-Binding Protein Expression During Retinoic Acid-Induced Mucous Differentiation of Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jeong Soo; Kim, Seung-Wook; Koo, Ja Seok

    2010-01-01

    Cyclic 3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response-element (CRE) binding protein (CREB) is an important transcription factor that is differentially regulated in cells of various types. We recently reported that RA rapidly activates CREB without using retinoic acid (RA) receptors RAR and RXR in normal human tracheobronchial epithelial (NHTBE) cells. However, little is known about RA’s role in the physiologic regulation of CREB expression in the early mucous differentiation of NHTBE cells. Here, we report that RA upregulated CREB gene expression and that using 5′-serial deletion promoter analysis and mutagenesis analyses, two Sp1-binding sites located at nucleotides −217 and −150, which flank the transcription initiation site, were essential for RA induction of CREB gene transcription. Furthermore, we found that CREs located at nucleotides −119 and −98 contributed to basal promoter activity. Interestingly, RA also upregulated Sp1 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of endogenous Sp1 using small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased RA-induced CREB gene expression. However, the converse was not true: knockdown of CREB using CREB siRNA did not affect RA-induced Sp1 gene expression. We conclude that RA upregulates CREB gene expression during the early stage of NHTBE cell differentiation and that RA-inducible Sp1 plays a major role in upregulating human CREB gene expression. This result implies that cooperation of these two transcription factors play a crucial role in mediating early events of normal mucous cell differentiation of bronchial epithelial cells. PMID:17937658

  14. Microtubules regulate disassembly of epithelial apical junctions

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Andrei I; McCall, Ingrid C; Babbin, Brian; Samarin, Stanislav N; Nusrat, Asma; Parkos, Charles A

    2006-01-01

    Background Epithelial tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) form the apical junctional complex (AJC) which regulates cell-cell adhesion, paracellular permeability and cell polarity. The AJC is anchored on cytoskeletal structures including actin microfilaments and microtubules. Such cytoskeletal interactions are thought to be important for the assembly and remodeling of apical junctions. In the present study, we investigated the role of microtubules in disassembly of the AJC in intestinal epithelial cells using a model of extracellular calcium depletion. Results Calcium depletion resulted in disruption and internalization of epithelial TJs and AJs along with reorganization of perijunctional F-actin into contractile rings. Microtubules reorganized into dense plaques positioned inside such F-actin rings. Depolymerization of microtubules with nocodazole prevented junctional disassembly and F-actin ring formation. Stabilization of microtubules with either docetaxel or pacitaxel blocked contraction of F-actin rings and attenuated internalization of junctional proteins into a subapical cytosolic compartment. Likewise, pharmacological inhibition of microtubule motors, kinesins, prevented contraction of F-actin rings and attenuated disassembly of apical junctions. Kinesin-1 was enriched at the AJC in cultured epithelial cells and it also accumulated at epithelial cell-cell contacts in normal human colonic mucosa. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated association of kinesin-1 with the E-cadherin-catenin complex. Conclusion Our data suggest that microtubules play a role in disassembly of the AJC during calcium depletion by regulating formation of contractile F-actin rings and internalization of AJ/TJ proteins. PMID:16509970

  15. Lack of evidence for low-LET radiation induced bystander response in normal human fibroblasts and colon carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Marianne B. Sowa; Wilfried Goetz; Janet E. Baulch; Dinah N. Pyles; Jaroslaw Dziegielewski; Susannah Yovino; Andrew R. Snyder; Sonia M. de Toledo; Edouard I. Azzam; William F. Morgan

    2008-06-30

    Purpose: To investigate radiation induced bystander responses and to determine the role of gap junction intercellular communication and the radiation environment in propagating this response. Materials and Methods: We use medium transfer and targeted irradiation to examine radiation induced bystander effects in primary human fibroblast (AG1522) and human colon carcinoma (RKO36) cells. We examined the effect of variables such as gap junction intercellular communication, linear energy transfer (LET), and the role of the radiation environment in non-targeted responses. Endpoints included clonogenic survival, micronucleus formation and foci formation at histone 2AX over doses ranging from 10 to 100 cGy. Results: The results show no evidence of a low-LET radiation induced bystander response for the endpoints of clonogenic survival and induction of DNA damage. Nor do we see evidence of a high-LET, Fe ion radiation (1 GeV/n) induced bystander effect. However, direct comparison for 3.2 MeV α-particle exposures showed a statistically significant medium transfer bystander effect for this high-LET radiation. Conclusions: From our results, it is evident that there are many confounding factors influencing bystander responses as reported in the literature. Our observations reflect the inherent variability in biological systems and the difficulties in extrapolating from in vitro models to radiation risks in humans.

  16. Differential nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of PTEN in normal thyroid tissue, and benign and malignant epithelial thyroid tumors.

    PubMed

    Gimm, O; Perren, A; Weng, L P; Marsh, D J; Yeh, J J; Ziebold, U; Gil, E; Hinze, R; Delbridge, L; Lees, J A; Mutter, G L; Robinson, B G; Komminoth, P; Dralle, H; Eng, C

    2000-05-01

    Germline mutations in PTEN (MMAC1/TEP1) are found in patients with Cowden syndrome, a familial cancer syndrome which is characterized by a high risk of breast and thyroid neoplasia. Although somatic intragenic PTEN mutations have rarely been found in benign and malignant sporadic thyroid tumors, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) has been reported in up to one fourth of follicular thyroid adenomas (FAs) and carcinomas. In this study, we examined PTEN expression in 139 sporadic nonmedullary thyroid tumors (55 FA, 27 follicular thyroid carcinomas, 35 papillary thyroid carcinomas, and 22 undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas) using immunohistochemistry and correlated this to the results of LOH studies. Normal follicular thyroid cells showed a strong to moderate nuclear or nuclear membrane signal although the cytoplasmic staining was less strong. In FAs the neoplastic nuclei had less intense PTEN staining, although the cytoplasmic PTEN-staining intensity did not differ significantly from that observed in normal follicular cells. In thyroid carcinomas as a group, nuclear PTEN immunostaining was mostly weak in comparison with normal thyroid follicular cells and FAs. The cytoplasmic staining was more intense than the nuclear staining in 35 to 49% of carcinomas, depending on the histological type. Among 81 informative tumors assessed for LOH, there seemed to be an associative trend between decreased nuclear and cytoplasmic staining and 10q23 LOH (P = 0.003, P = 0.008, respectively). These data support a role for PTEN in the pathogenesis of follicular thyroid tumors.

  17. Passage from normal mucosa to adenoma and colon cancer: alteration of normal sCD30 mechanisms regulating TH1/TH2 cell functions.

    PubMed

    Contasta, Ida; Berghella, Anna Maria; Pellegrini, Patrizia; Adorno, Domenico

    2003-08-01

    The pathogenesis of cancer is currently under intensive investigation to identify reliable prognostic indices for the early detection of disease. Adenomas have been identified as precursors of colorectal cancer and tumor establishment, and disease progression has been found to reflect a malfunction of the immune system. On the basis of the role of the CD30 molecule in the regulation of TH1/TH2 functions and our previous results, strongly suggesting the validity of serum TH1/TH2 cytokines in the study of tumor progression, we studied network interaction between the production of soluble (s) CD30/sBCl2 in whole blood culture [in basic conditions and after PHA, LPS, and anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) stimulation] and levels of TH1/TH2 cytokines (IL2, IFN gamma, IL12, IL4, IL5, IL10). Peripheral blood from a group of healthy subjects, as well as from patients with adenoma and colorectal cancer was used. Our objective was to gain a better insight into the role of the CD30 molecule in the passage from normal mucosa to adenoma and tumor and identify specific disease markers. Our results suggest that the decrease in CD30 expression and the abnormal increase in Bcl2 expression, observed in the peripheral cells of both adenoma and tumor groups determine an imbalance between TH1/TH2 functions. Consequently, changes in sCD30/sBcl2 culture production and TH1/TH2 cytokine serum levels may be reliable markers for tumor progression. In fact, our overall data show that a decrease of sCD30 levels in basic and PHA conditions and an increase of IFN gamma, IL4, IL5, and IL12 serum levels and sBcl2 in all activation condition are indicative of the passage from normal mucosa to adenoma; whilst a decrease of sBcl2 level in basic, LPS and anti-CD3 conditions and of IL2, IFN gamma serum levels, together with an increase of IL5 are indicative of the passage from adenoma to tumor.

  18. Adipokine regulation of colon cancer: adiponectin attenuates interleukin-6-induced colon carcinoma cell proliferation via STAT-3.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Jenifer I; Birmingham, Janette M

    2010-07-01

    Obesity results in increased circulating levels of specific adipokines, which are associated with colon cancer risk. The disease state is associated with increased leptin, insulin, IGF-1, and IL-6. Conversely, adiponectin levels are decreased in obese individuals. Previously, we demonstrated adipokine-enhanced cell proliferation in preneoplastic, but not normal, colon epithelial cells, demonstrating a differential effect of adipokines on colon cancer progression in vitro. Using a model of late stage carcinoma cancer cell, namely murine MC-38 colon carcinoma cells, we compared the effect of obesity-associated adipokines (leptin, insulin, IGF-1, and IL-6) on MC-38 cell proliferation and determined whether adiponectin (full length or globular) could modulate adipokine-induced cell proliferation. We show that insulin and IL-6, but not leptin and IGF-1, induce proliferation in MC-38 cells. Adiponectin treatment of MC-38 cells did not inhibit insulin-induced cell proliferation but did inhibit IL-6-induced cell proliferation by decreasing STAT-3 phosphorylation and activation. Nitric oxide (NO) production was increased in MC-38 cells treated with IL-6; co-treatment with adiponectin blocked IL-6-induced iNOS and subsequent NO production. These data are compared to previously reported findings from our laboratory using the YAMC (model normal colon epithelial cells) and IMCE (model preneoplastic) cells. The cell lines are utilized to construct a model summarizing the hormonal consequences of obesity and the impact on the differential regulation of colon epithelial cells along the continuum to carcinoma. These data, taken together, highlight mechanisms involved in obesity-associated cancers and may lead to potential-targeted therapies.

  19. Role of nerve growth factor and its TRKA receptor in normal ovarian and epithelial ovarian cancer angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Vera, Carolina; Tapia, Verónica; Vega, Margarita; Romero, Carmen

    2014-08-10

    In normal ovarian function a controlled angiogenesis is essential. Several growth factors are involved in this process, such as the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF). The angiogenesis process in the normal ovary is a tightly controlled process that occurs in each ovarian cycle. Also, angiogenesis is critical for ovarian cancer development and it is responsible for tumor spread, metastasis and its peritoneal dissemination. Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in women and it is distinguished as the most lethal gynecologic cancer. In recent years angiogenesis has been given considerable attention in order to identify targets for developing effective anti-tumor therapies. Several molecules have been reported to promote angiogenesis, such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptors, the angiopoietin/Tie ligand/receptor system and fibroblast growth factor (FGF). Primarily, VEGF has been identified to play key roles in driving angiogenesis. The above-mentioned molecules are candidate drug targets. Used in combination with other treatments, anti-angiogenic therapies have managed to reduce disease progression. The present review is focused in NGF and its high affinity receptor tyrosine kinase A (TRKA). The expression of VEGF, proliferation and the angiogenesis process in ovarian cancer is importantly induced by NGF, among other molecules.

  20. Anogenital Mammary-Like Glands: A Study of Their Normal Histology With Emphasis on Glandular Depth, Presence of Columnar Epithelial Cells, and Distribution of Elastic Fibers.

    PubMed

    Konstantinova, Anastasia M; Kyrpychova, Liubov; Belousova, Irena E; Spagnolo, Dominic V; Kacerovska, Denisa; Michal, Michal; Kerl, Katrin; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2016-10-18

    The normal histology of anogenital mammary-like glands (AGMLG) has been studied previously, but some aspects, including glandular depth, presence of columnar epithelium resembling columnar cell change/hyperplasia as defined in mammary pathology, and distribution of elastic fibers, have not been previously investigated. To address these issues, we studied 148 AGMLG identified in 133 paraffin blocks sampled from 64 vulvar wide excision or vulvectomy specimens (64 patients, various indications for surgery). The depth of AGMLG ranged from 0.64 to 3.9 mm. Epithelial columnar cell change was noted in 33.1% of all AGMLG, whereas columnar cell hyperplasia was detected in 10.1%. Occasionally, combinations of cuboidal epithelium and columnar cell change were seen within 1 histological section. Of 22 specimens stained for elastic fibers, in only 6 (27.3%) cases were elastic fibers found around glands. Periductal elastic fibers were demonstrated around 3 of the only 5 ducts, which were available for analysis in slides stained for elastic fibers. The depth of AGMLG should be taken into account when planning topical and surgical therapies for lesions derived or evolving from AGMLG. Alterations identical to columnar cell change may represent a normal variation of AGMLG.

  1. Stromal COX-2 signaling activated by deoxycholic acid mediates proliferation and invasiveness of colorectal epithelial cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingting; Zhu, Min; Lance, Peter

    2012-08-31

    COX-2 is a major regulator implicated in colonic cancer. However, how COX-2 signaling affects colonic carcinogenesis at cellular level is not clear. In this article, we investigated whether activation of COX-2 signaling by deoxycholic acid (DCA) in primary human normal and cancer associated fibroblasts play a significant role in regulation of proliferation and invasiveness of colonic epithelial cancer cells. Our results demonstrated while COX-2 signaling can be activated by DCA in both normal and cancer associated fibroblasts, the level of activation of COX-2 signaling is significantly greater in cancer associated fibroblasts than that in normal fibroblasts. In addition, we discovered that the proliferative and invasive potential of colonic epithelial cancer cells were much greater when the cells were co-cultured with cancer associated fibroblasts pre-treated with DCA than with normal fibroblasts pre-treated with DCA. Moreover, COX-2 siRNA attenuated the proliferative and invasive effect of both normal and cancer associate fibroblasts pre-treated with DCA on the colonic cancer cells. Further studies indicated that the activation of COX-2 signaling by DCA is through protein kinase C signaling. We speculate that activation of COX-2 signaling especially in cancer associated fibroblasts promotes progression of colonic cancer.

  2. Stromal COX-2 signaling activated by deoxycholic acid mediates proliferation and invasiveness of colorectal epithelial cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Yingting; Zhu, Min; Lance, Peter

    2012-08-31

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human colonic cancer associated fibroblasts are major sources of COX-2 and PGE{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fibroblasts interact with human colonic epithelial cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation of COX-2 signaling in the fibroblasts affects behavior of the epithelia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protein Kinase C controls the activation of COX-2 signaling. -- Abstract: COX-2 is a major regulator implicated in colonic cancer. However, how COX-2 signaling affects colonic carcinogenesis at cellular level is not clear. In this article, we investigated whether activation of COX-2 signaling by deoxycholic acid (DCA) in primary human normal and cancer associated fibroblasts play a significant role in regulation of proliferation and invasiveness of colonic epithelial cancer cells. Our results demonstrated while COX-2 signaling can be activated by DCA in both normal and cancer associated fibroblasts, the level of activation of COX-2 signaling is significantly greater in cancer associated fibroblasts than that in normal fibroblasts. In addition, we discovered that the proliferative and invasive potential of colonic epithelial cancer cells were much greater when the cells were co-cultured with cancer associated fibroblasts pre-treated with DCA than with normal fibroblasts pre-treated with DCA. Moreover, COX-2 siRNA attenuated the proliferative and invasive effect of both normal and cancer associate fibroblasts pre-treated with DCA on the colonic cancer cells. Further studies indicated that the activation of COX-2 signaling by DCA is through protein kinase C signaling. We speculate that activation of COX-2 signaling especially in cancer associated fibroblasts promotes progression of colonic cancer.

  3. Suitable in vitro culture of Eimeria bovis meront II stages in bovine colonic epithelial cells and parasite-induced upregulation of CXCL10 and GM-CSF gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Stamm, Ivonne; Menge, Christian; Taubert, Anja

    2015-08-01

    We here established a suitable in vitro cell culture system based on bovine colonic epithelial cells (BCEC) for the development of Eimeria bovis merozoites I and the characterization of early parasite-induced innate epithelial host cell reactions as gene transcription of proinflammatory molecules. Both primary and permanent BCEC (BCEC (rim) and BCEC(perm)) were suitable for E. bovis merozoite I invasion and subsequent development of meronts II leading to the release of viable merozoites II. E. bovis merozoite II failed to develop any further neither into gamont nor oocyst stages in BCEC in vitro. E. bovis merozoite I induced innate epithelial host cell reactions at the level of CXC/CCL chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL8, CXCL10, CCL2), IL-6, and GM-CSF gene transcription. Overall, both BCEC types were activated by merozoite I infections since they showed significantly enhanced gene transcript levels of the immunomodulatory molecules CXCL10 and GM-CSF. However, gene transcription profiles of BCEC(prim) and BCEC(perm) revealed different reaction patterns in response to merozoite I infection with regard to quality and kinetics of chemokine/cytokine gene transcription. Although both BCEC types equally showed most prominent responses for CXCL10 and GM-CSF, the induction of CXCL1, CXCL8, CCL2, and IL-6 gene transcripts varied qualitatively and quantitatively. Our results demonstrate that BCEC seem capable to respond to E. bovis merozoite I infection by the upregulation of CXCL10 and GM-CSF gene transcription and therefore probably contribute to host innate effector mechanisms against E. bovis.

  4. Relationship of Enhanced Butyrate Production by Colonic Butyrate-Producing Bacteria to Immunomodulatory Effects in Normal Mice Fed an Insoluble Fraction of Brassica rapa L.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Sachi; Yamamoto, Kana; Yamada, Kazuki; Furuya, Kanon; Uyeno, Yutaka

    2016-05-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of feeding a fiber-rich fraction of Brassica vegetables on the immune response through changes in enteric bacteria and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in normal mice. The boiled-water-insoluble fraction of Brassica rapa L. (nozawana), which consists mainly of dietary fiber, was chosen as a test material. A total of 31 male C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups and housed in a specific-pathogen-free facility. The animals were fed either a control diet or the control diet plus the insoluble B. rapa L. fraction for 2 weeks and sacrificed to determine microbiological and SCFA profiles in lower-gut samples and immunological molecules. rRNA-based quantification indicated that the relative population of Bacteroidetes was markedly lower in the colon samples of the insoluble B. rapa L. fraction-fed group than that in the controls. Populations of the Eubacterium rectale group and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, both of which are representative butyrate-producing bacteria, doubled after 2 weeks of fraction intake, accompanying a marginal increase in the proportion of colonic butyrate. In addition, feeding with the fraction significantly increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) and tended to increase splenic regulatory T cell numbers but significantly reduced the population of cells expressing activation markers. We demonstrated that inclusion of the boiled-water-insoluble fraction of B. rapa L. can alter the composition of the gut microbiota to decrease the numbers of Bacteroidetes and to increase the numbers of butyrate-producing bacteria, either of which may be involved in the observed shift in the production of splenic IL-10.

  5. 1,25(OH)2D3 attenuates TGF-β1/β2-induced increased migration and invasion via inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shanwen; Zhu, Jing; Zuo, Shuai; Ma, Ju; Zhang, Junling; Chen, Guowei; Wang, Xin; Pan, Yisheng; Liu, Yucun; Wang, Pengyuan

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) has been reported to inhibit proliferation and migration of multiple types of cancer cells. However, the mechanism underlying its anti-metastasis effect is not fully illustrated. In this study, the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on TGF-β1/β2-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is tested in colon cancer cells. The results suggest that 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited TGF-β1/β2-induced increased invasion and migration of in SW-480 and HT-29 cells. 1,25(OH)2D3 also inhibited the cadherin switch in SW-480 and HT-29 cells. TGF-β1/β2-induced increased expression of EMT-related transcription factors was also inhibited by 1,25(OH)2D3. 1,25(OH)2D3 also inhibited the secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and increased expression of F-actin induced by TGF-β1/β2 in SW-480 cells. Taken together, this study suggests that the suppression of EMT might be one of the mechanisms underlying the anti-metastasis effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 in colon cancer cells.

  6. Glycoprotein isolated from Styrax japonica Siebold et al. Zuccarini inhibits oxidative and pro-inflammatory responses in HCT116 colonic epithelial cells and dextran sulfate sodium-treated ICR mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sei-Jung; Lee, Jin; Song, Sooyeon; Lim, Kye-Taek

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory potentials of a 38 kDa glycoprotein isolated from Styrax japonica Siebold et al Zuccarini (SJSZ glycoprotein). We found that SJSZ glycoprotein has concentration-dependent scavenging activity against DPPH and hydroxyl radicals in the cell-free systems. In colonic epithelial cells (HCT116 cells), the results showed that SJSZ glycoprotein inhibits the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by glucose/glucose oxidase (G/GO) in a concentration-dependent manner. Experimental mouse colitis was induced by adding dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to the drinking water at a concentration of 4% (w/v) for 7 days. We figured out that administration of SJSZ glycoprotein (10 mg/kg) lowers the levels of disease activity index, myeloperoxidase activity, and histological inflammation in DSS-treated mice. In addition, SJSZ glycoprotein inhibited plasmic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation, nitric oxide (NO) production, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, accompanying the inhibition of colonic inflammatory signal proteins (NF-κB, iNOS, and COX-2) and inflammation-related cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α). These results indicate that SJSZ glycoprotein inhibits oxidative and pro-inflammatory responses in mouse colitis.

  7. Targeted Genetic Disruption of Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptor-δ and Colonic Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Xiangsheng; Peng, Zhanglong; Moussalli, Micheline J.; Morris, Jeffrey S.; Broaddus, Russell R.; Fischer, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-delta (PPAR-δ) is overexpressed in human colon cancer, but its contribution to colonic tumorigenesis is controversial. We generated a mouse model in which PPAR-δ was genetically disrupted in colonic epithelial cells by targeted deletion of exon 4. Elimination of colon-specific PPAR-δ expression was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR), immunoblotting, and activity assays. Mice with and without targeted PPAR-δ genetic disruption (10–11 mice per group) were tested for incidence of azoxymethane-induced colon tumors. The effects of targeted PPAR-δ deletion on vascular endothelial growth factor expression were determined by real-time RT-PCR. Targeted PPAR-δ genetic disruption inhibited colonic carcinogenesis: Mice with PPAR-δ(−/−) colons developed 98.5% fewer tumors than wild-type mice (PPAR-δ(−/−) vs wild-type, mean = 0.1 tumors per mouse vs 6.6 tumors per mouse, difference = 6.5 tumors per mouse, 95% confidence interval = 4.9 to 8.0 tumors per mouse, P < .001, two-sided test). Increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in colon tumors vs normal colon was suppressed by loss of PPAR-δ expression. These findings indicate that PPAR-δ has a crucial role in promoting colonic tumorigenesis. PMID:19436036

  8. Reduced expression of TANGO in colon and hepatocellular carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Stephanie; Bosserhoff, Anja K

    2007-10-01

    The TANGO gene was originally identified as a new family member of the MIA gene family. The gene codes for a 14-kDa protein of so far unknown function. Recently, we identified TANGO as a tumor suppressor in malignant melanoma. In this study we evaluated TANGO transcription in different colon and hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines and tissue samples, to analyze whether loss of TANGO expression is a more general process in tumor development. TANGO was down-regulated or lost in all hepatocellular and colon cell lines compared to primary human hepatocytes or normal colon epithelial cells, respectively, and in most of the tumor samples compared to non-tumorous tissue. These results were confirmed in situ by immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded sections of colon and hepatocellular tumors. Functional assays with exogenous TANGO treatment of colon and hepatoma cell lines revealed reduced motility and invasion capacity. Our studies present for the first time the down-regulation of TANGO in colon and hepatocellular carcinoma and provide the first indications for a tumor suppressor role of the TANGO gene in human colon and hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, functional relevant loss of TANGO expression may contribute to general tumor development and progression, and may provide a new target for therapeutic strategies.

  9. A colonic tissue architecture assay applied to human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ilantzis, C; Stanners, C P

    1997-01-01

    A two-component tissue architecture assay system has been devised that tests the ability of human colon carcinoma cells to conform to the specific three-dimensional cell-cell and cell-substratum interactions characteristic of normal colonic tissues. Dissociated fetal rat colonic cells (FRCC) were allowed to reaggregate in suspension with or without the addition of different proportions (0.1%, 1%, and 10% of the total cells) of the human colon carcinoma cell lines, SW-1222 and LS-174T. Cellular aggregates obtained after 36 hours, incubation exhibited cell sorting by the formation of recognizable epithelial colonic crypt-like structures with glandular lumens in a mesenchyme-like background. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-positive SW-1222 cells in 10% mixed aggregates were organized into numerous well-formed glandular structures with a polarized apical distribution of CEA. LS-174T cells, on the other hand, were self-sorted but structurally disorganized with a continuous cell surface CEA distribution. Pure FRCC and mixed aggregates were implanted under the kidney capsules of Swiss nu/nu (nude) or CD-1 nu/nu mice and allowed to grow for a period of 7-10 days. Whereas the normal FRCC readily formed colonic tissue, the SW-1222 cells exhibited a capacity for differentiation into colonic crypts which became progressively less normal and more tumor-like as the proportion of carcinoma cells in the aggregates was increased. The LS-174T cells demonstrated poor differentiation at all concentrations. Cell surface levels of CEA and the CEA family member nonspecific crossreacting antigen (NCA), both overexpressed in colon cancer, were higher in LS-174T than in SW-1222 cells, whereas family member biliary glycoprotein (BGP), downregulated in colon carcinoma was higher in the SW-1222 cells. These results thus support the suggestion that deregulated expression of CEA family members can be involved in the ability of colonocytes to differentiate and conform to normal tissue architecture

  10. The activation of HMGB1 as a progression factor on inflammation response in normal human bronchial epithelial cells through RAGE/JNK/NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaojin; Mi, Yanyan; Yang, Hui; Hu, Ankang; Zhang, Qingguo; Shang, Chunli

    2013-08-01

    Extracellular high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1) has been implicated in the inflammation response leading to the precancerous lesions of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the role of HMGB-1 in the inflammation response in normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells and its underlying mechanisms were still not fully understood. In this study, the inflammation response in NHBE cells was stimulated by 2.5, 5, and 10 μg/ml HMGB-1. However, the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) blocker RAGE-Ab (5 μg/ml) or 10 μM c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) inhibitor SP600125 could inhibit HMGB1-induced the release of inflammation cytokines including TNF-α, IL-8, IL-10, and MCP-1 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, HMGB1-induced RAGE protein expression, JNK and NF-κB activation were attenuated by the pretreatment with RAGE-Ab or JNK inhibitor SP600125 in Western blot analysis. Our data indicated that HMGB-1 induced inflammation response in NHBE cells through activating RAGE/JNK/NF-κB pathway. HMGB-1 could act as a therapeutic target for inflammation leading NHBE cells to the precancerous lesions of NSCLC.

  11. Transcriptional profiles of benzo(a)pyrene exposure in normal human mammary epithelial cells in the absence or presence of chlorophyllin.

    PubMed

    John, Kaarthik; Keshava, Channa; Richardson, Diana L; Weston, Ainsley; Nath, Joginder

    2008-04-02

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BP) exposure causes alterations in gene expression in normal human mammary epithelial cells (NHMECs). This study used Affymetrix Hu-Gene133A arrays, with 14,500 genes represented, to evaluate modulation of BP-induced gene expression by chlorophyllin in six NHMEC strains derived from different donors. A major goal was to seek potential biomarkers of carcinogen exposure and how they behave in the presence of a chemopreventive agent. NHMECs (passage 6 and 70% confluence) were exposed for 24h to either vehicle control, or BP, or chlorophyllin followed by BP and chlorophyllin together. BP exposure resulted in approximately 3-fold altered expression of 49 genes in at least one of the six NHMEC strains. When cells were exposed to chlorophyllin pre-treatment followed by BP plus chlorophyllin, expression of 125 genes was similarly altered. Genes in the functional categories of xenobiotic metabolism, cell signaling, cell motility, cell proliferation, cellular transcription, metabolism, cell cycle control, apoptosis and DNA repair were identified. Only CYP1B1 and ALDH1A3 were consistently up-regulated by approximately 3-fold in most of the cell strains (at least 4) when exposed to BP. Cluster analysis identified a suite of 13 genes induced by BP where induction was mitigated in the presence of chlorophyllin. Additionally, cluster analysis identified a suite of 16 genes down-regulated by BP where induction was partially restored in the presence of chlorophyllin.

  12. [Inhibition of invasion and multiplication of Toxoplasma gondii in human colonic epithelial cells by a monoclonal antibody against protein SAG2].

    PubMed

    Osorio, J C; Sánchez, R M; Iraola, R C; Pérez, J S

    2001-01-01

    By an bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay, it was proved hat an IgG 1 subclass, murine monoclonal antibody to surface protein SAG2 of Toxoplasma gondii is capable of reducing the invasion and multiplication of the parasites in highly differentiated mucine secretory HT29-18N2 line cells from a human colon adenocarcinoma. This result shows the importance of surface protein SAG2 of T.gondii in invasion and further multiplication of parasites in the host cell.

  13. Actin-interacting protein 1 controls assembly and permeability of intestinal epithelial apical junctions

    PubMed Central

    Baranwal, Somesh

    2015-01-01

    Adherens junctions (AJs) and tight junctions (TJs) are crucial regulators of the integrity and restitution of the intestinal epithelial barrier. The structure and function of epithelial junctions depend on their association with the cortical actin cytoskeleton that, in polarized epithelial cells, is represented by a prominent perijunctional actomyosin belt. The assembly and stability of the perijunctional cytoskeleton is controlled by constant turnover (disassembly and reassembly) of actin filaments. Actin-interacting protein (Aip) 1 is an emerging regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, playing a critical role in filament disassembly. In this study, we examined the roles of Aip1 in regulating the structure and remodeling of AJs and TJs in human intestinal epithelium. Aip1 was enriched at apical junctions in polarized human intestinal epithelial cells and normal mouse colonic mucosa. Knockdown of Aip1 by RNA interference increased the paracellular permeability of epithelial cell monolayers, decreased recruitment of AJ/TJ proteins to steady-state intercellular contacts, and attenuated junctional reassembly in a calcium-switch model. The observed defects of AJ/TJ structure and functions were accompanied by abnormal organization and dynamics of the perijunctional F-actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, loss of Aip1 impaired the apico-basal polarity of intestinal epithelial cell monolayers and inhibited formation of polarized epithelial cysts in 3-D Matrigel. Our findings demonstrate a previously unanticipated role of Aip1 in regulating the structure and remodeling of intestinal epithelial junctions and early steps of epithelial morphogenesis. PMID:25792565

  14. Green tea polyphenol EGCG suppresses cigarette smoke condensate-induced NF-kappaB activation in normal human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Syed, D N; Afaq, F; Kweon, M-H; Hadi, N; Bhatia, N; Spiegelman, V S; Mukhtar, H

    2007-02-01

    Cigarette smoke is a powerful inducer of inflammatory responses resulting in disruption of major cellular pathways with transcriptional and genomic alterations driving the cells towards carcinogenesis. Cell culture and animal model studies indicate that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol present in green tea, possesses potent anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activity capable of selectively inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis in cancer cells without adversely affecting normal cells. Here, we demonstrate that EGCG pretreatment (20-80 microM) of normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) resulted in significant inhibition of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC)-induced cell proliferation. Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) controls the transcription of genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses. In most cells, NF-kappaB prevents apoptosis by mediating cell survival signals. Pretreatment of NHBE cells with EGCG suppressed CSC-induced phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha, and activation and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB/p65. NHBE cells transfected with a luciferase reporter plasmid containing an NF-kappaB-inducible promoter sequence showed an increased reporter activity after CSC exposure that was specifically inhibited by EGCG pretreatment. Immunoblot analysis showed that pretreatment of NHBE cells with EGCG resulted in a significant downregulation of NF-kappaB-regulated proteins cyclin D1, MMP-9, IL-8 and iNOS. EGCG pretreatment further inhibited CSC-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK and p38 MAPKs and resulted in a decreased expression of PI3K, AKT and mTOR signaling molecules. Taken together, our data indicate that EGCG can suppress NF-kappaB activation as well as other pro-survival pathways such as PI3K/AKT/mTOR and MAPKs in NHBE cells, which may contribute to its ability to suppress inflammation, proliferation and angiogenesis induced by cigarette smoke.

  15. Combining Fas mutation with interleukin-2 deficiency prevents Colitis and Lupus: implicating interleukin-2 for auto-reactive T cell expansion and Fas ligand for colon epithelial cell death.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Sheng; Sung, Sun-Sang J; Fu, Shu Man; Ju, Shyr-Te

    2003-12-26

    Both the lpr gene defect and interleukin 2-targeted mutation (IL-2 KO) in mice are lethal. Interestingly, mice bearing both mutations live significantly longer than mice with either of the single mutant genes, approximating the life span of normal controls. They do not display the major disease phenotypes of lpr and IL-2 KO mice. Systemic autoimmune response, the accumulation of the abnormal CD4-CD8-B220+ double-negative T cells, kidney disease pathology, anemia, colon damage, and lethality are prevented. Our data indicate that IL-2 is mandatory for the expansion of auto-reactive T cells in lpr mice and that CD95 (Fas) is the critical target for the development of anemia and ulcerative colitis in IL-2 KO mice in which CD178 (FasL) on intraepithelial T cells is the major effector responsible for colon damage and lethality.

  16. Characterization of AQPs in Mouse, Rat, and Human Colon and Their Selective Regulation by Bile Acids

    PubMed Central

    Yde, Jonathan; Keely, Stephen; Wu, Qi; Borg, Johan F.; Lajczak, Natalia; O’Dwyer, Aoife; Dalsgaard, Peter; Fenton, Robert A.; Moeller, Hanne B.

    2016-01-01

    In normal individuals, the epithelium of the colon absorbs 1.5–2 l of water a day to generate dehydrated feces. However, in the condition of bile acid malabsorption (BAM), an excess of bile acids in the colon results in diarrhea. Several studies have attempted to address the mechanisms contributing to BAM induced by various bile acids. However, none have addressed a potential dysregulation of aquaporin (AQP) water channels, which are responsible for the majority of transcellular water transport in epithelial cells, as a contributing factor to the onset of diarrhea and the pathogenesis of BAM. In this study, we aimed to systematically analyze the expression of AQPs in colonic epithelia from rat, mouse, and human and determine whether their expression is altered in a rat model of BAM. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics, RT-PCR, and western blotting identified various AQPs in isolated colonic epithelial cells from rats (AQP1, 3, 4, 7, 8) and mice (AQP1, 4, 8). Several AQPs were also detected in human colon (AQP1, 3, 4, 7–9). Immunohistochemistry localized AQP1 to the apical plasma membrane of epithelial cells in the bottom of the crypts, whereas AQP3 (rat, human) and AQP4 (mice, human) were localized predominantly in the basolateral plasma membrane. AQP8 was localized intracellularly and at the apical plasma membrane of epithelial cells. Rats fed sodium cholate for 72 h had significantly increased fecal water content, suggesting development of BAM-associated diarrhea. Colonic epithelial cells isolated from this model had significantly altered levels of AQP3, 7, and 8, suggesting that these AQPs may be involved in the pathogenesis of bile acid-induced diarrhea. PMID:27777930

  17. Transcriptional down-regulation of the retinoblastoma protein is associated with differentiation and apoptosis in human colorectal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Guy, M; Moorghen, M; Bond, J A; Collard, T J; Paraskeva, C; Williams, A C

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the regulation of Rb protein expression in relation to increased differentiation and induction of apoptosis in colonic epithelial cells. In vivo, Rb protein expression was found to be down-regulated towards the top of the normal colonic crypt, coincident with the region of differentiation and apoptosis, but highly expressed in colonic carcinoma tissue. Using in vitro models to study the regulation of Rb expression in pre-malignant colonic epithelial cells, we have been able to show for the first time that Rb protein expression is transcriptionally down-regulated in differentiated pre-malignant cells (in post-confluent cultures) but not in malignant colorectal epithelial cells. Furthermore, suppression of rb protein function by the HPV-E7 viral oncoprotein increased both spontaneous and DNA damage-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that Rb is able to act as a survival factor in colonic epithelial cells by suppressing apoptosis, and that over-expression of pRb in colorectal tumour cells can cause a loss of sensitivity to apoptotic signalling, resulting in aberrant cell survival and resistance to therapy. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11207048

  18. Differentiation of epithelial cells to M cells in response to bacterial colonization on the follicle-associated epithelium of Peyer's patch in rat small intestine.

    PubMed

    Chin, Keigi; Onishi, Sachiko; Yuji, Midori; Inamoto, Tetsurou; Qi, Wang-Mei; Warita, Katsuhiko; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Hoshi, Nobuhiko; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2006-10-01

    To clarify the relationship between M cells and intestinal microflora, histoplanimetrical investigation into the bacterial colonization and the differentiation to M cells was carried out in rat Peyer's patch under physiological conditions. The follicle-associated epithelium (FAE), except for the narrow area of apical region, was closely covered with both neighboring intestinal villi and a thick mucous layer, the latter of which also filled the intervillous spaces as well as the space between the FAE and the neighboring intestinal villi. Indigenous bacteria adhered almost constantly to the narrow areas of apical regions of both intestinal villi and the FAE. Bacterial colonies were occasionally located on the basal to middle region of FAE, where M cells also appeared, forming large pockets. When bacterial colonies were located on the basal to middle region of FAE, bacteria with the same morphological characteristics also proliferated in the intervillous spaces neighboring the Peyer's patch. In cases with no bacterial colonies on the basal to middle region of FAE, however, M cells were rare in the FAE. Histoplanimetrical analysis showed the similar distribution pattern of bacterial colonies on the FAE and M cells in the FAE. M cells ultrastructurally engulfed indigenous bacteria, which were then transported to the pockets. These results suggest that indigenous bacterial colonization on the FAE stimulates the differentiation of M cells in the FAE under physiological conditions. The uptake of bacteria by M cells might contribute the regulation of the development of indigenous bacterial colonies in the small intestine.

  19. The role of alpha 6 beta 1 integrin and EGF in normal and malignant acinar morphogenesis of human prostatic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bello-DeOcampo, D; Kleinman, H K; Webber, M M

    2001-09-01

    Complex multiple interactions between cells and extracellular matrix occur during acinar morphogenesis involving integrin receptors and growth factors. Changes in these interactions occur during carcinogenesis as cells progress from a normal to a malignant, invasive phenotype. We have developed human prostatic epithelial cell lines of the same lineage, which represent multiple steps in carcinogenesis, similar to prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and subsequent tumor progression. The non-tumorigenic, RWPE-1 and the tumorigenic WPE1-NB27 and WPE1-NB26 cell lines were used to examine their ability to undergo acinar morphogenesis in a 3-D cell culture model and its relationship to invasion, integrin expression and EGF presence. An inverse relationship between the degree of acinar formation and invasive ability was observed. The non-tumorigenic, non-invasive RWPE-1 and the low tumorigenic, low invasive, WPE1-NB27 cells show high and decreased acinar forming ability, respectively, while the more invasive WPE1-NB26 cells show a loss of acinar formation. While RWPE-1 acini show basal expression of alpha 6 beta 1 integrin, which correlates with their ability to polarize and form acini, WPE1-NB27 cells lack alpha 6 but show basal, but weaker expression of beta 1 integrin. WPE1-NB26 cells show loss alpha 6 and abnormal, diffused beta 1 integrin expression. A dose-dependent decrease in acinar formation was observed in RWPE-1 cells when cell proliferation was induced by EGF. Anti-functional antibody to EGF caused an increase in acinar formation in RWPE-1 cells. These results suggest that malignant cells lose the ability to undergo acinar morphogenesis and that the degree of this loss appears to be related to invasive ability, EGF levels and alterations in laminin-specific integrin expression. This model system mimics different steps in prostate carcinogenesis and has applications in the secondary and tertiary prevention of prostate cancer.

  20. Mechanism of suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition signaling through ROS regulation in colon cancer cells: suppression of Src leading to thioredoxin up-regulation

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Su-Min; Lee, Choong-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) participate in malignant progression of cancers including epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We have investigated the role of suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1 as an inhibitor of ROS-induced EMT using colon cancer cell lines transduced with SOCS1 and shSOCS1. Hydrogen peroxide treatment induced EMT features such as elevation of vimentin and Snail with a corresponding reduction of E-cadherin. The EMT markers are significantly decreased upon SOCS1 over-expression while increased under SOCS1 knock-down. SOCS1 inhibited ROS signaling pathways associated with EMT such as Src, Jak, and p65. Of note, strong up-regulation of Src activity in SOCS1-ablated cells was responsible for the elevated signaling leading to EMT, as shSrc or Src inhibitor abolished the shSOCS1-induced promotion of EMT response. Suppression of ROS-inducible EMT markers and invasion in SOCS1 over-expressing cells correlated with significantly low intracellular ROS levels in these cells. Analysis of antioxidant enzymes in SOCS1-transduced cells revealed a selective up-regulation of thioredoxin (Trx1), while thioredoxin ablation restored ROS levels and the associated EMT markers. As a mechanism of thioredoxin up-regulation by SOCS1, inhibition of Src activity promoting nuclear translocation of Nrf-2 is proposed. Taken together, our data strongly indicate that SOCS1 antagonizes EMT by suppressing Src activity, leading to thioredoxin expression and down-regulation of ROS levels in colon cancer cells. PMID:27613835

  1. Products of the colonic microbiota mediate the effects of diet on colon cancer risk.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Stephen J D; Ou, Junhai; Aufreiter, Susanne; O'Connor, Deborah; Sharma, Sumit; Sepulveda, Jorge; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi; Mawhinney, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    It is estimated that most colon cancers can be attributed to dietary causes. We have hypothesized that diet influences the health of the colonic mucosa through interaction with the microbiota and that it is the milieu interior that regulates mucosal proliferation and therefore cancer risk. To validate this further, we compared colonic contents from healthy 50- to 65-y-old people from populations with high and low risk, specifically low risk Native Africans (cancer incidence <1:100,000; n = 17), high risk African Americans (risk 65:100,000; n = 17), and Caucasian Americans (risk 50:100,000; n = 18). Americans typically consume a high-animal protein and -fat diet, whereas Africans consume a staple diet of maize meal, rich in resistant starch and low in animal products. Following overnight fasting, rapid colonic evacuation was performed with 2 L polyethylene glycol. Total colonic evacuants were analyzed for SCFA, vitamins, nitrogen, and minerals. Total SCFA and butyrate were significantly higher in Native Africans than in both American groups. Colonic folate and biotin content, measured by Lactobacillus rhamnoses and Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 bioassay, respectively, exceeded normal daily dietary intakes. Compared with Africans, calcium and iron contents were significantly higher in Caucasian Americans and zinc content was significantly higher in African Americans, but nitrogen content did not differ among the 3 groups. In conclusion, the results support our hypothesis that the microbiota mediates the effect diet has on colon cancer risk by their generation of butyrate, folate, and biotin, molecules known to play a key role in the regulation of epithelial proliferation.

  2. CapA, an autotransporter protein of Campylobacter jejuni, mediates association with human epithelial cells and colonization of the chicken gut.

    PubMed

    Ashgar, Sami S A; Oldfield, Neil J; Wooldridge, Karl G; Jones, Michael A; Irving, Greg J; Turner, David P J; Ala'Aldeen, Dlawer A A

    2007-03-01

    Two putative autotransporter proteins, CapA and CapB, were identified in silico from the genome sequence of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC11168. The genes encoding each protein contain homopolymeric tracts, suggestive of phase variation mediated by a slipped-strand mispairing mechanism; in each case the gene sequence contained frameshifts at these positions. The C-terminal two-thirds of the two genes, as well as a portion of the predicted signal peptides, were identical; the remaining N-terminal portions were gene specific. Both genes were cloned and expressed; recombinant polypeptides were purified and used to raise rabbit polyclonal monospecific antisera. Using immunoblotting, expression of the ca.116-kDa CapA protein was demonstrated for in vitro-grown cells of strain NCTC11168, for 4 out of 11 recent human fecal isolates, and for 2 out of 8 sequence-typed strains examined. Expression of CapB was not detected for any of the strains tested. Surface localization of CapA was demonstrated by subcellular fractionation and immunogold electron microscopy. Export of CapA was inhibited by globomycin, reinforcing the bioinformatic prediction that the protein is a lipoprotein. A capA insertion mutant had a significantly reduced capacity for association with and invasion of Caco-2 cells and failed to colonize and persist in chickens, indicating that CapA plays a role in host association and colonization by Campylobacter. In view of this demonstrated role, we propose that CapA stands for Campylobacter adhesion protein A.

  3. Colon cancer - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/presentations/100157.htm Colon cancer - Series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  4. Colon cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  5. Anti-glycation and anti-oxidative effects of a phenolic-enriched maple syrup extract and its protective effects on normal human colon cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weixi; Wei, Zhengxi; Ma, Hang; Cai, Ang; Liu, Yongqiang; Sun, Jiadong; DaSilva, Nicholas A; Johnson, Shelby L; Kirschenbaum, Louis J; Cho, Bongsup P; Dain, Joel A; Rowley, David C; Shaikh, Zahir A; Seeram, Navindra P

    2017-02-22

    Oxidative stress and free radical generation accelerate the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) which are linked to several chronic diseases. Published data suggest that phenolic-rich plant foods, show promise as natural anti-AGEs agents due to their anti-oxidation capacities. A phenolic-enriched maple syrup extract (MSX) has previously been reported to show anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects but its anti-AGE effects remain unknown. Therefore, herein, we investigated the anti-glycation and anti-oxidation effects of MSX using biochemical and biophysical methods. MSX (500 μg mL(-1)) reduced the formation of AGEs by 40% in the bovine serum albumin (BSA)-fructose assay and by 30% in the BSA-methylglyoxal (MGO) assay. MSX also inhibited the formation of crosslinks typically seen in the late stage of glycation. Circular dichroism and differential scanning calorimeter analyses demonstrated that MSX maintained the structure of BSA during glycation. In the anti-oxidant assays, MSX (61.7 μg mL(-1)) scavenged 50% of free radicals (DPPH assay) and reduced free radical generation by 20% during the glycation process (electron paramagnetic resonance time scan). In addition, the intracellular levels of hydrogen peroxide induced reactive oxygen species were reduced by 27-58% with MSX (50-200 μg mL(-1)) in normal/non-tumorigenic human colon CCD-18Co cells. Moreover, in AGEs and MGO challenged CCD-18Co cells, higher cellular viabilities and rapid extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation were observed in MSX treated cells, indicating its protective effects against AGEs-induced cytotoxicity. Overall, this study supports the biological effects of MSX, and warrants further investigation of its potential as a dietary agent against diseases mediated by oxidative stress and inflammation.

  6. Expression of HSP27, HSP72 and MRP proteins in in vitro co-culture of colon tumour cell spheroids with normal cells after incubation with rhTGF- beta1 and/or CPT-11.

    PubMed

    Paduch, Roman; Jakubowicz-Gil, Joanna; Kandefer-Szerszen, Martyna

    2009-12-01

    We studied the expression of inducible heat shock protein (HSP27, HSP72) and multidrug-resistance protein (MRP) in co-cultures of human colon carcinoma cell spheroids obtained from different grades of tumour with normal human colon epithelium, myofibroblast and endothelial cell monolayers. We also measured the influence of recombinant human transforming growth factor beta1 (rhTGF-beta1) and camptothecin (CPT-11), added as single agents or in combination, on the levels of the HSPs, MRP, interleukin (IL)-6 and nitric oxide (NO). An immunoblotting analysis with densitometry showed that rhTGF-beta1 and/or CPT-11 increased HSP27, HSP72 and MRP expression in tumour cells and myofibroblasts, as well as in co-cultures compared with appropriate controls. By contrast, in colonic epithelium, inhibition of HSPs and MRP was comparable with that of the control. In endothelial cells, HSP72 was undetectable. Direct interaction of colon tumour spheroids with normal myofibroblasts caused a significant, tumour-grade dependent increase in IL-6 production. Production of IL-6 was significantly lowered by rhTGF-beta1 and/or CPT-11. Tumour cell spheroids cultivated alone produced larger amounts of NO than normal cells. In co-culture, the level of the radical decreased compared with the sum of NO produced by the monocultures of the two types of cells. rhTGF-beta1 and/or CPT-11 decreased NO production both in tumour and normal cell monocultures and their co-cultures. In conclusion, direct interactions between tumour and normal cells influence the expression of HSP27, HSP72 and MRP, and alter IL-6 and NO production. rhTGF-beta1 and/or CPT-11 may potentate resistance to chemotherapy by increasing HSP and MRP expression but, on the other hand, they may limit tumour cell spread by decreasing the level of some soluble mediators of inflammation (IL-6 and NO).

  7. Potential association between TLR4 and chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1/YKL-40) signaling on colonic epithelial cells in inflammatory bowel disease and colitis-associated cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kamba, Alan; Lee, In-Ah; Mizoguchi, Emiko

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory disorders in the small and large intestines. Several studies have proved that persistent and disregulated host/microbial interactions are required for the development of IBD. It is well known that chronic IBD is strongly associated with an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer by 0.5–1% annually, 8–10 years after the initial diagnosis. To detect the tiny dysplasia or early stage of cancer in chronic IBD patients, a tremendous amount of effort is currently directed for improving colonoscopic technology and noninvasive serological marker development. However, there is only a limited amount of data available to understand the exact mechanism of how long term chronic colitis is connected to the development of colorectal tumors. Recently, our group has identified that significantly increased expression of chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) molecule in non-dysplastic mucosa from patients with IBD and remote dysplasia/cancer, compared to patients with IBD without dysplasia or healthy controls. CHI3L1 seems to contribute to the proliferation, migration, and neoplastic progression of colonic epithelial cells (CECs) under inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, the CHI3L1-mediated intracellular signaling cascade is likely to interact with TLR4 signaling in CECs. In this review article, we have concisely summarized the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlining the development of IBD and colitis-associated cancer, with particular focus on the CHI3L1-and TLR4-signaling pathways in CECs. PMID:23170831

  8. Accumulation of Silver and Delayed Re-epithelialization in Normal Human Skin: An ex-vivo Study of Different Silver Dressings.

    PubMed

    Fredriksson, Camilla; Kratz, Gunnar; Huss, Fredrik

    2009-05-01

    Silver is commonly used in wound dressings and topical formulations to assist in the management of wounds that are infected or at risk of becoming infected. They provide potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, but should not cause sustained staining of the skin, dermal or systemic accumulation of silver, or discomfort to the patient. However, clinicians and healthcare personnel have been concerned about topical staining of the skin and complaints of additional pain from patients treated with certain silver dressings. Some delay in re-epithelialization has also been noticed and reported. The reasons for this are not clear, and the authors believed further study regarding the possible effects of silver accumulation and silver dressings' effect on re-epithelialization was required. The authors studied possible silver accumulation and re-epithelialization in normal human dermal skin. The results showed that most of the dressings or treatments discolored the wound surface and that there was a dermal accumulation of what were assumed to be silver particles. Varying grades of accumulation were found in deep dermal tissue, particularly around blood vessels, depending on the dressing used. The results also indicated that all of the tested products delayed re-epithelialization in this model. .

  9. Exploring the spatial dimension of estrogen and progesterone signaling: detection of nuclear labeling in lobular epithelial cells in normal mammary glands adjacent to breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Comprehensive spatial assessment of hormone receptor immunohistochemistry staining in digital whole slide images of breast cancer requires accurate detection of positive nuclei within biologically relevant regions of interest. Herein, we propose a combination of automated region labeling at low resolution and subsequent detailed tissue evaluation of subcellular structures in lobular structures adjacent to breast cancer, as a proof of concept for the approach to analyze estrogen and progesterone receptor expression in the spatial context of surrounding tissue. Methods Routinely processed paraffin sections of hormone receptor-negative ductal invasive breast cancer were stained for estrogen and progesterone receptor by immunohistochemistry. Digital whole slides were analyzed using commercially available image analysis software for advanced object-based analysis, applying textural, relational, and geometrical features. Mammary gland lobules were targeted as regions of interest for analysis at subcellular level in relation to their distance from coherent tumor as neighboring relevant tissue compartment. Lobule detection quality was evaluated visually by a pathologist. Results After rule set optimization in an estrogen receptor-stained training set, independent test sets (progesterone and estrogen receptor) showed acceptable detection quality in 33% of cases. Presence of disrupted lobular structures, either by brisk inflammatory infiltrate, or diffuse tumor infiltration, was common in cases with lower detection accuracy. Hormone receptor detection tended towards higher percentage of positively stained nuclei in lobules distant from the tumor border as compared to areas adjacent to the tumor. After adaptations of image analysis, corresponding evaluations were also feasible in hormone receptor positive breast cancer, with some limitations of automated separation of mammary epithelial cells from hormone receptor-positive tumor cells. Conclusions As a proof of

  10. Inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication in normal human breast epithelial cells after treatment with pesticides, PCBs, and PBBs, alone or in mixtures.

    PubMed Central

    Kang, K S; Wilson, M R; Hayashi, T; Chang, C C; Trosko, J E

    1996-01-01

    Chemical pollutants in the Great Lakes have found their way through the food chain into humans because of their environmental persistence and lipophilicity. Some epidemiological studies have claimed an association between metabolites of 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and breast cancer, but others have reported no such association. We examined various halogenated hydrocarbons for their capacity to inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in normal human breast epithelial cells (HBEC) when given as single compounds or as mixtures. The scrape-loading/dye transfer and fluorescent redistribution after photobleaching techniques were used to measure GJIC; immunostaining and Western and Northern analyses were performed on connexin 43 (Cx43) gap junction protein and message to determine how halogenated hydrocarbons might affect GJIC. DDT, dieldrin, and toxaphene inhibited GJIC in a dose-responsive manner after 90 min treatments. Dieldrin suppressed GJIC within 30 min with no recovery after 24 hr. Inhibition of GJIC by DDT and toxaphene was partially restored after 12 hr and fully restored after 24 hr. Several PCB and PBB congeners inhibited GJIC in a dose-responsive and time-dependent manner, but GJIC was almost restored to control values 24 hr after exposure. The highest concentrations of the individual chemicals that did not inhibit GJIC was determined, and mixtures containing two of these chemicals were tested for their ability to inhibit GJIC. Significant inhibition of GJIC was observed when cells were treated with a mixture of DDT and 2,4,5-hexachlorobiphenyl (2,4,5-HCB), dieldrin and 2,4,5-HCB, or dieldrin and 2,4,5-hexabromobiphenyl (2,4,5-HBB). These results indicate that halogenated hydrocarbons, alone or in specific combinations, can alter GJIC at the post-translational level. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that DDT, dieldrin, toxaphene, 2

  11. Inhibition of glucosylceramide synthase eliminates the oncogenic function of p53 R273H mutant in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and induced pluripotency of colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hosain, Salman B.; Khiste, Sachin K.; Uddin, Mohammad B.; Vorubindi, Vindya; Ingram, Catherine; Zhang, Sifang; Hill, Ronald A.; Gu, Xin; Liu, Yong-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Missense mutation of tumor suppressor p53, which exhibits oncogenic gain-of-function (GOF), not only promotes tumor progression, but also diminishes therapeutic efficacies of cancer treatments. However, it remains unclear how a p53 missense mutant contributes to induced pluripotency of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in tumors exposed to chemotherapeutic agents. More importantly, it may be possible to abrogate the GOF by restoring wild-type p53 activity, thereby overcoming the deleterious effects resulting from heterotetramer formation, which often compromises the efficacies of current approaches being used to reactivate p53 function. Herewith, we report that p53 R273H missense mutant urges cancer cells to spawn CSCs. SW48/TP53 cells, which heterozygously carry the p53 R273H hot-spot mutant (R273H/+, introduced by a CRISPR/Casp9 system), were subchronically exposed to doxorubicin in cell culture and in tumor-bearing mice. We found that p53-R273H (TP53-Dox) cells were drug-resistant and exhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and increased numbers of CSCs (CD44v6+/CD133+), which resulted in enhanced wound healing and tumor formation. Inhibition of glucosylceramide synthase with d-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (PDMP) sensitized p53-R273H cancer cells and tumor xenografts to doxorubicin treatments. Intriguingly, PDMP treatments restored wild-type p53 expression in heterozygous R273H mutant cells and in tumors, decreasing CSCs and sensitizing cells and tumors to treatments. This study demonstrated that p53-R273H promotes EMT and induced pluripotency of CSCs in cancer cells exposed to doxorubicin, mainly through Zeb1 and β-catenin transcription factors. Our results further indicate that restoration of p53 through inhibition of ceramide glycosylation might be an effective treatment approach for targeting cancers heterozygously harboring TP53 missense mutations. PMID:27517620

  12. Immunohistochemical study of lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate and epithelial HLA-DR expression in the rectal and colonic mucosae of children with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Arató, A; Savilahti, E; Tainio, V M; Klemola, T

    1989-02-01

    Lymphocyte subpopulations, plasma cells in the lamina propria, and the expression of HLA-DR antigens on the epithelium of the rectal and colonic mucosae were studied in eight children with ulcerative colitis and 12 control subjects using a panel of monoclonal antisera and the peroxidase technique before any treatment and 3 months later (four patients). The numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes were similar in specimens from patients and controls. The majority of these cells (on average, 73% in the patients and 84% in the controls) were mature CD3+ T cells; among them, CD8+ suppressor-cytotoxic cells were preponderant. In both untreated and treated patients, the numbers of mature T cells in the rectal mucosae were supranormal (1,870 +/- 205 cells/mm2, p less than 0.01 and 1,537 +/- 214 cells/mm2, p less than 0.05, respectively; controls, 1,105 +/- 214 cells/mm2). In rectal specimens from untreated patients, the number of helper T (CD4+) cells was increased (1,094 +/- 74 versus 801 +/- 74 cells/mm2, p less than 0.05); the same specimens had more B-1-positive (CD20+) B cells and pre-B cells (122 +/- 21 versus 71 +/- 17 cells/mm2, p less than 0.05). The number of IgG-containing cells was significantly greater than in the controls (1,058 +/- 263 versus 359 +/- 64 cells/mm2, p less than 0.01), and the commonest isotype in the plasma cells of patients was IgG. The number of IgE-containing cells was also significantly elevated (230 +/- 40 versus 95 +/- 16 cells/mm2, p less than 0.01). The numbers of IgA- and IgM-containing cells were similar in patients and controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. FXR silencing in human colon cancer by DNA methylation and KRAS signaling.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Ann M; Zhan, Le; Maru, Dipen; Shureiqi, Imad; Pickering, Curtis R; Kiriakova, Galina; Izzo, Julie; He, Nan; Wei, Caimiao; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Liang, Han; Kopetz, Scott; Powis, Garth; Guo, Grace L

    2014-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a bile acid nuclear receptor described through mouse knockout studies as a tumor suppressor for the development of colon adenocarcinomas. This study investigates the regulation of FXR in the development of human colon cancer. We used immunohistochemistry of FXR in normal tissue (n = 238), polyps (n = 32), and adenocarcinomas, staged I-IV (n = 43, 39, 68, and 9), of the colon; RT-quantitative PCR, reverse-phase protein array, and Western blot analysis in 15 colon cancer cell lines; NR1H4 promoter methylation and mRNA expression in colon cancer samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas; DNA methyltransferase inhibition; methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP); bisulfite sequencing; and V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) knockdown assessment to investigate FXR regulation in colon cancer development. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR revealed that expression and function of FXR was reduced in precancerous lesions and silenced in a majority of stage I-IV tumors. FXR expression negatively correlated with phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate 3 kinase signaling and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. The NR1H4 promoter is methylated in ~12% colon cancer The Cancer Genome Atlas samples, and methylation patterns segregate with tumor subtypes. Inhibition of DNA methylation and KRAS silencing both increased FXR expression. FXR expression is decreased early in human colon cancer progression, and both DNA methylation and KRAS signaling may be contributing factors to FXR silencing. FXR potentially suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and other oncogenic signaling cascades, and restoration of FXR activity, by blocking silencing mechanisms or increasing residual FXR activity, represents promising therapeutic options for the treatment of colon cancer.

  14. Viable and morphologically normal boar spermatozoa alter the expression of heat-shock protein genes in oviductal epithelial cells during co-culture in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yeste, Marc; Holt, William V; Bonet, Sergi; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E; Lloyd, Rhiannon E

    2014-09-01

    The principal aim of this study was to determine if boar spermatozoa influence the expression of four selected chaperone and heat-shock protein (HSP) genes-namely clusterin (CLU), HSP90AA1, HSPA5, and HSPA8-in oviductal epithelial cells (OECs) during in vitro co-culture. All corresponding proteins of these genes were previously identified in a sperm-interacting, 70-kDa soluble fraction derived from apical plasma membranes of OECs. The present study also sought to determine whether or not: (i) spermatozoa must directly bind to OEC for an effect on gene expression to be elicited and (ii) reproductive and nonreproductive epithelial cell types (LLC-PK1, pig kidney) respond equivalently, in terms of alterations in chaperone and HSP gene expression, during co-culture with sperm. Spermatozoa induced a significant upregulation (P < 0.05) in HSP90AA1 and HSPA5 in OECs after 3 hr, and in HSPA8 after 6 hr of co-culture when they were in direct contact with epithelial cells. Conversely, no upregulation of HSP transcription was observed when spermatozoa did not directly bind to OECs. Spermatozoa also induced a significant upregulation (P < 0.05) of the same three genes when in direct contact with LLC-PK1 cells, but the timing occurred later than with OECs. Interestingly, the extent of HSP gene upregulation induced by direct contact of spermatozoa with epithelial cells was dependent on sperm-binding index and on the viability and morphological quality of the bound sperm population. In conclusion, the upregulation of HSP genes caused by direct contact between spermatozoa and OECs, rather than nonreproductive epithelial cells, suggests HSPs could play an integral role in the modulation of sperm function in the oviductal reservoir.

  15. Glutathione-S-transferase M1 regulation of diesel exhaust particle-induced pro-inflammatory mediator expression in normal human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) contribute substantially to ambient particulate matter (PM) air pollution in urban areas. Inhalation of PM has been associated with increased incidence of lung disease in susceptible populations. We have demonstrated that the glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) null genotype could aggravate DEP-induced airway inflammation in human subjects. Given the critical role airway epithelial cells play in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation, we established the GSTM1 deficiency condition in primary bronchial epithelial cells from human volunteers with GSTM1 sufficient genotype (GSTM1+) using GSTM1 shRNA to determine whether GSTM1 deficiency could exaggerate DEP-induced expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-1β proteins. Furthermore, the mechanisms underlying GSTM1 regulation of DEP-induced IL-8 and IL-1β expression were also investigated. Methods IL-8 and IL-1β protein levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. GSTM1 deficiency in primary human bronchial epithelial cells was achieved using lentiviral GSTM1 shRNA particles and verified using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was evaluated using flow cytometry. Phosphorylation of protein kinases was detected using immunoblotting. Results Exposure of primary human bronchial epithelial cells (GSTM1+) to 25-100 μg/ml DEP for 24 h significantly increased IL-8 and IL-1β protein expression. Knockdown of GSTM1 in these cells further elevated DEP-induced IL-8 and IL-1β expression, implying that GSTM1 deficiency aggravated DEP-induced pro-inflammatory response. DEP stimulation induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, the downstream kinase of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), in GSTM1+ bronchial epithelial cells. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK kinase and PI3K activity blocked DEP-induced IL-8 and IL-1β expression. DEP-induced ERK and Akt

  16. Correlation between CYP1A1 transcript, protein level, enzyme activity and DNA adduct formation in normal human mammary epithelial cell strains exposed to benzo[a]pyrene

    PubMed Central

    Divi, Rao L.; Einem Lindeman, Tracey L.; Shockley, Marie E.; Keshava, Channa; Weston, Ainsley; Poirier, Miriam C.

    2014-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo(a)pyrene (BP) is thought to bind covalently to DNA, through metabolism by cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and CYP1B1, and other enzymes, to form r7, t8, t9-trihydroxy-c-10-(N 2-deoxyguanosyl)-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-benzo[a]-pyrene (BPdG). Evaluation of RNA expression data, to understand the contribution of different metabolic enzymes to BPdG formation, is typically presented as fold-change observed upon BP exposure, leaving the actual number of RNA transcripts unknown. Here, we have quantified RNA copies/ng cDNA (RNA cpn) for CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, as well as NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), which may reduce formation of BPdG adducts, using primary normal human mammary epithelial cell (NHMEC) strains, and the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. In unexposed NHMECs, basal RNA cpn values were 58–836 for CYP1A1, 336–5587 for CYP1B1 and 5943–40112 for NQO1. In cells exposed to 4.0 µM BP for 12h, RNA cpn values were 251–13234 for CYP1A1, 4133–57078 for CYP1B1 and 4456–55887 for NQO1. There were 3.5 (mean, range 0.2–15.8) BPdG adducts/108 nucleotides in the NHMECs (n = 16), and 790 in the MCF-7s. In the NHMECs, BP-induced CYP1A1 RNA cpn was highly associated with BPdG (P = 0.002), but CYP1B1 and NQO1 were not. Western blots of four NHMEC strains, chosen for different levels of BPdG adducts, showed a linear correlation between BPdG and CYP1A1, but not CYP1B1 or NQO1. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, which measures CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 together, correlated with BPdG, but NQO1 activity did not. Despite more numerous levels of CYP1B1 and NQO1 RNA cpn in unexposed and BP-exposed NHMECs and MCF-7cells, BPdG formation was only correlated with induction of CYP1A1 RNA cpn. The higher level of BPdG in MCF-7 cells, compared to NHMECs, may have been due to a much increased induction of CYP1A1 and EROD. Overall, BPdG correlation was observed with CYP1A1 protein and CYP1A1/1B1 enzyme activity, but not with CYP1B1 or NQO

  17. Multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy used to discriminate human colon cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adur, Javier; Pelegati, Vitor B.; Bianchi, Mariana; de Thomaz, André A.; Baratti, Mariana O.; Carvalho, Hernandes F.; Casco, Víctor H.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2013-02-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most diffused cancers in the Western World, ranking third worldwide in frequency of incidence after lung and breast cancers. Even if it is curable when detected and treated early, a more accurate premature diagnosis would be a suitable aim for both cancer prognostic and treatment. Combined multimodal nonlinear optical (NLO) microscopies, such as two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF), second-harmonic generation (SHG), third harmonic generation (THG), and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) can be used to detect morphological and metabolic changes associated with stroma and epithelial transformation in colon cancer disease. NLO microscopes provide complementary information about tissue microstructure, showing distinctive patterns between normal and malignant human colonic mucosa. Using a set of scoring methods significant differences both in the content, distribution and organization of stroma collagen fibrils, and lifetime components of NADH and FAD cofactors of human colon mucosa biopsies were found. Our results provide a framework for using NLO techniques as a clinical diagnostic tool for human colon cancer, and also suggest that the SHG and FLIM metrics could be applied to other intestinal disorders, which are characterized by abnormal cell proliferation and collagen assembly.

  18. Immunocytochemistry and Image Analysis of Beta-Catenin Redistribution in Normal Human Colon Cell Cultures Treated with Disinfection By-Products.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between the consumption of chlorinated drinking water and increased risk for colon cancer. In vivo studies proved that rodents exposed to chlorination disinfection byproducts (DBPs) developed aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in t...

  19. [Effect of dihydropyrrol and maleimide derivatives on the state of the liver and colon in normal rats and those with colorectal carcinogenesis induced by dimethylhydrazine].

    PubMed

    Kuznietsova, H M; Lynchak, O V; Danylov, M O; Kotliar, I P; Rybal'chenko, V K

    2013-01-01

    No liver and colon alterations in rats, caused by cytostatic compounds 5-amino-4-(1,3-benzothyazol-2-yl)-1-(3-methoxyphenyl)-1,2-dihydro-3H-pyrrol-3-one (D1) and 1-(4-Cl-benzyl)-3-Cl-4-(CF3-phenylamino)-1H-pyrrol-2,5-dione (MI-1) when administered over a long time were found, as evidenced by the histopathological data and the data of activity of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase in the blood serum. D1 and MI-1 in vivo decrease the total area of DMH-induced colon tumors in rats by 46-60%. Furthermore, D1 and MI-1 partially protect the liver and colon mucosa from toxic effects caused by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) reducing DNA oxidative modifications, as evidenced by urine 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine level. The effects of both compounds are similar, but MI-1 is less toxic for the liver and colon of intact animals possessing more pronounced antitumor activity and protective properties in the setting of chemically induced carcinogenesis.

  20. Functional ESCRT machinery is required for constitutive recycling of claudin-1 and maintenance of polarity in vertebrate epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Dukes, Joseph D; Fish, Laura; Richardson, Judith D; Blaikley, Elizabeth; Burns, Samir; Caunt, Christopher J; Chalmers, Andrew D; Whitley, Paul

    2011-09-01

    Genetic screens in Drosophila have identified regulators of endocytic trafficking as neoplastic tumor suppressor genes. For example, Drosophila endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) mutants lose epithelial polarity and show increased cell proliferation, suggesting that ESCRT proteins could function as tumor suppressors. In this study, we show for the for the first time to our knowledge that ESCRT proteins are required to maintain polarity in mammalian epithelial cells. Inhibition of ESCRT function caused the tight junction protein claudin-1 to accumulate in intracellular vesicles. In contrast E-cadherin and occludin localization was unaffected. We investigated the cause of this accumulation and show that claudin-1 is constitutively recycled in kidney, colon, and lung epithelial cells, identifying claudin-1 recycling as a newly described feature of diverse epithelial cell types. This recycling requires ESCRT function, explaining the accumulation of intracellular claudin-1 when ESCRT function is inhibited. We further demonstrate that small interfering RNA knockdown of the ESCRT protein Tsg101 causes epithelial monolayers to lose their polarized organization and interferes with the establishment of a normal epithelial permeability barrier. ESCRT knockdown also reduces the formation of correctly polarized three-dimensional cysts. Thus, in mammalian epithelial cells, ESCRT function is required for claudin-1 trafficking and for epithelial cell polarity, supporting the hypothesis that ESCRT proteins function as tumor suppressors.

  1. Differential expression of GSK3β and pS9GSK3β in normal human tissues: can pS9GSK3β be an epithelial marker?

    PubMed

    Lee, Hojung; Ro, Jae Y

    2015-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and phosphorylated GSK3β at Ser9 (pS9GSK3β) are crucial in cellular proliferation and metabolism. GSK3β and pS9GSK3β are deregulated in many diseases including tumors. Data on altered expression of GSK3β and pS9GSK3β are mainly limited to tumor tissues, thus the expression of GSK3β and pS9GSK3β in normal human tissue has been largely unknown. Thus, we examined the immunohistochemical localization of GSK3β and pS9GSK3β in human fetal and adult tissues, and also compared the expression pattern of GSK3β and pS9GSK3β with that of the CK7 and CK20. We found GSK3β expression in neurons of brain, myenteric plexus in gastrointestinal tract, squamous epithelium of skin, and mammary gland. The expression of pS9GSK3β was restricted to the epithelial cells of breast and pancreaticobiliary duct, distal nephron of kidney, gastrointestinal tract, fallopian tube, epididymis, secretory cell of prostatic gland, and umbrella cell of urinary tract. The staining pattern of pS9GSK3β and CK7 was overlapped in most organs except for gastrointestinal tract where CK7 was negative and CK20 was positive. Our results show that the expression of GSK3β may be associated with differentiation of ectodermal derived tissues and pS9GSK3β with that of epithelial cells of endodermal derived tissues in human. In addition, the expression of pS9GSK3β in the selective epithelial cells may indicate its association with secretory or barrier function of specific cells and may serve as another immunohistochemical marker for epithelial cells.

  2. Abrogation of MUC5AC Expression Contributes to the Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest of Colon Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xijia; Long, Xiangkai; Luo, Xishun; Song, Zhike; Li, Shengguo; Wang, Haipeng

    2016-09-01

    Deregulated expressions of mucins have been found in various malignancies and play a pivotal role in carcinogenesis. MUC5AC, as a secreted mucin, is reported to be aberrantly expressed during epithelial cancer progression, including colon cancer. However, the mechanisms of the oncoprotein MUC5AC in the initiation of colon cancer requires further investigation. Here, we collected colon cancer tissues (n = 20) and corresponding paracancerous tissues (n = 20) and found that the expression of MUC5AC was significantly elevated in colon cancer tissues when compared with the corresponding paracancerous tissues. Immunofluorescence indicated that all colon cancer cell lines, including HT29, SW620, and the normal human intestinal epithelial cells FHC, showed the positive expression of MUC5AC, and SW620 exhibited the highest expression. Moreover, knockdown of MUC5AC in SW620 cells remarkably suppressed cell vitality and promoted apoptosis and G1 cell cycle arrest, resulting in the impaired ability of colony formation. Furthermore, the inhibition of MUC5AC in SW620 cells dramatically repressed the cell migration and invasion. These results demonstrated that MUC5AC as an oncogene could be a promising target in the treatment of colon cancer.

  3. Molecular mechanisms linking adipokines to obesity-related colon cancer: focus on leptin.

    PubMed

    Drew, Janice E

    2012-02-01

    Obesity is linked to increased risk of colon cancer, currently the third most common cancer. Consequently rising levels of obesity worldwide are likely to significantly impact on obesity-related colon cancers in the decades to come. Understanding the molecular mechanisms whereby obesity increases colon cancer risk is thus a focus for research to inform strategies to prevent the increasing trend in obesity-related cancers. This review will consider research on deregulation of adipokine signalling, a consequence of altered adipokine hormone secretion from excess adipose tissue, with a focus on leptin, which has been studied extensively as a potential mediator of obesity-related colon cancer. Numerous investigations using colon cell lines in vitro, in vivo studies in rodents and investigations of colon cancer patients illuminate the complexity of the interactions of leptin with colon tissues via leptin receptors expressed by the colon epithelium. Although evidence indicates a role for leptin in proliferation of colon epithelial cells in vitro, this has been contradicted by studies in rodent models. However, recent studies have indicated that leptin may influence inflammatory mediators linked with colon cancer and also promote cell growth dependent on genotype and is implicated in growth promotion of colon cancer cells. Studies in human cancer patients indicate that there may be different tumour sub-types with varying levels of leptin receptor expression, indicating the potential for leptin to induce variable responses in the different tumour types. These studies have provided insights into the complex interplay of adipokines with responsive tissues prone to obesity-related colon cancer. Deregulation of adipokine signalling via adipokine receptors located in the colon appears to be a significant factor in obesity-related colon cancer. Molecular profiling of colon tumours will be a useful tool in future strategies to characterise the influence that adipokines may have

  4. Cooperation of bcl-2 and myc in the neoplastic transformation of normal rat liver epithelial cells is related to the down-regulation of gap junction-mediated intercellular communication.

    PubMed

    DeoCampo, N D; Wilson, M R; Trosko, J E

    2000-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to isolate several rat liver epithelial cell clones containing the human bcl-2 and myc/bcl-2 genes in order to study their potential cooperative effect on neoplastic transformation and gap junction-mediated intercellular communication (GJIC) and to test the hypothesis that the loss of GJIC leads to tumorigenesis. Using anchorage-independent growth as a surrogate marker for neoplastic transformation, we transfected both normal rat liver epithelial cells, WB-F344, and a WB-F344 cell line overexpressing v-myc with human bcl-2 cDNA. Those cell lines that only expressed v-myc or human bcl-2 were unable to form colonies in soft agar. However, those cell lines that overexpressed both v-myc and human bcl-2 showed varying ability to form colonies in soft agar, which did not correlate with their human bcl-2 expression level. In order to test if there was a correlation between cell line growth in soft agar and the ability to communicate through gap junctions, we performed scrape load dye transfer and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching assays. Our results show that v-myc and human bcl-2 can cooperate in the transformation of normal cells, but the degree to which the cells are transformed is dependent on the cells' ability to communicate through gap junctions.

  5. Ectopic expression of the chemokine CXCL17 in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ohlsson, Lina; Hammarström, Marie-Louise; Lindmark, Gudrun; Hammarström, Sten; Sitohy, Basel

    2016-01-01

    Background: The novel chemokine CXCL17 acts as chemoattractant for monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. CXCL17 also has a role in angiogenesis of importance for tumour development. Methods: Expression of CXCL17, CXCL10, CXCL9 and CCL2 was assessed in primary colon cancer tumours, colon carcinoma cell lines and normal colon tissue at mRNA and protein levels by real-time qRT–PCR, immunohistochemistry, two-colour immunofluorescence and immunomorphometry. Results: CXCL17 mRNA was expressed at 8000 times higher levels in primary tumours than in normal colon (P<0.0001). CXCL17 protein was seen in 17.2% of cells in tumours as compared with 0.07% in normal colon (P=0.0002). CXCL10, CXCL9 and CCL2 mRNAs were elevated in tumours but did not reach the levels of CXCL17. CXCL17 and CCL2 mRNA levels were significantly correlated in tumours. Concordant with the mRNA results, CXCL10- and CXCL9-positive cells were detected in tumour tissue, but at significantly lower numbers than CXCL17. Two-colour immunofluorescence and single-colour staining of consecutive sections for CXCL17 and the epithelial cell markers carcinoembryonic antigen and BerEP4 demonstrated that colon carcinoma tumour cells indeed expressed CXCL17. Conclusions: CXCL17 is ectopically expressed in primary colon cancer tumours. As CXCL17 enhances angiogenesis and attracts immune cells, its expression could be informative for prognosis in colon cancer patients. PMID:26889977

  6. APC+/− alters colonic fibroblast proteome in FAP

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Maketa P.; Blagoi, Elena L.; Nicolas, Emmanuelle; Seeholzer, Steven H.; Cheng, David; He, Yin A.; Coudry, Renata A.; Howard, Sharon D.; Riddle, Dawn M.; Cooper, Harry S.; Boman, Bruce M.; Conrad, Peggy; Crowell, James A.; Bellacosa, Alfonso; Knudson, Alfred; Yeung, Anthony T.; Kopelovich, Levy

    2011-01-01

    Here we compared the proteomes of primary fibroblast cultures derived from morphologically normal colonic mucosa of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients with those obtained from unaffected controls. The expression signature of about 19% of total fibroblast proteins separates FAP mutation carriers from unaffected controls (P < 0.01). More than 4,000 protein spots were quantified by 2D PAGE analysis, identifying 368 non-redundant proteins and 400 of their isoforms. Specifically, all three classes of cytoskeletal filaments and their regulatory proteins were altered as were oxidative stress response proteins. Given that FAP fibroblasts showed heightened sensitivity to transformation by KiMSV and SV40 including elevated levels of the p53 protein, events controlled in large measure by the Ras suppressor protein-1 (RSU-1) and oncogenic DJ-1, here we show decreased RSU1 and augmented DJ-1 expression in both fibroblasts and crypt-derived epithelial cells from morphologically normal colonic mucosa of FAP gene-carriers. The results indicate that heterozygosity for a mutant APC tumor suppressor gene alters the proteomes of both colon-derived normal fibroblasts in a gene-specific manner, consistent with a “one-hit” effect. PMID:21411865

  7. Enteric dysbiosis promotes antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection: systemic dissemination of resistant and commensal bacteria through epithelial transcytosis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Linda Chia-Hui; Shih, Yi-An; Wu, Li-Ling; Lin, Yang-Ding; Kuo, Wei-Ting; Peng, Wei-Hao; Lu, Kuo-Shyan; Wei, Shu-Chen; Turner, Jerrold R; Ni, Yen-Hsuan

    2014-10-15

    Antibiotic usage promotes intestinal colonization of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. However, whether resistant bacteria gain dominance in enteric microflora or disseminate to extraintestinal viscera remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate temporal diversity changes in microbiota and transepithelial routes of bacterial translocation after antibiotic-resistant enterobacterial colonization. Mice drinking water with or without antibiotics were intragastrically gavaged with ampicillin-resistant (Amp-r) nonpathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) and given normal water afterward. The composition and spatial distribution of intestinal bacteria were evaluated using 16S rDNA sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Bacterial endocytosis in epithelial cells was examined using gentamicin resistance assay and transmission electromicroscopy. Paracellular permeability was assessed by tight junctional immunostaining and measured by tissue conductance and luminal-to-serosal dextran fluxes. Our results showed that antibiotic treatment enabled intestinal colonization and transient dominance of orally acquired Amp-r E. coli in mice. The colonized Amp-r E. coli peaked on day 3 postinoculation and was competed out after 1 wk, as evidenced by the recovery of commensals, such as Escherichia, Bacteroides, Lachnospiraceae, Clostridium, and Lactobacillus. Mucosal penetration and extraintestinal dissemination of exogenous and endogenous enterobacteria were correlated with abnormal epithelial transcytosis but uncoupled with paracellular tight junctional damage. In conclusion, antibiotic-induced enteric dysbiosis predisposes to exogenous infection and causes systemic dissemination of both antibiotic-resistant and commensal enterobacteria through transcytotic routes across epithelial layers. These results may help explain the susceptibility to sepsis in antibiotic-resistant enteric bacterial infection.

  8. Prostaglandin E2-induced colonic secretion in patients with and without colorectal neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis for colorectal cancer remains unresolved. A growing body of evidence suggests a direct correlation between cyclooxygenase enzyme expression, prostaglandin E2 metabolism and neoplastic development. Thus further understanding of the regulation of epithelial functions by prostaglandin E2 is needed. We hypothesized that patients with colonic neoplasia have altered colonic epithelial ion transport and express functionally different prostanoid receptor levels in this respect. Methods Patients referred for colonoscopy were included and grouped into patients with and without colorectal neoplasia. Patients without endoscopic findings of neoplasia served as controls. Biopsy specimens were obtained from normally appearing mucosa in the sigmoid part of colon. Biopsies were mounted in miniaturized modified Ussing air-suction chambers. Indomethacin (10 μM), various stimulators and inhibitors of prostanoid receptors and ion transport were subsequently added to the chamber solutions. Electrogenic ion transport parameters (short circuit current and slope conductance) were recorded. Tissue pathology and tissue damage before and after experiments was assessed by histology. Results Baseline short circuit current and slope conductance did not differ between the two groups. Patients with neoplasia were significantly more sensitive to indomethacin with a decrease in short circuit current of 15.1 ± 2.6 μA·cm-2 compared to controls, who showed a decrease of 10.5 ± 2.1 μA·cm-2 (p = 0.027). Stimulation or inhibition with theophylline, ouabain, bumetanide, forskolin or the EP receptor agonists prostaglandin E2, butaprost, sulprostone and prostaglandin E1 (OH) did not differ significantly between the two groups. Histology was with normal findings in both groups. Conclusions Epithelial electrogenic transport is more sensitive to indomethacin in normal colonic mucosa from patients with previous or present colorectal neoplasia compared to colonic mucosa from

  9. Nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin occurs commonly in the epithelial cells of juvenile polyps.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Michiko; Hoffenberg, Edward J; Carethers, John M; Doctolero, Ryan; Tajima, Akihiro; Sugano, Kentaro; Franklin, Wilbur A; Ahnen, Dennis J

    2005-01-01

    In the two conditions juvenile polyps (JPs) and juvenile polyposis coli (JPC), colonic polyps may have overlapping histologic and phenotypic appearance, but JPC confers a significant risk for colon adenocarcinoma. Although not thought to contain adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutations, the status of beta-catenin and full-length APC protein expression in JPs is not known. We evaluated beta-catenin and full-length APC protein expression in JPs from children with JPs and JPC. Cases were identified through endoscopic procedure records. Immunohistochemistry was performed for beta-catenin and full-length APC protein. Loss of heterozygosity at the APC gene locus on chromosome 5 was assessed using two APC-linked microsatellite markers. Polyp and normal colonic tissue were analyzed from 36 children with JPs and 9 with JPC. Both APC and beta-catenin immunoreactivity were present in epithelial cells from all samples but in different patterns. In all normal colon and polyp samples, APC expression was cytoplasmic with maximal immunoreactivity in the goblet cells. In contrast, beta-catenin immunoreactivity in epithelial cells was limited to the plasma membrane in normal colon but was both cytoplasmic and nuclear in all 45 JPs. No evidence of APC gene loss of heterozygosity was found. In polyps from children with JPs and JPC, nuclear beta-catenin accumulation is a consistent feature, and it is not due to APC gene mutation or loss of full-length APC protein expression. Thus, beta-catenin accumulation may be intrinsic to the formation of juvenile-type polyps through an as-yet-undefined mechanism.

  10. Colon diverticula - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... anatomy URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100158.htm Colon diverticula - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 6 Go to slide 2 ...

  11. Biological impact of cigarette smoke compared to an aerosol produced from a prototypic modified risk tobacco product on normal human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kogel, U; Gonzalez Suarez, I; Xiang, Y; Dossin, E; Guy, P A; Mathis, C; Marescotti, D; Goedertier, D; Martin, F; Peitsch, M C; Hoeng, J

    2015-12-01

    Cigarette smoking causes serious and fatal diseases. The best way for smokers to avoid health risks is to quit smoking. Using modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) may be an alternative to reduce the harm caused for those who are unwilling to quit smoking, but little is known about the toxic effects of MRTPs, nor were the molecular mechanisms of toxicity investigated in detail. The toxicity of an MRTP and the potential molecular mechanisms involved were investigated in high-content screening tests and whole genome transcriptomics analyses using human bronchial epithelial cells. The prototypic (p)MRTP that was tested had less impact than reference cigarette 3R4F on the cellular oxidative stress response and cell death pathways. Higher pMRTP aerosol extract concentrations had impact on pathways associated with the detoxification of xenobiotics and the reduction of oxidative damage. A pMRTP aerosol concentration up to 18 times higher than the 3R4F caused similar perturbation effects in biological networks and led to the perturbation of networks related to cell stress, and proliferation biology. These results may further facilitate the development of a systems toxicology-based impact assessment for use in future risk assessments in line with the 21st century toxicology paradigm, as shown here for an MRTP.

  12. Inhibition of SW620 human colon cancer cells by upregulating miRNA-145

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen; Xu, Na; Li, Yu-Qiang; Wang, Yu; Zhu, Zhi-Tu

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the targeted inhibition of proliferation and migration of SW620 human colon cancer cells by upregulating miRNA-145 (miR-145). METHODS: Forty-five samples of colon cancer tissues and 45 normal control samples were obtained from the biological database of the First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University. We performed quantitative analysis of miR-145 and N-ras expression in tissues; reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis of miR-145 expression in SW620 colon cancer cells and normal colonic epithelial cells; construction of miR-145 lentiviral vector and determination of miR-145 expression in SW620 cells transduced with miR-145 vector; analysis of the effect of miR-145 overexpression on SW620 cell proliferation; analysis of the effect of miR-145 overexpression on SW620 cell migration using a wound healing assay; and analysis of the effect of miR-145 on N-ras expression using Western blotting. RESULTS: miR-145 expression was significantly downregulated in colon cancer tissues, with its expression in normal colonic tissues being 4-5-fold higher (two sample t test, P < 0.05), whereas N-ras expression showed the opposite trend. miR-145 expression in SW620 cells was downregulated, which was significantly lower compared to that in colonic epithelial cells (two sample t test, P < 0.05). miR-145 vector and control were successfully packaged; expression of miR-145 in SW620 cells transduced with miR-145 was 8.2-fold of that in control cells (two sample t test, P < 0.05). The proliferation of miR-145-transduced SW620 cells was significantly decreased compared to control cells (two sample t test, P < 0.05). At 48 h in the wound healing experiment, the migration indexes and controls were (97.27% ± 9.25%) and (70.22% ± 6.53%), respectively (two sample t test, P < 0.05). N-ras expression in miR-145-tranduced SW620 cells was significantly lower than others (one-way analysis of variance, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: miR-145 is important in

  13. INPP4B is an oncogenic regulator in human colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, S T; Chi, M N; Yang, R H; Guo, X Y; Zan, L K; Wang, C Y; Xi, Y F; Jin, L; Croft, A; Tseng, H-Y; Yan, X G; Farrelly, M; Wang, F H; Lai, F; Wang, J F; Li, Y P; Ackland, S; Scott, R; Agoulnik, I U; Hondermarck, H; Thorne, R F; Liu, T; Zhang, X D; Jiang, C C

    2016-01-01

    Inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type II (INPP4B) negatively regulates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling and is a tumor suppressor in some types of cancers. However, we have found that it is frequently upregulated in human colon cancer cells. Here we show that silencing of INPP4B blocks activation of Akt and serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 3 (SGK3), inhibits colon cancer cell proliferation and retards colon cancer xenograft growth. Conversely, overexpression of INPP4B increases proliferation and triggers anchorage-independent growth of normal colon epithelial cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that the effect of INPP4B on Akt and SGK3 is associated with inactivation of phosphate and tensin homolog through its protein phosphatase activity and that the increase in INPP4B is due to Ets-1-mediated transcriptional upregulation in colon cancer cells. Collectively, these results suggest that INPP4B may function as an oncogenic driver in colon cancer, with potential implications for targeting INPP4B as a novel approach to treat this disease. PMID:26411369

  14. Human colon tissue in organ culture: calcium and multi-mineral-induced mucosal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Dame, Michael K; Veerapaneni, Indiradevi; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Naik, Madhav; Varani, James

    2011-01-01

    We have recently shown that a multi-mineral extract from the marine red algae, Lithothamnion calcareum, suppresses colon polyp formation and inflammation in mice. In the present study, we used intact human colon tissue in organ culture to compare responses initiated by Ca(2+) supplementation versus the multi-mineral extract. Normal human colon tissue was treated for 2 d in culture with various concentrations of calcium or the mineral-rich extract. The tissue was then prepared for histology/immunohistochemistry, and the culture supernatants were assayed for levels of type I procollagen and type I collagen. At higher Ca(2+) concentrations or with the mineral-rich extract, proliferation of epithelial cells at the base and walls of the mucosal crypts was suppressed, as visualized by reduced Ki67 staining. E-cadherin, a marker of differentiation, was more strongly expressed at the upper third of the crypt and at the luminal surface. Treatment with Ca(2+) or with the multi-mineral extract influenced collagen turnover, with decreased procollagen and increased type I collagen. These data suggest that calcium or mineral-rich extract has the capacity to (1) promote differentiation in human colon tissue in organ culture and (2) modulate stromal function as assessed by increased levels of type I collagen. Taken together, these data suggest that human colon tissue in organ culture (supporting in vivo finding in mice) will provide a valuable model for the preclinical assessment of agents that regulate growth and differentiation in the colonic mucosa.

  15. Targeting the metabolic pathway of human colon cancer overcomes resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Carr, Ryan M; Qiao, Guilin; Qin, Jianzhong; Jayaraman, Sundararajan; Prabhakar, Bellur S; Maker, Ajay V

    2016-01-01

    Colon cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality for which targeted therapy is needed; however, trials using apoptosis-inducing ligand monotherapy to overcome resistance to apoptosis have not shown clinical responses. Since colon cancer cells selectively uptake and rapidly metabolize glucose, a property utilized for clinical staging, we investigated mechanisms to alter glucose metabolism in order to selectively target the cancer cells and to overcome evasion of apoptosis. We demonstrate TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) resistance in the majority of human colon cancers tested and utilize the glucose analog 2-deoxy-d-glucose to sensitize TRAIL-resistant gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma cells, and not normal gastrointestinal epithelial cells, to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through enhanced death receptor 5 expression, downstream modulation of MAPK signaling and subsequent miRNA expression modulation by increasing the expression of miR-494 via MEK activation. Further, established human colon cancer xenografts treated with this strategy experience anti-tumor responses. These findings in colon adenocarcinoma support further investigation of manipulation of cellular energetics to selectively overcome resistance to apoptosis and to impart tumor regressions in established colon cancer tumors.

  16. Targeting the metabolic pathway of human colon cancer overcomes resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Ryan M; Qiao, Guilin; Qin, Jianzhong; Jayaraman, Sundararajan; Prabhakar, Bellur S; Maker, Ajay V

    2016-01-01

    Colon cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality for which targeted therapy is needed; however, trials using apoptosis-inducing ligand monotherapy to overcome resistance to apoptosis have not shown clinical responses. Since colon cancer cells selectively uptake and rapidly metabolize glucose, a property utilized for clinical staging, we investigated mechanisms to alter glucose metabolism in order to selectively target the cancer cells and to overcome evasion of apoptosis. We demonstrate TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) resistance in the majority of human colon cancers tested and utilize the glucose analog 2-deoxy-d-glucose to sensitize TRAIL-resistant gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma cells, and not normal gastrointestinal epithelial cells, to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through enhanced death receptor 5 expression, downstream modulation of MAPK signaling and subsequent miRNA expression modulation by increasing the expression of miR-494 via MEK activation. Further, established human colon cancer xenografts treated with this strategy experience anti-tumor responses. These findings in colon adenocarcinoma support further investigation of manipulation of cellular energetics to selectively overcome resistance to apoptosis and to impart tumor regressions in established colon cancer tumors. PMID:27648301

  17. Terpenoids as anti-colon cancer agents - A comprehensive review on its mechanistic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sharada H; Thulasingam, Senthilkumar; Nagarajan, Sangeetha

    2017-01-15

    Multistep model of colon carcinogenesis has provided the framework to advance our understanding of the molecular basis of colon cancer. This multistage process of carcinogenesis takes a long period to transform from a normal epithelial cell to invasive carcinoma. Thus, it provides enough time to intervene the process of carcinogenesis especially through dietary modification. In spite of the in-depth understanding of the colon cancer etiology and pathophysiology and its association with diet, colon cancer remains a major cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Phytochemicals and their derivatives are gaining attention in cancer prevention and treatment strategies because of cancer chemotherapy associated adverse effects. Being the largest group of phytochemicals traditionally used for medicinal purpose in India and China, terpenoids are recently being explored as anticancer agents. Anticancer properties of terpenoids are associated with various mechanisms like counteraction of oxidative stress, potentiating endogenous antioxidants, improving detoxification potential, disrupting cell survival pathways and inducing apoptosis. This review gives a comprehensive idea of naturally occurring terpenoids as useful agents for the prevention of colon cancer with reference to their classes, sources and molecular targets. Based on the explored molecular targets further research in colon cancer chemoprevention is warranted.

  18. Pharmacokinetic studies of mouse monoclonal antibodies to a rat colon carcinoma: I. Comparison of biodistribution in normal rats, syngeneic tumor-bearing rats, or tumor-bearing nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Laborda, J.; Douillard, J.Y.; Burg, C.; Lizzio, E.F.; Ridge, J.; Levenbook, I.; Hoffman, T. )

    1990-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of two iodine-131-({sup 131}I) labeled murine anti-rat colon carcinoma monoclonal antibodies (D3 and E4) were compared in normal Sprague Dawley rats, syngeneic BDIX rats, or nude mice bearing that tumor. Results of antibody uptake after i.v. administration were analyzed in terms of accumulation and localization indices for normal tissues and tumor. Statistically significant differences between rat and mouse tissue biodistribution were found. D3, which reacts in vitro with the tumor and several normal rat tissues, cleared quickly from the blood of rats and was specifically targeted to several normal tissues, notably the lung. Virtually no targeting to the tumor was observed. Nude mice, however, showed a slower blood clearance and specific antibody targeting only in the tumor. Similar results were seen after injection of another antibody, E4, which is tumor-specific in vitro. Data suggest that studies on the xenogeneic nude mouse model may not necessarily be relevant to the choice of monoclonal antibodies for clinical diagnostic imaging or therapy.

  19. Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulate matrix metalloproteinase 1-dependent invasion of human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Cheng, Kunrong; Saxena, Neeraj; Chahdi, Ahmed; Belo, Angelica; Khurana, Sandeep; Xie, Guofeng

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulated robust human colon cancer cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-matrix metalloproteinase1 antibody pre-treatment blocks cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bile acids stimulate MMP1 expression, cell migration and MMP1-dependent invasion. -- Abstract: Mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which degrade extracellular matrix facilitate colon cancer cell invasion into the bloodstream and extra-colonic tissues; in particular, MMP1 expression correlates strongly with advanced colon cancer stage, hematogenous metastasis and poor prognosis. Likewise, muscarinic receptor signaling plays an important role in colon cancer; muscarinic receptors are over-expressed in colon cancer compared to normal colon epithelial cells. Muscarinic receptor activation stimulates proliferation, migration and invasion of human colon cancer cells. In mouse intestinal neoplasia models genetic ablation of muscarinic receptors attenuates carcinogenesis. In the present work, we sought to link these observations by showing that MMP1 expression and activation plays a mechanistic role in muscarinic receptor agonist-induced colon cancer cell invasion. We show that acetylcholine, which robustly increases MMP1 expression, stimulates invasion of HT29 and H508 human colon cancer cells into human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers - this was abolished by pre-incubation with atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor inhibitor, and by pre-incubation with anti-MMP1 neutralizing antibody. Similar results were obtained using a Matrigel chamber assay and deoxycholyltaurine (DCT), an amidated dihydroxy bile acid associated with colon neoplasia in animal models and humans, and previously shown to interact functionally with muscarinic receptors. DCT treatment of human colon cancer cells resulted in time-dependent, 10-fold increased MMP1 expression, and DCT-induced cell invasion was also blocked by pre

  20. Treatment with novel AP-1 and NF-κB inhibitors restores the colonic endocrine cells to normal levels in rats with DSS-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    EL-SALHY, MAGDY; UMEZAWA, KAZUO

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of two anti-inflammatory agents on the abnormalities in colonic endocrine cells in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats (n=45) using DSS; a further 15 rats without colitis were included in a healthy control group. The animals with DSS-induced colitis were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups as follows: i) DSS group, rats were treated with 0.5 ml of 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC); ii) DSS-G group, rats were treated with 3-[(dodecyl thiocarbonyl)-methyl]-glutarimide (DTCM-G), a novel activator protein 1 (AP-1) inhibitor, 20 mg/kg in CMC; and iii) DSS-Q group, rats were treated with dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin, a nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, 15 mg/kg in CMC. The treatments were administered intraperitoneally, twice daily for 5 days, after which the animals were sacrificed and tissue samples from the colon were immunostained for chromogranin A (CgA), serotonin, peptide YY (PYY), enteroglucagon, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), somatostatin, leukocytes, B/T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, macrophages/monocytes and mast cells. The densities of these endocrine and immune cells were quantified by computer-aided image analysis. The densities of CgA-, serotonin-, PYY- and enteroglucagon-producing cells were significantly higher, and those of PP- and somatostatin-producing cells were significantly lower in the DSS-G, DSS-Q and control groups than in the DSS group. The densities of all the immune cells were lower in the DSS-G, DSS-Q and control groups than in the DSS group. The densities of all endocrine cell types and immune cells in both the DSS groups treated with anti-inflammatory agents were restored to control levels. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that there is an interaction between endocrine and immune cells during inflammation. This interaction with subsequent changes in endocrine cells is responsible for the clinical manifestation of

  1. Treatment with novel AP-1 and NF-κB inhibitors restores the colonic endocrine cells to normal levels in rats with DSS-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of two anti-inflammatory agents on the abnormalities in colonic endocrine cells in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats (n=45) using DSS; a further 15 rats without colitis were included in a healthy control group. The animals with DSS-induced colitis were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups as follows: i) DSS group, rats were treated with 0.5 ml of 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC); ii) DSS‑G group, rats were treated with 3-[(dodecylthiocarbonyl)‑methyl]‑glutarimide (DTCM‑G), a novel activator protein 1 (AP-1) inhibitor, 20 mg/kg in CMC; and iii) DSS‑Q group, rats were treated with dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin, a nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, 15 mg/kg in CMC. The treatments were administered intraperitoneally, twice daily for 5 days, after which the animals were sacrificed and tissue samples from the colon were immunostained for chromogranin A (CgA), serotonin, peptide YY (PYY), enteroglucagon, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), somatostatin, leukocytes, B/T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, macrophages/monocytes and mast cells. The densities of these endocrine and immune cells were quantified by computer‑aided image analysis. The densities of CgA-, serotonin-, PYY- and enteroglucagon-producing cells were significantly higher, and those of PP- and somatostatin-producing cells were significantly lower in the DSS‑G, DSS‑Q and control groups than in the DSS group. The densities of all the immune cells were lower in the DSS‑G, DSS‑Q and control groups than in the DSS group. The densities of all endocrine cell types and immune cells in both the DSS groups treated with anti‑inflammatory agents were restored to control levels. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that there is an interaction between endocrine and immune cells during inflammation. This interaction with subsequent changes in endocrine cells is responsible for the

  2. Autonomous cure of damaged human intestinal epithelial cells by TLR2 and TLR4-dependent production of IL-22 in response to Spirulina polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Akira; Konishi, Yuko; Taguchi, Takahiro; Fukuoka, Satoshi; Kawaguchi, Tokuichi; Noda, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Keiji

    2013-12-01

    In order to analyze the damage of human epithelial cells, we used human quasi-normal FPCK-1-1 cells derived from a colonic polyp in a patient with familial adenomatous polyposis as a monolayer, which is co-cultured with peptidoglycan (PGN)-stimulated THP-1 cells. Co-cultured FPCK-1-1 cells showed a decreased transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and the lower level of claudin-2. When Spirulina complex polysaccharides were added one day before the start of the co-culture, there was no decrease of TER and claudin-2 (early phase damage). In contrast, when Spirulina complex polysaccharides were added to FPCK-1-1 cells after the level of TER had decreased, there was no recovery at the level of claudin-2, though the TER level recovered (late phase damage). The mucosa reconstitution is suggested to be involved in the recovery from the damaged status. Interestingly, autonomous recovery of FPCK-1-1 cells from both the early and late phase damage requires the production of IL-22, because anti-IL-22 antibodies inhibited recovery in these cases. Antibodies against either TLR2 or TLR4 inhibited the production of IL-22 from FPCK-1-1 colon epithelial cells, suggesting that signals through TLR2 and TLR4 are necessary for autonomous recovery of FPCK-1-1 colon epithelial cells by producing IL-22. In conclusion, we have established a useful model for the study of intestinal damage and recovery using human colon epithelial cells and our data suggest that damage to human colon epithelial cells can, at least in part, be recovered by the autonomous production of IL-22 in response to Spirulina complex polysaccharides.

  3. All-trans retinoic acid converts E2F into a transcriptional suppressor and inhibits the growth of normal human bronchial epithelial cells through a retinoic acid receptor- dependent signaling pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, H Y; Dohi, D F; Kim, Y H; Walsh, G L; Consoli, U; Andreeff, M; Dawson, M I; Hong, W K; Kurie, J M

    1998-01-01

    Retinoids, including retinol and retinoic acid derivatives, maintain the normal growth and differentiation of human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells and are under investigation as agents for lung cancer prevention. In this study, we examined the biologic effects of retinoids on normal HBE cells and the molecular mechanisms of retinoid actions. At a dose of 10(-6) M, all-trans retinoic acid (t-RA) suppressed the proliferation of normal HBE cells, which accumulated in the G0 phase. No evidence of programmed cell death was observed. The class of retinoid nuclear receptor that mediated the growth arrest was explored. Normal HBE cell growth was suppressed by a retinoid that selectively activates retinoic acid receptors but not by one that activates retinoid X receptors. The E2F transcription factor has demonstrated a role in G0 entry through transcriptional suppression of genes that induce cell cycle progression. To investigate the role of E2F in retinoid signaling, transient transfection assays were performed using reporter plasmids containing E2F-binding sites. Findings from these experiments suggested that t-RA treatment converted E2F into a transcriptional suppressor. Supporting this possibility, t-RA inhibited the expression of the E2F target genes B-myb, cyclin A, and cyclin E. Further, t-RA increased the levels of nuclear E2F-4, p107, and p130 and enhanced the binding of E2F-4 to p107, which have been associated with the conversion of E2F into a transcriptional suppressor in other cells. These findings point to retinoic acid receptor- and E2F-dependent pathways as potential mediators of retinoid-induced growth arrest in normal HBE cells and have implications for the use of retinoids in clinical trials on the prevention of lung cancer. PMID:9486971

  4. MiR-34a inhibits colon cancer proliferation and metastasis by inhibiting platelet-derived growth factor receptor α.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunyan; Wang, Yulin; Lu, Shuming; Zhang, Zhuqing; Meng, Hua; Liang, Lina; Zhang, Yan; Song, Bo

    2015-11-01

    The microRNA (miRNA), miR‑34a is significant in colon cancer progression. In the present study, the role of miR‑34a in colon cancer cell proliferation and metastasis was investigated. It was found that the expression of miR‑34a in colon cancer tissues and cell lines was lower when compared with that of normal tissues and cells. Further research demonstrated that miR‑34a inhibited cell proliferation, induced G1 phase arrest, and suppressed metastasis and epithelial mesenchymal transition in colon cancer cells. Bioinformatic prediction indicated that platelet‑derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRA) was a potential target gene of miR‑34a and a luciferase assay identified that PDGFRA was a novel direct target gene of miR‑34a. In addition, assays of western blot analyses and quantitative reverse‑transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed that miR‑34a decreased PDGFRA mRNA expression and protein levels in colon cancer cells. Assessment of cellular function indicated that miR‑34a inhibited colon cancer progression via PDGFRA. These findings demonstrate that miR‑34a may act as a negative regulator in colon cancer by targeting PDGFRA.

  5. EVALUATION OF THE CYTOTOXICITY OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS (DBPS): TRIHALOMETHANES (THMS), HALONITROMETHANES (HNMS), AND HALOACETIC ACIDS (HAAS) IN NORMAL HUMAN COLON CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of chlorinated surface waters to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. THMs and HAAs were found to increase cancer in laboratory animals, but no toxicity studies exist for the recently identified HNMs. Normal Human colonocytes...

  6. Autophagy Protects against Colitis by the Maintenance of Normal Gut Microflora and Secretion of Mucus*

    PubMed Central

    Tsuboi, Koichiro; Nishitani, Mayo; Takakura, Atsushi; Imai, Yasuyuki; Komatsu, Masaaki; Kawashima, Hiroto

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies of inflammatory bowel diseases identified susceptible loci containing an autophagy-related gene. However, the role of autophagy in the colon, a major affected area in inflammatory bowel diseases, is not clear. Here, we show that colonic epithelial cell-specific autophagy-related gene 7 (Atg7) conditional knock-out (cKO) mice showed exacerbation of experimental colitis with more abundant bacterial invasion into the colonic epithelium. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that cKO mice had abnormal microflora with an increase of some genera. Consistently, expression of antimicrobial or antiparasitic peptides such as angiogenin-4, Relmβ, intelectin-1, and intelectin-2 as well as that of their inducer cytokines was significantly reduced in the cKO mice. Furthermore, secretion of colonic mucins that function as a mucosal barrier against bacterial invasion was also significantly diminished in cKO mice. Taken together, our results indicate that autophagy in colonic epithelial cells protects against colitis by the maintenance of normal gut microflora and secretion of mucus. PMID:26149685

  7. Identification of biomarkers of radioresponse and subsequent progression towards lung cancer in normal human bronchial epithelial cells after HZE particle irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Park, Seongmi; Minna, John

    Using variants of a non-oncogenically immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line HBEC3-KT, we have examined global gene expression patterns after low and high LET irradiation up to 24h post-IR. Using supervised analyses we have identified 427 genes whoes expression can be used to discriminate the cellular response to γ-vs Si or Fe particles even when the biological outcome, cell death, is equivalent. Furthermore, genetic background also determines gene expression response. When HBEC3-KT is compared to the HBEC3-KT cells line where mutant k-RAS is over-expressed and p53 has been knocked down, HBEC-3KTr53, principal component analysis clearly shows that the response of each cell resides in a different 3-D space, that is, basal gene expression patterns as well as the gene expression response are unique to each cell type. Using regression analysis to examine these 427 genes show clusters of genes whose temporal expression patterns are the same and which are unique to a given radiation type. Ultimately, this approach will allow for the interrogation of gene promoters to identify response elements that drive how cells respond to different radiation types. We are extending our examination to O particles and are now examining gene expression as a function of beam quality. We have made substantial progress in the determination of cellular transformation by HZE particles for these cell lines. (Transformation as defined by the ability to grow in soft agar.) For HBEC-3KT, the spontaneous transformation frequency is about 10- 7.ExposuretoeitherF eorSiparticlesinc KT r53celllinedidnotshowanyincreaseintransf ormationf requencyaf terdosesof upto1Gy, however, thesp 3KT.W ehavenowisolatedover160individualf ocithatf ormedinsof tagarf romcellculturesthatwereirradia termcultureandthenre-introducedintosof tagartoassurethattheabilitytogrowinsof tagarisclonal.T odatew 30 With these cell isolates in hand we will begin to determine tumorigenicity by subcutaneous injections in nude

  8. Distinct transcriptome profiles identified in normal human bronchial epithelial cells after exposure to γ-rays and different elemental particles of high Z and energy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ionizing radiation composed of accelerated ions of high atomic number (Z) and energy (HZE) deposits energy and creates damage in cells in a discrete manner as compared to the random deposition of energy and damage seen with low energy radiations such as γ- or x-rays. Such radiations can be highly effective at cell killing, transformation, and oncogenesis, all of which are concerns for the manned space program and for the burgeoning field of HZE particle radiotherapy for cancer. Furthermore, there are differences in the extent to which cells or tissues respond to such exposures that may be unrelated to absorbed dose. Therefore, we asked whether the energy deposition patterns produced by different radiation types would cause different molecular responses. We performed transcriptome profiling using human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) after exposure to γ-rays and to two different HZE particles (28Si and 56Fe) with different energy transfer properties to characterize the molecular response to HZE particles and γ-rays as a function of dose, energy deposition pattern, and time post-irradiation. Results Clonogenic assay indicated that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for 56Fe was 3.91 and for 28Si was 1.38 at 34% cell survival. Unsupervised clustering analysis of gene expression segregated samples according to the radiation species followed by the time after irradiation, whereas dose was not a significant parameter for segregation of radiation response. While a subset of genes associated with p53-signaling, such as CDKN1A, TRIM22 and BTG2 showed very similar responses to all radiation qualities, distinct expression changes were associated with the different radiation species. Gene enrichment analysis categorized the differentially expressed genes into functional groups related to cell death and cell cycle regulation for all radiation types, while gene pathway analysis revealed that the pro-inflammatory Acute Phase Response Signaling was

  9. Metastatic Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Massagué, Joan; Obenauf, Anna C.

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the main cause of death from cancer. To colonize distant organs, circulating cancer cells must overcome many obstacles through mechanisms that we are starting to understand. Infiltrating distant tissue, evading immune defences, adapting to supportive niches, surviving as latent tumour-initiating seeds, and eventually breaking out to replace the host tissue, are key steps for metastatic colonization. These obstacles make metastasis a highly inefficient process, but once metastases are established current treatments frequently fail to provide durable responses. A better understanding of the mechanistic determinants of metastatic colonization is needed to better prevent and treat metastatic cancer. PMID:26791720

  10. Early Cancer Detection at the Epithelial Surface.

    PubMed

    Rogalla, Stephan; Contag, Christopher H

    2015-01-01

    Malignant neoplastic lesions derived from epithelial tissue, carcinomas, account for 80% to 100% of all human cancers including some of the most deadly diseases such as cervical and non-small cell lung cancer. Many of these carcinomas present at readily accessible epithelial surfaces offering unique detection opportunities. Effective clinical management of carcinomas is enabled by early detection, at a time when full surgical resection is possible and before invasion of adjacent tissue or significant intravasation into blood vessels leading to metastasis. Good prognosis with long-term disease-free survival is more likely after early detection when progression is limited. At present, detection of carcinomas at epithelial surfaces largely relies on routine inspection with the naked eye (e.g., skin and oropharynx) or simple white light tools (e.g., cervix and colon). Emerging optical tools based on differential refraction, absorption, reflection, scattering, or fluorescence of carcinomas relative to normal tissues enable label-free visualization of neoplasia. However, the differences in intrinsic optical properties of normal and malignant tissues can be subtle, and relying on these may lead to high miss rates. Enhanced optical contrast offered by molecularly targeted agents can be used to improve early detection; and given that optical imaging and sensing tools can be readily combined, integrated systems that image over a range of scales, or detect multiple parameters, can be developed to aid in early detection. Diagnosis is, at present, made by histologic examination of tissue biopsies after identification of suspicious lesions. Miniature and handheld microscopic imaging tools have recently been developed, and integration of these tools with wide-field optical surveillance devices offers both rapid detection and confirmatory histologic examination at the point-of-care, that can provide guidance for biopsy and/or resection. A wide variety of targeted probe strategies

  11. Boletus edulis biologically active biopolymers induce cell cycle arrest in human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Cardoso, Claudia; Ferreira Milheiro Nunes, Fernando Hermínio; Ramos Novo Amorim de Barros, Ana Isabel; Marques, Guilhermina; Pożarowski, Piotr; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2013-04-25

    The use of biologically active compounds isolated from edible mushrooms against cancer raises global interest. Anticancer properties are mainly attributed to biopolymers including mainly polysaccharides, polysaccharopeptides, polysaccharide proteins, glycoproteins and proteins. In spite of the fact that Boletus edulis is one of the widely occurring and most consumed edible mushrooms, antitumor biopolymers isolated from it have not been exactly defined and studied so far. The present study is an attempt to extend this knowledge on molecular mechanisms of their anticancer action. The mushroom biopolymers (polysaccharides and glycoproteins) were extracted with hot water and purified by anion-exchange chromatography. The antiproliferative activity in human colon adenocarcinoma cells (LS180) was screened by means of MTT and BrdU assays. At the same time fractions' cytotoxicity was examined on the human colon epithelial cells (CCD 841 CoTr) by means of the LDH assay. Flow cytometry and Western blotting were applied to cell cycle analysis and protein expression involved in anticancer activity of the selected biopolymer fraction. In vitro studies have shown that fractions isolated from Boletus edulis were not toxic against normal colon epithelial cells and in the same concentration range elicited a very prominent antiproliferative effect in colon cancer cells. The best results were obtained in the case of the fraction designated as BE3. The tested compound inhibited cancer cell proliferation which was accompanied by cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1-phase. Growth inhibition was associated with modulation of the p16/cyclin D1/CDK4-6/pRb pathway, an aberration of which is a critical step in the development of many human cancers including colon cancer. Our results indicate that a biopolymer BE3 from Boletus edulis possesses anticancer potential and may provide a new therapeutic/preventive option in colon cancer chemoprevention.

  12. Colon Polyps

    MedlinePlus

    ... polyps important? Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2012. Elmunzer BJ. Endoscopic resection of sessile colon polyps. Gastroenterology. 2013;144:30. Baron TH, et al. Recommended intervals between screening and surveillance colonoscopies. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. ...

  13. Gene expression relationship between prostate cancer cells of Gleason 3, 4 and normal epithelial cells as revealed by cell type-specific transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer cells in primary tumors have been typed CD10-/CD13-/CD24hi/CD26+/CD38lo/CD44-/CD104-. This CD phenotype suggests a lineage relationship between cancer cells and luminal cells. The Gleason grade of tumors is a descriptive of tumor glandular differentiation. Higher Gleason scores are associated with treatment failure. Methods CD26+ cancer cells were isolated from Gleason 3+3 (G3) and Gleason 4+4 (G4) tumors by cell sorting, and their gene expression or transcriptome was determined by Affymetrix DNA array analysis. Dataset analysis was used to determine gene expression similarities and differences between G3 and G4 as well as to prostate cancer cell lines and histologically normal prostate luminal cells. Results The G3 and G4 transcriptomes were compared to those of prostatic cell types of non-cancer, which included luminal, basal, stromal fibromuscular, and endothelial. A principal components analysis of the various transcriptome datasets indicated a closer relationship between luminal and G3 than luminal and G4. Dataset comparison also showed that the cancer transcriptomes differed substantially from those of prostate cancer cell lines. Conclusions Genes differentially expressed in cancer are potential biomarkers for cancer detection, and those differentially expressed between G3 and G4 are potential biomarkers for disease stratification given that G4 cancer is associated with poor outcomes. Differentially expressed genes likely contribute to the prostate cancer phenotype and constitute the signatures of these particular cancer cell types. PMID:20021671

  14. PI3K-PTEN dysregulation leads to mTOR-driven upregulation of the core clock gene BMAL1 in normal and malignant epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Camila S; Almeida, Luciana O; Guimarães, Douglas M; Martins, Manoela D; Papagerakis, Petros; Papagerakis, Silvana; Leopoldino, Andreia M; Castilho, Rogerio M; Squarize, Cristiane H

    2016-07-05

    Dysfunctional clock signaling is observed in a variety of pathological conditions. Many members of the clock gene family are upregulated in tumor cells. Here, we explored the consequences of a commonly disrupted signaling pathway in head and neck cancer on the regulation of circadian clock genes. PTEN is a key molecular controller of the PI3K signaling, and loss of PTEN function is often observed in a variety of cancers. Our main goal was to determine whether PTEN regulates circadian clock signaling. We found that oxidation-driven loss of PTEN function resulted in the activation of mTOR signaling and activation of the core clock protein BMAL1 (also known as ARNTL). The PTEN-induced BMAL1 upregulation was further confirmed using small interference RNA targeting PTEN, and in vivo conditional depletion of PTEN from the epidermis. We observed that PTEN-driven accumulation of BMAL1 was mTOR-mediated and that administration of Rapamycin, a specific mTOR inhibitor, resulted in in vivo rescue of normal levels of BMAL1. Accumulation of BMAL1 by deletion of PER2, a Period family gene, was also rescued upon in vivo administration of mTOR inhibitor. Notably, BMAL1 regulation requires mTOR regulatory protein Raptor and Rictor. These findings indicate that mTORC1 and mTORC2 complex plays a critical role in controlling BMAL1, establishing a connection between PI3K signaling and the regulation of circadian rhythm, ultimately resulting in deregulated BMAL1 in tumor cells with disrupted PI3K signaling.

  15. D-type Cyclins are important downstream effectors of cytokine signaling that regulate the proliferation of normal and neoplastic mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Sakamoto, Kazuhito; Wagner, Kay-Uwe

    2014-01-25

    In response to the ligand-mediated activation of cytokine receptors, cells decide whether to proliferate or to undergo differentiation. D-type Cyclins (Cyclin D1, D2, or D3) and their associated Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK4, CDK6) connect signals from cytokines to the cell cycle machinery, and they propel cells through the G1 restriction point and into the S phase, after which growth factor stimulation is no longer essential to complete cell division. D-type Cyclins are upregulated in many human malignancies including breast cancer to promote an uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells. After summarizing important aspects of the cytokine-mediated transcriptional regulation and the posttranslational modification of D-type Cyclins, this review will highlight the physiological significance of these cell cycle regulators during normal mammary gland development as well as the initiation and promotion of breast cancer. Although the vast majority of published reports focus almost exclusively on the role of Cyclin D1 in breast cancer, we summarize here previous and recent findings that demonstrate an important contribution of the remaining two members of this Cyclin family, in particular Cyclin D3, for the growth of ErbB2-associated breast cancer cells in humans and in mouse models. New data from genetically engineered models as well as the pharmacological inhibition of CDK4/6 suggest that targeting the combined functions of D-type Cyclins could be a suitable strategy for the treatment of ErbB2-positive and potentially other types of breast cancer.

  16. beta-Catenin regulates vascular endothelial growth factor expression in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Easwaran, Vijay; Lee, Sang H; Inge, Landon; Guo, Lida; Goldbeck, Cheryl; Garrett, Evelyn; Wiesmann, Marion; Garcia, Pablo D; Fuller, John H; Chan, Vivien; Randazzo, Filippo; Gundel, Robert; Warren, Robert S; Escobedo, Jaime; Aukerman, Sharon L; Taylor, Robert N; Fantl, Wendy J

    2003-06-15

    To evaluate whether beta-catenin signaling has a role in the regulation of angiogenesis in colon cancer, a series of angiogenesis-related gene promoters was analyzed for beta-catenin/TCF binding sites. Strikingly, the gene promoter of human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, or VEGF-A) contains seven consensus binding sites for beta-catenin/TCF. Analysis of laser capture microdissected human colon cancer tissue indicated a direct correlation between up-regulation of VEGF-A expression and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutational status (activation of beta-catenin signaling) in primary tumors. In metastases, this correlation was not observed. Analysis by immunohistochemistry of intestinal polyps in mice heterozygous for the multiple intestinal neoplasia gene (Min/+) at 5 months revealed an increase and redistribution of VEGF-A in proximity to those cells expressing nuclear beta-catenin with a corresponding increase in vessel density. Transfection of normal colon epithelial cells with activated beta-catenin up-regulated levels of VEGF-A mRNA and protein by 250-300%. When colon cancer cells with elevated beta-catenin levels were treated with beta-catenin antisense oligodeoxynucleotides, VEGF-A expression was reduced by more than 50%. Taken together, our observations indicate a close link between beta-catenin signaling and the regulation of VEGF-A expression in colon cancer.

  17. Colonic mucin synthesis is increased by sodium butyrate.

    PubMed

    Finnie, I A; Dwarakanath, A D; Taylor, B A; Rhodes, J M

    1995-01-01

    The effects of sodium butyrate and sodium bromo-octanoate (an inhibitor of beta oxidation) on colonic mucus glycoprotein (mucin) synthesis have been assessed using tissue from colonic resection samples. Epithelial biopsy specimens were incubated for 16 hours in RPMI 1640 with glutamine, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and N-acetyl-[3H]-glucosamine ([3H]-Glc NAc), and differing concentrations of sodium butyrate. Incorporation of [3H] Glc NAc into mucin by normal epithelium at least 10 cm distant from colonic cancer was increased in the presence of sodium butyrate in a dose dependent manner, with maximum effect (476%) at a concentration of 0.1 mM (number of specimens = 24 from six patients, p < 0.001). The increase in response to butyrate was not seen when specimens were incubated in the presence of the beta oxidation inhibitor sodium bromo-octanoate 0.05 M. The striking increase in mucin synthesis that results when butyrate is added to standard nutrient medium suggests that this may be an important mechanism affecting the rate of mucin synthesis in vivo and may also explain the therapeutic effect of butyrate in colitis.

  18. Hochuekkito, a Kampo (Traditional Japanese Herbal) Medicine, and its Polysaccharide Portion Stimulate G-CSF Secretion from Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tsukasa; Moriya, Michiyo; Kiyohara, Hiroaki; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Yamada, Haruki

    2010-09-01

    Kampo (traditional Japanese herbal) medicines are taken orally due to which the gastric mucosal immune system may act as one of the major targets for the expression of pharmacological activity. The inner surface of the intestinal tract possesses a large area of mucosal membranes, and the intestinal epithelial cells sit at the interface between a lumen and a lymphocyte-rich lamina propria. The cross talk that occurs between these compartments serves to maintain intestinal homeostasis, and the cytokine network plays an important role in the cross talk. In this study, the effect of Hochuekkito (HET), one of Kampo medicines, on cytokine secretion of intestinal epithelial cells was investigated. When murine normal colonic epithelial cell-line MCE301 cells were stimulated with HET, the contents of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in the conditioned medium were significantly increased in dose- and time-dependent manners. The enhanced G-CSF gene transcription in MCE301 cells by the stimulation of HET was observed by RT-PCR. The enhanced G-CSF secretion by HET was also observed in C3H/HeJ mice-derived primary cultured colonic epithelial cells. When the HET was fractionated, only the polysaccharide fraction (F-5) enhanced the G-CSF secretion of MCE301 cells, and the activity of F-5 lost after the treatment of periodate that can degrade the carbohydrate moiety. These results suggest that HET enhances secretion of G-CSF from colonic epithelial cells and the polysaccharide is one of the active ingredients of HET. The enhanced G-CSF secretion by HET may partly contribute to the clinically observed various pharmacological activities of HET including immunomodulating activity.

  19. Glycosylation and sulphation of colonic mucus glycoproteins in patients with ulcerative colitis and in healthy subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Morita, H; Kettlewell, M G; Jewell, D P; Kent, P W

    1993-01-01

    Studies have been made of mucus glycoprotein biosynthesis in different regions of the lower gastrointestinal tract in normal patients and those with ulcerative colitis (UC), active or inactive, by means of 3H-glucosamine (3H-GlcNH2)--35S-sulphate double labelling of epithelial biopsy specimens under culture conditions. The time based rate of 3H-GlcNH2 labelling of mucus in rectal tissue was similar to that in active or inactive UC whereas the rate of 35SO4(2) labelling was significantly increased in active disease. The 3H specific activities measuring the amount of isotopic incorporation into surface and tissue mucus glycoproteins were increased in patients with active UC compared with normal or inactive subjects. The 35S specific activities did not differ significantly between patients with active UC and those in remission. In the rectum, glycosylation of mucus glycoproteins decreases with the increasing age of the patient. Regional differences in 3H-labelling of mucus components are reported for ascending colon, transverse colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum. Sulphation (35S-labelling) was higher in all parts of the colon in left sided UC. Results point to accelerated glycosylation of core proteins in the active phase of UC. PMID:8344580

  20. Differential Secreted Proteome Approach in Murine Model for Candidate Biomarker Discovery in Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rangiah, Kannan; Tippornwong, Montri; Sangar, Vineet; Austin, David; Tétreault, Marie-Pier; Rustgi, Anil K.; Blair, Ian A.; Yu, Kenneth H.

    2009-01-01

    The complexity and heterogeneity of the plasma proteome have presented significant challenges in the identification of protein changes associated with tumor development. We used cell culture as a model system and identified differentially expressed, secreted proteins which may constitute serological biomarkers. A stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) approach was used to label the entire secreted proteomes of the CT26 murine colon cancer cell line and normal young adult mouse colon (YAMC) cell line, thereby creating a stable isotope labeled proteome (SILAP) standard. This SILAP standard was added to unlabeled murine CT26 colon cancer cell or normal murine YAMC colon epithelial cell secreted proteome samples. A multidimensional approach combining isoelectric focusing (IEF), strong cation exchange (SCX) followed by reversed phase liquid chromatography was used for extensive protein and peptide separation. A total of 614 and 929 proteins were identified from the YAMC and CT26 cell lines, with 418 proteins common to both cell lines. Twenty highly abundant differentially expressed proteins from these groups were selected for liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring/mass spectrometry (LC-MRM/MS) analysis in sera. Differential secretion into the serum was observed for several proteins when Apcmin mice were compared with control mice. These findings were then confirmed by Western blot analysis. PMID:19769411

  1. Berry Phenolic Compounds Increase Expression of Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-1α (HNF-1α) in Caco-2 and Normal Colon Cells Due to High Affinities with Transcription and Dimerization Domains of HNF-1α.

    PubMed

    Real Hernandez, Luis M; Fan, Junfeng; Johnson, Michelle H; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1α (HNF-1α) is found in the kidneys, spleen, thymus, testis, skin, and throughout the digestive organs. It has been found to promote the transcription of various proteins involved in the management of type II diabetes, including dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV). Phenolic compounds from berries and citrus fruits are known to inhibit DPP-IV, but have not been tested for their interactions with wild-type HNF-1α. By studying the interactions of compounds from berries and citrus fruits have with HNF-1α, pre-transcriptional mechanisms that inhibit the expression of proteins such as DPP-IV may be elucidated. In this study, the interactions of berry phenolic compounds and citrus flavonoids with the dimerization and transcriptional domains of HNF-1α were characterized using the molecular docking program AutoDock Vina. The anthocyanin delphinidin-3-O-arabinoside had the highest binding affinity for the dimerization domain as a homodimer (-7.2 kcal/mol) and transcription domain (-8.3 kcal/mol) of HNF-1α. Anthocyanins and anthocyanidins had relatively higher affinities than resveratrol and citrus flavonoids for both, the transcription domain and the dimerization domain as a homodimer. The flavonoid flavone had the highest affinity for a single unit of the dimerization domain (-6.5 kcal/mol). Nuclear expression of HNF-1α was measured in Caco-2 and human normal colon cells treated with blueberry and blackberry anthocyanin extracts. All extracts tested increased significantly (P < 0.05) the nuclear expression of HNF-1α in Caco-2 cells by 85.2 to 260% compared to a control. The extracts tested increased significantly (P < 0.02) the nuclear expression of HNF-1α in normal colon cells by 48.6 to 243%. It was confirmed that delphinidin-3-O-glucoside increased by 3-fold nuclear HNF-1α expression in Caco-2 cells (P < 0.05). Anthocyanins significantly increased nuclear HNF-1α expression, suggesting that these compounds might regulate the genes HNF-1

  2. Berry Phenolic Compounds Increase Expression of Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-1α (HNF-1α) in Caco-2 and Normal Colon Cells Due to High Affinities with Transcription and Dimerization Domains of HNF-1α

    PubMed Central

    Real Hernandez, Luis M.; Fan, Junfeng; Johnson, Michelle H.; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1α (HNF-1α) is found in the kidneys, spleen, thymus, testis, skin, and throughout the digestive organs. It has been found to promote the transcription of various proteins involved in the management of type II diabetes, including dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV). Phenolic compounds from berries and citrus fruits are known to inhibit DPP-IV, but have not been tested for their interactions with wild-type HNF-1α. By studying the interactions of compounds from berries and citrus fruits have with HNF-1α, pre-transcriptional mechanisms that inhibit the expression of proteins such as DPP-IV may be elucidated. In this study, the interactions of berry phenolic compounds and citrus flavonoids with the dimerization and transcriptional domains of HNF-1α were characterized using the molecular docking program AutoDock Vina. The anthocyanin delphinidin-3-O-arabinoside had the highest binding affinity for the dimerization domain as a homodimer (-7.2 kcal/mol) and transcription domain (-8.3 kcal/mol) of HNF-1α. Anthocyanins and anthocyanidins had relatively higher affinities than resveratrol and citrus flavonoids for both, the transcription domain and the dimerization domain as a homodimer. The flavonoid flavone had the highest affinity for a single unit of the dimerization domain (-6.5 kcal/mol). Nuclear expression of HNF-1α was measured in Caco-2 and human normal colon cells treated with blueberry and blackberry anthocyanin extracts. All extracts tested increased significantly (P < 0.05) the nuclear expression of HNF-1α in Caco-2 cells by 85.2 to 260% compared to a control. The extracts tested increased significantly (P < 0.02) the nuclear expression of HNF-1α in normal colon cells by 48.6 to 243%. It was confirmed that delphinidin-3-O-glucoside increased by 3-fold nuclear HNF-1α expression in Caco-2 cells (P < 0.05). Anthocyanins significantly increased nuclear HNF-1α expression, suggesting that these compounds might regulate the genes HNF-1

  3. Evidence for epithelial-mesenchymal transitions in adult liver cells.

    PubMed

    Sicklick, Jason K; Choi, Steve S; Bustamante, Marcia; McCall, Shannon J; Pérez, Elizabeth Hernández; Huang, Jiawen; Li, Yin-Xiong; Rojkind, Marcos; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2006-10-01

    Both myofibroblastic hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and hepatic epithelial progenitors accumulate in damaged livers. In some injured organs, the ability to distinguish between fibroblastic and epithelial cells is sometimes difficult because cells undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT). During EMT, cells coexpress epithelial and mesenchymal cell markers. To determine whether EMT occurs in adult liver cells, we analyzed the expression profile of primary HSC, two HSC lines, and hepatic epithelial progenitors. As expected, all HSC expressed HSC markers. Surprisingly, these markers were also expressed by epithelial progenitors. In addition, one HSC line expressed typical epithelial progenitor mRNAs, and these epithelial markers were inducible in the second HSC line. In normal and damaged livers, small ductular-type cells stained positive for an HSC marker. In conclusion, HSC and hepatic epithelial progenitors both coexpress epithelial and mesenchymal markers, providing evidence that EMT occurs in adult liver cells.

  4. Space colonization.

    PubMed

    2002-12-01

    NASA interest in colonization encompasses space tourism; space exploration; space bases in orbit, at L1, on the Moon, or on Mars; in-situ resource utilization; and planetary terraforming. Activities progressed during 2002 in areas such as Mars colonies, hoppers, and biomass; space elevators and construction; and in-situ consumables.

  5. Nuclear Matrix Proteins in Human Colon Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keesee, Susan K.; Meneghini, Marc D.; Szaro, Robert P.; Wu, Ying-Jye

    1994-03-01

    The nuclear matrix is the nonchromatin scaffolding of the nucleus. This structure confers nuclear shape, organizes chromatin, and appears to contain important regulatory proteins. Tissue specific nuclear matrix proteins have been found in the rat, mouse, and human. In this study we compared high-resolution two-dimensional gel electropherograms of nuclear matrix protein patterns found in human colon tumors with those from normal colon epithelia. Tumors were obtained from 18 patients undergoing partial colectomy for adenocarcinoma of the colon and compared with tissue from 10 normal colons. We have identified at least six proteins which were present in 18 of 18 colon tumors and 0 of 10 normal tissues, as well as four proteins present in 0 of 18 tumors and in 10 of 10 normal tissues. These data, which corroborate similar findings of cancer-specific nuclear matrix proteins in prostate and breast, suggest that nuclear matrix proteins may serve as important markers for at least some types of cancer.

  6. RBFOX2 is an important regulator of mesenchymal tissue-specific splicing in both normal and cancer tissues.

    PubMed

    Venables, Julian P; Brosseau, Jean-Philippe; Gadea, Gilles; Klinck, Roscoe; Prinos, Panagiotis; Beaulieu, Jean-François; Lapointe, Elvy; Durand, Mathieu; Thibault, Philippe; Tremblay, Karine; Rousset, François; Tazi, Jamal; Abou Elela, Sherif; Chabot, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing provides a critical and flexible layer of regulation intervening in many biological processes to regulate the diversity of proteins and impact cell phenotype. To identify alternative splicing differences that distinguish epithelial from mesenchymal tissues, we have investigated hundreds of cassette exons using a high-throughput reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) platform. Extensive changes in splicing were noted between epithelial and mesenchymal tissues in both human colon and ovarian tissues, with many changes from mostly one splice variant to predominantly the other. Remarkably, many of the splicing differences that distinguish normal mesenchymal from normal epithelial tissues matched those that differentiate normal ovarian tissues from ovarian cancer. Furthermore, because splicing profiling could classify cancer cell lines according to their epithelial/mesenchymal characteristics, we used these cancer cell lines to identify regulators for these specific splicing signatures. By knocking down 78 potential splicing factors in five cell lines, we provide an extensive view of the complex regulatory landscape associated with the epithelial and mesenchymal states, thus revealing that RBFOX2 is an important driver of mesenchymal tissue-specific splicing.

  7. Effects of ginger supplementation on cell-cycle biomarkers in the normal-appearing colonic mucosa of patients at increased risk for colorectal cancer: results from a pilot, randomized, and controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Citronberg, Jessica; Bostick, Roberd; Ahearn, Thomas; Turgeon, D Kim; Ruffin, Mack T; Djuric, Zora; Sen, Ananda; Brenner, Dean E; Zick, Suzanna M

    2013-04-01

    To estimate the effects of ginger on apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation in the normal-appearing colonic mucosa, we randomized 20 people at increased risk for colorectal cancer to 2.0 g of ginger or placebo daily for 28 days in a pilot trial. Overall expression and distributions of Bax, Bcl-2, p21, hTERT, and MIB-1 (Ki-67) in colorectal crypts in rectal mucosa biopsies were measured using automated immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis. Relative to placebo, Bax expression in the ginger group decreased 15.6% (P = 0.78) in the whole crypts, 6.6% (P = 0.95) in the upper 40% (differentiation zone) of crypts, and 21.7% (P = 0.67) in the lower 60% (proliferative zone) of crypts; however, there was a 19% increase (P = 0.14) in Bax expression in the upper 40% relative to the whole crypt. While p21 and Bcl-2 expression remained relatively unchanged, hTERT expression in the whole crypts decreased by 41.2% (P = 0.05); the estimated treatment effect on hTERT expression was larger in the upper 40% of crypts (-47.9%; P = 0.04). In the ginger group, MIB-1 expression decreased in the whole crypts, upper 40% of crypts, and lower 60% of crypts by 16.9% (P = 0.39), 46.8% (P = 0.39), and 15.3% (P = 0.41), respectively. These pilot study results suggest that ginger may reduce proliferation in the normal-appearing colorectal epithelium and increase apoptosis and differentiation relative to proliferation--especially in the differentiation zone of the crypts and support a larger study to further investigate these results.

  8. Red meat and colon cancer: dietary haem, but not fat, has cytotoxic and hyperproliferative effects on rat colonic epithelium.

    PubMed

    Sesink, A L; Termont, D S; Kleibeuker, J H; Van Der Meer, R

    2000-10-01

    High intake of red meat is associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. It has been suggested that fat from red meat is responsible, because high fat intake increases the concentration of cytotoxic lipids in the colon. Experimental studies have not unequivocally supported such a role for fat, however. Recently, we showed that dietary haem, which is abundant in red meat, increased colonic cytotoxicity and epithelial proliferation. In this study, we wanted to clarify whether dietary fat affects colon cancer risk by itself or by modulating the detrimental effects of haem on the colonic epithelium. Rats were fed control or haem-supplemented diets with 10%, 25% or 40% of the energy derived from fat for 14 days. Faeces were collected for biochemical analyses. Colonic cytotoxicity was determined from the degree of lysis of erythrocytes by faecal water. Colonic epithelial proliferation was measured in vivo using [(3)H]thymidine incorporation. Increasing the fat content of the control diets stimulated faecal disposal of both fatty acids and bile acids. It also increased the concentration of fatty acids, but not that of bile acids, in faecal water in control rats. The cytolytic activity of faecal water and colonic epithelial proliferation were unaffected. Dietary haem increased faecal cation content and cytolytic activity of faecal water at all fat levels, suggesting that the colonic mucosa was exposed to high amounts of luminal irritants. This effect was smaller in rats on the low-fat diet. Dietary haem also increased colonic epithelial proliferation at all fat levels. The haem-induced effects were independent of fatty acids or bile acids in the faecal water. In western societies, 30-40% of ingested energy is supplied by dietary fat, so our results suggest that the association between consumption of red meat and risk of colon cancer is mainly due to its haem content, and is largely independent of dietary fat content.

  9. Metabolism links bacterial biofilms and colon carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Caroline H.; Dejea, Christine M.; Edler, David; Hoang, Linh T.; Santidrian, Antonio F.; Felding, Brunhilde H.; Cho, Kevin; Wick, Elizabeth C.; Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M.; Uritboonthai, Winnie; Goetz, Laura; Casero, Robert A.; Pardoll, Drew M.; White, James R.; Patti, Gary J.; Sears, Cynthia L.; Siuzdak, Gary

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Bacterial biofilms in the colon alter the host tissue microenvironment. A role for biofilms in colon cancer metabolism has been suggested but to date has not been evaluated. Using metabolomics, we investigated the metabolic influence that microbial biofilms have on colon tissues and the related occurrence of cancer. Patient-matched colon cancers and histologically normal tissues, with or without biofilms, were examined. We show the upregulation of polyamine metabolites in tissues from cancer hosts with significant enhancement of N1, N12-diacetylspermine in both biofilm positive cancer and normal tissues. Antibiotic treatment, which cleared biofilms, decreased N1, N12-diacetylspermine levels to those seen in biofilm negative tissues, indicating that host cancer and bacterial biofilm structures contribute to the polyamine metabolite pool. These results show that colonic mucosal biofilms alter the cancer metabolome, to produce a regulator of cellular proliferation and colon cancer growth potentially affecting cancer development and progression. PMID:25959674

  10. Metabolism links bacterial biofilms and colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Caroline H; Dejea, Christine M; Edler, David; Hoang, Linh T; Santidrian, Antonio F; Felding, Brunhilde H; Ivanisevic, Julijana; Cho, Kevin; Wick, Elizabeth C; Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M; Uritboonthai, Winnie; Goetz, Laura; Casero, Robert A; Pardoll, Drew M; White, James R; Patti, Gary J; Sears, Cynthia L; Siuzdak, Gary

    2015-06-02

    Bacterial biofilms in the colon alter the host tissue microenvironment. A role for biofilms in colon cancer metabolism has been suggested but to date has not been evaluated. Using metabolomics, we investigated the metabolic influence that microbial biofilms have on colon tissues and the related occurrence of cancer. Patient-matched colon cancers and histologically normal tissues, with or without biofilms, were examined. We show the upregulation of polyamine metabolites in tissues from cancer hosts with significant enhancement of N(1), N(12)-diacetylspermine in both biofilm-positive cancer and normal tissues. Antibiotic treatment, which cleared biofilms, decreased N(1), N(12)-diacetylspermine levels to those seen in biofilm-negative tissues, indicating that host cancer and bacterial biofilm structures contribute to the polyamine metabolite pool. These results show that colonic mucosal biofilms alter the cancer metabolome to produce a regulator of cellular proliferation and colon cancer growth potentially affecting cancer development and progression.

  11. Tubular Colonic Duplication Presenting as Rectovestibular Fistula.

    PubMed

    Karkera, Parag J; Bendre, Pradnya; D'souza, Flavia; Ramchandra, Mukunda; Nage, Amol; Palse, Nitin

    2015-09-01

    Complete colonic duplication is a very rare congenital anomaly that may have different presentations according to its location and size. Complete colonic duplication can occur in about 15% of all gastrointestinal duplications. Double termination of tubular colonic duplication in the perineum is even more uncommon. We present a case of a Y-shaped tubular colonic duplication which presented with a rectovestibular fistula and a normal anus. Radiological evaluation and initial exploration for sigmoidostomy revealed duplicated colons with a common vascular supply. Endorectal mucosal resection of theduplicated distal segment till the colostomy site with division of the septum of the proximal segment and colostomy closure proved curative without compromise of the continence mechanism. Tubular colonic duplication should always be ruled out when a diagnosis of perineal canal is considered in cases of vestibular fistula alongwith a normal anus.

  12. Tubular Colonic Duplication Presenting as Rectovestibular Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Bendre, Pradnya; D'souza, Flavia; Ramchandra, Mukunda; Nage, Amol; Palse, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    Complete colonic duplication is a very rare congenital anomaly that may have different presentations according to its location and size. Complete colonic duplication can occur in about 15% of all gastrointestinal duplications. Double termination of tubular colonic duplication in the perineum is even more uncommon. We present a case of a Y-shaped tubular colonic duplication which presented with a rectovestibular fistula and a normal anus. Radiological evaluation and initial exploration for sigmoidostomy revealed duplicated colons with a common vascular supply. Endorectal mucosal resection of theduplicated distal segment till the colostomy site with division of the septum of the proximal segment and colostomy closure proved curative without compromise of the continence mechanism. Tubular colonic duplication should always be ruled out when a diagnosis of perineal canal is considered in cases of vestibular fistula alongwith a normal anus. PMID:26473141

  13. A comparison of linaclotide and lubiprostone dosing regimens on ion transport responses in human colonic mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sang Bum; Marchelletta, Ronald R; Penrose, Harrison; Docherty, Michael J; McCole, Declan F

    2015-01-01

    Linaclotide, a synthetic guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C) agonist, and the prostone analog, Lubiprostone, are approved to manage chronic idiopathic constipation and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Lubiprostone also protects intestinal mucosal barrier function in ischemia. GC-C signaling regulates local fluid balance and other components of intestinal mucosal homeostasis including epithelial barrier function. The aim of this study was to compare if select dosing regimens differentially affect linaclotide and lubiprostone modulation of ion transport and barrier properties of normal human colonic mucosa. Normal sigmoid colon biopsies from healthy subjects were mounted in Ussing chambers. Tissues were treated with linaclotide, lubiprostone, or vehicle to determine effects on short-circuit current (Isc). Subsequent Isc responses to the cAMP agonist, forskolin, and the calcium agonist, carbachol, were also measured to assess if either drug caused desensitization. Barrier properties were assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance. Isc responses to linaclotide and lubiprostone were significantly higher than vehicle control when administered bilaterally or to the mucosal side only. Single versus cumulative concentrations of linaclotide showed differences in efficacy while cumulative but not single dosing caused desensitization to forskolin. Lubiprostone reduced forskolin responses under all conditions. Linaclotide and lubiprostone exerted a positive effect on TER that was dependent on the dosing regimen. Linaclotide and lubiprostone increase ion transport responses across normal human colon but linaclotide displays increased sensitivity to the dosing regimen used. These findings may have implications for dosing protocols of these agents in patients with constipation. PMID:26038704

  14. A comparison of linaclotide and lubiprostone dosing regimens on ion transport responses in human colonic mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang Bum; Marchelletta, Ronald R; Penrose, Harrison; Docherty, Michael J; McCole, Declan F

    2015-03-01

    Linaclotide, a synthetic guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C) agonist, and the prostone analog, Lubiprostone, are approved to manage chronic idiopathic constipation and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Lubiprostone also protects intestinal mucosal barrier function in ischemia. GC-C signaling regulates local fluid balance and other components of intestinal mucosal homeostasis including epithelial barrier function. The aim of this study was to compare if select dosing regimens differentially affect linaclotide and lubiprostone modulation of ion transport and barrier properties of normal human colonic mucosa. Normal sigmoid colon biopsies from healthy subjects were mounted in Ussing chambers. Tissues were treated with linaclotide, lubiprostone, or vehicle to determine effects on short-circuit current (I sc). Subsequent I sc responses to the cAMP agonist, forskolin, and the calcium agonist, carbachol, were also measured to assess if either drug caused desensitization. Barrier properties were assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance. I sc responses to linaclotide and lubiprostone were significantly higher than vehicle control when administered bilaterally or to the mucosal side only. Single versus cumulative concentrations of linaclotide showed differences in efficacy while cumulative but not single dosing caused desensitization to forskolin. Lubiprostone reduced forskolin responses under all conditions. Linaclotide and lubiprostone exerted a positive effect on TER that was dependent on the dosing regimen. Linaclotide and lubiprostone increase ion transport responses across normal human colon but linaclotide displays increased sensitivity to the dosing regimen used. These findings may have implications for dosing protocols of these agents in patients with constipation.

  15. CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 gene expression and DNA adduct formation in normal human mammary epithelial cells exposed to benzo[a]pyrene in the absence or presence of chlorophyllin.

    PubMed

    John, Kaarthik; Divi, Rao L; Keshava, Channa; Orozco, Christine C; Schockley, Marie E; Richardson, Diana L; Poirier, Miriam C; Nath, Joginder; Weston, Ainsley

    2010-06-28

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) is a potent pro-carcinogen and ubiquitous environmental pollutant. Here, we examined the induction and modulation of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and 10-(deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)-7,8,9-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPdG) adduct formation in DNA from 20 primary normal human mammary epithelial cell (NHMEC) strains exposed to BP (4muM) in the absence or presence of chlorophyllin (5muM). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed strong induction of both CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 by BP, with high levels of inter-individual variability. Variable BPdG formation was found in all strains by r7, t8-dihydroxy-t-9, 10 epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE)-DNA chemiluminescence assay (CIA). Chlorophyllin mitigated BP-induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 gene expression in all 20 strains when administered with BP. Chlorophyllin, administered prior to BP-exposure, mitigated CYP1A1 expression in 18/20 NHMEC strains (p<0.005) and CYP1B1 expression in 17/20 NHMEC strains (p<0.005). Maximum percent reductions of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 gene expression and BPdG adduct formation were observed when cells were pre-dosed with chlorophyllin followed by administration of the carcinogen with chlorophyllin (p<0.005 for CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression and p<0.0005 for BPdG adducts). Therefore, chlorophyllin is likely to be a good chemoprotective agent for a large proportion of the human population.

  16. Cholesterol metabolism and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Broitman, S A; Cerda, S; Wilkinson, J

    1993-01-01

    While epidemiologic and concordant experimental data indicate a direct relationship between dietary fat (and presumably caloric) intake and the development of colon cancer, the effect of dietary cholesterol on this disease is still not clear. However, there appears to be a developing literature concerning an inverse relationship between serum and plasma cholesterol levels, and the risk for colon cancer. Findings that low serum cholesterol levels are apparent as early as ten years prior to the detection of colon cancer implies that sub clinical disease is probably not involved initially in this process. The possibility of low serum cholesterol as a bio-marker was considered in epidemiologic studies which focused upon obese men with lower than normal serum cholesterol levels who were found to be at increased risk to colon cancer. While the relationship between low serum cholesterol and colonic or intestinal cholesterol metabolism is presently not understood, current genetic studies provide a promising though as yet unexplored potential association. Alterations which occur during the developmental progression of colonic cancer include changes in chromosome 5, which also carries two genes vital to the biosynthesis and regulation of systemic and cellular cholesterol metabolism, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCoA R). Regulation of cholesterol metabolism in intestinal cells in vivo and in vitro varies from that seen in normal fibroblasts or hepatocytes in terms of exogenous sources of cholesterol and how these sources regulate internal synthesis. Colonic cancer cells have been used to assess small bowel enterocyte cholesterol metabolism, which has been possible because of their ability to differentiate in culture, however information regarding true colonic enterocyte cholesterol metabolism is relatively scarce. Colonic cancer cells have been shown to possess a diminished or nonexistent ability to use

  17. The intestinal epithelial cell differentiation marker intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ALPi) is selectively induced by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) in colon cancer cells in a Kruppel-like factor 5 (KLF5)-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Shin, Joongho; Carr, Azadeh; Corner, Georgia A; Tögel, Lars; Dávalos-Salas, Mercedes; Dávaos-Salas, Mercedes; Tran, Hoanh; Chueh, Anderly C; Al-Obaidi, Sheren; Chionh, Fiona; Ahmed, Naseem; Buchanan, Daniel D; Young, Joanne P; Malo, Madhu S; Hodin, Richard A; Arango, Diego; Sieber, Oliver M; Augenlicht, Leonard H; Dhillon, Amardeep S; Weber, Thomas K; Mariadason, John M

    2014-09-05

    The histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) sodium butyrate promotes differentiation of colon cancer cells as evidenced by induced expression and enzyme activity of the differentiation marker intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ALPi). Screening of a panel of 33 colon cancer cell lines identified cell lines sensitive (42%) and resistant (58%) to butyrate induction of ALP activity. This differential sensitivity was similarly evident following treatment with the structurally distinct HDACi, MS-275. Resistant cell lines were significantly enriched for those harboring the CpG island methylator phenotype (p = 0.036, Chi square test), and resistant cell lines harbored methylation of the ALPi promoter, particularly of a CpG site within a critical KLF/Sp regulatory element required for butyrate induction of ALPi promoter activity. However, butyrate induction of an exogenous ALPi promoter-reporter paralleled up-regulation of endogenous ALPi expression across the cell lines, suggesting the presence or absence of a key transcriptional regulator is the major determinant of ALPi induction. Through microarray profiling of sensitive and resistant cell lines, we identified KLF5 to be both basally more highly expressed as well as preferentially induced by butyrate in sensitive cell lines. KLF5 overexpression induced ALPi promoter-reporter activity in resistant cell lines, KLF5 knockdown attenuated butyrate induction of ALPi expression in sensitive lines, and butyrate selectively enhanced KLF5 binding to the ALPi promoter in sensitive cells. These findings demonstrate that butyrate induction of the cell differentiation marker ALPi is mediated through KLF5 and identifies subsets of colon cancer cell lines responsive and refractory to this effect.

  18. The Intestinal Epithelial Cell Differentiation Marker Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase (ALPi) Is Selectively Induced by Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors (HDACi) in Colon Cancer Cells in a Kruppel-like Factor 5 (KLF5)-dependent Manner*

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Joongho; Carr, Azadeh; Corner, Georgia A.; Tögel, Lars; Dávaos-Salas, Mercedes; Tran, Hoanh; Chueh, Anderly C.; Al-Obaidi, Sheren; Chionh, Fiona; Ahmed, Naseem; Buchanan, Daniel D.; Young, Joanne P.; Malo, Madhu S.; Hodin, Richard A.; Arango, Diego; Sieber, Oliver M.; Augenlicht, Leonard H.; Dhillon, Amardeep S.; Weber, Thomas K.; Mariadason, John M.

    2014-01-01

    The histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) sodium butyrate promotes differentiation of colon cancer cells as evidenced by induced expression and enzyme activity of the differentiation marker intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ALPi). Screening of a panel of 33 colon cancer cell lines identified cell lines sensitive (42%) and resistant (58%) to butyrate induction of ALP activity. This differential sensitivity was similarly evident following treatment with the structurally distinct HDACi, MS-275. Resistant cell lines were significantly enriched for those harboring the CpG island methylator phenotype (p = 0.036, Chi square test), and resistant cell lines harbored methylation of the ALPi promoter, particularly of a CpG site within a critical KLF/Sp regulatory element required for butyrate induction of ALPi promoter activity. However, butyrate induction of an exogenous ALPi promoter-reporter paralleled up-regulation of endogenous ALPi expression across the cell lines, suggesting the presence or absence of a key transcriptional regulator is the major determinant of ALPi induction. Through microarray profiling of sensitive and resistant cell lines, we identified KLF5 to be both basally more highly expressed as well as preferentially induced by butyrate in sensitive cell lines. KLF5 overexpression induced ALPi promoter-reporter activity in resistant cell lines, KLF5 knockdown attenuated butyrate induction of ALPi expression in sensitive lines, and butyrate selectively enhanced KLF5 binding to the ALPi promoter in sensitive cells. These findings demonstrate that butyrate induction of the cell differentiation marker ALPi is mediated through KLF5 and identifies subsets of colon cancer cell lines responsive and refractory to this effect. PMID:25037223

  19. Enteric dysbiosis promotes antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection: systemic dissemination of resistant and commensal bacteria through epithelial transcytosis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Linda Chia-Hui; Shih, Yi-An; Wu, Li-Ling; Lin, Yang-Ding; Kuo, Wei-Ting; Peng, Wei-Hao; Lu, Kuo-Shyan; Wei, Shu-Chen; Turner, Jerrold R.

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic usage promotes intestinal colonization of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. However, whether resistant bacteria gain dominance in enteric microflora or disseminate to extraintestinal viscera remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate temporal diversity changes in microbiota and transepithelial routes of bacterial translocation after antibiotic-resistant enterobacterial colonization. Mice drinking water with or without antibiotics were intragastrically gavaged with ampicillin-resistant (Amp-r) nonpathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) and given normal water afterward. The composition and spatial distribution of intestinal bacteria were evaluated using 16S rDNA sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Bacterial endocytosis in epithelial cells was examined using gentamicin resistance assay and transmission electromicroscopy. Paracellular permeability was assessed by tight junctional immunostaining and measured by tissue conductance and luminal-to-serosal dextran fluxes. Our results showed that antibiotic treatment enabled intestinal colonization and transient dominance of orally acquired Amp-r E. coli in mice. The colonized Amp-r E. coli peaked on day 3 postinoculation and was competed out after 1 wk, as evidenced by the recovery of commensals, such as Escherichia, Bacteroides, Lachnospiraceae, Clostridium, and Lactobacillus. Mucosal penetration and extraintestinal dissemination of exogenous and endogenous enterobacteria were correlated with abnormal epithelial transcytosis but uncoupled with paracellular tight junctional damage. In conclusion, antibiotic-induced enteric dysbiosis predisposes to exogenous infection and causes systemic dissemination of both antibiotic-resistant and commensal enterobacteria through transcytotic routes across epithelial layers. These results may help explain the susceptibility to sepsis in antibiotic-resistant enteric bacterial infection. PMID:25059827

  20. CCN1 induces a reversible epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jianyuan; Norng, Manith; Modak, Cristina; Reavis, Kevin M; Mouazzen, Wasim; Pham, Jennifer

    2010-08-01

    CCN1 is a matricellular protein that activates many genes related to wound healing and tissue remodeling in fibroblasts, but its effect on epithelial cells remains unclear. This study examined the role of CCN1 in epithelial wound healing using rat gastric epithelial cells and rat stomach ulcer as in vitro and in vivo models, respectively. We found that CCN1 expression is highly upregulated in the epithelial cells adjacent to a wound and remains high until the wound is healed. Upregulation of CCN1 activates a transient epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the epithelial cells at the migrating front and drives wound closure. Once the wound is healed, these epithelial cells and their progeny can resume their original epithelial phenotype. We also found that CCN1-induced E-cadherin loss is not due to transcriptional regulation but rather protein degradation due to the collapse of adherens junctions, which is contributed by beta-catenin translocation. CCN1-activated integrin-linked kinase mediates this process. Finally, our in vivo study showed that locally neutralizing CCN1 drastically impairs wound closure, whereas local injection of recombinant CCN1 protein induces expression of vimentin and smooth muscle alpha-actin in normal gastric mucosal epithelial cells and accelerates re-epithelialization during ulcer healing. In conclusion, our study indicates that CCN1 can induce reversible epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and this feature may have great value for clinical wound healing.

  1. A study on the effect of aqueous extract of Lobelia chinensis on colon precancerous lesions in rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Shao-Rong; Lv, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Yan-Ming; Gong, Hai; Zhang, Cong; Tong, An-Na; Yan, Ning

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of Lobelia chinensis on colon precancerous lesions and on colonic epithelial proliferation and apoptosis in DMH-induced rats. After two weeks of feeding, 50 Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, namely the normal group, model group, Lobelia chinensis low-dose group, medium-dose group and high-dose group. Lobelia chinensis was made into ACF model, and administered to experimental groups for 10 consecutive weeks. Control group was given equivalent amount of normal saline. After feeding for 10 weeks, the rats in each group were sacrificed and the changes in colonic ACF number of rats in experimental groups were observed, and the inhibition rates were calculated. The results showed that among the rats fed for 24 h and 48 h, the number of apoptotic cells in colonic crypts of rats in DMH group did not differ significantly from the control group, while the difference was obvious between the control group and Lobelia chinensis treatment groups. The medium and high doses, that is, 0.45 g/kg and 1.35 g/kg can significantly inhibit ACF formation (P<0.01). The inhibition rates of low, medium and high doses were 8.12%, 59.42% and 65.44%, respectively.

  2. Nanocytology of rectal colonocytes to assess risk of colon cancer based on field cancerization.

    PubMed

    Damania, Dhwanil; Roy, Hemant K; Subramanian, Hariharan; Weinberg, David S; Rex, Douglas K; Goldberg, Michael J; Muldoon, Joseph; Cherkezyan, Lusik; Zhu, Yuanjia; Bianchi, Laura K; Shah, Dhiren; Pradhan, Prabhakar; Borkar, Monica; Lynch, Henry; Backman, Vadim

    2012-06-01

    Developing a minimally invasive and cost-effective prescreening strategy for colon cancer is critical because of the impossibility of conducting colonoscopy on the entire at-risk population. The concept of field carcinogenesis, in which normal-appearing tissue away from a tumor has molecular and, consequently, nano-architectural abnormalities, offers one attractive approach to identify high-risk patients. In this study, we investigated whether the novel imaging technique partial wave spectroscopic (PWS) microscopy could risk-stratify patients harboring precancerous lesions of the colon, using an optically measured biomarker (L(d)) obtained from microscopically normal but nanoscopically altered cells. Rectal epithelial cells were examined from 146 patients, including 72 control patients, 14 patients with diminutive adenomas, 20 patients with nondiminutive/nonadvanced adenomas, 15 patients with advanced adenomas/high-grade dysplasia, 12 patients with genetic mutation leading to Lynch syndrome, and 13 patients with cancer. We found that the L(d) obtained from rectal colonocytes was well correlated with colon tumorigenicity in our patient cohort and in an independent validation set of 39 additional patients. Therefore, our findings suggest that PWS-measured L(d) is an accurate marker of field carcinogenesis. This approach provides a potential prescreening strategy for risk stratification before colonoscopy.

  3. Nanocytology of rectal colonocytes to assess risk of colon cancer based on field cancerization

    PubMed Central

    Damania, Dhwanil; Roy, Hemant K.; Subramanian, Hariharan; Weinberg, David S.; Rex, Douglas K.; Goldberg, Michael J.; Muldoon, Joseph; Cherkezyan, Lusik; Zhu, Yuanjia; Bianchi, Laura K.; Shah, Dhiren; Pradhan, Prabhakar; Borkar, Monica; Lynch, Henry; Backman, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    Developing a minimally invasive and cost effective pre-screening strategy for colon cancer is critical, because of the impossibility of performing colonoscopy on the entire at-risk population. The concept of field carcinogenesis, in which normal-appearing tissue away from a tumor has molecular and, consequently, nano-architectural abnormalities, offers one attractive approach to identify high-risk patients. In this study, we investigated whether the novel imaging technique partial-wave spectroscopic (PWS) microscopy could risk-stratify patients harboring precancerous lesions of the colon, using an optically measured biomarker (Ld) obtained from microscopically normal but nanoscopically altered cells. Rectal epithelial cells were examined from 146 patients, including 72 control patients, 14 patients with diminutive adenomas, 20 patients with non-advanced-non-diminutive adenomas, 15 patients with advanced adenomas/high-grade dysplasia, 12 patients with genetic mutation leading to Lynch syndrome, and 13 cancer patients. We found that the Ld obtained from rectal colonocytes was well-correlated with colon tumorigenicity in our patient cohort and in an independent validation set of 39 additional patients. Therefore, our findings suggest that PWS-measured Ld is an accurate marker of field carcinogenesis. This approach provides a potential pre-screening strategy for risk stratification before colonoscopy. PMID:22491589

  4. Estrogen Receptor α Increases Basal and Cigarette Smoke Extract-Induced Expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, but not GSTP1, in Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, W; Pentecost, BT; Pietropaolo, RL; Fasco, MJ; Spivack, SD

    2005-01-01

    Gender-specific estrogen receptor α (ERα) expression may plausibly influence lung carcinogenesis in females. Initial genome-wide microarray studies confirmed that carcinogen metabolism genes (CYP1A1, CYP1B1) were those most responsive to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in normal bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. These two genes encoding phase I bioactivating enzymes and the GSTP1 gene encoding a phase II deactivating enzyme were then tested for induction by ERα. NHBE cells (native ERα−) were transfected with wild-type ERα-adenoviral constructs, and then exposed to CSE, 17β-estradiol (E2), and/or the ERα inhibitor, ICI 182,780. The expression levels of CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and GSTP1 were then determined by RNA-specific quantitative RT-PCR and immunoassay. ERα increased the basal expression of CYP1B1 4.04-fold (p<0.01) at the mRNA level and 6.5-fold at the protein level. ERα also increased the CSE-induced mRNA expression of CYP1B1 2.26-fold (p<0.01), but not the protein expression. ERα did not alter the CYP1A1 mRNA levels, but did increase protein expression 2.0-fold (p<0.01) on CSE exposure, and 6.2-fold (p<0.01) upon E2 exposure. These effects could be inhibited by ICI 182,780. ERα did not alter the expression of GSTP1. ChIP assay confirmed ERα binding to CYP1B1 promoter near the transcription start site. These results suggest that ERα regulates the CYP1B1 expression at a transcriptional level, and CYP1A1 expression at a translational level. These data raise the possibility that inter-gender differences in expression of ERα that are known to exist in human lung may contribute to inter-individual expression differences in CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, and to differences in carcinogen metabolism and mutation. PMID:16010691

  5. Chlorophyllin significantly reduces benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct formation and alters cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1B1 expression and EROD activity in normal human mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Keshava, Channa; Divi, Rao L; Einem, Tracey L; Richardson, Diana L; Leonard, Sarah L; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Poirier, Miriam C; Weston, Ainsley

    2009-03-01

    We hypothesized that chlorophyllin (CHLN) would reduce benzo[a]pyrene-DNA (BP-DNA) adduct levels. Using normal human mammary epithelial cells (NHMECs) exposed to 4 microM BP for 24 hr in the presence or absence of 5 microM CHLN, we measured BP-DNA adducts by chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA). The protocol included the following experimental groups: BP alone, BP given simultaneously with CHLN (BP+CHLN) for 24 hr, CHLN given for 24 hr followed by BP for 24 hr (preCHLN, postBP), and CHLN given for 48 hr with BP added for the last 24 hr (preCHLN, postBP+CHLN). Incubation with CHLN decreased BPdG levels in all groups, with 87% inhibition in the preCHLN, postBP+CHLN group. To examine metabolic mechanisms, we monitored expression by Affymetrix microarray (U133A), and found BP-induced up-regulation of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression, as well as up-regulation of groups of interferon-inducible, inflammation and signal transduction genes. Incubation of cells with CHLN and BP in any combination decreased expression of many of these genes. Using reverse transcription real time PCR (RT-PCR) the maximal inhibition of BP-induced gene expression, >85% for CYP1A1 and >70% for CYP1B1, was observed in the preCHLN, postBP+CHLN group. To explore the relationship between transcription and enzyme activity, the ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay was used to measure the combined CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 activities. BP exposure caused the EROD levels to double, when compared with the unexposed controls. The CHLN-exposed groups all showed EROD levels similar to the unexposed controls. Therefore, the addition of CHLN to BP-exposed cells reduced BPdG formation and CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression, but EROD activity was not significantly reduced.

  6. Colon cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - colon cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on colon cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/index Colon Cancer Alliance -- www.ccalliance.org National ...

  7. miR-409-3p sensitizes colon cancer cells to oxaliplatin by inhibiting Beclin-1-mediated autophagy.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shifan; Shi, Huijuan; Ba, Mingchen; Lin, Shengqv; Tang, Hongsheng; Zeng, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2016-04-01

    The chemoresistance of colon cancer cells limits the efficacy of chemotherapy. miR-409-3p has been shown to be downregulated in various types of cancer. In the present study, we examined the role of miR-409-3p in colon cancer as well as the effects of miR‑409-3p on the sensitivity of colon cancer cells to oxaliplatin. The expression of miR-409 was significantly downregulated in the human colon cancer cell lines compared with the normal colon epithelial cells. Importantly, the miR-409-3p expression levels were lower in human colon cancer patient samples than in normal colon tissues. Moreover, we observed a negative correlation between the miR‑409-3p levels and resistance to oxaliplatin: the oxaliplatin-resistant colon cancer cells exhibited significantly downregulated miR‑409-3p levels, but higher autophagic activity than the oxaliplatin-sensitive cells. Using bioinformatics analysis, we predicted that miR‑409-3p miRNA binds to the key autophagy gene encoding Beclin-1. Our findings indicated that the overexpression of miR‑409-3p inhibited Beclin-1 expression and autophagic activity by binding to the 3'-untranslated region of Beclin-1 mRNA. In addition, the overexpression of miR‑409-3p enhanced the chemosensitivity of the oxaliplatin-sensitive and oxaliplatin-resistant colon cancer cells. The restoration of Beclin-1 abrogated these effects of miR‑409-3p. In a xenograft model using nude mice, we examined the effects of miR‑409-3p on tumor growth during chemotherapy. miR‑409-3p overexpression sensitized the tumor to chemotherapy, while inhibiting chemotherapy-induced autophagy in a manner dependent on Beclin-1. The findings of our study suggest that miR-409-3p is capable of enhancing the chemosensitivity of colon cancer cells by inhibiting Beclin-1-mediated autophagy.

  8. Expression profiles of proliferative and antiapoptotic genes in sporadic and colitis-related mouse colon cancer models

    PubMed Central

    Švec, Jiří; Ergang, Peter; Mandys, Václav; Kment, Milan; Pácha, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Elevated levels of survivin, telomerase catalytic subunit (TERT), integrin-linked kinase (ILK), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the regulatory factors c-MYB and Tcf-4 are often found in human cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC) and have been implicated in the development and progression of tumorigenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of these genes in mouse models of sporadic and colitis-associated CRC. To address these issues, we used qRT-PCR approach to determine changes in gene expression patterns of neoplastic cells (high-grade dysplasia/intramucosal carcinoma) and surrounding normal epithelial cells in A/J and ICR mouse strains using laser microdissection. Both strains were injected with azoxymethane and ICR mice were also given drinking water that contained 2% dextran sodium sulphate. In both sporadic (A/J mice) and colitis-associated (ICR mice) models of CRC, the levels of TERT mRNA, COX-2 mRNA and Tcf-4 mRNA were higher in neoplastic cells than in surrounding normal epithelial cells. In contrast, survivin mRNA was upregulated only in neoplastic cells from A/J mice and ILK mRNA was upregulated only in neoplastic cells from ICR mice. However, the expression of iNOS mRNA was similar in normal and neoplastic cells in both models and c-MYB mRNA was actually downregulated in neoplastic cells compared with normal cells in both models. These findings suggest that the genetic background and/or the molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis associated with genotoxic insults and colonic inflammation influence the gene expression of mTERT, COX-2, Tcf-4, c-MYB, ILK and survivin in colon epithelial neoplasia. PMID:20096072

  9. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of colonic microendoscopy image features to histopathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Sandra P.; Powless, Amy J.; Lai, Keith; Laryea, Jonathan A.; Mizell, Jason S.; Muldoon, Timothy J.

    2015-03-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States, affecting more than 130,000 Americans every year1. Determining tumor margins prior to surgical resection is essential to providing optimal treatment and reducing recurrence rates. Colorectal cancer recurrence can occur in up to 20% of cases, commonly within three years after curative treatment. Typically, when colorectal cancers are resected, a margin of normal tissue on both sides of the tumor is required. The minimum margin required for colon cancer is 5 cm and for the lower rectum 2 cm. However, usually more normal tissue is taken on both sides of the tumor because the blood supply to the entire segment is removed with the surgery and therefore the entire segment must be removed. Anastomotic recurrences may result from inadequate margins. Pathologists look at the margins to ensure that there is no residual tumor and this is usually documented in the pathology report. We have developed a portable, point-of-care fiber bundle microendoscopy imaging system for detection of abnormalities in colonic epithelial microstructure. The system comprises a laptop, a modified fiber bundle image guide with a 1mm active area diameter and custom LabVIEW interface, and is approved for imaging surgically resected colon tissue at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. The microendoscopy probe provides high-resolution images of superficial epithelial histology in real-time to assist surgical guidance and to localize occult regions of dysplasia which may not be visible. Microendoscopy images of freshly resected human colonic epithelium were acquired using the microendoscopy device and subsequently mosaicked using custom post-processing software. Architectural changes in the glands were mapped to histopathology H&E slides taken from the precise location of the microendoscopy images. Qualitatively, glandular distortion and placement of image guide was used to map normal and dysplastic areas of

  10. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of colonic microendoscopy image features to histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Sandra P.; Powless, Amy J.; Lai, Keith; Laryea, Jonathan A.; Mizell, Jason S.; Muldoon, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States, affecting more than 130,000 Americans every year1. Determining tumor margins prior to surgical resection is essential to providing optimal treatment and reducing recurrence rates. Colorectal cancer recurrence can occur in up to 20% of cases, commonly within three years after curative treatment. Typically, when colorectal cancers are resected, a margin of normal tissue on both sides of the tumor is required. The minimum margin required for colon cancer is 5 cm and for the lower rectum 2 cm. However, usually more normal tissue is taken on both sides of the tumor because the blood supply to the entire segment is removed with the surgery and therefore the entire segment must be removed. Anastomotic recurrences may result from inadequate margins. Pathologists look at the margins to ensure that there is no residual tumor and this is usually documented in the pathology report. We have developed a portable, point-of-care fiber bundle microendoscopy imaging system for detection of abnormalities in colonic epithelial microstructure. The system comprises a laptop, a modified fiber bundle image guide with a 1mm active area diameter and custom Lab VIEW interface, and is approved for imaging surgically resected colon tissue at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. The microendoscopy probe provides high-resolution images of superficial epithelial histology in real-time to assist surgical guidance and to localize occult regions of dysplasia which may not be visible. Microendoscopy images of freshly resected human colonic epithelium were acquired using the microendoscopy device and subsequently mosaicked using custom post-processing software. Architectural changes in the glands were mapped to histopathology H&E slides taken from the precise location of the microendoscopy images. Qualitatively, glandular distortion and placement of image guide was used to map normal and dysplastic areas

  11. Tumor-derived hydrogen sulfide, produced by cystathionine-β-synthase, stimulates bioenergetics, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Csaba; Coletta, Ciro; Chao, Celia; Módis, Katalin; Szczesny, Bartosz; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Hellmich, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The physiological functions of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) include vasorelaxation, stimulation of cellular bioenergetics, and promotion of angiogenesis. Analysis of human colon cancer biopsies and patient-matched normal margin mucosa revealed the selective up-regulation of the H2S-producing enzyme cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) in colon cancer, resulting in an increased rate of H2S production. Similarly, colon cancer-derived epithelial cell lines (HCT116, HT-29, LoVo) exhibited selective CBS up-regulation and increased H2S production, compared with the nonmalignant colonic mucosa cells, NCM356. CBS localized to the cytosol, as well as the mitochondrial outer membrane. ShRNA-mediated silencing of CBS or its pharmacological inhibition with aminooxyacetic acid reduced HCT116 cell proliferation, migration, and invasion; reduced endothelial cell migration in tumor/endothelial cell cocultures; and suppressed mitochondrial function (oxygen consumption, ATP turnover, and respiratory reserve capacity), as well as glycolysis. Treatment of nude mice with aminooxyacetic acid attenuated the growth of patient-derived colon cancer xenografts and reduced tumor blood flow. Similarly, CBS silencing of the tumor cells decreased xenograft growth and suppressed neovessel density, suggesting a role for endogenous H2S in tumor angiogenesis. In contrast to CBS, silencing of cystathionine-γ-lyase (the expression of which was unchanged in colon cancer) did not affect tumor growth or bioenergetics. In conclusion, H2S produced from CBS serves to (i) maintain colon cancer cellular bioenergetics, thereby supporting tumor growth and proliferation, and (ii) promote angiogenesis and vasorelaxation, consequently providing the tumor with blood and nutritients. The current findings identify CBS-derived H2S as a tumor growth factor and anticancer drug target. PMID:23836652

  12. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition can suppress major attributes of human epithelial tumor-initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Celià-Terrassa, Toni; Meca-Cortés, Óscar; Mateo, Francesca; Martínez de Paz, Alexia; Rubio, Nuria; Arnal-Estapé, Anna; Ell, Brian J.; Bermudo, Raquel; Díaz, Alba; Guerra-Rebollo, Marta; Lozano, Juan José; Estarás, Conchi; Ulloa, Catalina; ρlvarez-Simón, Daniel; Milà, Jordi; Vilella, Ramón; Paciucci, Rosanna; Martínez-Balbás, Marian; García de Herreros, Antonio; Gomis, Roger R.; Kang, Yibin; Blanco, Jerónimo; Fernández, Pedro L.; Thomson, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant progression in cancer requires populations of tumor-initiating cells (TICs) endowed with unlimited self renewal, survival under stress, and establishment of distant metastases. Additionally, the acquisition of invasive properties driven by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is critical for the evolution of neoplastic cells into fully metastatic populations. Here, we characterize 2 human cellular models derived from prostate and bladder cancer cell lines to better understand the relationship between TIC and EMT programs in local invasiveness and distant metastasis. The model tumor subpopulations that expressed a strong epithelial gene program were enriched in highly metastatic TICs, while a second subpopulation with stable mesenchymal traits was impoverished in TICs. Constitutive overexpression of the transcription factor Snai1 in the epithelial/TIC-enriched populations engaged a mesenchymal gene program and suppressed their self renewal and metastatic phenotypes. Conversely, knockdown of EMT factors in the mesenchymal-like prostate cancer cell subpopulation caused a gain in epithelial features and properties of TICs. Both tumor cell subpopulations cooperated so that the nonmetastatic mesenchymal-like prostate cancer subpopulation enhanced the in vitro invasiveness of the metastatic epithelial subpopulation and, in vivo, promoted the escape of the latter from primary implantation sites and accelerated their metastatic colonization. Our models provide new insights into how dynamic interactions among epithelial, self-renewal, and mesenchymal gene programs determine the plasticity of epithelial TICs. PMID:22505459

  13. Involvement of Smad3 phosphoisoform-mediated signaling in the development of colonic cancer in IL-10-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Hachimine, Daisaku; Uchida, Kazushige; Asada, Masanori; Nishio, Akiyoshi; Kawamata, Seiji; Sekimoto, Go; Murata, Miki; Yamagata, Hideo; Yoshida, Katsunori; Mori, Shigeo; Tahashi, Yoshiya; Matsuzaki, Koichi; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2008-06-01

    Chronic inflammation predisposes to cancer. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, a multifunctional protein, suppresses the growth of normal colonic epithelial cells, whereas it stimulates the proliferation of cancer cells. Interleukin (IL)-10-deficient mice, which develop colitis and colorectal cancer, show an increased level of plasma TGF-beta. Although TGF-beta may be a key molecule in the development of colon cancer arising from chronic colitis in IL-10-deficient mice, the role of TGF-beta still remains unclear. TGF-beta activates not only TGF-beta type I receptor (TbetaRI) but also c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which converts the mediator Smad3 into two distinctive phosphoisoforms: C-terminally phosphorylated Smad3 (pSmad3C) and linker-phosphorylated Smad3 (pSmad3L). We studied C57BL/6-IL-10-deficient mice (n=18) at 4 to 32 weeks of age. We investigated histology, and pSmad2/3L, pSmad2/3C, and p53 by immunohistochemistry. pSmad3L staining was detected in the cancer cells in all 10 mice with colonic cancer and in the epithelial cells in 7 of 12 mice with colonic dysplasia, but not in the normal or colitic mice. pSmad3c was detected without any significant difference between stages. p53 was weakly stained in a few cancer cells in 5 out of 10 mice. Smad3L signaling plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of chronic colitis in IL-10-deficient mice.

  14. Non-Muscle Myosin IIA Differentially Regulates Intestinal Epithelial Cell Restitution and Matrix Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Babbin, Brian A.; Koch, Stefan; Bachar, Moshe; Conti, Mary-Anne; Parkos, Charles A.; Adelstein, Robert S.; Nusrat, Asma; Ivanov, Andrei I.

    2009-01-01

    Epithelial cell motility is critical for self-rejuvenation of normal intestinal mucosa, wound repair, and cancer metastasis. This process is regulated by the reorganization of the F-actin cytoskeleton, which is driven by a myosin II motor. However, the role of myosin II in regulating epithelial cell migration remains poorly understood. This study addressed the role of non-muscle myosin (NM) IIA in two different modes of epithelial cell migration: two-dimensional (2-D) migration that occurs during wound closure and three-dimensional (3-D) migration through a Matrigel matrix that occurs during cancer metastasis. Pharmacological inhibition or siRNA-mediated knockdown of NM IIA in SK-CO15 human colonic epithelial cells resulted in decreased 2-D migration and increased 3-D invasion. The attenuated 2-D migration was associated with increased cell adhesiveness to collagen and laminin and enhanced expression of β1-integrin and paxillin. On the 2-D surface, NM IIA-deficient SK-CO15 cells failed to assemble focal adhesions and F-actin stress fibers. In contrast, the enhanced invasion of NM IIA-depleted cells was dependent on Raf-ERK1/2 signaling pathway activation, enhanced calpain activity, and increased calpain-2 expression. Our findings suggest that NM IIA promotes 2-D epithelial cell migration but antagonizes 3-D invasion. These observations indicate multiple functions for NM IIA, which, along with the regulation of the F-actin cytoskeleton and cell-matrix adhesions, involve previously unrecognized control of intracellular signaling and protein expression. PMID:19147824

  15. Toll-like Receptor Signaling Activation by Entamoeba histolytica Induces Beta Defensin 2 in Human Colonic Epithelial Cells: Its Possible Role as an Element of the Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Ayala-Sumuano, Jorge-Tonatiuh; Téllez-López, Victor M.; Domínguez-Robles, M. del Carmen; Shibayama-Salas, Mineko; Meza, Isaura

    2013-01-01

    Background Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan parasite of humans, produces dysenteric diarrhea, intestinal mucosa damage and extraintestinal infection. It has been proposed that the intestinal microbiota composition could be an important regulatory factor of amebic virulence and tissue invasion, particularly if pathogenic bacteria are present. Recent in vitro studies have shown that Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites induced human colonic CaCo2 cells to synthesize TLR-2 and TLR-4 and proinflammatory cytokines after binding to the amebic Gal/GalNac lectin carbohydrate recognition domain. The magnitude of the inflammatory response induced by trophozoites and the subsequent cell damage were synergized when cells had previously been exposed to pathogenic bacteria. Methodology/Principal Findings We show here that E. histolytica activation of the classic TLR pathway in CaCo2 cells is required to induce β defensin-2 (HBD2) mRNA expression and production of a 5-kDa cationic peptide with similar properties to the antimicrobial HBD2 expressed by CaCo2 cells exposed to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. The induced peptide showed capacity to permeabilize membranes of bacteria and live trophozoites. This activity was abrogated by inhibition of TLR2/4-NFκB pathway or by neutralization with an anti-HBD2 antibody. Conclusions/Significance Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites bind to human intestinal cells and induce expression of HBD2; an antimicrobial molecule with capacity to destroy pathogenic bacteria and trophozoites. HDB2's possible role as a modulator of the course of intestinal infections, particularly in mixed ameba/bacteria infections, is discussed. PMID:23469306

  16. An uncommon focal epithelial hyperplasia manifestation.

    PubMed

    dos Santos-Pinto, Lourdes; Giro, Elisa Maria Aparecida; Pansani, Cyneu Aguiar; Ferrari, Junia; Massucato, Elaine Maria Sgavioli; Spolidório, Luis Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare, contagious disease associated with infection of the oral mucosa by human papillomavirus types 13 or 32, characterized by multiple soft papules of the same color as the adjacent normal mucosa. It mainly affects the lower lip, buccal mucosa, and tongue. The purpose of this case report was to describe a rare verrucal lesion located in the upper gingiva that was clinically and histologically consistent with focal epithelial hyperplasia.

  17. Autoinducer-2 Production in Campylobacter jejuni Contributes to Chicken Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Quiñones, Beatriz; Miller, William G.; Bates, Anna H.; Mandrell, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Inactivation of luxS, encoding an AI-2 biosynthesis enzyme, in Campylobacter jejuni strain 81-176 significantly reduced colonization of the chick lower gastrointestinal tract, chemotaxis toward organic acids, and in vitro adherence to LMH chicken hepatoma cells. Thus, AI-2 production in C. jejuni contributes to host colonization and interactions with epithelial cells. PMID:19011073