Science.gov

Sample records for normal form methods

  1. Box products in nilpotent normal form theory: The factoring method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdock, James

    2016-01-01

    Let N be a nilpotent matrix and consider vector fields x ˙ = Nx + v (x) in normal form. Then v is equivariant under the flow eN*t for the inner product normal form or eMt for the sl2 normal form. These vector equivariants can be found by finding the scalar invariants for the Jordan blocks in N* or M; taking the box product of these to obtain the invariants for N* or M itself; and then boosting the invariants to equivariants by another box product. These methods, developed by Murdock and Sanders in 2007, are here given a self-contained exposition with new foundations and new algorithms yielding improved (simpler) Stanley decompositions for the invariants and equivariants. Ideas used include transvectants (from classical invariant theory), Stanley decompositions (from commutative algebra), and integer cones (from integer programming). This approach can be extended to covariants of sl2k for k > 1, known as SLOCC in quantum computing.

  2. Optimization of accelerator parameters using normal form methods on high-order transfer maps

    SciTech Connect

    Snopok, Pavel

    2007-05-01

    Methods of analysis of the dynamics of ensembles of charged particles in collider rings are developed. The following problems are posed and solved using normal form transformations and other methods of perturbative nonlinear dynamics: (1) Optimization of the Tevatron dynamics: (a) Skew quadrupole correction of the dynamics of particles in the Tevatron in the presence of the systematic skew quadrupole errors in dipoles; (b) Calculation of the nonlinear tune shift with amplitude based on the results of measurements and the linear lattice information; (2) Optimization of the Muon Collider storage ring: (a) Computation and optimization of the dynamic aperture of the Muon Collider 50 x 50 GeV storage ring using higher order correctors; (b) 750 x 750 GeV Muon Collider storage ring lattice design matching the Tevatron footprint. The normal form coordinates have a very important advantage over the particle optical coordinates: if the transformation can be carried out successfully (general restrictions for that are not much stronger than the typical restrictions imposed on the behavior of the particles in the accelerator) then the motion in the new coordinates has a very clean representation allowing to extract more information about the dynamics of particles, and they are very convenient for the purposes of visualization. All the problem formulations include the derivation of the objective functions, which are later used in the optimization process using various optimization algorithms. Algorithms used to solve the problems are specific to collider rings, and applicable to similar problems arising on other machines of the same type. The details of the long-term behavior of the systems are studied to ensure the their stability for the desired number of turns. The algorithm of the normal form transformation is of great value for such problems as it gives much extra information about the disturbing factors. In addition to the fact that the dynamics of particles is represented

  3. Analyzing dynamic performance of power systems over parameter space using the method of normal forms of vector fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Songzhe

    Today's power systems have become more and more stressed due to the high utilization of available facilities. The complex dynamic behavior of large stressed power systems following disturbances can not be fully explained with present tools, such as linear eigen-analysis tools and nonlinear time-domain simulation methods. This research work applies a nonlinear analytical tool, the method of normal forms of vector fields, to help understand the complex transient oscillations in stressed power systems. The method of normal forms is a well-known mathematical tool to study systems of differential equations. The basic idea is to simplify the dynamical system by a sequence of nonlinear coordinate transformations. If there is no resonance in the system, then the nonlinear vector field can be turned into a linear one by the transformations. Previous work applied the second-order normal form transformation under non-resonance condition to power system dynamical equations. The nonlinear interaction among the fundamental modes was investigated. Based on these efforts, this work extends the application of normal forms to evaluate the dynamic performance of power systems taking into account changing operation conditions. As the resonance and near-resonance could occur in parameter space, a new normal form transformation under second order resonance condition is derived. The analysis shows that the high nonlinearity resulting from the resonance and near-resonance among poorly damped oscillatory modes and control modes is detrimental to the system performance. An approach to determine the resonance and near-resonance regions in parameter space is developed. The modes contributing to the detrimental behavior associated with the near-resonance region are identified by a procedure based on certain modal interaction indices. The state variables showing detrimental behavior are then determined using nonlinear participation factors. The accuracy of the prediction is verified by

  4. Statokinesigram normalization method.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, José Magalhães

    2017-02-01

    Stabilometry is a technique that aims to study the body sway of human subjects, employing a force platform. The signal obtained from this technique refers to the position of the foot base ground-reaction vector, known as the center of pressure (CoP). The parameters calculated from the signal are used to quantify the displacement of the CoP over time; there is a large variability, both between and within subjects, which prevents the definition of normative values. The intersubject variability is related to differences between subjects in terms of their anthropometry, in conjunction with their muscle activation patterns (biomechanics); and the intrasubject variability can be caused by a learning effect or fatigue. Age and foot placement on the platform are also known to influence variability. Normalization is the main method used to decrease this variability and to bring distributions of adjusted values into alignment. In 1996, O'Malley proposed three normalization techniques to eliminate the effect of age and anthropometric factors from temporal-distance parameters of gait. These techniques were adopted to normalize the stabilometric signal by some authors. This paper proposes a new method of normalization of stabilometric signals to be applied in balance studies. The method was applied to a data set collected in a previous study, and the results of normalized and nonnormalized signals were compared. The results showed that the new method, if used in a well-designed experiment, can eliminate undesirable correlations between the analyzed parameters and the subjects' characteristics and show only the experimental conditions' effects.

  5. Pancreastatin molecular forms in normal human plasma.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, N; Tateishi, K; Funakoshi, A; Miyasaka, K; Shimazoe, T; Kono, A; Iwamoto, N; Matsuoka, Y

    1994-01-01

    Circulating molecular forms with pancreastatin (PST)-like immunoreactivity in plasma from normal subjects were examined. An immunoreactive form corresponding to a human PST-like sequence [human chromogranin-A-(250-301)] (hPST-52) and a larger form (mol wt 15-21 kDa) were detected by gel filtration of plasma from normal subjects. On high performance liquid chromatography, predominant immunoreactive forms coeluted with the three larger forms which were purified from the xenograft of human pancreatic islet cell carcinoma cell line QGP-1N cells and with synthetic hPST-52. The fraction containing larger forms purified from xenograft of QGP-1N cells had biological activity equivalent to that of hPST-52 on the inhibition of pancreatic exocrine secretion. These results suggest that the larger molecular forms as well as hPST-52 may be physiologically important circulating forms of PST in human.

  6. Graphical methods of psychometrical indicators in Georgian women (20-40 years old) of normal physical development according to forms of temperament and character.

    PubMed

    Nadashvili, L

    2009-04-01

    To establish temperament and forms of character and graphical image, we have studied 120 Georgian women of normal physical development, who were divided by 4 age groups with 5 years intervals. To establish temperament and forms of character we used Eysenck's questionnaire (57 questions) and Sheldon's scale of temperament. The material was worked out by the recognized methods of mathematical psychology. It was stated that Georgian women of young age (20-40 years old) are of sanguine temperament, by character extraverts, which means that they are strong, moving, balanced, stable.

  7. Constructing Involutive Tableaux with Guillemin Normal Form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Abraham D.

    2015-07-01

    Involutivity is the algebraic property that guarantees solutions to an analytic and torsion-free exterior differential system or partial differential equation via the Cartan-Kähler theorem. Guillemin normal form establishes that the prolonged symbol of an involutive system admits a commutativity property on certain subspaces of the prolonged tableau. This article examines Guillemin normal form in detail, aiming at a more systematic approach to classifying involutive systems. The main result is an explicit quadratic condition for involutivity of the type suggested but not completed in Chapter IV, § 5 of the book Exterior Differential Systems by Bryant, Chern, Gardner, Goldschmidt, and Griffiths. This condition enhances Guillemin normal form and characterizes involutive tableaux.

  8. The use of normal forms for analysing nonlinear mechanical vibrations

    PubMed Central

    Neild, Simon A.; Champneys, Alan R.; Wagg, David J.; Hill, Thomas L.; Cammarano, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    A historical introduction is given of the theory of normal forms for simplifying nonlinear dynamical systems close to resonances or bifurcation points. The specific focus is on mechanical vibration problems, described by finite degree-of-freedom second-order-in-time differential equations. A recent variant of the normal form method, that respects the specific structure of such models, is recalled. It is shown how this method can be placed within the context of the general theory of normal forms provided the damping and forcing terms are treated as unfolding parameters. The approach is contrasted to the alternative theory of nonlinear normal modes (NNMs) which is argued to be problematic in the presence of damping. The efficacy of the normal form method is illustrated on a model of the vibration of a taut cable, which is geometrically nonlinear. It is shown how the method is able to accurately predict NNM shapes and their bifurcations. PMID:26303917

  9. Birkhoff Normal Form for Some Nonlinear PDEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambusi, Dario

    We consider the problem of extending to PDEs Birkhoff normal form theorem on Hamiltonian systems close to nonresonant elliptic equilibria. As a model problem we take the nonlinear wave equation FORM="DISPLAY" DISC="MATH"> with Dirichlet boundary conditions on [0,π] g is an analytic skewsymmetric function which vanishes for u=0 and is periodic with period 2π in the x variable. We prove, under a nonresonance condition which is fulfilled for most g's, that for any integer M there exists a canonical transformation that puts the Hamiltonian in Birkhoff normal form up to a reminder of order M. The canonical transformation is well defined in a neighbourhood of the origin of a Sobolev type phase space of sufficiently high order. Some dynamical consequences are obtained. The technique of proof is applicable to quite general semilinear equations in one space dimension.

  10. Normal Forms for Nonautonomous Differential Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegmund, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    We extend Henry Poincarés normal form theory for autonomous differential equations x=f(x) to nonautonomous differential equations x=f(t, x). Poincarés nonresonance condition λj-∑ni=1 ℓiλi≠0 for eigenvalues is generalized to the new nonresonance condition λj∩∑ni=1 ℓiλi=∅ for spectral intervals.

  11. A validated stability-indicating normal phase LC method for clopidogrel bisulfate and its impurities in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage form.

    PubMed

    Durga Rao, Dantu; Kalyanaraman, L; Sait, Shakil S; Venkata Rao, P

    2010-05-01

    A novel stability-indicating normal phase liquid chromatographic (NP-LC) method was developed for the determination of purity of clopidogrel drug substance and drug products in bulk samples and pharmaceutical dosage forms in the presence of its impurities and degradation products. This method is capable of separating all the related substances of clopidogrel along with the chiral impurities. This method can be also be used for the estimation of assay of clopidogrel in drug substance as well as in drug product. The method was developed using Chiralcel OJ-H (250mmx4.6mm, 5microm) column. n-Hexane, ethanol and diethyl amine in 95:5:0.05 (v/v/v) ratio was used as a mobile phase. The eluted compounds were monitored at 240nm. Clopidogrel bisulfate was subjected to the stress conditions of oxidative, acid, base, hydrolytic, thermal and photolytic degradation. The degradation products were well resolved from main peak and its impurities, proving the stability-indicating power of the method. The developed method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines with respect to specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, precision, linearity, accuracy, robustness and system suitability.

  12. Method for forming ammonia

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Zuck, Larry D.

    2008-08-19

    A method for forming ammonia is disclosed and which includes the steps of forming a plasma; providing a source of metal particles, and supplying the metal particles to the plasma to form metal nitride particles; and providing a substance, and reacting the metal nitride particles with the substance to produce ammonia, and an oxide byproduct.

  13. Methods of forming steel

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Burch, Joseph V.

    2001-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention encompasses a method of forming a steel. A metallic glass is formed and at least a portion of the glass is converted to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A molten alloy is formed and cooled the alloy at a rate which forms a metallic glass. The metallic glass is devitrified to convert the glass to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In yet another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A first metallic glass steel substrate is provided, and a molten alloy is formed over the first metallic glass steel substrate to heat and devitrify at least some of the underlying metallic glass of the substrate.

  14. Method of forming nanodielectrics

    DOEpatents

    Tuncer, Enis [Knoxville, TN; Polyzos, Georgios [Oak Ridge, TN

    2014-01-07

    A method of making a nanoparticle filled dielectric material. The method includes mixing nanoparticle precursors with a polymer material and reacting the nanoparticle mixed with the polymer material to form nanoparticles dispersed within the polymer material to form a dielectric composite.

  15. Method for forming materials

    DOEpatents

    Tolle, Charles R.; Clark, Denis E.; Smartt, Herschel B.; Miller, Karen S.

    2009-10-06

    A material-forming tool and a method for forming a material are described including a shank portion; a shoulder portion that releasably engages the shank portion; a pin that releasably engages the shoulder portion, wherein the pin defines a passageway; and a source of a material coupled in material flowing relation relative to the pin and wherein the material-forming tool is utilized in methodology that includes providing a first material; providing a second material, and placing the second material into contact with the first material; and locally plastically deforming the first material with the material-forming tool so as mix the first material and second material together to form a resulting material having characteristics different from the respective first and second materials.

  16. Densified waste form and method for forming

    DOEpatents

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Sava Gallis, Dorina Florentina

    2016-05-17

    Materials and methods of making densified waste forms for temperature sensitive waste material, such as nuclear waste, formed with low temperature processing using metallic powder that forms the matrix that encapsulates the temperature sensitive waste material. The densified waste form includes a temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix, the matrix is a compacted metallic powder. The method for forming the densified waste form includes mixing a metallic powder and a temperature sensitive waste material to form a waste form precursor. The waste form precursor is compacted with sufficient pressure to densify the waste precursor and encapsulate the temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix.

  17. Densified waste form and method for forming

    SciTech Connect

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Sava Gallis, Dorina Florentina

    2015-08-25

    Materials and methods of making densified waste forms for temperature sensitive waste material, such as nuclear waste, formed with low temperature processing using metallic powder that forms the matrix that encapsulates the temperature sensitive waste material. The densified waste form includes a temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix, the matrix is a compacted metallic powder. The method for forming the densified waste form includes mixing a metallic powder and a temperature sensitive waste material to form a waste form precursor. The waste form precursor is compacted with sufficient pressure to densify the waste precursor and encapsulate the temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix.

  18. Sixth Form Examining Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schools Council, London (England).

    The methods of examining in the sixth form of secondary education in England and Wales is the basis for discussion by subject committees of the Schools Council. Special reference is made to internal examinations, oral assessments, teacher's assessments, the relaxing of the time limits for examination, and the use of aids during examinations. The…

  19. Method for forming targets

    DOEpatents

    Woerner, Robert L.

    1979-01-01

    Method for cryoinduced uniform deposition of cryogenic materials, such as deuterium-tritium (DT) mixtures, on the inner surface of hollow spherical members, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on the inner surface of the spherical member. Heating of the cryogenic material, located within a non-isothermal compact freezing cell, is accomplished by an electrical heat pulse, whereafter the material is quickly frozen forming a uniform layer on the inner surface of the spherical member. The method is not restricted to producing a frozen layer on only the inner surface of the innermost hollow member, but where multiple concentric hollow spheres are involved, such as in multiple shell targets for lasers, electron beams, etc., layers of cryogenic material may also be formed on the inner surface of intermediate or outer spherical members, thus providing the capability of forming targets having multiple concentric layers or shells of frozen DT.

  20. Automatic identification and normalization of dosage forms in drug monographs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Each day, millions of health consumers seek drug-related information on the Web. Despite some efforts in linking related resources, drug information is largely scattered in a wide variety of websites of different quality and credibility. Methods As a step toward providing users with integrated access to multiple trustworthy drug resources, we aim to develop a method capable of identifying drug's dosage form information in addition to drug name recognition. We developed rules and patterns for identifying dosage forms from different sections of full-text drug monographs, and subsequently normalized them to standardized RxNorm dosage forms. Results Our method represents a significant improvement compared with a baseline lookup approach, achieving overall macro-averaged Precision of 80%, Recall of 98%, and F-Measure of 85%. Conclusions We successfully developed an automatic approach for drug dosage form identification, which is critical for building links between different drug-related resources. PMID:22336431

  1. Normalization method for video images

    SciTech Connect

    Donohoe, G.W.; Hush, D.R.

    1992-12-31

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for automatically and adaptively normalizing analog signals representative of video images in object detection systems. Such normalization maximizes the average information content of the video images and, thereby, provides optimal digitized images for object detection and identification. The present invention manipulates two system control signals -- gain control signal and offset control signal -- to convert an analog image signal into a transformed analog image signal, such that the corresponding digitized image contains the maximum amount of information achievable with a conventional object detection system. In some embodiments of the present invention, information content is measured using parameters selected from image entropy, image mean, and image variance.

  2. Normal form analysis of a forced aeroelastic plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugeni, Marco; Mastroddi, Franco; Dowell, Earl H.

    2017-03-01

    A nonlinear elastic plate in a supersonic unsteady flow forced by a dynamic excitation and a biaxial compressive load is studied. The physical behavior of the plate is modelized by the Von Kármán equations and the aerodynamic loads are modeled by using the piston theory including nonlinearities up to the third order. The space-continuum model is space-discretized by a Galerkin projection and then studied by a perturbation approach based on the Normal Form method in order to reduce the system to a simpler and essential form defined by its resonance conditions. A physical interpretation of the involved small divisors is given by analyzing how different equation parameters influence the reduced normal form model in the neighborhood of both static and dynamic bifurcation points.

  3. Trojan dynamics well approximated by a new Hamiltonian normal form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Páez, Rocío Isabel; Locatelli, Ugo

    2015-10-01

    We revisit a classical perturbative approach to the Hamiltonian related to the motions of Trojan bodies, in the framework of the planar circular restricted three-body problem, by introducing a number of key new ideas in the formulation. In some sense, we adapt the approach of Garfinkel to the context of the normal form theory and its modern techniques. First, we make use of Delaunay variables for a physically accurate representation of the system. Therefore, we introduce a novel manipulation of the variables so as to respect the natural behaviour of the model. We develop a normalization procedure over the fast angle which exploits the fact that singularities in this model are essentially related to the slow angle. Thus, we produce a new normal form, i.e. an integrable approximation to the Hamiltonian. We emphasize some practical examples of the applicability of our normalizing scheme, e.g. the estimation of the stable libration region. Finally, we compare the level curves produced by our normal form with surfaces of section provided by the integration of the non-normalized Hamiltonian, with very good agreement. Further precision tests are also provided. In addition, we give a step-by-step description of the algorithm, allowing for extensions to more complicated models.

  4. Cotangent bundle reduction and Poincaré-Birkhoff normal forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çiftçi, Ünver; Waalkens, Holger; Broer, Henk W.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we study a systematic and natural construction of canonical coordinates for the reduced space of a cotangent bundle with a free Lie group action. The canonical coordinates enable us to compute Poincaré-Birkhoff normal forms of relative equilibria using standard algorithms. The case of simple mechanical systems with symmetries is studied in detail. As examples we compute Poincaré-Birkhoff normal forms for a Lagrangian equilateral triangle configuration of a three-body system with a Morse-type potential and the stretched-out configuration of a double spherical pendulum.

  5. Breather solutions for inhomogeneous FPU models using Birkhoff normal forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Farías, Francisco; Panayotaros, Panayotis

    2016-11-01

    We present results on spatially localized oscillations in some inhomogeneous nonlinear lattices of Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) type derived from phenomenological nonlinear elastic network models proposed to study localized protein vibrations. The main feature of the FPU lattices we consider is that the number of interacting neighbors varies from site to site, and we see numerically that this spatial inhomogeneity leads to spatially localized normal modes in the linearized problem. This property is seen in 1-D models, and in a 3-D model with a geometry obtained from protein data. The spectral analysis of these examples suggests some non-resonance assumptions that we use to show the existence of invariant subspaces of spatially localized solutions in quartic Birkhoff normal forms of the FPU systems. The invariant subspaces have an additional symmetry and this fact allows us to compute periodic orbits of the quartic normal form in a relatively simple way.

  6. Method of forming ceramic bricks

    DOEpatents

    Poeppel, Roger B.; Claar, Terry D.; Silkowski, Peter

    1988-09-06

    A method for forming free standing ceramic bricks for use as tritium breeder material is disclosed. Aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate are mixed with an organic hydrocolloid dispersion and powdered lithium carbonate, spray dried, and ceramic bricks formed by molding in a die and firing.

  7. Method of forming ceramic bricks

    DOEpatents

    Poeppel, R.B.; Claar, T.D.; Silkowski, P.

    1987-04-22

    A method for forming free standing ceramic bricks for use as tritium breeder material is disclosed. Aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate are mixed with an organic hydrocolloid dispersion and powdered lithium carbonate, spray dried, and ceramic bricks formed by molding in a die and firing.

  8. Method of forming ceramic bricks

    DOEpatents

    Poeppel, Roger B.; Claar, Terry D.; Silkowski, Peter

    1988-01-01

    A method for forming free standing ceramic bricks for use as tritium breeder material is disclosed. Aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate are mixed with an organic hydrocolloid dispersion and powdered lithium carbonate, spray dried, and ceramic bricks formed by molding in a die and firing.

  9. Shocks and metallicity gradients in normal star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, I.-Ting

    Gas flow is one of the most fundamental processes driving galaxy evolution. This thesis explores gas flows in local galaxies by studying metallicity gradients and galactic-scale outflows in normal star-forming galaxies. This is made possible by new integral field spectroscopy data that provide simultaneously spatial and spectral information of galaxies. First, I measure metallicity gradients in isolated disk galaxies and show that their metallicity gradients are remarkably simple and universal. When the metallicity gradients are normalized to galaxy sizes, all the 49 galaxies studied have virtually the same metallicity gradient. I model the common metallicity gradient using a simple chemical evolution model to understand its origin. The common metallicity gradient is a direct result of the coevolution of gas and stellar disk while galactic disks build up their masses from inside-out. Tight constraints on the mass outflow rates and inflow rates can be placed by the chemical evolution model. Second, I investigate galactic winds in normal star-forming galaxies using data from an integral field spectroscopy survey. I demonstrate how to search for galactic winds by probing emission line ratios, shocks, and gas kinematics. Galactic winds are found to be common even in normal star-forming galaxies that were not expected to host winds. By comparing galaxies with and without hosting winds, I show that galaxies with high star formation rate surface densities and bursty star formation histories are more likely to drive large-scale galactic winds. Finally, lzifu, a toolkit for fitting multiple emission lines simultaneously in integral field spectroscopy data, is developed in this thesis. I describe in detail the structure of the toolkit and demonstrate the capabilities of lzifu.

  10. Method for forming metal contacts

    DOEpatents

    Reddington, Erik; Sutter, Thomas C; Bu, Lujia; Cannon, Alexandra; Habas, Susan E; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Ginley, David S; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2013-09-17

    Methods of forming metal contacts with metal inks in the manufacture of photovoltaic devices are disclosed. The metal inks are selectively deposited on semiconductor coatings by inkjet and aerosol apparatus. The composite is heated to selective temperatures where the metal inks burn through the coating to form an electrical contact with the semiconductor. Metal layers are then deposited on the electrical contacts by light induced or light assisted plating.

  11. Method of forming pointed structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pugel, Diane E. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method of forming an array of pointed structures comprises depositing a ferrofluid on a substrate, applying a magnetic field to the ferrofluid to generate an array of surface protrusions, and solidifying the surface protrusions to form the array of pointed structures. The pointed structures may have a tip radius ranging from approximately 10 nm to approximately 25 micron. Solidifying the surface protrusions may be carried out at a temperature ranging from approximately 10 degrees C. to approximately 30 degrees C.

  12. Methods of forming boron nitride

    DOEpatents

    Trowbridge, Tammy L; Wertsching, Alan K; Pinhero, Patrick J; Crandall, David L

    2015-03-03

    A method of forming a boron nitride. The method comprises contacting a metal article with a monomeric boron-nitrogen compound and converting the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound to a boron nitride. The boron nitride is formed on the same or a different metal article. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is borazine, cycloborazane, trimethylcycloborazane, polyborazylene, B-vinylborazine, poly(B-vinylborazine), or combinations thereof. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is polymerized to form the boron nitride by exposure to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. The boron nitride is amorphous boron nitride, hexagonal boron nitride, rhombohedral boron nitride, turbostratic boron nitride, wurzite boron nitride, combinations thereof, or boron nitride and carbon. A method of conditioning a ballistic weapon and a metal article coated with the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound are also disclosed.

  13. Normalization in sustainability assessment: Methods and implications

    DOE PAGES

    Pollesch, N. L.; Dale, Virginia H.

    2016-08-08

    One approach to assessing progress towards sustainability makes use of diverse indicators spanning the environmental, social, and economic dimensions of the system being studied. Given the use of multiple indicators and the inherent complexity entailed in interpreting several metrics, aggregation of sustainability indicators is a common step after indicator measures are quantified. Diverse indicators have different units of measurement, and normalization is the procedure employed to transform differing indicator measures onto similar scales or to unit-free measures. It is often difficult for stakeholders to make clear connections between specific indicator measurements and resulting aggregate scores of sustainability. Normalization can alsomore » create implicit weightings of indicator measures that are independent of actual stakeholder preference or explicit weighting. This paper explores normalization methods utilized in sustainability assessment including ratio normalization, target normalization, Z-score normalization, and unit equivalence normalization. A mathematical analysis of the impact of changes in raw indicator data measurements on an aggregate sustainability score is developed. Theoretical results are clarified through a case study of data used in assessment of progress towards bioenergy sustainability. Advantages and drawbacks associated with different normalization schemes are discussed within the context of sustainability assessment.« less

  14. Normalization in sustainability assessment: Methods and implications

    SciTech Connect

    Pollesch, N. L.; Dale, Virginia H.

    2016-08-08

    One approach to assessing progress towards sustainability makes use of diverse indicators spanning the environmental, social, and economic dimensions of the system being studied. Given the use of multiple indicators and the inherent complexity entailed in interpreting several metrics, aggregation of sustainability indicators is a common step after indicator measures are quantified. Diverse indicators have different units of measurement, and normalization is the procedure employed to transform differing indicator measures onto similar scales or to unit-free measures. It is often difficult for stakeholders to make clear connections between specific indicator measurements and resulting aggregate scores of sustainability. Normalization can also create implicit weightings of indicator measures that are independent of actual stakeholder preference or explicit weighting. This paper explores normalization methods utilized in sustainability assessment including ratio normalization, target normalization, Z-score normalization, and unit equivalence normalization. A mathematical analysis of the impact of changes in raw indicator data measurements on an aggregate sustainability score is developed. Theoretical results are clarified through a case study of data used in assessment of progress towards bioenergy sustainability. Advantages and drawbacks associated with different normalization schemes are discussed within the context of sustainability assessment.

  15. A new quantum scheme for normal-form games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraçkiewicz, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    We give a strict mathematical description for a refinement of the Marinatto-Weber quantum game scheme. The model allows the players to choose projector operators that determine the state on which they perform their local operators. The game induced by the scheme generalizes finite strategic-form game. In particular, it covers normal representations of extensive games, i.e., strategic games generated by extensive ones. We illustrate our idea with an example of extensive game and prove that rational choices in the classical game and its quantum counterpart may lead to significantly different outcomes.

  16. Normal forms and gauge symmetry of local dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyakhovich, S. L.; Sharapov, A. A.

    2009-08-01

    A systematic procedure is proposed for deriving all the gauge symmetries of the general, not necessarily variational, equations of motion. For the variational equations, this procedure reduces to the Dirac-Bergmann algorithm for the constrained Hamiltonian systems with certain extension: it remains applicable beyond the scope of Dirac's conjecture. Even though no pairing exists between the constraints and the gauge symmetry generators in general nonvariational dynamics, certain counterparts still can be identified of the first- and second-class constraints without appealing to any Poisson structure. It is shown that the general local gauge dynamics can be equivalently reformulated in an involutive normal form. The last form of dynamics always admits the BRST embedding, which does not require the classical equations to follow from any variational principle.

  17. Method of forming structural heliostat

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Alfred J.

    1984-06-26

    In forming a heliostat having a main support structure and pivoting and tilting motors and gears and a mirror module for reflecting solar energy onto a collector, the improvement characterized by a method of forming the mirror module in which the mirror is laid upon a solid rigid supporting bed in one or more sections, with or without focusing; a mirror backing sheet is applied by first applying respective thin layers of silicone grease and, thereafter, progressively rolling application to eliminate air bubbles; followed by affixing of a substrate assembly to the mirror backing sheet to form a mirror module that does not curve because of thermally induced stresses and differential thermal expansion or contraction effects. The silicone grease also serves to dampen fluttering of the mirror and protect the mirror backside against adverse effects of the weather. Also disclosed are specific details of preferred embodiments.

  18. Method for hot press forming articles

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Robert R.; Hartsock, Dale L.

    1982-01-01

    This disclosure relates to an improved method for achieving the best bond strength and for minimizing distortion and cracking of hot pressed articles. In particular, in a method for hot press forming both an outer facing circumferential surface of and an inner portion of a hub, and of bonding that so-formed outer facing circumferential surface to an inner facing circumferential surface of a pre-formed ring thereby to form an article, the following improvement is made. Normally, in this method, the outside ring is restrained by a restraining sleeve of ring-shaped cross-section having an inside diameter. A die member, used to hot press form the hub, is so-formed as to have an outside diameter sized to engage the inside diameter of the restraining sleeve in a manner permitting relative movement therebetween. The improved method is one in which several pairs of matched restraining sleeve and die member are formed with each matched pair having a predetermined diameter. The predetermined diameter of each matched pair is different from another matched pair by stepped increments. The largest inside diameter of a restraining sleeve is equal to the diameter of the outer facing circumferential surface of the hub. Each pair of the matched restraining sleeve and die member is used to form an article in which an inside hub is bonded to an outside ring. The several samples so-formed are evaluated to determine which sample has the best bond formed between the hub and the ring with the least or no cracking or distortion in the ring portion of the article. Thereafter, the matched restraining sleeve and die member which form the article having the best bonding characteristics and least distortion cracking is then used for repeated formations of articles.

  19. Method of forming clathrate ice

    DOEpatents

    Hino, Toshiyuki; Gorski, Anthony J.

    1987-01-01

    A method of forming clathrate ice in a supercooled water-based liquid contained in a vessel is disclosed. Initially, an oscillator device is located in the liquid in the vessel. The oscillator device is then oscillated ultrasonically so that small crystals are formed in the liquid. These small crystals serve as seed crystals for ice formation in the liquid and thereby prevent supercooling of the liquid. Preferably, the oscillating device is controlled by a thermostat which initiates operation of the oscillator device when the temperature of the liquid is lowered to the freezing point. Thereafter, the operation of the oscillator device is terminated when ice is sensed in the liquid by an ice sensor.

  20. Method of forming calthrate ice

    DOEpatents

    Hino, T.; Gorski, A.J.

    1985-09-30

    A method of forming clathrate ice in a supercooled water-based liquid contained in a vessel is disclosed. Initially, an oscillator device is located in the liquid in the vessel. The oscillator device is then oscillated ultransonically so that small crystals are formed in the liquid. Thes small crystals serve as seed crystals for ice formation in the liquid and thereby prevent supercooling of the liquid. Preferably, the oscillating device is controlled by a thermostat which initiates operation of the oscillator device when the temperature of the liquid is lowered to the freezing point. Thereafter, the operation of the oscillator device is terminated when ice is sensed in the liquid by an ice sensor.

  1. Method of forming a joint

    DOEpatents

    Butt, Darryl Paul; Cutler, Raymond Ashton; Rynders, Steven Walton; Carolan, Michael Francis

    2006-08-22

    A method of joining at least two sintered bodies to form a composite structure, including providing a first multicomponent metallic oxide having a perovskitic or fluorite crystal structure; providing a second sintered body including a second multicomponent metallic oxide having a crystal structure of the same type as the first; and providing at an interface a joint material containing at least one metal oxide containing at least one metal identically contained in at least one of the first and second multicomponent metallic oxides. The joint material is free of cations of Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, P and Te and has a melting point below the sintering temperatures of both sintered bodies. The joint material is heated to a temperature above the melting point of the metal oxide(s) and below the sintering temperatures of the sintered bodies to form the joint. Structures containing such joints are also disclosed.

  2. Method for forming energetic nanopowders

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Kien-Yin; Asay, Blaine W.; Kennedy, James E.

    2013-10-15

    A method for the preparation of neat energetic powders, having nanometer dimensions, is described herein. For these neat powder, a solution of a chosen energetic material is prepared in an aprotic solvent and later combined with liquid hexane that is miscible with such solvent. The energetic material chosen is less soluble in the liquid hexane than in the aprotic solvent and the liquid hexane is cooled to a temperature that is below that of the solvent solution. In order to form a precipitate of said neat powders, the solvent solution is rapidly combined with the liquid hexane. When the resulting precipitate is collected, it may be dried and filtered to yield an energetic nanopowder material.

  3. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

    1996-01-09

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form. The method comprises: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3` noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 4 figs.

  4. Design of a spatial data structure using the relational normal forms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Roessel, Jan W.

    1987-01-01

    In previous work, a relational data structure aimed at the exchange of spatial data between systems was developed. As this data structure was relational it was of first normal form, but compliance with the higher normal forms was not investigated. Recently, a new procedural method for composing fully normalized data structures from the basic data fields has been developed by H. C. Smith, as an alternative to the process of non-loss decomposition which is difficult to understand. Smith's method has been applied to data fields required to store points, lines and polygons in a chain-node spatial data model. When geographic domain, coverage layer and map are also considered, the procedure naturally leads to a catalogue model, needed for the exchange of spatial data. Although the method produces a fully normalized data structure, it is not as easy to identify which normal forms are responsible for the ultimate arrangement of the data fields into relations, but the benefits of these criteria for data base development also apply to spatial data structures and related ancillary data.

  5. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1996-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  6. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

    1998-11-03

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3` noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to appropriate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. This invention also provides normalized cDNA libraries generated by the above-described method and uses of the generated libraries. 19 figs.

  7. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1998-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to appropriate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. This invention also provides normalized cDNA libraries generated by the above-described method and uses of the generated libraries.

  8. Solid form additives and method of forming same

    SciTech Connect

    Schuettenberg, A.D.; Gragson, J.T.

    1987-01-27

    This patent describes a solid form additive comprising: a normally liquid fuel additive selected from carburetor detergent additives, antiknock additives, deposit-control additives, and mixtures thereof, suitable for use in fuel comprising gasoline for internal combustion engines; and a structural agent for containing the fuel additive and for providing dimensional stability to the solid form additive, the structural agent being soluble and dispersible in the fuel; wherein the fuel additive comprises between about 25% and about 75% by weight of the solid form additive; and wherein the solid form additive is a pellet having structural agent and fuel additive essentially homogeneously dispersed throughout the solid form additive; and wherein the pellet is coated with a sealing agent.

  9. Sphere forming method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngberg, C. L.; Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.; Finnerty, A. A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A system is provided for forming small accurately spherical objects. Preformed largely spherical objects are supported at the opening of a conduit on the update of hot gas emitted from the opening, so the object is in a molten state. The conduit is suddenly jerked away at a downward incline, to allow the molten object to drop in free fall, so that surface tension forms a precise sphere. The conduit portion that has the opening, lies in a moderate vacuum chamber, and the falling sphere passes through the chamber and through a briefly opened valve into a tall drop tower that contains a lower pressure, to allow the sphere to cool without deformation caused by falling through air.

  10. Method for forming hermetic seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, Brian D.

    1987-01-01

    The firmly adherent film of bondable metal, such as silver, is applied to the surface of glass or other substrate by decomposing a layer of solution of a thermally decomposable metallo-organic deposition (MOD) compound such as silver neodecanoate in xylene. The MOD compound thermally decomposes into metal and gaseous by-products. Sealing is accomplished by depositing a layer of bonding metal, such as solder or a brazing alloy, on the metal film and then forming an assembly with another high melting point metal surface such as a layer of Kovar. When the assembly is heated above the temperature of the solder, the solder flows, wets the adjacent surfaces and forms a hermetic seal between the metal film and metal surface when the assembly cools.

  11. On Goursat Normal Forms, Prolongations, and Control Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    form, we also show how the exact linearization conditions for control systems can be restated in the language of Pfaffian systems. In addition, we give...area. We show that all of the main results in exact linearization of nonlinear systems can be restated in terms of exterior differential systems, and...to Goursat form can be specialized to give conditions for exact linearization . Theorem 6. Exact Linearization [5]. If a control system I defined

  12. DISJUNCTIVE NORMAL LEVEL SET: AN EFFICIENT PARAMETRIC IMPLICIT METHOD

    PubMed Central

    Mesadi, Fitsum; Cetin, Mujdat; Tasdizen, Tolga

    2016-01-01

    Level set methods are widely used for image segmentation because of their capability to handle topological changes. In this paper, we propose a novel parametric level set method called Disjunctive Normal Level Set (DNLS), and apply it to both two phase (single object) and multiphase (multi-object) image segmentations. The DNLS is formed by union of polytopes which themselves are formed by intersections of half-spaces. The proposed level set framework has the following major advantages compared to other level set methods available in the literature. First, segmentation using DNLS converges much faster. Second, the DNLS level set function remains regular throughout its evolution. Third, the proposed multiphase version of the DNLS is less sensitive to initialization, and its computational cost and memory requirement remains almost constant as the number of objects to be simultaneously segmented grows. The experimental results show the potential of the proposed method.

  13. The simultaneous integration of many trajectories using nilpotent normal forms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayson, Matthew A.; Grossman, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Taylor's formula shows how to approximate a certain class of functions by polynomials. The approximations are arbitrarily good in some neighborhood whenever the function is analytic and they are easy to compute. The main goal is to give an efficient algorithm to approximate a neighborhood of the configuration space of a dynamical system by a nilpotent, explicitly integrable dynamical system. The major areas covered include: an approximating map; the generalized Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula; the Picard-Taylor method; the main theorem; simultaneous integration of trajectories; and examples.

  14. Diagonalization and Jordan Normal Form--Motivation through "Maple"[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaister, P.

    2009-01-01

    Following an introduction to the diagonalization of matrices, one of the more difficult topics for students to grasp in linear algebra is the concept of Jordan normal form. In this note, we show how the important notions of diagonalization and Jordan normal form can be introduced and developed through the use of the computer algebra package…

  15. Practical output tracking of switched nonlinear systems in p-normal form with unstable subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Lijun; Zhao, Jun

    2016-08-01

    This paper studies practical output tracking of switched nonlinear systems in p-normal form. No solvability of the practical output tracking problem for subsystems is required. A constructive scheme to solve the problem for a switched nonlinear system is set up by exploiting the single Lyapunov function method and the tool of adding a power integrator. Also, we design a proper switching law and construct state-feedback controllers of subsystems. A two inverted pendulums as a practical example, which cannot be handled by the existing approaches, illustrates our theoretical result.

  16. A method for normalization of X-ray absorption spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, T.-C.; Waldo, G.S.; Penner-Hahn, J.E.

    2010-07-20

    Accurate normalization of X-ray absorption data is essential for quantitative analysis of near-edge features. A method, implemented as the program MBACK, to normalize X-ray absorption data to tabulated mass absorption coefficients is described. Comparison of conventional normalization methods with MBACK demonstrates that the new normalization method is not sensitive to the shape of the background function, thus allowing accurate comparison of data collected in transmission mode with data collected using fluorescence ion chambers or solid-state fluorescence detectors. The new method is shown to have better reliability and consistency and smaller errors than conventional normalization methods. The sensitivity of the new normalization method is illustrated by analysis of data collected during an equilibrium titration.

  17. Methods for forming long subsurface heaters

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Dong Sub

    2013-09-17

    A method for forming a longitudinal subsurface heater includes longitudinally welding an electrically conductive sheath of an insulated conductor heater along at least one longitudinal strip of metal. The longitudinal strip is formed into a tubular around the insulated conductor heater with the insulated conductor heater welded along the inside surface of the tubular.

  18. Methods of Assessing and Achieving Normality Applied to Environmental Data

    PubMed

    Mateu

    1997-09-01

    / It has been recognized for a long time that data transformation methods capable of achieving normality of distributions could have a crucial role in statistical analysis, especially towards an efficient application of techniques such as analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis. Normality is a basic assumption in many of the statistical methods used in the environmental sciences and is very often neglected. In this paper several techniques to test normality of distributions are proposed and analyzed. Confidence intervals and nonparametric tests are used and discussed. Basic and Box-Cox transformations are the suggested methods to achieve normal variables. Finally, we develop an application related to environmental data with atmospheric parameters and SO2 and particle concentrations. Results show that the analyzed transformations work well and are very useful to achieve normal distributions.KEY WORDS: Normal distribution; Kurtosis; Skewness; Confidence intervals; Box-Cox transformations; Nonparametric tests

  19. The Normalized Reduced Form and Cell Mathematical Tools for Lattice Analysis-Symmetry and Similarity.

    PubMed

    Mighell, Alan D

    2003-01-01

    To intelligently and effectively use crystallographic databases, mathematical and computer tools are required that can elucidate diverse types of intra- and interlattice relationships. Two such tools are the normalized reduced form and normalized reduced cell. Practical experience has revealed that the first tool-the normalized reduced form-is very helpful in establishing lattice metric symmetry as it enables one to readily deduce significant relationships between the elements of the reduced form. Likewise research with crystallographic databases has demonstrated that the second tool-the normalized reduced cell-plays a vital role in determining metrically similar lattices. Knowledge of similar lattices has practical value in solving structures, in assignment of structure types, in materials design, and in nano-technology. In addition to using the reduced cell, it is recommended that lattice-matching strategies based on the normalized reduced cell be routinely carried out in database searching, in data evaluation, and in experimental work.

  20. Invariant manifolds of an autonomous ordinary differential equation from its generalized normal forms.

    PubMed

    Palacián, Jesús

    2003-12-01

    A method to approximate some invariant sets of dynamical systems defined through an autonomous m-dimensional ordinary differential equation is presented. Our technique is based on the calculation of formal symmetries and generalized normal forms associated with the system of equations, making use of Lie transformations for smooth vector fields. Once a symmetry is determined up to a certain order, a reduction map allows us to pass from the equation in normal form to a related equation in a certain reduced space, the so-called reduced system of dimension s

  1. Method for forming porous platinum films

    DOEpatents

    Maya, Leon

    2000-01-01

    A method for forming a platinum film includes providing a substrate, sputtering a crystalline platinum oxide layer over at least a portion of the substrate, and reducing the crystalline platinum oxide layer to form the platinum film. A device includes a non-conductive substrate and a platinum layer having a density of between about 2 and 5 g/cm.sup.3 formed over at least a portion of the non-conductive substrate. The platinum films produced in accordance with the present invention provide porous films suitable for use as electrodes, yet require few processing steps. Thus, such films are less costly. Such films may be formed on both conductive and non-conductive substrates. While the invention has been illustrated with platinum, other metals, such as noble metals, that form a low density oxide when reactively sputtered may also be used.

  2. Method of forming a chemical composition

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Zollinger, William T.; Wendt, Kraig M.

    2007-10-09

    A method of forming a chemical composition such as a chemical hydride is described and which includes the steps of selecting a composition having chemical bonds and which is capable of forming a chemical hydride; providing a source of hydrogen; and exposing the selected composition to an amount of ionizing radiation to encourage the changing of the chemical bonds of the selected composition, and chemically reacting the selected composition with the source of hydrogen to facilitate the formation of a chemical hydride.

  3. Method for forming cooperative binary ionic solids

    DOEpatents

    Shelnutt, John A.; Martin, Kathleen E.; Wang, Zhongchun; Medforth, Craig J.

    2014-09-09

    A nanostructured molecular unit and method for forming is described where a cationic porphyrin having an ethanolic substituent species and a metal in the porphyrin cavity is combined with an anionic porphyrin having a sulfonate substituent species and a metal in the porphyrin cavity to form by self-assembly a nanostructured molecular unit with a morphology comprising four dendritic elements connected at a central node.

  4. Method for forming cooperative binary ionic solids

    DOEpatents

    Shelnutt, John A.; Martin, Kathleen E.; Wang, Zhongchun; Medforth, Craig J.

    2013-03-05

    A nanostructured molecular unit and method for forming is described where a cationic porphyrin having an ethanolic substituent species and a metal in the porphyrin cavity is combined with an anionic porphyrin having a sulfonate substituent species and a metal in the porphyrin cavity to form by self-assembly a nanostructured molecular unit with a morphology comprising four dendritic elements connected at a central node.

  5. Slab edge insulating form system and methods

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Brain E.; Barsun, Stephan K.; Bourne, Richard C.; Hoeschele, Marc A.; Springer, David A.

    2009-10-06

    A method of forming an insulated concrete foundation is provided comprising constructing a foundation frame, the frame comprising an insulating form having an opening, inserting a pocket former into the opening; placing concrete inside the foundation frame; and removing the pocket former after the placed concrete has set, wherein the concrete forms a pocket in the placed concrete that is accessible through the opening. The method may further comprise sealing the opening by placing a sealing plug or sealing material in the opening. A system for forming an insulated concrete foundation is provided comprising a plurality of interconnected insulating forms, the insulating forms having a rigid outer member protecting and encasing an insulating material, and at least one gripping lip extending outwardly from the outer member to provide a pest barrier. At least one insulating form has an opening into which a removable pocket former is inserted. The system may also provide a tension anchor positioned in the pocket former and a tendon connected to the tension anchor.

  6. Methods of forming semiconductor devices and devices formed using such methods

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Robert V; Rodriguez, Rene G; Pak, Joshua

    2013-05-21

    Single source precursors are subjected to carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The carbon dioxide may be in a supercritical state. Single source precursors also may be subjected to supercritical fluids other than supercritical carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The methods may be used to form nanoparticles. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form chalcopyrite materials. Devices such as, for example, semiconductor devices may be fabricated that include such particles. Methods of forming semiconductor devices include subjecting single source precursors to carbon dioxide to form particles of semiconductor material, and establishing electrical contact between the particles and an electrode.

  7. Atomization methods for forming magnet powders

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, C.H.; Branagan, D.J.; Hyde, T.A.

    2000-02-08

    The invention encompasses methods of utilizing atomization, methods for forming magnet powders, methods for forming magnets, and methods for forming bonded magnets. The invention further encompasses methods for simulating atomization conditions. In one aspect, the invention includes an atomization method for forming a magnet powder comprising: (a) forming a melt comprising R{sub 2.1}Q{sub 13.9}B{sub 1}, Z and X, wherein R is a rare earth element; X is an element selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and mixtures thereof; Q is an element selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co and mixtures thereof; and Z is an element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf and mixtures thereof; (b) atomizing the melt to form generally spherical alloy powder granules having an internal structure comprising at least one of a substantially amorphous phase or a substantially nanocrystalline phase; and (c) heat treating the alloy powder to increase an energy product of the alloy powder; after the heat treatment, the alloy powder comprising an energy product of at least 10 MGOe. In another aspect, the invention includes a magnet comprising R, Q, B, Z and X, wherein R is a rare earth element; X is an element selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and mixtures thereof; Q is an element selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co and mixtures thereof; and Z is an element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf and mixtures thereof; the magnet comprising an internal structure comprising R{sub 2.1}Q{sub 13.9}B{sub 1}.

  8. Atomization methods for forming magnet powders

    DOEpatents

    Sellers, Charles H.; Branagan, Daniel J.; Hyde, Timothy A.

    2000-01-01

    The invention encompasses methods of utilizing atomization, methods for forming magnet powders, methods for forming magnets, and methods for forming bonded magnets. The invention further encompasses methods for simulating atomization conditions. In one aspect, the invention includes an atomization method for forming a magnet powder comprising: a) forming a melt comprising R.sub.2.1 Q.sub.13.9 B.sub.1, Z and X, wherein R is a rare earth element; X is an element selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and mixtures thereof; Q is an element selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co and mixtures thereof; and Z is an element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf and mixtures thereof; b) atomizing the melt to form generally spherical alloy powder granules having an internal structure comprising at least one of a substantially amorphous phase or a substantially nanocrystalline phase; and c) heat treating the alloy powder to increase an energy product of the alloy powder; after the heat treatment, the alloy powder comprising an energy product of at least 10 MGOe. In another aspect, the invention includes a magnet comprising R, Q, B, Z and X, wherein R is a rare earth element; X is an element selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and mixtures thereof; Q is an element selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co and mixtures thereof; and Z is an element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf and mixtures thereof; the magnet comprising an internal structure comprising R.sub.2.1 Q.sub.13.9 B.sub.1.

  9. The Normalized Reduced Form and Cell Mathematical Tools for Lattice Analysis—Symmetry and Similarity

    PubMed Central

    Mighell, Alan D.

    2003-01-01

    To intelligently and effectively use crystallographic databases, mathematical and computer tools are required that can elucidate diverse types of intra- and interlattice relationships. Two such tools are the normalized reduced form and normalized reduced cell. Practical experience has revealed that the first tool—the normalized reduced form—is very helpful in establishing lattice metric symmetry as it enables one to readily deduce significant relationships between the elements of the reduced form. Likewise research with crystallographic databases has demonstrated that the second tool—the normalized reduced cell—plays a vital role in determining metrically similar lattices. Knowledge of similar lattices has practical value in solving structures, in assignment of structure types, in materials design, and in nano-technology. In addition to using the reduced cell, it is recommended that lattice-matching strategies based on the normalized reduced cell be routinely carried out in database searching, in data evaluation, and in experimental work. PMID:27413622

  10. Die singulation method and package formed thereby

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Robert C [Tucson, AZ; Shul, Randy J [Albuquerque, NM; Clews, Peggy J [Tijeras, NM; Baker, Michael S [Albuquerque, NM; De Boer, Maarten P [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-08-07

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a substrate having a sacrificial layer and one or more device layers, with a retainer being formed in the device layer(s) and anchored to the substrate. Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) etching of a trench through the substrate from the bottom side defines a shape for each die. A handle wafer is then attached to the bottom side of the substrate, and the sacrificial layer is etched to singulate the die and to form a frame from the retainer and the substrate. The frame and handle wafer, which retain the singulated die in place, can be attached together with a clamp or a clip and to form a package for the singulated die. One or more stops can be formed from the device layer(s) to limit a sliding motion of the singulated die.

  11. Exact traveling wave solutions of the van der Waals normal form for fluidized granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abourabia, A. M.; Morad, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    Analytical solutions of the van der Waals normal form for fluidized granular media have been done to study the phase separation phenomenon by using two different exact methods. The Painlevé analysis is discussed to illustrate the integrability of the model equation. An auto-Bäcklund transformation is presented via the truncated expansion and symbolic computation. The results show that the exact solutions of the model introduce solitary waves of different types. The solutions of the hydrodynamic model and the van der Waals equation exhibit a behavior similar to the one observed in molecular dynamic simulations such that two pairs of shock and rarefaction waves appear and move away, giving rise to the bubbles. The dispersion properties and the relation between group and phase velocities of the model equation are studied using the plane wave assumption. The diagrams are drawn to illustrate the physical properties of the exact solutions, and indicate their stability and bifurcation.

  12. Normal forms for linear mode conversion and Landau-Zener transitions in one dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, W.G.; Littlejohn, R.G.

    1994-09-01

    Standard eikonal methods for the asymptotic analysis of coupled linear wave equations may fail when two eigenvalues of a matrix (the dispersion matrix) associated with the wave operator are both small in the same region of wave phase space. In this region the two eikonal modes associated with the two small eigenvalues are coupled, leading to a process called linear mode conversion or Landau-Zener coupling. A theory of linear mode conversion is presented in which geometric structure is emphasized. This theory is then used to identify the most generic type of mode conversion which occurs in one dimension. Finally, a general solution for this generic mode conversion problem is derived by transforming an arbitrary equation exhibiting generic mode conversion into an easily solvable normal form. This solution is given as a connection rule, with which one may continue standard eikonal wave solutions through mode conversion regions. 51 refs., 13 figs.

  13. Method of forming an HTS article

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Zhang, Xun; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2014-08-19

    A method of forming a superconducting article includes providing a substrate tape, forming a superconducting layer overlying the substrate tape, and depositing a capping layer overlying the superconducting layer. The capping layer includes a noble metal and has a thickness not greater than about 1.0 micron. The method further includes electrodepositing a stabilizer layer overlying the capping layer using a solution that is non-reactive to the superconducting layer. The superconducting layer has an as-formed critical current I.sub.C(AF) and a post-stabilized critical current I.sub.C(PS). The I.sub.C(PS) is at least about 95% of the I.sub.C(AF).

  14. Laser-induced differential normalized fluorescence method for cancer diagnosis

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, T.; Panjehpour, M.; Overholt, B.F.

    1996-12-03

    An apparatus and method for cancer diagnosis are disclosed. The diagnostic method includes the steps of irradiating a tissue sample with monochromatic excitation light, producing a laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from emission radiation generated by interaction of the excitation light with the tissue sample, and dividing the intensity at each wavelength of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum by the integrated area under the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum to produce a normalized spectrum. A mathematical difference between the normalized spectrum and an average value of a reference set of normalized spectra which correspond to normal tissues is calculated, which provides for amplifying small changes in weak signals from malignant tissues for improved analysis. The calculated differential normalized spectrum is correlated to a specific condition of a tissue sample. 5 figs.

  15. Laser-induced differential normalized fluorescence method for cancer diagnosis

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Panjehpour, Masoud; Overholt, Bergein F.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for cancer diagnosis are disclosed. The diagnostic method includes the steps of irradiating a tissue sample with monochromatic excitation light, producing a laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from emission radiation generated by interaction of the excitation light with the tissue sample, and dividing the intensity at each wavelength of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum by the integrated area under the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum to produce a normalized spectrum. A mathematical difference between the normalized spectrum and an average value of a reference set of normalized spectra which correspond to normal tissues is calculated, which provides for amplifying small changes in weak signals from malignant tissues for improved analysis. The calculated differential normalized spectrum is correlated to a specific condition of a tissue sample.

  16. Method of forming aluminum oxynitride material and bodies formed by such methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bakas, Michael P; Lillo, Thomas M; Chu, Henry S

    2010-11-16

    Methods of forming aluminum oxynitride (AlON) materials include sintering green bodies comprising aluminum orthophosphate or another sacrificial material therein. Such green bodies may comprise aluminum, oxygen, and nitrogen in addition to the aluminum orthophosphate. For example, the green bodies may include a mixture of aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, and aluminum orthophosphate or another sacrificial material. Additional methods of forming aluminum oxynitride (AlON) materials include sintering a green body including a sacrificial material therein, using the sacrificial material to form pores in the green body during sintering, and infiltrating the pores formed in the green body with a liquid infiltrant during sintering. Bodies are formed using such methods.

  17. Pre-form ceramic matrix composite cavity and method of forming and method of forming a ceramic matrix composite component

    DOEpatents

    Monaghan, Philip Harold; Delvaux, John McConnell; Taxacher, Glenn Curtis

    2015-06-09

    A pre-form CMC cavity and method of forming pre-form CMC cavity for a ceramic matrix component includes providing a mandrel, applying a base ply to the mandrel, laying-up at least one CMC ply on the base ply, removing the mandrel, and densifying the base ply and the at least one CMC ply. The remaining densified base ply and at least one CMC ply form a ceramic matrix component having a desired geometry and a cavity formed therein. Also provided is a method of forming a CMC component.

  18. Comparison between dental and basal arch forms in normal occlusion and Class III malocclusions utilizing cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Kyung Eun; Park, Jae Hyun; Bayome, Mohamed; Nam, Young-Ok; Sameshima, Glenn T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the mandibular dental and basal arch forms in subjects with normal occlusion and compare them with those of Class III malocclusion using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods CBCT images of 32 normal occlusion (19 males, 13 females; 24.3 years) and 33 Class III malocclusion subjects (20 males, 13 females, 22.2 years) were selected. Facial axis and root center points were identified from the left to right mandibular first molars. Distances between the facial axis and root center points for each tooth were calculated, and 4 linear and 2 ratio variables were measured and calculated for each arch form. The variables were compared between groups by independent t-test. Pearson correlation coefficient was applied to assess the relationships between dental and basal variables within each group. Results The mandibular dental and basal intercanine widths were significantly greater in the Class III group than in normal occlusion subjects (p < 0.05). The dental and basal intercanine widths as well as the dental and basal intermolar widths were strongly correlated in normal occlusion and moderately correlated in Class III malocclusion. Conclusions The dental arch form demon strated a strong positive correlation with the basal arch form in the normal occlusion group and moderate correlation in the Class III malocclusion group. These results might be helpful for clinicians to have a better understanding of the importance of basal arch form in the alveolar bone. PMID:23504406

  19. Method for forming suspended micromechanical structures

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G.

    2000-01-01

    A micromachining method is disclosed for forming a suspended micromechanical structure from {111} crystalline silicon. The micromachining method is based on the use of anisotropic dry etching to define lateral features of the structure which are etched down into a {111}-silicon substrate to a first etch depth, thereby forming sidewalls of the structure. The sidewalls are then coated with a protection layer, and the substrate is dry etched to a second etch depth to define a spacing of the structure from the substrate. A selective anisotropic wet etchant (e.g. KOH, EDP, TMAH, NaOH or CsOH) is used to laterally undercut the structure between the first and second etch depths, thereby forming a substantially planar lower surface of the structure along a {111} crystal plane that is parallel to an upper surface of the structure. The lateral extent of undercutting by the wet etchant is controlled and effectively terminated by either timing the etching, by the location of angled {111}-silicon planes or by the locations of preformed etch-stops. This present method allows the formation of suspended micromechanical structures having large vertical dimensions and large masses while allowing for detailed lateral features which can be provided by dry etch definition. Additionally, the method of the present invention is compatible with the formation of electronic circuitry on the substrate.

  20. Applications of the DA based normal form algorithm on parameter-dependent perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisskopf, Adrian

    Many advanced models in physics use a simpler system as the foundation upon which problemspecific perturbation terms are added. There are many mathematical methods in perturbation theory which attempt to solve or at least approximate the solution for the advanced model based on the solution of the unperturbed system. The analytical approaches have the advantage that their approximation is an algebraic expression relating all involved quantities in the calculated solution up to a certain order. However, the complexity of the calculation often increases drastically with the number of iterations, variables, and parameters considered. On the other hand, the computer-based numerical approaches are fast once implemented, but their results are only numerical approximations without a symbolic form. A numerical integrator, for example, takes the initial values and integrates the ordinary differential equation up to the requested final state and yields the result as specific numbers. Therefore, no algebraic expression, much less a parameter dependence within the solution is given. The method presented in this work is based on the differential algebra (DA) framework, which was first developed to its current extent by Martin Berz et. al [3, 4, 5]. The used DA Normal Form Algorithm is an advancement by Martin Berz from the first arbitrary order algorithm by Forest, Berz, and Irwin [13], which was based on an DA-Lie approach. Both structures are already implemented in COSY INFINITY [18] documented in [7, 16, 17]. The result of the presented method is a numerically calculated algebraic expression of the solution up to an arbitrary truncation order. This method combines the effectiveness and automatic calculation of a computer-based numerical approximation and the algebraic relation between the involved quantities.

  1. Method for forming electrically charged laser targets

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Ronald K.; Hunt, Angus L.

    1979-01-01

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  2. A method to dynamic stochastic multicriteria decision making with log-normally distributed random variables.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Fan; Wang, Jian-Qiang; Deng, Sheng-Yue

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the dynamic stochastic multicriteria decision making (SMCDM) problems, in which the criterion values take the form of log-normally distributed random variables, and the argument information is collected from different periods. We propose two new geometric aggregation operators, such as the log-normal distribution weighted geometric (LNDWG) operator and the dynamic log-normal distribution weighted geometric (DLNDWG) operator, and develop a method for dynamic SMCDM with log-normally distributed random variables. This method uses the DLNDWG operator and the LNDWG operator to aggregate the log-normally distributed criterion values, utilizes the entropy model of Shannon to generate the time weight vector, and utilizes the expectation values and variances of log-normal distributions to rank the alternatives and select the best one. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of this developed method.

  3. Piecewise smooth dynamical systems: Persistence of periodic solutions and normal forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, Márcio R. A.; Llibre, Jaume; Novaes, Douglas D.; Pessoa, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    We consider an n-dimensional piecewise smooth vector field with two zones separated by a hyperplane Σ which admits an invariant hyperplane Ω transversal to Σ containing a period annulus A fulfilled by crossing periodic solutions. For small discontinuous perturbations of these systems we develop a Melnikov-like function to control the persistence of periodic solutions contained in A. When n = 3 we provide normal forms for the piecewise linear case. Finally we apply the Melnikov-like function to study discontinuous perturbations of the given normal forms.

  4. Integrating Boolean Queries in Conjunctive Normal Form with Probabilistic Retrieval Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losee, Robert M.; Bookstein, Abraham

    1988-01-01

    Presents a model that places Boolean database queries into conjunctive normal form, thereby allowing probabilistic ranking of documents and the incorporation of relevance feedback. Experimental results compare the performance of a sequential learning probabilistic retrieval model with the proposed integrated Boolean probabilistic model and a fuzzy…

  5. Normal forms for sub-Lorentzian metrics supported on Engel type distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grochowski, Marek

    2014-06-01

    We construct normal forms for Lorentzian metrics on Engel distributions under the assumption that abnormal curves are timelike future directed Hamiltonian geodesics. Then we indicate some cases in which the abnormal timelike future directed curve initiating at the origin is geometrically optimal. We also give certain estimates for reachable sets from a point.

  6. Method of forming a foamed thermoplastic polymer

    DOEpatents

    Duchane, David V.; Cash, David L.

    1986-01-01

    A method of forming a foamed thermoplastic polymer. A solid thermoplastic lymer is immersed in an immersant solution comprising a compatible carrier solvent and an infusant solution containing an incompatible liquid blowing agent for a time sufficient for the immersant solution to infuse into the polymer. The carrier solvent is then selectively extracted, preferably by a solvent exchange process in which the immersant solution is gradually diluted with and replaced by the infusant solution, so as to selectively leave behind the infusant solution permanently entrapped in the polymer. The polymer is then heated to volatilize the blowing agent and expand the polymer into a foamed state.

  7. Method for forming a solar array strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, R. I.; Yasui, R. K. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A flexible solar array strip is formed by a method which lends itself to automatic production techniques. Solder pads are deposited on printed circuitry deposited on a flexible structure. The resultant substrate is stored on a drum from which it is withdrawn and incrementally advanced along a linear path. Solderless solar cells are serially transported into engagement with the pads which are then heated in order to attach the cells to the circuitry. Excess flux is cleaned from the cells which are encapsulated in a protective coating. The resultant array is then spirally wound on a drum.

  8. Method of forming and assembly of parts

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B.

    2010-12-28

    A method of assembling two or more parts together that may be metal, ceramic, metal and ceramic parts, or parts that have different CTE. Individual parts are formed and sintered from particles that leave a network of interconnecting porosity in each sintered part. The separate parts are assembled together and then a fill material is infiltrated into the assembled, sintered parts using a method such as capillary action, gravity, and/or pressure. The assembly is then cured to yield a bonded and fully or near-fully dense part that has the desired physical and mechanical properties for the part's intended purpose. Structural strength may be added to the parts by the inclusion of fibrous materials.

  9. Nonlinear control design for stressed power systems using normal forms of vector fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Gilsoo

    Large stressed interconnected power systems exhibit complicated dynamic behavior when subjected to disturbances. This nonlinear complex behavior is not well analyzed with present tools, and a complete theoretical analysis of this is not feasible in large systems. In stressed power systems, due to the presence of increased nonlinearity and the existence of nonlinear modal interactions, there exist some limitation to the use of conventional linear control design techniques. Therefore there is a need to understand the nature of nonlinear modal interactions and their influences on control performance for optimal controller setting. This work deals with control design in power systems using the method of normal forms. The objective of this work is to understand the effect of the nonlinear modal interaction on control performance and to develop a procedure to design controls incorporating the nonlinear information. For power systems equipped with fast exciters, the exciter gains have crucial influence on the system dynamic behavior. In order to be able to tune the exciter gains for optimal system performance, one has to understand, how the system response changes with different gain settings. In linear analysis, this consists of determining the eigenvalues for various gains, and computing the sensitivity of the eigenvalues under gain variations. If one takes into account the influence of the second order normal forms on the system response, then the corresponding interaction coefficients and their sensitivity with respect to gain variations has to be studied as well. This is the topic of the study presented here. The concept of nonlinear participation factors, and sensitivity of the normal forms coefficient, together with linear participation factors and eigenvalue sensitivity are used to vary control settings. The control settings are varied to obtain improved stability and to reduce the nonlinearity in the system. The proposed procedure was applied to the 50-generator

  10. Method of forming a dianhydrosugar alcohol

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Johnathan E.; Hu, Jianli; Wang, Yong; Werpy, Todd A.; Zhang, Xinjie

    2010-01-19

    The invention includes methods of producing dianhydrosugars. A polyol is reacted in the presence of a first catalyst to form a monocyclic sugar. The monocyclic sugar is transferred to a second reactor where it is converted to a dianhydrosugar alcohol in the presence of a second catalyst. The invention includes a process of forming isosorbide. An initial reaction is conducted at a first temperature in the presence of a solid acid catalyst. The initial reaction involves reacting sorbitol to produce 1,4-sorbitan, 3,6-sorbitan, 2,5-mannitan and 2,5-iditan. Utilizing a second temperature, the 1,4-sorbitan and 3,6-sorbitan are converted to isosorbide. The invention includes a method of purifying isosorbide from a mixture containing isosorbide and at least one additional component. A first distillation removes a first portion of the isosorbide from the mixture. A second distillation is then conducted at a higher temperature to remove a second portion of isosorbide from the mixture.

  11. A restricted signature normal form for Hermitian matrices, quasi-spectral decompositions, and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Roland W.; Huckle, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, a number of results on the relationships between the inertias of Hermitian matrices and the inertias of their principal submatrices appeared in the literature. We study restricted congruence transformation of Hermitian matrices M which, at the same time, induce a congruence transformation of a given principal submatrix A of M. Such transformations lead to concept of the restricted signature normal form of M. In particular, by means of this normal form, we obtain short proofs of most of the known inertia theorems and also derive some new results of this type. For some applications, a special class of almost unitary restricted congruence transformations turns out to be useful. We show that, with such transformations, M can be reduced to a quasi-diagonal form which, in particular, displays the eigenvalues of A. Finally, applications of this quasi-spectral decomposition to generalize inverses and Hermitian matrix pencils are discussed.

  12. Normalization methods in time series of platelet function assays

    PubMed Central

    Van Poucke, Sven; Zhang, Zhongheng; Roest, Mark; Vukicevic, Milan; Beran, Maud; Lauwereins, Bart; Zheng, Ming-Hua; Henskens, Yvonne; Lancé, Marcus; Marcus, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Platelet function can be quantitatively assessed by specific assays such as light-transmission aggregometry, multiple-electrode aggregometry measuring the response to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid, collagen, and thrombin-receptor activating peptide and viscoelastic tests such as rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). The task of extracting meaningful statistical and clinical information from high-dimensional data spaces in temporal multivariate clinical data represented in multivariate time series is complex. Building insightful visualizations for multivariate time series demands adequate usage of normalization techniques. In this article, various methods for data normalization (z-transformation, range transformation, proportion transformation, and interquartile range) are presented and visualized discussing the most suited approach for platelet function data series. Normalization was calculated per assay (test) for all time points and per time point for all tests. Interquartile range, range transformation, and z-transformation demonstrated the correlation as calculated by the Spearman correlation test, when normalized per assay (test) for all time points. When normalizing per time point for all tests, no correlation could be abstracted from the charts as was the case when using all data as 1 dataset for normalization. PMID:27428217

  13. Method for forming a chemical microreactor

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Jankowski, Alan

    2009-05-19

    Disclosed is a chemical microreactor that provides a means to generate hydrogen fuel from liquid sources such as ammonia, methanol, and butane through steam reforming processes when mixed with an appropriate amount of water. The microreactor contains capillary microchannels with integrated resistive heaters to facilitate the occurrence of catalytic steam reforming reactions. Two distinct embodiment styles are discussed. One embodiment style employs a packed catalyst capillary microchannel and at least one porous membrane. Another embodiment style employs a porous membrane with a large surface area or a porous membrane support structure containing a plurality of porous membranes having a large surface area in the aggregate, i.e., greater than about 1 m.sup.2/cm.sup.3. Various methods to form packed catalyst capillary microchannels, porous membranes and porous membrane support structures are also disclosed.

  14. Method for forming a glove attachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, Frederic S. (Inventor); Guy, Walter W. (Inventor); Kosmo, Joseph (Inventor); Drennan, Arthur P. (Inventor); Tschirch, Richard P. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An attachment principally for the palm of an astronaut glove to enhance the gripping area of the palm without detracting from the flexibility and utility of the glove is presented. The attachment is a composite construction formed from a layer of silicone rubber having an outer surface with a friction configuration and another layer of silicone rubber in which a Nomex Aramid mesh fabric is embedded prior to curing. The method of construction involves the use of a mold with a friction configuration surface. A first layer of silicone rubber or sealant is disposed in the mold and allowed to set for an hour. A second layer of silicone rubber or sealant is layered over the first layer and leveled. A Nomex Aramid mesh fabric is embedded into the second layer and the composite is permitted to cure. When cured, a configured area of the composite construction is glued or stitched to the palm area of the glove.

  15. Methods for Detecting the Environmental Coccoid Form of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Mazaheri Assadi, Mahnaz; Chamanrokh, Parastoo; Whitehouse, Chris A.; Huq, Anwar

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is recognized as the most common pathogen to cause gastritis, peptic and duodenal ulcers, and gastric cancer. The organisms are found in two forms: (1) spiral-shaped bacillus and (2) coccoid. H. pylori coccoid form, generally found in the environment, is the transformed form of the normal spiral-shaped bacillus after exposed to water or adverse environmental conditions such as exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents. The putative infectious capability and the viability of H. pylori under environmental conditions are controversial. This disagreement is partially due to the fact of lack in detecting the coccoid form of H. pylori in the environment. Accurate and effective detection methods of H. pylori will lead to rapid treatment and disinfection, and less human health damages and reduction in health care costs. In this review, we provide a brief introduction to H. pylori environmental coccoid forms, their transmission, and detection methods. We further discuss the use of these detection methods including their accuracy and efficiency. PMID:26075197

  16. NOLB : Non-linear rigid block normal mode analysis method.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Alexandre; Grudinin, Sergei

    2017-04-05

    We present a new conceptually simple and computationally efficient method for non-linear normal mode analysis called NOLB. It relies on the rotations-translations of blocks (RTB) theoretical basis developed by Y.-H. Sanejouand and colleagues. We demonstrate how to physically interpret the eigenvalues computed in the RTB basis in terms of angular and linear velocities applied to the rigid blocks and how to construct a non-linear extrapolation of motion out of these velocities. The key observation of our method is that the angular velocity of a rigid block can be interpreted as the result of an implicit force, such that the motion of the rigid block can be considered as a pure rotation about a certain center. We demonstrate the motions produced with the NOLB method on three different molecular systems and show that some of the lowest frequency normal modes correspond to the biologically relevant motions. For example, NOLB detects the spiral sliding motion of the TALE protein, which is capable of rapid diffusion along its target DNA. Overall, our method produces better structures compared to the standard approach, especially at large deformation amplitudes, as we demonstrate by visual inspection, energy and topology analyses, and also by the MolProbity service validation. Finally, our method is scalable and can be applied to very large molecular systems, such as ribosomes. Standalone executables of the NOLB normal mode analysis method are available at https://team.inria.fr/nano-d/software/nolb-normal-modes. A graphical user interfaces created for the SAMSON software platform will be made available at https: //www.samson-connect.net.

  17. Method of forming composite fiber blends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMahon, Paul E. (Inventor); Chung, Tai-Shung (Inventor); Ying, Lincoln (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The instant invention involves a process used in preparing fibrous tows which may be formed into polymeric plastic composites. The process involves the steps of (a) forming a tow of strong filamentary materials; (b) forming a thermoplastic polymeric fiber; (c) intermixing the two tows; and (d) withdrawing the intermixed tow for further use.

  18. Method of forming metal hydride films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, R.; Alger, D. L.; Cooper, D. W. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The substrate to be coated (which may be of metal, glass or the like) is cleaned, both chemically and by off-sputtering in a vacuum chamber. In an ultra-high vacuum system, vapor deposition by a sublimator or vaporizer coats a cooled shroud disposed around the substrate with a thin film of hydride forming metal which getters any contaminant gas molecules. A shutter is then opened to allow hydride forming metal to be deposited as a film or coating on the substrate. After the hydride forming metal coating is formed, deuterium or other hydrogen isotopes are bled into the vacuum system and diffused into the metal film or coating to form a hydride of metal film. Higher substrate temperatures and pressures may be used if various parameters are appropriately adjusted.

  19. Elevated temperature forming method and preheater apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Krajewski, Paul E; Hammar, Richard Harry; Singh, Jugraj; Cedar, Dennis; Friedman, Peter A; Luo, Yingbing

    2013-06-11

    An elevated temperature forming system in which a sheet metal workpiece is provided in a first stage position of a multi-stage pre-heater, is heated to a first stage temperature lower than a desired pre-heat temperature, is moved to a final stage position where it is heated to a desired final stage temperature, is transferred to a forming press, and is formed by the forming press. The preheater includes upper and lower platens that transfer heat into workpieces disposed between the platens. A shim spaces the upper platen from the lower platen by a distance greater than a thickness of the workpieces to be heated by the platens and less than a distance at which the upper platen would require an undesirably high input of energy to effectively heat the workpiece without being pressed into contact with the workpiece.

  20. Heterogeneity of normal prion protein in two- dimensional immunoblot: presence of various glycosylated and truncated forms.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tao; Li, Ruliang; Wong, Boon-Seng; Liu, Tong; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Sy, Man-Sun

    2002-06-01

    The common use of one-dimensional (1-D) immunoblot with a single monoclonal antibody (Mab) engenders the notion that the normal or cellular prion protein (PrP(C) ) comprises few and simple forms. In this study we used two-dimensional (2-D) immunoblot with a panel Mabs to various regions of the prion protein to demonstrate the complexity of the PrP(C) present in human brain. We distinguished over 50 immunoblot spots, each representing a distinct PrP(C) species based on combinations of different molecular weights and isoelectric points (pIs). The PrP(C) heterogeneity is due to the presence of a full-length and two major truncated forms as well as to the diversity of the glycans linked to most of these forms. The two major truncated forms result from distinct cleavage sites located at the N-terminus. In addition, enzymatic removal of sialic acid and lectin binding studies indicate that the glycans linked to the full-length and truncated PrP(C) forms differ in their structure and ratios of the glycoforms. The truncation of PrP(C) and the heterogeneity of the linked glycans may play a role in regulating PrP(C) function. Furthermore, the presence of relatively large quantities of different PrP(C) species may provide additional mechanisms by which the diversity of prion strains could be generated.

  1. High molecular gas fractions in normal massive star-forming galaxies in the young Universe.

    PubMed

    Tacconi, L J; Genzel, R; Neri, R; Cox, P; Cooper, M C; Shapiro, K; Bolatto, A; Bouché, N; Bournaud, F; Burkert, A; Combes, F; Comerford, J; Davis, M; Schreiber, N M Förster; Garcia-Burillo, S; Gracia-Carpio, J; Lutz, D; Naab, T; Omont, A; Shapley, A; Sternberg, A; Weiner, B

    2010-02-11

    Stars form from cold molecular interstellar gas. As this is relatively rare in the local Universe, galaxies like the Milky Way form only a few new stars per year. Typical massive galaxies in the distant Universe formed stars an order of magnitude more rapidly. Unless star formation was significantly more efficient, this difference suggests that young galaxies were much more molecular-gas rich. Molecular gas observations in the distant Universe have so far largely been restricted to very luminous, rare objects, including mergers and quasars, and accordingly we do not yet have a clear idea about the gas content of more normal (albeit massive) galaxies. Here we report the results of a survey of molecular gas in samples of typical massive-star-forming galaxies at mean redshifts of about 1.2 and 2.3, when the Universe was respectively 40% and 24% of its current age. Our measurements reveal that distant star forming galaxies were indeed gas rich, and that the star formation efficiency is not strongly dependent on cosmic epoch. The average fraction of cold gas relative to total galaxy baryonic mass at z = 2.3 and z = 1.2 is respectively about 44% and 34%, three to ten times higher than in today's massive spiral galaxies. The slow decrease between z approximately 2 and z approximately 1 probably requires a mechanism of semi-continuous replenishment of fresh gas to the young galaxies.

  2. An asymptotic analysis of the 1:3:4 Hamiltonian normal form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Bosley, D. L.; Kevorkian, J.

    The normal form of the Hamiltonian 1:3:4 resonance, which exhibits two simultaneous resonances of differing orders, is studied asymptotically. Since the two resonances have different strengths, the exact solution of the primary single resonance system may be used to construct an action-angle transformation. The resulting standard form system is solved asymptotically by canonical near-identity averaging transformations. In addition to the Hamiltonian itself and its unperturbed part, which are two exact constants of the motion, a third independent adiabatic invariant of the original Hamiltonian system is constructed. The results apply directly to the problem of a free electron laser with weak self-fields. A specific model problem is studied numerically to verify the asymptotic validity of the results over long times.

  3. k-tree method for high-speed spatial normalization.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, J L; Kochunov, P V; Fox, P T; Nickerson, D

    1998-01-01

    The general approach to spatial normalization using a deformation field is presented. Current high degree-of-freedom deformation methods are extremely time-consuming (10-40 hr), and a k-tree method is proposed to greatly reduce this time. A general k-tree method for analysis of source and target images and synthesis of deformation fields is described. The k-tree method simplifies scale control and feature extraction and matching, making it highly efficient. A two-dimensional (2-D), or quadtree, application program was developed for preliminary testing. The k-tree method was evaluated with 2-D images to test rotating ability, nonhomologous region matching, inner and outer brain-structure independence, and feasibility with human brain images. The results of these tests indicate that a three-dimensional (3-D), or octree, method is feasible. Preliminary work with an octree application program indicates that a processing time of under 10 min for 256(3) image arrays is attainable on a Sun Ultra30 workstation.

  4. Theory and praxis pf map analsys in CHEF part 1: Linear normal form

    SciTech Connect

    Michelotti, Leo; /Fermilab

    2008-10-01

    This memo begins a series which, put together, could comprise the 'CHEF Documentation Project' if there were such a thing. The first--and perhaps only--three will telegraphically describe theory, algorithms, implementation and usage of the normal form map analysis procedures encoded in CHEF's collection of libraries. [1] This one will begin the sequence by explaining the linear manipulations that connect the Jacobian matrix of a symplectic mapping to its normal form. It is a 'Reader's Digest' version of material I wrote in Intermediate Classical Dynamics (ICD) [2] and randomly scattered across technical memos, seminar viewgraphs, and lecture notes for the past quarter century. Much of its content is old, well known, and in some places borders on the trivial.1 Nevertheless, completeness requires their inclusion. The primary objective is the 'fundamental theorem' on normalization written on page 8. I plan to describe the nonlinear procedures in a subsequent memo and devote a third to laying out algorithms and lines of code, connecting them with equations written in the first two. Originally this was to be done in one short paper, but I jettisoned that approach after its first section exceeded a dozen pages. The organization of this document is as follows. A brief description of notation is followed by a section containing a general treatment of the linear problem. After the 'fundamental theorem' is proved, two further subsections discuss the generation of equilibrium distributions and issue of 'phase'. The final major section reviews parameterizations--that is, lattice functions--in two and four dimensions with a passing glance at the six-dimensional version. Appearances to the contrary, for the most part I have tried to restrict consideration to matters needed to understand the code in CHEF's libraries.

  5. MRI visualization of pathological forms by suppression of normal tissue signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirogov, Yuri A.; Anisimov, Nikolai V.; Gubskiy, Leonid V.; Babich, Piotr I.

    2005-04-01

    To improve the visualization and 3D-reconstruction of some pathological formations of the brain, it is offered to use a new method of processing of MR images with suppression of signals from normal tissues. The special attention is offered to be given suppression of signals of fatty tissue, free water and partially bound water of mucous membranes. For such way realization, it is offered to lead two scans with simultaneous suppression of two normal components and to multiply the obtained images. Simultaneous suppression of signals from two normal tissues is realized with the help of pulse sequence twice using inversion-recovery effect. Delays in pulse sequence are selected in accordance with the times of longitudinal relaxation of fat, free water and partially bound water. In comparison with earlier described technique of simultaneous suppression of signals of water and fat, the new method is especially useful at research of pathological formations when the zone of defeat is placed in a zone of nose bosoms. Besides allocation of a zone of defeat, MIP reconstruction becomes simpler. The offered technique well proves at research of tumors and hemorrhages.

  6. Method and Apparatus for Forming Nanodroplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackley, Donald; Forster, Anita

    2011-01-01

    This innovation uses partially miscible fluids to form nano- and microdroplets in a microfluidic droplet generator system. Droplet generators fabricated in PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) are currently being used to fabricate engineered nanoparticles and microparticles. These droplet generators were first demonstrated in a T-junction configuration, followed by a cross-flow configuration. All of these generating devices have used immiscible fluids, such as oil and water. This immiscible fluid system can produce mono-dispersed distributions of droplets and articles with sizes ranging from a few hundred nanometers to a few hundred microns. For applications such as drug delivery, the ability to encapsulate aqueous solutions of drugs within particles formed from the droplets is desirable. Of particular interest are non-polar solvents that can dissolve lipids for the formation of liposomes in the droplet generators. Such fluids include ether, cyclohexane, butanol, and ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate is of particular interest for two reasons. It is relatively nontoxic and it is formed from ether and acetic acid, and maybe broken down into its constituents at relatively low concentrations.

  7. Theory and praxis of map analsys in CHEF part 2: Nonlinear normal form

    SciTech Connect

    Michelotti, Leo; /FERMILAB

    2009-04-01

    This is the second of three memos describing how normal form map analysis is implemented in CHEF. The first [1] explained the manipulations required to assure that initial, linear transformations preserved Poincare invariants, thereby confirming correct normalization of action-angle coordinates. In this one, the transformation will be extended to nonlinear terms. The third, describing how the algorithms were implemented within the software of CHEF's libraries, most likely will never be written. The first section, Section 2, quickly lays out preliminary concepts and relationships. In Section 3, we shall review the perturbation theory - an iterative sequence of transformations that converts a nonlinear mapping into its normal form - and examine the equation which moves calculations from one step to the next. Following that is a section titled 'Interpretation', which identifies connections between the normalized mappings and idealized, integrable, fictitious Hamiltonian models. A final section contains closing comments, some of which may - but probably will not - preview work to be done later. My reasons for writing this memo and its predecessor have already been expressed. [1] To them can be added this: 'black box code' encourages users to proceed with little or no understanding of what it does or how it operates. So far, CHEF has avoided this trap admirably by failing to attract potential users. However, we reached a watershed last year: even I now have difficulty following the software through its maze of operations. Extensions to CHEF's physics functionalities, software upgrades, and even simple maintenance are becoming more difficult than they should. I hope these memos will mark parts of the maze for easier navigation in the future. Despite appearances to the contrary, I tried to include no (or very little) more than the minimum needed to understand what CHEF's nonlinear analysis modules do.1 As with the first memo, material has been lifted - and modified - from

  8. Methods for Scaling to Doubly Stochastic Form,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-26

    BIRKHOFF, G.: Tres observaciones sobre le algebra lineal , Rev. univ. nec. Tucuman, ser A, . 147-151, [1948] BRUALDI, R.A., S.V. PARTER, and H. SCHNEIDER...scaling square, nonnegative matrices to dou- bly stochastic form are described. A generalized version of the convergence theorem in SINKI-ORN and KNOPP... matrices D and E for a given square nonnegative matrix, A, such that DAE is doubly stochastic--or determine that such :.p h" du:es 7’. -,.xist. A

  9. Method for forming a barrier layer

    DOEpatents

    Weihs, Timothy P.; Barbee, Jr., Troy W.

    2002-01-01

    Cubic or metastable cubic refractory metal carbides act as barrier layers to isolate, adhere, and passivate copper in semiconductor fabrication. One or more barrier layers of the metal carbide are deposited in conjunction with copper metallizations to form a multilayer characterized by a cubic crystal structure with a strong (100) texture. Suitable barrier layer materials include refractory transition metal carbides such as vanadium carbide (VC), niobium carbide (NbC), tantalum carbide (TaC), chromium carbide (Cr.sub.3 C.sub.2), tungsten carbide (WC), and molybdenum carbide (MoC).

  10. Accessing the Elastic Form-Factors of the $Delta(1232)$ Using the Beam-Normal Asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, Mark M.

    2016-08-01

    The beam-normal single-spin asymmetry, $B_n$, exists in the scattering of high energy electrons, polarized transverse to their direction of motion, from nuclear targets. To first order, this asymmetry is caused by the interference of the one-photon exchange amplitude with the imaginary part of the two-photon exchange amplitude. Measurements of $B_n$, for the production of a $\\Delta(1232)$ resonance from a proton target, will soon become available from the Qweak experiment at Jefferson Lab and the A4 experiment at Mainz. The imaginary part of two-photon exchange allows only intermediate states that are on-shell, including the $\\Delta$ itself. Therefore such data is sensitive to $\\gamma\\Delta\\Delta$, the elastic form-factors of the $\\Delta$. This article will introduce the form-factors of the $\\Delta$, discuss what might be learned about the elastic form-factors from these new data, describe ongoing efforts in calculation and measurement, and outline the possibility of future measurements.

  11. Shear Stress-Normal Stress (Pressure) Ratio Decides Forming Callus in Patients with Diabetic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Ayumi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Oe, Makoto; Takehara, Kimie; Ohashi, Yumiko; Suzuki, Ryo; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kadowaki, Takashi; Sanada, Hiromi; Mori, Taketoshi

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Callus is a risk factor, leading to severe diabetic foot ulcer; thus, prevention of callus formation is important. However, normal stress (pressure) and shear stress associated with callus have not been clarified. Additionally, as new valuables, a shear stress-normal stress (pressure) ratio (SPR) was examined. The purpose was to clarify the external force associated with callus formation in patients with diabetic neuropathy. Methods. The external force of the 1st, 2nd, and 5th metatarsal head (MTH) as callus predilection regions was measured. The SPR was calculated by dividing shear stress by normal stress (pressure), concretely, peak values (SPR-p) and time integral values (SPR-i). The optimal cut-off point was determined. Results. Callus formation region of the 1st and 2nd MTH had high SPR-i rather than noncallus formation region. The cut-off value of the 1st MTH was 0.60 and the 2nd MTH was 0.50. For the 5th MTH, variables pertaining to the external forces could not be determined to be indicators of callus formation because of low accuracy. Conclusions. The callus formation cut-off values of the 1st and 2nd MTH were clarified. In the future, it will be necessary to confirm the effect of using appropriate footwear and gait training on lowering SPR-i.

  12. Shear Stress-Normal Stress (Pressure) Ratio Decides Forming Callus in Patients with Diabetic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Takehara, Kimie; Ohashi, Yumiko; Suzuki, Ryo; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kadowaki, Takashi; Sanada, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Callus is a risk factor, leading to severe diabetic foot ulcer; thus, prevention of callus formation is important. However, normal stress (pressure) and shear stress associated with callus have not been clarified. Additionally, as new valuables, a shear stress-normal stress (pressure) ratio (SPR) was examined. The purpose was to clarify the external force associated with callus formation in patients with diabetic neuropathy. Methods. The external force of the 1st, 2nd, and 5th metatarsal head (MTH) as callus predilection regions was measured. The SPR was calculated by dividing shear stress by normal stress (pressure), concretely, peak values (SPR-p) and time integral values (SPR-i). The optimal cut-off point was determined. Results. Callus formation region of the 1st and 2nd MTH had high SPR-i rather than noncallus formation region. The cut-off value of the 1st MTH was 0.60 and the 2nd MTH was 0.50. For the 5th MTH, variables pertaining to the external forces could not be determined to be indicators of callus formation because of low accuracy. Conclusions. The callus formation cut-off values of the 1st and 2nd MTH were clarified. In the future, it will be necessary to confirm the effect of using appropriate footwear and gait training on lowering SPR-i. PMID:28050567

  13. Advanced method for making vitreous waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, J.M.; Harrison, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    A process is described for making waste glass that circumvents the problems of dissolving nuclear waste in molten glass at high temperatures. Because the reactive mixing process is independent of the inherent viscosity of the melt, any glass composition can be prepared with equal facility. Separation of the mixing and melting operations permits novel glass fabrication methods to be employed.

  14. A Mathematical Framework for Critical Transitions: Normal Forms, Variance and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Critical transitions occur in a wide variety of applications including mathematical biology, climate change, human physiology and economics. Therefore it is highly desirable to find early-warning signs. We show that it is possible to classify critical transitions by using bifurcation theory and normal forms in the singular limit. Based on this elementary classification, we analyze stochastic fluctuations and calculate scaling laws of the variance of stochastic sample paths near critical transitions for fast-subsystem bifurcations up to codimension two. The theory is applied to several models: the Stommel-Cessi box model for the thermohaline circulation from geoscience, an epidemic-spreading model on an adaptive network, an activator-inhibitor switch from systems biology, a predator-prey system from ecology and to the Euler buckling problem from classical mechanics. For the Stommel-Cessi model we compare different detrending techniques to calculate early-warning signs. In the epidemics model we show that link densities could be better variables for prediction than population densities. The activator-inhibitor switch demonstrates effects in three time-scale systems and points out that excitable cells and molecular units have information for subthreshold prediction. In the predator-prey model explosive population growth near a codimension-two bifurcation is investigated and we show that early-warnings from normal forms can be misleading in this context. In the biomechanical model we demonstrate that early-warning signs for buckling depend crucially on the control strategy near the instability which illustrates the effect of multiplicative noise.

  15. Method of forming and starting a sodium sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Paquette, David G.

    1981-01-01

    A method of forming a sodium sulfur battery and of starting the reactive capability of that battery when heated to a temperature suitable for battery operation is disclosed. An anodic reaction zone is constructed in a manner that sodium is hermetically sealed therein, part of the hermetic seal including fusible material which closes up openings through the container of the anodic reaction zone. The hermetically sealed anodic reaction zone is assembled under normal atmospheric conditions with a suitable cathodic reaction zone and a cation-permeable barrier. When the entire battery is heated to an operational temperature, the fusible material of the hermetically sealed anodic reaction zone is fused, thereby allowing molten sodium to flow from the anodic reaction zone into reactive engagement with the cation-permeable barrier.

  16. Solar heating panel forming apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, R.O.

    1981-01-06

    A supply of hollow plastic tubing is obtained from an extrusion and sizing apparatus, or from a supply of hollow tubing on a reel. The hollow tubing is provided at a predetermined speed to a tensioning device which imparts a tension in the hollow tubing and delivers it to a feeding point at one edge of the periphery of a rotating drum. The continuous hollow tubing is wound around the periphery of the drum at the one edge and it is forced axially on the periphery by a helical shoe overlying the periphery at the one edge. A bank of quartz lamps heats one side of the hollow plastic tubing just prior to reaching the feeding point, and another bank of quartz lamps heats the opposite side of the hollow plastic tubing at the one edge of the drum just after the tubing passes the shoe. The two heated surfaces are pressed together by the axial force exerted by the shoe, and are fused in side by side relation to form a cylinder having a wall consisting of spiral turns of the plastic tubing fused together.

  17. Method for forming polymerized microfluidic devices

    DOEpatents

    Sommer, Gregory J [Livermore, CA; Hatch, Anson V [Tracy, CA; Wang, Ying-Chih [Pleasanton, CA; Singh, Anup K [Danville, CA; Renzi, Ronald F [Tracy, CA; Claudnic, Mark R [Livermore, CA

    2011-11-01

    Methods for making a micofluidic device according to embodiments of the present invention include defining a cavity. Polymer precursor solution is positioned in the cavity, and exposed to light to begin the polymerization process and define a microchannel. In some embodiments, after the polymerization process is partially complete, a solvent rinse is performed, or fresh polymer precursor introduced into the microchannel. This may promote removal of unpolymerized material from the microchannel and enable smaller feature sizes. The polymer precursor solution may contain an iniferter. Polymerized features therefore may be capped with the iniferter, which is photoactive. The iniferter may aid later binding of a polyacrylamide gel to the microchannel surface.

  18. Method for forming polymerized microfluidic devices

    DOEpatents

    Sommer, Gregory J.; Hatch, Anson V.; Wang, Ying-Chih; Singh, Anup K.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Claudnic, Mark R.

    2013-03-12

    Methods for making a microfluidic device according to embodiments of the present invention include defining.about.cavity. Polymer precursor solution is positioned in the cavity, and exposed to light to begin the polymerization process and define a microchannel. In some embodiments, after the polymerization process is partially complete, a solvent rinse is performed, or fresh polymer precursor introduced into the microchannel. This may promote removal of unpolymerized material from the microchannel and enable smaller feature sizes. The polymer precursor solution may contain an iniferter. Polymerized features therefore may be capped with the iniferter, which is photoactive. The iniferter may aid later binding of a polyacrylamide gel to the microchannel surface.

  19. Normal forms for germs of vector fields with quadratic leading part. The polynomial first integral case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stróżyna, Ewa

    2015-12-01

    We study the problem of formal classification of the vector fields of the form x ˙ = ax2 + bxy + cy2 + … , y ˙ = dx2 + exy + fy2 + … using formal changes of the coordinates, but not using the changes of the time. We focus on one special case (which is the most complex one): when the quadratic homogeneous part has a polynomial first integral. In the proofs we avoid complicated calculations. The method we use is effective and it is based on the method introduced in our previous work concerning the Bogdanov-Takens singularity.

  20. Evaluation of estimation methods for organic carbon normalized sorption coefficients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, James R.; Mihelcic, James R.; Luehrs, Dean C.; Hickey, James P.

    1997-01-01

    A critically evaluated set of 94 soil water partition coefficients normalized to soil organic carbon content (Koc) is presented for 11 classes of organic chemicals. This data set is used to develop and evaluate Koc estimation methods using three different descriptors. The three types of descriptors used in predicting Koc were octanol/water partition coefficient (Kow), molecular connectivity (mXt) and linear solvation energy relationships (LSERs). The best results were obtained estimating Koc from Kow, though a slight improvement in the correlation coefficient was obtained by using a two-parameter regression with Kow and the third order difference term from mXt. Molecular connectivity correlations seemed to be best suited for use with specific chemical classes. The LSER provided a better fit than mXt but not as good as the correlation with Koc. The correlation to predict Koc from Kow was developed for 72 chemicals; log Koc = 0.903* log Kow + 0.094. This correlation accounts for 91% of the variability in the data for chemicals with log Kow ranging from 1.7 to 7.0. The expression to determine the 95% confidence interval on the estimated Koc is provided along with an example for two chemicals of different hydrophobicity showing the confidence interval of the retardation factor determined from the estimated Koc. The data showed that Koc is not likely to be applicable for chemicals with log Kow < 1.7. Finally, the Koc correlation developed using Kow as a descriptor was compared with three nonclass-specific correlations and two 'commonly used' class-specific correlations to determine which method(s) are most suitable.

  1. A python module to normalize microarray data by the quantile adjustment method.

    PubMed

    Baber, Ibrahima; Tamby, Jean Philippe; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Sangaré, Djibril; Doumbia, Seydou; Traoré, Sekou F; Maiga, Mohamed S; Dembélé, Doulaye

    2011-06-01

    Microarray technology is widely used for gene expression research targeting the development of new drug treatments. In the case of a two-color microarray, the process starts with labeling DNA samples with fluorescent markers (cyanine 635 or Cy5 and cyanine 532 or Cy3), then mixing and hybridizing them on a chemically treated glass printed with probes, or fragments of genes. The level of hybridization between a strand of labeled DNA and a probe present on the array is measured by scanning the fluorescence of spots in order to quantify the expression based on the quality and number of pixels for each spot. The intensity data generated from these scans are subject to errors due to differences in fluorescence efficiency between Cy5 and Cy3, as well as variation in human handling and quality of the sample. Consequently, data have to be normalized to correct for variations which are not related to the biological phenomena under investigation. Among many existing normalization procedures, we have implemented the quantile adjustment method using the python computer language, and produced a module which can be run via an HTML dynamic form. This module is composed of different functions for data files reading, intensity and ratio computations and visualization. The current version of the HTML form allows the user to visualize the data before and after normalization. It also gives the option to subtract background noise before normalizing the data. The output results of this module are in agreement with the results of other normalization tools.

  2. Methods for forming particles from single source precursors

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Robert V.; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua

    2011-08-23

    Single source precursors are subjected to carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The carbon dioxide may be in a supercritical state. Single source precursors also may be subjected to supercritical fluids other than supercritical carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The methods may be used to form nanoparticles. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form chalcopyrite materials. Devices such as, for example, semiconductor devices may be fabricated that include such particles. Methods of forming semiconductor devices include subjecting single source precursors to carbon dioxide to form particles of semiconductor material, and establishing electrical contact between the particles and an electrode.

  3. Symbolic computation of the Birkhoff normal form in the problem of stability of the triangular libration points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, I. I.

    2008-05-01

    The problem of stability of the triangular libration points in the planar circular restricted three-body problem is considered. A software package, intended for normalization of autonomous Hamiltonian systems by means of computer algebra, is designed so that normalization problems of high analytical complexity could be solved. It is used to obtain the Birkhoff normal form of the Hamiltonian in the given problem. The normalization is carried out up to the 6th order of expansion of the Hamiltonian in the coordinates and momenta. Analytical expressions for the coefficients of the normal form of the 6th order are derived. Though intermediary expressions occupy gigabytes of the computer memory, the obtained coefficients of the normal form are compact enough for presentation in typographic format. The analogue of the Deprit formula for the stability criterion is derived in the 6th order of normalization. The obtained floating-point numerical values for the normal form coefficients and the stability criterion confirm the results by Markeev (1969) and Coppola and Rand (1989), while the obtained analytical and exact numeric expressions confirm the results by Meyer and Schmidt (1986) and Schmidt (1989). The given computational problem is solved without constructing a specialized algebraic processor, i.e., the designed computer algebra package has a broad field of applicability.

  4. Metacognition and Reading: Comparing Three Forms of Metacognition in Normally Developing Readers and Readers with Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Brunswick, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Metacognition refers to ‘cognition about cognition’ and includes metacognitive knowledge, strategies and experiences (Efklides, 2008; Flavell, 1979). Research on reading has shown that better readers demonstrate more metacognitive knowledge than poor readers (Baker & Beall, 2009), and that reading ability improves through strategy instruction (Gersten, Fuchs, Williams, & Baker, 2001). The current study is the first to specifically compare the three forms of metacognition in dyslexic (N = 22) versus normally developing readers (N = 22). Participants read two factual texts, with learning outcome measured by a memory task. Metacognitive knowledge and skills were assessed by self-report. Metacognitive experiences were measured by predictions of performance and judgments of learning. Individuals with dyslexia showed insight into their reading problems, but less general knowledge of how to approach text reading. They more often reported lack of available reading strategies, but groups did not differ in the use of deep and surface strategies. Learning outcome and mean ratings of predictions of performance and judgments of learning were lower in dyslexic readers, but not the accuracy with which metacognitive experiences predicted learning. Overall, the results indicate that dyslexic reading and spelling problems are not generally associated with lower levels of metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive strategies or sensitivity to metacognitive experiences in reading situations. @ 2015 The Authors. Dyslexia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26234622

  5. Metacognition and Reading: Comparing Three Forms of Metacognition in Normally Developing Readers and Readers with Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Furnes, Bjarte; Norman, Elisabeth

    2015-08-01

    Metacognition refers to 'cognition about cognition' and includes metacognitive knowledge, strategies and experiences (Efklides, 2008; Flavell, 1979). Research on reading has shown that better readers demonstrate more metacognitive knowledge than poor readers (Baker & Beall, 2009), and that reading ability improves through strategy instruction (Gersten, Fuchs, Williams, & Baker, 2001). The current study is the first to specifically compare the three forms of metacognition in dyslexic (N = 22) versus normally developing readers (N = 22). Participants read two factual texts, with learning outcome measured by a memory task. Metacognitive knowledge and skills were assessed by self-report. Metacognitive experiences were measured by predictions of performance and judgments of learning. Individuals with dyslexia showed insight into their reading problems, but less general knowledge of how to approach text reading. They more often reported lack of available reading strategies, but groups did not differ in the use of deep and surface strategies. Learning outcome and mean ratings of predictions of performance and judgments of learning were lower in dyslexic readers, but not the accuracy with which metacognitive experiences predicted learning. Overall, the results indicate that dyslexic reading and spelling problems are not generally associated with lower levels of metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive strategies or sensitivity to metacognitive experiences in reading situations.

  6. Method of forming a hardened surface on a substrate

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.

    2010-08-31

    The invention includes a method of producing a hard metallic material by forming a mixture containing at least 55% iron and at least one of B, C, Si and P. The mixture is formed into an alloy and cooled to form a metallic material having a hardness of greater than about 9.2 GPa. The invention includes a method of forming a wire by combining a metal strip and a powder. The metal strip and the powder are rolled to form a wire containing at least 55% iron and from two to seven additional elements including at least one of C, Si and B. The invention also includes a method of forming a hardened surface on a substrate by processing a solid mass to form a powder, applying the powder to a surface to form a layer containing metallic glass, and converting the glass to a crystalline material having a nanocrystalline grain size.

  7. Correlation between maxillary central incisor crown morphology and mandibular dental arch form in normal occlusion subjects.

    PubMed

    Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Lima, Carolina Souto; da Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves; Daruge Júnior, Eduardo; Torres, Fernando Cesar

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the morphology of the mandibular dental arch and the maxillary central incisor crown. Cast models from 51 Caucasian individuals, older than 15 years, with optimal occlusion, no previous orthodontic treatment, featuring 4 of the 6 keys to normal occlusion by Andrews (the first being mandatory) were observed. The models were digitalized using a 3D scanner, and images of the maxillary central incisor and mandibular dental arch were obtained. These were printed and placed in an album below pre-set models of arches and dental crowns, and distributed to 12 dental surgeons, who were asked to choose which shape was most in accordance with the models and crown presented. The Kappa test was performed to evaluate the concordance among evaluators while the chi-square test was used to verify the association between the dental arch and central incisor morphology, at a 5% significance level. The Kappa test showed moderate agreement among evaluators for both variables of this study, and the chi-square test showed no significant association between tooth shape and mandibular dental arch morphology. It may be concluded that the use of arch morphology as a diagnostic method to determine the shape of the maxillary central incisor is not appropriate. Further research is necessary to assess tooth shape using a stricter scientific basis.

  8. A Method for Quantifying, Visualising, and Analysing Gastropod Shell Form

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Thor-Seng; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of organismal form is an important component for almost every branch of biology. Although generally considered an easily-measurable structure, the quantification of gastropod shell form is still a challenge because many shells lack homologous structures and have a spiral form that is difficult to capture with linear measurements. In view of this, we adopt the idea of theoretical modelling of shell form, in which the shell form is the product of aperture ontogeny profiles in terms of aperture growth trajectory that is quantified as curvature and torsion, and of aperture form that is represented by size and shape. We develop a workflow for the analysis of shell forms based on the aperture ontogeny profile, starting from the procedure of data preparation (retopologising the shell model), via data acquisition (calculation of aperture growth trajectory, aperture form and ontogeny axis), and data presentation (qualitative comparison between shell forms) and ending with data analysis (quantitative comparison between shell forms). We evaluate our methods on representative shells of the genera Opisthostoma and Plectostoma, which exhibit great variability in shell form. The outcome suggests that our method is a robust, reproducible, and versatile approach for the analysis of shell form. Finally, we propose several potential applications of our methods in functional morphology, theoretical modelling, taxonomy, and evolutionary biology. PMID:27280463

  9. Methods of forming single source precursors, methods of forming polymeric single source precursors, and single source precursors formed by such methods

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Robert V.; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin; Margulieux, Kelsey R.; Holland, Andrew W.

    2014-09-09

    Methods of forming single source precursors (SSPs) include forming intermediate products having the empirical formula 1/2{L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'X.sub.2}.sub.2, and reacting MER with the intermediate products to form SSPs of the formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2, wherein L is a Lewis base, M is a Group IA atom, N is a Group IB atom, M' is a Group IIIB atom, each E is a Group VIB atom, each X is a Group VIIA atom or a nitrate group, and each R group is an alkyl, aryl, vinyl, (per)fluoro alkyl, (per)fluoro aryl, silane, or carbamato group. Methods of forming polymeric or copolymeric SSPs include reacting at least one of HE.sup.1R.sup.1E.sup.1H and MER with one or more substances having the empirical formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2 or L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'(X).sub.2 to form a polymeric or copolymeric SSP. New SSPs and intermediate products are formed by such methods.

  10. Methods of forming single source precursors, methods of forming polymeric single source precursors, and single source precursors and intermediate products formed by such methods

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Robert V.; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin; Margulieux, Kelsey R.; Holland, Andrew W.

    2012-12-04

    Methods of forming single source precursors (SSPs) include forming intermediate products having the empirical formula 1/2{L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'X.sub.2}.sub.2, and reacting MER with the intermediate products to form SSPs of the formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2, wherein L is a Lewis base, M is a Group IA atom, N is a Group IB atom, M' is a Group IIIB atom, each E is a Group VIB atom, each X is a Group VIIA atom or a nitrate group, and each R group is an alkyl, aryl, vinyl, (per)fluoro alkyl, (per)fluoro aryl, silane, or carbamato group. Methods of forming polymeric or copolymeric SSPs include reacting at least one of HE.sup.1R.sup.1E.sup.1H and MER with one or more substances having the empirical formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2 or L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'(X).sub.2 to form a polymeric or copolymeric SSP. New SSPs and intermediate products are formed by such methods.

  11. Methods of forming single source precursors, methods of forming polymeric single source precursors, and single source precursors formed by such methods

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Robert V.; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin; Margulieux, Kelsey R.; Holland, Andrew W.

    2016-04-19

    Methods of forming single source precursors (SSPs) include forming intermediate products having the empirical formula 1/2{L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'X.sub.2}.sub.2, and reacting MER with the intermediate products to form SSPs of the formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2, wherein L is a Lewis base, M is a Group IA atom, N is a Group IB atom, M' is a Group IIIB atom, each E is a Group VIB atom, each X is a Group VIIA atom or a nitrate group, and each R group is an alkyl, aryl, vinyl, (per)fluoro alkyl, (per)fluoro aryl, silane, or carbamato group. Methods of forming polymeric or copolymeric SSPs include reacting at least one of HE.sup.1R.sup.1E.sup.1H and MER with one or more substances having the empirical formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2 or L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'(X).sub.2 to form a polymeric or copolymeric SSP. New SSPs and intermediate products are formed by such methods.

  12. A method of congruent type for linear systems with conjugate-normal coefficient matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi Kamalvand, M.; Ikramov, Kh. D.

    2009-02-01

    Minimal residual methods, such as MINRES and GMRES, are well-known iterative versions of direct procedures for reducing a matrix to special condensed forms. The method of reduction used in these procedures is a sequence of unitary similarity transformations, while the condensed form is a tridiagonal matrix (MINRES) or a Hessenberg matrix (GMRES). The algorithm CSYM proposed in the 1990s for solving systems with complex symmetric matrices was based on the tridiagonal reduction performed via unitary congruences rather than similarities. In this paper, we construct an extension of this algorithm to the entire class of conjugate-normal matrices. (Complex symmetric matrices are a part of this class.) Numerical results are presented. They show that, on many occasions, the proposed algorithm has a superior convergence rate compared to GMRES.

  13. Methods of forming thermal management systems and thermal management methods

    DOEpatents

    Gering, Kevin L.; Haefner, Daryl R.

    2012-06-05

    A thermal management system for a vehicle includes a heat exchanger having a thermal energy storage material provided therein, a first coolant loop thermally coupled to an electrochemical storage device located within the first coolant loop and to the heat exchanger, and a second coolant loop thermally coupled to the heat exchanger. The first and second coolant loops are configured to carry distinct thermal energy transfer media. The thermal management system also includes an interface configured to facilitate transfer of heat generated by an internal combustion engine to the heat exchanger via the second coolant loop in order to selectively deliver the heat to the electrochemical storage device. Thermal management methods are also provided.

  14. Method for restoration of normal phenotype in cancer cells

    DOEpatents

    Bissell, Mina J.; Weaver, Valerie M.

    2000-01-01

    A method for reversing expression of malignant phenotype in cancer cells is described. The method comprises applying .beta..sub.1 integrin function-blocking antibody to the cells. The method can be used to assess the progress of cancer therapy. Human breast epithelial cells were shown to be particularly responsive.

  15. Mössbauer spectroscopic study of the forms of iron in normal human liver and spleen tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua-Anusorn, W.; Pierre, T. G. St.; Webb, J.; Macey, D. J.; Yansukon, P.; Pootrakul, P.

    1994-12-01

    Mössbauer spectra of 12 normal human spleen and 12 normal human liver samples ( post mortem) from Australia and Thailand have been recorded at 78 K. The spectra show the presence of iron in the form of ferrihydrite, together with some deoxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin in some samples. The spectra were used in conjunction with elemental analysis to calculate the non-heme iron concentrations in the tissues. The mean non-heme iron concentration in the Thai livers was significantly less than that for the Australian samples. The goethite-like form of hemosiderin that has been observed in some pathological tissues was not detected.

  16. Method for heating and forming a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, Premakaran Tucker

    1997-01-01

    A method for heating and forming a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature and forming the glass sheet using forming rollers to a predetermined configuration.

  17. Method for heating and forming a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, P.T.

    1997-08-12

    A method for heating and forming a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature and forming the glass sheet using forming rollers to a predetermined configuration. 5 figs.

  18. Method for forming hermetic coatings for optical fibers

    DOEpatents

    Michalske, Terry A.; Rye, Robert R.; Smith, William L.

    1993-01-01

    A method for forming hermetic coatings on optical fibers by hot filament assisted chemical vapor deposition advantageously produces a desirable coating while maintaining the pristine strength of the pristine fiber. The hermetic coatings may be formed from a variety of substances, such as, for example, boron nitride and carbon.

  19. Conjugate and method for forming aminomethyl phosphorus conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Katti, Kattesh V.; Berning, Douglas E.; Volkert, Wynn A.; Ketring, Alan R.; Churchill, Robert

    1999-01-01

    A method of forming phosphine-amine conjugates includes reacting a hydroxymethyl phosphine group of an amine-free first molecule with at least one free amine group of a second molecule to covalently bond the first molecule with the second molecule through an aminomethyl phosphorus linkage and the conjugates formed thereby.

  20. Conjugate and method for forming aminomethyl phosphorus conjugates

    SciTech Connect

    Katti, K.V.; Berning, D.E.; Volkert, W.A.; Ketring, A.R.; Churchill, R.

    1999-09-07

    A method of forming phosphine-amine conjugates includes reacting a hydroxymethyl phosphine group of an amine-free first molecule with at least one free amine group of a second molecule to covalently bond the first molecule with the second molecule through an aminomethyl phosphorus linkage and the conjugates formed thereby.

  1. Method of forming a wick for a heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arcella, F. G.; Phillips, E. C., Jr.; Sprecace, R. P. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A method of forming a tubular wick for a heat pipe is presented. The method is characterized by the steps of forming a wick blank of a predetermined thickness comprising a plurality of superimposed layers of stainless steel mesh screen, wet rolling the blank for reducing the thickness, wrapping the blank about an inner mandrel, compressing the blank into a rigid tubular structure, removing the tubular structure from the mandrel and sintering the tubular structure.

  2. Normalized modularity optimization method for community identification with degree adjustment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuqin; Zhao, Hongyu

    2013-11-01

    As a fundamental problem in network study, community identification has attracted much attention from different fields. Representing a seminal work in this area, the modularity optimization method has been widely applied and studied. However, this method has issues in resolution limit and extreme degeneracy and may not perform well for networks with unbalanced structures. Although several methods have been proposed to overcome these limitations, they are all based on the original idea of defining modularity through comparing the total number of edges within the putative communities in the observed network with that in an equivalent randomly generated network. In this paper, we show that this modularity definition is not suitable to analyze some networks such as those with unbalanced structures. Instead, we propose to define modularity through the average degree within the communities and formulate modularity as comparing the sum of average degree within communities of the observed network to that of an equivalent randomly generated network. In addition, we also propose a degree-adjusted approach for further improvement when there are unbalanced structures. We analyze the theoretical properties of our degree adjusted method. Numerical experiments for both artificial networks and real networks demonstrate that average degree plays an important role in network community identification, and our proposed methods have better performance than existing ones.

  3. Automatic Method of Pause Measurement for Normal and Dysarthric Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Kristin; Murdoch, Bruce; Folker, Joanne; Vogel, Adam; Cahill, Louise; Delatycki, Martin; Corben, Louise

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes an automatic method for the detection of pauses and identification of pause types in conversational speech for the purpose of measuring the effects of Friedreich's Ataxia (FRDA) on speech. Speech samples of [approximately] 3 minutes were recorded from 13 speakers with FRDA and 18 healthy controls. Pauses were measured from the…

  4. METHOD FOR SOLDERING NORMALLY NON-SOLDERABLE ARTICLES

    DOEpatents

    McGuire, J.C.

    1959-11-24

    Methods are presented for coating and joining materials which are considered difficult to solder by utilizing an abrasive wheel and applying a bar of a suitable coating material, such as Wood's metal, to the rotating wheel to fill the cavities of the abrasive wheel and load the wheel with the coating material. The surface of the base material is then rubbed against the loaded rotating wheel, thereby coating the surface with the soft coating metal. The coating is a cohesive bonded layer and holds the base metal as tenaciously as a solder holds to easily solderable metals.

  5. Multi wave method for the generalized form of BBM equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bildik, Necdet; Tandogan, Yusuf Ali

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we apply the multi-wave method to find new multi wave solutions for an important nonlinear physical model. This model is well known as generalized form of Benjamin Bona Mahony (BBM) equation. Using the mathematics software Mathematica, we compute the traveling wave solutions. Then, the multi wave solutions including periodic wave solutions, bright soliton solutions and rational function solutions are obtained by the multi wave method. It is seen that this method is very useful mathematical approach for generalized form of BBM equation.

  6. Form of 15q proximal duplication appears to be a normal euchromatic variant

    SciTech Connect

    Jalal, S.M.; Persons, D.L.; DeWald, G.W.; Lindor, N.M.

    1994-10-01

    Deletions involving often leads to either Prader-Willi or Angelman syndrome, depending on the hereditary path of the deletion (paternal or maternal). A number of cases have been reported in which duplications involving 15q11.2-q13 have not been associated with any detectable phenotypic abnormalities. Ludowese et al. (1991) have summarized 25 such cases that include 10 of their own cases from 5 unrelated families. They conclude that duplication of 15q12-13 does not have an adverse phenotypic effect, though they do not completely rule out the possibility that, instead of 15q12-13 duplication, the extra material could be an insertion from another chromosome. Thus, the dilemma is when duplication of 15q11.2-q13 is clinically significant. We suggest that certain kinds of amplification or duplication involving distal 15q12 and 15q13 may represent a normal variant. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Method for Fabricating Composite Structures Using Continuous Press Forming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A method for fabricating composite structures at a low-cost. moderate-to-high production rate. A first embodiment of the method includes employing a continuous press forming fabrication process. A second embodiment of the method includes employing a pultrusion process for obtaining composite structures. The methods include coating yarns with matrix material, weaving the yarn into fabric to produce a continuous fabric supply and feeding multiple layers of net-shaped fabrics having optimally oriented fibers into a debulking tool to form an undebulked preform. The continuous press forming fabrication process includes partially debulking the preform, cutting the partially debulked preform and debulking the partially debulked preform to form a net-shape. An electron-beam or similar technique then cures the structure. The pultrusion fabric process includes feeding the undebulked preform into a heated die and gradually debulking the undebulked preform. The undebulked preform in the heated die changes dimension until a desired cross-sectional dimension is achieved. This process further includes obtaining a net-shaped infiltrated uncured preform, cutting the uncured preform to a desired length and electron-beam curing (or similar technique) the uncured preform. These fabrication methods produce superior structures formed at higher production rates. resulting in lower cost and high structural performance.

  8. Generation of Strategies for Environmental Deception in Two-Player Normal-Form Games

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-18

    two-player, strategic-form games. Environmental deception is defined as deception where one player has the ability to change the other’s perception ...of the state of the game through modification of their perception of the game’s payoff matrix, similar to the use of camouflage. The main...environmental deception as the deceiver changes the mark’s perception regarding the state of the world rather than his perception of the deceiver’s

  9. Determining quasidiabatic coupled electronic state Hamiltonians using derivative couplings: A normal equations based method.

    PubMed

    Papas, Brian N; Schuurman, Michael S; Yarkony, David R

    2008-09-28

    A self-consistent procedure for constructing a quasidiabatic Hamiltonian representing N(state) coupled electronic states in the vicinity of an arbitrary point in nuclear coordinate space is described. The matrix elements of the Hamiltonian are polynomials of arbitrary order. Employing a crude adiabatic basis, the coefficients of the linear terms are determined exactly using analytic gradient techniques. The remaining polynomial coefficients are determined from the normal form of a system of pseudolinear equations, which uses energy gradient and derivative coupling information obtained from reliable multireference configuration interaction wave functions. In a previous implementation energy gradient and derivative coupling information were employed to limit the number of nuclear configurations at which ab initio data were required to determine the unknown coefficients. Conversely, the key aspect of the current approach is the use of ab initio data over an extended range of nuclear configurations. The normal form of the system of pseudolinear equations is introduced here to obtain a least-squares fit to what would have been an (intractable) overcomplete set of data in the previous approach. This method provides a quasidiabatic representation that minimizes the residual derivative coupling in a least-squares sense, a means to extend the domain of accuracy of the diabatic Hamiltonian or refine its accuracy within a given domain, and a way to impose point group symmetry and hermiticity. These attributes are illustrated using the 1 (2)A(1) and 1 (2)E states of the 1-propynyl radical, CH(3)CC.

  10. METHOD OF FORMING TANTALUM SILICIDE ON TANTALUM SURFACES

    DOEpatents

    Bowman, M.G.; Krikorian, N.H.

    1961-10-01

    A method is described for forming a non-corrosive silicide coating on tantalum. The coating is made through the heating of trirhenium silicides in contact with the tantalum object to approximately 1400 deg C at which temperature trirhenium silicide decomposes into rhenium and gaseous silicons. The silicon vapor reacts with the tantalum surface to form a tantalum silicide layer approximately 10 microns thick. (AEC)

  11. Method for forming glass-to-metal seals

    DOEpatents

    Kramer, D.P.; Massey, R.T.

    1985-08-26

    Disclosed is a method for forming a glass-to-metal seal in which the glass has a higher melting point than the metal. The molten glass is vacuum injection molded onto the metal, thus melting a very thin layer of the surface of the metal long enough to form a seal, but not long enough to cause a distortion in the shape of the metal component.

  12. Method for forming glass-to-metal seals

    DOEpatents

    Kramer, Daniel P.; Massey, Richard T.

    1986-01-01

    A method for forming a glass-to-metal seal in which the glass has a higher melting point than the metal. The molten glass is vacuum injection molded onto the metal, thus melting a very thin layer of the surface of the metal long enough to form a seal, but not long enough to cause a distortion in the shape of the metal component.

  13. Method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, P.T.; Sitzman, G.W.

    1998-10-27

    A method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet is disclosed including the steps of heating at least one glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, forming the glass sheet to a predetermined configuration, and cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature to temper the glass sheet. 2 figs.

  14. Method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Boaz, Premakaran Tucker; Sitzman, Gary W.

    1998-01-01

    A method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet including the steps of heating at least one glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, forming the glass sheet to a predetermined configuration, and cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature to temper the glass sheet.

  15. Method of forming supported doped palladium containing oxidation catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Mohajeri, Nahid

    2014-04-22

    A method of forming a supported oxidation catalyst includes providing a support comprising a metal oxide or a metal salt, and depositing first palladium compound particles and second precious metal group (PMG) metal particles on the support while in a liquid phase including at least one solvent to form mixed metal comprising particles on the support. The PMG metal is not palladium. The mixed metal particles on the support are separated from the liquid phase to provide the supported oxidation catalyst.

  16. Method of forming a rubblized in-situ retort

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.

    1980-03-25

    An in-situ retort is formed in an oil shale deposit by a sublevel caving method in which the starting slot for the sublevel caving is at opposite ends of the retort on adjacent sublevels. Any zones of high permeability that are formed adjacent to the starting slots are limited in vertical extent to the vertical spacing of the sublevels and are spaced from the zones of high permeability in adjacent sublevels by the length of the retort. A source of channeling through the retort that is caused by the usual sublevel caving mining method is thereby eliminated.

  17. Hollow fiber membranes and methods for forming same

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandari, Dhaval Ajit; McCloskey, Patrick Joseph; Howson, Paul Edward; Narang, Kristi Jean; Koros, William

    2016-03-22

    The invention provides improved hollow fiber membranes having at least two layers, and methods for forming the same. The methods include co-extruding a first composition, a second composition, and a third composition to form a dual layer hollow fiber membrane. The first composition includes a glassy polymer; the second composition includes a polysiloxane; and the third composition includes a bore fluid. The dual layer hollow fiber membranes include a first layer and a second layer, the first layer being a porous layer which includes the glassy polymer of the first composition, and the second layer being a polysiloxane layer which includes the polysiloxane of the second composition.

  18. Delivery Device and Method for Forming the Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Peter X. (Inventor); Liu, Xiaohua (Inventor); McCauley, Laurie (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A delivery device includes a hollow container, and a plurality of biodegradable and/or erodible polymeric layers established in the container. A layer including a predetermined substance is established between each of the plurality of polymeric layers, whereby degradation of the polymeric layer and release of the predetermined substance occur intermittently. Methods for forming the device are also disclosed herein.

  19. Method of making nanostructured glass-ceramic waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Huizhen; Wang, Yifeng; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Bencoe, Denise N.

    2014-07-08

    A waste form for and a method of rendering hazardous materials less dangerous is disclosed that includes fixing the hazardous material in nanopores of a nanoporous material, reacting the trapped hazardous material to render it less volatile/soluble, and vitrifying the nanoporous material containing the less volatile/soluble hazardous material.

  20. Method of forming impermeable carbide coats on graphite

    DOEpatents

    Wohlberg, C.

    1973-12-11

    A method of forming an impermeable refractory metal carbide coating on graphite is described in which a metal containing oxidant and a carbide former are applied to the surface of the graphite, heated to a temperature of between 1200 and 1500 deg C in an inert gas, under a vacuum and continuing to heat to about 2300 deg C. (Official Gazette)

  1. Electrodynamics, Differential Forms and the Method of Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a brief description of how Maxwell's equations are expressed in the language of differential forms and use this to provide an elegant demonstration of how the method of images (well known in electrostatics) also works for electrodynamics in the presence of an infinite plane conducting boundary. The paper should be accessible to an…

  2. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: shocks and outflows in a normal star-forming galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, I.-Ting; Kewley, Lisa J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Medling, Anne M.; Allen, J. T.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bloom, Jessica V.; Bryant, Julia J.; Croom, Scott M.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Goodwin, Michael; Green, Andy W.; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis S.; Lawrence, Jon S.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Owers, Matt S.; Richards, Samuel; Sharp, Rob

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility and potential of using large integral field spectroscopic surveys to investigate the prevalence of galactic-scale outflows in the local Universe. Using integral field data from the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) and the Wide Field Spectrograph, we study the nature of an isolated disc galaxy, SDSS J090005.05+000446.7 (z = 0.053 86). In the integral field data sets, the galaxy presents skewed line profiles changing with position in the galaxy. The skewed line profiles are caused by different kinematic components overlapping in the line-of-sight direction. We perform spectral decomposition to separate the line profiles in each spatial pixel as combinations of (1) a narrow kinematic component consistent with H II regions, (2) a broad kinematic component consistent with shock excitation, and (3) an intermediate component consistent with shock excitation and photoionization mixing. The three kinematic components have distinctly different velocity fields, velocity dispersions, line ratios, and electron densities. We model the line ratios, velocity dispersions, and electron densities with our MAPPINGS IV shock and photoionization models, and we reach remarkable agreement between the data and the models. The models demonstrate that the different emission line properties are caused by major galactic outflows that introduce shock excitation in addition to photoionization by star-forming activities. Interstellar shocks embedded in the outflows shock-excite and compress the gas, causing the elevated line ratios, velocity dispersions, and electron densities observed in the broad kinematic component. We argue from energy considerations that, with the lack of a powerful active galactic nucleus, the outflows are likely to be driven by starburst activities. Our results set a benchmark of the type of analysis that can be achieved by the SAMI Galaxy Survey on large numbers of galaxies.

  3. Effects of interchanging hyperopic defocus and form deprivation stimuli in normal and optic nerve-sectioned chicks.

    PubMed

    Choh, Vivian; Lew, MinJung Y; Nadel, Michel W; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2006-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that the same mechanisms mediate form deprivation and lens-induced myopia, the ocular growth responses of chicks alternately exposed to lenses and diffusers at regular intervals (3h) were compared to those of chicks exposed to either negative lenses or diffusers alone. In total, there were four experiments: (1) -15 D lenses and/or diffusers on normal birds, (2) -15 D lenses and/or diffusers on optic nerve-sectioned (ONS) birds, (3) -5/-10/-15 D lenses (sequentially applied) and/or diffusers on normal birds and (4) -5/-10/-15 D lenses and/or diffusers on ONS birds. All treatments were monocular. In all experiments, optical axial lengths (cornea-to-retina distances) in treated eyes were greater than in fellow eyes, irrespective of the optical device (diffuser, lens or switch), lens power (fixed or incremented) and optic nerve condition (intact or severed). In normal chicks, optical axial length responses in the switch group were significantly reduced relative to those of the diffuser but not to those of the -15 D lens group. For both groups of ONS birds, diffusers exaggerated the optical axial length changes. For all groups, the responses to the switch and lens groups were most similar. These results together suggest that the mechanisms mediating form deprivation- and lens-induced myopia are different.

  4. Charge-free method of forming nanostructures on a substrate

    DOEpatents

    Hoffbauer; Mark , Akhadov; Elshan

    2010-07-20

    A charge-free method of forming a nanostructure at low temperatures on a substrate. A substrate that is reactive with one of atomic oxygen and nitrogen is provided. A flux of neutral atoms of least one of oxygen and nitrogen is generated within a laser-sustained-discharge plasma source and a collimated beam of energetic neutral atoms and molecules is directed from the plasma source onto a surface of the substrate to form the nanostructure. The energetic neutral atoms and molecules in the beam have an average kinetic energy in a range from about 1 eV to about 5 eV.

  5. METHOD OF FORMING A PROTECTIVE COATING ON FERROUS METAL SURFACES

    DOEpatents

    Schweitzer, D.G.; Weeks, J.R.; Kammerer, O.F.; Gurinsky, D.H.

    1960-02-23

    A method is described of protecting ferrous metal surfaces from corrosive attack by liquid metals, such as liquid bismuth or lead-bismuth alloys. The nitrogen content of the ferrous metal surface is first reduced by reacting the metal surface with a metal which forms a stable nitride. Thereafter, the surface is contacted with liquid metal containing at least 2 ppm zirconium at a temperature in the range of 550 to 1100 deg C to form an adherent zirconium carbide layer on the ferrous surface.

  6. Post-UV colony-forming ability of normal fibroblast strains and of the xeroderma pigmentosum group G strain

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, S.F.; Tarone, R.E.; Moshell, A.N.; Ganges, M.B.; Robbins, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    In xeroderma pigmentosum, an inherited disorder of defective DNA repair, post-uv colony-forming ability of fibroblasts from patients in complementation groups A through F correlates with the patients' neurological status. The first xeroderma pigmentosum patient assigned to the recently discovered group G had the neurological abnormalities of XP. Researchers have determined the post-uv colony-forming ability of cultured fibroblasts from this patient and from 5 more control donors. Log-phase fibroblasts were irradiated with 254 nm uv light from a germicidal lamp, trypsinized, and replated at known densities. After 2 to 4 weeks' incubation the cells were fixed, stained and scored for colony formation. The strains' post-uv colony-forming ability curves were obtained by plotting the log of the percent remaining post-uv colony-forming ability as a function of the uv dose. The post-uv colony-forming ability of 2 of the 5 new normal strains was in the previously defined control donor zone, but that of the other 3 extended down to the level of the most resistant xeroderma pigmentosum strain. The post-uv colony-forming ability curve of the group G fibroblasts was not significantly different from the curves of the group D fibroblast strains from patients with clinical histories similar to that of the group G patient.

  7. Analysis of boutique arrays: a universal method for the selection of the optimal data normalization procedure.

    PubMed

    Uszczyńska, Barbara; Zyprych-Walczak, Joanna; Handschuh, Luiza; Szabelska, Alicja; Kaźmierczak, Maciej; Woronowicz, Wiesława; Kozłowski, Piotr; Sikorski, Michał M; Komarnicki, Mieczysław; Siatkowski, Idzi; Figlerowicz, Marek

    2013-09-01

    DNA microarrays, which are among the most popular genomic tools, are widely applied in biology and medicine. Boutique arrays, which are small, spotted, dedicated microarrays, constitute an inexpensive alternative to whole-genome screening methods. The data extracted from each microarray-based experiment must be transformed and processed prior to further analysis to eliminate any technical bias. The normalization of the data is the most crucial step of microarray data pre-processing and this process must be carefully considered as it has a profound effect on the results of the analysis. Several normalization algorithms have been developed and implemented in data analysis software packages. However, most of these methods were designed for whole-genome analysis. In this study, we tested 13 normalization strategies (ten for double-channel data and three for single-channel data) available on R Bioconductor and compared their effectiveness in the normalization of four boutique array datasets. The results revealed that boutique arrays can be successfully normalized using standard methods, but not every method is suitable for each dataset. We also suggest a universal seven-step workflow that can be applied for the selection of the optimal normalization procedure for any boutique array dataset. The described workflow enables the evaluation of the investigated normalization methods based on the bias and variance values for the control probes, a differential expression analysis and a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The analysis of each component results in a separate ranking of the normalization methods. A combination of the ranks obtained from all the normalization procedures facilitates the selection of the most appropriate normalization method for the studied dataset and determines which methods can be used interchangeably.

  8. Close-form expression of one-tap normalized LMS carrier phase recovery in optical communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tianhua; Jacobsen, Gunnar; Popov, Sergei; Li, Jie; Liu, Tiegen; Zhang, Yimo

    2016-10-01

    The performance of long-haul high speed coherent optical fiber communication systems is significantly degraded by the laser phase noise and the equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN). In this paper, the analysis of the one-tap normalized least-mean-square (LMS) carrier phase recovery (CPR) is carried out and the close-form expression is investigated for quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) coherent optical fiber communication systems, in compensating both laser phase noise and equalization enhanced phase noise. Numerical simulations have also been implemented to verify the theoretical analysis. It is found that the one-tap normalized least-mean-square algorithm gives the same analytical expression for predicting CPR bit-error-rate (BER) floors as the traditional differential carrier phase recovery, when both the laser phase noise and the equalization enhanced phase noise are taken into account.

  9. Normal and abnormal tissue identification system and method for medical images such as digital mammograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heine, John J. (Inventor); Clarke, Laurence P. (Inventor); Deans, Stanley R. (Inventor); Stauduhar, Richard Paul (Inventor); Cullers, David Kent (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A system and method for analyzing a medical image to determine whether an abnormality is present, for example, in digital mammograms, includes the application of a wavelet expansion to a raw image to obtain subspace images of varying resolution. At least one subspace image is selected that has a resolution commensurate with a desired predetermined detection resolution range. A functional form of a probability distribution function is determined for each selected subspace image, and an optimal statistical normal image region test is determined for each selected subspace image. A threshold level for the probability distribution function is established from the optimal statistical normal image region test for each selected subspace image. A region size comprising at least one sector is defined, and an output image is created that includes a combination of all regions for each selected subspace image. Each region has a first value when the region intensity level is above the threshold and a second value when the region intensity level is below the threshold. This permits the localization of a potential abnormality within the image.

  10. Hydrogen purifier module and method for forming the same

    SciTech Connect

    DeVries, Peter David

    2012-02-07

    A hydrogen purifier utilizing a hydrogen permeable membrane, and a gas-tight seal, where the seal is uses a low temperature melting point metal, which upon heating above the melting point subsequently forms a seal alloy with adjacent metals, where the alloy has a melting point above the operational temperature of the purifier. The purifier further is constructed such that a degree of isolation exists between the metal that melts to form the seal and the active area of the purifier membrane, so that the active area of the purifier membrane is not corrupted. A method of forming a hydrogen purifier utilizing a hydrogen permeable membrane with a seal of the same type is also disclosed.

  11. Method for forming H2-permselective oxide membranes

    DOEpatents

    Gavalas, G.R.; Nam, S.W.; Tsapatsis, M.; Kim, S.

    1995-09-26

    Methods are disclosed for forming permselective oxide membranes that are highly selective to permeation of hydrogen by chemical deposition of reactants in the pore of porous tubes, such as Vycor{trademark} glass or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tubes. The porous tubes have pores extending through the tube wall. The process involves forming a stream containing a first reactant of the formula RX{sub n}, wherein R is silicon, titanium, boron or aluminum, X is chlorine, bromine or iodine, and n is a number which is equal to the valence of R; and forming another stream containing water vapor as the second reactant. Both of the reactant streams are passed along either the outside or the inside surface of a porous tube and the streams react in the pores of the porous tube to form a nonporous layer of R-oxide in the pores. The membranes are formed by the hydrolysis of the respective halides. In another embodiment, the first reactant stream contains a first reactant having the formula SiH{sub n}Cl{sub 4{minus}n} where n is 1, 2 or 3; and the second reactant stream contains water vapor and oxygen. In still another embodiment the first reactant stream containing a first reactant selected from the group consisting of Cl{sub 3}SiOSiCl{sub 3}, Cl{sub 3}SiOSiCl{sub 2}OSiCl{sub 3}, and mixtures thereof and the second reactant stream contains water vapor. In still another embodiment, membrane formation is carried out by an alternating flow deposition method. This involves a sequence of cycles, each cycle comprising introduction of the halide-containing stream and allowance of a specific time for reaction followed by purge and flow of the water vapor containing stream for a specific length of time. In all embodiments the nonporous layers formed are selectively permeable to hydrogen. 11 figs.

  12. Method for forming H2-permselective oxide membranes

    DOEpatents

    Gavalas, George R.; Nam, Suk Woo; Tsapatsis, Michael; Kim, Soojin

    1995-01-01

    Methods of forming permselective oxide membranes that are highly selective to permeation of hydrogen by chemical deposition of reactants in the pore of porous tubes, such as Vycor.TM. glass or Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 tubes. The porous tubes have pores extending through the tube wall. The process involves forming a stream containing a first reactant of the formula RX.sub.n, wherein R is silicon, titanium, boron or aluminum, X is chlorine, bromine or iodine, and n is a number which is equal to the valence of R; and forming another stream containing water vapor as the second reactant. Both of the reactant streams are passed along either the outside or the inside surface of a porous tube and the streams react in the pores of the porous tube to form a nonporous layer of R-oxide in the pores. The membranes are formed by the hydrolysis of the respective halides. In another embodiment, the first reactant stream contains a first reactant having the formula SiH.sub.n Cl.sub.4-n where n is 1, 2 or 3; and the second reactant stream contains water vapor and oxygen. In still another embodiment the first reactant stream containing a first reactant selected from the group consisting of Cl.sub.3 SiOSiCl.sub.3, Cl.sub.3 SiOSiCl.sub.2 OSiCl.sub.3, and mixtures thereof and the second reactant stream contains water vapor. In still another embodiment, membrane formation is carried out by an alternating flow deposition method. This involves a sequence of cycles, each cycle comprising introduction of the halide-containing stream and allowance of a specific time for reaction followed by purge and flow of the water vapor containing stream for a specific length of time. In all embodiments the nonporous layers formed are selectively permeable to hydrogen.

  13. Method of forming and assembly of metal and ceramic parts

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B

    2014-04-22

    A method of forming and assembling at least two parts together that may be metal, ceramic, or a combination of metal and ceramic parts. Such parts may have different CTE. Individual parts that are formed and sintered from particles leave a network of interconnecting porosity in each sintered part. The separate parts are assembled together and then a fill material is infiltrated into the assembled parts using a method such as capillary action, gravity, and/or pressure. The assembly is then cured to yield a bonded and fully or near-fully dense part that has the desired physical and mechanical properties for the part's intended purpose. Structural strength may be added to the parts by the inclusion of fibrous materials.

  14. Methods of forming a fluidized bed of circulating particles

    DOEpatents

    Marshall, Douglas W.

    2011-05-24

    There is disclosed an apparatus for forming a fluidized bed of circulating particles. In an embodiment, the apparatus includes a bottom portion having a sidewall, the sidewall defining a curvilinear profile, and the bottom portion configured to contain a bed of particles; and a gas inlet configured to produce a column of gas to carry entrained particles therein. There is disclosed a method of forming a fluidized bed of circulating particles. In an embodiment, the method includes positioning particles within a bottom portion having a sidewall, the sidewall defining a curvilinear profile; producing a column of gas directed upwardly through a gas inlet; carrying entrained particles in the column of gas to produce a fountain of particles over the fluidized bed of circulating particles and subside in the particle bed until being directed inwardly into the column of gas within the curvilinear profile.

  15. Method for forming a nano-textured substrate

    DOEpatents

    Jeong, Sangmoo; Hu, Liangbing; Cui, Yi

    2015-04-07

    A method for forming a nano-textured surface on a substrate is disclosed. An illustrative embodiment of the present invention comprises dispensing of a nanoparticle ink of nanoparticles and solvent onto the surface of a substrate, distributing the ink to form substantially uniform, liquid nascent layer of the ink, and enabling the solvent to evaporate from the nanoparticle ink thereby inducing the nanoparticles to assemble into an texture layer. Methods in accordance with the present invention enable rapid formation of large-area substrates having a nano-textured surface. Embodiments of the present invention are well suited for texturing substrates using high-speed, large scale, roll-to-roll coating equipment, such as that used in office product, film coating, and flexible packaging applications. Further, embodiments of the present invention are well suited for use with rigid or flexible substrates.

  16. Method for forming porous sintered bodies with controlled pore structure

    DOEpatents

    Whinnery, LeRoy Louis; Nichols, Monte Carl

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is based, in part, on a method for combining a mixture of hydroxide and hydride functional siloxanes to form a polysiloxane polymer foam, that leaves no residue (zero char yield) upon thermal decomposition, with ceramic and/or metal powders and appropriate catalysts to produce porous foam structures having compositions, densities, porosities and structures not previously attainable. The siloxanes are mixed with the ceramic and/or metal powder, wherein the powder has a particle size of about 400 .mu.m or less, a catalyst is added causing the siloxanes to foam and crosslink, thereby forming a polysiloxane polymer foam having the metal or ceramic powder dispersed therein. The polymer foam is heated to thermally decompose the polymer foam and sinter the powder particles together. Because the system is completely nonaqueous, this method further provides for incorporating reactive metals such as magnesium and aluminum, which can be further processed, into the foam structure.

  17. FORMED: Bringing Formal Methods to the Engineering Desktop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    other languages and tools, such as Coq. While the language was easy to pick up, based on Lisp, the tools took a while to learn . Documentation...Tree DSL Domain Specific Language FORMED Formal Methods Engineering Desktop IDE Integrated Development Environment OCL Object Constraint Language ... integrates formal verification into software design and development by precisely defining semantics for a restricted subset of the Unified Modeling

  18. Method for forming an abrasive surface on a tool

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D.; White, Rickey L.; Swindeman, Catherine J.; Kahl, W. Keith

    1999-01-01

    A method for fabricating a tool used in cutting, grinding and machining operations, is provided. The method is used to deposit a mixture comprising an abrasive material and a bonding material on a tool surface. The materials are propelled toward the receiving surface of the tool substrate using a thermal spray process. The thermal spray process melts the bonding material portion of the mixture, but not the abrasive material. Upon impacting the tool surface, the mixture or composition solidifies to form a hard abrasive tool coating.

  19. Method for forming gold-containing catalyst with porous structure

    DOEpatents

    Biener, Juergen; Hamza, Alex V; Baeumer, Marcus; Schulz, Christian; Jurgens, Birte; Biener, Monika M.

    2014-07-22

    A method for forming a gold-containing catalyst with porous structure according to one embodiment of the present invention includes producing a starting alloy by melting together of gold and at least one less noble metal that is selected from the group consisting of silver, copper, rhodium, palladium, and platinum; and a dealloying step comprising at least partial removal of the less noble metal by dissolving the at least one less noble metal out of the starting alloy. Additional methods and products thereof are also presented.

  20. Method for forming silicon on a glass substrate

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1995-01-01

    A method by which single-crystal silicon microelectronics may be fabricated on glass substrates at unconventionally low temperatures. This is achieved by fabricating a thin film of silicon on glass and subsequently forming the doped components by a short wavelength (excimer) laser doping procedure and conventional patterning techniques. This method may include introducing a heavily boron doped etch stop layer on a silicon wafer using an excimer laser, which permits good control of the etch stop layer removal process. This method additionally includes dramatically reducing the remaining surface roughness of the silicon thin films after etching in the fabrication of silicon on insulator wafers by scanning an excimer laser across the surface of the silicon thin film causing surface melting, whereby the surface tension of the melt causes smoothing of the surface during recrystallization. Applications for this method include those requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, such as display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard and high temperature electronics.

  1. Methods of forming aluminum oxynitride-comprising bodies, including methods of forming a sheet of transparent armor

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry Shiu-Hung [Idaho Falls, ID; Lillo, Thomas Martin [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-12-02

    The invention includes methods of forming an aluminum oxynitride-comprising body. For example, a mixture is formed which comprises A:B:C in a respective molar ratio in the range of 9:3.6-6.2:0.1-1.1, where "A" is Al.sub.2O.sub.3, "B" is AlN, and "C" is a total of one or more of B.sub.2O.sub.3, SiO.sub.2, Si--Al--O--N, and TiO.sub.2. The mixture is sintered at a temperature of at least 1,600.degree. C. at a pressure of no greater than 500 psia effective to form an aluminum oxynitride-comprising body which is at least internally transparent and has at least 99% maximum theoretical density.

  2. The chain collocation method: A spectrally accurate calculus of forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufat, Dzhelil; Mason, Gemma; Mullen, Patrick; Desbrun, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Preserving in the discrete realm the underlying geometric, topological, and algebraic structures at stake in partial differential equations has proven to be a fruitful guiding principle for numerical methods in a variety of fields such as elasticity, electromagnetism, or fluid mechanics. However, structure-preserving methods have traditionally used spaces of piecewise polynomial basis functions for differential forms. Yet, in many problems where solutions are smoothly varying in space, a spectral numerical treatment is called for. In an effort to provide structure-preserving numerical tools with spectral accuracy on logically rectangular grids over periodic or bounded domains, we present a spectral extension of the discrete exterior calculus (DEC), with resulting computational tools extending well-known collocation-based spectral methods. Its efficient implementation using fast Fourier transforms is provided as well.

  3. Method of forming a thin unbacked metal foil

    DOEpatents

    Duchane, David V.; Barthell, Barry L.

    1984-01-01

    In a method of forming a thin (<2 .mu.m) unbacked metal foil having a desired curviplanar shape, a soluble polymeric film, preferably comprising polyvinyl alcohol, is formed on a supporting structure having a shape that defines the desired shape of the foil product. A layer of metal foil is deposited onto one side of the soluble film, preferably by vacuum vapor deposition. The metallized film is then immersed in a suitable solvent to dissolve the film and thereby leave the metal foil as an unbacked metal foil element mounted on the supporting structure. Aluminum foils less than 0.2 .mu.m (2,000 .ANG.) thick and having an areal density of less than 54 .mu.g/cm.sup.2 have been obtained.

  4. Method for forming thermally stable nanoparticles on supports

    DOEpatents

    Roldan Cuenya, Beatriz; Naitabdi, Ahmed R.; Behafarid, Farzad

    2013-08-20

    An inverse micelle-based method for forming nanoparticles on supports includes dissolving a polymeric material in a solvent to provide a micelle solution. A nanoparticle source is dissolved in the micelle solution. A plurality of micelles having a nanoparticle in their core and an outer polymeric coating layer are formed in the micelle solution. The micelles are applied to a support. The polymeric coating layer is then removed from the micelles to expose the nanoparticles. A supported catalyst includes a nanocrystalline powder, thin film, or single crystal support. Metal nanoparticles having a median size from 0.5 nm to 25 nm, a size distribution having a standard deviation .ltoreq.0.1 of their median size are on or embedded in the support. The plurality of metal nanoparticles are dispersed and in a periodic arrangement. The metal nanoparticles maintain their periodic arrangement and size distribution following heat treatments of at least 1,000.degree. C.

  5. Wafer bonded virtual substrate and method for forming the same

    DOEpatents

    Atwater, Jr., Harry A.; Zahler, James M.; Morral, Anna Fontcuberta i

    2007-07-03

    A method of forming a virtual substrate comprised of an optoelectronic device substrate and handle substrate comprises the steps of initiating bonding of the device substrate to the handle substrate, improving or increasing the mechanical strength of the device and handle substrates, and thinning the device substrate to leave a single-crystal film on the virtual substrate such as by exfoliation of a device film from the device substrate. The handle substrate is typically Si or other inexpensive common substrate material, while the optoelectronic device substrate is formed of more expensive and specialized electro-optic material. Using the methodology of the invention a wide variety of thin film electro-optic materials of high quality can be bonded to inexpensive substrates which serve as the mechanical support for an optoelectronic device layer fabricated in the thin film electro-optic material.

  6. Wafer bonded virtual substrate and method for forming the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, Jr., Harry A. (Inventor); Zahler, James M. (Inventor); Morral, Anna Fontcuberta i (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method of forming a virtual substrate comprised of an optoelectronic device substrate and handle substrate comprises the steps of initiating bonding of the device substrate to the handle substrate, improving or increasing the mechanical strength of the device and handle substrates, and thinning the device substrate to leave a single-crystal film on the virtual substrate such as by exfoliation of a device film from the device substrate. The handle substrate is typically Si or other inexpensive common substrate material, while the optoelectronic device substrate is formed of more expensive and specialized electro-optic material. Using the methodology of the invention a wide variety of thin film electro-optic materials of high quality can be bonded to inexpensive substrates which serve as the mechanical support for an optoelectronic device layer fabricated in the thin film electro-optic material.

  7. Indirect methods of determination of the asymptotic normalization coefficients and their application for nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarmukhamedov, R.

    2014-05-01

    The basic methods of the determination of asymptotic normalization coefficient for A+a→B of astrophysical interest are briefly presented. The results of the application of the specific asymptotic normalization coefficients derived within these methods for the extrapolation of the astrophysical S factors to experimentally inaccessible energy regions (E ≤ 25 keV) for the some specific radiative capture A(a,γ)B reactions of the pp-chain and the CNO cycle are presented.

  8. Empirical comparison of color normalization methods for epithelial-stromal classification in H and E images

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Amit; Sha, Lingdao; Vahadane, Abhishek Ramnath; Deaton, Ryan J.; Kumar, Neeraj; Macias, Virgilia; Gann, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Color normalization techniques for histology have not been empirically tested for their utility for computational pathology pipelines. Aims: We compared two contemporary techniques for achieving a common intermediate goal – epithelial-stromal classification. Settings and Design: Expert-annotated regions of epithelium and stroma were treated as ground truth for comparing classifiers on original and color-normalized images. Materials and Methods: Epithelial and stromal regions were annotated on thirty diverse-appearing H and E stained prostate cancer tissue microarray cores. Corresponding sets of thirty images each were generated using the two color normalization techniques. Color metrics were compared for original and color-normalized images. Separate epithelial-stromal classifiers were trained and compared on test images. Main analyses were conducted using a multiresolution segmentation (MRS) approach; comparative analyses using two other classification approaches (convolutional neural network [CNN], Wndchrm) were also performed. Statistical Analysis: For the main MRS method, which relied on classification of super-pixels, the number of variables used was reduced using backward elimination without compromising accuracy, and test - area under the curves (AUCs) were compared for original and normalized images. For CNN and Wndchrm, pixel classification test-AUCs were compared. Results: Khan method reduced color saturation while Vahadane reduced hue variance. Super-pixel-level test-AUC for MRS was 0.010–0.025 (95% confidence interval limits ± 0.004) higher for the two normalized image sets compared to the original in the 10–80 variable range. Improvement in pixel classification accuracy was also observed for CNN and Wndchrm for color-normalized images. Conclusions: Color normalization can give a small incremental benefit when a super-pixel-based classification method is used with features that perform implicit color normalization while the gain is

  9. Proton Form Factor Measurements Using Polarization Method: Beyond Born Approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Pentchev, Lubomir

    2008-10-13

    Significant theoretical and experimental efforts have been made over the past 7 years aiming to explain the discrepancy between the proton form factor ratio data obtained at JLab using the polarization method and the previous Rosenbluth measurements. Preliminary results from the first high precision polarization experiment dedicated to study effects beyond Born approximation will be presented. The ratio of the transferred polarization components and, separately, the longitudinal polarization in ep elastic scattering have been measured at a fixed Q{sup 2} of 2.5 GeV{sup 2} over a wide kinematic range. The two quantities impose constraints on the real part of the ep elastic amplitudes.

  10. Method of coextruding plastics to form a composite sheet

    DOEpatents

    Tsien, Hsue C.

    1985-06-04

    This invention pertains to a method of producing a composite sheet of plastic materials by means of coextrusion. Two plastic materials are matched with respect to their melt indices. These matched plastic materials are then coextruded in a side-by-side orientation while hot and soft to form a composite sheet having a substantially uniform demarkation therebetween. The plastic materials are fed at a substantially equal extrusion velocity and generally have substantially equal viscosities. The coextruded plastics can be worked after coextrusion while they are still hot and soft.

  11. Method of nitriding niobium to form a superconducting surface

    DOEpatents

    Kelley, Michael J.; Klopf, John Michael; Singaravelu, Senthilaraja

    2014-08-19

    A method of forming a delta niobium nitride .delta.-NbN layer on the surface of a niobium object including cleaning the surface of the niobium object; providing a treatment chamber; placing the niobium object in the treatment chamber; evacuating the chamber; passing pure nitrogen into the treatment chamber; focusing a laser spot on the niobium object; delivering laser fluences at the laser spot until the surface of the niobium object reaches above its boiling temperature; and rastering the laser spot over the surface of the niobium object.

  12. Method of forming capsules containing a precise amount of material

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.; Maya, Jakob

    1986-01-01

    A method of forming a sealed capsule containing a submilligram quantity of mercury or the like, the capsule being constructed from a hollow glass tube, by placing a globule or droplet of the mercury in the tube. The tube is then evacuated and sealed and is subsequently heated so as to vaporize the mercury and fill the tube therewith. The tube is then separated into separate sealed capsules by heating spaced locations along the tube with a coiled heating wire means to cause collapse spaced locations therealong and thus enable separation of the tube into said capsules.

  13. Method of forming capsules containing a precise amount of material

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.; Maya, J.

    1986-06-24

    A method of forming a sealed capsule containing a submilligram quantity of mercury or the like, the capsule being constructed from a hollow glass tube, by placing a globule or droplet of the mercury in the tube. The tube is then evacuated and sealed and is subsequently heated so as to vaporize the mercury and fill the tube therewith. The tube is then separated into separate sealed capsules by heating spaced locations along the tube with a coiled heating wire means to cause collapse spaced locations there along and thus enable separation of the tube into said capsules. 7 figs.

  14. A high-precision calculation method for interface normal and curvature on an unstructured grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Kei; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Ohno, Shuji; Kamide, Hideki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    In the volume-of-fluid algorithm, the calculations of the interface normal and curvature are crucially important for accurately simulating interfacial flows. However, few methods have been proposed for the high-precision interface calculation on an unstructured grid. In this paper, the authors develop a height function method that works appropriately on an unstructured grid. In the process, the definition of the height function is discussed, and the high-precision calculation method of the interface normal is developed to meet the necessary condition for a second-order method. This new method has highly reduced computational cost compared with a conventional high-precision method because the interface normal calculation is completed by solving relatively simple algebraic equations. The curvature calculation method is also discussed and the approximated quadric curve of an interface is employed to calculate the curvature. Following a basic verification, the developed height function method is shown to successfully provide superior calculation accuracy and highly reduced computational cost compared with conventional calculation methods in terms of the interface normal and curvature. In addition, the height function method succeeds in calculating accurately the slotted-disk revolution problem and the oscillating drop on unstructured grids. Therefore, the developed height function method is confirmed to be an efficient technique for the high-precision numerical simulation of interfacial flows on an unstructured grid.

  15. Method of forming biaxially textured alloy substrates and devices thereon

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Specht, Eliot D.; Kroeger, Donald M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan

    2000-01-01

    Specific alloys, in particular Ni-based alloys, that can be biaxially textured, with a well-developed, single component texture are disclosed. These alloys have a significantly reduced Curie point, which is very desirable from the point of view of superconductivity applications. The biaxially textured alloy substrates also possess greatly enhanced mechanical properties (yield strength, ultimate tensile strength) which are essential for most applications, in particular, superconductors. A method is disclosed for producing complex multicomponent alloys which have the ideal physical properties for specific applications, such as lattice parameter, degree of magnetism and mechanical strength, and which cannot be in textured form. In addition, a method for making ultra thin biaxially textured substrates with complex compositions is disclosed.

  16. Method of forming biaxially textured alloy substrates and devices thereon

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Specht, Eliot D.; Kroeger, Donald M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan

    1999-01-01

    Specific alloys, in particular Ni-based alloys, that can be biaxially textured, with a well-developed, single component texture are disclosed. These alloys have a significantly reduced Curie point, which is very desirable from the point of view of superconductivity applications. The biaxially textured alloy substrates also possess greatly enhanced mechanical properties (yield strength, ultimate tensile strength) which are essential for most applications, in particular, superconductors. A method is disclosed for producing complex multicomponent alloys which have the ideal physical properties for specific applications, such as lattice parameter, degree of magnetism and mechanical strength, and which cannot be fabricated in textured form. In addition, a method for making ultra thin biaxially textured substrates with complex compositions is disclosed.

  17. Method of forming shrink-fit compression seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podgorski, T. J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method for making a glass-to-metal seal is described. A domed metal enclosure having a machined seal ring is fitted to a glass post machined to a slight taper and to a desired surface finish. The metal part is then heated by induction in a vacuum. As the metal part heats and expands relative to the glass post, the metal seal ring, possessing a higher coefficient of expansion than the glass post, slides down the tapered post. Upon cooling, the seal ring crushes against the glass post forming the seal. The method results in a glass-to-metal seal possessing extremely good leak resistance, while the parts are kept clean and free of the contaminants.

  18. Method of forming a ceramic to ceramic joint

    DOEpatents

    Cutler, Raymond Ashton; Hutchings, Kent Neal; Kleinlein, Brian Paul; Carolan, Michael Francis

    2010-04-13

    A method of joining at least two sintered bodies to form a composite structure, includes: providing a joint material between joining surfaces of first and second sintered bodies; applying pressure from 1 kP to less than 5 MPa to provide an assembly; heating the assembly to a conforming temperature sufficient to allow the joint material to conform to the joining surfaces; and further heating the assembly to a joining temperature below a minimum sintering temperature of the first and second sintered bodies. The joint material includes organic component(s) and ceramic particles. The ceramic particles constitute 40-75 vol. % of the joint material, and include at least one element of the first and/or second sintered bodies. Composite structures produced by the method are also disclosed.

  19. Method for distinguishing normal and transformed cells using G1 kinase inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Crissman, Harry A.; Gadbois, Donna M.; Tobey, Robert A.; Bradbury, E. Morton

    1993-01-01

    A G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitor is applied in a low concentration to a population of normal and transformed mammalian cells. The concentration of G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitor is selected to reversibly arrest normal mammalian cells in the G.sub.1 cell cycle without arresting growth of transformed cells. The transformed cells may then be selectively identified and/or cloned for research or diagnostic purposes. The transformed cells may also be selectively killed by therapeutic agents that do not affect normal cells in the G.sub.1 phase, suggesting that such G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitors may form an effective adjuvant for use with chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy for optimizing the killing dose of chemotherapeutic agents while minimizing undesirable side effects on normal cells.

  20. Method for distinguishing normal and transformed cells using G1 kinase inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Crissman, H.A.; Gadbois, D.M.; Tobey, R.A.; Bradbury, E.M.

    1993-02-09

    A G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitor is applied in a low concentration to a population of normal and transformed mammalian cells. The concentration of G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitor is selected to reversibly arrest normal mammalian cells in the G[sub 1] cell cycle without arresting growth of transformed cells. The transformed cells may then be selectively identified and/or cloned for research or diagnostic purposes. The transformed cells may also be selectively killed by therapeutic agents that do not affect normal cells in the G[sub 1] phase, suggesting that such G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitors may form an effective adjuvant for use with chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy for optimizing the killing dose of chemotherapeutic agents while minimizing undesirable side effects on normal cells.

  1. Method for distinguishing normal and transformed cells using G1 kinase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Crissman, H.A.; Gadbois, D.M.; Tobey, R.A.; Bradbury, E.M.

    1991-12-31

    A G{sub 1} phase kinase inhibitor is applied in a low concentration to a population of normal and transformed mammalian cells. The concentration of G{sub 1} phase kinase inhibitor is selected to reversibly arrest normal mammalian cells in the G{sub 1} cell cycle without arresting growth of transformed cells. The transformed cells may then be selectively identified and/or cloned for research or diagnostic purposes. The transformed cells may also be selectively killed by therapeutic agents that do not affect normal cells in the G{sub 1} phase, suggesting that such G{sub 1} phase kinase inhibitors may form an effective adjuvant for use with chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy for optimizing the killing dose of chemotherapeutic agents while minimizing undesirable side effects on normal cells.

  2. Role of L-forms of Nocardia caviae in the development of chronic mycetomas in normal and immunodeficient murine models.

    PubMed Central

    Beaman, B L; Scates, S M

    1981-01-01

    Single-cell suspensions of Nocardia caviae 112 were injected into normal, athymic, and asplenic mice by several different routes. The 50% lethal dose values, kill curve characteristics, histological and electron microscopic properties, organ clearance patterns, and induction of L-forms during the acute and chronic phase of disease were determined in groups of mice for up to 2 years after infection. From these data we concluded the following. (i) Athymic and asplenic animals were significantly more susceptible to N. caviae than their littermate controls regardless of inoculation route. (ii) All mice were most susceptible to lethal infection after intranasal administration and least affected when the organisms were injected into the peritoneal cavity. (iii) Chronic, progressive disease leading to the formation of mycetomas occurred only in mice injected intravenously. (iv) T-cell-deficient animals were impaired in the development of typical mycetomas. (v) L-forms of N. caviae were induced within immunocompetent hosts, whereas the cell wall-less state of the bacteria was not observed in the immunodeficient animals. (vi) Two colony types of the cell wall-deficient state were isolated from infected animals. (vii) These cell wall-deficient organisms were intimately involved in the pathogenesis of disease and bacterial persistence within the host. Finally (viii), with this strain of Nocardia, cell wall-deficient organisms played a major role in the development of the characteristic bacterial granule formed within the mycetomatous lesions 6 months to 1 year after intravenous inoculation. Images PMID:7287189

  3. Normal contour error measurement on-machine and compensation method for polishing complex surface by MRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua; Chen, Jihong; Wang, Baorui; Zheng, Yongcheng

    2016-10-01

    The Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) process, based on the dwell time method with the constant normal spacing for flexible polishing, would bring out the normal contour error in the fine polishing complex surface such as aspheric surface. The normal contour error would change the ribbon's shape and removal characteristics of consistency for MRF. Based on continuously scanning the normal spacing between the workpiece and the finder by the laser range finder, the novel method was put forward to measure the normal contour errors while polishing complex surface on the machining track. The normal contour errors was measured dynamically, by which the workpiece's clamping precision, multi-axis machining NC program and the dynamic performance of the MRF machine were achieved for the verification and security check of the MRF process. The unit for measuring the normal contour errors of complex surface on-machine was designed. Based on the measurement unit's results as feedback to adjust the parameters of the feed forward control and the multi-axis machining, the optimized servo control method was presented to compensate the normal contour errors. The experiment for polishing 180mm × 180mm aspherical workpiece of fused silica by MRF was set up to validate the method. The results show that the normal contour error was controlled in less than 10um. And the PV value of the polished surface accuracy was improved from 0.95λ to 0.09λ under the conditions of the same process parameters. The technology in the paper has been being applied in the PKC600-Q1 MRF machine developed by the China Academe of Engineering Physics for engineering application since 2014. It is being used in the national huge optical engineering for processing the ultra-precision optical parts.

  4. Comparison of normalization methods for Illumina BeadChip HumanHT-12 v3

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Normalization of microarrays is a standard practice to account for and minimize effects which are not due to the controlled factors in an experiment. There is an overwhelming number of different methods that can be applied, none of which is ideally suited for all experimental designs. Thus, it is important to identify a normalization method appropriate for the experimental setup under consideration that is neither too negligent nor too stringent. Major aim is to derive optimal results from the underlying experiment. Comparisons of different normalization methods have already been conducted, none of which, to our knowledge, comparing more than a handful of methods. Results In the present study, 25 different ways of pre-processing Illumina Sentrix BeadChip array data are compared. Among others, methods provided by the BeadStudio software are taken into account. Looking at different statistical measures, we point out the ideal versus the actual observations. Additionally, we compare qRT-PCR measurements of transcripts from different ranges of expression intensities to the respective normalized values of the microarray data. Taking together all different kinds of measures, the ideal method for our dataset is identified. Conclusions Pre-processing of microarray gene expression experiments has been shown to influence further downstream analysis to a great extent and thus has to be carefully chosen based on the design of the experiment. This study provides a recommendation for deciding which normalization method is best suited for a particular experimental setup. PMID:20525181

  5. Method for forming silicon on a glass substrate

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1995-03-07

    A method by which single-crystal silicon microelectronics may be fabricated on glass substrates at unconventionally low temperatures. This is achieved by fabricating a thin film of silicon on glass and subsequently forming the doped components by a short wavelength (excimer) laser doping procedure and conventional patterning techniques. This method may include introducing a heavily boron doped etch stop layer on a silicon wafer using an excimer laser, which permits good control of the etch stop layer removal process. This method additionally includes dramatically reducing the remaining surface roughness of the silicon thin films after etching in the fabrication of silicon on insulator wafers by scanning an excimer laser across the surface of the silicon thin film causing surface melting, whereby the surface tension of the melt causes smoothing of the surface during recrystallization. Applications for this method include those requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, such as display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard and high temperature electronics. 15 figs.

  6. Toxic and non-toxic aggregates from the SBMA and normal forms of androgen receptor have distinct oligomeric structures.

    PubMed

    Jochum, Tobias; Ritz, Manuela E; Schuster, Christoph; Funderburk, Sarah F; Jehle, Katja; Schmitz, Katja; Brinkmann, Falko; Hirtz, Michael; Moss, David; Cato, Andrew C B

    2012-06-01

    Hormone-dependent aggregation of the androgen receptor (AR) with a polyglutamine (polyQ) stretch amplification (>38) is considered to be the causative agent of the neurodegenerative disorder spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), consistent with related neurodegenerative diseases involving polyQ-extended proteins. In spite of the widespread acceptance of this common causal hypothesis, little attention has been paid to its apparent incompatibility with the observation of AR aggregation in healthy individuals with no polyQ stretch amplification. Here we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to characterize sub-micrometer scale aggregates of the wild-type (22 glutamines) and the SBMA form (65 glutamines), as well as a polyQ deletion mutant (1 glutamine) and a variant with a normal length polyQ stretch but with a serine to alanine double mutation elsewhere in the protein. We used a baculovirus-insect cell expression system to produce full-length proteins for these structural analyses. We related the AFM findings to cytotoxicity as measured by expression of the receptors in Drosophila motoneurons or in neuronal cells in culture. We found that the pathogenic AR mutants formed oligomeric fibrils up to 300-600nm in length. These were clearly different from annular oligomers 120-180nm in diameter formed by the nonpathogenic receptors. We could also show that melatonin, which is known to ameliorate the pathological phenotype in the fly model, caused polyQ-extended AR to form annular oligomers. Further comparative investigation of these reproducibly distinct toxic and non-toxic oligomers could advance our understanding of the molecular basis of the polyQ pathologies.

  7. Tangential and sagittal curvature from the normals computed by the null screen method in corneal topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada-Molina, Amilcar; Díaz-Uribe, Rufino

    2011-08-01

    A new method for computing the tangential and sagittal curvatures from the normals to a cornea is proposed. The normals are obtained through a Null Screen method from the coordinates of the drops shaped spots at the null screen, the coordinates on a reference approximating surface and the centroids on the image plane. This method assumes that the cornea has rotational symmetry and our derivations will be carried out in the meridional plane that contains the symmetry axis. Experimental results are shown for a calibration spherical surface, using cylindrical null screens with radial point arrays.

  8. Prescriptive method for insulating concrete forms in residential construction

    SciTech Connect

    Vrankar, A.; Elhajj, N.

    1998-05-01

    Characterized as strong, durable, and energy-efficient, a new wall system for housing called Insulating Concrete Forms (ICFs) is emerging as an alternative to lumber wall frames. Due to rising costs and varying quality of framing lumber, home builders are increasing their use of ICFs even though added engineering costs make ICF homes slightly more expensive than homes with wood framing. To improve the affordability and acceptance of ICF homes, this report sets guidelines on the design, construction and inspection of ICF wall systems in residential construction. Based on thorough testing and research, the Prescriptive Method section of the report outlines minimum requirements for ICF systems including wall thickness, termite protection, reinforcement, lintel span, and connection requirements. It highlights construction and thermal guidelines for ICFs and explains how to apply the prescriptive requirements to one- and two-family homes. The Commentary section provides supplemental information and the engineering assumptions and methods used for the prescriptive method. Appendices contain step-by-step examples on how to apply ICF requirements when designing a home. They also contain engineering technical substantiation and metric conversion factors.

  9. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D.; Swank, W. David

    2013-04-02

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  10. Methods for forming group III-arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Major, Jo S. (Inventor); Welch, David F. (Inventor); Scifres, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for forming Group III-arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials. Group III elements are combined with group V elements, including at least nitrogen and arsenic, in concentrations chosen to lattice match commercially available crystalline substrates. Epitaxial growth of these III-V crystals results in direct bandgap materials, which can be used in applications such as light emitting diodes and lasers. Varying the concentrations of the elements in the III-V crystals varies the bandgaps, such that materials emitting light spanning the visible spectra, as well as mid-IR and near-UV emitters, can be created. Conversely, such material can be used to create devices that acquire light and convert the light to electricity, for applications such as full color photodetectors and solar energy collectors. The growth of the III-V crystals can be accomplished by growing thin layers of elements or compounds in sequences that result in the overall lattice match and bandgap desired.

  11. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D; Swank, William D.

    2011-08-30

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  12. Optical geometry calibration method for free-form digital tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chtcheprov, Pavel; Hartman, Allison; Shan, Jing; Lee, Yueh Z.; Zhou, Otto; Lu, Jianping

    2016-03-01

    Digital tomosynthesis is a type of limited angle tomography that allows 3D information to be reconstructed from a set of x-ray projection images taken at various angles using an x-ray tube, a mechanical arm to rotate the tube about the object, and a digital detector. Tomosynthesis reconstruction requires the precise location of the detector with respect to each x-ray source, forcing all current clinical tomosynthesis systems to use a physically coupled source and detector so the geometry is always known and is always the same. This limits the imaging geometries and its large size is impractical for mobile or field operations. To counter this, we have developed a free form tomosynthesis with a decoupled, free-moving source and detector that uses a novel optical method for accurate and real-time geometry calibration to allow for manual, hand-held tomosynthesis and even CT imaging. We accomplish this by using a camera, attached to the source, to track the motion of the source relative to the detector. Attached to the detector is an optical pattern and the image captured by the camera is then used to determine the relative camera/pattern position and orientation by analyzing the pattern distortion and calculating the source positions for each projection, necessary for 3D reconstruction. This allows for portable imaging in the field and also as an inexpensive upgrade to existing 2D systems, such as in developing countries, to provide 3D image data. Here we report the first feasibility demonstrations of free form digital tomosynthesis systems using the method.

  13. A method for estimating direct normal solar irradiation from satellite data for a tropical environment

    SciTech Connect

    Janjai, Serm

    2010-09-15

    In order to investigate a potential use of concentrating solar power technologies and select an optimum site for these technologies, it is necessary to obtain information on the geographical distribution of direct normal solar irradiation over an area of interest. In this work, we have developed a method for estimating direct normal irradiation from satellite data for a tropical environment. The method starts with the estimation of global irradiation on a horizontal surface from MTSAT-1R satellite data and other ground-based ancillary data. Then a satellite-based diffuse fraction model was developed and used to estimate the diffuse component of the satellite-derived global irradiation. Based on this estimated global and diffuse irradiation and the solar radiation incident angle, the direct normal irradiation was finally calculated. To evaluate its performance, the method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation at seven pyrheliometer stations in Thailand. It was found that values of monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation from the measurements and those estimated from the proposed method are in reasonable agreement, with a root mean square difference of 16% and a mean bias of -1.6%, with respect to mean measured values. After the validation, this method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation over Thailand by using MTSAT-1R satellite data for the period from June 2005 to December 2008. Results from the calculation were displayed as hourly and yearly irradiation maps. These maps reveal that the direct normal irradiation in Thailand was strongly affected by the tropical monsoons and local topography of the country. (author)

  14. Iterative normalization method for improved prostate cancer localization with multispectral magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Samil Yetik, Imam

    2012-04-01

    Use of multispectral magnetic resonance imaging has received a great interest for prostate cancer localization in research and clinical studies. Manual extraction of prostate tumors from multispectral magnetic resonance imaging is inefficient and subjective, while automated segmentation is objective and reproducible. For supervised, automated segmentation approaches, learning is essential to obtain the information from training dataset. However, in this procedure, all patients are assumed to have similar properties for the tumor and normal tissues, and the segmentation performance suffers since the variations across patients are ignored. To conquer this difficulty, we propose a new iterative normalization method based on relative intensity values of tumor and normal tissues to normalize multispectral magnetic resonance images and improve segmentation performance. The idea of relative intensity mimics the manual segmentation performed by human readers, who compare the contrast between regions without knowing the actual intensity values. We compare the segmentation performance of the proposed method with that of z-score normalization followed by support vector machine, local active contours, and fuzzy Markov random field. Our experimental results demonstrate that our method outperforms the three other state-of-the-art algorithms, and was found to have specificity of 0.73, sensitivity of 0.69, and accuracy of 0.79, significantly better than alternative methods.

  15. Impact of Statistical Learning Methods on the Predictive Power of Multivariate Normal Tissue Complication Probability Models

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Chengjian; Schaaf, Arjen van der; Schilstra, Cornelis; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Veld, Aart A. van't

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To study the impact of different statistical learning methods on the prediction performance of multivariate normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models. Methods and Materials: In this study, three learning methods, stepwise selection, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), and Bayesian model averaging (BMA), were used to build NTCP models of xerostomia following radiotherapy treatment for head and neck cancer. Performance of each learning method was evaluated by a repeated cross-validation scheme in order to obtain a fair comparison among methods. Results: It was found that the LASSO and BMA methods produced models with significantly better predictive power than that of the stepwise selection method. Furthermore, the LASSO method yields an easily interpretable model as the stepwise method does, in contrast to the less intuitive BMA method. Conclusions: The commonly used stepwise selection method, which is simple to execute, may be insufficient for NTCP modeling. The LASSO method is recommended.

  16. A strand specific high resolution normalization method for chip-sequencing data employing multiple experimental control measurements

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background High-throughput sequencing is becoming the standard tool for investigating protein-DNA interactions or epigenetic modifications. However, the data generated will always contain noise due to e.g. repetitive regions or non-specific antibody interactions. The noise will appear in the form of a background distribution of reads that must be taken into account in the downstream analysis, for example when detecting enriched regions (peak-calling). Several reported peak-callers can take experimental measurements of background tag distribution into account when analysing a data set. Unfortunately, the background is only used to adjust peak calling and not as a pre-processing step that aims at discerning the signal from the background noise. A normalization procedure that extracts the signal of interest would be of universal use when investigating genomic patterns. Results We formulated such a normalization method based on linear regression and made a proof-of-concept implementation in R and C++. It was tested on simulated as well as on publicly available ChIP-seq data on binding sites for two transcription factors, MAX and FOXA1 and two control samples, Input and IgG. We applied three different peak-callers to (i) raw (un-normalized) data using statistical background models and (ii) raw data with control samples as background and (iii) normalized data without additional control samples as background. The fraction of called regions containing the expected transcription factor binding motif was largest for the normalized data and evaluation with qPCR data for FOXA1 suggested higher sensitivity and specificity using normalized data over raw data with experimental background. Conclusions The proposed method can handle several control samples allowing for correction of multiple sources of bias simultaneously. Our evaluation on both synthetic and experimental data suggests that the method is successful in removing background noise. PMID:22248020

  17. Iron aluminide alloy coatings and joints, and methods of forming

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Richard N.; Wright, Julie K.; Moore, Glenn A.

    1994-01-01

    A method of joining two bodies together, at least one of the bodies being predominantly composed of metal, the two bodies each having a respective joint surface for joining with the joint surface of the other body, the two bodies having a respective melting point, includes the following steps: a) providing aluminum metal and iron metal on at least one of the joint surfaces of the two bodies; b) after providing the aluminum metal and iron metal on the one joint surface, positioning the joint surfaces of the two bodies in juxtaposition against one another with the aluminum and iron positioned therebetween; c) heating the aluminum and iron on the juxtaposed bodies to a temperature from greater than or equal to 600.degree. C. to less than the melting point of the lower melting point body; d) applying pressure on the juxtaposed surfaces; and e) maintaining the pressure and the temperature for a time period effective to form the aluminum and iron into an iron aluminide alloy joint which bonds the juxtaposed surfaces and correspondingly the two bodies together. The method can also effectively be used to coat a body with an iron aluminide coating.

  18. Iron aluminide alloy coatings and joints, and methods of forming

    DOEpatents

    Wright, R.N.; Wright, J.K.; Moore, G.A.

    1994-09-27

    Disclosed is a method of joining two bodies together, at least one of the bodies being predominantly composed of metal, the two bodies each having a respective joint surface for joining with the joint surface of the other body, the two bodies having a respective melting point, includes the following steps: (a) providing aluminum metal and iron metal on at least one of the joint surfaces of the two bodies; (b) after providing the aluminum metal and iron metal on the one joint surface, positioning the joint surfaces of the two bodies in juxtaposition against one another with the aluminum and iron positioned therebetween; (c) heating the aluminum and iron on the juxtaposed bodies to a temperature from greater than or equal to 600 C to less than the melting point of the lower melting point body; (d) applying pressure on the juxtaposed surfaces; and (e) maintaining the pressure and the temperature for a time period effective to form the aluminum and iron into an iron aluminide alloy joint which bonds the juxtaposed surfaces and correspondingly the two bodies together. The method can also effectively be used to coat a body with an iron aluminide coating.

  19. A method for normalizing pathology images to improve feature extraction for quantitative pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, Allison; Barker, Jocelyn; Rubin, Daniel

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: With the advent of digital slide scanning technologies and the potential proliferation of large repositories of digital pathology images, many research studies can leverage these data for biomedical discovery and to develop clinical applications. However, quantitative analysis of digital pathology images is impeded by batch effects generated by varied staining protocols and staining conditions of pathological slides. Methods: To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a novel, fully automated stain normalization method to reduce batch effects and thus aid research in digital pathology applications. Their method, intensity centering and histogram equalization (ICHE), normalizes a diverse set of pathology images by first scaling the centroids of the intensity histograms to a common point and then applying a modified version of contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization. Normalization was performed on two datasets of digitized hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) slides of different tissue slices from the same lung tumor, and one immunohistochemistry dataset of digitized slides created by restaining one of the H&E datasets. Results: The ICHE method was evaluated based on image intensity values, quantitative features, and the effect on downstream applications, such as a computer aided diagnosis. For comparison, three methods from the literature were reimplemented and evaluated using the same criteria. The authors found that ICHE not only improved performance compared with un-normalized images, but in most cases showed improvement compared with previous methods for correcting batch effects in the literature. Conclusions: ICHE may be a useful preprocessing step a digital pathology image processing pipeline.

  20. Method of forming composite fiber blends and molding same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMahon, Paul E. (Inventor); Chung, Tai-Shung (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The instant invention involves a process used in preparing fibrous tows which may be formed into polymeric plastic composites. The process involves the steps of (a) forming a tow of strong filamentary materials; (b) forming a thermoplastic polymeric fiber; (c) intermixing the two tows; and (d) withdrawing the intermixed tow for further use.

  1. Normal Vector Projection Method used for Convex Optimization of Chan-Vese Model for Image Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, W. B.; Tan, L.; Jia, M. Q.; Pan, Z. K.

    2017-01-01

    The variational level set method is one of the main methods of image segmentation. Due to signed distance functions as level sets have to keep the nature of the functions through numerical remedy or additional technology in an evolutionary process, it is not very efficient. In this paper, a normal vector projection method for image segmentation using Chan-Vese model is proposed. An equivalent formulation of Chan-Vese model is used by taking advantage of property of binary level set functions and combining with the concept of convex relaxation. Threshold method and projection formula are applied in the implementation. It can avoid the above problems and obtain a global optimal solution. Experimental results on both synthetic and real images validate the effects of the proposed normal vector projection method, and show advantages over traditional algorithms in terms of computational efficiency.

  2. XMS: Cross-Platform Normalization Method for Multimodal Mass Spectrometric Tissue Profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golf, Ottmar; Muirhead, Laura J.; Speller, Abigail; Balog, Júlia; Abbassi-Ghadi, Nima; Kumar, Sacheen; Mróz, Anna; Veselkov, Kirill; Takáts, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a proof of concept cross-platform normalization approach to convert raw mass spectra acquired by distinct desorption ionization methods and/or instrumental setups to cross-platform normalized analyte profiles. The initial step of the workflow is database driven peak annotation followed by summarization of peak intensities of different ions from the same molecule. The resulting compound-intensity spectra are adjusted to a method-independent intensity scale by using predetermined, compound-specific normalization factors. The method is based on the assumption that distinct MS-based platforms capture a similar set of chemical species in a biological sample, though these species may exhibit platform-specific molecular ion intensity distribution patterns. The method was validated on two sample sets of (1) porcine tissue analyzed by laser desorption ionization (LDI), desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), and rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometric (REIMS) in combination with Fourier transformation-based mass spectrometry; and (2) healthy/cancerous colorectal tissue analyzed by DESI and REIMS with the latter being combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We demonstrate the capacity of our method to reduce MS-platform specific variation resulting in (1) high inter-platform concordance coefficients of analyte intensities; (2) clear principal component based clustering of analyte profiles according to histological tissue types, irrespective of the used desorption ionization technique or mass spectrometer; and (3) accurate "blind" classification of histologic tissue types using cross-platform normalized analyte profiles.

  3. Automated counting of morphologically normal red blood cells by using digital holographic microscopy and statistical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Inkyu; Yi, Faliu

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we overview a method to automatically count morphologically normal red blood cells (RBCs) by using off-axis digital holographic microscopy and statistical methods. Three kinds of RBC are used as training and testing data. All of the RBC phase images are obtained with digital holographic microscopy (DHM) that is robust to transparent or semitransparent biological cells. For the determination of morphologically normal RBCs, the RBC's phase images are first segmented with marker-controlled watershed transform algorithm. Multiple features are extracted from the segmented cells. Moreover, the statistical method of Hotelling's T-square test is conducted to show that the 3D features from 3D imaging method can improve the discrimination performance for counting of normal shapes of RBCs. Finally, the classifier is designed by using statistical Bayesian algorithm and the misclassification rates are measured with leave-one-out technique. Experimental results show the feasibility of the classification method for calculating the percentage of each typical normal RBC shape.

  4. Method of forming buried oxide layers in silicon

    DOEpatents

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar; Holland, Orin Wayne

    2000-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  5. Human dihydrofolate reductase and thymidylate synthase form a complex in vitro and co-localize in normal and cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Antosiewicz, Anna; Jarmuła, Adam; Przybylska, Dorota; Mosieniak, Grażyna; Szczepanowska, Joanna; Kowalkowska, Anna; Rode, Wojciech; Cieśla, Joanna

    2016-08-05

    Enzymes involved in thymidylate biosynthesis, thymidylate synthase (TS), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) are well-known targets in cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time, that human TS and DHFR form a strong complex in vitro and co-localize in human normal and colon cancer cell cytoplasm and nucleus. Treatment of cancer cells with methotrexate or 5-fluorouracil did not affect the distribution of either enzyme within the cells. However, 5-FU, but not MTX, lowered the presence of DHFR-TS complex in the nucleus by 2.5-fold. The results may suggest the sequestering of TS by FdUMP in the cytoplasm and thereby affecting the translocation of DHFR-TS complex to the nucleus. Providing a strong likelihood of DHFR-TS complex formation in vivo, the latter complex is a potential new drug target in cancer therapy. In this paper, known 3D structures of human TS and human DHFR, and some protozoan bifunctional DHFR-TS structures as templates, are used to build an in silico model of human DHFR-TS complex structure, consisting of one TS dimer and two DHFR monomers. This complex structure may serve as an initial 3D drug target model for prospective inhibitors targeting interfaces between the DHFR and TS enzymes.

  6. Dynamics, Bifurcations and Normal Forms in Arrays of Magnetostrictive Energy Harvesters with All-to-All Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matus-Vargas, Antonio; González-Hernandez, Hugo G.; Chan, Bernard S.; Palacios, Antonio; Buono, Pietro-Luciano; in, Visarath; Naik, Suketu; Phipps, Alex; Longhini, Patrick

    Modeling and bifurcation analysis of an energy harvesting system composed of coupled resonators using the Galfenol-based magnetostrictive material are presented. The analysis in this work should be broad enough to be applicable to a large class of vibratory-based energy harvesting systems since various types of vibratory harvesters share the same normal forms, e.g. magnetostrictive and piezoelectric materials. A combined model of the mechanical and electrical domains of a single energy harvester is discussed first. Building on this model, the governing equations of the coupled system are derived, leading to a system of differential equations with an all-to-all coupling between the resonators. A bifurcation analysis of the system equations reveals different patterns of collective oscillations. Among the many different patterns, a synchronous state exists and it is stable over a broad region of parameter space. This pattern has the potential to yield significant increases in power output and it will be used as a starting point to guide future experimental work. A Hamiltonian approach is employed to study analytically the nature of the bifurcations and to calculate an expression for the onset of synchronization valid for any number of harvesters.

  7. Development and application of methods for regional scaling and normalization in life-cycle impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Tolle, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    Life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is a technical, quantitative and/or qualitative method to classify, characterize, and valuate potential impacts on human health, ecosystems, and natural resources, based on the environmental burdens identified in a life-cycle inventory. Research described here for two LCIAs included development and application of regional scaling methods for the following 5 of 14 relevant impact categories: Suspended (PM{sub 10}) particulate effects, water use, acid deposition, smog creation, and eutrophication. Normalization is recommended after characterization, because aggregated sums per impact category need to be expressed in equivalent terms before assigning valuation weight factors. The normalization approach described here involves determination of factors that represent the total, geographically-relevant impact for a given impact category. The goal for the 14 normalization factors developed and applied to two LCIAS, was to make them scientifically defensible, while utilizing existing data on emission or resource extraction quantities for three spatial perspectives. Data on the total environmental burden for each inventory item under a given impact category were obtained for normalization factors. Since the boundaries of the two LCIAs were primarily in the US, the data for the regional or local impact category perspectives were restricted to appropriate areas in the US. Normalization factors were developed and applied in the two LCIAs for 11 impact categories involving chemical emissions, water use, solid waste volume, and resource extraction/production land use.

  8. Ophthalmic Drug Dosage Forms: Characterisation and Research Methods

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Przemysław; Karolewicz, Bożena; Gajda, Maciej; Pluta, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes hitherto developed drug forms for topical ocular administration, that is, eye drops, ointments, in situ gels, inserts, multicompartment drug delivery systems, and ophthalmic drug forms with bioadhesive properties. Heretofore, many studies have demonstrated that new and more complex ophthalmic drug forms exhibit advantage over traditional ones and are able to increase the bioavailability of the active substance by, among others, reducing the susceptibility of drug forms to defense mechanisms of the human eye, extending contact time of drug with the cornea, increasing the penetration through the complex anatomical structure of the eye, and providing controlled release of drugs into the eye tissues, which allows reducing the drug application frequency. The rest of the paper describes recommended in vitro and in vivo studies to be performed for various ophthalmic drugs forms in order to assess whether the form is acceptable from the perspective of desired properties and patient's compliance. PMID:24772038

  9. Composite drill pipe and method for forming same

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie, James C; Leslie, II, James C; Heard, James; Truong, Liem; Josephson, Marvin

    2014-04-15

    Metal inner and outer fittings configured, the inner fitting configured proximally with an external flange and projecting distally to form a cylindrical barrel and stepped down-in-diameter to form an abutment shoulder and then projecting further distally to form a radially inwardly angled and distally extending tapered inner sleeve. An outer sleeve defining a torque tube is configured with a cylindrical collar to fit over the barrel and is formed to be stepped up in diameter in alignment with the first abutment shoulder to then project distally forming a radially outwardly tapered and distally extending bonding surface to cooperate with the inner sleeve to cooperate with the inner sleeve in forming a annular diverging bonding cavity to receive the extremity of a composite pipe to abut against the abutment shoulders and to be bonded to the respective bonding surfaces by a bond.

  10. Ophthalmic drug dosage forms: characterisation and research methods.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, Przemysław; Karolewicz, Bożena; Gajda, Maciej; Pluta, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes hitherto developed drug forms for topical ocular administration, that is, eye drops, ointments, in situ gels, inserts, multicompartment drug delivery systems, and ophthalmic drug forms with bioadhesive properties. Heretofore, many studies have demonstrated that new and more complex ophthalmic drug forms exhibit advantage over traditional ones and are able to increase the bioavailability of the active substance by, among others, reducing the susceptibility of drug forms to defense mechanisms of the human eye, extending contact time of drug with the cornea, increasing the penetration through the complex anatomical structure of the eye, and providing controlled release of drugs into the eye tissues, which allows reducing the drug application frequency. The rest of the paper describes recommended in vitro and in vivo studies to be performed for various ophthalmic drugs forms in order to assess whether the form is acceptable from the perspective of desired properties and patient's compliance.

  11. Evaluation of normalization methods for cDNA microarray data by k-NN classification

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wei; Xing, Eric P; Myers, Connie; Mian, Saira; Bissell, Mina J

    2004-12-17

    Non-biological factors give rise to unwanted variations in cDNA microarray data. There are many normalization methods designed to remove such variations. However, to date there have been few published systematic evaluations of these techniques for removing variations arising from dye biases in the context of downstream, higher-order analytical tasks such as classification. Ten location normalization methods that adjust spatial- and/or intensity-dependent dye biases, and three scale methods that adjust scale differences were applied, individually and in combination, to five distinct, published, cancer biology-related cDNA microarray data sets. Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) classification error was employed as the quantitative end-point for assessing the effectiveness of a normalization method. In particular, a known classifier, k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), was estimated from data normalized using a given technique, and the LOOCV error rate of the ensuing model was computed. We found that k-NN classifiers are sensitive to dye biases in the data. Using NONRM and GMEDIAN as baseline methods, our results show that single-bias-removal techniques which remove either spatial-dependent dye bias (referred later as spatial effect) or intensity-dependent dye bias (referred later as intensity effect) moderately reduce LOOCV classification errors; whereas double-bias-removal techniques which remove both spatial- and intensity effect reduce LOOCV classification errors even further. Of the 41 different strategies examined, three two-step processes, IGLOESS-SLFILTERW7, ISTSPLINE-SLLOESS and IGLOESS-SLLOESS, all of which removed intensity effect globally and spatial effect locally, appear to reduce LOOCV classification errors most consistently and effectively across all data sets. We also found that the investigated scale normalization methods do not reduce LOOCV classification error. Using LOOCV error of k-NNs as the evaluation criterion, three double

  12. A systematic study of genome context methods: calibration, normalization and combination

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genome context methods have been introduced in the last decade as automatic methods to predict functional relatedness between genes in a target genome using the patterns of existence and relative locations of the homologs of those genes in a set of reference genomes. Much work has been done in the application of these methods to different bioinformatics tasks, but few papers present a systematic study of the methods and their combination necessary for their optimal use. Results We present a thorough study of the four main families of genome context methods found in the literature: phylogenetic profile, gene fusion, gene cluster, and gene neighbor. We find that for most organisms the gene neighbor method outperforms the phylogenetic profile method by as much as 40% in sensitivity, being competitive with the gene cluster method at low sensitivities. Gene fusion is generally the worst performing of the four methods. A thorough exploration of the parameter space for each method is performed and results across different target organisms are presented. We propose the use of normalization procedures as those used on microarray data for the genome context scores. We show that substantial gains can be achieved from the use of a simple normalization technique. In particular, the sensitivity of the phylogenetic profile method is improved by around 25% after normalization, resulting, to our knowledge, on the best-performing phylogenetic profile system in the literature. Finally, we show results from combining the various genome context methods into a single score. When using a cross-validation procedure to train the combiners, with both original and normalized scores as input, a decision tree combiner results in gains of up to 20% with respect to the gene neighbor method. Overall, this represents a gain of around 15% over what can be considered the state of the art in this area: the four original genome context methods combined using a procedure like that used in

  13. Experimental Method for Characterizing Electrical Steel Sheets in the Normal Direction

    PubMed Central

    Hihat, Nabil; Lecointe, Jean Philippe; Duchesne, Stephane; Napieralska, Ewa; Belgrand, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes an experimental method to characterise magnetic laminations in the direction normal to the sheet plane. The principle, which is based on a static excitation to avoid planar eddy currents, is explained and specific test benches are proposed. Measurements of the flux density are made with a sensor moving in and out of an air-gap. A simple analytical model is derived in order to determine the permeability in the normal direction. The experimental results for grain oriented steel sheets are presented and a comparison is provided with values obtained from literature. PMID:22163394

  14. The effects and interactions of GABAergic and dopaminergic agents in the prevention of form deprivation myopia by brief periods of normal vision.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Katrina L; Strasberg, Gal; Rayner, Cassie L; Hartfield, Perry J

    2013-05-01

    Intravitreal injections of GABA antagonists, dopamine agonists and brief periods of normal vision have been shown separately to inhibit form-deprivation myopia (FDM). Our study had three aims: (i) establish whether GABAergic agents modify the myopia protective effect of normal vision, (ii) investigate the receptor sub-type specificity of any observed effect, and (iii) consider an interaction with the dopamine (DA) system. Prior to the period of normal vision GABAergic agents were applied either (i) individually, (ii) in combination with other GABAergic agents (an agonist with an antagonist), or (iii) in combination with DA agonists and antagonists. Water injections were given to groups not receiving drug treatments so that all experimental eyes received intravitreal injections. As shown previously, constant form-deprivation resulted in high myopia and when diffusers were removed for 2 h per day the period of normal vision greatly reduced the FDM that developed. GABA agonists inhibited the protective effect of normal vision whereas antagonists had the opposite effect. GABAA/C agonists and D2 DA antagonists when used in combination were additive in suppressing the protective effect of normal vision. A D2 DA agonist restored some of the protective effect of normal vision that was inhibited by a GABA agonist (muscimol). The protective effect of normal vision against form-deprivation is modifiable by both the GABAergic and DAergic pathways.

  15. a Normal Mode Expansion Method for the Undamped Forced Vibration of Linear Piezoelectric Solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIU, D.-C.

    2000-06-01

    A normal mode expansion method for the vibrational responses of non-homogeneous linear piezoelectric materials without damping is presented. It can be applied directly to arbitrary piezoelectric composites, which are widely used in vibrational and acoustic sensor/actuator/transmitter applications. In the present article it is shown that if the normal modes are given, the displacement field can be expanded as the linear superposition of normal modes, while the modal coefficients can be represented in terms of surface and volume integrals directly over the six types of distributed excitations without solving the quasi-static solution explicitly. The present treatment is a modification of an earlier work by Liu [11] using a different definition of the so-called quasi-static solution, and the damping effect has been neglected for simplicity. A simple example is given to exemplify the application of the present formulation.

  16. Static fracture resistance of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene using the single specimen normalization method

    PubMed Central

    Varadarajan, R.; Dapp, E.K.; Rimnac, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Fracture of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) components used in total joint replacements is a clinical concern. UHMWPE materials exhibits stable crack growth under static loading, therefore, their fracture resistance is generally characterized using the J-R curve. The multiple specimen method recommended by ASTM for evaluation of the J-R curve for polymers is time and material intensive. In this study, the applicability of a single specimen method based on load normalization to predict J-R curves of UHMWPE materials is evaluated. The normalization method involves determination of a deformation function. In this study, the J-R curves obtained using a power law based deformation function and the LMN curve based deformation function were compared. The results support the use of the power law based deformation function when using the single specimen approach to predict J-R curves for UHMWPE materials. PMID:23390325

  17. Static fracture resistance of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene using the single specimen normalization method.

    PubMed

    Varadarajan, R; Dapp, E K; Rimnac, C M

    2008-04-01

    Fracture of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) components used in total joint replacements is a clinical concern. UHMWPE materials exhibits stable crack growth under static loading, therefore, their fracture resistance is generally characterized using the J-R curve. The multiple specimen method recommended by ASTM for evaluation of the J-R curve for polymers is time and material intensive. In this study, the applicability of a single specimen method based on load normalization to predict J-R curves of UHMWPE materials is evaluated. The normalization method involves determination of a deformation function. In this study, the J-R curves obtained using a power law based deformation function and the LMN curve based deformation function were compared. The results support the use of the power law based deformation function when using the single specimen approach to predict J-R curves for UHMWPE materials.

  18. CODEX: a normalization and copy number variation detection method for whole exome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuchao; Oldridge, Derek A; Diskin, Sharon J; Zhang, Nancy R

    2015-03-31

    High-throughput sequencing of DNA coding regions has become a common way of assaying genomic variation in the study of human diseases. Copy number variation (CNV) is an important type of genomic variation, but detecting and characterizing CNV from exome sequencing is challenging due to the high level of biases and artifacts. We propose CODEX, a normalization and CNV calling procedure for whole exome sequencing data. The Poisson latent factor model in CODEX includes terms that specifically remove biases due to GC content, exon capture and amplification efficiency, and latent systemic artifacts. CODEX also includes a Poisson likelihood-based recursive segmentation procedure that explicitly models the count-based exome sequencing data. CODEX is compared to existing methods on a population analysis of HapMap samples from the 1000 Genomes Project, and shown to be more accurate on three microarray-based validation data sets. We further evaluate performance on 222 neuroblastoma samples with matched normals and focus on a well-studied rare somatic CNV within the ATRX gene. We show that the cross-sample normalization procedure of CODEX removes more noise than normalizing the tumor against the matched normal and that the segmentation procedure performs well in detecting CNVs with nested structures.

  19. Simple and Rapid Method for Detecting Biofilm Forming Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Vipin Chandra; Prakash, Jyotsana; Koul, Shikha; Ray, Subhasree

    2017-03-01

    Biofilm forming bacteria play a vital role in causing infectious diseases and for enhancing the efficiency of the bioremediation process through immobilization. Different media and conditions have been reported for detecting biofilm forming bacteria, however, they are not quite rapid. Here, we propose the use of a simple medium which can be used for detecting biofilm former, and also provide a mechanism to regulate the expression of biofilm formation process.

  20. Effect of 2 different anesthesia methods on stress response in neurosurgical patients with hypertension or normal

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Jiang, Shan; Wu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hypertensive patients in neurosurgery are becoming more common, which increased the risk of surgical stress response. Meanwhile, the relationship between hypertension and anesthesia methods is unclear on the stress response. The purpose of this study is to compare the effect of different anesthesia methods on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), blood glucose, and leucocyte levels in neurosurgical patients with hypertension or normal. Eighty neurosurgical patients were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 20): balanced anesthesia group (A), balanced anesthesia with hypertension group (B), total intravenous anesthesia group (C), total intravenous anesthesia with hypertension group (D). The levels of Hs-CRP, blood glucose, leucocyte count, and neutrophil percentage and were detected at before anesthesia (T0), during anesthesia (T1), 2 hours post anesthesia (T2), 24 hours post anesthesia (T3). Patients with hypertension had higher Hs-CRP expression, blood glucose, and neutrophil percentage at time T0 than those of normal, but not leucocyte count. At time T3, patients with hypertension in D group had lower Hs-CRP expression than those in B group (P < 0.01). Patients with normal in C group had lower Hs-CRP expression (P < 0.01), blood glucose (P < 0.05), and leukocyte count (P < 0.05) than those in A group. Both hypertension history and anesthesia method had significant effects on the Hs-CRP expression, blood glucose, and leukocyte count. Total intravenous anesthesia decreases Hs-CRP expressions more efficiently than balanced anesthesia in neurosurgical patients with hypertension or normal. Moreover, total intravenous anesthesia can availably reduce the perioperative stress response by attenuating the increase of blood glucose and leukocyte count in normal tensive patients. PMID:27583931

  1. Experimental validation of normalized uniform load surface curvature method for damage localization.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ho-Yeon; Sung, Seung-Hoon; Jung, Hyung-Jo

    2015-10-16

    In this study, we experimentally validated the normalized uniform load surface (NULS) curvature method, which has been developed recently to assess damage localization in beam-type structures. The normalization technique allows for the accurate assessment of damage localization with greater sensitivity irrespective of the damage location. In this study, damage to a simply supported beam was numerically and experimentally investigated on the basis of the changes in the NULS curvatures, which were estimated from the modal flexibility matrices obtained from the acceleration responses under an ambient excitation. Two damage scenarios were considered for the single damage case as well as the multiple damages case by reducing the bending stiffness (EI) of the affected element(s). Numerical simulations were performed using MATLAB as a preliminary step. During the validation experiments, a series of tests were performed. It was found that the damage locations could be identified successfully without any false-positive or false-negative detections using the proposed method. For comparison, the damage detection performances were compared with those of two other well-known methods based on the modal flexibility matrix, namely, the uniform load surface (ULS) method and the ULS curvature method. It was confirmed that the proposed method is more effective for investigating the damage locations of simply supported beams than the two conventional methods in terms of sensitivity to damage under measurement noise.

  2. Composite drill pipe and method for forming same

    DOEpatents

    Leslie, James C; Leslie, II, James C; Heard, James; Truong, Liem V; Josephson, Marvin

    2012-10-16

    A lightweight and durable drill pipe string capable of short radius drilling formed using a composite pipe segment formed to include tapered wall thickness ends that are each defined by opposed frustoconical surfaces conformed for self-aligning receipt and intimate bonding contact within an annular space between corresponding surfaces of a coaxially nested set of metal end pieces and a set of nonconductive sleeves. The distal peripheries of the nested end pieces and sleeves are then welded to each other and the sandwiched and bonded portions are radially pinned. The composite segment may include imbedded conductive leads and the axial end portions of the end pieces are shaped to form a threaded joint with the next pipe assembly that includes contact rings in the opposed surfaces of the pipe joint for contact together.

  3. A method of measuring dynamic strain under electromagnetic forming conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinling; Xi, Xuekui; Wang, Sijun; Lu, Jun; Guo, Chenglong; Wang, Wenquan; Liu, Enke; Wang, Wenhong; Liu, Lin; Wu, Guangheng

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic strain measurement is rather important for the characterization of mechanical behaviors in electromagnetic forming process, but it has been hindered by high strain rate and serious electromagnetic interference for years. In this work, a simple and effective strain measuring technique for physical and mechanical behavior studies in the electromagnetic forming process has been developed. High resolution (∼5 ppm) of strain curves of a budging aluminum tube in pulsed electromagnetic field has been successfully measured using this technique. The measured strain rate is about 10(5) s(-1), which depends on the discharging conditions, nearly one order of magnitude of higher than that under conventional split Hopkins pressure bar loading conditions (∼10(4) s(-1)). It has been found that the dynamic fracture toughness of an aluminum alloy is significantly enhanced during the electromagnetic forming, which explains why the formability is much larger under electromagnetic forging conditions in comparison with conventional forging processes.

  4. Method of forming grooves in the [011] crystalline direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marinelli, Donald Paul (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An A-B etchant is applied to a (100) surface of a body of semiconductor material, a portion of which along the (100) surface of the body is either gallium arsenide or gallium aluminum arsenide. The etchant is applied for at least 15 seconds at a temperature of approximately 80.degree. C. The A-B etchant is a solution by weight percent of 47.5%, water, 0.2% silver nitrate, 23.8% chromium trioxide and 28.5% of a 48% aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid. As a result of the application of the A-B etchant a pattern of elongated etch pits form having their longitudinal axes along the [011] crystalline direction. Grooves are formed in the body at a surface opposite the (100) surface on which was applied the etchant. The grooves are formed along the [011] crystalline direction by aligning the longitudinal axes of the grooves with the longitudinal axes of the etch pits.

  5. [Detection of early forms of keratoconus - current screening methods].

    PubMed

    Goebels, S; Eppig, T; Seitz, B; Langenbucher, A

    2013-10-01

    The detection of early forms of keratoconus is still a challenge for clinicians. Beside clinical examination and diagnosis of keratoconus, a series of examination techniques has been established in clinical routine to assist in the diagnosis of early forms of keratoconus: corneal topography for measuring the geometry of the corneal front surface, tomography for measuring the geometry of structures of the anterior segment of the eye, aberrometers for evaluation of optical aberrations of the entire eye, and a system for investigation of the biomechanical properties of the cornea. These instruments provide software tools which are designed for diagnostic support in keratoconus. In this review article, we provide an overview over the spectrum of measurement systems currently on the market focussing on their performance for detecting (early forms of) keratoconus. In detail, we focus on dedicated keratoconus screening software modules of topography, tomography, aberrometry and biomechanics.

  6. Method for forming an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, C.Y.

    1983-01-11

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale, a horizontally extending void is excavated within the boundaries of the retort site leaving a zone of unfragmented formation above and/or below such a void. A crack is propagated in at least one of the zones of unfragmented formation along the side boundaries of the retort site and thereafter the zone of unfragmented formation is explosively expanded towards such a void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in the retort. Such a fragmented permeable mass is retorted in situ to produce shale oil.

  7. Method and apparatus for die forming metal sheets and extrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darter, John L.

    1986-06-01

    The invention comprises an apparatus for die forming metal sheets and extrusions which utilizes die blocks of low melting temperature metallic material. The die blocks are formed in an adjustable mold which comprises a mold box, a pivotable dam within the mold box and blocking means for locking the pivotable dam member in a desired angular position. Once a desired die block angle is ascertained for a particular joggle, the pivotable member of the mold box is adjusted to produce the desired angle in the die casting made in the mold box.

  8. Method of forming densified edge seals for fuel cell components

    DOEpatents

    DeCasperis, Anthony J.; Roethlein, Richard J.; Breault, Richard D.

    1981-01-01

    A porous fuel cell component, such as an electrode substrate, has a densified edge which forms an improved gas seal during operation when soaked with electrolyte. The edges are made from the same composition as the rest of the component and are made by compressing an increased thickness of this material along the edges during the fabrication process.

  9. Methods of Forming Professional Competence of Students as Future Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omarov, Yessen B.; Toktarbayev, Darkhan Gabdyl-Samatovich; Rybin, Igor Vyacheslavovich; Saliyevaa, Aigul Zhanayevna; Zhumabekova, Fatima Niyazbekovna; Hamzina, Sholpan; Baitlessova, Nursulu; Sakenov, Janat

    2016-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of the problem of professional competence; a methodological basis of forming professional competence of college students as future teachers is established. The essence of professional competence is defined. The structure has been experimentally proved and developed; the contents, criteria and levels of professional…

  10. Method for forming microspheres for encapsulation of nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Angelini, Peter; Caputo, Anthony J.; Hutchens, Richard E.; Lackey, Walter J.; Stinton, David P.

    1984-01-01

    Microspheres for nuclear waste storage are formed by gelling droplets containing the waste in a gelation fluid, transferring the gelled droplets to a furnace without the washing step previously used, and heating the unwashed gelled droplets in the furnace under temperature or humidity conditions that result in a substantially linear rate of removal of volatile components therefrom.

  11. Control and monitoring method and system for electromagnetic forming process

    DOEpatents

    Kunerth, Dennis C.; Lassahn, Gordon D.

    1990-01-01

    A process, system, and improvement for a process for electromagnetic forming of a workpiece in which characteristics of the workpiece such as its geometry, electrical conductivity, quality, and magnetic permeability can be determined by monitoring the current and voltage in the workcoil. In an electromagnet forming process in which a power supply provides current to a workcoil and the electromagnetic field produced by the workcoil acts to form the workpiece, the dynamic interaction of the electromagnetic fields produced by the workcoil with the geometry, electrical conductivity, and magnetic permeability of the workpiece, provides information pertinent to the physical condition of the workpiece that is available for determination of quality and process control. This information can be obtained by deriving in real time the first several time derivatives of the current and voltage in the workcoil. In addition, the process can be extended by injecting test signals into the workcoil during the electromagnetic forming and monitoring the response to the test signals in the workcoil.

  12. Friction stir method for forming structures and materials

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.; Frederick, David Alan

    2011-11-22

    Processes for forming an enhanced material or structure are disclosed. The structure typically includes a preform that has a first common surface and a recess below the first common surface. A filler is added to the recess and seams are friction stir welded, and materials may be stir mixed.

  13. Method of forming dynamic membrane on stainless steel support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddis, Joseph L. (Inventor); Brandon, Craig A. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A suitable member formed from sintered, powdered, stainless steel is contacted with a nitrate solution of a soluble alkali metal nitrate and a metal such as zirconium in a pH range and for a time sufficient to effect the formation of a membrane of zirconium oxide preferably including an organic polymeric material such as polyacrylic acid.

  14. Method for forming solar cell materials from particulars

    DOEpatents

    Eberspacher, Chris; Pauls, Karen Lea

    2001-01-01

    Materials in bulk and film forms are prepared from fine particulate precursors such as single-phase, mixed-metal oxides; multi-phase, mixed-metal particles comprising a metal oxide; multinary metal particles; mixtures of such particles with other particles; and particulate materials intercalated with other materials.

  15. Impact of the Choice of Normalization Method on Molecular Cancer Class Discovery Using Nonnegative Matrix Factorization.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haixuan; Seoighe, Cathal

    2016-01-01

    Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) has proved to be an effective method for unsupervised clustering analysis of gene expression data. By the nonnegativity constraint, NMF provides a decomposition of the data matrix into two matrices that have been used for clustering analysis. However, the decomposition is not unique. This allows different clustering results to be obtained, resulting in different interpretations of the decomposition. To alleviate this problem, some existing methods directly enforce uniqueness to some extent by adding regularization terms in the NMF objective function. Alternatively, various normalization methods have been applied to the factor matrices; however, the effects of the choice of normalization have not been carefully investigated. Here we investigate the performance of NMF for the task of cancer class discovery, under a wide range of normalization choices. After extensive evaluations, we observe that the maximum norm showed the best performance, although the maximum norm has not previously been used for NMF. Matlab codes are freely available from: http://maths.nuigalway.ie/~haixuanyang/pNMF/pNMF.htm.

  16. Impact of the Choice of Normalization Method on Molecular Cancer Class Discovery Using Nonnegative Matrix Factorization

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haixuan; Seoighe, Cathal

    2016-01-01

    Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) has proved to be an effective method for unsupervised clustering analysis of gene expression data. By the nonnegativity constraint, NMF provides a decomposition of the data matrix into two matrices that have been used for clustering analysis. However, the decomposition is not unique. This allows different clustering results to be obtained, resulting in different interpretations of the decomposition. To alleviate this problem, some existing methods directly enforce uniqueness to some extent by adding regularization terms in the NMF objective function. Alternatively, various normalization methods have been applied to the factor matrices; however, the effects of the choice of normalization have not been carefully investigated. Here we investigate the performance of NMF for the task of cancer class discovery, under a wide range of normalization choices. After extensive evaluations, we observe that the maximum norm showed the best performance, although the maximum norm has not previously been used for NMF. Matlab codes are freely available from: http://maths.nuigalway.ie/~haixuanyang/pNMF/pNMF.htm. PMID:27741311

  17. Quantitative analysis of collagen change between normal and cancerous thyroid tissues based on SHG method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiwen; Huang, Zufang; Xi, Gangqin; Chen, Yongjian; Lin, Duo; Wang, Jing; Li, Zuanfang; Sun, Liqing; Chen, Jianxin; Chen, Rong

    2012-03-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) is proved to be a high spatial resolution, large penetration depth and non-photobleaching method. In our study, SHG method was used to investigate the normal and cancerous thyroid tissue. For SHG imaging performance, system parameters were adjusted for high-contrast images acquisition. Each x-y image was recorded in pseudo-color, which matches the wavelength range in the visible spectrum. The acquisition time for a 512×512-pixels image was 1.57 sec; each acquired image was averaged four frames to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Our results indicated that collagen presence as determined by counting the ratio of the SHG pixels over the whole pixels for normal and cancerous thyroid tissues were 0.48+/-0.05, 0.33+/-0.06 respectively. In addition, to quantitatively assess collagen-related changes, we employed GLCM texture analysis to the SHG images. Corresponding results showed that the correlation both fell off with distance in normal and cancerous group. Calculated value of Corr50 (the distance where the correlation crossed 50% of the initial correlation) indicated significant difference. This study demonstrates that SHG method can be used as a complementary tool in thyroid histopathology.

  18. Quantitative analysis of collagen change between normal and cancerous thyroid tissues based on SHG method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiwen; Huang, Zufang; Xi, Gangqin; Chen, Yongjian; Lin, Duo; Wang, Jing; Li, Zuanfang; Sun, Liqing; Chen, Jianxin; Chen, Rong

    2011-11-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) is proved to be a high spatial resolution, large penetration depth and non-photobleaching method. In our study, SHG method was used to investigate the normal and cancerous thyroid tissue. For SHG imaging performance, system parameters were adjusted for high-contrast images acquisition. Each x-y image was recorded in pseudo-color, which matches the wavelength range in the visible spectrum. The acquisition time for a 512×512-pixels image was 1.57 sec; each acquired image was averaged four frames to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Our results indicated that collagen presence as determined by counting the ratio of the SHG pixels over the whole pixels for normal and cancerous thyroid tissues were 0.48+/-0.05, 0.33+/-0.06 respectively. In addition, to quantitatively assess collagen-related changes, we employed GLCM texture analysis to the SHG images. Corresponding results showed that the correlation both fell off with distance in normal and cancerous group. Calculated value of Corr50 (the distance where the correlation crossed 50% of the initial correlation) indicated significant difference. This study demonstrates that SHG method can be used as a complementary tool in thyroid histopathology.

  19. Evaluation of algorithm methods for fluorescence spectra of cancerous and normal human tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Yang; Wang, Wubao; Alfano, Robert R.

    2016-03-01

    The paper focus on the various algorithms on to unravel the fluorescence spectra by unmixing methods to identify cancerous and normal human tissues from the measured fluorescence spectroscopy. The biochemical or morphologic changes that cause fluorescence spectra variations would appear earlier than the histological approach; therefore, fluorescence spectroscopy holds a great promise as clinical tool for diagnosing early stage of carcinomas and other deceases for in vivo use. The method can further identify tissue biomarkers by decomposing the spectral contributions of different fluorescent molecules of interest. In this work, we investigate the performance of blind source un-mixing methods (backward model) and spectral fitting approaches (forward model) in decomposing the contributions of key fluorescent molecules from the tissue mixture background when certain selected excitation wavelength is applied. Pairs of adenocarcinoma as well as normal tissues confirmed by pathologist were excited by selective wavelength of 340 nm. The emission spectra of resected fresh tissue were used to evaluate the relative changes of collagen, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), and Flavin by various spectral un-mixing methods. Two categories of algorithms: forward methods and Blind Source Separation [such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA), and Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF)] will be introduced and evaluated. The purpose of the spectral analysis is to discard the redundant information which conceals the difference between these two types of tissues, but keep their diagnostically significance. The facts predicted by different methods were compared to the gold standard of histopathology. The results indicate that these key fluorophores within tissue, e.g. tryptophan, collagen, and NADH, and flavin, show differences of relative contents of fluorophores among different types of human cancer and normal tissues. The

  20. Human embryonic stem cells passaged using enzymatic methods retain a normal karyotype and express CD30.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Alison; Wojtacha, Davina; Hewitt, Zoë; Priddle, Helen; Sottile, Virginie; Di Domenico, Alex; Fletcher, Judy; Waterfall, Martin; Corrales, Néstor López; Ansell, Ray; McWhir, Jim

    2008-03-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are thought to be susceptible to chromosomal rearrangements as a consequence of single cell dissociation. Compared in this study are two methods of dissociation that do not generate single cell suspensions (collagenase and EDTA) with an enzymatic procedure using trypsin combined with the calcium-specific chelator EGTA (TEG), that does generate a single cell suspension, over 10 passages. Cells passaged by single cell dissociation using TEG retained a normal karyotype. However, cells passaged using EDTA, without trypsin, acquired an isochromosome p7 in three replicates of one experiment. In all of the TEG, collagenase and EDTA-treated cultures, cells retained consistent telomere length and potentiality, demonstrating that single cell dissociation can be used to maintain karyotypically and phenotypically normal hESCs. However, competitive genomic hybridization revealed that subkaryotypic deletions and amplifications could accumulate over time, reinforcing that present culture regimes remain suboptimal. In all cultures the cell surface marker CD30, reportedly expressed on embryonal carcinoma but not karyoptically normal ESCs, was expressed on hESCs with both normal and abnormal karyotype, but was upregulated on the latter.

  1. An Alternate Method to Springback Compensation for Sheet Metal Forming

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Badrul; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to improve the accuracy of cold stamping product by accommodating springback. This is a numerical approach to improve the accuracy of springback analysis and die compensation process combining the displacement adjustment (DA) method and the spring forward (SF) algorithm. This alternate hybrid method (HM) is conducted by firstly employing DA method followed by the SF method instead of either DA or SF method individually. The springback shape and the target part are used to optimize the die surfaces compensating springback. The hybrid method (HM) algorithm has been coded in Fortran and tested in two- and three-dimensional models. By implementing the HM, the springback error can be decreased and the dimensional deviation falls in the predefined tolerance range. PMID:25165738

  2. Method for forming precision clockplate with pivot pins

    DOEpatents

    Wild, Ronald L.

    2010-06-01

    Methods are disclosed for producing a precision clockplate with rotational bearing surfaces (e.g. pivot pins). The methods comprise providing an electrically conductive blank, conventionally machining oversize features comprising bearing surfaces into the blank, optionally machining of a relief on non-bearing surfaces, providing wire accesses adjacent to bearing surfaces, threading the wire of an electrical discharge machine through the accesses and finishing the bearing surfaces by wire electrical discharge machining. The methods have been shown to produce bearing surfaces of comparable dimension and tolerances as those produced by micro-machining methods such as LIGA, at reduced cost and complexity.

  3. Method of forming metallic coatings on polymeric substrates

    DOEpatents

    Liepins, Raimond

    1984-01-01

    Very smooth polymeric coatings or films graded in atomic number and density an readily be formed by first preparing the coating or film from the desired monomeric material and then contacting it with a fluid containing a metal or a mixture of metals for a time sufficient for such metal or metals to sorb and diffuse into the coating or film. Metal resinate solutions are particularly advantageous for this purpose. A metallic coating can in turn be produced on the metal-loaded film or coating by exposing it to a low pressure plasma of air, oxygen, or nitrous oxide. The process permits a metallic coating to be formed on a heat sensitive substrate without the use of elevated temperatures.

  4. Method of forming graded polymeric coatings or films

    DOEpatents

    Liepins, Raimond

    1983-01-01

    Very smooth polymeric coatings or films graded in atomic number and density can readily be formed by first preparing the coating or film from the desired monomeric material and then contacting it with a fluid containing a metal or a mixture of metals for a time sufficient for such metal or metals to sorb and diffuse into the coating or film. Metal resinate solutions are particularly advantageous for this purpose. A metallic coating can in turn be produced on the metal-loaded film or coating by exposing it to a low pressure plasma of air, oxygen, or nitrous oxide. The process permits a metallic coating to be formed on a heat sensitive substrate without the use of elevated temperatures.

  5. Solare Cell Roof Tile And Method Of Forming Same

    DOEpatents

    Hanoka, Jack I.; Real, Markus

    1999-11-16

    A solar cell roof tile includes a front support layer, a transparent encapsulant layer, a plurality of interconnected solar cells and a backskin layer. The front support layer is formed of light transmitting material and has first and second surfaces. The transparent encapsulant layer is disposed adjacent the second surface of the front support layer. The interconnected solar cells has a first surface disposed adjacent the transparent encapsulant layer. The backskin layer has a first surface disposed adjacent a second surface of the interconnected solar cells, wherein a portion of the backskin layer wraps around and contacts the first surface of the front support layer to form the border region. A portion of the border region has an extended width. The solar cell roof tile may have stand-offs disposed on the extended width border region for providing vertical spacing with respect to an adjacent solar cell roof tile.

  6. Method of forming a sharp edge on an optical device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleetwood, C. M.; Rice, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    A sharp edge is formed on an optical device by placing the optical device in a holding mechanism; grinding one surface so that it and a surface of the holding mechanism are co-planar; and polishing both the surface of the optical device and the surface of the holding mechanism with felt until an edge on the surface of the optical device adjacent to the surface of the holding mechanism obtains a desired sharpness.

  7. Devices, systems, and methods for harvesting energy and methods for forming such devices

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K.; Novack, Steven D.

    2012-12-25

    Energy harvesting devices include a substrate coupled with a photovoltaic material and a plurality of resonance elements associated with the substrate. The resonance elements are configured to collect energy in at least visible and infrared light spectra. Each resonance element is capacitively coupled with the photovoltaic material, and may be configured to resonate at a bandgap energy of the photovoltaic material. Systems include a photovoltaic material coupled with a feedpoint of a resonance element. Methods for harvesting energy include exposing a resonance element having a resonant electromagnetic radiation having a frequency between approximately 20 THz and approximately 1,000 THz, absorbing at least a portion of the electromagnetic radiation with the resonance element, and resonating the resonance element at a bandgap energy of an underlying photovoltaic material. Methods for forming an energy harvesting device include forming resonance elements on a substrate and capacitively coupling the resonance elements with a photovoltaic material.

  8. Ion exchange materials, method of forming ion exchange materials, and methods of treating liquids

    DOEpatents

    Wertsching, Alan K.; Peterson, Eric S.; Wey, John E.

    2007-12-25

    The invention includes an ion affinity material having an organic component which is sulfonated and which is chemically bonded to an inorganic substrate component. The invention includes a method of forming a metal binding material. A solid support material comprising surface oxide groups is provided and an organic component having at least one alkyl halide is covalently linked to at least some of the surface oxide groups to form a modified support material. The at least one alkyl halide is subsequently converted into an alkyl sulfonate. The invention further includes a method and system for extracting ions from a liquid. An ion exchange material having a sulfonated alkyl silane component covalently bonded to a metal oxide support material is provided and a liquid is exposed to the ion exchange material.

  9. Method of forming an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Studebaker, I.G.

    1984-01-03

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale and having a substantially vertically extending first cleavage plane set and a substantially vertically extending second cleavage plane set intersecting the first set. The dispersion of the individual cleavage planes in the first and second cleavage plane sets is determined. The in situ retort is formed by excavating a vertical slot-shaped void within the boundaries of the retort site, leaving a remaining portion of the unfragmented formation within the retort site which is to be explosively expanded toward the slot. The unfragmented formation adjacent the slot has a pair of longer vertical free faces substantially aligned with the cleavage plane set having the lower dispersion. A pair of shorter vertical side walls of the slot can extend substantially perpendicular to the cleavage plane set having the lower dispersion. Explosive placed in such remaining formation adjacent the slot is detonated to fracture formation along cleavage planes in the first and second cleavage plane sets and to expand such remaining formation within the retort site toward the slot, forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale within the retort site.

  10. Method and apparatus for forming flues on tubular stock

    DOEpatents

    Beck, D.E.; Carson, C.

    1979-12-21

    The present invention is directed to a die mechanism utilized for forming flues on long, relatively narrow tubular stock. These flues are formed by displacing a die from within the tubular stock through perforations previously drilled through the tubular stock at selected locations. The drawing of the die upsets the material to form the flue of the desired configuration. The die is provided with a lubricating system which enables the lubricant to be dispensed uniformly about the entire periphery of the die in contact with the material being upset so as to assure the formation of the flues. Further, the lubricant is dispensed from within the die onto the peripheral surface of the latter at pressures in the range of about 2000 to 10,000 psi so as to assure the adequate lubrication of the die during the drawing operation. By injecting the lubricant at such high pressures, low viscosity liquid, such as water and/or alcohol, may be efficiently used as a lubricant and also provides a mechanism by which the lubricant may be evaporated from the surface of the flues at ambient conditions so as to negate the cleansing operations previously required prior to joining the flues to other conduit mechanisms by fusion welding and the like.

  11. STEAM FORMING NEUTRONIC REACTOR AND METHOD OF OPERATING IT

    DOEpatents

    Untermyer, S.

    1960-05-10

    The heterogeneous reactor is liquid moderated and cooled by a steam forming coolant and is designed to produce steam from the coolant directly within the active portion of the reactor while avoiding the formation of bubbles in the liquid moderator. This reactor achieves inherent stability as a result of increased neutron leakage and increased neutron resonance absorption in the U/sup 238/ fuel with the formation of bubbles. The invention produces certain conditions under which the formation of vapor bubbles as a result of a neutron flux excursion from the injection of a reactivity increment into the reactor will operate to nullify the reactivity increment within a sufficiently short period of time to prevent unsafe reactor operating conditions from developing. This is obtained by disposing a plurality of fuel elements within a mass of steam forming coolant in the core with the ratio of the volume of steam forming coolant to the volume of fissionable isotopes being within the range yielding a multiplication factor greater than unity and a negative reactivity to core void coefficient at the boiling temperature of the coolant.

  12. Method for forming a bladder for fluid storage vessels

    DOEpatents

    Mitlitsky, Fred; Myers, Blake; Magnotta, Frank

    2000-01-01

    A lightweight, low permeability liner for graphite epoxy composite compressed gas storage vessels. The liner is composed of polymers that may or may not be coated with a thin layer of a low permeability material, such as silver, gold, or aluminum, deposited on a thin polymeric layer or substrate which is formed into a closed bladder using torispherical or near torispherical end caps, with or without bosses therein, about which a high strength to weight material, such as graphite epoxy composite shell, is formed to withstand the storage pressure forces. The polymeric substrate may be laminated on one or both sides with additional layers of polymeric film. The liner may be formed to a desired configuration using a dissolvable mandrel or by inflation techniques and the edges of the film seamed by heat sealing. The liner may be utilized in most any type of gas storage system, and is particularly applicable for hydrogen, gas mixtures, and oxygen used for vehicles, fuel cells or regenerative fuel cell applications, high altitude solar powered aircraft, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems, and lunar/Mars space applications, and other applications requiring high cycle life.

  13. Novel method to form adaptive internal impedance profiles in walkers.

    PubMed

    Escudero Morland, Maximilano F; Althoefer, Kaspar; Nanayakkara, Thrishantha

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to improve walking in prosthetics, orthotics and robotics without closed loop controllers. The approach requires impedance profiles to be formed in a walker and uses state feedback to update the profiles in real-time via a simple policy. This approach is open loop and inherently copes with the challenge of uncertain environment. In application it could be used either online for a walker to adjust its impedance profiles in real-time to compensate for environmental changes, or offline to learn suitable profiles for specific environments. So far we have conducted simulations and experiments to investigate the transient and steady state gaits obtained using two simple update policies to form damping profiles in a passive dynamic walker known as the rimless wheel (RW). The damping profiles are formed in the motor that moves the RW vertically along a rail, analogous to a knee joint, and the two update equations were designed to a) control the angular velocity profile and b) minimise peak collision forces. Simulation results show that the velocity update equation works within limits and can cope with varying ground conditions. Experiment results show the angular velocity average reaching the target as well as the peak force update equation reducing peak collision forces in real-time.

  14. METHOD OF FORMING A FUEL ELEMENT FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Layer, E.H. Jr.; Peet, C.S.

    1962-01-23

    A method is given for preparing a fuel element for a nuclear reactor. The method includes the steps of sandblasting a body of uranium dioxide to roughen the surface thereof, depositing a thin layer of carbon thereon by thermal decomposition of methane, and cladding the uranium dioxide body with zirconium by gas pressure bonding. (AEC)

  15. Superconducting articles, and methods for forming and using same

    DOEpatents

    Knoll, Allan Robert; Lenseth, Kenneth Patrick

    2007-01-09

    A superconducting tape is disclosed, including a substrate having a first surface and a second surface opposite the first surface, the substrate including a plurality of indicia provided on the first surface spaced apart along a length of the substrate; and a superconductor layer overlying the second surface. Also disclosed are components incorporating superconducting tapes, methods for manufacturing same, and methods for using same.

  16. Screening for antimicrobial resistance in normal bacterial flora of the skin using the replica plating method.

    PubMed

    Paavilainen, T; Osterblad, M; Leistevuo, T; Huovinen, P; Kotilainen, P

    2000-12-01

    The replica plating method was evaluated for detection of the antimicrobial resistance of normal bacterial flora of the skin and was compared with the results of a ten-colony method. If > or = 10% of the colonies from the master plate grew on a plate containing an antibiotic, the sensitivity of replica plating was comparable to that of a ten-colony method for samples containing resistant bacteria. However, this method classified significantly more samples as resistant to all eight antibiotics tested if the detection breakpoint was lowered to > or = 1% of the original colonies. Replica plating is an effective and practical tool for screening skin flora for resistance, also in samples with a low proportion of resistant strains.

  17. A Hypothesis Testing Based Method for Normalization and Differential Expression Analysis of RNA-Seq Data

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan; Wang, Guochang; Zhang, Jun; Li, Han

    2017-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have made RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) a popular choice for measuring gene expression level. To reduce the noise of gene expression measures and compare them between several conditions or samples, normalization is an essential step to adjust for varying sample sequencing depths and other unwanted technical effects. In this paper, we develop a novel global scaling normalization method by employing the available knowledge of housekeeping genes. We formulate the problem from the hypothesis testing perspective and find an optimal scaling factor that minimizes the deviation between the empirical and the nominal type I error. Applying our approach to various simulation studies and real examples, we demonstrate that it is more accurate and robust than the state-of-the-art alternatives in detecting differentially expression genes. PMID:28072846

  18. Sources of Chaos in Planetary Systems Formed Through Numerical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, Matthew S.

    2017-01-01

    The formation of the solar system’s terrestrial planets has been numerically modeled in countless works, and many other studies have been devoted to char- acterizing our modern planets’ chaotic dynamical state. However, it is still not known whether our planets fragile chaotic state is an expected outcome of terrestrial planet accretion. We use a large suite of numerical simulations to present a detailed analysis and characterization of the dynamical chaos in 145 different systems produced via terrestrial planet formation in Kaib & Cowan (2015). These systems were created in the presence of a fully formed Jupiter and Saturn, using a variety of different initial conditions. We provide the first analysis of the dynamical states of fully evolved (4.5 Gyr) planetary systems formed using numerical simulations. We find that dynamical chaos is preva- lent in roughly half of the systems, with the largest source of the chaos being perturbations from Jupiter. Chaos is most prevalent in systems that form 4 or 5 terrestrial planets. Additionally, an eccentric Jupiter and Saturn is shown to enhance the prevalence of chaos in systems. Furthermore, systems with a center of mass highly concentrated between 0.8-1.2 AU generally prove to be less chaotic than systems with more exotic mass distributions. Through the process of evolving systems to the current epoch, we show that late instabilities are quite common in our systems. Of greatest interest, many of the sources of chaos observed in our own solar system (such as the secularly driven chaos between Mercury and Jupiter) are shown to be common outcomes of terrestrial planetary formation. Thus, the solar system’s marginally stable, chaotic state may naturally arise from the process of terrestrial planet formation.

  19. CVD method of forming self-lubricating composites

    DOEpatents

    Besmann, Theodore M.; Blau, Peter J.; Lee, Woo Y.; Bae, Yong W.

    1998-01-01

    An article having a multiphase composite lubricant coating of a hard refractory matrix phase of titanium nitride dispersed with particles of a solid lubricating phase of molybdenum disulfide is prepared by heating the article to temperatures between 350.degree. and 850.degree. C. in a reaction vessel at a reduced pressure and passing a gaseous mixture of Ti((CH.sub.3).sub.2 N).sub.4, MoF.sub.6, H.sub.2 S and NH.sub.3 over the heated article forming a multiphase composite lubricant coating on the article.

  20. CVD method of forming self-lubricating composites

    DOEpatents

    Besmann, T.M.; Blau, P.J.; Lee, W.Y.; Bae, Y.W.

    1998-12-01

    An article having a multiphase composite lubricant coating of a hard refractory matrix phase of titanium nitride dispersed with particles of a solid lubricating phase of molybdenum disulfide is prepared by heating the article to temperatures between 350 and 850 C in a reaction vessel at a reduced pressure and passing a gaseous mixture of Ti((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}N){sub 4}, MoF{sub 6}, H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} over the heated article forming a multiphase composite lubricant coating on the article. 1 fig.

  1. Method of Forming Micro-Sensor Thin-Film Anemometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheplak, Mark (Inventor); McGinley, Catherine B. (Inventor); Spina, Eric F. (Inventor); Stephens, Ralph M. (Inventor); Hopson, Purnell, Jr. (Inventor); Cruz, Vincent B. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A device for measuring turbulence in high-speed flows is provided which includes a micro- sensor thin-film probe. The probe is formed from a single crystal of aluminum oxide having a 14 deg half-wedge shaped portion. The tip of the half-wedge is rounded and has a thin-film sensor attached along the stagnation line. The bottom surface of the half-wedge is tilted upward to relieve shock induced disturbances created by the curved tip of the half-wedge. The sensor is applied using a microphotolithography technique.

  2. Solar array strip and a method for forming the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, R. L.; Yasui, R. K. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A flexible solar array strip is formed by providing printed circuitry between flexible layers of a nonconductive material, depositing solder pads on the printed circuitry, and storing the resulting substrate on a drum from which it is then withdrawn and advanced along a linear path. Solderless solar cells are serially transported into engagement with the pads and are infrared radiation to melt the solder and attach the cells to the circuitry. Excess flux is cleaned from the solar cells which are then encapsulated in a protective coating. The resulting array is then wound on a drum.

  3. Method of forming an electrically conductive cellulose composite

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Barbara R [Oak Ridge, TN; O'Neill, Hugh M [Knoxville, TN; Woodward, Jonathan [Ashtead, GB

    2011-11-22

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  4. Method for forming monolayer graphene-boron nitride heterostructures

    DOEpatents

    Sutter, Peter Werner; Sutter, Eli Anguelova

    2016-08-09

    A method for fabricating monolayer graphene-boron nitride heterostructures in a single atomically thin membrane that limits intermixing at boundaries between graphene and h-BN, so as to achieve atomically sharp interfaces between these materials. In one embodiment, the method comprises exposing a ruthenium substrate to ethylene, exposing the ruthenium substrate to oxygen after exposure to ethylene and exposing the ruthenium substrate to borazine after exposure to oxygen.

  5. Encapsulated fuel unit and method of forming same

    DOEpatents

    Groh, Edward F.; Cassidy, Dale A.; Lewandowski, Edward F.

    1985-01-01

    This invention teaches an encapsulated fuel unit for a nuclear reactor, such as for an enriched uranium fuel plate of thin cross section of the order of 1/64 or 1/8 of an inch and otherwise of rectangular shape 1-2 inches wide and 2-4 inches long. The case is formed from (a) two similar channel-shaped half sections extended lengthwise of the elongated plate and having side edges butted and welded together to define an open ended tube-like structure and from (b) porous end caps welded across the open ends of the tube-like structure. The half sections are preferably of stainless steel between 0.002 and 0.01 of an inch thick, and are beam welded together over and within machined and hardened tool steel chill blocks. The porous end caps preferably are of T-316-L stainless steel having pores of approximately 3-10 microns size.

  6. System and method for accumulative double sided incremental forming

    DOEpatents

    Cao, Jian; Malhotra, Rajiv

    2015-10-27

    A forming system includes first and second tools, moving assemblies, and a control unit. The moving assemblies move the first tool and the second tool relative to the sheet. The control unit is configured to control movement of the first tool and the second tool by the one or more moving assemblies by moving at least one of the first tool or the second tool in a first deformation direction to deform the sheet, then moving the first and second tools laterally relative to the sheet to a subsequent location while engaging the sheet, then moving at least one of the first tool or the second tool in the first deformation direction or an opposite second deformation direction to deform the sheet, and then continue moving the first and second tools to deform the sheet in order to create a three-dimensional component from the sheet.

  7. Modified carbon nanotubes and methods of forming carbon nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Heintz, Amy M.; Risser, Steven; Elhard, Joel D.; Moore, Bryon P.; Liu, Tao; Vijayendran, Bhima R.

    2016-06-14

    In this invention, processes which can be used to achieve stable doped carbon nanotubes are disclosed. Preferred CNT structures and morphologies for achieving maximum doping effects are also described. Dopant formulations and methods for achieving doping of a broad distribution of tube types are also described.

  8. [Quantitative analysis method based on fractal theory for medical imaging of normal brain development in infants].

    PubMed

    Li, Heheng; Luo, Liangping; Huang, Li

    2011-02-01

    The present paper is aimed to study the fractal spectrum of the cerebral computerized tomography in 158 normal infants of different age groups, based on the calculation of chaotic theory. The distribution range of neonatal period was 1.88-1.90 (mean = 1.8913 +/- 0.0064); It reached a stable condition at the level of 1.89-1.90 during 1-12 months old (mean = 1.8927 +/- 0.0045); The normal range of 1-2 years old infants was 1.86-1.90 (mean = 1.8863 +/- 4 0.0085); It kept the invariance of the quantitative value among 1.88-1.91(mean = 1.8958 +/- 0.0083) during 2-3 years of age. ANOVA indicated there's no significant difference between boys and girls (F = 0.243, P > 0.05), but the difference of age groups was significant (F = 8.947, P < 0.001). The fractal dimension of cerebral computerized tomography in normal infants computed by box methods was maintained at an efficient stability from 1.86 to 1.91. It indicated that there exit some attractor modes in pediatric brain development.

  9. [Using neural networks based template matching method to obtain redshifts of normal galaxies].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; Luo, A-li; Wu, Fu-chao; Zhao, Yong-heng

    2005-06-01

    Galaxies can be divided into two classes: normal galaxy (NG) and active galaxy (AG). In order to determine NG redshifts, an automatic effective method is proposed in this paper, which consists of the following three main steps: (1) From the template of normal galaxy, the two sets of samples are simulated, one with the redshift of 0.0-0.3, the other of 0.3-0.5, then the PCA is used to extract the main components, and train samples are projected to the main component subspace to obtain characteristic spectra. (2) The characteristic spectra are used to train a Probabilistic Neural Network to obtain a Bayes classifier. (3) An unknown real NG spectrum is first inputted to this Bayes classifier to determine the possible range of redshift, then the template matching is invoked to locate the redshift value within the estimated range. Compared with the traditional template matching technique with an unconstrained range, our proposed method not only halves the computational load, but also increases the estimation accuracy. As a result, the proposed method is particularly useful for automatic spectrum processing produced from a large-scale sky survey project.

  10. Evaluation of dental arch width and form changes after orthodontic treatment and retention with a new computerized method.

    PubMed

    Taner, Tülin Ugur; Ciger, Semra; El, Hakan; Germeç, Derya; Es, Alphan

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate longitudinal arch width and form changes and to define arch form types with a new computerized method. Maxillary and mandibular models of 21 Class II Division 1 patients were examined before treatment (T(0)), after treatment (T(1)), and an average of 3 years after retention (T(2)). Arch width measurements were made directly on scanned images of maxillary and mandibular models. Arch form changes at T(0)-T(1) and T(1)-T(2) were evaluated by superimposing the computer-generated Bezier arch curves with a computer program. Types of dental arch forms were defined by superimposing them with the pentamorphic arch system, which included 5 different types of arch forms: normal, ovoid, tapered, narrow ovoid, and narrow tapered. Maxillary arch widths were increased during orthodontic treatment. Mandibular posterior arch widths were also increased. The expansion of the mandibular arch forms was less than in the maxillary arch forms. Arch width changes were generally stable, except for reduction in maxillary and mandibular interlateral, inter-first premolar, and mandibular intercanine widths. Pretreatment maxillary arch forms were mostly tapered; mandibular arch forms were tapered and narrow tapered. In maxillary arch forms, 76% of the treatment changes were maintained. Mandibular arch form was maintained in 67% of the sample, both during treatment and after retention. In mandibular arches, 71% of orthodontically induced arch form changes were maintained.

  11. Method for forming consumable electrodes from metallic chip scraps

    DOEpatents

    Girshov, Vladimir Leonidovich; Podpalkin, Arcady Munjyvich; Treschevskiy, Arnold Nikolayevich; Abramov, Alexey Alexandrovich

    2005-10-11

    The method relates to metallurgical recycling of waste products, preferably titanium alloys chips scrap. Accordingly after crushing and cleaning, the chip scrap is subjected to vacuum-thermal degassing (VTD); the chip scrap is pressed into briquettes; the briquettes are placed into a mould allowing sufficient remaining space for the addition of molten metal alloy; the mould is pre-heated before filling with the molten metal alloy; the mould remaining space is filled with molten metal alloy. After cooling, the electrode is removed from the mould. The method provides a means for 100% use of chip scrap in producing consumable electrodes having increased mechanical strength and reduced interstitial impurities content leading to improved secondary cast alloys.

  12. Method for forming a uniformly dense polymer foam body

    DOEpatents

    Whinnery, Jr., Leroy

    2002-01-01

    A method for providing a uniformly dense polymer foam body having a density between about 0.013 .sup.g /.sub.cm.sup..sub.3 to about 0.5 .sup.g /.sub.cm.sup..sub.3 is disclosed. The method utilizes a thermally expandable polymer microballoon material wherein some of the microballoons are unexpanded and some are only partially expanded. It is shown that by mixing the two types of materials in appropriate ratios to achieve the desired bulk final density, filling a mold with this mixture so as to displace all or essentially all of the internal volume of the mold, heating the mold for a predetermined interval at a temperature above about 130.degree. C., and then cooling the mold to a temperature below 80.degree. C. the molded part achieves a bulk density which varies by less then about .+-.6% everywhere throughout the part volume.

  13. Manganite perovskite ceramics, their precursors and methods for forming

    DOEpatents

    Payne, David Alan; Clothier, Brent Allen

    2015-03-10

    Disclosed are a variety of ceramics having the formula Ln.sub.1-xM.sub.xMnO.sub.3, where 0.Itoreq.x.Itoreq.1 and where Ln is La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu or Y; M is Ca, Sr, Ba, Cd, or Pb; manganite precursors for preparing the ceramics; a method for preparing the precursors; and a method for transforming the precursors into uniform, defect-free ceramics having magnetoresistance properties. The manganite precursors contain a sol and are derived from the metal alkoxides: Ln(OR).sub.3, M(OR).sub.2 and Mn(OR).sub.2, where R is C.sub.2 to C.sub.6 alkyl or C.sub.3 to C.sub.9 alkoxyalkyl, or C.sub.6 to C.sub.9 aryl. The preferred ceramics are films prepared by a spin coating method and are particularly suited for incorporation into a device such as an integrated circuit device.

  14. Negligibility of small divisor effects in the normal form theory for nearly-integrable Hamiltonians with decaying non-autonomous perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortunati, Alessandro; Wiggins, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with the problem of the existence of a normal form for a nearly-integrable real-analytic Hamiltonian with aperiodically time-dependent perturbation decaying (slowly) in time. In particular, in the case of an isochronous integrable part, the system can be cast in an exact normal form, regardless of the properties of the frequency vector. The general case is treated by a suitable adaptation of the finite order normalization techniques usually used for Nekhoroshev arguments. The key point is that the so called "geometric part" is not necessary in this case. As a consequence, no hypotheses on the integrable part are required, apart from analyticity. The work, based on two different perturbative approaches developed by Giorgilli et al., is a generalisation of the techniques used by the same authors to treat more specific aperiodically time-dependent problems.

  15. Method of Forming Textured Silicon Substrate by Maskless Cryogenic Etching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor); Homyk, Andrew P. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a textured substrate comprising a base comprising silicon, the base having a plurality of needle like structures depending away from the base, wherein at least one of the needle like structures has a depth of greater than or equal to about 50 micrometers determined perpendicular to the base, and wherein at least one of the needle like structures has a width of less than or equal to about 50 micrometers determined parallel to the base. An anode and a lithium ion battery comprising the textured substrate, and a method of producing the textured substrate are also disclosed.

  16. Method of forming cavitated objects of controlled dimension

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, P.R.; Miller, W.J.

    1981-02-11

    A method is disclosed of controllably varying the dimensions of cavitated objects such as hollow spherical shells wherein a precursor shell is heated to a temperature above the shell softening temperature in an ambient atmosphere wherein the ratio of gases which are permeable through the shell wall at that temperature to gases which are impermeable through the shell wall is substantially greater than the corresponding ratio for gases contained within the precursor shell. As the shell expands, the partial pressures of permeable gases internally and externally of the shell approach and achieve equilibrium, so that the final shell size depends solely upon the difference in impermeable gas partial pressures and shell surface tension.

  17. Method for forming biaxially textured articles by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2002-01-01

    A method of preparing a biaxially textured alloy article comprises the steps of preparing a mixture comprising Ni powder and at least one powder selected from the group consisting of Cr, W, V, Mo, Cu, Al, Ce, YSZ, Y, Rare Earths, (RE), MgO, CeO.sub.2, and Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; compacting the mixture, followed by heat treating and rapidly recrystallizing to produce a biaxial texture on the article. In some embodiments the alloy article further comprises electromagnetic or electro-optical devices and possesses superconducting properties.

  18. Method for forming fibrous silicon carbide insulating material

    DOEpatents

    Wei, George C.

    1984-01-01

    A method whereby silicon carbide-bonded SiC fiber composites are prepared from carbon-bonded C fiber composites is disclosed. Carbon-bonded C fiber composite material is treated with gaseous silicon monoxide generated from the reaction of a mixture of colloidal silica and carbon black at an elevated temperature in an argon atmosphere. The carbon in the carbon bond and fiber is thus chemically converted to SiC resulting in a silicon carbide-bonded SiC fiber composite that can be used for fabricating dense, high-strength high-toughness SiC composites or as thermal insulating materials in oxidizing environments.

  19. Method for forming fibrous silicon carbide insulating material

    DOEpatents

    Wei, G.C.

    1983-10-12

    A method whereby silicon carbide-bonded SiC fiber composites are prepared from carbon-bonded C fiber composites is disclosed. Carbon-bonded C fiber composite material is treated with gaseous silicon monoxide generated from the reaction of a mixture of colloidal silica and carbon black at an elevated temperature in an argon atmosphere. The carbon in the carbon bond and fiber is thus chemically converted to SiC resulting in a silicon carbide-bonded SiC fiber composite that can be used for fabricating dense, high-strength high-toughness SiC composites or as thermal insulating materials in oxidizing environments.

  20. System and method of forming nanostructured ferritic alloy

    DOEpatents

    Dial, Laura Cerully; DiDomizio, Richard; Alinger, Matthew Joseph; Huang, Shenyan

    2016-07-26

    A system for mechanical milling and a method of mechanical milling are disclosed. The system includes a container, a feedstock, and milling media. The container encloses a processing volume. The feedstock and the milling media are disposed in the processing volume of the container. The feedstock includes metal or alloy powder and a ceramic compound. The feedstock is mechanically milled in the processing volume using metallic milling media that includes a surface portion that has a carbon content less than about 0.4 weight percent.

  1. Method of forming cavitated objects of controlled dimension

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Paul R.; Miller, Wayne J.

    1982-01-01

    A method of controllably varying the dimensions of cavitated objects such as hollow spherical shells wherein a precursor shell is heated to a temperature above the shell softening temperature in an ambient atmosphere wherein the ratio of gases which are permeable through the shell wall at that temperature to gases which are impermeable through the shell wall is substantially greater than the corresponding ratio for gases contained within the precursor shell. As the shell expands, the partial pressures of permeable gases internally and externally of the shell approach and achieve equilibrium, so that the final shell size depends solely upon the difference in impermeable gas partial pressures and shell surface tension.

  2. Method for forming an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Kvapil, R.

    1983-05-31

    A retort site in a subterranean formation containing oil shale is prepared for in situ retorting by excavating a void space in the retort site and then explosively expanding at least a portion of the remainder of the formation within the retort site toward the void space. The resultant fragmented mass explosively expanded toward the void space will be permeabilized by the void volume of the void space. The void space is initially formed by excavating at least three substantially parallel drifts through the retort site. At least two of the drifts are along opposed outside edges of the retort site and at least one drift is intermediate the two outside drifts. Excavation of the void space is conducted from the two outside drifts. A vertically extending slot is first excavated from each such drift upwardly into the proposed void space at one end of the retort site. The slot may be fanned above the drift so that the slots from the two outside drifts meet near the top of the void space. Upwardly extending shot holes are then drilled from each of the outside drifts parallel to the vertical slot. If the vertical slot is fanned, it is desirable to also drill the upwardly extending shot holes in a fanned pattern. The shot holes are then loaded with explosive and blasted and the resultant rubble excavated through the outside drifts. By gradually working along the length of the outside drifts, excavation of the void space can proceed with men and equipment safely within the outside drifts. The substantially triangular prism remaining in the void space intermediate the edges of the retort site can then be fragmented by means of shot holes drilled from the third intermediate drift extending through such prism.

  3. Method for forming bismuth-based superconducting ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Maroni, Victor A.; Merchant, Nazarali N.; Parrella, Ronald D.

    2005-05-17

    A method for reducing the concentration of non-superconducting phases during the heat treatment of Pb doped Ag/Bi-2223 composites having Bi-2223 and Bi-2212 superconducting phases is disclosed. A Pb doped Ag/Bi-2223 composite having Bi-2223 and Bi-2212 superconducting phases is heated in an atmosphere having an oxygen partial pressure not less than about 0.04 atmospheres and the temperature is maintained at the lower of a non-superconducting phase take-off temperature and the Bi-2223 superconducting phase grain growth take-off temperature. The oxygen partial pressure is varied and the temperature is varied between about 815.degree. C. and about 835.degree. C. to produce not less than 80 percent conversion to Pb doped Bi-2223 superconducting phase and not greater than about 20 volume percent non-superconducting phases. The oxygen partial pressure is preferably varied between about 0.04 and about 0.21 atmospheres. A product by the method is disclosed.

  4. Automated PCR setup for forensic casework samples using the Normalization Wizard and PCR Setup robotic methods.

    PubMed

    Greenspoon, S A; Sykes, K L V; Ban, J D; Pollard, A; Baisden, M; Farr, M; Graham, N; Collins, B L; Green, M M; Christenson, C C

    2006-12-20

    Human genome, pharmaceutical and research laboratories have long enjoyed the application of robotics to performing repetitive laboratory tasks. However, the utilization of robotics in forensic laboratories for processing casework samples is relatively new and poses particular challenges. Since the quantity and quality (a mixture versus a single source sample, the level of degradation, the presence of PCR inhibitors) of the DNA contained within a casework sample is unknown, particular attention must be paid to procedural susceptibility to contamination, as well as DNA yield, especially as it pertains to samples with little biological material. The Virginia Department of Forensic Science (VDFS) has successfully automated forensic casework DNA extraction utilizing the DNA IQ(trade mark) System in conjunction with the Biomek 2000 Automation Workstation. Human DNA quantitation is also performed in a near complete automated fashion utilizing the AluQuant Human DNA Quantitation System and the Biomek 2000 Automation Workstation. Recently, the PCR setup for casework samples has been automated, employing the Biomek 2000 Automation Workstation and Normalization Wizard, Genetic Identity version, which utilizes the quantitation data, imported into the software, to create a customized automated method for DNA dilution, unique to that plate of DNA samples. The PCR Setup software method, used in conjunction with the Normalization Wizard method and written for the Biomek 2000, functions to mix the diluted DNA samples, transfer the PCR master mix, and transfer the diluted DNA samples to PCR amplification tubes. Once the process is complete, the DNA extracts, still on the deck of the robot in PCR amplification strip tubes, are transferred to pre-labeled 1.5 mL tubes for long-term storage using an automated method. The automation of these steps in the process of forensic DNA casework analysis has been accomplished by performing extensive optimization, validation and testing of the

  5. Systems and methods for forming defects on graphitic materials and curing radiation-damaged graphitic materials

    DOEpatents

    Ryu, Sunmin; Brus, Louis E.; Steigerwald, Michael L.; Liu, Haitao

    2012-09-25

    Systems and methods are disclosed herein for forming defects on graphitic materials. The methods for forming defects include applying a radiation reactive material on a graphitic material, irradiating the applied radiation reactive material to produce a reactive species, and permitting the reactive species to react with the graphitic material to form defects. Additionally, disclosed are methods for removing defects on graphitic materials.

  6. Method of forming crystalline silicon devices on glass

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1995-03-21

    A method is disclosed for fabricating single-crystal silicon microelectronic components on a silicon substrate and transferring same to a glass substrate. This is achieved by utilizing conventional silicon processing techniques for fabricating components of electronic circuits and devices on bulk silicon, wherein a bulk silicon surface is prepared with epitaxial layers prior to the conventional processing. The silicon substrate is bonded to a glass substrate and the bulk silicon is removed leaving the components intact on the glass substrate surface. Subsequent standard processing completes the device and circuit manufacturing. This invention is useful in applications requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, particularly for display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard electronics, and high temperature electronics. 7 figures.

  7. Method of forming crystalline silicon devices on glass

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1995-01-01

    A method for fabricating single-crystal silicon microelectronic components on a silicon substrate and transferring same to a glass substrate. This is achieved by utilizing conventional silicon processing techniques for fabricating components of electronic circuits and devices on bulk silicon, wherein a bulk silicon surface is prepared with epitaxial layers prior to the conventional processing. The silicon substrate is bonded to a glass substrate and the bulk silicon is removed leaving the components intact on the glass substrate surface. Subsequent standard processing completes the device and circuit manufacturing. This invention is useful in applications requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, particularly for display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard electronics, and high temperature electronics.

  8. Methods for functional magnetic resonance imaging in normal and lesioned behaving monkeys.

    PubMed

    Pinsk, Mark A; Moore, Tirin; Richter, Marlene C; Gross, Charles G; Kastner, Sabine

    2005-04-30

    Methods for performing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in behaving and lesioned monkeys using a human MR scanner are reported. Materials for head implant surgery were selected based on tests for magnetic susceptibility. A primate chair with a rigid head fixation system and a mock scanner environment for training were developed. To perform controlled visual studies, monkeys were trained to maintain fixation for several minutes using a novel training technique that utilized continuous juice rewards. A surface coil was used to acquire anatomical and functional images in four monkeys, one with a partial lesion of striate cortex. High-resolution anatomical images were used after non-uniform intensity correction to create cortical surface reconstructions of both lesioned and normal hemispheres. Our methods were confirmed in two visual experiments, in which functional activations were obtained during both free viewing and fixation conditions. In one experiment, face-selective activity was found in the fundus and banks of the superior temporal sulcus and the middle temporal gyrus in monkeys viewing pictures of faces and objects while maintaining fixation. In a second experiment, regions in occipital, parietal, and frontal cortex were activated in lesioned and normal animals viewing a cartoon movie. Importantly, in the animal with the striate lesion, fMRI signals were obtained in the immediate vicinity of the lesion. Our results extend those previously reported by providing a detailed account of the technique and by demonstrating the feasibility of fMRI in monkeys with lesions.

  9. Normal vector method for convergence improvement using the RCWA for crossed gratings.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Thomas; Ruoff, Johannes; Kerwien, Norbert; Rafler, Stephan; Osten, Wolfgang

    2007-09-01

    The rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) is a widely used method for simulating diffraction from periodic structures. Since its recognized formulation by Moharam [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A12, 1068 and 1077 (1995)], there still has been a discussion about convergence problems. Those problems are more or less solved for the diffraction from line gratings, but there remain different concurrent proposals about the convergence improvement for crossed gratings. We propose to combine Popov and Nevière's formulation of the differential method [Light Propagation in Periodic Media (Dekker, 2003) and J. Opt. Soc. Am. A18, 2886 (2001)] with the classical RCWA. With a suitable choice of a normal vector field we obtain a better convergence than for the formulations that are known from the literature.

  10. Simultaneous determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols in hazelnuts by a normal phase liquid chromatographic method.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Joana S; Casal, Susana; Torres, Duarte; Seabra, Rosa M; Oliveira, Beatriz P P

    2005-12-01

    A normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (NP-HPLC) method for the determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols in hazelnuts is reported. Three extraction procedures (with and without saponification) were assayed; the best results were obtained with a simple solid-liquid extraction procedure. Chromatographic separation was achieved using an Inertsil 5 SI column using isocratic elution with hexane/1,4-dioxane (95.5:4.5, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min. The effluent was monitored by a series arrangement of a diode-array followed by a fluorescence detector. All compounds were separated in a short period of time (17 min). The method proved to be rapid, sensitive, reproducible and accurate, allowing the simultaneous determination of all vitamin E homologues.

  11. A step beyond the Monte Carlo method in economics: Application of multivariate normal distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabaivanov, S.; Malechkova, A.; Marchev, A.; Milev, M.; Markovska, V.; Nikolova, K.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we discuss the numerical algorithm of Milev-Tagliani [25] used for pricing of discrete double barrier options. The problem can be reduced to accurate valuation of an n-dimensional path integral with probability density function of a multivariate normal distribution. The efficient solution of this problem with the Milev-Tagliani algorithm is a step beyond the classical application of Monte Carlo for option pricing. We explore continuous and discrete monitoring of asset path pricing, compare the error of frequently applied quantitative methods such as the Monte Carlo method and finally analyze the accuracy of the Milev-Tagliani algorithm by presenting the profound research and important results of Honga, S. Leeb and T. Li [16].

  12. Normal response function method for mass and stiffness matrix updating using complex FRFs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, S.; Modak, S. V.

    2012-10-01

    Quite often a structural dynamic finite element model is required to be updated so as to accurately predict the dynamic characteristics like natural frequencies and the mode shapes. Since in many situations undamped natural frequencies and mode shapes need to be predicted, it has generally been the practice in these situations to seek updating of only mass and stiffness matrix so as to obtain a reliable prediction model. Updating using frequency response functions (FRFs) has been one of the widely used approaches for updating, including updating of mass and stiffness matrices. However, the problem with FRF based methods, for updating mass and stiffness matrices, is that these methods are based on use of complex FRFs. Use of complex FRFs to update mass and stiffness matrices is not theoretically correct as complex FRFs are not only affected by these two matrices but also by the damping matrix. Therefore, in situations where updating of only mass and stiffness matrices using FRFs is required, the use of complex FRFs based updating formulation is not fully justified and would lead to inaccurate updated models. This paper addresses this difficulty and proposes an improved FRF based finite element model updating procedure using the concept of normal FRFs. The proposed method is a modified version of the existing response function method that is based on the complex FRFs. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated through a numerical study of a simple but representative beam structure. The effect of coordinate incompleteness and robustness of method under presence of noise is investigated. The results of updating obtained by the improved method are compared with the existing response function method. The performance of the two approaches is compared for cases of light, medium and heavily damped structures. It is found that the proposed improved method is effective in updating of mass and stiffness matrices in all the cases of complete and incomplete data and

  13. Robust and efficient synthetic method for forming DNA microarrays.

    PubMed

    Dolan, P L; Wu, Y; Ista, L K; Metzenberg, R L; Nelson, M A; Lopez, G P

    2001-11-01

    The field of DNA microarray technology has necessitated the cooperative efforts of interdisciplinary scientific teams to achieve its primary goal of rapidly measuring global gene expression patterns. A collaborative effort was established to produce a chemically reactive surface on glass slide substrates to which unmodified DNA will covalently bind for improvement of cDNA microarray technology. Using the p-aminophenyl trimethoxysilane (ATMS)/diazotization chemistry that was developed, microarrays were fabricated and analyzed. This immobilization method produced uniform spots containing equivalent or greater amounts of DNA than commercially available immobilization techniques. In addition, hybridization analyses of microarrays made with ATMS/diazotization chemistry showed very sensitive detection of the target sequence, two to three orders of magnitude more sensitive than the commercial chemistries. Repeated stripping and re-hybridization of these slides showed that DNA loss was minimal, allowing multiple rounds of hybridization. Thus, the ATMS/diazotization chemistry facilitated covalent binding of unmodified DNA, and the reusable microarrays that were produced showed enhanced levels of hybridization and very low background fluorescence.

  14. Methods of Forming Visual Hydrogen Detector with Variable Reversibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muradov, Nazim Z. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Methods, processes and compositions are provided for a visual or chemochromic hydrogen-detector with variable or tunable reversible color change. The working temperature range for the hydrogen detector is from minus 100 C to plus 500 C. A hydrogen-sensitive pigment, including, but not limited to, oxides, hydroxides and polyoxo-compounds of tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium, chromium and combinations thereof, is combined with nano-sized metal activator particles and preferably, coated on a porous or woven substrate. In the presence of hydrogen, the composition rapidly changes its color from white or light-gray or light-tan to dark gray, navy-blue or black depending on the exposure time and hydrogen concentration in the medium. After hydrogen exposure ceases, the original color of the hydrogen-sensitive pigment is restored, and the visual hydrogen detector can be used repeatedly. By changing the composition of the hydrogen-sensitive pigment, the time required for its complete regeneration is varied from a few seconds to several days.

  15. Intravenous Fluid Mixing in Normal Gravity, Partial Gravity, and Microgravity: Down-Selection of Mixing Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niederhaus, Charles E.; Miller, Fletcher J.

    2008-01-01

    The missions envisioned under the Vision for Space Exploration will require development of new methods to handle crew medical care. Medications and intravenous (IV) fluids have been identified as one area needing development. Storing certain medications and solutions as powders or concentrates can both increase the shelf life and reduce the overall mass and volume of medical supplies. The powders or concentrates would then be mixed in an IV bag with Sterile Water for Injection produced in situ from the potable water supply. Fluid handling in microgravity is different than terrestrial settings, and requires special consideration in the design of equipment. This document describes the analyses and down-select activities used to identify the IV mixing method to be developed that is suitable for ISS and exploration missions. The chosen method is compatible with both normal gravity and microgravity, maintains sterility of the solution, and has low mass and power requirements. The method will undergo further development, including reduced gravity aircraft experiments and computations, in order to fully develop the mixing method and associated operational parameters.

  16. Biochemical effects in normal and stone forming rats treated with the ripe kernel juice of plantain (musa paradisiaca).

    PubMed

    Devi, V K; Baskar, R; Varalakshmi, P

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Musa paradisiaca stem kernel juice was investigated in experimental urolithiatic rats. Stone forming rats exhibited a significant elevation in the activities of two oxalate synthesizing enzymes - Glycollic acid oxidase and Lactate dehydrogenase. Deposition and excretion of stone forming constituents in kidney and urine were also increased in these rats. The enzyme activities and the level of crystalline components were lowered with the extract treatment. The extract also reduced the activities of urinary alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, r-glutamyl transferase, inorganic pyrophosphatase and β-glucuronidase in calculogenic rats. No appreciable changes were noticed with leucine amino peptidase activity in treated rats.

  17. Temsirolimus induced structural transition of cancerous renal cystatin to normal form in rats: In vitro mechanistic approach underlying renal cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Anas; Ahmed, Azaj; Bano, Bilqees

    2017-03-01

    Globally, renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) represent a major portion of patients suffering from cancer. Temsirolimus is an anti-renal cancer drug that has already been approved in poor-risk metastatic RCC (mRCC) patients. In our present study, we have evaluated the in vitro effect of varying concentrations of temsirolimus on cancerous rat kidney cystatin; renal cancer was induced in rats making use of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN). It has already been reported that cancerous rat kidney cystatin performs its activity in an efficacious manner as compared to normal rat kidney cystatin, so here an attempt was made to see the effect of temsirolimus on this increased activity of cystatin in renal cancers. Anti-papain activity assay was utilized to see this effect and it was found that temsirolimus reduces the increased activity of cancerous rat kidney cystatin similar to that of normal rat kidney cystatin. Further, to have an insight into temsirolimus induced structural alterations in cancerous rat kidney cystatin; various spectroscopic assays viz. UV, Fluorescence, Circular dichroism (CD) and FTIR spectroscopy were employed. UV and Fluorescence spectroscopy shows cancerous rat kidney cystatin transformation to normal form in the presence of temsirolimus. FTIR and CD spectroscopy confirmed the complete structural reversion of cancerous rat kidney cystatin to normal form in the presence of 40μM temsirolimus. Thus, it can said that temsirolimus causes renal cystatin to revert to normal form; the increased activity of renal cystatin observed in incidences of renal cancer is restored back to normal thereby halting the progression of renal cancer.

  18. Review of clinically accessible methods to determine lean body mass for normalization of standardized uptake values.

    PubMed

    Devriese, Joke; Beels, Laurence; Maes, Alex; Van De Wiele, Christophe; Gheysens, Olivier; Pottel, Hans

    2016-03-01

    With the routine use of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]-fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans, metabolic activity of tumors can be quantitatively assessed through calculation of SUVs. One possible normalization parameter for the standardized uptake value (SUV) is lean body mass (LBM), which is generally calculated through predictive equations based on height and body weight. (Semi-)direct measurements of LBM could provide more accurate results in cancer populations than predictive equations based on healthy populations. In this context, four methods to determine LBM are reviewed: bioelectrical impedance analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. CT, and magnetic resonance imaging. These methods were selected based on clinical accessibility and are compared in terms of methodology, precision and accuracy. By assessing each method's specific advantages and limitations, a well-considered choice of method can hopefully lead to more accurate SUVLBM values, hence more accurate quantitative assessment of 18F-FDG PET images.

  19. A Comparison of the Bounded Derivative and the Normal Mode Initialization Methods Using Real Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semazzi, F. H. M.; Navon, I. M.

    1985-01-01

    Browning et al. (1980) proposed an initialization method called the bounded derivative method (BDI). They used analytical data to test the new method. Kasahara (1982) theoretically demonstrated the equivalence between BDI and the well known nonlinear normal mode initialization method (NMI). The purposes of this study are the extension of the application of BDI to real data and comparison with NMI. The unbalanced initial state (UBD) is data of January, 1979 OOZ which were interpolated from the adjacent sigma levels of the GLAS GCM to the 300 mb surface. The global barotropic model described by Takacs and Balgovind (1983) is used. Orographic forcing is explicitly included in the model. Many comparisons are performed between various quantities. However, we only present a comparison of the time evolution at two grid points A(50 S, 90 E) and B(10 S, 20 E) which represent low and middle latitude locations. To facilitate a more complete comparison an initialization experiment based on the classical balance equation (CBE) was also included.

  20. Normalized impact factor (NIF): an adjusted method for calculating the citation rate of biomedical journals.

    PubMed

    Owlia, P; Vasei, M; Goliaei, B; Nassiri, I

    2011-04-01

    The interests in journal impact factor (JIF) in scientific communities have grown over the last decades. The JIFs are used to evaluate journals quality and the papers published therein. JIF is a discipline specific measure and the comparison between the JIF dedicated to different disciplines is inadequate, unless a normalization process is performed. In this study, normalized impact factor (NIF) was introduced as a relatively simple method enabling the JIFs to be used when evaluating the quality of journals and research works in different disciplines. The NIF index was established based on the multiplication of JIF by a constant factor. The constants were calculated for all 54 disciplines of biomedical field during 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 years. Also, ranking of 393 journals in different biomedical disciplines according to the NIF and JIF were compared to illustrate how the NIF index can be used for the evaluation of publications in different disciplines. The findings prove that the use of the NIF enhances the equality in assessing the quality of research works produced by researchers who work in different disciplines.

  1. The normal mode analysis shape detection method for automated shape determination of lung nodules.

    PubMed

    Stember, Joseph N

    2015-04-01

    Surface morphology and shape in general are important predictors for the behavior of solid-type lung nodules detected on CT. More broadly, shape analysis is useful in many areas of computer-aided diagnosis and essentially all scientific and engineering disciplines. Automated methods for shape detection have all previously, to the author's knowledge, relied on some sort of geometric measure. I introduce Normal Mode Analysis Shape Detection (NMA-SD), an approach that measures shape indirectly via the motion it would undergo if one imagined the shape to be a pseudomolecule. NMA-SD allows users to visualize internal movements in the imaging object and thereby develop an intuition for which motions are important, and which geometric features give rise to them. This can guide the identification of appropriate classification features to distinguish among classes of interest. I employ normal mode analysis (NMA) to animate pseudomolecules representing simulated lung nodules. Doing so, I am able to assign a testing set of nodules into the classes circular, elliptical, and irregular with roughly 97 % accuracy. This represents a proof-of-principle that one can obtain shape information by treating voxels as pseudoatoms in a pseudomolecule, and analyzing the pseudomolecule's predicted motion.

  2. Method and system for constructing a rechargeable battery and battery structures formed with the method

    DOEpatents

    Hobson, David O.; Snyder, Jr., William B.

    1995-01-01

    A method and system for manufacturing a thin-film battery and a battery structure formed with the method utilizes a plurality of deposition stations at which thin battery component films are built up in sequence upon a web-like substrate as the substrate is automatically moved through the stations. At an initial station, cathode and anode current collector film sections are deposited upon the substrate, and at another station, a thin cathode film is deposited upon the substrate so to overlie part of the cathode current collector section. At another station, a thin electrolyte film is deposited upon so as to overlie the cathode film and part of the anode current collector film, at yet another station, a thin lithium film is deposited upon so as to overlie the electrolyte film and an additional part of the anode current collector film. Such a method accommodates the winding of a layup of battery components into a spiral configuration to provide a thin-film, high capacity battery and also accommodates the build up of thin film battery components onto a substrate surface having any of a number of shapes.

  3. Performance Evaluation and Online Realization of Data-driven Normalization Methods Used in LC/MS based Untargeted Metabolomics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Tang, Jing; Yang, Qingxia; Cui, Xuejiao; Li, Shuang; Chen, Sijie; Cao, Quanxing; Xue, Weiwei; Chen, Na; Zhu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    In untargeted metabolomics analysis, several factors (e.g., unwanted experimental & biological variations and technical errors) may hamper the identification of differential metabolic features, which requires the data-driven normalization approaches before feature selection. So far, ≥16 normalization methods have been widely applied for processing the LC/MS based metabolomics data. However, the performance and the sample size dependence of those methods have not yet been exhaustively compared and no online tool for comparatively and comprehensively evaluating the performance of all 16 normalization methods has been provided. In this study, a comprehensive comparison on these methods was conducted. As a result, 16 methods were categorized into three groups based on their normalization performances across various sample sizes. The VSN, the Log Transformation and the PQN were identified as methods of the best normalization performance, while the Contrast consistently underperformed across all sub-datasets of different benchmark data. Moreover, an interactive web tool comprehensively evaluating the performance of 16 methods specifically for normalizing LC/MS based metabolomics data was constructed and hosted at http://server.idrb.cqu.edu.cn/MetaPre/. In summary, this study could serve as a useful guidance to the selection of suitable normalization methods in analyzing the LC/MS based metabolomics data. PMID:27958387

  4. Uncertainty analysis of the radiological characteristics of radioactive waste using a method based on log-normal distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Gigase, Yves

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The uncertainty on characteristics of radioactive LILW waste packages is difficult to determine and often very large. This results from a lack of knowledge of the constitution of the waste package and of the composition of the radioactive sources inside. To calculate a quantitative estimate of the uncertainty on a characteristic of a waste package one has to combine these various uncertainties. This paper discusses an approach to this problem, based on the use of the log-normal distribution, which is both elegant and easy to use. It can provide as example quantitative estimates of uncertainty intervals that 'make sense'. The purpose is to develop a pragmatic approach that can be integrated into existing characterization methods. In this paper we show how our method can be applied to the scaling factor method. We also explain how it can be used when estimating other more complex characteristics such as the total uncertainty of a collection of waste packages. This method could have applications in radioactive waste management, more in particular in those decision processes where the uncertainty on the amount of activity is considered to be important such as in probability risk assessment or the definition of criteria for acceptance or categorization. (author)

  5. Method of forming emitters for a back-contact solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Li, Bo; Cousins, Peter J.; Smith, David D.

    2015-09-29

    Methods of forming emitters for back-contact solar cells are described. In one embodiment, a method includes forming a first solid-state dopant source above a substrate. The first solid-state dopant source includes a plurality of regions separated by gaps. Regions of a second solid-state dopant source are formed above the substrate by printing.

  6. Method of forming emitters for a back-contact solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Li, Bo; Cousins, Peter J; Smith, David D

    2014-12-16

    Methods of forming emitters for back-contact solar cells are described. In one embodiment, a method includes forming a first solid-state dopant source above a substrate. The first solid-state dopant source includes a plurality of regions separated by gaps. Regions of a second solid-state dopant source are formed above the substrate by printing.

  7. Method or forming emitters for a back-contact solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Li, Bo; Cousins, Peter J.; Smith, David D.

    2014-08-12

    Methods of forming emitters for back-contact solar cells are described. In one embodiment, a method includes forming a first solid-state dopant source above a substrate. The first solid-state dopant source includes a plurality of regions separated by gaps. Regions of a second solid-state dopant source are formed above the substrate by printing.

  8. Environmental dose assessment methods for normal operations at DOE nuclear sites

    SciTech Connect

    Strenge, D.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Corley, J.P.

    1982-09-01

    Methods for assessing public exposure to radiation from normal operations at DOE facilities are reviewed in this report. The report includes a discussion of environmental doses to be calculated, a review of currently available environmental pathway models and a set of recommended models for use when environmental pathway modeling is necessary. Currently available models reviewed include those used by DOE contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and other organizations involved in environmental assessments. General modeling areas considered for routine releases are atmospheric transport, airborne pathways, waterborne pathways, direct exposure to penetrating radiation, and internal dosimetry. The pathway models discussed in this report are applicable to long-term (annual) uniform releases to the environment: they do not apply to acute releases resulting from accidents or emergency situations.

  9. Characterization of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) isoforms in normal and cancer cells: there is no cancer-associated form of PCNA.

    PubMed

    Naryzhny, Stanislav N; Lee, Hoyun

    2007-10-16

    In order to clarify the status of PCNA in normal and transformed cells, we performed analysis of this protein by 2D-PAGE, Western blot and mass spectrometry. All the cell lines examined contained the major PCNA form (pI 4.57/30kDa), that is not post-translationally modified. In addition to the major form, two minor isoforms (pI 4.52/30kDa and pI 4.62/30kDa) were also detected in all the cell lines examined. However, the level of PCNA in cancer cells is 5-6 folds higher than those in primary and most of the immortalized cells. Taken together, the significant difference in PCNA status between cancer and normal cells is not at the post-translational modifications but in the overall levels of PCNA.

  10. The temperature gradient-forming device, an accessory unit for normal light microscopes to study the biology of hyperthermophilic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Mora, Maximilian; Bellack, Annett; Ugele, Matthias; Hopf, Johann; Wirth, Reinhard

    2014-08-01

    To date, the behavior of hyperthermophilic microorganisms in their biotope has been studied only to a limited degree; this is especially true for motility. One reason for this lack of knowledge is the requirement for high-temperature microscopy-combined, in most cases, with the need for observations under strictly anaerobic conditions-for such studies. We have developed a custom-made, low-budget device that, for the first time, allows analyses in temperature gradients up to 40°C over a distance of just 2 cm (a biotope-relevant distance) with heating rates up to ∼5°C/s. Our temperature gradient-forming device can convert any upright light microscope into one that works at temperatures as high as 110°C. Data obtained by use of this apparatus show how very well hyperthermophiles are adapted to their biotope: they can react within seconds to elevated temperatures by starting motility-even after 9 months of storage in the cold. Using the temperature gradient-forming device, we determined the temperature ranges for swimming, and the swimming speeds, of 15 selected species of the genus Thermococcus within a few months, related these findings to the presence of cell surface appendages, and obtained the first evidence for thermotaxis in Archaea.

  11. Residual stresses and microstructure of H13 steel formed by combining two different direct fabrication methods

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, P.J.; Payzant, E.A.; Schlienger, M.E.; McHugh, K.M.

    1998-10-13

    Direct fabrication (DF) of tool and die steels by rapid solidification techniques can produce near-net-shape parts and components with unique properties, and without the distortions caused by conventional normalizing and tempering heat-treatments. When combined with sophisticated 3-dimensional computer control to build complex solid metallic shapes, one has the capability of using DF for rapid prototyping. Spray forming using a circular converging/diverging atomizer is a DF process being developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for rapid manufacturing of tool and die steels like H-13. Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS{trademark}) is a DF process being developed at Sandia National laboratory (SNL). LENS involves laser-processing fine powder metal sprays into complex, fully-dense 3-dimensional shapes with fine-detail control that would allow rapid prototyping of tools or dies. One logical combination of the two processes is to combine spray forming to replicate most of the die surface and backing, and then t o build other die-surface fine-features with LENS. Premium H-13 steel was used because it belongs to the widely used group of hot-work steels that have good resistance to heat, pressure and abrasion for metal-forging and aluminum die-casting applications. The microstructure and residual stresses that exist across the interface of a composite metal produced by these two DF methods are critical parameters in producing crack-free components with functional properties. The purpose of this work is to combine unique neutron-diffraction facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for measuring bulk residual stresses with these two different DF processes to characterize LENS deposits of H-13 steel made on a spray-formed base of that same steel.

  12. Simultaneous multiplicative column-normalized method (SMART) for 3-D ionosphere tomography in comparison to other algebraic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerzen, T.; Minkwitz, D.

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy and availability of satellite-based applications like GNSS positioning and remote sensing crucially depends on the knowledge of the ionospheric electron density distribution. The tomography of the ionosphere is one of the major tools to provide link specific ionospheric corrections as well as to study and monitor physical processes in the ionosphere. In this paper, we introduce a simultaneous multiplicative column-normalized method (SMART) for electron density reconstruction. Further, SMART+ is developed by combining SMART with a successive correction method. In this way, a balancing between the measurements of intersected and not intersected voxels is realised. The methods are compared with the well-known algebraic reconstruction techniques ART and SART. All the four methods are applied to reconstruct the 3-D electron density distribution by ingestion of ground-based GNSS TEC data into the NeQuick model. The comparative case study is implemented over Europe during two periods of the year 2011 covering quiet to disturbed ionospheric conditions. In particular, the performance of the methods is compared in terms of the convergence behaviour and the capability to reproduce sTEC and electron density profiles. For this purpose, independent sTEC data of four IGS stations and electron density profiles of four ionosonde stations are taken as reference. The results indicate that SMART significantly reduces the number of iterations necessary to achieve a predefined accuracy level. Further, SMART+ decreases the median of the absolute sTEC error up to 15, 22, 46 and 67 % compared to SMART, SART, ART and NeQuick respectively.

  13. Three-dimensional surface figure measurement of high-accuracy spherical mirror with nanoprofiler using normal vector tracing method.

    PubMed

    Kudo, R; Okuda, K; Usuki, K; Nakano, M; Yamamura, K; Endo, K

    2014-04-01

    Processing technology using an extreme ultraviolet light source, e.g., next-generation lithography, requires next-generation high-accuracy mirrors. As it will be difficult to attain the degree of precision required by next-generation high-accuracy mirrors such as aspherical mirrors through conventional processing methods, rapid progress in nanomeasurement technologies will be needed to produce such mirrors. Because the measuring methods used for the surface figure measurement of next-generation mirrors will require high precision, we have developed a novel nanoprofiler that can measure the figures of high-accuracy mirrors without the use of a reference surface. Because the accuracy of the proposed method is not limited by the accuracy of a reference surface, the measurement of free-form mirrors is expected to be realized. By using an algorithm to process normal vectors and their coordinate values at the measurement point obtained by a nanoprofiler, our measurement method can reconstruct three-dimensional shapes. First, we measured the surface of a concave spherical mirror with a 1000-mm radius of curvature using the proposed method, and the measurement repeatability is evaluated as 0.6 nm. Sub-nanometer repeatability is realized, and an increase in the repeatability would be expected by improving the dynamic stiffness of the nanoprofiler. The uncertainty of the measurement using the present apparatus is estimated to be approximately 10 nm by numerical simulation. Further, the uncertainty of a Fizeau interferometer is also approximately 10 nm. The results obtained using the proposed method are compared with those obtained using a Fizeau interferometer. The resulting profiles are consistent within the range of each uncertainty over the middle portions of the mirror.

  14. New Data Pre-processing on Assessing of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: Line Based Normalization Method (LBNM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akdemir, Bayram; Güneş, Salih; Yosunkaya, Şebnem

    Sleep disorders are a very common unawareness illness among public. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) is characterized with decreased oxygen saturation level and repetitive upper respiratory tract obstruction episodes during full night sleep. In the present study, we have proposed a novel data normalization method called Line Based Normalization Method (LBNM) to evaluate OSAS using real data set obtained from Polysomnography device as a diagnostic tool in patients and clinically suspected of suffering OSAS. Here, we have combined the LBNM and classification methods comprising C4.5 decision tree classifier and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to diagnose the OSAS. Firstly, each clinical feature in OSAS dataset is scaled by LBNM method in the range of [0,1]. Secondly, normalized OSAS dataset is classified using different classifier algorithms including C4.5 decision tree classifier and ANN, respectively. The proposed normalization method was compared with min-max normalization, z-score normalization, and decimal scaling methods existing in literature on the diagnosis of OSAS. LBNM has produced very promising results on the assessing of OSAS. Also, this method could be applied to other biomedical datasets.

  15. Taggants, method for forming a taggant, and a method for detecting an object

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K [Idaho Falls, ID; Stewart, Frederick F [Idaho Falls, ID; Stone, Mark L [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-02-28

    A taggant comprising at least one perfluorocarbon compound surrounded by a polyphosphazene compound. The polyphosphazene compound has the chemical structure: ##STR00001## wherein G.sub.1 and G.sub.2 are pendant groups having different polarities, m is an integer greater than or equal to 100, and each of A and B is independently selected from hydrogen, an alkyl, an alkene, an alkoxide, a polyether, a polythioether, a siloxane, and --X(CH.sub.2).sub.nY.sup.1(CH.sub.2)p.sub.1Y.sup.2(CH.sub.2)p.sub.2 . . . Y.sup.i(CH.sub.2)p.sub.iCH.sub.3, where n ranges from 1 to 6, X and Y are independently selected from oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, and polonium, and p.sub.1 through p.sub.i range from 1 to 6. Cyclic polyphosphazene compounds lacking the A and B groups are also disclosed, as are methods of forming the taggant and of detecting an object.

  16. Normal mode analysis of macromolecular systems with the mobile block Hessian method

    SciTech Connect

    Ghysels, An; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Van Neck, Dimitri; Waroquier, Michel; Brooks, Bernard R.

    2015-01-22

    Until recently, normal mode analysis (NMA) was limited to small proteins, not only because the required energy minimization is a computationally exhausting task, but also because NMA requires the expensive diagonalization of a 3N{sub a}×3N{sub a} matrix with N{sub a} the number of atoms. A series of simplified models has been proposed, in particular the Rotation-Translation Blocks (RTB) method by Tama et al. for the simulation of proteins. It makes use of the concept that a peptide chain or protein can be seen as a subsequent set of rigid components, i.e. the peptide units. A peptide chain is thus divided into rigid blocks with six degrees of freedom each. Recently we developed the Mobile Block Hessian (MBH) method, which in a sense has similar features as the RTB method. The main difference is that MBH was developed to deal with partially optimized systems. The position/orientation of each block is optimized while the internal geometry is kept fixed at a plausible - but not necessarily optimized - geometry. This reduces the computational cost of the energy minimization. Applying the standard NMA on a partially optimized structure however results in spurious imaginary frequencies and unwanted coordinate dependence. The MBH avoids these unphysical effects by taking into account energy gradient corrections. Moreover the number of variables is reduced, which facilitates the diagonalization of the Hessian. In the original implementation of MBH, atoms could only be part of one rigid block. The MBH is now extended to the case where atoms can be part of two or more blocks. Two basic linkages can be realized: (1) blocks connected by one link atom, or (2) by two link atoms, where the latter is referred to as the hinge type connection. In this work we present the MBH concept and illustrate its performance with the crambin protein as an example.

  17. Normal mode analysis of macromolecular systems with the mobile block Hessian method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghysels, An; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Van Neck, Dimitri; Brooks, Bernard R.; Waroquier, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, normal mode analysis (NMA) was limited to small proteins, not only because the required energy minimization is a computationally exhausting task, but also because NMA requires the expensive diagonalization of a 3Na×3Na matrix with Na the number of atoms. A series of simplified models has been proposed, in particular the Rotation-Translation Blocks (RTB) method by Tama et al. for the simulation of proteins. It makes use of the concept that a peptide chain or protein can be seen as a subsequent set of rigid components, i.e. the peptide units. A peptide chain is thus divided into rigid blocks with six degrees of freedom each. Recently we developed the Mobile Block Hessian (MBH) method, which in a sense has similar features as the RTB method. The main difference is that MBH was developed to deal with partially optimized systems. The position/orientation of each block is optimized while the internal geometry is kept fixed at a plausible - but not necessarily optimized - geometry. This reduces the computational cost of the energy minimization. Applying the standard NMA on a partially optimized structure however results in spurious imaginary frequencies and unwanted coordinate dependence. The MBH avoids these unphysical effects by taking into account energy gradient corrections. Moreover the number of variables is reduced, which facilitates the diagonalization of the Hessian. In the original implementation of MBH, atoms could only be part of one rigid block. The MBH is now extended to the case where atoms can be part of two or more blocks. Two basic linkages can be realized: (1) blocks connected by one link atom, or (2) by two link atoms, where the latter is referred to as the hinge type connection. In this work we present the MBH concept and illustrate its performance with the crambin protein as an example.

  18. 48 CFR 215.404-70 - DD Form 1547, Record of Weighted Guidelines Method Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DD Form 1547, Record of... TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.404-70 DD Form 1547, Record of Weighted Guidelines Method Application. Follow the procedures at PGI 215.404-70 for use of DD Form 1547 whenever a...

  19. 48 CFR 215.404-70 - DD Form 1547, Record of Weighted Guidelines Method Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false DD Form 1547, Record of... TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.404-70 DD Form 1547, Record of Weighted Guidelines Method Application. Follow the procedures at PGI 215.404-70 for use of DD Form 1547 whenever a...

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Differential Proteome Expression in Bladder Cancer vs. Normal Bladder Cells Using SILAC Method

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ganglong; Xu, Zhipeng; Lu, Wei; Li, Xiang; Sun, Chengwen; Guo, Jia; Xue, Peng; Guan, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The best way to increase patient survival rate is to identify patients who are likely to progress to muscle-invasive or metastatic disease upfront and treat them more aggressively. The human cell lines HCV29 (normal bladder epithelia), KK47 (low grade nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, NMIBC), and YTS1 (metastatic bladder cancer) have been widely used in studies of molecular mechanisms and cell signaling during bladder cancer (BC) progression. However, little attention has been paid to global quantitative proteome analysis of these three cell lines. We labeled HCV29, KK47, and YTS1 cells by the SILAC method using three stable isotopes each of arginine and lysine. Labeled proteins were analyzed by 2D ultrahigh-resolution liquid chromatography LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Among 3721 unique identified and annotated proteins in KK47 and YTS1 cells, 36 were significantly upregulated and 74 were significantly downregulated with >95% confidence. Differential expression of these proteins was confirmed by western blotting, quantitative RT-PCR, and cell staining with specific antibodies. Gene ontology (GO) term and pathway analysis indicated that the differentially regulated proteins were involved in DNA replication and molecular transport, cell growth and proliferation, cellular movement, immune cell trafficking, and cell death and survival. These proteins and the advanced proteome techniques described here will be useful for further elucidation of molecular mechanisms in BC and other types of cancer. PMID:26230496

  1. Alternative normalization method of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution level recorded by tree bark.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuli; Wang, Qiuquan; Yang, Limin; Li, Zhenji; Satake, Kenichi; Tsunoda, Kin-Ichi

    2006-10-01

    An alternative normalization method was developed for evaluating atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution level when using tree bark as a passive sampling medium. Perylene (PER), which mainly stems from natural biogenic processes, was proposed as a "natural internal compound" (NIC) of atmospheric PAHs accumulation processes from air into the bark, and a concentration ratio of target PAH to PER (RPAH/PER) was used to minimize the uncertainty in the evaluation of atmospheric PAHs pollution level. Systematic investigation of the effects of intrinsic bark characteristics and extrinsic seasonal meteorological conditions on the partition processes of atmospheric PAHs indicated that RPAH/PER is as an alternative index as compared to bark mass concentration (BMCPAH, ng/g dry bark), lipid mass concentration (LMCPAH, ng/g lipid of bark), and area mass concentration (AMCPAH, ng/m2 surface area of bark) for the evaluation of atmospheric PAHs pollution and that it allows more flexible sampling of tree barks. Clearly, the methodology should be expected to be useful for the objective evaluation of atmospheric pollution levels of other persistent organic pollutants when using tree bark and other passive sampling media if corresponding NICs are found in the future.

  2. Development, Implementation, and Application of an Analytic Second Derivative Formalism for the Normalized Elimination of the Small Component Method.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wenli; Filatov, Michael; Cremer, Dieter

    2012-08-14

    Analytical second derivatives for the normalized elimination of the small component (NESC) method are derived for the first time and implemented for the routine calculation of NESC vibrational frequencies and other second order molecular properties using the scalar relativistic form of NESC. Using response theory, the second derivatives of the transformation matrix U connecting the large and the pseudolarge components of the relativistic wave function are correctly derived. The 24 derivative terms involving the NESC Hamiltonian and the NESC renormalization matrix are individually tested, and their contributions to the energy Hessian are calculated. The influence of a finite nucleus model and that of the picture change is determined. Different ways of speeding up the calculation of the NESC second derivatives are tested. It is shown that second order properties can routinely be calculated in combination with Hartree-Fock, density functional theory, Moller-Plesset perturbation theory, and any other electron correlation corrected quantum chemical method provided analytic second derivatives are available in the nonrelativistic case. The general applicability of the analytic NESC Hessian is demonstrated by benchmark calculations for NESC/DFT calculations involving up to 1500 basis functions.

  3. A Method for Simulating Correlated Non-Normal Systems of Statistical Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headrick, Todd C.; Beasley, T. Mark

    Real world data often fail to meet the underlying assumptions of normal statistical theory. Many statistical procedures in the psychological and educational sciences involve models that may include a system of statistical equations with non-normal correlated variables (e.g., factor analysis, structural equation modeling, or other complex…

  4. Sources of variation in growth, form, and survival in dwarf and normal-stature pitch pines (Pinus rigida, Pinaceae) in long-term transplant experiments.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei; Taub, Daniel R; Fox, Gordon A; Landis, R Matthew; Natali, Susan; Gurevitch, Jessica

    2006-08-01

    Determining the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to phenotypic variation is critical for understanding the evolutionary ecology of plant species, but few studies have examined the sources of phenotypic differentiation between nearby populations of woody plants. We conducted reciprocal transplant experiments to examine sources of variation in growth rate, form, survival, and maturation in a globally rare dwarf population of pitch pine (Pinus rigida) and in surrounding populations of normal-stature pitch pines on Long Island, New York. Transplants were monitored over a 6-yr period. The influence of seedling origin on height, growth rate, survival, and form (single-stemmed vs. multi-stemmed growth habit) was much smaller than the effect of transplanting location. Both planting site and seed origin were important factors in determining time to reproduction; seedlings originating from dwarf populations and seedlings planted at the normal-stature site reproduced earliest. These results suggest that many of the differences between dwarf and normal-stature pitch pines may be due more to plastic responses to environmental factors than to genetic differentiation among populations. Therefore, preservation of the dwarf pine habitat is essential for preserving dwarf pine communities; the dwarf pines cannot be preserved ex situ.

  5. Method of forming contacts for a back-contact solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Manning, Jane

    2013-07-23

    Methods of forming contacts for back-contact solar cells are described. In one embodiment, a method includes forming a thin dielectric layer on a substrate, forming a polysilicon layer on the thin dielectric layer, forming and patterning a solid-state p-type dopant source on the polysilicon layer, forming an n-type dopant source layer over exposed regions of the polysilicon layer and over a plurality of regions of the solid-state p-type dopant source, and heating the substrate to provide a plurality of n-type doped polysilicon regions among a plurality of p-type doped polysilicon regions.

  6. Regulation of cell growth by Notch signaling and its differential requirement in normal vs. tumor-forming stem cells in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Song, Yan; Lu, Bingwei

    2011-12-15

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are postulated to be a small subset of tumor cells with tumor-initiating ability that shares features with normal tissue-specific stem cells. The origin of CSCs and the mechanisms underlying their genesis are poorly understood, and it is uncertain whether it is possible to obliterate CSCs without inadvertently damaging normal stem cells. Here we show that a functional reduction of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in Drosophila specifically eliminates CSC-like cells in the brain and ovary without having discernable effects on normal stem cells. Brain CSC-like cells can arise from dedifferentiation of transit-amplifying progenitors upon Notch hyperactivation. eIF4E is up-regulated in these dedifferentiating progenitors, where it forms a feedback regulatory loop with the growth regulator dMyc to promote cell growth, particularly nucleolar growth, and subsequent ectopic neural stem cell (NSC) formation. Cell growth regulation is also a critical component of the mechanism by which Notch signaling regulates the self-renewal of normal NSCs. Our findings highlight the importance of Notch-regulated cell growth in stem cell maintenance and reveal a stronger dependence on eIF4E function and cell growth by CSCs, which might be exploited therapeutically.

  7. Statistical methods for estimating normal blood chemistry ranges and variance in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), Shasta Strain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, Gary A.; Nelson, Nancy C.

    1975-01-01

    Gaussian and nonparametric (percentile estimate and tolerance interval) statistical methods were used to estimate normal ranges for blood chemistry (bicarbonate, bilirubin, calcium, hematocrit, hemoglobin, magnesium, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, osmolality, inorganic phosphorus, and pH for juvenile rainbow (Salmo gairdneri, Shasta strain) trout held under defined environmental conditions. The percentile estimate and Gaussian methods gave similar normal ranges, whereas the tolerance interval method gave consistently wider ranges for all blood variables except hemoglobin. If the underlying frequency distribution is unknown, the percentile estimate procedure would be the method of choice.

  8. A Novel Method Of Gradient Forming and Fluid Manipulation in Reduced Gravity Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran N.; Leslie, F.

    1999-01-01

    The use of magnetic fields to control the motion and position of non-conducting liquids has received growing interest in recent times. The possibility of using the forces exerted by a nonuniform magnetic field on a ferrofluid to not only achieve fluid manipulation but also to actively control fluid motion makes it an attractive candidate for applications such as heat transfer in space systems. Terrestrial heat transfer equipment often relies on the normal gravitational force to hold liquid in a desired position or to provide a buoyant force to enhance the heat transfer rate. The residual gravitational force present in a space environment may no longer serve these useful functions and other forces, such as surface tension, can play a significant role in determining heat transfer rates. Although typically overwhelmed by gravitational forces in terrestrial applications, the body force induced in a ferrofluid by a nonuniform magnetic field can help to achieve these objectives in a microgravity environment. This paper will address the fluid manipulation aspect and will comprise of results from model fluid experiments and numerical modeling of the problem. Results from a novel method of forming concentration gradients that are applicable to low gravity applications will be presented. The ground based experiments are specifically tailored to demonstrate the magnetic manipulation capability of a ferrofluid and show that gravitational effects can be countered in carefully designed systems. The development of governing equations for the system will be presented along with a sampling of numerical results.

  9. Locating of normal transitions in a Bi2223 high temperature superconducting coil by non-contact voltage measurement method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanato, N.; Nishiyama, K.

    2015-12-01

    Locating of normal transitions in high temperature superconducting (HTS) coils is important for protection and safety design of HTS apparatus. A general method to locate the normal transitions is to measure resistive voltages along HTS windings by many voltage taps directly soldered to the HTS coils. However, electrical insulation characteristics of the HTS coils are deteriorated because it is necessary to remove electrical insulations of the HTS wires for the soldering. It is a serious problem especially for AC HTS coils to which high voltages are applied. Therefore the authors have presented a non-contact voltage measurement method that can detect the resistive voltages without removing the insulations by voltage dividing capacitors. So far the authors have verified the principle of the non-contact method. In this paper, a method to locate the normal transitions in a Bi2223 HTS coil based on the non-contact method is proposed. The proposed method can not only detect the normal transitions but also locate their positions. It is experimentally confirmed that the proposed method is useful for locating the normal transitions.

  10. Normal mantle transition zone image of receiver functions CCP stacking form onshore broadband data in SE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.; Gao, R.; Liu, Q.; Guan, Y.; He, R.; Li, W.; Ye, Z.

    2011-12-01

    The southeastern margin of China continental is one of ideal area to study modern plate interaction. In the last decades the regional and local scale passive images proposed a fine geometry model in which the Eurasian plate slab underthrust beneath Taiwan and the crust of SE China presents gradually thinning from inland to offshore. But obviously the Model has been confined poorly in lateral before this study.We present preliminary results of analysis of teleseismic events recorded by 20 broadband temporary onshore stations deployed along southeastern margin of China continent in Fujian province from 2008 to 2010.Results from H-k auto-searching method, the crustal thickness (H) and average crustal VP/VS ratio beneath each station were estimated. Along coastal H varies in a range of 27.51 to 33.06 km with an average of 30.37 km and a little gentle southwest dipping, and the VP/VS ratios from 1.721 to 1.809 with a mean of 1.758. VP/VS ratios is slight higher than inland (1.73),it can be inferred more mafic mineral component and fluid or partial melting exist in the coastal crust. The CCP stack image from 16664 reliable receiver functions reveals Moho at the level of 30km with a feature of not too sharp and gentle lateral variation. The 410-km discontinuity appears in the depth of average level of global IASP and in a thin conversion zone without noticeable dipping and surge. 660-km discontinuities is quite sharp and flat, however, due to the coverage of the data we cannot confine the 660 discontinuity well in central part of our current section sharp and flat 410- and 660-km discontinuities, and the transition zone thickness between them, is cohere with ambient mantle beneath SE China and Taiwan Strait. These results support that Eurasian plate slab is confined to a depth above 410 km. in other words, mantle transition zone (410 to 660) was less affected in the SE margin of China continent. Our result hint the model of Eurasian lithosphere delimination or slab break

  11. The pathophysiology of the aqueduct stroke volume in normal pressure hydrocephalus: can co-morbidity with other forms of dementia be excluded?

    PubMed

    Bateman, Grant A; Levi, Christopher R; Schofield, Peter; Wang, Yang; Lovett, Elizabeth C

    2005-10-01

    Variable results are obtained from the treatment of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) by shunt insertion. There is a high correlation between NPH and the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) on brain biopsy. There is an overlap between AD and vascular dementia (VaD), suggesting that a correlation exists between NPH and other forms of dementia. This study seeks to (1) understand the physiological factors behind, and (2) define the ability of, the aqueduct stroke volume to exclude dementia co-morbidity. Twenty-four patients from a dementia clinic were classified as having either early AD or VaD on the basis of clinical features, Hachinski score and neuropsychological testing. They were compared with 16 subjects with classical clinical findings of NPH and 12 aged-matched non-cognitively impaired subjects. MRI flow quantification was used to measure aqueduct stroke volume and arterial pulse volume. An arterio-cerebral compliance ratio was calculated from the two volumes in each patient. The aqueduct stroke volume was elevated in all three forms of dementia, with no significant difference noted between the groups. The arterial pulse volume was elevated by 24% in VaD and reduced by 35% in NPH, compared to normal (P = 0.05 and P = 0.002, respectively), and was normal in AD. There was a spectrum of relative compliance with normal compliance in VaD and reduced compliance in AD and NPH. The aqueduct stroke volume depends on the arterial pulse volume and the relative compliance between the arterial tree and brain. The aqueduct stroke volume cannot exclude significant co-morbidity in NPH.

  12. A Comprehensive Comparison of Normalization Methods for Loading Control and Variance Stabilization of Reverse-Phase Protein Array Data

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenbin; Ju, Zhenlin; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B; Akbani, Rehan

    2014-01-01

    Loading control (LC) and variance stabilization of reverse-phase protein array (RPPA) data have been challenging mainly due to the small number of proteins in an experiment and the lack of reliable inherent control markers. In this study, we compare eight different normalization methods for LC and variance stabilization. The invariant marker set concept was first applied to the normalization of high-throughput gene expression data. A set of “invariant” markers are selected to create a virtual reference sample. Then all the samples are normalized to the virtual reference. We propose a variant of this method in the context of RPPA data normalization and compare it with seven other normalization methods previously reported in the literature. The invariant marker set method performs well with respect to LC, variance stabilization and association with the immunohistochemistry/florescence in situ hybridization data for three key markers in breast tumor samples, while the other methods have inferior performance. The proposed method is a promising approach for improving the quality of RPPA data. PMID:25374453

  13. A comprehensive comparison of normalization methods for loading control and variance stabilization of reverse-phase protein array data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbin; Ju, Zhenlin; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B; Akbani, Rehan

    2014-01-01

    Loading control (LC) and variance stabilization of reverse-phase protein array (RPPA) data have been challenging mainly due to the small number of proteins in an experiment and the lack of reliable inherent control markers. In this study, we compare eight different normalization methods for LC and variance stabilization. The invariant marker set concept was first applied to the normalization of high-throughput gene expression data. A set of "invariant" markers are selected to create a virtual reference sample. Then all the samples are normalized to the virtual reference. We propose a variant of this method in the context of RPPA data normalization and compare it with seven other normalization methods previously reported in the literature. The invariant marker set method performs well with respect to LC, variance stabilization and association with the immunohistochemistry/florescence in situ hybridization data for three key markers in breast tumor samples, while the other methods have inferior performance. The proposed method is a promising approach for improving the quality of RPPA data.

  14. Lamina Cribrosa Microarchitecture in Normal Monkey Eyes Part 1: Methods and Initial Results

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, Howard; Reynaud, Juan; Gardiner, Stuart; Grimm, Jonathan; Libertiaux, Vincent; Downs, J. Crawford; Yang, Hongli; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To introduce quantitative postmortem lamina cribrosa (LC) microarchitecture (LMA) assessment and characterize beam diameter (BD), pore diameter (PD), and connective tissue volume fraction (CTVF) in 21 normal monkey eyes. Methods. Optic nerve heads (ONHs) underwent digital three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and LC beam segmentation. Each beam and pore voxel was assigned a diameter based on the largest sphere that contained it before transformation to one of twelve 30° sectors in a common cylinder. Mean BD, PD, and CTVF within 12 central and 12 peripheral subsectors and within inner, middle, and outer LC depths were assessed for sector, subsector, and depth effects by analysis of variance using general estimating equations. Eye-specific LMA discordance (the pattern of lowest connective tissue density) was plotted for each parameter. Results. The ranges of mean BD, PD, and CTVF were 14.0 to 23.1 μm, 20.0 to 35.6 μm, and 0.247 to 0.638, respectively. Sector, subsector, and depth effects were significant (P < 0.01) for all parameters except subsector on CTVF. Beam diameter and CTVF were smaller and PD was larger within the superior-temporal (ST) and inferior-temporal (IT) sectors (P < 0.05). These differences were enhanced within the central versus peripheral subsectors. Beam diameter and CTVF were larger and PD was smaller (P < 0.05) within the middle LC layer. Lamina cribrosa microarchitecture discordance most commonly occurred within the ST and IT sectors, varied by eye, and generally diminished as CTVF increased. Conclusions. Our data support previous characterizations of diminished connective tissue density within the ST and IT ONH regions. The clinical importance of eye-specific LMA discordance warrants further study. PMID:25650423

  15. Normalization method of highly forward-peaked scattering phase function using the double exponential formula for radiative transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Hiroyuki; Okawa, Shinpei; Yamada, Yukio; Hoshi, Yoko; Watanabe, Masao

    2016-12-01

    Numerical calculation of photon migration in biological tissue using the radiative transfer equation (RTE) has attracted great interests in biomedical optics and imaging. Because biological tissue is a highly forward-peaked scattering medium, a normalization of scattering phase function in the RTE is crucial. This paper proposes a simple way of normalizing the phase function by the double exponential formula, which is heuristically modified from the original one. The proposed method is validated by the agreement between the numerical solution of the RTE with the proposed method and analytical solution of the RTE for the case of a highly forward-peaked scattering medium, while the numerical solutions with conventional normalization methods disagree with the analytical solution. This result suggests the proposed method is accurate in numerical calculation of the RTE.

  16. Group vector space method for estimating enthalpy of vaporization of organic compounds at the normal boiling point.

    PubMed

    Wenying, Wei; Jinyu, Han; Wen, Xu

    2004-01-01

    The specific position of a group in the molecule has been considered, and a group vector space method for estimating enthalpy of vaporization at the normal boiling point of organic compounds has been developed. Expression for enthalpy of vaporization Delta(vap)H(T(b)) has been established and numerical values of relative group parameters obtained. The average percent deviation of estimation of Delta(vap)H(T(b)) is 1.16, which show that the present method demonstrates significant improvement in applicability to predict the enthalpy of vaporization at the normal boiling point, compared the conventional group methods.

  17. Composite materials and bodies including silicon carbide and titanium diboride and methods of forming same

    DOEpatents

    Lillo, Thomas M.; Chu, Henry S.; Harrison, William M.; Bailey, Derek

    2013-01-22

    Methods of forming composite materials include coating particles of titanium dioxide with a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon, and reacting the titanium dioxide with the substance including boron and the substance including carbon to form titanium diboride. The methods may be used to form ceramic composite bodies and materials, such as, for example, a ceramic composite body or material including silicon carbide and titanium diboride. Such bodies and materials may be used as armor bodies and armor materials. Such methods may include forming a green body and sintering the green body to a desirable final density. Green bodies formed in accordance with such methods may include particles comprising titanium dioxide and a coating at least partially covering exterior surfaces thereof, the coating comprising a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon.

  18. Method of forming contacts for a back-contact solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, Jane

    2014-07-15

    Methods of forming contacts for solar cells are described. In one embodiment, a method includes forming a silicon layer above a substrate, forming and patterning a solid-state p-type dopant source on the silicon layer, forming an n-type dopant source layer over exposed regions of the silicon layer and over a plurality of regions of the solid-state p-type dopant source, and heating the substrate to provide a plurality of n-type doped silicon regions among a plurality of p-type doped silicon regions.

  19. Method of forming contacts for a back-contact solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Manning, Jane

    2015-10-20

    Methods of forming contacts for solar cells are described. In one embodiment, a method includes forming a silicon layer above a substrate, forming and patterning a solid-state p-type dopant source on the silicon layer, forming an n-type dopant source layer over exposed regions of the silicon layer and over a plurality of regions of the solid-state p-type dopant source, and heating the substrate to provide a plurality of n-type doped silicon regions among a plurality of p-type doped silicon regions.

  20. Adhesive flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same

    DOEpatents

    Blizzard, John Donald; Weidner, William Kenneth

    2013-02-05

    An adhesive flexible barrier film comprises a substrate and a barrier layer disposed on the substrate. The barrier layer is formed from a barrier composition comprising an organosilicon compound. The adhesive flexible barrier film also comprises an adhesive layer disposed on the barrier layer and formed from an adhesive composition. A method of forming the adhesive flexible barrier film comprises the steps of disposing the barrier composition on the substrate to form the barrier layer, disposing the adhesive composition on the barrier layer to form the adhesive layer, and curing the barrier layer and the adhesive layer. The adhesive flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

  1. Advanced method and processing technology for complicated shape airframe part forming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miodushevsky, P. V.; Rajevskaya, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    Slow deformation modes of forming give considerably higher residual fatigue life of the airframe part. It has experimentally proven that fatigue life of complicated shape integral airframe panels made of high strength aluminum alloys is significantly increased after creep deformation process. To implement the slow deformation mode forming methods, universal automated equipment was developed. Multichannel forming systems provide high accuracy of airframe part shape eliminating residual stresses and spring effect. Forming process multizone control technology was developed and experimentally proved that static/fatigue properties of formed airframe parts are increased.

  2. The soluble form of Alzheimer's amyloid beta protein is complexed to high density lipoprotein 3 and very high density lipoprotein in normal human plasma.

    PubMed

    Koudinov, A; Matsubara, E; Frangione, B; Ghiso, J

    1994-12-15

    The amyloid fibrils of Alzheimer's neuritic plaques and cerebral blood vessels are mainly composed of aggregated forms of a 39 to 44 amino acids peptide, named amyloid beta (A beta). A similar although soluble form of A beta (sA beta) has been identified in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and cell culture supernatants, indicating that it is produced under physiologic conditions. We report here that sA beta in normal human plasma is associated with lipoprotein particles, in particular to the HDL3 and VHDL fractions where it is complexed to ApoJ and, to a lesser extent, to ApoAI. This was assessed by immunoprecipitation experiments of purified plasma lipoproteins and lipoprotein-depleted plasma and confirmed by means of amino acid sequence analysis. Moreover, biotinylated synthetic peptide A beta 1-40 was traced in normal human plasma in in vitro experiments. As in the case of sA beta, biotinylated A beta 1-40 was specifically recovered in the HDL3 and VHDL fractions. This data together with the previous demonstration that A beta 1-40 is taken up into the brain via a specific mechanism and possibly as an A beta 1-40-ApoJ complex indicate a role for HDL3- and VHDL-containing ApoJ in the transport of the peptide in circulation and suggest their involvement in the delivery of sA beta across the blood-brain barrier.

  3. Form gene clustering method about pan-ethnic-group products based on emotional semantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dengkai; Ding, Jingjing; Gao, Minzhuo; Ma, Danping; Liu, Donghui

    2016-09-01

    The use of pan-ethnic-group products form knowledge primarily depends on a designer's subjective experience without user participation. The majority of studies primarily focus on the detection of the perceptual demands of consumers from the target product category. A pan-ethnic-group products form gene clustering method based on emotional semantic is constructed. Consumers' perceptual images of the pan-ethnic-group products are obtained by means of product form gene extraction and coding and computer aided product form clustering technology. A case of form gene clustering about the typical pan-ethnic-group products is investigated which indicates that the method is feasible. This paper opens up a new direction for the future development of product form design which improves the agility of product design process in the era of Industry 4.0.

  4. How are normal sleeping controls selected? A systematic review of cross-sectional insomnia studies and a standardized method to select healthy controls for sleep research.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Louise; Espie, Colin A; Kyle, Simon D; Biello, Stephany M

    2015-06-01

    There appears to be some inconsistency in how normal sleepers (controls) are selected and screened for participation in research studies for comparison with insomnia patients. The purpose of the current study is to assess and compare methods of identifying normal sleepers in insomnia studies, with reference to published standards. We systematically reviewed the literature on insomnia patients, which included control subjects. The resulting 37 articles were systematically reviewed with reference to the five criteria for normal sleep specified by Edinger et al. In summary, these criteria are as follows: evidence of sleep disruption, sleep scheduling, general health, substance/medication use, and other sleep disorders. We found sleep diaries, polysomnography (PSG), and clinical screening examinations to be widely used with both control subjects and insomnia participants. However, there are differences between research groups in the precise definitions applied to the components of normal sleep. We found that none of the reviewed studies applied all of the Edinger et al. criteria, and 16% met four criteria. In general, screening is applied most rigorously at the level of a clinical disorder, whether physical, psychiatric, or sleep. While the Edinger et al. criteria seem to be applied in some form by most researchers, there is scope to improve standards and definitions in this area. Ideally, different methods such as sleep diaries and questionnaires would be used concurrently with objective measures to ensure normal sleepers are identified, and descriptive information for control subjects would be reported. Here, we have devised working criteria and methods to be used for the assessment of normal sleepers. This would help clarify the nature of the control group, in contrast to insomnia subjects and other patient groups.

  5. Magnetic filtration process, magnetic filtering material, and methods of forming magnetic filtering material

    DOEpatents

    Taboada-Serrano, Patricia; Tsouris, Constantino; Contescu, Cristian I; McFarlane, Joanna

    2013-10-08

    The present invention provides magnetically responsive activated carbon, and a method of forming magnetically responsive activated carbon. The method of forming magnetically responsive activated carbon typically includes providing activated carbon in a solution containing ions of ferrite forming elements, wherein at least one of the ferrite forming elements has an oxidation state of +3 and at least a second of the ferrite forming elements has an oxidation state of +2, and increasing pH of the solution to precipitate particles of ferrite that bond to the activated carbon, wherein the activated carbon having the ferrite particles bonded thereto have a positive magnetic susceptibility. The present invention also provides a method of filtering waste water using magnetic activated carbon.

  6. Method for forming pyrrone molding powders and products of said method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, C. T.; Mchenry, R. J. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    The formation of pyrrone resins of the ladder or semiladder structure is described. The technique involves initial formation of fully cyclized prepolymers having an average degree of polymerization of about 1.5, one with acidic terminal groups, another with amine terminal groups. Thereafter the prepolymers are intimately admixed on a 1:1 stoichiometric basis. The resulting powder mixture is molded at elevated pressures and temperatures to form a fully cyclized resin.

  7. Contributions to the Underlying Bivariate Normal Method for Factor Analyzing Ordinal Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xi, Nuo; Browne, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    A promising "underlying bivariate normal" approach was proposed by Jöreskog and Moustaki for use in the factor analysis of ordinal data. This was a limited information approach that involved the maximization of a composite likelihood function. Its advantage over full-information maximum likelihood was that very much less computation was…

  8. Alloy substantially free of dendrites and method of forming the same

    DOEpatents

    de Figueredo, Anacleto M.; Apelian, Diran; Findon, Matt M.; Saddock, Nicholas

    2009-04-07

    Described herein are alloys substantially free of dendrites. A method includes forming an alloy substantially free of dendrites. A superheated alloy is cooled to form a nucleated alloy. The temperature of the nucleated alloy is controlled to prevent the nuclei from melting. The nucleated alloy is mixed to distribute the nuclei throughout the alloy. The nucleated alloy is cooled with nuclei distributed throughout.

  9. A Comparison of Diary Method Variations for Enlightening Form Generation in the Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babapour, Maral; Rehammar, Bjorn; Rahe, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents two studies in which an empirical approach was taken to understand and explain form generation and decisions taken in the design process. In particular, the activities addressing aesthetic aspects when exteriorising form ideas in the design process have been the focus of the present study. Diary methods were the starting point…

  10. Development and Validation of Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Methods for Drotaverine Hydrochloride and Aceclofenac from Tablet Dosage Form

    PubMed Central

    Shah, S. A.; Shah, D. R.; Chauhan, R. S.; Jain, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    Two simple spectrophotometric methods have been developed for simultaneous estimation of drotaverine hydrochloride and aceclofenac from tablet dosage form. Method I is a simultaneous equation method (Vierodt's method), wavelengths selected are 306.5 and 276 nm. Method II is the absorbance ratio method (Q-Analysis), which employs 298.5 nm as λ1 and 276 nm as λ2 (λmax of AF) for formation of equations. Both the methods were found to be linear between the range of 8-32 μg/ml for drotaverine and 10-40 μg/ml for aceclofenac. The accuracy and precision were determined and found to comply with ICH guidelines. Both the methods showed good reproducibility and recovery with % RSD in the desired range. The methods were found to be rapid, specific, precise and accurate and can be successfully applied for the routine analysis of drotaverine and aceclofenac in their combined tablet dosage form. PMID:22457554

  11. Electrophoretic separation method for membrane pore-forming proteins in multilayer lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yukihiro; Tsujimoto, Yusuke; Umakoshi, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we report on a novel electrophoretic separation and analysis method for membrane pore-forming proteins in multilayer lipid membranes (MLMs) in order to overcome the problems related to current separation and analysis methods of membrane proteins, and to obtain a high-performance separation method on the basis of specific properties of the lipid membranes. We constructed MLMs, and subsequently characterized membrane pore-forming protein behavior in MLMs. Through the use of these MLMs, we were able to successfully separate and analyze membrane pore-forming proteins in MLMs. To the best of our knowledge, this research is the first example of membrane pore-forming protein separation in lipid membranes. Our method can be expected to be applied for the separation and analysis of other membrane proteins including intrinsic membrane proteins and to result in high-performance by utilizing the specific properties of lipid membranes.

  12. Improved methods of forming monolithic integrated circuits having complementary bipolar transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohannon, R. O., Jr.; Cashion, W. F.; Stehlin, R. A.

    1971-01-01

    Two new processes form complementary transistors in monolithic semiconductor circuits, require fewer steps /infusions/ than previous methods, and eliminate such problems as nonuniform h sub FE distribution, low yield, and large device formation.

  13. Method and apparatus for forming a carbon-silicon bond in a silane

    DOEpatents

    Schattenmann, Florian Johannes

    2002-01-01

    A method for forming at least one product silane, comprising reacting a transition metal hydride with a starting silane in a presence of a catalyst and at a temperature that exceeds a threshold temperature associated with said reacting.

  14. A robust multiple-locus method for quantitative trait locus analysis of non-normally distributed multiple traits.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Möttönen, J; Sillanpää, M J

    2015-12-01

    Linear regression-based quantitative trait loci/association mapping methods such as least squares commonly assume normality of residuals. In genetics studies of plants or animals, some quantitative traits may not follow normal distribution because the data include outlying observations or data that are collected from multiple sources, and in such cases the normal regression methods may lose some statistical power to detect quantitative trait loci. In this work, we propose a robust multiple-locus regression approach for analyzing multiple quantitative traits without normality assumption. In our method, the objective function is least absolute deviation (LAD), which corresponds to the assumption of multivariate Laplace distributed residual errors. This distribution has heavier tails than the normal distribution. In addition, we adopt a group LASSO penalty to produce shrinkage estimation of the marker effects and to describe the genetic correlation among phenotypes. Our LAD-LASSO approach is less sensitive to the outliers and is more appropriate for the analysis of data with skewedly distributed phenotypes. Another application of our robust approach is on missing phenotype problem in multiple-trait analysis, where the missing phenotype items can simply be filled with some extreme values, and be treated as outliers. The efficiency of the LAD-LASSO approach is illustrated on both simulated and real data sets.

  15. Development of a sampling method for qualification of a ceramic high-level waste form.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Holleran, T. P.

    2002-07-02

    A ceramic waste form has been developed to immobilize the salt waste stream from electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The ceramic waste form was originally prepared in a hot isostatic press (HIP). Small HIP capsules called witness tubes were used to obtain representative samples of material for process monitoring, waste form qualification, and archiving. Since installation of a full-scale HIP in existing facilities proved impractical, a new fabrication process was developed. This process fabricates waste forms inside a stainless steel container using a conventional furnace. Progress in developing a new method of obtaining representative samples is reported.

  16. Advanced Numerical methods for F. E. Simulation of Metal Forming Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenot, Jean-Loup; Bernacki, Marc; Fourment, Lionel; Ducloux, Richard

    2010-06-01

    The classical scientific basis for finite element modeling of metal forming processes is first recalled. Several developments in advanced topics are summarized: adaptive and anisotropic remeshing, parallel solving, multi material deformation. More recent researches in numerical analysis are outlined, including multi grid and multi mesh methods, mainly devoted to decrease computation time, automatic optimization method for faster and more effective design of forming processes. The link of forming simulation and structural computations is considered with emphasis on the necessity to predict the final mechanical properties. Finally a brief account of computation at the micro scale level is given.

  17. Neutron absorbers and methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Guillen, Donna P; Porter, Douglas L; Swank, W David; Erickson, Arnold W

    2014-12-02

    Methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber include combining a first material and a second material to form a compound, reducing the compound into a plurality of particles, mixing the plurality of particles with a third material, and pressing the mixture of the plurality of particles and the third material. One or more components of neutron absorbers may be formed by such methods. Neutron absorbers may include a composite material including an intermetallic compound comprising hafnium aluminide and a matrix material comprising pure aluminum.

  18. Berberine alkaloid: Quantum chemical study of different forms by the DFT and MP2 methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilov, V. I.; Dailidonis, V. V.; Hovorun, D. M.; Kurita, N.; Murayama, Y.; Natsume, T.; Potopalsky, A. I.; Zaika, L. A.

    2006-10-01

    The stable structures and electronic properties for the berberine cation as well as possible ammonium, carbinol and amino-aldehyde forms of protoberberine salts in the presence of hydroxyl ions were investigated by the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and MP2/6-31++G(d,p) methods. The geometry optimizations by both methods lead to the nonplanar propeller-twisted and buckled structure for the all forms. The obtained bond lengths and bond angles agree with the experimental values. The comparison of total energies elucidates that the amino-aldehyde form is the most preferable tautomer in gas phase, while the carbinol form is less stable. The least stable tautomer is the ammonium form.

  19. MU-MIMO Precoding Methods for Reducing the Transmit Normalization Factor by Perturbing Data of the Codebook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hyunwook; Choi, Seungwon

    In this paper, we present an algorithm for reducing the transmit normalization factor by perturbing the transmit signal in a Multi-User Multiple Input Multiple Output (MU-MIMO) system which uses the channel inverse matrix as its precoding matrix. A base station must normalize unnormalized transmit signals due to the limitation of the constant transmit power. This paper defines the norm of the unnormalized transmit signal as the transmit normalization factor used to normalize the transmit signal. Recalling that the transmit normalization factor consists of a combination of the singular values from the channel inverse matrix, we provide a codebook that successively reduces the coefficients of these singular values. Through computer simulations, the proposed algorithm is compared to sphere encoding in terms of the Bit Error Rate (BER) and the outage probability in a MU-MIMO signal environment. Sphere encoding is known to be an optimal solution amongst the perturbation methods that reduce the transmit normalization factor [1]. This work demonstrates that the proposed algorithm is has very good performance, comparable to that of sphere encoding, while its computational load is nearly 200 times less. Since the codebook in our algorithm depends only on the given channel, the difference in the computational complexity becomes even greater when the channel state is not changed, because the codebook can be reused. Furthermore, the codebook exhibits the characteristic of robustness to the maximum Doppler shift.

  20. Method for forming permanent magnets with different polarities for use in microelectromechanical devices

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2007-04-24

    Methods are provided for forming a plurality of permanent magnets with two different north-south magnetic pole alignments for use in microelectromechanical (MEM) devices. These methods are based on initially magnetizing the permanent magnets all in the same direction, and then utilizing a combination of heating and a magnetic field to switch the polarity of a portion of the permanent magnets while not switching the remaining permanent magnets. The permanent magnets, in some instances, can all have the same rare-earth composition (e.g. NdFeB) or can be formed of two different rare-earth materials (e.g. NdFeB and SmCo). The methods can be used to form a plurality of permanent magnets side-by-side on or within a substrate with an alternating polarity, or to form a two-dimensional array of permanent magnets in which the polarity of every other row of the array is alternated.

  1. Semi-Nonparametric Methods for Detecting Latent Non-Normality: A Fusion of Latent Trait and Ordered Latent Class Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, J. Eric; Mehta, Paras D.; Aggen, Steven H.; Kubarych, Thomas S.; Neale, Michael C.

    2006-01-01

    Ordered latent class analysis (OLCA) can be used to approximate unidimensional latent distributions. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the method of OLCA in detecting non-normality of an unobserved continuous variable (i.e., a common factor) used to explain the covariation between dichotomous item-level responses. Using simulation,…

  2. Accelerated in vitro release testing methods for extended release parenteral dosage forms

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Burgess, Diane J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This review highlights current methods and strategies for accelerated in vitro drug release testing of extended release parenteral dosage forms such as polymeric microparticulate systems, lipid microparticulate systems, in situ depot-forming systems, and implants. Key findings Extended release parenteral dosage forms are typically designed to maintain the effective drug concentration over periods of weeks, months or even years. Consequently, “real-time” in vitro release tests for these dosage forms are often run over a long time period. Accelerated in vitro release methods can provide rapid evaluation and therefore are desirable for quality control purposes. To this end, different accelerated in vitro release methods using United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) apparatus have been developed. Different mechanisms of accelerating drug release from extended release parenteral dosage forms, along with the accelerated in vitro release testing methods currently employed are discussed. Conclusions Accelerated in vitro release testing methods with good discriminatory ability are critical for quality control of extended release parenteral products. Methods that can be used in the development of in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) are desirable, however for complex parenteral products this may not always be achievable. PMID:22686344

  3. SU-E-J-178: A Normalization Method Can Remove Discrepancy in Ventilation Function Due to Different Breathing Patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, H; Yu, N; Stephans, K; Xia, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a normalization method to remove discrepancy in ventilation function due to different breathing patterns. Methods: Twenty five early stage non-small cell lung cancer patients were included in this study. For each patient, a ten phase 4D-CT and the voluntarily maximum inhale and exhale CTs were acquired clinically and retrospectively used for this study. For each patient, two ventilation maps were calculated from voxel-to-voxel CT density variations from two phases of the quiet breathing and two phases of the extreme breathing. For the quiet breathing, 0% (inhale) and 50% (exhale) phases from 4D-CT were used. An in-house tool was developed to calculate and display the ventilation maps. To enable normalization, the whole lung of each patient was evenly divided into three parts in the longitude direction at a coronal image with a maximum lung cross section. The ratio of cumulated ventilation from the top one-third region to the middle one-third region of the lung was calculated for each breathing pattern. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated on the ratios of the two breathing patterns for the group. Results: For each patient, the ventilation map from the quiet breathing was different from that of the extreme breathing. When the cumulative ventilation was normalized to the middle one-third of the lung region for each patient, the normalized ventilation functions from the two breathing patterns were consistent. For this group of patients, the correlation coefficient of the normalized ventilations for the two breathing patterns was 0.76 (p < 0.01), indicating a strong correlation in the ventilation function measured from the two breathing patterns. Conclusion: For each patient, the ventilation map is dependent of the breathing pattern. Using a regional normalization method, the discrepancy in ventilation function induced by the different breathing patterns thus different tidal volumes can be removed.

  4. Method of forming particulate materials for thin-film solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Eberspacher, Chris; Pauls, Karen Lea

    2004-11-23

    A method for preparing particulate materials useful in fabricating thin-film solar cells is disclosed. Particulate materials is prepared by the method include for example materials comprising copper and indium and/or gallium in the form of single-phase, mixed-metal oxide particulates; multi-phase, mixed-metal particulates comprising a metal oxide; and multinary metal particulates.

  5. Methods of description of the polycondensation kinetics and the structures of the polymers formed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irzhak, Vadim I.

    1997-06-01

    The modern mathematical methods which make it possible to describe the kinetics of the formation reactions and the structures of polymers formed via polycondensation are examined: direct differentiation of an infinite system of differential equations, statistical approaches, and the concept of bond blocks. The possibilities and limits of applicability of each method are demonstrated. The bibliography includes 83 references.

  6. Applications of Computer Simulation Methods in Plastic Forming Technologies for Magnesium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S. H.; Zheng, W. T.; Shang, Y. L.; Wu, X.; Palumbo, G.; Tricarico, L.

    2007-05-17

    Applications of computer simulation methods in plastic forming of magnesium alloy parts are discussed. As magnesium alloys possess very poor plastic formability at room temperature, various methods have been tried to improve the formability, for example, suitable rolling process and annealing procedures should be found to produce qualified magnesium alloy sheets, which have the reduced anisotropy and improved formability. The blank can be heated to a warm temperature or a hot temperature; a suitable temperature field is designed, tools should be heated or the punch should be cooled; suitable deformation speed should be found to ensure suitable strain rate range. Damage theory considering non-isothermal forming is established. Various modeling methods have been tried to consider above situations. The following situations for modeling the forming process of magnesium alloy sheets and tubes are dealt with: (1) modeling for predicting wrinkling and anisotropy of sheet warm forming; (2) damage theory used for predicting ruptures in sheet warm forming; (3) modeling for optimizing of blank shape and dimensions for sheet warm forming; (4) modeling in non-steady-state creep in hot metal gas forming of AZ31 tubes.

  7. Method for chemically inactivating energetic materials and forming a nondetonable product therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Tadros, Maher E.

    2002-01-01

    A method for rendering nondetonble energetic materials, such as are contained in or removed from decommissioned ordnance. The energetic materials are either combined with epoxy hardener or are combined with other compounds, preferably amine compounds, to form a substance that functions as an epoxy hardener. According to the invention, energetic materials (including TNT, RDX and Composition B) that are treated according to the invention method yield a reaction product that is non-explosive, that serves to harden or cure conventional epoxy resin to form a stable, nonexplosive waste product. Epoxy hardener made using the method of the invention is also described.

  8. Free-form surface design method for nonaxial-symmetrical reflectors producing arbitrary image patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chung-Yu

    2016-07-01

    A free-form (FF) surface design method is proposed for a nonaxial-symmetrical projector system comprising an FF reflector and a light source. The profile of the reflector is designed using a nonaxial-symmetrical FF (NFF) surface construction method such that each incident ray is directed in such a way as to form a user-specified image pattern on the target region of the image plane. The light ray paths within the projection system are analyzed using an exact analytical model and a skew-ray tracing approach. The validity of the proposed NFF design method is demonstrated by means of ZEMAX simulations. It is shown that the image pattern formed on the target region of the image plane is in good agreement with that specified by the user. The NFF method is mathematically straightforward and easily implemented in computer code. As such, it provides a useful tool for the design and analysis stages of optical systems design.

  9. A Simplified, Closed-Form Method for Screening Spacecraft Orbital Heating Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, S. L.

    2002-01-01

    A closed-form analytical technique has been developed to screen orbital average heating variations as a function of beta angle, altitude, surface area, and surface optical properties. Using planetary view factor equations for surfaces parallel-to and normal-to the local vertical, a cylindrical umbral shadow approximation, and a simplified albedo flux model, heating rate equations are formulated and then integrated to obtain orbital average heating. The results are compared to detailed analytical predictions using Monte Carlo integration and an assessment of error is presented.

  10. Focus-on-form instructional methods promote deaf college students' improvement in English grammar.

    PubMed

    Berent, Gerald P; Kelly, Ronald R; Aldersley, Stephen; Schmitz, Kathryn L; Khalsa, Baldev Kaur; Panara, John; Keenan, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Focus-on-form English teaching methods are designed to facilitate second-language learners' noticing of target language input, where "noticing" is an acquisitional prerequisite for the comprehension, processing, and eventual integration of new grammatical knowledge. While primarily designed for teaching hearing second-language learners, many focus-on-form methods lend themselves to visual presentation. This article reports the results of classroom research on the visually based implementation of focus-on-form methods with deaf college students learning English. Two of 3 groups of deaf students received focus-on-form instruction during a 10-week remedial grammar course; a third control group received grammatical instruction that did not involve focus-on-form methods. The 2 experimental groups exhibited significantly greater improvement in English grammatical knowledge relative to the control group. These results validate the efficacy of visually based focus-on-form English instruction for deaf students of English and set the stage for the continual search for innovative and effective English teaching methodologies.

  11. An upside-down normal loss function-based method for quality improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köksoy, Onur; Fan, Shu-Kai S.

    2012-08-01

    Traditional measures of process quality do not offer much information on how much better or worse a process is when finding optimal settings of a given problem. The upside-down normal loss function (UDNLF) is a weighted loss function that provides a more reasonable risk assessment to the losses of being off-target in product engineering research. The UDNLF can be used in process design and optimization to accurately reflect and quantify the losses associated with the process in a way which minimizes the expected loss of the upside-down normal (UDN). The function has a scale parameter which can be adjusted by the practitioners to account for the actual percentage of materials failing to work at specification limits. In this article, the 'target is best' case is addressed to estimate the expected loss of UDN due to variation from target in the robust process design and response surface modelling context. An approach is proposed to find the control factor settings of a system by directly minimizing the expected loss. The procedure and its merits are illustrated through an example.

  12. Method for Fabricating Composite Structures Including Continuous Press Forming and Pultrusion Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method for fabricating composite structures at a low-cost, moderate-to-high production rate is disclosed. A first embodiment of the method includes employing a continuous press forming fabrication process. A second embodiment of the method includes employing a pultrusion process for obtaining composite structures. The methods include coating yarns with matrix material, weaving the yarn into fabric to produce a continuous fabric supply, and feeding multiple layers of net-shaped fabrics having optimally oriented fibers into a debulking tool to form an undebulked preform. The continuous press forming fabrication process includes partially debulking the preform, cutting the partially debulked preform, and debulking the partially debulked preform to form a netshape. An electron-beam or similar technique then cures the structure. The pultrusion fabric process includes feeding the undebulked preform into a heated die and gradually debulking the undebulked preform. The undebulked preform in the heated die changes dimension until a desired cross-sectional dimension is achieved. This process further includes obtaining a net-shaped infiltrated uncured preform, cutting the uncured preform to a desired length, and electron-beam curing (or similar technique) the uncured preform. These fabrication methods produce superior structures formed at higher production rates, resulting in lower cost and high structural performance.

  13. Method for forming a liquid cooled airfoil for a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Grondahl, Clayton M.; Willmott, Leo C.; Muth, Myron C.

    1981-01-01

    A method for forming a liquid cooled airfoil for a gas turbine is disclosed. A plurality of holes are formed at spaced locations in an oversized airfoil blank. A pre-formed composite liquid coolant tube is bonded into each of the holes. The composite tube includes an inner member formed of an anti-corrosive material and an outer member formed of a material exhibiting a high degree of thermal conductivity. After the coolant tubes have been bonded to the airfoil blank, the airfoil blank is machined to a desired shape, such that a portion of the outer member of each of the composite tubes is contiguous with the outer surface of the machined airfoil blank. Finally, an external skin is bonded to the exposed outer surface of both the machined airfoil blank and the composite tubes.

  14. Method of forming components for a high-temperature secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Mrazek, Franklin C.; Battles, James E.

    1983-01-01

    A method of forming a component for a high-temperature secondary electrochemical cell having a positive electrode including a sulfide selected from the group consisting of iron sulfides, nickel sulfides, copper sulfides and cobalt sulfides, a negative electrode including an alloy of aluminum and an electrically insulating porous separator between said electrodes. The improvement comprises forming a slurry of solid particles dispersed in a liquid electrolyte such as the lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutetic, casting the slurry into a form having the shape of one of the components and smoothing the exposed surface of the slurry, cooling the cast slurry to form the solid component, and removing same. Electrodes and separators can be thus formed.

  15. Tsunami Flow Speed Estimates Using Inverse Modeling Of Normally-Graded Sandy Deposits Formed During The 29 September 2009 Tsunami Near Satitoa, East Upolu, Samoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, B. E.; Buckley, M. L.; Richmond, B. M.; Strotz, L. C.; Etienne, S.; Clark, K.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.

    2010-12-01

    Sandy deposits formed by the 29 September 2009 tsunami on the southeast coast of Upolu, Samoa were investigated to document their sedimentary characteristics and learn what information about the tsunami could be extracted from them. Deposits formed from ~25 to ~250 m inland of the shoreline, landward of a zone of erosion and were from 6 to 15 cm thick. We interpret the deposits to be composed of 2 layers, formed by the uprush from 2 waves, based on vertical changes in the grain size distribution, contacts, and vertical variation in shell content. Deposits at 3 locations along a shore-normal trancect (100, 170, and 240 m inland from the shoreline) were predominately normally graded (~80%), but contained massive sections (~15%) and inversely graded sections (~5%). About 75% of the normally graded intervals exhibit a signature of sediment falling out of suspension, termed distribution grading by Middleton (1967). Distribution grading describes a shift in the distribution to finer sizes moving upward in the deposit as there is a loss of coarser sediment and a gain in finer sediment. This shift occurs because grains with higher settling velocities (larger for a given density and shape) deposit first and are absent in the water column during the later stages of deposition. The grains with lower settling velocities take longer to reach the bed and absent from bottom of deposit and present in the top of the deposit. The Jaffe and Gelfenbaum (2007) inverse sediment transport model was applied to deposit intervals with distribution grading to estimate tsunami flow speed. Using a Manning’s roughness coefficient, n, of 0.03 (z0 ~0.006 m) flow speeds for the top and bottom layers were from 3.6 to 3.8 m/s and from 4.1 to 4.4 m/s, respectively. Froude numbers calculated using these estimates and measured flow depths range from 0.69 to 1.01, which is consistent with Froude numbers from other studies of modern tsunamis. This research underscores the importance of modeling only

  16. Method for estimating the morphological significance of simple forms of crystals from X-ray data

    SciTech Connect

    Treivus, E. B.

    2010-09-15

    When developing V.I. Mikheev and I.I. Shafranovskii's method for estimating the morphological significance of faces of different simple forms from X-ray reflection intensities, a way to approximately evaluate the morphological significance of simple forms on crystals from the structure amplitudes of the corresponding atomic planes is proposed. The potential for this approach is demonstrated by the examples of marcasite and zircon.

  17. Method of forming macro-structured high surface area transparent conductive oxide electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Forman, Arnold J.; Chen, Zhebo; Jaramillo, Thomas F.

    2016-01-05

    A method of forming a high surface area transparent conducting electrode is provided that includes depositing a transparent conducting thin film on a conductive substrate, where the transparent conducting thin film includes transparent conductive particles and a solution-based transparent conducting adhesive layer which serves to coat and bind together the transparent conducting particles, and heat treating the transparent conducting adhesion layer on the conductive substrate, where an increased surface area transparent conducting electrode is formed.

  18. A two-spacecraft test of a single spacecraft method of estimating shock normals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepping, R. P.

    1972-01-01

    By assuming the validity of a subset of the Rankine-Hugoniot conservation relations for interplanetary (IP) shocks in an isotropic medium it has been demonstrated, in principle, that improved shock normals can be calculated by using a least-squares technique on combined magnetic field and plasma data from a single spacecraft. The scheme uses those six conservation relations not involving pressure and temperature. This paper deals with a test of the scheme by examining in detail a shock across which the magnetic field changed direction by a small amount (approximately 10 deg). On January 26, 1968 at about 1430 UT this shock was observed by the plasma and magnetic field instruments in Explorers 33 and 35. The spacecraft were 76.6 and 56.9 R sub E sunward of the earth, respectively (and 43.5 R sub E from each other), and therefore well outside the earth's bow shock region, a necessary condition for a valid test.

  19. Methods of nanoassembly of a fractal polymer and materials formed thereby

    DOEpatents

    Newkome, George R; Moorefield, Charles N

    2014-09-23

    The invention relates to the formation of synthesized fractal constructs and the methods of chemical self-assembly for the preparation of a non-dendritic, nano-scale, fractal constructs or molecules. More particularly, the invention relates to fractal constructs formed by molecular self-assembly, to create synthetic, nanometer-scale fractal shapes. In an embodiment, a nanoscale Sierpinski hexagonal gasket is formed. This non-dendritic, perfectly self-similar fractal macromolecule is comprised of bisterpyridine building blocks that are bound together by coordination to (36) Ru and (6) Fe ions to form a nearly planar array of increasingly larger hexagons around a hollow center.

  20. Methods of nanoassembly of a fractal polymer and materials formed thereby

    DOEpatents

    Newkome, George R [Medina, OH; Moorefield, Charles N [Akron, OH

    2012-07-24

    The invention relates to the formation of synthesized fractal constructs and the methods of chemical self-assembly for the preparation of a non-dendritic, nano-scale, fractal constructs or molecules. More particularly, the invention relates to fractal constructs formed by molecular self-assembly, to create synthetic, nanometer-scale fractal shapes. In an embodiment, a nanoscale Sierpinski hexagonal gasket is formed. This non-dendritic, perfectly self-similar fractal macromolecule is comprised of bisterpyridine building blocks that are bound together by coordination to 36 Ru and 6 Fe ions to form a nearly planar array of increasingly larger hexagons around a hollow center.

  1. Measurement of plasma histamine: description of an improved method and normal values

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, J.; Warren, K.; Merlin, S.; Metcalfe, D.D.; Kaliner, M.

    1982-08-01

    The single isotopic-enzymatic assay of histamine was modified to increase its sensitivity and to facilitate measurement of plasma histamine levels. The modification involved extracting /sup 3/H-1-methylhistamine (generated by the enzyme N-methyltransferase acting on histamine in the presence of S-(methyl-/sup 3/H)-adenosyl-L-methionine) into chloroform and isolating the /sup 3/H-1-methylhistamine by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The TLC was developed in acetone:ammonium hydroxide (95:10), and the methylhistamine spot (Rf . 0.50) was identified with an o-phthalaldehyde spray, scraped from the plate, and assayed in a scintillation counter. The assay in plasma demonstrated a linear relationship from 200 to 5000 pg histamine/ml. Plasma always had higher readings than buffer, and dialysis of plasma returned these values to the same level as buffer, suggesting that the baseline elevations might be attributable to histamine. However, all histamine standard curves were run in dialyzed plasma to negate any additional influences plasma might exert on the assay. The arithmetic mean (+/- SEM) in normal plasma histamine was 318.4 +/- 25 pg/ml (n . 51), and the geometric mean was 280 +/- 35 pg/ml. Plasma histamine was significantly elevated by infusion of histamine at 0.05 to 1.0 micrograms/kg/min or by cold immersion of the hand of a cold-urticaria patient. Therefore this modified isotopic-enzymatic assay of histamine is extremely sensitive, capable of measuring fluctuations in plasma histamine levels within the normal range, and potentially useful in analysis of the role histamine plays in human physiology.

  2. Improved Methods for Electroacupuncture and Electromyographic Recordings in Normal and Parkinsonian Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Feng; Fan, Xiaotong; Grondin, Richard; Edwards, Ramsey; Forman, Eric; Moorehead, Jennifer; Gerhardt, Greg; Wang, Xiaomin; Zhang, Zhiming

    2010-01-01

    Although acupuncture has been widely and routinely used in healthcare in the USA, its use has been based more on empirical observation than on scientific knowledge. Therefore, there is a great need for better understanding the underlying mechanism(s) of action. A great body of evidence supports that nonhuman primates are a candidate for studying human diseases. However, the use of nonhuman primates in neurophysiological, neuroimaging and neurochemical studies is extremely challenging, especially under fully conscious, alert conditions. In the present study, we developed a protocol for safely performing acupuncture, electro-acupuncture (EA) and electromyography (EMG) in both normal nonhuman primates and animals with parkinsonian-like symptoms. Four normal and four hemiparkinsonian middle-aged rhesus monkeys were extensively trained, behaviorally monitored, and received both EA and EMG for several months. The results demonstrated that (1) all rhesus monkeys used in the study could be trained for procedures including EA and EMG; (2) all animals tolerated the procedures involving needle/electrode insertion; (3) EA procedures used in the study did not adversely alter the animal’s locomotor activities; rather, MPTP-treated animals showed a significant improvement in movement speed; and (4) EMG detected significant differences in muscle activity between the arms with and without MPTP-induced rigidity. Our results support that rhesus monkeys can be used as an experimental animal model to study EA and that EMG has the potential to be used to objectively assess the effects of antiparkinsonian therapies. The results also indicate that animals, especially those with parkinsonian-like symptoms, could benefit from long-term EA stimulations. PMID:20654649

  3. Exploring Normalization and Network Reconstruction Methods using In Silico and In Vivo Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Lessons learned from the recent DREAM competitions include: The search for the best network reconstruction method continues, and we need more complete datasets with ground truth from more complex organisms. It has become obvious that the network reconstruction methods t...

  4. Generating Non-normal Data for Simulation of Structural Equation Models Using Mattson's Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinartz, Werner J.; Echambadi, Raj; Cin, Wynne W.

    2002-01-01

    Tested empirically the applicability of a method developed by S. Mattson for generating data on latent variables with controlled skewness and kurtosis of the observed variables. Monte Carlo simulation results suggest that Mattson's method appears to be a good approach to generate data with defined levels of skewness and kurtosis. (SLD)

  5. CFD-based method of determining form factor k for different ship types and different drafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinbao; Yu, Hai; Zhang, Yuefeng; Xiong, Xiaoqing

    2016-09-01

    The value of form factor k at different drafts is important in predicting full-scale total resistance and speed for different types of ships. In the ITTC community, most organizations predict form factor k using a low-speed model test. However, this method is problematic for ships with bulbous bows and transom. In this article, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)-based method is introduced to obtain k for different type of ships at different drafts, and a comparison is made between the CFD method and the model test. The results show that the CFD method produces reasonable k values. A grid generating method and turbulence model are briefly discussed in the context of obtaining a consistent k using CFD.

  6. Method for preparing hydrous titanium oxide spherules and other gel forms thereof

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Jack L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention are methods for preparing hydrous titanium oxide spherules, hydrous titanium oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, titanium monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous titanium oxide spherules having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, titanium monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendible particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent having a desired crystallinity, titanium oxide spherules in the form of anatase, brookite or rutile, titanium oxide spherules having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, hydrous titanium oxide fiber materials, titanium oxide fiber materials, hydrous titanium oxide fiber materials having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, titanium oxide fiber materials having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite and spherules of barium titanate. These variations of hydrous titanium oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process offer more useful forms of inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters and ceramics.

  7. Method for preparing hydrous titanium oxide spherules and other gel forms thereof

    DOEpatents

    Collins, J.L.

    1998-10-13

    The present invention are methods for preparing hydrous titanium oxide spherules, hydrous titanium oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, titanium monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous titanium oxide spherules having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, titanium monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendible particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent having a desired crystallinity, titanium oxide spherules in the form of anatase, brookite or rutile, titanium oxide spherules having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, hydrous titanium oxide fiber materials, titanium oxide fiber materials, hydrous titanium oxide fiber materials having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, titanium oxide fiber materials having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite and spherules of barium titanate. These variations of hydrous titanium oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process offer more useful forms of inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters and ceramics. 6 figs.

  8. A Finite Element Method for Computation of Structural Intensity by the Normal Mode Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrić, L.; Pavić, G.

    1993-06-01

    A method for numerical computation of structural intensity in thin-walled structures is presented. The method is based on structural finite elements (beam, plate and shell type) enabling computation of real eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the undamped structure which then serve in evaluation of complex response. The distributed structural damping is taken into account by using the modal damping concept, while any localized damping is treated as an external loading, determined by use of impedance matching conditions and eigenproperties of the structure. Emphasis is given to aspects of accuracy of the results and efficiency of the numerical procedures used. High requirements on accuracy of the structural response (displacements and stresses) needed in intensity applications are satisfied by employing the "swept static solution", which effectively takes into account the influence of higher modes otherwise inaccessible to numerical computation. A comparison is made between the results obtained by using analytical methods and the proposed numerical procedure to demonstrate the validity of the method presented.

  9. Methods and Systems for Measurement and Estimation of Normalized Contrast in Infrared Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshti, Ajay M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Methods and systems for converting an image contrast evolution of an object to a temperature contrast evolution and vice versa are disclosed, including methods for assessing an emissivity of the object; calculating an afterglow heat flux evolution; calculating a measurement region of interest temperature change; calculating a reference region of interest temperature change; calculating a reflection temperature change; calculating the image contrast evolution or the temperature contrast evolution; and converting the image contrast evolution to the temperature contrast evolution or vice versa, respectively.

  10. A comparison of chemical and electrophoretic methods of serum protein determinations in clinically normal domestic animals of various ages.

    PubMed

    Green, S A; Jenkins, S J; Clark, P A

    1982-10-01

    The biuret total protein method and a bromcresol green (BCG) albumin method were used on the Abbott ABA-100 chemistry analyzer to assay serum proteins in clinically normal cattle, sheep, ponies, pigs, and ducks. Total proteins were also read on a refractometer and mylar supported cellulose acetate electrophoresis was performed. Globulins and A/G ratios were calculated from the chemical method and the results compared with the electrophoretic method. Total protein, albumin and A/G ratios in the ponies, sheep and older cattle were in agreement between the two methods. The younger cattle and all the pigs had higher albumin levels and A/G ratios with the chemical BCG method. Ducks had slightly higher albumin values and A/G ratios with the electrophoretic method and the presence of pre-albumin was detected. Typical mylar supported cellulose acetate electrophoretic patterns are presented which show the excellent separation using these membranes. Means and range for normal animals are given and changes of proteins with age are discussed.

  11. Design of a Dual Waveguide Normal Incidence Tube (DWNIT) Utilizing Energy and Modal Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Juan F.; Jones, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report investigates the partition design of the proposed Dual Waveguide Normal Incidence Tube (DWNIT). Some advantages provided by the DWNIT are (1) Assessment of coupling relationships between resonators in close proximity, (2) Evaluation of "smart liners", (3) Experimental validation for parallel element models, and (4) Investigation of effects of simulated angles of incidence of acoustic waves. Energy models of the two chambers were developed to determine the Sound Pressure Level (SPL) drop across the two chambers, through the use of an intensity transmission function for the chamber's partition. The models allowed the chamber's lengthwise end samples to vary. The initial partition design (2" high, 16" long, 0.25" thick) was predicted to provide at least 160 dB SPL drop across the partition with a compressive model, and at least 240 dB SPL drop with a bending model using a damping loss factor of 0.01. The end chamber sample transmissions coefficients were set to 0.1. Since these results predicted more SPL drop than required, a plate thickness optimization algorithm was developed. The results of the algorithm routine indicated that a plate with the same height and length, but with a thickness of 0.1" and 0.05 structural damping loss, would provide an adequate SPL isolation between the chambers.

  12. The Normalization of Surface Anisotropy Effects Present in SEVIRI Reflectances by Using the MODIS BRDF Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proud, Simon Richard; Zhang, Qingling; Schaaf, Crystal; Fensholt, Rasmus; Rasmussen, Mads Olander; Shisanya, Chris; Mutero, Wycliffe; Mbow, Cheikh; Anyamba, Assaf; Pak, Ed; Sandholt, Inge

    2014-01-01

    A modified version of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) algorithm is presented for use in the angular normalization of surface reflectance data gathered by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) aboard the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites. We present early and provisional daily nadir BRDFadjusted reflectance (NBAR) data in the visible and near-infrared MSG channels. These utilize the high temporal resolution of MSG to produce BRDF retrievals with a greatly reduced acquisition period than the comparable MODIS products while, at the same time, removing many of the angular perturbations present within the original MSG data. The NBAR data are validated against reflectance data from the MODIS instrument and in situ data gathered at a field location in Africa throughout 2008. It is found that the MSG retrievals are stable and are of high-quality across much of the SEVIRI disk while maintaining a higher temporal resolution than the MODIS BRDF products. However, a number of circumstances are discovered whereby the BRDF model is unable to function correctly with the SEVIRI observations-primarily because of an insufficient spread of angular data due to the fixed sensor location or localized cloud contamination.

  13. Quantification of intraoral pressures during nutritive sucking: methods with normal infants.

    PubMed

    Lang, William Christopher; Buist, Neil R M; Geary, Annmarie; Buckley, Scott; Adams, Elizabeth; Jones, Albyn C; Gorsek, Stephen; Winter, Susan C; Tran, Hanh; Rogers, Brian R

    2011-09-01

    We report quantitative measurements of ten parameters of nutritive sucking behavior in 91 normal full-term infants obtained using a novel device (an Orometer) and a data collection/analytical system (Suck Editor). The sucking parameters assessed include the number of sucks, mean pressure amplitude of sucks, mean frequency of sucks per second, mean suck interval in seconds, sucking amplitude variability, suck interval variability, number of suck bursts, mean number of sucks per suck burst, mean suck burst duration, and mean interburst gap duration. For analyses, test sessions were divided into 4 × 2-min segments. In single-study tests, 36 of 60 possible comparisons of ten parameters over six pairs of 2-min time intervals showed a p value of 0.05 or less. In 15 paired tests in the same infants at different ages, 33 of 50 possible comparisons of ten parameters over five time intervals showed p values of 0.05 or less. Quantification of nutritive sucking is feasible, showing statistically valid results for ten parameters that change during a feed and with age. These findings suggest that further research, based on our approach, may show clinical value in feeding assessment, diagnosis, and clinical management.

  14. New sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric methods for determination of omeprazole in dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Ashraf M

    2009-01-01

    New rapid, sensitive, and accurate kinetic spectrophotometric methods were developed, for the first time, to determine omeprazole (OMZ) in its dosage forms. The methods were based on the formation of charge-transfer complexes with both iodine and 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ). The variables that affected the reactions were carefully studied and optimized. The formed complexes and the site of interaction were examined by UV/VIS, IR, and (1)H-NMR techniques, and computational molecular modeling. Under optimum conditions, the stoichiometry of the reactions between OMZ and the acceptors was found to be 1 : 1. The order of the reactions and the specific rate constants were determined. The thermodynamics of the complexes were computed and the mechanism of the reactions was postulated. The initial rate and fixed time methods were utilized for the determination of OMZ concentrations. The linear ranges for the proposed methods were 0.10-3.00 and 0.50-25.00 mug mL(-1) with the lowest LOD of 0.03 and 0.14 mug mL(-1) for iodine and DDQ, respectively. Analytical performance of the methods was statistically validated; RSD was <1.25% for the precision and <1.95% for the accuracy. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the analysis of OMZ in its dosage forms; the recovery was 98.91-100.32% +/- 0.94-1.84, and was found to be comparable with that of reference method.

  15. Absorbance correction method for estimation of telmisartan and metoprolol succinate in combined tablet dosage forms

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Komal; Patel, Amit; Dave, Jayant; Patel, Chaganbhai

    2012-01-01

    Aim and Background: The present manuscript describes simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate, precise and economical spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous determination of telmisartan and metoprolol succinate in combined tablet dosage form. Materials and Methods: The method is based on the absorbance correction equations for analysis of both the drugs using methanol as solvent. Telmisartan has absorbance maxima at 296 nm and metoprolol succinate has absorbance maxima at 223 nm in methanol. The linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 2-16 μg/ ml and 3-24 μg/ml for telmisartan and metoprolol succinate, respectively. The concentrations of the drugs were determined by using absorbance correction method at both the wavelengths. The method was successfully applied to pharmaceutical dosage form because no interference from the tablet excipients was found. The suitability of this method for the quantitative determination of telmisartan and metoprolol succinate was proved by validation. The proposed method was found to be simple and sensitive for the quality control application of telmisartan and metoprolol succinate in pharmaceutical dosage form. Result: The result of analysis has been validated statistically and by recovery studies. Recoveries were found in the range of 98.08-100.55% of telmisartan and 98.41-101.87% of metoprolol succinate. PMID:23781489

  16. Self-normalizing method to measure the detective quantum efficiency of a wide range of x-ray detectors.

    PubMed

    Stierstorfer, K; Spahn, M

    1999-07-01

    The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is widely accepted as the most relevant parameter to characterize the image quality of medical x-ray systems. In this article we describe a solid method to measure the DQE. The strength of the method lies in the fact that it is self-normalizing so measurements at very low spatial frequencies are not needed. Furthermore, it works on any system with a response function which is linear in the small-signal approximation. We decompose the DQE into several easily accessible quantities and discuss in detail how they can be measured. At the end we lead the interested reader through an example. Noise equivalent quanta and normalized contrast values are tabulated for standard radiation qualities.

  17. A simple finite element method for non-divergence form elliptic equation

    DOE PAGES

    Mu, Lin; Ye, Xiu

    2017-03-01

    Here, we develop a simple finite element method for solving second order elliptic equations in non-divergence form by combining least squares concept with discontinuous approximations. This simple method has a symmetric and positive definite system and can be easily analyzed and implemented. We could have also used general meshes with polytopal element and hanging node in the method. We prove that our finite element solution approaches to the true solution when the mesh size approaches to zero. Numerical examples are tested that demonstrate the robustness and flexibility of the method.

  18. Different percentages of false-positive results obtained using five methods for the calculation of reference change values based on simulated normal and ln-normal distributions of data.

    PubMed

    Lund, Flemming; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Fraser, Callum G; Sölétormos, György

    2016-11-01

    Background Reference change values provide objective tools to assess the significance of a change in two consecutive results for a biomarker from an individual. The reference change value calculation is based on the assumption that within-subject biological variation has random fluctuation around a homeostatic set point that follows a normal (Gaussian) distribution. This set point (or baseline in steady-state) should be estimated from a set of previous samples, but, in practice, decisions based on reference change value are often based on only two consecutive results. The original reference change value was based on standard deviations according to the assumption of normality, but was soon changed to coefficients of variation (CV) in the formula (reference change value = ± Z ċ 2(½) ċ CV). Z is being dependent on the desired probability of significance, which also defines the percentages of false-positive results. The aim of this study was to investigate false-positive results using five different published methods for calculation of reference change value. Methods The five reference change value methods were examined using normally and ln-normally distributed simulated data. Results One method performed best in approaching the theoretical false-positive percentages on normally distributed data and another method performed best on ln-normally distributed data. The commonly used reference change value method based on two results (without use of estimated set point) performed worst both on normally distributed and ln-normally distributed data. Conclusions The optimal choice of method to calculate reference change value limits requires knowledge of the distribution of data (normal or ln-normal) and, if possible, knowledge of the homeostatic set point.

  19. Method performance and multi-laboratory assessment of a normal phase HPLC/FLD method for the quantitation of flavanols and procyanidins in cocoa and chocolate containing samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quantitative parameters and method performance for a normal-phase HPLC separation of flavanols and procyanidins in chocolate and cocoa-containing food products were optimized and assessed. The chromatographic separation based on degree of polymerization (DP) was achieved on a diol stationary ph...

  20. Subterranean barriers, methods, and apparatuses for forming, inspecting, selectively heating, and repairing same

    DOEpatents

    Nickelson, Reva A.; Sloan, Paul A.; Richardson, John G.; Walsh, Stephanie; Kostelnik, Kevin M.

    2009-04-07

    A subterranean barrier and method for forming same are disclosed, the barrier including a plurality of casing strings wherein at least one casing string of the plurality of casing strings may be affixed to at least another adjacent casing string of the plurality of casing strings through at least one weld, at least one adhesive joint, or both. A method and system for nondestructively inspecting a subterranean barrier is disclosed. For instance, a radiographic signal may be emitted from within a casing string toward an adjacent casing string and the radiographic signal may be detected from within the adjacent casing string. A method of repairing a barrier including removing at least a portion of a casing string and welding a repair element within the casing string is disclosed. A method of selectively heating at least one casing string forming at least a portion of a subterranean barrier is disclosed.

  1. New spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of nizatidine in bulk form and in pharmaceutical preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasakal, Ayça; Ulu, Sevgi Tatar

    2013-08-01

    A simple, accurate and highly sensitive spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for determination of nizatidine in pure form and in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method is based on the reaction between nizatidine and 1-dimethylaminonaphthalene-5-sulphonyl chloride in carbonate buffer, pH 10.5, to yield a highly fluorescent derivative peaking at 513 nm after excitation at 367 nm. Various factors affecting the fluorescence intensity of nizatidin-dansyl derivative were studied and conditions were optimized. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines. The fluorescence concentration plot was rectilinear over the range of 25-300 ng/mL. Limit of detection and limit of quantification were calculated as 11.71 and 35.73 ng/mL, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to pharmaceutical preparations.

  2. Method for forming an in situ oil shale retort with horizontal free faces

    DOEpatents

    Ricketts, Thomas E.; Fernandes, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    A method for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in an in situ oil shale retort is provided. A horizontally extending void is excavated in unfragmented formation containing oil shale and a zone of unfragmented formation is left adjacent the void. An array of explosive charges is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation. The array of explosive charges comprises rows of central explosive charges surrounded by a band of outer explosive charges which are adjacent side boundaries of the retort being formed. The powder factor of each outer explosive charge is made about equal to the powder factor of each central explosive charge. The explosive charges are detonated for explosively expanding the zone of unfragmented formation toward the void for forming the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles having a reasonably uniformly distributed void fraction in the in situ oil shale retort.

  3. Debris-less method and apparatus for forming apertures in hollow metallic articles

    DOEpatents

    Jordan, C.L.; Chodelka, E.J.

    1980-06-24

    This invention is a method for forming an aperture in a wall of a hollow metallic article without introducing metallic debris therein. In a typical operation, an annular groove is formed in an exterior portion of the wall. The groove defines an annular wall segment, and the bottom of the groove is shaped to slope downwardly away from the segment to form a tapered annular web which connects the segment to the wall. Any suitable coupling is attached to the outer face of the segment, as by welding. Pull then is applied to the coupling to effect circumferential breakage of the web, thus forming a removable single-piece wall fragment consisting of the web and segment. The fragment and the coupling member attached thereto then are removed from the wall.

  4. Method of forming a multiple layer dielectric and a hot film sensor therewith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopson, Purnell, Jr. (Inventor); Tran, Sang Q. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The invention is a method of forming a multiple layer dielectric for use in a hot-film laminar separation sensor. The multiple layer dielectric substrate is formed by depositing a first layer of a thermoelastic polymer such as on an electrically conductive substrate such as the metal surface of a model to be tested under cryogenic conditions and high Reynolds numbers. Next, a second dielectric layer of fused silica is formed on the first dielectric layer of thermoplastic polymer. A resistive metal film is deposited on selected areas of the multiple layer dielectric substrate to form one or more hot-film sensor elements to which aluminum electrical circuits deposited upon the multiple layered dielectric substrate are connected.

  5. Method of forming yttria-gadolinia ceramic scintillator from ammonium dispersed oxalate precipitates

    SciTech Connect

    Dole, S.L.; Greskovich, C.D.

    1992-03-31

    This patent describes a method of forming a polycrystalline translucent-to-transparent yttria-gadolinia composition scintillator that does not require milling. It comprises: coprecipitating oxalates of the yttria-gadolinia composition, drying the oxalates at about 75{degrees} to 125{degrees}C.; dispersing the oxalates by agitating an admixture of an aqueous suspension of the oxalates, and an effective amount of an ammonium hydroxide solution to disperse agglomerations of the oxalates; calcining the oxalates to substantially fully oxidize the oxalates and form a powder of the yttria-gadolinia composition; cold pressing the powder to form a compact; and sintering the compact in a reducing atmosphere or vacuum to form the polycrystalline translucent-to-transparent yttria-gadolinia scintillator.

  6. Cladding material, tube including such cladding material and methods of forming the same

    DOEpatents

    Garnier, John E.; Griffith, George W.

    2016-03-01

    A multi-layered cladding material including a ceramic matrix composite and a metallic material, and a tube formed from the cladding material. The metallic material forms an inner liner of the tube and enables hermetic sealing of thereof. The metallic material at ends of the tube may be exposed and have an increased thickness enabling end cap welding. The metallic material may, optionally, be formed to infiltrate voids in the ceramic matrix composite, the ceramic matrix composite encapsulated by the metallic material. The ceramic matrix composite includes a fiber reinforcement and provides increased mechanical strength, stiffness, thermal shock resistance and high temperature load capacity to the metallic material of the inner liner. The tube may be used as a containment vessel for nuclear fuel used in a nuclear power plant or other reactor. Methods for forming the tube comprising the ceramic matrix composite and the metallic material are also disclosed.

  7. Metallic coatings on silicon substrates, and methods of forming metallic coatings on silicon substrates

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Hyde, Timothy A.; Fincke, James R.

    2008-03-11

    The invention includes methods of forming a metallic coating on a substrate which contains silicon. A metallic glass layer is formed over a silicon surface of the substrate. The invention includes methods of protecting a silicon substrate. The substrate is provided within a deposition chamber along with a deposition target. Material from the deposition target is deposited over at least a portion of the silicon substrate to form a protective layer or structure which contains metallic glass. The metallic glass comprises iron and one or more of B, Si, P and C. The invention includes structures which have a substrate containing silicon and a metallic layer over the substrate. The metallic layer contains less than or equal to about 2 weight % carbon and has a hardness of at least 9.2 GPa. The metallic layer can have an amorphous microstructure or can be devitrified to have a nanocrystalline microstructure.

  8. Interaction between droplets in a ternary microemulsion evaluated by the relative form factor method

    SciTech Connect

    Nagao, Michihiro; Seto, Hideki; Yamada, Norifumi L.

    2007-06-15

    This paper describes the concentration dependence of the interaction between water droplets coated by a surfactant monolayer using the contrast variation small-angle neutron scattering technique. In the first part, we explain the idea of how to extract a relatively model free structure factor from the scattering data, which is called the relative form factor method. In the second part, the experimental results for the shape of the droplets (form factor) are described. In the third part the relatively model free structure factor is shown, and finally the concentration dependence of the interaction potential between droplets is discussed. The result indicates the validity of the relative form factor method, and the importance of the estimation of the model free structure factor to discuss the nature of structure formation in microemulsion systems.

  9. Spectrophotometric and spectrofluorometric methods for the assay of lisinopril in single and multicomponent pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    PubMed

    El-Yazbi, F A; Abdine, H H; Shaalan, R A

    1999-05-01

    Simple and sensitive methods are described for the assay of lisinopril in tablets. The first method (A) is based on the reaction of the drug with chloranil in aqueous solution of pH 9.5 to give yellow colour measured at 346 nm. The second method (B) is based upon the interaction of lisinopril with dichlone resulting in the formation of an intense purple colour measured at 580 nm. The third method (C) depends on the reaction of the drug with acetylacetone and formaldehyde to form a coloured condensation product measured at 356 nm and also has a strong fluorescence at 475 nm (lambda(ex) 410 nm). This method is extended to determine lisinopril in binary mixtures with hydrochlorothiazide. The last method (D) depends on measuring the first and second derivative spectra of lisinopril. Moreover, the derivative method is used as stability-indicating method where lisinopril can be determined in presence of its degradation products. The proposed methods proved to be suitable for a rapid quality control of commercial dosage forms. The results obtained were precise and accurate.

  10. Normal Science and the Paranormal: The Effect of a Scientific Method Course on Students' Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morier, Dean; Keeports, David

    1994-01-01

    A study investigated the effects of an interdisciplinary course on the scientific method on the attitudes of 34 college students toward the paranormal. Results indicated that the course substantially reduced belief in the paranormal, relative to a control group. Student beliefs in their own paranormal powers, however, did not change. (Author/MSE)

  11. Creating IRT-Based Parallel Test Forms Using the Genetic Algorithm Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Koun-Tem; Chen, Yu-Jen; Tsai, Shu-Yen; Cheng, Chien-Fen

    2008-01-01

    In educational measurement, the construction of parallel test forms is often a combinatorial optimization problem that involves the time-consuming selection of items to construct tests having approximately the same test information functions (TIFs) and constraints. This article proposes a novel method, genetic algorithm (GA), to construct parallel…

  12. Method of forming semiconducting amorphous silicon films from the thermal decomposition of fluorohydridodisilanes

    DOEpatents

    Sharp, Kenneth G.; D'Errico, John J.

    1988-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of forming amorphous, photoconductive, and semiconductive silicon films on a substrate by the vapor phase thermal decomposition of a fluorohydridodisilane or a mixture of fluorohydridodisilanes. The invention is useful for the protection of surfaces including electronic devices.

  13. Focus-on-Form Instructional Methods Promote Deaf College Students' Improvement in English Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berent, Gerald P.; Kelly, Ronald R.; Aldersley, Stephen; Schmitz, Kathryn L.; Khalsa, Baldev Kaur; Panara, John; Keenan, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Focus-on-form English teaching methods are designed to facilitate second-language learners' noticing of target language input, where "noticing" is an acquisitional prerequisite for the comprehension, processing, and eventual integration of new grammatical knowledge. While primarily designed for teaching hearing second-language learners, many…

  14. Method and apparatus for forming conformal SiN.sub.x films

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Qi

    2007-11-27

    A silicon nitride film formation method includes: Heating a substrate to be subjected to film formation to a substrate temperature; heating a wire to a wire temperature; supplying silane, ammonia, and hydrogen gases to the heating member; and forming a silicon nitride film on the substrate.

  15. Enzymatic Sensor Detects Some Forms of Nitric Oxide Donors Undetectable by Other Methods in Living Tissues.

    PubMed

    Titov, V Yu; Kosenko, O V; Starkova, E S; Kondratov, G V; Borkhunova, E N; Petrov, V A; Osipov, A N

    2016-11-01

    Studies with the use of highly sensitive enzymatic sensor have shown the presence of various forms of nitrosyl iron complexes, including those undetectable by other methods, in living tissues. All these complexes are long-living compounds and constitute the major part of nitroso compounds in the blood, muscles, liquor, and amniotic fluid.

  16. 12 CFR 332.7 - Form of opt out notice to consumers; opt out methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Form of opt out notice to consumers; opt out methods. 332.7 Section 332.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND..., electronically. (2) When a customer relationship terminates, the customer's opt out direction continues to...

  17. Cryochemical method for forming spherical metal oxide particles from metal salt solutions

    DOEpatents

    Tinkle, M.C.

    1973-12-01

    A method is described of preparing small metal oxide spheres cryochemically utilizing metal salts (e.g., nitrates) that cannot readily be dried and calcined without loss of sphericity of the particles. Such metal salts are cryochemically formed into small spheres, partially or completely converted to an insoluble salt, and dried and calcined. (Official Gazette)

  18. Method for forming an extraction agent for the separation of actinides from lanthanides

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R.; Harrup, Mason K.; Law, Jack D.; Peterman, Dean R.

    2010-04-27

    An extraction agent for the separation of trivalent actinides from lanthanides in an acidic media and a method for forming same are described, and wherein the methodology produces a stable regiospecific and/or stereospecific dithiophosphinic acid that can operate in an acidic media having a pH of less than about 7.

  19. 17 CFR 248.7 - Form of opt out notice to consumers; opt out methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... consumers; opt out methods. 248.7 Section 248.7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS S-P AND S-AM Regulation S-P: Privacy of Consumer Financial Information and Safeguarding Personal Information Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 248.7 Form of opt out notice to consumers;...

  20. ISM and dust properties of normal star-forming galaxies at z~2 derived by Herschel and ALMA with the help of gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaerer, Daniel; Boone, Frederic; Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Sklias, Panos

    2015-08-01

    Using strong gravitational lensing provided by massive galaxy clusters we have studied a sample of normal star-forming galaxies at z~1.5-3 selected from the Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS). The observations include deep ground-based, HST, Spitzer, and Herschel imaging, plus LABOCA/SCUBA2 data, and IRAM CO observations.Targetted [CII] 158 micron observations of one z=2.013 galaxy from this sample were recently obtained with ALMA, resulting in the first detection of this important ISM cooling line in a faint LIRG (with LIR~1.e11 Lsun), which is magnified by a factor ~50.We discuss the behavior of [CII] and CO emission with other physical properties such as IR luminosity, dust temperature, galaxy metallicity, specific star formation rate, and many other quantities which are measured for our lensed galaxies. We also compare the z~2 data to nearby galaxies and to recent detections and upper limits of [CII] in z>6 Lyman break galaxies and Lyman alpha emitters.

  1. Suppression of the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase prior to traumatic brain injury improves cytochrome c oxidase activity and normalizes cellular energy levels.

    PubMed

    Hüttemann, M; Lee, I; Kreipke, C W; Petrov, T

    2008-01-02

    We have previously shown that the observed immediate increase in nitric oxide (NO) plays a significant role in the control of the cerebral microcirculation following traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, a second consequence of increased NO production after TBI may be impaired mitochondrial function, due to the fact that NO is a well-known inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO). CcO is a key enzyme of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) machinery, which creates cellular energy in the form of ATP. NO competes with oxygen at the heme a(3)-Cu(B) reaction center of CcO. We thus hypothesized that TBI triggers inhibition of CcO, which would in turn lead to a decreased energy production by OxPhos at a time of an elevated energy demand for tissue remodeling. Here we show that TBI as induced by an acceleration weight drop model of diffuse brain injury in rats leads to CcO inhibition and dramatically decreased ATP levels in brain cortex. CcO inhibition can be partially restored by application of iNOS antisense oligonucleotides prior to TBI, which leads to a normalization of ATP levels similar to the controls. We propose that a lack of energy after TBI caused by inhibition of CcO is an important aspect of trauma pathology.

  2. Normal Atmospheric Preparation of YBa2Cu4O8 Superconductor from Nitrate Solution by Freeze-Drying Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Katsumasa; Ito, Toshimichi; Yoshikawa, Hiroaki; Hiraki, Akio

    1993-09-01

    A homogeneous superconducting material of YBa2Cu4O8 has been successfully prepared under normal O2 pressures from nitrate solution by means of a freeze-drying method without any catalyst. Thermal decomposition of freeze-dried powders and subsequent sintering under 1-atm oxygen ambient resulted in the YBa2Cu4O8 superconductor. Among the experimental parameters, temperatures during the decomposition and sintering have been studied in detail. X-ray diffraction analysis and dc-susceptibility measurements revealed the optimum conditions of the present preparation method.

  3. Low flow measurement for infusion pumps: implementation and uncertainty determination of the normalized method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebeiro, J.; Musacchio, A.; Fernández Sardá, E.

    2011-12-01

    Intravenous drug delivery is a standard practice in hospitalized patients. As the blood concentration reached depends directly on infusion rate, it is important to use safe devices that guarantee output accuracy. In pediatric intensive care units, low infusion rates (i.e. lower than 10.0 ml/h) are frequently used. Thus, it would be necessary to use control programs to search for deviations at this flow range. We describe the implementation of a gravimetric method to test infusion pumps in low flow delivery. The procedure recommended by the ISO/IEC 60601-2-24 standard was used being a reasonable option among the methods frequently used in hospitals, such as infusion pumps analyzers and volumetric cylinders. The main uncertainty sources affecting this method are revised and a numeric and graphic uncertainty analysis is presented in order to show its dependence on flow. Additionally, the obtained uncertainties are compared to those presented by an automatic flow analyzer. Finally, the results of a series of tests performed on a syringe infusion pump operating at low rates are shown.

  4. [Jaw opening reflex: a new electrophysiologic method for objective assessment of trigeminal sensory disorders. I. Method and normal values].

    PubMed

    Hassfeld, S; Meinck, H M

    1992-12-01

    Retrospective analysis of trigeminal nerve evoked potentials in 40 consecutive patients, most of them with traumatic nerve lesions, showed that in 12 cases no trigeminal nerve SEP were obtainable, and 11 of the remaining 28 patients had normal trigeminal nerve SEP. Therefore the jaw-opening reflex was investigated as a potential tool for electrophysiologic analysis of facial sensory disturbances. The jaw-opening reflex was investigated in 60 healthy subjects (31 female, 29 male) aged 23-82 years. It was elicited by electrical 0.1 ms square wave pulses delivered to the lower and upper lips and to the infraorbital region on either side at a rate below 1 per 5s. The EMG responses were recorded from the bilateral masseter and temporalis muscles at a moderate voluntary activation. Under these conditions, the jaw-opening reflex reveals itself as two inhibitory pauses of the ongoing EMG on both sides, the onset latency of the first EMG-suppression being 10-15 ms, and of the second 35-50 ms. Particular attention was paid to the stimulus strength at threshold (TR) to evoke the jaw-opening reflex. We found that the jaw-opening reflex was constantly evoked by weak stimuli applied to the 2nd and 3rd trigeminal branches. Bilateral reflex responses with unilateral stimulation were a regular finding. The reflex responses increase with increasing stimulus strength (Fig. 1). Moderate to forcible activation of the jaw closing muscles is a prerequisite for optimum recordings of the jaw-opening reflex (Fig. 2).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. UV Spectrophotometric Method for Estimation of Polypeptide-K in Bulk and Tablet Dosage Forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, P.; Singh, S. Kumar; Gulati, M.; Vaidya, Y.

    2016-01-01

    An analytical method for estimation of polypeptide-k using UV spectrophotometry has been developed and validated for bulk as well as tablet dosage form. The developed method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, robustness, detection, and quantitation limits. The method has shown good linearity over the range from 100.0 to 300.0 μg/ml with a correlation coefficient of 0.9943. The percentage recovery of 99.88% showed that the method was highly accurate. The precision demonstrated relative standard deviation of less than 2.0%. The LOD and LOQ of the method were found to be 4.4 and 13.33, respectively. The study established that the proposed method is reliable, specific, reproducible, and cost-effective for the determination of polypeptide-k.

  6. Simultaneous estimation of Cefixime and Erdosteine in capsule dosage form by spectrophotometric method.

    PubMed

    Dhoka, Madhura V; Gawande, Vandana T; Joshi, Pranav P; Gandhi, Santosh V; Patil, Neelam G

    2009-01-01

    Two accurate, precise, rapid and economical methods viz. Absorption correction method and Dual wavelength method were developed for the estimation of Cefixime (CEF) and Erdosteine (ERDO) in capsule dosage form. In both the methods linearity was observed in the concentration range of 2-25 microg/ml for Cefixime and 3-37.5 microg/ml for Erdosteine. The results of the analysis have been validated statistically and by recovery studies. The percentage assay was found to be 100.03 +/- 0.68 for Cefixime and 99.5 +/- 1.0 for Erdosteine (Mean +/- S.D) by method A and 99.54 +/- 0.84 for Cefixime and 100.54 +/- 1.3 for Erdosteine (Mean +/- S.D) by method B respectively.

  7. New inverse method of centrifugal pump blade based on free form deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R. H.; Guo, M.; Yang, J. H.; Liu, Y.; Li, R. N.

    2013-12-01

    In this research, a new inverse method for centrifugal pump blade based on free form deformation is proposed, the free form deformation is used to parametric the pump blade. The blade is implanted to a trivariate control volume which is equally subdivided by control lattice. The control volume can be deformed by moving the control lattice, thereupon the object is deformed. The flow in pump is solved by using a three dimensional turbulent model. The lattice deformation function is constructed according to the gradient distribution of fluid energy along the blade and its objective distribution. Deform the blade shape continually according to the flow solve, and we can get the objective blade shape. The calculation case shows that the proposed inverse method based on FFD method is rational.

  8. A form-factor method for determining the structure of distorted stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, R. H., Jr.; Kern, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The equilibrium equations of a uniformly rotating and tidally distorted star are reduced to the same form as for a spherical star except for the inclusion of two form factors. One factor, expressing the buoyancy effects of centrifugal force, is determined directly from the integrated structure variables. The other factor, expressing the deviation from spherical shape, is shown to be relatively insensitive to errors in the assumed shape, so that accurate solutions are obtained in spite of the use of an a priori shape. The method is employed by adding computations for the factors to an existing spherical model program. Upper Main Sequence models determined by this method compare closely with results from the double approximation method even for critical rotation and tidal distortion.

  9. Derivative spectrophotometric method for simultaneous determination of clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Barazandeh Tehrani, Maliheh; Namadchian, Melika; Fadaye Vatan, Sedigheh; Souri, Effat

    2013-04-10

    A derivative spectrophotometric method was proposed for the simultaneous determination of clindamycin and tretinoin in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The measurement was achieved using the first and second derivative signals of clindamycin at (1D) 251 nm and (2D) 239 nm and tretinoin at (1D) 364 nm and (2D) 387 nm.The proposed method showed excellent linearity at both first and second derivative order in the range of 60-1200 and 1.25-25 μg/ml for clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin respectively. The within-day and between-day precision and accuracy was in acceptable range (CV<3.81%, error<3.20%). Good agreement between the found andadded concentrations indicates successful application of the proposed method for simultaneous determination of clindamycin and tretinoin in synthetic mixtures and pharmaceutical dosage form.

  10. Quantification and comparison of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase with two methods in normal and paget’s specimens

    PubMed Central

    Masrour Roudsari, Jila; Mahjoub, Soleiman

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) is synthesized by the osteoblasts and is presumed to be involved in the calcification of bone matrix, though its precise role in the formation process is unknown. The aim of the present study was to measure the BAP activity in Paget's and normal specimens by two different techniques. Methods: Total ALP (TAP) as well as BAP activity-measuring tests were repeatedly undertaken at different times during the day and different days on the serum samples (inter and intra assay). Precision and repeatability of the phenylalanine inhibition (PHI) and heat inactivation (HI) techniques were approved during ten times repetition of all the tests on two normal samples besides one sample from Paget's disease of bone. The measurement of TAP and BAP activities was also carried out on 50 serum samples from normal adults using the standard IFCC-AACC and the established methods, respectively. Results: Coefficients of Variation (CV) for intra-assay of BAP were 2.33% and 3.16% by HI and PHI methods, respectively. Also, the inter-assay CV of BAP was 2.87% and 3.49% for mentioned methods in Paget's sample, respectively. In addition, the correlation of HI and PHI methods was found to be r= +0.873 for bone-specific isoenzyme. Conclusion: Regarding the appropriate precision, repeatability and correlation of HI and PHI techniques, as well as their cost effectiveness can be of use in the quantification of bone alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme activity, especially when bone is involved. PMID:24009918

  11. Cognitive-graphic method for constructing of hierarchical forms of basic functions of biquadratic finite element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astionenko, I. O.; Litvinenko, O. I.; Osipova, N. V.; Tuluchenko, G. Ya.; Khomchenko, A. N.

    2016-10-01

    Recently the interpolation bases of the hierarchical type have been used for the problem solving of the approximation of multiple arguments functions (such as in the finite-element method). In this work the cognitive graphical method of constructing of the hierarchical form bases on the serendipity finite elements is suggested, which allowed to get the alternative bases on a biquadratic finite element from the serendipity family without internal knots' inclusion. The cognitive-graphic method allowed to improve the known interpolation procedure of Taylor and to get the modified elements with irregular arrangement of knots. The proposed procedures are universal and are spread in the area of finite-elements.

  12. Using stable isotopes to monitor forms of sulfur during desulfurization processes: A quick screening method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Chao-Li; Hackley, Keith C.; Coleman, D.D.; Kruse, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    A method using stable isotope ratio analysis to monitor the reactivity of sulfur forms in coal during thermal and chemical desulfurization processes has been developed at the Illinois State Geological Survey. The method is based upon the fact that a significant difference exists in some coals between the 34S/32S ratios of the pyritic and organic sulfur. A screening method for determining the suitability of coal samples for use in isotope ratio analysis is described. Making these special coals available from coal sample programs would assist research groups in sorting out the complex sulfur chemistry which accompanies thermal and chemical processing of high sulfur coals. ?? 1987.

  13. Cerebral hemodynamics in normal-pressure hydrocephalus. Evaluation by 133Xe inhalation method and dynamic CT study

    SciTech Connect

    Tamaki, N.; Kusunoki, T.; Wakabayashi, T.; Matsumoto, S.

    1984-09-01

    Cerebral hemodynamics in 31 patients with suspected normal-pressure hydrocephalus were studied by means of the xenon-133 (133Xe) inhalation method and on dynamic computerized tomography (CT) scanning. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is reduced in all patients with dementia. Hypoperfusion was noted in a frontal distribution in these patients compared with normal individuals. There was no difference in CBF patterns between patients with good and those with poor outcome. The CBF was increased following cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting in patients who responded to that procedure: increase in flow correlated with clinical improvement, frontal and temporal lobe CBF was most markedly increased, and the CBF pattern became normal. In contrast, CBF was decreased after shunt placement in patients who were considered to have suffered from degenerative dementia, as evidenced by non-response to shunting. Dynamic computerized tomography studies demonstrated that patients with a good outcome showed a postoperative reduction in mean transit time of contrast material, most prominent in the frontal and temporal gray matter, and slight in the deep frontal structures, but not in the major cerebral vessels. Patients with poor outcome after shunting, however, had an increase in transit time in all regions. This corresponded well with the results as determined by the 133Xe inhalation method.

  14. Effect of different heating methods on deformation of metal plate under upsetting mechanism in laser forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yongjun; Liu, Yancong; Yi, Peng; Hu, Jun

    2012-03-01

    In a laser forming process, different forming mechanisms have different deformation behaviors. The aim of laser forming is to acquire plane strain under an upsetting mechanism, while a plate undergoes a small bending deformation. In some industrial applications, the bending strain should not occur. To achieve high-precision forming, the deformation behaviors of a metal plate when an upsetting mechanism plays a dominant role are studied in the paper. Several heating methods are proposed to reduce the plane strain difference along the thickness direction and little bending deformation resulting from a small temperature difference between the top and bottom surfaces of the plate. The results show that negligible bending deformation and a uniform plastic plane strain field can be obtained by simultaneously heating the top and bottom surfaces with the same process parameters. A conventional scanning method needs a larger spot diameter and slower scanning speed under the upsetting mechanism, but a smaller spot diameter and quicker scanning speed may be selected using the simultaneous heating method, which can greatly widen the potential scope of process parameters.

  15. Preparation of nanocrystalline bredigite powders with apatite-forming ability by a simple combustion method

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Xianghui; Chang Jiang

    2008-06-03

    Nanocrystalline bredigite (Ca{sub 7}MgSi{sub 4}O{sub 16}) powders were synthesized by a simple solution combustion method. Phase pure bredigite powders with particle sizes ranging from 234 to 463 nm could be obtained at a relatively low temperature of 650 deg. C. The apatite-forming ability of the bredigite powders was examined by soaking them in a stimulated body fluid. The compositional and morphological changes of the powders before and after soaking were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and the results showed that hydroxyapatite was formed after soaking for 4 days.

  16. Method for producing melt-infiltrated ceramic composites using formed supports

    DOEpatents

    Corman, Gregory Scot; Brun, Milivoj Konstantin; McGuigan, Henry Charles

    2003-01-01

    A method for producing shaped articles of ceramic composites provides a high degree of dimensional tolerance to these articles. A fiber preform is disposed on a surface of a stable formed support, a surface of which is formed with a plurality of indentations, such as grooves, slots, or channels. Precursors of ceramic matrix materials are provided to the fiber preform to infiltrate from both sides of the fiber preform. The infiltration is conducted under vacuum at a temperature not much greater than a melting point of the precursors. The melt-infiltrated composite article substantially retains its dimension and shape throughout the fabrication process.

  17. Method of forming multi-element thin hot film sensors on polyimide film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopson, Jr., Purnell (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The invention comprises a method of forming a multi-element, thin hot film sensor on a polyimide film. The sensor is formed by first cleaning one surface of the polyimide. Then, under a continuous vacuum, the surface is simultaneously cleaned by ion bombardment while nickel is deposited by evaporation. The ion beam cleaning is discontinued and copper is then deposited to an initial thickness by evaporation without a break in the vacuum. The vacuum is then removed and a final thickness of copper is deposited by plating. Sensor patterns are then defined in the nickel and copper layers using conventional photolithography and etching techniques.

  18. Method of forming superconducting Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O films

    DOEpatents

    Wessels, Bruce W.; Marks, Tobin J.; Richeson, Darrin S.; Tonge, Lauren M.; Zhang, Jiming

    1993-01-01

    A method of forming a superconducting Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O film is disclosed, which comprises depositing a Ba-Ca-Cu-O film on a substrate by MOCVD, annealing the deposited film and heat-treating the annealed film in a closed circular vessel with TlBa.sub.2 Ca.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x and cooling to form said superconducting film of TlO.sub.m Ba.sub.2 Ca.sub.n-1 Cu.sub.n O.sub.2n+2, wherein m=1,2 and n=1,2,3.

  19. Method of and apparatus for forming long metal tubing stock to tapered shape

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, K.

    1985-02-12

    The method and apparatus permit a relatively long metal tubing stock to be finished to any desired tapered shape through a single-pass operation. The apparatus is provided in the form of a tandem configuration including any number of individual swaging units each having the identical construction including the same working parts and assemblies. The grooved roll arrangement associated with the tandem-configured swaging units is used as a preliminary step, and forms an initial metal tubing stock to a multiple-stepped shape.

  20. Interferogram stitching method in measuring the form deviation of curved surface with laser interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Pengcheng; Liu, Yang; Fang, Suping; Zhu, Xindong; Xu, Guangshen; Xiao, Yuan

    2017-03-01

    When the form deviation of curved surface is measured with oblique laser interferometry, the dense fringes are almost inevitable and prevent a high processing accuracy. This paper focuses on a stitching method to solve the problem: firstly, the reliable area in interferogram is evaluated according to the fringe width. Secondly, all interferograms are positioned on the measured surface which is regarded as the stitching reference. Thirdly, the transform models of different interferograms are estimated based on the same center of optical axis. Fourthly, the form deviations from different reliability areas are resampled. The experimental results are given to verify the feasibility.

  1. Rapid springback compensation for age forming based on quasi Newton method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Wei; Gan, Zhong; Xiong, Shipeng; Xia, Yushan

    2014-05-01

    Iterative methods based on finite element simulation are effective approaches to design mold shape to compensate springback in sheet metal forming. However, convergence rate of iterative methods is difficult to improve greatly. To increase the springback compensate speed of designing age forming mold, process of calculating springback for a certain mold with finite element method is analyzed. Springback compensation is abstracted as finding a solution for a set of nonlinear functions and a springback compensation algorithm is presented on the basis of quasi Newton method. The accuracy of algorithm is verified by developing an ABAQUS secondary development program with MATLAB. Three rectangular integrated panels of dimensions 710 mm ×750 mm integrated panels with intersected ribs of 10 mm are selected to perform case studies. The algorithm is used to compute mold contours for the panels with cylinder, sphere and saddle contours respectively and it takes 57%, 22% and 33% iterations as compared to that of displacement adjustment (DA) method. At the end of iterations, maximum deviations on the three panels are 0.618 4 mm, 0.624 1 mm and 0.342 0 mm that are smaller than the deviations determined by DA method (0.740 8 mm, 0.740 8 mm and 0.713 7 mm respectively). In following experimental verification, mold contour for another integrated panel with 400 mm×380 mm size is designed by the algorithm. Then the panel is age formed in an autoclave and measured by a three dimensional digital measurement devise. Deviation between measuring results and the panel's design contour is less than 1 mm. Finally, the iterations with different mesh sizes (40 mm, 35 mm, 30 mm, 25 mm, 20 mm) in finite element models are compared and found no considerable difference. Another possible compensation method, Broyden-Fletcher-Shanmo method, is also presented based on the solving nonlinear functions idea. The Broyden-Fletcher-Shanmo method is employed to compute mold contour for the second panel

  2. Air gap winding method and support structure for a super conducting generator and method for forming the same

    DOEpatents

    Hopeck, James Frederick

    2003-11-25

    A method of forming a winding support structure for use with a superconducting rotor wherein the method comprises providing an inner support ring, arranging an outer support ring around the inner support ring, coupling first and second support blocks to the outer support ring and coupling a lamination to the first and second support blocks. A slot is defined between the support blocks and between the outer support ring and the lamination to receive a portion of a winding. An RTV fills any clearance space in the slot.

  3. EVALUATION OF METATARSAL RELATIONSHIPS IN THE BIOMECHANICS OF 332 NORMAL FEET USING THE METHOD OF MEASURING RELATIVE LENGTHS

    PubMed Central

    Barrôco, Rui; Nery, Caio; Favero, Gabriela; Mombach, Renan; Nascimento, Oswaldo; Jorge, Silvia; Monteiro, Marina; Diedrichs, Letícia; Abreu, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    To identify the mean normal length of the metatarsals and the most common metatarsal formulas through a simple measurement method, thereby providing surgeons with data for planning treatment on symptomatic individuals with biometric abnormalities of the foot. Methods: We evaluated and measured dorsoplantar weight-bearing radiographs of normal adult feet (83 males and 83 females). Results: We found relative mean lengths for metatarsus I of 125.4 mm for males and 115.1 mm for females; for metatarsus II, 127.8 mm for males and 117.3 mm for females; for metatarsus III, 123.4 mm for males and 113.5 mm for females; for metatarsus IV, 114.2 mm for males and 105.3 mm for females; for metatarsus V, 99.5 mm for males and 91.7 mm for females. The mean forefoot width was 87.1 mm for males and 80.8 mm for females. Conclusion: Feet with index minus occurred most frequently in both sexes, although all three metatarsal formulas can be considered to be normal patterns. The mean normal pattern for males and females respectively was the following: metatarsus I 2.4 mm and 2.2 mm shorter than metatarsus II; metatarsus III 4.4 mm and 3.8 mm shorter than metatarsus II; metatarsus IV 9.2 mm and 8.2 mm shorter than metatarsus III; metatarsus V 14.7 mm and 13.6 mm shorter than metatarsus IV. PMID:27027034

  4. A simple spectrophotometric method for the determination of beta-blockers in dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghannam, S M

    2006-01-23

    A simple, extraction-free spectrophotometric method is proposed for the analysis of some beta-blockers, namely atenolol, timolol and nadolol. The method is based on the interaction of the drugs in chloroform with 0.1% chloroformic solutions of acidic sulphophthalein dyes to form stable, yellow-coloured, ion-pair complexes peaking at 415 nm. The dyes used were bromophenol blue (BPB), bromothymol blue (BTB) and bromocresol purple (BCP). Under the optimum conditions, the three drugs could be assayed in the concentration range 1-10 microg ml(-1) with correlation coefficient (n = 5) more than 0.999 in all cases. The stoichiometry of the reaction was found to be 1:1 in all cases and the conditional stability constant (K(F)) of the complexes have been calculated. The free energy changes (DeltaG) were determined for all complexes formed. The interference likely to be introduced from co-formulated drugs was studied and their tolerance limits were determined. The proposed method was then applied to dosage-forms the percentage recoveries ranges from 99.12-100.95, and the results obtained were compared favorably with those given with the official methods.

  5. Free-form surface design method for a collimator TIR lens.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Yu

    2016-04-01

    A free-form (FF) surface design method is proposed for a general axial-symmetrical collimator system consisting of a light source and a total internal reflection lens with two coupled FF boundary surfaces. The profiles of the boundary surfaces are designed using a FF surface construction method such that each incident ray is directed (refracted and reflected) in such a way as to form a specified image pattern on the target plane. The light ray paths within the system are analyzed using an exact analytical model and a skew-ray tracing approach. In addition, the validity of the proposed FF design method is demonstrated by means of ZEMAX simulations. It is shown that the illumination distribution formed on the target plane is in good agreement with that specified by the user. The proposed surface construction method is mathematically straightforward and easily implemented in computer code. As such, it provides a useful tool for the design and analysis of general axial-symmetrical optical systems.

  6. A rapid method to achieve aero-engine blade form detection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bin; Li, Bing

    2015-06-01

    This paper proposes a rapid method to detect aero-engine blade form, according to the characteristics of an aero-engine blade surface. This method first deduces an inclination error model in free-form surface measurements based on the non-contact laser triangulation principle. Then a four-coordinate measuring system was independently developed, a special fixture was designed according to the blade shape features, and a fast measurement of the blade features path was planned. Finally, by using the inclination error model for correction of acquired data, the measurement error that was caused by tilt form is compensated. As a result the measurement accuracy of the Laser Displacement Sensor was less than 10 μm. After the experimental verification, this method makes full use of optical non-contact measurement fast speed, high precision and wide measuring range of features. Using a standard gauge block as a measurement reference, the coordinate system conversion data is simple and practical. It not only improves the measurement accuracy of the blade surface, but also its measurement efficiency. Therefore, this method increases the value of the measurement of complex surfaces.

  7. A Rapid Method to Achieve Aero-Engine Blade Form Detection

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bin; Li, Bing

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a rapid method to detect aero-engine blade form, according to the characteristics of an aero-engine blade surface. This method first deduces an inclination error model in free-form surface measurements based on the non-contact laser triangulation principle. Then a four-coordinate measuring system was independently developed, a special fixture was designed according to the blade shape features, and a fast measurement of the blade features path was planned. Finally, by using the inclination error model for correction of acquired data, the measurement error that was caused by tilt form is compensated. As a result the measurement accuracy of the Laser Displacement Sensor was less than 10 μm. After the experimental verification, this method makes full use of optical non-contact measurement fast speed, high precision and wide measuring range of features. Using a standard gauge block as a measurement reference, the coordinate system conversion data is simple and practical. It not only improves the measurement accuracy of the blade surface, but also its measurement efficiency. Therefore, this method increases the value of the measurement of complex surfaces. PMID:26039420

  8. An effective phase shift diffusion equation method for analysis of PFG normal and fractional diffusions.

    PubMed

    Lin, Guoxing

    2015-10-01

    Pulsed field gradient (PFG) diffusion measurement has a lot of applications in NMR and MRI. Its analysis relies on the ability to obtain the signal attenuation expressions, which can be obtained by averaging over the accumulating phase shift distribution (APSD). However, current theoretical models are not robust or require approximations to get the APSD. Here, a new formalism, an effective phase shift diffusion (EPSD) equation method is presented to calculate the APSD directly. This is based on the idea that the gradient pulse effect on the change of the APSD can be viewed as a diffusion process in the virtual phase space (VPS). The EPSD has a diffusion coefficient, K(β)(t)D rad(β)/s(α), where α is time derivative order and β is a space derivative order, respectively. The EPSD equations of VPS are built based on the diffusion equations of real space by replacing the diffusion coefficients and the coordinate system (from real space coordinate to virtual phase coordinate). Two different models, the fractal derivative model and the fractional derivative model from the literature were used to build the EPSD fractional diffusion equations. The APSD obtained from solving these EPSD equations were used to calculate the PFG signal attenuation. From the fractal derivative model the attenuation is exp(-γ(β)g(β)δ(β)Df1t(α)), a stretched exponential function (SEF) attenuation, while from the fractional derivative model the attenuation is Eα,1(-γ(β)g(β)δ(β)Df2t(α)), a Mittag-Leffler function (MLF) attenuation. The MLF attenuation can be reduced to SEF attenuation when α=1, and can be approximated as a SEF attenuation when the attenuation is small. Additionally, the effect of finite gradient pulse widths (FGPW) is calculated. From the fractal derivative model, the signal attenuation including FGPW effect is exp[ -Df1∫0(τ) K(β)(t)dt(α)]. The results obtained in this study are in good agreement with the results in literature. Several expressions that

  9. Phenomenological microstructure simulation of incremental bulk metal forming using a multi mesh method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirt, G.; Schäfer, D.

    2010-06-01

    For the process design of incremental forming processes like ring rolling or stretch forging there is need for fast and accurate simulation techniques. For many applications it would be necessary to predict the microstructural evolution during the process. For this reason the FEM-software Larstran/Shape which is used for the plastomechanical simulation can be coupled with the microstructure simulation module Strucsim. This software uses phenomenological equations for the calculation of recrystallization (dynamic and static) and grain size evolution [7]. To accelerate the simulation a multi mesh method has been developed. This method uses an adapted simulation mesh with fine elements only in the locally limited contact and forming zone to achieve a reduction of the number of elements. Due to the relative movement of the tool and workpiece the adapted FE-mesh has to be remeshed regularly according to the position of the tool. To avoid loss of information caused by the use of coarse elements the multi mesh method uses a second storage mesh which represents the entire workpiece and which is discretized using only fine elements. For the update of the storage mesh the displacement vectors and changes of scalar values like temperature can be interpolated. For the application of the multi mesh method to the microstructure simulation the update algorithm for the microstructure values has to be modified. The microstructure and plastomechanical simulation have to be uncoupled and the static recrystallization and grain growth outside the forming zone have to be calculated separately. Using the multi mesh method the simulation of incremental bulk metal forming processes including a microstructural simulation can be accelerated. The acceleration factor of the simulation compared to a simulation without adaptive meshing is dependent on the reduction of elements and nodes.

  10. Flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same

    DOEpatents

    Blizzard, John; Tonge, James Steven; Weidner, William Kenneth

    2013-03-26

    A flexible barrier film has a thickness of from greater than zero to less than 5,000 nanometers and a water vapor transmission rate of no more than 1.times.10.sup.-2 g/m.sup.2/day at 22.degree. C. and 47% relative humidity. The flexible barrier film is formed from a composition, which comprises a multi-functional acrylate. The composition further comprises the reaction product of an alkoxy-functional organometallic compound and an alkoxy-functional organosilicon compound. A method of forming the flexible barrier film includes the steps of disposing the composition on a substrate and curing the composition to form the flexible barrier film. The flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

  11. Insulating Materials Comprising Polysilazane, Methods of Forming Such Insulating Materials, and Precursor Formulations Comprising Polysilazane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Robert S. (Inventor); Fuller, Michael E. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods of forming an insulating material comprising combining a polysilazane, a cross-linking compound, and a gas-generating compound to form a reaction mixture, and curing the reaction mixture to form a modified polysilazane. The gas-generating compound may be water, an alcohol, an amine, or combinations thereof. The cross-linking compound may be an isocyanate, an epoxy resin, or combinations thereof. The insulating material may include a matrix comprising one of a reaction product of a polysilazane and an isocyanate and a reaction product of a polysilazane and an epoxy resin. The matrix also comprises a plurality of interconnected pores produced from one of reaction of the polysilazane and the isocyanate and from reaction of the polysilazane and the epoxy resin. A precursor formulation that comprises a polysilazane, a cross-linking compound, and a gas-generating compound is also disclosed.

  12. A new method for designing dual foil electron beam forming systems. I. Introduction, concept of the method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrich, Przemysław

    2016-05-01

    In Part I of this work existing methods and problems in dual foil electron beam forming system design are presented. On this basis, a new method of designing these systems is introduced. The motivation behind this work is to eliminate the shortcomings of the existing design methods and improve overall efficiency of the dual foil design process. The existing methods are based on approximate analytical models applied in an unrealistically simplified geometry. Designing a dual foil system with these methods is a rather labor intensive task as corrections to account for the effects not included in the analytical models have to be calculated separately and accounted for in an iterative procedure. To eliminate these drawbacks, the new design method is based entirely on Monte Carlo modeling in a realistic geometry and using physics models that include all relevant processes. In our approach, an optimal configuration of the dual foil system is found by means of a systematic, automatized scan of the system performance in function of parameters of the foils. The new method, while being computationally intensive, minimizes the involvement of the designer and considerably shortens the overall design time. The results are of high quality as all the relevant physics and geometry details are naturally accounted for. To demonstrate the feasibility of practical implementation of the new method, specialized software tools were developed and applied to solve a real life design problem, as described in Part II of this work.

  13. ALMA Observation of 158 μm [C II] Line and Dust Continuum of a z = 7 Normally Star-forming Galaxy in the Epoch of Reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Kazuaki; Walter, Fabian; Ohta, Kouji; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Carilli, Chris L.; da Cunha, Elisabete; González-López, Jorge; Decarli, Roberto; Hodge, Jacqueline A.; Nagai, Hiroshi; Egami, Eiichi; Jiang, Linhua; Iye, Masanori; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Riechers, Dominik A.; Bertoldi, Frank; Cox, Pierre; Neri, Roberto; Weiss, Axel

    2014-09-01

    We present ALMA observations of the [C II] line and far-infrared (FIR) continuum of a normally star-forming galaxy in the reionization epoch, the z = 6.96 Lyα emitter (LAE) IOK-1. Probing to sensitivities of σline = 240 μJy beam-1 (40 km s-1 channel) and σcont = 21 μJy beam-1, we found the galaxy undetected in both [C II] and continuum. Comparison of ultraviolet (UV)-FIR spectral energy distribution (SED) of IOK-1, including our ALMA limit, with those of several types of local galaxies (including the effects of the cosmic microwave background, CMB, on the FIR continuum) suggests that IOK-1 is similar to local dwarf/irregular galaxies in SED shape rather than highly dusty/obscured galaxies. Moreover, our 3σ FIR continuum limit, corrected for CMB effects, implies intrinsic dust mass M dust < 6.4 × 107 M ⊙, FIR luminosity L FIR < 3.7 × 1010 L ⊙ (42.5-122.5 μm), total IR luminosity L IR < 5.7 × 1010 L ⊙ (8-1000 μm), and dust-obscured star formation rate (SFR) < 10 M ⊙ yr-1, if we assume that IOK-1 has a dust temperature and emissivity index typical of local dwarf galaxies. This SFR is 2.4 times lower than one estimated from the UV continuum, suggesting that <29% of the star formation is obscured by dust. Meanwhile, our 3σ [C II] flux limit translates into [C II] luminosity, L [C II] < 3.4 × 107 L ⊙. Locations of IOK-1 and previously observed LAEs on the L [C II] versus SFR and L [C II]/L FIR versus L FIR diagrams imply that LAEs in the reionization epoch have significantly lower gas and dust enrichment than AGN-powered systems and starbursts at similar/lower redshifts, as well as local star-forming galaxies. Based in part on data collected with the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc

  14. ALMA observation of 158 μm [C II] line and dust continuum of a z = 7 normally star-forming galaxy in the epoch of reionization

    SciTech Connect

    Ota, Kazuaki; Walter, Fabian; Da Cunha, Elisabete; González-López, Jorge; Decarli, Roberto; Hodge, Jacqueline A.; Ohta, Kouji; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Nagai, Hiroshi; Iye, Masanori; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Carilli, Chris L.; Egami, Eiichi; Jiang, Linhua; Riechers, Dominik A.; Bertoldi, Frank; Cox, Pierre; Neri, Roberto; Weiss, Axel

    2014-09-01

    We present ALMA observations of the [C II] line and far-infrared (FIR) continuum of a normally star-forming galaxy in the reionization epoch, the z = 6.96 Lyα emitter (LAE) IOK-1. Probing to sensitivities of σ{sub line} = 240 μJy beam{sup –1} (40 km s{sup –1} channel) and σ{sub cont} = 21 μJy beam{sup –1}, we found the galaxy undetected in both [C II] and continuum. Comparison of ultraviolet (UV)-FIR spectral energy distribution (SED) of IOK-1, including our ALMA limit, with those of several types of local galaxies (including the effects of the cosmic microwave background, CMB, on the FIR continuum) suggests that IOK-1 is similar to local dwarf/irregular galaxies in SED shape rather than highly dusty/obscured galaxies. Moreover, our 3σ FIR continuum limit, corrected for CMB effects, implies intrinsic dust mass M {sub dust} < 6.4 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, FIR luminosity L {sub FIR} < 3.7 × 10{sup 10} L {sub ☉} (42.5-122.5 μm), total IR luminosity L {sub IR} < 5.7 × 10{sup 10} L {sub ☉} (8-1000 μm), and dust-obscured star formation rate (SFR) < 10 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, if we assume that IOK-1 has a dust temperature and emissivity index typical of local dwarf galaxies. This SFR is 2.4 times lower than one estimated from the UV continuum, suggesting that <29% of the star formation is obscured by dust. Meanwhile, our 3σ [C II] flux limit translates into [C II] luminosity, L {sub [C} {sub II]} < 3.4 × 10{sup 7} L {sub ☉}. Locations of IOK-1 and previously observed LAEs on the L {sub [C} {sub II]} versus SFR and L {sub [C} {sub II]}/L {sub FIR} versus L {sub FIR} diagrams imply that LAEs in the reionization epoch have significantly lower gas and dust enrichment than AGN-powered systems and starbursts at similar/lower redshifts, as well as local star-forming galaxies.

  15. Fiber optic probe having fibers with endfaces formed for improved coupling efficiency and method using same

    DOEpatents

    O'Rourke, Patrick E.; Livingston, Ronald R.

    1995-01-01

    A fiber optic probe for detecting scattered light, with transmitting and receiving fibers having slanted ends and bundled together to form a bevel within the tip of the probe. The probe comprises a housing with a transparent window across its tip for protecting the transmitting and receiving fibers held therein. The endfaces of the fibers are slanted, by cutting, polishing and the like, so that they lie in a plane that is not perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the respective fiber. The fibers are held in the tip of the probe using an epoxy and oriented so that lines normal to the slanted endfaces are divergent with respect to one another. The epoxy, which is positioned substantially between the transmitting and receiving fibers, is tapered so that the transmitting fiber, the epoxy and the receiving fiber form a bevel of not more than 20 degrees. The angled fiber endfaces cause directing of the light cones toward each other, resulting in improved light coupling efficiency. A light absorber, such as carbon black, is contained in the epoxy to reduce crosstalk between the transmitting and receiving fibers.

  16. Fiber optic probe having fibers with endfaces formed for improved coupling efficiency and method using same

    DOEpatents

    O`Rourke, P.E.; Livingston, R.R.

    1995-03-28

    A fiber optic probe is disclosed for detecting scattered light, with transmitting and receiving fibers having slanted ends and bundled together to form a bevel within the tip of the probe. The probe comprises a housing with a transparent window across its tip for protecting the transmitting and receiving fibers held therein. The endfaces of the fibers are slanted, by cutting, polishing and the like, so that they lie in a plane that is not perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the respective fiber. The fibers are held in the tip of the probe using an epoxy and oriented so that lines normal to the slanted endfaces are divergent with respect to one another. The epoxy, which is positioned substantially between the transmitting and receiving fibers, is tapered so that the transmitting fiber, the epoxy and the receiving fiber form a bevel of not more than 20 degrees. The angled fiber endfaces cause directing of the light cones toward each other, resulting in improved light coupling efficiency. A light absorber, such as carbon black, is contained in the epoxy to reduce crosstalk between the transmitting and receiving fibers. 3 figures.

  17. Method of forming and assembly of metal parts and ceramic parts

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN

    2011-11-22

    A method of forming and assembling at least two parts together that may be metal, ceramic, or a combination of metal and ceramic parts. Such parts may have different CTE. Individual parts that are formed and sintered from particles leave a network of interconnecting porosity in each sintered part. The separate parts are assembled together and then a fill material is infiltrated into the assembled parts using a method such as capillary action, gravity, and/or pressure. The assembly is then cured to yield a bonded and fully or near-fully dense part that has the desired physical and mechanical properties for the part's intended purpose. Structural strength may be added to the parts by the inclusion of fibrous materials.

  18. Reaction-Forming Method for Producing Near Net-Shape Refractory Metal Carbides

    SciTech Connect

    Palmisiano, Marc N.; Jakubenas, Kevin J.; Baranwal, Rita

    2004-07-20

    A method for reaction forming refractory metal carbides. The method involves the fabrication of a glassy carbon preform by casting an organic, resin-based liquid mixture into a mold and subsequently heat treating it in two steps, which cures and pyrolizes the resin resulting in a porous carbon preform. By varying the amounts of the constituents in the organic, resin-based liquid mixture, control over the density of the carbon preform is obtained. Control of the density and microstructure of the carbon preform allows for determination of the microstructure and properties of the refractory metal carbide material produced. The glassy carbon preform is placed on a bed of refractory metal or refractory metal--silicon alloy. The pieces are heated above the melting point of the metal or alloy. The molten metal wicks inside the porous carbon preform and reacts, forming the refractory metal carbide or refractory metal carbide plus a minor secondary phase.

  19. Radial arrays of nano-electrospray ionization emitters and methods of forming electrosprays

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Ryan T [West Richland, WA; Tang, Keqi [Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2010-10-19

    Electrospray ionization emitter arrays, as well as methods for forming electrosprays, are described. The arrays are characterized by a radial configuration of three or more nano-electrospray ionization emitters without an extractor electrode. The methods are characterized by distributing fluid flow of the liquid sample among three or more nano-electrospray ionization emitters, forming an electrospray at outlets of the emitters without utilizing an extractor electrode, and directing the electrosprays into an entrance to a mass spectrometry device. Each of the nano-electrospray ionization emitters can have a discrete channel for fluid flow. The nano-electrospray ionization emitters are circularly arranged such that each is shielded substantially equally from an electrospray-inducing electric field.

  20. Validated Spectrophtometric Method for Determination of Tamsulosin in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

    PubMed Central

    Amanlou, Massoud; Ghazi Moghadam, Amin; Barazandeh Tehrani, Maliheh; Souri, Effat

    2014-01-01

    In this study a sensitive, simple and accurate spectrophotometric method was suggested for determination of tamsulosin in bulk powder and pharmaceutical dosage form based on the formation of an ion-pair complex between the drug and bromocresol green in a buffer solution at pH 3.5. The formed yellow color complex was extracted with chloroform and measured at 415 nm. The optimum reaction conditions such as pH, reagent amount, extracting solvent and the stoichiometry of the ion-pair complex were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range of 1-160 g/mL with acceptable correlation coefficient (r2 > 0.9997) and precision (CV < 3%) and accuracy (error < 2%). The proposed method was successfully used for the determination of tamsulosin in pharmaceutical capsule with nosignificant interferences of excipients. PMID:24734058

  1. Method for forming microspheres for encapsulation of nuclear waste. [Patent application

    SciTech Connect

    Angelini, P.; Caputo, A.J.; Hutchens, R.E.; Lackey, W.J.; Stinton, D.P.

    1982-01-29

    Microspheres for nuclear waste storage are formed by gelling droplets containing the waste in a gelation fluid, transferring the gelled droplets to a furnace without the washing step previously used, and heating the unwashed gelled droplets in the furnace under temperature or humidity conditions that result in a substantially linear rate of removal of volatile components therefrom. Fuel particles were also produced using this method.

  2. System and method for forming synthetic protein crystals to determine the conformational structure by crystallography

    DOEpatents

    Craig, George D.; Glass, Robert; Rupp, Bernhard

    1997-01-01

    A method for forming synthetic crystals of proteins in a carrier fluid by use of the dipole moments of protein macromolecules that self-align in the Helmholtz layer adjacent to an electrode. The voltage gradients of such layers easily exceed 10.sup.6 V/m. The synthetic protein crystals are subjected to x-ray crystallography to determine the conformational structure of the protein involved.

  3. Hard and low friction nitride coatings and methods for forming the same

    DOEpatents

    Erdemir, Ali; Urgen, Mustafa; Cakir, Ali Fuat; Eryilmaz, Osman Levent; Kazmanli, Kursat; Keles, Ozgul

    2007-05-01

    An improved coating material possessing super-hard and low friction properties and a method for forming the same. The improved coating material includes the use of a noble metal or soft metal homogeneously distributed within a hard nitride material. The addition of small amounts of such metals into nitrides such as molybdenum nitride, titanium nitride, and chromium nitride results in as much as increasing of the hardness of the material as well as decreasing the friction coefficient and increasing the oxidation resistance.

  4. System and method for forming synthetic protein crystals to determine the conformational structure by crystallography

    DOEpatents

    Craig, G.D.; Glass, R.; Rupp, B.

    1997-01-28

    A method is disclosed for forming synthetic crystals of proteins in a carrier fluid by use of the dipole moments of protein macromolecules that self-align in the Helmholtz layer adjacent to an electrode. The voltage gradients of such layers easily exceed 10{sup 6}V/m. The synthetic protein crystals are subjected to x-ray crystallography to determine the conformational structure of the protein involved. 2 figs.

  5. Rare Earth Oxide Fluoride Nanoparticles And Hydrothermal Method For Forming Nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Fulton, John L.; Hoffmann, Markus M.

    2003-12-23

    A hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles of a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine has been discovered. Nanoparticles comprising a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine are also described. These nanoparticles can exhibit excellent refractory properties as well as remarkable stability in hydrothermal conditions. The nanoparticles can exhibit excellent properties for numerous applications including fiber reinforcement of ceramic composites, catalyst supports, and corrosion resistant coatings for high-temperature aqueous solutions.

  6. Rare earth oxide fluoride nanoparticles and hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Fulton, John L [Richland, WA; Hoffmann, Markus M [Richland, WA

    2001-11-13

    A hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles of a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine has been discovered. Nanoparticles comprising a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine are also described. These nanoparticles can exhibit excellent refractory properties as well as remarkable stability in hydrothermal conditions. The nanoparticles can exhibit excellent properties for numerous applications including fiber reinforcement of ceramic composites, catalyst supports, and corrosion resistant coatings for high-temperature aqueous solutions.

  7. The growth of Ho:YAG single crystals by Czochralski method and investigating the formed cores

    SciTech Connect

    Hasani Barbaran, J. Ghani Aragi, M. R.; Javaheri, I.; Baharvand, B.; Tabasi, M.; Layegh Ahan, R.; Jangjo, E.

    2015-12-15

    Ho:YAG single crystals were grown by Czochralski technique, and investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical methods. The crystals were cut and polished in order to observe and analyze their cores. It was found that the deviation of the cores formed in the Czochralski grown Ho:YAG single crystals are resulted from non-symmetrical status of thermal insulation around the Iridium crucible.

  8. Normalized autofluorescence imaging diagnostics in upper GI tract: a new method to improve specificity in neoplasia detection

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Ekaterina; Agaimy, Abbas; Douplik, Alexandre; Albrecht, Heinz; Neumann, Helmut; Hartmann, Arndt; Hohenstein, Ralf; Raithel, Martin; Hahn, Eckhart G; Neurath, Markus F; Mudter, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims: This study was performed to improve the autofluorescence imaging (AFI) in the upper GI tract by applying a new method of normalized autofluorescence (NAFI) obtained via tri-modal imaging. Objective: NAFI may provide lower false positive rate to achieve ultimately better specificity at acceptable sensitivity. Patients and methods: This is a prospective, controlled single-centre study. 18 patients with suspected esophagus or stomach cancer undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) were enrolled between February and May 2010. After endoscopy each patient was assigned into one of two groups: (1) non- cancer, including inflammation; (2) cancer group. EGDs were performed using video white light endoscopy, followed by AFI/NAFI. The targeted biopsy samples were taken from the abnormal areas as well as from adjacent mucosa. NAFI was compared versus AFI for cancer diagnostics in terms of specificity and sensitivity. Results: NAFI detected all neoplastic lesions. WLE or NBI detected no additional neoplasia. The AFI displayed mucosal inflammation and carcinomas of esophagus and stomach as dark red color, the normal mucosa background was displayed as light green. The NAFI didn’t differentiate inflamed tissue from normal in majority of cases, but in tumorous mucosa, the cancer areas were detected precisely. AFI shows 100% sensitivity but 50% specificity which correlates with previous literature data. On the other hand, NAFI demonstrated lower sensitivity (88%) but higher specificity compared to AFI (69%). Conclusions: Measuring the NAFI instead of the AFI was found improving the specificity of cancer diagnosis. Use of fiber-optic endoscopes to analyze AFI and possible endoscopic and histological sampling error are the main potential limitations of this method. PMID:23119113

  9. ChIPnorm: A Statistical Method for Normalizing and Identifying Differential Regions in Histone Modification ChIP-seq Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Bucher, Philipp; Moret, Bernard M. E.

    2012-01-01

    The advent of high-throughput technologies such as ChIP-seq has made possible the study of histone modifications. A problem of particular interest is the identification of regions of the genome where different cell types from the same organism exhibit different patterns of histone enrichment. This problem turns out to be surprisingly difficult, even in simple pairwise comparisons, because of the significant level of noise in ChIP-seq data. In this paper we propose a two-stage statistical method, called ChIPnorm, to normalize ChIP-seq data, and to find differential regions in the genome, given two libraries of histone modifications of different cell types. We show that the ChIPnorm method removes most of the noise and bias in the data and outperforms other normalization methods. We correlate the histone marks with gene expression data and confirm that histone modifications H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 act as respectively a repressor and an activator of genes. Compared to what was previously reported in the literature, we find that a substantially higher fraction of bivalent marks in ES cells for H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 move into a K27-only state. We find that most of the promoter regions in protein-coding genes have differential histone-modification sites. The software for this work can be downloaded from http://lcbb.epfl.ch/software.html. PMID:22870189

  10. An Update of the Classical and Novel Methods Used for Measuring Fast Neurotransmitters During Normal and Brain Altered Function

    PubMed Central

    Cifuentes Castro, Victor Hugo; López Valenzuela, Carmen Lucía; Salazar Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Peña, Kenia Pardo; López Pérez, Silvia J.; Ibarra, Jorge Ortega; Villagrán, Alberto Morales

    2014-01-01

    To understand better the cerebral functions, several methods have been developed to study the brain activity, they could be related with morphological, electrophysiological, molecular and neurochemical techniques. Monitoring neurotransmitter concentration is a key role to know better how the brain works during normal or pathological conditions, as well as for studying the changes in neurotransmitter concentration with the use of several drugs that could affect or reestablish the normal brain activity. Immediate response of the brain to environmental conditions is related with the release of the fast acting neurotransmission by glutamate (Glu), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and acetylcholine (ACh) through the opening of ligand-operated ion channels. Neurotransmitter release is mainly determined by the classical microdialysis technique, this is generally coupled to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Detection of neurotransmitters can be done by fluorescence, optical density, electrochemistry or other detection systems more sophisticated. Although the microdialysis method is the golden technique to monitor the brain neurotransmitters, it has a poor temporal resolution. Recently, with the use of biosensor the drawback of temporal resolution has been improved considerably, however other inconveniences have merged, such as stability, reproducibility and the lack of reliable biosensors mainly for GABA. The aim of this review is to show the important advances in the different ways to measure neurotransmitter concentrations; both with the use of classic techniques as well as with the novel methods and alternant approaches to improve the temporal resolution. PMID:25977677

  11. Method of forming carbon dioxide mixtures miscible with formation crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Froning, H. R.; Yellig Jr., W. F.

    1985-07-16

    A method is disclosed for forming a carbon dioxide-containing mixture which is miscible with crude oil. The method comprises maintaining a mixture of crude oil and carbon dioxide in an extraction zone at a temperature and pressure such that multiple phase equilibrium is achieved therebetween. A carbon dioxide-rich phase that includes a mixture of carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons is withdrawn and is miscible with the reservoir crude oil when injected into the reservoir from which the crude oil was produced.

  12. A method for determining the preferred orientation of crystallites normal to a surface. [using X ray diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, R. L.; Carr, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    Techniques representing the angular distribution of a particular direction in a crystallographic reference frame or analytical methods were developed. The data required by these techniques for displaying preferred orientation is obtained by measuring the orientation of a large number of crystallites. This may be done visually using etch-pit or Laue techniques which, experimentally, are both tedious and difficult. The intensities of X ray diffraction maxima are proportional to the number of crystallites whose crystallographic plane normals bisect the incident and diffracted beams. Parameters used in calculating powder patterns are also presented.

  13. Stability-Indicating LC Method for the Determination of Prasugrel Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form.

    PubMed

    Ahirrao, Vinod K; Patil, Chabutai S; Bembalkar, Saroj B; Ubale, Sanjay B; Marathe, Rajendra P; Nawale, Rajesh B; Landge, Mahadev G; Pawar, Rajendra P

    2012-01-01

    A simple, rapid and precise method was developed for the quantitative estimation of prasugrel hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage form. A chromatographic separation of prasugrel and its degradants was achieved with Zorbax XDB C(8), 150 × 4.6 mm, 3.5μm analytical column using aqueous solution of 0.05 M ammonium acetate pH 4.5 with acetic acid-acetonitrile (40:60 v/v). The instrumental settings include flow rate of 1.0 ml/min, column temperature at 30°C and detector wavelength of 254 nm using a photodiode array detector. Theoretical plates for prasugrel were 7023. Tailing factor for prasugrel was 1.11. Prasugrel was exposed to thermal, photolytic, hydrolytic and oxidative stress conditions, and the stressed samples were analyzed by the proposed method. Peak homogeneity data of prasugrel was obtained using photodiode array detector in the stressed sample chromatograms, which demonstrated the specificity of the method for the estimation in presence of degradants. The described method showed excellent linearity over a range of 10-300 μg/ml for prasugrel. The correlation coefficient is 0.999. The relative standard deviation of peak area for six measurements is always less than 2%. Overall, the proposed method was found to be suitable and accurate for quantitative determination and stability study of prasugrel in pharmaceutical dosage form.

  14. Optical methods for measurements of surface shape in optical components for high power laser beam forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Józwik, Michał; Trusiak, Maciej; LiŻewski, Kamil; Martínez-Carranza, Juan; Voznesenskiy, Nikolay; Kujawińska, Małgorzata

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents modifications of full-field optical methods commonly used to test the surface quality of optical components used for forming a high power laser beam and tests of a final wavefront. The modifications in reference to surface measurements rely on implementation of the novel fringe pattern processing methods including the quality improvement of initial interferogram and analysis of a reconstructed phase based on Hilbert-Huang transform aided by the principal component analysis. Also the Point Diffraction Interferometer as the efficient tool for high quality measurements of elements with high NA is introduced. In reference to a wavefront quality measurements two solutions are discussed: the use of a lateral shear interferometer and the system employing Transport of Intensity Equation method. The pros and cons for both methods are discussed.

  15. A new method for designing dual foil electron beam forming systems. II. Feasibility of practical implementation of the method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrich, Przemysław

    2016-05-01

    In Part I of this work a new method for designing dual foil electron beam forming systems was introduced. In this method, an optimal configuration of the dual foil system is found by means of a systematic, automatized scan of system performance in function of its parameters. At each point of the scan, Monte Carlo method is used to calculate the off-axis dose profile in water taking into account detailed and complete geometry of the system. The new method, while being computationally intensive, minimizes the involvement of the designer. In this Part II paper, feasibility of practical implementation of the new method is demonstrated. For this, a prototype software tools were developed and applied to solve a real life design problem. It is demonstrated that system optimization can be completed within few hours time using rather moderate computing resources. It is also demonstrated that, perhaps for the first time, the designer can gain deep insight into system behavior, such that the construction can be simultaneously optimized in respect to a number of functional characteristics besides the flatness of the off-axis dose profile. In the presented example, the system is optimized in respect to both, flatness of the off-axis dose profile and the beam transmission. A number of practical issues related to application of the new method as well as its possible extensions are discussed.

  16. Systems for column-based separations, methods of forming packed columns, and methods of purifying sample components

    DOEpatents

    Egorov, Oleg B.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Grate, Jay W.; Chandler, Darrell P.; Brockman, Fred J.; Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J.

    2000-01-01

    The invention encompasses systems for column-based separations, methods of packing and unpacking columns and methods of separating components of samples. In one aspect, the invention includes a method of packing and unpacking a column chamber, comprising: a) packing a matrix material within a column chamber to form a packed column; and b) after the packing, unpacking the matrix material from the column chamber without moving the column chamber. In another aspect, the invention includes a system for column-based separations, comprising: a) a fluid passageway, the fluid passageway comprising a column chamber and a flow path in fluid communication with the column chamber, the flow path being obstructed by a retaining material permeable to a carrier fluid and impermeable to a column matrix material suspended in the carrier fluid, the flow path extending through the column chamber and through the retaining material, the flow path being configured to form a packed column within the column chamber when a suspension of the fluid and the column matrix material is flowed along the flow path; and b) the fluid passageway extending through a valve intermediate the column chamber and the retaining material.

  17. Systems For Column-Based Separations, Methods Of Forming Packed Columns, And Methods Of Purifying Sample Components.

    DOEpatents

    Egorov, Oleg B.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Grate, Jay W.; Chandler, Darrell P.; Brockman, Fred J.; Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J.

    2004-08-24

    The invention encompasses systems for column-based separations, methods of packing and unpacking columns and methods of separating components of samples. In one aspect, the invention includes a method of packing and unpacking a column chamber, comprising: a) packing a matrix material within a column chamber to form a packed column; and b) after the packing, unpacking the matrix material from the column chamber without moving the column chamber. In another aspect, the invention includes a system for column-based separations, comprising: a) a fluid passageway, the fluid passageway comprising a column chamber and a flow path in fluid communication with the column chamber, the flow path being obstructed by a retaining material permeable to a carrier fluid and impermeable to a column matrix material suspended in the carrier fluid, the flow path extending through the column chamber and through the retaining material, the flow path being configured to form a packed column within the column chamber when a suspension of the fluid and the column matrix material is flowed along the flow path; and b) the fluid passageway extending through a valve intermediate the column chamber and the retaining material.

  18. Systems For Column-Based Separations, Methods Of Forming Packed Columns, And Methods Of Purifying Sample Components

    DOEpatents

    Egorov, Oleg B.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Grate, Jay W.; Chandler, Darrell P.; Brockman, Fred J.; Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J.

    2006-02-21

    The invention encompasses systems for column-based separations, methods of packing and unpacking columns and methods of separating components of samples. In one aspect, the invention includes a method of packing and unpacking a column chamber, comprising: a) packing a matrix material within a column chamber to form a packed column; and b) after the packing, unpacking the matrix material from the column chamber without moving the column chamber. In another aspect, the invention includes a system for column-based separations, comprising: a) a fluid passageway, the fluid passageway comprising a column chamber and a flow path in fluid communication with the column chamber, the flow path being obstructed by a retaining material permeable to a carrier fluid and impermeable to a column matrix material suspended in the carrier fluid, the flow path extending through the column chamber and through the retaining material, the flow path being configured to form a packed column within the column chamber when a suspension of the fluid and the column matrix material is flowed along the flow path; and b) the fluid passageway extending through a valve intermediate the column chamber and the retaining material.

  19. Method of forming an in-situ oil shale retort in formation with joints

    SciTech Connect

    Ricketts

    1984-08-21

    A method for forming an in situ oil shale retort in a retort site in a subterranean formation containing oil shale and having at least one set of naturally occurring cleavage planes is provided. The in situ oil shale retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles formed within top, bottom, and side boundaries of unfragmented formation. A void is excavated in the subterranean formation within the boundaries of the retort site, while a zone of unfragmented formation is left within the retort boundaries adjacent the void. A plurality of rows of horizontally spaced apart explosive charges is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation where each such row is in a line about perpendicular to the strike of the major cleavage plane set in the formation. The rows of explosive charges are detonated in a selected sequence with the charges in each such row detonated about simultaneously for explosively expanding the zone of unfragmented formation toward the void for forming the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in the retort.

  20. Method of Fabricating Protective Coating for a Crucible with the Coating Having Channels Formed Therein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method is provided for the fabrication of a protective coating for a crucible with channels being formed in the coating. A material is adhered to the outer wall of the crucible to form a pattern thereon. The outer wall of the crucible along with the pattern of material adhered thereto is next coated with another material. The material used to form the pattern should extend through the outer material coating to define at least one port therein. Next, the crucible with its pattern of material and outer coating material is heated to a temperature of transformation at which the pattern of material is transformed to a fluidic state while the crucible and outer coating material maintain their solid integrity. Such transformation could also be accomplished by using a solvent that causes the pattern of material to dissolve. Finally, the material in its fluidic state is removed via the at least one port formed in the outer material coating thereby leaving channels defined in the coating adjacent the outer wall of the crucible.