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Sample records for normal form methods

  1. The method of minimal normal forms

    SciTech Connect

    Mane, S.R.; Weng, W.T.

    1992-01-01

    Normal form methods for solving nonlinear differential equations are reviewed and the comparative merits of three methods are evaluated. The concept of the minimal normal form is explained and is shown to be superior to other choices. The method is then extended to apply to the evaluation of discrete maps of an accelerator or storage ring. Such an extension, as suggested in this paper, is more suited for accelerator-based applications than a formulation utilizing continuous differential equations. A computer code has been generated to systematically implement various normal form formulations for maps in two-dimensional phase space. Specific examples of quadratic and cubic nonlinear fields were used and solved by the method developed. The minimal normal form method shown here gives good results using relatively low order expansions.

  2. The method of minimal normal forms

    SciTech Connect

    Mane, S.R.; Weng, W.T.

    1992-12-31

    Normal form methods for solving nonlinear differential equations are reviewed and the comparative merits of three methods are evaluated. The concept of the minimal normal form is explained and is shown to be superior to other choices. The method is then extended to apply to the evaluation of discrete maps of an accelerator or storage ring. Such an extension, as suggested in this paper, is more suited for accelerator-based applications than a formulation utilizing continuous differential equations. A computer code has been generated to systematically implement various normal form formulations for maps in two-dimensional phase space. Specific examples of quadratic and cubic nonlinear fields were used and solved by the method developed. The minimal normal form method shown here gives good results using relatively low order expansions.

  3. Box products in nilpotent normal form theory: The factoring method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdock, James

    2016-01-01

    Let N be a nilpotent matrix and consider vector fields x ˙ = Nx + v (x) in normal form. Then v is equivariant under the flow eN*t for the inner product normal form or eMt for the sl2 normal form. These vector equivariants can be found by finding the scalar invariants for the Jordan blocks in N* or M; taking the box product of these to obtain the invariants for N* or M itself; and then boosting the invariants to equivariants by another box product. These methods, developed by Murdock and Sanders in 2007, are here given a self-contained exposition with new foundations and new algorithms yielding improved (simpler) Stanley decompositions for the invariants and equivariants. Ideas used include transvectants (from classical invariant theory), Stanley decompositions (from commutative algebra), and integer cones (from integer programming). This approach can be extended to covariants of sl2k for k > 1, known as SLOCC in quantum computing.

  4. Optimization of accelerator parameters using normal form methods on high-order transfer maps

    SciTech Connect

    Snopok, Pavel

    2007-05-01

    Methods of analysis of the dynamics of ensembles of charged particles in collider rings are developed. The following problems are posed and solved using normal form transformations and other methods of perturbative nonlinear dynamics: (1) Optimization of the Tevatron dynamics: (a) Skew quadrupole correction of the dynamics of particles in the Tevatron in the presence of the systematic skew quadrupole errors in dipoles; (b) Calculation of the nonlinear tune shift with amplitude based on the results of measurements and the linear lattice information; (2) Optimization of the Muon Collider storage ring: (a) Computation and optimization of the dynamic aperture of the Muon Collider 50 x 50 GeV storage ring using higher order correctors; (b) 750 x 750 GeV Muon Collider storage ring lattice design matching the Tevatron footprint. The normal form coordinates have a very important advantage over the particle optical coordinates: if the transformation can be carried out successfully (general restrictions for that are not much stronger than the typical restrictions imposed on the behavior of the particles in the accelerator) then the motion in the new coordinates has a very clean representation allowing to extract more information about the dynamics of particles, and they are very convenient for the purposes of visualization. All the problem formulations include the derivation of the objective functions, which are later used in the optimization process using various optimization algorithms. Algorithms used to solve the problems are specific to collider rings, and applicable to similar problems arising on other machines of the same type. The details of the long-term behavior of the systems are studied to ensure the their stability for the desired number of turns. The algorithm of the normal form transformation is of great value for such problems as it gives much extra information about the disturbing factors. In addition to the fact that the dynamics of particles is represented

  5. Optimization of accelerator parameters using normal form methods on high-order transfer maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snopok, Pavel

    Methods of analysis of the dynamics of ensembles of charged particles in collider rings are developed. The following problems are posed and solved using normal form transformations and other methods of perturbative nonlinear dynamics: (1) Optimization of the Tevatron dynamics: (a) Skew quadrupole correction of the dynamics of particles in the Tevatron in the presence of the systematic skew quadrupole errors in dipoles; (b) Calculation of the nonlinear tune shift with amplitude based on the results of measurements and the linear lattice information; (2) Optimization of the Muon Collider storage ring: (a) Computation and optimization of the dynamic aperture of the Muon Collider 50x50 GeV storage ring using higher order correctors; (b) 750x750 GeV Muon Collider storage ring lattice design matching the Tevatron footprint. The normal form coordinates have a very important advantage over the particle optical coordinates: if the transformation can be carried out successfully (general restrictions for that are not much stronger than the typical restrictions imposed on the behavior of the particles in the accelerator) then the motion in the new coordinates has a very clean representation allowing to extract more information about the dynamics of particles, and they are very convenient for the purposes of visualization. All the problem formulations include the derivation of the objective functions, which are later used in the optimization process using various optimization algorithms. Algorithms used to solve the problems are specific to collider rings, and applicable to similar problems arising on other machines of the same type. The details of the long-term behavior of the systems are studied to ensure the their stability for the desired number of turns. The algorithm of the normal form transformation is of great value for such problems as it gives much extra information about the disturbing factors. In addition to the fact that the dynamics of particles is represented in

  6. Statokinesigram normalization method.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, José Magalhães

    2017-02-01

    Stabilometry is a technique that aims to study the body sway of human subjects, employing a force platform. The signal obtained from this technique refers to the position of the foot base ground-reaction vector, known as the center of pressure (CoP). The parameters calculated from the signal are used to quantify the displacement of the CoP over time; there is a large variability, both between and within subjects, which prevents the definition of normative values. The intersubject variability is related to differences between subjects in terms of their anthropometry, in conjunction with their muscle activation patterns (biomechanics); and the intrasubject variability can be caused by a learning effect or fatigue. Age and foot placement on the platform are also known to influence variability. Normalization is the main method used to decrease this variability and to bring distributions of adjusted values into alignment. In 1996, O'Malley proposed three normalization techniques to eliminate the effect of age and anthropometric factors from temporal-distance parameters of gait. These techniques were adopted to normalize the stabilometric signal by some authors. This paper proposes a new method of normalization of stabilometric signals to be applied in balance studies. The method was applied to a data set collected in a previous study, and the results of normalized and nonnormalized signals were compared. The results showed that the new method, if used in a well-designed experiment, can eliminate undesirable correlations between the analyzed parameters and the subjects' characteristics and show only the experimental conditions' effects.

  7. Pancreastatin molecular forms in normal human plasma.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, N; Tateishi, K; Funakoshi, A; Miyasaka, K; Shimazoe, T; Kono, A; Iwamoto, N; Matsuoka, Y

    1994-01-01

    Circulating molecular forms with pancreastatin (PST)-like immunoreactivity in plasma from normal subjects were examined. An immunoreactive form corresponding to a human PST-like sequence [human chromogranin-A-(250-301)] (hPST-52) and a larger form (mol wt 15-21 kDa) were detected by gel filtration of plasma from normal subjects. On high performance liquid chromatography, predominant immunoreactive forms coeluted with the three larger forms which were purified from the xenograft of human pancreatic islet cell carcinoma cell line QGP-1N cells and with synthetic hPST-52. The fraction containing larger forms purified from xenograft of QGP-1N cells had biological activity equivalent to that of hPST-52 on the inhibition of pancreatic exocrine secretion. These results suggest that the larger molecular forms as well as hPST-52 may be physiologically important circulating forms of PST in human.

  8. Graphical methods of psychometrical indicators in Georgian women (20-40 years old) of normal physical development according to forms of temperament and character.

    PubMed

    Nadashvili, L

    2009-04-01

    To establish temperament and forms of character and graphical image, we have studied 120 Georgian women of normal physical development, who were divided by 4 age groups with 5 years intervals. To establish temperament and forms of character we used Eysenck's questionnaire (57 questions) and Sheldon's scale of temperament. The material was worked out by the recognized methods of mathematical psychology. It was stated that Georgian women of young age (20-40 years old) are of sanguine temperament, by character extraverts, which means that they are strong, moving, balanced, stable.

  9. Constructing Involutive Tableaux with Guillemin Normal Form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Abraham D.

    2015-07-01

    Involutivity is the algebraic property that guarantees solutions to an analytic and torsion-free exterior differential system or partial differential equation via the Cartan-Kähler theorem. Guillemin normal form establishes that the prolonged symbol of an involutive system admits a commutativity property on certain subspaces of the prolonged tableau. This article examines Guillemin normal form in detail, aiming at a more systematic approach to classifying involutive systems. The main result is an explicit quadratic condition for involutivity of the type suggested but not completed in Chapter IV, § 5 of the book Exterior Differential Systems by Bryant, Chern, Gardner, Goldschmidt, and Griffiths. This condition enhances Guillemin normal form and characterizes involutive tableaux.

  10. The use of normal forms for analysing nonlinear mechanical vibrations

    PubMed Central

    Neild, Simon A.; Champneys, Alan R.; Wagg, David J.; Hill, Thomas L.; Cammarano, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    A historical introduction is given of the theory of normal forms for simplifying nonlinear dynamical systems close to resonances or bifurcation points. The specific focus is on mechanical vibration problems, described by finite degree-of-freedom second-order-in-time differential equations. A recent variant of the normal form method, that respects the specific structure of such models, is recalled. It is shown how this method can be placed within the context of the general theory of normal forms provided the damping and forcing terms are treated as unfolding parameters. The approach is contrasted to the alternative theory of nonlinear normal modes (NNMs) which is argued to be problematic in the presence of damping. The efficacy of the normal form method is illustrated on a model of the vibration of a taut cable, which is geometrically nonlinear. It is shown how the method is able to accurately predict NNM shapes and their bifurcations. PMID:26303917

  11. Birkhoff Normal Form for Some Nonlinear PDEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambusi, Dario

    We consider the problem of extending to PDEs Birkhoff normal form theorem on Hamiltonian systems close to nonresonant elliptic equilibria. As a model problem we take the nonlinear wave equation FORM="DISPLAY" DISC="MATH"> with Dirichlet boundary conditions on [0,π] g is an analytic skewsymmetric function which vanishes for u=0 and is periodic with period 2π in the x variable. We prove, under a nonresonance condition which is fulfilled for most g's, that for any integer M there exists a canonical transformation that puts the Hamiltonian in Birkhoff normal form up to a reminder of order M. The canonical transformation is well defined in a neighbourhood of the origin of a Sobolev type phase space of sufficiently high order. Some dynamical consequences are obtained. The technique of proof is applicable to quite general semilinear equations in one space dimension.

  12. Normal Forms for Nonautonomous Differential Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegmund, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    We extend Henry Poincarés normal form theory for autonomous differential equations x=f(x) to nonautonomous differential equations x=f(t, x). Poincarés nonresonance condition λj-∑ni=1 ℓiλi≠0 for eigenvalues is generalized to the new nonresonance condition λj∩∑ni=1 ℓiλi=∅ for spectral intervals.

  13. A validated stability-indicating normal phase LC method for clopidogrel bisulfate and its impurities in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage form.

    PubMed

    Durga Rao, Dantu; Kalyanaraman, L; Sait, Shakil S; Venkata Rao, P

    2010-05-01

    A novel stability-indicating normal phase liquid chromatographic (NP-LC) method was developed for the determination of purity of clopidogrel drug substance and drug products in bulk samples and pharmaceutical dosage forms in the presence of its impurities and degradation products. This method is capable of separating all the related substances of clopidogrel along with the chiral impurities. This method can be also be used for the estimation of assay of clopidogrel in drug substance as well as in drug product. The method was developed using Chiralcel OJ-H (250mmx4.6mm, 5microm) column. n-Hexane, ethanol and diethyl amine in 95:5:0.05 (v/v/v) ratio was used as a mobile phase. The eluted compounds were monitored at 240nm. Clopidogrel bisulfate was subjected to the stress conditions of oxidative, acid, base, hydrolytic, thermal and photolytic degradation. The degradation products were well resolved from main peak and its impurities, proving the stability-indicating power of the method. The developed method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines with respect to specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, precision, linearity, accuracy, robustness and system suitability.

  14. Method for forming ammonia

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Zuck, Larry D.

    2008-08-19

    A method for forming ammonia is disclosed and which includes the steps of forming a plasma; providing a source of metal particles, and supplying the metal particles to the plasma to form metal nitride particles; and providing a substance, and reacting the metal nitride particles with the substance to produce ammonia, and an oxide byproduct.

  15. Methods of forming steel

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Burch, Joseph V.

    2001-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention encompasses a method of forming a steel. A metallic glass is formed and at least a portion of the glass is converted to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A molten alloy is formed and cooled the alloy at a rate which forms a metallic glass. The metallic glass is devitrified to convert the glass to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In yet another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A first metallic glass steel substrate is provided, and a molten alloy is formed over the first metallic glass steel substrate to heat and devitrify at least some of the underlying metallic glass of the substrate.

  16. Method of forming nanodielectrics

    DOEpatents

    Tuncer, Enis [Knoxville, TN; Polyzos, Georgios [Oak Ridge, TN

    2014-01-07

    A method of making a nanoparticle filled dielectric material. The method includes mixing nanoparticle precursors with a polymer material and reacting the nanoparticle mixed with the polymer material to form nanoparticles dispersed within the polymer material to form a dielectric composite.

  17. A rapid method for the determination of vitamin E forms in tissues and diet by high-performance liquid chromatography using a normal-phase diol column.

    PubMed

    Kramer, J K; Blais, L; Fouchard, R C; Melnyk, R A; Kallury, K M

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes a simple method for the analysis of tocopherols in tissues by which frozen tissues-70 degrees C were pulverized at dry ice temperatures (-70 degrees C) and immediately extracted with hexane. There was no need to remove the coeluting lipids from tissues by saponification, since at that level of neutral lipids in the sample, there was no reduction in fluorescence response. For the analysis of oil, in which large amounts of neutral lipids were coextracted, a 20% reduction of fluorescence response was observed, but the response was equal for all tocopherol forms, and was appropriately corrected. Saponification was used only when tocopherol esters were present, and only after an initial hexane extraction to remove the free tocopherols in order to avoid their loss by saponification, particularly non alpha-tocopherol and tocotrienols. All the tocopherols and tocotrienols were separated on a normal-phase diol (epoxide) column that gave consistent and reproducible results, without the disadvantages of nonreproducibility with silica columns, or the lack of separation with reversed-phase columns. The tocopherols were quantitated by using a tocopherol form not present in the sample as an internal tocopherol standard, or using an external tocopherol standard if all forms were present, or when the sample was saponified. Piglet heart and liver samples showed the presence of mainly alpha-tocopherol, with minor amounts of beta- and gamma-tocopherol and alpha-tocotrienol, but no delta-tocopherol. Only small amounts of tocopherol esters were present in the liver but not in the heart.

  18. Method for forming materials

    DOEpatents

    Tolle, Charles R [Idaho Falls, ID; Clark, Denis E [Idaho Falls, ID; Smartt, Herschel B [Idaho Falls, ID; Miller, Karen S [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-10-06

    A material-forming tool and a method for forming a material are described including a shank portion; a shoulder portion that releasably engages the shank portion; a pin that releasably engages the shoulder portion, wherein the pin defines a passageway; and a source of a material coupled in material flowing relation relative to the pin and wherein the material-forming tool is utilized in methodology that includes providing a first material; providing a second material, and placing the second material into contact with the first material; and locally plastically deforming the first material with the material-forming tool so as mix the first material and second material together to form a resulting material having characteristics different from the respective first and second materials.

  19. Densified waste form and method for forming

    DOEpatents

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Sava Gallis, Dorina Florentina

    2016-05-17

    Materials and methods of making densified waste forms for temperature sensitive waste material, such as nuclear waste, formed with low temperature processing using metallic powder that forms the matrix that encapsulates the temperature sensitive waste material. The densified waste form includes a temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix, the matrix is a compacted metallic powder. The method for forming the densified waste form includes mixing a metallic powder and a temperature sensitive waste material to form a waste form precursor. The waste form precursor is compacted with sufficient pressure to densify the waste precursor and encapsulate the temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix.

  20. Densified waste form and method for forming

    SciTech Connect

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Sava Gallis, Dorina Florentina

    2015-08-25

    Materials and methods of making densified waste forms for temperature sensitive waste material, such as nuclear waste, formed with low temperature processing using metallic powder that forms the matrix that encapsulates the temperature sensitive waste material. The densified waste form includes a temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix, the matrix is a compacted metallic powder. The method for forming the densified waste form includes mixing a metallic powder and a temperature sensitive waste material to form a waste form precursor. The waste form precursor is compacted with sufficient pressure to densify the waste precursor and encapsulate the temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix.

  1. Holomorphic normal form of nonlinear perturbations of nilpotent vector fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolovitch, Laurent; Verstringe, Freek

    2016-07-01

    We consider germs of holomorphic vector fields at a fixed point having a nilpotent linear part at that point, in dimension n ≥ 3. Based on Belitskii's work, we know that such a vector field is formally conjugate to a (formal) normal form. We give a condition on that normal form which ensures that the normalizing transformation is holomorphic at the fixed point.We shall show that this sufficient condition is a nilpotent version of Bruno's condition (A). In dimension 2, no condition is required since, according to Stróżyna-Żołladek, each such germ is holomorphically conjugate to a Takens normal form. Our proof is based on Newton's method and sl2(C)-representations.

  2. Methods for forming particles

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Robert V.; Zhang, Fengyan; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin

    2016-06-21

    Single source precursors or pre-copolymers of single source precursors are subjected to microwave radiation to form particles of a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Such particles may be formed in a wurtzite phase and may be converted to a chalcopyrite phase by, for example, exposure to heat. The particles in the wurtzite phase may have a substantially hexagonal shape that enables stacking into ordered layers. The particles in the wurtzite phase may be mixed with particles in the chalcopyrite phase (i.e., chalcopyrite nanoparticles) that may fill voids within the ordered layers of the particles in the wurtzite phase thus produce films with good coverage. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form layers of semiconductor materials comprising a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Devices such as, for example, thin-film solar cells may be fabricated using such methods.

  3. Sixth Form Examining Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schools Council, London (England).

    The methods of examining in the sixth form of secondary education in England and Wales is the basis for discussion by subject committees of the Schools Council. Special reference is made to internal examinations, oral assessments, teacher's assessments, the relaxing of the time limits for examination, and the use of aids during examinations. The…

  4. Method for forming targets

    DOEpatents

    Woerner, Robert L.

    1979-01-01

    Method for cryoinduced uniform deposition of cryogenic materials, such as deuterium-tritium (DT) mixtures, on the inner surface of hollow spherical members, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on the inner surface of the spherical member. Heating of the cryogenic material, located within a non-isothermal compact freezing cell, is accomplished by an electrical heat pulse, whereafter the material is quickly frozen forming a uniform layer on the inner surface of the spherical member. The method is not restricted to producing a frozen layer on only the inner surface of the innermost hollow member, but where multiple concentric hollow spheres are involved, such as in multiple shell targets for lasers, electron beams, etc., layers of cryogenic material may also be formed on the inner surface of intermediate or outer spherical members, thus providing the capability of forming targets having multiple concentric layers or shells of frozen DT.

  5. Automatic identification and normalization of dosage forms in drug monographs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Each day, millions of health consumers seek drug-related information on the Web. Despite some efforts in linking related resources, drug information is largely scattered in a wide variety of websites of different quality and credibility. Methods As a step toward providing users with integrated access to multiple trustworthy drug resources, we aim to develop a method capable of identifying drug's dosage form information in addition to drug name recognition. We developed rules and patterns for identifying dosage forms from different sections of full-text drug monographs, and subsequently normalized them to standardized RxNorm dosage forms. Results Our method represents a significant improvement compared with a baseline lookup approach, achieving overall macro-averaged Precision of 80%, Recall of 98%, and F-Measure of 85%. Conclusions We successfully developed an automatic approach for drug dosage form identification, which is critical for building links between different drug-related resources. PMID:22336431

  6. Normalization method for video images

    SciTech Connect

    Donohoe, G.W.; Hush, D.R.

    1992-12-31

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for automatically and adaptively normalizing analog signals representative of video images in object detection systems. Such normalization maximizes the average information content of the video images and, thereby, provides optimal digitized images for object detection and identification. The present invention manipulates two system control signals -- gain control signal and offset control signal -- to convert an analog image signal into a transformed analog image signal, such that the corresponding digitized image contains the maximum amount of information achievable with a conventional object detection system. In some embodiments of the present invention, information content is measured using parameters selected from image entropy, image mean, and image variance.

  7. Normal form analysis of a forced aeroelastic plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugeni, Marco; Mastroddi, Franco; Dowell, Earl H.

    2017-03-01

    A nonlinear elastic plate in a supersonic unsteady flow forced by a dynamic excitation and a biaxial compressive load is studied. The physical behavior of the plate is modelized by the Von Kármán equations and the aerodynamic loads are modeled by using the piston theory including nonlinearities up to the third order. The space-continuum model is space-discretized by a Galerkin projection and then studied by a perturbation approach based on the Normal Form method in order to reduce the system to a simpler and essential form defined by its resonance conditions. A physical interpretation of the involved small divisors is given by analyzing how different equation parameters influence the reduced normal form model in the neighborhood of both static and dynamic bifurcation points.

  8. Method of forming ceramic bricks

    DOEpatents

    Poeppel, Roger B.; Claar, Terry D.; Silkowski, Peter

    1988-09-06

    A method for forming free standing ceramic bricks for use as tritium breeder material is disclosed. Aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate are mixed with an organic hydrocolloid dispersion and powdered lithium carbonate, spray dried, and ceramic bricks formed by molding in a die and firing.

  9. Method of forming ceramic bricks

    DOEpatents

    Poeppel, R.B.; Claar, T.D.; Silkowski, P.

    1987-04-22

    A method for forming free standing ceramic bricks for use as tritium breeder material is disclosed. Aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate are mixed with an organic hydrocolloid dispersion and powdered lithium carbonate, spray dried, and ceramic bricks formed by molding in a die and firing.

  10. Method of forming ceramic bricks

    DOEpatents

    Poeppel, Roger B.; Claar, Terry D.; Silkowski, Peter

    1988-01-01

    A method for forming free standing ceramic bricks for use as tritium breeder material is disclosed. Aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate are mixed with an organic hydrocolloid dispersion and powdered lithium carbonate, spray dried, and ceramic bricks formed by molding in a die and firing.

  11. Trojan dynamics well approximated by a new Hamiltonian normal form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Páez, Rocío Isabel; Locatelli, Ugo

    2015-10-01

    We revisit a classical perturbative approach to the Hamiltonian related to the motions of Trojan bodies, in the framework of the planar circular restricted three-body problem, by introducing a number of key new ideas in the formulation. In some sense, we adapt the approach of Garfinkel to the context of the normal form theory and its modern techniques. First, we make use of Delaunay variables for a physically accurate representation of the system. Therefore, we introduce a novel manipulation of the variables so as to respect the natural behaviour of the model. We develop a normalization procedure over the fast angle which exploits the fact that singularities in this model are essentially related to the slow angle. Thus, we produce a new normal form, i.e. an integrable approximation to the Hamiltonian. We emphasize some practical examples of the applicability of our normalizing scheme, e.g. the estimation of the stable libration region. Finally, we compare the level curves produced by our normal form with surfaces of section provided by the integration of the non-normalized Hamiltonian, with very good agreement. Further precision tests are also provided. In addition, we give a step-by-step description of the algorithm, allowing for extensions to more complicated models.

  12. Cotangent bundle reduction and Poincaré-Birkhoff normal forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çiftçi, Ünver; Waalkens, Holger; Broer, Henk W.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we study a systematic and natural construction of canonical coordinates for the reduced space of a cotangent bundle with a free Lie group action. The canonical coordinates enable us to compute Poincaré-Birkhoff normal forms of relative equilibria using standard algorithms. The case of simple mechanical systems with symmetries is studied in detail. As examples we compute Poincaré-Birkhoff normal forms for a Lagrangian equilateral triangle configuration of a three-body system with a Morse-type potential and the stretched-out configuration of a double spherical pendulum.

  13. Normal form from biological motion despite impaired ventral stream function.

    PubMed

    Gilaie-Dotan, S; Bentin, S; Harel, M; Rees, G; Saygin, A P

    2011-04-01

    We explored the extent to which biological motion perception depends on ventral stream integration by studying LG, an unusual case of developmental visual agnosia. LG has significant ventral stream processing deficits but no discernable structural cortical abnormality. LG's intermediate visual areas and object-sensitive regions exhibit abnormal activation during visual object perception, in contrast to area V5/MT+ which responds normally to visual motion (Gilaie-Dotan, Perry, Bonneh, Malach, & Bentin, 2009). Here, in three studies we used point light displays, which require visual integration, in adaptive threshold experiments to examine LG's ability to detect form from biological and non-biological motion cues. LG's ability to detect and discriminate form from biological motion was similar to healthy controls. In contrast, he was significantly deficient in processing form from non-biological motion. Thus, LG can rely on biological motion cues to perceive human forms, but is considerably impaired in extracting form from non-biological motion. Finally, we found that while LG viewed biological motion, activity in a network of brain regions associated with processing biological motion was functionally correlated with his V5/MT+ activity, indicating that normal inputs from V5/MT+ might suffice to activate his action perception system. These results indicate that processing of biologically moving form can dissociate from other form processing in the ventral pathway. Furthermore, the present results indicate that integrative ventral stream processing is necessary for uncompromised processing of non-biological form from motion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Breather solutions for inhomogeneous FPU models using Birkhoff normal forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Farías, Francisco; Panayotaros, Panayotis

    2016-11-01

    We present results on spatially localized oscillations in some inhomogeneous nonlinear lattices of Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) type derived from phenomenological nonlinear elastic network models proposed to study localized protein vibrations. The main feature of the FPU lattices we consider is that the number of interacting neighbors varies from site to site, and we see numerically that this spatial inhomogeneity leads to spatially localized normal modes in the linearized problem. This property is seen in 1-D models, and in a 3-D model with a geometry obtained from protein data. The spectral analysis of these examples suggests some non-resonance assumptions that we use to show the existence of invariant subspaces of spatially localized solutions in quartic Birkhoff normal forms of the FPU systems. The invariant subspaces have an additional symmetry and this fact allows us to compute periodic orbits of the quartic normal form in a relatively simple way.

  15. Method for forming metal contacts

    DOEpatents

    Reddington, Erik; Sutter, Thomas C; Bu, Lujia; Cannon, Alexandra; Habas, Susan E; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Ginley, David S; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2013-09-17

    Methods of forming metal contacts with metal inks in the manufacture of photovoltaic devices are disclosed. The metal inks are selectively deposited on semiconductor coatings by inkjet and aerosol apparatus. The composite is heated to selective temperatures where the metal inks burn through the coating to form an electrical contact with the semiconductor. Metal layers are then deposited on the electrical contacts by light induced or light assisted plating.

  16. Method of forming pointed structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pugel, Diane E. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method of forming an array of pointed structures comprises depositing a ferrofluid on a substrate, applying a magnetic field to the ferrofluid to generate an array of surface protrusions, and solidifying the surface protrusions to form the array of pointed structures. The pointed structures may have a tip radius ranging from approximately 10 nm to approximately 25 micron. Solidifying the surface protrusions may be carried out at a temperature ranging from approximately 10 degrees C. to approximately 30 degrees C.

  17. Methods of forming boron nitride

    DOEpatents

    Trowbridge, Tammy L; Wertsching, Alan K; Pinhero, Patrick J; Crandall, David L

    2015-03-03

    A method of forming a boron nitride. The method comprises contacting a metal article with a monomeric boron-nitrogen compound and converting the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound to a boron nitride. The boron nitride is formed on the same or a different metal article. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is borazine, cycloborazane, trimethylcycloborazane, polyborazylene, B-vinylborazine, poly(B-vinylborazine), or combinations thereof. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is polymerized to form the boron nitride by exposure to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. The boron nitride is amorphous boron nitride, hexagonal boron nitride, rhombohedral boron nitride, turbostratic boron nitride, wurzite boron nitride, combinations thereof, or boron nitride and carbon. A method of conditioning a ballistic weapon and a metal article coated with the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound are also disclosed.

  18. Method of forming structural heliostat

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Alfred J.

    1984-06-26

    In forming a heliostat having a main support structure and pivoting and tilting motors and gears and a mirror module for reflecting solar energy onto a collector, the improvement characterized by a method of forming the mirror module in which the mirror is laid upon a solid rigid supporting bed in one or more sections, with or without focusing; a mirror backing sheet is applied by first applying respective thin layers of silicone grease and, thereafter, progressively rolling application to eliminate air bubbles; followed by affixing of a substrate assembly to the mirror backing sheet to form a mirror module that does not curve because of thermally induced stresses and differential thermal expansion or contraction effects. The silicone grease also serves to dampen fluttering of the mirror and protect the mirror backside against adverse effects of the weather. Also disclosed are specific details of preferred embodiments.

  19. Shocks and metallicity gradients in normal star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, I.-Ting

    Gas flow is one of the most fundamental processes driving galaxy evolution. This thesis explores gas flows in local galaxies by studying metallicity gradients and galactic-scale outflows in normal star-forming galaxies. This is made possible by new integral field spectroscopy data that provide simultaneously spatial and spectral information of galaxies. First, I measure metallicity gradients in isolated disk galaxies and show that their metallicity gradients are remarkably simple and universal. When the metallicity gradients are normalized to galaxy sizes, all the 49 galaxies studied have virtually the same metallicity gradient. I model the common metallicity gradient using a simple chemical evolution model to understand its origin. The common metallicity gradient is a direct result of the coevolution of gas and stellar disk while galactic disks build up their masses from inside-out. Tight constraints on the mass outflow rates and inflow rates can be placed by the chemical evolution model. Second, I investigate galactic winds in normal star-forming galaxies using data from an integral field spectroscopy survey. I demonstrate how to search for galactic winds by probing emission line ratios, shocks, and gas kinematics. Galactic winds are found to be common even in normal star-forming galaxies that were not expected to host winds. By comparing galaxies with and without hosting winds, I show that galaxies with high star formation rate surface densities and bursty star formation histories are more likely to drive large-scale galactic winds. Finally, lzifu, a toolkit for fitting multiple emission lines simultaneously in integral field spectroscopy data, is developed in this thesis. I describe in detail the structure of the toolkit and demonstrate the capabilities of lzifu.

  20. Method for hot press forming articles

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Robert R.; Hartsock, Dale L.

    1982-01-01

    This disclosure relates to an improved method for achieving the best bond strength and for minimizing distortion and cracking of hot pressed articles. In particular, in a method for hot press forming both an outer facing circumferential surface of and an inner portion of a hub, and of bonding that so-formed outer facing circumferential surface to an inner facing circumferential surface of a pre-formed ring thereby to form an article, the following improvement is made. Normally, in this method, the outside ring is restrained by a restraining sleeve of ring-shaped cross-section having an inside diameter. A die member, used to hot press form the hub, is so-formed as to have an outside diameter sized to engage the inside diameter of the restraining sleeve in a manner permitting relative movement therebetween. The improved method is one in which several pairs of matched restraining sleeve and die member are formed with each matched pair having a predetermined diameter. The predetermined diameter of each matched pair is different from another matched pair by stepped increments. The largest inside diameter of a restraining sleeve is equal to the diameter of the outer facing circumferential surface of the hub. Each pair of the matched restraining sleeve and die member is used to form an article in which an inside hub is bonded to an outside ring. The several samples so-formed are evaluated to determine which sample has the best bond formed between the hub and the ring with the least or no cracking or distortion in the ring portion of the article. Thereafter, the matched restraining sleeve and die member which form the article having the best bonding characteristics and least distortion cracking is then used for repeated formations of articles.

  1. Normalization in sustainability assessment: Methods and implications

    SciTech Connect

    Pollesch, N. L.; Dale, Virginia H.

    2016-08-08

    One approach to assessing progress towards sustainability makes use of diverse indicators spanning the environmental, social, and economic dimensions of the system being studied. Given the use of multiple indicators and the inherent complexity entailed in interpreting several metrics, aggregation of sustainability indicators is a common step after indicator measures are quantified. Diverse indicators have different units of measurement, and normalization is the procedure employed to transform differing indicator measures onto similar scales or to unit-free measures. It is often difficult for stakeholders to make clear connections between specific indicator measurements and resulting aggregate scores of sustainability. Normalization can also create implicit weightings of indicator measures that are independent of actual stakeholder preference or explicit weighting. This paper explores normalization methods utilized in sustainability assessment including ratio normalization, target normalization, Z-score normalization, and unit equivalence normalization. A mathematical analysis of the impact of changes in raw indicator data measurements on an aggregate sustainability score is developed. Theoretical results are clarified through a case study of data used in assessment of progress towards bioenergy sustainability. Advantages and drawbacks associated with different normalization schemes are discussed within the context of sustainability assessment.

  2. Normalization in sustainability assessment: Methods and implications

    DOE PAGES

    Pollesch, N. L.; Dale, Virginia H.

    2016-08-08

    One approach to assessing progress towards sustainability makes use of diverse indicators spanning the environmental, social, and economic dimensions of the system being studied. Given the use of multiple indicators and the inherent complexity entailed in interpreting several metrics, aggregation of sustainability indicators is a common step after indicator measures are quantified. Diverse indicators have different units of measurement, and normalization is the procedure employed to transform differing indicator measures onto similar scales or to unit-free measures. It is often difficult for stakeholders to make clear connections between specific indicator measurements and resulting aggregate scores of sustainability. Normalization can alsomore » create implicit weightings of indicator measures that are independent of actual stakeholder preference or explicit weighting. This paper explores normalization methods utilized in sustainability assessment including ratio normalization, target normalization, Z-score normalization, and unit equivalence normalization. A mathematical analysis of the impact of changes in raw indicator data measurements on an aggregate sustainability score is developed. Theoretical results are clarified through a case study of data used in assessment of progress towards bioenergy sustainability. Advantages and drawbacks associated with different normalization schemes are discussed within the context of sustainability assessment.« less

  3. Method of forming a joint

    DOEpatents

    Butt, Darryl Paul; Cutler, Raymond Ashton; Rynders, Steven Walton; Carolan, Michael Francis

    2006-08-22

    A method of joining at least two sintered bodies to form a composite structure, including providing a first multicomponent metallic oxide having a perovskitic or fluorite crystal structure; providing a second sintered body including a second multicomponent metallic oxide having a crystal structure of the same type as the first; and providing at an interface a joint material containing at least one metal oxide containing at least one metal identically contained in at least one of the first and second multicomponent metallic oxides. The joint material is free of cations of Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, P and Te and has a melting point below the sintering temperatures of both sintered bodies. The joint material is heated to a temperature above the melting point of the metal oxide(s) and below the sintering temperatures of the sintered bodies to form the joint. Structures containing such joints are also disclosed.

  4. Method of forming calthrate ice

    DOEpatents

    Hino, T.; Gorski, A.J.

    1985-09-30

    A method of forming clathrate ice in a supercooled water-based liquid contained in a vessel is disclosed. Initially, an oscillator device is located in the liquid in the vessel. The oscillator device is then oscillated ultransonically so that small crystals are formed in the liquid. Thes small crystals serve as seed crystals for ice formation in the liquid and thereby prevent supercooling of the liquid. Preferably, the oscillating device is controlled by a thermostat which initiates operation of the oscillator device when the temperature of the liquid is lowered to the freezing point. Thereafter, the operation of the oscillator device is terminated when ice is sensed in the liquid by an ice sensor.

  5. Method of forming clathrate ice

    DOEpatents

    Hino, Toshiyuki; Gorski, Anthony J.

    1987-01-01

    A method of forming clathrate ice in a supercooled water-based liquid contained in a vessel is disclosed. Initially, an oscillator device is located in the liquid in the vessel. The oscillator device is then oscillated ultrasonically so that small crystals are formed in the liquid. These small crystals serve as seed crystals for ice formation in the liquid and thereby prevent supercooling of the liquid. Preferably, the oscillating device is controlled by a thermostat which initiates operation of the oscillator device when the temperature of the liquid is lowered to the freezing point. Thereafter, the operation of the oscillator device is terminated when ice is sensed in the liquid by an ice sensor.

  6. A new quantum scheme for normal-form games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraçkiewicz, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    We give a strict mathematical description for a refinement of the Marinatto-Weber quantum game scheme. The model allows the players to choose projector operators that determine the state on which they perform their local operators. The game induced by the scheme generalizes finite strategic-form game. In particular, it covers normal representations of extensive games, i.e., strategic games generated by extensive ones. We illustrate our idea with an example of extensive game and prove that rational choices in the classical game and its quantum counterpart may lead to significantly different outcomes.

  7. Normal forms and gauge symmetry of local dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyakhovich, S. L.; Sharapov, A. A.

    2009-08-01

    A systematic procedure is proposed for deriving all the gauge symmetries of the general, not necessarily variational, equations of motion. For the variational equations, this procedure reduces to the Dirac-Bergmann algorithm for the constrained Hamiltonian systems with certain extension: it remains applicable beyond the scope of Dirac's conjecture. Even though no pairing exists between the constraints and the gauge symmetry generators in general nonvariational dynamics, certain counterparts still can be identified of the first- and second-class constraints without appealing to any Poisson structure. It is shown that the general local gauge dynamics can be equivalently reformulated in an involutive normal form. The last form of dynamics always admits the BRST embedding, which does not require the classical equations to follow from any variational principle.

  8. Method for forming energetic nanopowders

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Kien-Yin; Asay, Blaine W.; Kennedy, James E.

    2013-10-15

    A method for the preparation of neat energetic powders, having nanometer dimensions, is described herein. For these neat powder, a solution of a chosen energetic material is prepared in an aprotic solvent and later combined with liquid hexane that is miscible with such solvent. The energetic material chosen is less soluble in the liquid hexane than in the aprotic solvent and the liquid hexane is cooled to a temperature that is below that of the solvent solution. In order to form a precipitate of said neat powders, the solvent solution is rapidly combined with the liquid hexane. When the resulting precipitate is collected, it may be dried and filtered to yield an energetic nanopowder material.

  9. Impact effects of explosively formed projectiles on normal strength concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookout, Laurin; Baird, Jason

    2012-03-01

    This paper will address the experimental results of the impact of 101.6 mm (4 in) explosively formed projectiles on normal strength concrete targets. Five projectiles were recovered using a soft recovery system to determine the average mass and nose shape of the projectiles. Velocity data for each test was measured with a high speed camera. The average projectile nose shape and mass plus the striking velocity, and the penetration depths from ten tests were compared to existing penetration equations to see if one or more of the equations is applicable for this type of projectile impact. The coarse aggregate gradation used in the concrete mix has Hugoniot data available. The Hugoniot data allows comparison of any observed spalling with the theoretical predictions.

  10. Impact effects of explosively formed projectiles on normal strength concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookout, Laurin; Baird, Jason

    2011-06-01

    This paper will address the experimental results of the impact of four-inch explosively formed projectiles on normal strength concrete targets. Five projectiles will be recovered using a soft recovery system to determine the average mass and nose shape of the projectiles. Velocity data for each test will be measured with a high speed camera. The average projectile nose shape and mass plus the striking velocity, and the penetration depths from ten tests will then be compared to existing penetration equations to see if one or more of the equations are applicable for this type of projectile impact. The coarse aggregate gradation used in the concrete mix has Hugoniot data available. If spalling occurs on any of the targets, the Hugoniot data will allow comparison of the observed spalling with the theoretical predictions.

  11. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

    1996-01-09

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form. The method comprises: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3` noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 4 figs.

  12. Solid form additives and method of forming same

    SciTech Connect

    Schuettenberg, A.D.; Gragson, J.T.

    1987-01-27

    This patent describes a solid form additive comprising: a normally liquid fuel additive selected from carburetor detergent additives, antiknock additives, deposit-control additives, and mixtures thereof, suitable for use in fuel comprising gasoline for internal combustion engines; and a structural agent for containing the fuel additive and for providing dimensional stability to the solid form additive, the structural agent being soluble and dispersible in the fuel; wherein the fuel additive comprises between about 25% and about 75% by weight of the solid form additive; and wherein the solid form additive is a pellet having structural agent and fuel additive essentially homogeneously dispersed throughout the solid form additive; and wherein the pellet is coated with a sealing agent.

  13. Sphere forming method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngberg, C. L.; Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.; Finnerty, A. A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A system is provided for forming small accurately spherical objects. Preformed largely spherical objects are supported at the opening of a conduit on the update of hot gas emitted from the opening, so the object is in a molten state. The conduit is suddenly jerked away at a downward incline, to allow the molten object to drop in free fall, so that surface tension forms a precise sphere. The conduit portion that has the opening, lies in a moderate vacuum chamber, and the falling sphere passes through the chamber and through a briefly opened valve into a tall drop tower that contains a lower pressure, to allow the sphere to cool without deformation caused by falling through air.

  14. Method for forming hermetic seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, Brian D.

    1987-01-01

    The firmly adherent film of bondable metal, such as silver, is applied to the surface of glass or other substrate by decomposing a layer of solution of a thermally decomposable metallo-organic deposition (MOD) compound such as silver neodecanoate in xylene. The MOD compound thermally decomposes into metal and gaseous by-products. Sealing is accomplished by depositing a layer of bonding metal, such as solder or a brazing alloy, on the metal film and then forming an assembly with another high melting point metal surface such as a layer of Kovar. When the assembly is heated above the temperature of the solder, the solder flows, wets the adjacent surfaces and forms a hermetic seal between the metal film and metal surface when the assembly cools.

  15. Construction of Darboux coordinates and Poincaré-Birkhoff normal forms in noncanonical Hamiltonian systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junginger, Andrej; Main, Jörg; Wunner, Günter

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate a general method to construct Darboux coordinates via normal form expansions in noncanonical Hamiltonian system obtained from e.g. a variational approach to quantum systems. The procedure serves as a tool to naturally extract canonical coordinates out of the variational parameters and at the same time to transform the energy functional into its Poincaré-Birkhoff normal form. The method is general in the sense that it is applicable for arbitrary degrees of freedom, in arbitrary orders of the local expansion, and it is independent of the precise form of the Hamilton operator. The method presented allows for the general and systematic investigation of quantum systems in the vicinity of fixed points, which e.g. correspond to ground, excited or transition states. Moreover, it directly allows to calculate classical and quantum reaction rates by applying transition state theory.

  16. Design of a spatial data structure using the relational normal forms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Roessel, Jan W.

    1987-01-01

    In previous work, a relational data structure aimed at the exchange of spatial data between systems was developed. As this data structure was relational it was of first normal form, but compliance with the higher normal forms was not investigated. Recently, a new procedural method for composing fully normalized data structures from the basic data fields has been developed by H. C. Smith, as an alternative to the process of non-loss decomposition which is difficult to understand. Smith's method has been applied to data fields required to store points, lines and polygons in a chain-node spatial data model. When geographic domain, coverage layer and map are also considered, the procedure naturally leads to a catalogue model, needed for the exchange of spatial data. Although the method produces a fully normalized data structure, it is not as easy to identify which normal forms are responsible for the ultimate arrangement of the data fields into relations, but the benefits of these criteria for data base development also apply to spatial data structures and related ancillary data.

  17. Method for forming a thermocouple

    DOEpatents

    Metz, Hugh J.

    1979-01-01

    A method is provided for producing a fast response, insulated junction thermocouple having a uniform diameter outer sheath in the region of the measuring junction. One step is added to the usual thermocouple fabrication process that consists in expanding the thermocouple sheath following the insulation removal step. This makes it possible to swage the sheath back to the original diameter and compact the insulation to the desired high density in the final fabrication step.

  18. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1996-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  19. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

    1998-11-03

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3` noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to appropriate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. This invention also provides normalized cDNA libraries generated by the above-described method and uses of the generated libraries. 19 figs.

  20. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1998-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to appropriate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. This invention also provides normalized cDNA libraries generated by the above-described method and uses of the generated libraries.

  1. On Goursat Normal Forms, Prolongations, and Control Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    form, we also show how the exact linearization conditions for control systems can be restated in the language of Pfaffian systems. In addition, we give...area. We show that all of the main results in exact linearization of nonlinear systems can be restated in terms of exterior differential systems, and...to Goursat form can be specialized to give conditions for exact linearization . Theorem 6. Exact Linearization [5]. If a control system I defined

  2. DISJUNCTIVE NORMAL LEVEL SET: AN EFFICIENT PARAMETRIC IMPLICIT METHOD

    PubMed Central

    Mesadi, Fitsum; Cetin, Mujdat; Tasdizen, Tolga

    2016-01-01

    Level set methods are widely used for image segmentation because of their capability to handle topological changes. In this paper, we propose a novel parametric level set method called Disjunctive Normal Level Set (DNLS), and apply it to both two phase (single object) and multiphase (multi-object) image segmentations. The DNLS is formed by union of polytopes which themselves are formed by intersections of half-spaces. The proposed level set framework has the following major advantages compared to other level set methods available in the literature. First, segmentation using DNLS converges much faster. Second, the DNLS level set function remains regular throughout its evolution. Third, the proposed multiphase version of the DNLS is less sensitive to initialization, and its computational cost and memory requirement remains almost constant as the number of objects to be simultaneously segmented grows. The experimental results show the potential of the proposed method.

  3. DISJUNCTIVE NORMAL LEVEL SET: AN EFFICIENT PARAMETRIC IMPLICIT METHOD.

    PubMed

    Mesadi, Fitsum; Cetin, Mujdat; Tasdizen, Tolga

    2016-09-01

    Level set methods are widely used for image segmentation because of their capability to handle topological changes. In this paper, we propose a novel parametric level set method called Disjunctive Normal Level Set (DNLS), and apply it to both two phase (single object) and multiphase (multi-object) image segmentations. The DNLS is formed by union of polytopes which themselves are formed by intersections of half-spaces. The proposed level set framework has the following major advantages compared to other level set methods available in the literature. First, segmentation using DNLS converges much faster. Second, the DNLS level set function remains regular throughout its evolution. Third, the proposed multiphase version of the DNLS is less sensitive to initialization, and its computational cost and memory requirement remains almost constant as the number of objects to be simultaneously segmented grows. The experimental results show the potential of the proposed method.

  4. New classification of lingual arch form in normal occlusion using three dimensional virtual models

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung Hee; Bayome, Mohamed; Park, Jae Hyun; Lee, Jeong Woo; Baek, Seung-Hak

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were 1) to classify lingual dental arch form types based on the lingual bracket points and 2) to provide a new lingual arch form template based on this classification for clinical application through the analysis of three-dimensional virtual models of normal occlusion sample. Methods Maxillary and mandibular casts of 115 young adults with normal occlusion were scanned in their occluded positions and lingual bracket points were digitized on the virtual models by using Rapidform 2006 software. Sixty-eight cases (dataset 1) were used in K-means cluster analysis to classify arch forms with intercanine, interpremolar and intermolar widths and width/depth ratios as determinants. The best-fit curves of the mean arch forms were generated. The remaining cases (dataset 2) were mapped into the obtained clusters and a multivariate test was performed to assess the differences between the clusters. Results Four-cluster classification demonstrated maximum intercluster distance. Wide, narrow, tapering, and ovoid types were described according to the intercanine and intermolar widths and their best-fit curves were depicted. No significant differences in arch depths existed among the clusters. Strong to moderate correlations were found between maxillary and mandibular arch widths. Conclusions Lingual arch forms have been classified into 4 types based on their anterior and posterior dimensions. A template of the 4 arch forms has been depicted. Three-dimensional analysis of the lingual bracket points provides more accurate identification of arch form and, consequently, archwire selection. PMID:25798413

  5. Semiclassical spectrum of small Bose-Hubbard chains: A normal-form approach

    SciTech Connect

    Itin, A. P.

    2011-12-15

    We analyze the spectrum of the three-site Bose-Hubbard model with periodic boundary conditions using a semiclassical method. The Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization is applied to an effective classical Hamiltonian which we derive using resonance normal form theory. The derivation takes into account the 1:1 resonance between frequencies of a linearized classical system and brings nonlinear terms into a corresponding normal form. The obtained expressions reproduce the exact low-energy spectrum of the system remarkably well even for a small number of particles N corresponding to fillings of just two particles per site. Such small fillings are often used in current experiments, and it is inspiring to get insight into this quantum regime using essentially classical calculations.

  6. The simultaneous integration of many trajectories using nilpotent normal forms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayson, Matthew A.; Grossman, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Taylor's formula shows how to approximate a certain class of functions by polynomials. The approximations are arbitrarily good in some neighborhood whenever the function is analytic and they are easy to compute. The main goal is to give an efficient algorithm to approximate a neighborhood of the configuration space of a dynamical system by a nilpotent, explicitly integrable dynamical system. The major areas covered include: an approximating map; the generalized Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula; the Picard-Taylor method; the main theorem; simultaneous integration of trajectories; and examples.

  7. Methods for forming long subsurface heaters

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Dong Sub

    2013-09-17

    A method for forming a longitudinal subsurface heater includes longitudinally welding an electrically conductive sheath of an insulated conductor heater along at least one longitudinal strip of metal. The longitudinal strip is formed into a tubular around the insulated conductor heater with the insulated conductor heater welded along the inside surface of the tubular.

  8. Normal forms for description logic expressions of clinical concepts in SNOMED RT.

    PubMed

    Spackman, K A

    2001-01-01

    Modern clinical terminologies organize concepts into multi-hierarchy structures that are defined by logic-based expressions, enabling compositional representation of clinical statements and supporting more complete and consistent retrieval of clinical data. The Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine, Reference Terminology (SNOMED RT) gives each concept code a semantic definition stated in description logic. The process of development, testing and distribution of these definitions has highlighted the fact that a concept definition may take many different but logically equivalent forms, and has revealed a need for a set of normal forms for authoring, distribution, and other purposes. This paper describes the difference between a choice of syntax and a choice of normal form, and defines several different normal forms, including a short canonical form, a long canonical form, and a distribution normal form.

  9. Diagonalization and Jordan Normal Form--Motivation through "Maple"[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaister, P.

    2009-01-01

    Following an introduction to the diagonalization of matrices, one of the more difficult topics for students to grasp in linear algebra is the concept of Jordan normal form. In this note, we show how the important notions of diagonalization and Jordan normal form can be introduced and developed through the use of the computer algebra package…

  10. Diagonalization and Jordan Normal Form--Motivation through "Maple"[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaister, P.

    2009-01-01

    Following an introduction to the diagonalization of matrices, one of the more difficult topics for students to grasp in linear algebra is the concept of Jordan normal form. In this note, we show how the important notions of diagonalization and Jordan normal form can be introduced and developed through the use of the computer algebra package…

  11. Practical output tracking of switched nonlinear systems in p-normal form with unstable subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Lijun; Zhao, Jun

    2016-08-01

    This paper studies practical output tracking of switched nonlinear systems in p-normal form. No solvability of the practical output tracking problem for subsystems is required. A constructive scheme to solve the problem for a switched nonlinear system is set up by exploiting the single Lyapunov function method and the tool of adding a power integrator. Also, we design a proper switching law and construct state-feedback controllers of subsystems. A two inverted pendulums as a practical example, which cannot be handled by the existing approaches, illustrates our theoretical result.

  12. A method for normalization of X-ray absorption spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, T.-C.; Waldo, G.S.; Penner-Hahn, J.E.

    2010-07-20

    Accurate normalization of X-ray absorption data is essential for quantitative analysis of near-edge features. A method, implemented as the program MBACK, to normalize X-ray absorption data to tabulated mass absorption coefficients is described. Comparison of conventional normalization methods with MBACK demonstrates that the new normalization method is not sensitive to the shape of the background function, thus allowing accurate comparison of data collected in transmission mode with data collected using fluorescence ion chambers or solid-state fluorescence detectors. The new method is shown to have better reliability and consistency and smaller errors than conventional normalization methods. The sensitivity of the new normalization method is illustrated by analysis of data collected during an equilibrium titration.

  13. Method for forming porous platinum films

    DOEpatents

    Maya, Leon

    2000-01-01

    A method for forming a platinum film includes providing a substrate, sputtering a crystalline platinum oxide layer over at least a portion of the substrate, and reducing the crystalline platinum oxide layer to form the platinum film. A device includes a non-conductive substrate and a platinum layer having a density of between about 2 and 5 g/cm.sup.3 formed over at least a portion of the non-conductive substrate. The platinum films produced in accordance with the present invention provide porous films suitable for use as electrodes, yet require few processing steps. Thus, such films are less costly. Such films may be formed on both conductive and non-conductive substrates. While the invention has been illustrated with platinum, other metals, such as noble metals, that form a low density oxide when reactively sputtered may also be used.

  14. Method of forming a chemical composition

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Zollinger, William T.; Wendt, Kraig M.

    2007-10-09

    A method of forming a chemical composition such as a chemical hydride is described and which includes the steps of selecting a composition having chemical bonds and which is capable of forming a chemical hydride; providing a source of hydrogen; and exposing the selected composition to an amount of ionizing radiation to encourage the changing of the chemical bonds of the selected composition, and chemically reacting the selected composition with the source of hydrogen to facilitate the formation of a chemical hydride.

  15. Method for forming cooperative binary ionic solids

    DOEpatents

    Shelnutt, John A.; Martin, Kathleen E.; Wang, Zhongchun; Medforth, Craig J.

    2014-09-09

    A nanostructured molecular unit and method for forming is described where a cationic porphyrin having an ethanolic substituent species and a metal in the porphyrin cavity is combined with an anionic porphyrin having a sulfonate substituent species and a metal in the porphyrin cavity to form by self-assembly a nanostructured molecular unit with a morphology comprising four dendritic elements connected at a central node.

  16. Method for forming cooperative binary ionic solids

    DOEpatents

    Shelnutt, John A.; Martin, Kathleen E.; Wang, Zhongchun; Medforth, Craig J.

    2013-03-05

    A nanostructured molecular unit and method for forming is described where a cationic porphyrin having an ethanolic substituent species and a metal in the porphyrin cavity is combined with an anionic porphyrin having a sulfonate substituent species and a metal in the porphyrin cavity to form by self-assembly a nanostructured molecular unit with a morphology comprising four dendritic elements connected at a central node.

  17. Slab edge insulating form system and methods

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Brain E.; Barsun, Stephan K.; Bourne, Richard C.; Hoeschele, Marc A.; Springer, David A.

    2009-10-06

    A method of forming an insulated concrete foundation is provided comprising constructing a foundation frame, the frame comprising an insulating form having an opening, inserting a pocket former into the opening; placing concrete inside the foundation frame; and removing the pocket former after the placed concrete has set, wherein the concrete forms a pocket in the placed concrete that is accessible through the opening. The method may further comprise sealing the opening by placing a sealing plug or sealing material in the opening. A system for forming an insulated concrete foundation is provided comprising a plurality of interconnected insulating forms, the insulating forms having a rigid outer member protecting and encasing an insulating material, and at least one gripping lip extending outwardly from the outer member to provide a pest barrier. At least one insulating form has an opening into which a removable pocket former is inserted. The system may also provide a tension anchor positioned in the pocket former and a tendon connected to the tension anchor.

  18. Methods of forming semiconductor devices and devices formed using such methods

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Robert V; Rodriguez, Rene G; Pak, Joshua

    2013-05-21

    Single source precursors are subjected to carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The carbon dioxide may be in a supercritical state. Single source precursors also may be subjected to supercritical fluids other than supercritical carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The methods may be used to form nanoparticles. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form chalcopyrite materials. Devices such as, for example, semiconductor devices may be fabricated that include such particles. Methods of forming semiconductor devices include subjecting single source precursors to carbon dioxide to form particles of semiconductor material, and establishing electrical contact between the particles and an electrode.

  19. Atomization methods for forming magnet powders

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, C.H.; Branagan, D.J.; Hyde, T.A.

    2000-02-08

    The invention encompasses methods of utilizing atomization, methods for forming magnet powders, methods for forming magnets, and methods for forming bonded magnets. The invention further encompasses methods for simulating atomization conditions. In one aspect, the invention includes an atomization method for forming a magnet powder comprising: (a) forming a melt comprising R{sub 2.1}Q{sub 13.9}B{sub 1}, Z and X, wherein R is a rare earth element; X is an element selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and mixtures thereof; Q is an element selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co and mixtures thereof; and Z is an element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf and mixtures thereof; (b) atomizing the melt to form generally spherical alloy powder granules having an internal structure comprising at least one of a substantially amorphous phase or a substantially nanocrystalline phase; and (c) heat treating the alloy powder to increase an energy product of the alloy powder; after the heat treatment, the alloy powder comprising an energy product of at least 10 MGOe. In another aspect, the invention includes a magnet comprising R, Q, B, Z and X, wherein R is a rare earth element; X is an element selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and mixtures thereof; Q is an element selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co and mixtures thereof; and Z is an element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf and mixtures thereof; the magnet comprising an internal structure comprising R{sub 2.1}Q{sub 13.9}B{sub 1}.

  20. Atomization methods for forming magnet powders

    DOEpatents

    Sellers, Charles H.; Branagan, Daniel J.; Hyde, Timothy A.

    2000-01-01

    The invention encompasses methods of utilizing atomization, methods for forming magnet powders, methods for forming magnets, and methods for forming bonded magnets. The invention further encompasses methods for simulating atomization conditions. In one aspect, the invention includes an atomization method for forming a magnet powder comprising: a) forming a melt comprising R.sub.2.1 Q.sub.13.9 B.sub.1, Z and X, wherein R is a rare earth element; X is an element selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and mixtures thereof; Q is an element selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co and mixtures thereof; and Z is an element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf and mixtures thereof; b) atomizing the melt to form generally spherical alloy powder granules having an internal structure comprising at least one of a substantially amorphous phase or a substantially nanocrystalline phase; and c) heat treating the alloy powder to increase an energy product of the alloy powder; after the heat treatment, the alloy powder comprising an energy product of at least 10 MGOe. In another aspect, the invention includes a magnet comprising R, Q, B, Z and X, wherein R is a rare earth element; X is an element selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and mixtures thereof; Q is an element selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co and mixtures thereof; and Z is an element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf and mixtures thereof; the magnet comprising an internal structure comprising R.sub.2.1 Q.sub.13.9 B.sub.1.

  1. Die singulation method and package formed thereby

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Robert C [Tucson, AZ; Shul, Randy J [Albuquerque, NM; Clews, Peggy J [Tijeras, NM; Baker, Michael S [Albuquerque, NM; De Boer, Maarten P [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-08-07

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a substrate having a sacrificial layer and one or more device layers, with a retainer being formed in the device layer(s) and anchored to the substrate. Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) etching of a trench through the substrate from the bottom side defines a shape for each die. A handle wafer is then attached to the bottom side of the substrate, and the sacrificial layer is etched to singulate the die and to form a frame from the retainer and the substrate. The frame and handle wafer, which retain the singulated die in place, can be attached together with a clamp or a clip and to form a package for the singulated die. One or more stops can be formed from the device layer(s) to limit a sliding motion of the singulated die.

  2. Method for forming ceramic materials, including superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Baney, R.H.; Bergstrom, D.F.; Justice, B.H.

    1991-02-19

    This patent describes a method for forming high temperature superconductors of the general formula Ln{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub (7 {minus} {ital d})}, Ln (7 {minus} d), where Ln is selected from the group consisting of yttrium (Y), lanthanum (La), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), holmium (Ho), erbium (Er), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb), and lutetium (Lu), and d is less than .5. The method comprises forming a solution by dissolving compatible, pyrolyzable compounds of Ln, Ba and Cu in at least one organic solvent in a molar ratio of approximately 1:2:3, at least one of the pyrolyzable compounds being an iodide salt of one of the metals; evaporating the solvent to form a residue of the pyrolyzable compounds; pyrolyzing the residue in an oxygen containing environment to convert them to oxides.

  3. Method of forming an HTS article

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Zhang, Xun; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2014-08-19

    A method of forming a superconducting article includes providing a substrate tape, forming a superconducting layer overlying the substrate tape, and depositing a capping layer overlying the superconducting layer. The capping layer includes a noble metal and has a thickness not greater than about 1.0 micron. The method further includes electrodepositing a stabilizer layer overlying the capping layer using a solution that is non-reactive to the superconducting layer. The superconducting layer has an as-formed critical current I.sub.C(AF) and a post-stabilized critical current I.sub.C(PS). The I.sub.C(PS) is at least about 95% of the I.sub.C(AF).

  4. Methods for forming wellbores in heated formations

    DOEpatents

    Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona; Mansure, Arthur James

    2012-09-25

    A method for forming a wellbore in a heated formation includes flowing liquid cooling fluid to a bottom hole assembly in a wellbore in a heated formation. At least a portion of the liquid cooling fluid is vaporized at or near a region to be cooled. Vaporizing the liquid cooling fluid absorbs heat from the region to be cooled.

  5. Method of forming aluminum oxynitride material and bodies formed by such methods

    DOEpatents

    Bakas, Michael P [Ammon, ID; Lillo, Thomas M [Idaho Falls, ID; Chu, Henry S [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-11-16

    Methods of forming aluminum oxynitride (AlON) materials include sintering green bodies comprising aluminum orthophosphate or another sacrificial material therein. Such green bodies may comprise aluminum, oxygen, and nitrogen in addition to the aluminum orthophosphate. For example, the green bodies may include a mixture of aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, and aluminum orthophosphate or another sacrificial material. Additional methods of forming aluminum oxynitride (AlON) materials include sintering a green body including a sacrificial material therein, using the sacrificial material to form pores in the green body during sintering, and infiltrating the pores formed in the green body with a liquid infiltrant during sintering. Bodies are formed using such methods.

  6. Pre-form ceramic matrix composite cavity and method of forming and method of forming a ceramic matrix composite component

    DOEpatents

    Monaghan, Philip Harold; Delvaux, John McConnell; Taxacher, Glenn Curtis

    2015-06-09

    A pre-form CMC cavity and method of forming pre-form CMC cavity for a ceramic matrix component includes providing a mandrel, applying a base ply to the mandrel, laying-up at least one CMC ply on the base ply, removing the mandrel, and densifying the base ply and the at least one CMC ply. The remaining densified base ply and at least one CMC ply form a ceramic matrix component having a desired geometry and a cavity formed therein. Also provided is a method of forming a CMC component.

  7. Methods of Assessing and Achieving Normality Applied to Environmental Data

    PubMed

    Mateu

    1997-09-01

    / It has been recognized for a long time that data transformation methods capable of achieving normality of distributions could have a crucial role in statistical analysis, especially towards an efficient application of techniques such as analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis. Normality is a basic assumption in many of the statistical methods used in the environmental sciences and is very often neglected. In this paper several techniques to test normality of distributions are proposed and analyzed. Confidence intervals and nonparametric tests are used and discussed. Basic and Box-Cox transformations are the suggested methods to achieve normal variables. Finally, we develop an application related to environmental data with atmospheric parameters and SO2 and particle concentrations. Results show that the analyzed transformations work well and are very useful to achieve normal distributions.KEY WORDS: Normal distribution; Kurtosis; Skewness; Confidence intervals; Box-Cox transformations; Nonparametric tests

  8. The Normalized Reduced Form and Cell Mathematical Tools for Lattice Analysis-Symmetry and Similarity.

    PubMed

    Mighell, Alan D

    2003-01-01

    To intelligently and effectively use crystallographic databases, mathematical and computer tools are required that can elucidate diverse types of intra- and interlattice relationships. Two such tools are the normalized reduced form and normalized reduced cell. Practical experience has revealed that the first tool-the normalized reduced form-is very helpful in establishing lattice metric symmetry as it enables one to readily deduce significant relationships between the elements of the reduced form. Likewise research with crystallographic databases has demonstrated that the second tool-the normalized reduced cell-plays a vital role in determining metrically similar lattices. Knowledge of similar lattices has practical value in solving structures, in assignment of structure types, in materials design, and in nano-technology. In addition to using the reduced cell, it is recommended that lattice-matching strategies based on the normalized reduced cell be routinely carried out in database searching, in data evaluation, and in experimental work.

  9. High temperature methods for forming oxidizer fuel

    DOEpatents

    Bravo, Jose Luis [Houston, TX

    2011-01-11

    A method of treating a formation fluid includes providing formation fluid from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, hydrocarbons, hydrogen or mixtures thereof. Molecular oxygen is separated from air to form a molecular oxygen stream comprising molecular oxygen. The first gas stream is combined with the molecular oxygen stream to form a combined stream comprising molecular oxygen and the first gas stream. The combined stream is provided to one or more downhole burners.

  10. Invariant manifolds of an autonomous ordinary differential equation from its generalized normal forms.

    PubMed

    Palacián, Jesús

    2003-12-01

    A method to approximate some invariant sets of dynamical systems defined through an autonomous m-dimensional ordinary differential equation is presented. Our technique is based on the calculation of formal symmetries and generalized normal forms associated with the system of equations, making use of Lie transformations for smooth vector fields. Once a symmetry is determined up to a certain order, a reduction map allows us to pass from the equation in normal form to a related equation in a certain reduced space, the so-called reduced system of dimension s

  11. Method for forming suspended micromechanical structures

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G.

    2000-01-01

    A micromachining method is disclosed for forming a suspended micromechanical structure from {111} crystalline silicon. The micromachining method is based on the use of anisotropic dry etching to define lateral features of the structure which are etched down into a {111}-silicon substrate to a first etch depth, thereby forming sidewalls of the structure. The sidewalls are then coated with a protection layer, and the substrate is dry etched to a second etch depth to define a spacing of the structure from the substrate. A selective anisotropic wet etchant (e.g. KOH, EDP, TMAH, NaOH or CsOH) is used to laterally undercut the structure between the first and second etch depths, thereby forming a substantially planar lower surface of the structure along a {111} crystal plane that is parallel to an upper surface of the structure. The lateral extent of undercutting by the wet etchant is controlled and effectively terminated by either timing the etching, by the location of angled {111}-silicon planes or by the locations of preformed etch-stops. This present method allows the formation of suspended micromechanical structures having large vertical dimensions and large masses while allowing for detailed lateral features which can be provided by dry etch definition. Additionally, the method of the present invention is compatible with the formation of electronic circuitry on the substrate.

  12. Method for forming electrically charged laser targets

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Ronald K.; Hunt, Angus L.

    1979-01-01

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  13. The Normalized Reduced Form and Cell Mathematical Tools for Lattice Analysis—Symmetry and Similarity

    PubMed Central

    Mighell, Alan D.

    2003-01-01

    To intelligently and effectively use crystallographic databases, mathematical and computer tools are required that can elucidate diverse types of intra- and interlattice relationships. Two such tools are the normalized reduced form and normalized reduced cell. Practical experience has revealed that the first tool—the normalized reduced form—is very helpful in establishing lattice metric symmetry as it enables one to readily deduce significant relationships between the elements of the reduced form. Likewise research with crystallographic databases has demonstrated that the second tool—the normalized reduced cell—plays a vital role in determining metrically similar lattices. Knowledge of similar lattices has practical value in solving structures, in assignment of structure types, in materials design, and in nano-technology. In addition to using the reduced cell, it is recommended that lattice-matching strategies based on the normalized reduced cell be routinely carried out in database searching, in data evaluation, and in experimental work. PMID:27413622

  14. Exact traveling wave solutions of the van der Waals normal form for fluidized granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abourabia, A. M.; Morad, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    Analytical solutions of the van der Waals normal form for fluidized granular media have been done to study the phase separation phenomenon by using two different exact methods. The Painlevé analysis is discussed to illustrate the integrability of the model equation. An auto-Bäcklund transformation is presented via the truncated expansion and symbolic computation. The results show that the exact solutions of the model introduce solitary waves of different types. The solutions of the hydrodynamic model and the van der Waals equation exhibit a behavior similar to the one observed in molecular dynamic simulations such that two pairs of shock and rarefaction waves appear and move away, giving rise to the bubbles. The dispersion properties and the relation between group and phase velocities of the model equation are studied using the plane wave assumption. The diagrams are drawn to illustrate the physical properties of the exact solutions, and indicate their stability and bifurcation.

  15. Normal forms for linear mode conversion and Landau-Zener transitions in one dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, W.G.; Littlejohn, R.G.

    1994-09-01

    Standard eikonal methods for the asymptotic analysis of coupled linear wave equations may fail when two eigenvalues of a matrix (the dispersion matrix) associated with the wave operator are both small in the same region of wave phase space. In this region the two eikonal modes associated with the two small eigenvalues are coupled, leading to a process called linear mode conversion or Landau-Zener coupling. A theory of linear mode conversion is presented in which geometric structure is emphasized. This theory is then used to identify the most generic type of mode conversion which occurs in one dimension. Finally, a general solution for this generic mode conversion problem is derived by transforming an arbitrary equation exhibiting generic mode conversion into an easily solvable normal form. This solution is given as a connection rule, with which one may continue standard eikonal wave solutions through mode conversion regions. 51 refs., 13 figs.

  16. Method for forming suspended micromechanical structures

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, J.G.

    2000-02-01

    A micromachining method is disclosed for forming a suspended micromechanical structure from {l{underscore}brace}111{r{underscore}brace} crystalline silicon. The micromachining method is based on the use of anisotropic dry etching to define lateral features of the structure which are etched down into a {l{underscore}brace}111{r{underscore}brace}-silicon substrate to a first etch depth, thereby forming sidewalls of the structure. The sidewalls are then coated with a protection layer, and the substrate is dry etched to a second etch depth to define a spacing of the structure from the substrate. A selective anisotropic wet etchant (e.g., KOH, EDP, TMAH, NaOH or CsOH) is used to laterally undercut the structure between the first and second etch depths, thereby forming a substantially planar lower surface of the structure along a {l{underscore}brace}111{r{underscore}brace} crystal plane that is parallel to an upper surface of the structure. The lateral extent of undercutting by the wet etchant is controlled and effectively terminated by either timing the etching, by the location of angled {l{underscore}brace}111{r{underscore}brace}-silicon planes or by the locations of preformed etch-stops. This present method allows the formation of suspended micromechanical structures having large vertical dimensions and large masses while allowing for detailed lateral features which can be provided by dry etch definition. Additionally, the method of the present invention is compatible with the formation of electronic circuitry on the substrate.

  17. Laser-induced differential normalized fluorescence method for cancer diagnosis

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, T.; Panjehpour, M.; Overholt, B.F.

    1996-12-03

    An apparatus and method for cancer diagnosis are disclosed. The diagnostic method includes the steps of irradiating a tissue sample with monochromatic excitation light, producing a laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from emission radiation generated by interaction of the excitation light with the tissue sample, and dividing the intensity at each wavelength of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum by the integrated area under the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum to produce a normalized spectrum. A mathematical difference between the normalized spectrum and an average value of a reference set of normalized spectra which correspond to normal tissues is calculated, which provides for amplifying small changes in weak signals from malignant tissues for improved analysis. The calculated differential normalized spectrum is correlated to a specific condition of a tissue sample. 5 figs.

  18. Laser-induced differential normalized fluorescence method for cancer diagnosis

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Panjehpour, Masoud; Overholt, Bergein F.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for cancer diagnosis are disclosed. The diagnostic method includes the steps of irradiating a tissue sample with monochromatic excitation light, producing a laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from emission radiation generated by interaction of the excitation light with the tissue sample, and dividing the intensity at each wavelength of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum by the integrated area under the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum to produce a normalized spectrum. A mathematical difference between the normalized spectrum and an average value of a reference set of normalized spectra which correspond to normal tissues is calculated, which provides for amplifying small changes in weak signals from malignant tissues for improved analysis. The calculated differential normalized spectrum is correlated to a specific condition of a tissue sample.

  19. Comparison between dental and basal arch forms in normal occlusion and Class III malocclusions utilizing cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Kyung Eun; Park, Jae Hyun; Bayome, Mohamed; Nam, Young-Ok; Sameshima, Glenn T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the mandibular dental and basal arch forms in subjects with normal occlusion and compare them with those of Class III malocclusion using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods CBCT images of 32 normal occlusion (19 males, 13 females; 24.3 years) and 33 Class III malocclusion subjects (20 males, 13 females, 22.2 years) were selected. Facial axis and root center points were identified from the left to right mandibular first molars. Distances between the facial axis and root center points for each tooth were calculated, and 4 linear and 2 ratio variables were measured and calculated for each arch form. The variables were compared between groups by independent t-test. Pearson correlation coefficient was applied to assess the relationships between dental and basal variables within each group. Results The mandibular dental and basal intercanine widths were significantly greater in the Class III group than in normal occlusion subjects (p < 0.05). The dental and basal intercanine widths as well as the dental and basal intermolar widths were strongly correlated in normal occlusion and moderately correlated in Class III malocclusion. Conclusions The dental arch form demon strated a strong positive correlation with the basal arch form in the normal occlusion group and moderate correlation in the Class III malocclusion group. These results might be helpful for clinicians to have a better understanding of the importance of basal arch form in the alveolar bone. PMID:23504406

  20. Method of forming a foamed thermoplastic polymer

    DOEpatents

    Duchane, David V.; Cash, David L.

    1986-01-01

    A method of forming a foamed thermoplastic polymer. A solid thermoplastic lymer is immersed in an immersant solution comprising a compatible carrier solvent and an infusant solution containing an incompatible liquid blowing agent for a time sufficient for the immersant solution to infuse into the polymer. The carrier solvent is then selectively extracted, preferably by a solvent exchange process in which the immersant solution is gradually diluted with and replaced by the infusant solution, so as to selectively leave behind the infusant solution permanently entrapped in the polymer. The polymer is then heated to volatilize the blowing agent and expand the polymer into a foamed state.

  1. Method for forming a solar array strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, R. I.; Yasui, R. K. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A flexible solar array strip is formed by a method which lends itself to automatic production techniques. Solder pads are deposited on printed circuitry deposited on a flexible structure. The resultant substrate is stored on a drum from which it is withdrawn and incrementally advanced along a linear path. Solderless solar cells are serially transported into engagement with the pads which are then heated in order to attach the cells to the circuitry. Excess flux is cleaned from the cells which are encapsulated in a protective coating. The resultant array is then spirally wound on a drum.

  2. Method of forming and assembly of parts

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B.

    2010-12-28

    A method of assembling two or more parts together that may be metal, ceramic, metal and ceramic parts, or parts that have different CTE. Individual parts are formed and sintered from particles that leave a network of interconnecting porosity in each sintered part. The separate parts are assembled together and then a fill material is infiltrated into the assembled, sintered parts using a method such as capillary action, gravity, and/or pressure. The assembly is then cured to yield a bonded and fully or near-fully dense part that has the desired physical and mechanical properties for the part's intended purpose. Structural strength may be added to the parts by the inclusion of fibrous materials.

  3. Applications of the DA based normal form algorithm on parameter-dependent perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisskopf, Adrian

    Many advanced models in physics use a simpler system as the foundation upon which problemspecific perturbation terms are added. There are many mathematical methods in perturbation theory which attempt to solve or at least approximate the solution for the advanced model based on the solution of the unperturbed system. The analytical approaches have the advantage that their approximation is an algebraic expression relating all involved quantities in the calculated solution up to a certain order. However, the complexity of the calculation often increases drastically with the number of iterations, variables, and parameters considered. On the other hand, the computer-based numerical approaches are fast once implemented, but their results are only numerical approximations without a symbolic form. A numerical integrator, for example, takes the initial values and integrates the ordinary differential equation up to the requested final state and yields the result as specific numbers. Therefore, no algebraic expression, much less a parameter dependence within the solution is given. The method presented in this work is based on the differential algebra (DA) framework, which was first developed to its current extent by Martin Berz et. al [3, 4, 5]. The used DA Normal Form Algorithm is an advancement by Martin Berz from the first arbitrary order algorithm by Forest, Berz, and Irwin [13], which was based on an DA-Lie approach. Both structures are already implemented in COSY INFINITY [18] documented in [7, 16, 17]. The result of the presented method is a numerically calculated algebraic expression of the solution up to an arbitrary truncation order. This method combines the effectiveness and automatic calculation of a computer-based numerical approximation and the algebraic relation between the involved quantities.

  4. Method of forming a dianhydrosugar alcohol

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Johnathan E.; Hu, Jianli; Wang, Yong; Werpy, Todd A.; Zhang, Xinjie

    2010-01-19

    The invention includes methods of producing dianhydrosugars. A polyol is reacted in the presence of a first catalyst to form a monocyclic sugar. The monocyclic sugar is transferred to a second reactor where it is converted to a dianhydrosugar alcohol in the presence of a second catalyst. The invention includes a process of forming isosorbide. An initial reaction is conducted at a first temperature in the presence of a solid acid catalyst. The initial reaction involves reacting sorbitol to produce 1,4-sorbitan, 3,6-sorbitan, 2,5-mannitan and 2,5-iditan. Utilizing a second temperature, the 1,4-sorbitan and 3,6-sorbitan are converted to isosorbide. The invention includes a method of purifying isosorbide from a mixture containing isosorbide and at least one additional component. A first distillation removes a first portion of the isosorbide from the mixture. A second distillation is then conducted at a higher temperature to remove a second portion of isosorbide from the mixture.

  5. Piecewise smooth dynamical systems: Persistence of periodic solutions and normal forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, Márcio R. A.; Llibre, Jaume; Novaes, Douglas D.; Pessoa, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    We consider an n-dimensional piecewise smooth vector field with two zones separated by a hyperplane Σ which admits an invariant hyperplane Ω transversal to Σ containing a period annulus A fulfilled by crossing periodic solutions. For small discontinuous perturbations of these systems we develop a Melnikov-like function to control the persistence of periodic solutions contained in A. When n = 3 we provide normal forms for the piecewise linear case. Finally we apply the Melnikov-like function to study discontinuous perturbations of the given normal forms.

  6. A method to dynamic stochastic multicriteria decision making with log-normally distributed random variables.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Fan; Wang, Jian-Qiang; Deng, Sheng-Yue

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the dynamic stochastic multicriteria decision making (SMCDM) problems, in which the criterion values take the form of log-normally distributed random variables, and the argument information is collected from different periods. We propose two new geometric aggregation operators, such as the log-normal distribution weighted geometric (LNDWG) operator and the dynamic log-normal distribution weighted geometric (DLNDWG) operator, and develop a method for dynamic SMCDM with log-normally distributed random variables. This method uses the DLNDWG operator and the LNDWG operator to aggregate the log-normally distributed criterion values, utilizes the entropy model of Shannon to generate the time weight vector, and utilizes the expectation values and variances of log-normal distributions to rank the alternatives and select the best one. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of this developed method.

  7. Method for forming a glove attachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, Frederic S. (Inventor); Guy, Walter W. (Inventor); Kosmo, Joseph (Inventor); Drennan, Arthur P. (Inventor); Tschirch, Richard P. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An attachment principally for the palm of an astronaut glove to enhance the gripping area of the palm without detracting from the flexibility and utility of the glove is presented. The attachment is a composite construction formed from a layer of silicone rubber having an outer surface with a friction configuration and another layer of silicone rubber in which a Nomex Aramid mesh fabric is embedded prior to curing. The method of construction involves the use of a mold with a friction configuration surface. A first layer of silicone rubber or sealant is disposed in the mold and allowed to set for an hour. A second layer of silicone rubber or sealant is layered over the first layer and leveled. A Nomex Aramid mesh fabric is embedded into the second layer and the composite is permitted to cure. When cured, a configured area of the composite construction is glued or stitched to the palm area of the glove.

  8. Method for forming a chemical microreactor

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Jeffrey D [Martinez, CA; Jankowski, Alan [Livermore, CA

    2009-05-19

    Disclosed is a chemical microreactor that provides a means to generate hydrogen fuel from liquid sources such as ammonia, methanol, and butane through steam reforming processes when mixed with an appropriate amount of water. The microreactor contains capillary microchannels with integrated resistive heaters to facilitate the occurrence of catalytic steam reforming reactions. Two distinct embodiment styles are discussed. One embodiment style employs a packed catalyst capillary microchannel and at least one porous membrane. Another embodiment style employs a porous membrane with a large surface area or a porous membrane support structure containing a plurality of porous membranes having a large surface area in the aggregate, i.e., greater than about 1 m.sup.2/cm.sup.3. Various methods to form packed catalyst capillary microchannels, porous membranes and porous membrane support structures are also disclosed.

  9. Methods for Detecting the Environmental Coccoid Form of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Mazaheri Assadi, Mahnaz; Chamanrokh, Parastoo; Whitehouse, Chris A.; Huq, Anwar

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is recognized as the most common pathogen to cause gastritis, peptic and duodenal ulcers, and gastric cancer. The organisms are found in two forms: (1) spiral-shaped bacillus and (2) coccoid. H. pylori coccoid form, generally found in the environment, is the transformed form of the normal spiral-shaped bacillus after exposed to water or adverse environmental conditions such as exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents. The putative infectious capability and the viability of H. pylori under environmental conditions are controversial. This disagreement is partially due to the fact of lack in detecting the coccoid form of H. pylori in the environment. Accurate and effective detection methods of H. pylori will lead to rapid treatment and disinfection, and less human health damages and reduction in health care costs. In this review, we provide a brief introduction to H. pylori environmental coccoid forms, their transmission, and detection methods. We further discuss the use of these detection methods including their accuracy and efficiency. PMID:26075197

  10. Birkhoff normal forms and KAM theory for Gumowski-Mira equation.

    PubMed

    Kulenović, M R S; Nurkanović, Z; Pilav, E

    2014-01-01

    By using the KAM theory we investigate the stability of equilibrium solutions of the Gumowski-Mira equation: xn+1=(2ax n)/(1+x n2)-xn-1, n=0,1,…, where x-1, x0∈(-∞,∞), and we obtain the Birkhoff normal forms for this equation for different equilibrium solutions.

  11. Birkhoff Normal Forms and KAM Theory for Gumowski-Mira Equation

    PubMed Central

    Kulenović, M. R. S.; Nurkanović, Z.; Pilav, E.

    2014-01-01

    By using the KAM theory we investigate the stability of equilibrium solutions of the Gumowski-Mira equation: x n+1 = (2ax n)/(1 + x n 2) − x n−1, n = 0,1,…, where x −1, x 0 ∈ (−∞, ∞), and we obtain the Birkhoff normal forms for this equation for different equilibrium solutions. PMID:24558333

  12. Polynomial Normal Forms for Some Germs of Nonstrongly 1-Resonant Diffeomorphisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lingling; Ren, Zhihua

    2015-12-01

    We study in this paper a class of smoothly finite determined germs of diffeomorphisms which have infinitely many resonant relations near a nonstrongly 1-resonant fixed point on ℝ3 and derive the simplest normal forms of such germs with nondegenerated nonlinear parts.

  13. Normal forms for sub-Lorentzian metrics supported on Engel type distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grochowski, Marek

    2014-06-01

    We construct normal forms for Lorentzian metrics on Engel distributions under the assumption that abnormal curves are timelike future directed Hamiltonian geodesics. Then we indicate some cases in which the abnormal timelike future directed curve initiating at the origin is geometrically optimal. We also give certain estimates for reachable sets from a point.

  14. Integrating Boolean Queries in Conjunctive Normal Form with Probabilistic Retrieval Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losee, Robert M.; Bookstein, Abraham

    1988-01-01

    Presents a model that places Boolean database queries into conjunctive normal form, thereby allowing probabilistic ranking of documents and the incorporation of relevance feedback. Experimental results compare the performance of a sequential learning probabilistic retrieval model with the proposed integrated Boolean probabilistic model and a fuzzy…

  15. Method of forming composite fiber blends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMahon, Paul E. (Inventor); Chung, Tai-Shung (Inventor); Ying, Lincoln (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The instant invention involves a process used in preparing fibrous tows which may be formed into polymeric plastic composites. The process involves the steps of (a) forming a tow of strong filamentary materials; (b) forming a thermoplastic polymeric fiber; (c) intermixing the two tows; and (d) withdrawing the intermixed tow for further use.

  16. A restricted signature normal form for Hermitian matrices, quasi-spectral decompositions, and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Roland W.; Huckle, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, a number of results on the relationships between the inertias of Hermitian matrices and the inertias of their principal submatrices appeared in the literature. We study restricted congruence transformation of Hermitian matrices M which, at the same time, induce a congruence transformation of a given principal submatrix A of M. Such transformations lead to concept of the restricted signature normal form of M. In particular, by means of this normal form, we obtain short proofs of most of the known inertia theorems and also derive some new results of this type. For some applications, a special class of almost unitary restricted congruence transformations turns out to be useful. We show that, with such transformations, M can be reduced to a quasi-diagonal form which, in particular, displays the eigenvalues of A. Finally, applications of this quasi-spectral decomposition to generalize inverses and Hermitian matrix pencils are discussed.

  17. Reconstruction of normal forms by learning informed observation geometries from data.

    PubMed

    Yair, Or; Talmon, Ronen; Coifman, Ronald R; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G

    2017-09-19

    The discovery of physical laws consistent with empirical observations is at the heart of (applied) science and engineering. These laws typically take the form of nonlinear differential equations depending on parameters; dynamical systems theory provides, through the appropriate normal forms, an "intrinsic" prototypical characterization of the types of dynamical regimes accessible to a given model. Using an implementation of data-informed geometry learning, we directly reconstruct the relevant "normal forms": a quantitative mapping from empirical observations to prototypical realizations of the underlying dynamics. Interestingly, the state variables and the parameters of these realizations are inferred from the empirical observations; without prior knowledge or understanding, they parametrize the dynamics intrinsically without explicit reference to fundamental physical quantities.

  18. Normalization methods in time series of platelet function assays

    PubMed Central

    Van Poucke, Sven; Zhang, Zhongheng; Roest, Mark; Vukicevic, Milan; Beran, Maud; Lauwereins, Bart; Zheng, Ming-Hua; Henskens, Yvonne; Lancé, Marcus; Marcus, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Platelet function can be quantitatively assessed by specific assays such as light-transmission aggregometry, multiple-electrode aggregometry measuring the response to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid, collagen, and thrombin-receptor activating peptide and viscoelastic tests such as rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). The task of extracting meaningful statistical and clinical information from high-dimensional data spaces in temporal multivariate clinical data represented in multivariate time series is complex. Building insightful visualizations for multivariate time series demands adequate usage of normalization techniques. In this article, various methods for data normalization (z-transformation, range transformation, proportion transformation, and interquartile range) are presented and visualized discussing the most suited approach for platelet function data series. Normalization was calculated per assay (test) for all time points and per time point for all tests. Interquartile range, range transformation, and z-transformation demonstrated the correlation as calculated by the Spearman correlation test, when normalized per assay (test) for all time points. When normalizing per time point for all tests, no correlation could be abstracted from the charts as was the case when using all data as 1 dataset for normalization. PMID:27428217

  19. Method of forming metal hydride films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, R.; Alger, D. L.; Cooper, D. W. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The substrate to be coated (which may be of metal, glass or the like) is cleaned, both chemically and by off-sputtering in a vacuum chamber. In an ultra-high vacuum system, vapor deposition by a sublimator or vaporizer coats a cooled shroud disposed around the substrate with a thin film of hydride forming metal which getters any contaminant gas molecules. A shutter is then opened to allow hydride forming metal to be deposited as a film or coating on the substrate. After the hydride forming metal coating is formed, deuterium or other hydrogen isotopes are bled into the vacuum system and diffused into the metal film or coating to form a hydride of metal film. Higher substrate temperatures and pressures may be used if various parameters are appropriately adjusted.

  20. Comparison of normalization methods for CodeLink Bioarray data

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Dave, Nilesh; Tseng, George C; Richards, Thomas; Xing, Eric P; Kaminski, Naftali

    2005-01-01

    Background The quality of microarray data can seriously affect the accuracy of downstream analyses. In order to reduce variability and enhance signal reproducibility in these data, many normalization methods have been proposed and evaluated, most of which are for data obtained from cDNA microarrays and Affymetrix GeneChips. CodeLink Bioarrays are a newly emerged, single-color oligonucleotide microarray platform. To date, there are no reported studies that evaluate normalization methods for CodeLink Bioarrays. Results We compared five existing normalization approaches, in terms of both noise reduction and signal retention: Median (suggested by the manufacturer), CyclicLoess, Quantile, Iset, and Qspline. These methods were applied to two real datasets (a time course dataset and a lung disease-related dataset) generated by CodeLink Bioarrays and were assessed using multiple statistical significance tests. Compared to Median, CyclicLoess and Qspline exhibit a significant and the most consistent improvement in reduction of variability and retention of signal. CyclicLoess appears to retain more signal than Qspline. Quantile reduces more variability than Median in both datasets, yet fails to consistently retain more signal in the time course dataset. Iset does not improve over Median in either noise reduction or signal enhancement in the time course dataset. Conclusion Median is insufficient either to reduce variability or to retain signal effectively for CodeLink Bioarray data. CyclicLoess is a more suitable approach for normalizing these data. CyclicLoess also seems to be the most effective method among the five different normalization strategies examined. PMID:16381608

  1. A new method to real-normalize measured complex modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Max L.; Allemang, Randall J.; Zhang, Qiang; Brown, David L.

    1987-01-01

    A time domain subspace iteration technique is presented to compute a set of normal modes from the measured complex modes. By using the proposed method, a large number of physical coordinates are reduced to a smaller number of model or principal coordinates. Subspace free decay time responses are computed using properly scaled complex modal vectors. Companion matrix for the general case of nonproportional damping is then derived in the selected vector subspace. Subspace normal modes are obtained through eigenvalue solution of the (M sub N) sup -1 (K sub N) matrix and transformed back to the physical coordinates to get a set of normal modes. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the outlined theory.

  2. NOLB: Nonlinear Rigid Block Normal-Mode Analysis Method.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Alexandre; Grudinin, Sergei

    2017-05-09

    We present a new conceptually simple and computationally efficient method for nonlinear normal-mode analysis called NOLB. It relies on the rotations-translations of blocks (RTB) theoretical basis developed by Y.-H. Sanejouand and colleagues [ Durand et al. Biopolymers 1994 , 34 , 759 - 771 . Tama et al. Proteins: Struct., Funct., Bioinf . 2000 , 41 , 1 - 7 ]. We demonstrate how to physically interpret the eigenvalues computed in the RTB basis in terms of angular and linear velocities applied to the rigid blocks and how to construct a nonlinear extrapolation of motion out of these velocities. The key observation of our method is that the angular velocity of a rigid block can be interpreted as the result of an implicit force, such that the motion of the rigid block can be considered as a pure rotation about a certain center. We demonstrate the motions produced with the NOLB method on three different molecular systems and show that some of the lowest frequency normal modes correspond to the biologically relevant motions. For example, NOLB detects the spiral sliding motion of the TALE protein, which is capable of rapid diffusion along its target DNA. Overall, our method produces better structures compared to the standard approach, especially at large deformation amplitudes, as we demonstrate by visual inspection, energy, and topology analyses and also by the MolProbity service validation. Finally, our method is scalable and can be applied to very large molecular systems, such as ribosomes. Standalone executables of the NOLB normal-mode analysis method are available at https://team.inria.fr/nano-d/software/nolb-normal-modes/ . A graphical user interface created for the SAMSON software platform will be made available at https://www.samson-connect.net .

  3. Elevated temperature forming method and preheater apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Krajewski, Paul E; Hammar, Richard Harry; Singh, Jugraj; Cedar, Dennis; Friedman, Peter A; Luo, Yingbing

    2013-06-11

    An elevated temperature forming system in which a sheet metal workpiece is provided in a first stage position of a multi-stage pre-heater, is heated to a first stage temperature lower than a desired pre-heat temperature, is moved to a final stage position where it is heated to a desired final stage temperature, is transferred to a forming press, and is formed by the forming press. The preheater includes upper and lower platens that transfer heat into workpieces disposed between the platens. A shim spaces the upper platen from the lower platen by a distance greater than a thickness of the workpieces to be heated by the platens and less than a distance at which the upper platen would require an undesirably high input of energy to effectively heat the workpiece without being pressed into contact with the workpiece.

  4. Method and Apparatus for Forming Nanodroplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackley, Donald; Forster, Anita

    2011-01-01

    This innovation uses partially miscible fluids to form nano- and microdroplets in a microfluidic droplet generator system. Droplet generators fabricated in PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) are currently being used to fabricate engineered nanoparticles and microparticles. These droplet generators were first demonstrated in a T-junction configuration, followed by a cross-flow configuration. All of these generating devices have used immiscible fluids, such as oil and water. This immiscible fluid system can produce mono-dispersed distributions of droplets and articles with sizes ranging from a few hundred nanometers to a few hundred microns. For applications such as drug delivery, the ability to encapsulate aqueous solutions of drugs within particles formed from the droplets is desirable. Of particular interest are non-polar solvents that can dissolve lipids for the formation of liposomes in the droplet generators. Such fluids include ether, cyclohexane, butanol, and ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate is of particular interest for two reasons. It is relatively nontoxic and it is formed from ether and acetic acid, and maybe broken down into its constituents at relatively low concentrations.

  5. New method for computing ideal MHD normal modes in axisymmetric toroidal geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wysocki, F.; Grimm, R.C.

    1984-11-01

    Analytic elimination of the two magnetic surface components of the displacement vector permits the normal mode ideal MHD equations to be reduced to a scalar form. A Galerkin procedure, similar to that used in the PEST codes, is implemented to determine the normal modes computationally. The method retains the efficient stability capabilities of the PEST 2 energy principle code, while allowing computation of the normal mode frequencies and eigenfunctions, if desired. The procedure is illustrated by comparison with earlier various of PEST and by application to tilting modes in spheromaks, and to stable discrete Alfven waves in tokamak geometry.

  6. Acoustical positioning method using transponders with adaptive signal level normalizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaya, Hirokazu; Mizutani, Koichi; Ebihara, Tadashi; Wakatsuki, Naoto

    2017-07-01

    Acoustical indoor positioning — a technology to locate objects or people inside a building using acoustical signals — is a key technology for contextual awareness and ubiquitous computing. To achieve simple localization, in this paper, we propose a transponder-based indoor positioning method. The proposed method does not require clock synchronization for accurate positioning. Furthermore, by using an adaptive signal level normalizer, the terminal can receive acoustic signals with appropriate levels resulting in accurate positioning. We designed a transponder-based indoor positioning method using audible sound and evaluated its performance in experiments. In experiments, three anchors (transponders) of known position are installed on a ceiling of an anechoic chamber, and positioning is performed by setting a terminal in various points. Positioning experiment results showed that the proposed method can achieve on the order of 0.08 ± 0.02 m positioning.

  7. Methods for Scaling to Doubly Stochastic Form,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-26

    BIRKHOFF, G.: Tres observaciones sobre le algebra lineal , Rev. univ. nec. Tucuman, ser A, . 147-151, [1948] BRUALDI, R.A., S.V. PARTER, and H. SCHNEIDER...scaling square, nonnegative matrices to dou- bly stochastic form are described. A generalized version of the convergence theorem in SINKI-ORN and KNOPP... matrices D and E for a given square nonnegative matrix, A, such that DAE is doubly stochastic--or determine that such :.p h" du:es 7’. -,.xist. A

  8. Method for forming a barrier layer

    DOEpatents

    Weihs, Timothy P.; Barbee, Jr., Troy W.

    2002-01-01

    Cubic or metastable cubic refractory metal carbides act as barrier layers to isolate, adhere, and passivate copper in semiconductor fabrication. One or more barrier layers of the metal carbide are deposited in conjunction with copper metallizations to form a multilayer characterized by a cubic crystal structure with a strong (100) texture. Suitable barrier layer materials include refractory transition metal carbides such as vanadium carbide (VC), niobium carbide (NbC), tantalum carbide (TaC), chromium carbide (Cr.sub.3 C.sub.2), tungsten carbide (WC), and molybdenum carbide (MoC).

  9. Hopf normal form with SN symmetry and reduction to systems of nonlinearly coupled phase oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashwin, Peter; Rodrigues, Ana

    2016-06-01

    Coupled oscillator models where N oscillators are identical and symmetrically coupled to all others with full permutation symmetry SN are found in a variety of applications. Much, but not all, work on phase descriptions of such systems consider the special case of pairwise coupling between oscillators. In this paper, we show this is restrictive-and we characterize generic multi-way interactions between oscillators that are typically present, except at the very lowest order near a Hopf bifurcation where the oscillations emerge. We examine a network of identical weakly coupled dynamical systems that are close to a supercritical Hopf bifurcation by considering two parameters, ɛ (the strength of coupling) and λ (an unfolding parameter for the Hopf bifurcation). For small enough λ > 0 there is an attractor that is the product of N stable limit cycles; this persists as a normally hyperbolic invariant torus for sufficiently small ɛ > 0. Using equivariant normal form theory, we derive a generic normal form for a system of coupled phase oscillators with SN symmetry. For fixed N and taking the limit 0 < ɛ ≪ λ ≪ 1, we show that the attracting dynamics of the system on the torus can be well approximated by a coupled phase oscillator system that, to lowest order, is the well-known Kuramoto-Sakaguchi system of coupled oscillators. The next order of approximation generically includes terms with up to four interacting phases, regardless of N. Using a normalization that maintains nontrivial interactions in the limit N → ∞, we show that the additional terms can lead to new phenomena in terms of coexistence of two-cluster states with the same phase difference but different cluster size.

  10. High molecular gas fractions in normal massive star-forming galaxies in the young Universe.

    PubMed

    Tacconi, L J; Genzel, R; Neri, R; Cox, P; Cooper, M C; Shapiro, K; Bolatto, A; Bouché, N; Bournaud, F; Burkert, A; Combes, F; Comerford, J; Davis, M; Schreiber, N M Förster; Garcia-Burillo, S; Gracia-Carpio, J; Lutz, D; Naab, T; Omont, A; Shapley, A; Sternberg, A; Weiner, B

    2010-02-11

    Stars form from cold molecular interstellar gas. As this is relatively rare in the local Universe, galaxies like the Milky Way form only a few new stars per year. Typical massive galaxies in the distant Universe formed stars an order of magnitude more rapidly. Unless star formation was significantly more efficient, this difference suggests that young galaxies were much more molecular-gas rich. Molecular gas observations in the distant Universe have so far largely been restricted to very luminous, rare objects, including mergers and quasars, and accordingly we do not yet have a clear idea about the gas content of more normal (albeit massive) galaxies. Here we report the results of a survey of molecular gas in samples of typical massive-star-forming galaxies at mean redshifts of about 1.2 and 2.3, when the Universe was respectively 40% and 24% of its current age. Our measurements reveal that distant star forming galaxies were indeed gas rich, and that the star formation efficiency is not strongly dependent on cosmic epoch. The average fraction of cold gas relative to total galaxy baryonic mass at z = 2.3 and z = 1.2 is respectively about 44% and 34%, three to ten times higher than in today's massive spiral galaxies. The slow decrease between z approximately 2 and z approximately 1 probably requires a mechanism of semi-continuous replenishment of fresh gas to the young galaxies.

  11. Heterogeneity of normal prion protein in two- dimensional immunoblot: presence of various glycosylated and truncated forms.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tao; Li, Ruliang; Wong, Boon-Seng; Liu, Tong; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Sy, Man-Sun

    2002-06-01

    The common use of one-dimensional (1-D) immunoblot with a single monoclonal antibody (Mab) engenders the notion that the normal or cellular prion protein (PrP(C) ) comprises few and simple forms. In this study we used two-dimensional (2-D) immunoblot with a panel Mabs to various regions of the prion protein to demonstrate the complexity of the PrP(C) present in human brain. We distinguished over 50 immunoblot spots, each representing a distinct PrP(C) species based on combinations of different molecular weights and isoelectric points (pIs). The PrP(C) heterogeneity is due to the presence of a full-length and two major truncated forms as well as to the diversity of the glycans linked to most of these forms. The two major truncated forms result from distinct cleavage sites located at the N-terminus. In addition, enzymatic removal of sialic acid and lectin binding studies indicate that the glycans linked to the full-length and truncated PrP(C) forms differ in their structure and ratios of the glycoforms. The truncation of PrP(C) and the heterogeneity of the linked glycans may play a role in regulating PrP(C) function. Furthermore, the presence of relatively large quantities of different PrP(C) species may provide additional mechanisms by which the diversity of prion strains could be generated.

  12. Advanced method for making vitreous waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, J.M.; Harrison, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    A process is described for making waste glass that circumvents the problems of dissolving nuclear waste in molten glass at high temperatures. Because the reactive mixing process is independent of the inherent viscosity of the melt, any glass composition can be prepared with equal facility. Separation of the mixing and melting operations permits novel glass fabrication methods to be employed.

  13. Sinai-Ruelle-Bowen measure for normal form map of grazing bifurcations of impact oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Denghui; Chen, Hebai; Xie, Jianhua; Zhang, Jiye

    2017-09-01

    Grazing bifurcations are typical non-smooth bifurcations that occur in impact oscillators. They are described by a discrete map with square-root singularities. In this paper we study the structure of a strange attractor which is the closure of the unstable manifold at hyperbolic fixed point of the normal form map for grazing bifurcations of one-degree-of-freedom impact oscillators from the ergodic theoretic point of view. We prove that for some set of values of the parameters this map has an Sinai-Ruelle-Bowen measure which is supported on the strange attractor and is ergodic.

  14. Solar heating panel forming apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, R.O.

    1981-01-06

    A supply of hollow plastic tubing is obtained from an extrusion and sizing apparatus, or from a supply of hollow tubing on a reel. The hollow tubing is provided at a predetermined speed to a tensioning device which imparts a tension in the hollow tubing and delivers it to a feeding point at one edge of the periphery of a rotating drum. The continuous hollow tubing is wound around the periphery of the drum at the one edge and it is forced axially on the periphery by a helical shoe overlying the periphery at the one edge. A bank of quartz lamps heats one side of the hollow plastic tubing just prior to reaching the feeding point, and another bank of quartz lamps heats the opposite side of the hollow plastic tubing at the one edge of the drum just after the tubing passes the shoe. The two heated surfaces are pressed together by the axial force exerted by the shoe, and are fused in side by side relation to form a cylinder having a wall consisting of spiral turns of the plastic tubing fused together.

  15. An asymptotic analysis of the 1:3:4 Hamiltonian normal form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Bosley, D. L.; Kevorkian, J.

    The normal form of the Hamiltonian 1:3:4 resonance, which exhibits two simultaneous resonances of differing orders, is studied asymptotically. Since the two resonances have different strengths, the exact solution of the primary single resonance system may be used to construct an action-angle transformation. The resulting standard form system is solved asymptotically by canonical near-identity averaging transformations. In addition to the Hamiltonian itself and its unperturbed part, which are two exact constants of the motion, a third independent adiabatic invariant of the original Hamiltonian system is constructed. The results apply directly to the problem of a free electron laser with weak self-fields. A specific model problem is studied numerically to verify the asymptotic validity of the results over long times.

  16. Method of forming and starting a sodium sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Paquette, David G.

    1981-01-01

    A method of forming a sodium sulfur battery and of starting the reactive capability of that battery when heated to a temperature suitable for battery operation is disclosed. An anodic reaction zone is constructed in a manner that sodium is hermetically sealed therein, part of the hermetic seal including fusible material which closes up openings through the container of the anodic reaction zone. The hermetically sealed anodic reaction zone is assembled under normal atmospheric conditions with a suitable cathodic reaction zone and a cation-permeable barrier. When the entire battery is heated to an operational temperature, the fusible material of the hermetically sealed anodic reaction zone is fused, thereby allowing molten sodium to flow from the anodic reaction zone into reactive engagement with the cation-permeable barrier.

  17. Method for forming polymerized microfluidic devices

    DOEpatents

    Sommer, Gregory J.; Hatch, Anson V.; Wang, Ying-Chih; Singh, Anup K.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Claudnic, Mark R.

    2013-03-12

    Methods for making a microfluidic device according to embodiments of the present invention include defining.about.cavity. Polymer precursor solution is positioned in the cavity, and exposed to light to begin the polymerization process and define a microchannel. In some embodiments, after the polymerization process is partially complete, a solvent rinse is performed, or fresh polymer precursor introduced into the microchannel. This may promote removal of unpolymerized material from the microchannel and enable smaller feature sizes. The polymer precursor solution may contain an iniferter. Polymerized features therefore may be capped with the iniferter, which is photoactive. The iniferter may aid later binding of a polyacrylamide gel to the microchannel surface.

  18. Method for forming polymerized microfluidic devices

    DOEpatents

    Sommer, Gregory J [Livermore, CA; Hatch, Anson V [Tracy, CA; Wang, Ying-Chih [Pleasanton, CA; Singh, Anup K [Danville, CA; Renzi, Ronald F [Tracy, CA; Claudnic, Mark R [Livermore, CA

    2011-11-01

    Methods for making a micofluidic device according to embodiments of the present invention include defining a cavity. Polymer precursor solution is positioned in the cavity, and exposed to light to begin the polymerization process and define a microchannel. In some embodiments, after the polymerization process is partially complete, a solvent rinse is performed, or fresh polymer precursor introduced into the microchannel. This may promote removal of unpolymerized material from the microchannel and enable smaller feature sizes. The polymer precursor solution may contain an iniferter. Polymerized features therefore may be capped with the iniferter, which is photoactive. The iniferter may aid later binding of a polyacrylamide gel to the microchannel surface.

  19. Planar undulator motion excited by a fixed traveling wave: Quasiperiodic averaging, normal forms, and the free electron laser pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, James A.; Heinemann, Klaus; Vogt, Mathias; Gooden, Matthew

    2013-09-01

    We present a mathematical analysis of planar motion of energetic electrons moving through a planar dipole undulator, excited by a fixed planar polarized plane wave Maxwell field in the x-ray free electron laser (FEL) regime. Our starting point is the 6D Lorentz system, which allows planar motions, and we examine this dynamical system as the wavelength λ of the traveling wave varies. By scalings and transformations the 6D system is reduced, without approximation, to a 2D system in a form for a rigorous asymptotic analysis using the method of averaging (MoA), a long-time perturbation theory. The two dependent variables are a scaled energy deviation and a generalization of the so-called ponderomotive phase. As λ varies the system passes through resonant and nonresonant (NonR) intervals and we develop NonR and near-to-resonant (NearR) MoA normal form approximations to the exact equations. The NearR normal forms contain a parameter which measures the distance from a resonance. For the planar motion, with the special initial condition that matches into the undulator design trajectory, and on resonance, the NearR normal form reduces to the well-known FEL pendulum system. We then state and prove NonR and NearR first-order averaging theorems which give explicit error bounds for the normal form approximations. We prove the theorems in great detail, giving the interested reader a tutorial on mathematically rigorous perturbation theory in a context where the proofs are easily understood. The proofs are novel in that they do not use a near-identity transformation and they use a system of differential inequalities. The NonR case is an example of quasiperiodic averaging where the small divisor problem enters in the simplest possible way. To our knowledge the planar problem has not been analyzed with the generality we aspire to here nor has the standard FEL pendulum system been derived with associated error bounds as we do here. We briefly discuss the low gain theory in light of

  20. First integrals and normal forms for germs of analytic vector fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Yi, Yingfei; Zhang, Xiang

    For a germ of analytic vector fields, the existence of first integrals, resonance and the convergence of normalization transforming the vector field to a normal form are closely related. In this paper we first provide a link between the number of first integrals and the resonant relations for a quasi-periodic vector field, which generalizes one of the Poincaré's classical results [H. Poincaré, Sur l'intégration des équations différentielles du premier order et du premier degré I and II, Rend. Circ. Mat. Palermo 5 (1891) 161-191; 11 (1897) 193-239] on autonomous systems and Theorem 5 of [Weigu Li, J. Llibre, Xiang Zhang, Local first integrals of differential systems and diffeomorphism, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 54 (2003) 235-255] on periodic systems. Then in the space of analytic autonomous systems in C2n with exactly n resonances and n functionally independent first integrals, our results are related to the convergence and generic divergence of the normalizations. Lastly for a planar Hamiltonian system it is well known that the system has an isochronous center if and only if it can be linearizable in a neighborhood of the center. Using the Euler-Lagrange equation we provide a new approach to its proof.

  1. k-tree method for high-speed spatial normalization.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, J L; Kochunov, P V; Fox, P T; Nickerson, D

    1998-01-01

    The general approach to spatial normalization using a deformation field is presented. Current high degree-of-freedom deformation methods are extremely time-consuming (10-40 hr), and a k-tree method is proposed to greatly reduce this time. A general k-tree method for analysis of source and target images and synthesis of deformation fields is described. The k-tree method simplifies scale control and feature extraction and matching, making it highly efficient. A two-dimensional (2-D), or quadtree, application program was developed for preliminary testing. The k-tree method was evaluated with 2-D images to test rotating ability, nonhomologous region matching, inner and outer brain-structure independence, and feasibility with human brain images. The results of these tests indicate that a three-dimensional (3-D), or octree, method is feasible. Preliminary work with an octree application program indicates that a processing time of under 10 min for 256(3) image arrays is attainable on a Sun Ultra30 workstation.

  2. Theory and praxis pf map analsys in CHEF part 1: Linear normal form

    SciTech Connect

    Michelotti, Leo; /Fermilab

    2008-10-01

    This memo begins a series which, put together, could comprise the 'CHEF Documentation Project' if there were such a thing. The first--and perhaps only--three will telegraphically describe theory, algorithms, implementation and usage of the normal form map analysis procedures encoded in CHEF's collection of libraries. [1] This one will begin the sequence by explaining the linear manipulations that connect the Jacobian matrix of a symplectic mapping to its normal form. It is a 'Reader's Digest' version of material I wrote in Intermediate Classical Dynamics (ICD) [2] and randomly scattered across technical memos, seminar viewgraphs, and lecture notes for the past quarter century. Much of its content is old, well known, and in some places borders on the trivial.1 Nevertheless, completeness requires their inclusion. The primary objective is the 'fundamental theorem' on normalization written on page 8. I plan to describe the nonlinear procedures in a subsequent memo and devote a third to laying out algorithms and lines of code, connecting them with equations written in the first two. Originally this was to be done in one short paper, but I jettisoned that approach after its first section exceeded a dozen pages. The organization of this document is as follows. A brief description of notation is followed by a section containing a general treatment of the linear problem. After the 'fundamental theorem' is proved, two further subsections discuss the generation of equilibrium distributions and issue of 'phase'. The final major section reviews parameterizations--that is, lattice functions--in two and four dimensions with a passing glance at the six-dimensional version. Appearances to the contrary, for the most part I have tried to restrict consideration to matters needed to understand the code in CHEF's libraries.

  3. Calculation of protein form birefringence using the finite element method.

    PubMed Central

    Pantic-Tanner, Z; Eden, D

    1999-01-01

    An approach based on the finite element method (FEM) is employed to calculate the optical properties of macromolecules, specifically form birefringence. Macromolecules are treated as arbitrarily shaped particles suspended in a solvent of refraction index n1. The form birefringence of the solution is calculated as the difference in its refractive index when all the particles of refractive index n2 are either parallel to or normal to the direction of the polarization of light. Since the particles of interest are small compared to the wavelength of light, a quasi-static approximation for the refractive index is used, i.e., that it is equal to the square root of the dielectric constant of the suspension. The average dielectric constant of the mixture is calculated using the finite element method. This approach has been tested for ellipsoidal particles and a good agreement with theoretical results has been obtained. Also, numerical results for the motor domains of ncd and kinesin, small arbitrarily shaped proteins with known x-ray structures, show reasonable agreement with the experimental data obtained from transient electric birefringence experiments. PMID:10354422

  4. Comparison of energy consumption in different clinical forms multiple sclerosis with normal subjects (cohort study).

    PubMed

    Marvi-Esfahani, Mahnaz; Karimi, Mohammad Taghi; Etemadifar, Masoud; Fatoye, Francis

    2016-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common joint disorders that influence walking performance. The objectives are to determine if energy consumption of three different clinical forms of MS differs from each other. Is there any difference between MS and normal subjects? Is there an association between the Physiological Cost Index (PCI) and the Expanded Disability States Scale (EDSS)? MS subjects (EDSS>4) were separated in three groups based on the Ashworth and Ataxia scales, including ataxic (n=16), spastic (n=15) and ataxic-spastic (n=14). In addition, 13 age-and-gender-matched healthy subjects were used as the control group. A Heart Rate (HR) Polar Electro Finland was used to record the heart rate during resting and walking. The energy consumption was measured based on PCI. ANOVA, MANOVA, Post-hoc Tukey analysis and Pearson correlations were used for statistical analysis (P<0.05). There was a significant difference between the walking speeds of normal (76.05±5.70m/min) with ataxic (36.78±12.68m/min), spastic (34.45±16.32m/min) and ataxic-spastic (27.21±14.76m/min) groups (P<0.001). There were no significant differences between the resting HR and walking HR of four groups, and no significant difference between the PCI of ataxic, spastic and normal groups (P>0.1). The correlation between PCI and EDSS was 0.65 (P<0.001). The performance of the cardiovascular system in MS subjects was the same as normal subjects. Their energy consumption increased significantly due to a decrease in their walking speed. It seems that the weakness of muscles of the lower extremity and spasticity of knee extensors play a significant role in this regard. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. MRI visualization of pathological forms by suppression of normal tissue signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirogov, Yuri A.; Anisimov, Nikolai V.; Gubskiy, Leonid V.; Babich, Piotr I.

    2005-04-01

    To improve the visualization and 3D-reconstruction of some pathological formations of the brain, it is offered to use a new method of processing of MR images with suppression of signals from normal tissues. The special attention is offered to be given suppression of signals of fatty tissue, free water and partially bound water of mucous membranes. For such way realization, it is offered to lead two scans with simultaneous suppression of two normal components and to multiply the obtained images. Simultaneous suppression of signals from two normal tissues is realized with the help of pulse sequence twice using inversion-recovery effect. Delays in pulse sequence are selected in accordance with the times of longitudinal relaxation of fat, free water and partially bound water. In comparison with earlier described technique of simultaneous suppression of signals of water and fat, the new method is especially useful at research of pathological formations when the zone of defeat is placed in a zone of nose bosoms. Besides allocation of a zone of defeat, MIP reconstruction becomes simpler. The offered technique well proves at research of tumors and hemorrhages.

  6. Theory and praxis of map analsys in CHEF part 2: Nonlinear normal form

    SciTech Connect

    Michelotti, Leo; /FERMILAB

    2009-04-01

    This is the second of three memos describing how normal form map analysis is implemented in CHEF. The first [1] explained the manipulations required to assure that initial, linear transformations preserved Poincare invariants, thereby confirming correct normalization of action-angle coordinates. In this one, the transformation will be extended to nonlinear terms. The third, describing how the algorithms were implemented within the software of CHEF's libraries, most likely will never be written. The first section, Section 2, quickly lays out preliminary concepts and relationships. In Section 3, we shall review the perturbation theory - an iterative sequence of transformations that converts a nonlinear mapping into its normal form - and examine the equation which moves calculations from one step to the next. Following that is a section titled 'Interpretation', which identifies connections between the normalized mappings and idealized, integrable, fictitious Hamiltonian models. A final section contains closing comments, some of which may - but probably will not - preview work to be done later. My reasons for writing this memo and its predecessor have already been expressed. [1] To them can be added this: 'black box code' encourages users to proceed with little or no understanding of what it does or how it operates. So far, CHEF has avoided this trap admirably by failing to attract potential users. However, we reached a watershed last year: even I now have difficulty following the software through its maze of operations. Extensions to CHEF's physics functionalities, software upgrades, and even simple maintenance are becoming more difficult than they should. I hope these memos will mark parts of the maze for easier navigation in the future. Despite appearances to the contrary, I tried to include no (or very little) more than the minimum needed to understand what CHEF's nonlinear analysis modules do.1 As with the first memo, material has been lifted - and modified - from

  7. Accessing the Elastic Form-Factors of the $Delta(1232)$ Using the Beam-Normal Asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, Mark M.

    2016-08-01

    The beam-normal single-spin asymmetry, $B_n$, exists in the scattering of high energy electrons, polarized transverse to their direction of motion, from nuclear targets. To first order, this asymmetry is caused by the interference of the one-photon exchange amplitude with the imaginary part of the two-photon exchange amplitude. Measurements of $B_n$, for the production of a $\\Delta(1232)$ resonance from a proton target, will soon become available from the Qweak experiment at Jefferson Lab and the A4 experiment at Mainz. The imaginary part of two-photon exchange allows only intermediate states that are on-shell, including the $\\Delta$ itself. Therefore such data is sensitive to $\\gamma\\Delta\\Delta$, the elastic form-factors of the $\\Delta$. This article will introduce the form-factors of the $\\Delta$, discuss what might be learned about the elastic form-factors from these new data, describe ongoing efforts in calculation and measurement, and outline the possibility of future measurements.

  8. Methods for forming particles from single source precursors

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Robert V [Idaho Falls, ID; Rodriguez, Rene G [Pocatello, ID; Pak, Joshua [Pocatello, ID

    2011-08-23

    Single source precursors are subjected to carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The carbon dioxide may be in a supercritical state. Single source precursors also may be subjected to supercritical fluids other than supercritical carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The methods may be used to form nanoparticles. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form chalcopyrite materials. Devices such as, for example, semiconductor devices may be fabricated that include such particles. Methods of forming semiconductor devices include subjecting single source precursors to carbon dioxide to form particles of semiconductor material, and establishing electrical contact between the particles and an electrode.

  9. Shear Stress-Normal Stress (Pressure) Ratio Decides Forming Callus in Patients with Diabetic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Takehara, Kimie; Ohashi, Yumiko; Suzuki, Ryo; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kadowaki, Takashi; Sanada, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Callus is a risk factor, leading to severe diabetic foot ulcer; thus, prevention of callus formation is important. However, normal stress (pressure) and shear stress associated with callus have not been clarified. Additionally, as new valuables, a shear stress-normal stress (pressure) ratio (SPR) was examined. The purpose was to clarify the external force associated with callus formation in patients with diabetic neuropathy. Methods. The external force of the 1st, 2nd, and 5th metatarsal head (MTH) as callus predilection regions was measured. The SPR was calculated by dividing shear stress by normal stress (pressure), concretely, peak values (SPR-p) and time integral values (SPR-i). The optimal cut-off point was determined. Results. Callus formation region of the 1st and 2nd MTH had high SPR-i rather than noncallus formation region. The cut-off value of the 1st MTH was 0.60 and the 2nd MTH was 0.50. For the 5th MTH, variables pertaining to the external forces could not be determined to be indicators of callus formation because of low accuracy. Conclusions. The callus formation cut-off values of the 1st and 2nd MTH were clarified. In the future, it will be necessary to confirm the effect of using appropriate footwear and gait training on lowering SPR-i. PMID:28050567

  10. Shear Stress-Normal Stress (Pressure) Ratio Decides Forming Callus in Patients with Diabetic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Ayumi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Oe, Makoto; Takehara, Kimie; Ohashi, Yumiko; Suzuki, Ryo; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kadowaki, Takashi; Sanada, Hiromi; Mori, Taketoshi

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Callus is a risk factor, leading to severe diabetic foot ulcer; thus, prevention of callus formation is important. However, normal stress (pressure) and shear stress associated with callus have not been clarified. Additionally, as new valuables, a shear stress-normal stress (pressure) ratio (SPR) was examined. The purpose was to clarify the external force associated with callus formation in patients with diabetic neuropathy. Methods. The external force of the 1st, 2nd, and 5th metatarsal head (MTH) as callus predilection regions was measured. The SPR was calculated by dividing shear stress by normal stress (pressure), concretely, peak values (SPR-p) and time integral values (SPR-i). The optimal cut-off point was determined. Results. Callus formation region of the 1st and 2nd MTH had high SPR-i rather than noncallus formation region. The cut-off value of the 1st MTH was 0.60 and the 2nd MTH was 0.50. For the 5th MTH, variables pertaining to the external forces could not be determined to be indicators of callus formation because of low accuracy. Conclusions. The callus formation cut-off values of the 1st and 2nd MTH were clarified. In the future, it will be necessary to confirm the effect of using appropriate footwear and gait training on lowering SPR-i.

  11. A Mathematical Framework for Critical Transitions: Normal Forms, Variance and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Critical transitions occur in a wide variety of applications including mathematical biology, climate change, human physiology and economics. Therefore it is highly desirable to find early-warning signs. We show that it is possible to classify critical transitions by using bifurcation theory and normal forms in the singular limit. Based on this elementary classification, we analyze stochastic fluctuations and calculate scaling laws of the variance of stochastic sample paths near critical transitions for fast-subsystem bifurcations up to codimension two. The theory is applied to several models: the Stommel-Cessi box model for the thermohaline circulation from geoscience, an epidemic-spreading model on an adaptive network, an activator-inhibitor switch from systems biology, a predator-prey system from ecology and to the Euler buckling problem from classical mechanics. For the Stommel-Cessi model we compare different detrending techniques to calculate early-warning signs. In the epidemics model we show that link densities could be better variables for prediction than population densities. The activator-inhibitor switch demonstrates effects in three time-scale systems and points out that excitable cells and molecular units have information for subthreshold prediction. In the predator-prey model explosive population growth near a codimension-two bifurcation is investigated and we show that early-warnings from normal forms can be misleading in this context. In the biomechanical model we demonstrate that early-warning signs for buckling depend crucially on the control strategy near the instability which illustrates the effect of multiplicative noise.

  12. Normal forms for germs of vector fields with quadratic leading part. The polynomial first integral case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stróżyna, Ewa

    2015-12-01

    We study the problem of formal classification of the vector fields of the form x ˙ = ax2 + bxy + cy2 + … , y ˙ = dx2 + exy + fy2 + … using formal changes of the coordinates, but not using the changes of the time. We focus on one special case (which is the most complex one): when the quadratic homogeneous part has a polynomial first integral. In the proofs we avoid complicated calculations. The method we use is effective and it is based on the method introduced in our previous work concerning the Bogdanov-Takens singularity.

  13. Method of forming a hardened surface on a substrate

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.

    2010-08-31

    The invention includes a method of producing a hard metallic material by forming a mixture containing at least 55% iron and at least one of B, C, Si and P. The mixture is formed into an alloy and cooled to form a metallic material having a hardness of greater than about 9.2 GPa. The invention includes a method of forming a wire by combining a metal strip and a powder. The metal strip and the powder are rolled to form a wire containing at least 55% iron and from two to seven additional elements including at least one of C, Si and B. The invention also includes a method of forming a hardened surface on a substrate by processing a solid mass to form a powder, applying the powder to a surface to form a layer containing metallic glass, and converting the glass to a crystalline material having a nanocrystalline grain size.

  14. Evaluation of estimation methods for organic carbon normalized sorption coefficients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, James R.; Mihelcic, James R.; Luehrs, Dean C.; Hickey, James P.

    1997-01-01

    A critically evaluated set of 94 soil water partition coefficients normalized to soil organic carbon content (Koc) is presented for 11 classes of organic chemicals. This data set is used to develop and evaluate Koc estimation methods using three different descriptors. The three types of descriptors used in predicting Koc were octanol/water partition coefficient (Kow), molecular connectivity (mXt) and linear solvation energy relationships (LSERs). The best results were obtained estimating Koc from Kow, though a slight improvement in the correlation coefficient was obtained by using a two-parameter regression with Kow and the third order difference term from mXt. Molecular connectivity correlations seemed to be best suited for use with specific chemical classes. The LSER provided a better fit than mXt but not as good as the correlation with Koc. The correlation to predict Koc from Kow was developed for 72 chemicals; log Koc = 0.903* log Kow + 0.094. This correlation accounts for 91% of the variability in the data for chemicals with log Kow ranging from 1.7 to 7.0. The expression to determine the 95% confidence interval on the estimated Koc is provided along with an example for two chemicals of different hydrophobicity showing the confidence interval of the retardation factor determined from the estimated Koc. The data showed that Koc is not likely to be applicable for chemicals with log Kow < 1.7. Finally, the Koc correlation developed using Kow as a descriptor was compared with three nonclass-specific correlations and two 'commonly used' class-specific correlations to determine which method(s) are most suitable.

  15. A python module to normalize microarray data by the quantile adjustment method.

    PubMed

    Baber, Ibrahima; Tamby, Jean Philippe; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Sangaré, Djibril; Doumbia, Seydou; Traoré, Sekou F; Maiga, Mohamed S; Dembélé, Doulaye

    2011-06-01

    Microarray technology is widely used for gene expression research targeting the development of new drug treatments. In the case of a two-color microarray, the process starts with labeling DNA samples with fluorescent markers (cyanine 635 or Cy5 and cyanine 532 or Cy3), then mixing and hybridizing them on a chemically treated glass printed with probes, or fragments of genes. The level of hybridization between a strand of labeled DNA and a probe present on the array is measured by scanning the fluorescence of spots in order to quantify the expression based on the quality and number of pixels for each spot. The intensity data generated from these scans are subject to errors due to differences in fluorescence efficiency between Cy5 and Cy3, as well as variation in human handling and quality of the sample. Consequently, data have to be normalized to correct for variations which are not related to the biological phenomena under investigation. Among many existing normalization procedures, we have implemented the quantile adjustment method using the python computer language, and produced a module which can be run via an HTML dynamic form. This module is composed of different functions for data files reading, intensity and ratio computations and visualization. The current version of the HTML form allows the user to visualize the data before and after normalization. It also gives the option to subtract background noise before normalizing the data. The output results of this module are in agreement with the results of other normalization tools.

  16. Symbolic computation of the Birkhoff normal form in the problem of stability of the triangular libration points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, I. I.

    2008-05-01

    The problem of stability of the triangular libration points in the planar circular restricted three-body problem is considered. A software package, intended for normalization of autonomous Hamiltonian systems by means of computer algebra, is designed so that normalization problems of high analytical complexity could be solved. It is used to obtain the Birkhoff normal form of the Hamiltonian in the given problem. The normalization is carried out up to the 6th order of expansion of the Hamiltonian in the coordinates and momenta. Analytical expressions for the coefficients of the normal form of the 6th order are derived. Though intermediary expressions occupy gigabytes of the computer memory, the obtained coefficients of the normal form are compact enough for presentation in typographic format. The analogue of the Deprit formula for the stability criterion is derived in the 6th order of normalization. The obtained floating-point numerical values for the normal form coefficients and the stability criterion confirm the results by Markeev (1969) and Coppola and Rand (1989), while the obtained analytical and exact numeric expressions confirm the results by Meyer and Schmidt (1986) and Schmidt (1989). The given computational problem is solved without constructing a specialized algebraic processor, i.e., the designed computer algebra package has a broad field of applicability.

  17. Metacognition and Reading: Comparing Three Forms of Metacognition in Normally Developing Readers and Readers with Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Furnes, Bjarte; Norman, Elisabeth

    2015-08-01

    Metacognition refers to 'cognition about cognition' and includes metacognitive knowledge, strategies and experiences (Efklides, 2008; Flavell, 1979). Research on reading has shown that better readers demonstrate more metacognitive knowledge than poor readers (Baker & Beall, 2009), and that reading ability improves through strategy instruction (Gersten, Fuchs, Williams, & Baker, 2001). The current study is the first to specifically compare the three forms of metacognition in dyslexic (N = 22) versus normally developing readers (N = 22). Participants read two factual texts, with learning outcome measured by a memory task. Metacognitive knowledge and skills were assessed by self-report. Metacognitive experiences were measured by predictions of performance and judgments of learning. Individuals with dyslexia showed insight into their reading problems, but less general knowledge of how to approach text reading. They more often reported lack of available reading strategies, but groups did not differ in the use of deep and surface strategies. Learning outcome and mean ratings of predictions of performance and judgments of learning were lower in dyslexic readers, but not the accuracy with which metacognitive experiences predicted learning. Overall, the results indicate that dyslexic reading and spelling problems are not generally associated with lower levels of metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive strategies or sensitivity to metacognitive experiences in reading situations. 2015 The Authors. Dyslexia Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Metacognition and Reading: Comparing Three Forms of Metacognition in Normally Developing Readers and Readers with Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Brunswick, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Metacognition refers to ‘cognition about cognition’ and includes metacognitive knowledge, strategies and experiences (Efklides, 2008; Flavell, 1979). Research on reading has shown that better readers demonstrate more metacognitive knowledge than poor readers (Baker & Beall, 2009), and that reading ability improves through strategy instruction (Gersten, Fuchs, Williams, & Baker, 2001). The current study is the first to specifically compare the three forms of metacognition in dyslexic (N = 22) versus normally developing readers (N = 22). Participants read two factual texts, with learning outcome measured by a memory task. Metacognitive knowledge and skills were assessed by self-report. Metacognitive experiences were measured by predictions of performance and judgments of learning. Individuals with dyslexia showed insight into their reading problems, but less general knowledge of how to approach text reading. They more often reported lack of available reading strategies, but groups did not differ in the use of deep and surface strategies. Learning outcome and mean ratings of predictions of performance and judgments of learning were lower in dyslexic readers, but not the accuracy with which metacognitive experiences predicted learning. Overall, the results indicate that dyslexic reading and spelling problems are not generally associated with lower levels of metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive strategies or sensitivity to metacognitive experiences in reading situations. @ 2015 The Authors. Dyslexia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26234622

  19. Methods of forming single source precursors, methods of forming polymeric single source precursors, and single source precursors and intermediate products formed by such methods

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Robert V.; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin; Margulieux, Kelsey R.; Holland, Andrew W.

    2012-12-04

    Methods of forming single source precursors (SSPs) include forming intermediate products having the empirical formula 1/2{L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'X.sub.2}.sub.2, and reacting MER with the intermediate products to form SSPs of the formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2, wherein L is a Lewis base, M is a Group IA atom, N is a Group IB atom, M' is a Group IIIB atom, each E is a Group VIB atom, each X is a Group VIIA atom or a nitrate group, and each R group is an alkyl, aryl, vinyl, (per)fluoro alkyl, (per)fluoro aryl, silane, or carbamato group. Methods of forming polymeric or copolymeric SSPs include reacting at least one of HE.sup.1R.sup.1E.sup.1H and MER with one or more substances having the empirical formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2 or L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'(X).sub.2 to form a polymeric or copolymeric SSP. New SSPs and intermediate products are formed by such methods.

  20. Methods of forming single source precursors, methods of forming polymeric single source precursors, and single source precursors formed by such methods

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Robert V.; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin; Margulieux, Kelsey R.; Holland, Andrew W.

    2016-04-19

    Methods of forming single source precursors (SSPs) include forming intermediate products having the empirical formula 1/2{L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'X.sub.2}.sub.2, and reacting MER with the intermediate products to form SSPs of the formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2, wherein L is a Lewis base, M is a Group IA atom, N is a Group IB atom, M' is a Group IIIB atom, each E is a Group VIB atom, each X is a Group VIIA atom or a nitrate group, and each R group is an alkyl, aryl, vinyl, (per)fluoro alkyl, (per)fluoro aryl, silane, or carbamato group. Methods of forming polymeric or copolymeric SSPs include reacting at least one of HE.sup.1R.sup.1E.sup.1H and MER with one or more substances having the empirical formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2 or L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'(X).sub.2 to form a polymeric or copolymeric SSP. New SSPs and intermediate products are formed by such methods.

  1. Methods of forming single source precursors, methods of forming polymeric single source precursors, and single source precursors formed by such methods

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Robert V.; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin; Margulieux, Kelsey R.; Holland, Andrew W.

    2014-09-09

    Methods of forming single source precursors (SSPs) include forming intermediate products having the empirical formula 1/2{L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'X.sub.2}.sub.2, and reacting MER with the intermediate products to form SSPs of the formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2, wherein L is a Lewis base, M is a Group IA atom, N is a Group IB atom, M' is a Group IIIB atom, each E is a Group VIB atom, each X is a Group VIIA atom or a nitrate group, and each R group is an alkyl, aryl, vinyl, (per)fluoro alkyl, (per)fluoro aryl, silane, or carbamato group. Methods of forming polymeric or copolymeric SSPs include reacting at least one of HE.sup.1R.sup.1E.sup.1H and MER with one or more substances having the empirical formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2 or L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'(X).sub.2 to form a polymeric or copolymeric SSP. New SSPs and intermediate products are formed by such methods.

  2. A Method for Quantifying, Visualising, and Analysing Gastropod Shell Form

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Thor-Seng; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of organismal form is an important component for almost every branch of biology. Although generally considered an easily-measurable structure, the quantification of gastropod shell form is still a challenge because many shells lack homologous structures and have a spiral form that is difficult to capture with linear measurements. In view of this, we adopt the idea of theoretical modelling of shell form, in which the shell form is the product of aperture ontogeny profiles in terms of aperture growth trajectory that is quantified as curvature and torsion, and of aperture form that is represented by size and shape. We develop a workflow for the analysis of shell forms based on the aperture ontogeny profile, starting from the procedure of data preparation (retopologising the shell model), via data acquisition (calculation of aperture growth trajectory, aperture form and ontogeny axis), and data presentation (qualitative comparison between shell forms) and ending with data analysis (quantitative comparison between shell forms). We evaluate our methods on representative shells of the genera Opisthostoma and Plectostoma, which exhibit great variability in shell form. The outcome suggests that our method is a robust, reproducible, and versatile approach for the analysis of shell form. Finally, we propose several potential applications of our methods in functional morphology, theoretical modelling, taxonomy, and evolutionary biology. PMID:27280463

  3. Methods of forming thermal management systems and thermal management methods

    DOEpatents

    Gering, Kevin L.; Haefner, Daryl R.

    2012-06-05

    A thermal management system for a vehicle includes a heat exchanger having a thermal energy storage material provided therein, a first coolant loop thermally coupled to an electrochemical storage device located within the first coolant loop and to the heat exchanger, and a second coolant loop thermally coupled to the heat exchanger. The first and second coolant loops are configured to carry distinct thermal energy transfer media. The thermal management system also includes an interface configured to facilitate transfer of heat generated by an internal combustion engine to the heat exchanger via the second coolant loop in order to selectively deliver the heat to the electrochemical storage device. Thermal management methods are also provided.

  4. Characterizing Dust Attenuation in Local Star-forming Galaxies: Near-infrared Reddening and Normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battisti, A. J.; Calzetti, D.; Chary, R.-R.

    2017-05-01

    We characterize the near-infrared dust attenuation for a sample of ˜5500 local (z≲ 0.1) star-forming galaxies and obtain an estimate of their average total-to-selective attenuation k(λ ). We utilize data from the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope and the Two-Micron All Sky Survey, which is combined with previously measured UV-optical data for these galaxies. The average attenuation curve is slightly lower in the far-ultraviolet than in local starburst galaxies by roughly 15% but appears similar at longer wavelengths with a total-to-selective normalization of {R}V={3.67}-0.35+0.44. Under the assumption of energy balance, the total attenuated energy inferred from this curve is found to be broadly consistent with the observed infrared dust emission ({L}{TIR}) in a small sample of local galaxies for which far-infrared measurements are available. However, the significant scatter in this quantity among the sample may reflect large variations in the attenuation properties of individual galaxies. We also derive the attenuation curve for subpopulations of the main sample, separated according to mean stellar population age (via {D}n4000), specific star formation rate, stellar mass, and metallicity, and find that they show only tentative trends with low significance, at least over the range that is probed by our sample. These results indicate that a single curve is reasonable for applications seeking to broadly characterize large samples of galaxies in the local universe, while applications to individual galaxies would yield large uncertainties and is not recommended.

  5. Correlation between maxillary central incisor crown morphology and mandibular dental arch form in normal occlusion subjects.

    PubMed

    Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Lima, Carolina Souto; da Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves; Daruge Júnior, Eduardo; Torres, Fernando Cesar

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the morphology of the mandibular dental arch and the maxillary central incisor crown. Cast models from 51 Caucasian individuals, older than 15 years, with optimal occlusion, no previous orthodontic treatment, featuring 4 of the 6 keys to normal occlusion by Andrews (the first being mandatory) were observed. The models were digitalized using a 3D scanner, and images of the maxillary central incisor and mandibular dental arch were obtained. These were printed and placed in an album below pre-set models of arches and dental crowns, and distributed to 12 dental surgeons, who were asked to choose which shape was most in accordance with the models and crown presented. The Kappa test was performed to evaluate the concordance among evaluators while the chi-square test was used to verify the association between the dental arch and central incisor morphology, at a 5% significance level. The Kappa test showed moderate agreement among evaluators for both variables of this study, and the chi-square test showed no significant association between tooth shape and mandibular dental arch morphology. It may be concluded that the use of arch morphology as a diagnostic method to determine the shape of the maxillary central incisor is not appropriate. Further research is necessary to assess tooth shape using a stricter scientific basis.

  6. Method for heating and forming a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, Premakaran Tucker

    1997-01-01

    A method for heating and forming a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature and forming the glass sheet using forming rollers to a predetermined configuration.

  7. Method for heating and forming a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, P.T.

    1997-08-12

    A method for heating and forming a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature and forming the glass sheet using forming rollers to a predetermined configuration. 5 figs.

  8. Method for forming hermetic coatings for optical fibers

    DOEpatents

    Michalske, Terry A.; Rye, Robert R.; Smith, William L.

    1993-01-01

    A method for forming hermetic coatings on optical fibers by hot filament assisted chemical vapor deposition advantageously produces a desirable coating while maintaining the pristine strength of the pristine fiber. The hermetic coatings may be formed from a variety of substances, such as, for example, boron nitride and carbon.

  9. Conjugate and method for forming aminomethyl phosphorus conjugates

    SciTech Connect

    Katti, K.V.; Berning, D.E.; Volkert, W.A.; Ketring, A.R.; Churchill, R.

    1999-09-07

    A method of forming phosphine-amine conjugates includes reacting a hydroxymethyl phosphine group of an amine-free first molecule with at least one free amine group of a second molecule to covalently bond the first molecule with the second molecule through an aminomethyl phosphorus linkage and the conjugates formed thereby.

  10. Conjugate and method for forming aminomethyl phosphorus conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Katti, Kattesh V.; Berning, Douglas E.; Volkert, Wynn A.; Ketring, Alan R.; Churchill, Robert

    1999-01-01

    A method of forming phosphine-amine conjugates includes reacting a hydroxymethyl phosphine group of an amine-free first molecule with at least one free amine group of a second molecule to covalently bond the first molecule with the second molecule through an aminomethyl phosphorus linkage and the conjugates formed thereby.

  11. Method of forming a wick for a heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arcella, F. G.; Phillips, E. C., Jr.; Sprecace, R. P. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A method of forming a tubular wick for a heat pipe is presented. The method is characterized by the steps of forming a wick blank of a predetermined thickness comprising a plurality of superimposed layers of stainless steel mesh screen, wet rolling the blank for reducing the thickness, wrapping the blank about an inner mandrel, compressing the blank into a rigid tubular structure, removing the tubular structure from the mandrel and sintering the tubular structure.

  12. A method of congruent type for linear systems with conjugate-normal coefficient matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi Kamalvand, M.; Ikramov, Kh. D.

    2009-02-01

    Minimal residual methods, such as MINRES and GMRES, are well-known iterative versions of direct procedures for reducing a matrix to special condensed forms. The method of reduction used in these procedures is a sequence of unitary similarity transformations, while the condensed form is a tridiagonal matrix (MINRES) or a Hessenberg matrix (GMRES). The algorithm CSYM proposed in the 1990s for solving systems with complex symmetric matrices was based on the tridiagonal reduction performed via unitary congruences rather than similarities. In this paper, we construct an extension of this algorithm to the entire class of conjugate-normal matrices. (Complex symmetric matrices are a part of this class.) Numerical results are presented. They show that, on many occasions, the proposed algorithm has a superior convergence rate compared to GMRES.

  13. Mössbauer spectroscopic study of the forms of iron in normal human liver and spleen tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua-Anusorn, W.; Pierre, T. G. St.; Webb, J.; Macey, D. J.; Yansukon, P.; Pootrakul, P.

    1994-12-01

    Mössbauer spectra of 12 normal human spleen and 12 normal human liver samples ( post mortem) from Australia and Thailand have been recorded at 78 K. The spectra show the presence of iron in the form of ferrihydrite, together with some deoxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin in some samples. The spectra were used in conjunction with elemental analysis to calculate the non-heme iron concentrations in the tissues. The mean non-heme iron concentration in the Thai livers was significantly less than that for the Australian samples. The goethite-like form of hemosiderin that has been observed in some pathological tissues was not detected.

  14. Method for restoration of normal phenotype in cancer cells

    DOEpatents

    Bissell, Mina J.; Weaver, Valerie M.

    2000-01-01

    A method for reversing expression of malignant phenotype in cancer cells is described. The method comprises applying .beta..sub.1 integrin function-blocking antibody to the cells. The method can be used to assess the progress of cancer therapy. Human breast epithelial cells were shown to be particularly responsive.

  15. Simplified Method for Local Correction of System International Normalized Ratio.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, Vani

    2017-08-01

    International normalized ratio (INR) derivation is dependent on the international sensitivity index (ISI) of thromboplastin. It varies with instrument and reagents used. To evaluate the role of a correction factor in the derivation of INR. We studied prothrombin time (PT) and INR from patients using 3 thromboplastins of varying ISI values. The correction factor was applied to the observed INR to obtain a corrected INR. The difference between corrected INR and observed INR values varies from -0.8 through 0.96. Corrected INR is dependent on PT only. It can be applied to all patients irrespective of cause for elevated PT.

  16. Multi wave method for the generalized form of BBM equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bildik, Necdet; Tandogan, Yusuf Ali

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we apply the multi-wave method to find new multi wave solutions for an important nonlinear physical model. This model is well known as generalized form of Benjamin Bona Mahony (BBM) equation. Using the mathematics software Mathematica, we compute the traveling wave solutions. Then, the multi wave solutions including periodic wave solutions, bright soliton solutions and rational function solutions are obtained by the multi wave method. It is seen that this method is very useful mathematical approach for generalized form of BBM equation.

  17. Method for Fabricating Composite Structures Using Continuous Press Forming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A method for fabricating composite structures at a low-cost. moderate-to-high production rate. A first embodiment of the method includes employing a continuous press forming fabrication process. A second embodiment of the method includes employing a pultrusion process for obtaining composite structures. The methods include coating yarns with matrix material, weaving the yarn into fabric to produce a continuous fabric supply and feeding multiple layers of net-shaped fabrics having optimally oriented fibers into a debulking tool to form an undebulked preform. The continuous press forming fabrication process includes partially debulking the preform, cutting the partially debulked preform and debulking the partially debulked preform to form a net-shape. An electron-beam or similar technique then cures the structure. The pultrusion fabric process includes feeding the undebulked preform into a heated die and gradually debulking the undebulked preform. The undebulked preform in the heated die changes dimension until a desired cross-sectional dimension is achieved. This process further includes obtaining a net-shaped infiltrated uncured preform, cutting the uncured preform to a desired length and electron-beam curing (or similar technique) the uncured preform. These fabrication methods produce superior structures formed at higher production rates. resulting in lower cost and high structural performance.

  18. Method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, P.T.; Sitzman, G.W.

    1998-10-27

    A method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet is disclosed including the steps of heating at least one glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, forming the glass sheet to a predetermined configuration, and cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature to temper the glass sheet. 2 figs.

  19. Method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Boaz, Premakaran Tucker; Sitzman, Gary W.

    1998-01-01

    A method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet including the steps of heating at least one glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, forming the glass sheet to a predetermined configuration, and cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature to temper the glass sheet.

  20. Carbon nanotubes and methods of forming same at low temperature

    DOEpatents

    Biris, Alexandru S.; Dervishi, Enkeleda

    2017-05-02

    In one aspect of the invention, a method for growth of carbon nanotubes includes providing a graphitic composite, decorating the graphitic composite with metal nanostructures to form graphene-contained powders, and heating the graphene-contained powders at a target temperature to form the carbon nanotubes in an argon/hydrogen environment that is devoid of a hydrocarbon source. In one embodiment, the target temperature can be as low as about 150.degree. C. (.+-.5.degree. C.).

  1. Method for forming glass-to-metal seals

    DOEpatents

    Kramer, Daniel P.; Massey, Richard T.

    1986-01-01

    A method for forming a glass-to-metal seal in which the glass has a higher melting point than the metal. The molten glass is vacuum injection molded onto the metal, thus melting a very thin layer of the surface of the metal long enough to form a seal, but not long enough to cause a distortion in the shape of the metal component.

  2. Method for forming glass-to-metal seals

    DOEpatents

    Kramer, D.P.; Massey, R.T.

    1985-08-26

    Disclosed is a method for forming a glass-to-metal seal in which the glass has a higher melting point than the metal. The molten glass is vacuum injection molded onto the metal, thus melting a very thin layer of the surface of the metal long enough to form a seal, but not long enough to cause a distortion in the shape of the metal component.

  3. METHOD OF FORMING TANTALUM SILICIDE ON TANTALUM SURFACES

    DOEpatents

    Bowman, M.G.; Krikorian, N.H.

    1961-10-01

    A method is described for forming a non-corrosive silicide coating on tantalum. The coating is made through the heating of trirhenium silicides in contact with the tantalum object to approximately 1400 deg C at which temperature trirhenium silicide decomposes into rhenium and gaseous silicons. The silicon vapor reacts with the tantalum surface to form a tantalum silicide layer approximately 10 microns thick. (AEC)

  4. Method of forming supported doped palladium containing oxidation catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Mohajeri, Nahid

    2014-04-22

    A method of forming a supported oxidation catalyst includes providing a support comprising a metal oxide or a metal salt, and depositing first palladium compound particles and second precious metal group (PMG) metal particles on the support while in a liquid phase including at least one solvent to form mixed metal comprising particles on the support. The PMG metal is not palladium. The mixed metal particles on the support are separated from the liquid phase to provide the supported oxidation catalyst.

  5. A local construction of the Smith normal form of a matrix polynomial

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkening, Jon; Yu, Jia

    2008-09-01

    We present an algorithm for computing a Smith form with multipliers of a regular matrix polynomial over a field. This algorithm differs from previous ones in that it computes a local Smith form for each irreducible factor in the determinant separately and then combines them into a global Smith form, whereas other algorithms apply a sequence of unimodular operations to the original matrix row by row (or column by column). The performance of the algorithm in exact arithmetic is reported for several test cases.

  6. Cognitive Factors in the Choice of Syntactic Form by Aphasic and Normal Speakers of English and Japanese: The Speaker's Impulse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menn, Lise; And Others

    This study examined the role of empathy in the choice of syntactic form and the degree of independence of pragmatic and syntactic abilities in a range of aphasic patients. Study 1 involved 9 English-speaking and 9 Japanese-speaking aphasic subjects with 10 English-speaking and 4 Japanese normal controls. Study 2 involved 14 English- and 6…

  7. Hollow fiber membranes and methods for forming same

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandari, Dhaval Ajit; McCloskey, Patrick Joseph; Howson, Paul Edward; Narang, Kristi Jean; Koros, William

    2016-03-22

    The invention provides improved hollow fiber membranes having at least two layers, and methods for forming the same. The methods include co-extruding a first composition, a second composition, and a third composition to form a dual layer hollow fiber membrane. The first composition includes a glassy polymer; the second composition includes a polysiloxane; and the third composition includes a bore fluid. The dual layer hollow fiber membranes include a first layer and a second layer, the first layer being a porous layer which includes the glassy polymer of the first composition, and the second layer being a polysiloxane layer which includes the polysiloxane of the second composition.

  8. Method of forming a rubblized in-situ retort

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.

    1980-03-25

    An in-situ retort is formed in an oil shale deposit by a sublevel caving method in which the starting slot for the sublevel caving is at opposite ends of the retort on adjacent sublevels. Any zones of high permeability that are formed adjacent to the starting slots are limited in vertical extent to the vertical spacing of the sublevels and are spaced from the zones of high permeability in adjacent sublevels by the length of the retort. A source of channeling through the retort that is caused by the usual sublevel caving mining method is thereby eliminated.

  9. The Infrared Spectral Energy Distribution of Normal Star-forming Galaxies: Calibration at Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, Daniel A.; Helou, George

    2002-09-01

    New far-infrared and submillimeter data are used to solidify and to extend to long wavelengths the empirical calibration of the infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) of normal star-forming galaxies. As was found by Dale and coworkers in 2001, a single parameter family, characterized by fν(60μm)/fν(100μm), is adequate to describe the range of normal galaxy SEDs observed by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite and Infrared Space Observatory from 3 to 100 μm. However, predictions based on the first-generation models at longer wavelengths (122-850 μm) are increasingly overluminous compared to the data for smaller fν(60μm)/fν(100μm), or alternatively, for weaker global interstellar radiation fields. After slightly modifying the far-infrared/submillimeter dust emissivity in those models as a function of the radiation field intensity to better match the long-wavelength data, a suite of SEDs from 3 μm to 20 cm in wavelength is presented. Results from relevant applications are also discussed, including submillimeter-based photometric redshift indicators, the infrared energy budget and simple formulae for recovering the bolometric infrared luminosity, and dust mass estimates in galaxies. Regarding the latter, since galaxy infrared SEDs are not well described by single blackbody curves, the usual methods of estimating dust masses can be grossly inadequate. The improved model presented herein is used to provide a more accurate relation between infrared luminosity and dust mass.

  10. Normalized modularity optimization method for community identification with degree adjustment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuqin; Zhao, Hongyu

    2013-11-01

    As a fundamental problem in network study, community identification has attracted much attention from different fields. Representing a seminal work in this area, the modularity optimization method has been widely applied and studied. However, this method has issues in resolution limit and extreme degeneracy and may not perform well for networks with unbalanced structures. Although several methods have been proposed to overcome these limitations, they are all based on the original idea of defining modularity through comparing the total number of edges within the putative communities in the observed network with that in an equivalent randomly generated network. In this paper, we show that this modularity definition is not suitable to analyze some networks such as those with unbalanced structures. Instead, we propose to define modularity through the average degree within the communities and formulate modularity as comparing the sum of average degree within communities of the observed network to that of an equivalent randomly generated network. In addition, we also propose a degree-adjusted approach for further improvement when there are unbalanced structures. We analyze the theoretical properties of our degree adjusted method. Numerical experiments for both artificial networks and real networks demonstrate that average degree plays an important role in network community identification, and our proposed methods have better performance than existing ones.

  11. Automatic Method of Pause Measurement for Normal and Dysarthric Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Kristin; Murdoch, Bruce; Folker, Joanne; Vogel, Adam; Cahill, Louise; Delatycki, Martin; Corben, Louise

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes an automatic method for the detection of pauses and identification of pause types in conversational speech for the purpose of measuring the effects of Friedreich's Ataxia (FRDA) on speech. Speech samples of [approximately] 3 minutes were recorded from 13 speakers with FRDA and 18 healthy controls. Pauses were measured from the…

  12. Automatic Method of Pause Measurement for Normal and Dysarthric Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Kristin; Murdoch, Bruce; Folker, Joanne; Vogel, Adam; Cahill, Louise; Delatycki, Martin; Corben, Louise

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes an automatic method for the detection of pauses and identification of pause types in conversational speech for the purpose of measuring the effects of Friedreich's Ataxia (FRDA) on speech. Speech samples of [approximately] 3 minutes were recorded from 13 speakers with FRDA and 18 healthy controls. Pauses were measured from the…

  13. Delivery Device and Method for Forming the Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Peter X. (Inventor); Liu, Xiaohua (Inventor); McCauley, Laurie (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A delivery device includes a hollow container, and a plurality of biodegradable and/or erodible polymeric layers established in the container. A layer including a predetermined substance is established between each of the plurality of polymeric layers, whereby degradation of the polymeric layer and release of the predetermined substance occur intermittently. Methods for forming the device are also disclosed herein.

  14. Method of forming impermeable carbide coats on graphite

    DOEpatents

    Wohlberg, C.

    1973-12-11

    A method of forming an impermeable refractory metal carbide coating on graphite is described in which a metal containing oxidant and a carbide former are applied to the surface of the graphite, heated to a temperature of between 1200 and 1500 deg C in an inert gas, under a vacuum and continuing to heat to about 2300 deg C. (Official Gazette)

  15. Electrodynamics, Differential Forms and the Method of Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a brief description of how Maxwell's equations are expressed in the language of differential forms and use this to provide an elegant demonstration of how the method of images (well known in electrostatics) also works for electrodynamics in the presence of an infinite plane conducting boundary. The paper should be accessible to an…

  16. Method of making nanostructured glass-ceramic waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Huizhen; Wang, Yifeng; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Bencoe, Denise N.

    2014-07-08

    A waste form for and a method of rendering hazardous materials less dangerous is disclosed that includes fixing the hazardous material in nanopores of a nanoporous material, reacting the trapped hazardous material to render it less volatile/soluble, and vitrifying the nanoporous material containing the less volatile/soluble hazardous material.

  17. Electrodynamics, Differential Forms and the Method of Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a brief description of how Maxwell's equations are expressed in the language of differential forms and use this to provide an elegant demonstration of how the method of images (well known in electrostatics) also works for electrodynamics in the presence of an infinite plane conducting boundary. The paper should be accessible to an…

  18. Normal mode analyses of methyl palmitate all-trans and disordered forms in wagging progressive region.

    PubMed

    Ishioka, Tsutomu; Yan, Wenhong; Strauss, Herbert L; Snyder, Robert G

    2003-03-01

    Normal mode analyses are made for methyl palmitate molecule having all-trans or conformational disorders around the ester head group, in order to explain characteristic observed frequency shifts in the wagging progressive region between all-trans and disorder chains in triglyceride molecules. It was found that one gauche conformation at C(alpha)-C(beta) position and 90 degrees rotation of the ester head group in an alkyl chain produce frequency shifts for twisting mode as observed. For wagging modes, contamination of the disorders around the head group makes assignments change and apparent frequency shifts occur.

  19. Dopamine neurones form a discrete plexus with melanopsin cells in normal and degenerating retina.

    PubMed

    Vugler, Anthony A; Redgrave, Peter; Semo, Ma'ayan; Lawrence, Jean; Greenwood, John; Coffey, Peter J

    2007-05-01

    In addition to rods and cones of the outer retina, a third class of photoreceptive cell has recently been described in the inner retina of mammals. These intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) have been shown to relay luminance information to the mammalian brain. In addition to their intrinsic photosensitivity, the function of ipRGCs may also be modulated by signals from within the retina itself. Such signals may emanate from classical photoreceptors in the outer retina or from the circadian activity of adjacent inner retinal neurones. Prime candidates for the latter are the retinal dopamine neurones which ramify at the border of the inner plexiform and inner nuclear layers. In order to investigate the nature of any interaction between dopamine and ipRGC populations in normal retina and to assess the impact of outer retinal degeneration on this interrelationship, we examined the retinae of normal and RCS dystrophic rats. We report a direct interaction between the dendrites of ipRGCs and dopaminergic neurones which is conserved across species. Triple immunolabelling using synaptic markers provides evidence for the unidirectionality of information transfer between the two cell types, with processes of ipRGCs being directly adjacent to sites of dopamine release. This fundamental architectural feature of the mammalian retina appears resistant to degeneration of classical photoreceptors and may provide the anatomical substrate by which dopamine cells influence the physiology of central circadian targets in the brain.

  20. METHOD FOR SOLDERING NORMALLY NON-SOLDERABLE ARTICLES

    DOEpatents

    McGuire, J.C.

    1959-11-24

    Methods are presented for coating and joining materials which are considered difficult to solder by utilizing an abrasive wheel and applying a bar of a suitable coating material, such as Wood's metal, to the rotating wheel to fill the cavities of the abrasive wheel and load the wheel with the coating material. The surface of the base material is then rubbed against the loaded rotating wheel, thereby coating the surface with the soft coating metal. The coating is a cohesive bonded layer and holds the base metal as tenaciously as a solder holds to easily solderable metals.

  1. Form of 15q proximal duplication appears to be a normal euchromatic variant

    SciTech Connect

    Jalal, S.M.; Persons, D.L.; DeWald, G.W.; Lindor, N.M.

    1994-10-01

    Deletions involving often leads to either Prader-Willi or Angelman syndrome, depending on the hereditary path of the deletion (paternal or maternal). A number of cases have been reported in which duplications involving 15q11.2-q13 have not been associated with any detectable phenotypic abnormalities. Ludowese et al. (1991) have summarized 25 such cases that include 10 of their own cases from 5 unrelated families. They conclude that duplication of 15q12-13 does not have an adverse phenotypic effect, though they do not completely rule out the possibility that, instead of 15q12-13 duplication, the extra material could be an insertion from another chromosome. Thus, the dilemma is when duplication of 15q11.2-q13 is clinically significant. We suggest that certain kinds of amplification or duplication involving distal 15q12 and 15q13 may represent a normal variant. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. METHOD OF FORMING A PROTECTIVE COATING ON FERROUS METAL SURFACES

    DOEpatents

    Schweitzer, D.G.; Weeks, J.R.; Kammerer, O.F.; Gurinsky, D.H.

    1960-02-23

    A method is described of protecting ferrous metal surfaces from corrosive attack by liquid metals, such as liquid bismuth or lead-bismuth alloys. The nitrogen content of the ferrous metal surface is first reduced by reacting the metal surface with a metal which forms a stable nitride. Thereafter, the surface is contacted with liquid metal containing at least 2 ppm zirconium at a temperature in the range of 550 to 1100 deg C to form an adherent zirconium carbide layer on the ferrous surface.

  3. Charge-free method of forming nanostructures on a substrate

    DOEpatents

    Hoffbauer; Mark , Akhadov; Elshan

    2010-07-20

    A charge-free method of forming a nanostructure at low temperatures on a substrate. A substrate that is reactive with one of atomic oxygen and nitrogen is provided. A flux of neutral atoms of least one of oxygen and nitrogen is generated within a laser-sustained-discharge plasma source and a collimated beam of energetic neutral atoms and molecules is directed from the plasma source onto a surface of the substrate to form the nanostructure. The energetic neutral atoms and molecules in the beam have an average kinetic energy in a range from about 1 eV to about 5 eV.

  4. Method of forming solar cells by grid contact isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Biter, W.J.

    1982-03-16

    A solar cell structure is produced by a method comprising baking the solar cell, containing a gridded top layer of cuprous sulfide formed on a base of cadmium sulfide, for 20 minutes to 10 hours, to produce a copper doped cds electrically insulating region in the cadmium sulfide base near the interface of the cuprous sulfide and the cadmium sulfide; removing the cuprous sulfide, and the copper doped cds insulating region not covered by the grid, to provide a bare cadmium sulfide areas; and then forming a cuprous sulfide layer on the exposed areas not covered by the grid.

  5. Determining quasidiabatic coupled electronic state Hamiltonians using derivative couplings: A normal equations based method.

    PubMed

    Papas, Brian N; Schuurman, Michael S; Yarkony, David R

    2008-09-28

    A self-consistent procedure for constructing a quasidiabatic Hamiltonian representing N(state) coupled electronic states in the vicinity of an arbitrary point in nuclear coordinate space is described. The matrix elements of the Hamiltonian are polynomials of arbitrary order. Employing a crude adiabatic basis, the coefficients of the linear terms are determined exactly using analytic gradient techniques. The remaining polynomial coefficients are determined from the normal form of a system of pseudolinear equations, which uses energy gradient and derivative coupling information obtained from reliable multireference configuration interaction wave functions. In a previous implementation energy gradient and derivative coupling information were employed to limit the number of nuclear configurations at which ab initio data were required to determine the unknown coefficients. Conversely, the key aspect of the current approach is the use of ab initio data over an extended range of nuclear configurations. The normal form of the system of pseudolinear equations is introduced here to obtain a least-squares fit to what would have been an (intractable) overcomplete set of data in the previous approach. This method provides a quasidiabatic representation that minimizes the residual derivative coupling in a least-squares sense, a means to extend the domain of accuracy of the diabatic Hamiltonian or refine its accuracy within a given domain, and a way to impose point group symmetry and hermiticity. These attributes are illustrated using the 1 (2)A(1) and 1 (2)E states of the 1-propynyl radical, CH(3)CC.

  6. Hydrogen purifier module and method for forming the same

    SciTech Connect

    DeVries, Peter David

    2012-02-07

    A hydrogen purifier utilizing a hydrogen permeable membrane, and a gas-tight seal, where the seal is uses a low temperature melting point metal, which upon heating above the melting point subsequently forms a seal alloy with adjacent metals, where the alloy has a melting point above the operational temperature of the purifier. The purifier further is constructed such that a degree of isolation exists between the metal that melts to form the seal and the active area of the purifier membrane, so that the active area of the purifier membrane is not corrupted. A method of forming a hydrogen purifier utilizing a hydrogen permeable membrane with a seal of the same type is also disclosed.

  7. Method for forming H2-permselective oxide membranes

    DOEpatents

    Gavalas, G.R.; Nam, S.W.; Tsapatsis, M.; Kim, S.

    1995-09-26

    Methods are disclosed for forming permselective oxide membranes that are highly selective to permeation of hydrogen by chemical deposition of reactants in the pore of porous tubes, such as Vycor{trademark} glass or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tubes. The porous tubes have pores extending through the tube wall. The process involves forming a stream containing a first reactant of the formula RX{sub n}, wherein R is silicon, titanium, boron or aluminum, X is chlorine, bromine or iodine, and n is a number which is equal to the valence of R; and forming another stream containing water vapor as the second reactant. Both of the reactant streams are passed along either the outside or the inside surface of a porous tube and the streams react in the pores of the porous tube to form a nonporous layer of R-oxide in the pores. The membranes are formed by the hydrolysis of the respective halides. In another embodiment, the first reactant stream contains a first reactant having the formula SiH{sub n}Cl{sub 4{minus}n} where n is 1, 2 or 3; and the second reactant stream contains water vapor and oxygen. In still another embodiment the first reactant stream containing a first reactant selected from the group consisting of Cl{sub 3}SiOSiCl{sub 3}, Cl{sub 3}SiOSiCl{sub 2}OSiCl{sub 3}, and mixtures thereof and the second reactant stream contains water vapor. In still another embodiment, membrane formation is carried out by an alternating flow deposition method. This involves a sequence of cycles, each cycle comprising introduction of the halide-containing stream and allowance of a specific time for reaction followed by purge and flow of the water vapor containing stream for a specific length of time. In all embodiments the nonporous layers formed are selectively permeable to hydrogen. 11 figs.

  8. Method for forming H2-permselective oxide membranes

    DOEpatents

    Gavalas, George R.; Nam, Suk Woo; Tsapatsis, Michael; Kim, Soojin

    1995-01-01

    Methods of forming permselective oxide membranes that are highly selective to permeation of hydrogen by chemical deposition of reactants in the pore of porous tubes, such as Vycor.TM. glass or Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 tubes. The porous tubes have pores extending through the tube wall. The process involves forming a stream containing a first reactant of the formula RX.sub.n, wherein R is silicon, titanium, boron or aluminum, X is chlorine, bromine or iodine, and n is a number which is equal to the valence of R; and forming another stream containing water vapor as the second reactant. Both of the reactant streams are passed along either the outside or the inside surface of a porous tube and the streams react in the pores of the porous tube to form a nonporous layer of R-oxide in the pores. The membranes are formed by the hydrolysis of the respective halides. In another embodiment, the first reactant stream contains a first reactant having the formula SiH.sub.n Cl.sub.4-n where n is 1, 2 or 3; and the second reactant stream contains water vapor and oxygen. In still another embodiment the first reactant stream containing a first reactant selected from the group consisting of Cl.sub.3 SiOSiCl.sub.3, Cl.sub.3 SiOSiCl.sub.2 OSiCl.sub.3, and mixtures thereof and the second reactant stream contains water vapor. In still another embodiment, membrane formation is carried out by an alternating flow deposition method. This involves a sequence of cycles, each cycle comprising introduction of the halide-containing stream and allowance of a specific time for reaction followed by purge and flow of the water vapor containing stream for a specific length of time. In all embodiments the nonporous layers formed are selectively permeable to hydrogen.

  9. Method for forming porous sintered bodies with controlled pore structure

    DOEpatents

    Whinnery, LeRoy Louis; Nichols, Monte Carl

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is based, in part, on a method for combining a mixture of hydroxide and hydride functional siloxanes to form a polysiloxane polymer foam, that leaves no residue (zero char yield) upon thermal decomposition, with ceramic and/or metal powders and appropriate catalysts to produce porous foam structures having compositions, densities, porosities and structures not previously attainable. The siloxanes are mixed with the ceramic and/or metal powder, wherein the powder has a particle size of about 400 .mu.m or less, a catalyst is added causing the siloxanes to foam and crosslink, thereby forming a polysiloxane polymer foam having the metal or ceramic powder dispersed therein. The polymer foam is heated to thermally decompose the polymer foam and sinter the powder particles together. Because the system is completely nonaqueous, this method further provides for incorporating reactive metals such as magnesium and aluminum, which can be further processed, into the foam structure.

  10. Methods of forming a fluidized bed of circulating particles

    DOEpatents

    Marshall, Douglas W [Blackfoot, ID

    2011-05-24

    There is disclosed an apparatus for forming a fluidized bed of circulating particles. In an embodiment, the apparatus includes a bottom portion having a sidewall, the sidewall defining a curvilinear profile, and the bottom portion configured to contain a bed of particles; and a gas inlet configured to produce a column of gas to carry entrained particles therein. There is disclosed a method of forming a fluidized bed of circulating particles. In an embodiment, the method includes positioning particles within a bottom portion having a sidewall, the sidewall defining a curvilinear profile; producing a column of gas directed upwardly through a gas inlet; carrying entrained particles in the column of gas to produce a fountain of particles over the fluidized bed of circulating particles and subside in the particle bed until being directed inwardly into the column of gas within the curvilinear profile.

  11. Method of forming and assembly of metal and ceramic parts

    SciTech Connect

    Ripley, Edward B

    2014-04-22

    A method of forming and assembling at least two parts together that may be metal, ceramic, or a combination of metal and ceramic parts. Such parts may have different CTE. Individual parts that are formed and sintered from particles leave a network of interconnecting porosity in each sintered part. The separate parts are assembled together and then a fill material is infiltrated into the assembled parts using a method such as capillary action, gravity, and/or pressure. The assembly is then cured to yield a bonded and fully or near-fully dense part that has the desired physical and mechanical properties for the part's intended purpose. Structural strength may be added to the parts by the inclusion of fibrous materials.

  12. Method for forming a nano-textured substrate

    DOEpatents

    Jeong, Sangmoo; Hu, Liangbing; Cui, Yi

    2015-04-07

    A method for forming a nano-textured surface on a substrate is disclosed. An illustrative embodiment of the present invention comprises dispensing of a nanoparticle ink of nanoparticles and solvent onto the surface of a substrate, distributing the ink to form substantially uniform, liquid nascent layer of the ink, and enabling the solvent to evaporate from the nanoparticle ink thereby inducing the nanoparticles to assemble into an texture layer. Methods in accordance with the present invention enable rapid formation of large-area substrates having a nano-textured surface. Embodiments of the present invention are well suited for texturing substrates using high-speed, large scale, roll-to-roll coating equipment, such as that used in office product, film coating, and flexible packaging applications. Further, embodiments of the present invention are well suited for use with rigid or flexible substrates.

  13. Method for forming an abrasive surface on a tool

    SciTech Connect

    Seals, R.D.; White, R.L.; Swindeman, C.J.; Kahl, W.K.

    1999-12-21

    A method for fabricating a tool used in cutting, grinding and machining operations, is provided. The method is used to deposit a mixture comprising an abrasive material and a bonding material on a tool surface. The materials are propelled toward the receiving surface of the tool substrate using a thermal spray process. The thermal spray process melts the bonding material portion of the mixture, but not the abrasive material. Upon impacting the tool surface, the mixture or composition solidifies to form a hard abrasive tool coating.

  14. Method for forming an abrasive surface on a tool

    SciTech Connect

    Seals, Roland D.; White, Rickey L.; Swindeman, Catherine J.; Kahl, W. Keith

    1999-01-01

    A method for fabricating a tool used in cutting, grinding and machining operations, is provided. The method is used to deposit a mixture comprising an abrasive material and a bonding material on a tool surface. The materials are propelled toward the receiving surface of the tool substrate using a thermal spray process. The thermal spray process melts the bonding material portion of the mixture, but not the abrasive material. Upon impacting the tool surface, the mixture or composition solidifies to form a hard abrasive tool coating.

  15. Method for forming gold-containing catalyst with porous structure

    DOEpatents

    Biener, Juergen; Hamza, Alex V; Baeumer, Marcus; Schulz, Christian; Jurgens, Birte; Biener, Monika M.

    2014-07-22

    A method for forming a gold-containing catalyst with porous structure according to one embodiment of the present invention includes producing a starting alloy by melting together of gold and at least one less noble metal that is selected from the group consisting of silver, copper, rhodium, palladium, and platinum; and a dealloying step comprising at least partial removal of the less noble metal by dissolving the at least one less noble metal out of the starting alloy. Additional methods and products thereof are also presented.

  16. [Variations in the molecular forms of LH and FSH during the normal ovarian cycle].

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Valencia, M; Mason, M; Eugenia Fonseca, M; Zarate, A

    1996-03-01

    FSH and LH concentrations during the menstrual cycle are well known, showing characteristically a midcycle surge in LH as well as in less degree in FSH. At the present there is an increasing interest in studying variations of the moleculoar forms of both gonadotropins. We have studied the chromatographic profile of FSH and LH in sera obtained from women regularly ovulating and in patients with anovulatory cycles by the use of gel column chromatography. It was observed the predominance of LH 32-34 kDa at midcycle and the heterogeneous FSH profile during the ovarian cycle. In sera from anovulatory patients the chromatographic profile was even more irregular for both LH and FSH. It is concluded that LH 32-34 kDa may be the more biological isoform in turn related with the process of ovulation.

  17. Method for forming silicon on a glass substrate

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1995-01-01

    A method by which single-crystal silicon microelectronics may be fabricated on glass substrates at unconventionally low temperatures. This is achieved by fabricating a thin film of silicon on glass and subsequently forming the doped components by a short wavelength (excimer) laser doping procedure and conventional patterning techniques. This method may include introducing a heavily boron doped etch stop layer on a silicon wafer using an excimer laser, which permits good control of the etch stop layer removal process. This method additionally includes dramatically reducing the remaining surface roughness of the silicon thin films after etching in the fabrication of silicon on insulator wafers by scanning an excimer laser across the surface of the silicon thin film causing surface melting, whereby the surface tension of the melt causes smoothing of the surface during recrystallization. Applications for this method include those requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, such as display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard and high temperature electronics.

  18. Methods of forming aluminum oxynitride-comprising bodies, including methods of forming a sheet of transparent armor

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry Shiu-Hung [Idaho Falls, ID; Lillo, Thomas Martin [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-12-02

    The invention includes methods of forming an aluminum oxynitride-comprising body. For example, a mixture is formed which comprises A:B:C in a respective molar ratio in the range of 9:3.6-6.2:0.1-1.1, where "A" is Al.sub.2O.sub.3, "B" is AlN, and "C" is a total of one or more of B.sub.2O.sub.3, SiO.sub.2, Si--Al--O--N, and TiO.sub.2. The mixture is sintered at a temperature of at least 1,600.degree. C. at a pressure of no greater than 500 psia effective to form an aluminum oxynitride-comprising body which is at least internally transparent and has at least 99% maximum theoretical density.

  19. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: shocks and outflows in a normal star-forming galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, I.-Ting; Kewley, Lisa J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Medling, Anne M.; Allen, J. T.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bloom, Jessica V.; Bryant, Julia J.; Croom, Scott M.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Goodwin, Michael; Green, Andy W.; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis S.; Lawrence, Jon S.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Owers, Matt S.; Richards, Samuel; Sharp, Rob

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility and potential of using large integral field spectroscopic surveys to investigate the prevalence of galactic-scale outflows in the local Universe. Using integral field data from the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) and the Wide Field Spectrograph, we study the nature of an isolated disc galaxy, SDSS J090005.05+000446.7 (z = 0.053 86). In the integral field data sets, the galaxy presents skewed line profiles changing with position in the galaxy. The skewed line profiles are caused by different kinematic components overlapping in the line-of-sight direction. We perform spectral decomposition to separate the line profiles in each spatial pixel as combinations of (1) a narrow kinematic component consistent with H II regions, (2) a broad kinematic component consistent with shock excitation, and (3) an intermediate component consistent with shock excitation and photoionization mixing. The three kinematic components have distinctly different velocity fields, velocity dispersions, line ratios, and electron densities. We model the line ratios, velocity dispersions, and electron densities with our MAPPINGS IV shock and photoionization models, and we reach remarkable agreement between the data and the models. The models demonstrate that the different emission line properties are caused by major galactic outflows that introduce shock excitation in addition to photoionization by star-forming activities. Interstellar shocks embedded in the outflows shock-excite and compress the gas, causing the elevated line ratios, velocity dispersions, and electron densities observed in the broad kinematic component. We argue from energy considerations that, with the lack of a powerful active galactic nucleus, the outflows are likely to be driven by starburst activities. Our results set a benchmark of the type of analysis that can be achieved by the SAMI Galaxy Survey on large numbers of galaxies.

  20. The chain collocation method: A spectrally accurate calculus of forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufat, Dzhelil; Mason, Gemma; Mullen, Patrick; Desbrun, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Preserving in the discrete realm the underlying geometric, topological, and algebraic structures at stake in partial differential equations has proven to be a fruitful guiding principle for numerical methods in a variety of fields such as elasticity, electromagnetism, or fluid mechanics. However, structure-preserving methods have traditionally used spaces of piecewise polynomial basis functions for differential forms. Yet, in many problems where solutions are smoothly varying in space, a spectral numerical treatment is called for. In an effort to provide structure-preserving numerical tools with spectral accuracy on logically rectangular grids over periodic or bounded domains, we present a spectral extension of the discrete exterior calculus (DEC), with resulting computational tools extending well-known collocation-based spectral methods. Its efficient implementation using fast Fourier transforms is provided as well.

  1. Method for forming thermally stable nanoparticles on supports

    DOEpatents

    Roldan Cuenya, Beatriz; Naitabdi, Ahmed R.; Behafarid, Farzad

    2013-08-20

    An inverse micelle-based method for forming nanoparticles on supports includes dissolving a polymeric material in a solvent to provide a micelle solution. A nanoparticle source is dissolved in the micelle solution. A plurality of micelles having a nanoparticle in their core and an outer polymeric coating layer are formed in the micelle solution. The micelles are applied to a support. The polymeric coating layer is then removed from the micelles to expose the nanoparticles. A supported catalyst includes a nanocrystalline powder, thin film, or single crystal support. Metal nanoparticles having a median size from 0.5 nm to 25 nm, a size distribution having a standard deviation .ltoreq.0.1 of their median size are on or embedded in the support. The plurality of metal nanoparticles are dispersed and in a periodic arrangement. The metal nanoparticles maintain their periodic arrangement and size distribution following heat treatments of at least 1,000.degree. C.

  2. Wafer bonded virtual substrate and method for forming the same

    DOEpatents

    Atwater, Jr., Harry A.; Zahler, James M.; Morral, Anna Fontcuberta i

    2007-07-03

    A method of forming a virtual substrate comprised of an optoelectronic device substrate and handle substrate comprises the steps of initiating bonding of the device substrate to the handle substrate, improving or increasing the mechanical strength of the device and handle substrates, and thinning the device substrate to leave a single-crystal film on the virtual substrate such as by exfoliation of a device film from the device substrate. The handle substrate is typically Si or other inexpensive common substrate material, while the optoelectronic device substrate is formed of more expensive and specialized electro-optic material. Using the methodology of the invention a wide variety of thin film electro-optic materials of high quality can be bonded to inexpensive substrates which serve as the mechanical support for an optoelectronic device layer fabricated in the thin film electro-optic material.

  3. Method of forming a thin unbacked metal foil

    DOEpatents

    Duchane, David V.; Barthell, Barry L.

    1984-01-01

    In a method of forming a thin (<2 .mu.m) unbacked metal foil having a desired curviplanar shape, a soluble polymeric film, preferably comprising polyvinyl alcohol, is formed on a supporting structure having a shape that defines the desired shape of the foil product. A layer of metal foil is deposited onto one side of the soluble film, preferably by vacuum vapor deposition. The metallized film is then immersed in a suitable solvent to dissolve the film and thereby leave the metal foil as an unbacked metal foil element mounted on the supporting structure. Aluminum foils less than 0.2 .mu.m (2,000 .ANG.) thick and having an areal density of less than 54 .mu.g/cm.sup.2 have been obtained.

  4. Wafer bonded virtual substrate and method for forming the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, Jr., Harry A. (Inventor); Zahler, James M. (Inventor); Morral, Anna Fontcuberta i (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method of forming a virtual substrate comprised of an optoelectronic device substrate and handle substrate comprises the steps of initiating bonding of the device substrate to the handle substrate, improving or increasing the mechanical strength of the device and handle substrates, and thinning the device substrate to leave a single-crystal film on the virtual substrate such as by exfoliation of a device film from the device substrate. The handle substrate is typically Si or other inexpensive common substrate material, while the optoelectronic device substrate is formed of more expensive and specialized electro-optic material. Using the methodology of the invention a wide variety of thin film electro-optic materials of high quality can be bonded to inexpensive substrates which serve as the mechanical support for an optoelectronic device layer fabricated in the thin film electro-optic material.

  5. Post-UV colony-forming ability of normal fibroblast strains and of the xeroderma pigmentosum group G strain

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, S.F.; Tarone, R.E.; Moshell, A.N.; Ganges, M.B.; Robbins, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    In xeroderma pigmentosum, an inherited disorder of defective DNA repair, post-uv colony-forming ability of fibroblasts from patients in complementation groups A through F correlates with the patients' neurological status. The first xeroderma pigmentosum patient assigned to the recently discovered group G had the neurological abnormalities of XP. Researchers have determined the post-uv colony-forming ability of cultured fibroblasts from this patient and from 5 more control donors. Log-phase fibroblasts were irradiated with 254 nm uv light from a germicidal lamp, trypsinized, and replated at known densities. After 2 to 4 weeks' incubation the cells were fixed, stained and scored for colony formation. The strains' post-uv colony-forming ability curves were obtained by plotting the log of the percent remaining post-uv colony-forming ability as a function of the uv dose. The post-uv colony-forming ability of 2 of the 5 new normal strains was in the previously defined control donor zone, but that of the other 3 extended down to the level of the most resistant xeroderma pigmentosum strain. The post-uv colony-forming ability curve of the group G fibroblasts was not significantly different from the curves of the group D fibroblast strains from patients with clinical histories similar to that of the group G patient.

  6. Overexpression of normal and mutated forms of HRAS induces orthotopic bladder invasion in a human transitional cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Theodorescu, D; Cornil, I; Fernandez, B J; Kerbel, R S

    1990-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that orthotopic (transurethral) transplantation of human bladder cancer cell lines into nude mice permits tumor growth that accurately reflects their clinical malignant status in the original host. Thus, such a system allows a unique opportunity to analyze the genetic events involved in the conversion of low-grade bladder cancer, the vast majority of which are curable, to the high-grade life-threatening form of the disease. Since 5-10% of transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs) have been shown to contain a mutated HRAS gene, and protein expression levels of all forms of HRAS have been correlated with TCC progression, we chose to study the contribution of the HRAS oncogene in bladder tumor progression. We evaluated the effects of transfection of normal or mutated HRAS genes into a human TCC, called RT-4, that behaves as a superficial noninvasive papillary tumor after transurethral orthotopic inoculation into athymic nude mice. We found that overexpression of either transfected normal or mutated HRAS genes converted RT-4 cells to express an invasive phenotype remarkably similar in nature to the clinical behavior of high-grade bladder carcinomas. These results suggest a role for overexpressed normal or mutated RAS genes in human bladder carcinoma progression, and highlight the importance of using orthotopic inoculation systems for evaluation of the contribution of oncogenes to malignant tumor progression.

  7. Effects of interchanging hyperopic defocus and form deprivation stimuli in normal and optic nerve-sectioned chicks.

    PubMed

    Choh, Vivian; Lew, MinJung Y; Nadel, Michel W; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2006-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that the same mechanisms mediate form deprivation and lens-induced myopia, the ocular growth responses of chicks alternately exposed to lenses and diffusers at regular intervals (3h) were compared to those of chicks exposed to either negative lenses or diffusers alone. In total, there were four experiments: (1) -15 D lenses and/or diffusers on normal birds, (2) -15 D lenses and/or diffusers on optic nerve-sectioned (ONS) birds, (3) -5/-10/-15 D lenses (sequentially applied) and/or diffusers on normal birds and (4) -5/-10/-15 D lenses and/or diffusers on ONS birds. All treatments were monocular. In all experiments, optical axial lengths (cornea-to-retina distances) in treated eyes were greater than in fellow eyes, irrespective of the optical device (diffuser, lens or switch), lens power (fixed or incremented) and optic nerve condition (intact or severed). In normal chicks, optical axial length responses in the switch group were significantly reduced relative to those of the diffuser but not to those of the -15 D lens group. For both groups of ONS birds, diffusers exaggerated the optical axial length changes. For all groups, the responses to the switch and lens groups were most similar. These results together suggest that the mechanisms mediating form deprivation- and lens-induced myopia are different.

  8. Method of coextruding plastics to form a composite sheet

    DOEpatents

    Tsien, Hsue C.

    1985-06-04

    This invention pertains to a method of producing a composite sheet of plastic materials by means of coextrusion. Two plastic materials are matched with respect to their melt indices. These matched plastic materials are then coextruded in a side-by-side orientation while hot and soft to form a composite sheet having a substantially uniform demarkation therebetween. The plastic materials are fed at a substantially equal extrusion velocity and generally have substantially equal viscosities. The coextruded plastics can be worked after coextrusion while they are still hot and soft.

  9. Proton Form Factor Measurements Using Polarization Method: Beyond Born Approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Pentchev, Lubomir

    2008-10-13

    Significant theoretical and experimental efforts have been made over the past 7 years aiming to explain the discrepancy between the proton form factor ratio data obtained at JLab using the polarization method and the previous Rosenbluth measurements. Preliminary results from the first high precision polarization experiment dedicated to study effects beyond Born approximation will be presented. The ratio of the transferred polarization components and, separately, the longitudinal polarization in ep elastic scattering have been measured at a fixed Q{sup 2} of 2.5 GeV{sup 2} over a wide kinematic range. The two quantities impose constraints on the real part of the ep elastic amplitudes.

  10. Method of forming capsules containing a precise amount of material

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.; Maya, Jakob

    1986-01-01

    A method of forming a sealed capsule containing a submilligram quantity of mercury or the like, the capsule being constructed from a hollow glass tube, by placing a globule or droplet of the mercury in the tube. The tube is then evacuated and sealed and is subsequently heated so as to vaporize the mercury and fill the tube therewith. The tube is then separated into separate sealed capsules by heating spaced locations along the tube with a coiled heating wire means to cause collapse spaced locations therealong and thus enable separation of the tube into said capsules.

  11. Method of forming capsules containing a precise amount of material

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.; Maya, J.

    1986-06-24

    A method of forming a sealed capsule containing a submilligram quantity of mercury or the like, the capsule being constructed from a hollow glass tube, by placing a globule or droplet of the mercury in the tube. The tube is then evacuated and sealed and is subsequently heated so as to vaporize the mercury and fill the tube therewith. The tube is then separated into separate sealed capsules by heating spaced locations along the tube with a coiled heating wire means to cause collapse spaced locations there along and thus enable separation of the tube into said capsules. 7 figs.

  12. Method of nitriding niobium to form a superconducting surface

    DOEpatents

    Kelley, Michael J.; Klopf, John Michael; Singaravelu, Senthilaraja

    2014-08-19

    A method of forming a delta niobium nitride .delta.-NbN layer on the surface of a niobium object including cleaning the surface of the niobium object; providing a treatment chamber; placing the niobium object in the treatment chamber; evacuating the chamber; passing pure nitrogen into the treatment chamber; focusing a laser spot on the niobium object; delivering laser fluences at the laser spot until the surface of the niobium object reaches above its boiling temperature; and rastering the laser spot over the surface of the niobium object.

  13. Close-form expression of one-tap normalized LMS carrier phase recovery in optical communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tianhua; Jacobsen, Gunnar; Popov, Sergei; Li, Jie; Liu, Tiegen; Zhang, Yimo

    2016-10-01

    The performance of long-haul high speed coherent optical fiber communication systems is significantly degraded by the laser phase noise and the equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN). In this paper, the analysis of the one-tap normalized least-mean-square (LMS) carrier phase recovery (CPR) is carried out and the close-form expression is investigated for quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) coherent optical fiber communication systems, in compensating both laser phase noise and equalization enhanced phase noise. Numerical simulations have also been implemented to verify the theoretical analysis. It is found that the one-tap normalized least-mean-square algorithm gives the same analytical expression for predicting CPR bit-error-rate (BER) floors as the traditional differential carrier phase recovery, when both the laser phase noise and the equalization enhanced phase noise are taken into account.

  14. Analysis of boutique arrays: a universal method for the selection of the optimal data normalization procedure.

    PubMed

    Uszczyńska, Barbara; Zyprych-Walczak, Joanna; Handschuh, Luiza; Szabelska, Alicja; Kaźmierczak, Maciej; Woronowicz, Wiesława; Kozłowski, Piotr; Sikorski, Michał M; Komarnicki, Mieczysław; Siatkowski, Idzi; Figlerowicz, Marek

    2013-09-01

    DNA microarrays, which are among the most popular genomic tools, are widely applied in biology and medicine. Boutique arrays, which are small, spotted, dedicated microarrays, constitute an inexpensive alternative to whole-genome screening methods. The data extracted from each microarray-based experiment must be transformed and processed prior to further analysis to eliminate any technical bias. The normalization of the data is the most crucial step of microarray data pre-processing and this process must be carefully considered as it has a profound effect on the results of the analysis. Several normalization algorithms have been developed and implemented in data analysis software packages. However, most of these methods were designed for whole-genome analysis. In this study, we tested 13 normalization strategies (ten for double-channel data and three for single-channel data) available on R Bioconductor and compared their effectiveness in the normalization of four boutique array datasets. The results revealed that boutique arrays can be successfully normalized using standard methods, but not every method is suitable for each dataset. We also suggest a universal seven-step workflow that can be applied for the selection of the optimal normalization procedure for any boutique array dataset. The described workflow enables the evaluation of the investigated normalization methods based on the bias and variance values for the control probes, a differential expression analysis and a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The analysis of each component results in a separate ranking of the normalization methods. A combination of the ranks obtained from all the normalization procedures facilitates the selection of the most appropriate normalization method for the studied dataset and determines which methods can be used interchangeably.

  15. Normal and abnormal tissue identification system and method for medical images such as digital mammograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heine, John J. (Inventor); Clarke, Laurence P. (Inventor); Deans, Stanley R. (Inventor); Stauduhar, Richard Paul (Inventor); Cullers, David Kent (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A system and method for analyzing a medical image to determine whether an abnormality is present, for example, in digital mammograms, includes the application of a wavelet expansion to a raw image to obtain subspace images of varying resolution. At least one subspace image is selected that has a resolution commensurate with a desired predetermined detection resolution range. A functional form of a probability distribution function is determined for each selected subspace image, and an optimal statistical normal image region test is determined for each selected subspace image. A threshold level for the probability distribution function is established from the optimal statistical normal image region test for each selected subspace image. A region size comprising at least one sector is defined, and an output image is created that includes a combination of all regions for each selected subspace image. Each region has a first value when the region intensity level is above the threshold and a second value when the region intensity level is below the threshold. This permits the localization of a potential abnormality within the image.

  16. A method of rapped selection and calculating formed milling cutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hongping; Gong, Yilong; Mo, Li; Qian, Yangshun

    2010-12-01

    With center distance between machining and workpiece reduced, formed milling cutter in cutting edge after persistent cutting and grinding can lead to blunt, thereby spiral gear-shape error of cutter produces surface. When the precision of helicoids section shape of workpiece is lower, it can use ordinary, batch of milling cutter to cutting workpiece through the installation debugging in parameters, such as the center distance and axial intersection angle, etc, in order to reduce workpiece gear-shape error. This paper introduces a method of calculating parameters of the section workpiece helicoids of tooth head profile according to the shaft section milling cutter tooth shape. Through this method can rapidly determine the selected milling machining precision of tooth profile is whether or not within the allowed in the workpiece gearshape error range.

  17. A method of rapped selection and calculating formed milling cutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hongping; Gong, Yilong; Mo, Li; Qian, Yangshun

    2011-05-01

    With center distance between machining and workpiece reduced, formed milling cutter in cutting edge after persistent cutting and grinding can lead to blunt, thereby spiral gear-shape error of cutter produces surface. When the precision of helicoids section shape of workpiece is lower, it can use ordinary, batch of milling cutter to cutting workpiece through the installation debugging in parameters, such as the center distance and axial intersection angle, etc, in order to reduce workpiece gear-shape error. This paper introduces a method of calculating parameters of the section workpiece helicoids of tooth head profile according to the shaft section milling cutter tooth shape. Through this method can rapidly determine the selected milling machining precision of tooth profile is whether or not within the allowed in the workpiece gearshape error range.

  18. Method of forming a ceramic to ceramic joint

    DOEpatents

    Cutler, Raymond Ashton; Hutchings, Kent Neal; Kleinlein, Brian Paul; Carolan, Michael Francis

    2010-04-13

    A method of joining at least two sintered bodies to form a composite structure, includes: providing a joint material between joining surfaces of first and second sintered bodies; applying pressure from 1 kP to less than 5 MPa to provide an assembly; heating the assembly to a conforming temperature sufficient to allow the joint material to conform to the joining surfaces; and further heating the assembly to a joining temperature below a minimum sintering temperature of the first and second sintered bodies. The joint material includes organic component(s) and ceramic particles. The ceramic particles constitute 40-75 vol. % of the joint material, and include at least one element of the first and/or second sintered bodies. Composite structures produced by the method are also disclosed.

  19. Method of forming shrink-fit compression seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podgorski, T. J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method for making a glass-to-metal seal is described. A domed metal enclosure having a machined seal ring is fitted to a glass post machined to a slight taper and to a desired surface finish. The metal part is then heated by induction in a vacuum. As the metal part heats and expands relative to the glass post, the metal seal ring, possessing a higher coefficient of expansion than the glass post, slides down the tapered post. Upon cooling, the seal ring crushes against the glass post forming the seal. The method results in a glass-to-metal seal possessing extremely good leak resistance, while the parts are kept clean and free of the contaminants.

  20. Method of forming biaxially textured alloy substrates and devices thereon

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Specht, Eliot D.; Kroeger, Donald M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan

    1999-01-01

    Specific alloys, in particular Ni-based alloys, that can be biaxially textured, with a well-developed, single component texture are disclosed. These alloys have a significantly reduced Curie point, which is very desirable from the point of view of superconductivity applications. The biaxially textured alloy substrates also possess greatly enhanced mechanical properties (yield strength, ultimate tensile strength) which are essential for most applications, in particular, superconductors. A method is disclosed for producing complex multicomponent alloys which have the ideal physical properties for specific applications, such as lattice parameter, degree of magnetism and mechanical strength, and which cannot be fabricated in textured form. In addition, a method for making ultra thin biaxially textured substrates with complex compositions is disclosed.

  1. Method of forming biaxially textured alloy substrates and devices thereon

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Specht, Eliot D.; Kroeger, Donald M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan

    2000-01-01

    Specific alloys, in particular Ni-based alloys, that can be biaxially textured, with a well-developed, single component texture are disclosed. These alloys have a significantly reduced Curie point, which is very desirable from the point of view of superconductivity applications. The biaxially textured alloy substrates also possess greatly enhanced mechanical properties (yield strength, ultimate tensile strength) which are essential for most applications, in particular, superconductors. A method is disclosed for producing complex multicomponent alloys which have the ideal physical properties for specific applications, such as lattice parameter, degree of magnetism and mechanical strength, and which cannot be in textured form. In addition, a method for making ultra thin biaxially textured substrates with complex compositions is disclosed.

  2. Worthwhile optical method for free-form mirrors qualification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sironi, G.; Canestrari, R.; Toso, G.; Pareschi, G.

    2013-09-01

    We present an optical method for free-form mirrors qualification developed by the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) in the context of the ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) Project which includes, among its items, the design, development and installation of a dual-mirror telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory. The primary mirror panels of the telescope prototype are free-form concave mirrors with few microns accuracy required on the shape error. The developed technique is based on the synergy between a Ronchi-like optical test performed on the reflecting surface and the image, obtained by means of the TraceIT ray-tracing proprietary code, a perfect optics should generate in the same configuration. This deflectometry test allows the reconstruction of the slope error map that the TraceIT code can process to evaluate the measured mirror optical performance at the telescope focus. The advantages of the proposed method is that it substitutes the use of 3D coordinates measuring machine reducing production time and costs and offering the possibility to evaluate on-site the mirror image quality at the focus. In this paper we report the measuring concept and compare the obtained results to the similar ones obtained processing the shape error acquired by means of a 3D coordinates measuring machine.

  3. Method for forming silicon on a glass substrate

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1995-03-07

    A method by which single-crystal silicon microelectronics may be fabricated on glass substrates at unconventionally low temperatures. This is achieved by fabricating a thin film of silicon on glass and subsequently forming the doped components by a short wavelength (excimer) laser doping procedure and conventional patterning techniques. This method may include introducing a heavily boron doped etch stop layer on a silicon wafer using an excimer laser, which permits good control of the etch stop layer removal process. This method additionally includes dramatically reducing the remaining surface roughness of the silicon thin films after etching in the fabrication of silicon on insulator wafers by scanning an excimer laser across the surface of the silicon thin film causing surface melting, whereby the surface tension of the melt causes smoothing of the surface during recrystallization. Applications for this method include those requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, such as display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard and high temperature electronics. 15 figs.

  4. A likelihood reformulation method in non-normal random effects models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Yu, Zhangsheng

    2008-07-20

    In this paper, we propose a practical computational method to obtain the maximum likelihood estimates (MLE) for mixed models with non-normal random effects. By simply multiplying and dividing a standard normal density, we reformulate the likelihood conditional on the non-normal random effects to that conditional on the normal random effects. Gaussian quadrature technique, conveniently implemented in SAS Proc NLMIXED, can then be used to carry out the estimation process. Our method substantially reduces computational time, while yielding similar estimates to the probability integral transformation method (J. Comput. Graphical Stat. 2006; 15:39-57). Furthermore, our method can be applied to more general situations, e.g. finite mixture random effects or correlated random effects from Clayton copula. Simulations and applications are presented to illustrate our method.

  5. Prescriptive method for insulating concrete forms in residential construction

    SciTech Connect

    Vrankar, A.; Elhajj, N.

    1998-05-01

    Characterized as strong, durable, and energy-efficient, a new wall system for housing called Insulating Concrete Forms (ICFs) is emerging as an alternative to lumber wall frames. Due to rising costs and varying quality of framing lumber, home builders are increasing their use of ICFs even though added engineering costs make ICF homes slightly more expensive than homes with wood framing. To improve the affordability and acceptance of ICF homes, this report sets guidelines on the design, construction and inspection of ICF wall systems in residential construction. Based on thorough testing and research, the Prescriptive Method section of the report outlines minimum requirements for ICF systems including wall thickness, termite protection, reinforcement, lintel span, and connection requirements. It highlights construction and thermal guidelines for ICFs and explains how to apply the prescriptive requirements to one- and two-family homes. The Commentary section provides supplemental information and the engineering assumptions and methods used for the prescriptive method. Appendices contain step-by-step examples on how to apply ICF requirements when designing a home. They also contain engineering technical substantiation and metric conversion factors.

  6. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D; Swank, William D.

    2011-08-30

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  7. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D.; Swank, W. David

    2013-04-02

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  8. Methods for forming group III-arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Major, Jo S. (Inventor); Welch, David F. (Inventor); Scifres, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for forming Group III-arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials. Group III elements are combined with group V elements, including at least nitrogen and arsenic, in concentrations chosen to lattice match commercially available crystalline substrates. Epitaxial growth of these III-V crystals results in direct bandgap materials, which can be used in applications such as light emitting diodes and lasers. Varying the concentrations of the elements in the III-V crystals varies the bandgaps, such that materials emitting light spanning the visible spectra, as well as mid-IR and near-UV emitters, can be created. Conversely, such material can be used to create devices that acquire light and convert the light to electricity, for applications such as full color photodetectors and solar energy collectors. The growth of the III-V crystals can be accomplished by growing thin layers of elements or compounds in sequences that result in the overall lattice match and bandgap desired.

  9. Optical geometry calibration method for free-form digital tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chtcheprov, Pavel; Hartman, Allison; Shan, Jing; Lee, Yueh Z.; Zhou, Otto; Lu, Jianping

    2016-03-01

    Digital tomosynthesis is a type of limited angle tomography that allows 3D information to be reconstructed from a set of x-ray projection images taken at various angles using an x-ray tube, a mechanical arm to rotate the tube about the object, and a digital detector. Tomosynthesis reconstruction requires the precise location of the detector with respect to each x-ray source, forcing all current clinical tomosynthesis systems to use a physically coupled source and detector so the geometry is always known and is always the same. This limits the imaging geometries and its large size is impractical for mobile or field operations. To counter this, we have developed a free form tomosynthesis with a decoupled, free-moving source and detector that uses a novel optical method for accurate and real-time geometry calibration to allow for manual, hand-held tomosynthesis and even CT imaging. We accomplish this by using a camera, attached to the source, to track the motion of the source relative to the detector. Attached to the detector is an optical pattern and the image captured by the camera is then used to determine the relative camera/pattern position and orientation by analyzing the pattern distortion and calculating the source positions for each projection, necessary for 3D reconstruction. This allows for portable imaging in the field and also as an inexpensive upgrade to existing 2D systems, such as in developing countries, to provide 3D image data. Here we report the first feasibility demonstrations of free form digital tomosynthesis systems using the method.

  10. A comparison of radiometric normalization methods when filling cloud gaps in Lansat imagery.

    Treesearch

    E. H. Helmer

    2007-01-01

    Mapping persistently cloudy tropical landscapes with optical satellite imagenery usually requires assembling the clear imagery from several dates. this study compares methods for normalizing image data when filling cloud gaps in Landsat imagery with imagery from other dates.

  11. A Method to Measure and Estimate Normalized Contrast in Infrared Flash Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshti, Ajay M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents further development in normalized contrast processing used in flash infrared thermography method. Method of computing normalized image or pixel intensity contrast, and normalized temperature contrast are provided. Methods of converting image contrast to temperature contrast and vice versa are provided. Normalized contrast processing in flash thermography is useful in quantitative analysis of flash thermography data including flaw characterization and comparison of experimental results with simulation. Computation of normalized temperature contrast involves use of flash thermography data acquisition set-up with high reflectivity foil and high emissivity tape such that the foil, tape and test object are imaged simultaneously. Methods of assessing other quantitative parameters such as emissivity of object, afterglow heat flux, reflection temperature change and surface temperature during flash thermography are also provided. Temperature imaging and normalized temperature contrast processing provide certain advantages over normalized image contrast processing by reducing effect of reflected energy in images and measurements, therefore providing better quantitative data. Examples of incorporating afterglow heat-flux and reflection temperature evolution in flash thermography simulation are also discussed.

  12. Iron aluminide alloy coatings and joints, and methods of forming

    DOEpatents

    Wright, R.N.; Wright, J.K.; Moore, G.A.

    1994-09-27

    Disclosed is a method of joining two bodies together, at least one of the bodies being predominantly composed of metal, the two bodies each having a respective joint surface for joining with the joint surface of the other body, the two bodies having a respective melting point, includes the following steps: (a) providing aluminum metal and iron metal on at least one of the joint surfaces of the two bodies; (b) after providing the aluminum metal and iron metal on the one joint surface, positioning the joint surfaces of the two bodies in juxtaposition against one another with the aluminum and iron positioned therebetween; (c) heating the aluminum and iron on the juxtaposed bodies to a temperature from greater than or equal to 600 C to less than the melting point of the lower melting point body; (d) applying pressure on the juxtaposed surfaces; and (e) maintaining the pressure and the temperature for a time period effective to form the aluminum and iron into an iron aluminide alloy joint which bonds the juxtaposed surfaces and correspondingly the two bodies together. The method can also effectively be used to coat a body with an iron aluminide coating.

  13. Iron aluminide alloy coatings and joints, and methods of forming

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Richard N.; Wright, Julie K.; Moore, Glenn A.

    1994-01-01

    A method of joining two bodies together, at least one of the bodies being predominantly composed of metal, the two bodies each having a respective joint surface for joining with the joint surface of the other body, the two bodies having a respective melting point, includes the following steps: a) providing aluminum metal and iron metal on at least one of the joint surfaces of the two bodies; b) after providing the aluminum metal and iron metal on the one joint surface, positioning the joint surfaces of the two bodies in juxtaposition against one another with the aluminum and iron positioned therebetween; c) heating the aluminum and iron on the juxtaposed bodies to a temperature from greater than or equal to 600.degree. C. to less than the melting point of the lower melting point body; d) applying pressure on the juxtaposed surfaces; and e) maintaining the pressure and the temperature for a time period effective to form the aluminum and iron into an iron aluminide alloy joint which bonds the juxtaposed surfaces and correspondingly the two bodies together. The method can also effectively be used to coat a body with an iron aluminide coating.

  14. An analytic method for identifying dynamically formed runaway stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Taeho; Leigh, Nathan W. C.; Perna, Rosalba

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we study the three-body products (two single stars and a binary) of binary-binary (2+2) scattering interactions. This is done using a combination of analytic methods and numerical simulations of 2+2 scattering interactions, both in isolation and in a homogeneous background potential. We analytically derive a simple formula relating the angle between the velocity vectors of the two ejected single stars and the orbital separation of the remaining binary. We compare our analytic formulation to numerical scattering simulations and illustrate that the agreement is excellent, both in isolation and in a homogeneous background potential. Our results are ideally suited for application to the GAIA data base, which is expected to identify many hundred runaway stars. The analytic relation presented here has the potential to identify runaway stars formed dynamically with high confidence. Finally, by applying our method to the runaways AE Aur and μ Col, we illustrate that it can be used to constrain the history of the background potential, which was denser than the presently observed density in the case of the Trapezium cluster.

  15. Empirical comparison of color normalization methods for epithelial-stromal classification in H and E images

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Amit; Sha, Lingdao; Vahadane, Abhishek Ramnath; Deaton, Ryan J.; Kumar, Neeraj; Macias, Virgilia; Gann, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Color normalization techniques for histology have not been empirically tested for their utility for computational pathology pipelines. Aims: We compared two contemporary techniques for achieving a common intermediate goal – epithelial-stromal classification. Settings and Design: Expert-annotated regions of epithelium and stroma were treated as ground truth for comparing classifiers on original and color-normalized images. Materials and Methods: Epithelial and stromal regions were annotated on thirty diverse-appearing H and E stained prostate cancer tissue microarray cores. Corresponding sets of thirty images each were generated using the two color normalization techniques. Color metrics were compared for original and color-normalized images. Separate epithelial-stromal classifiers were trained and compared on test images. Main analyses were conducted using a multiresolution segmentation (MRS) approach; comparative analyses using two other classification approaches (convolutional neural network [CNN], Wndchrm) were also performed. Statistical Analysis: For the main MRS method, which relied on classification of super-pixels, the number of variables used was reduced using backward elimination without compromising accuracy, and test - area under the curves (AUCs) were compared for original and normalized images. For CNN and Wndchrm, pixel classification test-AUCs were compared. Results: Khan method reduced color saturation while Vahadane reduced hue variance. Super-pixel-level test-AUC for MRS was 0.010–0.025 (95% confidence interval limits ± 0.004) higher for the two normalized image sets compared to the original in the 10–80 variable range. Improvement in pixel classification accuracy was also observed for CNN and Wndchrm for color-normalized images. Conclusions: Color normalization can give a small incremental benefit when a super-pixel-based classification method is used with features that perform implicit color normalization while the gain is

  16. A high-precision calculation method for interface normal and curvature on an unstructured grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Kei; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Ohno, Shuji; Kamide, Hideki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    In the volume-of-fluid algorithm, the calculations of the interface normal and curvature are crucially important for accurately simulating interfacial flows. However, few methods have been proposed for the high-precision interface calculation on an unstructured grid. In this paper, the authors develop a height function method that works appropriately on an unstructured grid. In the process, the definition of the height function is discussed, and the high-precision calculation method of the interface normal is developed to meet the necessary condition for a second-order method. This new method has highly reduced computational cost compared with a conventional high-precision method because the interface normal calculation is completed by solving relatively simple algebraic equations. The curvature calculation method is also discussed and the approximated quadric curve of an interface is employed to calculate the curvature. Following a basic verification, the developed height function method is shown to successfully provide superior calculation accuracy and highly reduced computational cost compared with conventional calculation methods in terms of the interface normal and curvature. In addition, the height function method succeeds in calculating accurately the slotted-disk revolution problem and the oscillating drop on unstructured grids. Therefore, the developed height function method is confirmed to be an efficient technique for the high-precision numerical simulation of interfacial flows on an unstructured grid.

  17. Role of L-forms of Nocardia caviae in the development of chronic mycetomas in normal and immunodeficient murine models.

    PubMed Central

    Beaman, B L; Scates, S M

    1981-01-01

    Single-cell suspensions of Nocardia caviae 112 were injected into normal, athymic, and asplenic mice by several different routes. The 50% lethal dose values, kill curve characteristics, histological and electron microscopic properties, organ clearance patterns, and induction of L-forms during the acute and chronic phase of disease were determined in groups of mice for up to 2 years after infection. From these data we concluded the following. (i) Athymic and asplenic animals were significantly more susceptible to N. caviae than their littermate controls regardless of inoculation route. (ii) All mice were most susceptible to lethal infection after intranasal administration and least affected when the organisms were injected into the peritoneal cavity. (iii) Chronic, progressive disease leading to the formation of mycetomas occurred only in mice injected intravenously. (iv) T-cell-deficient animals were impaired in the development of typical mycetomas. (v) L-forms of N. caviae were induced within immunocompetent hosts, whereas the cell wall-less state of the bacteria was not observed in the immunodeficient animals. (vi) Two colony types of the cell wall-deficient state were isolated from infected animals. (vii) These cell wall-deficient organisms were intimately involved in the pathogenesis of disease and bacterial persistence within the host. Finally (viii), with this strain of Nocardia, cell wall-deficient organisms played a major role in the development of the characteristic bacterial granule formed within the mycetomatous lesions 6 months to 1 year after intravenous inoculation. Images PMID:7287189

  18. Method of forming composite fiber blends and molding same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMahon, Paul E. (Inventor); Chung, Tai-Shung (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The instant invention involves a process used in preparing fibrous tows which may be formed into polymeric plastic composites. The process involves the steps of (a) forming a tow of strong filamentary materials; (b) forming a thermoplastic polymeric fiber; (c) intermixing the two tows; and (d) withdrawing the intermixed tow for further use.

  19. Comparison of normalization methods for Illumina BeadChip HumanHT-12 v3

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Normalization of microarrays is a standard practice to account for and minimize effects which are not due to the controlled factors in an experiment. There is an overwhelming number of different methods that can be applied, none of which is ideally suited for all experimental designs. Thus, it is important to identify a normalization method appropriate for the experimental setup under consideration that is neither too negligent nor too stringent. Major aim is to derive optimal results from the underlying experiment. Comparisons of different normalization methods have already been conducted, none of which, to our knowledge, comparing more than a handful of methods. Results In the present study, 25 different ways of pre-processing Illumina Sentrix BeadChip array data are compared. Among others, methods provided by the BeadStudio software are taken into account. Looking at different statistical measures, we point out the ideal versus the actual observations. Additionally, we compare qRT-PCR measurements of transcripts from different ranges of expression intensities to the respective normalized values of the microarray data. Taking together all different kinds of measures, the ideal method for our dataset is identified. Conclusions Pre-processing of microarray gene expression experiments has been shown to influence further downstream analysis to a great extent and thus has to be carefully chosen based on the design of the experiment. This study provides a recommendation for deciding which normalization method is best suited for a particular experimental setup. PMID:20525181

  20. Normal contour error measurement on-machine and compensation method for polishing complex surface by MRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua; Chen, Jihong; Wang, Baorui; Zheng, Yongcheng

    2016-10-01

    The Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) process, based on the dwell time method with the constant normal spacing for flexible polishing, would bring out the normal contour error in the fine polishing complex surface such as aspheric surface. The normal contour error would change the ribbon's shape and removal characteristics of consistency for MRF. Based on continuously scanning the normal spacing between the workpiece and the finder by the laser range finder, the novel method was put forward to measure the normal contour errors while polishing complex surface on the machining track. The normal contour errors was measured dynamically, by which the workpiece's clamping precision, multi-axis machining NC program and the dynamic performance of the MRF machine were achieved for the verification and security check of the MRF process. The unit for measuring the normal contour errors of complex surface on-machine was designed. Based on the measurement unit's results as feedback to adjust the parameters of the feed forward control and the multi-axis machining, the optimized servo control method was presented to compensate the normal contour errors. The experiment for polishing 180mm × 180mm aspherical workpiece of fused silica by MRF was set up to validate the method. The results show that the normal contour error was controlled in less than 10um. And the PV value of the polished surface accuracy was improved from 0.95λ to 0.09λ under the conditions of the same process parameters. The technology in the paper has been being applied in the PKC600-Q1 MRF machine developed by the China Academe of Engineering Physics for engineering application since 2014. It is being used in the national huge optical engineering for processing the ultra-precision optical parts.

  1. Method for distinguishing normal and transformed cells using G1 kinase inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Crissman, Harry A.; Gadbois, Donna M.; Tobey, Robert A.; Bradbury, E. Morton

    1993-01-01

    A G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitor is applied in a low concentration to a population of normal and transformed mammalian cells. The concentration of G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitor is selected to reversibly arrest normal mammalian cells in the G.sub.1 cell cycle without arresting growth of transformed cells. The transformed cells may then be selectively identified and/or cloned for research or diagnostic purposes. The transformed cells may also be selectively killed by therapeutic agents that do not affect normal cells in the G.sub.1 phase, suggesting that such G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitors may form an effective adjuvant for use with chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy for optimizing the killing dose of chemotherapeutic agents while minimizing undesirable side effects on normal cells.

  2. Method for distinguishing normal and transformed cells using G1 kinase inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Crissman, H.A.; Gadbois, D.M.; Tobey, R.A.; Bradbury, E.M.

    1993-02-09

    A G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitor is applied in a low concentration to a population of normal and transformed mammalian cells. The concentration of G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitor is selected to reversibly arrest normal mammalian cells in the G[sub 1] cell cycle without arresting growth of transformed cells. The transformed cells may then be selectively identified and/or cloned for research or diagnostic purposes. The transformed cells may also be selectively killed by therapeutic agents that do not affect normal cells in the G[sub 1] phase, suggesting that such G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitors may form an effective adjuvant for use with chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy for optimizing the killing dose of chemotherapeutic agents while minimizing undesirable side effects on normal cells.

  3. Method for distinguishing normal and transformed cells using G1 kinase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Crissman, H.A.; Gadbois, D.M.; Tobey, R.A.; Bradbury, E.M.

    1991-12-31

    A G{sub 1} phase kinase inhibitor is applied in a low concentration to a population of normal and transformed mammalian cells. The concentration of G{sub 1} phase kinase inhibitor is selected to reversibly arrest normal mammalian cells in the G{sub 1} cell cycle without arresting growth of transformed cells. The transformed cells may then be selectively identified and/or cloned for research or diagnostic purposes. The transformed cells may also be selectively killed by therapeutic agents that do not affect normal cells in the G{sub 1} phase, suggesting that such G{sub 1} phase kinase inhibitors may form an effective adjuvant for use with chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy for optimizing the killing dose of chemotherapeutic agents while minimizing undesirable side effects on normal cells.

  4. Method of forming buried oxide layers in silicon

    DOEpatents

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar; Holland, Orin Wayne

    2000-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  5. Toxic and non-toxic aggregates from the SBMA and normal forms of androgen receptor have distinct oligomeric structures.

    PubMed

    Jochum, Tobias; Ritz, Manuela E; Schuster, Christoph; Funderburk, Sarah F; Jehle, Katja; Schmitz, Katja; Brinkmann, Falko; Hirtz, Michael; Moss, David; Cato, Andrew C B

    2012-06-01

    Hormone-dependent aggregation of the androgen receptor (AR) with a polyglutamine (polyQ) stretch amplification (>38) is considered to be the causative agent of the neurodegenerative disorder spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), consistent with related neurodegenerative diseases involving polyQ-extended proteins. In spite of the widespread acceptance of this common causal hypothesis, little attention has been paid to its apparent incompatibility with the observation of AR aggregation in healthy individuals with no polyQ stretch amplification. Here we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to characterize sub-micrometer scale aggregates of the wild-type (22 glutamines) and the SBMA form (65 glutamines), as well as a polyQ deletion mutant (1 glutamine) and a variant with a normal length polyQ stretch but with a serine to alanine double mutation elsewhere in the protein. We used a baculovirus-insect cell expression system to produce full-length proteins for these structural analyses. We related the AFM findings to cytotoxicity as measured by expression of the receptors in Drosophila motoneurons or in neuronal cells in culture. We found that the pathogenic AR mutants formed oligomeric fibrils up to 300-600nm in length. These were clearly different from annular oligomers 120-180nm in diameter formed by the nonpathogenic receptors. We could also show that melatonin, which is known to ameliorate the pathological phenotype in the fly model, caused polyQ-extended AR to form annular oligomers. Further comparative investigation of these reproducibly distinct toxic and non-toxic oligomers could advance our understanding of the molecular basis of the polyQ pathologies.

  6. Composite drill pipe and method for forming same

    DOEpatents

    Leslie, James C; Leslie, II, James C; Heard, James; Truong, Liem; Josephson, Marvin

    2014-04-15

    Metal inner and outer fittings configured, the inner fitting configured proximally with an external flange and projecting distally to form a cylindrical barrel and stepped down-in-diameter to form an abutment shoulder and then projecting further distally to form a radially inwardly angled and distally extending tapered inner sleeve. An outer sleeve defining a torque tube is configured with a cylindrical collar to fit over the barrel and is formed to be stepped up in diameter in alignment with the first abutment shoulder to then project distally forming a radially outwardly tapered and distally extending bonding surface to cooperate with the inner sleeve to cooperate with the inner sleeve in forming a annular diverging bonding cavity to receive the extremity of a composite pipe to abut against the abutment shoulders and to be bonded to the respective bonding surfaces by a bond.

  7. Ophthalmic drug dosage forms: characterisation and research methods.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, Przemysław; Karolewicz, Bożena; Gajda, Maciej; Pluta, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes hitherto developed drug forms for topical ocular administration, that is, eye drops, ointments, in situ gels, inserts, multicompartment drug delivery systems, and ophthalmic drug forms with bioadhesive properties. Heretofore, many studies have demonstrated that new and more complex ophthalmic drug forms exhibit advantage over traditional ones and are able to increase the bioavailability of the active substance by, among others, reducing the susceptibility of drug forms to defense mechanisms of the human eye, extending contact time of drug with the cornea, increasing the penetration through the complex anatomical structure of the eye, and providing controlled release of drugs into the eye tissues, which allows reducing the drug application frequency. The rest of the paper describes recommended in vitro and in vivo studies to be performed for various ophthalmic drugs forms in order to assess whether the form is acceptable from the perspective of desired properties and patient's compliance.

  8. Ophthalmic Drug Dosage Forms: Characterisation and Research Methods

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Przemysław; Karolewicz, Bożena; Gajda, Maciej; Pluta, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes hitherto developed drug forms for topical ocular administration, that is, eye drops, ointments, in situ gels, inserts, multicompartment drug delivery systems, and ophthalmic drug forms with bioadhesive properties. Heretofore, many studies have demonstrated that new and more complex ophthalmic drug forms exhibit advantage over traditional ones and are able to increase the bioavailability of the active substance by, among others, reducing the susceptibility of drug forms to defense mechanisms of the human eye, extending contact time of drug with the cornea, increasing the penetration through the complex anatomical structure of the eye, and providing controlled release of drugs into the eye tissues, which allows reducing the drug application frequency. The rest of the paper describes recommended in vitro and in vivo studies to be performed for various ophthalmic drugs forms in order to assess whether the form is acceptable from the perspective of desired properties and patient's compliance. PMID:24772038

  9. Tangential and sagittal curvature from the normals computed by the null screen method in corneal topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada-Molina, Amilcar; Díaz-Uribe, Rufino

    2011-08-01

    A new method for computing the tangential and sagittal curvatures from the normals to a cornea is proposed. The normals are obtained through a Null Screen method from the coordinates of the drops shaped spots at the null screen, the coordinates on a reference approximating surface and the centroids on the image plane. This method assumes that the cornea has rotational symmetry and our derivations will be carried out in the meridional plane that contains the symmetry axis. Experimental results are shown for a calibration spherical surface, using cylindrical null screens with radial point arrays.

  10. Effects of Foveal Ablation on the Pattern of Peripheral Refractive Errors in Normal and Form-deprived Infant Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Juan; Hung, Li-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine whether visual signals from the fovea contribute to the changes in the pattern of peripheral refractions associated with form deprivation myopia in monkeys. Methods. Monocular form-deprivation was produced in 18 rhesus monkeys by securing diffusers in front of their treated eyes between 22 ± 2 and 155 ± 17 days of age. In eight of these form-deprived monkeys, the fovea and most of the perifovea of the treated eye were ablated by laser photocoagulation at the start of the diffuser-rearing period. Each eye's refractive status was measured by retinoscopy along the pupillary axis and at 15° intervals along the horizontal meridian to eccentricities of 45°. Control data were obtained from 12 normal monkeys and five monkeys that had monocular foveal ablations and were subsequently reared with unrestricted vision. Results. Foveal ablation, by itself, did not produce systematic alterations in either the central or peripheral refractive errors of the treated eyes. In addition, foveal ablation did not alter the patterns of peripheral refractions in monkeys with form-deprivation myopia. The patterns of peripheral refractive errors in the two groups of form-deprived monkeys, either with or without foveal ablation, were qualitatively similar (treated eyes: F = 0.31, P = 0.74; anisometropia: F = 0.61, P = 0.59), but significantly different from those found in the normal monkeys (F = 8.46 and 9.38 respectively, P < 0.05). Conclusions. Central retinal signals do not contribute in an essential way to the alterations in eye shape that occur during the development of vision-induced axial myopia. PMID:21693598

  11. Enumeration of the colony-forming units–fibroblast from mouse and human bone marrow in normal and pathological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, Sergei A.; Mankani, Mahesh H.; Bianco, Paolo; Robey, Pamela G.

    2009-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cell populations, containing a subset of multipotential skeletal stem cells, are increasingly contemplated for use in tissue engineering and stem cell therapy, whereas their involvement in the pathogenetic mechanisms of skeletal disorders is far less recognized. We compared the concentrations of stromal clonogenic cells, colony forming units–fibroblast (CFU-Fs), in norm and pathology. Initially, culture conditions were optimized by demonstrating that fetal bovine serum heat inactivation could significantly repress colony formation. Using non-heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum, the concentration of CFU-Fs (colony-forming efficiency, CFE) ranged from 3.5 ± 1.0 to 11.5 ± 4.0 per 1 × 105 nucleated cells in five inbred mouse strains. In four transgenic lines with profound bone involvement, CFE was either significantly reduced or increased compared to wild-type littermates. In normal human donors, CFE decreased slightly with age and averaged 52.2 ± 4.1 for children and 32.3 ± 3.0 for adults. CFE was significantly altered in patients with several skeletal, metabolic, and hematological disorders: reduced in congenital generalized lipodystrophy, achondroplasia (SADDAN), pseudoachondroplasia, and Paget disease of bone and elevated in alcaptonuria and sickle cell anemia. Our findings indicate that under appropriate culture conditions, CFE values may provide useful insights into bone/bone marrow pathophysiology. PMID:19383412

  12. A method for estimating direct normal solar irradiation from satellite data for a tropical environment

    SciTech Connect

    Janjai, Serm

    2010-09-15

    In order to investigate a potential use of concentrating solar power technologies and select an optimum site for these technologies, it is necessary to obtain information on the geographical distribution of direct normal solar irradiation over an area of interest. In this work, we have developed a method for estimating direct normal irradiation from satellite data for a tropical environment. The method starts with the estimation of global irradiation on a horizontal surface from MTSAT-1R satellite data and other ground-based ancillary data. Then a satellite-based diffuse fraction model was developed and used to estimate the diffuse component of the satellite-derived global irradiation. Based on this estimated global and diffuse irradiation and the solar radiation incident angle, the direct normal irradiation was finally calculated. To evaluate its performance, the method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation at seven pyrheliometer stations in Thailand. It was found that values of monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation from the measurements and those estimated from the proposed method are in reasonable agreement, with a root mean square difference of 16% and a mean bias of -1.6%, with respect to mean measured values. After the validation, this method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation over Thailand by using MTSAT-1R satellite data for the period from June 2005 to December 2008. Results from the calculation were displayed as hourly and yearly irradiation maps. These maps reveal that the direct normal irradiation in Thailand was strongly affected by the tropical monsoons and local topography of the country. (author)

  13. Impact of Statistical Learning Methods on the Predictive Power of Multivariate Normal Tissue Complication Probability Models

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Chengjian; Schaaf, Arjen van der; Schilstra, Cornelis; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Veld, Aart A. van't

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To study the impact of different statistical learning methods on the prediction performance of multivariate normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models. Methods and Materials: In this study, three learning methods, stepwise selection, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), and Bayesian model averaging (BMA), were used to build NTCP models of xerostomia following radiotherapy treatment for head and neck cancer. Performance of each learning method was evaluated by a repeated cross-validation scheme in order to obtain a fair comparison among methods. Results: It was found that the LASSO and BMA methods produced models with significantly better predictive power than that of the stepwise selection method. Furthermore, the LASSO method yields an easily interpretable model as the stepwise method does, in contrast to the less intuitive BMA method. Conclusions: The commonly used stepwise selection method, which is simple to execute, may be insufficient for NTCP modeling. The LASSO method is recommended.

  14. Mathematical Model of Unit Vector Method (MMUVM) and Convergence of Its Iteration Method in Simplified Form (PUVM1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wu-shen; Lu, Ben-kui; Ma, Jing-yuan

    2007-10-01

    The unit vector method (PUVM1) by which the observed data of artificial satellites are used to determine the perturbed initial orbits has been widely applied. In order to further perfect and improve this method, first, a mathematical model (MMUVM) corresponding to this method is constructed on the basis of measuring errors. In essence, the MMUVM is a nonlinear optimization problem. In the light of the MMUVM, simulated and observed data of multiple circuits are taken to form specific objective functions, which are then processed by means of a direct search method and with of a tri-diagonal quadratic interpolation model for solving optimization problems. The calculated results show that the optimization model MMUVM is right and reasonable and the adopted direct method is practical and effective. Secondly, the relation between PUVM1 and MMUVM is further clarified: PUVM1 is essentially a simplified form of the MMUVM, and the primary reason is found from mathematical principles, why it is that PUVM1 can only be applied to short-arc data within one circuit and not to long-arc or multi-circuit data. Finally, a preliminary theoretical analysis of the convergence of the iteration algorithm of PUVM1 is carried out and instancesof numerical verification given. It is pointed out that the iterative scheme of PUVM1 is conditionally convergent. This means that sometimes, even though the quasi-normalization equation is reasonable, the iteration diverges.

  15. Iterative normalization method for improved prostate cancer localization with multispectral magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Samil Yetik, Imam

    2012-04-01

    Use of multispectral magnetic resonance imaging has received a great interest for prostate cancer localization in research and clinical studies. Manual extraction of prostate tumors from multispectral magnetic resonance imaging is inefficient and subjective, while automated segmentation is objective and reproducible. For supervised, automated segmentation approaches, learning is essential to obtain the information from training dataset. However, in this procedure, all patients are assumed to have similar properties for the tumor and normal tissues, and the segmentation performance suffers since the variations across patients are ignored. To conquer this difficulty, we propose a new iterative normalization method based on relative intensity values of tumor and normal tissues to normalize multispectral magnetic resonance images and improve segmentation performance. The idea of relative intensity mimics the manual segmentation performed by human readers, who compare the contrast between regions without knowing the actual intensity values. We compare the segmentation performance of the proposed method with that of z-score normalization followed by support vector machine, local active contours, and fuzzy Markov random field. Our experimental results demonstrate that our method outperforms the three other state-of-the-art algorithms, and was found to have specificity of 0.73, sensitivity of 0.69, and accuracy of 0.79, significantly better than alternative methods.

  16. A strand specific high resolution normalization method for chip-sequencing data employing multiple experimental control measurements

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background High-throughput sequencing is becoming the standard tool for investigating protein-DNA interactions or epigenetic modifications. However, the data generated will always contain noise due to e.g. repetitive regions or non-specific antibody interactions. The noise will appear in the form of a background distribution of reads that must be taken into account in the downstream analysis, for example when detecting enriched regions (peak-calling). Several reported peak-callers can take experimental measurements of background tag distribution into account when analysing a data set. Unfortunately, the background is only used to adjust peak calling and not as a pre-processing step that aims at discerning the signal from the background noise. A normalization procedure that extracts the signal of interest would be of universal use when investigating genomic patterns. Results We formulated such a normalization method based on linear regression and made a proof-of-concept implementation in R and C++. It was tested on simulated as well as on publicly available ChIP-seq data on binding sites for two transcription factors, MAX and FOXA1 and two control samples, Input and IgG. We applied three different peak-callers to (i) raw (un-normalized) data using statistical background models and (ii) raw data with control samples as background and (iii) normalized data without additional control samples as background. The fraction of called regions containing the expected transcription factor binding motif was largest for the normalized data and evaluation with qPCR data for FOXA1 suggested higher sensitivity and specificity using normalized data over raw data with experimental background. Conclusions The proposed method can handle several control samples allowing for correction of multiple sources of bias simultaneously. Our evaluation on both synthetic and experimental data suggests that the method is successful in removing background noise. PMID:22248020

  17. A fast vector array adaptive beam forming method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhizhong; Chen, Zhe; Li, Haitao; Xu, Zhongliang

    2017-06-01

    Based on model features of the vector sensor array signals, the paper transforms the time delay of broadband signals in time domain into the phase shift of different sub-bands in frequency domain to realize accurate time delay, and uses Hilbert Transform to construct analytic signals to form a fast vector array adaptive beam forming algorithm flow. The verification result with experimental data shows that this algorithm has much better target resolution capability than conventional beam forming algorithm. With the increase of 4-6dB in target detection capability, it has bright application prospect.

  18. A method for normalizing pathology images to improve feature extraction for quantitative pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, Allison; Barker, Jocelyn; Rubin, Daniel

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: With the advent of digital slide scanning technologies and the potential proliferation of large repositories of digital pathology images, many research studies can leverage these data for biomedical discovery and to develop clinical applications. However, quantitative analysis of digital pathology images is impeded by batch effects generated by varied staining protocols and staining conditions of pathological slides. Methods: To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a novel, fully automated stain normalization method to reduce batch effects and thus aid research in digital pathology applications. Their method, intensity centering and histogram equalization (ICHE), normalizes a diverse set of pathology images by first scaling the centroids of the intensity histograms to a common point and then applying a modified version of contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization. Normalization was performed on two datasets of digitized hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) slides of different tissue slices from the same lung tumor, and one immunohistochemistry dataset of digitized slides created by restaining one of the H&E datasets. Results: The ICHE method was evaluated based on image intensity values, quantitative features, and the effect on downstream applications, such as a computer aided diagnosis. For comparison, three methods from the literature were reimplemented and evaluated using the same criteria. The authors found that ICHE not only improved performance compared with un-normalized images, but in most cases showed improvement compared with previous methods for correcting batch effects in the literature. Conclusions: ICHE may be a useful preprocessing step a digital pathology image processing pipeline.

  19. Simple and Rapid Method for Detecting Biofilm Forming Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Vipin Chandra; Prakash, Jyotsana; Koul, Shikha; Ray, Subhasree

    2017-03-01

    Biofilm forming bacteria play a vital role in causing infectious diseases and for enhancing the efficiency of the bioremediation process through immobilization. Different media and conditions have been reported for detecting biofilm forming bacteria, however, they are not quite rapid. Here, we propose the use of a simple medium which can be used for detecting biofilm former, and also provide a mechanism to regulate the expression of biofilm formation process.

  20. Normal Vector Projection Method used for Convex Optimization of Chan-Vese Model for Image Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, W. B.; Tan, L.; Jia, M. Q.; Pan, Z. K.

    2017-01-01

    The variational level set method is one of the main methods of image segmentation. Due to signed distance functions as level sets have to keep the nature of the functions through numerical remedy or additional technology in an evolutionary process, it is not very efficient. In this paper, a normal vector projection method for image segmentation using Chan-Vese model is proposed. An equivalent formulation of Chan-Vese model is used by taking advantage of property of binary level set functions and combining with the concept of convex relaxation. Threshold method and projection formula are applied in the implementation. It can avoid the above problems and obtain a global optimal solution. Experimental results on both synthetic and real images validate the effects of the proposed normal vector projection method, and show advantages over traditional algorithms in terms of computational efficiency.

  1. AFM method to detect differences in adhesion of silica bids to cancer and normal epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Igor; Iyer, Swaminathan; Gaikwad, Ravi; Woodworth, Craig

    2009-03-01

    To date, the methods of detection of cancer cells have been mostly based on traditional techniques used in biology, such as visual identification of malignant changes, cell growth analysis, specific ligand-receptor labeling, or genetic tests. Despite being well developed, these methods are either insufficiently accurate or require a lengthy complicated analysis. A search for alternative methods for the detection of cancer cells may be a fruitful approach. Here we describe an AFM study that may result in a new method for detection of cancer cells in vitro. Here we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study adhesion of single silica beads to malignant and normal cells cultured from human cervix. We found that adhesion depends on the time of contact, and can be statistically different for malignant and normal cells. Using these data, one could develop an optical method of cancer detection based on adhesion of various silica beads.

  2. A method for normalizing pathology images to improve feature extraction for quantitative pathology.

    PubMed

    Tam, Allison; Barker, Jocelyn; Rubin, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of digital slide scanning technologies and the potential proliferation of large repositories of digital pathology images, many research studies can leverage these data for biomedical discovery and to develop clinical applications. However, quantitative analysis of digital pathology images is impeded by batch effects generated by varied staining protocols and staining conditions of pathological slides. To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a novel, fully automated stain normalization method to reduce batch effects and thus aid research in digital pathology applications. Their method, intensity centering and histogram equalization (ICHE), normalizes a diverse set of pathology images by first scaling the centroids of the intensity histograms to a common point and then applying a modified version of contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization. Normalization was performed on two datasets of digitized hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) slides of different tissue slices from the same lung tumor, and one immunohistochemistry dataset of digitized slides created by restaining one of the H&E datasets. The ICHE method was evaluated based on image intensity values, quantitative features, and the effect on downstream applications, such as a computer aided diagnosis. For comparison, three methods from the literature were reimplemented and evaluated using the same criteria. The authors found that ICHE not only improved performance compared with un-normalized images, but in most cases showed improvement compared with previous methods for correcting batch effects in the literature. ICHE may be a useful preprocessing step a digital pathology image processing pipeline.

  3. Automated counting of morphologically normal red blood cells by using digital holographic microscopy and statistical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Inkyu; Yi, Faliu

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we overview a method to automatically count morphologically normal red blood cells (RBCs) by using off-axis digital holographic microscopy and statistical methods. Three kinds of RBC are used as training and testing data. All of the RBC phase images are obtained with digital holographic microscopy (DHM) that is robust to transparent or semitransparent biological cells. For the determination of morphologically normal RBCs, the RBC's phase images are first segmented with marker-controlled watershed transform algorithm. Multiple features are extracted from the segmented cells. Moreover, the statistical method of Hotelling's T-square test is conducted to show that the 3D features from 3D imaging method can improve the discrimination performance for counting of normal shapes of RBCs. Finally, the classifier is designed by using statistical Bayesian algorithm and the misclassification rates are measured with leave-one-out technique. Experimental results show the feasibility of the classification method for calculating the percentage of each typical normal RBC shape.

  4. XMS: Cross-Platform Normalization Method for Multimodal Mass Spectrometric Tissue Profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golf, Ottmar; Muirhead, Laura J.; Speller, Abigail; Balog, Júlia; Abbassi-Ghadi, Nima; Kumar, Sacheen; Mróz, Anna; Veselkov, Kirill; Takáts, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a proof of concept cross-platform normalization approach to convert raw mass spectra acquired by distinct desorption ionization methods and/or instrumental setups to cross-platform normalized analyte profiles. The initial step of the workflow is database driven peak annotation followed by summarization of peak intensities of different ions from the same molecule. The resulting compound-intensity spectra are adjusted to a method-independent intensity scale by using predetermined, compound-specific normalization factors. The method is based on the assumption that distinct MS-based platforms capture a similar set of chemical species in a biological sample, though these species may exhibit platform-specific molecular ion intensity distribution patterns. The method was validated on two sample sets of (1) porcine tissue analyzed by laser desorption ionization (LDI), desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), and rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometric (REIMS) in combination with Fourier transformation-based mass spectrometry; and (2) healthy/cancerous colorectal tissue analyzed by DESI and REIMS with the latter being combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We demonstrate the capacity of our method to reduce MS-platform specific variation resulting in (1) high inter-platform concordance coefficients of analyte intensities; (2) clear principal component based clustering of analyte profiles according to histological tissue types, irrespective of the used desorption ionization technique or mass spectrometer; and (3) accurate "blind" classification of histologic tissue types using cross-platform normalized analyte profiles.

  5. Evaluation of directional normalization methods for Landsat TM/ETM+ over primary Amazonian lowland forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van doninck, Jasper; Tuomisto, Hanna

    2017-06-01

    Biodiversity mapping in extensive tropical forest areas poses a major challenge for the interpretation of Landsat images, because floristically clearly distinct forest types may show little difference in reflectance. In such cases, the effects of the bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) can be sufficiently strong to cause erroneous image interpretation and classification. Since the opening of the Landsat archive in 2008, several BRDF normalization methods for Landsat have been developed. The simplest of these consist of an empirical view angle normalization, whereas more complex approaches apply the semi-empirical Ross-Li BRDF model and the MODIS MCD43-series of products to normalize directional Landsat reflectance to standard view and solar angles. Here we quantify the effect of surface anisotropy on Landsat TM/ETM+ images over old-growth Amazonian forests, and evaluate five angular normalization approaches. Even for the narrow swath of the Landsat sensors, we observed directional effects in all spectral bands. Those normalization methods that are based on removing the surface reflectance gradient as observed in each image were adequate to normalize TM/ETM+ imagery to nadir viewing, but were less suitable for multitemporal analysis when the solar vector varied strongly among images. Approaches based on the MODIS BRDF model parameters successfully reduced directional effects in the visible bands, but removed only half of the systematic errors in the infrared bands. The best results were obtained when the semi-empirical BRDF model was calibrated using pairs of Landsat observation. This method produces a single set of BRDF parameters, which can then be used to operationally normalize Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery over Amazonian forests to nadir viewing and a standard solar configuration.

  6. Composite drill pipe and method for forming same

    DOEpatents

    Leslie, James C; Leslie, II, James C; Heard, James; Truong, Liem V; Josephson, Marvin

    2012-10-16

    A lightweight and durable drill pipe string capable of short radius drilling formed using a composite pipe segment formed to include tapered wall thickness ends that are each defined by opposed frustoconical surfaces conformed for self-aligning receipt and intimate bonding contact within an annular space between corresponding surfaces of a coaxially nested set of metal end pieces and a set of nonconductive sleeves. The distal peripheries of the nested end pieces and sleeves are then welded to each other and the sandwiched and bonded portions are radially pinned. The composite segment may include imbedded conductive leads and the axial end portions of the end pieces are shaped to form a threaded joint with the next pipe assembly that includes contact rings in the opposed surfaces of the pipe joint for contact together.

  7. [Detection of early forms of keratoconus - current screening methods].

    PubMed

    Goebels, S; Eppig, T; Seitz, B; Langenbucher, A

    2013-10-01

    The detection of early forms of keratoconus is still a challenge for clinicians. Beside clinical examination and diagnosis of keratoconus, a series of examination techniques has been established in clinical routine to assist in the diagnosis of early forms of keratoconus: corneal topography for measuring the geometry of the corneal front surface, tomography for measuring the geometry of structures of the anterior segment of the eye, aberrometers for evaluation of optical aberrations of the entire eye, and a system for investigation of the biomechanical properties of the cornea. These instruments provide software tools which are designed for diagnostic support in keratoconus. In this review article, we provide an overview over the spectrum of measurement systems currently on the market focussing on their performance for detecting (early forms of) keratoconus. In detail, we focus on dedicated keratoconus screening software modules of topography, tomography, aberrometry and biomechanics.

  8. Method of forming grooves in the [011] crystalline direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marinelli, Donald Paul (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An A-B etchant is applied to a (100) surface of a body of semiconductor material, a portion of which along the (100) surface of the body is either gallium arsenide or gallium aluminum arsenide. The etchant is applied for at least 15 seconds at a temperature of approximately 80.degree. C. The A-B etchant is a solution by weight percent of 47.5%, water, 0.2% silver nitrate, 23.8% chromium trioxide and 28.5% of a 48% aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid. As a result of the application of the A-B etchant a pattern of elongated etch pits form having their longitudinal axes along the [011] crystalline direction. Grooves are formed in the body at a surface opposite the (100) surface on which was applied the etchant. The grooves are formed along the [011] crystalline direction by aligning the longitudinal axes of the grooves with the longitudinal axes of the etch pits.

  9. A method of measuring dynamic strain under electromagnetic forming conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinling; Xi, Xuekui; Wang, Sijun; Lu, Jun; Guo, Chenglong; Wang, Wenquan; Liu, Enke; Wang, Wenhong; Liu, Lin; Wu, Guangheng

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic strain measurement is rather important for the characterization of mechanical behaviors in electromagnetic forming process, but it has been hindered by high strain rate and serious electromagnetic interference for years. In this work, a simple and effective strain measuring technique for physical and mechanical behavior studies in the electromagnetic forming process has been developed. High resolution (∼5 ppm) of strain curves of a budging aluminum tube in pulsed electromagnetic field has been successfully measured using this technique. The measured strain rate is about 10(5) s(-1), which depends on the discharging conditions, nearly one order of magnitude of higher than that under conventional split Hopkins pressure bar loading conditions (∼10(4) s(-1)). It has been found that the dynamic fracture toughness of an aluminum alloy is significantly enhanced during the electromagnetic forming, which explains why the formability is much larger under electromagnetic forging conditions in comparison with conventional forging processes.

  10. Method for Forming MEMS-Based Spinning Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okojie, Robert S. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A nozzle body and assembly for delivering atomized fuel to a combustion chamber. The nozzle body is rotatably mounted onto a substrate. One or more curvilinear fuel delivery channels are in flow communication with an internal fuel distribution cavity formed in the nozzle body. Passage of pressurized fuel through the nozzle body causes the nozzle body to rotate. Components of the nozzle assembly are formed of silicon carbide having surfaces etched by deep reactive ion etching utilizing MEMS technology. A fuel premix chamber is carried on the substrate in flow communication with a supply passage in the nozzle body.

  11. Method for forming an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, C.Y.

    1983-01-11

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale, a horizontally extending void is excavated within the boundaries of the retort site leaving a zone of unfragmented formation above and/or below such a void. A crack is propagated in at least one of the zones of unfragmented formation along the side boundaries of the retort site and thereafter the zone of unfragmented formation is explosively expanded towards such a void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in the retort. Such a fragmented permeable mass is retorted in situ to produce shale oil.

  12. Method and apparatus for die forming metal sheets and extrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darter, John L.

    1986-06-01

    The invention comprises an apparatus for die forming metal sheets and extrusions which utilizes die blocks of low melting temperature metallic material. The die blocks are formed in an adjustable mold which comprises a mold box, a pivotable dam within the mold box and blocking means for locking the pivotable dam member in a desired angular position. Once a desired die block angle is ascertained for a particular joggle, the pivotable member of the mold box is adjusted to produce the desired angle in the die casting made in the mold box.

  13. Dynamics, Bifurcations and Normal Forms in Arrays of Magnetostrictive Energy Harvesters with All-to-All Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matus-Vargas, Antonio; González-Hernandez, Hugo G.; Chan, Bernard S.; Palacios, Antonio; Buono, Pietro-Luciano; in, Visarath; Naik, Suketu; Phipps, Alex; Longhini, Patrick

    Modeling and bifurcation analysis of an energy harvesting system composed of coupled resonators using the Galfenol-based magnetostrictive material are presented. The analysis in this work should be broad enough to be applicable to a large class of vibratory-based energy harvesting systems since various types of vibratory harvesters share the same normal forms, e.g. magnetostrictive and piezoelectric materials. A combined model of the mechanical and electrical domains of a single energy harvester is discussed first. Building on this model, the governing equations of the coupled system are derived, leading to a system of differential equations with an all-to-all coupling between the resonators. A bifurcation analysis of the system equations reveals different patterns of collective oscillations. Among the many different patterns, a synchronous state exists and it is stable over a broad region of parameter space. This pattern has the potential to yield significant increases in power output and it will be used as a starting point to guide future experimental work. A Hamiltonian approach is employed to study analytically the nature of the bifurcations and to calculate an expression for the onset of synchronization valid for any number of harvesters.

  14. The role of surface information in object recognition: studies of a visual form agnosic and normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, G K; Goodale, M A; Jakobson, L S; Servos, P

    1994-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to explore the role of colour and other surface properties in object recognition. The effects of manipulating the availability of surface-based information on object naming in a patient with visual form agnosia and in two age-matched control subjects were examined in experiment 1. The objects were presented under seven different viewing conditions ranging from a full view of the actual objects to line drawings of those same objects. The presence of colour and other surface properties aided the recognition of natural objects such as fruits and vegetables in both the patient and the control subjects. Experiment 2 was focused on four of the critical viewing conditions used in experiment 1 but with a large sample of normal subjects. As in experiment 1, it was found that surface properties, particularly colour, aided the naming of natural objects. The presence of colour did not facilitate the naming of manufactured objects. Experiment 3 was focused on possible ways by which colour could assist in the recognition of natural objects and it was found that object naming was facilitated only if the objects were presented in their usual colour. The results of the experiments show that colour does improve recognition for some types of objects and that the improvement occurs at a high level of visual analysis.

  15. Human dihydrofolate reductase and thymidylate synthase form a complex in vitro and co-localize in normal and cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Antosiewicz, Anna; Jarmuła, Adam; Przybylska, Dorota; Mosieniak, Grażyna; Szczepanowska, Joanna; Kowalkowska, Anna; Rode, Wojciech; Cieśla, Joanna

    2016-08-05

    Enzymes involved in thymidylate biosynthesis, thymidylate synthase (TS), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) are well-known targets in cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time, that human TS and DHFR form a strong complex in vitro and co-localize in human normal and colon cancer cell cytoplasm and nucleus. Treatment of cancer cells with methotrexate or 5-fluorouracil did not affect the distribution of either enzyme within the cells. However, 5-FU, but not MTX, lowered the presence of DHFR-TS complex in the nucleus by 2.5-fold. The results may suggest the sequestering of TS by FdUMP in the cytoplasm and thereby affecting the translocation of DHFR-TS complex to the nucleus. Providing a strong likelihood of DHFR-TS complex formation in vivo, the latter complex is a potential new drug target in cancer therapy. In this paper, known 3D structures of human TS and human DHFR, and some protozoan bifunctional DHFR-TS structures as templates, are used to build an in silico model of human DHFR-TS complex structure, consisting of one TS dimer and two DHFR monomers. This complex structure may serve as an initial 3D drug target model for prospective inhibitors targeting interfaces between the DHFR and TS enzymes.

  16. Friction stir method for forming structures and materials

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.; Frederick, David Alan

    2011-11-22

    Processes for forming an enhanced material or structure are disclosed. The structure typically includes a preform that has a first common surface and a recess below the first common surface. A filler is added to the recess and seams are friction stir welded, and materials may be stir mixed.

  17. Method for forming solar cell materials from particulars

    DOEpatents

    Eberspacher, Chris; Pauls, Karen Lea

    2001-01-01

    Materials in bulk and film forms are prepared from fine particulate precursors such as single-phase, mixed-metal oxides; multi-phase, mixed-metal particles comprising a metal oxide; multinary metal particles; mixtures of such particles with other particles; and particulate materials intercalated with other materials.

  18. Control and monitoring method and system for electromagnetic forming process

    DOEpatents

    Kunerth, Dennis C.; Lassahn, Gordon D.

    1990-01-01

    A process, system, and improvement for a process for electromagnetic forming of a workpiece in which characteristics of the workpiece such as its geometry, electrical conductivity, quality, and magnetic permeability can be determined by monitoring the current and voltage in the workcoil. In an electromagnet forming process in which a power supply provides current to a workcoil and the electromagnetic field produced by the workcoil acts to form the workpiece, the dynamic interaction of the electromagnetic fields produced by the workcoil with the geometry, electrical conductivity, and magnetic permeability of the workpiece, provides information pertinent to the physical condition of the workpiece that is available for determination of quality and process control. This information can be obtained by deriving in real time the first several time derivatives of the current and voltage in the workcoil. In addition, the process can be extended by injecting test signals into the workcoil during the electromagnetic forming and monitoring the response to the test signals in the workcoil.

  19. Method for forming microspheres for encapsulation of nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Angelini, Peter; Caputo, Anthony J.; Hutchens, Richard E.; Lackey, Walter J.; Stinton, David P.

    1984-01-01

    Microspheres for nuclear waste storage are formed by gelling droplets containing the waste in a gelation fluid, transferring the gelled droplets to a furnace without the washing step previously used, and heating the unwashed gelled droplets in the furnace under temperature or humidity conditions that result in a substantially linear rate of removal of volatile components therefrom.

  20. Method of forming dynamic membrane on stainless steel support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddis, Joseph L. (Inventor); Brandon, Craig A. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A suitable member formed from sintered, powdered, stainless steel is contacted with a nitrate solution of a soluble alkali metal nitrate and a metal such as zirconium in a pH range and for a time sufficient to effect the formation of a membrane of zirconium oxide preferably including an organic polymeric material such as polyacrylic acid.

  1. Methods of Forming Professional Competence of Students as Future Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omarov, Yessen B.; Toktarbayev, Darkhan Gabdyl-Samatovich; Rybin, Igor Vyacheslavovich; Saliyevaa, Aigul Zhanayevna; Zhumabekova, Fatima Niyazbekovna; Hamzina, Sholpan; Baitlessova, Nursulu; Sakenov, Janat

    2016-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of the problem of professional competence; a methodological basis of forming professional competence of college students as future teachers is established. The essence of professional competence is defined. The structure has been experimentally proved and developed; the contents, criteria and levels of professional…

  2. Method of forming densified edge seals for fuel cell components

    DOEpatents

    DeCasperis, Anthony J.; Roethlein, Richard J.; Breault, Richard D.

    1981-01-01

    A porous fuel cell component, such as an electrode substrate, has a densified edge which forms an improved gas seal during operation when soaked with electrolyte. The edges are made from the same composition as the rest of the component and are made by compressing an increased thickness of this material along the edges during the fabrication process.

  3. Development and application of methods for regional scaling and normalization in life-cycle impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Tolle, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    Life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is a technical, quantitative and/or qualitative method to classify, characterize, and valuate potential impacts on human health, ecosystems, and natural resources, based on the environmental burdens identified in a life-cycle inventory. Research described here for two LCIAs included development and application of regional scaling methods for the following 5 of 14 relevant impact categories: Suspended (PM{sub 10}) particulate effects, water use, acid deposition, smog creation, and eutrophication. Normalization is recommended after characterization, because aggregated sums per impact category need to be expressed in equivalent terms before assigning valuation weight factors. The normalization approach described here involves determination of factors that represent the total, geographically-relevant impact for a given impact category. The goal for the 14 normalization factors developed and applied to two LCIAS, was to make them scientifically defensible, while utilizing existing data on emission or resource extraction quantities for three spatial perspectives. Data on the total environmental burden for each inventory item under a given impact category were obtained for normalization factors. Since the boundaries of the two LCIAs were primarily in the US, the data for the regional or local impact category perspectives were restricted to appropriate areas in the US. Normalization factors were developed and applied in the two LCIAs for 11 impact categories involving chemical emissions, water use, solid waste volume, and resource extraction/production land use.

  4. Evaluation of normalization methods for cDNA microarray data by k-NN classification

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wei; Xing, Eric P; Myers, Connie; Mian, Saira; Bissell, Mina J

    2004-12-17

    Non-biological factors give rise to unwanted variations in cDNA microarray data. There are many normalization methods designed to remove such variations. However, to date there have been few published systematic evaluations of these techniques for removing variations arising from dye biases in the context of downstream, higher-order analytical tasks such as classification. Ten location normalization methods that adjust spatial- and/or intensity-dependent dye biases, and three scale methods that adjust scale differences were applied, individually and in combination, to five distinct, published, cancer biology-related cDNA microarray data sets. Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) classification error was employed as the quantitative end-point for assessing the effectiveness of a normalization method. In particular, a known classifier, k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), was estimated from data normalized using a given technique, and the LOOCV error rate of the ensuing model was computed. We found that k-NN classifiers are sensitive to dye biases in the data. Using NONRM and GMEDIAN as baseline methods, our results show that single-bias-removal techniques which remove either spatial-dependent dye bias (referred later as spatial effect) or intensity-dependent dye bias (referred later as intensity effect) moderately reduce LOOCV classification errors; whereas double-bias-removal techniques which remove both spatial- and intensity effect reduce LOOCV classification errors even further. Of the 41 different strategies examined, three two-step processes, IGLOESS-SLFILTERW7, ISTSPLINE-SLLOESS and IGLOESS-SLLOESS, all of which removed intensity effect globally and spatial effect locally, appear to reduce LOOCV classification errors most consistently and effectively across all data sets. We also found that the investigated scale normalization methods do not reduce LOOCV classification error. Using LOOCV error of k-NNs as the evaluation criterion, three double

  5. An Alternate Method to Springback Compensation for Sheet Metal Forming

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Badrul; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to improve the accuracy of cold stamping product by accommodating springback. This is a numerical approach to improve the accuracy of springback analysis and die compensation process combining the displacement adjustment (DA) method and the spring forward (SF) algorithm. This alternate hybrid method (HM) is conducted by firstly employing DA method followed by the SF method instead of either DA or SF method individually. The springback shape and the target part are used to optimize the die surfaces compensating springback. The hybrid method (HM) algorithm has been coded in Fortran and tested in two- and three-dimensional models. By implementing the HM, the springback error can be decreased and the dimensional deviation falls in the predefined tolerance range. PMID:25165738

  6. Method for forming precision clockplate with pivot pins

    DOEpatents

    Wild, Ronald L.

    2010-06-01

    Methods are disclosed for producing a precision clockplate with rotational bearing surfaces (e.g. pivot pins). The methods comprise providing an electrically conductive blank, conventionally machining oversize features comprising bearing surfaces into the blank, optionally machining of a relief on non-bearing surfaces, providing wire accesses adjacent to bearing surfaces, threading the wire of an electrical discharge machine through the accesses and finishing the bearing surfaces by wire electrical discharge machining. The methods have been shown to produce bearing surfaces of comparable dimension and tolerances as those produced by micro-machining methods such as LIGA, at reduced cost and complexity.

  7. A systematic study of genome context methods: calibration, normalization and combination

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genome context methods have been introduced in the last decade as automatic methods to predict functional relatedness between genes in a target genome using the patterns of existence and relative locations of the homologs of those genes in a set of reference genomes. Much work has been done in the application of these methods to different bioinformatics tasks, but few papers present a systematic study of the methods and their combination necessary for their optimal use. Results We present a thorough study of the four main families of genome context methods found in the literature: phylogenetic profile, gene fusion, gene cluster, and gene neighbor. We find that for most organisms the gene neighbor method outperforms the phylogenetic profile method by as much as 40% in sensitivity, being competitive with the gene cluster method at low sensitivities. Gene fusion is generally the worst performing of the four methods. A thorough exploration of the parameter space for each method is performed and results across different target organisms are presented. We propose the use of normalization procedures as those used on microarray data for the genome context scores. We show that substantial gains can be achieved from the use of a simple normalization technique. In particular, the sensitivity of the phylogenetic profile method is improved by around 25% after normalization, resulting, to our knowledge, on the best-performing phylogenetic profile system in the literature. Finally, we show results from combining the various genome context methods into a single score. When using a cross-validation procedure to train the combiners, with both original and normalized scores as input, a decision tree combiner results in gains of up to 20% with respect to the gene neighbor method. Overall, this represents a gain of around 15% over what can be considered the state of the art in this area: the four original genome context methods combined using a procedure like that used in

  8. Solare Cell Roof Tile And Method Of Forming Same

    DOEpatents

    Hanoka, Jack I.; Real, Markus

    1999-11-16

    A solar cell roof tile includes a front support layer, a transparent encapsulant layer, a plurality of interconnected solar cells and a backskin layer. The front support layer is formed of light transmitting material and has first and second surfaces. The transparent encapsulant layer is disposed adjacent the second surface of the front support layer. The interconnected solar cells has a first surface disposed adjacent the transparent encapsulant layer. The backskin layer has a first surface disposed adjacent a second surface of the interconnected solar cells, wherein a portion of the backskin layer wraps around and contacts the first surface of the front support layer to form the border region. A portion of the border region has an extended width. The solar cell roof tile may have stand-offs disposed on the extended width border region for providing vertical spacing with respect to an adjacent solar cell roof tile.

  9. Method of forming metallic coatings on polymeric substrates

    DOEpatents

    Liepins, Raimond

    1984-01-01

    Very smooth polymeric coatings or films graded in atomic number and density an readily be formed by first preparing the coating or film from the desired monomeric material and then contacting it with a fluid containing a metal or a mixture of metals for a time sufficient for such metal or metals to sorb and diffuse into the coating or film. Metal resinate solutions are particularly advantageous for this purpose. A metallic coating can in turn be produced on the metal-loaded film or coating by exposing it to a low pressure plasma of air, oxygen, or nitrous oxide. The process permits a metallic coating to be formed on a heat sensitive substrate without the use of elevated temperatures.

  10. Method of forming graded polymeric coatings or films

    DOEpatents

    Liepins, Raimond

    1983-01-01

    Very smooth polymeric coatings or films graded in atomic number and density can readily be formed by first preparing the coating or film from the desired monomeric material and then contacting it with a fluid containing a metal or a mixture of metals for a time sufficient for such metal or metals to sorb and diffuse into the coating or film. Metal resinate solutions are particularly advantageous for this purpose. A metallic coating can in turn be produced on the metal-loaded film or coating by exposing it to a low pressure plasma of air, oxygen, or nitrous oxide. The process permits a metallic coating to be formed on a heat sensitive substrate without the use of elevated temperatures.

  11. Devices, systems, and methods for harvesting energy and methods for forming such devices

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K.; Novack, Steven D.

    2012-12-25

    Energy harvesting devices include a substrate coupled with a photovoltaic material and a plurality of resonance elements associated with the substrate. The resonance elements are configured to collect energy in at least visible and infrared light spectra. Each resonance element is capacitively coupled with the photovoltaic material, and may be configured to resonate at a bandgap energy of the photovoltaic material. Systems include a photovoltaic material coupled with a feedpoint of a resonance element. Methods for harvesting energy include exposing a resonance element having a resonant electromagnetic radiation having a frequency between approximately 20 THz and approximately 1,000 THz, absorbing at least a portion of the electromagnetic radiation with the resonance element, and resonating the resonance element at a bandgap energy of an underlying photovoltaic material. Methods for forming an energy harvesting device include forming resonance elements on a substrate and capacitively coupling the resonance elements with a photovoltaic material.

  12. Ion exchange materials, method of forming ion exchange materials, and methods of treating liquids

    DOEpatents

    Wertsching, Alan K.; Peterson, Eric S.; Wey, John E.

    2007-12-25

    The invention includes an ion affinity material having an organic component which is sulfonated and which is chemically bonded to an inorganic substrate component. The invention includes a method of forming a metal binding material. A solid support material comprising surface oxide groups is provided and an organic component having at least one alkyl halide is covalently linked to at least some of the surface oxide groups to form a modified support material. The at least one alkyl halide is subsequently converted into an alkyl sulfonate. The invention further includes a method and system for extracting ions from a liquid. An ion exchange material having a sulfonated alkyl silane component covalently bonded to a metal oxide support material is provided and a liquid is exposed to the ion exchange material.

  13. Method of forming a sharp edge on an optical device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleetwood, C. M.; Rice, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    A sharp edge is formed on an optical device by placing the optical device in a holding mechanism; grinding one surface so that it and a surface of the holding mechanism are co-planar; and polishing both the surface of the optical device and the surface of the holding mechanism with felt until an edge on the surface of the optical device adjacent to the surface of the holding mechanism obtains a desired sharpness.

  14. Superconducting articles, and methods for forming and using same

    DOEpatents

    Knoll, Allan Robert; Lenseth, Kenneth Patrick

    2007-01-09

    A superconducting tape is disclosed, including a substrate having a first surface and a second surface opposite the first surface, the substrate including a plurality of indicia provided on the first surface spaced apart along a length of the substrate; and a superconductor layer overlying the second surface. Also disclosed are components incorporating superconducting tapes, methods for manufacturing same, and methods for using same.

  15. METHOD OF FORMING A FUEL ELEMENT FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Layer, E.H. Jr.; Peet, C.S.

    1962-01-23

    A method is given for preparing a fuel element for a nuclear reactor. The method includes the steps of sandblasting a body of uranium dioxide to roughen the surface thereof, depositing a thin layer of carbon thereon by thermal decomposition of methane, and cladding the uranium dioxide body with zirconium by gas pressure bonding. (AEC)

  16. Method for forming a bladder for fluid storage vessels

    DOEpatents

    Mitlitsky, Fred; Myers, Blake; Magnotta, Frank

    2000-01-01

    A lightweight, low permeability liner for graphite epoxy composite compressed gas storage vessels. The liner is composed of polymers that may or may not be coated with a thin layer of a low permeability material, such as silver, gold, or aluminum, deposited on a thin polymeric layer or substrate which is formed into a closed bladder using torispherical or near torispherical end caps, with or without bosses therein, about which a high strength to weight material, such as graphite epoxy composite shell, is formed to withstand the storage pressure forces. The polymeric substrate may be laminated on one or both sides with additional layers of polymeric film. The liner may be formed to a desired configuration using a dissolvable mandrel or by inflation techniques and the edges of the film seamed by heat sealing. The liner may be utilized in most any type of gas storage system, and is particularly applicable for hydrogen, gas mixtures, and oxygen used for vehicles, fuel cells or regenerative fuel cell applications, high altitude solar powered aircraft, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems, and lunar/Mars space applications, and other applications requiring high cycle life.

  17. Method and apparatus for forming flues on tubular stock

    DOEpatents

    Beck, D.E.; Carson, C.

    1979-12-21

    The present invention is directed to a die mechanism utilized for forming flues on long, relatively narrow tubular stock. These flues are formed by displacing a die from within the tubular stock through perforations previously drilled through the tubular stock at selected locations. The drawing of the die upsets the material to form the flue of the desired configuration. The die is provided with a lubricating system which enables the lubricant to be dispensed uniformly about the entire periphery of the die in contact with the material being upset so as to assure the formation of the flues. Further, the lubricant is dispensed from within the die onto the peripheral surface of the latter at pressures in the range of about 2000 to 10,000 psi so as to assure the adequate lubrication of the die during the drawing operation. By injecting the lubricant at such high pressures, low viscosity liquid, such as water and/or alcohol, may be efficiently used as a lubricant and also provides a mechanism by which the lubricant may be evaporated from the surface of the flues at ambient conditions so as to negate the cleansing operations previously required prior to joining the flues to other conduit mechanisms by fusion welding and the like.

  18. STEAM FORMING NEUTRONIC REACTOR AND METHOD OF OPERATING IT

    DOEpatents

    Untermyer, S.

    1960-05-10

    The heterogeneous reactor is liquid moderated and cooled by a steam forming coolant and is designed to produce steam from the coolant directly within the active portion of the reactor while avoiding the formation of bubbles in the liquid moderator. This reactor achieves inherent stability as a result of increased neutron leakage and increased neutron resonance absorption in the U/sup 238/ fuel with the formation of bubbles. The invention produces certain conditions under which the formation of vapor bubbles as a result of a neutron flux excursion from the injection of a reactivity increment into the reactor will operate to nullify the reactivity increment within a sufficiently short period of time to prevent unsafe reactor operating conditions from developing. This is obtained by disposing a plurality of fuel elements within a mass of steam forming coolant in the core with the ratio of the volume of steam forming coolant to the volume of fissionable isotopes being within the range yielding a multiplication factor greater than unity and a negative reactivity to core void coefficient at the boiling temperature of the coolant.

  19. Method of forming an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Studebaker, I.G.

    1984-01-03

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale and having a substantially vertically extending first cleavage plane set and a substantially vertically extending second cleavage plane set intersecting the first set. The dispersion of the individual cleavage planes in the first and second cleavage plane sets is determined. The in situ retort is formed by excavating a vertical slot-shaped void within the boundaries of the retort site, leaving a remaining portion of the unfragmented formation within the retort site which is to be explosively expanded toward the slot. The unfragmented formation adjacent the slot has a pair of longer vertical free faces substantially aligned with the cleavage plane set having the lower dispersion. A pair of shorter vertical side walls of the slot can extend substantially perpendicular to the cleavage plane set having the lower dispersion. Explosive placed in such remaining formation adjacent the slot is detonated to fracture formation along cleavage planes in the first and second cleavage plane sets and to expand such remaining formation within the retort site toward the slot, forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale within the retort site.

  20. Novel method to form adaptive internal impedance profiles in walkers.

    PubMed

    Escudero Morland, Maximilano F; Althoefer, Kaspar; Nanayakkara, Thrishantha

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to improve walking in prosthetics, orthotics and robotics without closed loop controllers. The approach requires impedance profiles to be formed in a walker and uses state feedback to update the profiles in real-time via a simple policy. This approach is open loop and inherently copes with the challenge of uncertain environment. In application it could be used either online for a walker to adjust its impedance profiles in real-time to compensate for environmental changes, or offline to learn suitable profiles for specific environments. So far we have conducted simulations and experiments to investigate the transient and steady state gaits obtained using two simple update policies to form damping profiles in a passive dynamic walker known as the rimless wheel (RW). The damping profiles are formed in the motor that moves the RW vertically along a rail, analogous to a knee joint, and the two update equations were designed to a) control the angular velocity profile and b) minimise peak collision forces. Simulation results show that the velocity update equation works within limits and can cope with varying ground conditions. Experiment results show the angular velocity average reaching the target as well as the peak force update equation reducing peak collision forces in real-time.

  1. Experimental Method for Characterizing Electrical Steel Sheets in the Normal Direction

    PubMed Central

    Hihat, Nabil; Lecointe, Jean Philippe; Duchesne, Stephane; Napieralska, Ewa; Belgrand, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes an experimental method to characterise magnetic laminations in the direction normal to the sheet plane. The principle, which is based on a static excitation to avoid planar eddy currents, is explained and specific test benches are proposed. Measurements of the flux density are made with a sensor moving in and out of an air-gap. A simple analytical model is derived in order to determine the permeability in the normal direction. The experimental results for grain oriented steel sheets are presented and a comparison is provided with values obtained from literature. PMID:22163394

  2. The effects and interactions of GABAergic and dopaminergic agents in the prevention of form deprivation myopia by brief periods of normal vision.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Katrina L; Strasberg, Gal; Rayner, Cassie L; Hartfield, Perry J

    2013-05-01

    Intravitreal injections of GABA antagonists, dopamine agonists and brief periods of normal vision have been shown separately to inhibit form-deprivation myopia (FDM). Our study had three aims: (i) establish whether GABAergic agents modify the myopia protective effect of normal vision, (ii) investigate the receptor sub-type specificity of any observed effect, and (iii) consider an interaction with the dopamine (DA) system. Prior to the period of normal vision GABAergic agents were applied either (i) individually, (ii) in combination with other GABAergic agents (an agonist with an antagonist), or (iii) in combination with DA agonists and antagonists. Water injections were given to groups not receiving drug treatments so that all experimental eyes received intravitreal injections. As shown previously, constant form-deprivation resulted in high myopia and when diffusers were removed for 2 h per day the period of normal vision greatly reduced the FDM that developed. GABA agonists inhibited the protective effect of normal vision whereas antagonists had the opposite effect. GABAA/C agonists and D2 DA antagonists when used in combination were additive in suppressing the protective effect of normal vision. A D2 DA agonist restored some of the protective effect of normal vision that was inhibited by a GABA agonist (muscimol). The protective effect of normal vision against form-deprivation is modifiable by both the GABAergic and DAergic pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Surface immunoglobulins on blood lymphocytes of normal and immunodeficient persons studied by the mixed antiglobulin method

    PubMed Central

    Litwin, S. D.; Ochs, H.; Pollara, B.

    1973-01-01

    Surface immunoglobulins on human peripheral blood lymphocytes were investigated by the mixed antiglobulin technique—using the single layer mixed antiglobulin method as originally described (SLMA), and a modification employing a double layer of antibody (DLMA). Lymphocytes isolated from the blood of normal individuals had a mean of 7.8 and 18.4 per cent Ig + cells by the SLMA and DLMA techniques respectively. The DLMA data are similar to results obtained by other methods of detecting membrane Igs indicating that the mixed antiglobulin method is comparable in sensitivity. When the total numbers of Ig + cells, obtained by separate κ and λ testing, were compared with results obtained using single anti-light chain antisera, there was no significant difference, suggesting that most positive lymphocytes carry a single variety of light chain. Lymphocytes from the blood of seventeen patients with primary immunodeficiency were analysed. Four patients with variable immunodeficiency and four others with absent serum IgA all had normal surface Igs including α chains. All members of a family having an X-linked immunodeficiency had normal surface Igs including the affected members and a presumed carrier. Four cases of immunodeficiency associated with thymoma proved to have disparate findings. One patient exhibited a selective absence of μ antigens on the membranes of blood lymphocytes of over 2800 tested cells. Two other cases had normal surface Igs while a fourth patient, previously reported, lacked all surface Igs. PMID:4796276

  4. Empirical comparison of cross-platform normalization methods for gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Rudy, Jason; Valafar, Faramarz

    2011-12-07

    Simultaneous measurement of gene expression on a genomic scale can be accomplished using microarray technology or by sequencing based methods. Researchers who perform high throughput gene expression assays often deposit their data in public databases, but heterogeneity of measurement platforms leads to challenges for the combination and comparison of data sets. Researchers wishing to perform cross platform normalization face two major obstacles. First, a choice must be made about which method or methods to employ. Nine are currently available, and no rigorous comparison exists. Second, software for the selected method must be obtained and incorporated into a data analysis workflow. Using two publicly available cross-platform testing data sets, cross-platform normalization methods are compared based on inter-platform concordance and on the consistency of gene lists obtained with transformed data. Scatter and ROC-like plots are produced and new statistics based on those plots are introduced to measure the effectiveness of each method. Bootstrapping is employed to obtain distributions for those statistics. The consistency of platform effects across studies is explored theoretically and with respect to the testing data sets. Our comparisons indicate that four methods, DWD, EB, GQ, and XPN, are generally effective, while the remaining methods do not adequately correct for platform effects. Of the four successful methods, XPN generally shows the highest inter-platform concordance when treatment groups are equally sized, while DWD is most robust to differently sized treatment groups and consistently shows the smallest loss in gene detection. We provide an R package, CONOR, capable of performing the nine cross-platform normalization methods considered. The package can be downloaded at http://alborz.sdsu.edu/conor and is available from CRAN.

  5. Empirical comparison of cross-platform normalization methods for gene expression data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Simultaneous measurement of gene expression on a genomic scale can be accomplished using microarray technology or by sequencing based methods. Researchers who perform high throughput gene expression assays often deposit their data in public databases, but heterogeneity of measurement platforms leads to challenges for the combination and comparison of data sets. Researchers wishing to perform cross platform normalization face two major obstacles. First, a choice must be made about which method or methods to employ. Nine are currently available, and no rigorous comparison exists. Second, software for the selected method must be obtained and incorporated into a data analysis workflow. Results Using two publicly available cross-platform testing data sets, cross-platform normalization methods are compared based on inter-platform concordance and on the consistency of gene lists obtained with transformed data. Scatter and ROC-like plots are produced and new statistics based on those plots are introduced to measure the effectiveness of each method. Bootstrapping is employed to obtain distributions for those statistics. The consistency of platform effects across studies is explored theoretically and with respect to the testing data sets. Conclusions Our comparisons indicate that four methods, DWD, EB, GQ, and XPN, are generally effective, while the remaining methods do not adequately correct for platform effects. Of the four successful methods, XPN generally shows the highest inter-platform concordance when treatment groups are equally sized, while DWD is most robust to differently sized treatment groups and consistently shows the smallest loss in gene detection. We provide an R package, CONOR, capable of performing the nine cross-platform normalization methods considered. The package can be downloaded at http://alborz.sdsu.edu/conor and is available from CRAN. PMID:22151536

  6. Method for forming monolayer graphene-boron nitride heterostructures

    DOEpatents

    Sutter, Peter Werner; Sutter, Eli Anguelova

    2016-08-09

    A method for fabricating monolayer graphene-boron nitride heterostructures in a single atomically thin membrane that limits intermixing at boundaries between graphene and h-BN, so as to achieve atomically sharp interfaces between these materials. In one embodiment, the method comprises exposing a ruthenium substrate to ethylene, exposing the ruthenium substrate to oxygen after exposure to ethylene and exposing the ruthenium substrate to borazine after exposure to oxygen.

  7. Sources of Chaos in Planetary Systems Formed Through Numerical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, Matthew S.

    2017-01-01

    The formation of the solar system’s terrestrial planets has been numerically modeled in countless works, and many other studies have been devoted to char- acterizing our modern planets’ chaotic dynamical state. However, it is still not known whether our planets fragile chaotic state is an expected outcome of terrestrial planet accretion. We use a large suite of numerical simulations to present a detailed analysis and characterization of the dynamical chaos in 145 different systems produced via terrestrial planet formation in Kaib & Cowan (2015). These systems were created in the presence of a fully formed Jupiter and Saturn, using a variety of different initial conditions. We provide the first analysis of the dynamical states of fully evolved (4.5 Gyr) planetary systems formed using numerical simulations. We find that dynamical chaos is preva- lent in roughly half of the systems, with the largest source of the chaos being perturbations from Jupiter. Chaos is most prevalent in systems that form 4 or 5 terrestrial planets. Additionally, an eccentric Jupiter and Saturn is shown to enhance the prevalence of chaos in systems. Furthermore, systems with a center of mass highly concentrated between 0.8-1.2 AU generally prove to be less chaotic than systems with more exotic mass distributions. Through the process of evolving systems to the current epoch, we show that late instabilities are quite common in our systems. Of greatest interest, many of the sources of chaos observed in our own solar system (such as the secularly driven chaos between Mercury and Jupiter) are shown to be common outcomes of terrestrial planetary formation. Thus, the solar system’s marginally stable, chaotic state may naturally arise from the process of terrestrial planet formation.

  8. Static fracture resistance of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene using the single specimen normalization method

    PubMed Central

    Varadarajan, R.; Dapp, E.K.; Rimnac, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Fracture of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) components used in total joint replacements is a clinical concern. UHMWPE materials exhibits stable crack growth under static loading, therefore, their fracture resistance is generally characterized using the J-R curve. The multiple specimen method recommended by ASTM for evaluation of the J-R curve for polymers is time and material intensive. In this study, the applicability of a single specimen method based on load normalization to predict J-R curves of UHMWPE materials is evaluated. The normalization method involves determination of a deformation function. In this study, the J-R curves obtained using a power law based deformation function and the LMN curve based deformation function were compared. The results support the use of the power law based deformation function when using the single specimen approach to predict J-R curves for UHMWPE materials. PMID:23390325

  9. Static fracture resistance of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene using the single specimen normalization method.

    PubMed

    Varadarajan, R; Dapp, E K; Rimnac, C M

    2008-04-01

    Fracture of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) components used in total joint replacements is a clinical concern. UHMWPE materials exhibits stable crack growth under static loading, therefore, their fracture resistance is generally characterized using the J-R curve. The multiple specimen method recommended by ASTM for evaluation of the J-R curve for polymers is time and material intensive. In this study, the applicability of a single specimen method based on load normalization to predict J-R curves of UHMWPE materials is evaluated. The normalization method involves determination of a deformation function. In this study, the J-R curves obtained using a power law based deformation function and the LMN curve based deformation function were compared. The results support the use of the power law based deformation function when using the single specimen approach to predict J-R curves for UHMWPE materials.

  10. a Normal Mode Expansion Method for the Undamped Forced Vibration of Linear Piezoelectric Solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIU, D.-C.

    2000-06-01

    A normal mode expansion method for the vibrational responses of non-homogeneous linear piezoelectric materials without damping is presented. It can be applied directly to arbitrary piezoelectric composites, which are widely used in vibrational and acoustic sensor/actuator/transmitter applications. In the present article it is shown that if the normal modes are given, the displacement field can be expanded as the linear superposition of normal modes, while the modal coefficients can be represented in terms of surface and volume integrals directly over the six types of distributed excitations without solving the quasi-static solution explicitly. The present treatment is a modification of an earlier work by Liu [11] using a different definition of the so-called quasi-static solution, and the damping effect has been neglected for simplicity. A simple example is given to exemplify the application of the present formulation.

  11. CVD method of forming self-lubricating composites

    DOEpatents

    Besmann, T.M.; Blau, P.J.; Lee, W.Y.; Bae, Y.W.

    1998-12-01

    An article having a multiphase composite lubricant coating of a hard refractory matrix phase of titanium nitride dispersed with particles of a solid lubricating phase of molybdenum disulfide is prepared by heating the article to temperatures between 350 and 850 C in a reaction vessel at a reduced pressure and passing a gaseous mixture of Ti((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}N){sub 4}, MoF{sub 6}, H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} over the heated article forming a multiphase composite lubricant coating on the article. 1 fig.

  12. Method of Forming Micro-Sensor Thin-Film Anemometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheplak, Mark (Inventor); McGinley, Catherine B. (Inventor); Spina, Eric F. (Inventor); Stephens, Ralph M. (Inventor); Hopson, Purnell, Jr. (Inventor); Cruz, Vincent B. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A device for measuring turbulence in high-speed flows is provided which includes a micro- sensor thin-film probe. The probe is formed from a single crystal of aluminum oxide having a 14 deg half-wedge shaped portion. The tip of the half-wedge is rounded and has a thin-film sensor attached along the stagnation line. The bottom surface of the half-wedge is tilted upward to relieve shock induced disturbances created by the curved tip of the half-wedge. The sensor is applied using a microphotolithography technique.

  13. Solar array strip and a method for forming the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, R. L.; Yasui, R. K. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A flexible solar array strip is formed by providing printed circuitry between flexible layers of a nonconductive material, depositing solder pads on the printed circuitry, and storing the resulting substrate on a drum from which it is then withdrawn and advanced along a linear path. Solderless solar cells are serially transported into engagement with the pads and are infrared radiation to melt the solder and attach the cells to the circuitry. Excess flux is cleaned from the solar cells which are then encapsulated in a protective coating. The resulting array is then wound on a drum.

  14. CVD method of forming self-lubricating composites

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, Theodore M.; Blau, Peter J.; Lee, Woo Y.; Bae, Yong W.

    1998-01-01

    An article having a multiphase composite lubricant coating of a hard refractory matrix phase of titanium nitride dispersed with particles of a solid lubricating phase of molybdenum disulfide is prepared by heating the article to temperatures between 350.degree. and 850.degree. C. in a reaction vessel at a reduced pressure and passing a gaseous mixture of Ti((CH.sub.3).sub.2 N).sub.4, MoF.sub.6, H.sub.2 S and NH.sub.3 over the heated article forming a multiphase composite lubricant coating on the article.

  15. Method of forming an electrically conductive cellulose composite

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Barbara R [Oak Ridge, TN; O'Neill, Hugh M [Knoxville, TN; Woodward, Jonathan [Ashtead, GB

    2011-11-22

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  16. CODEX: a normalization and copy number variation detection method for whole exome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuchao; Oldridge, Derek A; Diskin, Sharon J; Zhang, Nancy R

    2015-03-31

    High-throughput sequencing of DNA coding regions has become a common way of assaying genomic variation in the study of human diseases. Copy number variation (CNV) is an important type of genomic variation, but detecting and characterizing CNV from exome sequencing is challenging due to the high level of biases and artifacts. We propose CODEX, a normalization and CNV calling procedure for whole exome sequencing data. The Poisson latent factor model in CODEX includes terms that specifically remove biases due to GC content, exon capture and amplification efficiency, and latent systemic artifacts. CODEX also includes a Poisson likelihood-based recursive segmentation procedure that explicitly models the count-based exome sequencing data. CODEX is compared to existing methods on a population analysis of HapMap samples from the 1000 Genomes Project, and shown to be more accurate on three microarray-based validation data sets. We further evaluate performance on 222 neuroblastoma samples with matched normals and focus on a well-studied rare somatic CNV within the ATRX gene. We show that the cross-sample normalization procedure of CODEX removes more noise than normalizing the tumor against the matched normal and that the segmentation procedure performs well in detecting CNVs with nested structures.

  17. CODEX: a normalization and copy number variation detection method for whole exome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuchao; Oldridge, Derek A.; Diskin, Sharon J.; Zhang, Nancy R.

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing of DNA coding regions has become a common way of assaying genomic variation in the study of human diseases. Copy number variation (CNV) is an important type of genomic variation, but detecting and characterizing CNV from exome sequencing is challenging due to the high level of biases and artifacts. We propose CODEX, a normalization and CNV calling procedure for whole exome sequencing data. The Poisson latent factor model in CODEX includes terms that specifically remove biases due to GC content, exon capture and amplification efficiency, and latent systemic artifacts. CODEX also includes a Poisson likelihood-based recursive segmentation procedure that explicitly models the count-based exome sequencing data. CODEX is compared to existing methods on a population analysis of HapMap samples from the 1000 Genomes Project, and shown to be more accurate on three microarray-based validation data sets. We further evaluate performance on 222 neuroblastoma samples with matched normals and focus on a well-studied rare somatic CNV within the ATRX gene. We show that the cross-sample normalization procedure of CODEX removes more noise than normalizing the tumor against the matched normal and that the segmentation procedure performs well in detecting CNVs with nested structures. PMID:25618849

  18. Form of silicon and method of making the same

    DOEpatents

    Strobel, Timothy A.; Kim, Duck Young; Kurakevych, Oleksandr O.

    2017-07-04

    The invention relates to a new phase of silicon, Si.sub.24, and a method of making the same. Si.sub.24 has a quasi-direct band gap, with a direct gap value of 1.34 eV and an indirect gap value of 1.3 eV. The invention also relates to a compound of the formula Na.sub.4Si.sub.24 and a method of making the same. N.sub.a4Si.sub.24 may be used as a precursor to make Si.sub.24.

  19. Encapsulated fuel unit and method of forming same

    DOEpatents

    Groh, Edward F.; Cassidy, Dale A.; Lewandowski, Edward F.

    1985-01-01

    This invention teaches an encapsulated fuel unit for a nuclear reactor, such as for an enriched uranium fuel plate of thin cross section of the order of 1/64 or 1/8 of an inch and otherwise of rectangular shape 1-2 inches wide and 2-4 inches long. The case is formed from (a) two similar channel-shaped half sections extended lengthwise of the elongated plate and having side edges butted and welded together to define an open ended tube-like structure and from (b) porous end caps welded across the open ends of the tube-like structure. The half sections are preferably of stainless steel between 0.002 and 0.01 of an inch thick, and are beam welded together over and within machined and hardened tool steel chill blocks. The porous end caps preferably are of T-316-L stainless steel having pores of approximately 3-10 microns size.

  20. Systems and methods for forming microchannel plate (MCP) photodetector assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Xia, Lei; Zhao, Huyue; Wagner, Robert G.; Gregar, Joseph S.; Xie, Junqi; Wang, Jingbo

    2017-07-11

    A MCP photodetector assembly includes an anode plate including a plurality of electrical traces positioned thereon, a plurality of MCPs and a plurality of grid spacers. The MCPs are positioned between the grid spacers. The grid spacers have a grid spacer shape defining at least one aperture. A plurality of shims are positioned between the grid spacers and the MCPs so as to form a stack positioned on the anode plate. Each of the plurality of shims have a shim shape which is the same as the grid spacer shape such that each of the plurality of shims and each of the plurality of grid spacers overlap so as to define at least one MCP aperture. At least a portion of the plurality of MCPs are positioned within the MCP aperture. The shims are structured to electrically couple the MCPs to the anode plate.

  1. Improved encapsulated fuel unit and method of forming same

    DOEpatents

    Groh, E.F.; Cassidy, D.A.; Lewandowski, E.

    1982-09-07

    This invention teaches an encapsulated fuel unit for a nuclear reactor, such as for an enriched uranium fuel plate of thin cross section of the order of 1/64 or 1/8 of an inch and otherwise of rectangular shape 1 to 2 inches wide and 2 to 4 inches long. The case is formed from (a) two similar channel-shaped half sections extended lengthwise of the elongated plate and having side edges butted and welded together to define an open ended tube-like structure and from (b) porous end caps welded across the open ends of the tube-like structure. The half sections are preferably of stainless steel between 0.002 and 0.01 of an inch thick, and are beam welded together over and within machined and hardened tool steel chill blocks. The porous end caps preferably are of T-316-L stainless steel having pores of approximately 3 to 10 microns size.

  2. System and method for accumulative double sided incremental forming

    DOEpatents

    Cao, Jian; Malhotra, Rajiv

    2015-10-27

    A forming system includes first and second tools, moving assemblies, and a control unit. The moving assemblies move the first tool and the second tool relative to the sheet. The control unit is configured to control movement of the first tool and the second tool by the one or more moving assemblies by moving at least one of the first tool or the second tool in a first deformation direction to deform the sheet, then moving the first and second tools laterally relative to the sheet to a subsequent location while engaging the sheet, then moving at least one of the first tool or the second tool in the first deformation direction or an opposite second deformation direction to deform the sheet, and then continue moving the first and second tools to deform the sheet in order to create a three-dimensional component from the sheet.

  3. Effect of 2 different anesthesia methods on stress response in neurosurgical patients with hypertension or normal

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Jiang, Shan; Wu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hypertensive patients in neurosurgery are becoming more common, which increased the risk of surgical stress response. Meanwhile, the relationship between hypertension and anesthesia methods is unclear on the stress response. The purpose of this study is to compare the effect of different anesthesia methods on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), blood glucose, and leucocyte levels in neurosurgical patients with hypertension or normal. Eighty neurosurgical patients were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 20): balanced anesthesia group (A), balanced anesthesia with hypertension group (B), total intravenous anesthesia group (C), total intravenous anesthesia with hypertension group (D). The levels of Hs-CRP, blood glucose, leucocyte count, and neutrophil percentage and were detected at before anesthesia (T0), during anesthesia (T1), 2 hours post anesthesia (T2), 24 hours post anesthesia (T3). Patients with hypertension had higher Hs-CRP expression, blood glucose, and neutrophil percentage at time T0 than those of normal, but not leucocyte count. At time T3, patients with hypertension in D group had lower Hs-CRP expression than those in B group (P < 0.01). Patients with normal in C group had lower Hs-CRP expression (P < 0.01), blood glucose (P < 0.05), and leukocyte count (P < 0.05) than those in A group. Both hypertension history and anesthesia method had significant effects on the Hs-CRP expression, blood glucose, and leukocyte count. Total intravenous anesthesia decreases Hs-CRP expressions more efficiently than balanced anesthesia in neurosurgical patients with hypertension or normal. Moreover, total intravenous anesthesia can availably reduce the perioperative stress response by attenuating the increase of blood glucose and leukocyte count in normal tensive patients. PMID:27583931

  4. Method of making nanostructured glass-ceramic waste forms

    DOEpatents

    Gao, Huizhen; Wang, Yifeng; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Bencoe, Denise N.

    2012-12-18

    A method of rendering hazardous materials less dangerous comprising trapping the hazardous material in nanopores of a nanoporous composite material, reacting the trapped hazardous material to render it less volatile/soluble, sealing the trapped hazardous material, and vitrifying the nanoporous material containing the less volatile/soluble hazardous material.

  5. Modified carbon nanotubes and methods of forming carbon nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Heintz, Amy M.; Risser, Steven; Elhard, Joel D.; Moore, Bryon P.; Liu, Tao; Vijayendran, Bhima R.

    2016-06-14

    In this invention, processes which can be used to achieve stable doped carbon nanotubes are disclosed. Preferred CNT structures and morphologies for achieving maximum doping effects are also described. Dopant formulations and methods for achieving doping of a broad distribution of tube types are also described.

  6. Experimental Validation of Normalized Uniform Load Surface Curvature Method for Damage Localization

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ho-Yeon; Sung, Seung-Hoon; Jung, Hyung-Jo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we experimentally validated the normalized uniform load surface (NULS) curvature method, which has been developed recently to assess damage localization in beam-type structures. The normalization technique allows for the accurate assessment of damage localization with greater sensitivity irrespective of the damage location. In this study, damage to a simply supported beam was numerically and experimentally investigated on the basis of the changes in the NULS curvatures, which were estimated from the modal flexibility matrices obtained from the acceleration responses under an ambient excitation. Two damage scenarios were considered for the single damage case as well as the multiple damages case by reducing the bending stiffness (EI) of the affected element(s). Numerical simulations were performed using MATLAB as a preliminary step. During the validation experiments, a series of tests were performed. It was found that the damage locations could be identified successfully without any false-positive or false-negative detections using the proposed method. For comparison, the damage detection performances were compared with those of two other well-known methods based on the modal flexibility matrix, namely, the uniform load surface (ULS) method and the ULS curvature method. It was confirmed that the proposed method is more effective for investigating the damage locations of simply supported beams than the two conventional methods in terms of sensitivity to damage under measurement noise. PMID:26501286

  7. An imbalance fault detection method based on data normalization and EMD for marine current turbines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Milu; Wang, Tianzhen; Tang, Tianhao; Benbouzid, Mohamed; Diallo, Demba

    2017-05-01

    This paper proposes an imbalance fault detection method based on data normalization and Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) for variable speed direct-drive Marine Current Turbine (MCT) system. The method is based on the MCT stator current under the condition of wave and turbulence. The goal of this method is to extract blade imbalance fault feature, which is concealed by the supply frequency and the environment noise. First, a Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test (GLRT) detector is developed and the monitoring variable is selected by analyzing the relationship between the variables. Then, the selected monitoring variable is converted into a time series through data normalization, which makes the imbalance fault characteristic frequency into a constant. At the end, the monitoring variable is filtered out by EMD method to eliminate the effect of turbulence. The experiments show that the proposed method is robust against turbulence through comparing the different fault severities and the different turbulence intensities. Comparison with other methods, the experimental results indicate the feasibility and efficacy of the proposed method. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental validation of normalized uniform load surface curvature method for damage localization.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ho-Yeon; Sung, Seung-Hoon; Jung, Hyung-Jo

    2015-10-16

    In this study, we experimentally validated the normalized uniform load surface (NULS) curvature method, which has been developed recently to assess damage localization in beam-type structures. The normalization technique allows for the accurate assessment of damage localization with greater sensitivity irrespective of the damage location. In this study, damage to a simply supported beam was numerically and experimentally investigated on the basis of the changes in the NULS curvatures, which were estimated from the modal flexibility matrices obtained from the acceleration responses under an ambient excitation. Two damage scenarios were considered for the single damage case as well as the multiple damages case by reducing the bending stiffness (EI) of the affected element(s). Numerical simulations were performed using MATLAB as a preliminary step. During the validation experiments, a series of tests were performed. It was found that the damage locations could be identified successfully without any false-positive or false-negative detections using the proposed method. For comparison, the damage detection performances were compared with those of two other well-known methods based on the modal flexibility matrix, namely, the uniform load surface (ULS) method and the ULS curvature method. It was confirmed that the proposed method is more effective for investigating the damage locations of simply supported beams than the two conventional methods in terms of sensitivity to damage under measurement noise.

  9. Method for forming a uniformly dense polymer foam body

    DOEpatents

    Whinnery, Jr., Leroy

    2002-01-01

    A method for providing a uniformly dense polymer foam body having a density between about 0.013 .sup.g /.sub.cm.sup..sub.3 to about 0.5 .sup.g /.sub.cm.sup..sub.3 is disclosed. The method utilizes a thermally expandable polymer microballoon material wherein some of the microballoons are unexpanded and some are only partially expanded. It is shown that by mixing the two types of materials in appropriate ratios to achieve the desired bulk final density, filling a mold with this mixture so as to displace all or essentially all of the internal volume of the mold, heating the mold for a predetermined interval at a temperature above about 130.degree. C., and then cooling the mold to a temperature below 80.degree. C. the molded part achieves a bulk density which varies by less then about .+-.6% everywhere throughout the part volume.

  10. Method for forming consumable electrodes from metallic chip scraps

    DOEpatents

    Girshov, Vladimir Leonidovich; Podpalkin, Arcady Munjyvich; Treschevskiy, Arnold Nikolayevich; Abramov, Alexey Alexandrovich

    2005-10-11

    The method relates to metallurgical recycling of waste products, preferably titanium alloys chips scrap. Accordingly after crushing and cleaning, the chip scrap is subjected to vacuum-thermal degassing (VTD); the chip scrap is pressed into briquettes; the briquettes are placed into a mould allowing sufficient remaining space for the addition of molten metal alloy; the mould is pre-heated before filling with the molten metal alloy; the mould remaining space is filled with molten metal alloy. After cooling, the electrode is removed from the mould. The method provides a means for 100% use of chip scrap in producing consumable electrodes having increased mechanical strength and reduced interstitial impurities content leading to improved secondary cast alloys.

  11. FORMED: Bringing Formal Methods to the Engineering Desktop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    integrates formal verification into software design and development by precisely defining semantics for a restricted subset of the Unified Modeling...input-output contract satisfaction and absence of null pointer dereferences. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Formal Methods, Software Verification, Model-Based... Software 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON WILLIAM E. McKEEVER JR

  12. Manganite perovskite ceramics, their precursors and methods for forming

    DOEpatents

    Payne, David Alan; Clothier, Brent Allen

    2015-03-10

    Disclosed are a variety of ceramics having the formula Ln.sub.1-xM.sub.xMnO.sub.3, where 0.Itoreq.x.Itoreq.1 and where Ln is La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu or Y; M is Ca, Sr, Ba, Cd, or Pb; manganite precursors for preparing the ceramics; a method for preparing the precursors; and a method for transforming the precursors into uniform, defect-free ceramics having magnetoresistance properties. The manganite precursors contain a sol and are derived from the metal alkoxides: Ln(OR).sub.3, M(OR).sub.2 and Mn(OR).sub.2, where R is C.sub.2 to C.sub.6 alkyl or C.sub.3 to C.sub.9 alkoxyalkyl, or C.sub.6 to C.sub.9 aryl. The preferred ceramics are films prepared by a spin coating method and are particularly suited for incorporation into a device such as an integrated circuit device.

  13. Introduction of a Novel Loss Data Normalization Method for Improved Estimation of Extreme Losses from Natural Catastrophes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichner, J. F.; Steuer, M.; Loew, P.

    2016-12-01

    Past natural catastrophes offer valuable information for present-day risk assessment. To make use of historic loss data one has to find a setting that enables comparison (over place and time) of historic events happening under today's conditions. By means of loss data normalization the influence of socio-economic development, as the fundamental driver in this context, can be eliminated and the data gives way to the deduction of risk-relevant information and allows the study of other driving factors such as influences from climate variability and climate change or changes of vulnerability. Munich Re's NatCatSERVICE database includes for each historic loss event the geographic coordinates of all locations and regions that were affected in a relevant way. These locations form the basis for what is known as the loss footprint of an event. Here we introduce a state of the art and robust method for global loss data normalization. The presented peril-specific loss footprint normalization method adjusts direct economic loss data to the influence of economic growth within each loss footprint (by using gross cell product data as proxy for local economic growth) and makes loss data comparable over time. To achieve a comparative setting for supra-regional economic differences, we categorize the normalized loss values (together with information on fatalities) based on the World Bank income groups into five catastrophe classes, from minor to catastrophic. The data treated in such way allows (a) for studying the influence of improved reporting of small scale loss events over time and (b) for application of standard (stationary) extreme value statistics (here: peaks over threshold method) to compile estimates for extreme and extrapolated loss magnitudes such as a "100 year event" on global scale. Examples of such results will be shown.

  14. System and method of forming nanostructured ferritic alloy

    DOEpatents

    Dial, Laura Cerully; DiDomizio, Richard; Alinger, Matthew Joseph; Huang, Shenyan

    2016-07-26

    A system for mechanical milling and a method of mechanical milling are disclosed. The system includes a container, a feedstock, and milling media. The container encloses a processing volume. The feedstock and the milling media are disposed in the processing volume of the container. The feedstock includes metal or alloy powder and a ceramic compound. The feedstock is mechanically milled in the processing volume using metallic milling media that includes a surface portion that has a carbon content less than about 0.4 weight percent.

  15. Method of forming cavitated objects of controlled dimension

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, P.R.; Miller, W.J.

    1981-02-11

    A method is disclosed of controllably varying the dimensions of cavitated objects such as hollow spherical shells wherein a precursor shell is heated to a temperature above the shell softening temperature in an ambient atmosphere wherein the ratio of gases which are permeable through the shell wall at that temperature to gases which are impermeable through the shell wall is substantially greater than the corresponding ratio for gases contained within the precursor shell. As the shell expands, the partial pressures of permeable gases internally and externally of the shell approach and achieve equilibrium, so that the final shell size depends solely upon the difference in impermeable gas partial pressures and shell surface tension.

  16. Method for forming biaxially textured articles by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2002-01-01

    A method of preparing a biaxially textured alloy article comprises the steps of preparing a mixture comprising Ni powder and at least one powder selected from the group consisting of Cr, W, V, Mo, Cu, Al, Ce, YSZ, Y, Rare Earths, (RE), MgO, CeO.sub.2, and Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; compacting the mixture, followed by heat treating and rapidly recrystallizing to produce a biaxial texture on the article. In some embodiments the alloy article further comprises electromagnetic or electro-optical devices and possesses superconducting properties.

  17. Method for forming fibrous silicon carbide insulating material

    DOEpatents

    Wei, G.C.

    1983-10-12

    A method whereby silicon carbide-bonded SiC fiber composites are prepared from carbon-bonded C fiber composites is disclosed. Carbon-bonded C fiber composite material is treated with gaseous silicon monoxide generated from the reaction of a mixture of colloidal silica and carbon black at an elevated temperature in an argon atmosphere. The carbon in the carbon bond and fiber is thus chemically converted to SiC resulting in a silicon carbide-bonded SiC fiber composite that can be used for fabricating dense, high-strength high-toughness SiC composites or as thermal insulating materials in oxidizing environments.

  18. Method for forming fibrous silicon carbide insulating material

    DOEpatents

    Wei, George C.

    1984-01-01

    A method whereby silicon carbide-bonded SiC fiber composites are prepared from carbon-bonded C fiber composites is disclosed. Carbon-bonded C fiber composite material is treated with gaseous silicon monoxide generated from the reaction of a mixture of colloidal silica and carbon black at an elevated temperature in an argon atmosphere. The carbon in the carbon bond and fiber is thus chemically converted to SiC resulting in a silicon carbide-bonded SiC fiber composite that can be used for fabricating dense, high-strength high-toughness SiC composites or as thermal insulating materials in oxidizing environments.

  19. Method of Forming Textured Silicon Substrate by Maskless Cryogenic Etching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor); Homyk, Andrew P. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a textured substrate comprising a base comprising silicon, the base having a plurality of needle like structures depending away from the base, wherein at least one of the needle like structures has a depth of greater than or equal to about 50 micrometers determined perpendicular to the base, and wherein at least one of the needle like structures has a width of less than or equal to about 50 micrometers determined parallel to the base. An anode and a lithium ion battery comprising the textured substrate, and a method of producing the textured substrate are also disclosed.

  20. Nuclear fuel element, and method of forming same

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, I.N. Jr.; Magee, P.M.

    1990-11-20

    This patent describes improvement to the method of inhibiting an interaction between a metal alloy fissionable fuel for a nuclear reactor and a stainless steel container for the fuel which results in low temperature melting eutectic reaction products of components from the metal alloy fuel and stainless steel. The improvement comprises providing an expandable body of at least one alloying metal for the metal alloy fissionable fuel selected from the group consisting of zirconium, titanium, niobium and molybdenum at least about 2 mils thick interposed into a space between a metal alloy fuel. The fuel consists of metallic uranium and plutonium and the stainless steel container housing the metal alloy fuel therein.

  1. Method of forming cavitated objects of controlled dimension

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Paul R.; Miller, Wayne J.

    1982-01-01

    A method of controllably varying the dimensions of cavitated objects such as hollow spherical shells wherein a precursor shell is heated to a temperature above the shell softening temperature in an ambient atmosphere wherein the ratio of gases which are permeable through the shell wall at that temperature to gases which are impermeable through the shell wall is substantially greater than the corresponding ratio for gases contained within the precursor shell. As the shell expands, the partial pressures of permeable gases internally and externally of the shell approach and achieve equilibrium, so that the final shell size depends solely upon the difference in impermeable gas partial pressures and shell surface tension.

  2. Impact of the Choice of Normalization Method on Molecular Cancer Class Discovery Using Nonnegative Matrix Factorization.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haixuan; Seoighe, Cathal

    2016-01-01

    Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) has proved to be an effective method for unsupervised clustering analysis of gene expression data. By the nonnegativity constraint, NMF provides a decomposition of the data matrix into two matrices that have been used for clustering analysis. However, the decomposition is not unique. This allows different clustering results to be obtained, resulting in different interpretations of the decomposition. To alleviate this problem, some existing methods directly enforce uniqueness to some extent by adding regularization terms in the NMF objective function. Alternatively, various normalization methods have been applied to the factor matrices; however, the effects of the choice of normalization have not been carefully investigated. Here we investigate the performance of NMF for the task of cancer class discovery, under a wide range of normalization choices. After extensive evaluations, we observe that the maximum norm showed the best performance, although the maximum norm has not previously been used for NMF. Matlab codes are freely available from: http://maths.nuigalway.ie/~haixuanyang/pNMF/pNMF.htm.

  3. Impact of the Choice of Normalization Method on Molecular Cancer Class Discovery Using Nonnegative Matrix Factorization

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haixuan; Seoighe, Cathal

    2016-01-01

    Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) has proved to be an effective method for unsupervised clustering analysis of gene expression data. By the nonnegativity constraint, NMF provides a decomposition of the data matrix into two matrices that have been used for clustering analysis. However, the decomposition is not unique. This allows different clustering results to be obtained, resulting in different interpretations of the decomposition. To alleviate this problem, some existing methods directly enforce uniqueness to some extent by adding regularization terms in the NMF objective function. Alternatively, various normalization methods have been applied to the factor matrices; however, the effects of the choice of normalization have not been carefully investigated. Here we investigate the performance of NMF for the task of cancer class discovery, under a wide range of normalization choices. After extensive evaluations, we observe that the maximum norm showed the best performance, although the maximum norm has not previously been used for NMF. Matlab codes are freely available from: http://maths.nuigalway.ie/~haixuanyang/pNMF/pNMF.htm. PMID:27741311

  4. Quantitative analysis of collagen change between normal and cancerous thyroid tissues based on SHG method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiwen; Huang, Zufang; Xi, Gangqin; Chen, Yongjian; Lin, Duo; Wang, Jing; Li, Zuanfang; Sun, Liqing; Chen, Jianxin; Chen, Rong

    2012-03-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) is proved to be a high spatial resolution, large penetration depth and non-photobleaching method. In our study, SHG method was used to investigate the normal and cancerous thyroid tissue. For SHG imaging performance, system parameters were adjusted for high-contrast images acquisition. Each x-y image was recorded in pseudo-color, which matches the wavelength range in the visible spectrum. The acquisition time for a 512×512-pixels image was 1.57 sec; each acquired image was averaged four frames to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Our results indicated that collagen presence as determined by counting the ratio of the SHG pixels over the whole pixels for normal and cancerous thyroid tissues were 0.48+/-0.05, 0.33+/-0.06 respectively. In addition, to quantitatively assess collagen-related changes, we employed GLCM texture analysis to the SHG images. Corresponding results showed that the correlation both fell off with distance in normal and cancerous group. Calculated value of Corr50 (the distance where the correlation crossed 50% of the initial correlation) indicated significant difference. This study demonstrates that SHG method can be used as a complementary tool in thyroid histopathology.

  5. Quantitative analysis of collagen change between normal and cancerous thyroid tissues based on SHG method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiwen; Huang, Zufang; Xi, Gangqin; Chen, Yongjian; Lin, Duo; Wang, Jing; Li, Zuanfang; Sun, Liqing; Chen, Jianxin; Chen, Rong

    2011-11-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) is proved to be a high spatial resolution, large penetration depth and non-photobleaching method. In our study, SHG method was used to investigate the normal and cancerous thyroid tissue. For SHG imaging performance, system parameters were adjusted for high-contrast images acquisition. Each x-y image was recorded in pseudo-color, which matches the wavelength range in the visible spectrum. The acquisition time for a 512×512-pixels image was 1.57 sec; each acquired image was averaged four frames to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Our results indicated that collagen presence as determined by counting the ratio of the SHG pixels over the whole pixels for normal and cancerous thyroid tissues were 0.48+/-0.05, 0.33+/-0.06 respectively. In addition, to quantitatively assess collagen-related changes, we employed GLCM texture analysis to the SHG images. Corresponding results showed that the correlation both fell off with distance in normal and cancerous group. Calculated value of Corr50 (the distance where the correlation crossed 50% of the initial correlation) indicated significant difference. This study demonstrates that SHG method can be used as a complementary tool in thyroid histopathology.

  6. Method for forming an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Kvapil, R.

    1983-05-31

    A retort site in a subterranean formation containing oil shale is prepared for in situ retorting by excavating a void space in the retort site and then explosively expanding at least a portion of the remainder of the formation within the retort site toward the void space. The resultant fragmented mass explosively expanded toward the void space will be permeabilized by the void volume of the void space. The void space is initially formed by excavating at least three substantially parallel drifts through the retort site. At least two of the drifts are along opposed outside edges of the retort site and at least one drift is intermediate the two outside drifts. Excavation of the void space is conducted from the two outside drifts. A vertically extending slot is first excavated from each such drift upwardly into the proposed void space at one end of the retort site. The slot may be fanned above the drift so that the slots from the two outside drifts meet near the top of the void space. Upwardly extending shot holes are then drilled from each of the outside drifts parallel to the vertical slot. If the vertical slot is fanned, it is desirable to also drill the upwardly extending shot holes in a fanned pattern. The shot holes are then loaded with explosive and blasted and the resultant rubble excavated through the outside drifts. By gradually working along the length of the outside drifts, excavation of the void space can proceed with men and equipment safely within the outside drifts. The substantially triangular prism remaining in the void space intermediate the edges of the retort site can then be fragmented by means of shot holes drilled from the third intermediate drift extending through such prism.

  7. Method for forming bismuth-based superconducting ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Maroni, Victor A.; Merchant, Nazarali N.; Parrella, Ronald D.

    2005-05-17

    A method for reducing the concentration of non-superconducting phases during the heat treatment of Pb doped Ag/Bi-2223 composites having Bi-2223 and Bi-2212 superconducting phases is disclosed. A Pb doped Ag/Bi-2223 composite having Bi-2223 and Bi-2212 superconducting phases is heated in an atmosphere having an oxygen partial pressure not less than about 0.04 atmospheres and the temperature is maintained at the lower of a non-superconducting phase take-off temperature and the Bi-2223 superconducting phase grain growth take-off temperature. The oxygen partial pressure is varied and the temperature is varied between about 815.degree. C. and about 835.degree. C. to produce not less than 80 percent conversion to Pb doped Bi-2223 superconducting phase and not greater than about 20 volume percent non-superconducting phases. The oxygen partial pressure is preferably varied between about 0.04 and about 0.21 atmospheres. A product by the method is disclosed.

  8. Evaluation of algorithm methods for fluorescence spectra of cancerous and normal human tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Yang; Wang, Wubao; Alfano, Robert R.

    2016-03-01

    The paper focus on the various algorithms on to unravel the fluorescence spectra by unmixing methods to identify cancerous and normal human tissues from the measured fluorescence spectroscopy. The biochemical or morphologic changes that cause fluorescence spectra variations would appear earlier than the histological approach; therefore, fluorescence spectroscopy holds a great promise as clinical tool for diagnosing early stage of carcinomas and other deceases for in vivo use. The method can further identify tissue biomarkers by decomposing the spectral contributions of different fluorescent molecules of interest. In this work, we investigate the performance of blind source un-mixing methods (backward model) and spectral fitting approaches (forward model) in decomposing the contributions of key fluorescent molecules from the tissue mixture background when certain selected excitation wavelength is applied. Pairs of adenocarcinoma as well as normal tissues confirmed by pathologist were excited by selective wavelength of 340 nm. The emission spectra of resected fresh tissue were used to evaluate the relative changes of collagen, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), and Flavin by various spectral un-mixing methods. Two categories of algorithms: forward methods and Blind Source Separation [such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA), and Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF)] will be introduced and evaluated. The purpose of the spectral analysis is to discard the redundant information which conceals the difference between these two types of tissues, but keep their diagnostically significance. The facts predicted by different methods were compared to the gold standard of histopathology. The results indicate that these key fluorophores within tissue, e.g. tryptophan, collagen, and NADH, and flavin, show differences of relative contents of fluorophores among different types of human cancer and normal tissues. The

  9. Evaluation of dental arch width and form changes after orthodontic treatment and retention with a new computerized method.

    PubMed

    Taner, Tülin Ugur; Ciger, Semra; El, Hakan; Germeç, Derya; Es, Alphan

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate longitudinal arch width and form changes and to define arch form types with a new computerized method. Maxillary and mandibular models of 21 Class II Division 1 patients were examined before treatment (T(0)), after treatment (T(1)), and an average of 3 years after retention (T(2)). Arch width measurements were made directly on scanned images of maxillary and mandibular models. Arch form changes at T(0)-T(1) and T(1)-T(2) were evaluated by superimposing the computer-generated Bezier arch curves with a computer program. Types of dental arch forms were defined by superimposing them with the pentamorphic arch system, which included 5 different types of arch forms: normal, ovoid, tapered, narrow ovoid, and narrow tapered. Maxillary arch widths were increased during orthodontic treatment. Mandibular posterior arch widths were also increased. The expansion of the mandibular arch forms was less than in the maxillary arch forms. Arch width changes were generally stable, except for reduction in maxillary and mandibular interlateral, inter-first premolar, and mandibular intercanine widths. Pretreatment maxillary arch forms were mostly tapered; mandibular arch forms were tapered and narrow tapered. In maxillary arch forms, 76% of the treatment changes were maintained. Mandibular arch form was maintained in 67% of the sample, both during treatment and after retention. In mandibular arches, 71% of orthodontically induced arch form changes were maintained.

  10. Leukemia in AKR mice. I. Effects of leukemic cells on antibody-forming potential of syngeneic and allogeneic normal cells

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    Cells from the spleen, thymus, lymph node, and liver of leukemic AKR mice suppress in vitro antibody responses of normal syngeneic and semiallogeneic cells. This suppression can be mediated by irradiated leukemic cells, requires cell contact between leukemic and normal cells, and may occur at any time during the in vitro culture period. Leukemic AKR cells do not suppress antibody responses of allogeneic cells, even when allogeneic cells have H-2 or background genes homologous with AKR. Leukemic cells do, however, suppress cells that are unable to respond allogeneically to leukemic AKR cells, such as cells of the F1s of AKR. Suppression of normal AKR antibody responses by leukemic AKR cells may be overcome by addition of irradiated allogeneic cells. The fact that leukemic AKR cells are able to suppress normal lymphocyte responses may be of significance in pathogenesis of leukemia in these mice. PMID:942993

  11. Systems and methods for forming defects on graphitic materials and curing radiation-damaged graphitic materials

    DOEpatents

    Ryu, Sunmin; Brus, Louis E.; Steigerwald, Michael L.; Liu, Haitao

    2012-09-25

    Systems and methods are disclosed herein for forming defects on graphitic materials. The methods for forming defects include applying a radiation reactive material on a graphitic material, irradiating the applied radiation reactive material to produce a reactive species, and permitting the reactive species to react with the graphitic material to form defects. Additionally, disclosed are methods for removing defects on graphitic materials.

  12. Method of forming crystalline silicon devices on glass

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1995-03-21

    A method is disclosed for fabricating single-crystal silicon microelectronic components on a silicon substrate and transferring same to a glass substrate. This is achieved by utilizing conventional silicon processing techniques for fabricating components of electronic circuits and devices on bulk silicon, wherein a bulk silicon surface is prepared with epitaxial layers prior to the conventional processing. The silicon substrate is bonded to a glass substrate and the bulk silicon is removed leaving the components intact on the glass substrate surface. Subsequent standard processing completes the device and circuit manufacturing. This invention is useful in applications requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, particularly for display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard electronics, and high temperature electronics. 7 figures.

  13. Method of forming crystalline silicon devices on glass

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1995-01-01

    A method for fabricating single-crystal silicon microelectronic components on a silicon substrate and transferring same to a glass substrate. This is achieved by utilizing conventional silicon processing techniques for fabricating components of electronic circuits and devices on bulk silicon, wherein a bulk silicon surface is prepared with epitaxial layers prior to the conventional processing. The silicon substrate is bonded to a glass substrate and the bulk silicon is removed leaving the components intact on the glass substrate surface. Subsequent standard processing completes the device and circuit manufacturing. This invention is useful in applications requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, particularly for display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard electronics, and high temperature electronics.

  14. Human embryonic stem cells passaged using enzymatic methods retain a normal karyotype and express CD30.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Alison; Wojtacha, Davina; Hewitt, Zoë; Priddle, Helen; Sottile, Virginie; Di Domenico, Alex; Fletcher, Judy; Waterfall, Martin; Corrales, Néstor López; Ansell, Ray; McWhir, Jim

    2008-03-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are thought to be susceptible to chromosomal rearrangements as a consequence of single cell dissociation. Compared in this study are two methods of dissociation that do not generate single cell suspensions (collagenase and EDTA) with an enzymatic procedure using trypsin combined with the calcium-specific chelator EGTA (TEG), that does generate a single cell suspension, over 10 passages. Cells passaged by single cell dissociation using TEG retained a normal karyotype. However, cells passaged using EDTA, without trypsin, acquired an isochromosome p7 in three replicates of one experiment. In all of the TEG, collagenase and EDTA-treated cultures, cells retained consistent telomere length and potentiality, demonstrating that single cell dissociation can be used to maintain karyotypically and phenotypically normal hESCs. However, competitive genomic hybridization revealed that subkaryotypic deletions and amplifications could accumulate over time, reinforcing that present culture regimes remain suboptimal. In all cultures the cell surface marker CD30, reportedly expressed on embryonal carcinoma but not karyoptically normal ESCs, was expressed on hESCs with both normal and abnormal karyotype, but was upregulated on the latter.

  15. Methods of Forming Visual Hydrogen Detector with Variable Reversibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muradov, Nazim Z. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Methods, processes and compositions are provided for a visual or chemochromic hydrogen-detector with variable or tunable reversible color change. The working temperature range for the hydrogen detector is from minus 100 C to plus 500 C. A hydrogen-sensitive pigment, including, but not limited to, oxides, hydroxides and polyoxo-compounds of tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium, chromium and combinations thereof, is combined with nano-sized metal activator particles and preferably, coated on a porous or woven substrate. In the presence of hydrogen, the composition rapidly changes its color from white or light-gray or light-tan to dark gray, navy-blue or black depending on the exposure time and hydrogen concentration in the medium. After hydrogen exposure ceases, the original color of the hydrogen-sensitive pigment is restored, and the visual hydrogen detector can be used repeatedly. By changing the composition of the hydrogen-sensitive pigment, the time required for its complete regeneration is varied from a few seconds to several days.

  16. Robust and efficient synthetic method for forming DNA microarrays.

    PubMed

    Dolan, P L; Wu, Y; Ista, L K; Metzenberg, R L; Nelson, M A; Lopez, G P

    2001-11-01

    The field of DNA microarray technology has necessitated the cooperative efforts of interdisciplinary scientific teams to achieve its primary goal of rapidly measuring global gene expression patterns. A collaborative effort was established to produce a chemically reactive surface on glass slide substrates to which unmodified DNA will covalently bind for improvement of cDNA microarray technology. Using the p-aminophenyl trimethoxysilane (ATMS)/diazotization chemistry that was developed, microarrays were fabricated and analyzed. This immobilization method produced uniform spots containing equivalent or greater amounts of DNA than commercially available immobilization techniques. In addition, hybridization analyses of microarrays made with ATMS/diazotization chemistry showed very sensitive detection of the target sequence, two to three orders of magnitude more sensitive than the commercial chemistries. Repeated stripping and re-hybridization of these slides showed that DNA loss was minimal, allowing multiple rounds of hybridization. Thus, the ATMS/diazotization chemistry facilitated covalent binding of unmodified DNA, and the reusable microarrays that were produced showed enhanced levels of hybridization and very low background fluorescence.

  17. Method of forming oriented block copolymer line patterns, block copolymer line patterns formed thereby, and their use to form patterned articles

    DOEpatents

    Russell, Thomas P.; Hong, Sung Woo; Lee, Doug Hyun; Park, Soojin; Xu, Ting

    2015-10-13

    A block copolymer film having a line pattern with a high degree of long-range order is formed by a method that includes forming a block copolymer film on a substrate surface with parallel facets, and annealing the block copolymer film to form an annealed block copolymer film having linear microdomains parallel to the substrate surface and orthogonal to the parallel facets of the substrate. The line-patterned block copolymer films are useful for the fabrication of magnetic storage media, polarizing devices, and arrays of nanowires.

  18. Method of forming oriented block copolymer line patterns, block copolymer line patterns formed thereby, and their use to form patterned articles

    DOEpatents

    Russell, Thomas P.; Hong, Sung Woo; Lee, Dong Hyun; Park, Soojin; Xu, Ting

    2017-08-01

    A block copolymer film having a line pattern with a high degree of long-range order is formed by a method that includes forming a block copolymer film on a substrate surface with parallel facets, and annealing the block copolymer film to form an annealed block copolymer film having linear microdomains parallel to the substrate surface and orthogonal to the parallel facets of the substrate. The line-patterned block copolymer films are useful for the fabrication of magnetic storage media, polarizing devices, and arrays of nanowires.

  19. Screening for antimicrobial resistance in normal bacterial flora of the skin using the replica plating method.

    PubMed

    Paavilainen, T; Osterblad, M; Leistevuo, T; Huovinen, P; Kotilainen, P

    2000-12-01

    The replica plating method was evaluated for detection of the antimicrobial resistance of normal bacterial flora of the skin and was compared with the results of a ten-colony method. If > or = 10% of the colonies from the master plate grew on a plate containing an antibiotic, the sensitivity of replica plating was comparable to that of a ten-colony method for samples containing resistant bacteria. However, this method classified significantly more samples as resistant to all eight antibiotics tested if the detection breakpoint was lowered to > or = 1% of the original colonies. Replica plating is an effective and practical tool for screening skin flora for resistance, also in samples with a low proportion of resistant strains.

  20. A Hypothesis Testing Based Method for Normalization and Differential Expression Analysis of RNA-Seq Data

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan; Wang, Guochang; Zhang, Jun; Li, Han

    2017-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have made RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) a popular choice for measuring gene expression level. To reduce the noise of gene expression measures and compare them between several conditions or samples, normalization is an essential step to adjust for varying sample sequencing depths and other unwanted technical effects. In this paper, we develop a novel global scaling normalization method by employing the available knowledge of housekeeping genes. We formulate the problem from the hypothesis testing perspective and find an optimal scaling factor that minimizes the deviation between the empirical and the nominal type I error. Applying our approach to various simulation studies and real examples, we demonstrate that it is more accurate and robust than the state-of-the-art alternatives in detecting differentially expression genes. PMID:28072846

  1. [Modified method of constructing tissue microarray which contains keloid and normal skin].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Chen, Junjie; Cen, Ying; Zhao, Sha; Liao, Dianying; Gong, Jing

    2010-08-01

    To seek for a method of constructing the tissue microarray which contains keloid, skin around keloid, and normal skin. The specimens were gained from patients of voluntary donation between March and May 2009, including the tissues of keloid (27 cases), skin around keloid (13 cases), and normal skin (27 cases). The specimens were imbedded by paraffin as donor blocks. The traditional method of constructing the tissue microarray and section were modified according to the histological characteristics of the keloid and skin tissue and the experimental requirement. The tissue cores were drilled from donor blocks and attached securely on the adhesive platform which was prepared. The adhesive platform with tissue cores in situ was placed into an imbedding mold, which then was preheated briefly. Paraffin at approximately 70 degrees C was injected to fill the mold and then cooled to room temperature. Then HE staining, immunohistochemistry staining were performed and the results were observed by microscope. The constructed tissue microarray block contained 67 cores as designed and displayed smooth surface with no crack. All the cores distributed regularly, had no disintegration or manifest shift. HE staining of tissue microarray section showed that all cores had equal thickness, distinct layer, manifest contradistinction, well-defined edge, and consistent with original pathological diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry staining results demonstrated that all cores contained enough tissue dose to apply group comparison. However, in tissue microarray which was made as traditional method, many cores missed and a few cores shifted obviously. Applying modified method can successfully construct tissue microarray which is composed of keloid, skin around keloid, and normal skin. This tissue microarray will become an effective tool of researching the pathogenesis of keloid.

  2. Method and system for constructing a rechargeable battery and battery structures formed with the method

    DOEpatents

    Hobson, David O.; Snyder, Jr., William B.

    1995-01-01

    A method and system for manufacturing a thin-film battery and a battery structure formed with the method utilizes a plurality of deposition stations at which thin battery component films are built up in sequence upon a web-like substrate as the substrate is automatically moved through the stations. At an initial station, cathode and anode current collector film sections are deposited upon the substrate, and at another station, a thin cathode film is deposited upon the substrate so to overlie part of the cathode current collector section. At another station, a thin electrolyte film is deposited upon so as to overlie the cathode film and part of the anode current collector film, at yet another station, a thin lithium film is deposited upon so as to overlie the electrolyte film and an additional part of the anode current collector film. Such a method accommodates the winding of a layup of battery components into a spiral configuration to provide a thin-film, high capacity battery and also accommodates the build up of thin film battery components onto a substrate surface having any of a number of shapes.

  3. Method of forming emitters for a back-contact solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Li, Bo; Cousins, Peter J.; Smith, David D.

    2015-09-29

    Methods of forming emitters for back-contact solar cells are described. In one embodiment, a method includes forming a first solid-state dopant source above a substrate. The first solid-state dopant source includes a plurality of regions separated by gaps. Regions of a second solid-state dopant source are formed above the substrate by printing.

  4. Method of forming emitters for a back-contact solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Li, Bo; Cousins, Peter J; Smith, David D

    2014-12-16

    Methods of forming emitters for back-contact solar cells are described. In one embodiment, a method includes forming a first solid-state dopant source above a substrate. The first solid-state dopant source includes a plurality of regions separated by gaps. Regions of a second solid-state dopant source are formed above the substrate by printing.

  5. Method or forming emitters for a back-contact solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Li, Bo; Cousins, Peter J.; Smith, David D.

    2014-08-12

    Methods of forming emitters for back-contact solar cells are described. In one embodiment, a method includes forming a first solid-state dopant source above a substrate. The first solid-state dopant source includes a plurality of regions separated by gaps. Regions of a second solid-state dopant source are formed above the substrate by printing.

  6. [Using neural networks based template matching method to obtain redshifts of normal galaxies].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; Luo, A-li; Wu, Fu-chao; Zhao, Yong-heng

    2005-06-01

    Galaxies can be divided into two classes: normal galaxy (NG) and active galaxy (AG). In order to determine NG redshifts, an automatic effective method is proposed in this paper, which consists of the following three main steps: (1) From the template of normal galaxy, the two sets of samples are simulated, one with the redshift of 0.0-0.3, the other of 0.3-0.5, then the PCA is used to extract the main components, and train samples are projected to the main component subspace to obtain characteristic spectra. (2) The characteristic spectra are used to train a Probabilistic Neural Network to obtain a Bayes classifier. (3) An unknown real NG spectrum is first inputted to this Bayes classifier to determine the possible range of redshift, then the template matching is invoked to locate the redshift value within the estimated range. Compared with the traditional template matching technique with an unconstrained range, our proposed method not only halves the computational load, but also increases the estimation accuracy. As a result, the proposed method is particularly useful for automatic spectrum processing produced from a large-scale sky survey project.

  7. Study on compressive strength of self compacting mortar cubes under normal & electric oven curing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanna Venkatesh, G. J.; Vivek, S. S.; Dhinakaran, G.

    2017-07-01

    In the majority of civil engineering applications, the basic building blocks were the masonry units. Those masonry units were developed as a monolithic structure by plastering process with the help of binding agents namely mud, lime, cement and their combinations. In recent advancements, the mortar study plays an important role in crack repairs, structural rehabilitation, retrofitting, pointing and plastering operations. The rheology of mortar includes flowable, passing and filling properties which were analogous with the behaviour of self compacting concrete. In self compacting (SC) mortar cubes, the cement was replaced by mineral admixtures namely silica fume (SF) from 5% to 20% (with an increment of 5%), metakaolin (MK) from 10% to 30% (with an increment of 10%) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) from 25% to 75% (with an increment of 25%). The ratio between cement and fine aggregate was kept constant as 1: 2 for all normal and self compacting mortar mixes. The accelerated curing namely electric oven curing with the differential temperature of 128°C for the period of 4 hours was adopted. It was found that the compressive strength obtained from the normal and electric oven method of curing was higher for self compacting mortar cubes than normal mortar cube. The cement replacement by 15% SF, 20% MK and 25%GGBS obtained higher strength under both curing conditions.

  8. [Quantitative analysis method based on fractal theory for medical imaging of normal brain development in infants].

    PubMed

    Li, Heheng; Luo, Liangping; Huang, Li

    2011-02-01

    The present paper is aimed to study the fractal spectrum of the cerebral computerized tomography in 158 normal infants of different age groups, based on the calculation of chaotic theory. The distribution range of neonatal period was 1.88-1.90 (mean = 1.8913 +/- 0.0064); It reached a stable condition at the level of 1.89-1.90 during 1-12 months old (mean = 1.8927 +/- 0.0045); The normal range of 1-2 years old infants was 1.86-1.90 (mean = 1.8863 +/- 4 0.0085); It kept the invariance of the quantitative value among 1.88-1.91(mean = 1.8958 +/- 0.0083) during 2-3 years of age. ANOVA indicated there's no significant difference between boys and girls (F = 0.243, P > 0.05), but the difference of age groups was significant (F = 8.947, P < 0.001). The fractal dimension of cerebral computerized tomography in normal infants computed by box methods was maintained at an efficient stability from 1.86 to 1.91. It indicated that there exit some attractor modes in pediatric brain development.

  9. Normalizing surface electromyographic measures of the masticatory muscles: Comparison of two different methods for clinical purpose.

    PubMed

    Mapelli, Andrea; Tartaglia, Gianluca Martino; Connelly, Stephen Thaddeus; Ferrario, Virgilio Ferruccio; De Felicio, Claudia Maria; Sforza, Chiarella

    2016-10-01

    To compare a new normalization technique (wax pad, WAX) with the currently utilized cotton roll (COT) method in surface electromyography (sEMG) of the masticatory muscles. sEMG of the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles of 23 subjects was recorded while performing two repetitions of 5s maximum voluntary clenches (MVC) on COT and WAX. For each task, the mean value of sEMG amplitude and its coefficient of variation were calculated, and the differences between the two repetitions computed. The standard error of measurement (SEM) was calculated. For each subject and muscle, the COT-to-WAX maximum activity increment was computed. Participant preference between tasks was also recorded. WAX MVC tasks had larger maximum EMG amplitude than COT MVC tasks (P<0.001), with COT-to-WAX maximum amplitude increments of 61% (temporalis) and 94% (masseter) (P=0.006). WAX MVC had better test-retest repeatability than COT. For both MVC modalities, the mean amplitude (P>0.391) and its coefficient of variation were unchanged (P>0.180). The WAX task was the more comfortable for 18/23 subjects (P=0.007). WAX normalization ensures the same stability level of maximum EMG amplitude as COT normalization, but it is more repeatable, elicits larger maximum muscular contraction, and is felt to be more comfortable by subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Negligibility of small divisor effects in the normal form theory for nearly-integrable Hamiltonians with decaying non-autonomous perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortunati, Alessandro; Wiggins, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with the problem of the existence of a normal form for a nearly-integrable real-analytic Hamiltonian with aperiodically time-dependent perturbation decaying (slowly) in time. In particular, in the case of an isochronous integrable part, the system can be cast in an exact normal form, regardless of the properties of the frequency vector. The general case is treated by a suitable adaptation of the finite order normalization techniques usually used for Nekhoroshev arguments. The key point is that the so called "geometric part" is not necessary in this case. As a consequence, no hypotheses on the integrable part are required, apart from analyticity. The work, based on two different perturbative approaches developed by Giorgilli et al., is a generalisation of the techniques used by the same authors to treat more specific aperiodically time-dependent problems.

  11. Automated PCR setup for forensic casework samples using the Normalization Wizard and PCR Setup robotic methods.

    PubMed

    Greenspoon, S A; Sykes, K L V; Ban, J D; Pollard, A; Baisden, M; Farr, M; Graham, N; Collins, B L; Green, M M; Christenson, C C

    2006-12-20

    Human genome, pharmaceutical and research laboratories have long enjoyed the application of robotics to performing repetitive laboratory tasks. However, the utilization of robotics in forensic laboratories for processing casework samples is relatively new and poses particular challenges. Since the quantity and quality (a mixture versus a single source sample, the level of degradation, the presence of PCR inhibitors) of the DNA contained within a casework sample is unknown, particular attention must be paid to procedural susceptibility to contamination, as well as DNA yield, especially as it pertains to samples with little biological material. The Virginia Department of Forensic Science (VDFS) has successfully automated forensic casework DNA extraction utilizing the DNA IQ(trade mark) System in conjunction with the Biomek 2000 Automation Workstation. Human DNA quantitation is also performed in a near complete automated fashion utilizing the AluQuant Human DNA Quantitation System and the Biomek 2000 Automation Workstation. Recently, the PCR setup for casework samples has been automated, employing the Biomek 2000 Automation Workstation and Normalization Wizard, Genetic Identity version, which utilizes the quantitation data, imported into the software, to create a customized automated method for DNA dilution, unique to that plate of DNA samples. The PCR Setup software method, used in conjunction with the Normalization Wizard method and written for the Biomek 2000, functions to mix the diluted DNA samples, transfer the PCR master mix, and transfer the diluted DNA samples to PCR amplification tubes. Once the process is complete, the DNA extracts, still on the deck of the robot in PCR amplification strip tubes, are transferred to pre-labeled 1.5 mL tubes for long-term storage using an automated method. The automation of these steps in the process of forensic DNA casework analysis has been accomplished by performing extensive optimization, validation and testing of the

  12. Impact of PET/CT image reconstruction methods and liver uptake normalization strategies on quantitative image analysis.

    PubMed

    Kuhnert, Georg; Boellaard, Ronald; Sterzer, Sergej; Kahraman, Deniz; Scheffler, Matthias; Wolf, Jürgen; Dietlein, Markus; Drzezga, Alexander; Kobe, Carsten

    2016-02-01

    In oncological imaging using PET/CT, the standardized uptake value has become the most common parameter used to measure tracer accumulation. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate ultra high definition (UHD) and ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) PET/CT reconstructions for their potential impact on quantification. We analyzed 40 PET/CT scans of lung cancer patients who had undergone PET/CT. Standardized uptake values corrected for body weight (SUV) and lean body mass (SUL) were determined in the single hottest lesion in the lung and normalized to the liver for UHD and OSEM reconstruction. Quantitative uptake values and their normalized ratios for the two reconstruction settings were compared using the Wilcoxon test. The distribution of quantitative uptake values and their ratios in relation to the reconstruction method used were demonstrated in the form of frequency distribution curves, box-plots and scatter plots. The agreement between OSEM and UHD reconstructions was assessed through Bland-Altman analysis. A significant difference was observed after OSEM and UHD reconstruction for SUV and SUL data tested (p < 0.0005 in all cases). The mean values of the ratios after OSEM and UHD reconstruction showed equally significant differences (p < 0.0005 in all cases). Bland-Altman analysis showed that the SUV and SUL and their normalized values were, on average, up to 60 % higher after UHD reconstruction as compared to OSEM reconstruction. OSEM and HD reconstruction brought a significant difference for SUV and SUL, which remained constantly high after normalization to the liver, indicating that standardization of reconstruction and the use of comparable SUV measurements are crucial when using PET/CT.

  13. Methods for functional magnetic resonance imaging in normal and lesioned behaving monkeys.

    PubMed

    Pinsk, Mark A; Moore, Tirin; Richter, Marlene C; Gross, Charles G; Kastner, Sabine

    2005-04-30

    Methods for performing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in behaving and lesioned monkeys using a human MR scanner are reported. Materials for head implant surgery were selected based on tests for magnetic susceptibility. A primate chair with a rigid head fixation system and a mock scanner environment for training were developed. To perform controlled visual studies, monkeys were trained to maintain fixation for several minutes using a novel training technique that utilized continuous juice rewards. A surface coil was used to acquire anatomical and functional images in four monkeys, one with a partial lesion of striate cortex. High-resolution anatomical images were used after non-uniform intensity correction to create cortical surface reconstructions of both lesioned and normal hemispheres. Our methods were confirmed in two visual experiments, in which functional activations were obtained during both free viewing and fixation conditions. In one experiment, face-selective activity was found in the fundus and banks of the superior temporal sulcus and the middle temporal gyrus in monkeys viewing pictures of faces and objects while maintaining fixation. In a second experiment, regions in occipital, parietal, and frontal cortex were activated in lesioned and normal animals viewing a cartoon movie. Importantly, in the animal with the striate lesion, fMRI signals were obtained in the immediate vicinity of the lesion. Our results extend those previously reported by providing a detailed account of the technique and by demonstrating the feasibility of fMRI in monkeys with lesions.

  14. Normal response function method for mass and stiffness matrix updating using complex FRFs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, S.; Modak, S. V.

    2012-10-01

    Quite often a structural dynamic finite element model is required to be updated so as to accurately predict the dynamic characteristics like natural frequencies and the mode shapes. Since in many situations undamped natural frequencies and mode shapes need to be predicted, it has generally been the practice in these situations to seek updating of only mass and stiffness matrix so as to obtain a reliable prediction model. Updating using frequency response functions (FRFs) has been one of the widely used approaches for updating, including updating of mass and stiffness matrices. However, the problem with FRF based methods, for updating mass and stiffness matrices, is that these methods are based on use of complex FRFs. Use of complex FRFs to update mass and stiffness matrices is not theoretically correct as complex FRFs are not only affected by these two matrices but also by the damping matrix. Therefore, in situations where updating of only mass and stiffness matrices using FRFs is required, the use of complex FRFs based updating formulation is not fully justified and would lead to inaccurate updated models. This paper addresses this difficulty and proposes an improved FRF based finite element model updating procedure using the concept of normal FRFs. The proposed method is a modified version of the existing response function method that is based on the complex FRFs. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated through a numerical study of a simple but representative beam structure. The effect of coordinate incompleteness and robustness of method under presence of noise is investigated. The results of updating obtained by the improved method are compared with the existing response function method. The performance of the two approaches is compared for cases of light, medium and heavily damped structures. It is found that the proposed improved method is effective in updating of mass and stiffness matrices in all the cases of complete and incomplete data and

  15. Normal vector method for convergence improvement using the RCWA for crossed gratings.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Thomas; Ruoff, Johannes; Kerwien, Norbert; Rafler, Stephan; Osten, Wolfgang

    2007-09-01

    The rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) is a widely used method for simulating diffraction from periodic structures. Since its recognized formulation by Moharam [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A12, 1068 and 1077 (1995)], there still has been a discussion about convergence problems. Those problems are more or less solved for the diffraction from line gratings, but there remain different concurrent proposals about the convergence improvement for crossed gratings. We propose to combine Popov and Nevière's formulation of the differential method [Light Propagation in Periodic Media (Dekker, 2003) and J. Opt. Soc. Am. A18, 2886 (2001)] with the classical RCWA. With a suitable choice of a normal vector field we obtain a better convergence than for the formulations that are known from the literature.

  16. A step beyond the Monte Carlo method in economics: Application of multivariate normal distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabaivanov, S.; Malechkova, A.; Marchev, A.; Milev, M.; Markovska, V.; Nikolova, K.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we discuss the numerical algorithm of Milev-Tagliani [25] used for pricing of discrete double barrier options. The problem can be reduced to accurate valuation of an n-dimensional path integral with probability density function of a multivariate normal distribution. The efficient solution of this problem with the Milev-Tagliani algorithm is a step beyond the classical application of Monte Carlo for option pricing. We explore continuous and discrete monitoring of asset path pricing, compare the error of frequently applied quantitative methods such as the Monte Carlo method and finally analyze the accuracy of the Milev-Tagliani algorithm by presenting the profound research and important results of Honga, S. Leeb and T. Li [16].

  17. Simultaneous determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols in hazelnuts by a normal phase liquid chromatographic method.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Joana S; Casal, Susana; Torres, Duarte; Seabra, Rosa M; Oliveira, Beatriz P P

    2005-12-01

    A normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (NP-HPLC) method for the determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols in hazelnuts is reported. Three extraction procedures (with and without saponification) were assayed; the best results were obtained with a simple solid-liquid extraction procedure. Chromatographic separation was achieved using an Inertsil 5 SI column using isocratic elution with hexane/1,4-dioxane (95.5:4.5, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min. The effluent was monitored by a series arrangement of a diode-array followed by a fluorescence detector. All compounds were separated in a short period of time (17 min). The method proved to be rapid, sensitive, reproducible and accurate, allowing the simultaneous determination of all vitamin E homologues.

  18. Residual stresses and microstructure of H13 steel formed by combining two different direct fabrication methods

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, P.J.; Payzant, E.A.; Schlienger, M.E.; McHugh, K.M.

    1998-10-13

    Direct fabrication (DF) of tool and die steels by rapid solidification techniques can produce near-net-shape parts and components with unique properties, and without the distortions caused by conventional normalizing and tempering heat-treatments. When combined with sophisticated 3-dimensional computer control to build complex solid metallic shapes, one has the capability of using DF for rapid prototyping. Spray forming using a circular converging/diverging atomizer is a DF process being developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for rapid manufacturing of tool and die steels like H-13. Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS{trademark}) is a DF process being developed at Sandia National laboratory (SNL). LENS involves laser-processing fine powder metal sprays into complex, fully-dense 3-dimensional shapes with fine-detail control that would allow rapid prototyping of tools or dies. One logical combination of the two processes is to combine spray forming to replicate most of the die surface and backing, and then t o build other die-surface fine-features with LENS. Premium H-13 steel was used because it belongs to the widely used group of hot-work steels that have good resistance to heat, pressure and abrasion for metal-forging and aluminum die-casting applications. The microstructure and residual stresses that exist across the interface of a composite metal produced by these two DF methods are critical parameters in producing crack-free components with functional properties. The purpose of this work is to combine unique neutron-diffraction facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for measuring bulk residual stresses with these two different DF processes to characterize LENS deposits of H-13 steel made on a spray-formed base of that same steel.

  19. Intravenous Fluid Mixing in Normal Gravity, Partial Gravity, and Microgravity: Down-Selection of Mixing Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niederhaus, Charles E.; Miller, Fletcher J.

    2008-01-01

    The missions envisioned under the Vision for Space Exploration will require development of new methods to handle crew medical care. Medications and intravenous (IV) fluids have been identified as one area needing development. Storing certain medications and solutions as powders or concentrates can both increase the shelf life and reduce the overall mass and volume of medical supplies. The powders or concentrates would then be mixed in an IV bag with Sterile Water for Injection produced in situ from the potable water supply. Fluid handling in microgravity is different than terrestrial settings, and requires special consideration in the design of equipment. This document describes the analyses and down-select activities used to identify the IV mixing method to be developed that is suitable for ISS and exploration missions. The chosen method is compatible with both normal gravity and microgravity, maintains sterility of the solution, and has low mass and power requirements. The method will undergo further development, including reduced gravity aircraft experiments and computations, in order to fully develop the mixing method and associated operational parameters.

  20. Biochemical effects in normal and stone forming rats treated with the ripe kernel juice of plantain (musa paradisiaca).

    PubMed

    Devi, V K; Baskar, R; Varalakshmi, P

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Musa paradisiaca stem kernel juice was investigated in experimental urolithiatic rats. Stone forming rats exhibited a significant elevation in the activities of two oxalate synthesizing enzymes - Glycollic acid oxidase and Lactate dehydrogenase. Deposition and excretion of stone forming constituents in kidney and urine were also increased in these rats. The enzyme activities and the level of crystalline components were lowered with the extract treatment. The extract also reduced the activities of urinary alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, r-glutamyl transferase, inorganic pyrophosphatase and β-glucuronidase in calculogenic rats. No appreciable changes were noticed with leucine amino peptidase activity in treated rats.

  1. Photoacoustic signal normalization method and its application to the measurement of the thermal diffusivity for optically opaque materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balderas-López, J. A.

    2006-06-01

    A normalized photoacoustic method, especially suitable for thermal diffusivity measurements of highly optically opaque materials, is described. The photoacoustic signal for normalization in this case, unlike other normalized photoacoustic methodologies, corresponds to a semi-infinite reference material in the front photoacoustic configuration. The amplitude and phase of the sample's photoacoustic signal, in transmission, are normalized with the corresponding ones of the reference. The normalization methodology yields, in this way, two independent thermal diffusivity values. This thermal property was measured for two polymers (black paint and black plastic tape); good agreement between the two thermal diffusivities measured for each material was obtained.

  2. Temsirolimus induced structural transition of cancerous renal cystatin to normal form in rats: In vitro mechanistic approach underlying renal cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Anas; Ahmed, Azaj; Bano, Bilqees

    2017-03-01

    Globally, renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) represent a major portion of patients suffering from cancer. Temsirolimus is an anti-renal cancer drug that has already been approved in poor-risk metastatic RCC (mRCC) patients. In our present study, we have evaluated the in vitro effect of varying concentrations of temsirolimus on cancerous rat kidney cystatin; renal cancer was induced in rats making use of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN). It has already been reported that cancerous rat kidney cystatin performs its activity in an efficacious manner as compared to normal rat kidney cystatin, so here an attempt was made to see the effect of temsirolimus on this increased activity of cystatin in renal cancers. Anti-papain activity assay was utilized to see this effect and it was found that temsirolimus reduces the increased activity of cancerous rat kidney cystatin similar to that of normal rat kidney cystatin. Further, to have an insight into temsirolimus induced structural alterations in cancerous rat kidney cystatin; various spectroscopic assays viz. UV, Fluorescence, Circular dichroism (CD) and FTIR spectroscopy were employed. UV and Fluorescence spectroscopy shows cancerous rat kidney cystatin transformation to normal form in the presence of temsirolimus. FTIR and CD spectroscopy confirmed the complete structural reversion of cancerous rat kidney cystatin to normal form in the presence of 40μM temsirolimus. Thus, it can said that temsirolimus causes renal cystatin to revert to normal form; the increased activity of renal cystatin observed in incidences of renal cancer is restored back to normal thereby halting the progression of renal cancer.

  3. Taggants, method for forming a taggant, and a method for detecting an object

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K [Idaho Falls, ID; Stewart, Frederick F [Idaho Falls, ID; Stone, Mark L [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-02-28

    A taggant comprising at least one perfluorocarbon compound surrounded by a polyphosphazene compound. The polyphosphazene compound has the chemical structure: ##STR00001## wherein G.sub.1 and G.sub.2 are pendant groups having different polarities, m is an integer greater than or equal to 100, and each of A and B is independently selected from hydrogen, an alkyl, an alkene, an alkoxide, a polyether, a polythioether, a siloxane, and --X(CH.sub.2).sub.nY.sup.1(CH.sub.2)p.sub.1Y.sup.2(CH.sub.2)p.sub.2 . . . Y.sup.i(CH.sub.2)p.sub.iCH.sub.3, where n ranges from 1 to 6, X and Y are independently selected from oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, and polonium, and p.sub.1 through p.sub.i range from 1 to 6. Cyclic polyphosphazene compounds lacking the A and B groups are also disclosed, as are methods of forming the taggant and of detecting an object.

  4. The human trefoil peptide, TFF1, is present in different molecular forms that are intimately associated with mucus in normal stomach

    PubMed Central

    Newton, J; Allen, A; Westley, B; May, F

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—TFF1 is a 6.5 kDa secreted protein that is expressed predominantly in normal gastric mucosa. It is coexpressed with mucins and it can form dimers via a free carboxy terminal cysteine residue.
AIMS—To investigate the molecular forms of TFF1 that are present in normal human stomach and the association of the different molecular forms with mucus.
SUBJECTS—All subjects had macroscopically normal stomachs at gastroscopy. None had a significant past medical history.
METHODS—TFF1 was detected in normal gastric mucosa and adherent mucus by western transfer analysis after electrophoresis on reducing and non-reducing polyacrylamide gels. In some instances, proteins were fractionated by caesium chloride density gradient centrifugation prior to detection of TFF1. The location of TFF1 in gastric mucosa with an intact adherent mucus layer was assessed by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS—Three different molecular forms of TFF1 were detected: TFF1 monomer, TFF1 dimer, and a TFF1 complex with an apparent molecular mass of about 25 kDa. TFF1 was present at higher concentrations than realised previously. The TFF1 complex was present in the adherent mucus gel layer but while its interaction with mucin was destabilised by caesium chloride, the interaction between mucin and the TFF1 dimer was resistant to caesium chloride.
CONCLUSIONS—Most of TFF1 in normal human gastric mucosa is present in a complex that is stabilised by a disulphide bond. TFF1 is intimately associated with mucus. The high concentration, colocalisation, and binding of TFF1 to gastric mucus strongly implicate TFF1 in gastric mucus function.


Keywords: TFF peptide; pS2; gastric; mucin; disulphide bond; adherent mucus gel PMID:10673290

  5. Fabricating TiO2 Nanocolloids by Electric Spark Discharge Method at Normal Temperature and Pressure.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Kuo-Hsiung; Chang, Chaur-Yang; Chung, Meng-Yun; Cheng, Ting-Shou

    2017-09-19

    In this study, TiO2 nanocolloids were successfully fabricated in deionized water without using suspending agents through using the electric spark discharge method at room temperature and under normal atmospheric pressure. This method was exceptional because it did not create nanoparticle dispersion and the produced colloids contained no derivatives. The proposed method requires only traditional electrical discharge machines (EDMs), self-made magnetic stirrers, and Ti wires (purity, 99.99%). The EDM pulse on time (Ton) and pulse off Time (Toff) were respectively set at 50 and 100 s, 100 and 100 s, 150 and 100 s, and 200 and 100 s to produce four types of TiO2 nanocolloids. Zetasizer analysis of the nanocolloids showed that a decrease in Ton increased the suspension stability, but there were no significant correlations between Ton and particle size. Colloids produced from the four production configurations showed a minimum particle size between 29.39 and 52.85 nm and a zeta-potential between -51.2 and -46.8 mV, confirming that the method introduced in this study can be used to produce TiO2 nanocolloids with excellent suspension stability. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy also indicated that the TiO2 colloids did not contain elements other than Ti and oxygen. Creative Commons Attribution license.

  6. A Comparison of the Bounded Derivative and the Normal Mode Initialization Methods Using Real Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semazzi, F. H. M.; Navon, I. M.

    1985-01-01

    Browning et al. (1980) proposed an initialization method called the bounded derivative method (BDI). They used analytical data to test the new method. Kasahara (1982) theoretically demonstrated the equivalence between BDI and the well known nonlinear normal mode initialization method (NMI). The purposes of this study are the extension of the application of BDI to real data and comparison with NMI. The unbalanced initial state (UBD) is data of January, 1979 OOZ which were interpolated from the adjacent sigma levels of the GLAS GCM to the 300 mb surface. The global barotropic model described by Takacs and Balgovind (1983) is used. Orographic forcing is explicitly included in the model. Many comparisons are performed between various quantities. However, we only present a comparison of the time evolution at two grid points A(50 S, 90 E) and B(10 S, 20 E) which represent low and middle latitude locations. To facilitate a more complete comparison an initialization experiment based on the classical balance equation (CBE) was also included.

  7. Review of clinically accessible methods to determine lean body mass for normalization of standardized uptake values.

    PubMed

    Devriese, Joke; Beels, Laurence; Maes, Alex; Van De Wiele, Christophe; Gheysens, Olivier; Pottel, Hans

    2016-03-01

    With the routine use of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]-fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans, metabolic activity of tumors can be quantitatively assessed through calculation of SUVs. One possible normalization parameter for the standardized uptake value (SUV) is lean body mass (LBM), which is generally calculated through predictive equations based on height and body weight. (Semi-)direct measurements of LBM could provide more accurate results in cancer populations than predictive equations based on healthy populations. In this context, four methods to determine LBM are reviewed: bioelectrical impedance analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. CT, and magnetic resonance imaging. These methods were selected based on clinical accessibility and are compared in terms of methodology, precision and accuracy. By assessing each method's specific advantages and limitations, a well-considered choice of method can hopefully lead to more accurate SUVLBM values, hence more accurate quantitative assessment of 18F-FDG PET images.

  8. Contrast sensitivity measured by two different test methods in healthy, young adults with normal visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Koefoed, Vilhelm F; Baste, Valborg; Roumes, Corinne; Høvding, Gunnar

    2015-03-01

    This study reports contrast sensitivity (CS) reference values obtained by two different test methods in a strictly selected population of healthy, young adults with normal uncorrected visual acuity. Based on these results, the index of contrast sensitivity (ICS) is calculated, aiming to establish ICS reference values for this population and to evaluate the possible usefulness of ICS as a tool to compare the degree of agreement between different CS test methods. Military recruits with best eye uncorrected visual acuity 0.00 LogMAR or better, normal colour vision and age 18-25 years were included in a study to record contrast sensitivity using Optec 6500 (FACT) at spatial frequencies of 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 18 cpd in photopic and mesopic light and CSV-1000E at spatial frequencies of 3, 6, 12 and 18 cpd in photopic light. Index of contrast sensitivity was calculated based on data from the three tests, and the Bland-Altman technique was used to analyse the agreement between ICS obtained by the different test methods. A total of 180 recruits were included. Contrast sensitivity frequency data for all tests were highly skewed with a marked ceiling effect for the photopic tests. The median ICS for Optec 6500 at 85 cd/m2 was -0.15 (95% percentile 0.45), compared with -0.00 (95% percentile 1.62) for Optec at 3 cd/m2 and 0.30 (95% percentile 1.20) FOR CSV-1000E. The mean difference between ICSFACT 85 and ICSCSV was -0.43 (95% CI -0.56 to -0.30, p<0.00) with limits of agreement (LoA) within -2.10 and 1.22. The regression line on the difference of average was near to zero (R2=0.03). The results provide reference CS and ICS values in a young, adult population with normal visual acuity. The agreement between the photopic tests indicated that they may be used interchangeably. There was little agreement between the mesopic and photopic tests. The mesopic test seemed best suited to differentiate between candidates and may therefore possibly be useful for medical selection purposes.

  9. Normalized impact factor (NIF): an adjusted method for calculating the citation rate of biomedical journals.

    PubMed

    Owlia, P; Vasei, M; Goliaei, B; Nassiri, I

    2011-04-01

    The interests in journal impact factor (JIF) in scientific communities have grown over the last decades. The JIFs are used to evaluate journals quality and the papers published therein. JIF is a discipline specific measure and the comparison between the JIF dedicated to different disciplines is inadequate, unless a normalization process is performed. In this study, normalized impact factor (NIF) was introduced as a relatively simple method enabling the JIFs to be used when evaluating the quality of journals and research works in different disciplines. The NIF index was established based on the multiplication of JIF by a constant factor. The constants were calculated for all 54 disciplines of biomedical field during 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 years. Also, ranking of 393 journals in different biomedical disciplines according to the NIF and JIF were compared to illustrate how the NIF index can be used for the evaluation of publications in different disciplines. The findings prove that the use of the NIF enhances the equality in assessing the quality of research works produced by researchers who work in different disciplines.

  10. The normal mode analysis shape detection method for automated shape determination of lung nodules.

    PubMed

    Stember, Joseph N

    2015-04-01

    Surface morphology and shape in general are important predictors for the behavior of solid-type lung nodules detected on CT. More broadly, shape analysis is useful in many areas of computer-aided diagnosis and essentially all scientific and engineering disciplines. Automated methods for shape detection have all previously, to the author's knowledge, relied on some sort of geometric measure. I introduce Normal Mode Analysis Shape Detection (NMA-SD), an approach that measures shape indirectly via the motion it would undergo if one imagined the shape to be a pseudomolecule. NMA-SD allows users to visualize internal movements in the imaging object and thereby develop an intuition for which motions are important, and which geometric features give rise to them. This can guide the identification of appropriate classification features to distinguish among classes of interest. I employ normal mode analysis (NMA) to animate pseudomolecules representing simulated lung nodules. Doing so, I am able to assign a testing set of nodules into the classes circular, elliptical, and irregular with roughly 97 % accuracy. This represents a proof-of-principle that one can obtain shape information by treating voxels as pseudoatoms in a pseudomolecule, and analyzing the pseudomolecule's predicted motion.

  11. Uncertainty analysis of the radiological characteristics of radioactive waste using a method based on log-normal distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Gigase, Yves

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The uncertainty on characteristics of radioactive LILW waste packages is difficult to determine and often very large. This results from a lack of knowledge of the constitution of the waste package and of the composition of the radioactive sources inside. To calculate a quantitative estimate of the uncertainty on a characteristic of a waste package one has to combine these various uncertainties. This paper discusses an approach to this problem, based on the use of the log-normal distribution, which is both elegant and easy to use. It can provide as example quantitative estimates of uncertainty intervals that 'make sense'. The purpose is to develop a pragmatic approach that can be integrated into existing characterization methods. In this paper we show how our method can be applied to the scaling factor method. We also explain how it can be used when estimating other more complex characteristics such as the total uncertainty of a collection of waste packages. This method could have applications in radioactive waste management, more in particular in those decision processes where the uncertainty on the amount of activity is considered to be important such as in probability risk assessment or the definition of criteria for acceptance or categorization. (author)

  12. Performance Evaluation and Online Realization of Data-driven Normalization Methods Used in LC/MS based Untargeted Metabolomics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Tang, Jing; Yang, Qingxia; Cui, Xuejiao; Li, Shuang; Chen, Sijie; Cao, Quanxing; Xue, Weiwei; Chen, Na; Zhu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    In untargeted metabolomics analysis, several factors (e.g., unwanted experimental & biological variations and technical errors) may hamper the identification of differential metabolic features, which requires the data-driven normalization approaches before feature selection. So far, ≥16 normalization methods have been widely applied for processing the LC/MS based metabolomics data. However, the performance and the sample size dependence of those methods have not yet been exhaustively compared and no online tool for comparatively and comprehensively evaluating the performance of all 16 normalization methods has been provided. In this study, a comprehensive comparison on these methods was conducted. As a result, 16 methods were categorized into three groups based on their normalization performances across various sample sizes. The VSN, the Log Transformation and the PQN were identified as methods of the best normalization performance, while the Contrast consistently underperformed across all sub-datasets of different benchmark data. Moreover, an interactive web tool comprehensively evaluating the performance of 16 methods specifically for normalizing LC/MS based metabolomics data was constructed and hosted at http://server.idrb.cqu.edu.cn/MetaPre/. In summary, this study could serve as a useful guidance to the selection of suitable normalization methods in analyzing the LC/MS based metabolomics data. PMID:27958387

  13. 48 CFR 215.404-70 - DD Form 1547, Record of Weighted Guidelines Method Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DD Form 1547, Record of... TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.404-70 DD Form 1547, Record of Weighted Guidelines Method Application. Follow the procedures at PGI 215.404-70 for use of DD Form 1547 whenever a...

  14. 48 CFR 215.404-70 - DD Form 1547, Record of Weighted Guidelines Method Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false DD Form 1547, Record of... TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.404-70 DD Form 1547, Record of Weighted Guidelines Method Application. Follow the procedures at PGI 215.404-70 for use of DD Form 1547 whenever a...

  15. 12 CFR 716.7 - Form of opt out notice to consumers and opt out methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Form of opt out notice to consumers and opt out... CREDIT UNIONS PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 716.7 Form of opt out notice to consumers and opt out methods. (a)(1) Form of opt out notice. If you are required to...

  16. 16 CFR 313.7 - Form of opt out notice to consumers; opt out methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Form of opt out notice to consumers; opt out... OF CONGRESS PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 313.7 Form of opt out notice to consumers; opt out methods. (a)(1) Form of opt out notice. If you are required to...

  17. 12 CFR 573.7 - Form of opt out notice to consumers; opt out methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Form of opt out notice to consumers; opt out... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 573.7 Form of opt out notice to consumers; opt out methods. (a)(1) Form of opt out notice. If you are required to provide an opt out notice...

  18. Comparison of methods of estimating body fat in normal subjects and cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Sawitsky, A.; Gartenhaus, W.; Yasumura, S.; Vaswani, A.N.

    1981-12-01

    Total body fat can be indirectly estimated by the following noninvasive techniques: determination of lean body mass by measurement of body potassium or body water, and determination of density by underwater weighing or by skinfold measurements. The measurement of total body nitrogen by neutron activation provides another technique for estimating lean body mass and hence body fat. The nitrogen measurement can also be combined with the measurement of total body potassium in a two compartment model of the lean body mass from which another estimate of body fat can be derived. All of the above techniques are subject to various errors and are based on a number of assumptions, some of which are incompletely validated. These techniques were applied to a population of normal subjects and to a group of cancer patients. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed in terms of their ability to estimate total body fat.

  19. Comparison of methods of estimating body fat in normal subjects and cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Cohn, S H; Ellis, K J; Vartsky, D; Sawitsky, A; Gartenhaus, W; Yasumura, S; Vaswani, A N

    1981-12-01

    Total body fat can be indirectly estimated by the following noninvasive techniques: determination of lean body mass by measurement of body potassium or body water, and determination of density by underwater weighing or by skinfold measurements. The measurement of total body nitrogen by neutron activation provides another technique for estimating lean body mass and hence body fat. The nitrogen measurement can also be combined with the measurement of total body potassium in a two compartment model of the lean body mass from which another estimate of body fat can be derived. All of the above techniques are subject to various errors and are based on a number of assumptions, some of which are incompletely validated. These techniques were applied to a population of normal subjects and to a group of cancer patients. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed in terms of their ability to estimate total body fat.

  20. Environmental dose assessment methods for normal operations at DOE nuclear sites

    SciTech Connect

    Strenge, D.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Corley, J.P.

    1982-09-01

    Methods for assessing public exposure to radiation from normal operations at DOE facilities are reviewed in this report. The report includes a discussion of environmental doses to be calculated, a review of currently available environmental pathway models and a set of recommended models for use when environmental pathway modeling is necessary. Currently available models reviewed include those used by DOE contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and other organizations involved in environmental assessments. General modeling areas considered for routine releases are atmospheric transport, airborne pathways, waterborne pathways, direct exposure to penetrating radiation, and internal dosimetry. The pathway models discussed in this report are applicable to long-term (annual) uniform releases to the environment: they do not apply to acute releases resulting from accidents or emergency situations.

  1. Method of forming contacts for a back-contact solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Manning, Jane

    2013-07-23

    Methods of forming contacts for back-contact solar cells are described. In one embodiment, a method includes forming a thin dielectric layer on a substrate, forming a polysilicon layer on the thin dielectric layer, forming and patterning a solid-state p-type dopant source on the polysilicon layer, forming an n-type dopant source layer over exposed regions of the polysilicon layer and over a plurality of regions of the solid-state p-type dopant source, and heating the substrate to provide a plurality of n-type doped polysilicon regions among a plurality of p-type doped polysilicon regions.

  2. An efficient Born normal mode method to compute sensitivity kernels and synthetic seismograms in the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capdeville, Y.

    2005-11-01

    We present an alternative to the classical mode coupling method scheme often used in global seismology to compute synthetic seismograms in laterally heterogeneous earth model and Frechet derivatives for tomographic inverse problem with the normal modes first-order Born approximation. We start from the first-order Born solution in the frequency domain and we use a numerical scheme for the volume integration, which means that we have to compute the effect of a finite number of scattering points and sum them with the appropriate integration weight. For each scattering point, `source to scattering point' and `scattering point to receivers' expressions are separated before applying a Fourier transform to return to the time domain. Doing so, the perturbed displacement is obtained, for each scattering point, as the convolution of a forward wavefield from the source to the scattering point with a backward wavefield from the scattering integration point to the receiver. For one scattering point and for a given number of time steps, the numerical cost of such a scheme grows as (number of receivers + the number of sources) × (corner frequency)2 to be compared to (number of receivers × the number of sources) × (corner frequency)4 when the classical normal mode coupling algorithm is used. Another interesting point is, when used for Frechet kernel, the computing cost is (almost) independent of the number of parameters used for the inversion. This algorithm is similar to the one obtained when solving the adjoint problem. Validation tests with respect to the spectral element method solution both in the Frechet derivative case and as a synthetic seismogram tool shows a good agreement. In the latter case, we show that non-linearity can be significant even at long periods and when using existing smooth global tomographic models.

  3. Gene expression in human skeletal muscle: alternative normalization method and effect of repeated biopsies.

    PubMed

    Lundby, Carsten; Nordsborg, Nikolai; Kusuhara, Keiko; Kristensen, Kristina Møller; Neufer, P Darrell; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2005-10-01

    The reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method has lately become widely used to determine transcription and mRNA content in rodent and human muscle samples. However, the common use of endogenous controls for correcting for variance in cDNA between samples is not optimal. Specifically, we investigated (1) a new normalization method based on determining the cDNA content by the flourophores PicoGreen and OliGreen, (2) effect of repeated muscle biopsies on mRNA gene expression, and (3) the spatial heterogeneity in mRNA expression across the muscle. Standard curves using oligo standards revealed a high degree of sensitivity and linearity (2.5-45 ng; R2>0.99) with OliGreen reagent, as was the case for OliGreen analyses with standard curves constructed from serial dilutions of representative RT samples (R2 >0.99 for a ten times dilution range of a representative reversed transcribed (RT) sample). Likewise, PicoGreen reagent detected the RNA:DNA hybrid content in RT samples with great sensitivity. Standard curves constructed from both double-stranded lambda DNA (1-10 ng) and from serial dilutions of representative RT samples consistently resulted in linearity with R2 >0.99. The present determination of cDNA content in reversed transcribed human skeletal muscle RNA samples by both PicoGreen and OliGreen analyses suggests that these fluorophores provide a potential alternative normalization procedure for human gene expression studies. In addition, the present study shows that multiple muscle biopsies obtained from the same muscle do not influence the mRNA response induced by an acute exercise bout for any of the genes examined.

  4. Methods of lipid-normalization for multi-tissue stable isotope analyses in tropical tuna.

    PubMed

    Sardenne, Fany; Ménard, Frédéric; Degroote, Maxime; Fouché, Edwin; Guillou, Gaël; Lebreton, Benoit; Hollanda, Stephanie J; Bodin, Nathalie

    2015-07-15

    The bias associated with lipid contents in fish tissues is a recalcitrant topic for trophic studies using stable isotopes. Lipids are depleted in the heavy carbon isotope ((13)C) and the lipid content varies considerably among species, tissues and in both time and space. We have applied and assessed different correction methods for tropical tuna tissues. We tested two types of normalization methods to deal with variable lipid content in liver, gonads, and white and red muscles of yellowfin, bigeye and skipjack tuna: a chemical extraction using dichloromethane and a mathematical correction based on three modeling approaches (linear, non-linear and mass balance models). We measured isotopic ratios of bulk and lipid-free tissues and assessed the predictive ability of the correction models with the lipid-free measurements. The parameters of the models were estimated from our dataset and from results from published studies on other species. Comparison between bulk, lipid-free and lipid-corrected isotopic ratios demonstrated that (1) chemical extraction using dichloromethane did not affect δ(15)N values; (2) the change in δ(13)C values after extraction was tissue-specific; (3) lipid-normalization models using published parameter estimates failed to predict lipid-corrected δ(13)C values; and (4) linear and non-linear models using parameters estimated for each tissue from our dataset provided accurate δ(13)C predictions for all tissues, and mass balance model for white muscle only. Models using published estimates for parameters from other species cannot be used. Based on a range of lipid content that do not exceed 45%, we recommend the linear model to correct the bulk δ(13)C values in the investigated tissues but the parameters have to be estimated from a proportion of the original data for which chemical extraction is required and the isotopic values of bulk and lipid-free tissues are measured. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Method of forming a ceramic matrix composite and a ceramic matrix component

    DOEpatents

    de Diego, Peter; Zhang, James

    2017-05-30

    A method of forming a ceramic matrix composite component includes providing a formed ceramic member having a cavity, filling at least a portion of the cavity with a ceramic foam. The ceramic foam is deposited on a barrier layer covering at least one internal passage of the cavity. The method includes processing the formed ceramic member and ceramic foam to obtain a ceramic matrix composite component. Also provided is a method of forming a ceramic matrix composite blade and a ceramic matrix composite component.

  6. The temperature gradient-forming device, an accessory unit for normal light microscopes to study the biology of hyperthermophilic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Mora, Maximilian; Bellack, Annett; Ugele, Matthias; Hopf, Johann; Wirth, Reinhard

    2014-08-01

    To date, the behavior of hyperthermophilic microorganisms in their biotope has been studied only to a limited degree; this is especially true for motility. One reason for this lack of knowledge is the requirement for high-temperature microscopy-combined, in most cases, with the need for observations under strictly anaerobic conditions-for such studies. We have developed a custom-made, low-budget device that, for the first time, allows analyses in temperature gradients up to 40°C over a distance of just 2 cm (a biotope-relevant distance) with heating rates up to ∼5°C/s. Our temperature gradient-forming device can convert any upright light microscope into one that works at temperatures as high as 110°C. Data obtained by use of this apparatus show how very well hyperthermophiles are adapted to their biotope: they can react within seconds to elevated temperatures by starting motility-even after 9 months of storage in the cold. Using the temperature gradient-forming device, we determined the temperature ranges for swimming, and the swimming speeds, of 15 selected species of the genus Thermococcus within a few months, related these findings to the presence of cell surface appendages, and obtained the first evidence for thermotaxis in Archaea.

  7. HPLC method for the determination of oxytocin in pharmaceutical dosage form and comparison with biological method.

    PubMed

    Dudkiewicz-Wilczyńska, J; Snycerski, A; Tautt, J

    2000-01-01

    Conditions have been established for the determination of oxytocin by the HPLC method; the method has been validated. The results of HPLC determinations are compared with those obtained by the biological method.

  8. The Effect of Normal Force on Tribocorrosion Behaviour of Ti-10Zr Alloy and Porous TiO2-ZrO2 Thin Film Electrochemical Formed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dănăilă, E.; Benea, L.

    2017-06-01

    The tribocorrosion behaviour of Ti-10Zr alloy and porous TiO2-ZrO2 thin film electrochemical formed on Ti-10Zr alloy was evaluated in Fusayama-Mayer artificial saliva solution. Tribocorrosion experiments were performed using a unidirectional pin-on-disc experimental set-up which was mechanically and electrochemically instrumented, under various solicitation conditions. The effect of applied normal force on tribocorrosion performance of the tested materials was determined. Open circuit potential (OCP) measurements performed before, during and after sliding tests were applied in order to determine the tribocorrosion degradation. The applied normal force was found to greatly affect the potential during tribocorrosion experiments, an increase in the normal force inducing a decrease in potential accelerating the depassivation of the materials studied. The results show a decrease in friction coefficient with gradually increasing the normal load. It was proved that the porous TiO2-ZrO2 thin film electrochemical formed on Ti-10Zr alloy lead to an improvement of tribocorrosion resistance compared to non-anodized Ti-10Zr alloy intended for biomedical applications.

  9. Simultaneous multiplicative column-normalized method (SMART) for 3-D ionosphere tomography in comparison to other algebraic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerzen, T.; Minkwitz, D.

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy and availability of satellite-based applications like GNSS positioning and remote sensing crucially depends on the knowledge of the ionospheric electron density distribution. The tomography of the ionosphere is one of the major tools to provide link specific ionospheric corrections as well as to study and monitor physical processes in the ionosphere. In this paper, we introduce a simultaneous multiplicative column-normalized method (SMART) for electron density reconstruction. Further, SMART+ is developed by combining SMART with a successive correction method. In this way, a balancing between the measurements of intersected and not intersected voxels is realised. The methods are compared with the well-known algebraic reconstruction techniques ART and SART. All the four methods are applied to reconstruct the 3-D electron density distribution by ingestion of ground-based GNSS TEC data into the NeQuick model. The comparative case study is implemented over Europe during two periods of the year 2011 covering quiet to disturbed ionospheric conditions. In particular, the performance of the methods is compared in terms of the convergence behaviour and the capability to reproduce sTEC and electron density profiles. For this purpose, independent sTEC data of four IGS stations and electron density profiles of four ionosonde stations are taken as reference. The results indicate that SMART significantly reduces the number of iterations necessary to achieve a predefined accuracy level. Further, SMART+ decreases the median of the absolute sTEC error up to 15, 22, 46 and 67 % compared to SMART, SART, ART and NeQuick respectively.

  10. A Novel Method Of Gradient Forming and Fluid Manipulation in Reduced Gravity Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran N.; Leslie, F.

    1999-01-01

    The use of magnetic fields to control the motion and position of non-conducting liquids has received growing interest in recent times. The possibility of using the forces exerted by a nonuniform magnetic field on a ferrofluid to not only achieve fluid manipulation but also to actively control fluid motion makes it an attractive candidate for applications such as heat transfer in space systems. Terrestrial heat transfer equipment often relies on the normal gravitational force to hold liquid in a desired position or to provide a buoyant force to enhance the heat transfer rate. The residual gravitational force present in a space environment may no longer serve these useful functions and other forces, such as surface tension, can play a significant role in determining heat transfer rates. Although typically overwhelmed by gravitational forces in terrestrial applications, the body force induced in a ferrofluid by a nonuniform magnetic field can help to achieve these objectives in a microgravity environment. This paper will address the fluid manipulation aspect and will comprise of results from model fluid experiments and numerical modeling of the problem. Results from a novel method of forming concentration gradients that are applicable to low gravity applications will be presented. The ground based experiments are specifically tailored to demonstrate the magnetic manipulation capability of a ferrofluid and show that gravitational effects can be countered in carefully designed systems. The development of governing equations for the system will be presented along with a sampling of numerical results.

  11. A Novel Method Of Gradient Forming and Fluid Manipulation in Reduced Gravity Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran N.; Leslie, F.

    1999-01-01

    The use of magnetic fields to control the motion and position of non-conducting liquids has received growing interest in recent times. The possibility of using the forces exerted by a nonuniform magnetic field on a ferrofluid to not only achieve fluid manipulation but also to actively control fluid motion makes it an attractive candidate for applications such as heat transfer in space systems. Terrestrial heat transfer equipment often relies on the normal gravitational force to hold liquid in a desired position or to provide a buoyant force to enhance the heat transfer rate. The residual gravitational force present in a space environment may no longer serve these useful functions and other forces, such as surface tension, can play a significant role in determining heat transfer rates. Although typically overwhelmed by gravitational forces in terrestrial applications, the body force induced in a ferrofluid by a nonuniform magnetic field can help to achieve these objectives in a microgravity environment. This paper will address the fluid manipulation aspect and will comprise of results from model fluid experiments and numerical modeling of the problem. Results from a novel method of forming concentration gradients that are applicable to low gravity applications will be presented. The ground based experiments are specifically tailored to demonstrate the magnetic manipulation capability of a ferrofluid and show that gravitational effects can be countered in carefully designed systems. The development of governing equations for the system will be presented along with a sampling of numerical results.

  12. Mid-J CO Emission from NGC 891: Microturbulent Molecular Shocks in Normal Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikola, T.; Stacey, G. J.; Brisbin, D.; Ferkinhoff, C.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Parshley, S.; Tucker, C.

    2011-12-01

    We have detected the CO(6-5), CO(7-6), and [C I] 370 μm lines from the nuclear region of NGC 891 with our submillimeter grating spectrometer ZEUS on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. These lines provide constraints on photodissociation region (PDR) and shock models that have been invoked to explain the H2 S(0), S(1), and S(2) lines observed with Spitzer. We analyze our data together with the H2 lines, CO(3-2), and infrared continuum from the literature using a combined PDR/shock model. We find that the mid-J CO originates almost entirely from shock-excited warm molecular gas; contributions from PDRs are negligible. Also, almost all of the H2 S(2) line and half of the S(1) line are predicted to emerge from shocks. Shocks with a pre-shock density of 2 × 104 cm-3 and velocities of 10 km s-1 and 20 km s-1 for C-shocks and J-shocks, respectively, provide the best fit. In contrast, the [C I] line emission arises exclusively from the PDR component, which is best parameterized by a density of 3.2 × 103 cm-3 and a far-ultraviolet field of Go = 100 for both PDR/shock-type combinations. Our mid-J CO observations show that turbulence is a very important heating source in molecular clouds, even in normal quiescent galaxies. The most likely energy sources for the shocks are supernovae or outflows from young stellar objects. The energetics of these shock sources favor C-shock excitation of the lines.

  13. Analytical energy gradient for the two-component normalized elimination of the small component method

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Wenli; Filatov, Michael; Cremer, Dieter

    2015-06-07

    The analytical gradient for the two-component Normalized Elimination of the Small Component (2c-NESC) method is presented. The 2c-NESC is a Dirac-exact method that employs the exact two-component one-electron Hamiltonian and thus leads to exact Dirac spin-orbit (SO) splittings for one-electron atoms. For many-electron atoms and molecules, the effect of the two-electron SO interaction is modeled by a screened nucleus potential using effective nuclear charges as proposed by Boettger [Phys. Rev. B 62, 7809 (2000)]. The effect of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) on molecular geometries is analyzed utilizing the properties of the frontier orbitals and calculated SO couplings. It is shown that bond lengths can either be lengthened or shortened under the impact of SOC where in the first case the influence of low lying excited states with occupied antibonding orbitals plays a role and in the second case the jj-coupling between occupied antibonding and unoccupied bonding orbitals dominates. In general, the effect of SOC on bond lengths is relatively small (≤5% of the scalar relativistic changes in the bond length). However, large effects are found for van der Waals complexes Hg{sub 2} and Cn{sub 2}, which are due to the admixture of more bonding character to the highest occupied spinors.

  14. Three-dimensional surface figure measurement of high-accuracy spherical mirror with nanoprofiler using normal vector tracing method.

    PubMed

    Kudo, R; Okuda, K; Usuki, K; Nakano, M; Yamamura, K; Endo, K

    2014-04-01

    Processing technology using an extreme ultraviolet light source, e.g., next-generation lithography, requires next-generation high-accuracy mirrors. As it will be difficult to attain the degree of precision required by next-generation high-accuracy mirrors such as aspherical mirrors through conventional processing methods, rapid progress in nanomeasurement technologies will be needed to produce such mirrors. Because the measuring methods used for the surface figure measurement of next-generation mirrors will require high precision, we have developed a novel nanoprofiler that can measure the figures of high-accuracy mirrors without the use of a reference surface. Because the accuracy of the proposed method is not limited by the accuracy of a reference surface, the measurement of free-form mirrors is expected to be realized. By using an algorithm to process normal vectors and their coordinate values at the measurement point obtained by a nanoprofiler, our measurement method can reconstruct three-dimensional shapes. First, we measured the surface of a concave spherical mirror with a 1000-mm radius of curvature using the proposed method, and the measurement repeatability is evaluated as 0.6 nm. Sub-nanometer repeatability is realized, and an increase in the repeatability would be expected by improving the dynamic stiffness of the nanoprofiler. The uncertainty of the measurement using the present apparatus is estimated to be approximately 10 nm by numerical simulation. Further, the uncertainty of a Fizeau interferometer is also approximately 10 nm. The results obtained using the proposed method are compared with those obtained using a Fizeau interferometer. The resulting profiles are consistent within the range of each uncertainty over the middle portions of the mirror.

  15. Trypanosoma brucei Bloodstream Forms Depend upon Uptake of myo-Inositol for Golgi Complex Phosphatidylinositol Synthesis and Normal Cell Growth.

    PubMed

    González-Salgado, Amaia; Steinmann, Michael; Major, Louise L; Sigel, Erwin; Reymond, Jean-Louis; Smith, Terry K; Bütikofer, Peter

    2015-06-01

    myo-Inositol is a building block for all inositol-containing phospholipids in eukaryotes. It can be synthesized de novo from glucose-6-phosphate in the cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum. Alternatively, it can be taken up from the environment via Na(+)- or H(+)-linked myo-inositol transporters. While Na(+)-coupled myo-inositol transporters are found exclusively in the plasma membrane, H(+)-linked myo-inositol transporters are detected in intracellular organelles. In Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of human African sleeping sickness, myo-inositol metabolism is compartmentalized. De novo-synthesized myo-inositol is used for glycosylphosphatidylinositol production in the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas the myo-inositol taken up from the environment is used for bulk phosphatidylinositol synthesis in the Golgi complex. We now provide evidence that the Golgi complex-localized T. brucei H(+)-linked myo-inositol transporter (TbHMIT) is essential in bloodstream-form T. brucei. Downregulation of TbHMIT expression by RNA interference blocked phosphatidylinositol production and inhibited growth of parasites in culture. Characterization of the transporter in a heterologous expression system demonstrated a remarkable selectivity of TbHMIT for myo-inositol. It tolerates only a single modification on the inositol ring, such as the removal of a hydroxyl group or the inversion of stereochemistry at a single hydroxyl group relative to myo-inositol. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. New Data Pre-processing on Assessing of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: Line Based Normalization Method (LBNM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akdemir, Bayram; Güneş, Salih; Yosunkaya, Şebnem

    Sleep disorders are a very common unawareness illness among public. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) is characterized with decreased oxygen saturation level and repetitive upper respiratory tract obstruction episodes during full night sleep. In the present study, we have proposed a novel data normalization method called Line Based Normalization Method (LBNM) to evaluate OSAS using real data set obtained from Polysomnography device as a diagnostic tool in patients and clinically suspected of suffering OSAS. Here, we have combined the LBNM and classification methods comprising C4.5 decision tree classifier and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to diagnose the OSAS. Firstly, each clinical feature in OSAS dataset is scaled by LBNM method in the range of [0,1]. Secondly, normalized OSAS dataset is classified using different classifier algorithms including C4.5 decision tree classifier and ANN, respectively. The proposed normalization method was compared with min-max normalization, z-score normalization, and decimal scaling methods existing in literature on the diagnosis of OSAS. LBNM has produced very promising results on the assessing of OSAS. Also, this method could be applied to other biomedical datasets.

  17. A new, sensitive graphical method for detecting deviations from the normal distribution of drug responses: the NTV plot.

    PubMed Central

    Endrenyi, L; Patel, M

    1991-01-01

    1. A new graphical method was developed for the detection of deviations from the normal distribution. The approach took advantage of the similarity of graphical features of a graded dose-response relationship and a cumulative normal distribution. 2. The behaviour of the new normal test variable (NTV) plot was evaluated, in comparison with that of the probit plot and probability density functions (the generalization of histograms), for various assumed distributions. These included skewed distributions and composites of normal distributions with a variety of separations, ratios of peak sizes and widths. 3. The NTV approach generally detected deviations from the normal distribution more sensitively than the probit plot. 4. The NTV and probit plots may be able to identify biomadality by complementary approaches. 5. The characteristics of the three graphical representations were illustrated by a simulated sample from a composite of normal distributions and by an example of sparteine metabolism in 142 Cuna Amerindians. PMID:1931466

  18. Composite materials and bodies including silicon carbide and titanium diboride and methods of forming same

    DOEpatents

    Lillo, Thomas M.; Chu, Henry S.; Harrison, William M.; Bailey, Derek

    2013-01-22

    Methods of forming composite materials include coating particles of titanium dioxide with a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon, and reacting the titanium dioxide with the substance including boron and the substance including carbon to form titanium diboride. The methods may be used to form ceramic composite bodies and materials, such as, for example, a ceramic composite body or material including silicon carbide and titanium diboride. Such bodies and materials may be used as armor bodies and armor materials. Such methods may include forming a green body and sintering the green body to a desirable final density. Green bodies formed in accordance with such methods may include particles comprising titanium dioxide and a coating at least partially covering exterior surfaces thereof, the coating comprising a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon.

  19. Method of forming contacts for a back-contact solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Manning, Jane

    2015-10-20

    Methods of forming contacts for solar cells are described. In one embodiment, a method includes forming a silicon layer above a substrate, forming and patterning a solid-state p-type dopant source on the silicon layer, forming an n-type dopant source layer over exposed regions of the silicon layer and over a plurality of regions of the solid-state p-type dopant source, and heating the substrate to provide a plurality of n-type doped silicon regions among a plurality of p-type doped silicon regions.

  20. Method of forming contacts for a back-contact solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, Jane

    2014-07-15

    Methods of forming contacts for solar cells are described. In one embodiment, a method includes forming a silicon layer above a substrate, forming and patterning a solid-state p-type dopant source on the silicon layer, forming an n-type dopant source layer over exposed regions of the silicon layer and over a plurality of regions of the solid-state p-type dopant source, and heating the substrate to provide a plurality of n-type doped silicon regions among a plurality of p-type doped silicon regions.

  1. Normal mode analysis of macromolecular systems with the mobile block Hessian method

    SciTech Connect

    Ghysels, An; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Van Neck, Dimitri; Waroquier, Michel; Brooks, Bernard R.

    2015-01-22

    Until recently, normal mode analysis (NMA) was limited to small proteins, not only because the required energy minimization is a computationally exhausting task, but also because NMA requires the expensive diagonalization of a 3N{sub a}×3N{sub a} matrix with N{sub a} the number of atoms. A series of simplified models has been proposed, in particular the Rotation-Translation Blocks (RTB) method by Tama et al. for the simulation of proteins. It makes use of the concept that a peptide chain or protein can be seen as a subsequent set of rigid components, i.e. the peptide units. A peptide chain is thus divided into rigid blocks with six degrees of freedom each. Recently we developed the Mobile Block Hessian (MBH) method, which in a sense has similar features as the RTB method. The main difference is that MBH was developed to deal with partially optimized systems. The position/orientation of each block is optimized while the internal geometry is kept fixed at a plausible - but not necessarily optimized - geometry. This reduces the computational cost of the energy minimization. Applying the standard NMA on a partially optimized structure however results in spurious imaginary frequencies and unwanted coordinate dependence. The MBH avoids these unphysical effects by taking into account energy gradient corrections. Moreover the number of variables is reduced, which facilitates the diagonalization of the Hessian. In the original implementation of MBH, atoms could only be part of one rigid block. The MBH is now extended to the case where atoms can be part of two or more blocks. Two basic linkages can be realized: (1) blocks connected by one link atom, or (2) by two link atoms, where the latter is referred to as the hinge type connection. In this work we present the MBH concept and illustrate its performance with the crambin protein as an example.

  2. Normal mode analysis of macromolecular systems with the mobile block Hessian method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghysels, An; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Van Neck, Dimitri; Brooks, Bernard R.; Waroquier, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, normal mode analysis (NMA) was limited to small proteins, not only because the required energy minimization is a computationally exhausting task, but also because NMA requires the expensive diagonalization of a 3Na×3Na matrix with Na the number of atoms. A series of simplified models has been proposed, in particular the Rotation-Translation Blocks (RTB) method by Tama et al. for the simulation of proteins. It makes use of the concept that a peptide chain or protein can be seen as a subsequent set of rigid components, i.e. the peptide units. A peptide chain is thus divided into rigid blocks with six degrees of freedom each. Recently we developed the Mobile Block Hessian (MBH) method, which in a sense has similar features as the RTB method. The main difference is that MBH was developed to deal with partially optimized systems. The position/orientation of each block is optimized while the internal geometry is kept fixed at a plausible - but not necessarily optimized - geometry. This reduces the computational cost of the energy minimization. Applying the standard NMA on a partially optimized structure however results in spurious imaginary frequencies and unwanted coordinate dependence. The MBH avoids these unphysical effects by taking into account energy gradient corrections. Moreover the number of variables is reduced, which facilitates the diagonalization of the Hessian. In the original implementation of MBH, atoms could only be part of one rigid block. The MBH is now extended to the case where atoms can be part of two or more blocks. Two basic linkages can be realized: (1) blocks connected by one link atom, or (2) by two link atoms, where the latter is referred to as the hinge type connection. In this work we present the MBH concept and illustrate its performance with the crambin protein as an example.

  3. Adhesive flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same

    DOEpatents

    Blizzard, John Donald; Weidner, William Kenneth

    2013-02-05

    An adhesive flexible barrier film comprises a substrate and a barrier layer disposed on the substrate. The barrier layer is formed from a barrier composition comprising an organosilicon compound. The adhesive flexible barrier film also comprises an adhesive layer disposed on the barrier layer and formed from an adhesive composition. A method of forming the adhesive flexible barrier film comprises the steps of disposing the barrier composition on the substrate to form the barrier layer, disposing the adhesive composition on the barrier layer to form the adhesive layer, and curing the barrier layer and the adhesive layer. The adhesive flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

  4. Advanced method and processing technology for complicated shape airframe part forming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miodushevsky, P. V.; Rajevskaya, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    Slow deformation modes of forming give considerably higher residual fatigue life of the airframe part. It has experimentally proven that fatigue life of complicated shape integral airframe panels made of high strength aluminum alloys is significantly increased after creep deformation process. To implement the slow deformation mode forming methods, universal automated equipment was developed. Multichannel forming systems provide high accuracy of airframe part shape eliminating residual stresses and spring effect. Forming process multizone control technology was developed and experimentally proved that static/fatigue properties of formed airframe parts are increased.

  5. Comparing the normalization methods for the differential analysis of Illumina high-throughput RNA-Seq data.

    PubMed

    Li, Peipei; Piao, Yongjun; Shon, Ho Sun; Ryu, Keun Ho

    2015-10-28

    Recently, rapid improvements in technology and decrease in sequencing costs have made RNA-Seq a widely used technique to quantify gene expression levels. Various normalization approaches have been proposed, owing to the importance of normalization in the analysis of RNA-Seq data. A comparison of recently proposed normalization methods is required to generate suitable guidelines for the selection of the most appropriate approach for future experiments. In this paper, we compared eight non-abundance (RC, UQ, Med, TMM, DESeq, Q, RPKM, and ERPKM) and two abundance estimation normalization methods (RSEM and Sailfish). The experiments were based on real Illumina high-throughput RNA-Seq of 35- and 76-nucleotide sequences produced in the MAQC project and simulation reads. Reads were mapped with human genome obtained from UCSC Genome Browser Database. For precise evaluation, we investigated Spearman correlation between the normalization results from RNA-Seq and MAQC qRT-PCR values for 996 genes. Based on this work, we showed that out of the eight non-abundance estimation normalization methods, RC, UQ, Med, TMM, DESeq, and Q gave similar normalization results for all data sets. For RNA-Seq of a 35-nucleotide sequence, RPKM showed the highest correlation results, but for RNA-Seq of a 76-nucleotide sequence, least correlation was observed than the other methods. ERPKM did not improve results than RPKM. Between two abundance estimation normalization methods, for RNA-Seq of a 35-nucleotide sequence, higher correlation was obtained with Sailfish than that with RSEM, which was better than without using abundance estimation methods. However, for RNA-Seq of a 76-nucleotide sequence, the results achieved by RSEM were similar to without applying abundance estimation methods, and were much better than with Sailfish. Furthermore, we found that adding a poly-A tail increased alignment numbers, but did not improve normalization results. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that RC, UQ

  6. Development, Implementation, and Application of an Analytic Second Derivative Formalism for the Normalized Elimination of the Small Component Method.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wenli; Filatov, Michael; Cremer, Dieter

    2012-08-14

    Analytical second derivatives for the normalized elimination of the small component (NESC) method are derived for the first time and implemented for the routine calculation of NESC vibrational frequencies and other second order molecular properties using the scalar relativistic form of NESC. Using response theory, the second derivatives of the transformation matrix U connecting the large and the pseudolarge components of the relativistic wave function are correctly derived. The 24 derivative terms involving the NESC Hamiltonian and the NESC renormalization matrix are individually tested, and their contributions to the energy Hessian are calculated. The influence of a finite nucleus model and that of the picture change is determined. Different ways of speeding up the calculation of the NESC second derivatives are tested. It is shown that second order properties can routinely be calculated in combination with Hartree-Fock, density functional theory, Moller-Plesset perturbation theory, and any other electron correlation corrected quantum chemical method provided analytic second derivatives are available in the nonrelativistic case. The general applicability of the analytic NESC Hessian is demonstrated by benchmark calculations for NESC/DFT calculations involving up to 1500 basis functions.

  7. Sources of variation in growth, form, and survival in dwarf and normal-stature pitch pines (Pinus rigida, Pinaceae) in long-term transplant experiments.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei; Taub, Daniel R; Fox, Gordon A; Landis, R Matthew; Natali, Susan; Gurevitch, Jessica

    2006-08-01

    Determining the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to phenotypic variation is critical for understanding the evolutionary ecology of plant species, but few studies have examined the sources of phenotypic differentiation between nearby populations of woody plants. We conducted reciprocal transplant experiments to examine sources of variation in growth rate, form, survival, and maturation in a globally rare dwarf population of pitch pine (Pinus rigida) and in surrounding populations of normal-stature pitch pines on Long Island, New York. Transplants were monitored over a 6-yr period. The influence of seedling origin on height, growth rate, survival, and form (single-stemmed vs. multi-stemmed growth habit) was much smaller than the effect of transplanting location. Both planting site and seed origin were important factors in determining time to reproduction; seedlings originating from dwarf populations and seedlings planted at the normal-stature site reproduced earliest. These results suggest that many of the differences between dwarf and normal-stature pitch pines may be due more to plastic responses to environmental factors than to genetic differentiation among populations. Therefore, preservation of the dwarf pine habitat is essential for preserving dwarf pine communities; the dwarf pines cannot be preserved ex situ.

  8. [Recording cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials: part 1: anatomy, physiology, methods and normal findings].

    PubMed

    Walther, L E; Hörmann, K; Pfaar, O

    2010-10-01

    Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) have gained in clinical significance in recent years, now forming an integral part of neurootological examinations to establish the functional status of the otolith organs. They are sensitive to low-frequency acoustic stimuli. When stimulated, receptors in the sacculus and utriculous are activated. By means of reflexive connections, myogenic potentials can be recorded when the relevant muscles are tonically activated. The vestibulocolic (sacculocollic) reflex travels from the otolith organs over the central circuitry to the ipsilateral sternocleidomastoid muscle. Myogenic potentials can be recorded by means of cervical VEMP (cVEMP). The vestibuloocular reflex crosses contralaterally to the extraocular eye muscle. Ocular VEMP (oVEMP) are recorded periocularly, preferably from the inferior oblique muscle. Various stimulation methods are used including air conduction and bone conduction.

  9. NDT-Bobath method in normalization of muscle tone in post-stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Mikołajewska, Emilia

    2012-01-01

    Ischaemic stroke is responsible for 80-85% of strokes. There is great interest in finding effective methods of rehabilitation for post-stroke patients. The aim of this study was to assess the results of rehabilitation carried out in the normalization of upper limb muscle tonus in patients, estimated on the Ashworth Scale for Grading Spasticity. The examined group consisted of 60 patients after ischaemic stroke. 10 sessions of NDT-Bobath therapy were provided within 2 weeks (ten days of therapy). Patient examinations using the Ashworth Scale for Grading Spasticity were done twice: the first time on admission and the second after the last session of the therapy to assess rehabilitation effects. Among the patients involved in the study, the results measured on the Ashworth Scale (where possible) were as follows: recovery in 16 cases (26.67%), relapse in 1 case (1.67%), no measurable changes (or change within the same grade of the scale) in 8 cases (13.33%). Statistically significant changes were observed in the health status of the patients. These changes, in the area of muscle tone, were favorable and reflected in the outcomes of the assessment using the Ashworth Scale for Grading Spasticity.

  10. [Air conducted ocular VEMP: I. Determination of a method and application in normal patients].

    PubMed

    Walther, L E; Schaaf, H; Sommer, D; Hörmann, K

    2011-07-01

    Air conducted (AC) cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (AC cVEMP) and air conducted ocular VEMP (AC oVEMP) may be used for measurement of otolith function. However AC oVEMP are few examined till now. The aim of this pilot study was to apply a method for use of AC oVEMP in clinical practice. AC oVEMP were recorded in healthy voluntary people (n=20) using intense AC-sound stimulation (500 Hz tone bursts, 100 dB nHL). Thermal irrigation and AC cVEMP were normal as including criteria. Values were evaluated statistically. AC oVEMP were recorded in all healthy patients. Mean and standard deviation for the first negative peak was 11.35±1.00 ms and for the first negative peak 16.30±1.10 ms. The mean amplitudes were 7.70±4.50 μV. The stability of n10 and p15 component was the same. AC oVEMP can be easy and fast obtained. N10 and p15 latencies may used as parameter for clinical interpretation. Amplitude fluctuations are relatively large. Results can be used in further clinical investigation of AC oVEMP. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Reconstruction of normal and abnormal gastric electrical sources using a potential based inverse method

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J HK; Du, P; Cheng, L K

    2013-01-01

    The use of cutaneous recordings to non-invasively characterize gastric slow wave had limited clinical acceptance, primarily due to the uncertainty in relating the recorded signal to the underlying gastric slow waves. In this study we aim to distinguish and quantitatively reconstruct different slow wave patterns using an inverse algorithm. Slow wave patterns corresponding to normal, retrograde and uncoupled activity at different frequencies were imposed on a model of the stomach surface. Gaussian noise (10% peak-to-peak) was added to cutaneous potentials and the Greensite-Tikhonov inverse method was used to reconstruct the potentials on the stomach. The effectiveness of the number or location of electrodes on the accuracy of the inverse solutions was investigated using four different electrode configurations. Results showed the reconstructed solutions were able to reliably distinguish the different slow wave patterns and waves with lower frequency were better correlated to the known solution than those with higher. The use of up to 228 electrodes improved the accuracy of the inverse solutions. However, the use of 120 electrodes concentrated around the stomach was able to achieve similar results. The most efficient electrode configuration for our model involved 120 electrodes with an inter-electrode distance of 32 mm. PMID:24137714

  12. Reconstruction of normal and abnormal gastric electrical sources using a potential based inverse method.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H K; Du, P; Cheng, L K

    2013-09-01

    The use of cutaneous recordings to non-invasively characterize gastric slow waves has had limited clinical acceptance, primarily due to the uncertainty in relating the recorded signal to the underlying gastric slow waves. In this study we aim to distinguish and quantitatively reconstruct different slow wave patterns using an inverse algorithm. Slow wave patterns corresponding to normal, retrograde and uncoupled activity at different frequencies were imposed on a stomach surface model. Gaussian noise (10% peak-to-peak) was added to cutaneous potentials and the Greensite-Tikhonov inverse method was used to reconstruct the potentials on the stomach. The effectiveness of the number or location of electrodes on the accuracy of the inverse solutions was investigated using four different electrode configurations. Results showed the reconstructed solutions were able to reliably distinguish the different slow wave patterns and waves with lower frequency were better correlated to the known solution than those with higher. The use of up to 228 electrodes improved the accuracy of the inverse solutions. However, the use of 120 electrodes concentrated around the stomach was able to achieve similar results. The most efficient electrode configuration for our model involved 120 electrodes with an inter-electrode distance of 32 mm.

  13. Alternative normalization method of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution level recorded by tree bark.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuli; Wang, Qiuquan; Yang, Limin; Li, Zhenji; Satake, Kenichi; Tsunoda, Kin-Ichi

    2006-10-01

    An alternative normalization method was developed for evaluating atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution level when using tree bark as a passive sampling medium. Perylene (PER), which mainly stems from natural biogenic processes, was proposed as a "natural internal compound" (NIC) of atmospheric PAHs accumulation processes from air into the bark, and a concentration ratio of target PAH to PER (RPAH/PER) was used to minimize the uncertainty in the evaluation of atmospheric PAHs pollution level. Systematic investigation of the effects of intrinsic bark characteristics and extrinsic seasonal meteorological conditions on the partition processes of atmospheric PAHs indicated that RPAH/PER is as an alternative index as compared to bark mass concentration (BMCPAH, ng/g dry bark), lipid mass concentration (LMCPAH, ng/g lipid of bark), and area mass concentration (AMCPAH, ng/m2 surface area of bark) for the evaluation of atmospheric PAHs pollution and that it allows more flexible sampling of tree barks. Clearly, the methodology should be expected to be useful for the objective evaluation of atmospheric pollution levels of other persistent organic pollutants when using tree bark and other passive sampling media if corresponding NICs are found in the future.

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Differential Proteome Expression in Bladder Cancer vs. Normal Bladder Cells Using SILAC Method

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ganglong; Xu, Zhipeng; Lu, Wei; Li, Xiang; Sun, Chengwen; Guo, Jia; Xue, Peng; Guan, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The best way to increase patient survival rate is to identify patients who are likely to progress to muscle-invasive or metastatic disease upfront and treat them more aggressively. The human cell lines HCV29 (normal bladder epithelia), KK47 (low grade nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, NMIBC), and YTS1 (metastatic bladder cancer) have been widely used in studies of molecular mechanisms and cell signaling during bladder cancer (BC) progression. However, little attention has been paid to global quantitative proteome analysis of these three cell lines. We labeled HCV29, KK47, and YTS1 cells by the SILAC method using three stable isotopes each of arginine and lysine. Labeled proteins were analyzed by 2D ultrahigh-resolution liquid chromatography LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Among 3721 unique identified and annotated proteins in KK47 and YTS1 cells, 36 were significantly upregulated and 74 were significantly downregulated with >95% confidence. Differential expression of these proteins was confirmed by western blotting, quantitative RT-PCR, and cell staining with specific antibodies. Gene ontology (GO) term and pathway analysis indicated that the differentially regulated proteins were involved in DNA replication and molecular transport, cell growth and proliferation, cellular movement, immune cell trafficking, and cell death and survival. These proteins and the advanced proteome techniques described here will be useful for further elucidation of molecular mechanisms in BC and other types of cancer. PMID:26230496

  15. Form gene clustering method about pan-ethnic-group products based on emotional semantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dengkai; Ding, Jingjing; Gao, Minzhuo; Ma, Danping; Liu, Donghui

    2016-09-01

    The use of pan-ethnic-group products form knowledge primarily depends on a designer's subjective experience without user participation. The majority of studies primarily focus on the detection of the perceptual demands of consumers from the target product category. A pan-ethnic-group products form gene clustering method based on emotional semantic is constructed. Consumers' perceptual images of the pan-ethnic-group products are obtained by means of product form gene extraction and coding and computer aided product form clustering technology. A case of form gene clustering about the typical pan-ethnic-group products is investigated which indicates that the method is feasible. This paper opens up a new direction for the future development of product form design which improves the agility of product design process in the era of Industry 4.0.

  16. Regulation of cell growth by Notch signaling and its differential requirement in normal vs. tumor-forming stem cells in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Song, Yan; Lu, Bingwei

    2011-12-15

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are postulated to be a small subset of tumor cells with tumor-initiating ability that shares features with normal tissue-specific stem cells. The origin of CSCs and the mechanisms underlying their genesis are poorly understood, and it is uncertain whether it is possible to obliterate CSCs without inadvertently damaging normal stem cells. Here we show that a functional reduction of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in Drosophila specifically eliminates CSC-like cells in the brain and ovary without having discernable effects on normal stem cells. Brain CSC-like cells can arise from dedifferentiation of transit-amplifying progenitors upon Notch hyperactivation. eIF4E is up-regulated in these dedifferentiating progenitors, where it forms a feedback regulatory loop with the growth regulator dMyc to promote cell growth, particularly nucleolar growth, and subsequent ectopic neural stem cell (NSC) formation. Cell growth regulation is also a critical component of the mechanism by which Notch signaling regulates the self-renewal of normal NSCs. Our findings highlight the importance of Notch-regulated cell growth in stem cell maintenance and reveal a stronger dependence on eIF4E function and cell growth by CSCs, which might be exploited therapeutically.

  17. Magnetic filtration process, magnetic filtering material, and methods of forming magnetic filtering material

    DOEpatents

    Taboada-Serrano, Patricia; Tsouris, Constantino; Contescu, Cristian I; McFarlane, Joanna

    2013-10-08

    The present invention provides magnetically responsive activated carbon, and a method of forming magnetically responsive activated carbon. The method of forming magnetically responsive activated carbon typically includes providing activated carbon in a solution containing ions of ferrite forming elements, wherein at least one of the ferrite forming elements has an oxidation state of +3 and at least a second of the ferrite forming elements has an oxidation state of +2, and increasing pH of the solution to precipitate particles of ferrite that bond to the activated carbon, wherein the activated carbon having the ferrite particles bonded thereto have a positive magnetic susceptibility. The present invention also provides a method of filtering waste water using magnetic activated carbon.

  18. A Method for Simulating Correlated Non-Normal Systems of Statistical Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headrick, Todd C.; Beasley, T. Mark

    Real world data often fail to meet the underlying assumptions of normal statistical theory. Many statistical procedures in the psychological and educational sciences involve models that may include a system of statistical equations with non-normal correlated variables (e.g., factor analysis, structural equation modeling, or other complex…

  19. Method for forming pyrrone molding powders and products of said method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, C. T.; Mchenry, R. J. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    The formation of pyrrone resins of the ladder or semiladder structure is described. The technique involves initial formation of fully cyclized prepolymers having an average degree of polymerization of about 1.5, one with acidic terminal groups, another with amine terminal groups. Thereafter the prepolymers are intimately admixed on a 1:1 stoichiometric basis. The resulting powder mixture is molded at elevated pressures and temperatures to form a fully cyclized resin.

  20. Statistical methods for estimating normal blood chemistry ranges and variance in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), Shasta Strain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, Gary A.; Nelson, Nancy C.

    1975-01-01

    Gaussian and nonparametric (percentile estimate and tolerance interval) statistical methods were used to estimate normal ranges for blood chemistry (bicarbonate, bilirubin, calcium, hematocrit, hemoglobin, magnesium, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, osmolality, inorganic phosphorus, and pH for juvenile rainbow (Salmo gairdneri, Shasta strain) trout held under defined environmental conditions. The percentile estimate and Gaussian methods gave similar normal ranges, whereas the tolerance interval method gave consistently wider ranges for all blood variables except hemoglobin. If the underlying frequency distribution is unknown, the percentile estimate procedure would be the method of choice.

  1. Normal mantle transition zone image of receiver functions CCP stacking form onshore broadband data in SE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.; Gao, R.; Liu, Q.; Guan, Y.; He, R.; Li, W.; Ye, Z.

    2011-12-01

    The southeastern margin of China continental is one of ideal area to study modern plate interaction. In the last decades the regional and local scale passive images proposed a fine geometry model in which the Eurasian plate slab underthrust beneath Taiwan and the crust of SE China presents gradually thinning from inland to offshore. But obviously the Model has been confined poorly in lateral before this study.We present preliminary results of analysis of teleseismic events recorded by 20 broadband temporary onshore stations deployed along southeastern margin of China continent in Fujian province from 2008 to 2010.Results from H-k auto-searching method, the crustal thickness (H) and average crustal VP/VS ratio beneath each station were estimated. Along coastal H varies in a range of 27.51 to 33.06 km with an average of 30.37 km and a little gentle southwest dipping, and the VP/VS ratios from 1.721 to 1.809 with a mean of 1.758. VP/VS ratios is slight higher than inland (1.73),it can be inferred more mafic mineral component and fluid or partial melting exist in the coastal crust. The CCP stack image from 16664 reliable receiver functions reveals Moho at the level of 30km with a feature of not too sharp and gentle lateral variation. The 410-km discontinuity appears in the depth of average level of global IASP and in a thin conversion zone without noticeable dipping and surge. 660-km discontinuities is quite sharp and flat, however, due to the coverage of the data we cannot confine the 660 discontinuity well in central part of our current section sharp and flat 410- and 660-km discontinuities, and the transition zone thickness between them, is cohere with ambient mantle beneath SE China and Taiwan Strait. These results support that Eurasian plate slab is confined to a depth above 410 km. in other words, mantle transition zone (410 to 660) was less affected in the SE margin of China continent. Our result hint the model of Eurasian lithosphere delimination or slab break

  2. Development and Validation of Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Methods for Drotaverine Hydrochloride and Aceclofenac from Tablet Dosage Form

    PubMed Central

    Shah, S. A.; Shah, D. R.; Chauhan, R. S.; Jain, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    Two simple spectrophotometric methods have been developed for simultaneous estimation of drotaverine hydrochloride and aceclofenac from tablet dosage form. Method I is a simultaneous equation method (Vierodt's method), wavelengths selected are 306.5 and 276 nm. Method II is the absorbance ratio method (Q-Analysis), which employs 298.5 nm as λ1 and 276 nm as λ2 (λmax of AF) for formation of equations. Both the methods were found to be linear between the range of 8-32 μg/ml for drotaverine and 10-40 μg/ml for aceclofenac. The accuracy and precision were determined and found to comply with ICH guidelines. Both the methods showed good reproducibility and recovery with % RSD in the desired range. The methods were found to be rapid, specific, precise and accurate and can be successfully applied for the routine analysis of drotaverine and aceclofenac in their combined tablet dosage form. PMID:22457554

  3. 17 CFR 160.7 - Form of opt out notice to consumers; opt out methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form of opt out notice to consumers; opt out methods. 160.7 Section 160.7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 160.7 Form of opt out...

  4. A Comparison of Diary Method Variations for Enlightening Form Generation in the Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babapour, Maral; Rehammar, Bjorn; Rahe, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents two studies in which an empirical approach was taken to understand and explain form generation and decisions taken in the design process. In particular, the activities addressing aesthetic aspects when exteriorising form ideas in the design process have been the focus of the present study. Diary methods were the starting point…

  5. Alloy substantially free of dendrites and method of forming the same

    DOEpatents

    de Figueredo, Anacleto M.; Apelian, Diran; Findon, Matt M.; Saddock, Nicholas

    2009-04-07

    Described herein are alloys substantially free of dendrites. A method includes forming an alloy substantially free of dendrites. A superheated alloy is cooled to form a nucleated alloy. The temperature of the nucleated alloy is controlled to prevent the nuclei from melting. The nucleated alloy is mixed to distribute the nuclei throughout the alloy. The nucleated alloy is cooled with nuclei distributed throughout.

  6. Improved hysteresis in a normally-off AlGaN/GaN MOS heterojunction field-effect transistor with a recessed gate structure formed by selective regrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazawa, Satoshi; Shiozaki, Nanako; Negoro, Noboru; Tsurumi, Naohiro; Anda, Yoshiharu; Ishida, Masahiro; Ueda, Tetsuzo

    2017-09-01

    A normally-off AlGaN/GaN MOS heterojunction field-effect transistor (MOS-HFET) with a recessed gate structure formed by selective area regrowth is demonstrated. The fabricated MOS-HFET exhibits a threshold voltage of 1.7 V with an improved hysteresis of 0.5 V as compared with a device fabricated by a conventional dry etching process. An analysis of capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics reveals that the dry etching process increases interface state density and introduces an additional discrete trap. The use of the selective area regrowth technique effectively suppresses such degradation, avoiding the MOS interface from being exposed to dry etching. The results presented in this paper indicate that the selective area regrowth technique is promising for the fabrication of normally-off AlGaN/GaN MOS-HFETs.

  7. Molecular weight forms of inhibin A, inhibin B and pro-alphaC in maternal serum, amniotic fluid and placental extracts of normal and Down syndrome pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Thirunavukarasu, P P; Lambert-Messerlian, G; Robertson, D M; Dawson, G; Canick, J; Wallace, E M

    2002-12-01

    Inhibin A, an established prenatal marker of Down syndrome (DS), exists in the maternal circulation in a number of isoforms. The present study explored whether specific inhibin A isoforms may be selectively increased in DS, offering the prospect of improved marker performance. Second trimester maternal serum, placental extracts and amniotic fluid (AF) pools from both normal and DS pregnancies were fractionated by a combined immunoaffinity (IA) chromatography, preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Prep-PAGE) and electroelution procedure. Inhibins A, B and pro-alphaC were determined in the eluted fractions by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and the profiles of immunoactivity (IA) characterized in terms of molecular weight (MW) and percentage recovery. The MW patterns of inhibin A and pro-alphaC in maternal serum and AF were similar between DS and control pregnancies, both showing peaks between 25-40 k and approximately 65 k. AF contained, in addition, a higher proportion of <30 k inhibins A and B, and <25 k pro-alphaC forms. There were large differences in the inhibin forms present in DS placentae, with more 70 k and less 30-40 k inhibin A than in controls. The present data suggest that the processing, cleavage or secretion of inhibin MW forms by the DS placenta differs from normal. However, these differences are not reflected in maternal serum and so improvements in serum screening will not be afforded by measuring specific inhibin A isoforms. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Method and apparatus for forming a carbon-silicon bond in a silane

    DOEpatents

    Schattenmann, Florian Johannes

    2002-01-01

    A method for forming at least one product silane, comprising reacting a transition metal hydride with a starting silane in a presence of a catalyst and at a temperature that exceeds a threshold temperature associated with said reacting.

  9. Improved methods of forming monolithic integrated circuits having complementary bipolar transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohannon, R. O., Jr.; Cashion, W. F.; Stehlin, R. A.

    1971-01-01

    Two new processes form complementary transistors in monolithic semiconductor circuits, require fewer steps /infusions/ than previous methods, and eliminate such problems as nonuniform h sub FE distribution, low yield, and large device formation.

  10. Locating of normal transitions in a Bi2223 high temperature superconducting coil by non-contact voltage measurement method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanato, N.; Nishiyama, K.

    2015-12-01

    Locating of normal transitions in high temperature superconducting (HTS) coils is important for protection and safety design of HTS apparatus. A general method to locate the normal transitions is to measure resistive voltages along HTS windings by many voltage taps directly soldered to the HTS coils. However, electrical insulation characteristics of the HTS coils are deteriorated because it is necessary to remove electrical insulations of the HTS wires for the soldering. It is a serious problem especially for AC HTS coils to which high voltages are applied. Therefore the authors have presented a non-contact voltage measurement method that can detect the resistive voltages without removing the insulations by voltage dividing capacitors. So far the authors have verified the principle of the non-contact method. In this paper, a method to locate the normal transitions in a Bi2223 HTS coil based on the non-contact method is proposed. The proposed method can not only detect the normal transitions but also locate their positions. It is experimentally confirmed that the proposed method is useful for locating the normal transitions.

  11. The pathophysiology of the aqueduct stroke volume in normal pressure hydrocephalus: can co-morbidity with other forms of dementia be excluded?

    PubMed

    Bateman, Grant A; Levi, Christopher R; Schofield, Peter; Wang, Yang; Lovett, Elizabeth C

    2005-10-01

    Variable results are obtained from the treatment of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) by shunt insertion. There is a high correlation between NPH and the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) on brain biopsy. There is an overlap between AD and vascular dementia (VaD), suggesting that a correlation exists between NPH and other forms of dementia. This study seeks to (1) understand the physiological factors behind, and (2) define the ability of, the aqueduct stroke volume to exclude dementia co-morbidity. Twenty-four patients from a dementia clinic were classified as having either early AD or VaD on the basis of clinical features, Hachinski score and neuropsychological testing. They were compared with 16 subjects with classical clinical findings of NPH and 12 aged-matched non-cognitively impaired subjects. MRI flow quantification was used to measure aqueduct stroke volume and arterial pulse volume. An arterio-cerebral compliance ratio was calculated from the two volumes in each patient. The aqueduct stroke volume was elevated in all three forms of dementia, with no significant difference noted between the groups. The arterial pulse volume was elevated by 24% in VaD and reduced by 35% in NPH, compared to normal (P = 0.05 and P = 0.002, respectively), and was normal in AD. There was a spectrum of relative compliance with normal compliance in VaD and reduced compliance in AD and NPH. The aqueduct stroke volume depends on the arterial pulse volume and the relative compliance between the arterial tree and brain. The aqueduct stroke volume cannot exclude significant co-morbidity in NPH.

  12. Feasibility of Computed Tomography-Guided Methods for Spatial Normalization of Dopamine Transporter Positron Emission Tomography Image

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Su; Cho, Hanna; Choi, Jae Yong; Lee, Seung Ha; Ryu, Young Hoon; Lyoo, Chul Hyoung; Lee, Myung Sik

    2015-01-01

    Background Spatial normalization is a prerequisite step for analyzing positron emission tomography (PET) images both by using volume-of-interest (VOI) template and voxel-based analysis. Magnetic resonance (MR) or ligand-specific PET templates are currently used for spatial normalization of PET images. We used computed tomography (CT) images acquired with PET/CT scanner for the spatial normalization for [18F]-N-3-fluoropropyl-2-betacarboxymethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane (FP-CIT) PET images and compared target-to-cerebellar standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) values with those obtained from MR- or PET-guided spatial normalization method in healthy controls and patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods We included 71 healthy controls and 56 patients with PD who underwent [18F]-FP-CIT PET scans with a PET/CT scanner and T1-weighted MR scans. Spatial normalization of MR images was done with a conventional spatial normalization tool (cvMR) and with DARTEL toolbox (dtMR) in statistical parametric mapping software. The CT images were modified in two ways, skull-stripping (ssCT) and intensity transformation (itCT). We normalized PET images with cvMR-, dtMR-, ssCT-, itCT-, and PET-guided methods by using specific templates for each modality and measured striatal SUVR with a VOI template. The SUVR values measured with FreeSurfer-generated VOIs (FSVOI) overlaid on original PET images were also used as a gold standard for comparison. Results The SUVR values derived from all four structure-guided spatial normalization methods were highly correlated with those measured with FSVOI (P < 0.0001). Putaminal SUVR values were highly effective for discriminating PD patients from controls. However, the PET-guided method excessively overestimated striatal SUVR values in the PD patients by more than 30% in caudate and putamen, and thereby spoiled the linearity between the striatal SUVR values in all subjects and showed lower disease discrimination ability. Two CT

  13. Development of a sampling method for qualification of a ceramic high-level waste form.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Holleran, T. P.

    2002-07-02

    A ceramic waste form has been developed to immobilize the salt waste stream from electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The ceramic waste form was originally prepared in a hot isostatic press (HIP). Small HIP capsules called witness tubes were used to obtain representative samples of material for process monitoring, waste form qualification, and archiving. Since installation of a full-scale HIP in existing facilities proved impractical, a new fabrication process was developed. This process fabricates waste forms inside a stainless steel container using a conventional furnace. Progress in developing a new method of obtaining representative samples is reported.

  14. A Comprehensive Comparison of Normalization Methods for Loading Control and Variance Stabilization of Reverse-Phase Protein Array Data

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenbin; Ju, Zhenlin; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B; Akbani, Rehan

    2014-01-01

    Loading control (LC) and variance stabilization of reverse-phase protein array (RPPA) data have been challenging mainly due to the small number of proteins in an experiment and the lack of reliable inherent control markers. In this study, we compare eight different normalization methods for LC and variance stabilization. The invariant marker set concept was first applied to the normalization of high-throughput gene expression data. A set of “invariant” markers are selected to create a virtual reference sample. Then all the samples are normalized to the virtual reference. We propose a variant of this method in the context of RPPA data normalization and compare it with seven other normalization methods previously reported in the literature. The invariant marker set method performs well with respect to LC, variance stabilization and association with the immunohistochemistry/florescence in situ hybridization data for three key markers in breast tumor samples, while the other methods have inferior performance. The proposed method is a promising approach for improving the quality of RPPA data. PMID:25374453

  15. A comprehensive comparison of normalization methods for loading control and variance stabilization of reverse-phase protein array data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbin; Ju, Zhenlin; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B; Akbani, Rehan

    2014-01-01

    Loading control (LC) and variance stabilization of reverse-phase protein array (RPPA) data have been challenging mainly due to the small number of proteins in an experiment and the lack of reliable inherent control markers. In this study, we compare eight different normalization methods for LC and variance stabilization. The invariant marker set concept was first applied to the normalization of high-throughput gene expression data. A set of "invariant" markers are selected to create a virtual reference sample. Then all the samples are normalized to the virtual reference. We propose a variant of this method in the context of RPPA data normalization and compare it with seven other normalization methods previously reported in the literature. The invariant marker set method performs well with respect to LC, variance stabilization and association with the immunohistochemistry/florescence in situ hybridization data for three key markers in breast tumor samples, while the other methods have inferior performance. The proposed method is a promising approach for improving the quality of RPPA data.

  16. Lamina Cribrosa Microarchitecture in Normal Monkey Eyes Part 1: Methods and Initial Results

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, Howard; Reynaud, Juan; Gardiner, Stuart; Grimm, Jonathan; Libertiaux, Vincent; Downs, J. Crawford; Yang, Hongli; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To introduce quantitative postmortem lamina cribrosa (LC) microarchitecture (LMA) assessment and characterize beam diameter (BD), pore diameter (PD), and connective tissue volume fraction (CTVF) in 21 normal monkey eyes. Methods. Optic nerve heads (ONHs) underwent digital three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and LC beam segmentation. Each beam and pore voxel was assigned a diameter based on the largest sphere that contained it before transformation to one of twelve 30° sectors in a common cylinder. Mean BD, PD, and CTVF within 12 central and 12 peripheral subsectors and within inner, middle, and outer LC depths were assessed for sector, subsector, and depth effects by analysis of variance using general estimating equations. Eye-specific LMA discordance (the pattern of lowest connective tissue density) was plotted for each parameter. Results. The ranges of mean BD, PD, and CTVF were 14.0 to 23.1 μm, 20.0 to 35.6 μm, and 0.247 to 0.638, respectively. Sector, subsector, and depth effects were significant (P < 0.01) for all parameters except subsector on CTVF. Beam diameter and CTVF were smaller and PD was larger within the superior-temporal (ST) and inferior-temporal (IT) sectors (P < 0.05). These differences were enhanced within the central versus peripheral subsectors. Beam diameter and CTVF were larger and PD was smaller (P < 0.05) within the middle LC layer. Lamina cribrosa microarchitecture discordance most commonly occurred within the ST and IT sectors, varied by eye, and generally diminished as CTVF increased. Conclusions. Our data support previous characterizations of diminished connective tissue density within the ST and IT ONH regions. The clinical importance of eye-specific LMA discordance warrants further study. PMID:25650423

  17. Neutron absorbers and methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Guillen, Donna P; Porter, Douglas L; Swank, W David; Erickson, Arnold W

    2014-12-02

    Methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber include combining a first material and a second material to form a compound, reducing the compound into a plurality of particles, mixing the plurality of particles with a third material, and pressing the mixture of the plurality of particles and the third material. One or more components of neutron absorbers may be formed by such methods. Neutron absorbers may include a composite material including an intermetallic compound comprising hafnium aluminide and a matrix material comprising pure aluminum.

  18. Advanced Numerical methods for F. E. Simulation of Metal Forming Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenot, Jean-Loup; Bernacki, Marc; Fourment, Lionel; Ducloux, Richard

    2010-06-01

    The classical scientific basis for finite element modeling of metal forming processes is first recalled. Several developments in advanced topics are summarized: adaptive and anisotropic remeshing, parallel solving, multi material deformation. More recent researches in numerical analysis are outlined, including multi grid and multi mesh methods, mainly devoted to decrease computation time, automatic optimization method for faster and more effective design of forming processes. The link of forming simulation and structural computations is considered with emphasis on the necessity to predict the final mechanical properties. Finally a brief account of computation at the micro scale level is given.

  19. Berberine alkaloid: Quantum chemical study of different forms by the DFT and MP2 methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilov, V. I.; Dailidonis, V. V.; Hovorun, D. M.; Kurita, N.; Murayama, Y.; Natsume, T.; Potopalsky, A. I.; Zaika, L. A.

    2006-10-01

    The stable structures and electronic properties for the berberine cation as well as possible ammonium, carbinol and amino-aldehyde forms of protoberberine salts in the presence of hydroxyl ions were investigated by the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and MP2/6-31++G(d,p) methods. The geometry optimizations by both methods lead to the nonplanar propeller-twisted and buckled structure for the all forms. The obtained bond lengths and bond angles agree with the experimental values. The comparison of total energies elucidates that the amino-aldehyde form is the most preferable tautomer in gas phase, while the carbinol form is less stable. The least stable tautomer is the ammonium form.

  20. Methods to evvaluate normal rainfall for short-term wetland hydrology assessment

    Treesearch

    Jaclyn Sumner; Michael J. Vepraskas; Randall K. Kolka

    2009-01-01

    Identifying sites meeting wetland hydrology requirements is simple when long-term (>10 years) records are available. Because such data are rare, we hypothesized that a single-year of hydrology data could be used to reach the same conclusion as with long-term data, if the data were obtained during a period of normal or below normal rainfall. Long-term (40-45 years)...

  1. Structure of a high-resolution crystal form of human triosephosphate isomerase: improvement of crystals using the gel-tube method

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, Takayoshi Maruki, Riyo; Warizaya, Masaichi; Nakajima, Hidenori; Nishimura, Shintaro

    2005-04-01

    A high-resolution structure of human triosephosphate isomerase was obtained from crystals improved by means of the gel-tube method. Crystals of human triosephosphate isomerase with two crystal morphologies were obtained using the normal vapour-diffusion technique with identical crystallization conditions. One had a disordered plate shape and the crystals were hollow (crystal form 1). As a result, this form was very fragile, diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution and had similar crystallographic parameters to those of the structure 1hti in the Protein Data Bank. The other had a fine needle shape (crystal form 2) and was formed more abundantly than crystal form 1, but was unsuitable for structure analysis. Since the normal vapour-diffusion method could not control the crystal morphology, gel-tube methods, both on earth and under microgravity, were applied for crystallization in order to control and improve the crystal quality. Whereas crystal form 1 was only slightly improved using this method, crystal form 2 was greatly improved and diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution. Crystal form 2 contained a homodimer in the asymmetric unit, which was biologically essential. Its overall structure was similar to that of 1hti except for the flexible loop, which was located at the active centre Lys13.

  2. Normalization method of highly forward-peaked scattering phase function using the double exponential formula for radiative transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Hiroyuki; Okawa, Shinpei; Yamada, Yukio; Hoshi, Yoko; Watanabe, Masao

    2016-12-01

    Numerical calculation of photon migration in biological tissue using the radiative transfer equation (RTE) has attracted great interests in biomedical optics and imaging. Because biological tissue is a highly forward-peaked scattering medium, a normalization of scattering phase function in the RTE is crucial. This paper proposes a simple way of normalizing the phase function by the double exponential formula, which is heuristically modified from the original one. The proposed method is validated by the agreement between the numerical solution of the RTE with the proposed method and analytical solution of the RTE for the case of a highly forward-peaked scattering medium, while the numerical solutions with conventional normalization methods disagree with the analytical solution. This result suggests the proposed method is accurate in numerical calculation of the RTE.

  3. Group vector space method for estimating enthalpy of vaporization of organic compounds at the normal boiling point.

    PubMed

    Wenying, Wei; Jinyu, Han; Wen, Xu

    2004-01-01

    The specific position of a group in the molecule has been considered, and a group vector space method for estimating enthalpy of vaporization at the normal boiling point of organic compounds has been developed. Expression for enthalpy of vaporization Delta(vap)H(T(b)) has been established and numerical values of relative group parameters obtained. The average percent deviation of estimation of Delta(vap)H(T(b)) is 1.16, which show that the present method demonstrates significant improvement in applicability to predict the enthalpy of vaporization at the normal boiling point, compared the conventional group methods.

  4. Method for forming permanent magnets with different polarities for use in microelectromechanical devices

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2007-04-24

    Methods are provided for forming a plurality of permanent magnets with two different north-south magnetic pole alignments for use in microelectromechanical (MEM) devices. These methods are based on initially magnetizing the permanent magnets all in the same direction, and then utilizing a combination of heating and a magnetic field to switch the polarity of a portion of the permanent magnets while not switching the remaining permanent magnets. The permanent magnets, in some instances, can all have the same rare-earth composition (e.g. NdFeB) or can be formed of two different rare-earth materials (e.g. NdFeB and SmCo). The methods can be used to form a plurality of permanent magnets side-by-side on or within a substrate with an alternating polarity, or to form a two-dimensional array of permanent magnets in which the polarity of every other row of the array is alternated.

  5. A systematic study of normalization methods for Infinium 450K methylation data using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Guan, Weihua; Lin, Jerome; Boutaoui, Nadia; Canino, Glorisa; Luo, Jianhua; Celedón, Juan Carlos; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in disease etiology. The Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 (450K) BeadChip is a widely used platform in large-scale epidemiologic studies. This platform can efficiently and simultaneously measure methylation levels at ∼480,000 CpG sites in the human genome in multiple study samples. Due to the intrinsic chip design of 2 types of chemistry probes, data normalization or preprocessing is a critical step to consider before data analysis. To date, numerous methods and pipelines have been developed for this purpose, and some studies have been conducted to evaluate different methods. However, validation studies have often been limited to a small number of CpG sites to reduce the variability in technical replicates. In this study, we measured methylation on a set of samples using both whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) and 450K chips. We used WGBS data as a gold standard of true methylation states in cells to compare the performances of 8 normalization methods for 450K data on a genome-wide scale. Analyses on our dataset indicate that the most effective methods are peak-based correction (PBC) and quantile normalization plus β-mixture quantile normalization (QN.BMIQ). To our knowledge, this is the first study to systematically compare existing normalization methods for Illumina 450K data using novel WGBS data. Our results provide a benchmark reference for the analysis of DNA methylation chip data, particularly in white blood cells. PMID:26036609

  6. Accelerated in-vitro release testing methods for extended-release parenteral dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Burgess, Diane J

    2012-07-01

    This review highlights current methods and strategies for accelerated in-vitro drug release testing of extended-release parenteral dosage forms such as polymeric microparticulate systems, lipid microparticulate systems, in-situ depot-forming systems and implants. Extended-release parenteral dosage forms are typically designed to maintain the effective drug concentration over periods of weeks, months or even years. Consequently, 'real-time' in-vitro release tests for these dosage forms are often run over a long time period. Accelerated in-vitro release methods can provide rapid evaluation and therefore are desirable for quality control purposes. To this end, different accelerated in-vitro release methods using United States Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus have been developed. Different mechanisms of accelerating drug release from extended-release parenteral dosage forms, along with the accelerated in-vitro release testing methods currently employed are discussed. Accelerated in-vitro release testing methods with good discriminatory ability are critical for quality control of extended-release parenteral products. Methods that can be used in the development of in-vitro-in-vivo correlation (IVIVC) are desirable; however, for complex parenteral products this may not always be achievable. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. Accelerated in vitro release testing methods for extended release parenteral dosage forms

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Burgess, Diane J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This review highlights current methods and strategies for accelerated in vitro drug release testing of extended release parenteral dosage forms such as polymeric microparticulate systems, lipid microparticulate systems, in situ depot-forming systems, and implants. Key findings Extended release parenteral dosage forms are typically designed to maintain the effective drug concentration over periods of weeks, months or even years. Consequently, “real-time” in vitro release tests for these dosage forms are often run over a long time period. Accelerated in vitro release methods can provide rapid evaluation and therefore are desirable for quality control purposes. To this end, different accelerated in vitro release methods using United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) apparatus have been developed. Different mechanisms of accelerating drug release from extended release parenteral dosage forms, along with the accelerated in vitro release testing methods currently employed are discussed. Conclusions Accelerated in vitro release testing methods with good discriminatory ability are critical for quality control of extended release parenteral products. Methods that can be used in the development of in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) are desirable, however for complex parenteral products this may not always be achievable. PMID:22686344

  8. Method of forming particulate materials for thin-film solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Eberspacher, Chris; Pauls, Karen Lea

    2004-11-23

    A method for preparing particulate materials useful in fabricating thin-film solar cells is disclosed. Particulate materials is prepared by the method include for example materials comprising copper and indium and/or gallium in the form of single-phase, mixed-metal oxide particulates; multi-phase, mixed-metal particulates comprising a metal oxide; and multinary metal particulates.

  9. Methods of description of the polycondensation kinetics and the structures of the polymers formed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irzhak, Vadim I.

    1997-06-01

    The modern mathematical methods which make it possible to describe the kinetics of the formation reactions and the structures of polymers formed via polycondensation are examined: direct differentiation of an infinite system of differential equations, statistical approaches, and the concept of bond blocks. The possibilities and limits of applicability of each method are demonstrated. The bibliography includes 83 references.

  10. Characterization of the oxide film formed on type 316 stainless steel in 288 C water in cyclic normal and hydrogen water chemistries

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.J.

    1995-11-01

    Characteristics of the oxide film formed on type 316 (UNS S31600) stainless steel (SS) in 288 C water under cyclic normal water chemistry (NWC) and hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) conditions were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). It was found that the oxide film mainly consists of two oxide layers: an outer oxide layer with a large particle (nickel-enriched magnetite [Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}]-type structure) and an intermediate or small particle (hematite [{alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}] structure) and a very fine-grain inner layer with a chromium-enriched Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-type structure. Under cyclic water chemistries (NWC and HWC) the existing outer oxide layer composition was shown to be dependent upon the water chemistry, while the inner oxide layer remained unaffected. This may result from the concentration gradient of oxygen through the oxide film upon changing water chemistries. It also was observed that a closely packed oxide with a small particle size formed under the NWC condition, while a less-packed oxide with a large particle size formed under the HWC condition. A thicker oxide formed under the NWC environment than under the HWC condition.

  11. The soluble form of Alzheimer's amyloid beta protein is complexed to high density lipoprotein 3 and very high density lipoprotein in normal human plasma.

    PubMed

    Koudinov, A; Matsubara, E; Frangione, B; Ghiso, J

    1994-12-15

    The amyloid fibrils of Alzheimer's neuritic plaques and cerebral blood vessels are mainly composed of aggregated forms of a 39 to 44 amino acids peptide, named amyloid beta (A beta). A similar although soluble form of A beta (sA beta) has been identified in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and cell culture supernatants, indicating that it is produced under physiologic conditions. We report here that sA beta in normal human plasma is associated with lipoprotein particles, in particular to the HDL3 and VHDL fractions where it is complexed to ApoJ and, to a lesser extent, to ApoAI. This was assessed by immunoprecipitation experiments of purified plasma lipoproteins and lipoprotein-depleted plasma and confirmed by means of amino acid sequence analysis. Moreover, biotinylated synthetic peptide A beta 1-40 was traced in normal human plasma in in vitro experiments. As in the case of sA beta, biotinylated A beta 1-40 was specifically recovered in the HDL3 and VHDL fractions. This data together with the previous demonstration that A beta 1-40 is taken up into the brain via a specific mechanism and possibly as an A beta 1-40-ApoJ complex indicate a role for HDL3- and VHDL-containing ApoJ in the transport of the peptide in circulation and suggest their involvement in the delivery of sA beta across the blood-brain barrier.

  12. Phase demodulation method from a single fringe pattern based on correlation with a polynomial form.

    PubMed

    Robin, Eric; Valle, Valéry; Brémand, Fabrice

    2005-12-01

    The method presented extracts the demodulated phase from only one fringe pattern. Locally, this method approaches the fringe pattern morphology with the help of a mathematical model. The degree of similarity between the mathematical model and the real fringe is estimated by minimizing a correlation function. To use an optimization process, we have chosen a polynomial form such as a mathematical model. However, the use of a polynomial form induces an identification procedure with the purpose of retrieving the demodulated phase. This method, polynomial modulated phase correlation, is tested on several examples. Its performance, in terms of speed and precision, is presented on very noised fringe patterns.

  13. Method for chemically inactivating energetic materials and forming a nondetonable product therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Tadros, Maher E.

    2002-01-01

    A method for rendering nondetonble energetic materials, such as are contained in or removed from decommissioned ordnance. The energetic materials are either combined with epoxy hardener or are combined with other compounds, preferably amine compounds, to form a substance that functions as an epoxy hardener. According to the invention, energetic materials (including TNT, RDX and Composition B) that are treated according to the invention method yield a reaction product that is non-explosive, that serves to harden or cure conventional epoxy resin to form a stable, nonexplosive waste product. Epoxy hardener made using the method of the invention is also described.

  14. Hybrid method of free-form lens design for arbitrary illumination target.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yufei; Zhang, Hang; Su, Zeyu; He, Yu; Xu, Liang; Liu, Xu; Li, Haifeng

    2015-05-10

    We propose a hybrid method of free-form illumination design for an arbitrary target form, imposing no restriction on the boundary of the irradiance distribution. Smooth continuous surfaces and continuous irradiance distributions are achieved with two independent steps. Initial solutions of the illumination problem are obtained with the method of supporting paraboloids, and final solutions are acquired by numerically solving the elliptic Monge-Ampére equations. Lenses, which are able to produce complex irradiance distributions, can be achieved with this method and fabricated in practice. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated by some examples with experimental results.

  15. Applications of Computer Simulation Methods in Plastic Forming Technologies for Magnesium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S. H.; Zheng, W. T.; Shang, Y. L.; Wu, X.; Palumbo, G.; Tricarico, L.

    2007-05-17

    Applications of computer simulation methods in plastic forming of magnesium alloy parts are discussed. As magnesium alloys possess very poor plastic formability at room temperature, various methods have been tried to improve the formability, for example, suitable rolling process and annealing procedures should be found to produce qualified magnesium alloy sheets, which have the reduced anisotropy and improved formability. The blank can be heated to a warm temperature or a hot temperature; a suitable temperature field is designed, tools should be heated or the punch should be cooled; suitable deformation speed should be found to ensure suitable strain rate range. Damage theory considering non-isothermal forming is established. Various modeling methods have been tried to consider above situations. The following situations for modeling the forming process of magnesium alloy sheets and tubes are dealt with: (1) modeling for predicting wrinkling and anisotropy of sheet warm forming; (2) damage theory used for predicting ruptures in sheet warm forming; (3) modeling for optimizing of blank shape and dimensions for sheet warm forming; (4) modeling in non-steady-state creep in hot metal gas forming of AZ31 tubes.

  16. Free-form surface design method for nonaxial-symmetrical reflectors producing arbitrary image patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chung-Yu

    2016-07-01

    A free-form (FF) surface design method is proposed for a nonaxial-symmetrical projector system comprising an FF reflector and a light source. The profile of the reflector is designed using a nonaxial-symmetrical FF (NFF) surface construction method such that each incident ray is directed in such a way as to form a user-specified image pattern on the target region of the image plane. The light ray paths within the projection system are analyzed using an exact analytical model and a skew-ray tracing approach. The validity of the proposed NFF design method is demonstrated by means of ZEMAX simulations. It is shown that the image pattern formed on the target region of the image plane is in good agreement with that specified by the user. The NFF method is mathematically straightforward and easily implemented in computer code. As such, it provides a useful tool for the design and analysis stages of optical systems design.

  17. Focus-on-form instructional methods promote deaf college students' improvement in English grammar.

    PubMed

    Berent, Gerald P; Kelly, Ronald R; Aldersley, Stephen; Schmitz, Kathryn L; Khalsa, Baldev Kaur; Panara, John; Keenan, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Focus-on-form English teaching methods are designed to facilitate second-language learners' noticing of target language input, where "noticing" is an acquisitional prerequisite for the comprehension, processing, and eventual integration of new grammatical knowledge. While primarily designed for teaching hearing second-language learners, many focus-on-form methods lend themselves to visual presentation. This article reports the results of classroom research on the visually based implementation of focus-on-form methods with deaf college students learning English. Two of 3 groups of deaf students received focus-on-form instruction during a 10-week remedial grammar course; a third control group received grammatical instruction that did not involve focus-on-form methods. The 2 experimental groups exhibited significantly greater improvement in English grammatical knowledge relative to the control group. These results validate the efficacy of visually based focus-on-form English instruction for deaf students of English and set the stage for the continual search for innovative and effective English teaching methodologies.

  18. Development of a biofilm formation method for waste forms stability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Idachaba, M A; Nyavor, K; Egiebor, N O; Rogers, R D

    2000-10-02

    The development of an accurate assessment protocol is critical for the prediction of long-term performance of waste disposal systems under field conditions. In this study, the development of a biofilm formation method for the evaluation of waste forms stability to microbially induced degradation (MID) is reported. The development process involved significant modifications to the existing Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approach. In the biofilm formation method, the control media and fermenter broths are designed to be of similar pH to avoid overestimation of the microbe's capability to degrade the waste forms. In the NRC approach, the pH values are different. The existing one-stage process of the NRC approach is also replaced with a two-stage process in the biofilm formation method. This is to ensure full evaluation of the microbe's involvement in waste forms degradation. The first stage of the two-stage process is for biofilm formation and the second is for biofilm evaluation. The use of a two-stage process eliminates the possibility of substrate limitation, resulting in values of degradation indices that are about two times higher than those obtained using the single-stage NRC approach. Two waste forms (100% Tuskegee cement and 21% cobalt chloride/79% cement) were used in the development of the biofilm formation method. Both waste forms showed evidence of biofilm formation. The formation of biofilm on the cobalt-containing waste form indicates a lack of anti-microbial capability of cobalt.

  19. A new EEG synchronization strength analysis method: S-estimator based normalized weighted-permutation mutual information.

    PubMed

    Cui, Dong; Pu, Weiting; Liu, Jing; Bian, Zhijie; Li, Qiuli; Wang, Lei; Gu, Guanghua

    2016-10-01

    Synchronization is an important mechanism for understanding information processing in normal or abnormal brains. In this paper, we propose a new method called normalized weighted-permutation mutual information (NWPMI) for double variable signal synchronization analysis and combine NWPMI with S-estimator measure to generate a new method named S-estimator based normalized weighted-permutation mutual information (SNWPMI) for analyzing multi-channel electroencephalographic (EEG) synchronization strength. The performances including the effects of time delay, embedding dimension, coupling coefficients, signal to noise ratios (SNRs) and data length of the NWPMI are evaluated by using Coupled Henon mapping model. The results show that the NWPMI is superior in describing the synchronization compared with the normalized permutation mutual information (NPMI). Furthermore, the proposed SNWPMI method is applied to analyze scalp EEG data from 26 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) subjects and 20 age-matched controls with normal cognitive function, who both suffer from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The proposed methods NWPMI and SNWPMI are suggested to be an effective index to estimate the synchronization strength. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. How are normal sleeping controls selected? A systematic review of cross-sectional insomnia studies and a standardized method to select healthy controls for sleep research.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Louise; Espie, Colin A; Kyle, Simon D; Biello, Stephany M

    2015-06-01

    There appears to be some inconsistency in how normal sleepers (controls) are selected and screened for participation in research studies for comparison with insomnia patients. The purpose of the current study is to assess and compare methods of identifying normal sleepers in insomnia studies, with reference to published standards. We systematically reviewed the literature on insomnia patients, which included control subjects. The resulting 37 articles were systematically reviewed with reference to the five criteria for normal sleep specified by Edinger et al. In summary, these criteria are as follows: evidence of sleep disruption, sleep scheduling, general health, substance/medication use, and other sleep disorders. We found sleep diaries, polysomnography (PSG), and clinical screening examinations to be widely used with both control subjects and insomnia participants. However, there are differences between research groups in the precise definitions applied to the components of normal sleep. We found that none of the reviewed studies applied all of the Edinger et al. criteria, and 16% met four criteria. In general, screening is applied most rigorously at the level of a clinical disorder, whether physical, psychiatric, or sleep. While the Edinger et al. criteria seem to be applied in some form by most researchers, there is scope to improve standards and definitions in this area. Ideally, different methods such as sleep diaries and questionnaires would be used concurrently with objective measures to ensure normal sleepers are identified, and descriptive information for control subjects would be reported. Here, we have devised working criteria and methods to be used for the assessment of normal sleepers. This would help clarify the nature of the control group, in contrast to insomnia subjects and other patient groups.